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Full text of "The dispatches of Field Marshall the Duke of Wellington, K.G. during his various campaigns in India, Denmark, Portugal, Spain, the Low Countries, and France : From 1799 to 1818. Compiled from official and authentic documents"

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THE DISPATCHES 

OF 

FIELD MARSHAL THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON, 
DURING HIS VARIOUS CAMPAIGNS 

FROM 

1799 TO 1818. 

" Monumentum aere perenuius." 



THE DISPATCHES 



FIELD MARSHAL 



THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON, 



DURING HIS VARIOUS CAMPAIGNS 



INDIA, DENMARK, PORTUGAL, SPAIN, THE LOW 
COUNTRIES, AND FRANCE, 



1799 TO 1818. 



COMPILED FROM OFFICIAL AND AUTHENTIC DOCUMENTS, 
BY 

LIEUT. COLONEL GURWOOD, 

ESQUIRE TO HIS GRACE AS KNIGHT OF THE BATH. 



VOLUME THE TENTH. 



LONDON: 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 



MDCCCXXXVIII. 




LONDON : 

PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, 
Stamford Street. 




957042 



THE 

DISPATCHES 

OP 

FIELD MARSHAL THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON, 

IN 

THE PENINSULA, 

IT* 

181213. 



To Don J. de Carvajal, Minister of War, Cadiz. 

< SlR, ' Cadiz, 25th Dec., 1812. * 

' I have had the honor of receiving your Excellency's 
letter of the 24th instant, in answer to that which I had 
the honor of addressing you on the 4th instant. 

' The Government and Cortes have done me the honor to 
confer upon me the command of the Spanish armies ; and at 
the same time that they have thus manifested to the world 
the confidence they repose in me, they have imposed upon 
me the performance of duties, for which I am responsible 
not only to Spain, but to my own country and to the world. 

' It is impossible to perform these duties as they ought to 
be performed, unless I shall possess sufficient powers ; and 
I request that you will inform the Government that if they 
do not feel themselves authorised, or have not confidence in 
me to trust me with the powers which I think necessary, I 
beg leave to relinquish the command of the Spanish armies 
which has been conferred upon me. 

' I stated distinctly what the powers are which I required. 

' First ; that officers should be promoted and should be 
appointed to commands solely at my recommendation. In 
this request I do not refer to the regular regimental promo- 
tions under the 25th title of the Ordenanzas, which Orde- 

YOL. x. B 



2 SPAIN. 1812. 

nanzas I require should be obeyed in every article, but to 
the extraordinary promotions which the Government are 
in the habit of conferring upon officers for extraordinary 
services. 

' I required that no promotion of this description, nor 
appointment of any description, should be made to any 
command, whether in chief or of a division, or to any other 
of any description, excepting at my recommendation. 

' Secondly ; I required that I should have the power of 
dismissing from the service those whom I should think 
deserving of such punishment. The reason for which I re- 
quired this authority was, that I saw from the nature of the 
Ordenanza, that it was next to impossible to assemble a 
Council of War for the trial of any officer ; and that if such 
Council of War could be assembled, the proceedings were 
likely to be of such duration as to defeat the ends of justice 
and of all punishment, which in an army must be an early 
example. 

' The power of dismissing an officer from the service must 
exist in all armies, independent of the mode of cashiering 
him by trial; but I admit that there may be reasonable 
objections, founded on the opinions of individuals, against 
entrusting the exercise of this power to myself. I insist 
upon it, however, that in the existing state of the Spanish 
army, the power itself, and the exercise of it, are necessary ; 
and I require from the Government that they should take 
into consideration, and attend to my recommendations, to 
dismiss officers from the service, when I may find it neces- 
sary to lay them before them. 

' Thirdly; I required that the resources of the state 
which are applicable to the payment, or equipment, or sup- 
ply of the troops, should be applied in such manner as I 
might recommend. 

' The reason for which I made this request was, that I was 
aware that the resources of the Government are not in their 
present state very sufficient for the maintenance and support 
in the field of all the troops now appearing as effectives on 
the returns of the Spanish armies ; nor are the whole of 
those troops in a state of efficiency or discipline to oppose the 
enemy in the field. 



1812. CADIZ. 3 

' I shall be responsible, and must be allowed to judge 
which of the troops shall be so employed, and which shall 
not ; and all I desire is, to be allowed to recommend that 
the financial and other resources applicable to military pur- 
poses, may be applied to the support of such particular 
corps as I might point out. If the Government does not 
comply with this request, I shall certainly be in the unplea- 
sant situation of giving commands to troops, which commands 
the troops cannot obey. 

' Fourthly ; I required that, in order to enable me to per- 
form my duties, the Chief of the Staff, and such limited 
number of the Staff Officers of the army as might be thought 
necessary, should be sent to my head quarters ; and that the 
Government should direct that all military reports, of all 
descriptions, should be sent to me ; and that I should, of 
course, make my reports to your Excellency. 

' I consider myself as the Commander in Chief of the 
Spanish armies, under the Government, with whom I am 
to correspond, through the medium of your Excellency. 
No officer, according to the Ordenanzas, should address 
himself to the Government, excepting through me, and the 
answer and orders of the Government should reach him 
through the same channel. The Chief of the Staff would 
be the channel through which I should receive the reports 
of the army, and should convey to the army the orders of 
the Government and my own. 

' This mode of transacting business is conformable to the 
common practice of all armies, and the adoption of it is 
essentially necessary in that of which it is desired I should 
take the command. 

* I beg to have a decided answer from Government on all 
these points at an early period. I have come to Cadiz with 
a view to arrange with your Excellency various objects for 
the benefit of the service, and my stay must necessarily be 
limited, under any circumstances ; and I must set out upon 
my return to my head quarters in the course of a very few 
days. At the same time I beg that you will inform the 
Government, that whatever may be their decision on all or 
any of these points, my desire to serve and advance the 
cause of Spain will remain the same; and that whoever 
may be my successor, or whatever may be the nature of the 



4 SPAIN. 1812. 

arrangement for the command of the Spanish armies, I shall 
always be found ready, as I have ever been, to co-operate 
with, and to assist with my counsel and suggestions, any 
officer who may be employed to direct the whole or any 
portion of the Spanish forces. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don J. de CarvajaL' ' WELLINGTON. 



To Lieut. General Campbell, Governor of Gibraltar. 

< SIR, ' Cadiz, 26th Dec., 1812. 

' I have received a letter of the 2nd instant from the 
Secretary of State, in which he informs me that he has 
directed you to send the 2nd batt. llth regiment to Malta, 
in case I should not have required you to send the 2nd batt. 
9th regiment to the Tagus, under the former directions of 
the Earl of Liverpool. 

' I have made a reference to the Secretary of State on 
these directions ; and I shall be much obliged to you if you 
will delay sending the 2nd batt. llth regiment to Malta till 
I shall have received his Lordship's answer to this reference. 

1 The Secretary of State has likewise informed me that he 
has sent to Gibraltar, to wait for orders, two squadrons of 
the Brunswick hussars ; and I shall be much obliged to you 
if you will give directions that these troops may proceed to 
Alicante, and place themselves under the orders of the officer 
commanding the troops at that place. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Lieut. General Campbell: ' WELLINGTON. 



To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

< MY DEAR SIR, ' Cadiz, 26th Dec., 1812. 

' I write just to tell you of our arrival here on the 24th 
at mid-day. I shall leave this as soon as I can ; but it is 
possible that I may be detained longer than I intend ; and 
I think you will do well to delay ordering the preparation 
of the feast till you hear that I have, or am about to set 
out, when I will write to you. The horses, however, might 
be placed on the road; and I request you to desire Mr. 



1812. CADIZ. 5 

Pipon to facilitate their being fed while at their stations, by 
orders to our Commissaries. 

* Believe me, &c, 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B: ' WELLINGTON. 



To His Royal Highness the Duke of York, Commander in Chief. 

1 SIR, ' Cadiz, 26th Dec., 1812. 

' While on the road here, I received your lloyal High- 
ness's letter of the 2nd instant, and I am very much obliged 
to your lloyal Highness for sending the hussars. 

' Experience has shown us in the Peninsula that a soldier 
who has got through one campaign is of more service than 
two, or even three, newly arrived from England ; and this 
applies to the cavalry equally with every other description 
of troops. Under these circumstances, if it should meet 
with your Royal Highness's approbation, I should prefer to 
keep as many of the old regiments as I can with the army, 
reducing the establishments of those which could not mount 
more than two complete squadrons to that number, and to 
send home the officers and non commissioned officers of the 
third squadrons. 

' I propose to return to the army in the course of a few 
days, and shall be prepared to carry into execution either 
your Royal Highness's orders, or to send home the third 
squadrons of the inefficient regiments, as your Royal High- 
ness may think proper ; but I have thought it proper to 
take the earliest opportunity of bringing the subject under 
your Royal Highness's consideration, in order that horse 
appointments may be sent out for all the regiments. They 
are much wanted by nearly every regiment in the Peninsula. 
' My wish and intention is to take the field as early as 
possible, and that every thing for the army should leave 
England early in February. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

1 His Royal Highness '"'. ' WELLINGTON. 

the Duke of York: 



6 SPAIN. 1812. 

To Viscount Melville, First Lord of the Admiralty. 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Cadiz, 26th Dec., 1812. 

' I received yours of the 4th on the road to this place. 
The Admiralty must be the best judges how far it was prac- 
ticable for Sir H. Popham to remain on his station with his 
battalions of marines. 

' As I propose to take the field again as soon as the green 
forage appears on the ground, I certainly should have wished 
him to remain at Santander during the winter ; and if, as is 
stated, some ofCaffarelli's troops are gone to France, I think 
it not improbable that he would have got possession of 
Santona. 

'But the stay or departure of Sir H. Popham must neces- 
sarily depend on the state of the weather and the season, of 
which, of course, the Admiralty must be a better judge than 
I can be. 

' Believe me, &c. 
* Viscount Melville: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
f MY LORD, ' Cadiz, 26th Dec., 1812. 

* I have had the honor of receiving your Lordship's dis- 
patch, No. 77, of the 26th of November, in regard to the 
bat and forage of the two battalions of marines under Majors 
Williams and Malcolm, and that directed by Captain Mal- 
colm, of His Majesty's ship Rhine. 

' It has been usual to grant the allowance of bat and 
forage to officers of the navy and marines engaged in opera- 
tions on shore in co-operation with the army, and under the 
directions of the Commander in Chief of the army. 

' Although the operations carried on on the north coast of 
Spain, by detachments from the squadron under the com- 
mand of Commodore Sir Home Popham, were not in imme- 
diate co-operation with the army, or under my direction, they 
were still of essential service to the army, and appear to me 
to have been of greater extent, and of a different descrip- 
tion, from those operations which have been occasionally 
carried on by His Majesty's ships acting alone. 

' Under these circumstances I conceive that the bat and 
forage allowances ought to be granted to those battalions of 



1812. CADIZ. 7 

marines, and to Captain Malcolm and the officers of His Ma- 
jesty's ship Rhine, according to the rates fixed for officers of 
corresponding ranks in the army, by His Majesty's Regu- 
lations. 

'As bat and forage is an allowance granted to enable 
officers to defray the extra expenses which they are likely to 
incur during a campaign, which expenses are generally in- 
curred on taking the field, it appears to me that the duration 
of the period during which Captain Malcolm was in the field 
ought not to affect the decision on this question. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 
4 Earl Bathurst-' 'WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY DEAR LORD, ' Cadiz, 26th Dec., 1812. 

' I have received your dispatch, No. 83, of the 2nd in- 
stant. In my opinion it is more necessary to reinforce the 
army under my command than it is to reinforce that on the 
eastern coast of the Peninsula. Notwithstanding the pains 
which I am taking to get it forward in strength, we shall 
still be weaker in numbers than the enemy in Castille ; while 
the army on the eastern coast of the Peninsula (which, after 
all, cannot quit the coast for want of the due equipments, 
and unless you should modify or recall the orders by which 
it is governed) is as strong, if not stronger, in good in- 
fantry, than that opposed to it, and is deficient only in 
cavalry. If those troops are to take the field on a great 
scale, quitting the eastern coast, it would be much better 
that they should be incorporated in the army under my 
command, as a measure which would be more efficient against 
the enemy, and would save expense. 

' I therefore write to General Campbell to desire him to 
suspend the execution of your Lordship's orders to send 
away the 2nd batt. llth regiment till I shall receive the 
answer to this letter, when I shall draw to Portugal the 2nd 
batt. 9th regiment, or send the 2nd batt. llth regiment 
into the Mediterranean, according to your determination. 
I send directions for the Brunswick hussars to proceed to 
Alicante. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 



8 SPAIN. 1812. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY DEAR LORD, ' Cadiz, 26th Dec., 1812. 

'1 have received your letter, marked "private," of the 
23rd of November, and I have spoken to my brother on the 
subject of it, and have settled with him a mode of inquiry by 
which we shall discover whether there is or not any ground 
for the complaints against Colonel . 

* On some of the points there can be none. The quality 
and quantity of the clothing sent out are fixed by the Go- 
vernment, and the hussar dresses referred to are, I believe, 
those of Fernan Nunez' regiment, and have been fixed by 

the Prince Regent himself! Colonel is a military 

agent, and I always thought him one of the best. He is of 
course responsible for the due distribution of the articles 
sent to him to be distributed to the Spanish troops ; and I 
shall send your Lordship the result of the inquiry, in order 
that, if there should be any real ground for complaint, Colo- 
nel may be punished as he shall deserve. 

' There is evidently, however, in the letter from the com- 
plainant, a desire to make the most of his subject ; or he 
would have omitted some of his topics, such as the allusion 
to the pampered state of the troops under the command of 
Whittingham and Roche, which are paid by us and taken 
care of by British officers, in comparison with the state of 
other Spanish troops on the same service who do not enjoy 
either of those advantages. The substance of this complaint 
is against the Spanish Government for not taking better 
care of these other Spanish corps ; and would rather tend to 
show that Whittingham and Roche did apply the money in- 
trusted to their distribution to the purposes for which it was 
given to them. The whole subject shall however be in- 
vestigated. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ( WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathunt. 

' MY LORD, ' Cadiz, 26th Dec., 1812. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your Lordship's dis- 
patch of the 28th of November, No. 79, and I shall be much 
obliged to you if you will give directions that a description 



1812. CADIZ. 9 

and a report on the practice of Mr. Roebuck's ordnance may 
be sent to me, in order that I may be enabled to judge of 
the expediency of giving them to the Spanish troops, to be 
used in the field. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 
( SIR, 'Cadiz, 27th Dec., 1812. 

' In reference to the discussion which I had the honor of 
having with the Regency this day, on the third article con- 
tained in my letter to your Excellency of the 25th instant, 
and in explanation of the system which I wish to see esta- 
blished under that article as connected with the finance, I 
request you will submit the following propositions to the 
consideration of the Regency. 

* I am inclined to believe that the organization of the 
armies ordered, on the 4th of December, is not the most con- 
venient for the service. The sphere of the 3rd army, as now 
organized, embraces objects entirely incompatible with each 
other. It would be impossible for the General and staff of 
that army to conduct its duties on the Duero and in La 
Mancha. 

' I would- propose to the Government that the army in 
Catalonia should be, as now, the 1st army; the 2nd, 3rd, 
and 4th, the 2nd army ; the 5th, 6th, and 7th, the 3rd army ; 
with the army of reserve in Andalusia and Galicia. 

' I would beg leave to propose that the resources of Cata- 
lonia, and those parts of Aragon free from the yoke of the 
enemy, should be allotted for the support of the 1st army. 

' That the resources of the kingdom of Murcia, New Cas- 
tille, Granada, Jaen, and that part of Valencia free from the 
yoke of the enemy, should be allotted to the support of the 
2nd army ; that the resources of the kingdoms of Cordova 
and Seville should be allotted to the support of the army of 
reserve in Andalusia ; that the resources of Estremadura, 
Old Castille, Galicia, Leon, and the Asturias, should be 
allotted to the support of the 3rd army, and of the army of 
reserve in Galicia. 

' I had the honor of laying before the Government, in my 
former letters of the 4th and the llth instant, my senti- 



10 SPAIN. 1812. 

ments of the practical evils, resulting from the system which 
had been adopted in all the provinces of the Kingdom, of 
separating the military from the political authority, and the 
financial from both ; or, in other words, the system of ap- 
pointing different persons to exercise the military and poli- 
tical authority, and to perform the financial duties in the 
provinces, each independent of the other. 

' Experience has shown that, wherever there exist autho- 
rities independent of each other, they must clash, and the 
service must suffer, unless their acts should be vigilantly 
controlled by the superintending authority of the Govern- 
ment. 

' I shall not contend for the expediency of the contrary 
practice in a well regulated state, but it cannot be expected 
that any province of Spain should be in a state fit to be 
governed according to the best principle, viz., the separation 
of the local authorities. Even in countries where these sys- 
tems and principles are perfectly understood, and have been 
put in practice for centuries, and of which the tranquillity 
has not been lately disturbed by a foreign enemy, it has 
frequently been necessary to place the political and military 
authority in one hand. How much more necessary, there- 
fore, must it be in provinces just recovered from the usurpa- 
tion of the enemy, in which the authority of the Government 
is imperfectly established, with which the Government has 
but little if any communication, to provide against the clash- 
ing of independent authorities in the administration of the 
local affairs ? 

' I would recommend, therefore, to the Government, 
that the General Officers commanding the 1st, 2nd, and 
3rd armies, and the army of reserve in Andalusia, should 
be the Captains General of the provinces, the resources 
of which will be allotted, as above pointed out, for the 
support of the armies under their command respectively, 
holding the political as well as the military power of those 
provinces in their hands. They should select, to command 
in the provinces and places from which they will be absent, 
such officer as they shall approve of. The Captains General 
will of course be responsible for all the acts done by them- 
selves or those officers who will act under their orders. 

' The civil and military power in these provinces being 



1812. CADIZ. 11 

thus provided for and connected, the next measure will be 
to connect the finance in the several provinces with the army 
which its produce is destined to support. 

' First ; I recommend that there should be an Intendant 
General appointed to each of these armies, which Intendant 
General shall be at the head of the financial department, as 
Intendant General of each province, at the same time that 
he will be the Intendant General of the army. 

' Secondly; that there shall, besides, be an Intendant 
for each province, who shall be under the direction of the 
Intendant General of the army, and of all the provinces 
the resources of which are allotted for its support. 

' Thirdly ; that the Intendant General of the army and 
provinces, and the Intendants of the provinces respectively, 
shall report all their proceedings, and send an account of 
receipts and disbursements to the Treasury, at the seat of 
Government. 

' Fourthly ; that no payment of any description shall be 
made without a warrant, under the signature of the Captain 
General of the army, to be supported by the resources of 
the provinces, for which warrants the Captain General is to 
be held responsible. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don J.de Carvajai: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY DEAR LORD, 'Cadiz, 27th Dec., 1812. 

' I have received your letter of the 4th December. I 
have written to Torrens regarding the Quarter Master Gene- 
ral, and regarding the General Officers of the cavalry. 
' I propose to alter the organization of the cavalry if I 

should get rid of , and to have only one division 

under Sir Stapleton Cotton ; and to do the duty of the 
detached corps by detachments of brigades. 

' I am much obliged to you for sending the officers. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Earl Bathunt: 'WELLINGTON. 



12 SPAIN. 1812. 

To Comte cFErlon (Lieut. General Drouet). 

' Au Quartier General, 

' MONSIEUR LE GENERAL, ce 28 Dec., 1812. 

' J'ai eu 1'honneur de recevoir votre lettre du l r Decem- 
bre, et je vous assure que j'accepte avec plaisir 1'offre que 
votre Excellence m'a fait pour adoucir les maux de la guerre 
par des echanges de terns en terns de prisonniers de guerre. 

* II parait que Mr. Arscott est officier payeur du 3 me dra- 
gons ; et j'ecris en Angleterre, par une occasion qui s'offre en 
ce moment, pour faire renvoyer en France, en echange pour 
Mr. Arscott, M. le Capitaine Benoit, du 50 me regiment d'in- 
fanterie, pris au Retiro. Je prie votre Excellence d'avoir la 
bonte de faire envoyer Mr. Arscott aux avant postes de 
Tarmee Franchise aim qu'il puisse me rejoindre. 

' Mr. Shaw, aussi, est officier payeur, du 4 me dragons ; et 
j'ecris en Angleterre pour prier que le Capitaine Franjon, 
du 28 me legere, soit envoye en France en echange pour lui; 
et je prie votre Excellence de permettre que Mr. Shaw 
accompagne Mr. Arscott. 

** J'ai 1'honneur d'etre, &c. 
* Le Comte d'Erlon? ' WELLINGTON. 

To W. Adam, Esq.* 

< MY DEAR SIR, ' Cadiz, 28th Dec., 1812. 

'I have received your letter of the 2nd November, in 
regard to your son Colonel Adam. I do not think it likely 
that the detachment of the Sicilian army serving in the 
Peninsula will be joined to the army under my immediate 
command ; but if that event should take place, in such a 
manner as to render it expedient that the separate staff of 
that detachment should be discontinued, I shall be happy 
to avail myself of the assistance of Colonel Adam in the 
army under my command in the manner you wish. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' W. Adam, Esq.' * WELLINGTON. 

To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 

' MY DEAR BERESFORD, ' Cadiz, 29th Dec., 1812. 

' I received only last night your letter of the 17th, and I 

* Afterwards Lord Chief Baron of Scotland, father of Lieut. General Sir 
Frederick Adam, K.C.B., &c. 



1812. CADIZ. 13 

am sorry ,that you have had any trouble respecting the 
billeting of our officers. 

* The fact is that our orders are made very strict, pur- 
posely in order to ensure civility on the part of the officer 
to his landlord, that he may get what he really wants in 
that manner. If there were not reason to hope that what 
is wanted would be got by civility, the order was too strict 
and must be altered, particularly in respect to the use of 
the kitchen fire. But I believe there must be some official 
communication with the Government before the order can be 
altered, and it will require some consideration to alter it as 
it ought to be. 

' In regard to the ladies, they have certainly no right to 
be lodged in billets ; but it would be cruel to deprive them 
of that accommodation. I do not believe I can authorize 
their having this advantage by an order; and the point 
can be settled only in communication with the Government. 
If the matter could be allowed to go on, as it is now, I 
would write a letter to Peacocke to be circulated among the 
ladies, which would give them a little advice on this subject, 
and make them better behaved. 

' I rather think I referred Pack to you for leave, letting 
him go if you should have no objection. 

' Sir C. Stuart will have told you that I shall see you soon, 
and therefore I shall not enter upon affairs here. I think I 
have done some good ; and I have a prospect of doing more. 
I propose to leave this if I can on Monday. 

' Believe me, &c. 
1 Marshal Sir TV. C. Beresford, K.B: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY LORD, ' Cadiz, 29th Dec., 1812. 

'I have received your Lordship's dispatch of the 1st 
instant, (No. 81.) directing me to communicate to you my 
wishes regarding the destination of a supply of clothing 
and accoutrements for 50,000 men, which it is intended 
to have sent to the Peninsula, in the ensuing year, and I 
beg to acquaint your Lordship in reply, that I consider 
it will be best for the service that of the above number 
equipments for 40,000 men should be forwarded to Lisbon, 
and for 10,000 men to Cadiz. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
4 Earl Bathurst: < WELLINGTON. 



14 SPAIN. 1813. 

SPEECH IN THE CORTES. 

' Cadiz, 30th Dec., 1812. 

' I should not have requested to be permitted to pay my 
respects in person to this august body, if I had not been 
encouraged to make the application by the honor which the 
Cortes conferred upon me on the 27th instant, in sending 
a deputation to congratulate me on my arrival in this city ; 
a distinction which I attribute to the favor and partiality 
with which they have on every occasion received the services 
which it has fallen to my lot to render to the Spanish 
nation. 

* I beg leave to repeat my acknowledgments to the 
Cortes for this honor, as well as for the various marks of 
their favor and confidence which I have received ; and to 
assure them that my efforts shall be unceasingly directed to 
forward the just and interesting cause of the Spanish 
nation. 

' I shall not take up, with further professions, the time of 
this assembly, upon the wisdom, discretion, and firmness of 
whose conduct, under the will of Divine Providence, the 
result of all our exertions depends. Not only your own 
countrymen have their eyes fixed on you, Gentlemen, but the 
whole world is interested in the success of your endeavors 
to save this nation from the general wreck; and in the 
establishment within it of a system of government founded 
on just principles, which shall promote and secure the happi- 
ness and prosperity of your countrymen, and the greatness 
of your country. 

' WELLINGTON.' 

ADDRESS TO THE SPANISH ARMY. 

' Cadiz, 1st January, 1813. 

' The army have been already informed that the Com- 
mand in Chief of the armies of Spain has been conferred on 
the Captain General Lord Wellington, Duque de Ciudad 
Rodrigo. Although this is the first time that his Ex- 
cellency has the honor of addressing the army as its 
Commander, he has long been acquainted with its merits, 
its sufferings, and its state; and in taking upon himself the 
exercise of a command so highly honorable to him, he wishes 
to assure the General officers, officers, and troops, of his 
earnest desire that his arrangements may tend to enable 



1813. CADIZ. 15 

them to serve their country with advantage, and that while 
under his command the honor of their profession may be 
advanced. 

' It is necessary, however, that at the same time that the 
utmost attention will be paid by the Government to what 
will tend to the comfort of the soldiers and the convenience 
of the officers of the army, the discipline established by the 
Royal Ordenanzas should be maintained ; as without disci- 
pline and order, not only is an army unfit to be opposed to 
an enemy in the field, but it becomes a positive injury to 
the country by which it is maintained. The Commander in 
Chief trusts, therefore, that every effort will be made by the 
General and other officers to enforce and maintain in every 
particular the discipline ordered by the Royal Ordenanzas ; 
and he assures them that, at the same time that he will be 
happy to draw the notice of the Government, and to extol 
their good conduct, he will not be backward in noticing 
any inattention on the part of the officers of the army to the 
duties required from them by the Royal Ordenanzas, or any 
breach of discipline and order by the soldiers. 

1 WELLINGTON.' 

To Generals Castanos, Duque del Parque, O'Donnell, Copons, 

and Elio. 
' MESSIEURS, ' Cadiz, ce 1 Janvier, 1813. 

' J'ai 1'honneur de vous faire parvenir deux lettres que 
j'ai requ du Secretaire de la Guerre, par lesquelles et par 
1'ordre du jour d'aujourd'hui vous verrez la mode dont 
les armees sont organisees, la maniere dans laquelle les 
affaires militaires se traiteront, et les mesures decidees, 
ayant en vue 1'objet d'obtenir du pays des moyens pour 
le maintien des troupes. 

' Je vous prie aussitot que vous aurez requ cette lettre 
de mettre 1'Intendant General de 1'Armee sous vos ordres 
en communication avec les Intendants des provinces, de 

*, et vous tacherez de raliser autant qu'il vous sera 

possible pour le maintien des troupes sous vos ordres. En 
cas que vous trouvez que les Intendants des provinces, ou les 

* Copons Cataluna, Valencia, Murcia, Castilla Nueva. 
Duque del Parque Granada, Jaen. 
CastaSos Estremadura, Castilla Vieja, Galicia. 
O'Donnell Sevilla, Cordova. 



16 SPAIN. 1813. 

ajuntamientos charges du recouvrement des contributions, 
ne font pas leur devoir, vous aurez la bonte de me le faire 
savoir pour 1'information du gouvernement ; et si les per- 
sonnes chargees de la par tie politique ou fiscale de 1'admi- 
nistration doivent avoir 1'aide du militaire, vous la donnerez, 
ayant le plus grand soin de preVenir le desordre des troupes 
et les degats. 

'En cas qu'on puisse reunir quelques inoyens pecu- 
niaires, je desire qu'ils soient employes de preference a la 
solde des troupes; et que les sommes en caisse quel que 
soit leur montant, soient distributes en proportion des 
demandes des differentes classes d'officiers, sous officiers, et 
soldats dont 1'armee est composee. 

'J'ai raison de croire que jusqu'a ce que le systeme deve- 
loppe dans les lettres ci-incluses puisse procurer quelques 
inoyens, qu'il sera au pouvoir du Gouvernement d'envoyer 
une somme d'argent pour tre a votre disposition *, et cet 
argent doit etre employe exclusivement a payer la solde des 
officiers et troupes reglees a present sous les armes. 

*Vous aurez la bonte de prendre garde, par le moyen 
des pouvoirs donnes par 1'article du decret de las Cortes, 
que les sommes d'argent qui passeront par les mains 
de 1'Intendant General de 1'Armee, soient employees ex- 
clusivement au maintien des troupes sous vos ordres. 

' J'ai 1'honneur d'etre, &c. 
' Aux Generaux Castafios, fyc? * WELLINGTON. 

To the Commissioners of the Transport Board. 
' GENTLEMEN, ' Cadiz, 1st January, 1813. 

' General Drouet who commanded the French army (called) 
of Portugal, having offered to allow Mr. Arscott, Paymaster 
of the 3rd dragoon guards, and Lieut. Shaw, acting Pay- 
master of the 4th dragoon guards, to return to the Bri- 
tish army, if I could procure the exchange of these officers 
with Captain Benoit of the 50 me regiment de ligne, and Cap- 
tain Franjon of the 28 me legere, now prisoners in England, 
I beg to acquaint you that I have agreed to this proposition, 
and I will thank you to have it carried into effect, by sending 

* General Copons, 50,000 douros ; General Elio, 50,000 ditto ; Duque del 
Parque, 100,000 ditto; General O'Donnell, 100,000 ditto; General Castanos, 
100,000 ditto, 



1813. CADIZ. 17 

Captains Benoit and Franjon to France, in exchange for 
Messrs. Arscott and Shaw. 

' I shall be much obliged to you, if you will favor me 
with the regular certificates of exchange, in order that 
Messrs. Arscott and Shaw maybe released from their parole, 
and return to their duty with their respective regiments. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' The Commissioners of ' WELLINGTON. 

the Transport Board.' 

To Earl Bathurst. 
'Mv LORD, ' Cadiz, 1st January, 1813. 

' I 'arrived here on the 24th instant, and I expect to be 
able to set out on my return to the army on Tuesday next. 

' Nothing particular has occurred since I addressed your 
Lordship from Badajoz on the 20th of last month. It ap- 
pears that King Joseph has removed his head quarters to 
Madrid, from the palace of La Granja, near Segovia, and 
that those of Marshal Soult are at Toledo ; and some of the 
cavalry of the army under his command had been extended 
into La Mancha. 

' The Spanish troops under the Duque del Parque had in 
consequence retired ; but I understand that they have since 
resumed their positions in La Mancha. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst.'' 'WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

+ 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Cadiz, 1st January, 1813. 

' I have received the thanks of the Houses of Parliament 
for the battle of Salamanca ; and I enclose the list of the 
names of all the General officers who were present in the 
action, with a cross opposite the names of those which have 
been omitted on this occasion. This omission, must have 
been accidental ; and I defer to publish the vote of thanks 
to the army till it can be rectified. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY DEAR LORD, ' Cadiz, 1st January, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter from Major General Cooke, in regard to 
the foreign battalion of recruits at this place. I have ordered 

VOL. x. c 



18 SPAIN. 1813. 

to Lisbon two companies of it belonging to the Chasseurs Bri- 
tanniques ; and I shall be glad to know whether you would 
wish that these two companies should be replaced by a similar 
number of men drawn from the enlisted deserters at Gibraltar. 
' I expect to be able to leave this place on Tuesday, and 
I hope I shall have done some good in the way of organiza- 
tion ; but I am not yet certain. I will write to you fully on 
the whole subject as soon as I shall get away ; in the mean 
time, I believe my brother writes by this occasion to Lord 
Castlereagh. If all should continue quiet, I propose to pass 
by Lisbon, principally with a view to give the Order of the 
Bath to Sir C. Stuart ; and likewise to have some communi- 
cation verbally with the Government there ; which will delay 
my return to head quarters till the middle of this month. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Colonel Torrens, Military Secretary to the Commander in Chief. 

' MY DEAR TORRENS, ' Cadiz, 1st January, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter from Captain Smith of the Engineers*, 
in regard to his claim to be promoted to be a Brevet Major. 
From all that I have heard of his conduct at Tarifa, I have 
reason to believe, that if it had been made known to me, in 
detail, at the time the action occurred, I should have recom- 
mended him for promotion. It is now too late, probably ; 
but if it should not be so, I shall be glad if he is promoted. 

' I have been detained here longer than I expected, and 
all my arrangements are not yet effected. But I hope I 
shall have done some good by my visit to this place, and that 
I shall be able to set out on my return on Tuesday. 

1 Believe me, &c. 
' Colonel Torrens.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Major General the Hon. C. Stewart. 

' MY DEAR STEWART, ' Cadiz, 2nd January, 1813. 

' I received your letter of the 9th of December'two days 
ago, and I take the earliest opportunity of replying to it. I 
found the organization of our cavalry in two divisions to be 
very disadvantageous in the last campaign, and I propose to 

* Colonel Sir C. F. Smith, C.B., &c. 



1813. CADIZ. 19 

alter it if I can ; and to have but one corps of cavalry under 
Sir Stapleton, from which detachments should be made to 
perform the cavalry duty with the detached corps of the 
army. Under these circumstances, although it might be 
more agreeable to you to take a gallop with the Hussars, I 
think you had better return to your office. 

' I have come here to try " to organize the poles," which 
appears to be a work something of the same kind with that 
which Dumouriez describes so well in his life. I have made 
some progress ; but the libellers have set to work, and I am 
apprehensive that the Cortes will take the alarm, and that I 
shall not be able to do all the good I might otherwise. I 
shall leave this on Tuesday. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Major General f WELLINGTON. 

the Hon. C. Stewart: 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 
< SIR, 'Cadiz, 2nd January, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving yesterday your letter 
of the 1st instant. 

' In the letters which I had the honor of addressing to your 
Excellency on the 4th and 25th December, I apprized you of 
the expediency that the Chief of the Staff, and a limited 
number of the Officers of the Staff, should be sent to the 
head quarters of the army, in order to perform the duties of 
their several stations under my directions. 

' I request, accordingly, that orders may be given that the 
Chief of the Staff, and the Inspectors General of cavalry and 
of infantry, may place themselves under my directions, and 
may prepare to move to head quarters. 

' As soon as they are under my directions, I shall 
arrange with them the number of officers necessary to enable 
them to perform the duty of their several departments with 
the army, and the mode in which those duties of their de- 
partments respectively shall be performed at the seat of 
Government during their necessary absence from hence; upon 
which subjects I shall have the honor of making a report to 
your Excellency. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

Don J. de Carvajal.' ' WELLINGTON. 

c2 



20 SPAIN. 1813. 

To Major General Campbell, Commanding at Alicante. 
< SiRj ' Cadiz, 4th January, 1813. 

' I have received your letters, and those of Major General 
Clinton, to the 22nd of December. 

' You appear to be aware of the effect produced on the 
enemy's situation, by the measure of putting the allied Bri- 
tish and Portuguese armies in cantonments for the winter. 
It is unfortunate that the necessity for this measure existed ; 
but the disparity of numbers was so great, and so much to 
our disadvantage, that I could not keep the field in Castille 
in November; and not being able to keep the field, it was 
better that I should place the allied army in cantonments, in 
which it was likely they would recover their strength and 
efficiency, even though the enemy should by this measure 
enjoy the advantage of which he has availed himself. 

' It is evident, however, that till the allied British and 
Portuguese army under my immediate command shall again 
take the field, no operation of any consequence can be under- 
taken by any of the allied corps in other parts of the Penin- 
sula. In the mean time I have come here to endeavor to 
organize the Spanish armies, and to come to an understand- 
ing with the Government regarding the means of their sup- 
port in the field ; and upon my return to head quarters, in 
which direction I shall set out in a day or two, I shall send 
you directions respecting the operations which you are to 
undertake when the campaign shall commence, and the 
period at which you are to undertake them. 

' If, however, before you shall receive the directions, you 
should consider yourself sufficiently strong, and circumstances 
should enable you to strike an important blow against the 
French force opposed to you, or against their possessions on 
the east coast, I beg that you will strike it. 

' I have directed that two squadrons of the Brunswick 
hussars, expected at Gibraltar, may proceed to Alicante, to 
place themselves under your command. 

' I enclose copies of the letters written by the Adjutant 
General to the Governor of Gibraltar and yourself, in regard 
to the clothing of the troops under your command. 
' I have the honor to be, &c. 

Major General Campbell, < WELLINGTON. 

Alicante.' 



1813. CADIZ. 21 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 
< SIR, ' Cadiz, 4th January, 1813. 

' I enclose a report from the Inspector General of Infan- 
try, proposing the mode in which the business of his depart- 
ment shall be conducted at the head quarters of the army, 
and at the seat of Government, which I beg you to lay be- 
fore the Government, and to urge the Government to appoint 
Brigadier General Don Gaspar Blanco to be Sub Inspector 
General of Infantry, and to take charge of the office at the 
seat of Government. 

' It is also desirable that General Don Thomas O'Do- 
noju should receive his official appointment of Inspector 
General of Infantry. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don J. de Carvajal' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 
* SIR, ' Cadiz, 4th January, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose a report from the Chief of 
the Staff, General Wimpffen, in which he proposes the mode 
of transacting business at head quarters, and at the seat of 
Government ; and the number and names of officers to be 
appointed to proceed to head quarters, and the number to 
remain at Cadiz; which I request you to lay before the 
Government for their approbation. 

' 1 have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don J. de CarvajaL' * WELLINGTON. 

To the Duque del Infantado. 

1 MONSIEUR LE Due, ' a Cadiz, ce 4 Janvier, 1813. 

' Je vous envoic un memoire qui m'a ete donne ce matin 
par la Marquesa de Alcanices, avec qui je crois que vous 
savcz que j'etais en correspondance suivie avant que je ne 
suis entre a Madrid au mois d'Aout dernier. Elle me ditque 
celui qui a ecrit ce me"moire est un de ceux qui lui a rendu 
le plus de service dans ces temps la ; et je vous serai bien 
oblige si vous voulez avoir la bonte de le prendre sous votre 
protection, et de 1'employer ou comme il le desire, ou d'aucune 
autre maniere dans laquelle il peut etre utile a la nation. 

' J'ai 1'honneur d'etre, &c. 
Duque del In/an tado: ' WELLINGTON. 



22 SPAIN. 1813. 

To the Conde de la Bisbal (General O'Donnell). 
< SIR, ' Cadiz, 5th January, 1813. 

' Having referred to the Inspector General of Infantry 
and of Cavalry the notes on the back of the return which 
you sent to me on the 1st instant, stating the want of officers 
in the several battalions under your command, I enclose the 
report of the Inspector General of Infantry on the subject. 

' I have addressed the Minister at War on the 2nd, 4th, 
and 8th paragraphs, in the enclosed letter; and have re- 
quested that the proportion of officers may be posted to the 
battalion of Cadiz without loss of time, in order that there 
may not be wanting officers to take charge of, and instruct 
the recruits when they shall join. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Conde de la Bisbai: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 
1 SIR, ' Cadiz, 5th January, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose extracts from a return sent to 
me on the 2nd instant by Lieut. General the Conde de la 
Bisbal, complaining of the want of officers in the several 
battalions under his command ; and extracts from a report 
made by the Inspector General of Infantry on these com- 
plaints. 

' I request your Excellency will urge the Government to 
expedite the nomination of the seven officers, as proposed by 
the Inspector General for the Voluntarios de Navarra, and 
to have removed from the battalion of Seville the supernu- 
merary chiefs. 

' I likewise request you to urge the Government to autho- 
rise the Inspector General of Infantry to post to the batta- 
lion of Cadiz the usual proportion of officers, in order that 
there may not be wanting officers to receive, organise, and 
instruct the recruits when they shall join, as is expected. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
1 Don J. de Carvajal.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 

' SIR, ' Cadiz, 6th January, 1813. 

' I shall be very much obliged to you, if you will recom- 
mend to the Regency that Lieut. Ballamar Valdes Argiielles 



1813. CADIZ. 23 

may be promoted to be an Intendant, as I understand it is 
the intention of the Captain General Castaiios to recom- 
mend that this gentleman may be appointed the Intendant 
General of the army under his command. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don J. de Carvajcd: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 
' JSiR, ' Cadiz, 7th January, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your letter of this day, 
enclosing the decree of the Cortes, dated yesterday, upon 
certain propositions laid before the Government by me. 

' In my letter of the 27th December I proposed that the 
2nd, 3rd, and 4th armies should be formed into one, to be 
denominated the 2nd army ; but I apprehend that, although 
it may be convenient to make this arrangement hereafter, 
existing circumstances render it expedient to defer it for the 
present. I would therefore propose that the 2nd and 3rd 
armies should be the 2nd army, the 4th the 3rd army, and 
the 5th, 6th, and 7th the 4th army. 

* I conclude that the Government will appoint the Gene- 
ral Commanding in Chief the 1st army to be Captain Gene- 
ral in Catalonia ; the General Commanding the Army of 
Reserve in Andalusia to be Captain General of Seville and 
Cordova ; and the General Commanding in Chief the 4th 
army to be Captain General in Estremadura, Old Castille, 
and Galicia, according to the recommendation contained in my 
letter of the 27th December. The alteration now proposed 
for the formation of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th armies, will render 
necessary a corresponding alteration in the nomination of 
the Captains General of the provinces of Valencia, Murcia, 
New Castille, Granada, and Jaen ; and I would beg leave to 
recommend that the General Officer commanding the 2nd 
army may be Captain General in the provinces of Valencia, 
Murcia, and New Castille; and that the General Officer 
commanding the 3rd army may be Captain General in Gra- 
nada and Jaen. 

' I have nothing further with which to trouble the Govern- 
ment relative to this decree, excepting to entreat them to 
have an estimate formed as soon as possible of the expenses 
of the several armies, and to allot from the revenues of the 
several provinces the means of defraying them. 



24 SPAIN. 1813. 

' I am convinced that the Government is disposed to take 
the lead in all the measures which have for their object to ren- 
der efficient the armies in the field in this critical moment of 
the affairs of Spain and of the world ; and I earnestly entreat 
them to order that nine-tenths of all that may be collected 
in the provinces, the resources of which are allotted for the 
support of these armies respectively, may be set apart for the 
support of each till the Government shall have had more lei- 
sure and opportunity to ascertain the actual expense of each, 
and the means which each province can aiford. 

' Under this arrangement it will be possible to commence 
to act immediately under the decree of the Cortes of the 6th 
instant. 

1 I beg leave to enclose a letter from the Marques de 
Palacios, which shows the distress to which the garrison of 
Badajoz is reduced. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don J. de Carvajai: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Major General Whittingham, and Major General Roche*. 
< SIRS, ' Cadiz, 8th January, 1813. 

' Sir H. Wellesley has communicated to me your letters 
of the 25th, 29th and 30th ultimo, (Eoche 31st,) and as he 
has been so kind as to leave to me, in a great measure, the 
decision on the application of the pecuniary funds applied 
by Great Britain for the support of the cause of Spain, I 
am anxious that you should be made acquainted with the 
principles on which I am desirous that they should be 
disposed of in future. 

' The corps of troops under your command in the Penin- 
sula is one of those which I am desirous should be paid out 
of these funds. 

'I believe that the regulations of the Spanish service 
provide that troops absent in hospitals, which are the only 
troops which ought to be absent from their duty in time 
of war, should not receive pay : and whether this is the 
regulation or not, it is my intention that no pay shall be 
given from this fund to any officer or soldier who is not per- 
forming his duty during the period for which the pay is issued. 

'The clothing, arms, and accoutrements for your corps 

* This was written to both, with some omissions and alterations in that of 
Major General Roche. 



1813. CADIZ. 25 

being supplied by Great Britain it is unnecessary to incur 
any expense from this fund on these heads ; and the fund 
can afford none for provision, hospitals, or means of trans- 
port, which as well as pay to absent officers and soldiers, 
if any is due, must be supplied by the Spanish Government 
in the same manner as for other Spanish troops. 

* The pay, therefore, for the General and other officers, 
and soldiers of your division, present and doing duty, is 
what alone Avill be supplied from this fund. 

' You will be so kind as to send to Sir H. Wellesley on 
the 20th of every month an estimate of the sum required 
to pay the officers and troops under your command for that 
month, on the principle above pointed out ; and when the 
pay for the month shall be received, either by the produce of 
a bill or otherwise, you will distribute it in the due pro- 
portion to the persons entitled to receive it, taking their 
receipts, which will be your discharge for the sum received. 

* You will, however, adopt every measure in your power 
to ensure the due issue to the officers and troops of the sums 
destined for each, according to the regulations of the 
Spanish service. 

' You will appoint Captain Foley to be the paymaster of 
your division, and to carry on the detail of the service above 
pointed out under your direction and responsibility ; and 
as the whole of the payments directed to be made, arc to 
be made in arrear, you will take care that he keeps no 
money in his hands ; but that the payments to the officers 
and troops are made as soon and in proportion as the money 
is received. 

' I am anxious that your division should not be in the 
field more than 6,000 men ; but as I am aware that in order 
to keep up that number it may be necessary that you should 
have a depot at Alicante, I shall expect and shall make pro- 
vision, therefore, for your receiving pay for 7,000 men, 
besides those in hospitals, for whom pay will not be drawn 
from this fund as above stated. 

1 In regard to other points in your letters, it is scarcely 
regular for me to reply to them. The allied force in the 
kingdom of Valencia having once been landed there, and 
the King having arrived on the frontier of Valencia in the 
month of August with the army of the centre; and the 
high road from Alicante to Madrid having been fixed upon 



26 SPAIN. 1813. 

as the point of junction of the troops under Suchet and the 
King on the one hand, and of Soult on the other, the allied 
force in Valencia has not been misapplied, or mismanaged, 
nor are any of the events of the campaign which occurred 
latterly to be attributed to their conduct. 

' If I am right in this conjecture, it will not be denied 
that this force ought not to be brought into a forward or 
exposed situation, in order only to enable a part of it to 
receive forage and provisions with more convenience and 
in greater plenty. If we make war with inferior numbers 
and less efficient troops than our enemies, we must make up 
our minds to limit our operations and our advantages ; and 
we must not incur great risks for small objects. 

' If, therefore, the country on the north-west of Alicante, 
within the command of the force there, cannot afford pro- 
visions and forage for the troops, they should be extended to 
the south-west ; or some of them, the infantry particularly, 
sent to some other part of the coast where they could be sub- 
sisted with facility, till their services should be required. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Mojo r Generals f WE LL i N GTON . 

Whittingham and Roche.' 

To the Conde de la Bisbal. 

' MoN CHER GENERAL, ' a Cadiz, ce 8 Janvier, 1813. 

' J'ai arrange mes affaires de quelque maniere avec la 
Ilegence et les Cortes, et je vous envoie copie de la lettre 
que j'ai requ hier de la premiere. Je leur ai repondu en 
leur priant de donner pour les armees neuf-dixiemes des 
produits des contributions du pays ; et quand j'aurai la 
reponse, que j'attends aujourd'hui, je partirai, et j'aurai le 
plaisir de vous voir a Puerto S ttt . Maria. J'y serai peut- 
etre demain, mais surement le jour apres. 

' Je crois que 1'arrangement fera assez bien ; et, en attend- 
ant qu'il produise quelque chose, j'ai arrange avec mon frere 
de faire une avance a chaque armee sur les subsides. 

4 Agreez, &c. 
' Conde de la Bisbal.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don Caro Manuel, Minister of Grace and Justice. 
' SIR, ' Cadiz, 9th January, 1813. 

' Having already conversed with your Excellency on the 
merits and services of Don Alexis Guillem, late of Sala- 



1813. XEREZ. 27 

manca, in the course of the operations of the war in that 
part of the Peninsula, I beg leave to recall to your Excel- 
lency's recollection the subject of these conversations, and 
earnestly recommend him to your Excellency ; and I request 
that you will propose to the Government the mode in which 
he can be employed with advantage to the public and to his 
own interests. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don Caro Manuel." ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 

' SIR, ' Xerez, 10th January, 1813. 

' I beg that you will inform the Hegency that since I had 
the honor of conferring with them yesterday I have con- 
versed with the Conde de la Bisbal, in regard to the removal 
of the army of reserve from Puerto S la . Maria and Xerez to 
Seville, and the neighbourhood of Cordova; and I have 
the honor of enclosing a letter which I have received from 
that General, containing his reasons for submitting this 
proposal to me, in which I concur entirely. 

' It appears to me., likewise, that the troops stated by the 
General Conde de la Bisbal as being in the Isla de Leon 
and remaining there after the reserve under his command 
shall have marched, will with the British troops on the Isla 
and in Cadiz answer all the military purposes which can be in 
view in keeping a garrison on the Isla ; but as there may 
probably be other reasons why a part of the infantry of the 
army of reserve should be kept in this neighbourhood, I 
beg leave to submit the proposition of the Conde de la Bisbal 
to the consideration of the Government, and to recommend 
its adoption in the whole, if the Government should not 
think it inconsistent with the public interests; and at all 
events that it should be adopted as far as the Government 
may approve of it. 

' As I am upon my journey, and some days may elapse 
before I can receive the pleasure of Government upon this 
proposition, I beg your Excellency will communicate it direct 
to General Conde de la Bisbal, and will forward me a copy 
of it. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Don J. de Carvajal? ' WELLINGTON. 



28 SPAIN. 1813. 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 
< SIR, ' Xerez, 10th January, 1813. 

' Before I left Cadiz I omitted to communicate personally 
with your Excellency regarding those parts of the dispatches 
and reports to your Excellency which should be published ; 
and those which should be kept for the information of the 
Regency alone. 

' It is obvious that it may be necessary to keep parts of 
every dispatch from the knowledge of the public for some 
time, and therefore I shall take the liberty of marking in the 
margin of every dispatch, for the information of the public, 
those parts of it, and of its enclosures, which it shall appear 
to me ought not to be made public, as I have in this day the 
dispatch regarding Colonel Longa's affair of the 30th of 
November, and its enclosure. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don J. de Carvajal.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 
' SIR, 'Xerez, 10th January, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose a report received from 
General Mendizabal of an affair, apparently well conducted, 
and of considerable importance, by Colonel Longa, which I 
request you to lay before the Government. 

' I will hereafter, when I shall have ascertained the nature 
and consequences of this affair, address the Government upon 
the recommendation of General Mendizabal, that Colonel 
Longa should be promoted to be a Brigadier General. 
' I have the honor to be, &c. 

Don J. de Carvajal: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 

' SIR, ' Xerez, 10th January, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose a letter which I have received 
from the Conde de la Bisbal, in which he recommends that 
Don Francisco Laborda may be the Intendant General of the 
army of reserve under his command, and that Don Ramon 
Aldoroso, now performing that duty, may be employed at 
Seville in the situation now filled by Don F. Laborda. I 
beg you will lay this recommendation before the Regency. 
' I have the honor to be, &c. 

Don J. de Carvajal: ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. BADAJOZ. 29 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 

<SiR, ' Xerez, 10th January, 1813. 

' I have to apologise for having written you several dis- 
patches this day in the English language, and on paper of 
a small size, but none of the Staff are with me at present, 
and I have with me no paper of a large size ; and I hope 
your Excellency and the Government will excuse me. 

' I request your Excellency will send any orders you may 
have to direct to me under cover to Don F. Barcenas, Di- 
rector of the Posts at Badajoz, till I shall arrive at head 
quarters, as he has communication with the English and 
Portuguese posts, and will forward them to me. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Don J. de Carvajal. ' WELLINGTON. 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 
< SIR, ' Badajoz, 13th January, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 10th instant, in regard 
to the duties to be paid to the corn factory at Lisbon, on the 
purchase of corn imported to the Tagus by the British Com- 
missariat. 

' In the year 1811, 1 made an arrangement that the duties 
on importation into Portugal should not be remitted on any 
articles for the British army, unless I should apply for such 
remission ; and whatever new rule the Portuguese Govern- 
ment may adopt on this subject, I request that you will not 
attend to any applications for remissions of duties, by any 
authority in the British army, which are not made by me. 

' I shall continue to apply for the remission of duties to 
the corn factory, on the purchases by the British Commis- 
sariat, of corn imported for sale to the Tagus, because I 
conceive that these purchases do not interfere in any man- 
ner with the corn factory ; and because the payment of the 
duties, supposing the factory to be entitled to them, would 
produce more inconvenience and embarrassment to the 
military chest, and of course to the Portuguese Government, 
from the dependence of the payment of the duties on the 
state of the military chest, than the factory would derive 
advantage from the duties. 

' Under these circumstances, I shall continue to request 
you to apply for a remission of these duties; and if you 



30 SPAIN. 1813. 

should find the Portuguese Government determined to re- 
fuse to attend to my application, I request you to refer the 
subject to His Majesty's Government. 

' I likewise request you to refer it to Lord Strangford, in 
order that the Prince Regent of Portugal may know in 
what manner his Royal Highness's orders are attended to, 
that the local Government in Portugal should attend to my 
suggestions. 

' I am likewise of opinion that, as the Portuguese Govern- 
ment are so little considerate in respect to the convenience 
and interests of the British Government and of the army, 
with which the interests of Portugal are so intimately con- 
nected, it is proper that they should be made to feel that 
they are indebted to the British Government and its ser- 
vants, not only for military assistance, and the military 
situation of the country at the present moment, but for the 
daily subsistence of the people committed to their charge. 
With this view I shall propose to you a mode of disposing 
of the grain which will hereafter be imported into Portugal 
in consequence of your arrangements, which will put an end 
to these discussions. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Sir R. Hill, K.B. 
' MY DEAR HILL, ' Badajoz, 14th January, 1813. 

* I arrived here last night from Cadiz, having settled there 
tolerably to my satisfaction all the objects for which I went 
there. 

' Finding every thing quiet in front, I set out this morning 
for Lisbon, in order to invest Sir C. Stuart with the Order 
of the Bath, which ceremony I shall perform on the 17th ; 
and 1 propose to set out for head quarters on the 18th. 

' I shall be at Abrantes on the 19th, Niza the 20th, Cas- 
tello Branco the 21st. 

' As soon as you receive this letter, give directions that 
the dragoons placed on the road between this and Zarza 
la Mayor may betaken off; and I request you to send all 
communications you may have to make to me by the post 
road to Lisbon. 

' Let De Lancy be ready to set out for head quarters 



1813. LISBON. 31 

when I shall write that I have set out from Lisbon; as, 
although I intend to set out on the 18th, it is not impossible 
that I may be detained beyond that day. 

' Believe me, &c. 

'Lieut. General < WELLINGTON. 

Sir R. Hill, K.B: 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 
' MY DEAR SIR, ' Estremoz, 14th January, 1813. 

' I have just arrived here, and propose to proceed on my 
journey to-morrow morning ; and I shall be at Lisbon on 
the IGth. 

' As far as I can understand Mr. Sodre, it appears to be 
expected by the Government that I shall stay at Lisbon 
longer than I have any intention of staying, or indeed can 
stay. My wish is to wait upon the Regency, and to invest 
you with the Order on the 17th, and to set out on my return 
to the army on the 18th. 

' I should wish to invest you, as usual, before dinner ; that 
there should be many of the principal people present, who 
should be invited to dinner, and that there should be a ball 
and supper in the evening, to which all the society should 
be invited. I hope that, for all this, you will have given 
the preparatory orders. 

/ You will dispose of the rest of my time as you may 
think proper; but as I think there are symptoms of the 
enemy's moving, I cannot stay at Lisbon one day after I 
have invested you with the Order. 

f Believe me, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

1 MY DEAR LORD, ' Lisbon, 18th January, 1813. 

' I left Cadiz on the 10th instant, having arranged every 
thing tolerably well and nearly as I wished, and I arrived 
here on the 16th. Having been travelling constantly from 
the '1 Oth to the 16th, and feasting ever since, I cannot trans- 
mit by this mail an account of affairs at Cadiz. I set out 
for head quarters, however, to-morrow morning; and as 
soon as I shall arrive there I will let you know what I have 
done, and the state of affairs there in general. In the mean 
time, I know it to be my brother's intention to send all the 
documents home to Lord Castlereagh. 



32 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' There is nothing new. The French appear to be pre- 
paring for a movement, but nothing has positively moved 
yet. Our army is gaining strength. 

' Believe me, &c. 
< Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Vice Admiral G. Martin. 

< SIR, ' Lisbon, 19th January, 1813. 

' As it is considered necessary that Lieut. General Leitli 
should return to England for the recovery of a wound re- 
ceived at the battle of Salamanca, I shall be much obliged 
to you if you will, on an opportunity offering, provide him 
with a passage in a man of war. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
1 Vice Admiral G. Martin: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Lisbon, 19th January, 1813. 

' I omitted in my letter of yesterday to inform you that, 
upon receiving intelligence of the state of affairs in Russia, 
as acknowledged by the French themselves, in the 29th 
bulletin, I judged it expedient to send General Count 
Nugent* to Vienna to inform the Emperor of the exact state 
of affairs in Spain, and of my expectation that I should at 
least be able to give employment to between 150,000 and 
200,000 French troops in the next campaign. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Earl Bathurst. ' WELLINGTON. 

' The packet is coming in, and I wait till it arrives.' 

To Colonel Torrens. 
' MY DEAR TORRENS, 'Niza, 22nd January, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 30th of December, and 
I take the earliest opportunity of replying to it. In regard 

to , I only hope that nothing will be done to him 

to injure his feelings. 

' I do not exactly comprehend that part of your letter 

which relates to the removal of , 

, , and , from this country. I 

do not understand what responsibility attaches to the re- 
moval of officers from situations which they are supposed 
* Count Nugent, in the service of the Emperor of Austria. 



1813. MZA. 33 

incapable of filling, particularly from situations of compara- 
tively subordinate rank. Odium may attach to the person 
who removes them without otherwise providing for them; 
but I do not believe that either His Royal Highness or I 
could ever be called upon, as public men, to account for the 
removal of any of them. 

' I feel strongly, and others under my command feel still 
more strongly, the inconvenience of being obliged to employ 
some at least of the officers above mentioned ; but, in every 
letter which I have ever written upon a subject of this de- 
scription, I have protested against any thing harsh being done 
to the officer who I wished should be removed. I have not by 
me at present the copy of my letter to you upon the subject of 
these officers, and I cannot be certain that it did not contain 
the same request, and I keep His Royal Highness's orders 
by me till I shall see whether it does or not. If it does not, 
I beg to refer the order for his further consideration, and to 
request that none of these officers should be removed unless 
His Royal Highness has it in his power to employ them on 
the home Staffer elsewhere. 

' I do not mean to alter my report of them in any degree 
when I state that I believe them all to be zealous in the 
service ; but in my opinion, and in the opinion of those under 
me, and who are more immediately in communication with 
them, they are not fit for their situations ; at the same time 
I wish they should not be removed unless they can be 
otherwise provided for. I beg that it may be understood 
that I am ready to bear all the responsibility or odium 
which can attach to the person who causes their removal. 

' I am entirely responsible for the appointment of one 

( ) to command a division of cavalry. In regard to 

the others, I have nothing to do with it. They were sent to 
this country from England. 

e In regard to the latter part of your letter, respecting 
" the difficulty of setting aside these General Officers from 
serving with the army in the field, who have creditably risen 
to high rank," it is impossible to reconcile it with the former 
part, in which you talk of the responsibility, or rather odium, 
attaching to the removal of officers found or supposed to be 
incapable of performing service in the field. I request that 
General Officers should not be sent out ; and when those 

VOL. x. D 



34 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

are sent out whom I conceive not to be fit for their situations, 
I request that they may be removed. I am then to bear the 
responsibility or odium of their removal. 

' What a situation then is mine ! It is impossible to 
prevent incapable men from being sent to the army; and, 
when I complain that they are sent, I am to be responsible. 
Surely the responsibility or odium for the removal of such 
persons ought to attach to "the difficulty of setting them 
aside," and not to the person to whom it belongs officially 
to represent that they are not capable of filling their situa- 
tions. 

' I am on my return to head quarters, where I shall arrive 
on the 25th. ' Believe me, &c. 

Colonel Torrens. ' WELLINGTON. 

' Freneda, 26th January, 1813. 

' P. S. Since writing the above I have perused the copy 
of my letters to you of the 2nd and 6th of December, and I 
observe that I did not recommend that the General Officers 
mentioned should be otherwise provided for if removed. I 
therefore propose to suspend till further orders the execution 
of His Royal Highness' s orders in regard to all these Gene- 
ral Officers, excepting .' 

To Marshal Sir W. Beresford, K.B. 

< SIR, ' Freneda, 26th January, 1813. 

' I have to mention to you that I found the road from 
Castello Branco to Alpedrinha, close to the latter town, to 
be absolutely impracticable for wheel carriages ; and I was 
informed its state was owing to the neglect of the magistrates 
in repairing it. You are aware that this road is one of the 
great communications used by the troops along the frontier; 
and I beg leave to recommend that the Camera of Alpedrinha 
may be called before the Special Commission to answer for 
this neglect. 

' Generally speaking, the roads throughout Portugal are 
in a very bad state, particularly in the neighbourhood of the 
towns and villages. Their state is to be attributed very 
much to the practice of throwing the stones from the walls 
on each side of the road into the road, from whence they are 
never removed. Many roads are almost entirely blocked 



1813. FRENEDA 35 

up, and are much injured by this practice ; and it is very 
desirable that the attention of the magistrates should be 
called to the subject, and that they should be directed to 
repair the roads, and at least one league's distance from the 
several towns and villages. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

Marshal ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir W, Beresford, 



To Marshal Sir W. Beresford, K.B. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 26th January, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter from Lieut. General Sir Rowland Hill, 
containing a report from Captain Meacham, the Command- 
ant of British Hospitals at Abrantes, on the murder of a 
serjeant and a soldier of the 9th light dragoons by a banditti 
which infest the road from Abrantes to Alter do Chao. 

' I request you to draw the attention of the Governor of 
Alemtejo to this circumstance, and to order him to take 
measures to get the better of the banditti in question by 
means of the ordenanza and militia of the province now at 
their homes. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Marshal ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. Beresford, 



To Marshal Sir W. Beresford, K.B. 
' MY DEAR BERESFORD, ' Freneda, 26th January, 1813. 

' I arrived here yesterday evening. Before I quitted 
Lisbon I omitted to ask you to give a commission in either 
the 3rd or 13th regiments to Jose Daniel Pinto, who has 
been recommended to me. His brother, Manoel Jeremias 
Pinto, is already al feres in the 10th regiment; and I have 
been applied to to recommend him for a lieutenancy in one 
of the same regiments, which I should be obliged to you if 
you can arrange. 

' As Fane is coming out, it will perhaps be desirable that 
Souza, who formerly attended him, and whom I saw at 
Abrantes, should be ordered to Lisbon. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Marshal < WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. Beresford, K.B. 



36 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' When I was at Abrantes, Lobo requested me to draw 

your attention to the miserable state of Captain , 

of the 5th regiment of cavalry, under sentence of a General 
Court Martial for misbehavior in an action under the com- 
mand of Madden. It appears that he is the only one of 
the party whom you have not pardoned ; he, probably, least 
deserved pardon.' 

To the Earl ofDalhousie, President of a General Court Martial. 
' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 26th January, 1813. 

' I enclose the proceedings of the General Court Martial 
on which your Lordship is President on the trial of Privates 
Charles Jennings, John Stone, and Thomas Poney ; and I 
beg that your Lordship will forward the recommendation of 
the prisoners for mercy separate from the judicial sentence 
of the Court. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' The Earl of Dalhousie.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Major General Cooke. 
< SlR, 'Freneda, 2Gth January, 1813. 

* I have to request that you will give directions that the 
Regiment de Watteville may be assembled at Cadiz as soon 
as may be convenient. 

* This regiment will shortly be embarked from thence for 
another service, respecting which you will hereafter receive 
further orders. 

' The 2nd batt. 67th regiment are to remain at Carthagena. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Major General Cooke. ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Rev. Dr. Curtis, Rector of the Irish College at Salamanca. 
' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 26th January, 1813. 

( I received only yesterday, on my return to this place, 
your letter of the 9th January. I should wish to converse 
with you on some of the points to which it relates ; and, if 
you will do me the favor of coming over here some day, 
General O'Lalor tells me he will lodge you ; and I shall 
be happy to see you at dinner, and we can converse on the 
subject of your letter. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Rev. Dr. Curtis: ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 37 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K,B. 
' SIR, 'Freneda, 26th January, 1813. 

' I enclose the proceedings of a Court of Inquiry in regard 
to an affray which lately occurred at Punhete between some 
inhabitants of the town and a party of British soldiers, in 
which one of the inhabitants lost his life ; in consequence of 

which I have ordered Lieut. into arrest; and I beg 

to know what the Portuguese Government wish should be 
done with him. 

' I likewise enclose papers received from Colonel Boss, of 
the 20th regiment, in consequence of a complaint forwarded 
by you of the conduct of a detachment of the 20th regiment 

at Villa Franca. I have ordered that Lieut. , of the 

20th regiment, may be put in arrest, and I beg to know 
what the Portuguese Government are desirous should be 
done with him. 

' I likewise enclose the proceedings of a Court of Inquiry 
on an affray in the town of Zibreira, between the inhabitants 
and a detachment of the 28th regiment, in consequence of 
which a child lost its life ; and I beg to know what the Por- 
tuguese Government are desirous should be done with Lieut. 
, Corporal , and Private , who are all in con- 
finement. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 
< SlR, ' Freneda, 26th January, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the , 
in which you have informed me that the Government pro- 
pose to take into consideration, and will act as may be expe- 
dient in regard to, the proposition I made on the part of the 
Conde de la Bisbal, that Don Francisco Laborda should be 
made Intendant General of the Army of Reserve, and Don 
Ramon Aldoroso should fill his place. 

' As the office of Intendant General is one of the utmost 
importance to an army, I earnestly recommend to the Go- 
vernment that they should attend to the recommendation of 
the Conde de la Bisbal on this subject. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Don J. de Carvajal .' ' WELLINGTON. 



38 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 

< SIR, ' Freneda, 26th January, 1813. 

' I shall be very much obliged to you if you will make 
application to the Government to have admitted into the 
school of the artillery Don Juan Manuel de Feran, who is 
a young gentleman connected with a very respectable family 
at Badajoz, for whom I entertain a great regard. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don J. de CarvajaL' ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Adjutant General. 
' SIR, ' Freneda, 26th January, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 10th 
December, in regard to the length of the period which had 

elapsed, during which Captain of the th regiment 

was in arrest. 

' Captain was Military Commandant at the Hos- 
pital Station at Abrantes, and was put in arrest in the 
month of August, 1811, on the complaint of Major General 
H. Campbell, and of Lieut. Colonel Lord Blantyre, for having 
ordered the Assistant Provost at Abrantes to inflict a corporal 
punishment on a soldier of the Guards, and on one of the 
42nd regiment, for selling their necessaries. 

' It was not possible to collect the witnesses against and 

on behalf of Captain from that time forward, and at 

last I released him from his arrest on the 1st of Novem- 
ber by the enclosed letter, in consequence of the return 
to England of Major General H. Campbell ; Lieut. Colonel 
Lord Blantyre having gone before. I, at the same time, 
offered to bring Captain to trial before a Court Mar- 
tial if he wished it. 

' I enclose the copy of an order which I had issued on the 
1st of November, 1811, denning the duty and authority of 
the Provost of the army, and that of officers over the Provost 
and his Assistants. 

' I am sorry to say, that owing to the difficulty of getting 
together the witnesses on any trial before a General Court Mar- 
tial, the instance of Captain is not the only one of an 

officer having been in arrest during a great length of time. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
The Adjutant General: ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 39 

To the Adjutant General. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 26th January, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose the complaint of Mr. 



a tradesman at Lisbon, against Quarter Master 

, of the rd regiment, lately gone to England for the 

recovery of his health ; and I request you to lay my request 
before His Royal Highness the Commander in Chief, that 

Mr. may be sent back to this country as soon as he 

shall have recovered his health. 

' I beg that you will return the enclosed papers. 
' I have the honor to be, &c. 
* The Adjutant General: ' WELLINGTON. 

To , Esq. 

< SIR, ' Freneda, 26th January, 1813. 

' I have received your letter, dated the 30th of December, 
1812, in which you advert to a promise stated to have been 
made by me, that I would forward to the Earl of Chatham, 
then Master General of the Ordnance, an application that 

an annuity to the widow of the late General should 

be continued to his two grand-daughters. 

' If I made such a promise, I think it probable I performed 
it ; that is to say, that I forwarded the application. But if I 
did not take the pleasure of the Lord Lieutenant upon the 
subject, and did not forward the application, it is probable I 
never made such a promise ; and most certainly I have no 
recollection of having made it. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
, Esq: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 26th January, 1813. 

' I arrived here yesterday evening. I received at Lisbon 
your letter of the 16th of December. I acknowledge that I 
do not conceive there is any probability of an insurrection in 
France or Holland, which would render desirable the pre- 
sence of the young Prince of Orange in the latter country; 
and I consider it so advantageous to him to remain with the 
army for some time longer, that I should do him a great 
injury if I were to send him home. Unless I should hear of 
an insurrection in France or Holland, or should receive an 



40 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

order to send him, I shall say nothing on the subject of his 
return to England to the Prince of Orange. 

' I see that Lord Temple has given notice of a motion in 
the House of Commons after the holydays, respecting the 
affairs of the Peninsula, which is intended, I conclude, to 
collect all the independent parties in one attack upon the 
Government. If I were in England, I should certainly do 
the Government the justice they deserve; and I hope, that 
let who will be the assailants, the Government will feel no 
scruple in making every use of my letters to you and Lord 
Liverpool in their own defence ; particularly parts of a pri- 
vate letter to Lord Liverpool of the 23rd of November, and 
a dispatch to yourself on the Sicilian expedition of the 3rd of 
August last. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 26th January, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 6th, regarding the cor- 
respondence with Sir W. Beresford, on his rank in this army. 
J do not think that the question is understood in England ; 
and the objects, as well of Sir W. Beresford as of myself, 
are misunderstood. In the year 1809 I had a correspon- 
dence on the relative rank of British and Portuguese officers 
with the late Commander in Chief, who decided on the 10th 
of July on queries put to him by me on the 7th of June, that 
British and Portuguese officers were to rank with each other 
according to the dates of their several commissions; and 
that British officers holding superior Portuguese commis- 
sions, were to rank in the allied army according to the dates 
of those commissions, their British commissions being dor- 
mant, although their rank in the British service should be 
progressive. I refer you to this correspondence, which, 
although it does not refer to the commission of the Marshal, 
is, in my opinion, decisive on the question of his rank, and 
directly contrary to the practice stated by his Royal High- 
ness to prevail in the Austrian service. 

' With this decision the question comes to be decided, who 
is to command the allied British and Portuguese army in 
the Peninsula, in case I, the Marshal General, should be de- 



1813. FRENEDA. 41 

prived of it by any of the accidents of the service : Marshal 
Sir W. Beresford, or a Lieutenant General of the British 
army, sent out by the British Government specially to take the 
command in case of the occurrence of this event ? The state- 
ment of the question is sufficient to decide it. The Marshal 
bears the higher commission, and according to the delibe- 
rate decision of the late Commander in Chief, he must take 
the command ; unless the British Government should come 
to some understanding with the Portuguese Government, 
that the officer whom they will send out shall take the com- 
mand of the allied army, in case I should be deprived of it. If 
such an agreement should be made, it will, of course, pre- 
clude the operation, in regard to the command of the army, 
of the principle broadly laid down by the late Commander 
in Chief, and invariably acted upon in respect to all the 
other ranks of the army. 

' What Marshal Beresford and I ask for, is a settlement 
of the question ; not in his favor, if Government should deem 
it expedient that it should be otherwise ; but that he should 
not be in the awkward predicament of being obliged to claim 
the command of the army against the wishes of his own 
Government, or of quitting the army at a critical moment, in 
case of the occurrence of the event for which it is intended 
to provide. 

' I cannot state positively, but I do not think he has any 
intention to retire, if the question should be decided against 
his rank ; I know that I would not retire, and I shall exert 
all the influence I can possess over his judgment to induce 
him to remain. But the point must be settled between 
the two Governments, if it is intended to depart from the 
principle laid down by the late Commander in Chief, in his 
letter of the 10th of July, 1809. 

' In my opinion the office of second in command of an 
army in these days, in which the use of councils of war has 
been discontinued, and the Chief in command is held se- 
verely responsible for every thing that passes, is not only 
useless, but injurious to the service. A person without de- 
fined duties, excepting to give flying opinions, from which 
he may depart at pleasure, must be a nuisance in moments 
of decision ; and whether I have a second in command or 
not, I am determined always to act according to the dictates 



1-2 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

of my own judgment, being quite certain that I shall be re- 
sponsible for the act, be the person who he may, according 
to whose opinion it has been adopted. One person in that 
situation may give me a little more trouble than another; 
but substantially I must be indifferent as to whether it is the 
Marshal, or any of the Lieutenant Generals who have been 
named on the occasion. I must be out of the way when any 
one of them should be called upon to act in command ; and, 
excepting that feeling which every man must have for what is 
to occur after he is gone, which is not of a personal nature, I 
can have no preference to one officer over another as my 
successor. 

' It is perfectly true that Government have always pro- 
vided a successor for me in the command of this army ; and 
notwithstanding that I was aware of the decision of the Com- 
mander in Chief on the relative rank of British and Portu- 
guese officers, I never doubted about the succession of that 
officer to the command when I should be gone. The discus- 
sion how he was to take the command, Marshal Beresford 
being with the army, was never entered into ; and it has oc- 
curred now, only because Marshal Beresford conceived him- 
self interested in it, and that the interval between the capture 
of Sir E. Paget, and the arrival of his successor, was a pro- 
per moment for him to bring it to a decision. 

' The opinion which I have entertained, that as long as I 
remained in command of the allied army, Marshal Beresford 
was next to myself, is, as I have shown, consistent with the 
decision of the late Commander in Chief, and it is not incon- 
sistent with the appointment of a British Lieutenant General 
to take the command of the army, to the exclusion of Marshal 
Beresford, when I should be removed from the command. 
It is not my business to start difficulties in the way of the 
arrangements of Government, and of the Commander in 
Chief, particularly on such a point as the appointment of a 
successor to myself; but when the difficulty is started by 
another person interested, I must give my opinion to Go- 
vernment, and I must say that they will place Marshal 
Beresford in an awkward situation if the case should occur, 
unless the decision of the late Commander in Chief should 
be altered, and the question should be settled with the Por- 
tuguese Government. 



1813. .FRENEBA. 43 

' I think His Royal Highness is mistaken in regard to the 
inferences he has drawn from some of the facts which have 
occurred here. Marshal Beresford was not removed from 
the command in Estremadura, because I considered Lieut. 
General Sir Rowland Hill the senior officer. Marshal Beres- 
ford took the command on the south of the Tagus when Sir 
R. Hill was obliged to go to England for the recovery of his 
health, as a kindness to me, and a convenience to the ser- 
vice; it being, as well as I can recollect, desired on his 
part, but perfectly understood between us, that Sir R. Hill 
should resume his command as soon as he should return to 
the army. Sir R. Hill was originally appointed to that com- 
mand because he was locally situated more conveniently than 
others to exercise it ; and tiiere were then, and have always 
been Avith the army, two, if not three General officers, his 
seniors, not having a detached or so large a command. 

* Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Sir R. Hill, K.B. 

' My DEAR HlLL, 'Freneda, 27th January, 1813, 4 P.M. 

' I have received your letter of the 26th ; and there does 
not appear to me any reason for Byng's going to the hospi- 
tal at Alter do Chao. I shall order that establishment to 
be discontinued as soon as Dr. M'Gregor returns to head 
quarters. 

' I wish you would have an eye upon the enemy's pro- 
ceedings in the Sierra de Francia. I am very anxious to 
prevent them from plundering that district. 

' Believe me, &c. 

'Lieut. General * WELLINGTON. 

Sir ti. Hill, K.B: 

To General Baron Maucune. 

' Au Quartier General, 

' MONSIEUR LE GENERAL, ce27 Janvier, 1813. 

' J'ai eu 1'honneur de recevoir la lettre de votre Excel- 
lence du 6 Janvier, par laquelle vous m'annoncez que vous 
avez consenti a laisser rejoindrel'armee le Lieutenant Royal, 
du 61 me regiment, qui a eu le malheur de perdre tine 
jambe par suites de blessures qu'il avait requ. Je prie votre 
Excellence d'agreer mes remercimens pour vos bontes envers 



44 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

le Lieutenant Royal, et de recevoir 1'assurance que je 
saisirai avec plaisir toute occasion de faire ce qui peut vous 
6tre agreable. 

' J'ai 1'honneur d'etre, &c. 
Baron Maucune: ' WELLINGTON. 

To General Baron Maucune. 

' Au Quartier General, 
' MONSIEUR LE GENERAL, ce 27 Janvier, isis. 

' Quand le General Sir E dward Paget a passe par Sal am anque, 
votre Excellence a eulabonte de lui faire avancer une somme 
d'argent, qu'il m'a prie de vous faire remettre. Je lui avais 
en meme temps envoye une somme d'argent aux avant-postes 
de 1'armee Franchise, de laquelle j'esperais que votre Excel- 
lence aurait pris celle que vous lui aviez avancee ; mais, par 
une lettre rec,ue du Quartier General de Valladolid, je vois 
que la somme d'argent que j'avais destinee au General 
Paget lui avait ete envoyee. En attendant, je ne me sou- 
viens plus de Texacte somme que votre Excellence a eu la 
bonte de faire avancer au General Paget; et je vous prie de 
me la faire savoir enfin que je puisse vous la rembourser. 
' J'ai 1'honneur d'etre, &c. 

Baron Maucune: ' WELLINGTON. 

To General Baron Maucune. 

' Au Quartier General, 

' MONSIEUR LE GENERAL, ce 27 Janvier, 1813. 

' Je viens d'avoir 1'honneur de recevoir la lettre de votre 
Excellence du 20, dans laquelle vous m'avez envoye une 
de Monsieur le General Reille, et deux autres, pour les- 
quelles je vous suis bien oblige". 

' Je vous envoie une lettre que je vous prie de faire par- 
venir a Monsieur le General Comte Reille. 

' J'ai 1'honneur d'etre, &c. 
' Baron Maucune: * WELLINGTON. 

To Count Reille, Commanding the French Army. 

' Au Quartier General, 

' MONSIEUR LE GENERAL EN CHEF, ce 27 Janvier, 1813. 

' J'ai eu 1'honneur de recevoir la lettre de votre Excel- 
lence du 6 Janvier; et comme la reponse que j'ai ecrite a la 



1813. FRENEDA. 45 

lettre que Monsieur le General Comte d'Erlon m'avait fait 
1'honneur de m' addresser le l r Decembre est arrivee aux 
postes Franchises a Ledesma le 10 Janvier, j'espere que 
votre Excellence 1'aura reue peu de temps apres que vous 
avez pris lapeine de m'e'crire sur le mme sujet. 

* Votre Excellence y aura vu que j'avais consenti al'echange 
proposee des Capitaines Franjon et Benoit pour les Offi- 
ciers Payeurs, Shaw et Arscott ; et j'ai aussi 1'honneur 
d'annoncer a votre Excellence que je consens a 1'echange 
propose de M. le Lieutenant Huet, pris a Badajoz, a pre- 
sent au depot de Llangollen, pour le Lieutenant Keogh, 
du 57 me regiment, a present retenu au Quartier General de 
votre Excellence. Je vous prie de faire envoyer le Lieute- 
nant Keogh, ainsi que MM. Shaw et Arscott, aux avant 
postes de 1'armee Fran9aise. 

' Je saisis cette occasion d'assurer votre Excellence de ma 
haute consideration, et que 

' J'ai 1'honneur d'etre, &c. 
' Le Comte Reille: ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Earl of Mulgrave. 

' MY DEAR LORD, 'Freneda, 27th January, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter which I have received from Colonel 
Robe, from which you will see that his wound is of a nature 
to prevent, for the present at least, his services in this 
country. 

' I beg leave earnestly to recommend him to your favor 
and protection. He commanded the British artillery in the 
battles of Rolipa and Vimeiro, and during the latter part of 
the last campaign, in which he received his wound. He 
has always made himself useful, and has been distinguished ; 
and he well deserves any favor which your Lordship may be 
able to confer upon him. 

' As it is possible that Colonel Robe may return, and I 
have reason to be satisfied with the intelligence and zeal of 
Colonel Fisher, I am not desirous that that officer should 
be superseded. His health is not very good, but I hope he 
will last out. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' The Earl of Mulgrave' M WELLINGTON. 



46 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To Viscount Melville. 
' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 27th January, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter from General Cooke in regard to the 
services of Captain Carroll, during the late blockade of 
Cadiz ; and a letter which the General has likewise put into 
my hands, in regard to the merits of Captain Pell*, of the 
Thunder bomb on the same service. 

' I assure your Lordship, that when I was at Cadiz, all 
descriptions of persons concurred in their praises of these 
officers, and of those under their command ; and I therefore 
take the liberty of drawing your attention to their merits 
during a most harassing service of nearly three years' 
duration. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Viscount Melville.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Right Hon. W. W. Pole. 
' MY DEAR WILLIAM, ' Freneda, 27th January, 1813. 

' I received your letter of the 23rd of December in regard 
to the Parliamentary Grant, and one from Lord Liverpool 
of the 22nd, in which he sent me a copy of the Act of Par- 
liament, and the copy of a letter from Lord Somerville re- 
specting the purchase of Wellington Park. I enclose the 
copy of the answer which I have written to Lord Liverpool 
this day. 

1 As I must have Wellington Park, I am desirous to have 
more land in Somersetshire, if possible in that neighbour- 
hood ; and I think a sacrifice ought to be made for that 
object ; but if I cannot get land there at a tolerably reason- 
able rate, it is a matter of indifference to me where it is 
situated. 

' I had thoughts of adding to the Parliamentary Grant the 
sum I proposed to lay out in land when Parliament granted 
me my second pension, which is about 40,000 I believe ; 
but this arrangement might be inconvenient to the trustees 
for the Parliamentary Grant. It may, however, be other- 
wise ; and if you should find it so, let me know it, and I 
shall give directions accordingly to Messrs. Coutts. 

' I enclose a letter from Coutts with the particulars of an 

* Captain Sir W. O. Pell, R.N. 



1813. FRENEDA. 47 

estate to be sold in Wiltshire : they do not say for what 
price. Supposing that nothing can be got on reasonable 
terms in Somersetshire, you will be the best judges whether 
this purchase can or ought to be made out of the Parlia- 
mentary Grant, or by that and my own money united. 

' I have sent Messrs. Coutts a power of attorney to receive 
the interest on the Parliamentary Grant. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 
The Right Hon. W. W. Pole.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Earl of Liverpool. 
' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 27th January, 1813. 

' I received your letter of the 22nd December, with the 
Act of Parliament, and the letter from Lord Somerville, 
regarding the Wellington estate, which I hope the trustees 
will purchase. 

' It is very desirable that the remainder of the Parlia- 
mentary Grant should be laid out in a purchase in Somer- 
setshire, if possible in the same neighbourhood, and some 
sacrifice ought to be made with a view to that object ; but 
the trustees will be the best judges on this point ; and if an 
estate cannot be got on tolerably reasonable terms in that 
part of the country, it is a matter of indifference to me in 
what part of England it is situated ; and of course it is 
desirable that the greatest interest should be got for the 
money. 

' I had thoughts of adding the money which I proposed 
to lay out in land to the Parliamentary Grant, in order to 
make a larger and better purchase ; but as the estate to be 
purchased by the trustees must be under the provisions of 
the Act of Parliament, and the other would not, this ar- 
rangement might embarrass them. However, as it may be 
otherwise, I shall write to my brother on the subject ; and I 
think the sum which I could lay out in land would be about 
40,000. This, however, must be charged with the settle- 
ment on Lady Wellington. 

' I am really quite ashamed of troubling you with these 
details ; and I am astonished that you should be able to 
attend to the private affairs of any individual, and very 
grateful for your friendship for me. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' The Earl of Liverpool: ' WELLI NGTON. 



48 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 27th January, 1813. 

' I enclose the copy of an intercepted letter which has 
recently come into my hands, which deserves attention. 

' You see what General Thouvenot says of the blockade of 
Santona. 

' I earnestly hope that your operations upon the northern 
coast will be commenced as soon as ever the season will 
permit ; and I hope that we may be able to get hold of that 
important post. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 27th January, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your Lordship's dis- 
patch, No. 88, of the 30th December, in regard to the equip- 
ment of artillery, respecting which I addressed your Lord- 
ship on the 18th of October. 

' I am concerned that I should have made any requisition 
a compliance with which is likely to be injurious to the inte- 
rests of the country, and to interfere materially with the home 
service. If it is so, the ordnance establishments of the 
country, however high, are too low for the strength of the 
army ; as the equipment of ordnance, stated in my dispatch 
of the 18th December, is infinitely lower than that of any 
army now acting in Europe, of the strength of the British 
part of the allied army under my command alone, and 
below the scale which I have ever read of for an army of 
such numbers. 

' It must, besides, be observed, that in the ninety pieces 
of ordnance which I have required, six battering pieces are 
included, with their equipments. 

( Notwithstanding that the requisition is low, compared 
with the strength of the British army only, I admit that a 
requisition for an ordnance establishment for an army 
must depend very much on the nature of its operations, on 
the nature of the country in which they will be carried on, 
and on the probability that the enemy will be strong or 
weak in that particular arm. 



1813. FRENEDA. 49 

' I have lately received the return of the ordnance equip- 
ment for the French armies, of Portugal, the Centre, and the 
South, for the next campaign, to which armies the allied 
army under my command will be opposed. I have the honor 
to enclose a copy of the return ; and your Lordship will 
observe, that without including battering guns, these armies 
will have in the field 120 pieces, and 781 ordnance carriages, 
including guns, drawn by 5259 horses. 

' I hope that, after having seen this return, your Lord- 
ship will not deem the requisition forwarded in my letter of 
the 18th October to be unreasonably large. 

' As the Portuguese army can supply artillerymen, and 
we have in Portugal the guns, with the exception of the 18 
pounders, which there can be no difficulty in supplying, I 
should hope there could be no difficulty in purchasing in 
England the number of horses required for the equipment, 
either to be sent out directly, or to replace those in the 
brigades in England, which might be sent to this country ; 
and in collecting a sufficient number of drivers for the 
horses. 

' By this mode of supplying the requisition, only a mo- 
mentary inconvenience would be felt in the home service, 
which would be kept complete in the field artillery deemed 
necessary for the home establishments. 

' I am much obliged to your Lordship for having ordered 
out another troop of horse artillery ; but, adverting to the 
calibre and size of the guns used by the horse artillery, I 
was not desirous of increasing that description of force with 
the army beyond the four troops now with it ; and I should 
Avish to be permitted to apply the horses of the troop now 
coming to draw guns of larger calibre. 

' Your Lordship may depend upon my endeavoring to do 
the utmost with the force, whatever it may be, which His 
Majesty's Government may entrust to my direction ; and I 
shall bear in mind the impossibility of reinforcing it. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 



50 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 27th January, 1813. 

' I returned here on the 25th instant. 

' It does not appear that the enemy have made any 
material alteration in the position of their armies since I 
have been absent from head quarters. The three armies, 
of Portugal, the Centre, and the South, are united in Castille, 
under the command of King Joseph, whose headquarters are 
now at Madrid. The army of Portugal is under the com- 
mand of General Reille, who has recently been brought 
from the army of the North, and has his head quarters at 
Valladolid. The army of the Centre is under the command 
of the Comte D'Erlon, who was employed heretofore in the 
army of the South; and had commanded the army of 
Portugal for a short time since the allies retired from the 
Tonnes ; his head quarters are in the neighbourhood of 
Madrid ; and the army of the South is commanded by Mar- 
shal Soult, whose head quarters are at Toledo. 

' The army of the South has recently been drawn together 
in the neighbourhood of the Tagus ; the divisions of that 
army which were in the province of Avila, having moved 
towards Toledo, and having been replaced in Avila by the 
first division of the army of Portugal. I imagine that this 
movement is intended principally to enable the enemy to 
realize the enormous contributions which they have required 
from Castille. 

' I have not received any recent intelligence upon which 
I can rely of the state of affairs in the north of Spain. 
General Mina appears actively employed against the enemy 
in Navarre ; and he and Colonel Longa have done them 
great mischief. The latter destroyed 600 men and took 
two pieces of cannon, in an affair with the enemy on the 30th 
of November. 

' My last accounts from Alicante were of the end of De- 
cember, at which time a part of the reinforcement expected 
from Sicily had arrived ; and Lieut. General Lord William 
Ben thick was expected. 

' The allied British and Portuguese army occupy the 
cantonments in which they were placed in the beginning of 
December; and I am happy to be able to report that I 



1813. FRENEDA. 51 

have every reason to hope that we shall be able to take the 
field at an early period of the season in greater force than 
we have yet been able to bring forward on any occasion. 

' The Spanish troops are also all in cantonments ; and I 
trust that the arrangements which have been adopted, with 
a view to provide for their subsistence, will enable us to 
bring into the field some efficient Spanish corps at the 
period at which it will be expedient to open the campaign. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 27th January, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your Lordship's dis- 
patch, No. 90, of the 4th instant, in regard to the 2nd batt. 
58th regiment. 

' I have reduced the establishment of that battalion in 
this army to four companies, and have sent the officers and 
non-commissioned officers of six companies to England, and 
have submitted the arrangement for the approbation of the 
Commander in Chief! 

' I am desirous, if possible, not to reduce this army in old 
soldiers. One soldier who has served one or two campaigns, 
will render more service than two recently sent from Eng- 
land ; at the same time that, probably, if the old soldiers 
of this army were sent to other climates, they would be found 
equally inefficient with the recruits sent out here. On these 
grounds I propose to delay carrying into execution your Lord- 
ship's orders in the dispatch referred to, till I shall have 
received the Commander in Chiefs decision on the orga- 
nization of the weak second battalions of this army, referred 
to His Royal Highness six weeks ago. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 27th January, 1813. 

' My brother will have sent to Lord Castlereagh the 
copies of my correspondence with the Spanish Government, 
and of the decree of the Cortes in regard to the arrange- 

E 2 



52 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

ments to be made for the organization of the Spanish 
armies ; the degree of power with which I should be en- 
trusted ; and the measures to be adopted to provide for their 
subsistence ; and I shall not trouble you with these papers. 

' It is impossible to understand what has passed without 
being aware of the interior state of Spain, and of the confusion 
which exists in consequence of the old abuses ; the French 
usurpation ; the establishment and existence of the guerrillas ; 
the decrees of the Cortes, and the weakness of the Govern- 
ment: to which add the operations of a foreign, and the 
extortions of a Portuguese, army. After providing for the 
organization of the army in my own hands, and the degree 
of power which I was to have over it ; in which there was 
but little difference of opinion between the Government and 
me, after they understood that I was in earnest; my object 
was to establish some authority in the provinces, which 
should exercise the powers of Government, should super- 
intend the realization of the resources of the country, and 
should be responsible for their application to the service 
of the army. 

' It was agreed that the resources of certain provinces 
should be applied to the support of certain armies, and I 
proposed : 

' First : that the Commanders of these armies should be 
the Captains general of the provinces, the resources of which 
were to supply the wants of the armies under their com- 
mand respectively, thereby bringing the military authority 
into one hand ; and that the Captain general of each pro- 
vince should be, as he had always been in Spain, the Xefe 
Politico. Before I go further I must mention that this 
arrangement does not militate with any article of the 
written constitution. Indeed it was so acknowledged by 
the members of the committee of the Cortes, who conversed 
with me upon it. I do not know what is the meaning of a 
written constitution, if we are afterwards to be told of inten- 
tions, &c. &c. which are not expressed. But if the propo- 
sition is contrary to the written constitution, the Cortes are 
daily witnesses, in Cadiz, of the infringement of the constitu- 
tion, where the military governor is the Xefe Politico. 

' Secondly : I proposed, in order to bring the financial 
system under the view of the Captain general, that the In- 



1813. FRENEDA. 53 

tendant general of the army should be the Intendant general 
of each of the provinces of which the resources were allotted 
for its support; and that the Intendants of the provinces 
should act under his directions according to the system of 
Old France in the days of Louis XIV. ; and that nothing 
should be issued from the military chest excepting under 
the orders or warrant of the Commander of the army, in 
order to put a stop to the scandalous waste of resources 
which exists in all these countries, as will be seen by an 
examination of the accounts of Galicia and Portugal. 

' I got on tolerably well till unfortunately the trumpet of 
alarm was sounded in a libel in one of the daily newspapers, 
respecting the danger to be apprehended from the union 
of powers in the hands of military officers at the suggestion 
of a foreigner; and then 1 could get the Cortes to do 
nothing more than you will see in their decree of the 7th 
instant. It appears to me, however, that this decree goes 
sufficiently far to enable me to act. I saw enough of the 
state of affairs at Cadiz to be quite convinced that I should 
not be able to prevail upon the Cortes to do more ; and I 
had no alternative excepting to resign the command, which 
I was aware would have had the worst effects, at that moment, 
in Spain, as well as throughout Europe. If the system is 
not fairly acted upon by the Government, or for any reason 
whatever should fail, it will always be time enough to resign 
the command ; and affairs cannot be in a worse state than 
that in which I found them, or than they would have been 
if I had resigned when the Cortes modified my proposition. 
In the mean time I have the merit of having submitted to 
the Cortes ; and if the system should fail, the responsibility 
will rest with them, and I have given them to understand 
that I shall take care to let Spain and the world know why 
it has failed. 

' I trust, however, that it will not fail ; and that I shall 
still be able to place in the hands of the Generals of the 
Spanish armies those powers which must secure the resources 
of the country for the troops. 

' It is impossible to describe the state of confusion in 
which affairs arc at Cadiz. The Cortes have formed a 
constitution very much on the principle that a painter 
paints a picture, viz., to be looked at; and I have not met 



54 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

one of the members, or any person of any description, either 
at Cadiz or elsewhere, who considers the constitution as 
the embodying of a system according to which Spain is, or 
can be, governed. They, the Cortes, have in terms divested 
themselves of the executive power, and have appointed a 
Regency for this purpose. This Regency are in fact the 
slaves of the Cortes; yet Cortes and Regency have so 
managed their concerns as that they have no communication 
or contact, excepting of that kind which our Sovereign has, 
by speech or message to Parliament, or the Parliament by 
address to His Majesty ; neither knows what the other is 
doing, or what will be done upon any point that can occur. 
Neither the Regency nor Cortes have any authority beyond 
the walls of Cadiz ; and I doubt whether the Regency have 
any beyond the walls of the room in which they meet. 
Each body, I know, suspects the other, notwithstanding, as 
I have above stated, the Regency are the creatures of the 
Cortes. The Regency suspect that the Cortes intend to assume 
the executive power ; and the Cortes are so far suspicious of 
the Regency, that although the leading members admit the 
expediency, nay necessity, of their removal from Cadiz, the 
principal reason alleged for remaining there is that they 
know the people of Cadiz are attached to them ; but that 
if they were to go elsewhere, to Seville or Granada for 
instance, they are apprehensive that the Regency would 
raise the mob against them ! ! ! 

' I wish that some of our reformers would go to Cadiz to 
see the benefit of a sovereign popular assembly, calling 
itself" Majesty ;" and of a written constitution ; and of an ex- 
ecutive Government called " Highness " acting under the con- 
trol of " His Majesty " the assembly ! In truth there is no 
authority in the state, excepting the libellous newspapers ; 
and they certainly ride over both Cortes and Regency with- 
out mercy. 

' I am astonished at the patience of my brother, and that 
he has been able to do any thing with such people. I am 
quite certain that if I had not threatened them with my 
resignation, and had not kept aloof from all questions 
excepting those relating to my immediate business at Cadiz, 
I should have done nothing. 

' It appears to me, however, that we must not allow these 



1813. FRKNEDA. 55 

people to go to ruin as they are doing. Hitherto, having 
been confined within the walls of Cadiz, and the whole of 
Spain having been occupied by the enemy, their follies have 
been of little importance ; but they will now become a 
serious misfortune in proportion as the military misfortunes 
of France will increase the means of communication of the 
Cortes with the country. Several of the leading members 
with whom I conversed are aware of the folly of the con- 
stitution, and are desirous of changing it, but do not know 
how to set about the change, and are terribly afraid of the 
Cadiz newspapers. In fact, if we allow matters to go on 
as they are, we shall lose the benefit of all that we have 
done, even if the result of the war should be to force the 
French to evacuate Spain ; and I propose to try if I cannot 
prevail upon some of the leaders to propose an alteration of 
the constitution, so as to connect the legislative assembly 
with the executive government, as our Houses of Parliament 
are, by the Ministers of the Crown being members. 

' This will be one step towards putting the machine of 
Government in motion ; and it may be followed by other 
improvements essentially necessary for the establishment of 
any Government, or for the preservation of any system of 
order in the country. 

' You will have seen that I have taken for the military, 
nine-tenths of all the resources of the country ; that is to 
say, all the resources, as I should imagine the civil expenses 
(not of collection but connected with collection) would take 
one tenth. Then I have told the Government that the 
British subsidy must be applied exclusively to defray mili- 
tary expense ; and that they must allow me to dispose of it. 
So that in fact they have nothing. My brother and I agreed 
that it would be very desirable that he should be allowed to 
assist the Government with from '200,000 to 400,000, in 
addition to the subsidy of one million sterling in the course 
of the current year, in case it should be necessary. I shall 
be much obliged to you if you will mention this to Lord 
Liverpool. He may depend upon it that my brother will not 
give them one shilling unless it should be necessary. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: 'WELLINGTON. 



56 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HENRY, 'Freneda, 28th January, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 21st, for which I am 
much obliged to you. The packet arrived at so late an 
hour on the 19th, and our shirts being at the wash, as usual, 
we did not leave Lisbon till the 20th, and we arrived here 
on the 25th. I enclose you the copy of my dispatch of yes- 
terday. I have sent one to the same purport to the Minister 
of War. 1 likewise enclose a letter to Lord Bathurst re- 
garding affairs at Cadiz. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 
Rt. Hon. Sir H. Wellesley, K.B.' ( WELLINGTON. 

To Major General Campbell, at Alicante. 
' gjRj ' Freneda, 28th January, 1813. 

' Sir Henry Wellesley has transmitted me the copies of 
a correspondence with General Whittingham regarding the 
wants of the troops under his command, and under the com- 
mand of Major General Roche, including a letter from 
yourself of the 10th instant, to General Whittingham ; and 
the copy of a letter from Sir Henry to you. 

' I entirely approve of your declining to supply the wants 
of the Spanish troops ; and I beg you to continue the same 
conduct, excepting in a case of urgent necessity in which 
you may be convinced that it is impossible to procure pro- 
visions for the troops by any arrangement ; and that the 
deficiencies experienced have not been occasioned by the 
want of foresight and of arrangement of Commanding 
officers and heads of departments. 

' I enclose you copies of the letters which I have written 
to Generals Whittingham, Roche, and Elio, on this occasion ; 
and I beg that it may be clearly understood by all parties 
that I prefer to go without the assistance of Spanish troops, 
to taking upon the departments of the allied army the 
detail and expense of feeding them. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
4 Major General Campbell' < WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 57 

To General Elio. 
< g IR) ' Freneda, 28th January, 1813. 

' I have received reports of the wants of the divisions of 
troops under the command of General Whittingham and 
General Roche respectively, now acting with the allied 
British and Sicilian corps, stationed at Alicante. 

' As these troops are, and have been for some time regu- 
larly paid, an advantage which I am sorry to observe has 
not for some time been enjoyed by other troops of the Span- 
ish army, these wants ought not to exist. But I request 
your Excellency to give directions to the Intendant General 
of the 2nd army under your command, to take measures to 
supply the wants of both these divisions ; one of which, that 
of General Roche, belongs to the 2nd army. 

* It is to be understood, however, that both divisions are 
to continue to act, till further orders, with the allied British 
and Sicilian corps at Alicante. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' General Elio: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Major General Roche. 
' SIR, ' Freneda, 28th January, 1813. 

' Sir Henry Wellesley has transmitted me a letter from 
Major General Whittingham on the distresses felt by the 
troops under his command as well as under yours, for the 
want of provisions. It is quite impossible that the British 
authorities can take upon themselves to supply with pro- 
visions the Spanish troops ; and if means cannot be found 
by the Spanish authorities to supply the wants of these 
troops, we must do without them, and they must be dis- 
banded; and the pay hitherto given to them shall be ap- 
plied to pay others. 

'I write to General Elio, to whose corps the division 
which you command belongs, to request that he will order 
the Intendant general of the 2nd army to provide for it ; 
but it is to be understood that it is still to be connected in 
operation with the allied British and Sicilian corps now at 
Alicante. 

' I have to observe on these complaints from you and 
General Whittingham of the wants of the troops under 
your command, that excepting a small division of infantry 
in this neighbourhood, the troops under your command re- 



58 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

spectively are the only Spanish troops in the Peninsula, 
which to my knowledge have received any pay for months 
past. The troops under your command have received their 
pay regularly ; and I know enough of soldiers to be aware 
that when any troops receive their pay regularly they can- 
not be in the state of imminent distress represented. It 
has never been the custom in the Spanish service to give 
a full allowance of provisions to the troops when they receive 
their pay; and we must not introduce into the service of Spain 
innovations, the expenses of which the finances of the Go- 
vernment and the resources of the country cannot bear. 

' I have written to General Elio, to request that he will 
desire the Intendant General of the 2nd army, to take mea- 
sures to supply the division under your command with the 
provisions which may be necessary ; but if the troops under 
your command cannot find subsistence in Murcia, or posted 
as I proposed to you in my letter of the 8th instant, they 
must be removed to Majorca, and you will apply to the 
officer commanding the allied British and Sicilian troops at 
Alicante, for transports for that purpose, leaving at Alicante 
or the neighbourhood such particular troops, and in such 
numbers, as the General Officer commanding the allied Bri- 
tish and Sicilian army may think proper to require. It must 
be understood, however, that those troops only belonging to 
your division, which will serve in the Peninsula, will be paid 
by British funds in future. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Major General Roche? ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

' SIR, 'Freneda, 28th January, 1813. 

1 I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 2 1st 
instant, in regard to the wants of the troops under Generals 
Whittingham and Eoche; and I enclose letters for those 
officers and General Elio, and one for General Campbell, 
which contains copies of all the others, which I request you 
to peruse. 

' I beg you afterwards to forward all these letters to 
Alicante. 

' I am in hopes that my letters to General Whittingham 
and General Roche of the 8th instant will have settled these 
difficulties, which, in fact, ought not to exist. But, if they 



1813. FRENEDA. 59 

should not have done so, the measure adopted by you, of 
requesting General Campbell to assist these troops with pro- 
visions, appears expedient, and will have removed them 
entirely. 

' It is necessary, however, that General Whittingham and 
General Roche should exert themselves to prevent their 
recurrence in future, and should see that the pay given to 
their men so regularly is laid out on their subsistence. 
' I have the honor to be, &c. 

Rt. Hon. Sir H. Wellesley, K.B: l WELLINGTON. 

To Colonel Torrens. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 28th January, 1813. 

' In enclosing for the consideration of the Commander in 
Chief the accompanying letter from Lieut. Colonel Fisher, 
containing a memorial from the 2nd Captains of the Royal 
artillery, I request that you will be pleased to inform His 
Royal Highness that I have every reason to be satisfied with 
their conduct, and that I shall be happy if their application 
should be favorably received. Some of these officers com- 
manded companies of artillery in the sieges of Ciudad Rod- 
rigo and Badajoz, and several have now charge of brigades 
of foot or troops of horse artillery. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

Colonel Torrens: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 

< SIR, 'Freneda, 29th January, 1813. 

* I enclose a letter from Lieut. General Cole complaining 
of the oppressive conduct of the magistrate of St. Joa5 da 
Pesqueira towards the muleteers attached to the 4th division 
of the allied British and Portuguese army, and a letter 
from Lieut. General the Earl of Dalhousie complaining of 
the neglect of the magistrate of Mello to furnish supplies 
and means of transport for the 7th division of the allied 
British and Portuguese army. I beg leave to recommend 
that these persons may be called before the Special Com- 
mission to answer for their conduct. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B: ' WELLINGTON. 



60 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 

1 MY DEAR BERESFORD, ' Freneda, 29th January, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 22nd. It will be im- 
possible to get Austin promoted by brevet at present, not- 
withstanding that I entertain the best opinion of him. If he 
is to be promoted, it must be to the Lieut. Colonelcy vacant 
by the removal of Brown, if that removal has really taken 
place. Neither will it be possible to promote Prior, unless 
to a vacancy among your twenty four. You will choose, 
therefore, whether you will promote Arbuthnot and Prior or 
Austin. 

' I should be very glad to recommend both Austin and 
Prior when there should be an opportunity ; but I should 
only be refused if I were to try the experiment now. 

* Believe me, &c. 
'Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B.' . WELLINGTON. 

To Major GeneralJ. Vandeleur, President of a General Court 
Martial. 

< SlR, 4 Freneda, 29th January, 1813. 
' I enclose the proceedings of the General Court Martial, 
of which you are President, on the trial of Mr. Deputy Assist- 
ant Commissary General ; and I request you to send 

the recommendation of him separate from the sentence. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Major Gen. J. Vandeleur! ' WELLINGTON. 

To Major General Hay. 
' SIR, ' Freneda, 29th January, 1813. 

' Lord Aylmer has communicated to me your letter of the 
6th instant regarding the proceedings of a Division Court 
Martial, of which Lieut. Colonel Miles, 38th regiment, was 
President, on the trial of certain soldiers for making away 
with ammunition. Having once revised the proceedings of 
the Court Martial, you are obliged to confirm its sentence ; 
and you will do well to dissolve the Court. 

' I request you, however, to draw the attention of the 
Adjutant General of the Forces to the proceedings of this 
Court Martial, when you will forward them to be laid before 
the Commander in Chief, in order that His Royal Highness 



1813. FRENEDA. 61 

may be made acquainted with the conduct of the officers 
composing the Court. 

' I have ordered that a note may be taken of their names. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Major General Hay: , ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. Colonel Dickson, R.A. 
' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 29th January, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 25th. I agree to the 
terms proposed by the Portuguese seamen for the pontoon 
train ; that is to say, that they shall have five testoons per 
diem each, and a ration, the same as our soldiers ; four pairs 
of shoes in the year ; two jackets, two pairs of trousers, and 
one great coat in the year. 

' The officer of the Portuguese navy to attend these sea- 
men shall have any pay the Admiral will fix. 

' Let me know when the pontoons will be ready to set out 
from Lisbon, in order that I may send orders for them to 
commence their movement. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Dickson, RJ.: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 29th January, 1813. 

' I enclose the paper transmitted in your letter of the 
24th instant. I have given directions to the Assistant 
Quarter Master General of the 5th division, cantoned at 
Lamego and in the neighbourhood, to go over to Pezo de 

Regoa, and to order Mr. to remove forthwith from 

the house belonging to the Wine Company, and to request 
the Juiz de Fora at Pezo de Regoa will allot another quar- 
ter for him, the worst that can be found in the town. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don Diego de la Vega, Infanzon*. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 29th January, 1813. 

' I enclose you the extract of a letter from King Joseph 
to Napoleon, which was in cipher, and which we have de- 
ciphered, which is well deserving your attention and that of 

* A Deputy in the Cortes, of great and acknowledged merit. 



62 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

your friends in the Cortes. It is in few words, but it con- 
tains a text upon which much may be written *. 

* I am not an advocate for King Joseph's judgment, or 
for his veracity ; but, although we rarely find the truth in 
the public reports of the French Government or of their 
officers, I believe we may venture to depend upon the truth 
of what is written in cipher ; and we may believe at least that 
Joseph thought that he was making an accurate representa- 
tion to his brother of the sentiments of the people of Spain. 

< Unfortunately I know, as I believe I told you, not that 
this representation is accurate (that is to say, that the 
people of Spain do not prefer the house of Napoleon to the 
theories of the Cortes), but it is so far true as that the 
people do not like those theories. 

' You have no Executive Government ; and the people 
feel that that which you have established as such has neither 
authority to control them nor to protect them. 

' You have a Legislative Assembly, which has proclaimed 
itself supreme, and has divested itself of all interference 
with the Executive Government; yet the Executive Go- 
vernment is its creature ; at the same time that, by a refine- 
ment of theory, it is not possible either that the Legislative 
Assembly should have a knowledge of the measures of the 
Executive Government, or that the Executive Government 
should know what are the feelings and the sentiments of the 
Legislative Assembly. The Government and the Assembly, 
instead of drawing together, are like two independent powers, 
jealous and afraid of each other ; and the consequence is, 
that the machine of Government is at a stand. To this add 
that the whole system is governed by little local views, as 
propounded by the daily press of Cadiz, of all others the 
least enlightened and the most licentious. 

' All countries which begin, as yours did, incur some risks 
of failure ; and I acknowledge that I was in hopes that the 
blockade of Cadiz would have at least this good effect, that 
it would allow time and opportunity for the fever of theory 
in the Cortes to evaporate ; and that, when the communica- 
tion with the interior of Spain should be opened, the Cortes 
would have passed through the ordeal of inexperience, and 

* " Les habitans preferent aux theories des Cortes les ordres d'un souverain 
de votre maisou." 



1813. FRENEDA. 63 

that Spain would eventually have the advantage of a free 
constitution and of an enlightened Government. We have 
still to look out for these blessings ; and, unfortunately, I 
am apprehensive that the Cortes have immersed themselves 
to such a degree in theory, that they cannot be looked for 
under the existing system. 

' I have certainly nothing to say to your system of go- 
vernment, and I never interfere in concerns with which I 
have nothing to do. I will fight for Spain as long as she is 
the enemy of France, whatever may be her system of govern- 
ment ; but I cannot avoid seeing and lamenting the evils 
which await the country if you do not retrace your steps, 
let what will be the result of the military operations of the 
war ; and I make you acquainted with my private opinion, 
as a person of whose judgment I entertain a high opinion, 
leaving it to you to make such use of it as you may think 
proper. 

' But I am not one of those who discover faults without 
proposing remedies ; and I now tell you what in my opinion 
you ought to do. 

' First ; you ought to establish the Regency permanently, 
with all the powers allotted by the constitution to the King, 
in the hands of one person. This person ought to be of the 
blood Royal, if it should be possible to find one, whether 
male or female of the blood Royal, capable of exercising the 
office ; if not, it should be the person in the country of the 
highest authority from character, conduct, &c. The Regent 
should be assisted by a Council of Regency, consisting of 
five persons to be chosen by himself from the members of 
the Cortes, or otherwise, as he should think proper. The 
Council of Regency, if members of the Cortes, should receive 
no salaries for the performance of this duty. One of them 
should superintend the Department de Estado; another 
that of the Interior and Ultramar ; another that of Gracia 
y Justicia; another that of Hacienda; and another that 
of War and of Marine. These persons should be respon- 
sible each for the department under his superintendence ; 
and the whole Council for the general operations of the 
Government. The Council would, of course, attend the 
Cortes in their places. 

' By these measures you would give authority and respect 



64 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

to the Government ; you would connect the offices of the 
Government together, and the Government with the Cortes. 
You may depend upon it that the same benefits will not be 
produced by the attendance of the Ministers in the Cortes, 
and by giving them the faculties of joining in the delibera- 
tions of the Cortes. In that situation they will not have the 
influence over the Assembly which ought to belong to their 
character, their talents, and their situation ; and, if the 
members oft le Cortes resemble in character and sentiment 
the members of the House of Commons, not only will Minis- 
ters in that degraded situation possess no influence, but they 
will be despised and shunned, and intercourse with them 
avoided as if they were the means of communicating an epi- 
demical disorder. You may depend upon it, therefore, that 
you will never have good and able Ministers, and will never 
connect the Executive Government with the Cortes as it 
ought to be, till those who administer the government are 
members of the Cortes, whether they administer it as a 
Council of Regency or as Ministers at the head of depart- 
ments under the constitution. 

' Secondly ; the next thing to do will be to repeal the 1 10th 
Article of the Constitution, which prevents deputies from 
being re-elected. Indeed that appears to be necessary at all 
events, if it is intended that there should be any experience 
in the future Cortes ; and likewise the 129th and 130th Ar- 
ticles, if it is supposed that these Articles would prevent the 
Council of Regency, being members of the Cortes, from 
recommending to the Regent persons for offices. But they 
ought to be repealed eventually at all events, if those are 
the Articles which now prevent the Regent or King from 
choosing his Ministers from the members of the Cortes. 

' Thirdly ; I would recommend to you to repeal the whole 
of the 7th Chapter of the Constitution. The Council of 
State, as thereby established, answers no good purpose, 
either of a Council for the Executive Government, or of a 
balance between the Executive Government and the popular 
Assembly. If the Government, as proposed to be esta- 
blished under the Constitution, should ever really come into 
operation, which I believe to be impossible, the Council of 
State, which cannot be responsible, must come in collision 
with the Minister of Grace and Justice, who is responsible ; 



1813. FRENEDA. 65 

and in the mean time the country must suffer by the nomi- 
nation of bad bishops and bad judges by the intrigues of the 
Council of State. But the greatest objection which I have 
to the whole system established by the constitution is that, 
in a country in which almost all property consists in land, 
and there are the largest landed proprietors which exist in 
Europe, no measures should have been adopted, and no 
barrier should have been provided, to guard landed property 
from the encroachments, injustice, and violence to which it 
is at all times liable, but particularly in the progress of re- 
volutions. The Council of State affords no such guard ; it 
has no voice in legislation ; it cannot possess the confidence 
of, and it can have no influence over, the public mind. Such 
a guard can only be afforded by the establishment of an 
assembly of the great landed proprietors, such as our House 
of Lords, having concurrent powers of legislation with the 
Cortes ; and you may depend upon it that there is no man 
in Spain, be his property ever so small, who is not interested 
in the establishment of such an assembly. 

' The theory of all legislation is founded in justice ; and, 
if we could be certain that legislative assemblies would on 
all occasions act according to the principles of justice, there 
would be no occasion for those checks and guards which we 
have seen established under the best systems. Unfortu- 
nately, however, we have seen that legislative assemblies 
are swayed by the fears and passions of individuals ; when 
unchecked, they are tyrannical and unjust ; nay, more : it 
unfortunately happens too frequently that the most tyran- 
nical and unjust measures are the most popular. Those 
measures are particularly popular which deprive rich and 
powerful individuals of their properties under the pretence 
of the public advantage; and I tremble for a country in 
which, as in Spain, there is no barrier for the preservation 
of private property, excepting the justice of a legislative 
assembly possessing supreme powers. 

' You should, therefore, either turn the Council of State 
into a House of Lords, or make a House of Lords of the 
Grandees, giving them concurrent powers of legislation with 
the Cortes ; and you should leave the patronage now in the 
hands of the Council of State in the hands of the Crown. 

' By these measures you will give your Government some 

VOL. x. P 



66 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

chance of standing, and your country some chance of avoid- 
ing- farther revolutions. This is not to be expected, even 
under the most successful result of the war, unless some 
measures are adopted of the kind of which I have above 
sketched the outline. 

' I have written you a very long letter, which at least 
shows that I take an interest in the future welfare of Spain. 
I should be sorry if, after all, you were to fail in establishing 
a system of government founded on principles of justice, 
which should secure the liberty of your country, and should 
again fall under the degrading despotism from which you 
have had a chance of escaping. But you may depend upon 
it that, whatever may be your wishes, and however good the 
intentions of the greater number of persons of whom the 
Cortes is composed, this misfortune will happen to you if 
you are not guided by experience and by the example of 
those countries in which freedom exists, instead of by the 
wild theories of modern days. 

' I send this letter to my brother, who will give it to you. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Don Diego de la Vega. ' WELLINGTON. 

' I have written to you in English, because I write in this 
language with more ease ; but, if you should answer me, 
write in Spanish, which I can read perfectly.' 

To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 

' MY DEAR BERESFORD, 'Freneda, 30th January, 1813. 

' I received your letter of the 25th last night after I had 
written to you on the subject of the promotion vice Brown. 
The mail has been gone these two days ; but I shall send 
your official letter home, on the promotion, by the next. 

' You will have heard that we got on famously on our 
journey ; and I am much obliged to you for our security, &c. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Marshal < WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B.' 



1813. FRENEDA. 67 

To Lieut. General Sir T. Graham, K.B. 
' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 31st January, 1813. 

' I received last night your letter of the llth instant, and 
I send this to Sir Charles Stuart to Lisbon, to 03 delivered 
to you upon your arrival. 

' I was happy to learn from Lord Fitzroy Somerset that 
you were able to return to us ; and I hope that we shall be 
able to make a good campaign of it. 

e Affairs are exactly in the state in which they were at the 
end of November. I think that if there is any change, Soult 
has collected more of his army on the Tagus, about Toledo ; 
but he has made no movement which could at all indicate 
his object ; neither has any movement been made on this 
side. 

' I propose to take the field as early as I can, and, at least, 
to put myself in Fortune's way. 

' Many of the regiments are already very healthy ; others, 
particularly the new comers, remarkably otherwise. We 
have, as usual, lost many men in the last two months of cold 
weather ; but the troops are all well cantoned ; and I hope 
that a continuation of rest for a month or two in the spring 
will set us up entirely. I hoped to take the field with 
70,000 British and Portuguese. I think I shall have 40,000 
British and possibly 25,000 Portuguese; and I shall be 
better equipped in artillery, and much stronger in cavalry 
than we have yet been. 

* I have been at Cadiz, where I have placed military 
affairs on a better footing than they were before, in the way 
of organization ; and I have provided some means to pay 
and subsist the armies ; and we are beginning with disci- 
pline. I am not sanguine enough, however, to hope that 
we shall derive much advantage from Spanish troops early 
in the campaign. 

' O'Donnell is certainly an able and well intentioned man, 
of whom a great deal is to be made. 

' I believe that, upon your arrival, you had better direct 
your steps towards this village, which we have made as com- 
fortable as we can, and where we shall all be happy to see 
you. The hounds are in very good trim, and the foxes very 
plentiful. 

F2 



68 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' Major Hope shall be in either of the departments you 
choose. You know that Stanhope and Cathcart are both 
in the Quarter Master General's department ; and I beg 
you will choose whom you will have with you, whether of those 
already in the department, or to be appointed. 

( Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir T. Graham, K.B.' 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 
< SIR, ' Freneda, 31st January, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose an account, to the 24th 
December, of the money sent by you for the use of the 
Spanish troops serving in this part of Spain. Of the balance 
remaining in the hands of the Commissary General, I have 
ordered 100,000 dollars to be issued to General Castanos 
for the use of the 4th army since I quitted Cadiz ; and I 
am about to order the issue of another month's pay, about 
25,000 dollars, to the garrison of Ciudad Rodrigo. 

' According to the arrangement settled with you, I pro- 
pose to provide for the payment of the garrison of Badajoz, 
as well as of Ciudad Rodrigo, the expense of which will 
probably in some degree exceed that of Ciudad Rodrigo. 
The money still remaining at my disposal, however, will 
probably last for two months longer. 

' I likewise enclose an account received from the Commis- 
sary General of some of the supplies received from the 
Intendant General of the province of Salamanca, for the 
use of the allied army, from the Royal demesne, &c. You 
will observe that 15,000 dollars have been paid to the Intend- 
ant General on this account : there remains a balance on 
this account of 5788 dollars ; and I request you to inquire 
from the Spanish Government what they wish to be done 
with this balance, as likewise with whatever may appear to 
be due on the settlement of further accounts. 

' I likewise enclose the original estimates on which the 
payments were made to the troops under Don Carlos de 
Esparia, and the garrison of Ciudad Rodrigo. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' The Right Hon. < WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, 



1813. FRENEDA. 69 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wettesley, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 31st January, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter for La Vega, which I request you to 
peruse, and to give to him. 

' I likewise enclose you a bulletin which I have received 
from England, and a paper of the 16th, which will show 
you the state of affairs in Poland. I think there are some 
facts adverted to in the report of the Duke of Bass an o to 
the Emperor, laid before the Senate, which are worth an 
ounce of gold a letter. 

' I have been appointed Colonel of the Blues, vice the 
Duke of Northumberland, resigned. 

' I likewise enclose a declaration against America. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

SirH. Wellesley, K.B.' 

To Messrs. Greenwood, Cox, and Co. 
( MY DEAR SIRS, 'Freneda, 31st January, 1813. 

' I received last night your letter of the , contain- 
ing a statement of my account to the end of last year, which 
is very satisfactory. 

' You will have heard that His Koyal Highness has 
appointed me to be Colonel of the Blues, an honor as unex- 
pected by me, as it is gracious on the part of His Royal 
Highness. I do not know whether the power of attorney 
which you already have from me will enable you to tako 
charge of the agency of the Blues ; but if it should not, as 
I wish to appoint your house to be the agent of the Blues, 
I beg that you will send me the regular power of attorney. 

' I must inform you, however, that, upon reading one of 
the Reports of the Commissions of Military Inquiry, I 
observe that the Colonels of regiments are considered re- 
sponsible for the agents whom they may appoint to transact 
the business of their regiments ; and although I must 
always contend against the justice of this Report by the 
Commissioners of Military Inquiry, considering that the 
War Office alter the system of military accounts according 
to their daily caprice, and give their own orders to the 
agents, I do think it necessary, and I believe it is usual for 
the Colonel of a regiment, to require security from the agent 



70 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

of his regiment for the due performance of his duty towards 
the public, attd to indemnify the Colonel from loss in trans- 
actions in which he cannot be a gainer. 

' As long as my late regiment, the 33rd, were in India, 
the transactions between the agents and the public were 
confined nearly to my own concerns, as a contractor for 
clothing ; and as Colonel of the regiment, I could not ask 
security for the performance of these transactions; but if 
the favor of the Prince Regent had not removed me from 
the 33rd, I should certainly have required that your house 
should secure me and my family from loss in the transactions 
of that regiment with the public, after their extension by the 
arrival of the regiment from India. It is much more neces- 
sary in the case of the Blues. 

'Although I am writing to an old acquaintance and 
friend, I write to you as I would to any other man upon 
business, and I state with precision what I think. I have 
every reason to be satisfied with the mode in which your 
house have done my business; but I am abroad, arid am 
likely to spend my life on foreign service. I cannot know 
what passes at home* I have known many instances of the 
most prosperous houses failing, and I know enough of the 
nature of the business between the War Office and houses 
of agency, to be astonished that more do riot fail. I have 
children^ and I am determined not to involve myself or 
them in the intricacies of public accounts if I can avoid it. 

' Under these circumstances, I request you to state 
whether it is usual for the agent of a regiment to give secu- 
rity to the Colonel to indemnify him from all loss ; and if 
it is, I request you to name the securities for your house as 
agents for the Blues. 

' In regard to other matters, I request you to settle all my 
affairs in relation to the 33rd regiment, in the manner which 
will be most beneficial to the regiment, and most liberal 
towards my successor. All the tradesmen are, I conclude, 
paid. 

' I beg that you will employ for the Blues the same per- 
sons who were employed by the Duke of Northumberland, 
and let every thing go on as it has been hitherto. 

< Believe irie, &c. 
' Messrs. Greenwood, CQX-, and Co-.' ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 71 

To Colonel Gordon, Quarter Master General. 

' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Freneda, 31st January, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 13th, and the enclo- 
sures do not surprise me ; as, both from what I observed of 
your state of health during the time you were with the army, 
and what Dr. M'Grigor and Mr. Gunning told me when you 
were at last obliged to quit us, I was quite certain that you 
would not be able to return for the next campaign. The 
truth is, that your health is, if possible, too robust ; and I 
was frequently apprehensive that you would have had fever 
in the hot weather. Indeed, it was probable that you were 
saved only by the painful disorder which at last obliged you 
to go home. I sincerely hope that you may soon recover. 

' I beg to take this opportunity of returning you many 
thanks for the assistance you gave me while with this army ; 
and wishing you success. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Colonel Gordon: ' WELLINGTON. 

To His Royal Highness the Duke of York. 

< SIR, ' Freneda, 31st January, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your Royal Highness's 
letter of the 13th January, in which your Royal Highness 
has informed me that the Prince Regent had been graciously 
pleased to appoint me to be Colonel of the Royal regiment 
of Horse Guards, upon the resignation of the Duke of 
Northumberland. 

' I cannot sufficiently express my gratitude to His 
Royal Highness for the repeated marks which I have re- 
ceived of his grace and favor, more particularly for this last 
instance of both ; and I can only assure him of my devotion 
to his service. 

' I am convinced that, on all the occasions on Avhich I have 
been so highly favored, I have been much indebted to the 
favorable representations which your Royal Highness has 
made of my services; and I beg that your Royal Highness 
will accept my most sincere thanks. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 

' His Royal Highness ' WELLINGTON. 

the Duhe of York: 



72 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To Colonel Tnrrens. 

' MY DEAE TORRENS, ' Freneda, 31st January, 1813. 

' I have received your letters of the 13th and 14th. 
' I concur entirely in all your opinions respecting appoint- 
ments to the Staff; and it may be depended upon that I 
shall never allow officers to be appointed to the Staff from 
regiments by which they are required for regimental duty. 

' In regard to your letter of the 14th, and your official 
letter regarding medical promotions, I perfectly recollect to 
have recommended Mr. Higgins ; and I believe I mentioned 
that circumstance in the representation which I forwarded 
regarding Mr. Guthrie and Dr. Tyce. You do not suppose 
that that representation was ever intended to refer to His 
Royal Highness in the most distant manner. It was in- 
tended for the Medical Board, of whom, between ourselves, 
I entertain the very worst opinion. 

' I have proofs that every promotion is a matter of appli- 
cation and intrigue. I shall send home, by the next post, 

the papers which I have received from , in 

regard to his promotion, in which you will see that this 
gentleman was excited by * * * * to prevail upon Sir 
Thomas Graham to prevail upon me to recommend him to 
be promoted to a situation which * * * * did not think 
he ought to fill, and to which he refused to appoint him. 
What is all this but intrigue and attention to private appli- 
cations, instead of to claims grounded on public services ? 
Then, can it be supposed that I can be the victim of their 
doings without complaining? But I solemnly protest 
against being supposed to make any complaint of His 
Royal Highness for any thing, excepting that he should 
attend to such people as the Medical Board. 

1 What interest can I have in these concerns, or what can 
I have to say to any of these medical officers ? I never saw 
Dr. Tyce in my life ; and till I saw Mr. Guthrie the other 
day in the hospital at Belem, I do not believe I ever saw 
Mr. Guthrie, although, from his reputation in this army ever 
since it came here, I intended to have made him surgeon to 
head quarters when Mr. Gunning was promoted, if he had 
not been recommended for promotion in another manner. 
' I have written to His Royal Highness to thank him for 



1813. FRENEDA. 73 

my appointment to be Colonel of the Blues. I believe there 
never was so fortunate or so favored a man. 

' Believe me, &c. 
1 Colonel Torrens.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 

f SIR, ' Freneda, 2nd February, 1813. 

' I enclose a further complaint from Lieut. General Cole, 
of the conduct of the magistrates in the neighbourhood of 
S e Joa5 da Pesqueira. I have desired General Cole to 
specify names and particulars of conduct against others, 
besides the Juiz de Fora of Alejo, who I request may be 
brought before the special commission. 

' I have likewise desired Lieut. General Cole to employ 
armed parties to protect his foragers, making the officers 
commanding them responsible for their conduct ; and to call 
upon the magistrates of the district by proclamation, to per- 
form their duty in aiding to supply the troops with forage, 
and in repressing the disposition of the people in that part 
of the country to oppose the military. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Marshal ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B: ' 

To Sir E. Littlehales, Bart. 
' MY DEAR SIR EDWARD, ' Freneda, 2nd February, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter which I have received from Mr. 

, who, as well as I recollect, is an army broker in 

Dublin. He recommends a gentleman to me to be ap- 
pointed an ensign, who may be very fit for what I know of 
him ; but I do not think I ought to take the recommendation 
of the army broker without knowing more of the gentleman, 
more particularly as there was some objection to the person 
he before recommended to me, and who has since been 
superseded. I shall be very much obliged to you, therefore, 
if you will inquire about Mr. * * * *, and let me know 
who and what he is ; whether he is fit to be an officer in 
His Majesty's service, and above all, whether Mr. 
gets anything for his recommendations; because if he does, 
I may as well put a stop to that trade entirely. 

' I likewise enclose a letter from Lord Dunsany, recom- 



74 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

mending Mr. Peter George Plunkett, a relation of his, for 
an ensigncy. As well as I recollect Lord Dunsany's hand- 
writing, this letter is written by him ; but, having been taken 
in by a Mrs. , who forged Lord Fingall's hand- 
writing, I do not like to answer Lord Dunsany till I am 
certain that he wrote the enclosed letter; and I shall be 
obliged to you if you will let me know. If there does not 
appear any occasion to apply to himself, his relation shall 
have an ensigncy as soon as I can give him one. 

' I hope that you and Lady Elizabeth and your family are 
quite well. We are all well here. George has been with 
me lately, and he and March are in very good health. 

' Remember me most kindly to the Duke and Duchess, 
and all the family. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Sir E. Littlehales, Bart: ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Rev. Dr. Curtis. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 2nd February, 1813. 

< I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 25th 
January, in regard to the existing state of the Irish College 
at Salamanca. I earnestly recommend to you to bring that 
state, and the claims which you conceive the Irish have upon 
the revenues of the college, in case it should not be re-esta- 
blished, under the view of the Spanish Government. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' The Rev. Dr. Curtis.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Rev. Dr. Curtis. 
' S IR > ' Freneda, 2nd February, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 26th 
January, in regard to your own claims on the Spanish Go- 
vernment. 

'When you think it proper to go to Cadiz to present 
yourself to the Government, I will recommend you to their 
notice and attention, as I conceive you deserve ; and when 
you go to Ireland, I shall be happy to give you letters of 
introduction and recommendation to the principal persons 
there. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' The Rev. Dr. Curtis: ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 75 

To Seiior Josef Pavid. 

' g IRj ' Freneda, 2nd February, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 29th December. . It 
is impossible for me to recommend any person to be an 
officer in the Spanish army against whom the Government 
could have any objections ; and I must, therefore, beg leave 
to decline recommending you till you shall have removed the 
objections which the Government may have against you. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Senor Josef Pavia.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Colonel Bunbury, Under Secretary of State. 
' Mt DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 2nd February, 1813. 

'I have received your letter of the 16th of January. 
You are not aware, probably, that there are two squadrons 
of each of the 1st and 2nd hussars in England at present, 
who could receive any recruits to be now got from Germany ; 
and before I adopt any arrangements in respect to the 
cavalry, I wait for the answer of the Duke of York to a letter 
which I wrote to him on the 26th December. 

' I prefer having one officer or soldier who has served 
one or two campaigns to having two or three who have not, 
and I should be very unwilling to part with the officers of 
the 2nd hussars. It is true that, according to the plan pro- 
posed, the men and horses of the 2nd hussars are to be 
transferred to the 1st hussars. But I am afraid that they 
would make that regiment too strong. 

' I wish that on all these points, the Secretary of State 
and the Commander in Chief would send me positive orders. 
I take only a limited view of them ; one referable to the 
convenience of the army under my command, and the 
benefit of the service in the Peninsula. They must neces- 
sarily take a larger view ; and I can only say, that what 
they order shall be obeyed, coute qui coute; but that, if they 
leave matters to my judgment, I shall never do any thing 
which, in my judgment, may be prejudicial to the service 
here. It would make matters much more easy, if they 
would send me positive orders. 

' I would beg leave to suggest to the authorities in Eng- 
land, the expediency of forming the deserters from the 



76 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

enemy's army now at Lisbon, who should be willing to 
enlist, into a temporary battalion. This battalion, as well 
as that at Cadiz, should be placed on a better footing. A 
major should be appointed to command it ; and there should 
be an adjutant to it, to do the duty of adjutant, quarter 
master, and paymaster; and an officer for each company, 
the three seniors to be captains, and the others subal- 
terns. 

' There are several German deserters at Gibraltar, who 
might be formed into a battalion in the same manner. We 
might thus make these people of some use. They are now 
a burthen. I think there are not less than 1000 of them 
at Lisbon, detained, I believe, under an order from the 
Admiralty, to Admiral Berkeley, in the days of Mr. Yorke, 
to send no more home. 

' I am very much obliged to you for the news. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Colonel Bunbury: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Colonel Torrens. 
' MY DEAR TORRENS, ' Freneda, 2nd February, 1813. 

' I have received t\vo letters from His Royal Highness of 
the 1 3th January, in regard to the provisional battalions 
which I had recently formed; and in regard to drafting 
horses from certain regiments of heavy dragoons into others, 
to which I delay to send answers, until I shall have received 
His Royal Highness's commands upon a letter which I ad- 
dressed to him on the 26th December, which I have reason 
to believe that he had not received when he wrote to me on 
the 13th January. 

' His Royal Highness and I, unfortunately, take a very 
different view of these questions : he, one referable to the 
whole army and the general service of the empire ; and I, 
one referable only to the convenience of the army under my 
immediate command, and the benefit of the particular ser- 
vice in the Peninsula entrusted to my charge. His Royal 
Highness must be right, but I wish that, being so, he would 
give me a positive order. He may depend upon it, it 
shall be obeyed. But when he conveys to me his wishes 
and his suggestions, and leaves it to my discretion to carry 
them into execution, or not, he must excuse me if I take my 



1813. FRENEDA. 77 

own view of the case, however limited, and act according to 
my judgment of what will be best for the particular service 
entrusted to my charge. The service in America, the 
Mediterranean, or at home, are not my concern, and cannot, 
nor ought not, to enter into my consideration in any case ; 
and when any thing is left to my discretion, that discretion 
must be guided by my view of what is best for the service 
here. 

' I am of opinion, from long experience, that it is better 
for the service here to have one soldier or officer, whether 
of cavalry or infantry, who has served one or two campaigns, 
than it is to have two or even three who have not. Not 
only the new soldiers can perform no service, but by filling 
the hospital they are a burthen to us. For this reason, 
I am so unwilling to part with the men whom I have 
formed into the provisional battalions; and I never will 
part with them as long as it is left to my discretion. 

' I am sure I am right on this subject ; and if any body 
doubts it, let them look at the state of the 4th, 5th, 38th, 
39th, and 82nd regiments with this army, compared with 
others. Yet these are the regiments of the best reputation 
in the service ; some of them, the 2nd batt. 4th, 82nd, and 
39th, have come from climates not dissimilar to that in which 
they are now serving ; but it is the service in the field, to 
which neither officers nor men are accustomed, and for which 
training and habit are required. 

' The same is the case in regard to the cavalry, and indeed 
it is stronger ; and if I were now to choose, I should prefer by 
far to give the horses of the fine regiments of English 
hussars to the old regiments here, and keep the officers and 
soldiers of the latter. 

' It must be observed, however, that in regard to drafting 
horses, great care must be taken, in allotting them to regi- 
ments, not to overhorse any. Too many horses are worse 
than too few. In my opinion, an allowance should be made 
for ten dismounted men in every hundred, which would 
allow for serious cases of sickness of men, who might be 
unable to take care of horses. If His Royal Highness, 
therefore, wishes that the horses should be taken from the 
regiments of light and heavy dragoons, to mount others on 
this service, I beg him to send me his orders, and they shall 



78 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

be obeyed, leaving it to me to fix upon the regiments to be 
drafted (always excepting those lately sent out), and those 
to which the horses shall be allotted. If he leaves it to my 
discretion, however, to draft the horses or not from any old 
regiment, that is to say, any that has served one campaign, 
I tell you fairly, that I think it ought not to be done, and 
entertaining that opinion I shall not do it, 

1 Believe me, &c. 
Colonel Torrens: ' WELLINGTON. 



To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 2nd February, 1813. 
' I think it proper to transmit tQ your Lordship the en- 
closed letter from Don Diego Correa, containing a com- 
plaint of the conduct of Lieut. , of His Majesty's ship 

, with certain original papers, in order that such 

steps may be taken thereupon as your Lordship may 
think proper. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 3rd February, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 16th December, in 
regard to the transportation to a Portuguese settlement of 

; and I have to inform you that I have no 

objection to his being so transported. 

' If the Government should determine to transport him 
I beg to be informed thereof, that I may order that he may 
be struck off the strength of his regiment. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B' ' WELLINGTON. 

To J. C. Herries, Esq., Commissary in Chief. 

f SIR, ' Freneda, 3rd February, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose for your consideration letters 
which I have received from Deputy Assistant Commissary 
of Accounts Adams, and Deputy Assistant Commissary of 



1813. FRENEDA. 79 

Accounts Booth, requesting me to recommend them for 
promotion. 

' Both these gentlemen have at different periods been 
attached to head quarters, and have performed the duty 
which devolved upon them in a manner highly creditable to 
themselves and much to my satisfaction. 

' I therefore beg leave to recommend their services to 
your notice and attention ; and I shall be happy if it should 
be in your power to promote Mr. Adams, who now has 
charge of the department at Cadiz, to the rank of Deputy 
Commissary General, and Mr. Booth to that of Assistant in 
the department. 

4 I have the honor to be, &c. 
' J. C. Harries, Esq.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 

1 SIR, ' Freneda, 3rd February, 1813. 

' Since I addressed your Excellency this day, I have re- 
ceived the enclosed reports from Colonel Longa, from which 
it appears that, since the affair reported in my letter to your 
Excellency of the 10th January, Colonel Longa has had a 
very serious affair with the enemy in the neighbourhood of 
Miranda, in which he took 221 prisoners, having killed 543. 
This affair appears to have taken place in the beginning of 
December. 

' I likewise enclose the account of his capture of Salinas 
de Anana, with 6 officers and 246 soldiers of that garrison, 
at discretion, on the 10th of January, which is referred to in 
my other dispatch. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Don J. de Carvajal: ' WELLINGTON. 

To General Dumouriez. 
' MoN CHER GENERAL, ' A Freneda, ce 3 Fevrier, 1813. 

' J'ai rec,u, il y a quelques jours, votre lettre du 27 De- 
cembre ; et comme je n'ai nulle operation militaire a vous 
decrire, ou a raisonner avec vous, toutes les troupes des deux 
cote's etant en cantonnemens, je vous ecris quelques mots sur 
ce que vous me dites du Due d' Orleans. 

' Ce Prince, que je ne connais que de reputation, et pour 



80 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

lequel j'ai le plus grand respect, a mal debute en Espagne. 
Appelle, je crois, ou au moins encourage a venir, par la 
Regence de Castanos, pour commander une armee com- 
posee la plupart de Franqais, que, dans leurs songes, le Gou- 
vernement Espagnol comptait faire marcher sur la frontiere 
de la France, il a etc debarque a Tarragona, ou on m'a dit 
qu'il fut tres mal recu. II s'est rembarque, et il est venu a 
Cadiz. 

1 II y avait des personnes aupres de lui fort indignes de 
sa confiance et fort indiscretes, qui, le jour me'me de son 
arrivee, ont commence a parler du bien que cela ferait a la 
nation Espagnole que le Due d'Orleans en fut fait le Re- 
gent. Enfin "las Cortes" s'assemblaient, etleur premier acte 
fut d'envoyer dire au Due de s'en aller en vingt-quatre 
heures ; et apres, quand le Due est alle a 1'Isla a cheval, tout 
seul, je crois, pour leur presenter ses respects, " las Cortes" 
lui ont fait dire de s'en aller tout de suite ; et elles ont 

fait dire au d'etre prepare de les proteger 

par force. Vous croyez que le favorisait les 

vues de ce Prince ! Eh bien ! je vous dis qu'il s'est fait 
un merite des preparatifs qu'il avait fait ce jour-la pour pro- 
teger et faire obeir les ordres de " las Cortes." 

' Je sais tres bien qu'on vous a dit, et que le Due le croit, 
que tout ce que lui est arrive, a etc* produit par les intrigues 
des Anglais. Pour moi, je ne savais pas meme que le Due 
etait a Cadiz quand il fut renvoye. Pour mon frere, je sais 
qu'il a predit au Due ce que lui est arrive ; et lui a conseille 
d'etre sur ses gardes ; mais, a dire le vrai, on nous soupconne 
de beaucoup de choses dans lesquelles non seulement nous 
nous ne sommes jamais meles, et meme dans lesquelles les 
Espagnols ne nous permettraient pas de nous meler. 

' Mais je declare que, si j'avais desire perdre le Due d'Or- 
leans en Espagne, je n'aurais rien fait que de le laisser con- 
tinuer le chemin dans lequel il etait malheureusement entre ; 
et j'aurais cru que je ne pouvais le sauver de sa perte qu'en 
m'opposant, comme Anglais, a sa marche. Mon frere a fait 
ce qui convenait a son devoir ; il lui a predit son malheur, et 
ne s'est jamais mele ni pour ni centre ses vues. 

' J'ai souvent regrette le malheur qui est arrive au Due 
d'Orleans. C'est un Prince estimable par son caractere, ses 
grands talens, et sa reputation ; qui aurait pu faire beau- 



1813. FRENEDA. 81 

coup pour cette raalheureuse contree. Mais je vous assure 
que la faute n'est pas la notre. 

' Agreez, &c. 
' Le General Dumouriez.' * WELLINGTON. 

To Colonel Arthur Gore, commanding 33rd Regt. 
' MY DEAR COLONEL, ' Freneda, 3rd February, 1813. 

' Before you receive this letter, you will have heard that 
His Royal Highness the Prince Regent has been pleased 
to appoint me to be Colonel of the Royal Horse Guards, 
an honor entirely unexpected by me. I do not know who is 
to be my successor in the 33rd regiment. 

' Although highly gratified by the honor which has been 
thus conferred upon me, as well as by the manner in which 
it has been conferred, I cannot avoid feeling a regret at one 
of its circumstances, viz., that I should be separated from 
the 33rd regiment, to which I have belonged, with so much 
satisfaction to myself, for more than twenty years. 

' I beg that you will take an opportunity of informing the 
regiment of the sentiments with which I quit them, and that 
though no longer belonging to them, I shall ever feel an 
anxiety for their interest and honor, and shall hear whatever 
conduces to the latter with the most lively satisfaction. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Colonel Arthur Gore.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Sight Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 
' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 3rd February, 1813. 

' I enclose the copy of my dispatch of this day, which 
contains the only news I have. I likewise enclose the Ga- 
zette of the 17th of January, sent to me from Coruiia, which 
contains the detailed accounts referred to in the bulletin of 
the 16th, which I sent to you the other day. I do not think 
they entirely bear out the bulletin. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

The Right Hon. WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, 



To His Royal Highness the Prince Regent. 
' SIR, ' Freneda, 3rd February, 1813. 

' When I was lately at Lisbon, Mr. Aston delivered me 
the letter which your Royal Highness had been pleased to 

VOL. x. G 



82 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

address to me ; and I had the pleasure of seeing him more 
than once while I was there. 

' I hope that your Royal Highness will permit me to avail 
myself of the opportunity of acknowledging the receipt of 
your commands regarding Mr. Aston, to return your Royal 
Highness my warmest thanks for the numerous favors which 
your Royal Highness has conferred upon me. 

' Not only have all the means which the resources at the 
disposal of your Royal Highness could command been given 
to support the efforts making in this country, under my 
directions, but I have been encouraged in every manner to 
act with confidence in the support of your Royal Highness ; 
and I have been favored and rewarded to a degree not only 
far beyond my deserts, but far beyond what any subject has 
yet been by his Sovereign. 

' I can evince my gratitude for such favors only by devot- 
ing myself to serve and to forward the views of your Royal 
Highness with the same zeal which first attracted your notice. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' His Royal Highness f WELLINGTON. 

the Prince Regent.' 

To the Adjutant General. 
' SIR, ' Freneda, 3rd February, 1813. 

' Lord Aylmer has communicated to me your letter to 
him in regard to Captain of the regiment. 

' This officer having been on his march from Lisbon to 
join the 2nd division of the army in the month of December, 
181 1, in command of a detachment of convalescents in charge 
of treasure, struck and beat a soldier of the th regiment, 

by name , at Villa Franca, on the Tagus, and 

it was reported had hurt him so severely, that the soldier 
had been sent to the hospital. 

' The soldier complained by letter to his commanding 

officer of the conduct of Captain , and stated the 

names of the witnesses who would prove the truth of his 

story. Captain , on the other hand, charged the 

soldier with mutiny, and particularly with having challenged 
him to fight. 

' I thought it proper to order Captain into arrest 

upon this complaint, which was brought before me for the 



1813. PRENEDA. 83 

first time, as well as I recollect, in the month of April, 1812 ; 

but it was impossible to bring him to trial, as , the 

principal witness, was in the hospital at Lisbon, and others 

of the witnesses likewise in hospital at other places. 

never having been able to join his regiment from Lis- 
bon, has since been invalided for garrison duty ; and has 
lately been sent home by Major General Peacocke, I conclude 
inadvertently, in charge of French prisoners. Having 

ordered that Captain should be brought to trial 

when the army lately went into cantonments, and inquiry 
having been made for the witnesses, I find that many, whose 
appearance is necessary for a fair trial of the case, are absent 
from their regiments at different hospitals. 

' I am sorry to have again to observe that the case of 

Captain is not singular. It happens too frequently 

that officers remain in arrest for an unreasonable length of 
time, on account of the impossibility of collecting the wit- 
nesses necessary to be produced at a trial ; and recent trials 
have shown that the consequence of this apparent injustice 
is impunity for very serious offences. 

c I have frequently represented to His Majesty's Govern- 
ment the defect of the Mutiny Act in this respect, and I have 
recommended that General Courts Martial might be enabled 
to receive written testimony. I am informed that this 
remedy is to be adopted ; but I am much concerned that 
the Commander in Chief should have had occasion to notice 

the cases of Capt. and Capt. . A knowledge, 

however, of the detail of the jurisprudence of this army 
would show other instances of similar hardship, and would 
tend to prove still more clearly the expediency, on other 
grounds, of the proposed amendment of the Mutiny Act. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' The Adjutant General: ' WELLINGTON. 

|. To the Adjutant General. 

< SIR, ' Freneda, 3rd February, 1813. 

' In consequence of your letter of the 31st December, 
stating the necessity of the immediate return to England 

of Adjutant , 4th batt. K. G. L., I beg to acquaint 

you that I have desired the Commissary General, under 
whom he is now serving, to cause this order to be obeyed 

o2 



84 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

without loss of time, notwithstanding that it appears, by the 
enclosed letter from Sir R. Kennedy, his immediate return 
to England will be attended with considerable inconvenience. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
4 The Adjutant General' f WELLINGTON. 

To Colonel Torrens. 
' SlR, ' Freneda, 3rd February, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter from Dr. M'Grigor, containing his 
opinion on certain papers, which are likewise enclosed, 

which had been given into my hands at Cadiz by 

, in regard to his claims to be promoted to be an 

Inspector of Hospitals. 

' You will observe that * * * * urged to 

have application made to me by Sir Thomas Graham, 
in order that I might apply for this promotion, in which 
case it would be granted. 

' As far as I have any knowledge of > 

his exertions have been very meritorious, and his services 
most useful at Cadiz; and, adverting to the situation in 
which he was placed at Cadiz by the late Commander in 
Chief, the allowances granted to him, and the hopes held 
out to him by the head of the Medical Board, although after- 
wards disappointed, I consider him entitled to my recom- 
mendation of his claims to the favorable consideration of 
His Royal Highness the Commander in Chief. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Colonel Torrens.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Colonel Torrens. 
' SIR, ' Freneda, 3rd February, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose a letter from Brevet Lieut. 

Colonel of the th regiment, reporting the death of 

Lieut. Colonel , and enclosing his own memorial, and 

that of Captain , the senior of his rank in the th. 

' Although I generally recommend officers for vacancies 
in regimental succession, I cannot avoid to take this oppor- 
tunity of requesting you to submit to the Commander in 
Chief my opinion of the services of Brevet Lieut. Colonel 
Craufurd of the 9th foot, who has never been absent from 
his regiment, and has always conducted himself in a manner 
to entitle him to my entire approbation. 



1813. FRENEDA. 85 

' I beg you therefore to submit to His Royal Highness the 
name of Lieut. Colonel Craufurd for the Lieutenant Colonelcy 

in the th, vacant by the death of Lieut. Colonel . 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Colonel Torrens.' ' WELLINGTON. 

I To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 3rd February, 1813. 

' I have not heard of any alteration in the position of the 
enemy's corps in front of this army since I addressed your 
Lordship on the 27th ultimo; and the allied armies all 
remain in the same positions, with the exception of one 
division of the army of reserve in Andalusia, which has 
been moved to Seville. 

' The enemy in the north have obliged General Mendiza- 
bal to retire from Bilbao ; and the blockade of Santona has 
been raised in consequence of the departure of Commodore 
Sir Home Popham from the coast with his squadron. 

' I hear, by intercepted letters, that Colonel Longa has 
lately, on the 10th of January, taken the enemy's garrison 
at Salinas de Anana, but I have not yet received the official 
reports of this feat. 

' My last accounts from Alicante are of the 3rd January, 
at which period the reinforcements expected from Sicily had 
arrived ; but Lord William Bentinck was not expected till 
the latter end of the month. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. Colone Bourke. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 4th February, 1813. 

' I beg that you will send, of the ten guns expected, three 
9 pounders and three 6 pounders to General Mina, with 
their ammunition, which is, I believe, fifty rounds for each 
gun, carried upon the limber, and all the equipments com- 
plete; and two 9 pounders and two 6 pounders to Longa, 
equipped in the same manner. Send an artilleryman with 
each equipment ; and request that the artilleryman may be 
sent back to Coruna as soon as he will have shown how the 
guns, &c., are to be arranged. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Bourke.' ' WELLINGTON. 



86 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 
' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 4th February, 1813. 

' When I was at Cadiz, you will recollect that I had some 
conversation with Mr. Gordon, Mr. Duff, and you, in regard 
to a scheme for raising money for the use of the army by 
loan. This subject had long been under the consideration 
of the King's Government, and at last they gave their con- 
sent in letters, of which I enclose copies, marked A and B, 
that money should be raised in this manner. 

* I considered their first scheme impracticable, and remon- 
strated against it ; and since Lord Bathurst has been Secre- 
tary of State, I have prevailed upon him to consent to an 
alteration of it. I enclose his letter upon the subject, marked 
C, and likewise one of the parchment certificates, the copy 
of a certificate on paper, showing the mode in which the 
certificates will be filled up, and a memorandum, showing 
the operation of the whole proceeding, D, E, F. You will 
judge how far these certificates will answer for raising money 
on loan at Cadiz, with the alterations in the conditions as 
originally held out, marked in red ink in the memorandum*. 

' I must observe, however, that if sums are to be raised at 
Cadiz on these certificates, it will be absolutely necessary 
to refer to head quarters to procure them. There would be 
no difficulty in sending to Cadiz blank certificates, signed 
by me, and countersigned by the countersigning officers, 
which should be filled up under your authority by the per- 
sons who should manage this concern at Cadiz, when any 
sum of money should be borrowed ; but you will observe 
that registers must be kept, that reports must be made 
to the Commander in Chief, that hand writings must be 
examined, &c., and it will therefore be necessary, I am afraid, 
that we should issue the certificates here, after we shall 
have received intelligence from Cadiz of the sums being 
either lodged or ready to be lodged on account of them. 

' I do not conceive that there will be any difficulty on 
account of the high rate of interest at Cadiz. It would cer- 

* Remarks in red ink in the Memorandum. 

1 The sum of the rate of interest may be omitted, and the rate beyond five per 
cent, may be paid in premium, to be deducted from the principal when advanced. 
' After " at head quarters or at Lisbon," insert "or at Cadiz." ' 



1813. FRENEDA. 87 

tainly be desirable to raise the money at the fixed rate of 
five per cent. ; but I shall have no scruple in authorising 
the advance in the way of premium of any sum beyond the 
interest of five per cent, for the term of the loan, in order to 
make up the interest to that sum which it may be necessary 
to give at Cadiz. It is desirable, however, to limit this sum 
to be given as much as possible. 

' I shall be very much obliged to you if you will show 
these papers to Mr. Gordon and Mr. Duff, and any other 
of your monied friends at Cadiz, and ascertain whether we 
can borrow any money upon these certificates. I entirely 
agree, however, with every body who has considered this 
subject, that it is infinitely better to obtain money upon bills 
than upon loans ; and I shall be obliged to you if you will 
keep this opinion in your mind throughout your transactions 
on this subject. 

Ever yours most affectionately, 

* The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON, 

Sir H. Wellesley, K.B: 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 4th February, 1813. 

' I have omitted to inform you that, since my return here, 
I have spoken to the Commissary General, Sir Robert Ken- 
nedy, in regard to the mode of raising our money at Cadiz, 
in case any misfortune should happen to poor Duff. He 
concurs in opinion with you and me ; first, that we must 
employ some merchant at Cadiz in these transactions who 
is well known to the trade of that town, and of good charac- 
ter among ourselves ; secondly, that we ought not to employ 

; and, thirdly, that we ought not to employ 

* * * * according to the account you have given of him. 
Either you or we, therefore, should settle this matter with 
the Treasury as soon as possible, as I fear that poor Duff 
will not long be of this world ; and I beg you will let me 
know whether I shall write to Lord Liverpool, or that you will 
' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, 



88 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 
' MY DEAR BERESFORD, ' Freneda, 5th February, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 1st, and I am glad to 
find you are doing so well. 

' In regard to the Order of the Tower and Sword, Dom 
M. Forjaz should acquaint me with the names of the British 
officers on whom his Royal Highness has conferred it, in 
order that I may apply to the Prince Regent for permission 
for them to accept it. I will then settle about their title. 

' Let me know, when your clothing arrives, where that for 
each regiment is to be found, that I may march them down 
for it. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Marshal ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B: * 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 
< SIR, ' Freneda, 5th February, 1813. 

' In consequence of the very serious complaint transmitted 
to the Portuguese Government by the Juiz de Fora of Sa- 

bugal of the conduct of Mr. , a Commissariat 

clerk, which was drawn in terms of exaggeration, and from 
which it would appear that a gross outrage and insult had 
been committed to the sovereignty and dignity of His Royal 
Highness the Prince Regent, which complaint was after- 
wards forwarded by you to me, I directed that that person 
should be tried by a General Court Martial ; and, notwith- 
standing that the conduct of the Juiz de Fora had appeared 
to me to be very extraordinary in dining and associating 
with that person after he had made so serious a complaint 
of him, and in afterwards endeavoring to screen him from 
justice, I directed that he might be summoned to attend as 
an evidence on the Court Martial, which was assembled for 
his convenience in this neighbourhood. 

' I enclose the report received from the Deputy Judge 
Advocate on his conduct, from which you will perceive that 
he did not attend, and that he said he did not mean to 
attend there. 

' This is not a singular instance of similar conduct. Very 
lately, after the delay of a year, during which an officer was 
kept in arrest for an insult to the Corregidor of Guarda, 



1813. FRENEDA. 89 

because the Corregidor and his evidences could not be got 
to attend the Court Martial, I had a Court assembled at 
Mello, only four leagues from Guarda, for the trial of this 
officer, and the Corregidor and his witnesses were sum- 
moned to attend. But they did not choose to attend, and 
the officer was acquitted. 

When a complaint of the conduct of any officer or soldier 
is made to me, I invariably do what is my duty ; which is, 
to put the officer or soldier in confinement, and the com- 
plaint in the course of trial. But the trial cannot go on, 
nor the complaint be substantiated, unless the witnesses 
attend the Court Martial to substantiate their complaint on 
oath ; and I am sorry to say that, although the Portuguese 
authorities and people are ready enough to complain, they 
will never come forward as they ought to prosecute, and 
prove the truth of what they have stated in their original 
declaration. 

' The Government will be the best judges of what ought 
to be done with this Juiz de Fora. For my part, I had 
been induced to recommend him to the notice of His Royal 
Highness the Prince Regent ; but, having observed in this 
late instance how very little anxious he is to vindicate what 
he must have considered, from his complaint, the injured 
honor and dignity of his Sovereign, I beg leave to withdraw 
my recommendation ; and I request that the Government 
will suspend the publication of any order which may come 
from the Brazils for his promotion, till His Royal Highness 
shall have had under his view the circumstance stated in this 
letter. ' I have the honor to be, &c. 

Sir Charles Stuart, K.B." ' WELLINGTON. 



i To His Royal Highness the Duke of York. 

< SIR, ' Freneda, 5th February, 1813. 

' I had the honor of receiving last night your Royal High- 
ness's commands of the 1 1th January, in answer to my letter 
of the 26th December ; and I send this to Lisbon immedi- 
ately, in hopes that it will be in time for the packet of 
Sunday. I have sent for Colonel Elley, and will proceed 
immediately to draft the horses from the weakest of the 
regiments of Light and Heavy dragoons ; and I hope to be 



90 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

able to report my proceedings on that subject to your Royal 
Highness by the next post. 

' I beg to inform your Royal Highness that the Secretary 
of State has suggested that I should draft both men and 
horses from the 2nd hussars to the 1st hussars; whereas 
your Royal Highness has suggested that I should draft 
horses only ; and I beg to have orders upon this point. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 
< His Royal Highness ( WELLINGTON. 

the Duke of York.' 

To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 
' MY DEAR BERESFORD, ' Freneda, 5th February, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 2nd, and, as I told you 
in my letter of yesterday, I propose to write to the Secretary 
of State respecting the rank and title of the Knights of the 
Tower and Sword as soon as I shall receive the list of them. 
They cannot accept the order nor assume a title without the 
permission of the Prince Regent. 

' I received some time ago an answer from Lord Bathurst, 
enclosing a memorandum from the Duke of York, regarding 
your letter on your rank. Neither was definitive : and it 
was obvious to me that the question was not understood in 
England ; and as you are, to a certain degree, a party inte- 
rested in the decision, although you have always considered 
it very fairly, I did not think it proper to send to you, nor do 
I now send to you what I received on the subject, which con- 
sisted in a private letter from Lord Bathurst, enclosing a 
memorandum from the Duke of York. 

' I enclose you my answer to Lord Bathurst, from which 
you will see the description of argument contained in the me- 
morandum. The letter contained nothing but expressions 
of apprehension (equally noticed in the memorandum) that 
the British Lieutenant Generals senior to you in the army 
would not serve if this point were decided in your favor. I 
could say nothing upon this point, though I take the notion 
of the gentlemen at home to be very erroneous upon it ; and 
you will see that the course of my reasoning on the question 
must leave this point entirely out of the consideration. I 
will show you these letters when we meet, whatever may be 
the decision ; in the mean time, it is but justice to Lord 



1813. FRENEDA. 91 

Bathurst to tell you that he concludes his letter by saying 
that in his opinion the reasoning is entirely in your favor. 

' You will see that I have put the question in my letter 
on the ground on which you wished yourself to place it ; and 
it will not be easy to decide it against you. If it is decided 
against you, it must be by an arrangement with the Portu- 
guese Government, to which you must always be a party. 

( In whatever way it may be decided, I recommend to you 
not to be induced to resign. What we have here is the army. 
You cannot be in any other than a distinguished situation, 
whatever may be the decision which the Government may 
come to ; and I earnestly recommend to you not to relin- 
quish it. However, there is no occasion for being in a hurry 
to decide. I only beg that you will not decide upon relin- 
quishing the command before you shall know what the de- 

I cision is, and the mode in which it is brought about. 

r ' You will see, from the course of the reasoning in my 

letter, which I enclose, that the Duke's memorandum goes 
to charge me with a preference founded on partiality, to 
which part of my letter is a reply. 

' Believe me, &c. 

, ' Marshal < WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 

' Pray return the enclosed when you shall have read it. 

Our friend has evidently spoken to your friends 

as loosely on this subject as he does on others. There is 
positively no decision upon it.' 

To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 
( MY DEAR BERESFORD, ' Freneda, 6th February, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 3rd this evening, re- 
garding D' Urban going to Lisbon. I am quite convinced 
that there is no foundation for the notion and report that 
you are to be recalled ; and you will probably be of the same 
opinion when you shall have read the letter which I wrote 
to you last night, and its enclosure. I detain the letter to 
D' Urban, therefore, till I shall hear farther from you, as it 
would be unfortunate if he were disturbed just now, unless 
his presence should be absolutely necessary to you. 

' I am very glad to hear of Hamilton's promotion, and I 
beg you to congratulate him from me. 



92 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' I beg you will make the exchange of the llth for the 
12th caq adores when you please. I shall announce it to the 
division. 

' I hope the account of your brother's action is true. I have 
been very uneasy about the American naval successes. I 
think we should have peace with America before the season 
for opening the campaign in Canada, if we could take one or 
two of these d d frigates. 
'Marshal ' Believe me, &c. 

Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Sir R. Kennedy. 
' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 6th February, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter and its enclosures from Sir Charles 
Stuart in regard to the purchase of corn in Egypt. It would 
have been better, certainly, if the corn could have been got 
for the barter of military stores ; but, as it could not be pro- 
cured in this manner, it is worth having for money at a cheap 
rate, particularly if the money is not to be advanced immedi- 
ately from our military chest. You had better correspond 
immediately with the authorities at Malta about paying for 
this corn. Return Sir Charles Stuart's letter ; and, as you 
are at Lisbon, communicate with him on this subject. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Sir R. Kennedy. ' WELLINGTON. 

' Pray make arrangements for giving the Portuguese 
Government 200,000 dollars, either in money or paper, in 
this month of February.' 

To Major General the Hon. G. Anson. 

' MY DEAR GENERAL, ' Freneda, 6th February, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 3rd this morning. I 
am sorry that you think of leaving us ; but I will by the first 
post make the application which you are desirous should be 
made to the Duke of York to give you employment on the 
Home staff. 
'Major General 'Believe me, &c. 

the Hon. G. Anson.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 6th February, 1813. 

' I enclose some English and French gazettes of the 20th 
January. It is reported in London that the Prussian states 



1813. FRENEDA. 93 

are about to follow the example of the Spaniards, and to 
nominate a Regency for the government of the Kingdom as 
long as the King shall be in the power of the French. This 
intelligence, if true, gives the solution of the terms of Ge- 
neral Yorck's convention. 

' I wrote to you the other day respecting borrowing money 
at Cadiz ; but the enclosures are not ready, and the letter 
will not go by this post. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Right. Hon. WELLINGTON. 

Sirff. Wellesley, 



To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

' MY DEAR SIR, 'Freneda, 6th February, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 3rd regarding the pur- 
chase of corn in Egypt, and I entirely concur with you that 
the corn is worth having at a cheap rate, even though it is 
to be paid for in money ; particularly if the money is not to 
go immediately out of our military chest. Sir R. Kennedy 
is at Lisbon, and I have requested him to communicate with 
you upon this subject, and with the authorities at Malta re- 
specting payment for the corn. 

' I have likewise desired him to make arrangements to 
pay the Portuguese government 200,000 dollars in the 
course of February 1813. 

e Believe me, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To General the Conde de la Bisbal. 

' SlR, ' Freneda, 7th February, 1813. 

4 1 received your letter of the 30th this morning ; and I 
enclose you the copy of one which I have written to the 
Minister at War on the subjects to which it relates, which 
I hope will tend to remove the real inconveniences which 
you detail. I request you to report in detail the names and 
the particular neglects and omissions of which any of the 
employes in Seville and Cordova may have been guilty ; in 
order that I may have them punished by the Government. 

' We shall never do any good unless we punish those who 
neglect their duty. . 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
4 The Conde de la Bisbal: ' WELLINGTON. 



94 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 7th February, 1813. 

As the Chief of the Staff has not yet arrived at head 
quarters, I have delayed to bring under the consideration 
of your Excellency several matters which require the de- 
cision of Government; but I consider the enclosed letter, 
which I received this morning from General the Conde de 
la Bisbal, to be so important, that I do not delay to trouble 
your Excellency upon it. 

' I have the honor to enclose the draft of the letter which 
I wrote to the Conde de la Bisbal on the 9th of January' 
from which you will perceive what orders I gave to the 
General officers commanding the several armies, in order to 
carry into execution the decree of the Cortes of the 6th of 
January, and the intentions of the Government as commu- 
nicated to me by your letter of the 8th January. 

' I am concerned to observe, however, that the Govern- 
ment have omitted to give corresponding orders to the 
several Intendants of the provinces ; consequently, that it 
is not understood by the Intendants of the provinces to 
which of the armies the resources of those provinces are to 
be allotted; nor the relation in which they stand to the 
Intendants General of the armies under the decree of the 
Cortes ; nor the proportion of the resources of the provinces 
allotted by the Government under their letter to me of the 
8th January, to be applied exclusively to the support of the 
armies under the responsibility of the General commanding 
the 'army, according to the llth article of the decree of the 
Cortes. 

' Accordingly, I request your Excellency to urge the 
Government : 

* First ; to inform the Intendant of each province of the 
marching of the army to the support of which the resources 
of the province are to be allotted under the arrangement 
made with me by the Government. 

' Secondly ; to acquaint the Intendants of the provinces 
of the relation in which they stand with the Intendant Ge- 
neral of the army which the resources of the province under 
their charge are destined to support. 

' Thirdly ; to acquaint the Intendants of the provinces 
that they are to hold at the disposition of the Intendant 



1813. FRENEDA. 95 

General of the army, and of the General of the army to be 
supported from the resources of the provinces, nine-tenths 
of those resources, according to the intention announced by 
the Government in their letter to me of the 8th of January. 

' These general instructions to all the Intendants will 
remove the difficulties and embarrassments adverted to by 
the Intendant of Cordova in his letter to the Conde de la 
Bisbal, in consequence of the calls of the 3rd army ; but as 
soon as I shall learn from your Excellency that the orders 
above referred to have been given, I shall give orders to the 
Duque del Parque to recall his detachments of the 3rd army 
from the kingdom of Cordova, and to cease making requi- 
sitions upon that kingdom. 

' I entertain no doubt that the Government will give these 
orders without loss of time, in conformity with the decree 
of the Cortes ; and with the arrangement which they made 
with me when I was at Cadiz. 

' In regard to other points in the letter from the Conde 
de la Bisbal, I have already written to you on the 26th of 
January, to urge the appointment of Seiior Laborda, the gen- 
tleman recommended by the Conde de la Bisbal to be the 
Intendant General of the army of reserve under his orders. 
There can be no individual in the Kingdom more interested 
than the General of an army that the Intendant General 
of the same should be one capable of performing the duties 
of his situation ; and I earnestly urge the Government not 
to take upon themselves the responsibility of refusing to 
attend to the recommendation of a General officer of a fit 
person to fill an office of such importance. 

' I have requested the Conde de la Bisbal, in my answer 
to his letter of the 30th of January, to specify the names of 
some of those of whose conduct he thinks he has reason 
to complain on account of their slowness or apathy in the 
performance of their duty ; and when he shall do so I will 
lay those names before the Government, in hopes that the 
persons may be punished as their faults shall deserve. 

' I now come to a part of the letter of the Conde de la 
Bisbal, which I acknowledge has given me considerable 
concern ; viz., that part stating that General Abadia, who 
commands a division of the army of reserve has been ordered 
to Cadiz by the Government. 

* In repeated conversations and by letter, I conceived that 



9G PORTUGAL. 1813. 

I had come to a clear understanding with the Government, 
that their orders to their army,, and to every part of their 
army, were to be conveyed through me ; and that the reports 
from their army were to reach them in the same channel. 

' Not only the orders to General Abadia to go to Cadiz 
have not gone through me, but I was not even informed of 
such a circumstance; and this General Officer, contrary to all 
military rule, and to the particular arrangement made with 
me, has been taken from the command of his division with- 
out my knowledge, or that of his immediate superior. It is 
by practices of this kind that the Spanish army has been 
brought to the state in which all Europe laments to see it. 

' I have been more particular in noticing this point, be- 
cause it is not the single instance in which the Government 
have departed from the arrangement made with me since 
the arrangement has been made, upon which I intended to 
address them as soon as the Chief of the Staff should arrive. 

' I shall now say no more upon this or any other instance 
which has hitherto come to my knowledge, hoping, that as 
the Government must be convinced that I required that 
these arrangements should be made, in order that I might 
exercise the command which had been conferred upon me 
with advantage to the public, they will adhere to them in 
the same spirit and the same views with which they adopted 
them ; and that as I am to be responsible for their military 
concerns, they will leave to me the management of them. 

' I hope that it is not necessary for me now to protest, 
after the repeated interviews I had with the Government, 
that they will always find me disposed to concur with them 
in any measure they may think proper to propose for the 
support or for the convenience or honor of the Government. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don J. de CarvajaL" ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Sir R. Hill, K.B. 

( MY DEAR HlLL, ' Freneda, 9th February, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter from Pakenham regarding Captain 
Mackworth. Let me know exactly what you wish should be 
done respecting Captain Mackworth. 

' Believe me, &c. 

1 Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir R. Hill, 



1813. FRENEDA. 97 

To Major General the Hon. C. Coloille. 
' SIR, ' Head Quarters, Freneda, 9th February, 1813. 

' It appearing that the sentence of the enclosed Court 
Martial is, at present, in part illegal, by exceeding the powers 
given by the Mutiny Act to the Court, I return the proceed- 
ings for the purpose of revision. 

' By the 20th section of the Act, upon which this sentence 
must be founded, the Court is enabled to sentence a deserter 
to any one of the following three distinct punishments : 

' First ; " to service in such country, or place, or places 
abroad, or otherwise, and in such regiment, or regiments, or 
corps, as His Majesty shall please to direct." That is, to 
general service. 

( Secondly ; " to service for life as a soldier." 

' Thirdly ; " to service for any term of years beyond the 
period for which such non-commissioned officer or soldier 
shall have enlisted, and to a forfeiture of all, or any part, of 
the benefit, or advantage, as to increase of pay, or as to pen- 
sion, or discharge, which might otherwise have accrued to 
such non-commissioned officer or soldier from the length or 
nature of the service." 

' But the Court is not authorized to pass the cumulative 
sentence, of any two, or more, of these three distinct punish- 
ments, which in this case it has done, namely, general ser- 
vice, and for life. 

' By the sixth section, the marking with the letter D, as 
described there, may be added to any one of the former three 
punishments. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 

Major General ' WELLINGTON. 

the Hon. C. Colville.' 

To Marshal Sir W. C.Beresford, K.B. 

' MY DEAR BERESFORD, ' Freneda, 10th February, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 7th instant, still with- 
out intelligence of your brother. In regard to your clothing, 
I wish you would let me know here where it will be, and at 
what time for each brigade, &c., including Hamilton's, in 
order that we may send these troops from hence to move 
towards it. Believe me, &c. 

' Marshal ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. C.Beresford, K.B: 
VOL. x. H 



98 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To Lieut. General Sir R. Hill, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HILL, ' Freneda, 10th February, 1813. 

' I have only just now received your letter of the 7th. 1 
have no idea of the enemy coming to Plasencia ; and if they 
do, one would believe that it would be in force, but of this 
you must be the best judge on the spot : and I beg that you 
will understand that I wish you to prevent them from plun- 
dering Plasencia, if you can do it with safety to the troops 
under your command : you must therefore secure a passage 

over the Alagon. 

' Believe me, &c. 

'Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir R. Hill, 



To Colonel the Hon. R. W. O'Callaghan. 
< SIR, ' Freneda, 10th February, 1813. 

' I have perused the proceedings of the General Court 
Martial of which you were President, on the trial of John 
of the 66th regiment, and the letter which you have 

written to me, recommending that soldier to mercy by the 
desire of the Court. 

' The proceedings of the Court do not afford a shadow of 
doubt that this soldier deserted ; and having deserted, served 
in the enemy's ranks. Indeed, if he had not so served, he 
could not, from the particular circumstances of the action, 
have been taken in the battle of Salamanca. After being 
taken, he did every thing in his power to conceal himself, 
and denied all knowledge of his comrade of the 66th regi- 
ment, who happened to be in the hospital at Santarem, and 
recognised him. These facts, all proving his guilt, are 
perfectly known, at least to the regiment to which this 
soldier belongs ; and yet the Court Martial, having found 
him guilty, and passed a sentence of death, have recom- 
mended that I should pardon him. 

' The foundation of this recommendation must be, his for- 
mer good character ; and the excuse made for his desertion 
from his regiment, in the severity of the officer commanding 
his company. In respect to the former ground, it ought to 
have its effect, if the evidence was not clear that the crime of 
which the prisoner was accused was committed to its fullest 
extent. In respect to the latter, it really affords no ground 



1813. FRENEDA. 99 

for pardoning this soldier. If his officer had been severe, he 
had means of redress ; and, indeed, it appears by the proceed- 
ings of the General Court Martial, that this officer had been 
reprimanded by the Commanding officer of the regiment for 
his severity. But whether he had or not, the severity of an 
officer can never be admitted to afford grounds for pardoning 
a soldier convicted of desertion to, and of serving with, the 
enemy. 

' I wish, therefore, the Court to reconsider their recom- 
mendation of this soldier for mercy ; and particularly to con- 
sider the task which they throw upon me, whose duty it is 
to uphold the discipline and efficiency of the army, by for- 
warding such a recommendation upon such a case. If they 
persist in making it, I shall certainly attend to it ; but I 

must say, that this case of John is the most clearly 

proved of any that has yet come before me of premeditated 
and almost un denied desertion to the enemy, and of subse- 
quent service in his ranks ; and that it does become 
necessary, for the sake of example, that General Courts 
Martial should take serious notice of a crime of this de- 
scription, so proved, in an army in which, among other 
crimes, desertion is so prevalent. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Colonel ' WELLINGTON. 

the Hon. R. W. O'Callaghan: 

To Major General Baron Bock, K. G. L.* 
' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 10th February, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 7th instant, and you 
will see by the letters which Colonel de Lancey will have 
sent you, which are copies of those I wrote to Sir S. Cotton 
last year on the subject of mules for the portable forges, that 
you and I do not differ materially, in respect to the carriage 
of those machines by mules, instead of horses. All that I 
desire is, when I give a mule to carry a forge, to have a 
horse in the ranks. 

' I cannot consent, however, to hire mules for this service. 
The hire of a mule is a dollar a day, besides his food ; and 
the forges of a regiment would require twelve. The expense 
of the establishment would be too great ; and the inconve- 

* Commanding the cavalry. 



100 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

nience of furnishing nearly 300 mules for this service, besides 
for all the others for which the cavalry require mules, would 
be so great, as not to be compensated by the convenience of 
having the portable forges. If, therefore, the purchase of 
mules will not answer, I must revert to the forge cart. 

' I should think, however, that the business of saddling 
and loading a mule with a forge is not a trade of such intri- 
cacy that our dragoons cannot learn it ; and if pains are taken 
to teach it to them, and care is taken that they do as they 
are taught, that they take care of these mules, and above all 
do not load them with women, and with baggage besides 
forges, I shall not be under the necessity of giving up this 
useful establishment, in order to resume the forge cart. 

' I wish you would send Cathcart over here with the states 
of the accoutrements and horse appointments of the cavalry 
as soon as possible. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Major General ' WELLINGTON. 

Baron Bock, K.G.L: 

To the Conde de Villariezo, 
< SIR, ' Freneda, 10th February, 1813. 

' I had the honor of receiving yesterday the letter which 
your Excellency did me the honor of addressing me from 
Cordova (without date), enclosing the copy of one to the Re- 
gency of the 25th of January last. I have perused the letter 
with the attention which every thing deserves which comes 
from your Excellency, and I am much concerned that your 
Excellency should have been placed at Madrid in a situation 
which was disagreeable to your feelings; and that you 
should be still more displeased with the decree of the Cortes 
of the 6th of January, 1813. 

' Your Excellency must be aware of the nature of the de- 
crees of the Cortes. Neither the Government, nor an indi- 
vidual like myself, has any thing to say to them, excepting 
to obey them; and much as I lament that the decree to 
which you have adverted has been disagreeable to your Ex- 
cellency's feelings, it is not my duty to justify its provi- 
sions; and if it were, the representation which your Excel- 
lency's letter contains of the disagreeable situation in which 
your Excellency found yourself at Madrid, would afford 
ample topics for that purpose. 



1813. FRENEDA. 101 

' If, however, it should be in my power in any manner to 
forward your Excellency's views, or to give scope to the ex- 
ercise of your Excellency's zeal for the cause of your country, 
I shall be very happy. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

His Excellency ' WELLINGTON. 

the Conde de Villariezo! 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HENRY, ! ' Freneda, 10th February, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 4th instant. I do not 
exactly recollect whether I received your letter of the 21st, 
in which you enclosed the copy of your dispatch to Lord 
Castlereagh, before or after I had written to Lord Bathurst 
mine of the 27th January ; I rather think after, because if 
I had received it before, I should have taken more pains to 
show that what I had proposed to the Spanish Government 
was not inconsistent with the constitution. 

' The truth is, that I always suspected that the discussion 
on this subject, having once begun, would not be confined 
to the Spanish newspapers. Our newspapers have already 
got hold of it ; and if Cobbett takes it up, it is not unlikely 
to get into Parliament ; I wish, therefore, to acquaint Lord 
Bathurst of my view of the question, that Ministers might 
be prepared to state it in Parliament. 

'It is unlucky that you and I have taken a different view 
of the subject ; but if it is to come into Parliament in any 
way, it is most fortunate that I wrote to Lord Bathurst as I 
did, as now, of course, the Ministers will not grant your 
letter if it should be called for. 

' I am quite certain that your view of the subject is 
erroneous. First; there is not a word in the constitution 
bearing upon the subject. Secondly ; Mexia and La Vega, 
in their conference with me, the former particularly, acknow- 
ledged that there was nothing inconsistent with the consti- 
tution in what I had proposed. Thirdly; the practice in 
Cadiz itself, under the eyes of the Cortes, is exactly in con- 
formity with what I proposed. And Fourthly ; if I am not 
misinformed, the Cortes refused, not a fortnight before I 
went to Cadiz, to divide the civil and military powers in 
America. 

' Of course we must be unpopular in Cadiz if we allow 



102 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

such blockheads as to write letters in the 

name of the Government, and to pledge the authority of his 
Government to treaties with the American colonies; and if 
we act in relation to Spanish America on the principle of 
smuggling merchants, instead of as a great nation, we must 
be unpopular. But so far from being unpopular in Spain, 
of that any thing I have done is unpopular, there is not an 
authority in the country of any description, whether civil or 
military, that has not written to congratulate me, and ex- 
press their satisfaction at my appointment. 

' I have written to the Government respecting their 
omission to give orders respecting the Intendants. 

' I believe Doyle ought to be paid as a Spanish General, 
as well as the others. 

' I have written to you respecting Costello, and have sent 
you the papers regarding loans. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, K.B.' 

To the Commissioners of the Transport Board. 

' GENTLEMEN, 'Freneda, 10th February, 1813. 

' Count Reille, who has succeeded General Drouet in the 
command of the French army (called) of Portugal, having 
allowed Cornet Thummel of the 2nd hussars, K. G. L., who 
was taken prisoner on the 15th of November, at Salamanca, 
to return to the British army, 1 shall be much obliged to you 
if you will send to France in exchange for him M-. Pierre 
Tallandier, sous-lieutenant de la garde Imperiale. 

' I take this opportunity of acquainting you that Mr. 
Arscott, Paymaster of the 3rd dragoon guards, and Lieut. 
Shaw, acting Paymaster of the 4th dragoon guards, to 
whom my letter of the 1st ult. referred, have returned to 
the British army. 

. ' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' The Commissioners ' WELLINGTON. 

of the Transport Board.' 

To His Royal Highness the Duke of York. 

< SlR, ' Freneda, 10th February, 1813. 

' Lieut. Colonel Elley, the Assistant Adjutant General of the 
cavalry, has not been able to come to me as I had expected ; 
but I have had the returns made out, which I enclose, that 



1813. FRENEDA. 103 

will show the exact state of the cavalry in men and horses 
at the present moment, upon which I have founded the 
measures that I propose to adopt to carry into execution 
your Royal Highness's orders to draft certain regiments to 
complete others in horses. 

' No. 1 is the state of the cavalry according to the last 
Morning state received, with the exception of the brigade 
of Household troops, and those detachments of the English 
hussars which, I am informed, have arrived at Lisbon. 

' No. 2 is the state of the same regiments, showing the 
number of men to be mounted, and the number of horses 
in each. 

' It is more inconvenient to have too many horses in a 
regiment than it is to have too few. The llth light dra- 
goons, for instance, have forty five horses more than they 
can mount ; and the consequence of leaving those horses in 
their possession would be, that forty five mounted men, who 
would otherwise be in the ranks, must be left out of the 
ranks to lead them. 

' In order to avoid this surplus of horses I have calculated 
that every man present for duty and on command must 
have a horse. I am aware that some of the latter have not 
each a horse, such as those men attending upon the depots 
of sick horses, attending at the depdt at Belem, to take 
charge of horses expected from England, batmen to Ge- 
neral and Staff Officers, and men attending upon wounded 
and sick officers sent to the rear. But on the other hand 
some of the sick present are not so ill as that they cannot 
ride ; and it appears to me upon the whole that the nearest 
approximation to the demand of a regiment of cavalry for 
horses. is to calculate upon one for each noncommissioned 
officer and soldier present, and fit for duty, and on command. 
I calculate the sick horses present and absent in the number 
to supply the demand; because these require the attendance, 
if not of a man for each horse, at least one for two. 

' According to this calculation your Royal Highness will 
see, by return No. 2, that we have 6245 men to be mounted, 
and 5175 horses ; leaving a deficiency of 1070 horses. 

' I propose to draft horses from the 4th dragoon guards, 
which have 341 men to be mounted; the 9th light dra- 
goons, which have 370 men to be mounted, and the 13th 
light dragoons, which have 415 men to be mounted, which 



104 POPxTUGAL. 1813. 

will make a total of 1126 men. This will reduce the 
number of men to be mounted from 6245 to 5119. This 
number of men will be provided with 5175 horses. 

' I wait your Royal Highnesses order to draft the 2nd 
hussars, K. G. L. : whether to draft both men and horses, or 
horses only. 

'I enclose Nos. 3 and 4, the states of the Household 
troops, made out on the same principle with those of the 
other regiments of cavalry, from which it appears that they 
now want 89 horses to complete. But your Royal High- 
ness will observe that these regiments have very few sick ; 
and it is probable that hereafter it will be found that they 
are sufficiently mounted ; and at all events the horses to be 
drafted from other regiments will not suit them. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 

' His Royal Highness ' WELLINGTON. 

the Duke of York: 

To Colonel Torrens. 
' MY DEAR ToRRENS, ' Freneda, 10th February, 1813. 

' I enclose the translation of a letter from Count Miinster 
to Colonel Arentschildt, which the latter has put into my 
hands, in which I am convinced the writer must be mis- 
taken. 

' His Royal Highness could not have meant to express 
that Colonel Arentschildt's promotion depended upon my 
recommendation. If it does I certainly cannot give it too 
readily, or too heartily, to express my sense of his merits. 
At all events I shall be very glad if this point is explained ; 
as I shall be sorry that Arentschildt should think that he 
does not get his promotion because I do not recommend him. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Colonel Torrens: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 10th February, 1813. 

'As it is possible that the events of the next campaign 
may render it necessary for the army to undertake one or 
more sieges in the north of Spain, and as all the heavy 
ordnance and stores attached to this army were sent round 
to Alicante in the month of June last, for the service of the 
troops expected from Sicily, I beg leave to recommend that 
the ordnance and stores contained in the enclosed lists 



1813. FRENEDA. 105 

should be embarked in transports and sent to Coruna, 
to be at my disposal as soon as may be convenient; and 
that twice the quantity of each article may be in a state of 
preparation in England, to be shipped when I shall report 
that they are necessary. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' 'Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

1 MY LORD, ' Freneda, 10th February, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter from Major General Cooke, and one 
from Rear Admiral Cockburn, in regard to the claim of cer- 
tain officers of the navy employed as agents of transports, 
and of certain officers of marines, employed in escorting 
stores on the expedition of the troops at Cadiz to Huelva 
in the month of August last. 

' Bat and forage being an allowance given to .officers of 
the land service to enable them to meet certain expenses 
attending their service in the field during a campaign, I 
thought it proper to inquire whether the services performed 
by the officers of the navy were out of the strict line of 
their duty as officers of the navy ; and your Lordship will 
observe the answer which Rear Admiral Cockburn has given 
on that point. 

' I must observe, however, that if an agent of transports 
can claim bat and forage for landing in order to perform 
his duty of agent of transports as at Huelva; he may 
claim it upon every other occasion on which troops may 
be landed from transports. The same argument will apply 
to the officers of marines employed with the parties of 
marines in the escort of stores to the troops on their advance. 

' There is no doubt but that officers of the army would 
have received the allowance, called bat and forage, if they had 
been employed in this manner ; and the question appears to 
me to depend entirely upon the determination of Government, 
whether officers of the navy and marines, being employed 
on shore with the army, are to receive the allowance called 
bat and forage on every occasion in which they shall be 
employed on shore with the troops. On which I beg to 
have the orders of Government. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst.' * WELLINGTON. 



106 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

f MY LORD, ' Freneda, 10th February, 1813. 

' I enclose a list of officers belonging to His Majesty's 
service, on whom His Royal Highness the Prince Regent 
of Portugal has recently been pleased to confer the order 
of the Tower and Sword, in different degrees, some in His 
Royal Highness's service, and others serving in the British 
army in the Peninsula. I likewise enclose a letter which I 
have received from the Secretary of State to the Govern- 
ment of Portugal on this occasion. 

' I request your Lordship to lay these papers before His 
Royal Highness the Prince Regent; and to request His 
Royal Highness's permission for these officers to accept the 
honor thus conferred upon them by His Royal Highness 
the Prince Regent of Portugal. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
* MY LORD, ' Freneda, 10th February, 1813. 

' As I observe that a letter which I wrote to the General 
Officers commanding divisions of this army on the 28th of 
November, regarding the state of discipline of their several 
divisions, and the means of restoring the discipline of the 
troops, has been published in the daily newspapers in Eng- 
land, I think it proper to send your Lordship a copy of it. 

' I believe there is no officer in the army who is not aware 
of the necessity of the adoption of some measures to restore 
its discipline ; and I am only afraid that those which I have 
recommended are not sufficient for the object. 

' Scarcely a post arrives that does not bring an account of 
some outrage committed by a British soldier on the inhabit- 
ants of Portugal ; and I am sorry to add that there are too 
many instances of the revenge of these people on the soldiers 
of the army. 

' I enclose your Lordship a report which has recently been 
made to me of the march of a detachment in charge of ord- 
nance stores from Lisbon to Coimbra. I do not send this 
report because there is any thing extraordinary in the out- 
rages which have been committed by the soldiers of this 
detachment, but only because the report of them is com- 



1813. FRENEDA. 107 

prised in a short compass, and your Lordship will be enabled 
to see at one view the nature of them, and the difficulty of 
applying a remedy under the military law as it now stands. 

' The commanding officer at Lisbon was certainly in fault, 
and it is contrary to the orders of this army, to send a de- 
tachment of 40 men unless under an officer*. But I must 
acknowledge that if an officer had been sent with this de- 
tachment, he would not have been able to keep such men in 
order ; particularly under the difficulties of persuading the 
Portuguese to go the distance of from 100 to 150 miles on 
foot through a country which is almost a desert, (through 
which they are afterwards to return,) to give evidence before 
a British Court Martial of the injury they have received. 

' The soldiers who committed the outrages of which I now 
lay the report before your Lordship, are not the old soldiers 
of the army, who might be supposed hardened by the com- 
mission of former crimes ; but they are either recruits lately 
arrived from England, or men come from Cadiz. 

' I repeat, that these disgraceful outrages must be com- 
mitted, unless, first, Courts Martial have the power of receiv- 
ing written testimony ; secondly, the number of members to 
constitute a Regimental or Detachment Court Martial is di- 
minished ; and thirdly, the power of the Provost Marshal of 
the army is legalised, and his establishment extended. 

' These measures go to punishment ; but the only effectual 
measure, to prevent both crime and punishment, is to improve 
the situation and the character of the non-commissioned 
officers of the army. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 10th February, 1813. 

' I have reports to which I give credit, that the Italian 
division of infantry commanded by General Palombini, which 
belongs to Marshal Suchet's army, but which joined King 
Joseph before he retired from Madrid in the month of 
August last, and afterwards returned into Castillo with the 
troops in the end of October, has recently marched to the 

* See " GENERAL ORDERS," page 179, " HOSPITAL," Abrantes, 13th of June, 
1809, No. 4. 



108 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

northward; accompanied by the Polish light horse, armed 
with lances, which had hitherto belonged to the army of the 
south. I have not yet heard that these troops had passed 
Burgos. 

' No movement of any description has been made by any 
of the armies since I addressed your Lordship last. 
' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 10th February, 1813. 

' When I received your Lordship's dispatch, apprizing 
me that you intended that Watteville's regiment should go 
to America, I directed that the whole of it might be collected 
at Cadiz immediately, as I considered it advantageous to the 
regiment to be brought together for a short period before it 
should embark for America ; and no inconvenience was likely 
to result from leaving the 2nd batt. G7th regiment alone at 
Carthagena, till it should be convenient to send there Dil- 
lon's regiment. I see that this regiment forms part of the 
corps at Alicante. 

' I now enclose your Lordship an extract of a letter from 
General Cooke, from which you will see that Watteville's 
regiment are much in want of clothing. 

' I am very glad to find that you are going to reinforce 
Sir G. Prevost, and I only hope that the troops will go in 
time ; and that Sir George will not be induced by any hopes 
of trifling advantages to depart from a strong defensive sys- 
tem. He may depend upon it that he will not be strong 
enough either in men or means, to establish himself in any 
conquest he might make. The attempt would only weaken 
him, and his losses augment the spirits and hopes of the 
enemy, even if not attended by worse consequences ; whereas 
by the other system, he will throw the difficulties and risk 
upon them, and they will most probably be foiled. If they 
should be so, and they should receive a check at sea, their 
arrogance will be lowered a little, which Avill give me more 
satisfaction than any thing that has occurred for a length of 
time, and they will be obliged to ask for peace. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 109 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 10th February, 1813. 

' In your letter of the 13th of October, you tell me that 
the Horse Guards intended to propose to the Treasury an 
increase of Dr. M'Grigor's pay, and I shall be very much 
obliged to you if you will let me know what has been done 
on that subject. ' Believe me, &c. 

' Earl Bathurst.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

( MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 10th February, 1813. 

' Marshal Beresford has written to me on the subject of the 
mode of appellation to be assumed by the Knights of the 
Tower and Sword, upon which I believe it is necessary that 
the gentlemen of the Herald's Office should decide. The 
Knights of the Order of Maria Theresa of the lowest class 
have assumed the title of Sir, whether by authority or not, I 
do not know ; and it would appear that the Knights of an 
Order conferred upon them by a sovereign, with the permis- 
sion of their own sovereign, ought to assume the title equally 
with Knights created by their Sovereign. 

' However, I know nothing about the matter, and I only 
request that as so many of them have been made Knights 
upon this occasion, the proper authorities in England will 
settle in what manner they are to be addressed. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 10th February, 1813. 

' I have lately received intelligence that the enemy have 
destroyed the remaining colleges and other large buildings 
which were at Salamanca, in order to use the timber as 
firewood ; and there is great reason to apprehend that, if we 
should be able to carry forward the operations of the war in 
the next campaign, we shall suifer much from the want of 
large buildings for our hospitals. 

* It is impossible to place the British soldiers in the 
houses of the inhabitants of any town ; and from the month 
of June forwards, it will be impossible to lodge the sick and 



110 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

wounded in tents, at first on account of the heat, and after- 
wards on account of the rain and cold. I therefore beg to 
draw your Lordship's attention to the enclosed letter from 
Dr. M'Grigor, in which he recommends that portable hos- 
pitals should be sent from England, of the same description 
with those heretofore sent to the West Indies, and with 
those either sent, or intended to be sent, to Walcheren in 
the year 1809. 

' I would recommend that they should be calculated to 
hold 4000 men ; that they should be sent to Oporto, with 
one or more persons belonging to the Storekeeper's Office, in 
charge of them, who should understand the nature of them, 
and the mode of erecting them ; who should have super- 
intended their stowage in the transports ; should superintend 
their disembarkation at Oporto ; and should be responsible 
for their being complete in all their parts at the station at 
which they should be required. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst ' * WELLINGTON. 

To Colonel Longa. 

< SIR, ' Freneda, llth February, 1813. 

' I have received your several letters, and I sincerely con- 
gratulate you upon your success. I have forwarded your 
reports to the Government. 

' I shall be much obliged to you if you will let me know 
what you have done with your prisoners, sending me the 
receipts of those to whom you delivered them. 

' The Government have sent me some papers relating to 
complaints which have been forwarded to Cadiz against you, 
upon which I shall take another opportunity of writing to you. 

' There is nobody better acquainted than I am with the 
difficulties of the situation in which you have been placed, 
and with the manner in which you have conducted yourself, 
and the benefits which the nation has derived from your 
services ; but I recommend to you to be very cautious and 
just in all your proceedings. 

' The country must support the troops which it is neces- 
sary to employ against the common enemy ; but the country 
has a right to expect that the burdens imposed shall be 



1813. FRENEDA. Ill 

imposed with equality, and that they shall be faithfully 
applied to the purposes for which they are imposed; and, 
above all, that when they have paid large contributions for 
the support and maintenance of troops, they shall not be 
harassed by additional requisitions, and by plunder, and the 
other consequences of the indiscipline of the troops. 
' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Colonel Longa: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, llthFebruary, 1813. 

' I send the list of officers for the medal of Salamanca, in 
hopes that it may catch the Tuesday's mail at Lisbon. 

' You will observe that I have recommended Major Gene- 
ral Alava, and Brig. General O'Lalor, two Spanish officers, 
who have long been attached to head quarters, and whose 
services I have frequently reported for medals on this occa- 
sion. General Alava has since been wounded. I likewise 
propose to recommend Don Carlos de Espana, and the 
division under his command, on the same principle as the 
Portuguese officers, as soon as I shall get an accurate list of 
them. I think it will do good to give them the medal. 

' If your Lordship should grant the medal to General 
Alava, I beg to mention that he has been in the battles of 
Busaco and Fuentes de Onoro, at the siege of Ciudad Rod- 
rigo, and at the battle of Salamanca, all of which should be 
inscribed on the medal. General O'Lalor has been at the 
same, and at the siege of Badajoz. Indeed Alava was 
present at the storm of Badajoz, but not during the siege, 
as he had not returned from Cadiz, to which place I had 
sent him with the account of the capture of Ciudad Rodrigo. 

' The Spanish officers must of course have the permission 
of their own Government to accept these medals. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 

' My DEAR BERESFORD, ' Freneda, 12th February, 1813. 

' I received yesterday a letter from Lord Bathurst, from 
which I judge that every thing in regard to your situation 



112 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

in this country has been settled to your satisfaction, by the 
consent of Sir Thomas Graham. 

' I received yesterday your letter of the 8th instant, and 
I write this day to Admiral Martin, to request he will 
assist you with vessels to send your clothing to the Mondego, 
as well as Oporto. 

' Believe me, &c. 

'Marshal 'WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B? 

To Vice Admiral G. Martin. 
< MY DEAR ADMIRAL, ' Freneda, 12th February, 1813. 

' I received yesterday a letter from Beresford of the 8th 
instant, in which he adverts to a conversation which he has 
had with you, in regard to sending to the Mondego and 
Oporto the clothing for the Portuguese army, in vessels 
employed by the British Government. 

' Excepting the store ships, which I believe it is desirable 
should be sent to England as soon as possible, I do not 
know of any immediate necessity for the return of any 
others, and I shall be obliged to you if you can make it con- 
venient to give the Portuguese army the assistance of any 
transports or store ships to carry their clothing to the 
Douro and the Mondego, as I fear much of it will be 
damaged if it should be sent in the vessels usually employed 
by the Portuguese Government in these services. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Vice Admiral G. Martin: ' WELLINGTON. 

To General Castaiios. 
' MON CHER GENERAL, 'a Freneda, ce 12 Fevrier, 1813. 

' Je crois que cette lettre vous trouvera a Badajoz ; et je 
serai bien aise d'avoir de vos nouvelles, pour savoir combien 
de temps vous comptez y rester, les arrangemens que vous 
ferez pour le commandement de la reserve d'Estremadoure, 
et les mouvemens que vous comptez faire de votre personne 
apres que vous aurez fini vos affaires en Estremadoure. 

' J'ai envoye au Commissaire Anglais a Elvas 20,000 
duros, pour 6tre a votre disposition ; et 80,000 sont dans 
les mains du Colonel Bourke a Corufia pour le m6me objet. 



1813. FRENEDA. 113 

' Quand vous serez a Badajoz, je vous prie de donner un 
peu de votre attention aux affaires d'habillement des troupes 
en Estremadoure. 

' J'ai donne 1'ordre le 14 Juin dernier, pour que 5000 habil- 
leraens complets fussent envoyes a Alcacer do Sal, pour etre 
donnes au Marquis de Monsalud ; outre cela j'ai donne 1'ordre 
le 2 Aout pour 1400 habillemens complets au meme endroit, 
pour le regiment de Doyle, faisant un total de 6400 habille- 
mens. Je voudrais bien qu'il y eut 6400 de bonnes troupes ! 
Voulez vous avoir la bonte de demander ce qu'on a fait de ces 
habillemens ? car j'ai encore une requisition du Marquis de 
Palacios pour 2800 ! 

' 11 faut aussi faire attention a 1'habillement de 1'armee 
de Galice. J'ai donn6 12,000 habillemens complets le 
2 Aout, 1200 le mme jour pour Marquinez, et 5000 
le 17 Octobre, et puis 5000 le 28 Novembre pour la divi- 
sion de Porlier. Je vous envoie la demande que le Chef 
d'Etat Major en Galice m' envoie a present. Je serais tente 
a croire, qu'avec les restes des 12,000, qui n'ont pas ete 
livres a la troupe (c'est a dire, s'ils n'ont pas ete perdus), 
les 1200 de Marquinez, et les 5000 qui sont encore a la 
Coruna, 1'armee de la Galice sera bien habillee. Je vous 
prie de me faire savoir ce que vous en pensez. Je tacherai de 
faire avoir les autres objets demandes pour 1'armee de Galice. 

' Je compte faire un reglement sur cette affaire d'habil- 
lement ; car la troupe Espagnole en detruit plus que toute 
autre, faute de soin ; et il faut en rendre responsable les 
Capitaines des compagnies. 

' Je voudrais aussi causer avec vous sur les secours que je 
pourrai donner a la division de Morillo, et aux troupes 
de Penne Villemur, et a la garnison de Badajoz, en addition 
au secours que je continue a donner aux troupes de Ciudad 
Rodrigo, et a la division de Don Carlos. Get arrange- 
ment diminuerait de beaucoup la depense de la 4 me armee 
en Estremadoure, et vous pourriez appliquer les ressources 
de cette province, lesquelles sous les circonstances actuelles 
doivent etre assez grandes, pour maintenir 1'armee en Galice. 
Mais je ne sais pas si je pourrai arranger ceci avant que je 
ne vous verrai. En tout cas, je vous prie de m'envoyer un 
etat du deboursement de la solde du corps de Morillo, de la 
cavalerie de Pcnne Villemur, et de la garnison de Badajoz. 

VOL. X. i 



114 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' Mes souvenirs au General Giron, et a tous vos Mes- 
sieurs. ' Agreez, &c. 
General Castaiios.' ' WELLINGTON. 



To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 12th February, 1813. 

' We received yesterday a mail from England, with papers 
to the 27th January. It appears that the Russians have 
entered the Prussian frontier, and, it is said, have arrived 
at Konigsberg. There is a proclamation of the Emperor, 
and another of Kutusoff, stating their intention to restore the 
monarchy of the Great Frederick in its ancient splendour. 

* Lord Bathurst tells me, among other things, that they 
hope to prevail on the Crown Prince, with his Swedes, to take 
the field early in the campaign. It would appear that there 
is scarcely any French army left, except that in our front. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Right Hon. < WELLINGTON. 

Sir Henry Wellesley, K.BS 

To Brig.' General Inglis, President of a General Court Martial. 

< SIR, ' Freneda, 13th February, 1813. ' 

' I enclose the proceedings of a General Court Martial of 

which you are President, on the trial of Private 

. , ' of the 34th regiment ; and I beg to inform you that 
the recommendation of the Court must be by letter separate 
from the proceeding. On the recommendation itself I must 
beg the Court to advert that the prisoner has been convicted 
on the clearest evidence of striking his officer. 

' I am not aware that any provocation can justify, or even 
palliate, such an offence ; but, if there is such a one, it does 
not appear by the proceedings to have been proved on this 
trial in any manner. 

' I therefore request the Court to reconsider their recom- 
mendation. I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Brig. General Inglis! ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 115 

To Colonel Fisher. 
< SIR, ' Freneda, 13th February, 1813. 

' I enclose some papers received from Marshal Sir William 
Beresford, containing the proceedings on an inquiry into a 
report from the British Ordnance Storekeeper at Abrantes 
of the robbery of the British stores at that place on the night 
of the llth September. 

' I concur very much in the opinion of Marshal Sir William 
Beresford, that, if there is not reason to suspect the Ord- 
nance Storekeeper himself of making away with the stores, 
he is chargeable, at least, with neglect ; and I beg that ano- 
ther officer may be appointed to relieve him, and that he 
may never again be employed in this army. 

' I wait for your report on these papers before I order any 
further measures. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Colonel Fisher: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Sir Charles Stuart,[K.B. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 13th February, 1813. 

' I received last night your letter of the 9th in regard to 
the order of the Tower and Sword for Admiral De Courcy, 
and the circular letter of Government upon that subject. 

' It is my opinion that you had better leave it to Govern- 
ment entirely to decide, first, whether you are or not consi- 
dered in the service of the Prince Regent of Portugal in the 
view of the circular letter from Lord Castlereagh : if you 
are not so considered, and you are not permitted to accept 
the order ; and, secondly, that the refusal should proceed 
from the Government. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B.' f WELLINGTON. 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 1 4th February, 1813. 

' Having referred to the Inspector of Hospitals your letter 
of the 1st instant, containing a petition from the Nuns of 
the convent of S ta Anna, at Coimbra, I beg to enclose the 
copy of the letter which Dr. M'Grigor has written on the 
subject, by which it appears to be his intention not to occupy 



116 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

the building referred to longer than it is absolutely required 
for the service of the sick and wounded. 

* Believe me, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B: ' WELLINGTON. 

Memorandum to Senor . 

' 14th February, 1813. 

' Write to , and tell him that, as he came here on 

the business of the army, it is proper that the reasonable 
expenses of the journey should be paid, and they shall be 
paid as soon as he will let me know the amount. 

' That I always understood that he and others, friends of 
the Marquesa de Alcanices, assisted the army by getting in- 
telligence for it, as the mode in which they could best serve 
the cause of their country. That I should have thought of 
offering them payment for these services as little as I should 
have thought of claiming pay for similar services myself; 
and I considered the only expense to be incurred was the 
real bond fide expense of procuring and transmitting the 
intelligence. 

' That I beg to have a positive answer whether I have 
been mistaken or not on this point. 

' If I have been mistaken I desire to have a positive state- 
ment of what he and his friends require as payment for their 
future services, and an estimate of the whole expense to be 
incurred in procuring and transmitting this intelligence. 

' I shall then be able to judge of the expediency of defray- 
ing the expense of such intelligence as they can send. 

' If I have not been mistaken I desire that he and his 

friends will put themselves in communication with 

and transmit the intelligence they may procure through the 
channels which will point out ; by which arrange- 
ment much expense will be saved. 

' Although I conceived, and do consider, that persons in 
his situation ought to serve their country in this manner 
without payment (and that, indeed, no gentleman would ever 
acknowledge that he was paid for such services), yet it is 
very possible that he and his friends may be in want of 
assistance. If that is stated I shall not be backward in 
giving it to them ; but it must be clearly understood to be 
on the score of good will, and not in payment for services of 
this description. WELLINGTON.' 



1813. FRENEDA. 117 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 14th February, 1813. 

' I have to request you to lay before the Portuguese 'Go- 
vernment the papers I have the honor to enclose, relative to 
the murder of Private James Magee, of the 83rd regiment, 
in the neighbourhood of the village of Villar ; and I trust 
that exertion will be made to bring to justice the perpetrators 
of this crime. ' I have the honor to be, &c. 

* Sir Charles Stuart, 'K.B: ' WELLINGTON. 

To , M.P. 

' MY DEAR , ' Freneda, 14th February, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the llth January by Colo- 
nel Grant ; and I shall be very happy to do every thing in 
my power to forward his views in this country. 

' As I have long ceased to think of home politics, it can- 
not be said that I am of a party different from that to which 
any other person belongs. I serve the country to the best 
of my ability abroad, leaving the Government at home to 
be contended for by the different parties as they may think 
proper. 

* I am not an adequate judge whether the existing Govern- 
ment have or have not done every thing in their power for the 
Peninsula. This I know, that they have done a great deal ; 
and a great deal has been effected; and I read of their 
being blamed for events with which, as an honest man, I 
must say they had, or could have, nothing to do. 

' Believe me, &c. 
, M.P: ' WELLINGTON. 

To C. Greenwood, Esq. 
' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 14th February, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 26th January, and I 
have already communicated to you my intention to employ 
the same tradesmen for the Blues as the Duke of Northum- 
berland. 

' Let the expense of the band be paid as it has hitherto 
been by the Duke ; but I shall speak to Elley or Hill upon 
the subject, as it would be absurd in me to incur perma- 
nently such an expense because the Duke of Northumber- 
land did. Believe me, &c. 
' C. Greenwood, Esq.' ' WELLINGTON. 



118 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 14th February, 1813. 

' Mr. Mackenzie has arrived here from the Mediterranean, 
and has informed me, that having been in communication 
with Admiral Greig on the part of the Emperor of Russia, 
that officer had informed him, and had authorised him to 
inform His Majesty's Government, that the Emperor of 
Russia was disposed, and, even under the pressure under 
which he labored at the time had it in his power, to send 
to the Peninsula a body of Russian troops to serve under 
my command, at the expense of Great Britain. 

' Mr. Mackenzie will explain to your Lordship the par- 
ticulars of his communications with Admiral Greig ; the 
ground he has for believing that the Admiral was authorised 
to make this communication, and that the Emperor will be 
enabled to carry into execution his intentions. 

' I think it proper, however, to acquaint your Lordship at 
the earliest period with my sentiments on this subject. 

' I should certainly recommend to the Emperor to employ 
all his means in the north of Europe, on the same grounds 
that I recommend to his Royal Highness the Prince Regent 
and his allies in^ the Peninsula, to employ all theirs in the 
Peninsula. But it may happen, as is represented by Mr. 
Mackenzie, that His Majesty the Emperor has more troops 
than he can find the means of employing in the north of 
Europe, (because the active employment of troops must 
always be limited by the means at the disposal of the Go- 
vernment which employs them,) and he may have at his 
command a disposable force which it may be in his power to 
detach to the Peninsula. If this should be the case, I ear- 
nestly recommend to your Lordship to accept the offer to 
the amount of 15,000 men. 

' There can be no doubt that this number of troops (of 
Russians particularly) would have the most decisive effect 
on the next campaign. Even if 1000 or 2000 only were 
sent, it would show the power of the Russian empire ; the 
inclination of the Emperor towards the cause of the nations 
of the Peninsula ; and the measure would have the best 
effects, as well on the enemy and his few partisans in these 
countries, as on all the good patriots. 

' I need not say how much I am flattered by the dispo- 



1813. FRENEDA. 119 

sition of the Emperor to place his troops under my com- 
mand ; which I attribute to his sense that I have served His 
Majesty zealously in this country. If, however, the Emperor 
should carry this intention into execution, I beg leave to 
recommend not only that the Emperor of Russia should 
place them under my command, but that he should accept 
of my services (with the permission of His Royal Highness 
the Prince Regent) as a General Officer in his service, of 
rank senior to the General Officer who should be sent in 
command of his Imperial Majesty's troops ; and that al- 
though the discipline and interior economy of His Imperial 
Majesty's troops should be carried on under the direction 
of the General Officer, who would come to the Peninsula 
with them, all reports, &c. regarding them and their opera- 
tions should pass through my hands. 

' I mention this now, because having for some years com- 
manded an allied army composed of very discordant mate- 
rials, and having had the good fortune of having preserved 
the utmost harmony among them, I am anxious that in case 
His Majesty the Emperor should be disposed to carry this 
intention into execution, his views should not be frustrated 
by want of attention to the occurrence of one of those acci- 
dents which experience has shown are too likely to occur 
in the employment of allied troops in the same scene of 
action. 

' I request your Lordship to observe likewise, that the 
introduction of Russian troops into the Peninsula is quite a 
new feature in the war. I entertain no doubt that neither 
of the allied Governments will entertain the slightest objec- 
tion to the measure ; and that they will feel the obligation 
which they owe to the interest which the Emperor of Russia 
will manifest in this manner in their just cause. 

' But it is absolutely necessary that they should be con- 
sulted on the introduction of the troops of His Majesty the 
Emperor of Russia into the Peninsula ; and in order that 
His Majesty's Government may have the earliest informa- 
tion on this subject, I propose to take the first opportunity 
of informing the allied Governments of Spain and Portugal 
of the offer conveyed by Mr. Mackenzie, in order that they 
may make known their sentiments upon it at an early period 



PORTUGAL. 1813. 

through His Majesty's Ambassador at Cadiz, and Minister 
at Lisbon. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst. ' * WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

* MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 14th February, 1813. 

' As the best mode of apprizing the Spanish and Portuguese 
Governments of what is in agitation in regard to the Russian 
troops, I propose to send them copies of my letter to your 
Lordship on that subject of this date. 

' Believe me, &c. 
* Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 14th February, 1813. 

' Mr. Mackenzie, who is going to England to make a 
communication to your Lordship in regard to the employ- 
ment of Kussian troops in the Peninsula, informs me that 
he has not the honor of being known to you ; and I beg 
leave to introduce him to you, and to recommend him to be 
employed in carrying into execution the measure in con- 
templation, if the Government should determine upon it. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To the President of the Spanish Regency. 
' MONSIEUR, ' a Freneda, ce 15 Fevrier, 1813. 

' J'ai 1'honneur de vous faire savoir qu'un agent diploma- 
tique du Gouvernement de Sa Majeste Britannique a passe 
ici a son retour de la Mediterranee, et m'a informe qu'il est 
charge" par un agent de Sa Majeste 1'Empereur de Russie 
d'offrir au Gouvernement de Sa Majeste Britannique le 
service d'un corps Russe dans la Peninsule, pour etre a la 
depense de Sa Majeste Britannique, et pour servir sous mes 
ordres. 

' La meilleure maniere de faire savoir a la Regence tout 
ce que je sais et ce que je pense sur cette offre, est de vous 
envoyer la traduction de la lettre que j'ai ecrite la-dessus au 



1813. FRENEDA. 121 

Gouvernement de Sa Majeste Britannique ; par laquellc vous 
verrez que j'ai recommande au Gouvernement Britannique 
d'accepter 1'offre jusqu'au nombre de 15,000 hommes, si les 
Gouvernemens alliees de la Peninsule y donnent leurs con- 
sentemens. 

f Je saisis done' la premiere occasion de faire savoir cette 
offre a la Regence ; et je la prie de communiquer la-dessus 
avec 1'Ambassadeur de Sa Majeste a Cadiz ; et, en cas que 
la Regence voit quelque raison pour que les troupes Russes 
ne soient pas permises d'entrer en Espagne, elle la commu- 
nique, sans perte de temps, a 1'Ambassadeur de Sa Majeste 
Britannique. 

' J'ai 1'honneur de vous faire savoir que j'ecris pareillement 
au Gouvernement Portugais. 

' Je vous ai addresse directement sur ce sujet, parceque, 
comme il est important que ni 1'offre ni la decision du Gou- 
vernement soient connus, je n'ai pas cru de mon devoir 
de mettre cette affaire dans le cours ordinaire de la corre- 
spondance. 

' J'ai 1'honneur d'etre, &c. 
Le President de la Regence: ' WELLINGTON. 

[Letters to the same effect were written to Dom Miguel Forjaz, to 
Sir Henry Wellesley, and to Sir Charles Stuart] 

To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 

' MY DEAR BERESFORD, ' Freneda, 16th February, 1813. 

' I enclose you an extract of Lord Bathurst's letter regard- 
ing the command, from which you will see that the business 
is settled as you supposed it would be. However, being 
settled, 1 do not conceive that it is any business of yours to 
inquire in what manner, or on what principles. 

' As far as I have any knowledge of the sentiments of the 
King's Ministers, I believe them to be well disposed towards 
you ; and the omission to which you advert, unaccountable 
as it is, must be attributed to that kind of negligent, slo- 
venly mode of doing business, which is too common among 
public men in England. 

I do not believe Murray has any thing to say to them. 
I am sure he can have no influence over them. 



122 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' I write to the Admiral about a passage for Hamilton. 
Do you mean to call Amarante to take his command? 

e Believe me, &c. 

' Marshal ( WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. C. Beresford, 



To Vice Admiral G. Martin. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 16th February, 1813. 

' It has been recommended that Lieut. General Hamilton 
should return to England for the recovery of his health ; 
and as he has lost his health in the service, I shall be much 
obliged to you if you will order him a passage on board one 
of His Majesty's ships. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
4 Vice Admiral G. Martin: WELLINGTON. 

To Colonel Torrens. 

< SIR, ' Freneda 16th February, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter from Dr. M'Grigor, recommending six 
medical gentlemen belonging to the Portuguese service to 
be promoted to be Staff surgeons. 

' In case these gentlemen should be promoted, I propose 
that they should continue to do duty as Staff surgeons with 
the Portuguese army, and that they should continue to be 
paid as such on that establishment. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Colonel Torrens' 'WELLINGTON. 



To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 

* MY DEAR BERESFORD, ' Freneda, 17th February, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 13th, in regard to the 
enlistment of men of the 4th and 10th regiments for four 
years. 

' The law must be carried into execution if the soldiers 
require it ; but they should be clearly informed, before they 
avail themselves of this law, that they are liable to be called 
upon immediately to serve again, under the ancient laws of 
the Kingdom ; and that it would be better for them to con- 
tinue to serve throughout the war, when they should have 



1813. FRENEDA. 123 

their discharge, and that they should be no longer liable to 
serve under the ordinary recruiting laws. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Marshal * WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. C. Beresford, 



To Lieut. General the Hon. W. Stewart. >, 
' MY DEAR GENERAL, ' Freneda, 17th February, 1813. 

' I have received this morning your letter of the 15th. 
Although I have the honor to belong to one of the regi- 
ments of Guards, I confess that I do not understand the 
origin and principles of what are called privileges of these 
corps, by which knowledge alone it is possible to decide on 
questions of the description you have brought before me 
with consistency. 

f When the Guards were in the field with King William, 
and King George II., they were a part of His Majesty's 
household, and under the immediate direction of His Ma- 
jesty, or of officers belonging to the corps of Guards, spe- 
cially appointed by the King for that purpose. 

' I believe that the campaigns under those monarchs are 
the origin of the privileges of the Guards, as they are called ; 
and the customs introduced on those occasions have been 
adhered to when the Guards have been on duty over His 
Majesty's person on the home service. 

' One of these customs or privileges has certainly been, that 
the Guards in brigades have been commanded by an officer 
belonging to the corps of Guards ; but they have generally 
been in divisions with troops of the line, as at present ; and 
both on the Continent in 1793 and 1794, and in this country, 
a General officer not belonging to the Guards has commanded 
the division. 

' Although it may be argued, from the practice of the 
days of King William and King George II., and of the 
home service of the present day, that no officer but one of 
the Guards had a right to inspect the soldiers' account books ; 
and it is not improbable that the Lieutenant Generals not 
belonging to the Guards, who have commanded the divisions 
in which the Guards have been incorporated on different 
services in the late and present war, have not had occasion, 
or have not thought it necessary, to inspect those accounts, 



PORTUGAL. 1813. 

I do not see any reason to doubt that it is the duty of the 
Lieutenant General to inspect those books if he thinks it ne- 
cessary ; that this inspection is enjoined by His Majesty's 
regulations, and no exception is made, or apparently in- 
tended, in favor of the Guards, or of any other troops. 

' If Major General Howard and the officers of the 1st 
regiment of Guards have submitted the books of the 1st 
regiment to your inspection, I should think there can be no 
doubt upon the subject ; and that upon communication with 
the commanding officers of the 2nd brigade of Guards, they 
would consider the matter in the same light. But if there 
should be any further doubt on their minds, the best measure 
to be adopted would be to have the case put in such a state 
as that I may lay it before the Duke of York, who, as Com- 
mander in Chief of the army, and as senior Colonel of the 
Guards, is the most proper person to make a decision 
upon it. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

the Hon. W. Stewart' 

To Earl Bathurst. 

* MY DEAR LORD, 'Freneda, 17th February, 1813. 

' In answer to that part of your letter of the 27th, which 
refers to arms for the Spaniards in the course of the current 
year, I have to inform you that if you will send 50,000 stand 
of arms in the course of the year, they will, in my opinion, 
supply the wants of all the allied armies. 

'We have, at present, a large number in our different 
stores. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst." ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 17th February, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter from General M'Leod to Colonel 
Fisher, informing him that 100 of the artillery horses, 
intended for this army, had been sent to Alicante for the 
use of the troops there. 

' We shall be very incomplete indeed in the number of 
horses necessary for the equipment which we ought to 



1813. FRENEDA. 125 

take into the field ; and we can find no substitute for them 
here. 

* I doubt very much that the resources of the British 
Government are capable of equipping two armies for the 
field in the Peninsula, as they ought to be ; and the attempt 
will only tend to cripple this army, upon which every thing 
depends, and which ought to be well equipped in order to be 
able to effect any thing, without doing much good to the 
other. The army on the eastern coast must necessarily be 
confined to the coast in its operations. It may do a great 
deal of good if the army from this side can hold its ground 
at all in the interior of Spain. But if all the resources of 
Great Britain were applied to equip the army on the eastern 
coast, it is quite impossible that it should effect any thing 
unless the army on this side is so equipped, and in such 
strength as to be able to keep the field. 

* Believe me, &c. 
1 Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

1 MY LORD, ' Freneda, 17th February, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose a letter from Major General 
Peacocke, containing the report of the capture and ransom 
of the Canada horse transport by an American privateer, 
with a detachment of the 18th light dragoons, and other 
troops on board ; upon which I request to receive your 
Lordship's directions. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 17th February, 1813. 

' Since I addressed your Lordship last, I have received 
reports that the Polish cavalry, which I reported had marched 
to the northward, and certain other bodies of cavalry (gen- 
darmes'), which belonged to the army of the North, have 
gone into France. The Italian infantry had not proceeded 
farther than Vitoria, but it was expected that it was going 
to France likewise. 

' Marshal Soult has lately taken the horses from the officers 
of the infantry and of the civil departments of the army, in 
order to mount cavalry. 



126 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' No movement of any importance has been made since I 
wrote last. The troops cantoned along the Tormes crossed 
that river in the course of last week, and moved forward to 
the Yeltes and Huebra; and those on the Upper Tormes 
and Endinal, on the road from Banos to Salamanca, princi- 
pally with a view to plunder the country, situated between 
the outposts of the two armies, of cattle, of which the enemy 
are much in want. The flocks had, however, been generally 
driven off; and the objects of this expedition were accom- 
plished in a very trifling degree. The enemy threatened 
the Sierra de Francia and Bejar ; but Lieut. General Sir R. 
Hill having by my desire attended to these points, and 
strengthened his posts at Banos and in the Sierra, they re- 
tired again across the Tormes. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To General Baron Maucune. 

f Au quarlier G6nral, 

' MONSIEUR LE GENERAL, ce is Fevrier, 1813. 

' J'ai 1'honneur de vous envoyer vingt quatre onces d'Es- 
pagne, la somme que vous avez eu la bonte d'avancer au 
General Sir Edward Paget. 

' J'ai 1'honneur d'etre, &c. 
' Baron Maucune' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Major General the Earl of Dalhousie. 

' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 19th February, 1813. 

f I have perused the proceedings and sentence of the 
General Court Martial, of which you are president, on the 

trial of , of the Royal artillery drivers ; and, 

having attentively considered the evidence in reference to 
the charge, and to the Articles of War, it appears that there 
never was a case more clearly proved of unprovoked mutiny, 
unmitigated by drunkenness, and attended by violence 
against the authority of an officer in the execution of his 
duty ; and, having adverted to the frequency of this crime 
in this army, it is my opinion that the soldier who has been 
found guilty of it by the Court Martial, of which your Lord- 
ship is president, ought to suffer the extreme penalty which 



1813. FRENEDA. 127 

the wisdom of the Legislature has annexed to the crime of 
mutiny. 

' Under these circumstances, I consider it, my duty to 
desire that the General Court Martial will revise the 
sentence. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Major General ' WELLINGTON. 

the Earl of Dalhousie.' 



To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, 
1 MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 19th February, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter for Whittingham, which I request you 
to peruse and forward. 

' I find that 3000 sets of horse appointments are on their 
way to Cadiz for the Spanish army ; and I shall be much 
obliged to you, if you will not allow them to be distributed 
till you will hear further from me. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, K.B: 

To Major General Whittingham. 
' SlR, ' Freneda, 19th February, 1813. 

' Sir Henry Wellesley has transmitted to me your letter to 
him of the 3rd of January, in regard to your holding the 
office of Inspector of the division of Spanish troops under 
your command, and to the abuses and inconveniences to 
which your troops would be liable in case your expectations 
in this respect were disappointed ; and having conversed 
with the Chief of the Staff, and with the Inspectors General 
of Cavalry and Infantry on this subject, I have been in- 
formed by each of those officers that it was particularly set- 
tled with you, that when the troops under your command 
should serve in the Peninsula, they were to come under the 
control of the Inspectors' office, and were to have Inspectors 
attached to them in the same manner as other troops. 

' This being the case, it remains to be considered whether, 
adverting to the inconveniences to which you refer, it is 
proper I should now exempt the troops under your command 
from this control. Upon this point I have to observe, first, 
that I hope to be able to prevent the abuses of which you 



128 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

complain, as well as of others ; secondly, that even if I 
should not succeed entirely, it is not worth while to enter 
into the disputes and complaints which a partial departure 
from a system long established in the Spanish army would 
occasion. 

' I have therefore desired the Inspectors General of In- 
fantry and Cavalry to appoint deputy Inspectors for your 
division, and I beg you to submit to their control. 
' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Major General WTiittingham: * WELLINGTON. 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 
< SlR, ' Freneda, 19th February, 1813. 

' I request your Excellency to draw the attention of the 
Government to the two copies which I enclose, of letters re- 
ceived from the Intendant General of the 4th army, which 
show in the clearest manner that, to the 9th instant, (that is 
one month after the period at which I left Cadiz, expecting 
that all the arrangements which I had settled with the 
Government for the organization, the subsistence, and the 
eventual efficiency of the armies,) not one point of those to 
be settled by the Government had been adverted to. 

' I am aware that these letters have been written to your 
Excellency and the Minister of Hacienda, and they have 
already come under the notice of the Government; but I 
wish to draw their attention again to them, in order to press 
upon the Government the necessity of calling to account 
those of the servants of the Government who, by neglecting 
their duty, have exposed the Government itself to the most 
serious responsibility for the failure of all the measures 
adopted by the Cortes to render the armies efficient at the 
approaching commencement of the campaign. 

' I repeat that officers and soldiers without discipline or 
subordination are worse than useless ; and that discipline 
and subordination cannot be established in any army that is 
neither paid nor fed ; and that the Spanish officers cannot 
be paid nor fed, unless the Government shall carry into exe- 
cution the measures which were arranged with me under the 
decree of the Cortes of the th of January. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don J. de Carvajal.' ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 129 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 
< SIR, ' Freneda, 21st February, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter which I have received from Colonel 
Halkett, containing an account of the losses sustained by a 
Quarter Master of the 2nd light battalion of the King's 
German Legion, on his passage through Portugal, between 
Santarem and Abrantes, in consequence of a robbery. 

' I beg that you will lay this letter before the Government, 
and that you will do me the favor to ascertain whether there 
are any means of recovering the loss from the district. 

' At all events it is desirable that the Government should 
adopt early and energetic measures to force the magistrates 
in the Alentejo and Portuguese Estremadura to perform 
their duty, and to get the better of the bands of robbers by 
which every road in the country is infested to such a degree 
that travelling is unsafe, and the robbers may be said to be 
in possession of the country. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B: ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Right Hon. the Secretary at War. 

' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 21st February, 1813. 

' Not having received a copy of your Lordship's circular 
letter of the 24th April, 1812, to commanding officers of 
regiments, stating " that, agreeably to long established 
practice,^non- commissioned officers and privates, losing their 
necessaries when made prisoners of war, have no claim against 
the public on account thereof in cases in which they remain 
in captivity upwards of four months ;" I beg to request that 
I may be favored with this letter, in order that I may act 
upon it, and give the necessary instructions to the Board of 
Claims. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

the Secretary at 



To Lieut. General Sir R. Hill, K.B. 
' MY DEAR HlLL, ' Freneda, 22nd February, 1813. 

' I received this morning yours of the 21st, and I congra- 
tulate you upon Colonel Harrison's success. 

VOL. x. K 



130 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

1 I do not know what kind of post Bejar is ; but, as it 
appears by your letter of 5 P.M. that the enemy were moving 
on this side of the Tietar, I think you had better be light at 
Bejar and in strength at Banos. As our intelligence is good, 
you would always have time to reinforce the post at Bejar 
from Banos; but if, on account of the movements of the 
enemy on the Tietar in force, it should be necessary to with- 
draw both, you might find it difficult to withdraw that from 
Bejar if it was too strong. 

' I doubt your being able to procure, either at Elvas or 
Abrantes, the quantity of 3 inch rope you require ; but you 
may send for it, and write to the Governors respectively to 
say that I beg they will supply the quantity if they have it 
in store. But it must not be taken from the rope bridge at 
Elvas, or the pontoon bridge or bridge of boats at Abrantes. 

' In case the petite guerre on our outposts should continue, 
I propose to draw up another division to the front, which will 
enable me to give effectual support to your posts in the 
Sierra. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir B. Hill, K.B.' 

To Don Caro Manuel, Minister of Grace and Justice* 

SlR, ' Freneda, 22nd February, 1813. 

' The gentleman who will have the honor of delivering 
this letter to your Excellency is Dr. Curtis, the Rector of the 
Irish College at Salamanca, whom I beg leave to recommend 
to the Regency as one who is highly respected throughout 
Castille, as one who has always performed his duties in the 
high situation in which he was placed, with honor to himself 
and advantage to the country, and who is sincerely attached 
to the just cause in which Spain is engaged, of which he is a 
victim. 

' He will explain to your Excellency the views which he 
entertains for the benefit of the institution, over which he 
has long presided, and of the religion which he professes ; 
and I beg leave to recommend him to your attention. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don Caro Manuel.' ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 131 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 
f SIR, ' Freneda, 22nd February, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 18th 
instant, No. 1, in regard to the complaint which I had made 
of the conduct of certain magistrates in omitting to attend 
when summoned as witnesses at Courts Martial. 

' I am certainly a little surprised that this opportunity 
should be taken for the remark in the concluding part of 
Dom M. Forjaz' letter ; and I am obliged to you for having 
repelled the insinuation which it contains. It is not the 
first time that such remarks have been made ; but they 
shall not prevent me from following the course which I con- 
ceive it is proper I should follow. 

' I imagine that the Government are under a mistake 
when they suppose that the magistrates of Guarda, of Sa- 
bugal, &c., were summoned to attend Courts Martial in 
their capacities of magistrates. The magistrate of Guarda 
was beaten, and complained as an individual ; and, accord- 
ing to the usual practice of the country, would not give 
testimony of the fact on oath when it came to judicial in- 
quiry. The magistrate of Sabugal complained of an insult 
to the sovereignty and dignity of his Prince in most inflated 
language, but not judicially. Although he had been witness 
of the transaction of which he complained, when called upon 
to give his testimony before the tribunal at which the Go- 
vernment desired the person complained of should be tried, 
he refused to attend ! 

* The consequence in both the cases was that the persons 
accused were acquitted for want of evidence. I complain of 
these omissions, and of the injury they do to the discipline 
of the army ; and in answer I am accused of insolence in 
the mode of conveying the summons ; and I am told that it 
is beneath the dignity of a magistrate to attend any Court 
to give his testimony, as if this was not the common duty of 
every individual in every state, be his station what it may ! 

' I am ready to admit that, however a British army may 
be unfortunately necessary for the defence of Portugal, a 
British Court Martial is not recognised by the laws of that 
kingdom ; and, strictly speaking, no person in Portugal is 
bound to attend its summons. If the Government had 

K 2 



132 . PORTUGAL. 1813. 

stated this answer I should have understood it, and should 
have acquiesced in its truth and justice ; but I should have 
requested you to point out to the Government the necessity 
(for the sake of the discipline of the British army, in which 
this country is so materially interested, and of the peace of 
the country) that some means should be devised of enforcing 
the attendance of persons of all descriptions as evidence at 
a British Court Martial. 

' I can have no communication with any authority of the 
Portuguese Government on any concern relating to the Bri- 
tish army, excepting through His Majesty's Minister; and, if 
I am to understand that it is intended that no person shall 
attend a Court Martial as a witness upon its summons, ex- 
cepting under a Portuguese authority, I must give orders 
that lists of Portuguese witnesses, when required, shall be 
invariably transmitted to me ; and, in addition to the sub- 
jects on which I have to trouble you, I must request you, 
from time to time, to have orders transmitted to them by 
the Government to attend the Courts Martial of the British 
army. I hope the orders or summons will then be con- 
veyed with due civility, that the witnesses summoned will 
attend, and that persons guilty of breaches of discipline 
and order will not be acquitted, after the confinement of 
more than a year, for the want of the testimony of the in- 
jured person who made the complaint against them. 

' I beg to know whether the Portuguese Government are 
prepared to adopt this arrangement. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 22nd February, 1813. 

' I have received your letter (No. 2) of the 18th instant. 
I beg leave to recommend to your protection, as His Ma- 
jesty's Minister in Portugal, the persons mentioned in my 
letter to you of the 26th January, whom it appears to be 
the intention of the Portuguese Government to try according 
to the Portuguese law. 

' 1 am ready to deliver them over to any persons whom the 
Government may make known to me, through you, as the 



1813. FRENEDA. 133 

proper persons to receive them into custody ; but I hope 
that you will take measures to prevent their prolonged con- 
finement before they are brought to trial for the offences of 
which they are accused. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Sir R. Hill, K.B. 
' MY DEAR HILL, ' Freneda, 23rd February, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 22nd. I beg you not 
to allow to alarm himself out of Bejar, parti- 
cularly after having fought for and retained the posses- 
sion : it is desirable for many reasons to maintain it, if it can 
be maintained without unreasonable risk or loss. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir R. Hill, K.B: 

To Major General the Hon. E. Pakenham. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 23rd February, 1813. 

' I return the proceedings of the General Court Martial 

of which you are President, on the trial of , of 

the Royal Artillery drivers ; and I beg to inform you that 
the recommendation of the Court in favor of the prisoner 
must be by letter, separate from the proceedings. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

'Major General ' WELLINGTON. 

the Hon. E. Pakenham.' 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

< SlR, ' Freneda, 23rd February, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose the Spanish newspaper called 
the " Concise" of the 8th instant, and I beg to refer you to 
the statement, page 4, containing the speech of the Minister 
of Hacienda, of the 7th instant, particularly to the words I 
have marked, stating, as a reason for the omission to form 
magazines, that " the English seized all the effects which 
the French abandoned, and the Government was deprived 
of those resources." 



134 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' The " Concise" is generally considered to contain an 
authentic account of what passes in the Cortes, otherwise I 
should not think it necessary to trouble you on the subject 
of the speech of the Minister of Hacienda to the Cortes, not- 
withstanding that it is understood, and I have always been 
in the habit of considering, that what the Minister of any 
state declares officially to the Popular Assembly of that state 
must be strictly founded in truth : and that this statement 
of the Minister of Hacienda is directly the reverse of what I 
have stated to my Government with the knowledge of your 
Excellency, and, I believe, of the Spanish Government, as 
being what I conscientiously believed to be the truth. 

' The Minister of Hacienda must have been possessed of 
some official information on which he founded the assertion 
above referred to ; and it would be desirable to obtain a 
knowledge of that information. But, according to my know- 
ledge, so far from the English having " seized all the effects 
which the French abandoned," I asserted, and reported to 
the Secretary of State, that every thing taken from the 
French at Ciudad Rodrigo, at Badajoz, at Salamanca, at 
Madrid and the Retiro, at Valladolid, and even in the battle 
of Salamanca, had been made over to the Spanish authori- 
ties. Notwithstanding the statement of the Minister of 
Hacienda, I repeat this assertion, and I beg that it may be 
conveyed to the Spanish Government ; and I do not consi- 
der it to be any exception to the truth of this assertion that 
a few French carts found in Ciudad Rodrigo, and the boats 
and pontoons found in Badajoz, were taken from the former 
by the permission of the Captain General Castanos, and 
from the latter by the permission of the Marques de Mon- 
salud. 

' Not only were the effects abandoned by the French not 
seized by the British army, but the deficiency of the maga- 
zines in the places of Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz was re- 
plenished from the stores of the British army ; and there is 
in fact, at this moment, no magazine of provisions in either 
place that does not belong to the British army, and no 
military stores that were not acquired by the gallantry 
of the British army, or stored in those places by its Com- 
missaries. 



1813. frfeENEDA. 135 

* If, after this assertion, there is any doubt upon these 
subjects, I beg to refer to the respectable officers employed by 
the Spanish Government to reside at my head quarters, who 
are as well acquainted with all transactions of this nature as 
I am. 

' I believe that at Burgos the enemy abandoned a maga- 
zine consisting of 700 fanegas of grain of different kinds, 
part of which was plundered by the guerrillas, and the re- 
mainder was divided equally between the troops under Ge- 
neral Castanos and myself. 

' In regard to supplies from the country in the last cam- 
paign, the allied British and Portuguese army received none, 
whether belonging to individuals or to the Government, for 
which payment was not made on the spot, or has not since 
been made, or for which debts are not due of which the 
accounts are at this moment in a train of settlement. I had 
lately a communication with your Excellency upon this sub- 
ject which proves the truth of this fact. 

' I am by no means desirous that the Minister of Hacienda 
should contradict the statement which he made to the Cortes. 
It is sufficient for me if my own Government and country 
are convinced that I have stated officially what is true. I 
am desirous, however, that in future the Ministers of the 
Spanish Regency should, when they notice the conduct of 
myself, or of the army under my command, confine themselves 
to those facts their information on which may be founded on 
official documents. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, K.B.' 

To Don j. de Carvajal. 
\ 
' SIR, ' Freneda, 24th February, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose a letter of the 15th instant, 
and its enclosures, which I have received from the Captain 
General Castanos, which I request you to lay before the 
Regency, from which the Regency will observe the incon- 
veniences resulting from the delay in carrying into execution 
the measures agreed upon with me before I quitted Cadiz. 



136 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' I beg you particularly to draw the attention of the 
Regency to the letter from your Excellency of the 15th 
January last, to the Marques del Palacio, copied in the 
letter from the Marques to the Captain General Castafios. 

' I now beg leave to refer your Excellency to my letter to 
your Excellency of the 25th December, 1812, in which I 
informed your Excellency as follows * ; to which your Ex- 
cellency, in your letter of the 1st January, 1813, was pleased 
to reply. 

' I believe there is no person who will read these extracts, 
and the letter of your Excellency to the Marques del Pala- 
cio of the 1 5th January, who will not be convinced that the 
arrangement intimated to the Marques is inconsistent with 
the arrangements made by the Government with me. 

' I am convinced that it must have been an oversight ; 
but I am anxious to have the opinion of the Government, 
either recalling or confirming that letter at an early period. 

' The object which I had in view in every thing I proposed 
to the Government, was to have in my hands the power of 
performing duties for which I was to be responsible. It is 
impossible for me to be responsible for the Marques del 
Palacio. 

' I would, besides, observe to your Excellency, that the 
letter of your Excellency of the 15th January is not less 
inconsistent with the arrangement made with me than it is 
with the spirit at least, if not with the letter, of the decree 
of the Cortes of the 6th of January. Under that decree the 
Commander in Chief of the 4th army was to be Captain 
General of Estremadura ; and under the Ordenanzas, and 
the old practice of the service, and particularly under the 
arrangement made with me, it rests with the Captain Gene- 
ral of the province, who is responsible to Government and 
to me, to take care that there is a proper person to command 
in the province. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don J. de Carvajal.' ' WELLINGTON. 

* See letter of 25th December, 1812, p. 1. 



1813. FRENEDA. 137 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 

< SIR, ' Freneda, 24th February, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your Excellency's 
letter of the 15th instant this day. It is not my wish, to 
continue a correspondence of the kind of which that letter 
forms a part. 

' I am sincerely desirous of forwarding the views of the 
Government in every respect, and of serving them in the 
manner which it may be most agreeable to the Regency ; but 
I would observe to your Excellency that much of the cause 
for this description of correspondence would cease, if your 
Excellency would communicate to me directly the orders 
and wishes of the Government, whatever they may be ; or if 
their execution should be of so pressing a nature (which can 
seldom occur) as that it is necessary for the Government to 
order that they might be sent direct to one of the officers 
under my command, it is desirable that your Excellency 
should at the same time communicate to me copies of them. 

' I mention this, because I see that orders were sent by 
your Excellency, on the 6th of February, to the Conde de 
la Bisbal, and, I conclude, to other General Officers command- 
ing armies, containing various arrangements for the 'move- 
ment, the organization, and discipline of different regiments 
of cavalry, infantry, &c. &c. 

' Your Excellency will at once perceive the inconvenience 
of this mode of conducting the business of the army, when 
you advert to the letters which I have recently and this 
day addressed to you for the information of the Government, 
particularly on the subject of the organization and discipline 
of the cavalry. Your Excellency will observe that I had 
already turned my attention to the state of that arm, and 
had proposed measures for its reform to the Government, 
to be gradually carried into execution, and according as 
circumstances permitted ; and I had ordered the movement 
of General Freyre's corps of cavalry, with a view to these 
reforms, and to the re-equipment of men and horses in 
various respects. I had other plans in contemplation for 
the reform of other corps of cavalry belonging to the armies ; 
but not only is it impossible for me to act on these or any 



138 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

other plans, if your Excellency continues to send the orders 
of the Government direct to those under my command, but 
your Excellency must perceive that I cannot be deemed in 
any manner either the Commander in Chief of the army, or 
at all responsible for it. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don J. de Carvajai: ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Adjutant General. 

' SlR, ' Freneda, 24th February, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose the Rev. Mr. Allott's report 
of the progress of the Children's Schools which have lately 
been established at Belem ; and I beg to acquaint you that, 
when I was at Lisbon in the month of January, I took an 
opportunity of visiting the schools, and found them in excel- 
lent order. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
The Adjutant General: ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Adjutant General. 

< SlR, ' Freneda, 24th February, 1813. 

' I beg leave to recommend that the clothing for the 
regiments composing this army, whether due at Christmas, 
1812, or at Christmas, 1813, may be sent to the Tagus 
before Ihe equinoctial gales in September next, and that it 
may be packed in bales or cases, each weighing ninety Ibs., 
with a view to its more easy conveyance on the backs of 
mules. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' The Adjutant General." ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Right Hon. the Secretary at War. 

' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 24th February, 1813. 

' Some doubt having arisen regarding the construction 
of your Lordship's circular letter of the 19th of October 
last, on the subject of the allowance of bat and forage 
money, I take the liberty of referring you to the enclosed 
paper, containing the copy of that letter, and a memorandum 
from the Deputy Quarter Master General, to the different 



1813. FRENEDA. 139 

queries to which I will thank your Lordship to favor me 
with a reply as soon as may be convenient. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

the Secretary at War.' 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 24th February, 1813. 

' After the enemy had retreated across the Tormes, as 
reported in my last dispatch to your Lordship, and their troops 
had taken up their cantonments, those on the Upper Tormes 
collected again on the 19th instant from Piedrahita, Puente del 
Congosto, El Barco, and Avila ; and on the morning of the 
20th, a body of about 1500 infantry and 100 cavalry, under 
the command of the General de division, Foy, endeavored 
to surprise, and attacked Lieut. General Sir Rowland Hill's 
post at Bejar, consisting of the 50th regiment and 6th Por- 
tuguese caqadores, which troops were under the command 
of Lieut. Colonel Harrison of the 50th. The surprise did 
not succeed ; and the enemy were repulsed with loss, and 
pursued for some distance by the 6th ca^adores, under, Major 
Mitchell. 

' I enclose Colonel Harrison's report, from which your 
Lordship will observe that the Colonel mentions the good 
conduct of the 50th regiment and 6th cagadores. 

' In consequence of the enemy's recent movements be- 
tween the Tormes and the Agueda, and their attack upon the 
post at Bejar, and the better to enable me to check them in 
future, I propose to move up another division of the allied 
British and Portuguese army to the front, which can be 
done without inconvenience to any of the objects for which 
the troops were placed in cantonments. 

' The enemy have lately collected at Benavente about 
5000 or 6000 men, from their garrisons on the Duero ; and 
made in the last week an incursion beyond the Esla towards 
Puebla de Sanabria, but I have not yet heard the result. 

' There has been no other movement that I have heard of. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst.' ' WELLINGTON, 



140 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 24th February, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter from Sir William Beresford, contain- 
ing a requisition for arms and appointments for the Portu- 
guese troops. 

' When I wrote to your Lordship last week upon this 
subject, I did not calculate upon the demand for the Por- 
tuguese army amounting to more than half the amount, or 
10,000 stand of muskets. It is desirable, therefore, that the 
supply of arms for the Peninsula, throughout the year, should 
be 60,000 stand of muskets instead of 50,000, as stated in 
my last letter. 

* Believe me, &c. 
4 Earl Bathurst' < WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 24th February, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your Lordship's dis- 
patch of the 27th January, in regard to the formation in this 
army of a Staff Corps of cavalry under the Adjutant General, 
for the purposes of police ; and although I have not received 
the orders with Avhich His Koyal Highness the Commander 
in Chief states in his letter to your Lordship that he in- 
tends to honor me, I propose to proceed forthwith to form 
the two troops of this corps which it is intended should be 
attached to the army in this country. 

' At the time I took the command of this army in April 
1809, 1 formed a corps of horsemen then denominated the 
Corps of Guides, which was placed under the command of 
an officer of the Quarter Master General's department. It 
consists chiefly of foreign deserters from the enemy's 
army, and is officered by Portuguese, generally students of 
the University of Coimbra. The object in the formation of 
this corps and its duties, at first, were to make inquiries 
about, and to reconnaitre roads; to provide interpreters 
between the common village guides of the country and the 
leaders of columns of troops on their march ; and to circu- 
late orders and other communications between the different 
divisions of the army and head quarters. 



1813. FRENEDA. 141 

' In proportion as the numbers of the army have been 
increased, and their operations have been extended, and the 
resources of the country in means of communication have 
been diminished, this corps has been augmented ; and in the 
last campaign all the communications between the army and 
the frontier of Portugal ; all those with Madrid and General 
Hill's corps, as well while on the Tagus as while. in Estre- 
madura, were carried on by the Corps of Guides placed in 
stages on the roads. , 

' The nature of the disorders committed by our soldiers, 
and the time of their committing them being generally on 
their removal to or from general hospitals, suggested to me 
the expediency of using the Corps of Guides in aid of the 
police under the Provost, on the roads on which they should 
be placed for the communications in the next campaign ; 
and with this object in view I directed a further increase of 
the corps at the close of the last campaign. 

' It is my opinion that these measures will not be the less 
necessary, even though the Staif Corps of cavalry should be 
formed in this army. 

' First, our English non-commissioned officers and soldiers 
are not very fit to be trusted alone, and out of the view of 
their officers, in detached stations at a distance from the 
army, as the soldiers of the Guides are for months together, 
without occasioning any complaint. 

' Secondly, when the Staff Corps shall have supplied the 
orderlies for General officers, and those men necessary for 
the police of the different divisions of the army, and for the 
principal hospital stations, it will not be sufficiently nume- 
rous to perform the duties of police on the great communi- 
cations of the army. 

e I have the honor to be, &c. 
Earl Bathurst: 'WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 24th February, 1813. 

' It is desirable that 20,000 sets of black accoutrements 
should be sent to Lisbon as soon as may be convenient for 
the use of the Spanish army. 

' I likewise request your Lordship to send out horse ap- 



142 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

pointments to Lisbon for 4000 cavalry for the Spanish army, 
in addition to the 4000 already arrived at Coruna. 
' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Major General Campbell, at Alicante. 
< SlR, ' Freneda, 25th February, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 12th instant, regard- 
ing the conduct of the 2nd Italian regiment, and I entirely 
concur in all the measures you have adopted, and applaud 
the decision and firmness of your conduct. I am prepared 
likewise to approve of whatever you shall determine, upon 
deliberation, regarding the future fate of the men of the 
regiment, whether to be formed into a regiment again or 
not ; or if so formed, whether to be kept as part of the army 
or sent back to Sicily. 

' The foreign troops are so much addicted to desertion, 
that they are very unfit for our armies, of which they neces- 
sarily form too large a proportion to the native troops. The 
evil is aggravated by the practice which prevails of enlisting 
prisoners as well as deserters, and Frenchmen as well as 
other foreigners, notwithstanding the repeated orders of 
Government upon the subject. The consequence is, there- 
fore, that a foreign regiment cannot be placed in a situation 
in which the soldiers can desert from it, that they do not go 
off in numbers ; and in the Peninsula they carry to the 
enemy the only intelligence which he can acquire. 

' With this knowledge, 1 seldom, if ever, use the foreign 
British troops of this army on the duty of outposts ; and 
whatever you may determine regarding the 2nd Italian 
regiment, I recommend the same practice to your consider- 
ation. 

' There is nothing new on this side of the Peninsula. The 
armies are nearly in the stations which they took up in the 
end of November. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Major Gen. Campbell! ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 143 

To P. C. Tupper, Esq., Consul at Alicante. 
' SIR, ' Freneda, 25th February, 1813. 

' Sir Henry Wellesley has forwarded me your letter of 
the 16th instant, in which you inform him of the arrival at 
Alicante of forty mules taken from the enemy, presented to 
me by Don Asuncion Nebot. 

' As I have not an opportunity of writing to that chief, 
I beg that you will tell him how much I am obliged to him 
for his attention. 

' I have heard of his successful endeavors against the 
enemy with the utmost interest, and I sincerely congratulate 
him upon them ; and I shall be happy to be able to commu- 
nicate with him more closely. 

' I am much obliged to you for having given over the 
mules to the service of the British artillery, where I beg 
they may remain. 

' I take this opportunity of expressing my sense of the 
services which you have rendered to the interesting cause in 
which we are all engaged, in the different situations you 
have filled on the eastern coast of the Peninsula. I have 
read your accounts of transactions there with the utmost 
interest, and I sincerely wish you success. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' P. C. Tupper, Esq.' ( WELLINGTON. 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley , K.B. 
' SIR, ' Freneda, 25th February, 1813. 

' His Majesty's Government have lately sent out to this 
country certain sums of money in guineas to pay his troops, 
which I have issued to the troops at their current value in 
England, viz., one pound one shilling sterling; dollars are 
issued to the troops at the rate of 4s. 6c/. sterling each, which 
is the Mint price of dollars in England, and the guinea there- 
fore, in reference to dollars, is worth four dollars and four- 
sixths of a dollar. 

' The dollar is worth twenty reales vellon ; and the guinea, 
according to the same rule, ought to be worth ninety three 
reales vellon, and twelve maravedis. 

' Some difficulty, however, has occurred in circulating gui- 
neas in Spain at this rate of exchange, which is certainly 



144 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

their intrinsic value ; and I shall be much obliged to you if 
you will bring the subject under the consideration of the 
Spanish Government, and request them to issue a procla- 
mation to authorise the circulation of guineas in Spain at 
the rate of four dollars and four-sixths of a dollar, or at ninety 
three reales twelve maravedis. 

' I have the honor to enclose an extract of a letter which 
I wrote to His Majesty's Minister at Lisbon on this subject*, 
in order to procure their circulation in Portugal, with his 
answer, and the copy of the proclamation of the Portuguese 
Government after an issue of the guineas by the Portuguese 
mint. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 

' The Right Hon. e WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley t R.B? 

To General Castanos. 
< MON CHER GENERAL, ' Freneda, ce 25 Fevrier, 1813. 

1 Je viens de recevoir votre lettre du 22, et les lettres 
officielles qui 1'accompagnent. J'ecrirai des reponses offi- 
cielles a celles ci ; mais en attendant j'ai lu le memoire du Ge- 
neral Giron que je trouve excellent. II fonde ce qu'il propose 
sur ce qui exige le bon sens ; qui est cent fois meilleur regle- 
ment que tout autre. Je ne crois pas qu'il y ait quelque chose 
a trouver a redire dans tout le memoire ; mais comme j'ai dit 
la haut je vous y donnerai une reponse officielle. 

' Pour ce qui regarde les habillemens des troupes en Es- 
tremadure je verrai si je peux vous en donner ; je crois 
cependant que toute la provision de 1'annee derniere est 
finie, et celle pour cette annee n'est pas encore arrivee. D'ail- 
leurs vous en avez besoin, je crois, en Galice, ou je travaille 
avec Salvador pour mettre les choses sur un bon pied ; et je 
crois qu'en ce qui regarde armemens, habillemens, et equipe- 
mens de soldat, 1'annee de Galice sera bientdt mieux que 
jamais. 

' J'ai en main une reforme pour la cavalerie, et, en idee, une 
pour 1'infanterie qui j'espere fera un bon effet. Les Fran- 
qais seraient bien etonnes, et il serait drole, si, apres tout, 
nous eussions une armee Espagnole pour la campagne pro- 
chaine ! Je crains seulement pour les finances. 

' J'ai ordonne a M. Routh de payer a votre ordre les 
* See 25th Nov., 1812, in Vol. ix. 



1813. FRENEDA. 145 

20,000 duros qui sont a Elvas. Que voulez vous qu'on. fasse 
des 80,000 qui sont a la Corrogne ? 

' Je crois qu'en tout cas il faut que nous payions les 
garnisons de Ciudad Rodrigo et de Badajoz, dans le sort 
desquelles nous sommes si fortement interesses, et les troupes 
aussi qui serviront de concert avec notre armee. Si nous 
ne payons pas les dernieres, il y aura beaucoup de mecon- 
tentement, et de la desertion. Mais je ne de'sire pas limi- 
ter mes secours a ces troupes settlement. Si on peut 
trouver du numeraire, j'aurai assez pour donner de la solde 
a 50,000 hommes, dont guere la moitie serait appropriee en 
pay ant les troupes que je vous ai deja propose avec celles 
d' Alicante. 

' Je suis bien fache de ce qui est arrive a . 

Pour moi, j'entends tant de choses sur tout le monde que je 
n'en crois jamais que la moitie : mais je ne crois rien de 

ce qu'on dit de . Cependant sa reputation est 

vraiment mauvaise ; et je crois que ce serait une injustice 
de le faire servir aupres de notre armee dans laquelle on 
parle bien mal de sa conduite a Madrid. Je crois qu'il 
ferait mieux de servir dans 1'armee de Galice. 

' J'ai ecrit a la Regence sur 1' affaire du Marquis del Pa- 
lacio. J'espere que nous nous entendrons a la fin ; mais 
les choses n'ont pas ete bien jusqu'a present. Je serais 
faclie d'etre oblige a donner ma demission ; mais vraiment 
je le ferai, si on n'agit pas avec moi, comme j'agis avec tout 
le monde, c'est a dire, de bonne foi, et selon l'arrangement 
convenu. 

' Je n'ai aucune nouvelle de Cadiz sur la politique, mais 
je serais tente a croire que les affaires vont durer telles 
qu'elles sont, au moins pour quelque temps. 

' Je suis fache d'avoir de si mauvaises nouvelles sur les 
affaires de finance d'Estremadure. II faut esperer que cela 
ira mieux. 

' Je vais demain faire la revue des troupes a Ciudad 
Rodrigo. 

' Agreez, &c. 
General CastaTios. ' WELLINGTON. 

e Je vous prie de faire mes complimens a la Manuela de 
Caldera, et a la Payno.' 

VOL. x. L 



146 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 25th February, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 18th. That which I was 
apprehensive would come into discussion in Parliament, was 
the difference of opinion it was stated in the Spanish news- 
papers that I had with the Cortes ; and the grounds for and 
view of that difference taken by the libellers at Cadiz. How- 
ever, that apprehension is probably groundless ; and at all 
events I have not, nor shall I write another line upon the 
subject, without sending it to you. 

' I wish you would state officially your objections to the 
proposed mode of raising money, and specifically the plan 
proposed instead of it. Have you conversed upon this plan 
with the person whom Mr. Gordon brought to me ? It 
appears to me that nothing can be fairer than this plan to 
all parties ; but I am by no means wedded to it, and I must 
say that I have not yet given even one security in payment 
of our enormous debts. I shall write to Admiral Martin 
respecting the trade with San Sebastian. I write to Ge- 
neral Campbell, and Mr. Tupper by this occasion, letters 
which I send open for your perusal. 

' You do not mention the receipt of my letter to La Vega, 
and I therefore send a duplicate of it. I informed you of 
the conversation I had at Cadiz with the Portuguese Minis- 
ter regarding the claims of La Carlota to the Regency : I 
held precisely the same language at Lisbon to the Portu- 
guese Government and Ministers ; and I rather understood 
from the latter that the Prince Regent, although desirous of 
having the claims of his family to the succession recognised, 
did not wish that Carlota should be Regent ; at least, that 
he had never intimated such a wish. I think that if this 
was known at Cadiz it would settle her claims for ever. 

' There is nothing new. I have been obliged to write 
strongly to the Government on the delay of their measures 
for the settlement of the army, and on their departure from 
their arrangements with me ; I hope I shall by fair means 
bring them to rights, if not, I must resign the command. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. mifaley, K. B. 



1813. FRENEDA. 147 

' I do not write to Nebot, but leave it to Tupper to write 
to him.' 

To Lieut. General Sir B. Hill, K.B. 
' MY DEAR HlLL, ' Freneda, 27th February, 1813. 

' I write to let you know that an expedition is talked of 
at Salamanca, to the Sierra, of 8000 men, to be collected from 
the Tormes. This may not be true, but it is as well to 
attend to the report so far as not to undo your arrange- 
ments, if you can keep there without material inconvenience 
I think likewise, that if the green forage has begun to appear 
on this side of the Tagus, you might bring the Royals or 
3rd dragoon guards to Zarza or Moraleja. 

' I have ordered the 4th division to this side of the Coa, 
and shall observe closely what passes. Do you observe what 
passes on the side of the Tietar and Alberche. We must 
save these Sierras, and keep the pass if we can without 
material risk or loss. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir R. Hill, K.B.' 

To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 
' MY DEAR BERESFORD, ' Freneda, 27th February, 1813. 

' I have had a conversation with Lieut. Colonel Fisher 
and Colonel Dickson respecting our and your ordnance ar- 
rangements for the next campaign. 

' I shall be perfectly satisfied if you can equip one nine 
pounder brigade, (new pattern) and one six pounder brigade, 
to be with Hamilton's division, and one nine pounder brigade, 
(new pattern) to be in our reserve. I will take from you, 
and will pay for the use of the British artillery equipments, 
all the draft mules you will have over and above that com- 
plement, which shall be delivered to us fit for service. 

' We must have a company of Portuguese artillery in our 
reserve, besides the artillery attached to the brigades with 
Hamilton and in our reserve. 

' I should wish all the ammunition with these brigades to 
be on carriages ; and I recommend to you to apply the car- 
riage or pack mules you have collected for the gun ammuni- 
tion, to carry musket ammunition or provisions. 

L 2 



148 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' We want only 1500 horses or mules to complete our 
artillery equipment to what is absolutely necessary to draw 
it. However, I believe I shall get them before the time 
comes for opening the campaign. The taking your nine 
pounder brigade into the reserve will save us 170 horses ; 
but we shall still want the 1500. 

* Believe me, &c. 

' Marshal ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B.' 

To Major General Hay. \ 

f SIR, ' Freneda, 27th February, 1813. 

' I return the proceedings of the General Court Martial 

of which you are President, on the trial of . 

' If the latter part of what is contained in the sentence is 

considered by the Court as a recommendation of , 

it must, according to the Standing Orders of the service 
(of which it is extraordinary that I should have occasion to 
remind the General Court Martial), be conveyed in a letter 
separate from the sentence. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Major General Hay.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To . 

' MONSIEUR LE GENERAL, ' a Freneda, ce 27 Fevrier, 1813. 

< J'ai rec,u votre lettre du 23 de Badajoz. C'est au Ge- 
neral Castanos, et pas a moi, qu'il appartient de faire les 
arrangemens de la 4 me armee, avec lesquels je n'ai rien a 
faire, que de voir qu'ils ne sont pas contraires au bien du 
service. 

' J'ai toujours eu lieu d'etre content de votre service pen- 
dant que vous serviez de concert avec cette armee ; mais, a 
vous dire le vrai, je crois que ce vous serait une injustice de 
vous y remettre ; et que vous ferez mieux de vous poster a 
V armee de Galice. 

' Vous savez que je suis dans Thabitude de dire mon avis 
franchement ; et si mon feu ami le Marquis de la Rom an a 
etait ici, je lui dirais la meme chose. 

< J'ai 1'honneur d'etre, &c. 
' .' ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 149 

To the Conde de la Bisbal. 
' MY DEAR SIR, 'Freneda, 27th February, 1813. 

' I shall be glad to learn from you how you find yourself, 
and whether your wounds are getting better, and are likely 
to enable you to take an active share in the next campaign. 

' You will have seen the result of my letter to the Go- 
vernment in consequence of your reports to me. Matters 
appear to me now to be in a state that we shall be able 
to make the experiment whether any thing can or cannot be 
got from the country on account of the legitimate Govern- 
ment. You will likewise have seen that the gentleman 
whom you had recommended has at last been appointed 
Intendant General of the Army of Reserve. 

' I have written to the Government on the subject of your 
last letter to me ; and I trust that I shall at last have put an 
end to the interference of the Government in concerns in 
which they renounced all direct interference by their ar- 
rangement with me. 

' You will have seen that I have directed General Freyre's 
cavalry to assemble on the Guadalquivir, with a view to 
their re-equipment, and to save the horses from starving at 
the present moment. I have in contemplation, indeed I 
have already commenced, a re- organization of the cavalry in 
the old established regiments of the service, which I propose 
to carry into execution, by degrees, as circumstances will 
permit ; which arrangement I hope will eventually restore 
that arm in the Spanish armies. I have likewise in contem- 
plation an im provement of the organization of the infantry, 
upon which I should wish to have your opinion. 

' The regiments now consist of one battalion, having a 
Colonel, Lieutenant Colonel, and Major; and 8 companies, 
each company having one Captain and 4 Subalterns, and an 
establishment of 150 men. The objection I have to this 
organization is ; First, that, if a regiment should be complete, 
it consists of too many men to be manageable, particularly 
by officers themselves not very well trained to discipline. 

' Secondly ; there are in every regiment of infantry at pre- 
sent a very large proportion of men, either from youth and 
weakness, or from age and infirmities, not fit for the active 



150 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

duties of the field ; and all these, in the event of the regi- 
ment marching to the field, would become a burden to the 
army. 

'Thirdly ; there are duties to be performed, or garrisons to 
be occupied, in each of the districts allotted for the support 
of the armies. Indeed, it is not quite clear to me that any 
contributions will be realized without military assistance. 
All these duties might be performed by the men above re- 
ferred to, if properly organized. 

' Fourthly ; the regiments, as now formed, have no reserve. 
A regiment takes the field, and if, by the fatigues of the ser- 
vice or the casualties of war, its numbers should be reduced, 
it must go bodily to garrison ; whereas, by the organization 
which I propose, it will always be possible to keep it up in a 
respectable state for service. 

' What I should propose is that each regiment should 
consist of 1 Colonel, 1 Lieutenant Colonel, 1 Major, and 12 
companies, each of 100 men, and 1 Captain and 3 Subaltern 
Officers. The regiment to be formed into two battalions, each 
battalion of 6 companies, and the Colonel and Lieutenant 
Colonel, or Colonel and Major, to be with the first battalion ; 
the Lieutenant Colonel or Major, as the arrangement might 
be, with the second. In case the regiment should not consist 
of 1200 men complete, it should have only 10 companies, of 
which 6 in the first, and 4 in the second battalion. 

' The regiment would thus become much more manage- 
able in manoeuvre. If the Commander of the Army should 
have any occasion to leave any troops in his district, he 
would have the facility of leaving the least disciplined and 
weakly men of the regiments under his command, who would 
be in a state of organization to perform some service. The 
second battalion of a regiment left behind in cantonments 
would be a reserve for the first, and would furnish it with 
trained recruits to keep up its numbers. 

' The two battalions of the same regiment should always 
belong to the same army ; and it would of course rest with 
the Commander in Chief of the Army whether he would or 
not take both into the field. If he should do so, they would 
of course act together in the same brigade under the com- 
mand of the Colonel, but in separate battalions. Generally 



1813. FRENEDA. 151 

speaking, however, I would recommend to leave the second 
battalion in cantonments, and to have the first battalion 
only in the field. 

' I shall be obliged to you if you will communicate to me 
your sentiments on this scheme. 

' The office of Inspector General in the Spanish army is a 
very ancient one, which, as at present exercised, does not 
appear to be very useful, although it might be very much so. 
I propose to try what I can do on this point, and whether I 
cannot get the most able officer of rank in each army ap- 
pointed the Inspectors, really to perform the duties of the 
office. This, with the frequent reviews and inspections by 
the General Officers of the army, will aid in restoring disci- 
pline and appearance, which is very important. 

' There is nothing new on this side. The enemy appear 
to have quitted the Upper Tormes since their affair with our 
troops at Bejar on the 20th. But I suspect that they want 
to get hold of the Sierra, and I have collected a few troops 
to prevent them. We are tolerably strong, and I shall 
certainly assemble the troops as soon as the green forage 
appears. 

' Believe me, &c. 
The Conde de la BisbaL ' WELLINGTON. 

' I write to you in English, because I write that language 
with most facility ; but I can read Spanish perfectly, and 
beg that you will use that language in your reply, which will 
be most convenient to yourself.' 

To the Judge Advocate General. 

' SlR, ' Freneda, 27th February, 1813. 

' I enclose the proceedings of a General Court Martial on 
the trial of , Deputy Assistant Commissary Ge- 
neral, and the recommendation of that gentleman, upon 
which I request you to take the pleasure of His Royal High- 
ness the Prince Regent. 

' I have to inform you that is under arrest 

upon another charge, on which, to save time, his prose- 
cutor has offered to admit all he has stated he wishes to 
prove by calling the Commissary General, Mr. Bissett, from 



152 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

Gibraltar, and other witnesses who cannot conveniently be 
assembled at this trial. He has since declared he wishes to 
prove more ; that Mr. Bissett must appear, however incon- 
venient to the service ; and that he protests against being 
tried, unless all the witnesses are present. 

' You will observe the opinion of the General Court 

Martial, that is not a person in a sane state of 

mind ; and if His Royal Highness should be pleased to 
attend to the recommendation of the Court Martial in his 
favor, I humbly beg leave to recommend that it should be 
on condition of his resigning his situation in His Majesty's 
service. 

* ' I have the honor to be, &c. 

The Judge Advocate General: . ' WELLINGTON. 

To Brigadier General Inglis. 

< SIR, ' Freneda, 28tli February, 1813. 

' I have perused the proceedings of the General Court 
Martial of which you are President, on the trial of Mr. De- 
puty Assistant Commissary ; and I must request the 

Court to revise both their proceedings and sentence. 

' In regard to their proceedings, the Court should ascer- 
tain the amount due to the public, and not refer to any other 
authority whatever. 

' In regard to the sentence, it appears to me to be ex- 
traordinary that the Court should have found the prisoner 
guilty of disobedience of a positive order in, making pur- 
chases at all ; that they should have found him guilty of 
making purchases at extravagant prices ; and should have 
by their sentence awarded that punishment which is attached 
to embezzlement, and yet should have acquitted the pri- 
soner of " fraudulently and wilfully misapplying the public 
monies." 

' I should wish the Court to consider whether the disobe- 
dience of the orders of his superior officer by Mr. is 

not sufficient at least to constitute the wilful misapplication 
of the public money; and whether, considering the difficulty 
of proving the positive receipt of profit in a transaction of 
this description, it ought not to be taken into consideration 
by the Court, together with the general color of the transac- 



1813. FRENEDA. 153 

tion itself, to induce the Court to attach to it those terms of 
infamy which undoubtedly belong to it. 

' If the Court do not think proper to alter their sen- 
tence as above suggested, I have then to inform them that I 
doubt the legality of that part of their sentence which goes 

to make Mr. pay a sum of money to the public. 

Upon this point I beg leave to refer the Court to the Mutiny 
Act and Articles of War, in which they will see that the 
power to sentence the payment of a sum of money found to 
be due depends upon the finding of the guilt of embezzlement. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Brig. General Inglis.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Major General Whittingham. 
< SIR, ' Freneda, 1st March, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your several letters to 
the 1st of February, by the Chief of the Staff of your divi- 
sion who arrived here yesterday. 

' In answer to your letter of the 26th January, I have to 
inform you, that Captain Grey being employed on the east- 
ern coast of the Peninsula, on the service of the regiment to 
which he belongs, I cannot allow him to serve in the Spanish 
army. 

' I have settled with the Inspectors General of Cavalry and 
Infantry, that you shall be appointed the Inspector of both 
arms in the division of troops under your command; and 
you will carry on that duty according to the orders and regu- 
lations of the Spanish Government. 

' I have settled with the Inspector of the Cavalry to draft 
the Hussars of Aragon, and the regiment of Cuenca, into the 
regiments of Almanza and Olivenca. This draft will make 
those regiments over complete in men ; but you will dispose 
of the horses as you may think proper among the trained 
men of the regiments as already formed, and the others you 
will have trained either in Spain or Majorca, until I shall 
send orders for the disposal of them. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
* Major Gen. Whiitingham: ' WELLINGTON. 



154 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To Major General Roche. 

< SIR, ' Freneda, 1st March, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 3rd of February. 

' The division of troops under the command of General 
Whittingham belongs to the army of Majorca ; that under 
your command belongs to the 3rd army ; but it is for the 
present detached from that army, for the purpose of co-ope- 
rating with the allied British and Sicilian corps at Alicante. 

' I do not propose to make any alteration in this arrange- 
ment. 

' I have written to General Elio, to request that he will 
direct arrangements may be made for the supply of the troops 
under your command, and those under the command of 
General Whittingham. 

' I understand that the troops under your command, as 
well as all others of the Spanish nation, are in the service of 
His Catholic Majesty ; and they are neither your property, 
nor that of any other Spanish General officer. They will be 
attached to those under your command or not, as may be 
convenient to the service, and not otherwise ; and I beg that 
the complaints on this subject, and the requests that certain 
troops may be called back to your division, may not be re- 
peated. 

' This reasoning applies to the Hussars of Fernando VII., 
equally with the regiments of Aragon and Burgos ; and I 
am surprised that so much time has elapsed since the cloth- 
ing and appointments for that regiment have arrived in Spain ; 
and that the regiment should not yet have received either. 

' I write by this occasion to General Elio, to desire that 
the regiment may be placed in a convenient situation to re- 
ceive its clothing and appointments from Alicante, which I 
desire may be delivered to the commanding officer of the 
regiment when he shall call for them, and that the regiment 
may afterwards be disposed of, according to orders which 
shall go from hence. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Major General Roche." ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 155 

To General Elio. 

< SIR, ' Freneda, 1st March, 1813. 

' The Chief of the Staff will have made you acquainted 
with the motives which induced me to order a part of the 
cavalry belonging to the army under your command to move 
to the Guadalquivir ; and I have to inform you that the same 
motives have dictated the orders which I send by this occa- 
sion, in regard to the Hussars of Aragon, and the regiment 
of Cuenca, and in regard to the Hussars of Fernando VII. 

' I can assure your Excellency, however, that it is not my 
intention to weaken the corps of troops under your com- 
mand. I hope to be able to render it as efficient as you 
could wish before the campaign shall commence, and that you 
will have those opportunities of distinguishing yourself, of 
which you are desirous. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
General Elio.' - ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don M. Pedrorena. 

' MONSIEUR, ' Au quartier General, ce 1 Mars, 1813. 

' J'ai rec,u votre lettre du 20 Fevrier. J'ai pris des infor- 
mations sur les reclamations que vous faites sur la laine qui 
a ete prise pour le service du siege de Burgos ; et j'ai trouve 
que nous vous sommes endettes pour une quantite de laine, 
qu'il parait par votre lettre monte a quarante-six ballots. Je 
vous prie de me faire savoir le prix de cette laine, et de vous 
assurer que vous en serez paye. 

' Pour ce qui regarde le bled, la toile, et 1' argent, je crois 
que ces objets ont ete donnes a 1'armee du General Cas- 
tanos, et pour ceux-la je ne peux pas etre responsable. 

' J'ai 1'honneur d'etre, &c. 
' Don M. Pedrorena: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 

< SIR, ' Freneda, 1st March, 1813. 

' The regiments of infantry, Pontevedra and El Principe, 
belonging to the 4th army, and now stationed in the neigh- 
bourhood of Coruna, are, according to the last accounts, 
composed generally of men who, having heretofore deserted 



156 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

from the service, have been brought back to it; and they 
are generally natives of the provinces of the north of Spain. 

' As I know it is the wish of the Regency to reinforce the 
troops in Catalonia, I have requested the British Admiral at 
Lisbon to send transports to Coruna ; and propose to 
order that these two regiments may be embarked in them, 
and sent as soon as possible to Catalonia. 

' In case the Government should entertain any objections 
to this measure, I beg to hear from you upon it without loss 
of time ; that if necessary, I may be able to prevent the em- 
barkation of the troops. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don J. de Carvajal: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Sir R. Kennedy, Commissary General. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 2nd March, 1813. 

' I beg that you will send to Coruna by the first oppor- 
tunity, to be at the disposal of Lieut. Colonel Bourke, 1800 
Flanders kettles, 5000 wooden canteens with straps, 16,000 
turnscrcws with worms, of the stores at Lisbon in your 
charge, for the use of the Spanish army. 

' I have written to Admiral Martin, to request him to send 
some transports to Coruna, and these articles might go by 
that opportunity. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
* Sir S. Kennedy' , ' WELLINGTON. 

To Vice Admiral G. Martin. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 2nd March, 1813. 

' There are in Galicia, in the neighbourhood of Coruna, 
two Spanish regiments of infantry, that of El Principe, and 
that of Pontevedra, consisting in the whole of 2000 men, which 
it is expedient should be sent from Coruna into Catalonia; 
and I shall be very much obliged to you if you will let me 
know whether it will be convenient to you to send transports 
to Coruna to take them round. If you can, I request 
you to send them to Coruna as soon as may be convenient 
to you; taking to Coruna certain stores, for which the 
Commissary General will make the usual application for con- 
veyance. 



1813. FRENEDA. 157 

' On the arrival of these vessels at Coruna, it is desira- 
ble that the officer in command of them should not mention 
for what purpose he is sent to Coruna ; and that he should 
be directed to communicate with Lieut. Colonel Bourke at 
that place, and to follow the directions he will receive from 
that officer in regard to the embarkation of the troops, and 
the period of his sailing. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Vice Admiral G. Martin.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To General Castaiios. 
' SIR, ' Freneda, 2nd March, 1813. 

' I have considered with the utmost attention the letter of 
your Excellency of the 22nd of February, enclosing one of 
the 14th of February from Don Pedro Augustin Giron, Chief 
of the Staff of the 4th army, and a memoir and other docu- 
ments from that officer, in regard to the organization to be 
given to that army, under existing circumstances, which do 
the highest credit to the sense, the diligence, and ability of 
that officer. 

' Having referred these papers to the consideration of the 
Chief of the Staff, I enclose his report upon them, and I 
now proceed to make you acquainted with my opinion, and 
with the measures which I wish you to adopt, 

' I concur entirely in the opinion of General Giron, that 
the organization of the 4th army must not be framed accord- 
ing to any technical rules supposed to be fixed, but should 
be adapted to circumstances. It is my opinion, however, 
that he has not carried that wise principle as far as it is ex- 
pedient that it should be carried, in the measures which he 
has proposed for your Excellency's consideration. 

' The armies of all the allied nations are now in quarters 
of refreshment, and they may be considered as on the defen- 
sive. But this state will soon be changed ; and whatever 
form of organization we may give to the 4th army, the mode 
in which the several parts of which it is composed will then 
be employed, and the situation at that time of the several 
countries from which the resources of the 4th army are to be 
drawn, become objects to be considered, and should be con- 
sidered, in reference to the organization of the army. 



158 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

* 

' That part of the 4th army now in Estremadura, must 
necessarily, a part of it form the garrison of Badajoz, 
and be employed in aid of the civil and financial authority 
of the Government ; and that part of it which will take the 
field, must necessarily co-operate with the right of the allied 
British and Portuguese army. That part of the 4th army 
now in Castille, must necessarily form the garrison of Ciudad 
Rodrigo, and support the civil authority in Castille ; while 
those troops which are disposable for the field, must neces- 
sarily co-operate with the left of the allied British and Por- 
tuguese army. This statement of the circumstances in which 
the troops composing the right wing of the 4th army are 
likely to be placed, will tend to show that it is expedient to 
carry still further than General Giron has proposed, the 
principles which he has himself established. For this exten- 
sion further reasons will be found in the measures to be 
adopted for the exercise of the command in the provinces of 
Estremadura and Castille, during the absence of your Ex- 
cellency from those provinces. In fact, the General officer 
commanding the right wing as proposed to be formed by 
General Giron, would be absent, it is to be hoped, at least 
from Estremadura equally with your Excellency ; and this 
province, so interesting from the resources which may be 
expected from it, would remain without a military command- 
ing officer, on whose exertions every thing depends under 
the existing system. 

' To these considerations are to be added those relating 
to expense, referred to in the memorandum from the Chief of 
the Staff; and upon the whole, I recommend you to arrange 
this part of your command, which is totally disconnected 
from the rest, in the following manner : 

' First ; That you should appoint a General officer to 
command in Estremadura, and another in Castille for the 
present, as far as the Tormes, under the orders of your Ex- 
cellency. 

' Secondly ; That in order to save expense, and the em- 
ployment of additional Staff officers, these General officers 
should be, one, the acting Governor of Badajoz, and the 
other, the Governor of Ciudad Rodrigo. But if your Excel- 
lency should not deem this expedient, it is desirable that 



1813. FRENEDA. 159 

those Governors and their garrisons should be under the 
orders of the General officers whom you should appoint to 
command in Estremadura and Castille respectively. 

' Thirdly ; That the brigade under the command of Ge- 
neral Morillo, and that in Castille, hitherto under Don 
Carlos de Espana, should be considered as detached for 
a particular purpose, and, for the moment, from the 4th 
army, equally with the garrisons of Ciudad Rodrigo and 
Badajoz. 

' Fourthly ; That the cavalry under the Conde de Penne 
Villemur should be considered as a brigade of cavalry instead 
of a division as proposed ; and that this brigade, as well as 
the troops under Don Julian, should be considered as de- 
tached, in like manner with the infantry. These detached 
brigades, and the garrisons of Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz, 
will have the several Staff and Commissaries attached to 
them ; the latter of course under the direction of the Inten- 
dant General of the 4th army. 

' This arrangement will suit the circumstances of the mo- 
ment, whether referring to the territory, the troops, or the 
prospects of the campaign ; while, if circumstances should 
enable the armies to connect more closely, it will be easy to 
join the detached parts of the 4th army to the main body. 
It has, besides, the advantage of saving an unnecessary ex- 
penditure of money in Staif and Commissariat officers. 

' Having thus disposed of the right wing of the 4th army, 
as proposed by General Giron, I come to what he calls the 
centre, which is, in fact, the army ; and I conceive that that 
part of it which has hitherto been the 6th army, and the 
division of Porlier, and the cavalry under the Conde de Fi- 
quelmont, should be the right wing of the 4th army, and 
the troops of the 7th army, the left wing. 

' It is my opinion that the right wing should consist of 
three divisions of infantry; of which the infantry of the 
late 6th army should compose two, and the division of 
Porlier the 3rd ; and the left wing, of three divisions com- 
posed of the troops heretofore of the 7th army, as proposed 
by General Giron. 

' The next point to be considered is the General Officers 
and Staff for these wings, their relation to each other, and to 
your Excellency ; and to the territories from which the re- 



160 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

sources are to be drawn by which these troops are to be 
maintained. 

' The General Officers and Staff of the former 6th army 
would naturally form that of the right wing, under the 
direction of the Staff of the 4th army attached to your 
Excellency ; and the General Officers and Staff hitherto 
attached to the 7th army would form that of the left wing, 
under the same directions ; and each with the diminutions 
which the alteration in the organization of the armies may 
have rendered practicable. 

' In regard to the command of these wings, at least of 
the right, it is a consideration entirely for your Excellency's 
convenience. 

e It might be convenient to your Excellency to have a 
second in command to assist you in the management of all 
the various concerns confided to your superintendence ; or 
it might be convenient to appoint a particular officer to 
command the right wing and another the left wing, under 
your Excellency's directions ; or to keep the command of 
the whole of the six divisions of which the 4th army will be 
composed in your own hands, and those of the Chief of the 
Staff of the 4th army. 

' In whatever way you will decide this point, and I would 
rather recommend the adoption of the division of command 
by wings, I would suggest to you that General Giron 
should be your second ; or that he should be appointed to 
command the right wing of the army ; or that he should 
continue to assist you, if you should adopt the plan last pro- 
posed, as the Chief of the Staff. 

' If you should adopt the mode proposed of dividing the 
army in wings, it would be desirable that you should name 
the General Officer commanding the right wing to be your 
deputy in Galicia, Leon, and Asturias ; and the General 
Officer commanding the left wing in the Provincias Vascon- 
gadas. 

' I believe that I have now gone through all the points 
referred to in General Giron's letter and memoir; and 
have given you my opinion, and communicated my wishes 
upon them. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
General Castanos: ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. PRENEDA. 1GI 



To General Castaiios. 

' Mox CHER GENERAL, ' Frencda, ce 2 Mars, 1813. 

' Jc vous cnvoic un memoirc en Anglais, sur un plan d'or- 
ganisation pour 1'infanteric, quo je vous pric dc vous f'airc 
traduirc en Franqais ou Espagnol, par le Capitaine Mallet, 
et jc vous serai bicn oblige dc me donner votrc opinion 
la dessus aussitdt quo vous pouvez. 

'Agreez, &c. 
1 General Castaiios' f WELLINGTON. 

To Major General the Hon. E. Stafford. 

* MY DEAR STOPFORD, ' Frencda, 3rd March, 1813. 

4 1 received in due course your letter of the 2nd February, 
to which I delayed to write an answer till Mr. Sodre 
should arrive, whom I expected daily ; as I wished to refer to 
my correspondence with the Prince Regent before I should 
reply to you. He, however, like others, had his engage-' 
ments at Lisbon, and arrived here only yesterday, and 
having referred to my papers I find that I omitted your 
name in the list which I sent to the Brazils of those on 
whom I thought His Royal Highness might with propriety 
confer the order of the Tower and Sword. 

' Why I omitted it, excepting that you were not with the 
army at the time I wrote upon this subject, and your name 
was not on the list which I had before me, it is impossible 
for me at this moment to account for ; but certainly not with 
any intention of mortifying you ; and still less with that of 
casting a shir on your character. Indeed, I hope that this 
mode of considering an omission which can easily be rectified, 
is only a fafon de parler; and that you will think no more 
of it. 

' Believe me, Sec. 

' Major General ' WELLINGTON. 

the Hon. E. Stopford? 

To Lieut. General Sir John Murray. 

' MY DEAR GENERAL, ' Freneda, 3rd March, 1813. 

'I have received your letter of the 13th February, from 
VOL. x. M 



162 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

Gibraltar, and I shall be very happy to have your assistance 
on the other side of the Peninsula. 

' The season is not yet sufficiently advanced to enable 
us here to take the field, and till we can do so in strength 
we should only lose the corps employed in partial attempts 
elsewhere. I hope soon, however, to be able to collect the 
army; and I shall send you instructions as to the part you 
are to act. I am inclined to believe that your operations 
must necessarily be connected with the fleet or the coast, 
and must be much of the same description with those 
carried on by me in the first campaign, that of 1808 in 
Portugal. There is nothing new in this part of the world. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir John Murray.' 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

* MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 3rd March, 1813. 

' I enclose you the copy of the letter from Sir Charles 
Stuart, and of the note of the Portuguese minister in regard 
to the employment of the Russian troops in Portugal, which 
you will communicate, if you deem it expedient, to the 
Spanish Government. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Bight Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, K.B.' 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 3rd March, 1813. 

' I think it proper to enclose, for the notice of Govern- 
ment, a letter which has been sent here by two persons in 
my confidence at Salamanca, being the account of what 
passed at a meeting of the Ayuntamiento of that town as- 
sembled under the direction of the Corregidor appointed by 
the enemy, as it tends to show that the enemy have reverted 
to the plan of assembling the Cortes, which they had in 
contemplation in the last year. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Don J. de Carvajal.' ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 163 

To Colonel Torrens. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 3rd March, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose a letter from Colonel Bun- 
bury, containing General Leigh's request, that I should 
apply to the Commander in Chief to recommend that the 
Buffs should be permitted to wear " Douro" on their colors. 
As this regiment distinguished itself particularly in the 
passage of that river, I beg you will submit the proposition 
to His Royal Highness' favorable consideration. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Colonel Torrens.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 3rd March, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter from Major General Campbell, giving 
an account of the conduct of the 2nd Italian regiment at an 
outpost at Xixona, which had induced him to detain that 
regiment and re-embark it ; and the copy of a letter which I 
have written to Major General Campbell on that subject. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 3rd March, 1813. 1 

' I enclose the last daily state, in which are not included 
the hussar brigade, nor D'Urban's cavalry. 

' There are at least 2000 Portuguese infantry returned 
on command who are on furlough with their friends, and 
will be present for duty ; and there will be some reinforce- 
ments for the Portuguese army from the depot at Mafra. 
I think, likewise, that I shall have some more men from 
our hospitals. But we are already stronger than we have 
ever been since I have commanded the army ; and I hope 
in every respect more efficient. 

' We want, however, 1500 horses to complete the equip- 
ment of the artillery (that is without spare) for which I 
asked in October ; after turning the last troop of horse 
artillery which arrived into a nine pounder troop, and sub- 
stituting a Portuguese brigade of artillery for a British 

M2 



164 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

brigade in the reserve. I do not hear of more than 800 
horses coming out, of which 100 have been given to the 
troops at Alicante, as I have understood, and lately informed 
your Lordship. But we are purchasing mules and doing 
every thing in our power to render this equipment com- 
plete. 

' I have been doing every thing in my power to get on the 
Spanish army ; and I must do the officers the justice to say 
that I have reason to believe they do every thing in their 
power. I have much reason, however, to complain of the 
delays and conduct of the Government on various points 
connected with the army since I quitted Cadiz ; upon which 
I have written to them in such terms as, I hope, will bring 
them to their senses. We have large bodies of men well 
clothed, armed and accoutred, and in a certain state of dis- 
cipline. 

' It is still doubtful whether I can realize any resources 
from the country, so as to be able to make any use of 
these troops as an army in the field. Indeed I am afraid 
it is almost hopeless, and the chief reliance is upon that 
part of the British subsidy not already appropriated, for 
any effectual aid from the Spanish army. I calculate that 
I have appropriated half of it, or 500,000. It is very 
doubtful whether we shall realize more, or even that sum 
without material inconvenience to the military chest of the 
army. I shall, however, do every thing in my power, aided 
by your Lordship's monthly 100,000, which you will 
observe has been of such use to us, that not only has the 
produce of our bills been greater since we have received 
this supply regularly, but what is still more extraordinary, 
I do not believe you have received any complaint of want 
of money for many months. 

' Although I believe the Spanish army are generally 
clothed, and they ought not to want clothing for at least 
a year, I think it would be advisable to let iis have clothing 
for 100,000 men, instead of for 50,000, in the year 1813. 
You may depend upon it that none shall be issued, the issue 
of which can be avoided; and|I have it in my power to 
control this concern in any way I please. By sending the 
100,000 suits this year, I shall have time to distribute and 
send them to the different armies when wanted. I enclose 



1813. FRENEDA. 163 

a list of the articles sent last year, and have marked 
those which may, with great propriety, be omitted in future. 
' I am inclined to think that we should do very well, 
nay much better, without the military agents ; and I shall 
be glad to know whether there is any objection to my 
informing them that they are no longer to be employed as 
such, in case I should continue to think they arc of no use. 
I believe that Colonel Bourke ought to be continued, but 
none of the others. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ( WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 3rd March, 1813. 

' The enemy have made no movement in this part of the 
country since I addressed you on the 24th ultimo. It is 
generally reported throughout the country that they propose 
again to, attack our post at Bcjar, but I have not heard of 
any movements or preparations which give any ground to 
believe that such a design is entertained. 

' I have not yet received the details of the operations of 
the enemy's corps, which I reported in my last had crossed 
the Esla. It is reported that they surprised the Spanish 
fort at Benavente, and moved forward as far as Villa de 
Ciervos, towards Braganza. They retired from thence, but 
I have since heard they had returned on the 26th to Villa 
de Ciervos. These accounts are not official, but I have sent 
to have the details. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Earl Bathurst: ... ' WELLINGTON. 

To Ccnde de la Bisbal. 

1 SIR, ' Freneda, 5th March, 1813. 

' I have received your Excellency's letter of the 21st of 
February, in regard to the promotion of Captain Don Juan 
Mendeta, of the regiment of Voluntaries de Espaha ; and 
your Excellency may depend upon my earnest desire to pro- 
cure the promotion of those officers who shall, by their good 
conduct, attract the attention of the General officers under 
whose orders they are serving ; and that I shall take an early 



166 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

opportunity of endeavoring to forward your wishes in regard 
to Don Juan Mendcta. 

' It is very important to restore and maintain the autho- 
rity of the Royal Ordenanzas on the subject of promotions 
as well as on other points ; but I hope that it will not be in- 
consistent with a due observance of these, to forward the 
promotion of those officers who, by their conduct, attract the 
attention of the General officers under whose orders they 
are serving. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Conde de la Bisbal: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 5th March, 1813. 

' I have received your Excellency's orders of the 19th 
and the 22nd of February ultimo, the first directing that 
Brigadiers Don Pascual Linan and Don Josef Zaldivar 

should be sent to , and the last directing that the 

1st battalion of Spanish guards, serving in the 3rd army, 
and now at Granada, should be sent to Puerto de Santa 
Maria. 

' Your Excellency will see, by the reports transmitted to 
your Excellency by this occasion, that I have obeyed the 
orders of the Government in respect to the Brigadiers 
General. 

' I am not acquainted with the employment of Brigadier 
Linan in the 4th army. Brigadier General Zaldivar now 
commands that division of the 4th army which is in Castille ; 
Mariscal de Campo, Don Carlos de Espana, being absent by 
leave of the Regency, and Brigadier General Carroll being 
absent on account of sickness. But I conclude that the 
necessity of calling these officers to Cadiz was urgent, and, 
notwithstanding that this division now remains without a 
General officer, the order of the Government is obeyed. 

1 1 do not exactly understand, by the terms of your Excel- 
lency's letter regarding the Spanish guards, whether you 
have or not sent orders to this corps to march ; but at all 
events I have sent them the orders. I have likewise sent 
orders to the Conde de la Bisbal to give directions that they 
may be provided for on the march. I have received no 



1813. FRENEDA. 167 

reports, nor has the Chief of the Staff, of the bad state 
of this battalion ; and, as it is in Granada, where it ought 
to be well provided for, and, I understand, has been lately 
clothed, I am astonished that it should be in the state 
represented to the Regency ; and I am equally surprised 
that such a report 'on any corps of the army should have 
reached them by any channel excepting by that appointed 
by themselves, and should have been deemed so authentic 
as to induce them to act upon it. 

' I beg leave to remind your Excellency that this is the 
third regiment of infantry, making in the whole about 3000 
men, which have been drawn from the armies on that side 
of the Peninsula, by orders direct from your Excellency, 
without any reference to my opinion. I likewise beg leave 
to remind your Excellency that, when you think proper to 
send orders direct to the troops of one army to march into the 
district, the resources of which are allotted to the support of 
another army, it is necessary to apprize the General officer 
commanding that army of the passage of such troops, in 
order that he may give directions that they may be provided 
for ; and that, in case such troops are to remain permanently 
in such district, it is necessary in order that they may be 
transferred to the army for whose subsistence the resources 
of the district are allotted. 

' If these measures are not adopted, the troops must con- 
tinue to exist by plunder and other irregular means ; and 
the advantages expected to result from the measures which 
1 had the honor to propose to the Government will not be 
realized. 

* I wait the directions of the Government to order the 
battalion of Spanish guards to be transferred to the Army 
of Reserve. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don J. de Carvajai: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General the Hon. Sir G. L. Cole, K.B. 

' MY DEAR COLE, ' Freneda, 7th March, 1813. 

' The mail has just arrived and brought the enclosed 
letters to announce that you are made a Knight of the Bath, 



1G8 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

of which I received an intimation some time ago. I beg 
leave to congratulate you on this well-deserved honor. 

' The box containing the insignia is here, and I will in- 
vest you with them with the greatest satisfaction on any day 
you will come over here. 

' We are not very roomy at Frcneda, but we ought to 
have present the General officer and Staff of your division, 
and some of the commanding officers of regiments. 

' I am not quite certain that it would not be best to ad- 
journ head quarters to Ciudad Eodrigo for the occasion. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

the Hon. Sir G. L. Cole, 



To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

< g 1R) ' Frcneda, 7th March, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 2nd 
instant, with its enclosure from Dom Miguel Forjaz, con- 
taining the request of the Portuguese Government that the 
persons concerned in the outrage committed at Punhete 
should be tried by a British Military Court ; and I have to 
request that you will return to me the proceedings of the 
Court of Inquiry held for the investigation of this case, 
which I transmitted to you in my letter of the 26th of Ja- 
nuary last. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Sir Charles Stuart, K.B: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

MY DEATI SIR, ' Frenoda, 7th March, 1813. 

4 I shall be very much obliged to you if you will draw the 
attention of the Portuguese Government to the state of the 
arrear of pay due to the troops which form the operating 
army, and urge them to adopt some decisive measures to 
bring it up more nearly to a par with the arrear to our 
troops. We are now paying up to the 24th of November, 
whereas the Portuguese troops have not received farther 
than June ; and yet the subsidy is paid regularly ; indeed, 
it is the only payment not in arrear. 



1813. FRF-NEDA. 169 

( The greatest inconvenience, indeed serious evils, were 
the consequences last campaign of the deficiency of regular 
payments to the Portuguese troops, which will be aggravated 
in the next campaign if some decided measures are not 
adopted to apply a remedy to the evil. I should wish the 
Government to apply the remedy themselves ; and I suggest 
to them, first, to abolish the Junta de Viveres totally, and to 
put a stop to the payments still making in the most extrava- 
gant and shameful manner by, or on account of that infamous 
board ; and, secondly, to raise the direct taxes, as I proposed 
to them last year, in Lisbon and Oporto. 

' I have ascertained that the sum required to pay the 
officers and troops actually employed in the field amounts 
to between 150,000 and 160,000 dollars monthly; and, if the 
Portuguese Government do not adopt arrangements to 
satisfy me that this sum shall be paid in every month, I must 
state the matter to my own Government, and to the Prince 
Regent, and must adopt other measures which are in my 
power to secure the regular payment, at least on a par with 
our troops, of the officers and soldiers of the Portuguese 
army composing the army in the field. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 
' SIR, ' Freneda, 7th March, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose a letter which the Chief of 
the Staff has received from the Chief of the Staff of the 
Army of Reserve of Andalusia. 

' I beg that you will lay this letter before the Regency, 
and that you will do me the favor to explain to them that 
their orders cannot be obeyed as I wish to see them obeyed ; 
that confusion must continue to exist in the military service ; 
and that the chain and system of military subordination 
must be broken in upon, unless your Excellency should 
communicate to me, and to the Chief in command of the 
troops, the orders which the Government are under the 
necessity of sending immediately to any portion of the 
troops. 

' Upon this point I beg leave to call your Excellency's 



170 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

attention to the paragraph of my address to your Excellency 
of the 25th of December* : and to your Excellency's answer 
of the 1st of January, 1813. 

' I conclude that the Government propose to adhere to 
what was therein arranged ; and I should be glad to know 
their sentiments on this point. I am perfectly aware that 
on many occasions it may be absolutely necessary, on account 
of the distance at which I am from the seat of Government, 
that the Government should send orders direct to particular 
portions of the troops ; and your Excellency will observe 
that I myself proposed to Government, by my letter from 
Xerez of the 10th of January, 1813, that the orders of Go- 
vernment to the Conde de la Bisbal, for the movement of 
the Army of Reserve, should be sent direct. But this 
practice should be limited by the necessity for it ; as the 
discipline and subordination of the army, nay, the support 
of the authority of the Government itself, and the obedience 
to their orders, depend upon their adherence to the military 
rule of every army, viz., that the communications of the head 
to the inferiors should be made through the channel of their 
chiefs. 

' I understand, from your Excellency's letter of the 15th 
of February, that the Government has given in charge to 
General Abadia the superintendence of various arrange- 
ments for the preparation of certain troops for an expedition 
beyond the seas. It would put an end to all these difficulties 
and discussions, and would facilitate and secure the execution 
of the orders and intentions of the Government upon this 
point, if your Excellency would do me the favor to signify to 
the Conde de la Bisbal, and to me, what officers and corps are 
to be placed at the disposition of General Abadia for this pur- 
pose ; and that, on every occasion in which it should be 
necessary for the Government to give orders direct to any 
inferior officer or to the troops, you would be pleased to 
apprize me of them, as well as the General Officer command- 
ing the army to which they belong. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don J. de Carvajal.' ' WELLINGTON. 

* Seepage 1. 



1813. FRENEDA. 171 

To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 

( MY DEAR BERESFORD, ' Freneda, 9th March, 1813. 

' I have received your letters of the 4th and 5th, and I 
concur entirely with you regarding the conduct of the Mar- 
quez de Borba. I have already written to Sir Charles Stuart 
regarding the arrears due to the Portuguese troops ; and, if 
I should not find that efficient measures are adopted to 
bring their pay at least on a par with that of our own troops, 
whom we are now paying to the 24th of November, I must 
give the monthly subsidy in future here to the Paymaster of 
the Army for that purpose. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Marshal ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B: 

To Colonel the Hon. R. W. CTCattaghan. 

SIR, ' Freneda, 9th March, 1813. 

' I enclose the proceedings of the General Court Martial 

of which you are President, on the trial of Lieut. , 

of the nd regiment ; and I request that the Court will 
revise both proceedings and sentence. 

' In respect to the proceedings, it appears to me that as the 
Court thought proper to consider and forward the written 
testimony not on oath brought forward by the prisoner, they 
ought equally to have taken into consideration, and to have 
forwarded the letters of the Marques del Palacio, and the 
writen testimony on oath, in favor of the prosecution. 

' In regard to the sentence, I beg the Court to observe 
that the foundation of all the General Orders against which 

Lieut. has been found guilty of offending, has been a 

desire on my part to prevent the committing of outrages by 
the soldiers, in consequence of which outrages many had lost 
their lives in the contests with the people of the country in 
defence of their property. 

' It is in the power of an officer in the command of a 
party, such as was under Lieut. orders, to prevent out- 
rages of the description proved to have been committed by 
his party ; a plain and distinct line of conduct is traced for 



172 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

him in the General Orders for every case that can possibly 
occur ; and he is, and must be considered responsible for 
the conduct of the party. 

( I would just beg the General Court Martial to consider 
whether a reprimand from the Commander of the Forces 
can be considered by any body as a punishment for such 
offences as were committed by this party ; whether such a 
sentence can be considered as giving support and weight to 
the General Orders of the Commander of the Forces, or is 
likely to produce such an effect upon the minds of the offi- 
cers of the army in general, as to operate as an example and 
render others more attentive ; or the effect which the Ge- 
neral Orders had in view, viz., to prevent the inhabitants of 
the country from taking the law into their own hands, and 
from revenging upon the soldiers the outrages which the 
soldiers commit. 

' I would beg the Court likewise to observe, that without 
the aid of their sentence, the complaint of the Marques del 
Palacio supported by written documents, on oath, were suf- 
ficient grounds for me to reprimand Lieut. , without 

giving them the trouble, or taking up the time of the public 
by trying him ; and as they have found him guilty, I con- 
sider it my duty to recommend that they should pass such 
a sentence as will operate as an example to others, and shall 
convince the allied nations that an appeal is not made to a 
British General Court Martial in vain. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Col. the Hon. R. W. O'Callaghan: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Campbell, Gibraltar. 

< SIR, ' Freneda, 9th March, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose the extract of a letter which 
I received by the last mail from the Earl Bathurst ; and I 
request you to carry into execution his Lordship's orders re- 
garding the 2nd batt. 9th regiment, according to the state 
in which you may consider it to be. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
( Lieut. General Campbell.' ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 173 

: To Lieut. General Campbell, Gibraltar. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 9th March, 1813. 

' I enclose an extract of a letter of the 2nd February from 
the Earl Bathurst received by the last post ; and I beg that 
you will be so kind as to send foreign recruits to Cadiz 
according to the arrangement proposed by his Lordship, 
if you should be able before next November. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
c Lieut. General Campbell: ' WELLINGTON'. 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 
SlR, ' Freneda, 9th March, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter with its enclosures which I have re-* 
ceived from Lieut. General Sir L. Cole, in regard to the 
murder of 'a British soldier. 

' I am concerned to add, that several instances of the same 
kind have occurred lately in that part of Upper Beira, and 
much disinclination has been shown on the part of the magis- 
trates to give that assistance to the army which every army 
requires. 

' It is very desirable that the Government should adopt 
some decisive measures on these subjects. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B.' * WELLINGTON. 

To the Adjutant General. 
* SlR, ' Freneda, 9th March, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 18th January, in 

regard to , , , and 

, four soldiers of the th regiment. 

' These soldiers were part of a guard who, when escorting 
treasure from Lisbon and Badajoz in the year 1809, robbed 
the money-chest of 2500 sterling. Shortly after the rob- 
bery was committed, 2500 dollars were found in the pos- 
session of the prisoners ; but no proof could ever be obtained 
that they had robbed the military chest, although I, and 
those who considered the subject with me, never entertained 
the slightest doubt upon the subject. 

' For this reason I did not think it proper to bring these 



174 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

persons to trial before a Court Martial. They must have 
been acquitted, and they would have had a claim to the 
money which had been found in their possession. As the 
robbery by the soldiers of the guard of the money and other 
articles under their charge was but too common a practice, 
I did not deem it expedient to hold forth to the army this 
example of the success with which such an outrage to such 
a serious extent might be committed with impunity. 

' Although I cannot now lay my hands on the copy of the 
letter, I recollect to have applied to the authorities at home 
for orders in what manner to proceed in this case ; but never 
having received any, and the commanding officer of the nd 
batt. th regiment having applied that the men might be 
released and might join the battalion when the battalion 
went home, I gave orders accordingly. 

' I now request to have orders what I am to do with these 
men ; and particularly whether I am to restore to them the 
money taken from them and locked in the military chest in 
the year 1809. 

' I enclose various letters from Lieut. Colonel , and 

other papers on this subject, including the Report of the 
Deputy Judge Advocate of the 27th Feb. 1810, on the chance 
of convicting the offenders of this robbery. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 
' The Adjutant General: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
< MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 9th March, 1813. 

1 In answer to your letter of the 3rd February, in regard 
to the detention in this country of the second battalions, and 
their formation into provisional battalions, I can only repeat 
to you what I have said to Colonel Torrens, viz., that when 
His Royal Highness, or the Government, shall send me an 
order upon any subject, they will invariably find it obeyed 
with the utmost celerity ; but if they leave the execution of 
their wishes to my judgment, they must expect that I shall 
exercise a judgment upon the subject ; and that with every 
desire to act as they wish, I shall not adopt a measure which 
is in my opinion prejudicial to the service in this country. 

' Every day's experience has proved to me that one sol- 
dier who has served one or two campaigns in this country 



1813. FRENEDA. 175 

is worth two, if not three, newly sent out ; and it further 
appears, that it signifies but little from what part of the 
world regiments come, as those from Gibraltar, Ceuta, Cadiz, 
and the Mediterranean, are equally inefficient with those 
from England and Ireland. The second battalions, some of 
which have now been four years in this army, are the best 
troops we have, and will render good service in the next 
campaign in the way in which I have organized them. It 
could not be expected from me that I should send away 
nearly 2000 of these soldiers, at a moment when every man 
is an object, the period of sending them away being left to 
my discretion. 

' But let the orders that they shall be sent come from the 
quarter in which they ought to originate, and they shall be 
obeyed with alacrity ; and you shall hear no complaints of 
their ill effects. 

' I hope that your Lordship and His Royal Highness will 
understand that 1 am not at all desirous of throwing any 
difficulties in the way of the execution of the plans formed 
at home for the service at large ; but that when a point is 
left to my judgment it can be exercised only upon the effects 
which the execution will have on the service in this country. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Major General Cooke. 

< SiR, ' Freneda, 10th March, 1813. 

' The Secretary of State having communicated to me the 
intention of His Majesty's Government to send the 29th 
regiment to Cadiz, I have to request that on the arrival 
there of this corps, you will cause the 59th regiment to be 
embarked in the transports which shall have conveyed the 
29th from England, and send them round to Lisbon. 

' I have the honor to be, 
' Major General Cooke' ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 10th March, 1813. 

' I have received your letters of the 5th, to which I shall 
reply in a day or two. It appears to me that the Cortes 



176 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

and Government have outdone themselves in the affair of 
the Russian troops in Spain. 

f I am afraid they did not send you a correct copy of my 
letter to Lord Bathurst. I have desired Lord FitzRoy to 
write to Mr. Vaughan on the subject. 

< We have received letters and papers from the Gth to 
the 19th of February. I am to have Lord Buckingham's 
blue riband. There is nothing: new from Russia, no intel- 

o 

ligence having been received for twenty days ; but it appears 
by the French accounts, that the remnants of their army 
arc on the Oder with a part at Posen ; the Russians on 
this side the Vistula, but the pursuit not very active. 

' Buonaparte is reconciled to the Pope ; on what precise 
terms is not stated ; but it appears that he has ceded the 
territory of the Holy Sec, in full sovereignty. 

' In a Madrid paper I see that it is stated that the eccle- 
siastical affairs of Spain will soon be arranged under the 
mediation of the Pope ! This is very important. 

' There is nothing else of any importance. 

' There is a curious letter from the Princess of Wales to 
the Regent. 

' The votes in both Houses on the American war were 
unanimous. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, K.B.' 

To His Royal Highness the Duke of York. 

< g IRj ' Freneda, 10th March, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose, for your Royal Highncss's 
consideration, the copies of some letters which have passed 
between Lieut. General the Hon. W. Stewart, and me, and 
the commanding officers of regiments of Foot Guards, in 
regard to a question in which these officers conceive the 
privileges of the Guards are concerned. 

' I confess that I do not understand the subject ; and, at 
all events, the question having been raised by those officers, 
and they having continued of the same opinion upon it after 
they had been made acquainted with that which I had been 
induced to form, it is absolutely necessary that I should lay 



1813. FRENEDA. 177 

the subject before your Royal Highness, and request your 
Royal Highness will procure a decision upon it. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 

4 His Royal Highness ' WELLINGTON. 

the Duke of York.' 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 10th March, 1813. 

' I have received several accounts that General Caffarelli 
and Marshal Soult had been recalled from this country, the 
former from the command of the army of the North, the 
latter from that of the army of the South. I have reason to 
believe that the former has been relieved from his command 
by General Clausel, and has gone to France with those 
troops belonging to the Guards which still remained in the 
army of the North. These have been relieved in the North 
by the Italian division of Palombini, which, in former dis- 
patches, I reported to your Lordship had marched to the 
northern parts of Spain. 

' It is likewise reported that Marshal Soult had set out on 
his return to France, and had passed Madrid and Segovia. 

* A large draft has been made from the artillery in this 
country to be sent to France ; and likewise one of twelve 
men from each battalion of infantry ; and it is understood 
that these troops form the escort of Marshal Soult. 

( Marshal Soult is relieved in his command of the army of 
the South by General Gazan. 

' I have received reports that a reinforcement of troops, 
amounting to about 4000 men, had entered Spain, and had 
arrived at Burgos. 

' The enemy have made no movement of importance since 
I addressed your Lordship last. 

' The expedition beyond the Esla was merely for the sake 
of plunder. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 10th March, 1813. 

' I have just received a letter of the 5th instant from my 
brother, a copy of which, he tells me, he intends to send to 

VOL. x. N 



178 PORTUGAL. 181 

England, and which will probably be received about the 
same time with this, in which you will see that the Spanish 
Government and Cortes have outdone themselves in their 
conduct respecting the Russian troops. 

' It luckily happens that it is most probable that the 
Emperor of Russia would not have it in his power to carry 
into execution his offer, as, if what I read in the newspapers 
of the state of his army be true (and indeed it must be ex- 
pected that his army would suffer from their extraordinary 
exertions during the winter), he can have no more men, 
whose services would be worth having, than he would require 
for himself. 

' Although 1 did not expect that the Spanish Government 
would hesitate about accepting the offer of Russian assist- 
ance, and that it could be possible that they would decline 
it, I think that, upon the whole, it is fortunate that the sub- 
ject was brought under their consideration as it was brought, 
and at the earliest period. 

' I have not seen the Cadiz newspapers beyond the 24th 
of last month, but the subject was then talked of in the 
Calle de Atocha ; and I doubt not that, between that day 
and the 5th of March, the newspapers took a tolerably active 
share in the discussion. 

* Believe me, &c. 
1 Earl Bathurst.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Major General the Hon. E. Pakenham. 

' MY DEAR PAKENHAM, ' Freneda, llth March, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter and its enclosures which I have received 
from Colonel Torrens, from which you will perceive that 
there exists a committee in the th regiment, which I sup- 
pose is the committee for the management of the concerns 
of the mess ; but you will see that it extends its attention to 
other matters, with which it ought to have no concern ; and 
that the existence of such a committee, with such objects, 
and under such circumstances, is justly considered to be 
improper, and injurious to discipline. 

' I have always considered that there is no greater incen- 
tive to the performance of duty in every situation, and that 
nothing upholds discipline and good order in a regiment to 



1813. FRENEDA. 179 

a greater degree, than the sentiments and spirit of the officers 
belonging to it. No man dares to neglect his duty, or to 
conduct himself in a manner unbecoming an officer and a 
gentleman, if he knows that his brother officers will notice 
his misconduct with their disapprobation, or that it will be 
attended by the loss of their esteem ; and I am convinced 
that I should carry into execution the intentions of the 
Commander in Chief in a very inadequate manner, if I did 
not guard myself against the notion that the existence of 
such sentiments, and such a spirit, is disapproved of at head 
quarters or by me. 

' The existence of such a spirit among the officers of a 
regiment is very different from what appears in these papers 
as the proceedings of the committee existing in the th 
regiment. 

' In the former case,, every officer judges and acts for him- 
self, and he discourages misconduct or neglect of duty by 
his opinion and demeanor towards those guilty of either. 
He does not bend his opinion even to that of a whole mess, 
which I am sorry to say experience has shown sometimes acts 
in the spirit and on the principle of combination ; much less 
does he shape his conduct according to the opinion of a 
committee of that mess. 

' It is obvious that the existence of such a committee, 
taking upon themselves to advert to such circumstances as 
it appears have been considered by the committee in the 
th regiment, must be prejudicial to subordination and to 
discipline, and that even the corps of officers themselves 
cannot with propriety act as this committee has acted. 

* I beg you to inquire into the circumstances adverted to 
in the enclosed papers, and to call before you the officers of 
the th regiment, and point out to them the danger and 
impropriety of their mess committee, or even their mess, 
continuing such conduct ; and you will inform the command 
ing officer that I shall consider him responsible if any thing 
of the kind should occur in future, unless he should report 
the conduct of those who shall disobey my orders, and those 
of the Commander in Chief. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Major General ' WELLINGTON. 

the Hon. E. Pahenham." 

N2 



180 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, llth March, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter received from Sir William Beresford 
regarding the balance existing in the hands of the collectors 
in different parts of the country. I knew of this evil before ; 
and as long ago as January, in the year 1810, 1 wrote to the 
Government respecting it. 

' We must prevail upon our friend the Marqucz do Borba 
to 1 let us know the real state of the revenue, and of the actual 
receipts, and of the balances in the hands of the several 
collectors. If he does not give us this information, I must 
mention the subject to the Prince Regent. I shall be very 
much obliged to you if you will talk to him upon it. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Sir Charles Stuart, K.B: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don J. de CarvajaL 

< SIR, ' Freneda, llth March, 1813. 

( I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 1st 
of March, in which, by the orders of Government, you have 
enclosed representations from the Intendants of the pro- 
vinces of Toledo and La Mancha, in regard to the contribu- 
tions which the enemy have it in contemplation to levy from 
certain villages in those provinces. 

' Your Excellency will have seen, from my dispatches to 
your Excellency since I have been appointed to command 
the Spanish armies, that the allied British and Portuguese 
army, having been actively engaged in operations in the 
field from the month of January to the end of the month of 
November, 1812, required some rest ; that the troops re- 
quired clothing and equipments of different descriptions, 
the whole of which they have not yet received ; and that, 
above all, it was impossible to employ the army actively in 
the field in this part of the Peninsula till the green forage 
should appear for the support of the horses and animals 
attached to the army. 

' I have therefore considered it proper to keep the Span- 
ish troops on the defensive till the allied British and Portu- 
guese army could take the field, even supposing the Spanish 



1813. FRENEDA. 181 

troops were now in a situation to take the field. But, although 
a sufficient time has not yet elapsed to enable me to enter 
into details upon this point, I am now sufficiently informed 
to be able to assure your Excellency that there is not a 
single battalion or squadron in a situation to take the field ; 
that there is not in the whole kingdom of Spain a depot of 
provisions for the support of a single battalion in operation 
for one day, nor a shilling of money in any military chest. 
I have not yet received the report of the mode in which the 
system for the support of the armies, adopted by the Cortes 
in January, and lately ordered by the Government, has 
operated ; but, unless it should succeed, it is very obvious 
that we cannot hope for the permanent operation of any 
Spanish corps. 

' Under these circumstances, I have had to consider of the 
expediency of taking any steps on the representations for- 
warded to me by your Excellency. The nearest troops to 
the points stated to be threatened by the enemy are those 
under Brigadier Morillo, certainly more numerous than those 
of the enemy threatening those points. 

' But first I must inform your Excellency that the troops 
under Brigadier Morillo cannot be moved from their present 
situation, having neither money nor provisions. 

' Secondly ; I have to inform you that, if I should think 
it proper, as a military measure, to move forward the troops 
under Brigadier Morillo, I should think it necessary to 
provide for his being supported by some other corps of 
troops, in case the enemy should reinforce their troops, 
threatening the points referred to in the provinces of Toledo 
and La Mancha. 

' The troops which would naturally support Brigadier 
Morillo are those of the army of reserve of Andalusia, under 
the Conde de la Bisbal, whose discipline and organization 
would thus be prematurely interrupted, even if it should be 
supposed that they have money and provisions to enable 
them to move from their present cantonments, which sup- 
position is, I believe, directly contrary to the fact. 

* The consequence, then, of moving troops to save a few 
villages likely to be plundered by the enemy, would cer- 
tainly be, immediately, very inconvenient, and might prove 



182 . PORTUGAL. 1813. 

fatal in the ensuing campaign to the efficiency of the troops 
employed on such service. 

' One of the misfortunes attending the existing war in the 
Peninsula is the necessity of sacrificing the interests of indi- 
viduals to the cause of the nation, and to the great object of 
its ultimate salvation ; and I have entered into detail, as far 
as I am able, in my answer to the Government upon this 
subject, because I am certain that they will receive many 
complaints of the same kind, and that many individuals who 
are not protected will think that they might be so. 

' All that I can say is, that the armies are each of them 
as far forward as I think they can be, in a view to their sub- 
sistence, to the receipt of their equipments, &c., and to their 
mutual support ; and that I cannot consider it advisable to 
risk the loss of such a body of men as that under the com- 
mand of Brigadier Morillo, for example, for the sake of en- 
deavoring to save a few villages in La Mancha and Toledo 
from plunder ; or to render it certain that I should receive 
no assistance from the Conde de la Bisbal's corps in the 
next campaign, by moving them forward now, without maga- 
zines of provisions, or money to buy them, to support Briga- 
dier Morillo in his operations for the protection of a few 
villages from plunder. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

Don J. de Carvajai: ' WELLINGTON. 

To His Royal Highness the Duke of York. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, llth March, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your Royal Highness's 
letters of the 16th and 17th of February, which shall be 
strictly obeyed. I was induced to delay the drafting of the 
three regiments, respecting which I wrote to your Royal 
Highness, till the 20th of February, till I could be certain 
that the horses would have forage on their movement, and 
till I could get accurate returns of the state of the horse 
appointments ; but the orders have been given for drafting 
the 4th dragoon guards, the 9th and llth light dragoons, 
instead of the 13th. The llth light dragoons were locally 
situated more conveniently for delivering the horses to the 
other regiments ; and, having been very sickly lately, I con- 



1813. FRENEDA. 183 

sidered it most expedient to draft them. The horses of 
these regiments will complete the 3rd and 5th dragoon 
guards. The Royals and 4th dragoons, the 12th, 13th, 
14th, and 16th light dragoons, will give about 50 horses to 
the 1st German heavy dragoons. The 3rd dragoons have 
already 28 horses more than they can mount. The 1st 
hussars want only 13 horses; and the 1st German heavy 
cavalry want 70 horses. 

' I wait for your Royal Highness's orders for drafting 
both men and horses from the 2nd hussars; and, in case 
your Royal Highness should approve of that measure, which 
indeed was ordered by the Secretary of State, I should pro- 
pose to draft from them a sufficient number of men to com- 
plete the three squadrons of the 1st hussars, and all their 
horses to be distributed among the other regiments of 
cavalry. I should likewise propose to do the same with the 
2nd German heavy dragoons, to complete the 1st regi- 
ment ; and to send the remainder of the men and officers of 
the 2nd dragoons and 2nd hussars home to England. 

' If, however, your Royal Highness should disapprove of 
my drafting the men, as well as the horses, of the 2nd 
hussars, I propose immediately to draft the horses only from 
those regiments. The other regiments will however cer- 
tainly have more horses than they can mount. Upon this 
point I have to add, in addition to what I have stated in my 
letter to your Royal Highness of the 10th February, that 
each regiment has 12 mules attached to it to carry its port- 
able forges, which mules perform the service which would 
otherwise be performed by horses, and they ought to be 
reckoned as so many in addition to each regiment. 

' One of the provisional battalions shall return to England 
as soon as the 2nd batt. 59th regiment, which has been or- 
dered from Cadiz, shall arrive. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' His Royal Highness ' WELLINGTON. 

ths Duke of York: 

To Colonel the Hon. R. W. O'Callaghan. 

< SlR, 'Freneda, 12th March, 1813. 

' I have perused the proceedings of the General Court 
Martial of which you are President, on the trial of Private 



184 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

, of the nd regiment, for desertion ; and, 

having adverted to the disgraceful prevalency of this crime 
in the British army, and to the circumstances attending the 
desertion of this soldier, I consider it my duty to request 
the Court Martial to revise their sentence on his trial, and 
to sentence the extreme punishment which the law has 
allotted to his crime. 

' It is always with very great regret that I trouble a Ge- 
neral Court Martial ; but it cannot be expected that crimes 
will be prevented by punishments, or discipline main- 
tained in an army, unless the examples of the consequences 
attending the commission of these enormous offences should 
be of a nature to operate on the minds of the soldiers in 
general. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Col. the Hon. R. W. O'Callaghan: ' WELLINGTON. 



To Major General Roche. 

< SIR, ' Freneda, 12th March, 1813. 

' I have received your three letters of the 14th ult. 
You command a division of Spanish troops, which is an in- 
tegral part of what is called the 2nd army, and which must 
so remain till I shall give orders to the contrary. If you 
dislike your situation, or make any further difficulties about 
obeying the orders you receive, or fail to carry on the ser- 
vice, you must either resign your command, or, in the latter 
case, I shall recommend to the Government that another 
officer may be appointed to it. 

' This division of the 2nd army is however attached at 
present, for the purposes of the service, to the Anglo Sicilian 
corps, which disembarked at Alicante last autumn ; and I 
have no doubt that General Elio will give every facility in 
his power to enable the division to perform its duty as it 
ought in that situation. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Major General Roche.' ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 185 

To Major General Roche. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 12th March, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 14th ult. on the 
subject of 40 mules which have been lately sent to Alicante, 
and consigned to the care of the British Consul, by Nebot, 
a guerrilla chief; and, in reply to your request that they 
should be appropriated to the service of the artillery attached 
to your division, I have to acquaint you that, as these mules 
were presented to me by Nebot, they are my property, and 
I have given them to the British artillery attached to the 
Anglo Sicilian troops at present at Alicante. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
4 Major General Roche: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Major General Roche. 

< SIR, ' Freneda, 12th March, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 25th 
ult. on the subject of the nature of the original establish- 
ment of the corps of troops under your command ; and, in 
reply to it, I beg to refer you to the letter (No. 1) which I 
have this day written to you. 

' I am perfectly aware of your merits ; but I cannot allow 
you or any other officer to consider yourself independent of 
the regular authorities of the army in which you are serving. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Major General Roche: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General the Hon. W. Stewart. 

' My DEAR GENERAL, ' Freneda, 13th March, 1813. 

' I have this morning read your letters of the 10th and 
llth. I have always intended to remove you to the 2nd 
division as soon as Sir Thomas Graham should arrive, and 
I have no reason to believe that there will be any difficulty 
in so doing. 

' I am sorry to receive so bad an account of my friends 
the Guards. I had thoughts of sending the 1st brigade to 
Oporto, which will, I think, do them most good. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

the Hon. W. Stewart.' 



186 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To General Castanos. 

' MON CHER GENERAL, ' a Freneda, ce 13 Mars, 1813. 

' Je vous envoie une reponse officielle par cette occasion sur 
1' organisation des troupes en Galice, et sur la cavalerie de 
Penne Villemur. Soyez sur que je ne presserai aucune re- 
forme, et qu'on verra qu'on ne perdra rien en force, mais, au 
contraire, qu'on gagnera dans celle dont je me melerai. 

' Je ne vois aucune raison pourquoi vous ne disposeriez 
pas de Salvador comme vous voudrez ; et vous n'avez qu'a 
dire comment vous voulez disposer de lui, et je 1'arrangerai. 
C'est jetter un tel homme par la fenetre que de le mettre a 
1'Armee de Reserve de la Galice, qui n'existe pas, meme sur 
papier. 

' Je ne veux rien entreprendre dans les affaires qui ne 
m'appartiennent pas. Le Gouvernement doit savoir mieux 
que moi si le Ministre de la Guerre leur sert ; et c'est leur 
affaire, et non pas la mienne. 

' Je suis tres content du Chef de 1'Etat Major, qui me 
parait un homme fort sage et discret ; et qui ne se mele que 
de ses propres affaires, qu'il fait tres bien. 

' Je suis bien aise de ce que vous me dites du pere du 
General Giron ; et je vous prie de le feliciter de ma part. 
Pour ce qui est de 1'avancement de Giron, je vous parle 
comme si vous n'etiez pas son oncle, et je vous assure que 
j'ai la meilleure opinion de ses talens ; et je suis bien sur 
qu'il ira loin dans la carriere militaire. Mais ce n'est pas 
possible pour moi de demander son avancement a present sans 
demander celui des autres, ses anciens, ou ses contemporains. 
Je ne suis pas insensible aux avantages qu'il y aurait au Com- 
mandant en Chef qui commencerait sa carriere en demand- 
ant une promotion d'Officiers Generaux ; mais j'avoue que 
je prefere avoir ces avantages dans 1'armee Espagnole 
comme je les ai eu dans d'autres arme'es ; c'est a dire, en 
faisant strictement mon devoir envers le public, aussi bien 
qu'envers les officiers et les soldats de 1'armee. Sous ces 
circonstances, je d6sire beaucoup ne pas demander de pro- 
motion a present. 

' Agreez, &c. 
1 General Castanos. ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 187 

' J'ai des nouvelles de Londres que le Prince Regent m'a 
donne 1'Ordre de la Jarretiere.' 



To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 13th March, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter and its enclosures from Lord Bathurst, 
in regard to an inquiry into the sale of stores destined for 
the Spanish army by - . Have you received any answer 
regarding the inquiry which it was agreed you were to make 
on the letter on the same subject which I received from Lord 
Bathurst when I was at Cadiz ? 

' There is nothing new. It is reported that King Joseph is 
quitting Madrid, and is about to establish his head quarters 
at Valladolid. I believe this report, as I find from Vallado- 
lid that Reille has removed from the palace there, which is 
in a state of preparation for some other person, and that 
quarters are prepared for Reille at Tordesillas. It appears 
that they are all confoundedly alarmed at our position in 
the Sierra. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Rt. Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir Henry Wellesley, 



To the Officers, Knights of the Tower and Sword. 

' GENTLEMEN, ' Freneda, 15th March, 1813. 

' I have the honor to inform you that His Royal High- 
ness the Prince Regent of Portugal has been pleased 
to appoint you a Knight ( -- ) of the Order of the 
Tower and Sword ; and, having requested the permission of 
His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Great Britain 
and Ireland for you to accept this honor, the Secretary of 
State has answered me as follows : "Having laid before 
His Royal Highness the Prince Regent the lists accompany- 
ing your Lordship's dispatch, No. 10, of the British officers 
upon whom the Portuguese Government has been pleased 
to confer the Order of the Tower and Sword, I have received 
His Royal Highness's commands to desire your Lordship 
will communicate to those officers the Prince Regent's gra- 



188 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

cious permission that they should accept this honorable mark 
of distinction, and bear the insignia of the Order." 

' I have at the same time to inform you that, having re- 
quested the directions of the Secretary of State whether the 
officers who should be permitted to receive this distinction 
were to take the appellation borne by English knights, his 
Lordship has answered me in the negative, unless they 
should be knighted by His Majesty's authority. 

' I enclose a letter from the Prince Regent of Portugal, 
and the insignia of the Order of the Tower and Sword. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

To the Officers, ' WELLINGTON. 

Knights of the Tower and Sword." 

To Don J. de Carvajal, 
< SlR, ' Freneda, 15th March, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 5th 
instant, enclosing one of the 5th February from General the 
Baron d'Eroles ; and I have to inform you that, in regard 
to the point stated by General Baron d'Eroles, I have 
adopted the following arrangements : 

* First ; I have given directions that arrangements may 
be made for removing from Catalonia, General Milans, 
Brigadier Porcas, and the Auditor de Guerra, Sala, the 
detail of which I shall hereafter have the honor of laying 
before your Excellency. 

' Secondly ; all matters relating to the armies managed by 
the civil authorities being, by the decree of the Cortes of 
the 6th January, 1813, under the direction and management 
of the Captains General of the several provinces, I have 
called upon those officers for returns of the state of the levies 
of recruits in the several provinces ; and as soon as I shall 
receive these returns, I shall have the honor of proposing to 
the Regency the allotment of recruits to the army of Cata- 
lonia. 

' In the mean time, I have heard that there are 8000 
recruits in Galicia, and it is advisable that the Regency 
should take measures to provide means to transport to 
Catalonia half of that number from the ports in that 
kingdom. 



1813. FRENEDA. 189 

1 I beg to know from your Excellency what measures are 
adopted on this subject. 

' The Government have before them my proposition to 
transport to Catalonia the regiments of Pontevedra and El 
Principe from Galicia, the means of transport for whicli 
troops are already gone to Coruna, and are waiting for 
orders to be given subsequently to your Excellency's answer 
to my letter of the 1st instant. 

' I have written by this occasion to the Ambassador of 
His Britannic Majesty at Cadiz, to request him to assist the 
troops in Catalonia with clothing as tar as may be in his 
power. 

' The Government know best whether any assistance in 
corn can be sent to Catalonia from Cadiz. I am quite cer- 
tain that, under existing circumstances, and till the civil 
administrations shall be better organized, it will be quite 
impossible to send any corn for some time from the provinces 
not occupied by the enemy. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don J. de Carvajal' ' WELLINGTON. 



To Don J. de Carvajal. 

' Si R, Freneda, 1 7th March, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your Excellency's 
letter of the 5th of March, in regard to the formation of a 
depot of instruction for the cavalry at San Carlos. 

' An institution of this description is always, in the abstract, 
useful ; but there are various points connected with the esta- 
blishment of this institution upon which it is impossible for 
me to give an opinion, till I shall know the sentiments of 
the Government upon various subjects which I have laid 
before them. 

' Your Excellency has ordered this institution to be formed 
without consulting my opinion, and without transmitting the 
orders of the Government through me, although, of all other 
points in every military establishment, those relating to 
technical discipline have always been reckoned the peculiar 
province of the Commander in Chief. 

' Your Excellency has ordered corps of cavalry to join 



190 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

this new institution without consulting my opinion, or trans- 
mitting the orders of Government through me, which corps 
of cavalry I had destined for other services. You have 
appointed a commandant and other officers to the in- 
stitution without consulting my opinion, or receiving any 
recommendation from me or any other officer upon the 
subject. 

' I beg again to refer the Government to my letters to 
your Excellency of the 4th and 25th December, 1812, and 
to your Excellency's answers of the 24th December and 1st 
January, 1813, and to receive a final decision from the Go- 
vernment whether they propose to adhere to their engage- 
ment, solemnly entered into with me after repeated discus- 
sions, or whether they do not ; and I beg to have decisive an- 
swers to my letters noted in the margin*, to which no answers 
have yet been received. 

' I now tell your Excellency that I propose to take the 
field at the head of the allied British and Portuguese army 
at the earliest possible moment, and that I have every reason 
to believe that, in consequence of the delays by the Govern- 
ment in issuing the orders consequent to the arrangements 
settled by me at Cadiz, complained of in my letter of the 
7th February, and in consequence of the interference of the 
Government in every military arrangement contrary to their 
engagements, I do not believe that any Spanish corps will 
be in readiness to move till late in the season, if any should 
be in a state to move at all. 

' As appertaining to this subject, I enclose the copy of a 
letter received from the Chief of the Staff of the army of 
reserve, in regard to officers belonging to corps in the army 
of reserve being detained in the depot of the cavalry at the 
Isla, without the knowledge of the Conde de la Bisbal, of 
myself, or of any other military authority. 

' I have other complaints of the same purport from the 
Conde de la Bisbal, of orders sent by your Excellency to 
troops under his command without any communication to 
him, and of his ignorance whether these and others are or 
are not under his command, upon which I can give him no 

* One of 7th February; two of 24th ditto ; one of 1st March ; one of 5th 
ditto ; one of 7th ditto; and two of 15th ditto. 



1813. FRENEDA. 191 

answer, not having received from your Excellency the slight- 
est intimation of the movement of the corps, of the objects in 
moving them, or of any circumstance regarding fheir move- 
ment. 

' I repeat to your Excellency that it is quite impossible 
that any military establishment can go on in this manner ; 
that it is essentially necessary that the Government should 
adhere to one uniform mode of proceeding, and channel of 
communication with the army, which has been settled by 
their engagements with me, as the only mode by which regu- 
larity and military efficiency can be ensured, or their own 
authority preserved ; and I earnestly intreat them to decide 
finally whether they will or not adhere to those engagements. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don J. de Carvajai: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 
< SIR, ' Freneda, 15th March, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your letters of the 
6th and 12th of March, No. 1 of the former date, and Nos. 
1 and 2 of the latter. 

' I beg to inform you that the Juiz de Fora of Sabugal 
did not make his complaint judicially, but as an individual ; 
and, in order to prove the case before the competent tribu- 
nal, it was necessary that he should be examined before the 
General Court Martial by which Mr. Thompson was tried, 
and acquitted, as I believe, for want of the evidence of the 
Juiz de Fora. 

' That of which I complained in my letter of the 22nd 
ultimo was, not only that an accusation should have been 
brought forward by the Government, apparently uncalled 
for, and certainly unfounded, " that the magistrates were 
called upon to attend upon the Courts Martial of the British 
army in a manner inconsistent with the rules of politeness," 
but that it should be contended that, when summoned to 
attend the British Courts Martial, they were not bound, 
nay, according to the law, ought not to attend. I admitted 
that a British Court Martial could have no jurisdiction or 
authority in Portugal, excepting by courtesy; and I pro- 
posed that, to get rid of all these difficulties, I should apply 
to you, and you to the Government, to order the attendance 



PORTUGAL. 1813. 

upon Courts Martial of those persons whose evidence might 
be necessary. 

' In answer to this proposition, the Government have sent 
the note of Dom Miguel Forjaz of the 4th March, and 
the Alvara of 21st October, 1763, from which it appears 
that, according to the 9th clause, the Portuguese Court 
Martial is bound to receive as evidence the written testimony 
forwarded to them by a magistrate. 

' I now beg that you will inform the Portuguese Govern- 
ment that a British Court Martial cannot receive written 
testimony, unless in extraordinary cases of which they are 
witnesses, which cases I cannot take upon myself to define ; 
and therefore the Alvara of October, 1763, and the Portaria 
of the 9th March, 1813, enclosed in your letter No. 2 of 
the 12th March, extending to British Courts Martial the 
Alvara of October, 1763, are quite inapplicable to our situa- 
tion, or to the difficulties of the question. 

' I now beg leave to submit to your consideration, and 
that of the Portuguese Government, the coy>y of a letter of 
the llth March, from Major General Long, the President 
of a General Court Martial, assembled for the trial of Ser- 
jeant Waters of the 13th light dragoons, for misconduct at 
Monforte in respect to billets, the complaint respecting 
which had come from the Government through you. 

' You will see in Major General Long's letter an account 
of the conduct of the Juiz de Fora, when called upon to an- 
swer a question put to him by the Court, apparently most 
important for the conviction or justification of the serjeant 
under trial; and, from your knowledge of the English law 
of evidence, which, as far as I can judgtj v is the best general 
rule for the discovery of truth, by which Courts Martial 
ought to be guided, you will see how impossible it is for any 
Court Martial to proceed to any sentence, excepting that of 
acquittal, upon such defective information as that which this 
court have before them, without the testimony of the Juiz de 
Fora. 

' I beg you to draw the attention of the Portuguese Go- 
vernment to the facts stated in Major General Long's letter 
as applicable to the Alcara of October, 1 763 ; and as I have 
brought under the consideration of the British Government 
the expediency of enabling Courts Martial to receive written 



1813. FRENEDA. 193 

testimony when on foreign service, and as this subject will 
probably come under the consideration of the Legislature in 
the course of this session of Parliament, I recommend that if 
the Portuguese Government should not be disposed to adopt 
some measures to oblige the inhabitants of Portugal, magis- 
trates as well as others, to attend Courts Martial when sum- 
moned, you should forward this correspondence to His 
Majesty's Government, in order that they may see how this 
matter stands in this country. 

' In regard to the Juiz de Fora of Monforte, however, I 
must request you to draw the attention of the Government to 
his conduct in a very particular manner. I do not believe 
that the law of Portugal would justify him in refusing to give 
evidence before a Portuguese Court Martial on the points 
on which he refused to give evidence before the British 
Court Martial, of which Major General Long was President ; 
and considering that he had himself made the complaint 
against the serjeant under trial, and that the Court had 
assembled at Monforte for his convenience, and that of the 
other witnesses in the trial, courtesy at least should have 
induced him to answer the questions put to him, and to 
treat the Court with politeness, and at all events not with 
insolence. 

' It is impossible for me to form a decided judgment 
whether, in point of Portuguese law, this Juiz de Fora was 
right or wrong in refusing to answer these questions, but of 
this I am quite certain, that in his conduct towards the 
Court Martial, in shutting them out of the place appointed 
by himself for their assembly, he treated them in a manner 
in which no Court ought to be treated ; and if the Governors 
of the Kingdom do not think proper to notice such conduct, 
I beg that you will bring the subject under the considera- 
tion of His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, as I shall 
under that of His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of 
Portugal. 

' I now come to the consideration of your letter, No. 1 , of 
the 12th March, and its enclosure of the 10th March from. 
Dom Miguel Forjaz, containing a complaint of the same 
magistrate of Monforte, against the commanding officer of 
the 13th light dragoons, for confining and punishing a native 
of Portugal for buying corn from a soldier. The records of 

VOL. x. o 



194 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

the Portuguese Government, and the orders of this army, 
will show that I have not been unwilling to notice complaints 
of this description, and to bring them to inquiry, and those 
complained against to punishment, if they should be found 
to deserve it ; but I must be excused from taking any far- 
ther notice of these cases, which is really useless in a view 
to justice, and only tends to bring into contempt the com- 
plaints of the Government and my authority, till some satis- 
factory arrangement shall be made respecting the necessity 
of giving testimony before a Court Martial, and some mea- 
sures shall have been adopted by the Government to mark 
to the public their sense of the conduct of the magistrate of 
Monforte. 

' I lament as much as the Government can that these 
questions should have arisen. It cannot be very agreeable 
to me to have to consider and write upon them ; and those 
are responsible for the discussion of them who, knowing 
the necessity there is for the assistance of a British army to 
assist in the defence of the country, have by their conduct 
given rise to them, and have brought matters to such a state 
as that if there should unfortunately exist a necessity for con- 
tinuing the army in Portugal during another season, it is 
more than probable that, notwithstanding all my efforts to 
prevent the misfortune, there will be serious conflicts between 
the magistrates and people on one side, and the troops of 
botli nations on the other. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B: ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

< Si R, ' Freneda, 1 5th March, 1813. 

' A considerable sum of money is about to be sent to 
Lisbon for the use of the army, in pagodas, with directions 
from the Treasury that they may be recoined at the Portu- 
guese mint, into Portuguese coins. 

, ' I have requested Sir Charles Stuart to have an assay 
made of them at the Portuguese mint, and that he will take 
measures to ascertain the length of time which will be re- 
quired to recoin the whole sum. I have likewise requested 
him to send a few of the pagodas to you at Cadiz ; and I 



1813. FRENEDA. 195 

request you to have them assayed, to ascertain the sum 
they will produce in Spanish 8 and 4 dollar pieces ; also the 
length of time which will be required to recoin them to the 
value of 150,000. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, 



To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 15th March, 1813. 

' I shall be very much obliged to you if you will let me 
know what quantity of clothing you have still in store. I 
want to send 6000 complete suits to the army of Catalonia, 
and about 4000 to Alicante, for Elio's army. I have only 
2000 at Lisbon, but these are wanted for Estremadura. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

c The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

SirH. Wellesley, 



To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HENRY, 'Freneda, 15th March, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 8th. It appears to me 
that the Cortes have again outdone themselves in their pro- 
ceedings on the change of the Regency. I never have 
known a shoe -black dismissed in such a style ! This pro- 
ceeding will do them a great deal of harm. 

' -- must have mistaken Sir John Murray ; 
and I can adopt no proceeding in regard to the Sicilian 
levies, on what he says. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, K.B: 



To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 

c Si R, ' Freneda, 1 6 th March, 1813. 

' I have the honor to inform you that I have received the 
notification of the approbation of the Prince Regent that the 
officers in His Majesty's service, and others of His Majesty's 
subjects in the service of the Prince Regent of Portugal, 

o2 



196 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

on whom His Royal Highness had recently conferred the 
Order of the Tower and Sword, might accept the same, and 
wear the insignia. 

' I enclose the copy of the letter which I have written upon 
this subject to the several officers of the British army upon 
whom this same honor had been conferred. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

Marshal * WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B.' 

To Major General Baron Bock. 

< S IRj ' Freneda, 16th March, 1813. 

' I have perused the proceedings of the General Court 
Martial, of which you are President, on the trial of Corporal 

, , , and , of the th 

regiment, and likewise on the trial of , 

} an d } of the th regiment, which I return 

to you, and request that the proceedings and sentence of 
both may be revised. 

' In regard to the first mentioned trial, the Court have 
admitted in their proceedings a statement put in, and sworn 

to by Lieut. , containing much matter not of his own 

knowledge, and in fact applicable to other cases, instead of 
allowing him to refresh his memory by his paper made out 
at the time of the transaction, and making him tell his own 
story. This paper is besides separate from the proceedings, 
and unsigned. 

' The proceedings of the Court Martial have not been 
signed by the acting Judge Advocate. 

1 In regard to the sentence, that on and is 

illegal. The General Court Martial have not the power, 
either by the Mutiny Act or Articles of War, to pass a sen- 
tence that a soldier shall serve for a period of years, or for 
life, beyond the seas, for any crime excepting desertion. 
This sentence, therefore, must be altered. 

' Observing, likewise, the disorders committed by the party 
to which the soldiers belonged on their march from Lisbon 

to Coimbra, and that , who was acting corporal, has 

been found guilty of a most atrocious offence, and that 
has been found guilty, as well of that offence as of 



1813. FRENEDA. 197 

mutiny, I hope that the Court will consider it necessary to 
make an example of these soldiers, and to sentence the full 
punishment which the law allows. 

' In regard to the proceedings on the other trial, it is 
required by the General Regulations of the service that 
those of each separate trial should be headed by the names 
of the President and members of the Court, which has been 
omitted, and the Judge Advocate has omitted to sign the 
proceedings. 

' There is the same objection to the sentence as to that on 
the other trial under consideration, with this additional ob- 
jection, that it is contrary to law to sentence restitution in 
cases of felony. This remark does not apply to the money 
found on the prisoners. 

' I hope likewise that the Court will consider it necessary 
to make an example of these offenders, and to sentence a 
punishment to the full extent allowed by the law. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 

Major General ' WELLINGTON. 

Baron Bock." 

To Vice Admiral G. Martin. 

< SiR, ' Freneda, 16th March, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose a letter, and its enclosures, 
which I have received from the Secretary of State; and I 
beg leave to suggest to you the expediency of sending to 
England the transports referred to by the Transport Board, 
and of retaining in their stead others of a smaller size, which 
may be sent from England. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 
L* Vice Admiral G. Martin: ' WELLINGTON. 

To , Esq. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 16th March, 1813. 

' I had the honor of receiving by the last post your letter 
of the 24th February, and I am very much obliged to you 
for the details into which you have entered regarding the 
means of obtaining intelligence for this army. In general 
we have not been deficient in that respect; but as it is 
always desirable to obtain as much as possible, I could have 



198 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

wished you had gone into still further details respecting the 
mode of obtaining intelligence at Paris, which is, I believe, 
very difficult ; and respecting the execution of your plan of 
communicating it by a neAvspaper ; and respecting the facili- 
ties of receiving such newspaper in this country. 

' In England it is not impossible to communicate intelli- 
gence by a newspaper. Indeed the contents of all the news- 
papers are intelligence to the enemy, upon which I know that 
plans of operations have been formed ; and it appeared upon 
a trial for treason, some years ago, that very detailed infor- 
mation was conveyed to the enemy in this manner. But I 
do not see how this could be done in France, where the press 
is under such extraordinary restrictions. Then, if the infor- 
mation could be obtained and inserted in a newspaper in 
France as proposed, it appears to me to be quite impossible 
to receive it at the head of this army, excepting by England. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
, Esq. y ' WELLINGTON. 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 16th March, 1813. \ 

' I have given directions that 500 of the 4000 sets of 
cavalry clothing and appointments should be landed at 
Coruna, and the remainder sent to Lisbon, where 500 more 
are to be landed, and the remaining 3000 then to be sent to 
Cadiz ; and I have assembled the body of the Spanish 
cavalry on the Guadalquivir to receive them. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Sir Charles Stuart, K.B.' ' WELLINGTON. 



To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 16th March, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter, and its enclosure, which I have re- 
ceived from the Secretary of State, in regard to the recoinage 
at Lisbon of a sum of money expected from England in 
pagodas. 

' I shall be very much obliged to you if you will have 
these pagodas assayed at the Portuguese mint, in order to 
ascertain what they will produce in Portuguese coins ; and 






1813. FRENEDA. 199 

if you will send a few of them to Cadiz, in order that Sir 
Henry Wellesley may have them assayed at the Spanish 
mint, as it may be desirable to have them converted into 
Spanish instead of Portuguese coins. 

' I also request that you will have it ascertained how long 
it will take to convert the whole into Portuguese coins. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
4 Sir Charles Stuart, K.B? ' WELLINGTON, 

To the Earl of Liverpool. 
6 MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 16th March, 1813. 

' I request you to take an early opportunity of returning 
my most grateful acknowledgments to His Royal Highness 
the Prince Regent, for the fresh mark of his favor which 
your Lordship has informed me it is His Royal Highness's 
intention to confer upon me, by sending me the Blue Ri- 
band vacated by the death of the Marquis of Buckingham. 
I hope that His Royal Highness believes that I am grateful 
for all his favors, and that I shall endeavor to prove my 
gratitude by continued zeal in his service. 

' I likewise request your Lordship to accept my thanks 
for your favorable representation and recommendation of 
my service to His Royal Highness, to which I am much 
indebted. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' The Earl of Liverpool." ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 16th March, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 24th February, in re- 
gard to the medals, and I concur entirely with you regarding 
all the improvements you propose on the subject. You have 
provided a remedy for a difficulty which I could never get 
over in a way at all satisfactory to myself. 

' I likewise agree with you in the propriety of having a 
cross with eight bars, or a star with eight points, for those 
who are entitled to more than seven distinctions. 

' I am not certain that it would not be best that all 
General Officers, as well as others, should wear the medal or 
cross at the button hole till they should receive the last 
distinction. It is very awkward to ride in round the neck. 



200 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' According to the new principle, I believe that General 
Alava and General O'Lalor ought to have the cross instead 
of a medal, and I shall be obliged to your Lordship if you 
will so arrange it. 

* Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst. < WELLINGTON. 

' Alava's name is Mariscal de Campo Don Miguel Ricardo 
de Alava. O'Lalor's, Brig. Don J. O'Lalor.' 

To Earl Bathurst. 
1 MY DEAR LORD, i ' Freneda, 16th March, 1813. 

' I have read your clause to enable Courts Martial to 
receive written testimony, and it is my opinion that not 
only the words included by you in the brackets must be 
omitted, but the following proviso, that the witness shall 
not be capable of attending. 

* The crimes which give us most trouble are those com- 
mitted by soldiers belonging to detachments on a march, 
and generally at a distance from their regiments, or any 
station at which they can be tried. For instance, the sol- 
diers respecting whom I sent you the inquiry lately, com- 
mitted the crimes for which they are to be tried at every 
stage on the road from Lisbon to Coimbra, a distance of 
about 130 miles. They were halted at Coimbra, because, 
the cavalry being by accident in that neighbourhood, it was 
possible to try them there ; otherwise, to join their regiments, 
they would have gone 100 miles farther. But still, if the 
presence of the accused should be necessary when the written 
deposition is taken, we must have detachments with officers 
travelling backwards and forwards in charge of prisoners to 
be present at the taking of depositions against them, and 
these prisoners would have had to march from 100 to 200 
miles. It is obvious that in many cases they would have to 
go much farther ; and in some cases, such as retreats, in 
which the grossest outrages are committed, of which written 
depositions might be procured, it must be impossible to 
send the prisoners to be present at the time they are taken. 

' Then the other proviso will render the whole clause nu- 
gatory. I believe it seldom happens that a witness is not 
capable of attending a Court, at all events it is not very 
easy of proof. I believe likewise that a Court Martial, like 



1813. FRENEDA. 201 

every other court, is bound at present to receive the best 
evidence which can be procured, and that if it can be proved 
that a witness cannot attend, and his written deposition is 
produced, it must be received. The evil for which I want a 
remedy is, that owing to the distance from the seat of the 
jurisdiction, the inconvenience of attendance to the witnesses 
is so great that they prefer suffering the injury to incurring 
it ; and they will not attend, and the guilty escape punish- 
ment ; not that they are not capable of attending. 

' Then there is another very serious consideration on this 
subject, upon which I have desired Sir Charles Stuart to 
address the Secretary of State, and that is, the objections 
made by the Portuguese magistrates to attend Courts Mar- 
tial as witnesses, to substantiate complaints against British 
officers and soldiers. I have had frequent discussions with 
the Portuguese Government, through His Majesty's Minis- 
ter, on this subject, particularly lately ; and they have, upon 
a proposition of mine that all summonses of witnesses to 
attend a British Court Martial should proceed from the 
Government, passed a Portaria, placing our Courts Martial 
on the same footing as Portuguese Courts Martial ; and 
they have sent me the Alvara of October, 1763, which regu- 
lates the mode in which Portuguese Courts Martial are to 
obtain the evidence of persons not military. 

' From this it appears that a Portuguese Court Martial 
is bound to receive as evidence the written deposition sent 
to it by a magistrate, and this clause is construed to include 
his own. In several instances lately, therefore, the magis- 
trates have refused to attend to give evidence against officers 
and soldiers of whom they had complained ; disputes of a 
disagreeable nature have ensued ; and, in fact, the jurisdic- 
tion of British Courts Martial is at an end as to all cases of 
this description. It is obvious that either the one country 
or the other must alter its law. 

' I wish that somebody would look over the proceedings of 
Courts Martial of this army, and they would see in what a 
state that jurisdiction stands. There is nobody knows it 
better than Mr. Larpent, who is a most valuable addition to 
the Staff of this army. 

' Believe me, &c. 
4 Earl Bathurst,' ' WELLINGTON. 



202 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To Lieut. Colonel Sherlock, 4th Dragoon Guards. 
' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 1 7th March, 1813. 

' I have received this morning your letter of the 16th 
instant, which I confess has surprised me not a little, as I 
thought I had explained sufficiently in the General Order 
for drafting the regiments of cavalry, that the arrangements 
had been made much against my inclination. It is useless 
to say more, than to assure you that I have contended 
against it to the utmost extent, and, till it was positively 
ordered, I did not carry it into execution. 

' I assure you that I have not served so long without 
knowing the difference between soldiers who have served, 
and those who have not; and as the Commander of the 
army, I should certainly prefer to take the horses from the 
latter to taking them from the former ; but if my .superiors 
are of a different opinion, or prefer a different course, it is 
my duty to obey. I am responsible for the selection I have 
made of the regiments whose services are to be "rejected," 
not by me, but by the orders of my superiors ; and I hope 
that I have selected those regiments, the loss of whose ser- 
vices in the Peninsula will be the least disadvantageous 
here, and to whom a return to England is most necessary. 

' If I have erred in my judgment I am sorry for it ; but I 
must say that I am responsible to no person in this country, 
and to none but my superiors for what I have done on this 
occasion. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Sherlock.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Conde de la Bisbal. 
' SIR, ' Freneda, 17th March, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the llth 
instant, and I am much obliged to you for having sent me 
the information contained in your letter, regarding the wants 
of the troops under your command. 

' I have ordered the Duque del Parque to move all the 
troops of the 3rd army out of the province of Cordova ; and 
I have ordered that inquiries might be made regarding the 
squadron of Pedroches. 

' I must delay giving answers on the other military points 



1813. PRENEDA. 203 

referred to in your letter, till I shall know whether the Govern- 
ment propose to adhere to their engagements with me, and 
to carry on the military service as it ought to be carried on, 
or to continue to move corps by direct communication from 
the Minister at War, without reference to the ordinary chan- 
nels of military subordination, to the common rules of dis- 
cipline, or to the solemn engagements made with me after 
repeated discussion. 

' In regard to the subject of finance, referred to in your 
Excellency's letter, I wish that the Intendant had gone into 
still farther details, and had stated the amount of the pro- 
duce of each branch of the revenue of that part of the king- 
dom of Seville left under his management ; the produce of 
that part which he has mortgaged to feed the troops till the 
end of March ; and for what period he had mortgaged it. 
It is desirable to have the same reports on the produce of 
the province of Cordova, setting against that produce the 
expenses of the troops of the 3rd army. 

' If any circumstance prevents the produce of the revenue 
from being realized as it ought to be, the Intendant of the 
army should report it to your Excellency, as well as to the 
Minister of Hacienda, in order that Government may be 
applied to to apply a remedy. 

' Your Excellency will observe that, under the orders of 
Government, nine tenths of the produce of the revenues of 
Cordova and Seville are applicable to the maintenance of 
the army under your command, and that it is highly import- 
ant to your Excellency to know the exact produce of these 
nine tenths, because you will observe that, under the llth 
article of the decree of the Cortes, you, as Commander in 
Chief of the army, are held responsible for the expenditure, 
and no money of that allotted for the army ought to be issued 
from the chest without your sanction. The Intendant, there- 
fore, ought not to have mortgaged the produce of the Aduana 
without your consent. 

' I do not mean to cast blame upon this arrangement, of 
the details of which I have no knowledge, and it may be 
very proper ; but I advert to it to point out to your Excel- 
lency the control which you possess, and ought to exercise, 
over the financial system of the army under your command. 

' In regard to the levy of the horses and mares, I beg to 



204 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

refer you to the 2nd article of the same decree of the Cortes, 
in which you will see that the civil authorities in the pro- 
vinces of which you are the Captain General are subordinate 
to you in all matters relating to the military ; and it rests 
with you to give them such orders as you may think proper, 
in order to enforce the levy of the horses and mares. I 
recommend to you, however, in conformity with the wishes 
of the Government, to exercise this power with discretion 
and moderation. 

' I shall write to you again shortly in regard to the move- 
ment of your troops, of whose progress in discipline I am 
happy to receive so good an account. In respect to their 
early movements, much will depend upon the realization of 
the resources. 

' I have written to His Britannic Majesty's Ambassador 
at Cadiz regarding the state of the stores of clothing arid 
arms at Cadiz ; and as soon as I shall receive his answer, 
I hope to be able to make arrangements for the supply of 
your wants of those articles. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Conde de la Bisbal.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Conde de la Bisbal. \ 

< SIR, \. e Freneda, 17th March, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter of the 5th instant, which I have re- 
ceived from the Minister at War, in regard to the draft made 
by order of your Excellency of the men from the 2nd regi- 
ment of Malaga to the regiments of Campo Mayor, and 
2nd of Catalonia ; and I likewise enclose the regulation of 
Government of the 4th December, 1812, from which you 
will observe that this act was a departure from it. 

* I do not by any means question the propriety or 
necessity of the act itself, of which I entertain no doubt ; 
and I am convinced, that if your Excellency had adverted to 
the inclosed order, you would not have adopted the measure 
without their previous consent, through the regular autho- 
rity. I beg leave at the same time to point out the neces- 
sity of considering well every measure that is adopted on 
every subject, and whether it is consistent with law and 
regulation. 



1813. FRENEDA. 205 

1 Unless we should adopt and adhere to this practice, and 
unless we should ourselves set the example of obeying 
strictly the orders of our superiors, we cannot expect that 
our inferiors will obey ours, and all the foundation of our 
hopes of restoring the service to its former state of discipline 
and order will vanish. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
4 Conde de la Bisbai: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 
' SIR, ' Freneda, 1 7th March, 1813. 

' I have received your Excellency's letter of the 5th March, 
regarding the conduct of the Conde de la Bisbai, in drafting 
soldiers from the 2nd regiment of Malaga into the regiments 
of Campo Mayor, and 1st of Catalonia ; and having perused 
the regulation of 4th December, 1812, this conduct certainly 
militates with it. 

' I have written to the Conde de la Bisbai, to desire that 
he will attend strictly in every respect to the regulation ; 
but I beg leave to observe to your Excellency, that I can 
have no authority over the army, and that it is totally out of 
my power to give that support which I wish to give to the 
orders of Government, if your Excellency, as the Minister of 
War, does not adhere to military principles, and to the en- 
gagements of the Government with me in your communi- 
cations with the army. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 
Don J. de Carvajal: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lord Somerville. 

' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 17th March, 1813. 

' I am very much obliged to you for your letter, which 
I received by the last post ; and I take this opportunity of 
also thanking you for the share you had in the kindness 
towards me of Mr. Perceval and Lord Liverpool, in securing 
for me the estate of Wellington Park. It appears to me 
that every thing that your Lordship proposes should be done 
there is most judicious, and I conclude that you have given 
directions about making the road, the planting, and the 
letting of the land. You have not mentioned the name of 
the person whom you have recommended to Mr. Litchfield 



206 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

as the man of business ; but I will write to my brother on 
the subject, and desire he may be employed. 

' I am very much obliged to you for your kind intentions 
to take a look at my concerns in Somersetshire at times, and 
I only hope that you will make the use you please of every- 
thing belonging to me there. I am happy to tell you that 
your friend Mr. Head and his brother are going on remark- 
ably well ; the former is much esteemed by his superiors, 
and you may depend upon my attending to him when there 
shall be an opportuity of promoting him, and he shall have 
been a sufficient length of time in the department. 
' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Lord Somerville. ' WELLINGTON. 

' I wrote to Pole fully some time ago, in regard to further 
purchases in Somersetshire ; and I shall write to him this 
day in regard to the purchase you mention for 3600 on 
the same manor.' 

To the Hon. W. Wellesley Pole. 
' MY DEAR WILLIAM, ' Freneda, 17th March, 1813. 

4 I received only by the last post your letters of the 28th 
January, and I trust that long before this you will have 
received mine of the 27th January. 

' I have a letter from Lord Somerville, in which he tells 
me that the two manors of Wellington Park are contracted 
for to most responsible tenants, for 1000 per annum, from 
Ladyday next, woods included. I conclude that this con- 
tract must be carried into execution by a lease signed by 
myself, unless I should give a power of attorney to you or 
somebody else to sign leases for me during my absence. 
I have written to Lord Somerville, and he will talk to you 
upon this subject, as well as regarding the purchase for 
3600 of another estate in the same manor, which I think 
desirable. But if the trustees have settled to purchase any 
other estate, either with or without the assistance of my own 
money, I will purchase this estate myself. 

' Lord Somerville has likewise recommended to Mr. Litch- 
field a man of business in Somersetshire, whose name he 
does not mention in his letter to me ; but I conceive that I 
cannot do better than employ any person he recommends. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' The Hon. W. Wellesley Pole.' ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 207 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 17th March, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose, for your Lordship's inform- 
ation, the extract of a letter from Major General Cooke, 
reporting the arrival of the detachments of De Watteville's 
corps at Cadiz, and stating that the whole of the corps is 
now assembled there. 

' Your Lordship will also perceive, that the clothing which 
I reported in my letter of the 10th ult, that the regiment 
much required, had not reached Cadiz on the 10th inst. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 17th March, 1813. 

' Marshal Soult has continued his march to the northward, 
with the detachment of drafts from the troops on the Tagus ; 
and it is reported that he has passed the Douro on his way 
to France. 

' The enemy have withdrawn the greater number of their 
detachments from La Mancha, and some of the troops of the 
army of the South are in movement through the Sierra, by 
which Castillo is divided from Estremadura, towards Avila, 
in which town a division of that army is expected. I believe 
that this movement has been occasioned by the position of 
our troops in the Sierra de Bejar. 

' There has been no other movement of importance. The 
enemy's troops which had crossed the Esla have retired 
again. 

' Since I addressed your Lordship last, I have received 
reports from Colonel Longa, that he had taken the fort of 
Cubo, near Pancorbo, on the 25th of January ; and on the 
13th of February he had surprised at Pozo de la Sal, a detach- 
ment of the division of Palombini, under that General, and 
had killed or wounded 16 officers, and above 200 soldiers. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Earl Bathurst: 'WELLINGTON. 



208 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To General Castaitos. 
< SlR, ' Freneda, 18th March, 1813. 

' In answer to that part of your letter of the 5th instant, 
which relates to the causes for forming the disposable in- 
fantry of the army of Galicia into 13 corps, and for the 
removal of three chiefs, and for the appointment of three 
officers to be Commandants of regiments, I enclose a report 
which I have received from the Inspector of infantry. 

' I have therefore given directions that Don Ignacio 
Balanzat, Don Josef Miranda, and Don Salvador Valencia, 
may be recommended to be Lieutenant Colonels of the three 
regiments named by your Excellency; and I will further 
recommend, that Colonels may not be appointed to those 
regiments for the present. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' General Castanos: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. Colonel Sir Robert Hill, commanding the 

Brigade of Household Cavalry. 

' MY DEAR SlR, ' Freneda, 19th March, 1813. 

' I shall be much obliged to you if you will let me know 
whether it would now be inconvenient to the Household 
Brigade of cavalry to move from their present cantonments 
to make room for the Hussars. 

' I have not written to you since I have had the honor of 
being appointed Colonel of the Royal regiment of Horse 
Guards, Blue. I hope that you and the officers of the regi- 
ment will believe that I am very sensible of the honor which 
has thus been conferred upon me ; and that I shall be most 
happy to take an early opportunity of forming an acquaint- 
ance with the regiment. 

' I hope that in the mean time you will let me know if I 
can do any thing which can be of use to the regiment, or to 
any individual belonging to it. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir Robert Hill? 

To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 

' MY DEAR BERESFORD, ' Freneda, 19th March, 1813. 

' I have received your letters of the 15th and 16th inst., 
and I am very sorry to hear of your accident. You had 



1813. FRENEDA. 209 

better allow those of the vessels which can go, to sail with 
the clothing which they have on board which is not damaged. 
' As for Lcite and Victoria, do as you please about them. 
I sent their papers, particularly those of the former, to you, 
because I did not choose to have any tiling to do with them, 
excepting by your desire. Lcite says that I recommended 
him upon a former occasion ; but I am sure I have no recol- 
lection of such recommendation, excepting in a dispatch to 
my own Government, in which I may have mentioned the 
accommodation he gave to our hospitals in the first year ; 
and it is not impossible that Villiers may have copied that 
paragraph of my dispatch, and given it to him. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Marshal * WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. C. Beresford, 



To Lieut. General the Hon. Sir G. L. Cole, K.B. 

< SlR, ' Freneda, 19th March, 1813. 

' The mother of the lady carried off by - - of 
the th regiment, having complained to me of his con- 
duct, and having desired my assistance to remove her daugh- 
ter from the disgraceful situation in which she is now placed, 
I consented to grant it, on the condition of a promise on her 
part, that the daughter should not be ill treated, and above 
all, should not be confined in a convent. 

' I enclose the letter from the lady, in which she makes 
the engagement as above pointed out ; and I beg that you 
will call upon -- to restore the young lady to her 
family. If he should decline to do so upon your order, 
I beg you to put him in close arrest, and then to take mea- 
sures to remove the young lady from his power into that 
of her family at - ; as I cannot allow any officer of this 
army to be guilty of such a breach of the laws of Portugal 
as to carry away a young lady, and retain her in the can- 
tonments of the army, contrary to the wishes of her parents 
and relations. 

' I beg you to return the enclosed letter. 

' If you should find it necessary to place - - 
in close arrest, you will release him as soon as the young 
lady shall be with her relations at - ; but you will 

VOL. x. P 



210 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

inform that he has my positive orders not to 

cross the Coa. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

the Hon. Sir G. L. Cole, K.B.' 



To General Castanos. 
' MON CHER GENERAL, ' Freneda.ce 19 Mars, 1813. 

' J'ai re9u votre lettre du 12, et je vous suis bien oblige 
de vos reflections sur 1'organisation proposee pour 1'infan- 
terie. Votre plan est surement le meilleur, c'est cclui des 
Franc,ais, et celui sur lequel toute 1'infanterie du monde 
devrait tre formee ; mais malheureusement, il ne sied pas aux 
circonstances du moment, et je crois que la seule chose que 
nous puissions faire, c'est d'adopter celui que j'ai propose. 

' Je doute tres fort que vous trouverez con ven able de faire 
1' arrangement que vous proposez pour les troupes de Cas- 
tille et d'Estremadure. En tout cas je vous conseille de 
faire un arrangement qui soit permanent pour le commande- 
ment des places, et de ces deux provinces en votre absence, 
pour lesquelles vous devez voir par le decret de las Cortes 
que vous seul etes responsable. 

' II est certain que les ressources ne vaudront rien si on 
change le comman dement a chaque instant. J'ai ecrit au 
gouvernement sur 1' affaire du Marques del Palacio le 24 
Fevrier, mais jusqu'a present je n'ai reU aucune reponse. 
J'ai ecrit pour en demander une, encore une fois, par 1'ex- 
traordinaire qui porte cette lettre. Mais je vous repete que 
vous etes responsable pour la province d'Estremadure, et si 
vous n'approuvez pas le Marques del Palacio, vous n'avez 
qu'a 1'envoyer promener, et je vous soutiendrai. 

' II est temps de penser a faire un corps de cavalerie pour 
1'armee de Galice pour la campagne prochaine. Qu'est 
ce qui est devenu de celle du Comte de Fiquelmont ? Je 
crois qu'elle est en Estremadure ou en Andalousie ; et il 
faudrait la faire marcher de ce cote ci, et a travers le Tras 
os Montes, pour rejoindre 1'armee a 1'ouverture de la cam- 
pagne. Repondez moi de suite la dessus, aim que je donne 
les ordres necessaires. J'ai fait un regiment du regiment 
de Lanciers de Don Julian ; et je compte faire encore un 



1813. FRENEDA. 211 

regiment de Lanciers du regiment d'Almanza. On me dit 
que le chef est bon, et qu'il y en a quelques bons soldats qui 
ne font rien a Brozas. Mais il faudrait oter du corps de 
Penne Villemur les soldats pour le regiment d'Almanza ; et 
le regiment d'Almanza, ainsi reforme, pourrait aussi se joindre 
a 1'armee de la Galice. 

' Pour ce qui regarde la solde des garnisons de Badajoz 
et Ciudad Rodrigo, et des troupes destinees a servir plus 
immediatement avec notre armee, il ne peut y avoir aucune 
difficulte que cela passe par votre entremise. Mais je dois 
insister que ces troupes soient de celles payees par le siibside 
Anglais, puisque notre position dans le pays depend si 
essentiellement de la securite de ces points importans que 
nous avons gagnes pour 1'Espagne. II ne sera pas difficile 
d'arranger tout ceci quand j'aurai le plaisir de vous voir. 

' Agreez, &c. 
' General Castanos." ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 
' SlR, ' Freneda, 19th March, 1813. 

' Having lately adverted to the formation of the infantry, 
it has appeared to me that its organization is very defective, 
and that it might be materially improved without any in- 
crease of expense ; and in some cases a saving would result 
from the change. I enclose a memorandum containing my 
reflections upon this subject, which I request you to lay 
before the Government, upon which I request their orders. 

' I likewise enclose an estimate of the expense of a regi- 
ment of infantry formed, as at present, into 8 companies ; 
and formed as proposed into two battalions of 6 companies 
the one, and 4 the other; or into two battalions of 6 com- 
panies each. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
\Don J. de Carvajal: ' WELLINGTON. 

MEMORANDUM. 

' The regiments now consist of one battalion, having a 
Colonel, Lieutenant Colonel and Major; and 8 companies, 
each company having 1 Captain and 4 Subalterns, and an 
establishment of 150 men. The objection I have to this 

p2 



212 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

organization is, that if a regiment should be complete, it 
consists of too many men to be manageable, particularly by 
officers not themselves very well trained to discipline. 

' Secondly ; there are in every regiment of infantry, at 
present, a very large portion of men, either from youth 
and weakness, or from age and infirmities, not fit for the 
active duties of the field ; and all these, in the event of the 
regiment marching to the field, would become a burthen to 
the army. 

' Thirdly ; there are duties to be performed, or garrisons 
to be occupied, in each of the districts allotted for the support 
of the armies. Indeed, it is not quite clear to me, that any 
contributions will be realised Avithout military assistance. 
All these duties might be performed by the men above re- 
ferred to, if properly organized. 

' Fourthly ; the regiments as now formed have no reserve. 
A regiment takes the field, and if by the fatigues of the ser- 
vice, or casualties of war, its numbers should be reduced, it 
must go bodily to garrison ; whereas by the organization 
which I propose, it will always be possible to keep it up in a 
respectable state for service. 

' It is besides to be observed, that there are in every regi- 
ment officers not fit for active service, and who ought to be 
removed; but for whom Government cannot at present pro- 
vide the pensions to which they are entitled. These officers 
might serve in the second battalions. 

' What I should propose is, that each regiment should 
consist of 1 Colonel, 1 Lieutenant Colonel, 1 Major, and 12 
companies, each of 100 men, and 1 Captain and 3 Subaltern 
officers. The regiment to be formed into two battalions, 
each battalion of 6 companies, and the Colonel and Lieute- 
nant Colonel, or Colonel and Major, to be with the first bat- 
talion ; the Lieutenant Colonel or Major, as the case may 
be, with the second battalion. In case the regiment should 
not consist of 1200 men complete, it should have only 10 
companies ; of which 6 in the first, and 4 in the second bat- 
talion. 

' The regiment would thus become much more manage- 
able in manoeuvre. If the commander of the army should 
have any occasion to leave any troops in his district, he would 
have the facility of leaving the least disciplined and weakly 



1813. FRENEDA. 213 

men of the regiment under his command, who would be in a 
state of organization to perform some service. The second 
battalion of a regiment left behind in cantonments would be 
a reserve for the first, and would furnish it with trained 
recruits to keep up its numbers, for which services the officers 
not fit for active service in the field must be deemed equal, if 
they are fit for any thing. 

' The two battalions of the same regiment should always 
belong to the same army ; and it would, of course, rest with 
the Commander in Chief of the army, whether he would or 
not take both into the field ; if he should do so, they would 
of course act together in the same brigade under the com- 
mand of the Colonel, but in separate battalions. Generally 
speaking, however, I would recommend leaving the second 
battalion in cantonments, and having the first battalion only 
in the field. 

* WELLINGTON.' 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 
' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 19th March, 1813. 

' I return some of the papers on the payment of the Por- 
tuguese army, which I acknowledge I cannot comprehend. 
I am only quite certain of the fact, that although the subsidy 
is regularly paid, the troops in operation are not paid even 
to the day to which ours are. I am certain that there are 
means in the country of paying up all the arrears, but there 
must be a thorough reform in the mode of doing business at 
the JErario, and the collectors must not be allowed to retain 
balances in their hands. 

' I send you a Court Martial this day, which will show you 
how little ground there was for the complaint of the magis- 
trate of Monforte, against the serjeant of the 13th light 
dragoons. I believe that these magistrates frequently com- 
plain when there is but very little cause ; and that they are 
much disappointed when any attention is paid to their com- 
plaints. 1 am afraid, likewise, that they do a great deal of 
mischief in setting the inhabitants of the country against the 
soldiers. You see in the proceedings of this Court Martial, 
how desirous the inhabitants were to accommodate the 
soldiers in their houses, particularly those with whom, or 
Avhose regiment, they were acquainted. 



214 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' I have invariably found their conduct the same ; and 
although I am afraid the soldiers do not repay this kindness 
in all instances as it ought to be repaid, the cause of com- 
plaint is not always so glaring as it is represented by the 
magistrate ; and a little moderation on his part would, in 
almost every instance, put an end to any disagreeable feel- 
ing which might exist. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B: * WELLINGTON. 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 19th March, 1813. 

' I enclose the proceedings of the General Court Martial 

on the trial of serjeant of the th regiment of 

light dragoons, complained of by the Portuguese Govern- 
ment for improper conduct at Monforte. 

' I beg that the Court Martial may be laid before them, in 
order that they may see the degree of ground there was for 
the complaint ; and how far the Juiz de Fora was justified, 
according to the Portuguese law, in refusing to give evidence 
to the Court Martial, and in treating them as he did. 
' I beg that these proceedings may be returned to me. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Sir Charles Stuart, K.B.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To His Serene Highness the President of the Regency in Spain*. 
< SlR, ' Freneda, 19th March, 1813. 

' On the 15th of February last I addressed a letter to the 
late President of the Regency, in which I informed him that 
a gentleman had passed through here on his way to England, 
conveying to His Majesty's Government an offer on the part 
of His Majesty the Emperor of Russia, of the service of a 
body of Russian troops in the Peninsula at the expense of 
Great Britain ; and I enclosed to the President a translated 
copy of my letter to the Secretary of State, Lord Bathurst, 
on that subject. 

' I have now to inform your Highness that I have received 

a letter this day from Lord Bathurst, in answer to mine of 

the 14th of February, in which he informs me, that upon 

communication with Count Lieven, His Russian Majesty's 

* The Cardinal de Bourbon. 



1813. FRENEDA. 215 

Ambassador in London, he finds either that Mr. Mackenzie, 
the gentleman who communicated the intelligence to me, 
misunderstood Admiral Greig, His Imperial Majesty's agent, 
with whom he communicated in the Mediterranean, or that 
Admiral Greig misunderstood his instructions, as His Impe- 
rial Majesty never intended to offer the services of his troops 
in the Peninsula, and has at present no corps disposable for 
that service. 

' I take the earliest opportunity of conveying this infor- 
mation to your Highness. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' The President of the Regency? ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry JVellesley, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 19th March, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter from Lord Bathurst, one with enclosure 
from Sir Charles Stuart, and one from Mr. Mackenzie, re- 
garding the offer conveyed by the latter of the service of 
Russian troops in the Peninsula ; from which you will 
observe either that Mr. Mackenzie misunderstood Admiral 
Greig, or that Admiral Greig exceeded his instructions. 

' I enclose you likewise the draft of a letter which I have 
written to the President of the Regency on this subject. 
General Murray brought me the letters from Lord Ba- 
thurst and Mr. Mackenzie, and left London on the 7th. 
He says that Count Lieven, being a friend of Greig's, had 
expressed great anxiety that no circumstance regarding this 
transaction should reach the Emperor's ears, as he is quite 
convinced that Greig misunderstood his powers when he 
made the offer of the Russian troops to serve in Italy, and 
that it was positively never the Emperor's intention that 
they should be offered for Spain. 

' I have no objection, if you should think it proper, to 
your showing all these letters to Sefior Labrador, and to 
your stating to him that it is desirable that the transaction 
should not reach the Emperor by any diplomatic corre- 
spondence from Cadiz. Indeed, it is probable from what I 
see has passed on that subject in the Cortes, that the 
Spanish Government will not be desirous of entering on the 
subject with Russia. 



216 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' You will see from my letter to Lord Bathurst of the 
14th February, that I was not quite certain of Greig's 
authority, or of the power of the Emperor to carry into 
execution the offer, supposing it had ever been made. But 
supposing Greig to have been authorized, and that the 
Emperor could carry his scheme into execution, I wished 
not to lose the services of these troops in the Peninsula in 
the next campaign by the delays of la marche des affaires 
in the English cabinet, and at Cadiz. 

' I knew that those in the former, who are ready to oppose 
every thing, would say, " do not accept this offer, or take 
any measure to realize its benefit, till you shall be sure that 
the powers of the Peninsula will consent to receive the 
troops ;" and that in the latter there would be the usual 
delays, and I thought it as Avell that the whole subject 
should proceed paripassu. 

' 1 do not conceive that the discussion in the Cortes has 
done us any harm ; and at all events our conduct in this 
instance affords another strong proof of our fair and open 
dealings, and of our respect and deference for the independ- 
ence and feelings of our allies. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

* The Rt. Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, 



To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

1 MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 19th March, 1813. 

' I have much reason to complain of the Spanish Govern- 
ment in all their transactions with me, and I enclose you a 
letter which I have written to the Minister at War referring 
to others of which the dates are in the margin, which I wish 
you would see, in order to learn the exact nature of the 
cause I have to complain of them. 

'I wish, likewise, that you would see the Cardinal do 
Bourbon, or whoever is really at the head of affairs, and 
represent to him how desirous I am of carrying on the 
service of the army in the manner that shall be most 
honorable, advantageous, and agreeable to the Govern- 
ment ; but that the engagements with me must be strictly 
carried into execution, if it be wished that I should retain 



1813. FRENEDA. 217 

the command. If that is not wished, it is only necessary 
to hint a desire that I should resign ; or what is tantamount, 
to fail to perform the engagements entered into with me, 
and I will resign with much more pleasure than I ever 
accepted the command. 

1 Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Rt. Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, 



To John Bell, Esq., Lisbon. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 19th March, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 15th. 
' I beg that you will ascertain how much I am indebted 
to the Government for income tax, or any other demand on 
my pension up to the 13th November, 1812; that you will 
pay the amount out of the sum now in your hands, and 
that you will pay the remainder into the military chest as a 
voluntary gift on my part. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' John Bell, Esq." ' WELLINGTON. 

To Major General Baron Bock. 
' SIR, ' Freneda, 20th March, 1810. 

' I return the proceedings of the General Court Martial, 
of which you are President, on the trial of Serjeant - , 
to have the names of the members, &c., inserted at the 
commencement of the proceedings on the trial. 

' I likewise return the proceedings on the trials of Hospital 
mates - , -- , and - , for the same reason ; and in 
order that the Court may revise their sentence. 

'These three gentlemen were charged with a drunken 
riot at Coimbra, of the existence of which there is undoubted 
evidence on the face of the proceedings ; and yet because 
none of the facts charged are proved against one of the 
three, the Court have thought proper honorably to acquit 
him ! I should wish the Court to consider whether it is 
possible that there can be any honor in the conduct of any 
man in a riot by a drunken party of which he is one. His 
conduct may have been an exception to that of others, but 
it is quite impossible that it should be honorable. 



218 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' In regard to the sentence upon the other gentlemen, 
first, in respect to their guilt, there remains no doubt upon 
my mind that they were guilty of all the facts charged in 
both the charges, according to the evidence as recorded ; 
but upon this point the General Court Martial who heard 
the evidence must be more capable of forming an opinion 
than I can be. 

' Secondly ; in respect to the punishment, I have to ob- 
serve, that there is nothing to prevent the Commander of 
the Forces from reprimanding gentlemen guilty of such 
unbecoming conduct without the aid of the sentence of a 
General Court Martial ; and it is very certain that the 
example of such a reprimand is not likely to deter others 
from the conduct of which these gentlemen have been found 
guilty, nor to prevent the necessity of troubling a General 
Court Martial again. 

' Thirdly ; to put an Hospital mate at the bottom of the 
" list of Hospital mates in the Peninsula is no punishment 
whatever. These gentlemen, as far as I know, assume no 
command over each other, nor do they rise by seniority ; 
and it must be obvious to every body who will read this 
sentence, that the object of the General Court Martial was 
to discover a new description of punishment for these of- 
fences, which, in fact, is no punishment at all, and cannot 
have the effect intended to be produced by bringing a case 
of this description to trial, viz., to prevent others by example 
from committing a similar offence. 

' I earnestly recommend to the Court Martial, therefore., 
to pass such a sentence upon these gentlemen as will con- 
vince them and others that they must conduct themselves 
with propriety, or that they will suffer serious inconvenience 
for their conduct. 

' At all events whether the Court alter the nature of their 
sentence or not, it is absolutely necessary they should so far 
alter it as to omit the word severely previously to repri- 
manded. ' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Major General ' WELLINGTON. 

Baron Bock.' 



1813. frREJsEDA. 219 



To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 20th March, 1813. 

'I have received your letter of the 16th. 

' I did not intend to charge the Marquez de Borba with 
any improper conduct in mine of the llth, but only with 
concealment of the operations of the JErario, which in my 
opinion is very prejudicial to the service of the Prince. 

' As far as I can understand the returns transmitted to 
me, which I enclose, it appears that the ^Erario does receive 
regular returns of the state of the balances in the hands of 
the several collectors of the revenue ; but these returns 
afford but a very inaccurate notion of the state of the ba- 
lances in their hands at any particular time, because they are 
not made sufficiently often. For instance, the collector 
at Braganza sends his return on the 1st of the month of 
the balance on that day. A week will elapse before the 
JErario can receive it ; and even if the order for the disposal 
of it be issued immediately, another week will elapse before 
it can be received by the collector. In the mean time he 
will have accumulated in his hands the balances collected 
in a month, from which he can expect to be called upon to 
pay only those collected in a fortnight. In England the 
collectors in the country return their balances, and, if they 
can get Bank of England notes, pay them in by the post of 
every night ; and, in my opinion, the collectors in Portugal 
should be made to return their balances by every post, and 
then it is obvious that by the JErario attending to send 
orders to pay them to the army treasurer by the return of 
post, the most distant of them could have in their hands 
only the balances collected in ten days, supposing the com- 
munication by post to be twice a week, and the length of 
each communication to be seven days. 

'I see on the face of these returns an account of balance 
sufficient to pay the army for at least half a month ; and as 
allowance may fairly be made for an accumulation of as 
much more balance in the hands of each collector from the 
date of the last return, it may fairly be stated that the 



220 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

collectors have at this moment in their hands a sufficiency 
to pay the army for a month. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B: ' W ELLI NGTON. 

To Lieut. Colonel Bourke. 
t SlR, ' Freneda, 21st March, 1813. 

' I enclose you a letter which I wrote on the 2nd instant 
to Admiral Martin, and his answer of the 6th, in regard to 
certain transports sent from Lisbon to Coruna with stores, 
and their disposal afterwards. 

' It is intended to send to Catalonia the regiments of 
Pontevedra and El Principe ; and General Salvador, who is 
charged with all the arrangements respecting the embarka- 
tion of these regiments, has been directed to communicate 
with you upon them ; and I request you to put him in com- 
munication with the officer in charge of these transports, and 
t facilitate by every means in your power the early embark- 
ation of the troops. 

' When the troops shall be on board, you will request the 
officer in charge of the fleet of transports to take them round 
to Minorca. He will from thence communicate with the 
officer commanding His Majesty's ships on the coast of Cata- 
lonia ; and, in concert with the Commanding Officer of the 
troops, who is directed to communicate with the Spanish 
General Officer commanding in Catalonia, he will ascertain 
and fix upon the most convenient situation for the disem- 
barkation of the troops in the province of Catalonia. 

' The place fixed upon will probably be Villa Nueva ; but 
that must depend upon the state of affairs in the province 
at the time, of which I can form no judgment at this 
moment; and I only request that the officer in charge of 
these transports will not hurry the disembarkation of the 
troops before the officers on shore shall be prepared to receive 
them, and to secure their junction with the other troops in 
Catalonia. 

' The Spanish troops in the transports are to be victualled 
in the same manner with those of His Majesty. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Bourke: ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 221 

To Lord Eldon, t/ie Lord High Chancellor. 
' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 21st March, 1813. 

f I have had the honor of receiving your Lordship's letters 
of December 5th and February 5th last, on which your 
Lordship enclosed the resolutions of the House of Lords, 
expressing the approbation of their Lordships of the conduct 
of the General Officers, officers and troops under my com- 
mand, in the service of Portugal, as well as in His Majesty's 
service, during the late campaign in the Peninsula; but 
more particularly in the battle of Salamanca. 

' I have had the satisfaction of communicating to those 
concerned, this honorable testimony of their good conduct, 
and reward of their services; and I request your Lordship 
to convey to the House my grateful acknowledgments for 
the favor with which they have viewed my conduct, and the 
high honor which they have conferred upon me by their 
approbation. 

' I likewise request your Lordship to accept my thanks 
for the handsome terms in which you have conveyed to me 
the sense of the House of Lords. 

< I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Lord Eldon. 1 ' WELLINGTON. 

[A. letter in similar terms to the Right Hon. (he Speaker of the 
House of Commons.] 

To the Earl of Liverpool. 

' MY DEAR LORD, 'Freneda, 21st March, 1813. ' 

'I omitted in my letter of the 16th to tell you that I 
should of course resign the Order of the Bath ; and when I 
shall receive the Order of the Garter, I shall give directions 
that the insignia of the Order of the Bath may be disposed 
of as the statutes of the Order direct. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' The Earl of Liverpool: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Buthurst. 

c MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 21st March, 1813. 

' General Murray arrived here on Thursday with your 



222 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

letters of the 6th. You will have observed from mine of 
the 14th February, that I was not quite certain of Mr. 
Mackenzie's authority, and that I concurred entirely in the 
opinion which you communicated to General Murray that 
it would be best that the Emperor of Russia should make 
his efforts in the north of Europe, and we ours in the 
south. I thought it, however, not impossible, as was repre- 
sented by Mr. Mackenzie, that the Emperor of Russia had 
disposable troops which he might think he had not the 
means of employing in the north of Europe, and he might 
have been disposed to send them here. The object of my 
letter was to apprize your Lordship of my opinion of the 
advantages which the cause would derive from such employ- 
ment of such a disposable force of Russians ; and I adopted 
the measures which I did adopt in regard to the allied 
Governments, in order that there might be no unnecessary 
delay, and that if we were to have the troops we might have 
them in time to be of some use. 

' In regard to the German troops, adverted to in the com- 
munications to Sir John Hope, I should be very sorry to 
have them, and I should prefer spending the money they 
would cost on as many Spaniards. 

' I have considered the paper sent to me by desire of 
Count Miinster, and I acknowledge that from all I have 
heard and read of the schemes of insurrections in Italy, I 
do not conceive there is the slightest foundation on which 
any rational man would venture to embark a single soldier. 

' From what I know of the French system of Government, 
I entertain no doubt of its being very oppressive ; and that 
all thinking men in any country in which it is established 
must be desirous of getting rid of it. But the question 
amongst these must always be, in what manner, and 
at the expense of what exertions ; and there are many, 
probably the majority of this class, who would prefer to 
trust to the chapter of accidents to involving themselves 
and their country in the dangers and losses of a general 
insurrection ; and by far the greater majority of the people 
in those countries, particularly those in easy circumstances, 
would prefer to pass their lives quietly under any system of 
Government, however oppressive, to making any sacrifices, 
or any exertions, in order to get rid of it. I believe this to 



1813. FRENEDA. 223 

be the case in Italy ; and I have not seen any proof of the 
existence of a general desire to get rid of the French Go- 
vernment ; nor have I ever been able to learn the names of 
any principal men, or ever to discover that in any particular 
town, there existed men of talents and influence who had 
any thing to say to this supposed insurrection. I cannot, 
therefore, think that it would be desirable, or that I ought 
to send from Spain the Sicilian corps, with a view to such a 
scheme of operations. 

' The question of insurrection in any country must always 
be one of great doubt ; but it appears to me that if such a 
measure should be adopted by any country, at any time, 
it ought to be adopted by Germany at present. It appears 
that the people cannot be in a worse situation than they 
are ; their enemy is humbled, and there is a formidable and 
victorious army on the frontier ready to give support to 
their efforts. But those who are about to involve their 
country in these troubles, must not imagine that their task 
is an easy one, or that the contest, or its evils, will be of 
short duration. They little know the character of their 
enemy, and have studied his conduct but little, if they do 
not expect a most vigorous contest, if once they draw the 
sword and are not prepared, as he is, to endure every thing, 
and to go to all extremities to attain their object. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst? ' WELLINGTON. 

To General Castanos. 
' MON CHER GENERAL, ' i Freneda, 22 Mars, 1813. 

' J'ai recu votre lettre du 17 Mars. Resistez aux empenos*, 
non seulement du Due del Infantado et de Mosquera, mais 
de tout le monde ; et nommez ceux qui vous croyez pouvoir 
le mieux servir la patrie, et je vous soutiendrai en tout. 

' Je n'entends rien a ce qu'on a fait a Cadiz, et je ne 
sais pas ce qu'on y fera. En attendant, il faut quo nous 
fassions nos arrangemens bientot pour 1'ouverture de la cam- 
pagne ; et il serait fort a desirer, si le General Giron doit 
commander 1'armee de la Galice, qu'il y passe sans perte 

* Empe/lo. In general this word means the cit-mand of a promise to grant a 
request, without knowing what it is. 



224 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

de terns. Je vous ai deja ecrit sur la marche de la cavalerie 
du Comte de Fiquelmont de ce cote la. J'ai ecris au Gou- 
verncment sur les finances, ou je vois bien quo nous man- 
querons. J'attends les details que j'ai demande aux Officiers 
commandans des armees pour faire mettre cette partie sous 
les yeux de " las Cortes." 

* Par un rapport que j'ai rec,u de la Galice, je vois quo la 
troupe la n'a pas recu de soldo de longtemps. 

' Ne serait il pas bon d'envoyer un ordrc pour la disposition 
de 1'argent qui reste a vos ordres dans les mains du Colonel 
Bourke? J'ai fait dire qu'on prenne sur cet argent pour 
payer un mois de solde aux regimens de Pontevedra et del 
Principe ; et je le ferai remplacer. 

* Je tacherai aussi de faire passer encore de 1'argent en 
Galice pour cette armec. Us ont tout pour leur equipement. 
Envoyez moi un rapport officiel sur 1'etat de vos finances 
aussitot que vous pourrez. 

' Agreez, &c. 
' General Castaiios." ' WELLINGTON. 

To Major General Houstoun. 

' MY DEAR GENERAL, Freneda, 23rd March, 1813. 

' I received, by the last post, your letter of the 10th 
February. I was much concerned when you left us in the 
year 1811, and should have been happy if you could have 
remained with us. I am very sorry, however, that there is 
now no vacancy for you to fill ; indeed we have more General 
officers than I know how to dispose of. 

' Believe me, &c. 
1 Major General Houstoun: ' WELLINGTON. 



To Don J. de Carvajal. 

' MONSIEUR, ' & Freneda, ce 23 Mars, 1813. 

' J'ai 1'honneur de vous envoyer 1'cxtrait d'une lettre rec,ue 
du Chef d'Etat Major de 1'Annee de la Galice, et 1'extrait 
d'un rapport du Chef d'Etat Major de la 4 mc armec, par 
lesquels votrc Excellence verra 1'etat des troupes en Galice 
et Estremadure, et leurs souffrances, faute de subsistances et 
de solde. 



1813. FRENEDA. 225 

' J'en ai recu des pareillcs des Generaux de toutes les ar- 
mees, mais non-officielles ; ctpourcctte raison je ne peuxpas 
les mettre sous les yeux du Gouvernetnent. 

' Lc Gouvcrnement peut s'assurer que, si on ne prend pas 
des mesures efficaces pour realiser les revenus de I'e'tat, et 
pour les appliquer aux depenses de 1'etat, le terns qu'on a 
passe, et les peines qu'on s'est donne pour rassembler des 
troupes, et pour les discipliner, seront perdus. Ni la disci- 
pline ne peut se perfectionner, ni les troupes rendront elles 
aucun service, si elles ne sont ni payees ni nourries ; et le re- 
sultat de 1'effort qu'on a fait pour lever une armee sera qu'on 
aura rendu malheureux beaucoup de monde, en les arrachant 
de leur families, sans que la cause en retire aucun avantage. 

' Comme je vous 1'ai dit deja, je ne suis pas en etat encore 
de vous faire un rapport officiel sur cette partie du service ; 
mais on m'ecrit de par tout qu'il n'y a pas assez d'activite 
dans I'intendance des provinces. Puisqu'il y a quatre ans 
que 1'ennemi s'est retire de la Galice, et qu'on y a fait toujours 
depuis un commerce tres etenduet lucratif en bestiaux ; et qu'il 
y a un an que 1'ennemi n'apas etendu ses courses en Estrema- 
dure, il par ait rait qu'il y a quelque cause pour cette impu- 
tation, si neuf-dixiemes des revenus de ces provinces ne sont 
pas capables de donner meme la solde d'un mois aux troupes 
qui y sont etablies. Je suis tente de croire aussi que le sys- 
teme de contribution directe, etabli par la loi, est trop com- 
plique pour le moment. 

' En tout cas le sujet est d'une telle importance a la nation 
Espagnole que je crois de mon devoir d'y attirer 1'atten- 
tion du Gouvernement a la premiere occasion qui soit en 
mon pouvoir ; et je repeterai mes observations aussit6t que 
je pourrai vous envoyer des rapports officiels. 

' J'ai I'honneur d'etre, &c. 
4 Don J. de Carvajal.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K. B. 

1 MY DEAR BERESFORD, ' Freneda, 24th March, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 21st. I propose that 
the British troops should lay aside either blankets or great 
coats this year ; and I have not yet decided which. I believe, 
however, the latter : but I propose to put them in tents. 

VOL. x. Q 



226 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' I would recommend to you, therefore, not to give out 
your great coats till the end of the season. 

' I have ordered Hamilton's division to Abrantes for their 
clothing, and the brigade in the 7th division to Raiva for 
theirs. This business is going on as you wish. 

' I am glad to hear that your wound is so well as not to 
prevent your travelling. 

' Believe me, &c. 

1 Marshal ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B.' 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 

' SlR, ' Freneda, 24th March, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your Excellency's 
letter of the 15th instant, in which your Excellency has 
informed me that you have, by desire of the Regency, 
ordered the regiment of Fernando VII., and the hussars of 
Aragon, into the province of Seville, General Don Josef San 
Juan not having received any orders from me respecting 
these regiments. 

' I did not forget these regiments, although I did not 
send them orders to move into the province of Seville. 

' The fact is, that the clothing and appointments belong- 
ing to the regiment of Fernando VII. are at Alicante, where 
they had been detained by General Roche. I have since 
sent orders to General Elio, on the 1st of March, to send 
this regiment to the neighbourhood of Alicante to receive 
its clothing and appointments, and the regiment is after- 
wards to join the 2nd army. 

' Positive orders are sent to General Roche to deliver the 
clothing and appointments. 

' The hussars of Aragon have been ordered to move 
towards the same point, with the intention of drafting them 
into the regiments of Almanza and Olivena. 

( Your Excellency will observe how much the service is 
interrupted from the practice adopted by your Excellency of 
sending orders direct to the troops, contrary to the positive 
engagement entered into by the Government with me, and 
to the military practice of all countries. 

' These troops were destined to commence their military 



1813. FRENEDA. 227 

operations at an early period ; and I repeat to your Excel- 
lency, that every military plan must be deranged if you 
continue this practice. 

I have addressed this letter to you in English, as I have 
not by me the facility of writing it in Spanish ; and I wish 
not to lose the earliest opportunity of writing to you on this 
subject. 

I have the honor to be, &c. 
Don J. de CarvajaU ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

SIR, ' Freneda, 24th March, 1813. 

' I have this day received your letter of the 12th instant, 
in regard to the raising money by loan upon certificates, of 
which I heretofore sent you the form and explanation. I 
am concerned that it is supposed that these will not answer, 
as I am not authorised to borrow money on certificates of 
any other description, or any other terms than those stated. 

' I am concerned to find also that there is no prospect of 
procuring money at Cadiz for the payment of the subsidy 
to Spain, unless from the funds hitherto allotted for the 
support of His Majesty's troops. These funds have hitherto 
been very insufficient for this object, and will certainly not 
be equal to defray the additional expense now to be placed 
on them. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

SirH. Wettesley t K.B: 

To His Royal Highness the Commander in Chief. 

< SIR, ' Freneda, 24th March, 1813. 

1 1 have had the honor of receiving your Royal Highness's 
letter of the 24th February. 

' I have made all the arrangements for drafting the horses 
from the 2nd hussars, thinking that, after the draft made 
from the 9th and llth light dragoons, and 4th dragoon 
guards, horses would still be wanting for some of the regi- 
ments ; but by the reports received from some of the com- 
manding officers, I find that they cannot mount the numbers 

Q 2 



228 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

which I had allotted to them from the drafts ; and I there- 
fore delay the measure for a few days till I can receive 
reports from the several regiments of the exact numbers 
received by each, and what number of men there will remain 
in any regiment dismounted. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

His Royal Highness ' WELLINGTON. 

the Commander in Chie p 

To Colonel Torrens. 
' MY DEAR TORRENS, ' Freneda, 24th March, 1813. 

' General Murray has mentioned to me that he wishes that 
Captain Kelly* of the Life Guards, now employed in some 
situation in the Military College, should be allowed to join 
this army, in order to be employed on the Staff of the Quar- 
ter Master General, and I shall be very much obliged to 
you if you will make application to His Royal Highness 
for permission for him to come here. 

' The appointment of Arentschildt to be aide de camp to 
the Prince Regent has put him over the head of De Lancey 
in this army, and I should be glad if you would consider 
whether it would be possible to apply to his situation in 
the department the rule which prevails in respect to the 
Deputy Quarter Master General of the army, and the 
Deputy Quarter Master General in Ireland, viz., that when 
an officer is made aide de camp to the King over his head, 
he gets the rank of Colonel. 

' I enclose a paper of memorandums which De Lancey has 
put into my hands, which shows that he has not been mucli 
favored ; and I have to say of him, that he was at the head 
of the Quarter Master General's department during nearly 
the whole of the last campaign, and in the battle of Sala- 
manca ; and that he always rendered me the greatest assist- 
ance, and gave me every satisfaction. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Colonel Torrens: ' WELLINGTON. 



* Afterwards on the Adjutant General's staff in India, where he died. He 
had distinguished himself at the battle of Waterloo, 



1813. FRENEDA, 229 

To Colonel Torrens. 
< SIR, ' Freneda, 24th March, 1813. 

' Having, in consequence of the directions of the Secretary 
of State, made arrangements for carrying into execution the 
wishes of the Commander in Chief for the formation of a 
police corps of two troops, to be denominated the Cavalry 
Staff Corps, I have to request that you will submit to His 
Royal Highness's favorable consideration the names of the 
undermentioned officers for appointments in the above 
corps : 

' Brevet Lieut. Colonel G. Scovell *, from the 57th regi- 
ment, to be Major Commandant. 

To be Captains of troops : 

' Lieut. Lewis During, from the 15th light dragoons ; 
' Lieut J. Gitterick, from the 12th light dragoons. 

To be Cornet : 
' James Rooke, gent. 

' I shall hereafter transmit my recommendation of officers 
for other commissions in this corps. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
4 Colonel Torrens: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 24th March, 1813. 

' I enclose the copy of a letter which I have received from 
Sir Henry Wellesley, in regard to the negotiation of loans 
for sums of money at Cadiz, on the certificates which were 
sent to me last year ; and on the prospects of raising any 
m oney at Cadiz to pay the subsidy sum in any other manner 
than on the funds hitherto destined for the support of His 
Majesty's army. 

' I likewise enclose the copy of my answer. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: 'WELLINGTON. 

* Major General Sir G. Scovell, K.C.B., Governor of the Royal Military 
College at Sandhurst. 



230 PORTUGAL. 1813. 



To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 24th March, 1813. 

' The army of the South have continued their movements 
to the northward, and they have now but few troops in La 
Mancha. They have not passed the mountains; and it 
appears that they are concentrated between Talavera de la 
Reyna, Madrid, and Toledo. 

' The army of the Centre have moved towards the Duero ; 
and I have a report that the King quitted Madrid on the 
17th instant, to which I give credit, although it is not from 
an authentic source. 

' The troops on the Tormes have not moved ; nor have I 
heard of any other movement of importance. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
1 MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 24th March, 1813. 

' I see in the newspapers a report that there is in London 
a Frenchman employed on a negotiation for the exchange 
of prisoners, to which I earnestly recommend to your Lord- 
ship not to consent. 

' First ; if what is reported of the number of officers and 
soldiers taken by the Russians be at all true, you may 
depend upon it that Buonaparte will find it difficult to form 
another army, unless he should get back the old officers and 
soldiers who are prisoners either in England or in Russia. 

' Secondly ; they have very few officers or soldiers of ours 
whom it is an object to us to get back. They have scarcely 
any Portuguese ; and I would not give one French officer 
or soldier, such as I sent last year to England, for 100 
Spanish officers and soldiers, such as they have in France. 
I doubt their having so many Spaniards as they pretend 
they have in different papers which I have read on the sub- 
ject ; but of this you may be very certain, that whether they 
have them or not at present, Spaniards of all ages and sexes 
will not be wanting when the exchange agreed upon is to be 
carried into execution ; as, if they have not in their prisons 
what are called soldiers, they will make a sweep of the 



1813. FRENEDA. 231 

country, and carry off as many as will be required to release 
all the French soldiers who may be in confinement in Eng- 
land. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Earl Bathurst: f WELLINGTON. 



To Lieut. General the Hon. Sir G. L. Cole, K.B. 

SIR, ' Freneda, 25th March, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 22nd instant ; and 
being satisfied myself of the validity of the promise made by 
the mother of the young lady who has been carried off by 

of the th regiment, I do not conceive that 

doubts entertained by any other person on that subject 
ought to prevent or delay the execution of the directions 
which I gave on that subject. 

' In regard to 's inclination to marry the 

young lady, I cannot but observe that he has it in his power, 
whenever he pleases, to compensate in that manner the 
injury which he has done to the family ; and it is no excuse 
that the influence of the family has prevented the clergy 
in the neighbourhood from performing the ceremony. That 
influence could not extend to the clergy in Spain, from which 
country is distant but a few miles. 

' has been guilty of a gross breach, not only 

of the laws of Portugal, but of the laws of his own and of all 
civilized countries ; and if I should be called upon by the 

Government, as I most probably shall, to deliver over 

to the Portuguese tribunals, to be dealt with according 

to the Portuguese law, I shall most undoubtedly comply with 
their desire. 

' I cannot but observe upon 's complaint " that 

he is to be placed at the disposal of a foreign tribunal," that 
the notion is too common among the officers and soldiers of 
the army that they are not obliged to obey the laws of the 
country in which they are acting ; or, in other words, that 
they may act as they please, and may commit such outrages 
as they think proper, provided they do not offend against 
the Mutiny Act and Articles of War. 

' I cannot, however, admit of such a doctrine ; and 

will be an instance that the laws of the country must 



232 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

be obeyed, if the Portuguese Government shall desire that 
he may be delivered over to the tribunals of that country. 

' I beg that the directions contained in my letter of the 
19th instant maybe carried into execution. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

the Hon. Sir G. L. Cole, K.B.' 



To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 
' MY DEAR BERESFORD, ' Freneda, 26th March, 1813. 

' They have omitted to send a riband with which to wear 
the badge of the Order of the Tower and Sword to the 
Knights ; the consequence of which is, that I saw one yes- 
terday with the cross hanging to a red riband. I wish you 
would mention this to Dom M. Forjaz, and have it arranged 
that there may be sent to me with a letter for each Knight 
and Commander, a riband of the proper color for the 
Order. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Marshal 'WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. C. Beretford, K.B: 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 
' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 26th March, 1813. 

' I have received yours of the 23rd, and I am very sorry 
to learn the fate of the Java. 

4 I conceive from the hand, and from the word Us ted* 
written thus, that the anonymous letter you enclosed, is 
written by an Englishman; and I think I have before seen 
the hand of the direction. But it does not appear to me 
that there is any mischief in the letter. It is the universal 
practice of the world to accuse all men of ambition, who are 
a little prominent in station or in talents; and I do not 
know that such an accusation does much harm, if no such 
views are entertained. 

f Believe me, &c. 
Sir Charles Stuart, K.B: ' WELLINGTON. 



* It is written void in Spanish, being the short of vuestra merccd, but it is 
pronounced usled. 



1813. FRENEDA. 233 



To Sir R. Kennedy. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 28th March, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 26th instant, and I am 
much concerned to find that the army are likely to suffer 
the inconvenience of your prolonged absence from it. I 
still entertain the intention and hope that I shall be able 
to put the whole army in the field on the 1st of May; 
and it is much more important that you should be at head- 
quarters at the present moment, than at that at which the 
troops shall move, as their being able to move at all equipped 
as they ought to be, will depend upon the directions to be 
given now to bring to a conclusion the different arrange- 
ments before directed. The absence of the Commissary 
General, however, is always excessively inconvenient to the 
public service, and I cannot but lament the necessity for it a 
second time in so short a period. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Sir R. Kennedy: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Major General Cooke. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' Frenedu, 28th March, 1813. 

' I received yesterday your letter of the 17th. I shall be 
very much obliged to you if you will let me know who will 
command the troops at Cadiz, &c., when you go to Eng- 
land. 

' If that officer should be one whose discretion can be 
depended upon, I can have no objection to your going, ex- 
cepting that in the -last paragraph of your letter you say 
that you would abandon all idea of the application, if there 
should be any idea of your being called into a more active 
situation. As far as 1 am concerned, I should consent to 
your going, on the ground that it is necessary for your 
health, Avhich I am aware has suffered considerably, pro- 
vided there is an officer to replace you on whose discretion 
I can rely ; but if I am to understand by the last paragraph 
that you can perform the duty of a more active situation, 
which I do not think you can, I should then object to your 
quitting the important situation in which you are placed. 



234 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' So far for my opinion. But I must inform you that the 
Government attach great interest to the command at Cadiz ; 
and although I may recommend, I cannot allow you to quit 
the station without their consent, unless in a case of extreme 
urgency, and I should provide an officer to perform your 
duty in your absence, on whose discretion they, as well as I, 
could rely. 

' I have thought it best to explain myself clearly to you 
upon this subject, in order that if you should make your 
application for leave, you may receive the answer in time 
to get away from Cadiz, before the commencement of the 
hot weather. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Major General Coohe: ' WELLINGTON. 



To the Conde de la Bisbal. 

' MONSIEUR, ' aFreneda, ce 28 Mars, 1813. 

' J'ai rec,u la lettre que votre Excellence m'a fait 1'honneur 
de m'adresser le 23 de ce mois sur celle du 17, que je vous ai 
adresse par les ordres du Ministre dela Guerre, sur les 
mesures que vous aviez prises a 1'egard du regiment 2 de 
Malaga. 

' Je n'etais pas persuade que les mesures que votre Ex- 
cellence avait adopte a Tegard du regiment de Malaga 
etaient contraires aux termes de 1'ordre du 4 Decembre de 
1812 ; mais je n'avais aucun doute qu'elles etaient contraires 
a V esprit de cet ordre. II me paraissait aussi que le regi- 
ment 2 de Malaga ayant e'te forme sous les ordres et sous 
les yeux du Gouvernement, il aurait ete expedient de remettre 
aux vceux du Gouvernement les mesures que votre Ex- 
cellence se proposait pour transferer les soldats a d'autres 
corps. 

' Mais j'avais les ordres du Gouvernement pour la censure 
que j'ai passe sur cet acte. Si la Regence 1'avait autorise 
d'aucune maniere, et qu'elle meme en a apres fait passer une 
censure, elle a agi d'une maniere tres inconsequente, pour 
ne rien dire de plus. 

' Mais la cause pour laquelle je m'adresse a votre Excellence 
une seconde fois sur ce sujet se trouve dans le dernier para- 



1813. FRENEDA. 235 

graphe de votre lettre du 23 Mars ; par lequel on croirait 
qu'en obeissant a 1'ordre que j'avais reu du Gouverncment, 
jc me suis servi dc termes de censure egalement meconnus, 
et peu demandes par les circonstances. Je peux vous 
assurer que si je me suis servi de tels termes, c'etait bien 
centre mon intention. Les circonstances surement ne les 
demandaient pas; et mme si j'eusse pu croire qu'elles les 
demandaient, mon respect pour le rang, les services, et les 
qualites qui distinguent votre Excellence m'auraientempeche 
de m'en servir ; et je crois que ceux qui verront ma lettre 
a votre Excellence du 17 Mars, conviendront, qu'etant oblig6 
par les ordres du Gouvernement de censurer un acte de 
votre Excellence, la censure ne pouvait etre moins dure, ni 
les termes desquels je me suis servi, ni les sujets tre plus 
generaux que ceux dont je me suis servi dans cette lettre. 

' Je conviens qu'il n'est pas agreable pour ceux qui 
servent la patrie avec zele, et qui n'ont pas ete accoutumes 
aux censures de s'y trouver pour la premiere fois en but; 
etj'espere que je dois attribuer aces sentimens la sensibilite 
de votre Excellence a celle que j'ai du vous envoy er. Je 
serais bien fache si quelque chose que j'ai pu e"crire a votre 
Excellence a pu diminuer votre zele, regie comme il doit 
1'etre par attention aux ordres et mme aux voeux de 1'auto- 
rite superieure dans les cas ou on ne trouve pas d' ordres 
positifs ; mais je ne peux ni ne dois retractor la censure quo 
j'ai donne ; etil faut s'attendre que si je dois former et passer 
vine opinion sur les actes de quelqu'un, je dois en enoncer 
ma disapprobation si j'en desapprouve, quoique dans des 
termes desquels je me flatte que je ne me suis departi 
jamais. 

' J'ai 1'honneur d'etre, &c. 
The Conde de la BisbaV ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Conde de la Bisbal. 
< S IR> ' Freneda, 28th March, 1813. 

' I have had the honor to receive your letter of the 23rd 
March. 

' It is impossible to lay before the Government an account 
of the expenses in the provinces of Seville and Cordova be- 
fore we have them in detail. 



236 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' When I proposed to the Government and the Govern- 
ment promised to me that nine tenths of the revenues of the 
liberated provinces should be assigned for the maintenance 
of the armies, I thought it was understood that these nine 
tenths should be paid into the military chest without any 
deduction whatever, excepting the expenses of collection. 

' The Commanders in Chief of the several armies were 
then under the article of the decree of the Cortes, to be 
responsible for the expenditure of the sums of money which 
should come into the several military chests. 

' If, however, it is to be understood that pensions, and 
the salaries of employments of all descriptions, and other 
expenses are to be paid from the amount of the nine tenths 
of the revenues supposed to be allotted to the armies, it is 
quite certain that this arrangement is nugatory ; and Spain 
may have an army of pensioners and of persons in civil and 
other employments, but she will not have one of soldiers. 

* It is impossible, however, that I can bring this subject 
distinctly under the view of the Government, until I shall 
be possessed of the detailed information which your Excel- 
lency proposes to send to me ; and then I may hope to pre- 
vail upon the Government to adopt the measures which are 
necessary, in order to insure the subsistence of the armies. 

' I propose to endeavor to have provision made in Estre- 
madura, to supply the troops under your command on their 
advance towards the probable scene of action, if we should 
be enabled to make them advance ; but in the mean time the 
collection of magazines in Cordova and Ecija is expedient, 
particularly if that measure can be adopted without pre- 
venting the collection of a sum of money in the military 
chest. 

' I mention this, because I think it very possible to be 
able to collect a large magazine in the provinces of Seville 
and Cordova in payment of the contribution de Guerra, 
which it would be impossible to collect in money. But if 
the contribution can be collected in money it is desirable ; 
and if Jhat should be the case, I should not deem it desirable 
at present to form in those provinces a larger magazine than 
for one month for the number of men stated. 

' The scene of operations will necessarily be at a distance 
from those magazines ; and the transport of the magazines 



1813. FRENEDA. 237 

which the money would equally purchase elsewhere, would 
be very expensive and difficult. 

' I will attend to what you state in regard to the state of 
discipline of the troops, when the time shall come for order- 
ing them to move. 

' I am very much inclined to apprehend, however, that 
instead of having too few troops in a state of discipline to 
take the field, we shall find that we have more troops 
clothed, armed, and disciplined, than the means of the 
country can support, unless the Government should adopt, 
in earnest, the measures proposed to them, and arranged 
with me, and should give the armies the real nine tenths of 
the revenues fairly collected and honestly administered. 
It will answer no purpose to bring to the theatre of the war 
on the Duero or the Ebro, crowds of starving soldiers. We 
shall only lose them by desertion, and with them our own 
characters, and increase our difficulties without reaping any 
advantage from the trouble taken in forming them. 

' In whatever force the army of reserve may march, I will 
take care that it is attended by a body of cavalry in propor- 
tion to the strength of the cavalry of the army. 

' 1 1 is very desirable that the 2nd company of artillery 
should be formed as proposed ; and if your Excellency will 
be so kind as to let me know what equipments and military 
stores you require for both companies, I will inquire whether 
the stores of the British army at Cadiz can afford to supply 
them . 

' I have written to the Government respecting the bat- 
talion of Campo Mayor. The future disposition of the Wal- 
loon Guards must depend upon the prospects which there 
will be of keeping together in operations, in one body, a 
large corps of Spanish troops.! 

' It is very desirable that the battalion of zapadores should 
be completed, which I understand was the object in view in 
bringing it into Andalusia. I addressed the Government 
upon this subject ; but it is very desirable that this battalion 
should be trained as sappers, rather than as infantr}'. 

' Having conversed with Don Josef Canterac in regard to 
the details of the plan proposed for forming the brigades of 
mules for the army of reserve, I am induced to doubt whe- 
ther the Government itself, without the authority of a decree 



238 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

of the Cortes, has the power to order the execution of such 
a plan, for the reasons stated by your Excellency. The 
call for these mules would be tantamount to the call for a 
fresh contribution; unless it should be in commutation for 
a part of the extraordinary contribution de Guerra. In this 
view it would be objectionable. It would be better to levy 
the contribution, and then to purchase the mules, supposing 
it to be expedient to form such brigades of mules in the 
sendee of Government. 

' From my experience, however, of the service in the 
Peninsula, I am inclined to doubt the expediency of forming 
such brigades. 

' In the allied British army we have never been able to 
maintain even one brigade of mules the property of the 
public, although we have many brigades of hired mules ; 
and I would recommend to your Excellency to consider of 
the means of drawing from the provinces of Seville and Cor- 
dova, the service of a certain number of brigades of mules to 
attend the army for a limited time as bagages, under the 
contract and customs of the country, to be relieved by others 
from the same towns at the end of the limited period allotted 
for their service. By these means, which I believe may be 
adopted by the Intendants of the provinces without further 
authority from the Cortes, your Excellency will have in the 
service of the army of reserve a certain proportion of mules. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
. ' The Conde de la Bisbal.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Duque del Infantado. 
' MON CHER Due, ' a Freneda, ce 28 Mars, 1813. 

1 J'ai repu hier votre lettre du 17 Mars pour laquelle je 
vous suis bien oblige. L'affaire entre " las Cortes" et 1'ancien 
Gouvernement a ete un peu leste. Je m'attendais a quelque 
chose de la sorte en consequence de ce que j'avais vu et 
entendu a Cadiz ; mais je n'ai pas cru que 1'assaut serait si 
soudain, si vif, ou sitot decide. 

' Vous aurez su comment a fini I'affaire des Russes. 

'J'ai deja parle ce matin au General Wimpffen sur la 
maniere de vous employer a 1'armee, et je crois pouvoir pro- 
poser un arrangement au Gouvernement qui vous sera 



1813. FRENF.DA. 239 

agitable et qui vous ofFrira les moycns de vous distinguer. 
Je vous ecrirai plus en detail la dessus en quelques jours. 

' Agreez, &c. 
' El Duque del Infantado: ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Eight Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 
' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 28th March, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 19th. From what I 
see in the newspapers, I should doubt the success of Car- 
lota. However, we shall see. 

' Whittingham's and Roche's corps must of course be 
taken care of from the resources to be procured at Cadiz. 
In regard to the remainder, they must be considered in the 
first instance disposable for the supply of the military chest 
of the British army ; and I will state at what periods, and 
in what proportions, they may be applied to other Spanish 
services. I think it desirable that at present, besides the 
current supplies for Whittingham's and Roche's corps, Mr. 
Duff should be prepared to issue 400,000 dollars for Spanish 
services. 

' I wish, and propose, to open the campaign* on the 1st 
of May, and to aid the several Spanish corps with that 
sum, at about that period. But from all that I hear, I am 
much afraid that none of them will then be ready. We 
shall be so, I hope, completely ; and if there was money, I 
should entertain no doubts of the result of the next cam- 
paign in respect to the Peninsula. But the Spanish Go- 
vernment have so contrived their matters, that the ar- 
rangements concerted and agreed upon with me, have not 
yet produced a shilling, and as far as I can judge, are not 
likely to produce much. However, I cannot yet write deci- 
sively and officially upon this subject, as I have not the 
official reports ; but I have certainly the most obstinate and 
worst tempered people to deal with (particularly General 
) that I have yet met in my life. 

' I acknowledge that I have never expected much from 
the certificates; and I have never yet been able to issue 
even one. I believe there is very little money in Spain to 
be borrowed ; and that the few people in Spain who have 
money to lend, have no confidence in any thing like a Go- 



240 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

vernment security. They would infinitely prefer that of 
Mr. Duff. I am very little satisfied, however, with the ob- 
jections of Mr. and Mr. to the certificates. 

There is nothing in the form of the certificate that does not 
add to the security of the lender ; a truth, of which any per- 
son who should have money to lend would be convinced, if 
the agents of the borrower would take the trouble to explain 

it to him. Mr. 's certificate is drawn with a view to 

English, not to Spanish, objection. I never heard of any 
but metal money in Spain, or that any attempt had been 
made by the British Government to introduce the paper 
currency of Great Britain into this country. Our certificate 
states, that the debt shall be paid in certain places in the 
Peninsula, and means, of course, in the money of the Penin- 
sula ; and if I was a lender in the Peninsula instead of a 
borrower, I should suspect the validity of the certificate 

drawn as Mr. proposes ; but I should not have 

much difficulty in granting this certificate, if any money 

could be procured for it. What does Mr. say upon 

this point? 

' Depend upon it, that the result of the next campaign 
depends upon our financial resources. I shall be able in a 
month to take the field with a larger and more efficient Bri- 
tish and Portuguese army than I have yet had ; and there 
are more Spanish troops clothed, armed, and disciplined, 
than have ever been known, and we are making a daily 
progress towards getting out of the chaos in which I found 
matters. But if we cannot realise the subsidy without fall- 
ing on the resources of the British army, and can get nothing 
from the country, we shall end the next campaign as we did 
the last. That is, after we shall have consumed what we 
can seize of the harvest, we must retire ; and when we shall 
retire, nobody else can remain forward. You will see, there- 
fore, how necessary it is, to sift to the bottom the whole 
question regarding the money to be raised on Joan, and if 
there should really be any, which I doubt, to ascertain what 
are the real objections to the certificate proposed. 
' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, K.B: 



1813. FRENEDA. 241 

To Major General Cooke. 
< SIR, ' Freneda, 28th March, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 12th 
instant regarding the bounty due to certain Serjeants and 
private men of the Watteville regiment. 

1 I know nothing of the order which Major General Ross 
had upon this subject; but there is no doubt that he was in 
a situation to give these people reason to believe that he 
was authorized to issue the proclamation under the engage- 
ments of which they deserted, and afterwards enlisted ; and, 
under these circumstances, I request that they may be paid 
the sums stated to be due to them, that is to say, 18 dollars 
to each of the 2 Serjeants, and 8 dollars to each of the 44 
rank and file. 

4 I have the honor to be, &c. 
Major General Cooke.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Major General Baron Bock. 
' SIR, ' Freneda, 29th March, 1813. 

' I have perused the proceedings of the General Court 
Martial of which you are President, on the trial of Private 

, of the th regiment, which I return, and 

request the Court to revise both the proceedings and sen- 
tence. 

' It is very desirable to me, whose business it is to form a 
judgment on the proceedings of the Court, that the circum- 
stances should be clearly stated in the recorded proceedings 
which produced on the minds of the members of the Court 
the conviction that the prisoner did not intend to steal the 
horse, contrary to the uncontradictcd evidence of Lieut. 

, and to the finding of the Court itself, that the horse 

was offered for sale in Rio Mayor. 

' Whatever the circumstances may be, it is desirable 
that the Court should omit from their sentence that part 
which states their reason for passing a "lenient sentence" 
on the prisoner. Such an addition to the sentence does not 
appear necessary ; and I am afraid that those to whose 
knowledge it will come will not be able to distinguish the 
difference between taking a horse from its owner, riding it a 
certain distance, and offering it for sale, and abusing and 

VOL. x. R 



242 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

ill treating the owner when he came to claim it, and steal- 
ing it. 

1 I have the honor to be, &c. 
Major Gen. Baron Bock.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Sir John Murray, Bart. 

' MY DEAR GENERAL, ' Freneda, 29th March, 1813. 

' I received the night before last your letters of the 10th 
and 1 1 th, and I sincerely congratulate you upon the success 
of your first movement on the enemy. 

' It is impossible for me to move in Castille till the green 
forage shall have appeared, which I expect will be in the 
first week in May. The season is however very unfavorable. 
We have had no fall of rain since December ; and up to 
this moment we have dry harsh north easterly winds, that 
destroy the vegetation which might support our horses and 
other animals. You will judge, therefore, of the expediency 
of your doing more at present than you have done. 

' I entertain no doubt that you will have nothing upon you 
excepting the troops immediately under Suchet, as all the 
rest are upon the Tagus and Duero, and preparing to resist 
the movements which they expect us to make. If I should 
find that they hesitate about going towards the Duero, or 
that they detach towards you, I shall move forward a part of 
this army immediately as far as the Tornies, which will 
bring them back. 

' As soon as I see the equinoctial rain fall I shall be able 
to fix the day on which I shall move, and I will then write to 
you to begin your operations, reckoning upon the dispatches 
taking fifteen days to reach you. 

' I have not yet determined whether you shall carry on an 
operation by land, keeping your right flanks on the Medi- 
terranean, of the same description with that which I carried 
on in Portugal in 1808, or whether you shall embark the 
British part and such other of your force as you have trans- 
ports to convey, and attack Tarragona, leaving the corps un- 
der General Elio, and the other troops for which you will not 
have conveyance, to proceed to take possession of Valencia, 
and to follow the movements of the enemy. Much depends 
upon the state of the equipments and resources of the 2nd 
and 3rd Spanish armies, of which I have not yet the returns. 



1813. FREKEDA. 243 

' If we could retake Tarragona, which, with the means at 
your command, does not appear a difficult operation, we 
should obtain a most important point in a view to the 
position of the troops in Catalonia and to the future opera- 
tions of the war ; and, on the other hand, if we should fail, 
it must be in consequence of the movement of such a body 
of the enemy's troops from Valencia as would secure the 
possession of that city, and probably of the whole of the 
province. However, much depends upon the capacity of 
movement of the 2nd and 3rd Spanish armies. 

' I am sorry to have a bad account of your troops. The 
esprit of ours has always been good, but their discipline 
occasionally very bad indeed. We are getting better, how- 
ever, and I trust we shall make a good figure in this cam- 
paign. I do not know of any light troop officer that I 
could send you, as we change our hands almost every month. 
You shall have the 67th regiment ; but you must remember 
that, in case of an accident anywhere, that or some other 
regiment must return to Carthagena. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General 'WELLINGTON. 

Sir J. Murray, Bart. 

' I enclose a letter which I beg you will send to the Ge- 
neral Officer commanding in Catalonia, in order that he 
may be ready to co-operate with you in case you should pro- 
ceed to the attack of Tarragona.' 

To the Spanish General Officer commanding in Catalonia, 
< SIR, ' Freneda, 29th March, 1813. 

( I think it proper to take an early opportunity of inform- 
ing your Excellency that it is possible that the allied troops 
on the eastern coast of the Peninsula may begin their opera- 
tions early in May by an attack on Tarragona ; and it is 
dtsirable that your Excellency should be prepared to co- 
operate with them on the first intimation you will receive 
from the General Officer commanding the troops of his 
being about to carry that plan into execution. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' The Spanish General Officer ' WELLINGTON. 

commanding in Catalonia.' 

R2 



244 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wdlesley, K.B. 
' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 29th March, 1813. $ past 10 P.M. 

' The messenger goes off in the morning, and I write 
again to let you know that the English mail to the 10th has 
arrived. There does not appear any news of importance. 
There is some prospect of decreased hostilities towards 
Great Britain on the part of Denmark ; and it is stated that 
a Regency has been appointed in Prussia. But these are 
only reports. 

' The public attention in England appears to be entirely 
engrossed by the Princess of Wales. 

' I congratulate you upon the result of La Carlota's 
affairs. 

' I wish you could send me, by the first messenger who 
comes, a box of cigars, not for myself, but for Tweeddale. 

' I request you to send 6000 suits of clothing to the army 
of Catalonia, and 4000 to the army under Elio at Alicante, 
and to state positively to the agents that it is for those 
armies. 

' Your courier of the 25th arrived this evening. 

' Let me know how much more clothing you have in store 
at Cadiz. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Kight Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, 



To Colonel Mark Wilkes. 

' MY DEAR SlR, ' Freneda, 30th March, 1813. 

' I received by yesterday's post your letter of the 2nd 
instant, in which you have enclosed a copy of the memorial 
to the Court of Directors of the East India Company of 
yourself and other gentlemen, executors named in the will of 
the late General Agnew, in favor of the General's family. 

' Having served in the East Indies during a great part of 
the period referred to in the memorial, and having had a 
perfect knowledge of the public transactions in that country 
of that period, of the share Major General Agncw had in 
them, of the trust and confidence reposed in him, and of the 
ability and integrity with which he fulfilled the various duties 
with which he was intrusted, and having always felt the 



1813. FRENEDA. 245 

greatest regard for him as an officer and a member of society, 
I should feel the utmost satisfaction in giving my aid to 
relieve the inconveniences brought on his family, in a great 
measure by his virtues and by his zealous discharge of his 
duty to his employers, if I knew of any channel through 
which I could venture to address the Court of Directors, 
without the risk of being supposed guilty of intrusion upon 
them. 

' I entertain no doubt, however, that the Court of Directors 
will feel every disposition to attend to your forcible appeal 
to their generosity and justice; and you may depend upon 
it that, if you can point out to me any channel by which, 
without intrusion, I can venture to recommend your memo- 
rial to their attention, I will with pleasure avail myself of 
your suggestion. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Colonel M. Wilkes: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' My DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 30th March, 1813. 

' You have gone so far beyond our expectations in supply- 
ing us with money, that I should not now address you upon 
this subject, only that I have heard a report, from something 
like authority, that the price of silver in England had come 
to its standard, and that that of gold was falling rapidly. 

' I beg your Lordship's attention to the contents of a letter 
which I sent you last week from Sir Henry Wellesley in 
regard to our prospects of money from Cadiz for the British 
army, after providing for the Spanish subsidy. From all 
the accounts which I have yet received of the produce of the 
revenues of the Spanish provinces freed from the enemy, I 
have every reason to fear that we shall realize but little, if 
anything; and yet I feel no hesitation in predicting now, 
that the result of the campaign about to be opened will 
depend in a great measure upon our being able to keep 
together, in a state for service, a large force of Spaniards, 
which can be done only by the aid of money. 

' I must also inform your Lordship that our debts to the 
muleteers attached to this army are becoming a very serious 
evil. There was very lately a desertion to a very large 
amount from General Hill's corps, produced, J believe, in a 



246 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

great measure, by the sharks, called British merchants, resid- 
ing in Lisbon, under the protection of the British Govern- 
ment, who are ready to do any thing to gain a little by the 
public distresses. In proportion as the success of the army 
may clear the country of the enemy's troops, and the inland 
traffic will revive, we must expect the desertion of this useful 
class of people, unless we can pay them a part of what we 
owe them, and their future hire more regularly than we have 
that which they have earned heretofore. Any desertion of 
them is very inconvenient, and a very large desertion would 
be fatal to us. 

' I likewise beg to draw your Lordship's attention to a 
new head of expense which has begun to occur only lately, 
that is, bounty on the re-enlistment of British soldiers. The 
demands on the military chest on this head alone at this 
moment are estimated at 800,000 dollars, which you are 
aware cannot be postponed without serious inconvenience to 
the service at large. Yet I am sure I do not know how I 
am to take the field in the first week in May, and to defray 
this demand and all the others for Spanish and Portuguese 
service which exist on our military chest. 

' I have brought this statement under your view only 
because I hope, from what I have heard, that there exist 
now in England means of relieving our difficulties to a very 
great extent. 

' Believe me, &c. 
4 Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Right Hon. W. W. Pole. 

' MY DEAR WILLIAM, ' Freneda, 31st March, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 7th, and I am much 
obliged to you for the trouble you take with my concerns. 

' Having the estate in Somersetshire, I should prefer a 
purchase in that same county and neighbourhood ; but I 

feel no objection to any other ; and, if can 

be bought for 70,000, I think it would be a good purchase, 
but I doubt that more ought to be given for it. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 
' The Right Hon. W. W. Pole.' ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 247 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HENRY, * Freneda, 31st March, 1813. 

' In answer to those parts of your letters of the 25th inst, 
to which I did not reply in my letter of the other night by 
the courier, I have to recommend to you to make the pur- 
chases of flour to be sold again, if you should think you can 
sell it with advantage, that no difficulties will be thrown in 
your way on the part of the Government, and that the 
measure is not likely to become generally known. If it 
should be so, it would render us very unpopular, however 
useful it would be to the population of Cadiz. 

' It is very obvious, however, that it will put in the- chest 
the whole sum that you will receive for the flour, as that will 
be paid for by bills on England. 

( You did right to notice the paragraph in the Conciso, 
if only to convince the British Government that you had 
nothing to say to it. You have nothing to say, any more 

than I have, to 's politics ; and as long as you 

do your duty by the Government, it does not appear to me 
to be necessary to advert in any way to his opposition 
measures. I hope that nothing will induce you to think of 
resigning your situation. 

' I was pretty certain from what I saw in the papers that, 
notwithstanding her majority, La Carlota would not succeed 
in her object. The liber ales must, however, take care what 
they are about ; they may stir up the populace of the seat of 
government once too often ; and they should recollect the 
fate of all the popular leaders of the French revolution by 
such conduct. I am quite sick of the whole business, which 
every day's experience convinces me cannot end well, be our 
military success what it may. We have done the Spaniards 
a great deal of mischief by encouraging them to establish 
what is called a free, but what is really a licentious, press ; 
and so we shall find to our cost ! 

' The Minister at War is going on just as usual ; and I 
must either resign, or throw him and the Government on 
their responsibility ; and desire some Member of the Cortes 
to call for the letters. He sends orders to the troops, and 
so do I ; and the consequence is, that neither are obeyed. I 
wish you would talk on the subject to the Cardinal. 



248 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' Pray let me know how much of the clothing of the last 
year you have got ; and send me a note of how you disposed 
of that disposed of. I will send you officially the account of 
the disposal of mine. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, K.B. 

' It appears by a paper of the 13th that the Russians Avere 
advancing on Hamburgh. God send that they may not go 
too far !' 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 3 1st March, 1813. 

f l have received your Lordship's dispatch of the llth 
inst., (No. 105,) and I will convey the orders which it con- 
tains to the officers commanding at the several stations in 
the Peninsula within the limits of my command. 

' I beg leave to observe to your Lordship that I am not 
aware that any officers who had deserted from the enemy 
have been sent to England, from Lisbon, in the manner 
described in your dispatch ; but I think it right to inform 
you that there are many French officers (deserters) now 
there, of whom I do not know how to dispose, and who arc 
constantly making applications to be provided for, in some 
way or other. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst." ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 31st March, 1813. 

' The King arrived at Valladolid on the 23rd, and was 
still in that city on the 25th. It was expected that the 
head quarters of the Army of Portugal were to be moved to 
Palencia. 

' One division of the Army of the South have arrived at 
Avila ; and the first division of the Army of Portugal, 
hitherto cantoned in that province, have moved towards the 
Duero. The remainder of the Army of the South remain 
as reported to your Lordship in my last dispatch, with very 
few troops in La Mancha. 



1813. FRENEDA. 249 

' There has been no other movement of importance on this 
side of the Peninsula. 

' I have the honor to enclose a report which I have re- 
ceived from Lieut. General Sir John Murray, of an attack 
made by him upon the enemy's post at Alcoy, on the 7th 
instant. He has established his posts at that place, and 
proposes to move them still forwarder. 

( I have the honor to be, &c. 
Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 2nd April, 1813. 

' Since I wrote to you the other day, I have turned over 
in my mind the measure said to be in the contemplation of 
the Spanish Government to pass a law to prevent the entry 
of foreign troops into Spanish garrisons, which I find, from 
what Wimpffen says, had been thought of before he quitted 
Cadiz ; and I consider it likely to make so bad an impression 
abroad, as well as in England, that I think it very desirable 
that you should have some conversation with La Vega, 
Argiielles, and some of the principal people in the Cortes, in 
order to apprize them in what manner this question really 
stands. 

' First ; Spain is in a very different situation in respect to 
every question that can come under consideration, but more 
particularly in reference to military affairs, from any other 
country in Europe. The enemy are still in possession of a 
large proportion of the country, having only, within a few 
months, been deprived of the remainder of it. The Spanish 
army, which had been entirely destroyed, is now only in its 
infancy, and its organization and formation are checked by 
difficulties of every description, and the principal dependence 
of the country for relief from the enemy must be upon the 
aid of foreign troops. 

' Secondly ; It is not necessary to advert to the services of 
the foreign troops, nor to their good conduct, particularly in 
Spanish garrisons, in each of which they have come by 
invitation from the Government of Spain ; but I would beg 
those who are to consider this question, to see whether there 



250 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

is any ground whatever to be found in the conduct of our 
officers and troops for jealousy on this subject. If that is 
the case, it is surely unwise to insult an ally, and to afford 
ground for the abuse of our character by such an enact- 
ment. 

' Thirdly ; The measure may be attended by the most 
serious inconvenience. I have British officers and soldiers 
at this moment employed in Badajoz and Ciudad Rodrigo in 
repairs and improvements, which could not be carried into 
execution without their assistance. Works of the same 
description are carrying on in the same manner at Cartha- 
gena, Alicante, Tarifa, and even on the Isla itself, under the 
eyes of the Cortes. All these must be discontinued ; as it 
must be supposed that after such an insult to our character, 
I can never allow an officer or soldier to go near a Spanish 
fortress. This may be attended by the most serious incon- 
veniences and losses. We must not believe that we are yet 
arrived at that point of our affairs in Spain, that we may not 
meet with defeat, or that we may not again be obliged to 
withdraw near to our magazines, or that when the necessity 
for such a measure occurs, there will not be a very serious 
desertion and dispersion of Spanish troops. It is notorious 
that, on these occasions, the last place to which a Spanish 
soldier will go is a fortified garrison, which, in such a case, 
incurs the risk of being left without defence. This was 
so much the case when we fell back upon the Agueda 
last winter ; and the desertion from the garrison which was in 
Ciudad Rodrigo was so great, that I had determined, if the 
enemy had continued to advance, to throw into that place a 
garrison of British troops ; and actually left a division in the 
suburbs for that purpose when the rest of the army went 
into cantonments. 

( It might happen to me to be obliged to retire again ; it 
may happen to Sir J. Murray to be obliged to retire : what 
will be said if Ciudad Rodrigo is to be lost on one side, 
or Alicante on the other, in consequence of these move- 
ments ? 

' Fourthly ; The Government and Cortes of Spain should 
observe that they have no magazines of either stores or 
provisions in any of their fortresses, not supplied by Great 



1813. FRENEDA. 251 

Britain. The magazines in Badajoz and Ciudad Rodrigo 
are those belonging to this army. They cannot expect that, 
after such an insult to our integrity, I shall leave them in 
those places. 

' The measure will really be one of wanton insult, which 
will do more harm to the cause for which we are contending 
than any thing that has yet been done. If the Cortes are 
seriously desirous that our troops should not be in their 
garrisons, let them say so quietly, and I will withdraw them. 
But while we are embarked in the same cause, and engaged 
in this arduous contest, do not let us insult each other by 
legislative measures. 

' It is obvious that the Spanish Regency neither have, nor 
can have, any power ; and I do not know of any party in the 
Cortes with which you could connect yourself more closely, 
so as to have more influence over the measures in contem- 
plation. It appears that the newspapers guide every thing, 
and I have often considered that it might be worth your 
while to have such a control over one or two of them, as to 
be certain that they would insert that of which you would 
wish the public at Cadiz to be informed. This is a matter, 
however, to be managed with great secresy and discretion, 
and whatever you should think proper to publish, should be 
confined to a simple statement of facts and dates, in plain 
language, with the obvious reasoning resulting from them. 

' If you should find the Government and Cortes deter- 
mined to pass the proposed law, I think you should desire 
Major General Cooke to remove all the British troops and 
establishments from Cadiz to the Isla, without loss of time ; 
and it is much better to make no remonstrances. 

' The mail is arrived to the 19th of March. The news 
remarkably good. The King of Prussia has joined the 
Emperor of Russia. The Emperor of Austria has consented 
to an armistice with Russia, indefinite as to period of time. 
He has proposed himself as a mediator of a general peace. 
Count Weissenberg is expected in England every day on 
that subject. 

' Dantzic has not fallen. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, K.B. 



252 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' I enclose a letter for La Vega, which I beg you to read 
and deliver to him. I cannot go on with these people unless 
I can set them to rights. I likewise enclose a letter, which 
Alava desired me to request you would have delivered.' 

To Senor Don D. de la Vega, Infanzon. 
' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 3rd April, 1813. 

' Before I accepted the command of the Spanish armies 
and went to Cadiz, I wrote a letter to the late Regency, on 
the 4th of December, in which I apprized them of my 
opinion of the state of the armies, of the difficulty which I 
should find in exercising the command, and of the powers 
with which it was necessary that the Government should 
intrust me ; and after I went to Cadiz I wrote them a second 
letter on the subject, on the 25th of December, in which I 
explained, and again urged them to agree to what I had 
proposed in my first letter of the 4th of December ; and 
after repeated discussions they did fully agree to these pro- 
posals of mine, in a letter from the Minister at War, of the 
1st of January. My object in proposing these measures, 
was to place the armies of Spain on the same footing of 
subordination and discipline with the other armies of 
Europe ; and to preclude all chance of the continuance of 
those intrigues, by applications to the Government which 
had brought the army to the state in which I found it. I 
could have no object, or wish of ambition, personal to my- 
self. There are not ten officers in the army whom I know 
even by sight. I can have no feeling for any but the public 
interest, connected as it is with the discipline of the army. 

< Another proof that I can have no object of that de- 
scription, is to be found in my letter to the Government, of 
the 27th of December, in which I proposed that the Captains 
General of the different armies, and not myself, should be 
the Captains General of the provinces allotted for their 
support ; and that in their hands should be vested all the 
power which the military were to have in the country. 

' I am sorry to have to inform you, that whatever my 
views may have been, they have been entirely frustrated by 
the departure of the Government from every article of their 
engagements with me, as sanctioned by their letter of the 
1st of January. 



1813. FRENEDA. 253 

' First, They liave removed officers from their stations, 
and have placed them in others, without any recommenda- 
tion from me, or any other superior officer; and without 
even acquainting me, or the superiors of those officers, 
that they had made such arrangements. 

' Secondly, They have appointed officers to stations with- 
out my recommendation, or that of any other superior 
officer; and have given them assurances that they should 
remain in those stations, contrary to their engagements with 
me ; and to the Royal Ordenanzas, by which the powers 
and responsibility of the Captains General of the pro- 
vinces are regulated. 

' Thirdly, They have, without my recommendation, or 
sending, through me, their orders, and even without ac- 
quainting me with their intentions, moved corps of cavalry 
and infantry from the army to which they belonged, to 
other stations ; and this without any reason, that I am 
acquainted with, of a public nature. By this last measure 
the greatest inconvenience and confusion has been pro- 
duced. 

' I had proposed, and the Government had consented to, 
a reform of the cavalry ; and they had ordered that it should 
be carried into execution. I sent orders in consequence, 
and I might have hoped that the armies would have had a 
tolerably well organized cavalry by the commencement of 
the campaign. Instead of that, I find that the Govern- 
ment have likewise sent orders to the same corps different 
from those which I had sent ; and I am informed, but not 
by the Minister at War, that the cavalry which I had des- 
tined to form part of the army of Galicia, at the opening 
of the campaign in May, had been ordered, some of it on 
the 6th of February, and others on the 6th of March, 
without my knowledge, to the Isla de Leon, there to join a 
cavalry depot, which has been formed at that station, like- 
wise without my knowledge. Another corps of cavalry, 
ordered by me to Alicante, to receive its clothing and horse 
appointments at Alicante, has been ordered by the Minister 
at War into the province of Seville. 

' I have frequently remonstrated upon these breaches of 
agreement with me, and on the evils likely to result from 
them j but I have hitherto been unable to obtain from the 



254 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

Government any satisfactory reply, whether they intended 
to conform to their agreement with me or not. 

' To this statement add, that owing to the delays of the 
Government in issuing the orders to the financial depart- 
ments in the provinces, to carry into execution the measures 
decreed by the Cortes, and arranged with me to provide 
for the support of the armies, that branch of the service is 
in the same confusion as it was in the end of last year. 
All the armies are in the greatest distress, for want of pay 
and provisions; nothing can be realized, even from those 
provinces which have been longest freed from the enemy; 
and the expectations of the country, and of the allies, that 
we should have a good Spanish army in this campaign, will 
certainly be disappointed. 

' I am fully alive to the importance which has been 
attached throughout Spain, as well as in England and in 
other parts of Europe, to the circumstance of my having 
been intrusted with the command of the Spanish armies ; 
and the officers of the Spanish Staff who are here with me 
will, I am convinced, do justice to the interest, the devotion, 
and diligence with which I have laboured to place the 
military affairs of the country in the state in which they 
ought to be. But I have a character to lose ; and in pro- 
portion as expectation has been raised by my appointment, 
will be the extent of the disappointment and regret at find- 
ing that things are no better than they were before. 

' I confess that I do not feel inclined to become the 
object of these disagreeable sensations, either in Spain, in 
England, or throughout Europe ; and unless some measures 
can be adopted to prevail upon the Government to force 
the Minister at War to perform the engagements of the 
Government with me, I must, however unwillingly, resign 
a situation and trust which I should not have accepted if 
these engagements had not been entered into, and I had 
not believed that they would have been adhered to. 

' I have written you this long story, because I believe 
you were principally instrumental in producing the unani- 
mous votes of the Cortes, that the command of the army 
should be conferred upon me ; and I wish you to commu- 
nicate this letter to Senor Argiielles and the Conde de 
Toreno ; and to Senor Ciscar, who, I believe, was the person 



1813. ERENEDA. 255 

who first moved the subject in the Cortes. I wish them to 
call for all my letters to the Minister at War and his 
answers, from the 1st of December last to the present day; 
and they will learn from them the exact state of the case ; 
and will be able to judge whether any,, and what measures 
ought to be adopted. But I must tell you that, whatever 
may be their opinion regarding the measures to be adopted 
by the Cortes on this subject, I must reserve to myself the 
power of acting according to my own judgment ; and if the 
agreement made with me, or something substantially the 
same, is not adhered to by the Regency, I must resign my 
situation. 

' I have now to tell you, that I propose to take the field 
at the head of the Allied British and Portuguese army, as 
soon as the rain shall have fallen, and the appearance of the 
green forage will enable me to support the cavalry of the 
army; but I am sorry to tell you, that, owing to the 
measures which are the subject of this letter, I do not 
believe that a single Spanish soldier will be able to take 
the field till after the harvest. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Don D. de La Vega' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 3rd April, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 30th March, enclosing 
another anonymous letter from Cadiz. 

' As the police must know the person to whom this letter 
is addressed, it might be possible to discover, through his 
means, by whom the letter is written. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Sir James Leith, K.B. 

' MY DEAR GENERAL, ' Freneda, 4th April, 1813. 

' I received your letter by the last post. I have recom- 
mended for promotion upon every occasion, in which I have 
been permitted to recommend, those officers recommended 
to me by the General Officers serving under my command, 
excepting in cases in which they have injured those whom 
they wished to serve, by recommending too many. 



256 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' In such cases I have been obliged to select from their lists 
the names of those who, it appeared to me, were most de- 
serving f and in some cases in the siege of Badajoz, I have 
referred the whole to the Commander in Chief, who has 
promoted those he thought proper. After the battle of 
Salamanca, I do not recollect that you recommended any- 
body to me ; and certainly if you had recommended Captain 
Dowson to me, I should have recommended him. After 
that battle there were six officers promoted, belonging to 
the 5th division, all recommended by General Pringle ; and 
there was one recommended by him, Major Faunce, of the 
4th regiment, who was not promoted. I am afraid it is now 
too late to hope that Captain Dowson will be promoted. 
But to show you that I do not forget your wishes, I inform 
you that I have recommended that Mr. Hay*, your aide de 
camp, might be promoted to the only company that has been 
at my disposal for a very considerable length of time. 

' I hope that your health has been improved by your 
voyage to England. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir James Lcith, 



To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 4th April, 1813. 

' I think it proper to mention to you, that since the 
accounts have been received of the defection of the King of 
Prussia from the cause of France, and his junction with the 
Emperor of Russia, the Prince of Orange has expressed a 
desire to go to Germany to join the King. I recommended 
him to consult the wishes of His lloyal Highness the Prince 
Regent, and he proposes to write to the Duke of York on 
the subject by the first mail. 

< Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Major General Baron Victor Alien. 

< SlR, ' Freneda, 6th April, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 4th instant. 
' I have received orders from His Royal Highness the 

* Sir Andrew Leith Hay. 



1813. FRENEDA. 257 

Commander in Chief and the Secretary of State to allow 
soldiers from all the regiments of cavalry in this country to 
volunteer their services in the Staff Corps of cavalry to be 
formed ; and I cannot see any reason why I should except 

the soldiers of the from the benefits of this 

arrangement. 

' I have likewise received the orders of the Commander 

in Chief to draft the horses from the , if more 

horses should be wanted for the other regiments of cavalry 
in this country ; and, whatever may be the opinion and feel- 
ings of the regiment on the subject, I shall certainly obey 
the orders if it should be necessary. 

* I did not require the assistance of the opinion of 

to be aware of the services and merits of the 

2nd hussars, which I probably should have taken a proper 
opportunity of expressing, if it had not appeared from your 
letter that the probability that the horses of the regiment 
would be drafted (which, by the by, has never been commu- 
nicated to the regiment in any manner, or to any individual 
in it excepting yourself) had occasioned a dissatisfaction, 
which appears to me rather inconsistent with the principles 
of military discipline and subordination, which had induced 
you " to advise the regiment to bear their fate quietly, and 
as good disciplined and brave soldiers ought to do, and to 
behave on their march every where as such ;" and to tell me 
that " you trust they will do so." 

' I had believed the would certainly behave 

in such a manner on all occasions and under all circum- 
stances ; and that, if there should be any doubt on the sub- 
ject, something more forcible than advice would have been 
given to ensure their good behaviour. 

' I now have to inform you that, if I should find it neces- 
sary to order that the horses should be drafted from the 
in consequence of the Commander in Chief s direc- 
tions, I shall order to march with the regiment as 

their Colonel, and to remain with them till they shall be em- 
barked, in order that I may be certain that they will behave 
themselves, under the circumstances, " as good disciplined 
and brave soldiers ought ;" and that, contrary to my usual 
practice, I shall refrain from paying in General Orders tho 

VOL. x. s 



258 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

compliment which I may deem their services to deserve till 
they shall have quitted the country. 

' I have the honor to be, c. 

' Major General ' WELLINGTON. 

Baron Victor Alien.' 

To Major General Cooke. 
< $ IR) ' Freneda, 6th April, 1813. 

' I have received a letter from the Minister at War, by 
which I have been informed that the Regency have ap- 
pointed Lieut. General Valdez to be Captain General of 
Cadiz and a district in the neighbourhood, with certain 
military powers over the troops within it, which measure 
renders it necessary that I should give you corresponding 
instructions. 

' You will observe that, tinder the 3rd article contained in 
my letter to Mr. Frere of the 5th February, 1810, enclosed 
in my letter to General the Hon. W. Stewart of that date, 
as his instructions, it was stipulated with the Spanish Go- 
vernment, when first the British troops were detached from 
this army to Cadiz, " that they, as well as their officers, were 
to be relieved as often as might be deemed necessary ;" and 
there can be no doubt or difficulty upon that point. But, 
General Valdez being the Governor of Cadiz and the Cap- 
tain General of that city and its district, and having the 
sole and exclusive command on the Isla, &c., it is necessary 
that, whenever you should be ordered by me, or should find 
it necessary, to detach any troops from Cadiz, or should be 
ordered or should find it necessary to relieve those there by 
others, or to make any alteration of the force there, or of the 
individuals composing it, you should wait upon General 
Valdez, and make him acquainted with the directions which 
you have received, and obtain his consent to their being 
carried into execution. 

' I beg you to communicate these instructions to His Ma- 
jesty's Ambassador at Cadiz, and that you Avill inform Ge- 
neral Valdez that you have received them. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Major General Cooke.' ' WELLINGTON! 



1813. FRENEDA. 259 



To Major General Cooke. 

< S IRj ' Freneda, Gtb April, 1813. 

' I beg you to send orders to the 2nd batt. 67th regiment 
to embark at Carthagena in vessels which Lieut. General 
Sir John Murray will send there for their removal, and to 
proceed to join the troops under his command at Alicante. 

' The Commanding Officer at Carthagena will of course 
make the necessary communications to the Governor of 
Carthagena for his information. 

' The artillery, &c., are to remain at Carthagena in charge 
of the British stores, &c., at that place. 

' I request you likewise to send to Alicante, to join Lieut. 
General Sir John Murray, two officers of the corps of Royal 
Engineers, if they can be spared from Tarifa or Cadiz. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
4 Major General Cooke.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Sir John Murray, Bart. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 6th April, 1813. 

' I had the honor of receiving last night your letters Nos. 
3, 4, and 5, of the 23rd, 25th, and 27th of March, in which 
you have informed me of your further operations since the 
10th March, of your plan to detach General Roche's division 
on an expedition on the coast to the enemy's rear, and of 
your receiving the directions of Lieut. General Lord William 
Bentinck of the 13th March to send back to Sicily certain of 
the troops under your command mentioned in his letter, on 
account of certain political events in that island. 

' I now enclose the copy of a letter which I have received 
from the Secretary of State, dated the 16th February, con- 
veying the directions of his Lordship both to Lord William 
Bentinck and myself, in regard to the command of the allied 
British and Sicilian troops employed in the Peninsula. 

' Although I have had these instructions in my possession 
for about a fortnight, I have not thought it necessary to 
trouble you with any directions founded upon them, because 
I conceive that the instructions heretofore sent by the Secre- 
tary of State and by me to your predecessor applied to all 
the cases supposed and provided for in these instructions. 

s 2 



260 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' Lest, however, you should have received these instruc- 
tions from the Secretary of State subsequent to the period 
at which you will have received Lord William Bentinck's 
directions of the loth March, and before you will have carried 
them into execution, I think it proper to take the earliest 
opportunity to acquaint you that I have received these in- 
structions, and to inform you of my opinion of them as ap- 
plicable to the existing call for troops from Sicily. 

' The Secretary of State did not advert to the possible 
call of the troops from Sicily on the ground of a counter- 
revolution in the Government, or of consequent internal 
disturbances ; but the object of his orders is, that I should 
send the troops back, if there should exist any real necessity 
for that measure. My judgment must be guided, in deciding 
on this question, by the report of Lord William Bentinck of 
the circumstances of the case, and his opinion on them ; and 
I have no hesitation in desiring that the troops called for 
by Lord William Bentinck may be sent forthwith, according 
to his directions, if, in consequence of the receipt of the 
instructions of the Secretary of State of the 16th February, 
you should have delayed to send them waiting orders 
from me. 

' I should have preferred sending whole battalions of the 
same numbers to sending detachments of flank companies, 
but Lord William Bentinck knows his own army and his 
own concerns best, and I do not wish to interfere in any of 
his arrangements. 

' I do not understand, however, exactly, from the letter, 
whether you are to send both flank companies from each of 
the English regiments named, or only from the Germans ; 
and I request to hear from you on this point as soon as 
possible. 

' I have directed that the 2nd batt. 62nd regiment may 
join you from Carthagena. 

' This detachment certainly makes a serious diminution 
from that part of your force upon whose exertions implicit 
reliance might be placed ; but I still hope you will have it 
in your power to carry on the operations, which I propose 
should be carried on on the eastern coast, with the assist- 
ance of other Spanish corps, which it is in my power to 
give you. 






1813. FRENEDA. 261 

r I beg you to send a copy of this letter to Lord William 
Bentinck. 

f I have the honor to be, &c. 

Lieut. General 'WELLINGTON. 

Sir John Murray, Bart.' 

To Lieut. General Sir John Murray, Bart. 
' MY DEAR GENERAL, ' Freneda, 6th April, 1813. 

' have received your letters of the 25th and 27th March, 
and I send herewith an official answer in regard to Lord 
William Bentinck's call for the troops. 

' In regard to , I have sent for the Com- 
manding Officer of the artillery, and will give you an an- 
swer in the postscript to this letter. I rather believe, 
however, that he is the Captain of one of the companies of 
artillery sent from this army to join the allied British and 
Sicilian corps, and that he cannot be called from his com- 
pany without cause publicly assigned. We found him here 

a very capable officer, and he was promoted to be 

by brevet for his conduct at two sieges. 

' I cannot give you more troops than the battalion at Car- 
thagena. We have only one English regiment (the 29th) 
at Cadiz, which has been sent there because it is unfit to 
serve in the field. You must recollect what I told you in a 
former letter about sending the battalion back to Carthagena 
in case of accidents. 

' In regard to feeding the Spanish troops in Spain, I have 
invariably set my face against it, and have never consented 
to it or done it, even for a day, in any instance. My reasons 
are ; First, that it entails upon Great Britain an expense 
which the country is unable to bear ; Secondly, that it entails 
upon the departments of the army which undertake it a 
detail of business and a burthen in respect to transport and 
other means, to which the departments, if formed upon 
any moderate scale, must be quite unequal ; Thirdly, I know 
from experience that, if we do not interfere, the Spanish 
troops, particularly if paid as yours are, and in limited num- 
bers, will not want food in any part of Spain ; whereas the 
best and most experienced of our departments would not be 
able to draw from the country resources for them. 



262 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

* I have already consented to the formation of a maga- 
zine for the use of General Whittingham's and General 
Roche's corps for a certain number of days, if it should be 
found necessary to give them assistance of this description. 
I can go no farther ; and I earnestly recommend to you, if 
you give assistance at all, to give over a magazine to last a 
given time, but not to take upon yourself to supply the 
Spanish troops engaged in operations. If, however, you 
should, notwithstanding this recommendation, take upon 
yourself to give such supplies, I must object, as the Com- 
mander in Chief of the Spanish army, to your giving more 
than bread to the troops who receive pay, as that is posi- 
tively contrary to the regulations and customs of the Spanish 
army. I recommend to you also to attend with caution to 

the demands of both General and General , 

and to observe that, in proportion as you will comply with 
their demands, demands will be made upon you by General 
Elio and others, and you will involve yourself in a scale of 
expense and difficulty which will cramp all your operations, 
and which is quite inconsistent with the views of Government 
on the eastern coast of the Peninsula. 

( Since writing the above I have seen the Commanding 
Officer of artillery, and I have settled with him that 

's company of artillery on the eastern coast 

shall be relieved by a company now at Lisbon, which will be 
sent round; and, as soon as relieved, I request you to send 

and his company of artillery round in the 

same transports to Lisbon. I do not believe that the en- 
gineer officers can be spared from Carthagcna ; but I write 
to General Cooke to request that he will send you two from 
Tarifa. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir John Murray, Bart. 

' You will of course endeavor to keep secret, as long as 
you can, the departure of the troops for Sicily, and the 
object of their being detached.' 



1813. FRENEDA. 263 

To Lieut. General Sir John Murray, Bart. 

' MY DEAR GENERAL, ' Freneda, 6th April, 1813. 

' I have omitted to request you to send vessels to Car- 
thagena to bring away the 2nd batt. 67th regiment to 
Alicante. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON, 

Sir J, Murray, Bart.' 

To the Duque del Infantado. 

( MON CHER Due, 'a Freneda, ce 6 Avril, 1813. 

' Je n'ai pas encore ecrit au Gouvernement pour leur pro- 
poser de vous employer a 1'armee, et les moyens de le faire, 
parcequ'en causant sur ce sujet avec le General Wimpffen, 
il lui a paru aussi qu'ayant en vue la maniere dont la 
derniere Regence a ete dissoute, il valait mieux retarder 
cette proposition pendant quelques jours, pour donner le 
temps aux esprits de se calmer, et pour qu'on ne croit pas 
que vous aviez propose, de servir a 1'armee pour vous sous- 
traire aux poursuites qu'on pourrait se croire en droit de 
faire de votre conduite en la Regence, tenant en vue votre 
responsabilite. 

* Mais, comme je crois que les choses se sont calmes depuis 
qu'on a nomme permanente la nouvelle Regence, je compte 
ecrire a ce sujet au Gouvernement par la premiere occasion ; 
et je vous prie de vous tenir pret a partir. 

f Agreez, &c. 
' El Duque del Infantado: ' WELLINGTON, 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 

SlR, ' Freneda, 6th April, 1813. 

' I have been informed, by your Excellency's letter of the 
28th ult., of the decision taken by their Highnesses the 
Regency of Spain, that a new Captain Generalship should 
be formed for the province of Cadiz, which, together with 
the troops actually in that district, should be independent of 
any other Chief, and naming for this new command, General 



264 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

Don Cayetano Valdez, who shall receive his orders from only 
the Regency of the Kingdom. 

' In obedience to this superior command, I shall give 
orders to the respective Captains General concerned to 
obey it ; and henceforth not to include, in their state of the 
troops under their command, those now comprised within 
this new district ; nor to avail themselves of the resources 
of those parts of the country assigned for their support, 
trusting that the Regency will replace these by others, with 
the view that with such there may be sufficient to main- 
tain them. 

' With respect to this new arrangement, I beg leave to 
make some observations to your Excellency, which I think 
necessary to be placed under the consideration of the 
Regency. 

' There will be, in consequence of their order, a corps of 
the army entirely independent of my authority ; as also 
several establishments of instruction in the two principal 
arms withdrawn entirely from my cognizance or control. 

' I do not make this observation to your Excellency 
as complaining of any diminution of my authority; on 
the contrary, I consider the Regency's decision as a wise 
measure, suitable to the circumstances of the moment, and 
preventing a thousand causes of dissension which would 
undoubtedly arise without it ; but I think certain restric- 
tions necessary, without which it will be impossible to com- 
plete the organisation of the armies in conformity to what I 
have proposed. 

' When, in my letter of the 25th December last, I stated 
distinctly as my first proposition, " that officers should be 
promoted and appointed to commands solely at my recom- 
mendation. In this request I did not refer to the regular 
regimental promotions under the 25th title of the Ordenan- 
zas, (which Ordenanzas I require should be obeyed in every 
article,) but to the extraordinary promotions which the Go- 
vernment are in the habit of conferring upon officers for 
extraordinary services. I required that no promotion of this 
description, nor appointment of any description, should be 
made to any command, whether in chief or of a division, or 
of any other description, excepting at my recommendation f 



1813. FRENEDA. 265 

not that it was my intention to make myself the sole and 
absolute dispenser of favor, but in order to eradicate intrigue, 
which had been preferred to real merit. 

' If in this part of the army, independent of my authority, 
the Regency does not refrain from giving promotion except in 
the cases prescribed under the 25th title of the Ordenanzas, 
and by the channel and recommendation of the respective 
Inspectors, not only will the armies in the field be aban- 
doned by all those who have direct or indirect means of 
appeal, (which are never wanting,) but discontent will spread 
among those who have not that power, and discontent once 
introduced into the army, all the world knows the result. 

* That the decision of their Highnesses may therefore have 
the good effect which they anticipate and which may result, 
I recommend : 

' 1. That the part of the army in question shall not be 
favored by other promotion but those under the Ordenanzas, 
and that for it, as well as the other parts of the army, my 
first proposition shall remain in full force, as approved by 
their Highnesses in their letter of the 1st January last. 

' 2. That from the corps actually serving in this new 
district, it shall not be permitted to take others which are 
incorporated in the other corps of the army, without per- 
sonally acquainting me, and taking into consideration my 
opinion. The same rule should extend to every officer 
employed in them, whatever may be his rank. 

' 3. That whenever the Government shall consider it 
necessary to forward to the army of operation any one of the 
corps forming the army of reserve, it will have the goodness 
to acquaint me with its intention, that I may make my 
observations, and acquaint them with the motives I may 
have for one course or the other. 

' 4. As the 3rd regiment of artillery is in this new district, 
from which the 3rd army and the reserve is provided, I hope 
that it will not be inconvenient for the relief or increase 
Avhich they may require. 

' 5. That none of these corps shall in any manner be 
removed from the dependence of the Inspectors General, 
through which channel every thing relative to organization 
should pass according to what is stated in the 1st Article. 



266 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

6. It being the desire of their Highnesses to diffuse in- 
struction in the establishment of these new dep6ts, it will be 
very useful to order to it all the officers who may be super- 
numerary in the different armies. 

' These propositions,, in no manner opposed to the views 
of the Regency, are those which I think necessary in order 
to produce the result which may be expected, and which I 
request you will submit to the consideration of their High- 
nesses, that they will be pleased to decide accordingly. 

1 1 have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don J. de CarvajaV ' WELLINGTON. 



To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

< SIR, ' Freneda, 6th April, 1813. 

' In order still farther to reinforce the allied British and 
Sicilian corps under Sir John Murray, on the eastern coast of 
the Peninsula, I have ordered that the 2nd batt. 67th regi- 
ment may join it from Carthagena, of which I beg you will 
apprize the Spanish Government. 

' The British artillery now at Carthagena will, however, 
still remain there, in order to take charge of the stores, &c. 
in that garrison, belonging to the British Government. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, 



To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

< MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 6th April, 1813. 

' I received yesterday evening your letter of the 3 1st, and 
I now enclose my answers to Sir John Murray. It is im- 
possible to prevent the troops from going; but I do not 
think their departure is likely to be decisive of the cam- 
paign on the eastern coast. Murray must keep it concealed 
as long as he can. 

' I have received a letter from the Regency in answer to 
mine of the 17th March, of which I sent you the draft, and 
they promise fairly ; and they have proposed to form a dis- 



1813. FRENEDA, 267 

tinct division of troops, under Valdez, for the service of 
Cadiz and the neighbourhood, which, if carried into execu- 
tion in the mode which I have proposed, and which will go 
to them by to-morrow's post, will probably answer to pre- 
vent the jarring and bickering which we have had hitherto, 
if the Minister at War can be prevailed upon not to inter- 
fere in my concerns, till they shall be regularly brought 
under the view of the Government. 

' Under these circumstances, I am inclined to wish that 
La Vega, &c. should do no more than call for and read the 
correspondence with the Minister at War, till they shall 
hear further from me. 

' I am sincerely desirous of carrying on the service, not 
only to the public advantage, but in the manner that will be 
most agreeable to the Government ; and the last thing that 
I should think of would be to bring my discussions with the 
Government under the view of the Cortes, if it should be 
possible to avoid it. 

' By a letter from the Duque del Parque, I see that he 
has got only 20,000 dollars of the 100,000 Avhich it was 
settled, when I left Cadiz, should be sent to the 3rd army. 
Have you given any more to the Government for the use of 
that army ? Could you send any flour to Catalonia instead 
of money ? Communicate with the Government on this 
subject, and let me know the result. 

' I am afraid that my letter of the 28th, in which I re- 
quested you to keep 400,000 dollars for the use of the 
Spanish armies, will have arrived too late ; but from what 
I hear of the state of the money market in England, I hope 
that if you should have sent that money, much time will not 
elapse before you Avill be able to replace it. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' The Eight Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, K.B? 

To Lieut. General Sir Stapleton Cotton, Bart. 

' MY DEAR COTTON, ' Freneda, 7th April, 1813. 

' I think it probable that you will arrive at Lisbon nearly 
about the time that this letter will reach that place ; and as 
I propose to take the field as soon as the appearance of the 



268 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

green forage will secure the food of our horses, I lose no 
time in acquainting you with the situation of our cavalry, 
and in requesting to know your wishes upon some points 
relating to it. 

' You will have heard in England that, in consequence of 
orders from home, I have drafted the horses from the 4th 
dragoon guards, 9th and llth light dragoons, and that I 
have orders, and have it in contemplation, to draft the horses 
from the 2nd hussars. 

' By sending to the Adjutant General at Lisbon, you will 
get a copy of the orders of the 13th March last, in which you 
will see the distribution made of the horses drafted. Except- 
ing the 1st and 2nd Heavy Germans, all the regiments will 
have as many horses as they can mount. I preferred draft- 
ing the horses from the llth to drafting them from the 13th, 
as the men of the 1 1th were very sickly ; and I found that by 
keeping the 13th I should have more mounted dragoons 
than by keeping the llth. 

' I propose that the whole cavalry of the army should be 
in one division, under your command ; and that the cavalry 
duty of any detachments that should be made from the main 
body shall be done by detachments of brigades, or other 
subdivisions from that division. This will simplify the 
concern very materially. 

' I have received discretionary orders to send to England 



General Anson has asked to be appointed to the Staff in 
England. General Fane is coming out. I have not sent 
home any of these officers, because I am not quite certain 
what your wishes and opinions are, and because I doubt 
whether you would mend matters very materially by their 
removal. The hussar brigade is vacant, and is at present 
commanded by Colonel Grant of the 15th. 

' One of the Generals above mentioned must go at all 
events, as I conclude that you will wish to put the 13th light 
dragoons in the brigade with the 12th and 16th, or with the 
1st hussars and 14th light dragoons, if the 2nd hussars 
should be drafted, and I beg to know which of the three you 
wish should go. 

' You will recollect that General Vandeleur has long had 



1813. FRENEDA. 269 

a claim to a command in the cavalry ; and if lie is to have 
one, you must fix upon the second who is to go. If he is 

not to have a command, the senior is 

; and I acknowledge that I do not see that the ser- 
vice would derive much advantage from sending to England 
any one of the three General Officers above mentioned, in 

order that may command a brigade. The next 

to is , and he can have a brigade only 

by sending home the three General Officers above men- 
tioned, and not taking Vandeleur from the infantry. 

' I wish to have your opinion upon all these points as 
soon as possible ; and likewise that you will let me know 
what regiments you wish should be in each brigade, and 
what General Officer at the head of each brigade. 

' I must observe to you, however, that the English hussar 
brigade having come out as a brigade, I do not think we 
can with propriety break it up. 

' There is no General at present with the Household 
brigade, but I understand that O'Loghlin is coming out ; 
and, in the mean time, according to the privileges of the 
Guards, they must be commanded by an officer of their OAvn 
corps. 

< I hope that your wound is entirely healed, and that you 
are in good health. 

' Believe me, &c. 

4 Lieut. General * WELLINGTON. 

Sir S. Cotton, Bart. 

'Let me know, first, to what brigade the 13th dragoons 
should be posted ? 

' Secondly ; what brigade General Fane shall command ? 

' Thirdly ; which of , , or 

shall be sent home to make room for General 

Fane? 

' Fourthly ; shall any more of the three above mentioned 
Generals be sent home, and which ? 

' Fifthly ; shall General Vandeleur be removed to the 
cavalry ? ' 



270 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To Lieut. General Sir T. Graham, K.B. 

1 MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 7th April, 1813. 

' I think it probable that you will arrive at Lisbon nearly 
about the time that this letter will reach that place ; and that 
you will receive it, and that which I wrote to you some time 
ago, at the same moment, from Sir Charles Stuart. 

' King Joseph has moved his head quarters to Vallado- 
lid, by orders from Paris, as I understand ; and the armies 
are concentrated very much towards the Duero. The enemy 
have now very few troops in La Mancha, and they are all in 
a state of preparation for an immediate movement. 

' Soult is gone to France with from 3000 to 5000 men, of 
drafts for the Imperial Guard, Marines, Cadres, Estropies, 
&c. &c. The guards which remained in Spain have likewise 
been sent to France. 

' A few conscripts, from 5000 to 7000, have arrived ; but 
I do not hear that more are expected soon. 

' Our army will be at least as strong as I expected. We 
have now more than 37,000 rank and file of cavalry and 
infantry, present and fit for duty ; and there are more than 
3000 men on their march to join, not included in the states. 
The Portuguese army have 27,000 men present and fit for 
duty. 

' The Spanish concerns have not gone on well yet, but I 
have still hopes that they will succeed. 

' We have no sickness excepting in the 1st regiment of 
Guards, and have had none of importance, excepting in that 
regiment and among the new troops arrived from England, 
Gibraltar, and Cadiz. I have sent the 1st regiment of 
Guards to Oporto, and I am much afraid they will not be 
able to take the field with the other troops. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir T. Graham, K.B: 

To Colonel Torrens. 

' MY DEAR TORRENS, ' Freneda, 7th April, 1813. 

' When I lately appointed Messrs. Greenwood and Cox 
to be agents to the Blues, I told them that I thought that, in 



1813. FRENEDA. 271 

justice to my family, I ought to require security for them to 
guarantee me and my family against loss in pecuniary trans- 
actions, in which we could not be gainers ; and I enclose 
their answer, in which you will see that they consent to 
give the security. I really do not know what sum I ought 
to require as security, nor the form in which it ought to be 
given ; but I shall be very much obliged to you if you will 
inquire, and have this matter settled for me. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Colonel Torrens.' ' WELLINGTON. 



To Colonel Torrens. 

< SIR, Freneda, 7th April, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose a letter which I have received 
from Lieut. Colonel Sir Robert Hill, of the Royal Horse 
Guards, and in requesting you to lay it before the Com- 
mander in Chief, 1 beg to state, for His Royal Highness's 
information, that this officer has conducted himself entirely 
to my satisfaction since his arrival in this country, and has 
used his utmost exertions to render the regiment under 
his command efficient. Since the return of Major General 
Rebow to England, Sir Robert Hill has commanded the 
brigade of Household cavalry. 

' In the event of the promotions recommended in the 
enclosed letter being approved of by the Commander in 
Chief, I beg leave to submit the name of Lord William Pitt 
Lennox for the Cornetcy in succession. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Colonel Torrens: ' WELLINGTON. 



To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 7th April, 1813. 

' I enclose two dispatches from Lieut. General Sir John 
Murray, the one of the 25th March, in which he informs me 
of his intention to detach General Roche's division on an 
expedition on the coast of Valencia, to the rear of the enemy; 
and another of the 27th March, in which he informs me that 



272 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

Lieut. General Lord William Bentinck had directed that 
certain of the British and German troops should return to 
Sicily, in consequence of the resumption of his authority by 
the King. 

' I enclose a copy of my answer to these dispatches. 

' I likewise enclose the extract of a private letter from Sir 
John Murray, and the extract of my answer in regard to his 
feeding, by the British Commissariat;, the Spanish troops 
employed with him. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
'Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 7th April, 1813. 

' The enemy continue nearly in the same positions in this 
part of the country, as when I addressed you last, and King 
Joseph was still, by the last accounts, at Valladolid. The 
head quarters of the Army of the South have been moved 
from Toledo to Madrid, and the army in general appear to 
be in a state of preparation for a sudden movement. 

( Since the movement made by Lieut. General Sir John 
Murray, of which I enclosed the report in my last dispatch, 
it appears that Marshal Suchet has collected his troops on 
the right of the Jucar, and has established his head quarters 
at San Felipe de Xativa. General Whittingham's division 
of Spanish troops had driven the enemy's advanced guard 
beyond the Puente de Albayda ; and I enclose Lieut. Ge- 
neral Sir John Murray's report of the 23rd instant, of the 
affair which the Major General had with the enemy on this 
occasion, and of one which Major General Donkin had in a 
reconnaissance on the same day. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
4 Earl Bathurst.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 7th April, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter from General Lucot, King Joseph's 
aide de camp, to King Joseph, which contains some curious 
matters. It shows how much Napoleon . is distressed for 
money, and that probably in the beginning of March they 






1813. FKENEDA. 273 

suspected the Emperor of Austria. This letter was in 
cypher, and it is desirable that its contents should not be 
published. 

' We have not yet had the rain which usually falls at 
the period of the equinox ; and there is as yet no appear- 
ance of grass. But I still propose to move early in May, 
that is to say, if we can get up the equipments of the 
army ; but I am sorry to say that we have had some priva- 
teers on the coast, which have taken and destroyed some 
ships off Oporto, and others are missing, which it is supposed 
have met with a similar fate. I cannot express how much 
we shall be distressed if the navigation of the coast should 
not be secure from Coruna, at least, to Cadiz. We have 
money, provisions, clothing, military stores and equipments 
on all parts of the coast almost every day in the year, and 
the loss of one vessel only may create a delay and inconve- 
nience which may be of the utmost consequence. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Earl Bathurst. ' WELLINGTON. 

' I enclose the daily state. The hussar brigade are not 
on the strength, and there are about 1300 infantry also 
not on the strength, on the march to join their corps. We 
shall have more than 40,000 British infantry and cavalry in 
the field, which is nearly 10,000 more than we have ever 
had, and I hope they will be better equipped than any Bri- 
tish army that has yet appeared.' 

To Major General the Hon. E. Pakenham. 

' MY DEAR PAKliNHAM, ' Freneda, 10th April, 1813. 

' I have to inform you that General Sir C. Stewart is about 
to be employed on a mission to Berlin, and there is reason to 
believe that his office of Adjutant General to the Forces in 
Spain and Portugal will be vacant. I wish to know whether 
you are desirous of succeeding to it. It was clearly under- 
stood by the Horse Guards that you had a claim to succeed 
to General Stewart ; and although I have heard you express 
that you did not like the office, I could not think of recom- 
mending any body for it, without first offering it to you. 

' Believe me, &c. 
4 Major General ' WELLINGTON. 

the Hon. E. Piikenham.' 
VOL. X. T 



274 PORTUGAL. 1813. 



To Major General the Hon. C. Colville. 

< SIR, ' Freneda, 10th April, 1813. 

' The conduct of a detachment of the th regiment, coming 
up from Lisbon in charge of military stores, has recently been 
under the consideration of a General Court Martial at Coim- 
bra, whose sentences on some of the men comprising it have 
been published to the army in General Orders. 

' I thought it proper to bring to trial serjeant , 

of the th regiment, who commanded the detachment; 
who. in the course of his defence, stated that the soldiers of 
the th regiment refused to obey him, and were guilty of 
mutinous conduct in various instances. 

' I had serjeant examined by the Acting Judge 

Advocate in regard to the particulars of the mutinous 
conduct complained of; and I enclose the Report of his 
examination, and the Report of the examination of various 
soldiers of the th regiment to the same point ; from which 
it appears clearly that the soldiers of the th regiment, 
convicted of the other offences for which they have been 
tried by the General Court Martial, were likewise guilty of 
mutinous conduct. 

' It is impossible for any detachment of troops to have 

behaved worse than those under serjeant ; and 

those of the th regiment, in particular, committed every 
crime of which it is possible for soldiers to be guilty. 

' 1 beg you will do me the favor to call before you the 
commanding and other officers of the th regiment, and 
that you will communicate to them the enclosed papers and 
this letter. When the th regiment before formed a part 
of this army, I was obliged to send it to Lisbon, on account 
of the state to which it had been brought by its want of 
discipline and order ; and I shall certainly send this regi- 
ment again into garrison, and shall report to the Com- 
mander in Chief my sense of its bad conduct, and unfit- 
ness for service in the field, if I should receive any more 
complaints such as those which have recently reached me ; 
and should find the soldiers in such a state of insubordina- 
tion, and such an absence of discipline in the regiment, 
that the soldiers cannot be trusted on a detachment without 



1813. FRENEDA. 275 

mutinying against the authority of the officer or non-com- 
missioned officer commanding such detachment. 

' It is in the power of the commanding and other officers, 
in any battalion, to establish such a system of discipline 
and subordination in it, that the soldiers shall respect the 
authority of the non-commissioned officers, and shall not 
dare to commit the outrage of which the soldiers of the 
th have committed in his presence, much less mutiny 
against his authority; and if the th cannot be brought 
to such a state, they shall not serve in the field with this 
army. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Major General ' WELLINGTON. 

the Hon. C. Colville.' 

To Major General the Hon. Sir Charles Stewart, K.B. 

' MY DEAR STEWART, ' Freneda, 10th April, 1813. 

' I received yesterday your letter of March 23rd, and, at 
the same time, one from Lord Bathurst, of the 24th, in which 
he informed me that you were about to be sent on a diplo- 
matic mission to Berlin ; and I understood from Wood*, that 
as long as six weeks ago you had received from the Prince 
Regent expectations, that in case any person should be sent 
to the King of Prussia, you should be selected. I therefore 
conclude the matter is settled. I kept your office open for 
you only for your advantage, and I should be very sorry if 
you should for a moment hesitate to accept a situation which 
you may think more advantageous to you, out of deference 
to me, or from consideration of my convenience. 

' I sincerely congratulate you upon this mark of the 
Prince Regent's favor, and wish you every success in your 
new appointment. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Major General ' WELLINGTON. 

the lion. Sir C. Stewart, 



* Lieut. Colonel Charles Wood. 



T 2 



276 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HENRY, , ' Freneda, 10th April, 1813. 

' We have received letters and papers to the 24th March. 
Sir C. Stewart is going on a mission to Berlin. I enclose a 
letter from Bimbury, which contains the only public news 
that I have. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Eight Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, 



To Earl Bathurst. 
< MY LORD, ' Freneda, 10th April, 1813. 

' I have received your Lordship's letter of the 24th March 
(No. 108), containing the copy of one from the Secretary of 
the Treasury, proposing that I should in future grant warrants 
for the issue of bat and forage allowances to officers of the 
marines and navy, whom I should think entitled to those 
allowances for their services. 

' I beg to recall to your Lordship's recollection, that the 
question whether these battalions ought to have bat and 
forage allowance was referred to my consideration by desire 
of the Treasury. These officers, and those of the navy serv- 
ing on the north coast of Spain, under the command of Sir 
Home Popham, were in no manner under my command ; 
and, therefore, I conceive that I ought not to have issued 
warrants for any allowance to them, nor ought not in future, 
in any similar instance of officers co-operating with the 
troops under my command, but not under my command, 
excepting under the special command of your Lordship. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 
Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 

' MY DEAR BERESFORD, ' Freneda, llth April, 1813. 

' I have received your letters of the 5th and 7th April, 
which involve different points for consideration. When the 
calculations were made, on which the grant was made of the 
additional subsidies to Portugal, 1 00,000 sterling were esti- 
mated as the amount of the expense of the pay to the British 
officers to be employed in the Portuguese service. As well 



1813. FRENEDA. 277 

as I recollect, it was settled by Mr. Villiers that this sum 
should be paid to Mr. Bell, and that he was to pay these 
officers, under warrants from yourself; but I never under- 
stood exactly how this arrangement stood, or what was pre- 
cisely the nature of Mr. Bell's appointment, or of his duties. 
I likewise perfectly recollect that I told you at the period at 
which we were conversing upon the expediency of rendering 
the situation of British officers in the Portuguese service 
better, that I could facilitate, and arrange the means of 
giving those officers their British pay from their regiments, 
if the expense of the increase of the Portuguese pay should 
come to be too heavy for the fund of 100,000 per annum, 
allotted from the subsidy for the expense of the British 
officers serving in the Portuguese army. 

' I do not recollect any objection on the part of the Por- 
tuguese Government to this allotment of the 100,000, 
though certainly such an objection might have been made 
without my now being able to recollect it. I can only say, 
that I do not think I have ever admitted of the justice of the 
objection. From the mode in which the subsidy was, and 
has continued to be, granted, it is, and always has been, in 
the power of the British Government, through its officers 
here, to insist upon the application of the whole subsidy, or 
any part of it, to such parts of the service, as might be 
deemed expedient ; and indeed I have had, and still have, it 
in contemplation to apply the money, part of the subsidy now 
paid, to defray the expense of the pay of the officers and 
soldiers of the army employed in the field ; and have delayed 
the measure only till you come up, and I can talk to you 
about it. I mention this now to show you what my senti- 
ments are, and always have been, about the subsidy; and 
how clear I consider our right to dispose of the 100,000 
a year through the hands of Mr. Bell. You had a clear 
right, therefore, in my opinion, to act on that sum by your 
warrants. 

' I do not know any thing of the arrangements by which 
this sum of 100,000 per annum was transferred from Mr. 
Bell to the military chest. I rather believe this arrange- 
ment commenced its operation in the beginning of last 
year, when a great desire existed to uphold the military 
chest, and the new system of the Commissariat, by throw- 



PORTUGAL. 1813. 

ing into the military chest as large a sum as could be 
scraped together, from the chest of " the Aids." It is certainly 
better, however, if only on account of the difference of opinion, 
which has arisen respecting your power of granting warrants 
for the pay of British officers, that the sum of 100,000 per 
annum should be retained by the chest of " the Aids " for the 
future ; as in point of fact, the military chest can have no 
knowledge of what those officers are entitled to. It will still 
be easy to pay the British officers as heretofore by the Pro- 
vincial, or Army Treasurer ; the accounts of the payments to 
them being settled between Mr. Bell and the keeper of the 
military chest ; by the transfer of the former to the latter of 
the sums, which it will appear that the latter has paid. 

' I now come to the consideration of your right to issue 
warrants to the keeper of the military chest ; and I enclose 
you the draft of my letter of the 23rd August, and of my 
memorandum to Dom M. Forjaz, upon the formation of 
the military chest, which contain, I believe, the constitution 
of this establishment, and the opinions which I had formed 
upon it. 

' In order to understand the second of the two memoran- 
dums, you must get from Dom M. Forjaz the memorandum 
enclosed to me in his letter of August 18th. 

' From these papers you will see that I had not in con- 
templation that you were to issue warrants for payments by 
the military chest to be formed. In fact, this establishment 
was not intended by me to be one for detailed payments, but 
for the receipt, keeping, and distribution of the sums destined 
for carrying on the war ; the detailed disbursements of which 
were to be made by the departments and treasuries in the 
country. On the principle on which this establishment was 
formed, I should conceive it as irregular for the Commander 
in Chief to have the power of granting warrants for payments 
by it, as for the Commander in Chief in England to grant 
warrants on the Exchequer. I do not conceive that the 
whole of the aids having been put into the military chest, 
makes any difference in this respect. 

' Your want of the power to issue your warrants on the 
keeper of the military chest, affords a good reason for keep- 
ing the 100,000 of the aids distinct, in the hands of 
Mr. Bell in future ; but the payment of that sum into the 



1813. FRENEDA. 279 

military chest up to this day, or of any other sum, cannot 
give you a power which you have not in terms, and which 
the constitution of the military chest had it not in contem- 
plation to give you. 

' I do not know whether I have made myself understood 
to you ; but a perusal of the enclosed papers will serve to 
explain my meaning. Pray return them, as I have no 
copies. 

' On the whole subject of the pay of the army, we must 
come to some definitive arrangement, upon which it is as 
well to delay to say any thing till we meet. But I rather 
believe that as the increase of the pay of the Portuguese 
officers depends upon the continuation of the war, it is con- 
venient to the Government to keep the different heads of pay 
and increase distinct ; at the same time that there can exist 
no reason, excepting a Portuguese reason, for paying officers, 
to the first his pay to one period, his 12 per cent, to a second, 
and his British increase to a third ! I believe now that I have 
gone into all the points contained in your letter. 

1 1 hope that the new opening of your wound will complete 
your cure. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Marshal ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. C. Beresford.K.B: 

To Colonel Stirling. 
' SIR, ' Frenecla, llth April, 1813. 

1 I beg leave to call your attention to a practice which 
appears, from your confidential report, to prevail in the th 
regiment, of postponing the execution of the sentence of a 
Regimental Court Martial. 

' If the execution of the sentence be postponed, and the 
man remain in confinement, an injustice is done him by the 
unnecessarily lengthened duration of his confinement ; and 
the ends and purpose of justice are weakened, if not lost, by 
lengthening the period between the commission and the 
punishment for a crime. If the execution of the sentence 
be postponed, and the man be allowed to return to his duty, 
a military irregularity is committed. No soldier should be 
put on duty having hanging over him the sentence of a 
Court Martial. 



280 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' I recommend that all the men whose punishment has 
been postponed may be pardoned ; and that the practice of 
postponing punishments may be discontinued in future. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Colonel Stirling. < WELLINGTON. 

' P.S. The th regiment having left the 6th division, 
you will be pleased to communicate this letter to the com- 
manding officer of that corps.' 

To Don J. de CarvajaL 

SIR, ' Freneda, llth April, 1813. 

1 I have had the honor of receiving your Excellency's 
letter of the 8th of April, in answer to mine of the 24th of 
March last, in which I had informed your Excellency of the 
difficulties found in realizing the resources of the country by 
the Intendants of all the armies, and of the consequent ex- 
isting evils; and I proposed to address your Excellency 
again upon the subject, as soon as I should have received 
the details. 

' I have not yet received detailed information on this 
subject from any of the armies; and I now trouble your 
Excellency, in consequence of your Excellency informing me 
in your letter of the 2nd of April, that the Regency has none. 

' In justice to the General Officers commanding the dif- 
ferent armies, I consider it my duty to inform your Ex- 
cellency, that I have every reason to believe that they have 
done every thing in their power to remedy the existing 
evils ; and that, if it had not been for their exertions, and 
those of the Intendants General under their directions, the 
inconveniences felt by the troops, and the evil to the public 
interests, would have been greater. 

' Although I have not all the official reports on the sub- 
ject which I should wish to have, I would request your 
Excellency to draw the attention of the Regency to the 
report which I have transmitted to your Excellency, from 
his Excellency the Duque del Parque, pointing out the 
difficulties which he had experienced in realizing the re- 
sources of the country for the troops under his command, in 
consequence of the want of the assistance of the Intendant 
General of the armv, and of the usual number of officers 



1813. FRENED.V. 

of the Hacienda ; and of the unwillingness of the Ayun- 
tamientos to afford any assistance. 

' I likewise request your Excellency to draw the attention 
of the Regency to the letters received from the Intendant 
General of the army of reserve of Andalusia, to the Minister 
of Finance, and from the Conde de la Bisbal, from which it 
appears clearly that the charges already existing, and to be 
paid out of the revenues of the provinces of Cordova and 
Seville, were sufficient to absorb all the resources of those 
provinces allotted for the maintenance of the army of re- 
serve of Andalusia. 

' From the following expression in your Excellency's 
letter to me, of the 2nd- of April, " Aclaradas las facultades 
de los Generales en Xefe, y de los Intendentes Generales 
de los exercitos, y la parte de los productos de las provin- 
cias que deben aplicarse exclusivamente al entretenimiento 
de los mismos exercitos," I am induced to believe that 
it is understood by the Regency, as it was understood 
by me, that nine tenths of the revenues of the several pro- 
vinces were to be allotted exclusively, and without charge, 
to the maintenance of the armies. If that is the case, it is 
most desirable that the understanding and intentions of the 
Regency upon this point should be clearly expressed ; as I 
know that the charges already paid in the provinces out of 
the revenues, constitute the leading difficulty. 

' The justice of the Regency will, I am convinced, induce 
them to advert to those points already officially before them, 
before they pass a censure, much less remove or suspend 
from their command meritorious General Officers, who have 
done every thing in their power to apply a remedy to the 
evil. But although I am not able to lay before the Govern- 
ment official reports, other facts have come to my know- 
ledge, and without doubt must be known to the Minister of 
Finance, and consequently to the Government, which would 
likewise induce their justice to suspend, at least, if not to 
relinquish entirely, the censure which it appears, by your 
Excellency's letter, that they have it in contemplation to 
pass on the General Officers commanding the different 
armies. 

' First ; I believe it is well known, that the officers of the 
Hacienda, in the different provinces, are, in general, very 



282 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

little experienced in the performance of their duty; and, 
however numerous, very inadequate to it. 

' Secondly; The difficulties in realizing the revenues are 
much increased by the new system of contributions esta- 
blished by the laws. 

Thirdly ; It appears by the report of the Duque del 
Parque, transmitted to your Excellency, that the Ayunta- 
mientos are very unwilling to perform their part in the 
fiscal system established by the laws of the Cortes. Yet I 
do not know of any law, and it does not appear that there 
exists any law, to force them to perform the duty imposed 
upon them, in respect to the allotment and collection of the 
contributions. 

' Fourthly ; The Government are greatly in debt through- 
out the provinces for articles received, and for services per- 
formed at different periods of the war. The creditors of the 
State conceive, contrary to every principle of public credit 
and of finance, that each individual has a right to carry to 
account the amount of his demand against the State, against 
the amount of the demand of the State upon him, on account 
of the current contributions. These unreasonable preten- 
sions and unfounded principles, coming before unwilling 
Ayuntamientos and inexperienced officers of the Hacienda, 
augment the difficulties which must attend every financial 
transaction ; and I am certain, that when the Government 
consider all the points, they will at least acquit the General 
Officers commanding the armies of blame ; more particularly 
when, 

' Fifthly ; They consider that the power given by the 

decree of the Cortes, of the , and by the Ordenanza, 

to the Intendants General of the armies over the Intendants 
of the provinces is not so efficient as it ought to be, to 
insure such a control over their conduct, as to revoke the 
Generals Commanding in Chief responsible for their failures. 

' I propose, however, to transmit to the General Officers 
Commanding in Chief copies of the letter of your Excel- 
lency, of the 2nd of April ; and will, if possible, still farther 
stimulate their exertions in this important branch of their 
administration. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 
4 Don J. de Carvajai: ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 283 

To His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Portugal. 
' SIR, ' Freneda, 12th April, 1813. 

( I request permission to call the attention of your Royal 
Highness to the state of your troops, and of all your esta- 
blishments, in consequence of the great arrear of pay which 
is due to them. 

' According to the last statements which I have received, 
pay is due to the army of operations from the end of last 
September; to the troops of the line in garrison, from the 
month of June; and to the militia, from February. The 
transports of the army have never, I believe, received any 
regular payment, and none whatever since June, 1812. 

' The honor of your Royal Highness's arms may perhaps 
suffer greatly by these evils ; and I have repeatedly called, 
but in vain, the attention of the Governors of the Kingdom 
to this subject. 

' I am now upon the point of opening a new campaign 
with your Royal Highness's army, to which pay is due for a 
greater space of time than when the last campaign was con- 
cluded ; although the subsidy from Great Britain has been 
hitherto regularly paid, granted especially for the payment 
and maintenance of a certain body of troops; and even 
although it has been proved within the last three months, 
that the revenue of the state has produced a sum nearer a 
third than a fourth larger than in any other three months 
during the whole time I have been aufait of this matter. 

' The serious consequences which may probably result 
from the backwardness of these payments, affecting as much 
the honor of your Royal Highness's arms, as the cause of 
the allies, and the uniform refusal of the Governors of the 
Kingdom to attend to any one of the measures which I have 
recommended, either for temporary or permanent relief, 
have at last obliged me to go into your Royal Highness's 
presence, for the purpose of stating the result of the mea- 
sures which I have recommended to the Governors of the 
Kingdom for the reform of the Custom House, which mea- 
sures have not been yet carried into full effect, in conse- 
quence of the opposition they encounter from the Chief of 
the Treasury ; although the Governors ought to have been 
convinced there was room for the suggestion of improve- 



284 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

mcnts in the several branches of the public administration 
of the kingdom of Portugal. 

( But I cannot prevail against the influence of the chief 
of the Treasury ; this is what induces me to lay this expose 
before your Royal Highness. 

' In order to improve the resources and means of the 
Kingdom, I have recommended the adoption of some method 
by which the taxes might be actually and really collected, 
and the merchants and capitalists really pay the tenth 
of their annual profits as an extraordinary contribution for 
the war ; the effects of this system being first tried in the 
great cities of Lisbon and Oporto. 

' I can declare that no one knows better than I do, the 
sacrifices which have been made, and the sufferings which 
have been experienced by your Royal Highness's faithful 
subjects during the war, for there is no one who has seen 
more of the country, or who, for the last four years, has lived 
so much amongst the people. 

' It is a fact, Sir, that the great cities, and even some of 
the smallest places of the Kingdom, have gained by the war ; 
the mercantile class generally, has enriched itself by the 
great disbursements which the army makes in money ; and 
there are individuals at Lisbon and Oporto, who have 
amassed immense sums. The credit of your Royal High- 
ness's Government is not in a state to be able to derive 
resources from these capitals, owing to remote, as also to 
present circumstances ; and it can obtain advantage only 
through the means of taxes. 

' The fact is not denied, that the tributes regularly esta- 
blished at Lisbon and Oporto, as also the contribution of 
ten per cent, upon the profits of the mercantile class are not 
really paid to the state ; nor is it denied that the measures 
which I have proposed would, if efficaciously carried into exe- 
cution in the above mentioned cities, furnish the Govern- 
ment with great pecuniary resources. It remains for the 
Government, therefore, to explain to your Royal Highness 
the reasons why it has not put them in practice, or some other 
expedient which might render the revenue of the state equal 
to its expenses. 

' All I have stated to your Royal Highness respecting 
the arrcar of payment to the troops, is equally undeniable. 






1813. FRENKDA. 285 

The only motive to which I can attribute the Government 
not having adopted the measures aforesaid, is the fear that 
they might not be popular ; but the knowledge I have of 
the good sense and loyalty of your lloyal Highness's sub- 
jects, the reliance I place therein, and my zeal for the cause 
in which your lloyal Highness is engaged with your allies, 
induce me to offer myself not only as responsible for the 
happy issue of the measures which I have recommended, 
but to take upon myself all the odium which they might 
create. I have, nevertheless, not been able to overcome the 
influence of the Treasury. 

' Another measure which I recommended, was the entire 
abolition of the Junta de Viveres, to put an end to a monthly 
expense of nearly fifty contos of reis, caused by the Junta, 
under the plea of paying their old debts. 

' Never was any sovereign in the world so ill served as 
your Royal Highness has been by the Junta de Viveres, 
and I do not think I have rendered a greater service to your 
Royal Highness than that which I did in soliciting that it 
might be abolished. 

' However, after its abolition, under the specious pretext 
of paying its debts, it has received monthly from the Trea- 
sury, a little more or less, fifty contos of reis. It cannot be 
doubted that the Junta of Viveres is very much in debt, and 
it is of great importance to your Royal Highness's Govern- 
ment that some method of arranging and paying these debts 
should be adopted. 

' But I request that your Royal Highness will order the 
Governors of the Kingdom to let your Royal Highness see 
in detail the manner in which the above mentioned fifty 
contos of reis, granted monthly, have been applied. 

' Have all the accounts, of the Junta of Viveres been called 
in and liquidated ? Who has performed this operation ? 
To what sum does their debt amount ? Has it been classi- 
fied ? Finally, have measures been adopted to know with 
certainty how much is really due to those to whom some- 
thing has already been paid upon account of their debt? Is 
any part of the fifty contos of reis which are issued for many 
months by the Treasury, applied to the payment of the sala- 
ries of the members of the Junta of Viveres, abolished, I 
believe, by your Royal Highness's orders ? 



286 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' I request that your Eoyal Highness will command that 
an answer be given to each of the questions aforesaid, which 
will enable your Royal Highness to see the state of these 
transactions. 

' But admitting that it be convenient to pay at this time 
the debts of the Junta de Viveres, it would be almost super- 
fluous to propose the question, whether it be more important 
to pay those debts, or to pay the army which has to defend 
your Royal Highness's kingdom and government, and to 
protect the honor and property of your Royal Highness's 
subjects, and every thing most dear to them in life ; without 
which, nothing could escape destruction. This army will 
neither be able nor willing to fight if it be not paid. 

' Another measure which I have lately recommended as a 
remedy capable of putting the Government in a condition to 
pay the army of operations for some time, in the same man- 
ner and to the same period to which their comrades in the 
British army are paid is, that there be taken out of the hands 
of all the collectors of the revenue of the State the balances 
which they may owe to the Royal Treasury. 

' My attention was called to this subject by a communica- 
tion made to me by a military officer in the province of Tras 
os Montes, relating to a large sum of money in the hands of 
the collector of the revenue at Braganza, at the time when 
the enemy made movements towards the Esla ; and having 
inquired into this matter, I found that, according to the 
manner in which the Treasury manages its transactions, every 
one of the collectors of the revenue of the State has always 
in his possession the amount of the revenue he has received 
in the space of a month. 

' I recommended that the collectors should be obliged to 
deliver in, every fifteen days, whatever they had received ; 
but I have not been able to accomplish it. 

' Your Royal Highness has frequently deigned to make 
known to the Governors of the Kingdom your Royal desire 
that they should attend to my advice, and they have as fre- 
quently assured your Royal Highness that they give it every 
attention. 

' I can assure your Royal Highness, that when I devote 
myself to the labor of taking into consideration the affairs 
of the State, and giving my opinion upon them to the Go- 



1813. FRENEDA. 287 

vernors of the Kingdom, I have no object in doing so except- 
ing the interest I feel in the good of the nation, and the 
honor and prosperity of your Royal Highness ; and I am 
not in any degree induced to do so from objects of personal 
interest, for none can I have relatively to Portugal ; nor can 
I have any with regard to individuals, from not having any 
relations, and being almost unacquainted with those who direct 
or would wish to direct the affairs of your Royal Highness. 

' Although the measures which I have hitherto recom- 
mended, and which have at last been adopted, such as the 
payment of the interest upon the national debt in paper cur- 
rency, the reform of the Custom houses, the establishment 
of a military chest, and others which it is unnecessary to 
mention, have answered the ends of their adoption ; and 
perhaps I might say, that other measures which I could 
propose, would have similar results ; yet I am ready to allow 
that I may perhaps deceive myself. Nevertheless, I request 
with great earnestness that your Royal Highness will deign 
to be persuaded that the motives which induce me to recom- 
mend these measures, and to appeal against the chief of the 
Treasury, are founded upon my wishes to promote and for- 
ward the benevolent intentions of your Royal Highness, as 
well as the best results to the cause in which your Royal 
Highness is engaged. 

' I venture to express again, in the most decided manner, 
my very ardent wish that your Royal Highness will be 
pleased to return to your Kingdom, to take charge of its 
government, which not only myself, but all your Royal High- 
ness's faithful subjects desire with the greatest anxiety. 

' May God preserve your Royal Highness many years, 

' WELLINGTON, 

' His Royal Highness Marquez de Torres Vedras, 

the Prince Regent of Portugal? Marshal General. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 13th April, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter which I have received from the Com- 
missary General, Sir Robert Kennedy, in regard to his 
accounts ; to which subject I think it proper to draw your 
Lordship's attention. 

' It cannot be denied, that to leave accounts unsettled, 



288 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

for such immense sums of money as those chargeable to Sir 
Robert Kennedy, for so many years as are likely to elapse 
before the accounts in question will be even looked at, is 
a great public evil, as well as a gross injustice to the indi- 
vidual who is loaded with such responsibility ; and after a 
long consideration of the subject, and some experience in the 
command of armies, and of the mode in which the business 
of all the departments is conducted and settled, I feel no 
hesitation in stating my opinion, that by the adoption of a 
different mode of transacting the business, both evils would 
be much diminished, if not entirely got the better of. 

' According to the existing system, the Commissary Ge- 
neral, whatever may be the extent of the concerns intrusted 
to his management, is the only person accountable to the 
public; and he is responsible for the acts and conduct of 
his deputies, for their honesty and their abilities, and their 
fitness for their situations and duties, although they are 
appointed by other authorities over which the Commissary 
General has no control. I believe there is no instance of 
such a responsibility for the expenditure of money being 
imposed on any other description of officer ; and it appears 
to me to have originated in the diminutive nature of our 
concerns of this description, which rendered it possible for 
one man personally to superintend them, and to have been 
continued after their growth to their existing magnitude, 
notwithstanding that it must be obvious to every body that 
it is quite impossible for the Commissary General to exer- 
cise an efficient control over the expenditure and accounts 
of the numerous persons who must, under existing circum- 
stances, be intrusted with the expenditure of the public 
money, and at the same time attend to the other duties of 
his office, more important in relation to the operations of the 
army to which he may be attached. 

' It is my opinion that the Commissary General of an 
army should be relieved from all responsibility for the ac- 
counts of that army. He should be, as he is at present, the 
head of the finance of that army ; and he should give his 
orders for purchases, or for incurring other expenses, and 
should issue money from time to time to those officers whom he 
should employ in making purchases or in incurring expenses. 
But his responsibility to the public should end with the 



1813. FRENEDA. 289 

production of the receipt of the officer who should have re- 
ceived the money, and his justification of the order which he 
had issued for the purchase or expenditure ; and with his 
return to the Account Office of the name of the officer to 
whom he had authorised the issue of money for a particular 
service. 

' The officer who should have received the money should 
be responsible for the account of its due expenditure, and 
for rendering the account within a limited period of time. 

' The responsibility for accounting being thus imposed 
upon those who actually make the expenditure, and being 
divided among many, it is certain 'that accounts would be 
rendered in a very limited and much shorter space of time 
than can be expected under the existing system ; and the 
control of the Office of Accounts over the accountants would 
be immediate and direct. 

' Those who receive stores from the Commissary General 
ought in like manner to be responsible directly for the care 
and subsequent disposal of them according to regulation 
and order, and for accounting for them, as well as for money; 
and the Commissary General's responsibility ought to cease 
for stores as well as for money, on the production of the 
receipt of the officer to whom they were delivered, and his 
justification for the issue to such officer. 

( But this system would not be attended by all the bene- 
ficial consequences which might be expected from it, unless 
the Account and Audit Offices should be established on a 
different footing from that on which they stand at present. 
It is obvious that the Account Office must possess means of 
exerting a more efficient control over the expenditure and 
accounting for money than they possess at present ; and it 
is desirable that that office of accounts which may be at- 
tached to an army should have the power of finally passing 
accounts. 

' With these views it is desirable that an Auditor General 
of Accounts should be attached to the army, with the power 
of calling upon all persons to whom public money may be 
intrusted, or to whose charge stores may be delivered either 
for issue or otherwise, to account for the same, and to pass 
finally such accounts. The Auditor General should have 
the means and power of inquiring into the prices of articles, 

VOL. x. u 



290 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

and the conduct of persons intrusted with the expenditure 
of the public money, or the charge or issue of stores. 

' I recommend the appointment of one person to perform 
these duties instead of a Board, because I am convinced that 
Boards only create delay ; and that the public would gain 
more in the way of saving expenditure by the early exami- 
nation and settlement of accounts than the most sanguine 
could expect from the superior vigilance to be exerted by a 
Board. 

' I am perfectly aware of the difficulties and inconve- 
nience which attend all great changes in the mode of con 
ducting business in a large and actively employed depart- 
ment; but it appears to me that if your Lordship and His 
Majesty's Government should approve of what I have sug- 
gested, and should adopt that part which appears on every 
ground to be immediately necessary, viz., to appoint a special 
Auditor to reside at Lisbon for the final examination of the 
accounts of this army, it would not be difficult by degrees to 
carry into execution, under the control of the Commander of 
the Forces, that part of the measures above recommended, 
which have for their object to relieve the Commissary Ge- 
neral from the weight of responsibility for his accounts of 
the expenditure of money, and of the issue of stores. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON, 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 13th April, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 23rd, regarding the 
intended Bill to enable officers commanding detachments 
to assemble Courts Martial, which I think will be of some 
use. I enclose Mr. Larpent's observations upon it, and 
mine upon his. I believe we shall not mistake the meaning 
of the word arson, though it would be better if any other 
term could be used. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst.' ( WELLINGTON. 

MR LARPENT'U (DEPUTY JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL) OBSERVATIONS ON THE 

NEW MILITARY LAW BILL. 

' Other act of violence done or injury, I think, should be added; as many 
serious injuries may scarcely be acts of violence, 

I conclude iheft is omitted intentionally, and that plunder is meant to include 
it : but this will hardly meet every case of stealing. 



1813. FRENEDA. 291 

' Should not the Act also be extended to cases of insubordination) mutiny, and 
breach of discipline and orders, requiring (for example sake) immediate punish- 
ment? 

' Should not the same powers be given to any military commandant of a station 
at or near where any offence may be committed, if called upon by any officer 
commanding a party, &c., in which there are not a sufficient number of officers 
so as to enable him to assemble a Court Martial himself, or if called upon by any 
non commissioned officer commanding a party 1 

' From the title of the Act, I must suppose under the immediate command, &c. 
is to confine the remedy to a division, brigade, or detachment, when on the march, 
and separate from the main army. If so, I think this should be more clearly 
specified ; and also, that regiment or battalion should be added, as the case will 
be more likely to occur of a battalion marching up singly to join, than either a 
division or brigade.' 

THE MARQUIS OF WELLINGTON'S OBSERVATIONS ON THE FOREGOING. 

' The object of the Bill being to provide for injuries to 
the inhabitants of the country, for which the existing law 
does not afford means of punishment, because it is impos- 
sible to procure the evidence of the facts on which it is neces- 
sary to convict, I should think it should not extend to the 
cases of mutiny, &c. It may certainly be very desirable to 
make an early example in such cases ; but early example is 
not the object of this Bill, but to have some mode of bring- 
ing criminals to justice. 

' I should think that the power of assembling a Court 
Martial under this Act should be given to the officer com- 
manding a station, on the complaint of an officer or non-com- 
missioned officer commanding a party or detachment on 
their march, or on the complaint of the inhabitants. 

' The crimes for which it is desirable to find means of 
punishment are not generally committed by troops marching 
in divisions, brigades, or regiments, or battalions, but in 
small detachments. When a regiment or large body is 
marching, the soldiers are under the eye and control of their 
officers, and are generally prevented from committing those 
crimes, and at all events the commanding officer of the regi- 
ment or larger body has the power and means of assembling 
a regimental or other Court Martial for the trial of the 
offenders ; and he can punish, although probably not to the 
full extent which might be desirable, immediately. Officers 
marching with smaller detachments have not such powers 
or means ; and it is the object of this Act, as I understand, 
to afford them.' 

u2 



292 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To Dom Miguel Forjaz. 

MOST EXCELLENT SIR, ' Frenecla, Hth April, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose to your Excellency a letter * 
for His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of Portugal, 
which I request their Excellencies the Governors of the 
Kingdom will be pleased to read, and afterwards convey to 
His Royal Highness' s presence. 

' Having frequently made representations to their Excel- 
lencies the Governors of the Kingdom, as well directly 
through means of your Excellency as through the interven- 
tion of his Excellency Sir Charles Stuart, upon the deficiency 
of the sums applied to the military service of the state, and 
upon the means of increasing the revenue of the Kingdom, 
the Governors aforesaid have always thought proper to refuse 
to accede to the measures which I have recommended to 
them. 

' The exigencies of the army, and of all its establishments, 
are at this moment in a worse state than they were at the 
conclusion of the last campaign ; the arrear of payment to 
the officers, to the troops, and to all that belong to them, is 
greater now than ever, although the British subsidy is regu- 
larly paid up to the day. 

' I therefore consider it my duty to make known to His 
Royal Highness my opinion upon the state of his affairs, 
and the manner in which they are conducted, particularly the 
branch of finance ; and I transmit to their Excellencies the 
exposition I make to His Royal Highness upon this subject, 
to enable them to add the observations thereon which they 
may think proper, and to forward the whole together to His 
Royal Highness. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Dom Miguel Forjaz.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 

' SIR, Freneda, 14th April, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your Excellency's 
letter of the Gth instant, enclosing one from his Excellency 
theDuque del Parque, complaining of the removal of Briga- 

* See page 233. 



1813. FRENEDA. 293 

dier General Rich from the 3rd army to be Inspector Gene- 
ral of the cavalry with the army in Andalusia. 

' This arrangement was made by the late Regency before 
I was appointed to command the army ; and Brigadier Ge- 
neral Rich is now employed in superintending the organiza- 
tion of the cavalry in Andalusia. 

' The Duque del Parque has made no report to me 

respecting the unfitness of Brigadier to command 

the cavalry of the 3rd army ; nor has he informed me that 
he does not consider himself responsible for the cavalry 
under his command unless Brigadier General Rich shall be 
sent back to the 3rd army. When he does make such 
reports to me, I shall state my reasons for thinking that he 
is and must be responsible for the conduct of all the troops 
under his command, unless he shall state and prove substan- 
tial ground of complaint against the officers employed under 
him by the authority of the Regency. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don J. de Carvajai: ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Duque del In/antado, 
' MON CHER Due, ' a. Freneda, ce 14 Avril, 1813. 

* J'ai le plaisir de vous faire savoir que j'ai aujourd'hui 
ecrit une lettre au Gouvernement, par la poste de cette 
nuit, pour proposer au Gouvernement que vous soyez em- 
ploye a la 4 mc armee ; et j'ai arrange avec le General Castanos 
que vous devez commander cette partiede la 4 mc armee qui 
sert avec 1' armee alliee Anglo Portugaise sovis mes ordres. 
J'ai aussi demande d'ajouter a la 4 me armee deux bataillons 
de la garde Espagnole; dont 1'un doit venir de Cadiz, quand 
il sera releve par un qui vient de Grenade; et 1'autre doit 
venir de la 3 mc armee. 

1 Agrecz, &c. 
' El Duque del Infantado." ' WELLINGTON. 

To Major General the Hon. E. Pakenham. 

( MY DEAR PAKENHAM, ' Freneda, uth April, 1813. 

' I have this morning received yours of the 12th, from 
which I understand that you are disposed to take the office of 
the Adjutant General, if your health should permit it. Un- 
derstanding from what you had before said of an official 



294 PORTUGAL. 



1813. 



department in the army, that you were disinclined to fill one, 
I Avas anxious to have your answer, so as to be able to recom- 
mend Lord Aylmer, by this day's mail, and I desired Lord 
Fitz Roy to write to Abercromby yesterday morning, to re- 
quest that you would allow him to write one line, to say 
whether you would take the office or not ; but as it appears 
from your letter of the 12th, that there are hopes that you 
will take the office, I have no objection to wait for your de- 
cision as long as you may wish it, and I shall this day write 
to England to say that I intend hereafter to recommend you 
for the situation. 

' You do right to move. 

' Believe me, c. 

Major General ' WELLINGTON. 

the Hon. E. Pakenham.' 

To Colonel Torrens. 

' MY DEAR TORRENS, ' Freneda, 14th April, 1813. 

' In consequence of the information from Sir Charles 
Stewart, and from Lord Bathurst that Sir Charles had ac- 
cepted a diplomatic situation (received by the last mail), I pro- 
pose to recommend that Major General Pakenham should be 
appointed Adjutant General, if his health should enable him 
to perform the duties of the situation : if not, I propose to 
recommend that Lord Aylmer should be appointed the Ad- 
jutant General, and Lieut. Colonel Elley the Deputy Adju- 
tant General. I should still, however, propose to leave 
Colonel Elley attached to the cavalry, unless, by the sick- 
ness or absence of the Adjutant General, he should be called 
to take charge of the department. 

' Believe me, &c. 
4 Colonel Torrens.' ' WELLINGTON. ~ 

To Earl Bathurst. 

1 MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 14th April, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 24th March in regard 
to Gen. Sir C. Stewart ; and I find, from a communication 
which he had made to an officer who is attached to the 
Adjutant General's department here, that the Prince Regent 
had some time ago informed him that he should send him 
on this mission to Berlin, if there should be any occasion to 



1813. FRENEDA. 295 

send any body. This officer, Captain Wood, is to go with 
him, and knew of the arrangement six weeks ago. I have 
written to Colonel Torrens to inform him that I propose to 
recommend General Pakenham for the situation, if his 
health should allow him to accept of it, and Lord Aylmer 
if it should not. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY LORD, 'Freneda, 14th April, 1813. 

' The enemy have continued to move troops from the 
Tagus towards the Duero, and one division of the army of 
the South have relieved at Salamanca the division of the 
army of Portugal which have been there for some time, and 
have now marched towards the Duero ; another division of 
the army of the south being at Avila. 

' The head quarters of the King continue at Valladolid, 
those of the army of Portugal at Palencia, those of the army 
of the Centre at Cuellar, and those of the army of the South 
at Madrid, according to the last accounts. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
'' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 14th April, 1813. 

' We have had a little rain, and I propose to put the troops 
in motion on the 1st of May. I am much afraid, however, that 
our horses will suffer much in the course of the campaign 
from the extraordinary dryness of the winter and spring, 
particularly as we have so much new cavalry, all of a descrip- 
tion of which the officers are not remarkable for giving much 
attention to the care of the soldiers' horses. I therefore 
draw your Lordship's attention thus early to this subject, 
and to the supply of horses for the artillery. 

' I acknowledge that I am one of those who are incredu- 
lous respecting the difficulties of procuring horses in Eng- 
land for the service of the cavalry and artillery of this army. 
One thousand horses for the cavalry in this winter and spring 
would have given the army the service of three, if not four, 



296 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

.regiments of cavalry, from which I have been obliged, by 
orders from the Horse Guards, to draft their horses, very 
much against their inclination. We are now so deficient in 
horses for the artillery, that I shall, as usual, take the field 
with an equipment of artillery far inferior to that of the 
enemy, and to what I intended to take with me ; and we 
shall have no spare horses whatever. 

' Surely horses of five and six years old cannot be wanting 
in England; and, if it is possible to collect in three months 
in France between 30,000 and 40,000 horses for the remount 
of the French cavalry and artillery, it cannot be impossible 
to collect in Great Britain and Ireland one twentieth of the 
number for the supply of this army. It is very possible that 
the persons usually employed to supply horses, and the ordi- 
nary means, and perhaps even the ordinary price, are not 
sufficient to procure a large supply at a moment; but Eng- 
land must be much altered if there is any deficiency of 
horses. 

' I think the question of price is deserving of some atten- 
tion. The sum of 25 guineas is paid for a dragoon horse, 
but he is rising three years old, and is not fit for work, and 
much less for service, for a year and a half or two years. 
In estimating his cost to the public at five years old, the 
age at which we prefer them here, it is not unreasonable to 
add to the sum about half as much more; if that be true, 
would there be any thing unreasonably extravagant in giv- 
ing c40 or 40 guineas for five and six year old horses or 
mares for the regiments on service, and 45 or 45 guineas 
for horses for the artillery abroad ? If it is not thought 
expedient to do this, there remains then only to draft the 
five and six year old horses from the regiments on the home 
establishment, and to make a great effort to replace them in 
the regiments by purchases of two and three year old at 
the usual price. But if this is done, care must be taken that 
the regiments on the home service do not send us out their 
old and worn out horses, as they did upon a former occasion, 
of which there is one instance of the whole remount of one 
regiment dying in consequence of one day's work. 

' In suggesting these measures to your Lordship, I am 
perhaps travelling out of my line ; but the success of our 



1813. FRENEDA. 297 

operations here depends so much upon the state of our 
cavalry and artillery, that I cannot avoid to draw your Lord- 
ship's attention to these suggestions. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut, General Sir John Murray, Bart. 

' 14th April, 1813. 

MEMORANDUM ON THE OPERATIONS TO BE CARRIED ON, ON 
THE EASTERN COAST OF THE PENINSULA. 

' 1. It is obvious that these operations cannot be com- 
menced with advantage, till the allied British and Portu- 
guese army shall take the. field in Castille, which is intended 
in the first days of the month of May. 

' 2. The troops applicable to these operations are the 
allied British and Sicilian corps, and the Spanish divisions 
under Major General Wliittingham and Major General 
Roche, under the command of Sir John Murray ; that part 
of the second army under General Elio, composed of regular 
troops ; and the regular troops of the third army under the 
command of the Duque del Parque. 

' 3. The objects for the operations of the troops on the 
eastern coast of Spain are first to obtain possession of the open 
part of the kingdom of Valencia : secondly, to obtain an 
establishment on the sea coast north of the Ebro, so as to 
open a communication with the army of Catalonia; and 
eventually, thirdly, to oblige the enemy to retire from the 
Lower Ebro. 

' 4. Although these objects are noticed in this order, cir- 
cumstances may render expedient a departure from it, and 
that the one mentioned in the third instance should precede 
that mentioned in the second. 

' 5. If Sir John Murray possesses the means of embarking 
10,000 infantry and artillery, or more, the first and second 
objects may be combined with great advantage : that is to 
say, that the attempt to secure the second object by a brisk 
attack upon Tarragona with all the British and Sicilian 
corps, and such part of the division of General Whitting- 
ham or General Roche, as can be transported to Tarragona, 
will necessarily induce Suchct to weaken his force so consi- 
derably in Valencia, as to enable General Elio and the 



298 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

Duque del Parque to take possession of a great part, if not 
of all the open country in that kingdom. 

' 6. The first object will then be attained. 

' 7. The second will be a question of time and means. If 
Suchet, notwithstanding the junction of the troops of the 
first army with those under Sir John Murray, should be so 
strong in Catalonia as to oblige that general to raise the 
siege, and to embark without accomplishing his object, the 
first object will at least have been gained without difficulty ; 
and the return of Sir John Murray's corps into the king- 
dom of Valencia will secure it. 

' 8. If Sir John Murray should succeed in taking Tarra- 
gona, the first and second objects will have been attained, 
and a foundation will have been laid for the attainment of 
the third object. 

' 9. Orders have been sent for the Duque del Parque to 
commence his movement from his position at Jaen, and to 
proceed to put himself in communication with the second 
army, either by posting himself at Almanza, or at Yecla. 

' 10. As soon as the corps under the Duke del Parque 
arrives in communication with General Elio, the allied British 
and Sicilian corps, and General Whittingham's division 
should embark, to the number of at least 10,000 men, or 
more if possible, and proceed immediately to the attack of 
Tarragona, in which they should be aided by the first army. 

'11. The troops remaining in the kingdom of Valencia, 
that is to say, those under the Duque del Parque and Gene- 
ral Elio, and those of General Whittingham's and General 
Roche's divisions, and of the allied British and Sicilian corps 
which should not embark, should continue on the defensive, 
and retire, even upon the lines at Alicante, if it should be 
necessary. 

' 12. But as soon as it shall be found that Suchet begins 
to weaken his force in the kingdom of Valencia, they are to 
follow him up, and take possession of as large a part of that 
kingdom as it may be in their power to do. 

'13. It must be understood, however, by the General 
Officers at the head of these troops, that the success of all 
our endeavors in the ensuing campaign will depend upon 
none of the corps being beaten, of which the operating armies 
will be composed ; and that they will be in sufficient numbers 



1813. FRENRDA. 299 

to turn the enemy, rather than attack him in a strong posi- 
tion ; and that I shall forgive any thing, excepting that one 
of the corps should be beaten or dispersed. 

' 14. Sir John Murray will take with him to the siege of 
Tarragona such of the allied British and Sicilian cavalry as 
he may have horse transports to convey ; the remainder, with 
the cavalry belonging to General Whittingham's division, 
will remain with the troops under General Elio and the 
Duque del Parque. 

' 15. If General Sir John Murray should be obliged to 
raise the siege of Tarragona, and embark, or, at all events, 
when he returns to the kingdom of Valencia, he is to land 
as far to the north as may be in his power, in order to join 
immediately on the right of the troops under General Elio 
and the Duque del Parque ; and the mules and other equip- 
ments belonging to the allied British and Sicilian corps, 
which must necessarily be left behind at Alicante, are to join 
that corps at the place of disembarkation. 

' 16. If Tarragona should be taken, it must be garrisoned 
by a part of the first army under General Copons. 

'17. In case Sir John Murray should not have the means 
of embarking 10,000 infantry, at least, the corps of troops to 
undertake a serious operation on the sea coast in the rear 
of the enemy's left, will not be sufficient, and the plan must 
be altered ; and the following measures must be adopted to 
obtain a sufficient force in rear of his right. 

' 18. First, The regiments, as stated in the margin *, must 
be detached from the second and third armies, and must be 
embarked. These, with about the same number recently 
ordered from Galicia, will augment the army of Catalonia 
sufficiently to enable them, according to the opinion of Ge- 
neral Copons, to take the field against the enemy's troops now 
in Catalonia, and to force them to remain in their garrisons. 

' 19. As soon as he shall be joined by these reinforcements, 
General Copons should make himself master of the open 
country, particularly between Tarragona and Tortosa, and 
that place and Lerida. 

' 20. Secondly, the third army of the Duque del Parque 

* Voluntaries de Jaen, of the first division of the second army ; the regiment 
of Alicante, of General Roche's division ; 2nd de Burgos, of General Whttting- 
haiu's division. 



300 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

should be employed to turn the right of the enemy's posi- 
tions in Valencia, while the allied troops under Sir John 
Murray and General Elio will attack them in front. I 
imagine that it will be necessary for the Duque del Parque 
to proceed, in this case, as far as Utiel and Kequena, before 
he will be able to make any impression on the position of 
the Xucar. 

' 21. In proportion as the allied troops shall gain ground, 
this operation will be repeated ; the third army continuing 
to move upon the enemy's right till it shall come in commu- 
nication with the first army on the left of the Ebro. With 
this object in view, General Copons and the Duque del 
Parque should keep in constant communication. 

' Note. It would be very desirable that, if practicable, 
General Copons should get possession of Mequinenza. 

' 22. When the enemy shall have been forced across the 
Ebro, either by the maritime operations in rear of his 
left, or by those just described on his right, it will rest with 
General Sir John Murray to determine, in the first instance, 
on the line to be pursued, in a view to the local situation of 
affairs, in respect to the ulterior objects of the operations ; 
whether to establish the Spanish authority in the kingdom 
of Valencia, by obtaining possession of Murviedro, Peniscola, 
and any other fortified posts there may be within that king- 
dom, or to attack Tortosa or Tarragona, supposing that that 
place should not have fallen by the maritime operations first 
proposed. 

' 23. In my opinion, the decision on this point, as far as 
it depends upon the state of affairs on the eastern coast, 
will depend much upon the practicability and facility of com- 
municating with the shipping on the coast, without having 
possession of the maritime posts in Valencia. 

' 24. If that should be practicable, it would be most de- 
sirable to attain the second and third objects of the opera- 
tions, without waiting to obtain possession of the posts within 
the kingdom of Valencia; respecting which, it is hoped, there 
would be no doubt, when the operations of the first army 
should be connected with those of the second and third, and 
of the troops under Sir John Murray. 

' 25. The divisions composed of irregular troops attached 
to the second army, and commanded by Generals Duran and 



1813. FRENEDA. 301 

Villa Campa, should direct their attention to prevent all 
communication between the enemy's main army under the 
King in person, and that under Suchet. 

' 26. The operations of these divisions should be carried 
on on the left of, and in communication with, the Duque del 
Parque ; and, in proportion as the third army should move 
towards the Ebro, the operations of these divisions should 
be pushed forwards likewise. 

' 27. The division of Don Juan Martin must be kept in 
reserve, nearly in its present situation, and directions shall 
be sent to Don Juan Martin. 

' 28. General Sir John Murray, having under his com- 
mand the largest and most efficient body of troops, upon 
whose movements those of the others will depend essentially, 
will direct the operations of all the corps of troops referred 
to in this memorandum, when their operations shall be con- 
nected immediately with those of the corps of troops under 
his command. 

'29. If General Sir John Murray's allied British and 
Sicilian corps, and the whole or part of General Whitting- 
ham's division should embark, General the Duque del Parque 
will direct the operations ordered in this memorandum to 
be carried on in the kingdom of Valencia; but, in either 
case, the General Officers commanding the first, second, and 
third armies, and General Whittingham, must command 
each their separate corps.' 

1 WELLINGTON.' 

To Lieut. General Sir John Murray, Part. 

' MY DEAR GENERAL, ' Freneda, 16th April, 1813. 

' I have received your letters of the 1st April, and I now 
transmit a memorandum on the operations which I wish 
should be carried on on the eastern coast of the Peninsula, 
translated copies of which are gone to the Duque del Parque, 
General Elio, and General Copons. 

' In forming a plan of operations for troops in the Penin- 
sula, it is necessary always to bear in mind their inefficiency, 
notwithstanding their good inclinations, their total want of 
every thing which could keep them together as armies, and 
of the necessary equipments of cannon, &c. &c., and their 
repeated failures in the accomplishment even of the most 



302 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

trifling objects, notwithstanding- the personal bravery of the 
individuals composing the armies. If I had had to form a 
plan for the operations of half the numbers, real soldiers, 
well equipped and prepared for the field, it would have been 
one of a very different description ; but such a plan would 
not suit, and could not be executed by the instruments with 
which you have to work. 

' I beg therefore that you will set to work as soon as you 
may think proper, as proposed in the enclosed memorandum. 
I have nothing to say to the equipments or establishments 
of your troops, or to any thing relating to them, excepting 
their operations, and the occasion and period of quitting the 
Peninsula if there should be occasion. But if you will send 
me a regular report of the mules and horses you have pur- 
chased, stating the prices, and for what purpose, I will send 
you the regular authority for the purchase. 

' I still object, however, to your feeding General Roche's 
or General Whittingham's, or any other Spanish troops in 
Spain, as occasioning an useless expense to such an amount 
as that Great Britain cannot bear it, and as eventually 
likely to break down your own departments. I am likewise 
certain that, if those officers take pains, your assistance, 
however loudly they may call for it, is not required. As 
long as I have served in Spain, I have never done such a 
thing, and never will. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir J. Murray, Bart. 

' Of all your wants that of artillery-men appears most 
extraordinary. Besides the artillery-men which came with 
the corps from Sicily, which, as the corps came to carry on a 
siege, I conclude cannot be inconsiderable in number, you 
have two companies of British and two of Portuguese artil- 
lery belonging to this army ; I believe the very same men, 
in the same numbers, that took Badajoz for us last spring. 
It would, however, be very desirable, now that the communi- 
cation is quite secure, if you could send me a regular return 
of your force. I cannot let you have the artillery-men at 
Carthagena, as I have nothing else to take care of our stores, 
c., there. But, if four companies besides those belonging 
to Sicily are not enough, I will try to send more from this 
army.' 



1813. FRENEDA. 303 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 
' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 16th April, 1813. 

' I have received yours of the 7th and llth. 

'I concur entirely with you respecting the sending Spa- 
nish troops to America. I have made no attempt to pre- 
vent it, and I think it best that you should make none. 

' The Minister at War promises fairly, but he still violates 
daily the engagements made with me. 

' What I meant by the encouragement given by us to 
the licentiousness of the Spanish press, referred to that by 
individuals, and particularly by . 

' I should wish you to send 100,000 dollars to each of the 
1st, 2nd, and 3rd armies, and the army of reserve of Anda- 
lusia, between this time and the 1st of May, if you can. I 
shall inform the Government that I have made this request. 
How much have you given to each army of the sum settled 
to be given when I was at Cadiz ? 

( I enclose a copy of the memorandum of the operations to 
be undertaken on the Eastern coast. I shall send to Eng- 
land your letter, &c., on loans. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, K.B: 

To Admiral G, Martin. 
1 MY DEAR ADMIRAL, ' Freneda, 16th April, 1813. 

' I have given directions to the Commanding Officer of 
artillery at Lisbon to prepare for embarkation a company 
of artillery, which I am desirous should be sent to Alicante ; 
and I will thank you to provide tonnage to convey them 
there under convoy of a ship of war. 

c Believe me, &c. 
' Admiral G. Martin: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 
' SIR, ' Freneda, 17th April, 1813. 

In consequence of a desire which I transmitted, as Com- 
mander in Chief of the British army, through His Majesty's 
Minister at Cadiz, to be made acquainted with the wishes of 
the Regency regarding the payment for certain supplies 
received by the troops under my command in Castille during 



304 PORTUGAL. 1313. 

the last campaign, the Regency desired that payment should 
be made into the national treasury. I now enclose a letter 
which I have received from General Castanos, pointing out 
the inconveniences which the service will feel here if the 
money should not be paid into the provincial treasury ; and 
I beg leave to recommend the representation of General 
Castaiios to the consideration of the Regency, and that I 
should receive directions accordingly. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Don J. de Carvajai: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 
' MY DEAR BERESFORD, ' Freneda, ist.h April, 1813. 

' The Government have been very stingy of the supplies, 
not only of horses for our artillery, but of drivers to take 
care of the few they have sent us, and we want 350 drivers. 
I shall be very much obliged to you if you will let me know 
whether you can assist me with a few drivers, or can let us 
have the use of some of the dismounted cavalry to take care 
of some of our artillery stores. 

' I will let you know by to-morrow's post at what places 
we shall require them. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Marshal < WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. C. Beresford, 



To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 

' MY DEAR BERESFORD, ' Freneda, 18th Aprtt, 1813. 

' Sir R. Fletcher has suggested to me that it would be 
very desirable to have with the army the whole, if possible, 
if not a large detachment at least, of the corps of Portu- 
guese sappers under some of the officers of the Portuguese 
engineers, not of. higher rank than that of Major. I shall 
be very much obliged to you if you will let me know what 
number of this corps are fit for service, and if you will order 
such of them as are, or the whole if possible, to march upon 
Coimbra, letting me know when they will arrive. 

' I have just received your letters of the 13th and 14th. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Marshal < WELLINGTON. 

Sir If. C. Beresford. 



1813. PRUNE DA. 305 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 
< SIR, ' Freneda, l8th April, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your letter (marked 
mui reservado) of the 8th instant, and I have read its 
enclosures with the greatest attention. 

' The writer of them is certainly unacquainted with the 
numbers, the position, or the circumstances, as affecting the 
efficiency of the armies of the several allied nations ; and he 
appears to me to be equally unacquainted with the position 
of the enemy's armies ; and not to be aware of the facilities 
which they possess of effecting a junction of their different 
corps, long before the armies of the allied nations, supposing 
them to be sufficiently numerous, could perform the proposed 
operations. 

' Having had a long experience in the operations of war, 
particularly against the French, I am induced to doubt very 
much the practicability of the execution of all schemes such 
as that proposed for the surprise of the post of Toledo ; of 
the head quarters of one of the corps d'armee, &c. &c. 

' In order to see the fallacy of such schemes, it is only 
necessary to reflect upon the difficulty, nay impossibility, of 
moving through the enemy's posts, unperceived, such a 
body of troops, 1000 men, as are required to execute such a 
scheme.- In truth, it is very frequently difficult for a single 
man to pass through them to carry a letter ; and it is not 
reasonable to expect that 1000 men could pass through 
many leagues of country occupied by the enemy, in order to 
surprise the head quarters, or park of artillery, in such a 
town as Toledo. 

( I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don J. tie Carvujal.' < WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. Colonel Holmes, 3rd Dragoon Guard*. 
1 MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 20th April, 1813. 

< The Secretary at War has transmitted to me your letter 
to his Lordship, of the 30th January last, on the subject of 
the profits made by Paymasters of regiments in this country. 

' I do not understand what sums are in the hands of the 
Paymasters of regiments in this army for non-effectives ; nor 
do I understand exactly what is meant by that term. As 

VOL. x. x 



306 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

the Secretary at War has referred this subject for my con- 
sideration, I shall be much obliged to you if you will give 
me such further explanation as may be in your power. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Holmes: ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 
' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 20th April, 1813. 

' Having written to Lord Bathurst on the subject, the 
Government have consented to our removing such of the 
military agents as we might think proper ; and I think that 
Generals Roche, Whittingham, and Doyle, being employed 
as Spanish Generals, should no longer be paid as military 
agents ; and if you concur in this opinion, I shall be obliged 
to you if you will notify to them that, after the end of this 
month, they are not to receive their allowances ; or let me 
know if you wish that I should, and I will. 

' If Doyle does not receive, he should hereafter be paid, 
his Spanish allowance. 

'The clothing, &c. can be hereafter issued to the Spanish 
corps through the Spanish authorities, whom I shall hold 
responsible for their due distribution. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Eight. Hon. < WELLINGTON. 

SirH.Wellesley,K.B: 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 20th April, 1813. 

'I have received your Lordship's dispatch (No. 112) of 
the 31st March, in regard to the dangers to the British 
shipping at Coruna, in consequence of the insecure state of 
the prisoners, and I have desired General Castanos, who 
commands in Galicia, to give directions that measures may 
be taken to secure the prisoners of \var in that province. 

' It would be very desirable, however, and would tend 
much to increase the resources of the province of Galicia for 
the maintenance of troops, if the prisoners of war could be 
removed from thence to England. 

1 I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst.' ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 307 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 20th April, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 7th. I went the other 
day to see General Charles Alten, who is by far the best of 
the Hanoverian officers, and his opinion most consulted and 
respected, purposely to ascertain how he felt respecting the 
state of affairs in Germany, and the expediency of sending 
back to Hanover the German Legion ; and I am happy to 
inform you that I found his opinion to be very sensible and 
correct upon those subjects. He is clearly of opinion that 
the best thing for England, for Germany, and the world is 
to make the greatest possible effort here ; and in respect to 
the German Legion, in particular, he thinks that its services, 
which would be very useful here during the approaching 
campaign, would be entirely thrown away in this campaign, 
if they were to be sent round to Hanover. 

'When a large levy of men shall have been made in 
Hanover, it may be a question whether it would not be ex- 
pedient to send there a large part, at least, if not the whole, 
of the German Legion, if the war should continue in Ger- 
many. But now I am quite certain that Government, as 
well as General Alten. are right. 

' We must have the orders of the Secretary of State for 
any alteration in the mode of wearing the medal by the 
General Officers. It may do very well for an Admiral to 
wear his medal round his neck on his quarter deck, but we 
on horseback ought to wear it always at our button hole. 
Indeed this is the common practice in all distributions of 
this description, and was the rule at first on the grant of the 
medal for the battle of Maida ; and I do not know why it 
was altered. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Earl Bathurst: V" u ' WELLINGTON. 

To J. C. Berries, Esq., Commissary General. 

< SIR, 'Freneda, 21st April, 1813. 

' In consequence of the very favorable report which I 
have received from Sir Robert Kennedy of the conduct of 
Mr. Deputy Commissary General Pipon, I beg to acquaint 
you, that I have directed him in General Orders to act as 
Commissary General till the pleasure of the Lords of the 

x2 



308 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

Treasury is known, and I trust you will be pleased to 
recommend the appointment to their Lordships' favorable 
consideration. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' /. C. Herries, Esq.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To His Royal Highness the Duke of York. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 21st April, 1813. 

' I have the honor of enclosing to your Royal Highness a 
return of the number of men from each regiment of cavalry 
in this country transferred to the Staff corps. 

' I considered it most consistent with your Royal High- 
ness' intentions that the men should be allowed to volunteer 
their services for this corps, 'and I arranged accordingly; 
talcing from no regiment any man that had not volunteered, 
and confining the numbers taken from those regiments who 
were to remain on the service in this country to ten privates. 
' The King's Heavy German dragoons, and the English 
hussars, did not furnish any. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' His Royal Highness ( WELLINGTON. 

the Duke of York: 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' Mv LORD, ' Freneda, 21st April, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter from Major General Cookc, in which 
he requests to have leave to go to England for a short time, 
in the month of June, for the benefit of his health. 

' Colonel Capel will be the senior officer at Cadiz during 
the absence of Major General Cooke; from which I do not 
think that any inconvenience will result. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ( WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY LORD, Freneda, 21st April, 1813. 

' When I was at Cadiz in the course of the winter, I had 
some conversation with Sir Henry Wellesley and some of 
the monied people in that place, respecting the practicability 
of raising money by loan on the certificates which I had 



1813. FRENEDA. 309 

before been authorized by His Majesty's Government to 
grant ; and I enclose a copy of his last letter upon this 
subject. 

' The reason for insisting on all the formalities in the 
transfer of securities when granted, was to preclude the 
chances of forgery, of which the late Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer was very apprehensive ; and I imagine that your 
Lordship will not be disposed to relax any arrangement 
which he thought necessary to recommend, having that 
object in view. 

'If this were not the case, there would probably be no 
objection to the proposed clause in the certificate drawn by 
Mr. Costello, which stipulates that the sum borrowed should 
be repaid in coin ; or to giving, by way of premium, such 
additional sum beyond 5 per cent, for the use of the money, 
as the custom of Spain, and the state of the money market, 
might render expedient. 

' I have not yet granted one of the certificates which I was 
heretofore authorized to grant for money borrowed ; nor do I 
see much prospect that I shall have occasion to issue any. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 21st April, 1813. 

' The enemy withdrew all their troops from the left of the 
Tagus, and evacuated Toledo on the 10th instant ; but they 
have still a body of troops under General Laval in Madrid ; 
and General Baron Soult's cavalry are in Getafe, Leganez, 
&c., to the south of Madrid. 

' The army of the South have, however, in general, occu- 
pied the positions heretofore occupied by the army of Portu- 
gal on the rivers Duero and Tormes ; and it appears that 
the army of Portugal have been collected about Palencia, the 
army of the Centre continuing in the province of Segovia. 

' I propose to put the allied British and Portuguese army 
in motion in the first days of next month. I have already 
sent orders to Lieut. General Sir John Murray to commence 
his operations, and to the General Officers commanding the 
1st, 2nd, and 3rd Spanish armies to co-operate with him. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst." ' WELLINGTON. 



310 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
< MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 21st April, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 30th, in regard to the 
artillery horses, &c. 

' I now enclose the state of them as they stood on the 
19th instant, from which you will observe that, by our pur- 
chases of mules, we are in possession of a few more animals 
than are absolutely necessary to move our equipments, sup- 
posing the whole to be in a condition for work. The dif- 
ference between your account and ours is owing, I believe, 
to our having carried to account, on the 1st of October, the 
203 horses which, in your Lordship's account, appear to have 
sailed on the loth of September, and not having carried to 
account the 1 10 horses at Portsmouth, which have not yet 
arrived. 

' We are greatly in want of drivers. I have written to Sir 
William Beresford to endeavor to borrow some from the 
Portuguese. If we cannot get them, I must take soldiers 
from the infantry, which it would be very desirable, if possible, 
to avoid. 

' In reference to my last letter on this subject, I would 
request your Lordship to observe that we pay 200 dollars in 
cash for each of our mules, which, at the rate of exchange of 
the day, is not less than 60. A mule is not so good as an 
English horse : indeed, in fire he cannot be used. Allowing 
that the Ordnance were to give 45 guineas for five and six 
year old horses, and for the expense of sending each horse 
out about 10, you will see that it would be cheaper to 
supply us with horses, even at that price ; to which add, that 
the mules lately purchased have not taken much less from 
the military chest than 100,000 dollars in specie ; whereas 
the horses would be bought in England, and for bank notes. 

' We shall be stronger in cavalry than we have ever been, 
as well as in every thing else ; but the enemy will still be 
superior to us in cavalry, even including the Portuguese and 
some Spaniards. 

' I am very much annoyed by the conduct of the Cortes, 
who appear to follow the example of the Assemblies of 
France. The liberates, or rather the writers of the newspa- 
pers, who are, in fact, the Government, have lately brought 



1813. -FRENEDA. 311 

into play the mob of Cadiz ; and, on the question of confer- 
ring the Regency on the Princess of Brazils, the mob decided ; 
as, although there was undoubtedly a majority of the Assem- 
bly in favor of the Princess, nobody dared even mention her 
name. 

' The elections for the new Cortes, which, by some extra- 
ordinary manoeuvre, the existing Cortes have brought under 
their own cognizance, have been generally in favor of priests ; 
and where the choice has fallen on laymen, they are known 
to be hostile in opinion to the liberales. They have contrived 
to set aside many of the elections on account of some infor- 
mality or other ; and they are endeavoring to give a con- 
struction to an article of the constitution, in order to set 
aside all the elections of the priests. They will succeed in 
this, or any thing else that they choose. 

' I think that by these manoeuvres, the existing Cortes will 
create an apparent necessity for their continuing to sit after 
the month of October, the period fixed for their dissolution 
and the assembly of the new Cortes. 

' It is impossible to calculate upon the plans of such an 
assembly. They have no check whatever ; and they are 
guided and governed by the most ignorant and licentious 
of all licentious presses, that of Cadiz. I believe they 
mean to attack the Royal and feudal tenths, and the tithes 
of the church, under the pretext of encouraging agri- 
culture ; and I am sadly afraid that, finding the contribu- 
tions not so productive as they imagined they would be, 
they will seize the rents of the estates of my friends the 
Grandees. 

' If I am tolerably successful early in the campaign, I 
intend to try and prevail upon them to quit Cadiz, which 
I know the liberales consider as their strong-hold ; and the 
other parties and my brother are of opinion that the only 
chance of salvation is to remove the Government from 
thence. This may be the case, if matters should be well 
managed on their removal ; but wherever the Cortes and 
Government should fix themselves, the press would follow 
them, and would exercise the same control over the pro- 
ceedings of both; and in a very short space of time the mob 
of Seville, of Granada, or even of Madrid, would be as bad 
as that of Cadiz. The only permanent advantage likely to 



312 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

result from the removal would be, the probability of less 
prejudice in the consideration of all questions of commerce. 

' Adverting to the state of affairs in Spain, as well as 
elsewhere at present, does it not occur to you that it would 
be wise for Great Britain to recur again to the principles 
laid down in Lord Liverpool's dispatch to ihe Government 
of Curaqoa, in regard to the Spanish Colonies ? The prac- 
tice of our smuggling merchants and ship captains has 
never been in conformity with that letter ; and although I 
think it very improbable that any thing will give Great 
Britain the influence we ought to have over the delibera- 
tions and measures of the Cortes, as now constituted, a load 
of suspicion and prejudice would be removed, if the con- 
duct of our merchants was more consistent with the fairness 
of the principles laid down in that dispatch. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 21st April, 1813. 

' Notwithstanding that I have written you so many letters 
this day, I am induced to trouble you again, in consequence 
of Sir Robert Kennedy communicating to me a letter from 
Mr. Herries of the 2nd April, enclosing one of the 1st from 
the Treasury, to which documents I beg to refer you. 

' I enclose your Lordship the printed copy of a letter 
which I wrote to Sir Charles Stuart in April last year*, 
in which I have described particularly the origin and de- 
scription of certain securities floating in this country, com- 
monly, but improperly, called commissariat bills, and have 
stated my opinion of the injury which the sharks, called 
British merchants, at Lisbon did to the army, and their 
country, by the purchase of these securities at a depreciated 
rate. 

' In consequence of the clamor at Lisbon, which even 
reached to England, in consequence of my determination 
that these securities should not be discharged by the grant 
of bills upon the Treasury, Mr. Bissett was induced, with 
my consent, to pay some of them in that manner, and the 
holders of these bills immediately went into the market with 

* See Vol. IX., p. 76. 



1813. FRENEDA. 313 

them ; and for a considerable length of time during the last 
campaign, no money came into the military chest for any of 
the Commissary's bills on the Treasury negotiated at Lisbon. 
The measure was then adopted, in October and November 
last, of paying these securities by bills upon the Treasury, on 
the condition that the holders of them should lodge in the 
military chest, likewise for a bill on the Treasury, a sum 
equal in amount to that for which they were to receive a bill 
for the Commissariat security, by which measure we have 
got, on an average, into the military chest, about 850,000 
dollars a month, which has latterly increased to 1,000,000 of 
dollars. This supply the Lords of the Treasury have entirely 
cut off by their letters of the 1st April, on the ground of the 
supposed injustice of forcing a person to take a bill upon the 
Treasury for money equal in amount to that for which he 
should have another bill in payment for a debt. 

' If the Lords of the Treasury, or the Commissary in 
Chief, had done me the honor of consulting my opinion on 
any part of this transaction, or had placed in me the common 
confidence which I might have expected, they would have 
learned, First; that nothing can be more inconvenient to the 
public service than that the British merchants should thus 
purchase our debts. Secondly; that they have purchased 
them with the knowledge of my opinion of this inconvenience, 
at least since the 22nd of April, and of my determination to 
pay these debts at the moment, in the order and in the 
manner which might be most convenient to the public ser- 
vice. Thirdly; that they have purchased them to the 
amount of nearly a million of dollars, or more, since the 
month of October last, with a knowledge of this mode of 
payment, which the Lords of the Treasury now pronounce 
to be so unjust, and which they have positively forbidden. 

' Probably if their Lordships had known all this, and had 
seen the enclosed letter, they would have been of opinion, 
that if there is any thing unjust in these measures, those 
who feel the injustice have brought it on themselves by their 
own act. 

' In a very recent instance, I found the British merchants 
at Lisbon intriguing with the muleteers of the army, and on 
the point of doing us, and their country, and the cause, irre- 
parable mischief, in order that they might get more of these 
securities into their hands ; in the payment of which they are 



314 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

treated with so much injustice, according to the opinion of 
the Lords of the Treasury. 

' I do not feel much encouragement to interfere in a mat- 
ter of this kind, which is no concern of mine, after the pe- 
remptory orders given upon it by the Lords of the Treasury ; 
but at this promising moment I cannot see the affairs of the 
country fail for want of money, which, by my interference, 
might be procured; and I have therefore desired the Com- 
missary General to continue the existing practice till he 
shall receive further orders from the Treasury, which I 
earnestly entreat your Lordship may be sent to him without 
loss of time. 

' In the letter from the Treasury, there are several facts 
stated in regard to rates of exchange, the comparative rates 
of merchants' bills and those of the Commissary General, 
which are entirely unfounded, as will be seen by reference to 
the Commissary General's reports. But these facts proceed 
from the authority of the merchants at Lisbon, who wish 
that which the Treasury have ordered, viz., that they shall 
be paid by bills upon the Treasury for the Commissariat 
securities which they hold and have purchased at a depre- 
ciated rate ; and they would then sell these bills in the mar- 
ket of Lisbon for coin ; and it would soon be found that the 
military chest would get nothing, as was the case in the last 
simimer. 

' On all these points, I conceive that it is no business of 
mine to find money for the army, it is that of the Treasury. 
I interfere only from zeal for the public service, and I do so 
in the hope of being treated with fair confidence, which, in 
this instance, I certainly have not received. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst? ' WELLINGTON. 

To Major General Baron Bock. 

' SIR, Freneda, 22nd April, 1813. 

' I have received the proceedings of the General Court 
Martial, of which you are President, on the trial of Lieut. 

, of the , and your letter of the 19th, in which 

you have, by desire of the General Court Martial, recom- 
mended that officer for mercy, which recommendation I am 
desirous that the Court should reconsider. 



1813. FRENEDA. 315 

' First; I would beg the Court to observe, that it is never 
thought necessary to trouble a General Court Martial with 
any but cases carrying on the face of them the appearance 
of an extraordinary degree of guilt ; and it does appear a 
waste of the time of the public, and in itself very extraordi- 
nary, that a General Court Martial, having had proved 
before it the guilt of a prisoner, having convicted him by 
their sentence, and decreed a punishment, should then do 
worse than defeat all the objects of the trial, by holding up 
an example of impunity, procured through the means of the 
very tribunal appointed by the Legislature to be the princi- 
pal instruments in maintaining the discipline and good 
order of the army. 

' This observation applies to recommendations by General 
Courts Martial in general, to which I make it a rule to pay 
attention ; but I am quite convinced that, if I were to exer- 
cise my own judgment on these recommendations, or if 
General Courts Martial were to consider them as they are, 
the effects of a mistaken lenity, and were to be more sparing 
of them, the army would be in a better state of discipline, 
and much of the time of the public, now spent in these trials, 
would be saved. 

' But, Secondly ; I would beg the Court to reflect on the 

charge of which they have found Lieut. gu^ty, viz., 

" behaving in a scandalous, infamous manner; such as is 
unbecoming an officer and a gentleman ;" on the punishment 
annexed by the Articles of War to the guilt of this charge ; 
and on the facts on which the charge is founded, as detailed 
in the charge itself, and which have been clearly proved 
before the General Court Martial. 

' In the whole catalogue of military crimes, it is scarcely 
possible to find one more enormous, or more likely in its 
consequences to be injurious to the service in every way in 
which injury can be done to it. 

' Then, Thirdly ; I would beg the Court to reflect upon the 

infamy attaching to the character of Lieut. , after the 

conviction of guilt of such a charge founded on such facts. 
Supposing that His Royal Highness the Prince Regent 
should attend to their recommendation, do the General 

Court Martial believe that the officers of the 

would willingly associate with such a man ? Is there 



316 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

any regiment in the army of which the officers would not 
deem it a disgrace to associate with him ? Is there an officer 
upon the General Court Martial who would not consider 
himself disgraced, if he were seen in company with him ? 

' If this be true, I beg the General Court Martial to con- 
sider in what a situation they will place His Royal High- 
ness the Prince Regent by their recommendation. His 
Royal Highness will be called upon to pardon an officer for 
a crime so infamous, that neither the officers of the corps to 
which he belongs, nor those of any other regiment in the 
army, will associate with him. 

' 1 intreat the Court, therefore, to feel that confidence in 
the justice and propriety of their sentence which it deserves ; 
and to allow it to go before His Royal Highness without 
the recommendation : but if they should still desire that the 
recommendation should be forwarded, I shall send it to Eng- 
land, but without any remark on my part, as I never will be 
instrumental in retaining in His Majesty's service, as an 
officer, a person found guilty of behaving in a scandalous, 
infamous manner, such as is unbecoming an officer and a 
gentleman, and in forcing him into the society of officers by 
whom, to associate with him, will be deemed a disgrace. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Major General ' WELLINGTON. 

Baron Bock' 

To Earl Bathurst 

' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 22nd April, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose the copy of a letter which I 
have received from the Prince Regent of Portugal, by which 
I am informed that His Royal Highness has been graciously 
pleased to confer on me the title of Duque da Victoria *. 

' I beg that your Lordship will be so kind as to lay this 
letter before His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, and 
that you will submit to His Royal Highness my request 
that I may be permitted to accept the title which has been 
granted to me by His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of 
Portugal. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
* Earl Bathurst.' ' WELLINGTON. 

* The groat victory over the French army, commanded by King Joseph, at 
Vitoria, was gained on the '21st June following. 



1813. FRENEDA. 317 

To Earl Bathurst. 

1 MY LORD, ' Freneda, 22nd April, 1813. 

' I have the honor to transmit the copy of a letter from 
Marshal Sir William Beresford, with the copy of one from 
the Conde dc Aguiar, stating that His Royal Highness the 
Prince Regent of Portugal had created the Marshal Marquez 
do Campo Mayor. 

' I beg that you will lay these papers before His Royal 
Highness the Prince Regent, and that you will obtain His 
Royal Highness's permission that Marshal Sir William 
Beresford may accept the honor which has been conferred 
upon him by the Prince Regent of Portugal. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Baihurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Sir T. Graham, K.B. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 23rd April, 1813. 

' I have just heard of your arrival at Lisbon on the 20th 
instant. You will have received my letters there. 

' There has been no material change since I wrote last. 
I propose to move as soon as I can after the beginning of 
the month ; and rather think, between ourselves, I shall 
direct my march across the Lower Duero within the king- 
dom of Portugal. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir T. Graham, K.B.' 

To Lieut. General Sir Stapleton Cotton, Bart., K.B. 

' MY DEAR COTTON, ' Freneda, 23rd April, 1813. 

' Since I wrote to you last, General Slade has been re- 
called in consequence of General Clinton having been made 
a Lieutenant General in the Peninsula. 

' It now rests with you whether you will make another 
vacancy, and if you should, whether you will appoint to it 
General Vandeleur or . 

' I have put all the cavalry in one division ; and I propose 
to put the 13th light dragoons into the brigade with the 
Royals and 3rd dragoon guards, under the command of 



318 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

Major General Long, the .whole being only a temporary 
arrangement till you arrive. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir S. Cotton, Bart., 



To Captain Sir George Collier, R.N. 
f SIR, ' Freneda, 22nd April, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 23rd March, in which 
you have acquainted me with the orders which you had 
received from Lord Keith, and had desired to be made 
acquainted with my opinion regarding your operations. 

' Adverting to the probable operations of the campaign, 
it is very desirable that the enemy's communication by sea 
along the coast of Cantabria should be prevented as far as 
possible, from Bayonne to Santofia. 

' They have already made two or three attacks upon 
Castro Urdiales, all of which have failed; but I think it not 
unlikely that they will try again: and it would be very 
desirable that you should communicate with the Spanish 
officer in command of the troops in that garrison. The 
Spaniards have some craft there, which might be of use, 
under your protection, in preventing the communication of 
the enemy along the coast. 

' The transport loaded with bread might as well be left at 
Coruna. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
4 Captain Sir G. Collier, B.N.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. Colonel Bourke. 

' MY DEAR SIR, Freneda, 23rd April, 18J3. 

' I enclose a letter for Sir George Collier, who is in com- 
mand of a squadron either at Coruna or cruizing off Cape 
Ortegal. X shall be obliged to you if you will take a copy 
of it, and send it to him by a safe hand; and afterwards 
take an opportunity of communicating to him the copy, in 
case the original should miss him. 

' I have directed that the sum in your hands for the use 
of the Spaniards may be increased to 100,000 dollars ; and 
1 request you to pay it to the order of General Giron or of 



1813. FRENEDA. 319 

General Castaiios. The former is going to-morrow to take 
the command of the Spanish army of Galicia. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. Colonel Bourke.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Major General Baron Low, K.G.L. 

' MoN CHER GENERAL, ' a Freneda, ce 23 Avril, 1813. 

' II y a quelque temps que son Altesse Royale le Com- 
mandant en Chef m'a fait savoir qu'il avait ordonne a un 
autre Officier General de la Legion de passer a cette armee 
pour vous remplacer ; et je crois qu'avant peu de temps il 
pourra arriver. 

' Sous ces circonstances et etant a la veille de 1'ouverture 
de la campagne dans ce pays ci, et voyant que les affaires 
dans votre propre pays s'avancent d'une telle maniere que vos 
services, si votre sante vous permet encore de les donner 
ou au moins vos conseils seraient fort a desirer, j'ai cru 
de mon devoir de vous annoncer cette disposition, afin que 
vous preniez la dessus les mesures qui vous conviendront. 

' En attendant je vous prie de croire que je suis tres sen- 
sible, et que je me souviendrai toujours avec plaisir des 
services que vous avez rendu avec cette armee; et que 
partout ou vous irez, vous aurez mes souhaits pour votre 
succes et votre bonheur. 

' Agreez, &c. 

'Major General ' WELLINGTON. 

Baron L'otv, K.G.L.' 

To Don J. de Carvajal. 
' SIR, ' Freneda, 23rd April, 1813. 

' I had the honor of receiving last night your letter of 
the 12th instant, in which you have made me acquainted 
with two communications which you had received from the 
Minister of Hacienda, in regard to the subsistence of the 
troops. 

' As your Excellency is aware, this subject has already 
received much of my attention; and I have already done 
every thing in my power to obtain a knowledge of the 
resources of the country, and to have them applied with 
regularity and economy ; and I have assisted them, as much 



320 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

as lias been in my power, by advances of money from the 
military chest of the British Army, on account of the subsidy 
from His Majesty and the Government of Spain. 

' It is desirable, however, that I should receive positive 
instructions from the Government on certain points, in 
order to be enabled to do all the good that I wish to do on 
this subject. 

' I entirely agree with the Government in the opinion, 
that when the Spanish soldier receives his pay regularly and 
his bread, he ought not to receive what is called etape of 
any description; and that it is essentially necessary, not 
only with a view to the economy of the resources of the 
State, but for the honor and advantage of the soldier him- 
self, that he should be brought back to the system of frugal 
economy enjoined by the ancient ordenanzas. 

' But I beg leave to call the attention of your Excellency 
to the fact, that owing to the confusion and irregularity 
which have prevailed in the management, particularly of 
the military concerns of the nation, in the course of the con- 
test, it is not exactly known, either what is the pay of the 
soldier, or what he is to provide out of it ; or whether, sup- 
posing that he receives bread and his pay, and no etape, he 
is to receive any money called sobrantes, and if he is to 
receive such an allowance, to what amount ; also whether, if 
the soldier receives etape, what amount of his fixed daily 
pay shall be stopped from him. 

' It is most desirable that the Government should declare 
itself clearly on all these points without loss of time; and in 
order to assist them in doing so, I proceed to give them 
my opinion on the several points to which I have above 
referred. 

4 First, then ; I recommend that the pay of the non- 
commissioned officers and soldiers of all descriptions of 
soldiers, of all ranks, should be fixed at the rate of the 
ancient ordenanzas ; that is to say : 

' Secondly ; The only stoppage from this pay should be 
from each man for the hospital, for the purchase and main- 
tenance of the small articles of his necessaries ; for which 
the officer should be accountable at the periods fixed by the 
ancient ordenanzas. 

' Thirdly ; That the remainder of the pay of each rank of 



1813. FRENEDA. 321 

non-commissioned officer and soldier present with his regi- 
ment, viz., should be paid to him every day. 

' Fourthly ; That when the soldier shall receive this pay, 
he shall not be entitled to any description of etape, or other 
allowance in lieu of it, of any description, according to the 
antient Ordenanzas, whether in the field, in garrison, or in 
cantonments, within the Spanish dominions, excepting on 
such extraordinary occasions, as that it is absolutely im- 
possible for the troops to provide for themselves, such as 
being actually engaged with the enemy; or in operations 
so near to the enemy, as that the vivandiers and other at- 
tendants on the troops cannot with safety remain near them. 

' Fifthly ; That in such extraordinary cases, the etape 
shall be fixed by the General commanding the troops, and 
shall consist of such articles as he can procure. 

' Sixthly ; That on occasions when the pay cannot be 
delivered to the troops regularly every five days, they are 
to receive etape, to consist of the following articles : 

' Seventhly; That the full etape, when supplied to the 
army, shall be valued to each non-commissioned officer and 
soldier as one real a day, and the half etape half a real ; and 
the soldiers will be entitled only to the overplus of their 
pay, the stoppage for the masita in both cases, remaining 
the same. 

' I beg your Excellency to observe, that in proposing 
what is above detailed for the consideration of the Govern- 
ment, I am perfectly aware that it will be very difficult, and 
in some situations and at some seasons quite impossible, for 
the soldier to exist on this pay. I am equally certain, how- 
ever, that the resources of the State are not equal, even with 
all the assistance which Great Britain can give them, to 
support a larger expense, even supposing that we can over- 
come the difficulties which oppose at every step the realiza- 
tion of those resources to such an amount as to enable us 
to defray the diminished expense proposed. Hereafter, 
however, it may be necessary for the Government to give 
an allowance to the soldiers of the army in the field, at 
least, in order the better to enable them to provide them- 
selves with food ; the amount of which may be fixed upon 
a review and consideration of the detailed statements which 
may be made by the Commanding Officers of regiments. 
VOL. x. Y 



322 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' But whatever may be the amount of the sum to be fixed 
as that to be paid to the soldier, to enable him to provide 
himself with provisions, I recommend that system to the 
Government for their armies while stationed within the 
Spanish territory, rather than that of giving etape, the ex- 
pense of which would exceed fourfold the amount of any 
allowance which it might be thought expedient to make to 
the soldier. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 
Don J. de Carvajal.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 
' MY DEAR BERESFORD, ' Freneda, 24th April, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 2 1st. I am very 
much obliged to you for the drivers and the dismounted 
cavalry. The former might supply the 50 men wanted at 
Lisbon, and the latter the 300 required here. If I should 
find that we want the 300 before, we can hear further from 
you. I shall desire Harvey to call for them from the garrison 
of Almeida. 

' I am likewise much obliged to you for the artificers and 
pontoniers. I should wish the two companies of the former 
to be marched up to Almeida as soon as may be convenient. 
The company of the latter might remain attached to the 
bridges, as you had proposed. 

' I am glad to find that you are coming up. I propose to 
put the troops in motion in the first days of May. My in- 
tention is to make them cross the Douro in general within 
the Portuguese frontier, covering the movement of the left 
by the right of the army towards the Tormes, which right 
shall cross the Douro, over the pontoons, in such situation 
as may be convenient. I then propose to seize Zamora 
and Toro, which will make all our future operations easy 
to us. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Marshal ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B.' 



1813. FRENKDA. 323 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 
' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 24th April, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 21st, and I have cer- 
tainly no desire that my letter of the 12th, to the Prince 
Regent, should go before the Government, if you should be 
of opinion that it is likely to produce inconvenience ; nor 
that it should go to the Prince, if the object which it was 
intended to produce is likely to be accomplished in any 
other manner. 

' The truth is, that the greatest inconvenience was felt in 
the last campaign, by the want of pay for the Portuguese 
troops ; and this inconvenience was on the point of becoming 
a danger and evil of the first magnitude and importance. 
In several instances the Portuguese troops behaved exces- 
sively ill before the enemy, and this conduct was attributed 
by the officers to the miserable state in which they were 
kept for want of pay. I am therefore naturally anxious to 
guard against this evil in future. I believe there is no doubt 
about the facts stated in my letter to the Prince, and that 
there is no very material difference of opinion between you 
and me. 

' I am aware, and I believe I stated, that a great deal 
has been done at the Custom House, but much still remains 
to be done ; and the revenue is in that state, that a very 
slight effort, and a cordial co-operation with us on the part 
of the Government would render it equal to the expendi- 
ture, and I should then be able to do much more for both 
Portuguese and Spaniards than I can now. 

' I had no intention of blaming the Marquez de Borba 
exclusively. The Government itself is more to blame than 
he is, on some of J,he points of complaint ; but I repeat, if 
there is anv chance of a remedy, without sending the letter 
to the Government or to the Prince, I have no objection ; 
but then the remedy must be effectual. 

' In my account of the state of the subsidy, I go upon 
estimate, not having yet secnthe accounts. At all events, 
whether it has been paid in full or not, I know that no more 
can be paid in specie. 

' Believe me, &c. 
4 Sir Charles Stuart, K.B.' ' WELLINGTON. 



324 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To Don J, de Carvajal. 

< g |R ' Freneda, 24th April, 1813. 

< I send you by this occasion the report received by the 
Chief of the Staff from the Intendant General of the 2nd 
army, in which that officer has enclosed estimates of the 
expenses of the army, and detailed accounts of the resources 
applicable to defray those expenses, to which you will of 
course draw the attention of the Regency. But I beg parti- 
cularly to draw your attention to the observations of the 
Intendant General in regard to the debts due in the pro- 
vinces on account of former supplies to the troops, and the 
effect produced on the existing and current resources by the 
mode of paying those debts adopted under the decree of the 
Cortes of the 3rd February, 1811. 

' There can be no doubt that debts to a very considerable 
amount are due to the inhabitants of all the provinces of 
Spain, and that it is reasonable and just that measures 
should be taken to pay those debts as soon as their amount 
shall be ascertained. But I am afraid that the interests of 
the nation are exposed to considerable risk by leaving to 
the individual creditors of the State the power of deciding 
upon their own claims, and of subtracting from the current 
contributions the amount of their payment. The nation 
and the individual contributors also must suffer from this 
system, even though it should be successful in paying off old 
debts ; as I repeat that it is impossible to maintain an army 
without money ; and it is impossible to find resources for 
our Spanish army, excepting in the contributions of the 
people ; and it cannot be expected that the enemy will be 
removed from the Spanish territory, or, if removed, should 
be long kept out of it, unless a respectable Spanish army 
can be formed. 

' The interest then of the individual creditors of the 
State is combined with that of the State at large to put an 
end to this system. 

' In my opinion, the first Step to be taken in regard to 
these debts is to ascertain the amount due to each indivi- 
dual, and the amount of all the debts in each district and 
province of the Kingdom. This might be effected by a 
commission to be appointed to sit in each province, with 



1813. FRENEDA. 325 

powers to receive, consider, and decide finally upon the 
claims of each individual ; as the Government may depend 
upon it that there are many claims very ill supported, and 
many for which there is no foundation whatever. 

' As soon as the state of the debts shall have been ascer- 
tained, it will rest with the Cortes to determine in what 
manner they shall be paid ; whether by the allotment of the 
unappropriated and uncultivated lands, or by a certain per 
centage on the contributions of each individual, or by a 
combination of both methods, or any other that their wisdom 
and justice may suggest. But it appears to me to be essen- 
tially necessary that the decree of the Cortes of the 3rd 
February, 1811, should be revised; and I earnestly recom- 
mend to the Regency to call the attention of the Cortes to 
this subject. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don J. de Carvajal.' l WELLINGTON. 

To Major General the Hon. Sir Charles Stewart, K.B. 

' MY DEAR STEWART, 'Freneda, 25th April, 1813. 

' Sir Thomas Graham has sent me your letter of the 28th 
March, for which I am much obliged to you, and for your 
expressions of regret at quitting this army. I certainly 
should have felt no inconvenience or disinclination to keep 
your office at your disposal during the time you have been 
absent from it, even if you had at first looked to a diplo- 
matic situation ; and I cannot think that you had not a free 
choice whether to accept such a situation or not when it was 
offered to you. I sincerely hope it will answer your expecta- 
tion, and that you may be as successful as I wish you 
may be. 

' I have sent to buy two of your horses for 400 ; and I 
believe that Wood is to send me the hounds, as he thought 
head quarters rather deficient in that respect, as we had not 
harriers this winter (since Marsden carried off your old 
pack), as well as fox hounds. ' 

' I am besides indebted to you for a mare, which you left 
with me last year, and which I have been keeping up for 
you, and she is now in excellent condition. Wood says you 
intended to give her to me ; but I say that all officers of 



326 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

dragoons arc horse dealers, and that I cannot take her 
from you. 

' You may tell your friends in Germany, if you should 
receive this letter there, that I propose to take the field in 
a few days, and that I only hope that I may be as successful 
as they have been. At all events, I hope to prevent the 
enemy from detaching any thing from hence against them. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Major General ' WELLINGTON. 

the Hon. Sir C. Stewart, K.B. 

' I have appointed le petit fils * du Roi George to be a 
Deputy Assistant Adjutant General.' 

To the Marquis of Buckingham. 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freueda, 25th April, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 10th March, and I 
assure you that I am highly flattered by your recollection of 
me at such a moment as that at which you wrote to me, and 
at the expression of your wish that the friendly and affec- 
tionate intercourse with which I had so long been honored 
by your much respected father should be continued with 
yourself. I assure you that, from regard for yourself and 
respect for your whole family, as well as from affection for 
the memory of your father, I am most desirous that the loss 
which I have sustained in him should not be aggravated by 
the discontinuance of my intimate intercourse with yourself 
and family ; and I accept, with the utmost satisfaction, the 
offer of your continued friendship. 

' I am much obliged to you for your congratulations upon 
the recent honor which His Royal Highness the Prince 
Regent has conferred upon me, which is enhanced much to 
me by its having been worn by my old patron and friend. 
Pray present my best respects to Lady Buckingham. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' The Marquis of Buckingham? ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Right Hon. the Secretary at War. 

1 MY LORD, Freneda, 25th April, 1813. 

* I received your Lordship's dispatch, No. 26,045, of the 
31st March, by the last post, in regard to the difficulties 

* The EarlofMunster. 



1813. FRENEDA. 327 

still existing in the settlement of accounts of soldiers sent 
home from this country, and again requiring my opinion 
respecting the appointment of a paymaster of detachments 
at Lisbon. 

' I wish that your Lordship had sent me the names of the 
soldiers whose accounts had not been settled, specifying the 
regiments and companies to which they belong. The fact 
is, my Lord, that the origin of the evil exists in the regi- 
ments. Notwithstanding the pains which are taken to 
enforce the orders and regulations of the service in regard 
to the settlement of the soldiers' accounts, and to the mea- 
sures to be adopted in relation to those accounts, when a 
soldier is sent to a general hospital, when he is made a 
prisoner of war, or is invalided, or becomes in any manner 
a casualty on the returns of his company and regiment, I 
am convinced, indeed I know, that in nine out of ten instances 
those orders and regulations are not complied with ; and no 
paymaster of detachments, or any other officer stationed at 
Lisbon, could settle the soldiers' accounts in any reasonable 
space of time. The consequence of the appointment of such 
a person would be the detention of many soldiers in this 
country till they should die, while the paymaster of detach- 
ments should be engaged in a correspondence with the regi- 
ment regarding the accounts, each communication of which 
correspondence would take from five to seven days. 

' When your Lordship adverts to the difficulty which you 
experience in obtaining from the commanding officers and 
paymasters of regiments their states and accounts, which are 
almost mere forms to be filled up, and to the number of calls 
which you are obliged to make upon those officers of superior 
rank and intelligence, one of whom has nothing else to attend 
to, you cannot be surprised that the Captains and Subalterns 
of the army should be ignorant of, as they are in many 
instances, and should neglect, the important duties assigned 
to them regarding the accounts of the soldiers above re- 
ferred to. 

' All that I can do is to urge them to attend to these 
duties, and to notice in a particular manner any instance of 
a neglect of them which may come to my knowledge. 

' It is impossible to attempt to punish any individual for 
such a neglect of duty, as he would be to be tried for it by 



328 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

others, each of whom would probably have been guilty of a 
similar or even greater neglect. 

( I have the honor to be, &c. 

The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

The Secretary at War' 

To the Right Hon. the Secretary at War. 
' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 23rd April, 1813. 

' I had the honor of receiving your Lordship's letter of 
the 29th March, No. 45,496, by the last post, enclosing 
one which your Lordship had received from Lieut. Colonel 
Holmes, of the 3rd dragoon guards, relative to the advan- 
tages made by the Paymasters of the army, by the accumu- 
lation of money in their hands. 

1 As I am perfectly aware that the Paymasters of the 
army trade in every way in which they can acquire any profit, 
I entertain no doubt that they derive profit from the sources 
referred to by Lieut. Colonel Holmes. 

' But the remedy for the evil rests with your Lordship, 
and not with me. 

' It appears to me that your Lordship might order the 
Paymasters of regiments to pay into the military chest of 
the army, at stated periods, the amount stopped from the 
subsistence of the officers of regiments on account of the 
income tax, taking the receipt of the Deputy Paymaster 
General for the amount. And that the Deputy Paymaster 
General might be authorized to draw upon the Paymaster 
General in favor of the Secretary at War, or the Lords of 
the Treasury on the agents of the regiment, for the amount 
thus paid into the military chest, specifying in the draft that 
it was for a sum of money received as the income tax of the 
officers of a particular regiment, for a particular period of 
time. 

' I thought it proper to call upon Lieut. Colonel Holmes 
to specify what he meant by the term he used in his letter 
to your Lordship, stating that a considerable sum was in the 
hands of the Committee of Pay mastership, on account of the 
pay of the officers and non-effectives of the 3rd dragoon 
guards, before I should address your Lordship; and the 
result has been as follows : 

< Your Lordship is aware that the British troops serving 



1813. FRENEDA. 329 

in this part of the Peninsula have long been paid in arrear, 
and that the term of the arrear is now for four months ; the 
subsistence to the 24th December, 1812, being only now in 
the course of issue. In the course of every month passed 
by an army employed on service against the enemy, it must 
be expected that the casualties will be very numerous ; and 
the Paymasters, under the existing regulations, have been 
in the habit of receiving from the Paymaster General the 
subsistence of officers and soldiers who may die during the 
period of the arrear. 

* Thus, a Paymaster would be entitled to receive the pay 
of an officer or soldier who should die on this day, from the 
25th December to the 24th April, at the periods at which 
it should become payable by the Deputy Paymaster General, 
in consequence of the issue of the warrants and the orders 
of the Commander of the Forces ; and this is what Lieut. 
Colonel Holmes means by the pay of officers and non- 
effectives. 

' I do not think it is possible to prevent the Paymasters 
of regiments from receiving these sums from the Pay office. 
There may be regimental demands against the deceased 
officer ; such demands certainly will exist against the de- 
ceased soldier, and it would create great confusion and diffi- 
culty, if the Paymasters of regiments were prevented from 
receiving those sums of money into their hands. 

' But under the regulations for their guidance, the Paymas- 
ters of regiments are called upon to send to England the sums 
due to deceased officers and soldiers, to invalids, to prisoners 
of war, &c. &c., upon the settlement of the account of each 
individual ; under which order, it appears to me, that the 
Paymasters have made the profit adverted to. It will be 
proper, therefore, for your Lordship to order that the Pay- 
masters of regiments should pay into the military chest all 
such sums of money as they have been heretofore ordered to 
send to England, under any of the heads above adverted to, 
giving the Deputy Paymaster General a statement of the 
account on which the sum has been paid in, and reporting 
that it has been paid in, in detail, for your Lordship's infor- 
mation ; and the Deputy Paymaster General should be 
authorized to grant a bill upon the Paymaster General for 
such sum of money, specifying, in a letter of advice, for 



330 PORTUGAL. 



1813. 



what purpose drawn, either in favor of the Secretary at 
War, or of the agents of the regiment. 

< It appears to me that the Paymasters of regiments will 
be prevented from making profit in future under these 
heads, by the adoption of the measures above proposed ; and 
the military chest of the army will be aided to a very consi- 
derable amount. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' The Right Hon. ' WKLL1HGTON. 

the Secretary at War.' 

To Major General Vandeleur. 
' MY DEAR GENERAL, ' Freneda, 26th April, 1813. 4 p. M. 

' Lord Fi^oy Somerset has just given me your letter of 
this day, and I assure you I should be very happy to appoint 
you to command a brigade of cavalry if I could ; but, not- 
withstanding General is ordered home, there is no bri- 
gade vacant. Four regiments of cavalry have been drafted 
by orders from home, and two brigades of cavalry have been 
sent out, and two General Officers to command brigades of 

cavalry. Unless I remove General from his command, 

or some other General Officer of the cavalry, I do not see how 
I can give you the command of a brigade of cavalry. Indeed, 
after all, unless some General Officer should be removed, the 
brigades of light cavalry must be of the strength of only six 
squadrons. I have written two letters to Sir Stapleton Cotton 
on the subject, which he will find on his arrival; and I sin- 
cerely wish that he may be able to suggest an arrangement 
which may give you a situation in the cavalry, which I 
acknowledge I cannot, without sending home some officer 
or other. 

' You will recollect that I advised you to settle this matter 
in England. I have nothing to do with the choice of the 
General Officers out here, or with their numbers, or the 
army with which they are to serve; and when they do come, 
I must employ them as I am ordered. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Major General Vandeleur. ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 331 

To Dom Miguel Forjaz. 

' MoN CHER MONSIEUR, 'a Freneda, ce 26 Avril, 1813. 

' Je viens d' avoir T honneur de recevoir votre lettre du 21 
Avril, et j'en avals deja regu une sur le meme sujet du Che- 
valier Stuart. Je lui ai repondu que je n'avais mil desir 
que ma lettre au Prince soit mise sous les yeux du Gouverne- 
ment si elle etait de nature a les facher ; ni meme qu'elle 
passat au Prince si c'etait probable que les objets que j'avais 
en vue fussent accomplis. 

' J'ai assez a faire, et je n'ai nul desir de m'embrouiller 
dans de mauvaises querelles avec qui que ce soit; maisjc 
ne peux pas voir les affaires du Prince Regent, son armee, et 
la cause des allies se deteriorer sans m'en plaindre au Prince; 
surtout sachant que le Prince a ordonne qu'on fasse atten- 
tion a mes conseils, et que j'ai eu le bonheur de n'avoir 
jamais encore conseille quelque chose qui n'a pas reussi. 

' Je vous avoue que je ne suis pas du tout satisfait de 
1'etat des paiemens enonce dans votre lettre. II est clair 
que 1' armee n'est payee que jusqu'a la fin de Septembre : 
on parle d'argent ici et la; mais je ne vois rien de certain 
dans tout cela ; et si, quand je marcherai dans quelques jours, 
je trouve que les troupes sont toujours en arriere de celles 
de Sa Majeste Britannique, il faut bien que j'insiste que 
ma lettre soit envoyee au Prince. 

' Mais la paie de 1'armee n'est pas la seule chose dont 
je me plains, quoique la plus pressante et peut-etre la plus 
importante en cette lettre. 

' J'insiste que si le Gouvernement Portugais avait voulu 
suivre mes conseils, s'il voulait les suivre a present, Sa Ma- 
jeste seraiten etat de faire beaucoupplus pour les Puissances 
de la Peninsule qu'il ne peut faire a present; et chaque jour 
de delai en est un de risque et de malheur pour ces deux 
nations. Le bien qui resulterait de ce que j'ai conseille 
n'est pas nie. Mais on ne le fait pas parceque on ne le veut 
pas. Cette conduite est elle juste ? est elle patriotique ? est 
elle honnete envers le Souverain ? 

' Je me resume. Si 1'armee n'est pas payee avant que nous 
marchons, il faut que la lettre passe sous les yeux du Prince 
par la premiere occasion. Si on ne prend pas tout de suite 
des mesures sur les plans que j'ai recommandes elle y pas- 



332 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

sera sous une autre forme a la premiere occasion, memo si la 
paie de 1'armee etait en regie. 

' Je n'aime pas ecrire sur la conduite de qui que ce soit 
sans lui en faire part, et j'ai toujours agi de cette maniere 
avec le Gouvernement, et je desire beaucoup n'en pas depar- 
tir. Mais si vous et le Chevalier Stuart sont d'opinion que 
mettre ma lettre sous les yeux du Gouvernement ferait du tort 
aux affaires, je vous prie de 1'envoyer directe an Prince. Je 
vous prie dans ce cas, tous les deux, de vous souvenir que 
vous avez ma lettre dans vos mains pour la leur montrer, au 
cas qu'il futjamais possible qu'on attaquat ma probite en 
envoyant une accusation au Prince, centre qui que ce soit 

sans lui en faire part. 

' Agreez, &c. 

' Dom M. Forjaz: ' WELLINGTON. 

To His Royal Highness the Duke of Clarence. 
< SlR, ' Freneda, 27th April, 1813. 

' J have had the honor of receiving your Royal Highness's 
commands of the 2nd instant; and in obedience to them 
and to those of His Royal Highness the Duke of York, I have 
appointed Captain Fitz Clarence * to the Staff of the Adju- 
tant General, and have called him to head quarters. Your 
Royal Highness may depend upon my paying him every 
attention in my power, as well as to his brother f . 

< I am very much flattered by your Royal Highness's 
approbation ; and I earnestly hope that our exertions in the 
campaign now about to commence, may be as successful as 
is expected. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' His Royal Highness ( WELLINGTON. 

the Duke of Clarence? 

To His Royal Highness the Duke of York. 

' SlR, ' Freneda, 27th April, 1813. 

' I have received your Royal Highness's commands of the 
7th instant. After I had written to your Royal Highness on 
the llth of March, I found that I had given the 4th dra- 
goons, 30 horses of the llth more than they could mount; 
and these horses were transferred to the 1st German dra- 

* The Earl of Munster. f Who died in India. 



1813. FRENEDA. 333 

goons, which regiment became thereby more nearly complete 
in horses. I had also an inspection made of the 1st and 
2nd hussars, and found that there were in the former 43, and 
in the latter, 96 horses fit for the Heavy cavalry, a number 
fully equal to complete both the regiments of Heavy German 
dragoons. 

' The 1st hussars wanted only 36 horses to complete the 
number they could mount, 43 horses to replace those to be 
drafted from that regiment for the Heavy cavalry, and 36 
men and horses to complete the 3 squadrons in this country 
to their establishment. The 2nd hussars could furnish all 
these demands, and as all the regiments have now as many, 
and some more, horses than they can mount, and as the horses 
they would have received from the 2nd Heavy German dra- 
goons would only have encumbered them, I considered it 
best to confine the execution of your Royal Highnesses 
orders of the 7th of April to the 2nd hussars. I have, 
besides, to observe, that some of the regiments being on 
march, it would have been very difficult to reach them with 
the horses from the 2nd German dragoons till the whole 
army should be collected. 

' The officers and men of the 2nd hussars, with the excep- 
tion of those drafted to the 1st hussars, will be sent to 
England by the first opportunity. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

His Royal Highness < WELLINGTON. 

the Duke of York: 

To Major General Vandeleur. 
1 MY DEAR GENERAL, ' Freneda, 28th April, 1813. 

' I am convinced that you are not in earnest in wishing 
me to adopt the plan you have proposed to open the door 

for your removal to the cavalry. If General were not 

already in the cavalry, I might have it in my power, with 
justice, to make the selection between you and him ; but as 
it is I have it not. 

' It is very true, as General Calvert says, that I ^hould 
have had it in my power to put you into the cavalry, if 
Great Britain could have furnished only 700 horses to 
remount our cavalry this winter ; but as these could not be 
found, I have been ordered to draft four regiments, and five 



334 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

new regiments have been sent out. But with these five, two 
new General Officers ! 

' I have written to Sir Stapleton Cotton on the cavalry 
arrangements, and I assure you that I shall be very happy 
to do what you wish. 

< Believe me, &c. 
To Major General Vandeleur: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Admiral G. Martin. 
' MY DEAR ADMIRAL, ' Freneda, 28th April, 1813. 

' I hope that in a few days we shall commence our opera- 
tions, and I think it is not impossible that we may hereafter 
have to communicate with the shipping in one of the ports 
in the North of Spain. Under these circumstances, the com- 
munication along the coast becomes of the utmost import- 
ance, and I acknowledge that I feel a little anxious upon the 
subject, adverting to the weakness of the squadron under 
your command, and that you have to attend to the southern 
coast and Cadiz, as well as to Lisbon and the western coast. 

' I wrote to Lord Bathurst on this subject on the 7th 
instant, a letter which he must have received by this time : 
but if you should concur in opinion with me, that you are 
not strong enough, it is very desirable that you should inti- 
mate it to the Admiralty. 

- ' Sir G. Collier is now at Coruna with the Surveillante, 
and, I believe, two other frigates, and he is destined to 
cruize off the northern coast during the summer. I have 
now recommended to him to take his station between San- 
tona and Bayonne, and to prevent the enemy from commu- 
nicating along the coast by sea ; but if you cannot get any 
reinforcement from England, I shall apply to him to station 
one of his frigates off Cape Finisterre. 

' Believe me, &c. 

* To Admiral G. Martin.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Duque del Infantado. 

' MON CHER Due, a Freneda, ce 28 Avril, 1813. 

' Je vous envoie une copie de la lettre que je viens de recc- 
voir de la Eegence en reponse a celle que je leur ai ecrit pour 
proposer que vous soyez employe a 1'armee. Je n'ai aucune 
connaissance de la cause de leur decision ; mais je suppose 



1813. FRENEDA. 335 

qu'elle a quelque rapport avec la conduite de la Regence 
dont vous faisiez partie. Je suis bien fache que je n'aurai 
pas votre assistance au moius au commencement de la cam- 
pagne. 

' Agreez, &c 
1 El Duque del Infantado.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Right Hon. Sir H. Wellesley, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 28th April, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter for the Duque del Infantado, which I 
beg you to have delivered to him. I applied to the Govern- 
ment to send him to the army, but they have refused ; and 
WimpfFen tells me that the Cortes are about to attack the late 
Government. This will be a wise measure ! ! ! Don Juan 
O'Donoju is to be Minister at War, and is going to Cadiz. 

' The news from the north continues to be very good. It 
appears by the paper of the 14th that General Morand and 
his whole division were killed or taken prisoners at Lu- 
nenberg. 

' We have at last got some rain in earnest, and the whole 
army will be in motion directly. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, K.B. 

1 Is the clothing for the cavalry arrived yet ?' 

To the Adjutant General. 
' SIR, ' Freneda, 28th April, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 10th 
instant in regard to the leave of absence to Colonel Palmer 
of the 10th hussars. 

' Nearly about the time I received your letter of the 18th 
ult, informing me of the pleasure of His Royal Highness 
the Prince Regent that Lieut. Colonel Palmer should have 
leave to go to England when Lieut. Colonel Quentin should 
come out, I received an application from Lieut. Colonel 
Palmer for leave to go immediately, written in the belief 
that Colonel Quentin was then on his passage. 

' As I was aware of the nature of Lieut. Colonel Palmer's 
business in England, and conceived that it might be desir- 
able to him to be in England when Parliament should 



33G PORTUGAL. 1813. 

assemble after the holidays, I gave him leave to gotoEngland, 
conceiving that I was acting according to the pleasure of 
His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, and that the service 
would ^suffer no inconvenience from the absence of both 
Lieut. Colonel Palmer and Lieut. Colonel Quentin from the 
regiment for the short period during which it was likely to 
take place. 

' Under these circumstances, and as I am certain that 
Lieut. Colonel Palmer would not have desired to go if he 
had not believed Lieut. Colonel Quentin was on his passage, 
and that he would have preferred to stay, at all risks to the 
object which has taken him to England, to relinquishing the 
service, I hope and entreat that he may not be obliged to 
relinquish the service in consequence of my error in acting 
upon the orders which I received. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' The Adjutant General.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

* MY LORD, ' Freneda, 28th April, 1813. 

' The enemy have made no movement of importance since 
I addressed your Lordship on the 21st instant, and their 
troops are cantoned nearly in the same situations. 

' Those of the allied British and Portuguese army have 
moved however, and the cantonments are closing up with a 
view to the movements which I propose to commence in the 
first days of May. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: WELLINGTON. 

To Brigadier General Pack. 

' My DEAR PACK, ' Freneda, 29th April, 1813. 

' I return your letter. Colonel Bunbury and I are highly 
flattered by your preference of the service in this country to 
that which has been proposed to you by the Secretary of 
State. I think you were right ; but, at all events, I am very 
sensible of the kindness of your motives in refusing to accept 
the offer. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Brig. General Pack: WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 337 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Frcneda, 30th April, 1813. 

' I take the chance of this letter catching the mail to 
enclose you a copy of the news which I have received this 
day from Alicante, from which it appears that Lieut. General 
Sir John Murray had a very successful affair with Marshal 
Suchet on the 13th instant. 

' I hope to send you the details by the next mail. 

' Believe me, &c. 
1 Earl Bathurst.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Sir R. Hill, K.B. 
' My DEAR HILL, ' Freneda, 1st May, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 30th, and I have sent 
the enclosure from the Conde de Amarante to Marshal Sir 
W. C. Beresford ; and I have informed the Marshal, as I 
now inform you, that the troops under the Conde de Ama- 
rante and Colonel Campbell must be supplied by Portuguese 
means, or they must not take the field, or they must starve, 
as I neither can nor will allow the British departments to 
undertake to feed them. 

' I beg that you will send a copy of this letter to the 
Conde de Amarante, and keep it by you as the rule for 
your proceeding throughout the campaign in respect to 
those troops, as well as in respect to the Spanish troops 
which may be employed with you. Let the Conde de Ama- 
rante know that I never will give another answer to any 
demands of this kind ; that I never will authorize a charge 
on our Commissariat for feeding the Portuguese troops under 
his command, and that it is quite useless to renew these 
applications. 

' Believe me, &c. 

'Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir R. Hill, 



To Lieut. General the Hon. W. Stewart. 
' MY DEAR GENERAL, ' Freneda, 1st May, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 28th regarding Gene- 
ral Oswald. He is now on his way to join the 5th division, 

VOL. x. z 



338 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

but I will appoint him to command a brigade in the 2nd 
division if he should lose that command. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

the Hon. W. Stewart: 

To Brigadier General Pack. 
' MY DEAR PACK, 'Freneda, 1st May, 1813. 

' I write to state to you how we stand in respect to British 
brigades, in order to show you that I have not forgotten 
your wishes. 

4 There are two brigades vacant ; one in the 2nd division, 
which I keep vacant till I know whether Sir J. Leith will 
come out, when Major General Oswald will be appointed to 
it ; and one in the 7th division. Fermor is senior to you, 
and must be appointed to that. I think it probable that 
either Leith or General Walker will not come out ; and in 
either case, if no General Officer should be sent out, you 
shall be removed to the British army, as you desire. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Brig. General Pack.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Colonel Ross, <20th Regt. 
' MY DEAR SIR, 'Freneda, 1st May, 1813. 

4 I have received your letter of the 29th April. I shall 
be very happy to appoint you to the command of a brigade 
in the army when it shall be in my power. Colonel Hinde 
and Colonel Stirling command brigades, as being the senior 
Field Officers of the brigades in which their regiments are. 
If you will refer to the Army List you will see that there are 
in this army Brigadier General Brooke, Brigadier General 
Inglis, and Colonel Fermor, senior to you, without brigades, 
besides General Pack, who is to be removed to the British 
army, and other officers belonging to the cavalry. 

' It has been the practice of this army not to move officers 
from the command of their regiments to command brigades 
until it was quite certain that, by the arrival of other officers 
with the army, they would not be obliged to return to the 
command of their regiments ; and it is very desirable not to 
depart from this practice. 

' Believe me, c. 

' Colonel Ross: < WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRKNEDA. 339 

To the Conde de la Bisbal. 

< SIR, ' Freneda, 1st May, 1813. 

' I have this day directed the Chief of the Staff to inform 
you that the materials for the repair of the bridge of Almaraz 
had moved from Elvas, and that it was expedient that the 
troops under your command should commence their march 
from Seville. 

' I have received your Excellency's letter of the 22nd 
April, in regard to the measures proposed to be adopted in 
the provinces of Seville and Cordova, to procure means of 
transport for the troops under your command ; and I have 
only to refer you to my letter of the 28th March ult. for my 
opinion upon that subject. 

' It is very evident to me that the troops under your com- 
mand, any more than other troops, cannot undertake opera- 
tions in the field without having some means of this descrip- 
tion ; and I am well aware of the difficulties which you will 
have to encounter during the campaign in consequence of 
deficiencies of means of transport, and of wants of all kinds 
occasioned by the poverty of the resources of the Spanish 
Government, which the circumstances of the times do not 
allow us to ameliorate. 

' Under these circumstances, I acknowledge that I have 
felt a considerable degree of hesitation in sending orders to 
your Excellency to put your troops in motion ; and I beg 
that you will understand that, if you consider these diffi- 
culties to be of a magnitude likely to injure your corps, I do 
not wish you to march, at least till the harvest shall be on 
the ground, and that you will find more easily the means of 
subsisting it ; and that, whether you march now or at a 
future period, I consider it to be more important to have a 
small body of troops well paid and appointed, than a larger 
one which there should not exist means of either paying or 
feeding. The former may render some service to the cause, 
and be of some credit to the officer commanding it; the 
latter cannot. I have invariably assisted the Spanish armies 
as far as has been in my power ; and, in point of fact, the 
money recently issued to them has been taken from the 
military chest of this army ; and I shall continue to endeavor 
to assist them with money. 

z2 



PORTUGAL. 



1813. 



But it would be quite impossible for me, as the Com- 
mander in Chief of the British army, and with British funds, 
and by the agency of the British Commissariat, to endeavor 
to form magazines for the Spanish armies. These must be 
formed by the agency of the officers of the Spanish Govern- 
ment, and with the resources of the Spanish nation ; and if 
those agents are incapable, or the resources are not equal to 
the object, we must endeavor to carry on the war with the 
Spanish troops without the aid of the magazines. 

< With this object in view, I recommend to you, at what- 
ever period you may undertake your march, to move by 
cantonments, in separate small divisions, each upon a sepa- 
rate road. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
The Conde de la Bisbai: ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Right Hon. Sir H. Wdlesley, K.B. 
< MY DEAR HENRY, . ' Freneda, 1st May, 1813. 

' I have received a letter from the Spanish Government 
to request that I should state whether I have any objec- 
tion to the , , being appointed to com- 
mand in chief the army of reserve in Galicia. If I were 
to answer this letter as Commander in Chief of the Spanish 

army, I should say that is incapable of 

performing the duties of the situation ; and that, moreover, I 
have learned that his reputation in Galicia in particular is at 
a very low ebb, he having served in that province under the 
Marques de la Romana. He was , and he is sus- 
pected of having taken bribes. There is this besides to be 
said, that General Lacy is the Commander in Chief of that 
army, and I have not yet seen any reason why he should be 
displaced. But is in some manner con- 
nected with , and, as you rely a'good deal upon him, 

I do not like to give this answer : I wish, therefore, that, if 

you can do it, you would speak to , and tell him that, 

as is unwell, and cannot go to his station, it would 

be very desirable if this application were withdrawn. The 
arrangement certainly will not answer. 

' It is very extraordinary that the 3000 sets of horse ap- 
pointments have not yet arrived at Cadiz. As far back as 
the 9th March they were reported in readiness to sail from 



1813. FRENEDA. 341 

Lisbon, and, I conclude, sailed with the first convoy. I 
shall be very much obliged to you if you will inquire about 
them. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

- The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir 11. Wellcsley, K.B: 

To Captain Foley, R.N. 
' SIR, ' Freneda, 2nd May, 1813. 

' Having directed the General Officer commanding in Ca- 
talonia to prepare for embarkation from 2000 to 2500 re- 
cruits, I shall be much obliged to you if, after having disem- 
barked the regiments of Pontevedra and El Principe, you will 
be so kind as to take on board the transports which shall 
have conveyed those corps the recruits which the General 
may have ready to send, to the number above mentioned, 
and if you will convoy the vessels to Cadiz, where I request 
the troops may be landed and delivered to the depot at the 
Isla. 

' After having executed this service, I beg you will return 
to Lisbon for the purpose of receiving the orders of Vice 
Admiral Martin. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
, Captain Foley: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 2nd May, 1813. 

' Referring to my letter of the 26th January, in which I 
reported to you an outrage committed by a detachment of 
the 28th regiment at Zibreira, I have now the honor to 
transmit to you a letter and its enclosure from the Assistant 
Adjutant General of the 2nd division, stating that the child 
who was supposed to have been killed in the affray is in 
perfect health, and requesting, by desire of Lieut. General 
Sir Rowland Hill, that the offenders may be pardoned in 
consideration of their long confinement. 

' I beg you to submit this proposition to the consideration 
of the Portuguese Government; and I hope I may be fa- 
vored with their decision upon it at an early period. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Sir Charles Stuart, K.B: ' WELLINGTON. 



342 PORTUGAL. 1813 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 3rd May, 1813. 

' I have received your letter, No. 2, of the 28th of April, 
in which you have enclosed some papers transmitted by Lord 
Castlereagh, including a letter from the Board of Trade, in 
regard to the purchases of corn made by your authority in 
concert with me in Brazil, America, and Egypt. 

' When I see a letter from the Board of Trade, I am con- 
vinced that the complaint originates with the jobbing British 
merchants at Lisbon ; and although I am delighted to see 
the Government turn their attention to these subjects, as it 
will eventually save me a great deal of trouble, I am quite 
convinced, that if we had not adopted, nearly three years 
ago, the system of measures now disapproved of, not only 
would Lisbon and the army, and this part of the Peninsula 
have been starved ; but if we had, according to the sugges- 
tion of the Commissary in Chief and the Treasury, and the 
Board of Trade, carried on transactions of a similar nature 
through the sharks at Lisbon above referred to, calling 
themselves British merchants, the expense of the army, 
crippled as its operations would have been, and depending 
upon those who, I verily believe, are the worst subjects His 
Majesty has, and enormous as that expense is, would have 
been very much increased. 

' I wish that you would just call the attention of the Go- 
vernment to the transactions of this kind which the British 
merchants have carried on for us ; to Mr. 's transac- 
tions in 1809 ; to the recent conduct of the merchants at 
Lisbon in regard to the biscuit contract, respecting which I 
suppose I shall soon hear of a complaint, that I have made 
the Commissariat value their own biscuit ; respecting the pur- 
chase of meat for the army, &c., &c. 

' It is my opinion that it is my duty to see that the service 
is well carried on ; and next, to see that it is carried on at 
as cheap a rate to the public as is possible ; and having a 
large establishment of commissioned officers capable of su- 
perintending and of carrying into execution transactions of 
this description, I conceive that I perform my duty by the 
public in employing them in this manner, rather than in 
contracting for services with merchants, whose object is their 



1813. FRENEDA. 343 

own advantage, at what cost of money or inconvenience to 
the public is a matter of indifference to them. 

' In regard to the particular subject under consideration, 
it is obvious to me that the authorities in England have 
taken a very confined view of the question. When Lord 
Liverpool wrote to me in the winter of 1811, to inform me 
that I could expect no supplies of grain or flour from the 
British Islands, on account of the failure of the harvest in 
England, I ordered the Commissary General to take care 
to keep in his stores a supply to answer the demands upon 
him for six months ; and the danger that the communication 
with America might be stopped, which I believe it now is, 
has induced me to take care that the stores should have 
more than less of this necessary article. 

' It appears to me to be .extraordinary, that when Lord 
Castlereagh read the statement that the Commissary Ge- 
neral had in his stores a supply of corn and flour to last 
100,000 men for nine months, he should not have adverted 
to the fact that the greatest part of the Portuguese subsidy, 
indeed, all in the last year, but 600,000, was paid in kind, 
and principally in corn ; and that he should not have seen 
that a supply for 100,000 men for nine months was not ex- 
orbitant under the circumstances. 

' Then the Government appears to me to have forgotten 
all that has passed on the particular subject of your pur- 
chases, the advantages derived from them in saving a starv- 
ing people during the scarcity in 1810-11; in bringing 
large sums of money into the military chest which otherwise 
would not have found their way there ; and in positive profit 
in money, I believe, in every one of these transactions. 

' The first of them took place in the end of the year 1810, 
when in consequence of the probability of the continued 
blockade of Lisbon, and the neglect of the Government to 
have the produce of the country brought down in time, you 
and I agreed that it would be expedient to endeavor to 
make purchases of corn in America for bills upon England. 
The measure was carried into execution with great success : 
the produce of the sale of the corn, when the Commissary 
General did not take it himself, was thrown into the mili- 
tary chest ; and, as well as I can recollect, there was a profit 
on the transaction to the amount of 15,000 or 16,000 dollars. 



344 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

However, you must have these papers, and I recommend you 
to remind Government of the facts. 

' In respect to the purchases in the Brazils and in Egypt, 
they were founded, first, upon the necessity of talcing some 
measures to keep the stores supplied with corn in the event 
then expected (in March, 1812) of the stoppage of the inter- 
course with America ; and secondly, upon a knowledge of 
the prices in Egypt and Brazils, and a decided conviction 
that the transaction would be profitable to Government, 
upon a comparison with the actual and probable prices at 
Lisbon, and would bring money into the military chest 
which would not otherwise find its way there ; as the corn 
in the Brazils was to be bought with the produce of bills to 
be negotiated in the Brazils. 

' Of this last advantage to be derived from the purchase 
of the corn in Egypt, I was never quite so certain, notwith- 
standing that the agent assured us that the money employed 
in this purchase could not in any manner find its way into 
the military chest. 

' If all this be true, which, I believe, you have it in your 
power to prove, I cannot understand why Government find 
fault with these transactions, unless it is that they are teazcd 
into a disapprobation of them by the merchants who are 
interested in their being discontinued. I admit that your 
time and mine would be much better employed than in 
speculating in corn, &c. But when it is necessary to carry 
on an extensive system of war Avith one-sixth of the money 
in specie which would be necessary to carry it on, we must 
consider questions and adopt measures of this description, 
and we ought to have the confidence and support of the 
Government in adopting them. 

' It is only the other day that I recommended to my 
brother something of the same kind to assist in paying the 
Spanish subsidy ; and I have adopted measures respecting 
corn and other articles in Galicia, with a view to get a 
little money for the army in that quarter. If these measures 
were not adopted, not only would it be impossible to perform 
the King's engagements, but even to support our own army. 

The only ground of complaint that I see in these papers 
is, that different British agents are bidding against each 
other in the same market ; and that ground of complaint is 



1813. FREIsEDA. 345 

more apparent than real. If in the transactions carried on 
under your directions you have inquired beforehand, and 
have taken care that Government should be a gainer, it is 
scarcely matter of blame that the transaction has not been 
so profitable as it would have been if one agent had been 
employed instead of another. It is, besides, a fact, that we 
had not the power of employing Mr. Burgman in the pur- 
chase in Egypt, to which this complaint particularly applies ; 
and that person was employed who most honestly and suc- 
cessfully had carried on similar transactions for you before. 

' These transactions, however, must be discontinued in 
future, according to the orders of Government ; and I only 
hope that they will take care to keep the stores supplied 
with corn, and the military chest with money, as well as both 
objects have been accomplished hitherto, at an equally cheap 
rate to the public. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B: * WELLINGTON. 



To Sir Charles Stuart, K,B. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 3rd May, 1813. 

1 I have received your letter of the 28th of April, in which 
you have enclosed a correspondence which you have had with 
Dom Miguel Forjaz in regard to the purchase of British co- 
lonial rum by the Commissariat for the use of the army. 

' There is nothing more clear to me than that it is most 
for the advantage of all the allies, whether it be the con- 
sumption of Portuguese wine, Portuguese brandy, or British 
colonial rum, to procure that which takes least money out of 
the military chest of the army, and requires least of land 
transport to convey it to the troops ; and I invariably decide 
every question of this description as I shall this, by a refer- 
ence to these principles. 

' When we pui'chase wine or Portuguese brandy in this 
country, we are obliged to pay for it an enormous price, all 
in specie. When we purchase colonial rum or foreign 
brandy, we pay for it by bills drawn upon England ; and I 
believe that we are enabled to deliver the ration to the sol- 
dier at one third of the price at which we could procure wine 
or Portuguese brandy, besides the convenience of paying 



346 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

for it by a bill upon England ; and we give him a whole- 
some, instead of an unwholesome spirit. But this is not all ; 
a British or Portuguese soldier's ration of wine is one pint ; 
that of a British soldier in rum is one third of a pint ; that 
of a Portuguese soldier is one sixth of a pint. Supposing, 
then, that we are obliged to draw the wine from a distance, 
which we are, generally speaking, from the Douro, it may 
fairly be stated that the issue of spirits to the troops is made 
at the expense of one fourth of the land carriage required 
for the issue of wine. 

' I do not mean to say that in many instances it is not 
advantageous to use wine, because the expense of transport 
of rum, to be defrayed in money, must be taken into con- 
sideration. But the fact is, that whenever wine can be pro- 
cured without any extraordinary difficulty of transport, at 
a tolerably cheap rate, it is preferred. But for the general 
use of the army, for the reasons above stated, rum is pre- 
ferred. 

' I believe that Dom Miguel Forjaz will not differ in opinion 
with me on the soundness of the principle which guides my 
opinion ; and if he does not, I fancy there can no longer be 
a question on the subject. 

' I am perfectly ready to admit that we are essentially 
interested in the prosperity and in the increase of the reve- 
nues of Portugal; but that interest ought and must give 
way to the pressing motive for keeping the military chest 
supplied with money. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Colonel Fisher. 
' SIR, ' Freneda, 4th May, 1813. 

' Two hundred and sixty four horses in the draft are re- 
quired to draw forty four carriages in the pontoon train, 
which it is necessary should be drawn by horses after its 
arrival at Sabugal. 

' In order to procure these horses, it is necessary that 
those now employed in the draft of Captain Cairns' brigade 
of 9 pounders now atPenamacor, and those employed in the 
draft of carriages in the reserve of the artillery now at Co- 



1813. FRENEDA. 347 

vilhao, should be at Sabugal on the day the pontoon train 
will arrive there. 

' You will give directions accordingly to Captain Cairns 
and Lieut. Colonel Dickson. 

' The bullocks now employed in drawing the pontoon 
train will, till further orders, be employed in drawing the 
spare carriages and reserve ammunition carriages in the 
reserve of the artillery ; and you will give orders to Lieut. 
Colonel Dickson to have as many carriages prepared for bul- 
lock draft, still, however, carrying with them such shafts as 
may be necessary, in consequence of taking 264 horses from 
the artillery department for the service of the pontoon train. 

' You will be so kind as to give directions that the Com- 
missariat attached to these horses, &c., while with Captain 
Cairns' brigade and reserve artillery, may attend them when 
transferred to the pontoon train. 

' The carriages belonging to the reserve of the artillery, 
to which the horses have hitherto been attached, must be 
brought to Sabugal by the horses, and there parked with the 
guns and carriages of Captain Cairns' brigade. 

' When the horses now on their road from Lisbon shall 
arrive, Captain Cairns' brigade must be horsed, then the 
18 pounder brigade, then the ball cartridge carts; and lastly, 
the reserves of gun ammunition ; and those of the last, which 
cannot be horsed, must be drawn by the bullocks of the pon- 
toon train. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Colonel Fisher' ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.J3. 
1 MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 4th May, 1813. 

' 1 have received your letters of the 25th and 28th, and that 
from La Vega, to which you refer. His letter upon the 
state of parties at Cadiz is a very able and correct repre- 
sentation. He has altered the paragraph to which you 
refer respecting the Liberates. He charges them, and I 
think justly, with democratical French principles; but he 
does not say that they look to the establishment in Spain of 
a Republic. 

' is a weak foolish creature, who did not know 

what he was about, or the mischief he was doing. I am 



348 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

astonished that should be so anxious about him ; 

but I conclude that this anxiety has some relation to the 
sick lady ; and one can only lament that he should be another 
instance of the influence possessed by women over the most 
sensible men. 

' I have not seen in the papers any trace of the intention 
of the Cortes to fix upon Seville as the place of assembly for 
the new Cortes, excepting an argument in the Abeja against 
such an arrangement, although I have the papers to the 
27th. But you must be accurately informed upon this sub- 
ject, and you mention it in your letter of the 25th. 

' I consider that this decision renders it certain that the 
existing Cortes will separate at the period fixed for their 
separation ; at least, that it will be in the power of the new 
Cortes to force them to separate by assembling themselves 
at Seville. It is also as good a mode as could be devised of 
getting the Government and Cortes out of Cadiz. 

' If the decree has passed, I recommend to you to hold a 
language, and to adopt a conduct, as if you considered the 
arrangement quite settled. You should take a house at 
Seville, and make all the arrangements for your removal 
thither at the proper time. I will take an opportunity of 
recommending to the Government to remove from Cadiz. 

' I think it not unlikely that there may be a Toicn Cortes 
and Country Cortes, particularly now that Seville has been 
appointed as the place of meeting for the new Cortes. The 
line which I shall take, in case of such an event, is not at all 
difficult. My business is to oppose the French ; and there 
can be very little occasion for my taking a line to decide 
which of the two is the rightful assembly, during the short 
period that such a state of things could possibly exist. Your 
line of conduct may be more difficult, because both parties 
will press for your acknowledging their authority, as the best 
support that it could acquire. But a diplomatic person has 
always the advantage of being able to ask for time to receive 
instructions from his employers; and while waiting for these, 
or pretending to wait for them, circumstances may occur to 
enable you to decide positively to which authority it would 
be expedient to give your countenance. 

' I acknowledge that I entertain a very bad opinion of 
the existing Cortes ; and I believe that the assembly lately 



1813. FRENEDA. 349 

elected will be a more true representative of the feelings and 
sentiments of the people of Spain ; and I should now be in- 
clined to decide for the Cortes of Seville. But circumstances 
may occur to render such a decision unadvisable when it 
will have to be made. 

' In case the event under consideration should occur, I 
believe your functions should be suspended until you should 
decide, unless in the very common cases. But even this may 
be matter of doubt, as to suspend the exercise of your func- 
tions towards the Government and Cortes of Cadiz, to which 
you are accredited, would be, in some degree, a decision in 
favor of the right of that of Seville. 

' We are a little delayed by the movements of our bridge, 
but I expect to march in two or three days. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, K.B. ' 

' I have no account of affairs in Valencia, excepting similar 
accounts to those you sent me, viz., Alicante papers of the 
15th. It was reported at Madrid that Valencia was eva- 
cuated on the 21st. 

' Since writing the above, I have received, and sent to the 
Minister, a report from the Chief of the Staff, of the 2nd 
Army, of the transactions in the neighbourhood of Alicante, 
from which it appears that the success in the action of the 
13th was not so important, as from Sir John Murray's letter, 
published in the Alicante Gazette, I had been induced to 
believe it. Sir John Murray was, however, still in pursuit 
of the enemy on the 16th. You will see the letter. 

' O'Donoju tells me that the new Cortes are to be formed 
of the Extraordinarios, (excepting 80 members, who are 
to go out,) and of the newly elected. How is this ? If it 
be true, the appointment of Seville as the place of meeting 
is a manoeuvre to keep the new members and the country 
quiet, and to retain the power in the hands of the Extra- 
ordinaries. If the new Cortes are firm, determined fellows, 
however, there may still be two Cortes ; and the line to be 
taken would be still the same. 

( In sending the flour to Catalonia, desire the person who 
goes in charge of it to be sure of his communication with the 



350 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

army before he lands it ; and not to land it till General 
Copons shall have means of carrying it off. Otherwise the 
French will get it all.' 

To Lieut. General Sir R. Hill, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HILL, ' Freneda, 5th May, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 4th, regarding the Pro- 
visional battalion in the 2nd division of infantry. I wrote to 
the Commander in Chief regarding it, as I told you I would. 
But His Royal Highness did not approve of the reform 
which I proposed ; and, therefore, I have taken no farther 
steps on the subject. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

sir R. Hiii, K.B: 

To J. C. Herries, Esq. 

< SIR, ' Freneda, 5th May, 1813. 

' I beg to refer to your consideration the proceedings of a 
Court of Inquiry, held at Cadiz, to investigate the circum- 
stances attending the loss of a sum of money, which was 
stolen by a Commissariat clerk, acting under Assistant Com- 
missary General Wilgress ; and I have the honor to transmit 
the opinion of Major General Cooke and Sir Robert Ken- 
nedy of that officer's conduct in this transaction. I have to 
request that you will favor me with your directions whether 
the sum lost is to be repaid to the public by Mr. Wilgress. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' J. C. Herries, Esq." ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Minister at War, Cadiz. 

( SIR, ' Freneda, 5th May, 1813. 

' I enclose, for the information of the Government, reports 
of the transactions which have recently occurred in the 
neighbourhood of Alicante, which have been received from 
the Chief of the Staif of the 2nd army by the Chief of the 
Staff at head quarters, which, however, I beg may not be 
published, as I am in momentary expectation of the official 
reports. 

' I beg you will inform 'the Government, however, that I 
shall consider it my duty to order that a very strict inquiry 



1813. PRENEDA. 351 

shall be made into the conduct of the regiment of Velez 
Malaga at Villena; and that those may be brought to 
punishment who ma}' be proved to have behaved in so scan- 
dalous a manner as is reported. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' The Minister at War' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Colonel Torrens. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 5th May, 1813. 

* In transmitting to be laid before the Commander in 

o 

Chief the enclosed letter from Captain , of the rd 

regiment, (Commandant of the depot at Belem,) I beg to 
state for His Royal Highness' information, that I perfectly 

recollect having had a conversation with Captain in 

January last, in which I informed him that I had a very 
favorable opinion of his services, and should have great 
pleasure in recommending him for promotion when an 
opportunity offered ; but he is mistaken in the supposition 
that I then promised to recommend him for brevet promo- 
tion, as I have ever (except in two or three cases of particular 
hardship) gone on the principle of not recommending officers 
to the Commander in Chief for advancement by brevet, 
unless it were after an action, in which the officers recom- 
mended have distinguished themselves; from a knowledge 
that His Eoyal Highness conferred that promotion on those 

occasions only. Captain is a most deserving officer, 

and has performed the duties of the situation which he holds 
at Lisbon much to my satisfaction ; but he has, unfortunately 
for him, been out of the way of deriving the advantage 
which officers who have continued with their corps in the 
field have enjoyed, during the service in the Peninsula. 

' I think it right to bring these circumstances under the 
view of the Commander in Chief, in order that His Royal 
Highness may be induced to permit Captain to pur- 
chase one of the vacant majorities in the rd regiment, if 
that officer should be desirous of doing so, when he is in- 
formed that he has not been recommended for brevet 
promotion. 

1 I have the honor to be, &c. 
Colonel Torrens: ' WELLINGTON. 



352 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 5th May, 1813. 

' Since I addressed your Lordship on the 28th of April, I 
have received reports to which, though not official, I give 
credit, that Marshal Suchet attacked the left of the position 
occupied by the allied British and Sicilian troops under 
General Sir John Murray, and by the 2nd Spanish army 
under General Elio on the llth of April, and at first gained 
some success at Yecla and Villena against the division of 
Brigadier General Migares, belonging to the 2nd Spanish 
army. It appears, however, that Sir John Murray collected 
his corps at Castalla in the course of the 12th, covering that 
operation by an advanced guard, placed at Biar, which fell 
back upon the main body ; and that General Elio covered 
with the 2nd army the left of the allied British and Sicilian 
corps in the new position; General Whittingham's and 
General Roche's Spanish divisions being on the right. 

'It appears that on the 13th, Marshal Suchet advanced 
upon Castalla, and made an attack upon the left of the 
position occupied by the allied British and Sicilian corps, 
which was repulsed with considerable loss. The enemy then 
retired, and I understand that, as late as the 16th, Sir John 
Murray was in pursuit of them, which is, I conclude, the 
reason that I have hitherto received no official account of 
these transactions. 

' The enemy have made no movement of importance on 
this side. They sent a small detachment into Toledo on the 
28th of April ; but there is no appearance of any move- 
ment in that direction. 

' The heavy rain which has fallen has necessarily delayed 
the arrival of some of the equipments of the army, and has 
obliged me to defer its movement ; but the troops will march 
immediately. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: < WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY DEAR LORD, Freneda, 5th May, 1813. 

'I inclose an account which the Chief of the Staff of the 
Spanish army has received from the Chief of the Staff of the 



1813. FRKNEDA. 353 

2nd army of the transactions in tho neighbourhood of Ali- 
cante of the 1 1th, 12th, and 13th, of April, of which I have not 
yet received any other details*, and I beg that these may not 

* To Generai the Marquis of Wellington, K.G. 

' MY LORD, ' Head Quarters, Castalla, April 14th, 1813. 

I have the satisfaction to inform your Lordship, lli.it the allied army under 
my command defeated the enemy on the 13th instant, commanded by Marshal 
Suchet in person. 

* It appears that the French General had, for the purpose of attacking this 
army, for some time heeu employed in collecting his whole disposable force. 

'His arrangements were completed on the 10th, and in the morning of the 
llth, he attacked and dislodged with some loss, a Spanish corps, posted by 
General Elio, at Yecla, which threatened his right, whilst it supported our left 
flank. 

' In the evening he advanced in considerable force to Villena, and I am sorry 
to say, that he captured, on the morning of the 12th, a Spanish garrison, which 
had been thrown into the castle by the Spanish General, for its defence. 

' On the 12th, about noon, Marshal Suchet began his attack on the advance 
of this army posted at Biar, under the command of Colonel Adam. 

' Colonel Adam's orders were to fall back upon Castalla, but to dispute the 
passage with the enemy; which he did with the utmost gallantry and skill, for 
five hours, though attacked by a force infinitely superior to that which he com- 
manded. 

' The enemy's advance occupied the pass that evening, and Colonel Adam 
took up the ground in our position which had been allotted to him. 

' On the 13th at noon, the enemy's columns of attack were formed, composed 
of three divisions of infantry, a corps of cavalry of about 1600 men, and a for- 
midable train of artillery. 

' The position of the allied army was extensive. The left was posted on a 
strong range of hills, occupied by Major General Whittingham's division of 
Spanish troops, and the advance of the allied army under Colonel Adam. 

' This range of hills terminates at Castalla, which, and the ground to the right, 
was occupied by Major General Mackenzie's division, and the 53th regiment 
from that of Lieut. General Clinton. 

' The remainder of the position was covered by a strong ravine, behind which 
Lieut. General Clint on was stationed, supported by three battalions of General 
Roche's division, as a column of reserve. 

' A few batteries had been constructed in this part of the line, and in front of 
the castle of Castalla. The enemy necessarily advanced on the left of the posi- 
tion. The first movement he made, was to pass a strong body of cavalry along 
the line, threatening our right, which was refused. Of this movement no notice 
was taken ; the ground to which he was pointing, is unfavorable to cavalry, and 
as this movement was foreseen, the necessary precautions had been taken ; when 
this body of cavalry had passed nearly the half of our line of infantry, Marshal 
Suchet advanced his columns to the foot of the hills, and certainly his troops, 
with a degree of gallantry that entitles them to the highest praise, stormed the 
whole line, which is not less than two miles and a half in extent. But gal- 
lantly as the attack was made, the defence of the heights was 110 less brilliant : 
at every point the enemy was repulsed at many with the bayonet. 

' He suffered a very severe loss ; our gallant troops pursued him for some dis- 
tance. and drove him, after a severe struggle, with precipitation on his battalions 
VOL. X. 2 A 



354 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

be made public. I do not think the success appears so 
decided as it did upon the perusal of the Alicante Gazettes 
of the 15th, which I sent you on the 30th. And as it appears 

of reserve upon the plain. The cavalry which had slowly advanced along our 
right, gradually fell back to the infantry. At present his superiority in that 
arm enabled him to venture this movement, which otherwise he should have 
severely repented. 

' Having united his shattered battalions with those which he kept in reserve, 
Marshal Suchet took up a position in the valley ; but which it would not have 
been creditable to allow him to retain. I therefore decided on quitting mine, 
still, however, retaining the heights, and formed the allied army in his front, 
covering my right flank with the cavalry, whilst the left rested on the hills. The 
army advanced in two lines to attack him a considerable distance, but unfor- 
tunately Marshal Suchet did not choose to risk a second action, with the defile 
in his rear. 

* The line of the allies was scarcely formed when he began his retreat, and 
we could effect nothing more than driving the French into the pass with defeat, 
which they had exultingly passed in the morning. The action terminated at 
dusk, with a distant but heavy cannonade. 

I am sorry to say that I have no trophies to boast of. The enemy took no 
guns to the heights, and he retired too expeditiously to enable me to reach him. 
Those which he used in the latter part of the day, were posted in the gorge of 
the defile, and it would have cost us the lives of many brave men to take them. 

' In the dusk, the allied army returned to its position at Castalla, after the 
enemy had retired to Biar. From thence he continued his retreat at midnight 
to Villena, which be quitted again this morning in great haste, 'directing his 
inarch upon Fuente la Higuera andOnteniente. 

' But although I have taken no cannon from the enemy, in point of numbers 
his army is very considerably crippled, and the defeat of a French army, which 
boasted it had never known a check, cannot fail, I should hope, in producing a 
most favorable effect in this part of the Peninsula. 

'As 1 before mentioned to your Lordship, Marshal Suchet commanded in 
person. 

' The Generals Harispe, Habert, and Robert, commanded their respective 
divisions. I hear from all quarters that General Harispe is killed ; and I be- 
lieve, from every account that I can collect, that the loss of the enemy amounts 
fully to 3000 men ; and he admits to 2500'. Upwards of 800 have already been 
buried in front of only one part of our line ; and we know that he has carried off 
with him an immense number of wounded. 

' We had no opportunity of making prisoners, except such as were wounded; 
the numbers of which have not yet reached me. 

' I am sure your Lordship will hear with much satisfaction, that this action 
has not cost us the lives of many of our comrades. 

' Deeply must be felt the loss, however trifling, of such brave and gallant sol- 
diers : but we know it is inevitable, and I can with truth affirm, that there was 
not an officer or soldier engaged who did not court the glorious termination of 
an honorable life, in the discharge of his duty to his King and to his country. 

' The gallant and judicious conduct of those that were engaged, deprived 
much more than one half the army of shaving in the perils and glory of the day ; 
but the steady countenance with which the divisions of Gtnerals Clinton and 
Mackenzie remained for some hours under a cannonade, and the eagerness and 



1813. FRENEDA. 355 

that Suchct took his position in the Puerto de Biar on the 
evening of the 1 3th, not more than two miles from the scene 
of action, I cannot conceive what could have induced Sir 

alacrity with which the lines of attack were formed, sufficiently proved to me 
what I had to depend on from them, had Marshal Suchet awaited the attack. 

' I trust your Lordship will now permit me to perform the most pleasing part 
of my duty, that of humbly submitting for His Royal Highness the Prince Re- 
gent's approbation, the names of those officers and corps which have had the 
fortunate opportunity of distinguishing themselves, in as far at least as has yet 
come to my knowledge. 

' Colonel Adam, who commands the advance, claims the first place in this 
honorable list. I cannot sufficiently praise tbe judicious arrangements he made, 
and the ability with which he executed his orders on the 12th instaut. 

' The advance consists only of the 2nd batt. 27th regiment, commanded by 
Lieut. Colonel Reeves ; the 1st Italian regiment, commanded by Lieut. Colonel 
Burke ; the Calabrian Free corps, commanded by Major Carey ; one rifle company 
of the 3rd and 8th batts. King's German Legion, commanded by Captains Luedor 
and Brauns of those corps ; and a troop of foreign hussars, under the orders of 
Captain Jacks, of the 20th dragoons, with four mountain guns, in charge of 
Captain Arabin, Royal artillery. 

'The enemy attacked this corps with from 5000 to 6000 men, and for five 
hours (and then only in consequence of orders) succeeded in possessing himself 
of the pass. 

' This fact alone says more in favor of Colonel Adam, and in praise of those 
he commands, than any words of mine can express. I shall therefore confine 
myself to assuring your Lordship, that the conduct of all engaged in this bril- 
liant affair merits, and has met with, my highest approbation. 

' Colonel Adam was wounded very early in the attack, but continued, and still 
continues in charge of his division. 

' On the 1 3th, the attack of the enemy on Colonel Adam's division was very 
severe, but the enemy was defeated at every point, and a most gallant charge of 
the 2nd, 27th, led by Colonel Adam and Lieut. Colonel Reeves, decided the fate 
of the day, at that part of the field of battle. 

'The skill, judgment, and gallantry displayed by Major General Whitting- 
ham and his division of the Spanish army, rivals, though it cannot surpass, the 
conduct of Colonel Adam and the advance. 

' At every point the enemy was repulsed ; at many at the point of the bayonet. 
At one point in particular I must mention, where a French grenadier battalion 
had gained the summit of the hill, but was charged and driven from the heights 
by a corps under the command of Colonel Casans. 

' Major General Whittingham highly applauds, and I know it is not without 
reason, the conduct of Colonel Casans, Colonel Romero, Colonel Campbell, Co- 
lonel Casteras, and Lieut. Colonel Ochoa, who commanded at various points of 
the hills. To the chief of his Staff, Colonel Serrano, he likewise expresses 
himself to be equally obliged on this, as well as many other occasions ; and he 
acknowledges with gratitude the services of Colonel Catinelli, of the Staff of the 
Italian Levy, who was attached to him during the day. 

' These, my Lord, are the officers and corps that I am most anxious to recom- 
mend to His Royal Highness's notice and protection, and I earnestly entreat your 
Lordship will most respectfully, on my part report their merits to the Prince 
Regent, and to the Spanish Government. 

2A2 



PORTUGAL. 



1813. 



John Murray to follow his march afterwards, not having felt 
himself sufficiently strong to attack him before. 

'The rain which has fallen plentifully, and some other 

' ' It now only remains for me to acknowledge the cordial co-operation and sup- 
port I have met with from the several General Officers and Brigadiers, as well 
as From the various offiwrs in charge of departments attached to this army. 

' To Major General Donkin, Quarter Master General, I am particularly in- 
debted, for the zeal and ability with which he conducts the duties of his exten- 
sive department, and the gallantry he displays on every occasion. 

' Major Kenah, who is at the head of the Adjutant General's department, 
affords me eveiy satisfaction. Lieut. Colonel Holcombe, and under his orders, 
Major Williamson, conduct the artillery branch of the service in a manner highly 
creditable. The different brigades of guns, under Captains Lacy, Thomson, and 
Gilmour, (and Garcia of the Sicilian army,) and Lieut. Patton, of the flying 
artillery, were extremely useful, and most gallantly served; and the Portuguese 
artillery supported the reputation their countrymen have acquired. 

' The army is now in march. I proceed to Alcoy in the hope, but not the 
sanguine hope, that I may be enabled to force the Albayda Pass, and reach the 
entrenched position of the enemy of San Felipe, before he can arrive there. 

' I consider this movement as promising greater advantages than a direct pur- 
suit, as the road which he has chosen being very favorable for cavalry, in which 
arm he is so much superior, I should probably be delayed too long to strike any 
blow of importance. 

I beg leave to enclose a return of the killed and wounded of the allied army. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' General ' J. MURUAY, Lieut. General. 

the Marquis of Wellington, K. G. 

' P.S. I have omitted to mention, that in retiring from Biar, two of the 
mountain guns fell into the hands of the enemy ; they were disabled, and Colo- 
nel Adam very judiciously directed Captain Arabin, who then commanded the 
brigade, to fight them to the last, and then to leave them to their fate. Captain 
Arabin obeyed his orders, and fought them till it was quite impossible to get 
them off, had such been Colonel Adams's desire.' 
Return of Kiltfd, Wounded, and Missing of the Allied Army commanded by 

Lieut.Gencral Sir John Murray, Bart., in the Action which took place near Cat- 

talla on the Evenings of the 12/A and 13/A April, 1813, with the French Army 

commanded by Marshal Suchet. 









t 












m 




Total loss of Officers, 




. 


2 


a 




Non-commissioned 




4> 











Officers, and Hank 




ffi 


-^ 


a 


E 


and File. 







eg 


M 


w 




Killed . . . 


2 


1 


66 


7 


69 


Wounded 


12 


15 


259 


3 


286 


Missing . . 








42 


1 


42 



** The abuve does not include the Spanish and Portuguese loss. 



1813. FRENEDA. 357 

trifling circumstances, have retarded our march for two or 
three days. But we shall have our bridge, which is what we 
wait for, by the 8th, when all the troops shall move. 

' I never saw the British army so healthy or so strong. 
The hussars and 59th are not on the strength of the 
enclosed state, nor some of the detachments, which either 
have joined, or are very near their regiments. We have 
gained in strength 25,000 men since we went into canton- 
ments in the beginning of December, and infinitely more in 
efficiency. 

' Believe me, &c. 
4 Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
f MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 5th May, 1813. 

' From a letter which Sir Charles Stuart has sent me from 
Lord Castlereagh, and its enclosures from the Board of 
Trade, the Treasury, and the Commissary in Chief, I am 
afraid that the Government has been teazed by the importu- 
nities of the British merchants at Lisbon to give the orders 
which those letters contain, that the purchases of corn made 
in America, the Brazils, and Egypt, on account of Govern- 
ment,, under the directions and superintendence of Sir Charles 
Stuart, generally at my request, but always in cqncert with 
me, may be discontinued. 

' I have written fully to Sir Charles Stuart upon this 
subject, and he will probably address Lord Castlereagh 
upon it, and therefore I shall not trouble your Lordship 
at any length. Sir Charles Stuart can show, not only that 
we have saved the people of this country during a year of 
invasion and another of scarcity by this system, but that we 
have actually brought into the military chest considerable 
sums of money, which would otherwise not have found their 
way there ; that we have gained money for the public by , 
each, I believe, of these transactions ; and that we paid more 
than two thirds of the Portuguese subsidy in kind in the last 
year, principally in corn thus imported. I also request that 
it may be recollected, that about a year and a half ago, I 
was informed that we must expect no supplies of grain from 
the British Islands, the harvest having failed. As it takes 
about three months, upon an average, to get any thing from 
England that is required, I reckon that we ought to have 



358 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

three months' supply of those articles which we are to get from 
England ; and when we are to look for them where we can 
find them, we ought to have a supply for six months. 

Then came the prospect of the American war, and the 
probability that the intercourse between America and Por- 
tugal would be stopped, which has since occurred, which 
induced me to look for other markets ; and upon a state- 
ment of prices in the Brazils and Egypt, I determined that 
purchases should be made on account of Government in 
those countries. 

' Your Lordship is acquainted with my opinion of the 
British merchants at Lisbon. If they were real merchants 
trading fairly with a capital, and looking for fair profits, and 
acting fairly and with probity in every transaction, as we 
read that British merchants did formerly, I should have no 
objection to employ them ; but knowing what I do of them, 
I never will make use of the agency of any of them in trans- 
actions of this description, unless I should receive the posi- 
tive orders of Government to do so. 

' The orders of Government will of course be obeyed, and I 
shall not allow of any more of those transactions ; and it will 
rest with Government to take care to keep the stores of this 
army supplied with corn, and its military chest with money 
to defray the charges of the army, and to perform the King's 
engagements to the powers of the Peninsula. I believe it 
will be found that they can do neither the one nor the other 
at so cheap a rate, or with so little inconvenience as that at 
which both objects have been accomplished hitherto, and 
that it is better to turn a deaf ear to the merchants than to 
alter the system. There is not now a shilling that can be 
got any where by any mode that is not brought into the 
military chest, nor an instant in which corn, or any other 
article, can be substituted for money in the performance of 
the King's engagements, that the measure is not adopted. 
Without these detailed engagements we should not have got 
on, and I only hope that the^improvement of our situation, in 
consequence of the opening of the ports in the north of 
Europe, will enable Government to supply us plentifully in 
future. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst,' ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENEDA. 359 



' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 6th May, 1813. ' 

' I have received your letter of the 5th instant. When I 
expressed a wish to Lord Mulgrave, that you should be 
allowed to remain in command of the artillery attached to 
this army, I thought I had reason to believe that you were 
thoroughly acquainted with all the details of the service, 
and that they would be conducted by you in a manner ad- 
vantageous to the public interests. Not having the plea- 
sure of being much acquainted with you, I should not have 
thought of interrupting an arrangement which had been 
made by the Master General for the command of the artil- 
lery with this army, if I had not felt persuaded that you 
were fully capable of conducting the great machine placed 
under your direction. 

' As you state that you do not feel yourself equal to the 
magnitude of your situation, and that the arduous and 
responsible charge devolved upon you, " added to a debili- 
tated state of health, which has a considerable effect on 
your recollective faculties, made you view it Avith some de- 
gree of apprehension and uneasiness," I can feel no scruple 
in acknowledging that I was mistaken, or in pleading guilty 
to the charge of not placing confidence in you. The fact is, 
that in proportion as the period fixed for the army taking 
the field has approached, and as the arrangements in pro- 
gress, since the beginning of December last, have drawn to 
their completion, I have found that you were not so capable as 
I had believed you to be for the arduous task which you had 
undertaken, from the very defects which you yourself notice. 

Under these circumstances, and being aware of the vital 
importance of the good management of your department to 
the honor, or, more properly speaking, the safety of the 
army ; and knowing that the existence of these defects would 
have been no e.xcuse for me, in case the mismanagement of 
your department should have caused such a misfortune, as 
might be expected, it is not astonishing that I should have 
manifested an uneasiness and want of confidence which, under 
other circumstances, I should not have felt. 

' I am very much concerned, that the matter has turned 
out in this manner, but I applaud your conduct highly for 



360 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

the step you have taken. I should be glad to render this 
step as little hurtful to your feelings, and injurious to your 
future prospects in the service, as may be in my power; and 
if you will call upon me in the morning, I shall be happy 
to talk to you on the subject. 

' In the mean time, however, it is desirable that you should 
send off an express to Lieut. Colonel Dickson, to beg him to 
come over here as soon as possible. 

f Believe me, &c. 
' .' * WELLINGTON. 

To Vice Admiral G. Martin. ' 

< MY DEAR ADMIRAL, ' Freneda, 6th May, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 2nd, and I enclose the 
copy of one which I have written to Lord Bathurst, on the 
subject of the naval concerns on the coasts of Spain and 
Portugal, which I hope will be in time for the packet. 

' I Avill write to Sir G. Collier in regard to your wishes. 
But I am convinced that he can do no more than observe 
Cape Finisterre with one frigate. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Vice Admiral G. Martin? ' WELLINGTON. 

To Vice Admiral G. Martin. 

1 SIR, ' Freneda, 6th May, 1813. 

' Major General Baron Low and Major General Slade 
having been ordered to return to England by His Royal 
Highness the Commander in Chief, I shall be much obliged 
to you if you will, on an opportunity offering, provide them 
with a passage in a man of war. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Vice Admiral G. Martin.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Captain Sir G. Collier, R.N. 

' MY DKAR SIR, Freneda, 6th May, 1813. 

' Since I wrote to you, on the 22nd ult., I have had a cor- 
respondence with Admiral Martin, respecting the security 
of the navigation of the coast of Portugal and the north 
coast of Spain, which is a most important object for our 
future operations. The Admiral is very little able, I be- 



1813. FHENEDA. 361 

licvc, to give the protection to the communication, which is 
so necessary to us ; and I enclose the copy of his last letter 
to me upon the subject, in answer to one which I wrote to 
him, in which I asked him whether I should request you to 
station one of your frigates off Cape Finisterre, in order to 
aid in securing the navigation of the coast. 

' It appears to me that it will be impossible for you to do 
more than that, without interfering with the objects held 
out in my letter of the 22nd ult., which appear to me to have 
been those for which the squadron under your command 
was sent to the coast. It may be impossible for you even 
to do so much, consistently with those objects ; but I shall 
be very much obliged to you, if you will do what you can to 
secure for us the communication between the Tagus and 
Coruna ; and if you will let me know what you will do. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Capt. Sir G. Collier, B. N.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 6th May, 1813. 

' The navigation of the coast of Portugal and Spain is of 
the utmost importance to us, and I have had some cor- 
respondence with Admiral Martin respecting it. I enclose 
the copy of his last letter, in answer to one in which I asked 
him whether it would give him any assistance if I were to 
request Sir G. Collier, who commands a squadron of three 
frigates on the north coast of Spain, to station one of his 
frigates off Cape Finisterre. I had before recommended to 
Sir G. Collier to endeavor to prevent the enemy's mari- 
time communication between Bayonne and Santona ; and to 
put himself in communication with the Spanish garrison in 
Castro Urdiales. 

' It appears to me that it would be very desirable to put 
under the command of Admiral Martin the whole coast of 
Portugal and Spain, from Bayonne as far to the south and 
east as his command now extends. It would certainly sim- 
plify arrangements for convoys and for naval operations, in 
concert with the army in the ensuing campaign, and would 
materially forward the service. 

' Believe me, &c. 
* Earl Bathurst." f WELLINGTON. 



362 PORTUGAL. 



1813. 



To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

( g IR ' Freneda, 6th May, 1813. 

Having referred to the Commissary General the papers 
transmitted (herewith returned) by you on the 18th ult, 
regarding an arrangement for the better support of the 
animals employed in the transport of the army, I have the 
honor to enclose a copy of Sir R. Kennedy's letter on the 
subject, by which it appears to be his opinion, that it is im- 
possible to act upon the system proposed in a general way, 
although, as a partial measure, it might, on some occasion, 
be feasible. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Sir E. Littlehales, Bart. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 7th May, 1813. 

' I enclose a memorial from a soldier who, it appears, has 
been pensioned in Ireland, on account of his wounds, re- 
ceived in this country ; and who I believe has not received 
what he ought. I shall be obliged to you if you will inquire 
into the circumstances, and see that he is redressed, if the 
case is as I suppose it to be ; and, at all events, send for this 
poor fellow, and get him employed as he desires, if he is so 
sober and well behaved as to deserve employment or notice. 

c Believe me, &c. 
' Sir E. Littlehales, Bart' < WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 7th May, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your Lordship's letter 
of the 21st of April, in answer to a part of a private letter 
which I addressed to your Lordship, of the 3rd of March. 

' His Majesty's Government had agreed to supply the 
Spanish Government with clothing, according to the en- 
closed list and allotment, for 300,000 men for the year 
1812; and it had been proposed to reduce this quantity to 
clothing for 50,000 men for the year 1813. I had, in con- 
sequence, applied to your Lordship to have the quantity 






1813. FRENEDA. 363 

increased to a supply for 100,000 men in the year 1813, and 
enclosed a list of articles to be sent to this country accord- 
ingly. In answer to this letter, the Under Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affairs has addressed the Under Secretary 
of State for the War Department on the 14th of April, and 
has sent you the return of clothing and equipments, of 
which I enclose the copy. 

' It is impossible for me to know whether this return is 
that referred to in the beginning of the second paragraph of 
the letter from the Under Secretary of State, of the 14th of 
April ; or whether it is the list of the articles intended to be 
sent from England to complete what is required to make up 
the quantities required for the Spanish army for the year 
1813. 

' I rather believe it is the supposed return of what was 
in store in the magazines in Portugal and Spain on the 
24th of December, 1812. 

1 But it is obvious that this return contains an account of 
articles intended for British and Portuguese troops as well 
as for Spaniards. 

' The articles marked in the list enclosed in the letter 
from Mr. Lambton, are not in the list of those originally 
sent to me, of what was intended for the Spaniards, and I 
suppose are intended for British or Portuguese troops. I 
do not know what stores some of them are ; and I am igno- 
rant to what purpose 

100,000 cramps, 

5,000 Serjeants' chevrons, 
150 white wings with bugles, 
150 green wings with bugles, 
250 yards red cloth, 
1,500 yards white fringe, 

are to be applied. But I would beg your Lordship to ad- 
vert to the following observations upon this subject : 

' First ; From what I have understood from Sir Henry 
Wellesley, the quantity of clothing sent for the Spaniards 
as the supply for 1812 has not amounted to the quantity 
stated in the enclosed return marked A. 

' Secondly ; Supposing it had, it does not appear that the 
British Government can fairly take credit for the remains 
in store on the 24th of December, 1812, supposing that 



864 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

they had before them an accurate return of the remains for 
the use of the Spanish army only; and carry those remains 
to account against the supplies promised to be furnished in 
the year 1813. 

' On the 3rd of March, having before me as accurate an 
account as I could get of the state of the stores applicable 
to the Spanish army (because the whole business of the 
Storekeeper's Department in this country is in very great 
confusion), and having likewise before me the state of the 
clothing of the Spanish army, and knowing their probable 
wants, I applied to your Lordship that a list of clothing for 
100,000 men for the year 1813 might be sent out in the 
course of that year ; a supply for 50,000 only having been 
offered. It would not have been thought expedient to carry 
to account for the supply of the 50,000 suits of clothing for 
the year 1813, the contents of the magazines on the 24th of 
December, 1812, even if the return of those contents had 
referred only to clothing for the Spanish armies; and 1 hope 
that, upon consideration, it will not be so thought in respect 
to the grant of my recommendation for clothing for 100,000 
men ; but that the whole of the demand made will be sup- 
plied within the year. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: < WELLINGTON. 



To Major General Cooke. 

< SIR, ' Freneda, 9tli May, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 2nd. The British 
troops at Carthagena are to continue, as heretofore, to be 
solely and exclusively under the orders of the General Officer 
commanding at Cadiz ; an d you will convey your directions 
accordingly to the officer commanding the British troops at 
that place. 

' The senior officer there is to continue to receive an allow- 
ance of 20 shillings per diem. 

' The six companies of Dillon's regiment have been sent 
to Carthagena under orders from the Secretary of State. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Major General Cooke.' ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. FRENKDA. 365 



To Lieut. General Sir John Murray, Bart. 

1 MY DEAR GKNKRAL, ' Freneda, 9th May, 1813. 

' General Cooke has sent me your letter of the 16th of 
April to Colonel Prevost, and he has asked for orders in 
regard to certain points on which you had given directions 
at Carthagena. 

' Carthagena has in it some of His Majesty's troops, in 
consequence of the desire expressed by the Spanish Govern- 
ment that this measure should be adopted ; and the troops 
at Carthagena having been detached from that division of 
this army which is stationed at Cadiz, they have always been 
under the directions of the General Officer commanding at 
Cadiz, who is in constant communication, as well with me as 
with the King's Minister at Cadiz. It would not answer to 
alter this system ; and I conceive that the troops at Cartha- 
gena cannot well be made liable to receive your orders and 
those of General Cooke. 

' When, therefore, you shall have taken from Carthagena 
the 2nd batt. 67th regiment, I beg you to leave that garrison 
as it will stand, unless the case should occur of your having 
to send back the 2nd batt. 67th regiment. 

' By General Cooke's letter, I find that six companies of 
Dillon's regiment had been sent to Carthagena in conse- 
quence of the orders of the Secretary of State. This mea- 
sure would render it still more necessary to send back the 
2nd batt. 67th regiment, or some other regiment, in case 
that place should be liable to be attacked. 

' I have already written to you about the artillery at 
Alicante. I cannot understand your wanting artillery-men, 
considering that your corps came from Sicily for a siege, and 
that you have two companies of British artillery, and two of 
Portuguese artillery, with the train of this army ; but I hope 
soon to have your return. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir John Murray, BartS 



366 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.D. 
< MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 9th May, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 30th April in regard 
to General . 

' Although I do not very much approve of General , 

I shall have no objection to employ him as a General Officer, 
provided he will join, take the command of, and stay with the 
body of troops which he will be appointed to command, and 
confine his attention solely to them. 

' General 's letter from , of the 22nd of April, 

is a counterpart of all those I have ever- seen from him. I 
possess many that I could substitute for it which would con- 
vey equally good information of the same description ; and 
the letters are not confined to you, who may have sent him 

to to acquire information, but they fly about the army 

and England, addressed to persons of all descriptions. I 
possess accurate information on every point on which Gene- 
ral has written, and can supply it to you if you wish 

for it. 

' If General will discontinue his attentions to uni- 

versals, and confine them to his particular duty to the troops 
which he may command, I shall employ him as a General 
Officer, otherwise not; but I will not allow him to remain as 
-an idler or amateur with any army, in order to give him an 
opportunity of circulating the description of intelligence 
which he picks up and circulates. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Right Hon. 'WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, K.B. 

' I enclose an answer to General Whittingham's memo- 
randum. It is not difficult to find fault with our own situa- 
tion, and to see the benefit of the situation of others. That 
which ought to be done is to examine a subject of this kind 
a fond, and it would soon be found that it is impracticable to 
execute what is proposed.' 

Observations on General Whittingham's Memorandum of the 24th of 
April, 1812, in regard to the draft of supplies from the country. 

' There exists no doubt that the French troops do draw 
supplies from the seat of their operations in all parts of 



1813. FRENEDA. 367 

Europe ; that this advantage is not enjoyed by their enemies 
in some instances at all, in others in a very inconsiderable 
degree, and in none to so great a degree as it is by the 
French. It is likewise true that to this system, whose date 
is that of the Revolutionary War (as what the King of 
Prussia did in this way was trifling), is to be attributed both 
the system of tactics and of politics of the present day. 

' I must observe, however, that much has been done of 
late years to show the French Government that they could 
not rely upon this system. Those who study accurately the 
nature of their operations against the allied armies in the 
Peninsula, and of their recent operations in Russia, will find 
ample reason for the belief that the system of making the 
operations of war produce the resources for carrying on war ; 
or, in other words, the system of making war a resource, and 
profitable and advantageous to a state, instead of being 
expensive and burthensome, must be got the better of. 

' These observations, however, are only general ; and 
General Whittingham complains, with great reason, that 
the French, by means of their system, live in countries, in 
Spain, in which the Spaniards starve ; and it is likewise true 
that the starvation of the Spanish armies is more burthen- 
some to the country than the plentiful mode of living of the 
French. 

' I will go farther than General Whittingham, and state 
that, notwithstanding that the British army pay for all the 
supplies they receive from the country, the British troops, 
if deprived of their magazines, would starve in a district in 
Spain in which the French army would live in plenty. 

' To what are these facts to be attributed ? Certainly not 
to the inclination of the inhabitants of the country to the 
enemy ; certainly not to the superior abilities of the officers 
of the civil departments of the French armies, at least not on 
comparison with the civil officers of the British army ; but to 
the system of terror on which the French, and all under their 
authority, invariably act, and to which no power in Europe 
ever has, or ever can have, recourse. 

' It is not difficult to make allotments of districts, and 
supplies to be drawn from them, and perhaps to go one step 
further, to make the magistrates of villages allot to indivi- 



3C8 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

duals their share of the burthen to be borne by the village. 
But if there is no compulsion, who will obey ? 

' Let any person attend to the detail of a French opera- 
tion of this description, he will see the use of the bayonet in 
every part of it ; he will see the compulsory quartering of 
soldiers on individuals called refractory, and the necessity of 
incurring large expenses laid upon these individuals, besides 
serious inconveniences; he will see women, children, &c. 
taken as hostages, &c. &c. ; and, in short, every thing done 
to compel the individual and village to obey the requisition, 
and to instil terror into others who might be inclined to 
resist. 

' In what country, excepting in France in the first days of 
the Revolution, could such a system be carried into execu- 
tion by its own Government and army ? In what country 
could we, as allies, venture to follow such an example ? 

' Till these questions can be answered, it is useless to dis- 
cuss the advantages which the French derive from this sys- 
tem, and the disadvantages which their enemies feel in not 
adopting it. 

' Having gone thus far, I need not consider this subject 
farther ; but I have long and maturely considered all the 
modes of subsisting armies, and I think I could show that 
neither the Spanish nor the British soldiers are of the 
description, nor in the state of discipline, owing likewise to 
the want of the same vigorous system, to carry into execution 
these systems of requisition so easily managed by their 
enemy. 

' WELLINGTON.' 

To Major General the Hon. E. Stopford. 

' Si K, Freneda, 1 Oth May, 1813. 

' I return the proceedings of the General Court Martial 
of which you are President, and enclose the form according 
to which they ought to be recorded ; and beg you to direct 
the Assistant Deputy Judge Advocate to alter them accord- 
ingly. 

' As I am obliged to return the proceedings on this 
ground, I would beg the General Court Martial to reconsider 
their sentence of honorable acquittal. 



1813. FRENEDA. 3C9 

' It appears to me that the conduct of Dr. , in 

requiring a billet for a Lieutenant Colonel, without men- 
tioning his name, was not quite correct, more particularly as 
by that trick, if it may be so termed, he was billeted on a 
house which the commandant had expressed his wish that he 
should not occupy. 

' If this impression be correct, I am convinced that the 
General Court Martial will not think the Doctor entitled to 
an honorable acquittal, in which is included the sense of the 
Court Martial of the merit of the prisoner under trial, as well 
as of his innocence of the charge. 

' At all events, whether the Doctor procured the billet by 
a trick or not, there can be no merit in the transaction ; and 
it would appear that on this ground the Doctor's case is not 
one on which such a sentence should be passed. 

' I request you to give directions that Dr. may be 

released from his arrest. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Major General * WELLINGTON. 

the Hon. E. Stopford.' 

To Major General the Hon. W. Stewart. 

' MY DEAR GENERAL, ' Freneda, 10th May, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 6th. I entertain the 
highest opinion of Colonel Ross, and will appoint him to 
command a brigade as soon as it shall be in my power ; but 
every day's experience convinces me that it does not answer 
to remove an officer from his regiment to command a bri- 
gade, of which his regiment does not form a part, until he is 
of such relative rank as to render it probable that he will not 
be obliged to return to the command of his regiment. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Major General ' WELLINGTON. 

the Hon. W. Stewart.' 

To Colonel . 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 10th May, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 8th instant, and I 
acknowledge that I cannot understand the nature of the 
feelings of an officer which are to be mortified by his per- 

VOL. x. 2 B 



370 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

formancc of his duty in the situation in which His Majesty 
and the rules of the service have placed him ; and I can only 
say that, in the course of my military life, I have gone from 
the command of a brigade to that of my regiment, and from 
the command of an army to that of a brigade or division, as 
I was ordered, without feeling any mortification. 

' As, however, you feel mortified upon your reassuming 
the command of your regiment, from the command of a bri- 
gade, of which your regiment forms a part, I trust that you 
will now see the propriety of my determination not to remove 
officers from the command of their regiments to the tempo- 
rary command of brigades of which their regiments do not 
form a part ; as it is probable that your feelings would have 
been mortified in a greater degree if you had now been 
obliged to return to the command of your regiment from a 
brigade of the line. 

' I beg that you will make the regular application for leave 
to go to Oporto, which will be granted. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Col. .' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

1 SIR, ' Freneda, 10th May, 1813. 

' I enclose the proceedings of a Court of Inquiry on the 

murder of Lieut. of the Brunswick regiment, on the 

evening of the 1st of May, in the neighbourhood of Rio 
Forte, and I request you to apply to the Portuguese Govern- 
ment to give directions to the magistrates of the country to 
inquire into the circumstances of this transaction. 
' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Sir Charles Stuart, K.B: * WELLINGTON. 

To Sir Isaac Heard, Garter King at Arms. 
' SIR, Freneda, 10th May, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 27th 
March, in which you have apprized me of the honor conferred 
upon me by my having been elected into the Most Noble 
Order of the Garter, at a Chapter of that Order, held at 
Carlton House on the 4th of March. 

' Lieut. General Sir Thomas Graham, K.B., delivered to 



1813. FRKNF.DA. 371 

rnc your letter and the insignia of the Order at Freneda, in 
Portugal, on Thursday,, the 6th of May, in obedience to the 
commands and warrant of His Royal Highness the Prince 
Regent. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Sir Isaac Heard.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Sir Isaac Heard, Garter King at Arms. 

' MY DEAR SIR, * Freneda, 10th May, 1813. 

' I have received your letters of the 27th and 28th March, 
and I am very much obliged to you for the spy glass which 
you sent me. 

' I am very glad that you did not come to this inhospitable 
country and climate to invest me with the Order of the Gar- 
ter ; and I will take the liberty of troubling you if I should 
require any riband for the Order. 

' I shall be very much obliged to you if you will let me 
know whether the riband of the Order is worn over the right 
or the left shoulder. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Sir Isaac Heard.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, llth May, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 20th April, and I am 
very much obliged to you for the care you take of our money 
concerns. It is certainly true that large sums have been 
exported from this country to America in payment for corn 
imported ; but this corn is besides that imported in conse- 
quence of our orders, and paid for by our bills negotiated 
in America. One of my reasons for agreeing to the pur- 
chase of corn in the Brazils and Egypt was to put a stop to 
the purchases of the imported American corn, if the Ameri- 
can Government should have allowed of the intercourse after 
the declaration of war. 

' I enclose a copy of the instructions which I have given 
to Sir John Murray*, and Generals Copons, Elio, and the 
Duque del Parque. Sir John Murray has informed me that 

* See p. 297. 

2n 2 



372 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

he proposes to carry into execution the plan recommended 
in the first instance, viz., the attack upon Tarragona ; and, 
by a letter from him of the 30th, I understand that he is 
well satisfied with what is proposed for him and the troops 
on that side. I likewise enclose an extract of a letter from 
him of the 24th, which shows the nature of Suchet's position, 
and how impracticable it would be to make any thing of it 
in any other manner. 

( These papers will make you acquainted with the plan of 
operations for the troops on the other side of the Peninsula, 
which are necessarily disconnected with those of the troops 
on this side, at least for a time. 

' I propose on this side to commence our operations by 
turning the enemy's position on the Duero, by passing the 
left of our army over that river within the Portuguese fron- 
tier. I should cross the right in the same manner, only that 
I have been obliged to throw the right very forward during 
the winter, in order to cover and connect our cantonments ; 
and 1 could not well draw them back for this movement 
without exposing a good deal of country and incurring the 
risk of a counter movement on the part of the enemy. I 
therefore propose to strengthen our right and to move with 
it myself across the Tormes, and establish a bridge on the 
Duero below Zamora. The two wings of the army will thus 
be connected, and the enemy's position on the Duero will be 
turned. 

' The Spanish army of Galicia will be on the Esla on the 
left of our army at the same time that our army will be on 
that river. 

' Having turned the enemy's position on the Duero, and 
established our communication across it, our next operation 
must depend upon circumstances. I do not know whether I 
am now stronger than the enemy, even including the army 
of Galicia ; but of this I am very certain, that I shall not be 
stronger throughout the campaign, or more efficient, than I 
now am ; and the enemy will not be weaker. I cannot have 
, a better opportunity for trying the fate of a battle, which, if 
the enemy should be unsuccessful, must oblige him to with- 
draw entirely. 

' We have been sadly delayed by the bridge, without which 
it is obvious we can do nothing. The equipment is quite 



1813. FRENEDA. 373 

new, and has marched only from Abrantes ; but there has 
already been much breakage, and I understand that the 
carriages are shamefully bad. The truth is, that English 
tradesmen, particularly contractors, are become so dishonest, 
that no reliance can be placed on any work, particularly in 
iron, done by contract. I have the same complaint of some 
carts made for the Commissariat ;. 18 out of 25 of which broke 
on a good road without loads in 80 miles. 

' I shall have sad work with this bridge throughout the 
campaign, and yet we can do nothing without it. 

' I shall send the Prince of Orange home, as you desire, 
unless you should comply with his wish to join the Prussian 
army, and allow him to go home for that purpose. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Sir John Murray, Bart. 

' MY DEAR GENERAL, ' Freneda, !2thMay, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 30th. Of course the 
detailed measures to be adopted for the relief of your posts 
subsequently to the junction of the Duque del Parque must 
be arranged and made by the authorities on the spot. The 
Duque del Parque has marched, and must by this time be 
near you. 

' I have nothing new to tell you from this side. The 
bridge will arrive to-morrow, and we shall march immediately. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir John Murray, Bart.' 

To Don L. Bertram, Minister at War. 
1 SIR, ' Freneda, 1 2th May, 1813. 

' I have the honor to report to you that 3000 suits of 
clothing and sets of cavalry appointments having arrived at 
Cadiz for the use of the Spanish cavalry, I have requested 
His Majesty's Ambassador to give directions that they may 
be made over to the directions of your Excellency. 

' It appears that, in consequence of directions from the 
former Inspector of Cavalry, 1000 of these suits of clothing 
and appointments are for dragoons, 1000 for hussars, and 1000 
for chasseurs ; and there is therefore not a sufficient quantity 



374 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

of clothing and appointments of any description to answer 
for two regiments, on tlie establishment recently fixed for 
them. 

' Considering the Spanish army, the cavalry in particular, 
in the infancy of its reorganization, I acknowledge that I 
am very indifferent respecting the fashion of its clothing and 
appointments, provided they are good of their kind, and 
each regiment is. in itself uniformly clothed. If, therefore, I 
had had any thing to say to the Spanish army at the period 
this clothing was ordered, I should have requested that, the 
whole of it might be the same ; and I beg you to take the 
opinion of the Government regarding the clothing and ap- 
pointments for cavalry which I have recently requested the 
Government to send to Spain ; and, if they should agree in 
opinion that the whole ought to be alike, that you will be so 
kind as to fix upon the pattern of the clothing and appoint- 
ments now received, according to which the whole are to be 
made. 

' In regard to the distribution of the clothing now arrived, 
I beg leave to submit to you the expediency, first, of issuing 
to the King's regiment of cavalry a complete suit of clothing 
and appointments for the full number of non-commissioned 
officers and soldiers of which it consists, of that pattern sent 
out for dragoons. I have not yet heard that the reform 
proposed for this regiment has been carried into execution ; 
but, as I suppose it will be so before long, I consider that it 
will be desirable that early measures should be adopted to 
transmit to this regiment its clothing and appointments by 
the sea and river navigation, as far as possible ; and that 
land transport should be procured to forward it from the 
landing place on the Guadalquivir. 

' I shall hereafter have the honor of submitting to you my 
opinion regarding the disposal of the remainder of the 3000 
suits of clothing and appointments; but it appears now 
generally desirable that, supposing the clothing and ap- 
pointments to be sufficient for five regiments, three of them 
should be uniformly clothed and appointed, whether as dra- 
goons, as chasseurs, or as hussars ; and that of each of the 
other two regiments three squadrons should be clothed as 
dragoons or as chasseurs, and one squadron of each as hussars. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
'I>o L. Bertram.' < WELLINGTON. 



1813. FfcENfcDA. 375 

To Don L. Bertram. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 12th May, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose a letter received from the 
Conde de la Bisbal, and various papers on the subject of the 
revenues and expenses of the provinces of Cordova and 
Seville, to which I request you to draw the attention of the 
Regency. 

' The Government will see in these papers ample reason 
for their active interference to preserve the public property. 

' First; I would beg to draw their attention to the im- 
mense expenses attending the collection of these small re- 
venues in these kingdoms, amounting in Seville to more 
than one fourth, and in Cordova to about one sixth, of the 
whole revenue collected ; the collection of some of the 
branches of revenue costs nearly one half of the gross pro- 
duce; and yet it appears that, notwithstanding this large 
expense incurred, the amount due to the Crown is not col- 
lected. 

' Secondly ; I would beg to draw the attention of the Go- 
vernment to the charges upon these revenues for expenses 
at Cadiz, Malaga, the Isla, Puerto S ta Maria, Algesiras, &c., 
the revenues of which places are allotted to other objects. 

' Thirdly ; I request the attention of the Government to 
the payment of 232,000 reales monthly to the quicksilver 
mines of Almaden from the revenues of the province of Cor- 
dova ; the profits of the mines being applicable to other 
purposes. 

' Fourthly ; I likewise request the attention of the Govern- 
ment to the general charges for pensioners, &c., payable out 
of the revenues of these provinces. 

' The fact is, that these charges and those of collection 
only would absorb the whole amount of the produce of the 
revenue, and leave nothing for the army ; and it becomes 
absolutely necessary for the Government to turn their atten- 
tion in the most serious manner to the subject, otherwise it 
is impossible to hope to maintain the army. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don L. Bertram: ' WELLINGTON. 



376 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry JVellesley, K.B. 

( g JR ' Freneda, 12th May, 1813. 

' I beg that the 3000 suits of clothing and cavalry appoint- 
ments for the use of the Spanish army recently arrived at 
Cadiz may be placed at the disposal of the Minister at War. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' The Ri%ht Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. JVellesky, 



To the Earl of Liverpool. 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 12th May, 1813. 

' Having received from Sir Thomas Graham the insignia 
of the Order of the Garter, I enclose a letter for Lady Wel- 
lington containing directions for returning to the genealogist 
of the Bath the collar and badge of that Order. Some of 
my brother officers, however, have expressed an anxious 
desire that I should continue a Knight of the Bath, into 
which I have admitted most of them ; and all of them owe 
this honor to actions performed under my command. Under 
these circumstances, and adverting to the reasons which 
induced you to wish that I should resign the Order, I would 
wish you to consider whether it would not be better that I 
should keep it. 

' First ; there is a precedent of a British subject holding 
two British Orders, neither of them military, in the case of 
the Duke of Roxburgh. Secondly ; if you will refer to the 
statute of the Order of May, 1812, you will see that upon 
my resignation you have not the power of appointing a 
Knight of the Bath. My stall will be filled by the senior 
Extra Knight, and under the statute you may appoint as 
many Extra Knights as you please. 

' I feel great reluctance in suggesting that I should keep 
this Order, and I should not have done so if it had not been 
suggested to me by some of the Knights. God knows I 
have plenty of Orders, and I consider myself to have been 
most handsomely treated by the Prince Regent and his 
Government, and shall not consider myself the less so if 
you should not think proper that I should retain the Order 






1813. FRENEDA. 377 

of the Bath. I beg you will return me the enclosed letter, 
or not, as you may decide upon this point. 

< Believe me, &c. 
' The Earl of Liverpool' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 12th May, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose the report which I have 
received from Lieut. General Sir John Murray of the opera- 
tions of the troops under his command, and of the 2nd 
Spanish army, from the llth to the 13th of April, and on 
the battle fought at Castalla* ; and I request your Lordship 
will draw the attention of His Royal Highness to the conduct 
of Lieut. General Sir John Murray, and of the officers and 
troops under his command, particularly to those named 
by him. 

' Nothing of importance has occurred in this part of the 
country since I addressed your Lordship on the 5th instant. 
The delay in the arrival of the bridge obliged me to halt the 
troops, whose inarch had already commenced. But I expect 
that it will arrive to-morrow, and the whole army will be in 
motion in the course of a few days. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Sir John Murray, Bart. 

' MY DEAR GENERAL, ' Freneda, 13th May, 1813. 

' I enclose the copy of a private letter of the 23rd Novem- 
ber from Earl Bathurst, containing a complaint against 

for misapplication of the supplies of clothing 

and equipments with which he has been provided for the 
use of the Spanish troops under his command. 

' I also transmit his account of the stores he has received, 
and of the mode of their distribution ; and a letter from 
Mr. , containing a return of the issues made to 

under the directions of Sir Henry Wellesley ; and a 

statement of the strength of his division in November, 1811, 
and June, 1812. 

' I beg you will communicate such parts of the enclosure 
in the Secretary of State's letter as you may think proper to 

* See p. 353. 



378 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

} and that you will endeavor to ascertain whether 

the stores have been applied in the manner stated by him, 
and if he has received supplies from any quarter besides 
that of His Majesty's Ambassador at Cadiz. 

' As it is highly necessary for the good of the service, and 

in iustice to , that the circumstances complained 

of should be thoroughly examined, I beg you will adopt 
such measures as you may consider expedient for the inves- 
tigation of the subject. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir J. Murray, Bart.' 

To Colonel Sir R. Fletcher, Bart. 

1 Camp of the Pontoon Train, 
'MY DEAR SIR, 14th May, 1813. 

' Learning from General Murray that it was possible that 
the pontoon train might be in readiness to move to-morrow, I 
came over here this afternoon in order that I might see it, 
and might not delay it. 

' It is clear, however, that the train will not be ready to 
move till the day after to-morrow, on which day I wish it to 
move by the road fixed upon by General Murray, and which 
you Avere to reconnaitre this day. 

' There is one pontoon quite rotten, which it would be 
desirable to leave behind here. 

' Twenty pairs of wheels, if Colonel Dickson can spare as 
many, would set the train up in that respect completely. As 
this equipment is so important, it appears to me to be de- 
sirable that Colonel Dickson should give all the wheels it 
requires, taking from it the bad wheels to be used in his 
reserve artillery and spare carriages till they can be replaced 
by others. 

' Lieut. Piper appears to i>e of opinion that the bul- 
locks answer equally well with the horses. In my opinion, 
the best thing to do would be to leave with the train both 
the horses and oxen ; more particularly, as it appeared from 
Colonel Dickson's report of yesterday, that he had, within 
a very small number, a sufficiency of horses to draw all his 
artillery carriages. If this should be practicable, the pontoons 
should in general be drawn by the oxen, and the horses should 



1813. FRENEDA. 379 

be used only when absolutely necessary; and the horses 
accompanying the pontoons might be as a reserve for the 
service in general, but marching with the pontoons to aid 
them in case of difficulty. 

' In case the train can march to-morrow, it had better 
move a short distance by the proposed road. 

' Believe me, &c. 
1 Colonel Sir R. Fletcher, Bart: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don L. Bertram. 
' SIR, ' Freneda, 1 5th May, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose, for the information of the 
Regency, a letter which I have received from Captain Ge- 
neral Castanos, in which he has enclosed letters from Gene- 
ral Don P. A. Giron, and a correspondence between that 
officer and the Intendant of Galicia, in regard to the appli- 
cation of the resources of that province. 

' I have requested General Castaiios, in answer to that 
letter, to remind the Intendant of the decree of the Cortes 
of the 6th of January, and of the orders of Government of 
the loth of February, and to communicate a copy of the 
letter from the Minister at War to me of the 2nd of April, 
under which the Captains General of the Provinces are 
made, in a very particular manner, responsible for the reali- 
zation of the revenues of the provinces. And I have urged 
General Castanos to inform the Intendant of Galicia that he 
will be held responsible for obedience to his orders in all 
matters placed under the superintendence of the Captains 
General of the Provinces, by the decrees of the Cortes and 
the orders of the Government. 

' The private letter from the Adjutant General Don Pas- 
cual Enrile of the 7th, refers to an arrangement which I de- 
sired might be made for the supply of the prisoners of war 
at Coruna, under which I engaged to supply the articles 
required for their food by importations to Corufia, provided 
that the money which had hitherto been expended in their 
support should be handed over to the Galician army. The 
Government will see that the Intendant would not come into 
this arrangement ; and they will also see in this letter ample 
cause for interference to prevent the corruption of the morals 
of the people, and other evil consequences likely to flow from 



380 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

the unrestrained communication with the prisoners spread 
through the provinces. 

< Upon transmitting these papers, to be laid before the 
Government, I request you again to call their attention to 
my address of the 1 1th of April, in answer to the letter of 
the Government of the 2nd of that month. 

' It is more than ever obvious that it is necessary that the 
Government should explain themselves in regard to the 
charges to be defrayed out of the revenues of the provinces 
allotted for the armies ; and should arm the Captains 
General of the Provinces with full powers, to be executed 
under strict responsibility, to control the conduct of the In- 
tendants of the provinces in every respect. 

' I have lately transmitted, to be laid before the Govern- 
ment, reports of the state of the resources of all the provinces 
freed from the enemy, in which they will see ample ground 
for an alteration of system; and if the farther interference of 
the Cortes should be necessary, I earnestly recommend to 
the Government to communicate with the legislature on the 
subject. 

' Great, progress has been made in the clothing, the equip- 
ment, and the discipline of the troops; and much has been 
done in the last three months to prepare a Spanish army for 
the field. But all our efforts have failed to produce resources 
adequate at all to maintain them in the field ; and I earn- 
estly recommend to the Government to revert to the letters 
which I addressed to them on the 27th December, 1812, and 
24th of April. Every day's experience convinces me that 
it is impossible to expect to maintain a Spanish army in the 
field, excepting by the resources of Spain itself. 

' Great Britain, owing to the misfortunes of the world, and 
particularly to the unfortunate situation of the Spanish Co- 
lonies, cannot procure specie to give the assistance which is 
required of her, and to defray her own expenses in the war ; 
and it is Avith difficulty, and by cramping every branch of the 
service, that I am enabled to perform the King's engage- 
ments to his allies. I must observe, likewise, with that frank- 
ness with which I am accustomed to address the Govern- 
ment, that it is not reasonable to expect pecuniary sacrifices 
from Great Britain, when it is obvious that the country 
possesses resources which, if duly administered, and really 



1813. FRENEDA. 381 

applied to the object of maintaining troops in the field, 
would be more than sufficient for the purpose. 

' The campaign is about to open. The troops are all in 
march, and I now foretell to the Government what will be 
the consequence. For a short time, and while the harvest 
shall be on the ground, the troops will be maintained by 
means which it is unnecessary to detail; but which will 
deteriorate the discipline of the troops, and will be equally 
distressing to the General Officers who must sanction them, 
and to the inhabitants of the country who will have to bear 
the burthen. This resource will last, however, but a short 
time ; and at the end of that time the Spanish troops must 
be dispersed, or must be sent to the rear for want of support. 

' What will then happen it is impossible at this moment 
to foresee ; but as I am not myself deceived by appearances, 
I am anxious that the Government should know the real 
situation of affairs, and that they should adopt early mea- 
sures to ensure those resources for the armies which I know 
the country can afford, and which it is obvious require only 
a due administration of them in order to be realized. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don L. Bertram: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Sir /?. Hill, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HILL, ' Freneda, 16th May, 1813. 

' General O'Donnell, who is by this time on his way from 
Seville, will cross the Tagus at Almaraz, and proceed from 
thence across the Tietar by Plasencia on Banos, &c. He 
wHl not arrive for some days ; but I shall be very much 
obliged to you, if you will let me have all the information 
you have been able to acquire regarding the fords, bridges, 
and barcas on the Tietar, and the roads leading to them, in 
order that I may send it to General O'Donnell. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. General 'WELLINGTON. 

sir R. Hiii, K.B: 

To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 

1 SIR, ' Freneda 16th May, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter which I have received from General 
Alava in regard to the conduct of the Portuguese magistrate 



382 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

of Lamego towards certain Spanish muleteers attached to 
the 5th division. 

' It is very obvious that not only would the allied army 
be unable to enter upon its operations, but to defend even 
the kingdom of Portugal,, if it were not for the assistance of 
the Spanish muleteers ; and yet there is no class of persons 
so ill used as they are by the corrupt Portuguese magis- 
tracy. 

' I shall be very much obliged to you if you will put the 
matter referred to in the enclosed letter in a train of inquiry, 
with a view to have the magistrate at Lamego punished for 
his misconduct. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Marshal ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B? 

To Brigadier General Inglis. 
< SIR, ' Freneda, 16th May, 1813. 

' I enclose the proceedings of the General Court Martial 

of which you are President, on the trial of Lieut. of 

the nd regiment, whom the Court have recommended for 
mercy, having found him guilty of " behaving in a manner 
unbecoming an officer and a gentleman." 

' I would beg the Court to observe, that supposing His 
Royal Highness the Prince Regent to be inclined to attend 
to their recommendation, it cannot be expected that the 
officers of the nd, or of any other regiment, will like much 

to associate with Lieut. ; and this act of the Court 

may be injurious to the authority of the Prince Regent, or 

to the feelings of any regiment in which Lieut. may 

be placed. 

' I acknowledge that upon perusal of the proceedings of 
the Court Martial, it appears to me that the case against 

Lieut. is not proved. I am inclined to believe that 

Lieut. has been engaged in a description of traffic 

very improper for an officer of the army, in connection with 
the Quarter Master of the regiment ; and that transactions 
were carried on between them, and accounts existed which 

have not come to light. It is proved that Lieut. had 

the permission of the Quarter Master to apply to his private 
purposes the money sent to Lisbon for the payment of the 



1813. FRENF.DA. 383 

regimental debt due to Mr. ; and it is likewise 

obvious that Lieut. * * * declared his readiness to pay 

Mr. 's demand. Under these circumstances, although 

Lieut. 's conduct was improper, it has not been proved 

as charged in the ifrst charge ; and the sentence ought pro- 
bably to be modified accordingly. 

' In the evidence on the third charge, there is an appear- 
ance of the existence of the transactions to which I have 

above referred ; and it is proved that Lieut. , having 

these transactions with the Quarter Master, did send to the 
Paymaster of the regiment a statement of debts from the 
officers of the regiment, to be recovered by the Quarter 
Master to the amount charged against him in ihe estimate 
and upon the whole L conceive that it would be best for the 
Court to modify their sentence. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Brig. General Inglis.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To General Giron. 
' MoN CHER GENERAL, ' a Freneda, ce 16 Mai, 1813. 

' J'ai rec,u votre lettre du 9, et le General Castaiios m'a 
envoye celle que vous lui avez ecrite, sur vos discussions avec 
1'Intendant de la Galice. J'ai deja ecrit au Gouvernement 
la-dessus ; et j'en espere des bons resultats. 

' Nos vivres seront a la Corogne ; mais nous n'en don- 
nerons pas pour les prisonniers Frangais, a moins que ce 
soit pour vous donner de 1'argent. 

' J'ai deja ordonne au Commissaire General d'etre pre- 
pare a vous donner encore 100 mille duros vers les derniers 
jours de Juin. Je vous prie de faire dire a vos marchands 
de la Corogne de se mettre en communication avec Mons. 
White, notre Commissaire la, pour ce qui regarde 1'argent 
qu'ils ont A donner pour des billets sur 1'Angleterre. 

' Quoique je suis toujours ici nos troupes sont toutes en 
marche du cote du nord du Douro ; et le Quartier General, 
qui doit rester ici jusqu'au dernier moment, se mettra en 
mouvement en trois ou quatre jours. Notre pont nous a 
cause du retard, mais il est arrive a Sabugal, et est encore 
en marche. 

' Alava est arrive et sc porte bien. 

' Agreez, &c. 
General Giron: ' WELLINGTON. 



384 PORTUGAL. 



1813. 



To Don L, Bertram. 
c g ' Freneda, 16th May, 1813. 

' lii addition to the letter which I addressed you yesterday 
in regard to the state of the finances in Galicia, I beg leave 
to call the attention of the Regency to the recommendation 
of the Captain General Castanos, that the Intendant of 
Galicia may be removed from his office, and Don Juan 
de San Martin may be appointed to fill it. 

There certainly appears something very extraordinary 
and inconsistent in his statements. 

' I have besides to observe upon this point, that it is posi- 
tively stated by the Mariscal de Campo Don P. A. Giron, 
that the officers and soldiers, with their regiments of the 
army of Galicia, have received no pay since the month of 
January last. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Don L. Bertram: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 16th May, 1813. 

' Lord William Bentinck has sent me, in a letter of the 1 3th 
April, of which I enclose a copy, copies of his dispatches to 
Lord Castlereagh (marked secret, and separate) of the 24th 
February, 1813. I acknowledge that I do not see any thing 
in the former of these dispatches to induce me to alter the 
opinion which I had formed, on the state of affairs in Italy; 
and from the latter it would appear that Murat, at least, 
thought himself sufficiently strong to attack the allies. 

' I have no knowledge of what number of men Lord Wil- 
liam Bentinck could bring into the field in the south of 
Italy, supposing the allied British and Sicilian corps now on 
the eastern coast of Spain were returned to him. But from 
what I see in the papers above referred to, and knowing 
that General Gamier has been withdrawn from Italy, it is 
my opinion that he ought not to land in Italy with less than 
from 30,000 to 40,000 men, well equipped in every respect 
with cannon, cavalry, &c. 

There is very little in the paper enclosed in Lord Wil- 
liam's dispatch to Lord Castlereagh of the 24th February ; 
but that little shows that in the first effort at least we should 



1813. FRENEDA. 385 

have to depend solely upon our own means ; and those means 
must be sufficiently strong to overcome all opposition to be 
reasonably expected, otherwise I think it may be inferred 
from the same paper, not only that we should have no 
assistance from the country, but that as far as their re- 
sources would go, the people of the country would assist 
the enemy. 

' You will see throughout the paper that the people of the 
country look for the protection of some power against the 
French, and it is stated that they prefer the protection of 
Great Britain to that of Austria. This I perfectly under- 
stand. The Austrians would require from them assistance 
in money and provisions, and would insist upon their allegi- 
ance, and upon governing them, in return for their protec- 
tion. It is supposed that we, as we have elsewhere, would 
at least defray the expense of the army by means of which 
we should protect them ; and probably, besides, aid them 
with a subsidy. 

' The south of Italy is, for many reasons, probably the 
best scene of operations for a British army, excepting the 
Spanish Peninsula; and it is certainly a question of means 
whether the British Government will undertake any opera- 
tions in that quarter, on the scale to which I have above 
referred. It may be depended upon, that if they are com- 
menced on a smaller scale, or with any other intention than 
to persevere to the last, and to increase the means of oppos- 
ing the French in Italy to the utmost, by raising, clothing, 
and feeding armies of the natives of Italy, or by enabling 
others to raise, clothe, and feed them, the plan will fail, 
and our troops would be forced to embark with loss and 
disgrace. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Earl Bathurst. ' WELLINGTON. 

' Upon referring to the letters from Lord William Ben- 
tinck, I find that they arc addressed to your Lordship, and 
not to Lord Castlcreagh.' 



VOL. x. 2 c 



PORTUGAL. 



1813. 



MEMORANDUM 

For Lieut. General Sir Thomas Graham, K.B. 

'Freneda, 18th May, 1813. 

' The 1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th divisions of infantry, and 
General Pack's and General Bradford's brigades, and Major 
General Anson's, Major General Ponsonby's, Major General 
Bock's, and the hussar brigades of British cavalry, and 
Brigadier General D'Urban's brigade of Portuguese, have 
been ordered across the Douro, together with a brigade of 
18 pounders, and the pontoon train; and the reserve artil- 
lery and ammunition, as will be made known hereafter to 
Lieut. General Sir Thomas Graham. 

' These troops will be stationed as follows : 

Brigadier General Pack's brigade, 21st. 
. T. I Major General Anson's brigade, 22nd. 

' Brigadier General Ponsonby's brigade, 22nd. 
1st Division of infantry, 24th. 

General Bock's brigade, 22nd. 
General D'Urban's Portuguese brigade, from 
AtOnteiro . J 2 1st to 23rd. 

5th division of infantry, 24th. 
General Bradford's brigade, 21st. 

At Vimioso . 3rd division, 20th. 

!6th x division, 24th. 
7th division, 23rd. 
Hussar brigade, 27th. 
4th division, 26th. 
18th Portuguese brigade, 21st. 

' Pontoon train not ordered farther than Villa Velha, on 
the road to Malhadas. It will be at Villa Velha between the 
22nd and 24th. 

' These troops have then received orders to move as fol- 
lows : viz. ; the left from Braganza, in four marches on Tabara, 
where the cavalry will arrive on the 28th, and the infantry 
on the 29th. 

'The centre at Oteiro and Vimioso. Those at Oteiro 
in four marches to Losilla, where the cavalry will arrive on 
the 28th, and the infantry on the 29th. Those at Vimioso 
in three marches to Losilla. 

'The right at Malhadas are to receive their detailed in- 



1813. FREKEDA. 387 

structions from Lieut. Colonel De Lancey, now at Miranda, 
so as to arrive at Car vaj ales on the '28th, 29th, and 30th. 

' It is intended to lay the bridge of pontoons at the Barca 
do Villal Campo, about a mile below the junction of the 
Esla with the Duero, where it is expected it will arrive on 
the 30th. 

' The orders for the movements subsequent to the 24th, 
and those given by the Quarter Master General to Colonel 
De Lancey, accompany this memorandum. 

' A magazine has been formed at Mirandella, and another 
at Miranda de Douro. The former has been ordered for- 
ward to Braganza. 

' The troops which will march by the left of the Douro, 
being the 2nd, Light, and the Conde de Amarante's divi- 
sions of infantry, and General Slade's, General Allen's, 
General Long's, and the household brigades of cavalry, and 
Colonel Campbell's Portuguese brigade will arrive at Sala- 
manca the 27th, from whence they will direct their march 
towards the Barca de Villal Campo, where they will arrive 
on the 30th. 

' The object of these movements is first to turn the enemy's 
positions on the Duero, and next to secure the junction of the 
right of the army with the left, as far up the river as may be 
practicable. 

' Captain Mitchell is now employed in the examination of 
the fords and other passages of the Esla. 

' Head quarters will move with that part of the army 
which goes by the left of the Duero ; and there is now a 
communication established, from hence to Miranda, and thence 
to Braganza. As head quarters will move forward, a com- 
munication will be established by Freixo de Espadacinta, 
which will fall in with the communication from Freneda to 
Miranda at Fornos, where a person will be stationed. 

' When head quarters shall arrive at Salamanca, the com- 
munication will be carried from thence by Bemposta to 
Sindim, on the road to Miranda, where another person will 
be posted. 

' As the communication will thus be very short and easy, 
and as the further operations of the left of the army will 
depend upon circumstances, further instructions will be sent 

2c2 



388 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

to Lieut. General Sir Thomas Graham if it should be 
necessary. 

' General Giron, with the Galician army, will be ordered 
to be at Benavente on the 29th and 30th. 

' WELLINGTON.' 

To Earl Balhurst. 

' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 18th May, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose a report which I have re- 
ceived from Lieut. Colonel Sir Richard Fletcher, on the 
carriages and boats of the pontoon train now with this army. 

'As the operations of the army will depend principally on 
the efficiency of this train, and it has already occasioned a 
delay of several days, and it has been necessary to dismantle 
some of the carriages of the artillery, in order to equip those 
of the pontoon train with wheels, it is very desirable that 
measures should be taken to send to Coruna good carriages, 
constructed as proposed by Lieut. Colonel Sir llichard 
Fletcher, for 18 pontoons of the large size, and 20 new 
pontoons with their carriages. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
* Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

' SIR, ' Freneda, 18th May, 1813. 

' I enclose the memorandum from Lieut. , of 

the th regiment, whom I have ordered to Lisbon to report 
himself to you as being in readiness to take his trial accord- 
ing to the Portuguese law, for his conduct at Villa Franca 
in December last. 

' You will see in his memorandum the statement of the 
grievances upon him, in consequence of the apparently un- 
necessary, and, under the circumstances, cruel delay, in 
bringing him to trial ; and I beg that you will lay my request 
before the Portuguese Government, that, as owing to these 

delays all the persons whom Lieut. might call upon in 

his defence will be absent, and probably at a great distance 
from Lisbon, in the service of the Government of Portugal 
and its allies, the Governors of the Kingdom will give orders 



1813. FRENEDA. 389 

that ample time and every facility may be allowed to Lieut. 

to produce such evidence as he may think proper 

after obtaining a knowledge of the exact charge against him. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Sir Charles Stuart, K.B.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. . 

SIR, ' Freneda, 18th May, 1813. 

' I have received your memorial of the 16th instant. 

' Every independent Government has a right to order the 
trial of any individual residing in the country under its 
government by the tribunals and according to the laws of 
the country ; and it is impossible for me to interfere in any 
manner to prevent the Portuguese Government from bring- 
ing you to trial before a Portuguese Court for your conduct 
at Villa Franca. 

' I am much concerned that there should have been any 
delay in bringing you to trial, which I believe is owing to 
the natural progress of a proceeding in a Portuguese Court 
of Law, and not to any desire to oppress you or to deprive 
you of any evidence which you may think necessary for your 
defence. This is one of the evil consequences of your con- 
duct at Villa Franca. 

' I have written, however, to Sir Charles Stuart, his 
Majesty's Minister at Lisbon, and have pointed out to him 
the disadvantages under which you will labor from the delay 
of your trial ; and have requested that he will apply to the 
Portuguese Government that you may have time given to 
you to obtain answers to such interrogatories as you may 
think proper to put to such persons as you may think proper 
to have examined in your defence. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
'Lieut. .' 'WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Freneda, 18th May, 1813. 

' 1 have received your letter of the 28th, in regard to the 
Prince of Orange. I recollect that he spoke to me respecting 
his wish to join the Prussian army, when the probability 



390 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

that the King 1 of Prussia would take a line with the Russians 
was talked of here ; and, after some consideration, finding 
that he was anxious to go, I gave my consent, provided the 
Prince Regent should approve of his doing so. He after- 
wards received the account of the Prussian defection from 
the French, and the Prince wrote to the Duke of York and 
to your Lordship on the 4th ultimo. It appears that you 
had not received these letters when you wrote to me on the 
28th, and, therefore, I conclude that the letters from the 
Prince's gentleman to Monsieur Fagel must have referred 
to my conversations with the Prince before \ve were certain 
of the line taken by the King of Prussia, and must have 
been written before the Prince wrote to the Duke of York, 
or I to your Lordship, on that subject. 

' I do not recollect to have mentioned to the Prince, or 
to any body, that I had had any communication with you 
respecting his return to England, and as I find that his 
father has not written to him by the mail which brought 
mine of the 28th, I do not propose to speak to him respect- 
ing his departure till the next mail shall arrive. 

' The Prince of Orange appears to me to have a very 
good understanding, he has had a very good education, his 
manners are very engaging, and he is liked by every person 
who approaches him : such a man may become any thing ; 
but, on the other hand, he is very young, and can have no 
experience in business, particularly in the business of revo- 
lutions ; he is very shy and diffident ; and I do not know that 
it will not be a disadvantage to him to place him in a situa- 
tion in which he is to be at the head of great concerns of 
this description ; and that too much is not to be expected 
from him. The worst that can happen to him, in my 
opinion, is, that he should remain long in England; and if 
it had been arranged that he should go to the Prussian 
army, and his father had not been in London, I should 
have advised him on his departure to stay in London as 
short a time as was possible, and to keep himself quite 
clear of cabals and disputes ; and I am sure he would 
have done as I should desire him. His father being there, 
things are different; and as he is looked to as the head 
of the insurrection in Holland, he will have to wait in 



1813. FRENEDA. 391 

London, of course, till there shall be some appearance of such 
an insurrection. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 



To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' Freneda, 19th May, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 13th of May, and I 
have perused the proposed regulation for the collection of 
the direct taxes in Portugal. In my opinion it does not go 
to the objects I have in view. These were to draw from 
the merchants in particular, and other proprietors in the 
great towns, the real tenth of the income of each. This 
regulation goes only to levy from the commercio and other 
bodies the taxes laid on those bodies. Why should the 
nobleman or land proprietor pay a tenth of his income, and 
the merchant not the hundredth of his ? Why should the 
commercio be taxed as a corporation ? This is the great evil, 
for which the proposed regulation is no remedy. 

* Believe me, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B: ' WELLINGTON. 



To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY LORD, ' Freneda, 19th May, 1813. 

' The bridge of pontoons arrived at Sabugal on the 13th, 
and the repairs which it required occasioned the necessity 
for a halt on the 14th and 15th. It has since continued its 
march, however, and all the troops are in motion ; and I 
trust that the whole army will be collected on the Duero, 
having a bridge on that river, in the neighbourhood of 
Zamora, with the Spanish army of Galicia in communication 
with the left of the allied British and Portuguese army by 
the end of this month. 

' The third Spanish army, under the command of the 
Duque del Parque, has commenced its movements, and was 
on the 8th instant with its right at Alcaraz, and its left at 
La Carolina. The cavalry are covering the movement at 
Manzanares. 



392 PORTUGAL. 1813. 

' The enemy occasionally send a small body of troops 
into Toledo ; but there has been no material alteration in 
their position for some time past. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 
Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Sir T. Graham, K.B. 

' MY DEAR SlR, ' Freneda, 20th May, 1813. 

' I received last night an account, that one division of the 
army of the Centre had arrived at Valladolid on the llth, 
and that the head quarters of the army of the south had 
been moved from Arevalo to Rueda. The first of these 
facts has been confirmed by accounts received this morning; 
the last has not been mentioned. 

' But adverting to the facility which the enemy have of 
collecting their force upon Toro and Zamora, and of ope- 
rating either upon the left or the right of the Duero, and 
the length of time which would elapse to bring our bridge 
back to the passage of Espadacinta, supposing it should be 
necessary, after all, to pass the right of the army there, I 
have deemed it expedient to order 14 of the pontoons, and 
a proportion of the establishment to halt at Espadacinta, 
which will be sufficient for the passage of the river there. 
Nineteen boats will proceed on, which will be more than 
sufficient either for the passage of the Duero, at the Barca 
de Villal Campo, or for that of the Esla. 

' I enclose a memorandum*, showing the carriages of the 
reserve artillery which will cross the Douro at Foz Coa, and 
the days on which they will arrive at Malhadas. 

* Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir T. Graham, 



To Marshal Sir W. C.Beresford,K.B. 

< MY DEAR BERESFORD, 4 Freneda, 20th May, 1813. 

' I send you the proceedings of the General Court Martial 
on the trial of Mr. Drake. It appears clearly, that the 
officer sent by the Government to Coimbra to expedite the 
transmission of the clothing of the army acted in a manner 

* See p. 386. 



1813. FRENEDA. 393 

totally contrary to regulation ; that he was not authorised 
to press boats, yet he pressed at the British landing place 
boats which had been in our service for two years, and 
actually loaded with our stores. I do not think he has 
proved clearly that there was any violence used by Mr. Blake 
in defence of his boats ; but, at all events, not against what 
could be called a sentry. 

' I do not know whether any thing can be done with the 
Government on this subject; but, as usual, I suppose not. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Marshal ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. C. Beresford, 



To the Eight Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Freneda, 20th May, 1813. 

* I just write to let you know that we shall move head 
quarters the day after to-morrow. All the troops are in 
motion. Our confounded bridge has delayed us many days, 
but I hope that before the end of the month we shall be 
established beyond the Duero. 

' The last accounts from England are to the 28th of April. 
The Russians, under Witgenstein, had had some success 
against Beauharnois on the 5th, and it was supposed that 
there had been another successful affair on the 13th. 

' The Prince of Orange had arrived in England. 
f Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Right Hon. < WELLINGTON. 

Sir Henry Wellesley, 



To Don Luis Wimpffen. 

1 a Freneda, ce 21 Mai, 1813, 

' MONSIEUR LE GENERAL, * 2 heures de 1'apres midi. 

' Je vous envoie le rapport sur le passage du Tietar, que 
je vous prie d'envoyer au Comte dc la Bisbal, et de lui dire, 
en memo terns, que, comme la gauche dc 1'armee Anglo Por- 
tugaise adeja passe le Douro, et se porte surl'Esla, et que la 
droite suit ce mouvement de ce c6te ci de la riviere, et qu'elle 
passera le Douro aussi toute de suite, il serait trop eloigne 
s'il ne passait pas par Plasencia et le Puerto de Banos, on 



394 SPAIN. 1813. 

pour agir de concert ou pour sa propre surete, en cas quo 
1'ennemi se determinait a se tenir a cheval sur le Douro. Je 
crois que le courier fera bien de passer par le pont d' Al- 
cantara, et de la tout droit a Merida, ou il aura des nouvelles 
du Comte de la Bisbal. 

' Agreez, &c. 
' Don Louis Wimp/en.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Sir T. Graham, K.B. 

' MY DEAR SlR, 'Ciudad Roclrigo, 22nd May, 1813. 3 P.M. ' 

' I arrived here this day; and the Light division and cavalry 

and the Conde de Amarante's division are encamped on the 

river of Santi-espiritus in front. I go to-morrow to Tamamcs. 

'There is nothing new; and I am inclined to believe that 

the head quarters of the army of the south are still at Are- 

valo. 

' The French detachment was certainly in Toledo on the 
16th. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir T. Graham, K.B.' 

To Lieut. General Sir T. Graham, K.B. 

' MY DEAR SIR, 'Tamames, 23rd May, 1813. 8 P.M. 

' I write to apprize you of our arrival here. 
' The Light division and cavalry are at San Munoz. I have 
not yet received the reports from thence. The Conde de 
Amarante is at Moraleja; and Sir R. Hill has moved from 
Bejar. 

' I have no news of the enemy, excepting that they were 
still in Madrid and Toledo on the J 8th. 

4 I hear from my brother that the Americans had made 
some fresh propositions for peace, connected with an offer 
to submit to the arbitration of the Emperor of Russia. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir 1. Graham, 



1813. TAMAMES. 395 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 
' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Tamames, 23rd May, 1813. 

' I received this morning your letter of the 17th. 

' My objection to - is not his being employed by 
you, but his attending to any thing and every thing except- 
ing his own business, to which he must attend with steadi- 
ness if I should recommend that he may be employed with 
the troops. 

' I think that in the beginning of July the army of re- 
serve of Andalusia, and 1st, 2nd, and 3rd armies, ought to 
have each 100,000 dollars, in addition to what they have 
had. I have desired our Commissaries to prepare to give 
100,000 at that period to the operating army of Galicia ; 
and we continue to pay Don Carlos and Morillo. 

' I hope that the British Government will not submit to 
the arbitration of Russia. The point at issue between them 
and the Americans is very simple, and we have no answer to 
give excepting that we neither can nor will concede it either 
to them or any other power : there can be no mediation on 
any other point. The object of this offer must be to create 
a division between us and the Russians. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, 



To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 
' SIR, ' Tamames, 24th May, 1813. 

' Having communicated with the Commissary General, 
Sir Robert Kennedy, regarding the plan on which you and 
I had conversed for the convoy of the money of both nations 
from Lisbon to the army, I have settled with him, that in- 
structions shall be sent to Mr. Deputy Commissary General 
Pipon, and Mr. Deputy Paymaster General Boyes at Lisbon, 
to have the money for the British army in readiness to 
march from Lisbon on the 1st and 15th of every month ; 
and they will have directions to communicate with any officer 
you will appoint in regard to the escort, and to the meeting 
with the money intended for the Portuguese army. 

' I enclose the stages according to which the mules can 
march, with the several halts which they usually make ; the 



39G SPAIN. 1813. 

whole arranged as far as Salamanca. Beyond that place I 
conceive that the money ought to march by special order, to 
be arranged from time to time. 

' The cavalry escort might relieve those of the infantry at 
Sabugal, or Aldea da Pontc. 

' I enclose a copy of the orders of this army in regard to 
the charge of money on a march, of which it will be expe- 
dient to give a translation to the officer commanding the 
escort of money. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

Marshal f WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 

' 1st day Sacavem, 12th day, St. Miguel, 

2nd Villa Franca, 13th Mcmoa, 

3rd Azambuja, 14th Sabugal, 

4th Santarem, 15th halt. 

5th GolcgaS, 16th Aldea da Ponte, 

6th Abrantes, 17th ,, Gallegos, 

7th halt. 18th Ciudad Eodrigo, 

8th GaviaS, 19th halt, 

9th Niza, 20th Martin del Rio, 

10th Cernadas, 21st Calzadade Don Diego, 

1 1th Castello Branco, 22nd Salamanca.' 



To Viscount Melville. 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Tamames, 24th May, 1813. 

' In reference to my letter of the 27th January, in which I 
communicated to your Lordship the opinion entertained by 
Major General Cooke and the inhabitants of Cadiz in ge- 
neral, of the services of Captains Pell and Carroll of the 
Royal Navy, who were in charge of the gun boats there 
during the late siege, I have the honor to transmit for your 
consideration the copy of a letter I have received from Cap- 
tain Thomas, who appears to have been employed on the 
same duty as the officers before mentioned. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Viscount Melville: ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. MATILLA. 397 

To Earl Bathurst. 

1 MY DEAR LORD, ' Taraames, 24th May, 1813. 

1 I am very much obliged to your Lordship for the key 
of the cipher as far as it had been discovered, which you 
transmitted to me on the 5th of April last ; and I now en- 
close for your information such parts of it as have been made 
out by Lieut. Colonel Scovell without reference to the key 
received through your Lordship. 

1 Believe me, &c. 
< Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Sir T. Graham, K.B. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' Matilla, 25th May, 1813. half-past 8 P.M. 

* I arrived here this day. Our right will be to-morrow, 
the Spaniards at Alba, and Hill and De Amarantc close 
to Aldea Tejada. The Light division and the household 
brigade on the Valmusa, and Victor Alton's brigade on 
the heights, between that stream and Salamanca. I shall 
throw them into Salamanca if I can. 

' The enemy have evacuated Ledesma, and drawn the 
troops from thence into Salamanca, which looks as if they 
did not intend to move upon Zamora. I have not heard of 
the movement of those at Avila. They were still on the 
Tagus, at Mombeltran, and Toledo, on the 20th. There 
is nothing new on the side of Valladolid, excepting a report 
that Beille's head quarters have been moved to Burgos. 

* Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir T. Graham, K.B. 

' I have ordered that the bridge may be laid under Espa- 
dacinta, but that is only by way of precaution.' 

To Marshal Sir W. C. Beresford, K.B. 

' SlR, ' Matilla, 25th May, 1813. 

' In consequence of what passed between you and me this 
day, I have given directions that Captain O'Hyan, of the 
Spanish army, attached to the department of the Quarter 
Master General, may be attached to the division under the 
Conde de Amarante. This officer will have authority and 
directions to make such requisitions for supplies on the 



398 SPAIN. 1813. 

Spanish authorities in the country as he may be directed to 
make by the Conde de Amarante, the Conde de Amarante 
taking the necessary measures that due receipts or money 
may be given for the same. 

' I request, however, that General the Conde de Amarante 
may be apprised of the degree to which the country is 
already exhausted ; and that, besides the division of troops 
under his command, there is a very large army to be sup- 
plied, in some degree, from its resources. It will be neces- 
sary, therefore, that he should make his Commissaries exert 
themselves to get up supplies from the rear ; and that, at 
all events, an effort should be made to pay with ready money 
for what will be demanded. 

' 1 have the honor to be, &c. 

' Marshal ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir W. C.Beresford,K.B: 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 
1 MY DEAR HENRY, 'Matilla, 25th May, 1813. 

' I have nothing particular to tell you that is not in the 
dispatch, of which a copy goes with this. I think we shall 
be in Salamanca to-morrow, and shall have no difficulty in 
establishing our communication across the Duero. 

' I find that the enemy were still on the Tagus on the 
20th. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B.' 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY LORD, ' Matilla, 25th May, 1813. 

' The troops forming the Left of the army having made 
considerable progress in their march on the right of the 
Duero, I put in motion the 2nd and Light, and the Conde 
de Amarante's divisions of infantry of the allied British and 
Portuguese army, and General Morillo's Spanish division ; 
and General Fane's, General Long's, General Victor Alten's, 
and the Household brigades of the British cavalry ; and 
the 6th regiment of Portuguese cavalry, and Don Julian 
Sanchez' of Spanish cavalry ; and moved the head quarters 
from Freneda on the 22nd instant. 



1813 MATILLA. 399 

' The enemy evacuated Ledesma yesterday afternoon, and 
the force there marched towards Salamanca ; and I expect 
that the allied troops will be on the Tormes to-morrow. 

1 1 hope that I shall experience no difficulty in establishing 
the communication across the Duero, near its junction with 
the Esla ; but lest I should, I have taken measures to esta- 
blish a bridge lower down, which secures the junction of 
the right of the army with the left, as soon as this part of 
the country shall be cleared of the enemy's troops. 

' The enemy were still at Madrid on the 18th instant; 
and I have not heard of their having, up to that period, 
made any alteration in their positions, excepting that a part 
of the army of the Centre had arrived at Valladolid. 

' My last reports from Lieut. General Sir John Murray 
are dated the llth instant; and he expected that, about the 
22nd instant, the 3rd Spanish army would be in communi- 
cation with the 2nd. 

' The army of reserve of Andalusia, under the command 
of the Conde de la Bisbal, broke up from the neighbourhood 
of Seville on the llth and 12th, and was likely to cross the 
Tagus on the 24th at Almaraz, where I have established a 
bridge. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst. ' WELLINGTON. 

' P.S. I have just received intelligence, to which I give 
credit, that Longa attacked on the 3rd instant, between 
Miranda de Ebro and Armifion, a convoy under General 
Kouyer, whom he obliged to retire upon Miranda with con- 
siderable loss, particularly in officers.' 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY LORD, ' Matilla, 25th May, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose a return of field equipment 
required for the use of the army under my command ; and I 
will thank your Lordship to give directions that the different 
articles may be sent by the earliest opportunity to Coruna. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst.' ' WELLINGTON. 



400 SPAIN. 1313. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY DEAR LORD, ' Matilla, 23th May, 1813. 

' I enclose the morning state. We have struck off the 4th 
provisional battalion, consisting of the detachments of the 
30th and 44th regiments, about GOO rank and fde ; on the 
other hand, however, we have to take on the strength about 
300 men returned on command, who have been at work con- 
structing buildings for hospitals between the Agueda and 
the Coa. Some few men have fallen sick since the troops 
marched ; but in general, the troops are more healthy than 
1 have ever known them to be. 

' Unfortunately, some vessels were taken on the coast of 
Portugal, which had on board the equipments for the troops, 
and they are not so complete as I could wish in some articles. 
It was impossible to wait for the arrival of the articles 
ordered from Lisbon to replace those lost; and we must, 
therefore, do as well as we can without them. 

' I hope, however, that some measures will be taken to 
secure for us the navigation of the coasts of Portugal and 
Spain. Your Lordship will observe that we have got every 
thing into the field that we can scrape together ; and after 
all, 1 believe we are inferior to the enemy. 

' I do not mean to complain of the Duke of York's deci- 
sion to take from us four regiments of cavalry, but a remount 
of 700 horses at the end of the last campaign, and the permis- 
sion to take 100 horses from each of the regiments of the 
English hussars which they would have been better without, 
would have given us now 1200 additional cavalry, and would 
have enabled me to keep that number in reserve, to be 
brought forward towards the close of the campaign, when 
we may expect that a great effort will be made by the enemy, 
as was done last year, and all the dissatisfaction would have 
been avoided, which has been the consequence of drafting 
the horses from these regiments. 

' Your Lordship will be the best judge whether it is 
expedient to provide for the augmentation of the cavalry at 
the close of the campaign ; and if you should judge it to be 
so, I recommend that the augmentation should be sent out 
without loss of time. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl llathurst? ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. SALAMANCA. 401 

To Don Juan O'Donoju, Minister at War. 

' SIR, ' Matilla, 25th May, 1813. 

' As it is possible that the enemy may be obliged to eva- 
cuate a considerable portion, if not the whole, of Castillo, I 
beg your Excellency will suggest to the Regency the expe- 
diency of appointing the officers of the Hacienda to perform 
the duties in the several provinces of that kingdom, and that 
they should be sent without delay to their stations. 

' It is particularly desirable that an intelligent and active 
person should be sent into the province of Soria. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don Juan O'Donoju. 1 ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Sir T. Graham, K.B. 

' Salamanca, 2Gth May, 1813. 
' MY DEAR SIR, Half-past 8 A.M. 

' We arrived here this morning, and Villatte waited for us 
rather longer than he ought, and we did him a good deal of 
mischief on his retreat with the cavalry of General Fane's 
and General Alton's brigades. 

' He is gone towards Cantala-piedra and Medina del 
Campo. The garrison of Alba joined at Babila-fuente or 
Villoria. It is rather extraordinary that he should have 
marched by Cabrerizps and the ravine, which we used to 
think so bad for even a horse, and thence by Aldea Lengua. 
I believe the division at Avila goes by Arevalo. Thus I 
hope we shall have no difficulty in the junction as at first 
projected. I hope to cross the Douro at Miranda on the 
28th or 29th. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir T. Graham, 



To Don Juan O'Donoju. 
< SIR, ' Salamanca, 26th May, 1813. 

' I received your letter of the 20th, relative to General 
Juan, yesterday, before I had received that of the 18th. 

' I arrived here this morning, and found the enemy still 
in the town, with one division of infantry and three squadrons 
of cavalry, and some cannon of the army of the South, under 
the command of General Villatte. 

VOL. x. 2 D 



402 SPAIN. 1813. 

' The enemy evacuated the town on our approach, but 
they waited longer than they ought on the high ground in 
the neighbourhood, and afforded an opportunity for the 
cavalry, under General Fane and General Victor Alten, the 
former of whom crossed the Tormes at the ford of S Ul Marta, 
and the latter at the bridge, to do them a good deal of 
injury in* their retreat. Many were killed and wounded, 
and we have taken above 150 prisoners, 7 tumbrels of am- 
munition, some baggage, provisions, &c. The enemy retired 
by the road of Babila-fuente, and near Huerta were joined 
by a body of infantry and cavalry on their march from Alba. 
1 then ordered our troops to discontinue the pursuit, the 
infantry not being up. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don Juan O'Donoju.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Sir li. Hill, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HILL, ' Salamanca, 28th May, 1813. 

' I intend to go to Miranda do Douro to-morrow, in order 
to join the left of the army. 

' This part of the army consists at present as follows : 

' The 2nd, Light, and Conde de Amarante's divisions of 
infantry; General Morillo's division of Spanish infantry; the 
Household brigade, Major General Fane's, Major General 
Victor Alton's, and Major General Long's brigades of 
cavalry; the Cth Portuguese regiment; and Don Julian 
Sanchez's Spanish regiment. 

' These troops are disposed as follows : 

' The 2nd division and General Fane's cavalry encamped 
near La Orbada. 

' The Light division and General Alton's cavalry at Aldea 
Nueva de Figueroa. 

' The Conde de Amarante's division, one brigade at Vil- 
lares and one at Cabrerizos; and the Gth regiment at Mo- 
risco and Castellanos de Moriscos. 

' General Morillo's division and the 13th light dragoons 
encamped at Machacon, having a post of observation in Alba 
de lormes, and one at Aldea Lengua. 

1 Don Julian Sanchez's regiment at Santis and Pefiausemle, 
on the road from Ledcsma to Zamora. 






1813. SALAMANCA. 403 

' The Household brigade of cavalry in Salamanca, and 
Captain Cairns' brigade of artillery is with them. 

' General Victor Alten has orders to patrol the roads 
towards Zamora this day and to-morrow. He has his out- 
posts this day at El Cubo, and is in communication with 
Don Julian Sanchez. 

' Orders have been given to place the bridge over the 
Duero at the Barca de Villal Campo, near the junction of 
the Esla with the Duero ; and it is believed that the bridge 
will be down on the 30th. The left of the army will be, on 
the 28th, 29th, and 30th, on the Esla, between Carvajales 
and Tabara ; and the Spanish army of Galicia about Bena- 
vente. 

' I shall be at Carvajales on the 30th ; and on that day 
the most direct communication with me will be by the Barca 
de Villal Campo, where I will take care that there shall be 
means of passing a letter. 

' The enemy's force appears disposed as follows : 

1 They have one division of infantry (I believe Darricau's) 
and a brigade of cavalry at Zamora and Toro. 

' The division which was in Salamanca and Alba (Vil- 
latte's) has marched towards Medina del Campo. The 
troops in Penaranda, and I believe those in Villa de Toro, 
which I imagine belong to the division at Avila, have marched 
to Madrigal, likewise on the road to Medina del Campo ; 
and I should imagine those at Avila have gone in the same 
direction, probably by the road of Arevalo. 

' The head quarters of the army of the South, which were 
at Arevalo, it is said have been moved to Medina del Campo ; 
and we may therefore conclude that about the 29th and 30th 
there will be at and about Medina del Campo four divisions 
of the army of the South, viz. that from Salamanca, that 
from Avila, that which was at Arevalo, and that which was 
at Medina, &c. ; one division at Zamora and Toro, and one 
still about.Madrid. 

' The cavalry is much dispersed, a part, under General 
Pierre Soult, being with the division at Madrid, and part at 
Zamora and Toro, and some with the troops at Medina del 
Campo. 

' The objects of the position given at present to the troops 
composing the right of the army arc, first, to secure their 

2o2 



404 SPAIN. 1813. 

junction with those on the right of the Duero ; secondly, to 
keep possession of Salamanca and the communication with 
Ciudad Rodrigo, till the communication shall be established 
across the Duero. 

' It does not appear to me probable that any attempt will 
be made by the enemy to return to the Tormes, more par- 
ticularly as on the 31st we shall make an attempt to cross 
the Esla, and probably some of our troops will be across 
that river. If such an attempt should however be made, 
you will attack those who shall advance, if you should con- 
sider yourself sufficiently strong. 

' If you should not think yourself sufficiently strong, you 
will give up the communication by Salamanca for the mo- 
ment, and will collect your troops about Mayaldi and El 
Cubo, on the high road from Salamanca to Zamora ; from 
whence, if necessary, you will fall back by Penausende 
towards the Barca de Villal Campo on the Duero, which 
must be the point of our communication. 

' The road for the 2nd division, &c., in this case, would 
be by Aldea Nueva de Figueroa ; and for the troops at and 
near Salamanca, by the great road of Zamora. 

' If you should think it proper to give up the communica- 
tion by Salamanca, it will be necessary to send persons along 
the roads from Salamanca to Ciudad Rodrigo, to turn every 
thing on the road off towards Ledesma. 

' It would be desirable that on the 31st and 1st you should 
order General Victor Alton to threaten the ford of Fresno, 
between Zamora and Toro, if all should remain quiet. 

' The persons who furnish me with intelligence will be 
directed to correspond with you. 

' Believe me, &c. 

4 Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir R. Hill, K.B: 

To Lieut. General Sir R. Hill, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HlLL, ' Salamanca, 28th May, 1813. 

' In addition to the letter which 1 have written to you this 
day, I have to inform you that General Castafios is in Sala- 
manca, together with the Civil Deputy of the province ; 
and the Spanish regiment La Princesa is in garrison in the 
town. 



1813. SALAMANCA. 405 

' I beg that you will keep General Castanos acquainted 
with all that occurs, and with your intentions ; and in case 
you should make any movement which will leave Salamanca 
exposed to a movement from Medina, you will of course give 
him timely notice of it, and direct the regiment La Princesa 
to fall back upon Don Carlos de Espafia at Tamames. 

' Believe me, &c. 

'Lieut General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir R. Hill, 



To Lieut. Colonel Sir Robert Hill. 

' MY DEAR SIR ROBERT, ' Salamanca, 28th May, 1813. 

' I enclose a paper which I have just received, stating that 
some of the troops under your command are cutting and 
destroying the green forage in this neighbourhood. There 
can be no occasion for this destruction at present ; and, at all 
events, if it is necessary to give green forage to the horses, 
the General Orders of the army prescribe a mode of doing 
it in which it will not be prejudicial to the owners, and they 
will get the value of it. I beg that you will enforce these 
orders invariably in the Household brigade, and4lius prevent 
these complaints. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Lieut. Colonel ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir Robert Hill: 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henri/ Wellesley, K.B, 

' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Salamanca, 28th May, 1813. 

' I enclose you the copies of intercepted letters, which 
give some reason to apprehend that the Russians have met 
with a serious check. 

' The enemy are collecting about Medina del Campo ; our 
troops hereabouts are disposed so as to join those on the 
right of the Duero. 

' I go to Miranda to-morrow, and shall be at Carvajales 
on the 30th. 

* Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

,&> H. Wellesley K.B: 



400 SPAIN. 1813. 

To Lieut. General Sir R. Hill, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HILL, 'Carvajales, 30th May, 1813. 9 P.M. 

' I arrived here this day, and the troops will cross the Esla 
to-morrow morning. 

' The enemy are still in Zamora, but in small numbers ; 
and I understand that they have destroyed the bridge there. 
' We have not the bridge over the Duero at the Barca de 
Villal Campo, as I think it will be required for the Esla ; 
but this will make no difference in your instructions for the 
present. We can always remove the bridge in time if you 
should require it. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

sir R. Hni, K.B: 

To General Giron, 

'a Carvajales, ce 30 Mai, 1813. 
' MON CHER GENERAL, a 9 heures du soir. 

' Je vous ai fait ecrire par le General Wimpffen pour vous 
apprendre que notre armee serait sur 1'Esla, entre Tavara 
et Carvajales, entre le 28 et le 30. 

' Je suis arrive ici aujourd'hui, apres avoir fait a la division 
qui etait a Salamanque assez de mal, et avoir etablile Gene- 
ral Hill, &c., entre le Duero et le Tormes. Je compte 
passer 1'Esla demain au matin aux gues de Manzanal, 
et a un gu aupres de Montamarta. Nous n'avons pas 
encore de vos nouvelles ici; et je vous prie de m'en faire 
avoir, et de vous approcher de notre gauche. On me dit 
que 1'ennemi est a Benavente, en quelle force je ne sais pas. 
Mais je crois que c'est seulement une reconnaissance pour 
avoir des nouvelles de nous ou de vous. 

' Agreez, &c. 
' Le General Giron. ' WELLINGTON, 

' J'ai laisse le General Castanos hier a Salamanque en 
bonne sante.' 

% 

To Lieut. General Sir R. Hill, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HlLL, ' Carvajales, 31st May, 1813. 

' The greatest part of the army crossed the Esla this day, 
the cavalry in particular. The enemy have evacuated Za- 



1813. CARVAJALES. 407 

mora, and I shall be there to-morrow. We shall have a post 
at Fresno, by which I shall send to you. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Lieut. General WELLINGTON. 

sir R. am, K.B: 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Carvajales, 31st May, 1813. 

'The mail from England to the 12th arrived last night, 
and I have a letter of that date from Lord Bathurst, in 
which he does not mention the battle supposed to have been 
fought at Lutzen on the 2nd. I have as yet no paper of a 
later date than the 10th. It recites various affairs in the 
end of April on the Saale, and states that Paris papers had 
been received to the 7th. You will recollect that it was 
stated in the letter to Villatte that the Empress received 
the accounts at Paris on the 6th. 

' There are letters from Hamburg of the 4th published in 
the Courier of the 10th; and it appears that the French 
had then retired from the Saalc and lower Elbe. 

' Our troops crossed the Esla this morning. We took 
some prisoners ; and the officer stated that the news of the 
victory was not credited in the army. Our posts will be in 
Zamora to-morrow. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, 



To Viscount Sidmouth. 

' MY DEAR LORD, 'Carvajales, 3ist May, 1813. 

" ' I have received your letter of the 50th of April, enclosing 
one from Mr. - , late an officer in His Majesty's and 
the Portuguese service. Mr. -- has not given an accu- 
rate account of the circumstances which occasioned his 
removal from the Portuguese, and his resignation of his 
commission in His Majesty's service. I believe him to be an 
excellent officer ; but, the fact is, he was guilty of something 
more than disobedience of orders. 

' I have not yet observed any inclination in the Spanish 
Government to accept the services of British Officers in 



408 SPAIN. 1813. 

their army ; and, indeed, their services would be useless, 
unless their admission were very general, and other mea- 
sures were adopted to secure the maintenance of the army. 
The services of a few individuals Avould not be of much 
benefit, and I am afraid would only lead to diminish the 
character which the British army have acquired in the Por- 
tuguese service. I have, therefore, rather discouraged ap- 
plications of the description of Mr. 's. 

' I confess, however, that if I had not done so, I should 

wish to decline recommending Mr. to the Spanish 

Government, although I entertain a good opinion of him 
as an officer. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Viscount Sidmouth: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' My LORD, ' Carvajales, 31st May, 1813. 

'I have received your Lordship's letter of the 30th of 
April, with one from Lord Strangford to Lord Castlcreagh, 
proposing that horses should be bought in the Brazils for 
the use of His Majesty's troops in this country. 

* I do not know what kind of horses those of the Brazils 
are, nor does Lord Strangford state the price at which they 
could be purchased ; it is therefore difficult to form an opinion. 
But I should imagine the hire of the transports for each 
horse would amount to 60 sterling, besides the expense of 
his food on the passage, and for the length of time which 
would elapse after landing in Portugal before he could be 
fit for service after so long a voyage. 

' I was not aware of the great loss of horses on the passage 
from the British Islands to the Peninsula, adverted to by 
Lord Strangford, and I imagine that his Lordship must 
have been misinformed. 

*1 have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Eat I Bathurst. 

' MY LORD, Carvajales, 31st May, 1813. 

' The troops arrived at Salamanca on the 26th instant, 
and AVC found the enemy still in the town with one division 



1813. CARVAJALES. 409 

of infantry, and three squadrons of cavalry, and some can- 
non of the Army of the South, under the command of General 
Villatte. 

' The enemy evacuated the town on our approach, but 
they waited longer than they ought on the high ground in 
the neighbourhood, and afforded an opportunity for the 
cavalry, under General Fane and General Victor Alten, the 
former of which crossed the Tormes, at the ford of S la . Marta, 
and the latter at the bridge, to do them a good deal of 
injury in their retreat. Many were killed and wounded, and 
we took about 200 prisoners, 7 tumbrels of ammunition, some 
baggage, provisions, &c. The enemy retired by the road 
of Babila-fuente, and near Huerta were joined by a body of 
infantry and cavalry on their march from Alba. I then 
ordered our troops to discontinue their pursuit, our infantry 
not being up. 

' Major General Long, and Major General Morillo, in com- 
mand of the Spanish division, attacked Alba, from which 
place the enemy retired. 

' In the course of the 27th and 28th, I established the 
troops which had marched from the Agueda and Upper 
Estremadura, between the Tormes and Duero, under the 
command of Lieut. General Sir Rowland Hill, with the view 
to their early communication and junction with the main 
body of the army, on the right of the Duero, and in the 
mean time, to their retaining possession of the Tormes, and 
of the communication with Ciudad Rodrigo ; and I set off 
myself on the 29th to join the troops here, and arrived that 
day at Miranda dc Douro ; and here on the 30th I found 
the troops on the Esla, under the orders of Sir Thomas 
Graham, as I had intended, with their left at Tabara, and in 
communication with the Galician army, and their right at 
this place, and all the arrangements made for passing the 
Esla. The greater part passed that river this morning, the 
cavalry by fords, and the infantry by a bridge, which it was 
necessary to throw over the river, as it was so deep that some 
men, even of the cavalry, were lost in the passage. The 
English hussars, who crossed first, took an officer and 30 
prisoners near Val de Perdices. 

' The enemy have evacuted Zamora, and our patrols have 
been in that town. The troops which were there have fallen 



410 SPAIN. 1813. 

back upon Toro, where I understand they have one division 
of infantry and a brigade of cavalry. 

' It appears that the enemy have joined at La Nava del 
Rey the troops which retired from Salamanca, Avila, &c. with 
those which were at Arevalo and Medina del Campo ; and I 
imagine that as this part of the army will advance, they will 
retire across the Duero. 

' The enemy's troops were still at Madrid and on the 
Tagus on the 22nd instant. I conclude that they will have 
evacuated that part of the country on hearing of our move- 
ment. 

' I have received a report to which I give credit, though it 
is not official, that the Spanish garrison have evacuated 
Castro Urdiales, and have embarked in His Majesty's ships. 

' I have received no accounts from Alicante since I ad- 
dressed your Lordship last. 

' 1 have the honor to be, &c. 
:* Earl Bathwtt, ' WELLINGTON. 

' Zaraora, 1st June, 1813. 

' P.S. This dispatch having been detained, I have to 
inform your Lordship that I moved the head quarters here 
this day. 

' The enemy have evacuated Toro, into which place our 
troops have entered. The head quarters will be there to- 
morrow.' 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 
' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Zamora, 1st June, 18 J 3. 

' Since I wrote to you yesterday, I have received a paper 
of the 14th, which I enclose, from which it appears that there 
has been an action in Germany, supposed to be favorable to 
the French. I suspect only one of outposts, as it is scarcely 
possible that the Russians and Prussians could have col- 
lected their army for a general action at Lutzen, from the 
other side of the Saale, between the 30th of April and 2nd 
May. We are getting on fast. I shall be at Toro to-morrow. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

The Right Hon. < WELLINGTON. 

. Sir H. IVellesley, K.B. 



1813. TORO. 411 

' P.S. I understand that there is at Lisbon a newspaper 
of the 13th, containing the French bulletin of their action j 
but I have not heard the particulars.' 

To Lieut. General Sir T. Graham, K.B. 

' MY DEAR SIR, 'Toro, -2nd June, 1813. half past two, P.M. 

' I have received yours by the peasant of 10 A.M. ; and I 
am obliged to you for the intelligence it contains. I was 
aware that the enemy had crossed the Duero ; but not of 
the exact spot in which the army was likely to be concen- 
trated. I have likewise heard that the troops from Segovia 
have crossed the Duero. I do not think we are so close up, 
or so well concentrated as we ought to be, to meet the enemy 
in the state in which he will appear on the Horniza, pro- 
bably to-morrow ; and, therefore, I propose to halt the heads 
of the different columns to-morrow, and to close up the rear of 
each, and to move Hill in this direction preparatory to our 
farther movements. 

' The 10th have had a very handsome affair this morning 
with the enemy's cavalry, between this and Morales. Their 
loss is small ; but they must have destroyed the enemy's 
16th dragoons, of whom they took above 200 prisoners. 
The enemy showed in great strength in cavalry about Pe- 
drosa del Rev. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir T. Graham, K.B: 

To Lieut. General Sir T. Graham, K.B. 
' MY DEAR SlR, ' Toro, 3rd June, 1813. 

' I have received your several letters to half past nine last 
night. It appears that the enemy are concentrating in the 
valley of Torre-lobaton. We shall be tolerably strong in 
that quarter to-morrow; and I expect that Sir Rowland 
Hill will be across the Duero, and at Morales, and Pedrosa 
del Rey. 

' I enclose you letters from General Giron, and another 
just received. I likewise enclose one for General Giron, 
which I beg you to forward by an officer. I believe he is this 
day at Villal-pando ; and I have begged him not to approach 



412 SPAIN. 



1813. 



nearer to Rio Seco till I shall write to him to-morrow. It 
is best to keep him in echelon to your left. 

' I have never been able to discover exactly where Reillc 
went after he had moved his quarters from Palencia. I had 
not heard of his arrival at Burgos, and I thought it not un- 
likely that he had gone to the frontiers of Galicia, where the 
cavalry belonging to the army of Portugal, under Rouycr 
and Curto were. I was not quite certain, also, of the march 
of all the infantry of the army of Portugal to the North of 
Spain. 

' Don Julian surprised a post of 50 cavalry yesterday 
evening, at Castro Nuno, and took them all prisoners. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir T. Graham, K.B.' 

To Lieut. General Sir T. Graham, K.B. 
' MY DEAR SIR, ' Toro, 3rd June, 1813. half past eight, P.M. 

' I have received yours of 4 P.M. I do not think it ne- 
cessary to make any alteration in our disposition for to- 
morrow, in consequence of the enemy's retiring. We are all 
moving to our point, and shall be well connected, which is our 
object. 

' General Giron knows of old that I can give no ammuni- 
tion in the field. I must make use of him according to his 
means in this way ; and if I should want to use him, I must 
try to give him ammunition. But this is the way in which 
I have always found the Spanish troops equipped. 

' It is very true that General Giron has not been long in 
Galicia ; but why has not somebody been there long enough 
to get those equipments essentially necessary for an army ? 

' To all these complaints I have one answer, " Either stay 
and do your best, or go back and I must do my best without 
you." It will certainly be an eternal disgrace to the Spanish 
nation if I am to have another campaign in the heart of 
Spain, without the assistance of a single Spanish soldier, 
excepting guerrillas. 

' Believe me, &c. 

'Lieut. General < WELLINGTON, 

Sir T. Graham, 



1813. LA MOTA. 413 

To General Giron. 

' MON CHER GENERAL, ' a Toro, ce 3 Juin, 1813. a 1$ P.M. 

f Je vicns de recevoir votre lettre du 1 er par un officier de 
votre part : et comptant que vous seriez peut-etre aujourd'hui 
a Villal-pando, j'allais vous ecrire pour vous prior de ne pas 
vous approcher plus pres de Medina de Rio Seco jusqu'a ce 
quo je vous ecrirais encore. Je compte que vous pourrez y 
arriver en une marche de Villal-pando. La gauche de notre 
armee sera demain a Villar de Frades et Villa Nueva de los 
Cavalleros, ou je vous prie de communiquer avec le General 
Graham. 

' La seule chose que je ne peux pas faire c'est de vous 
donner des cartouches de fusil en campagne. Tout ce qu'on 
pout faire est de ne pas vous mettre en une situation d'cn 
faire une grande consommation, jusqu'a ce que vous en 
soyez pourvu. 

' L'ennemi parait assez concentre dans la vallee de Torrc- 
lobaton, et nous le serons j>areillement demain. Je crois 
que jc vous ferai marcher apres demain sur Medina. 

'Agreez, &c. 
' Le General Giron." ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Sir T. Graham, K.B. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' La Mota, 4th June, 1813. 1 P.M. 

' I have received yours of this day, and all appears quiet 
in front. I sent a letter for General Giron. 

' I do not know what I can do more in regard to foraging 
the troops, whether Portuguese or others. It rests with the 
General Officers commanding brigades to see that the orders 
are carried into execution, which provide for all cases in which 
forage can be got.' I send, however, to D'Urban, Bradford, 
and Pack upon the subject. 

.' Believe me, &c. 

'Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir T. Graham, K.B.' 



414 SPAIN. 1813. 

To General Giron. 
< MON CHER GENERAL, ' a La Mota, ce 4 Juin, 1813. 

f Je reqois votrc lettre d'hier de 11 hcures du matin, et 
jc vous pric de faire marcher votre infanterie domain sur Villa 
Frechos, et votre cavalerie sur Aguilar de Campos. Notre 
gauche sera a Medina de Rio Seco, oil je vous prie de com- 
muniquer avec elle. Le quartier general sera a Castro- 
monte. 

' C'est bien vrai que je vous ai donne des cartouches de 
fusil 1'annee passee, quand nous en avons recus plus qu'il 
nous en fallait ; mais a present je n'en ai que trop peu ; et 
vous pouvez vous assurer que jamais je ne les ai donne en 
campagne, pas meme aux Portugais qui se battent dans nos 
rangs. Si je pretendais en donner, je me mettrais tout de 
suite dans le meme embarras ou vous vous trouvez. 

' Done il faut vous tenir en reserve ; et si nous sommes 
dans la necessite de vous mettre en bataille, il faut neces- 
sairement vous donner des cartouches, que les consequences 
soient telles qu'elles voudront. Mais il faut que cette neces- 
site soit causee par moi-meme. 

' Je ne dis pas que ce manque de cartouches vous doit etre 
attribue, ni a la troupe. Mais c'est un malheur, et la seule 
chose qu'on peut faire pour y remedier est ce que je propose 
faire, et aussi que vous-meme vous fassiez oter a la troupe la 
moitie ou 30 des cartouches qu'ils ont a present ; que vous 
les fassiez relier en paquets de dix chacun ; et que vous les 
mettiez en ballots bien relies de 500 en chaque ballot, tin 
mulct en porterait 4 ; etjecrois que vous ne trouverez pas 
de difficulte a avoir 200 mulcts de charge dans ce pays ci. 

' Agreez, &c. 
' Le General Giron: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don Juan O'Donoju. 
' SIR, . ' La Mota, 4th June, 1813. 

' I once more beg your Excellency to draw the attention 
of the Government to the conduct of the Intendants and 
civil authorities in the country, of which I have so frequently 
had serious cause to complain. 

'The army of reserve of Andalusia are detained in Estre- 
madura, on the Guadiana, because the Intendants of that 



1813. LA MOTA. 415 

province have not collected the provisions which the Captain 
General had ordered by my desire might be collected for its 
subsistence, not less than ten weeks ago. The army of 
Galicia, which is joined to the Allied British and Portuguese 
army under my command, is unprovided with mules to carry 
ammunition, or any thing else, on account of the neglect of 
the civil authorities in Galicia, of which I have before com- 
plained. 

' The consequence is that this army, which is clothed, 
armed, and disciplined, cannot be brought into action with 
the enemy ; and I am obliged to keep it in the rear. Thus 
this campaign will be fought without the aid of a single 
Spanish corps, notwithstanding that it is supposed there are 
160,000 Spanish troops in arms. It cannot be expected that 
troops will march without provisions, or will fight without 
ammunition ; and it cannot be stated with truth, either that 
provisions for the army of reserve could not have been col- 
lected in Estremadura upon ten weeks' notice, or that 200 or 
300 mules could not have been procured in Galicia for the 
ammunition for the army of that province. Yet for want 
of these exertions the cause may be lost. 

' I earnestly entreat the Government to concert with the 
Cortes the means of establishing in the provinces some 
authority to which the people will pay obedience, and which 
will insure their resources for the purposes of the war; 
otherwise, notwithstanding all our exertions, the cause of 
the country will be lost. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
1 Don Juan O'Donoju.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 
f MY DEAR HENRY, ' I-a Mota, 4th June, 1813. 

' I write just to let you know that we are getting on as 
well as I could wish. We have established the whole army 
on the right of the Duero, having possession of the two 
bridges of Zaniora and Toro. 

' The enemy have retired from Madrid, Toledo, &c., and 
have all crossed the Upper Duero. They appear to be re- 
tiring towards Burgos. 

'The 10th hussars destroyed the IGth French dragoons on 
the day before yesterday, between Toro and Zamora. They 



416 SPAIN. 1813. 

took about 2GO prisoners ; and Don Julian took 50 dragoons 
prisoners on the same evening at Castro Nufio. 

' General Giron, with the Galician army, is joined to our 
left. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. WellesUy, 



To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY LORD, ' ^ a Mota, 4th June, 1813. 

'I have received your Lordship's letter, (No. 122) of the 
13th May, enclosing one from the Transport Office of the 
12th May, in regard to the number of transports in the 
Peninsula ; and your Lordship may depend upon my doing 
every thing in my power to dimmish the number and to 
limit it hereafter. 

' I would request your Lordship to observe, however, that 
of 191 ships, containing 54,992 tons, in other ports of the 
Peninsula besides Lisbon, there are 119, containing 37,009 
tons in the service of the army on the eastern coast of the 
Peninsula, besides all His Majesty's troop ships attached 
to this army. This is to be attributed to the peculiar 
situation of that army, to the services to which it is destined 
in the Peninsula, and to the call to which it is at every 
moment liable from Sicily. There are 4, containing 445 
tons, on the same service at Carthagena, and on passage 
from Gibraltar, and 4, containing 1345 tons on the coast 
of Catalonia. Of the remainder, there are 12 ships at 
Cadiz, containing 3308 tons, and there are 15, containing 
3379 tons, at Coruna, or on the passage from England, laden 
with ordnance stores, &c., making nearly 150 ships out of 
191 with which this army can have nothing to do, and over 
which I can have no control. Of the remaining 41 there are 
8 employed in conveying Spanish troops to the coast of 
Catalonia, others in the removal of stores for the Spanish or 
Portuguese army from one part of the coast to the other. 
Of the 64 ships stated to be at Lisbon and on the passage, 
there are 3 loading flour for Gibraltar, and 1 for Alicante, 
under order from England. 15 are refitting-, 5 ordered to 

~ 

England, and 11 on their passage from England, leaving 29 
ships which can fairly be stated to be in the service of this 
army exclusively. 



1813. CASTRO-MONTE. '417 

' I would beg your Lordship likewise to observe the nature 
and extent of our operations, carried on, as they are, with a 
limited supply of money. We are frequently obliged to 
move from Lisbon to the nearest post to the army, not only 
all the ordnance stores, ammunition, &c., required for the 
army and the allies, but the provisions and forage, corn, like- 
wise, from the want of specie to purchase those articles in the 
country which may be the seat of our operations. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
1 Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Sir T. Graham, K.B. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' Castro-monte, 5th June, 1813. 

'I have just received your letter of half past eleven, en- 
closing one from General Giron, acknowledging the receipt 
of his orders to march this day. I have not received the 
report of the Spanish officer to which you refer. 

' From all the accounts which I have from the front, the 
enemy have probably no troops on this side of the Carrion ; 
at all events, none on this side of the heights between 
Duenas and Palencia. But if they had, our line is so 
concentrated that with 4000 men they could not venture to 
touch any part of it. It is very desirable, however, that the 
cavalry and infantry should be kept together, in order to 
support each other. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir T. Graham, K.B: 

To Brigadier General Sir N. Trant. 

MY DEAR SIR, ' Castro-monte, 5th June, 1813. 

1 I have received your letters of the 25th May, and have 
spoken to Marshal Sir William Beresford regarding your 
leave of absence, upon which he will write to you himself. 

' I perfectly concur in the justice of your claims; and I 
enclose a letter upon them to the Secretary of State, which 
you will either take to England, if the Marshal should give 
you leave, or forward to the Secretary of State, as may suit 
your convenience. 

' Believe me, c. 
4 Brig. General < WELLINGTON. 

Sir N. Trant.' 
VOL. X. 2 E 



418' SPAIN. 1813. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
< ]y[ Y LORD ' Castro-monte, 5th June, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter from Brig. General Trant, explaining 
the inconveniences under which he labors, in consequence of 
a decision of the War Office that he shall not receive his pay 
as Captain and Assistant in the Quarter Master General's 
department, bearing a King's commission as such, while 
employed in this country under orders from the Secretary of 
State. 

' Having frequently had occasion to draw the attention of 
His Majesty's Government to the services and conduct of 
this officer, and having obtained the interference of the late 
Secretary of State, the Earl of Liverpool, to prevent his 
removal from his office of Assistant in the Quarter Master 
General's department, while employed in this country, it is 
scarcely necessary that I should endeavor to justify my 
present application for your Lordship's interference in favor 
of Brig. General Trant's claims by another reference to his 
services and merits. I can only repeat my sense of them, 
and my assurance that he has continued them much to my 
satisfaction, and that of Marshal Sir William Beresford, 
since I had last occasion to address the Secretary of State 
upon his case. 

' He has been employed in this country in a most import- 
ant situation, for the expenses of which his allowances are 
by no means adequate ; and it is really a matter of justice 
that he should receive the pay of the situation which he holds 
in England. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
'Earl Bathurst.' < WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Calvert. 

' MY DEAR GENERAL, Castro-monte, 5th June, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 3rd ultimo, containing 
an extract of that you wrote to me on the 20th of October 
last ; and I beg to assure you, for the Commander in Chiefs 
information, that for some time past I have given officers who 
have made application three months' leave of absence, which 
1 consider quite sufficient for the arrangement of the affairs 
of any officer. 

c Believe me, &c. 
Lieut. General Calvert: < WELLINGTON. 



1813. CASTRO-MONTE. 419 

MEMORANDUM TO SIR ROBERT KENNEDY, 

Of an arrangement for the distribution of Bread, Corn, and Wine re- 
ceivedfrom the country to the troops of the different nations of which 
the army under Lord Wellington is composed. 

'5th June, 1813. 

' 1. Whenever a magazine of provisions shall be taken 
'from the enemy by the troops under the immediate com- 
mand of Lord Wellington, it is to be divided among the 
troops of the three nations as follows ; that is to say, for 
the English troops one half; for the Spanish troops one 
quarter ; for the Portuguese troops one quarter. The Com- 
missary in Chief will settle the contents of the magazine; 
and in case the Commissary of any nation shall have received 
more of it than its proportion, the value of the overplus 
shall be paid to the Commissary of that nation which shall 
have received less than its proportion. 

' 2. The rents due to the Crown of Spain received in hand 
shall be applicable to the subsistence of the armies. 

4 The Intendant General of the 4th Spanish army will 
ascertain as soon as possible the amount of these dues to 
the Crown of Spain in the several provinces under the Cap- 
tain General Castanos. The produce of these rents shall, in 
the first instance, be applicable to the support of the Span- 
ish troops in the army under the command of Lord Wel- 
lington. Those not wanted for these troops are to be handed 
over to the Commissary General of the British troops, who, 
upon receipt thereof, is to pay into the Treasury of the 
Spanish Government the value of those supplies, at the 
price current of the day. 

* 3. The Chief of the Staff of the Spanish army, and the 
Quarter Master General of the British army, upon making 
the daily disposition for the movement of the army, are to 
settle from what parts of the country the separate Spanish 
corps, under the Conde de la Bisbal and General Giron, are 
to draw their bread and forage ; or if by accident these corps 
should march by the same lines with the allied British and 
Portuguese army, in what proportions they are to share the 
resources of the country through which the troops may pass. 
' 4. In case any Spanish or Portuguese troops should 
serve in the same corps with British troops, as at present in 
the corps under the command of Sir Kowland Hill, the troops 

2E2 



420 SPAIN. 1813. 

under the Conde de Amarante, and Colonels Campbell and 
Diggens, and the Spanish troops under General Morillo ; 
and in the corps under Lieut. General Sir Thomas Graham, 
the Portuguese troops under Generals Pack and Bradford ; 
and in the centre of the army, the Portuguese troops under 
General D'Urban, and the Spanish troops under Don Carlos 
de Espafia, the Commissary General of the British army is 
to take care that his deputies, attached to those corps, shall 
make such distribution of the bread, wine, and forage corn 
received from the villages through which the corps will pass, 
or from which it may receive its supplies, as may be just, 
adverting to the numbers to be fed by the different nations ; 
and the Deputy Commissary shall, for this purpose, commu- 
nicate with the Commissaries of the several nations, and 
come to an understanding with them for their wants accord- 
ingly. 

' 5. It is, however, to be clearly understood, both by the 
Spanish and Portuguese Commissaries, and by the people 
of the country, that the credit of the British Government is 
pledged for the payment of that only for which the British 
Commissary will give a receipt. 

' WELLINGTON.' 



To General Giron. 

' MON CHER GENERAL, ' a Ampudia, ce 6 Juin, 1813. 

' J'ai ree,u votre lettrc du 5 aujourd'hui memo. J'ai regu 
de VAmiral a Lisbonne une lettre par laquelle il me dit 
qu'on a demande un vaisseau pour transporter 1'argent en 
Galice, et qu'il compte en donner un tout de suite. Aussitot 
quo 1'argent arrive en Galice je le feral donner a votre ordre, 
quoique je comptais qu'avec cc que vous aviez deja, vous 
auriez assez pour la fin du mois. 

' Quand je vous donne certaines sommes d'argent, c'est 
tout ce que je peux vous donner ; et ce que nous pouvons 
recevoir pour des billets negocies a la Corogne doit etrc 
consideres pour le service general. J'ai deja donne 1'ordre 
qu'on prenne tout ce qui s'offre a la Corogne pour billets ; 
et il nous conviendrait beaucoup de pouvoir trouver la 
1'argent qu'il vous faudrait au lieu de le faire venirdes fonds 
a Lisbonne. Je vous prie done de faire dire a vos amis a 



1813. AMPUDIA. 421 

la Corogne de donner a Mr. White tout 1'argent qu'ils ont a 
donner pour des billets sur 1'Angleterre. 

' Le quartier general sera demain a Palencia, et je vous 
ferai dire chaque jour ou il sera, et de quelle maniere vous 
devez communiquer avec lui. 

' Je crois que le General Castanos est alle a Valladolid. 

' Agreez, &c. 
I..' Le General Giron.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To General Comte Gazan. 

' Au Quartier General, 

' MONSIEUR LE GENERAL, ce 6 Juin, 1813. 

' Sachant que vous aviez permis au Capitaine Lloyd de 
retourner a 1'armee sur parole de ne pas servir jusqu'a ce 
qu'il fut echange, j'ai renvoye lu'er a 1'armee Franqaise, 
en echange pour lui, le Capitaine Vernier, pris a Castro 
Nuno le meme 2 de Juin. Si j'eusse su que votre Excel- 
lence aurait prefere en echange le Capitaine d'Artillerie 
Chevillc, je 1'aurais fait renvoyer en France. 

' J'ai 1'honneur d'etre, &c. 
' Le General Comte Gazan.\ ' WELLINGTON. 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

< SIR, ' Ampudia, 6th June, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter from General Peacocke, and its en- 
closures, which I beg you will lay before the Portuguese 
Government, and request that they will decide whether the 
person accused of the alleged murder shall be tried accord- 
ing to the Portuguese law. In this instance it would be 
very convenient that he should be so tried. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B: ' WELLINGTON. 

[ To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY LORD, ' Ampudia, 6th June, 1813. 

' The troops have continued to advance since I wrote to 
your Lordship on the 31st of last month, and were on the 1st 
at Zamora, and on the 2nd they arrived at Toro. 

' The English hussars, being in the advanced guard, fell 
in, between Toro and Morales, with a considerable body of 



422 



SPAIN. 



1813. 



the enemy's cavalry, which were immediately attacked by 
the 10th, supported by the 18th and 15th. The enemy 
were overthrown, and pursued for many miles ; and 210 
prisoners., with many horses, and two officers, fell into our 
hands. 

' I enclose Colonel Grant's report * of this gallant affair, 

* To General the Marquis of Wellington, K. G. 

1 MY LORD, ' Morales, 2nd June, 1813. 

'I have the honor to acquaint your Lordship, that on approaching Morales 
this morning with the hussar brigade, the French cavalry appeared in consider- 
able force near that place. 

' The 10th royal hussars were immediately brought forward, under the orders 
of Major Robarts, who attacked the advanced squadrons of the enemy in 
the most gallant manner: their front line made a determined resistance, but 
was instantly overpowered by the irresistible impetuosity of the 10th hussars, 
which being now supported by the 18th (the 15th being in reserve) reached their 
second line and drove it, with loss, to the heights, two miles in front of Morales; 
a position which the enemy occupied with a large force of cavalry and infantry, 
and where the remains of their shattered squadrons took shelter under cover of 
their guns. It is with much satisfaction I acquaint your Lordship that nothing 
could exceed the steadiness and bravery of the troops in this affair. 

'I have, however, to regret the loss of a very promising young officer, Lieut. 
Cotton, of the 10th hussars, who was killed in the midst of the enemy's ranks. I 
am sorry to add that Captain Lloyd, of the same regiment, is missing. 

' I have the honor to enclose the return of the killed and wounded, and also a 
return of the loss sustained by the enemy, as far as it can be ascertained. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' General < C. GRANT. 

the Marquis of Wellington. 

' P.S. Since writing the above, I have learnt that Captain Lloyd was wounded 
and taken prisoner, but has been left at Pedrosa del Rey, having given his parole 
to the enemy. His wound is severe, but not dangerous.' 

Return of the Killed, Wounded,^and Missing of the Army wider the command of 
General the Marquis of Wellington, K.G., in action with the Enemy's rear guard 
near Morales, on the 2nd of June, 1813 









OJ 
















Total loss of Officers 






tq 


a 




Non-commissioned 




E 

03 


3 
oj 






Officers, and Rank 








a 

03 


E 

o 


and File. 




o 


03 


M 


w 




Killed . . . 


1 




1 


4 


2 


Wounded . . 


1 


1 


13 


12 


15 


Missing . 


1 


1 


2 


11 


4 



1813. AMPUDIA. 423 

which reflects great credit upon Major Robarts and the 10th 
hussars, and upon Colonel Grant, under whose directions 
they acted. 

* On the same evening, Don Julian Sanchez surprised the 
enemy's post at Castro Nuno, and took two officers and 
thirty cavalry prisoners ; and he drove their posts from the 
ford of Polios. 

' The enemy had destroyed the bridges of Zamora and 
Toro ; and the difficulties in the passage of the Esla had 
retarded the movement of our rear, while the enemy had 
concentrated their force to a considerable amount between 
Torre-lobaton and Tordesillas. 1 therefore halted on the 3rd 
at Toro, in order to bring the Light division and the troops 
under the command of Lieut. General Sir Rowland Hill 
across the Duero by the bridge of that town, and to close up 
our rear, and to bring the Galician army to join our left ; 
and we moved again on the 4th. 

' The enemy had commenced collecting their troops towards 
the Duero when they found that we passed Ciudad Rodrigo ; 
and they crossed the Duero at Tordesillas on the 1st and 
2nd. The troops at Madrid, and the detachments on the 
Tagus, broke up on the 27th, and crossed the Duero at the 
Puente de Duero on the 3rd ; and Valladolid was entirely 
evacuated on the 4th. 

' The enemy left considerable magazines of grain at 
Arevalo, and some ammunition at Valladolid and Zamora. 

' The enemy have passed the Carrion, and are apparently 
on their retreat towards Burgos. 

' I have received a report, to which I give credit, that the 
enemy, having brought five guns to Castro Urdiales from 
Santona by sea, effected a breach in the town wall on the 
llth May, which they stormed and carried, the garrison 
having retired to the castle. They attempted to storm the 
castle, but were repulsed with considerable loss ; and the 
garrison were carried off on the morning of the 12th by His 
Majesty's sloops Lyra, Royalist, and Sparrow, and were 
landed at Bermeo, 

' I have received no accounts from Alicante since I ad- 
dressed your Lordship last. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ( WELLINGTON. 



424 SPAIN. 1813. 

To Earl Bathunt. 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Ampudia, 6th June, 1813. 

' I enclose a letter from Sir Robert Kennedy, regarding 
the plan of sending Mr. Dawkins to this country for the 
examination and passing of Sir Robert Kennedy's accounts ; 
and I have only to add, that the sooner he is sent the better. 

* Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELL iNGTON. 

To Lieut. General Sir T. Graham, K.B. 

' MY DEAR SlR, ' Amusco, 8th June, 1813. $ past 7 P.M. 

' I received your note on my return home, and just now 
your letter, enclosing one from General Bock. We have 
seldom, if ever, been able to get any assistance from the 
cavalry for the police; and there is no doubt that the con- 
dition of the horses would be much deteriorated by a constant 
patrole of the numbers stated, which, however, is stronger 
than I hope is necessary. 1 will speak to Lord Aylmer to 
send a second detachment of the Staff corps to your head 
quarters to-morrow to aid in the police. 

' I must refer you to the General Orders for the duties 
and authority of Provost and his Assistants. I doubt the 
legality of the Provost's authority ; and, in my opinion, 
necessity and custom are the only foundation for it; but the 
authority ought not to be extended farther than has been 
customary, unless absolutely necessary. 

' The Assistant Provosts, therefore, have not the power of 
executing capitally, even though they catch a soldier in the 
act of committing an outrage j nor can they, or even the 
Provost himself, punish, unless they do catch a soldier in 
the act. 

' I never heard of the exemption from duty stated to be 
desired by Pack and Bradford. Generally, I have found it 
inconvenient in this army, and in all allied armies, to name 
General Officers of the day, unless the number of Generals 
should be very confined. By taking a general roster, we 
should place German and Portuguese, and in some instances 
even Spanish General Officers, in command of our officers 
and troops, which seldom answers. 



1813. AMUSCO. 425 

' I never recollect to have had General Officers of the day, 
excepting at the siege of Badajoz, where the duty was per- 
formed by three British Major Generals, Colville, Kempt, 
and Bowes, to the exclusion of Brigadier Generals, in order 
to avoid the inconvenience of placing our officers and troops 
under two or three Portuguese Brigadiers. 

' I have seen Sir Robert Kennedy regarding the want of 
bread by the 5th division. The fact is, that we have not 
marched our magazines ; and although the country is abun- 
dant and willing to supply us, I believe, for our money, there 
will be some difficulty in such an army as this ; and the 
General Officers must give an increased allowance of meat 
when the bread by accident fails. They should also en- 
deavor to let the Commissary General know of the want 
before it occurs rather than afterwards. 

' It is perfectly true that I have made an arrangement for 
the division of the country, and the distribution of the sup- 
plies which it contains ; but it takes some time to translate 
and copy it, and it would only create confusion if it were 
given to one party before it were ready to be delivered to all. 
This arrangement, like every thing else, will depend upon 
the execution, and upon that I own I am not sanguine. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General 'WELLINGTON. 

Sir T. Graham, K.B.' 



TV the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

< SIR, ' Amusco, 8th June, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving vour letter of the 

o / 

31st of May, enclosing one of the 8th of May, from Lieut. 
General Campbell, the Governor of Gibraltar, in which he 
has proposed that Major General Whittingham's corps 
should be paid from the military chest at Alicante. 

' I do not see exactly the reason for adopting this arrange- 
ment, or in what way it would be convenient; though I sec 
many why it would be otherwise. Major General Whitting- 
ham's is a Spanish corps paid under your Excellency's direc- 
tions out of the subsidy from His Majesty and the Spanish 
Government. The military chest at Alicante is destined to 
defray the expenses of the allied British and Sicilian corps 



426 SPAIN. 1813. 

under the orders of Lieut. General Sir John Murray ; and 
although Major General Whittingham's corps is doing duty 
under the orders of Lieut. General Sir John Murray, the 
payments to Major General Whittingham cannot be made 
without occasioning a complication of accounts which would 
be very inconvenient. 

' I would also observe, that as Lieut. General Sir John 
Murray would certainly not consent to advance money from 
the military chest to pay General Whittingham's Spanish 
corps, unless a sum at least equal to its demands were 
thrown into the military chest, I do not see the advantage 
which could be gained by this measure in the way of saving 
money which might be demanded from Gibraltar. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B." 

To Major General Cooke. 
' SIR, ' Amusco, 9th June, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 20th of May, and I 
have perused with attention the papers which you have 

enclosed regarding the conduct of Mr. and of 

other officers of the Commissariat ; and I acknowledge that 
the acquaintance which I have with the former would have 
induced me to expect a different conduct from him ; and that 
I am astonished that any persons of the character of gentle- 
men, and bearing His Majesty's commission, should have 
conducted themselves as the gentlemen of the Commissariat 
have acknowledged that they have done. 

' It appears, however, that they are not aware of the im- 
propriety of their conduct, as each of them, not excepting 

Mr. , makes that a matter of boast which any other 

person would be desirous of concealing, if by accident or in a 
moment of warmth he had been guilty of such impropriety. 

' I beg that you will explain to them all the concern which 
I feel upon this occasion ; and that you will express my 
expectation that they will avoid such conduct in future. 

' Mr. , and the gentlemen belonging to the 

department under his charge, may conceive that he has, 
and he certainly has, reason to complain of those persons 
at Cadiz, who have by anonymous letters and other in- 



1813. AMUSCO. 42 

famous means, traduced his character and conduct, and 
that of the gentlemen of his department, to his superiors. 
But he is mistaken if he supposes that he is the only 
person liable to such an evil. All those who serve the 
public honestly and faithfully have for their enemies and 
traducers those who are desirous of profiting by the public 
wants, inconveniences, and disasters, and by the misfortunes 
of the times ; and Mr. and the gentlemen of the de- 
partment ought to have been satisfied by the result of the 
investigation of their conduct, and to have relied upon the 
justice of their superiors for their acquittal from any future 
anonymous charges, and ought not to have made what I 
must call a disgraceful appeal to the doubtful result of 
a personal contest with persons entirely unworthy of their 
notice. 

' I feel exceedingly displeased with Mr. and all the 

gentlemen of his department ; but I will not consent to 
their removal from Cadiz. I should do them a gross injus- 
tice if, after the investigation to which they have submitted, 
I were to doubt the propriety of their conduct towards the 
public, or were to allow any anonymous accuser to induce 
me to act towards them as if I at least considered there was 
the slightest ground for such accusations. They must there- 
fore remain at Cadiz ; but I hope that they will hereafter 
view these accusations, and those whom they may suspect 
of making them, with the contempt which they deserve ; and 
that, above all, they will refrain from the conduct which is 
the subject of this letter. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
4 Major General Cooke' ' WE L LI NGTON . 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

' SlR, ' Amusco, 9th June, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 26th of May, and 
having conversed with Marshal Sir W. Beresford regarding 
the employment of the military force to check the depre- 
dations which are so prevalent on all the roads in Portugal, 
he has stated to me that the military force in the Alentejo 
have already taken up and put in the power of the Govern- 



428 SPAIN. 1813. 

mcnt a great number of robbers ; but not one has yet been 
brought to justice or punished. If this is the case, it is an 
useless employment of the military force, and is rather an 
encouragement to robbery to send them in pursuit of rob- 
bers who when caught are not to be brought to punishment, 
but are eventually to be let loose again to prey upon the 
public. 

' While writing upon this subject, I beg leave to call 'your 
attention to the enclosed complaint from the Commissary 
General of the omission of the Portuguese authorities to 
punish eight persons convicted of stealing public cattle. If 
these practices can be continued with impunity, the Portu- 
guese Government will be so kind as to take measures to 
furnish the Portuguese army with cattle, as it is impos- 
sible for me to furnish them, if at the same time our cattle 
parks are to be plundered with impunity. 

' The greatest fault that any G overnment can be guilty 
of is to allow crimes to remain unpunished ; and I am sorry 
to observe that this is but too common in Portugal. 
' I have the honor to be, &c. 
4 Sir Charles Stuart, K.B: ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Principal Civil Magistrate at Madrid. 

( SIR, ' Amusco, 9th June, 1813. 

' I avail myself of the opportunity of the passage of a 
messenger through Madrid, to inform you that the enemy 
are in retreat towards Burgos ; and that the army of the 
allied nations will pass the Pisuerga to-morrow morning. 

' The Government have been regularly informed of the 
state of affairs in this part of the country, and I urge them 
to send to the capital without loss of time the principal civil 
and military authorities. In the mean time I trust that the 
loyal people of Madrid will, as heretofore during this event- 
ful contest, conduct themselves with submission to the laws 
and to the existing authorities, and above all will respect 
property, and aid in the protection of the safety of persons. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' The Principal Civil Magistrate. ( WELLINGTON. 

at Madrid." 



1813. AMUSCO. 429 

To Sir Isaac Heard, Garter King of Arms. 

< SIR, ' Amusco, 9th June, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 27th 
of April, in answer to which I beg to refer you to the Secre- 
tary of State's office for copies of all documents by which 
different titles and orders of knighthood have been conferred 
upon me by the Spanish and Portuguese Governments, and 
have been accepted by me with the gracious permission of 
his Royal Highness the Prince Regent, as signified from 
time to time by the Secretary of State. 

' I have not these documents by me, for which reason I 
give you the trouble of a reference to the Secretary of State's 
office. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

Sir Isaac Heard, f WELLINGTON. 

Garter King of Arms.' 

To Lieut. Colonel Bourke. 

' Melgar on the Pisuerga, 
' SlR, 10th June, 1813. 

' There are at Coruna certain ships loaded with biscuit 
and flour, and certain others loaded with a heavy train of 
artillery and ammunition, and some musket ammunition ; 
and I shall be very much obliged to you if you will request 
any officer of the navy who may be at Coruna when you 
receive this letter to take under his convoy all the vessels 
loaded as above mentioned, and to proceed with them to 
Santander. If he should find Santander occupied by the 
enemy, I beg him to remain off the port till the operations 
of this army have obliged the enemy to abandon it. 

' If the enemy should not be in Santander, I beg him to 
enter the port; but to be in readiness to quit it again, if 
the enemy should approach the place, until I shall commu- 
nicate with him. 

' If Mr. White should have any money in his hands which 
he can spare, I beg he will send it by the same opportunity. 

' I have directed that 100,000 dollars should be sent 
round from Lisbon for the use of the Spanish army; and I 
learn from Admiral Martin that a ship was ready at the 
end of May to take this money to Coruna. I beg that, 



430 SPAIN. 1813. 

when this sum shall arrive, it may be delivered to the order 
of General Giron at Corufia. 

' 1 have the honor to be, &c. 
Lieut. Colonel Bourke.' ' WELLINGTON. 



To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley> K.B. 

1 Melgar on the Pisuerga, 
< MY DEAR HENRY, 10th June, 1813. 

' 1 have nothing particular to communicate to you. The 
army are across this river, and within two or three marches 
of the Ebro. The enemy are still about Burgos, as I am 
informed and believe, although it is said they have retired 
towards Miranda. 

' I hear that a Russian bulletin has been received at 
Oporto, with an account of the battle of Lutzen, in which it 
is stated, that the Allies took 6000 prisoners and 20 pieces 
of cannon. They have, however, retired beyond the Elbe; 
and Buonaparte's head quarters were, by the last accounts, 
at Dresden. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir 'Henry Wellesley, K.B: 

To Don Juan O'Donoju. 

' SIR, ' Castro-xeriz, llth June, 1813. 

' Having found that a large number of Spaniards, who, 
during the course of the contest of Spain for her inde- 
pendence, have taken the side of the French, are now staying 
with the enemy's army, I take the liberty of addressing you 
vipon that subject. 

' Many of these individuals are highly meritorious, and 
have rendered the most essential services to the cause, even 
during the period in which they have been in the service 
of the enemy. It is also a known fact, that fear, the 
misery and distress which they suffered during the contest, 
and despair of the result, were the motives which induced 
many of these unfortunate persons to take the part which 
they have taken ; and I would beg leave to suggest for con- 
sideration, whether it is expedient to involve the country in 






1813, CASTRO-XERIZ. 431 

all the consequences of a rigid adherence to the existing law, 
in order to punish such persons. 

' I am the last person who will be found to diminish the 
merit of those Spaniards who have adhered to the cause of 
the country during the severe trial which I hope has passed, 
particularly of those who, having remained among the enemy 
without entering their service, have served their country at 
the risk of their lives. But, at the same time that I can 
appreciate the merit of those individuals, and of the nation 
at large, I can forgive the weakness of those who have been 
induced by terror, by distress, or by despair, to pursue a 
different line of conduct. 

' I entreat the Government to advert to the circumstances 
of the commencement and of the different stages of this event- 
ful contest ; and to the numerous occasions in which all men 
must have imagined that it was impossible for the Powers 
of the Peninsula, although aided by Great Britain, to with- 
stand the colossal power by which they were assailed, and 
nearly overcome. Let them reflect upon the weakness of 
the country at the commencement of the contest, upon the 
numerous and almost invariable disasters of the armies, 
and upon the ruin and disorganization which followed ; and 
let them decide, whether those who were witnesses of these 
events are guilty because they could not foresee what has 
since occurred. The majority are certainly not guilty in 
any other manner ; and many, as I have above stated, now 
deemed guilty in the eye of the law, as having served the 
pretended King, have, by that very act, acquired the means 
of serving, and have rendered important services to their 
country. 

' It is my opinion that the policy of Spain should lead 
the Government and the Cortes to grant a general amnesty, 
with certain exceptions. This subject deserves considera- 
tion in the two views of the effort now making, failing or 
succeeding in freeing the country from its oppressors. If 
the effort should fail, the enemy will, by an amnesty, be de- 
prived of the principal means now in his hands of oppress- 
ing the country in which his armies will be stationed. He 
will see clearly that he can place no reliance on any parti- 
sans in Spain ; and he will not have even a pretence for 
supposing that the country is divided in opinion. If the 



432 SPAIN. 1813. 

effort should succeed, as I sincerely hope it may, the object 
of the Government should be to pacify the country, and to 
heal the divisions which the contest unavoidably must have 
occasioned. It is impossible that this object can be accom- 
plished, as long as there exists a large body of the Spanish 
nation, some possessing the largest properties in the country, 
and others endowed with considerable talents, who are pro- 
scribed for their conduct during the contest ; conduct which 
has been caused by the misfortunes to which I have above 
adverted. These persons, their friends and relations will, 
if persecuted, naturally endeavor to perpetuate the divisions 
in the country, in the hope, at some time, to take advantage 
of them ; and, adverting to their number and to that power 
which they must derive from their property and connexions, 
it must be feared that they will be too successful. 

' But there are other important views of this question : 

' First ; Should the effort to free the country from 
its oppressors succeed at some time or other, some ap- 
proaches to peace must be made between the two nations ; 
and the amnesty to the persons above described will remove 
the greatest difficulty in the way of such an arrangement. 

' Secondly ; Should ever Spain be at peace with France ; 
and should the proscription against these persons be con- 
tinued, they will remain in France a perpetual instrument 
in the hands of that restless Power, to disturb the internal 
tranquillity of Spain ; and in case of the renewal of war, 
which will be their constant wish and object, they will be 
the most active, the most mischievous, and most inveterate 
enemies of their country; of that country which, by mis- 
taken severity, aggravates her misfortunes by casting off 
from her thousands of her useful subjects. 

' On every ground, then, it is desirable that this measure 
should be adopted, and that the present moment should be 
seized for adopting it. 

' I am far, however, from thinking that an amnesty ought 
to be granted without exceptions and conditions ; and I pro- 
ceed to state, first, the exceptions which, in my opinion, 
ought to be made ; and secondly, the conditions on which 
any amnesty ought to be granted. 

' The amnesty ought not to extend to the ministers of 
King Joseph, nor to those who have been most active in his 



1813. CASTRO-XERIZ. 433 

support, and by their influence and persuasions can be 
proved to have induced others to have espoused his in- 
terests, nor to those who have been instrumental in shed- 
ding the blood, and in committing acts of cruelty against 
any Spaniard. Those likewise who have deserted any pub- 
lic trust or station to join the Intruder, with the exception of 
non-commissioned officers and soldiers of the army, ought to 
be liable to the legal consequences of their conduct. 

' All others ought to be pardoned on the following con- 
ditions : First, that unless positive evidence should be given 
to the Government of their having served the public during 
the time they were in the service of the pretended King, 
they shall reside in the place appointed for their residence, 
and be under the inspection of the police, and shall not be 
employed by the public for two years from the date of the 
amnesty. After that time they should be eligible for em- 
ployment, unless previously accused of some act, the proof 
of which would legally render them incapable of filling an 
office. 

' In bringing this subject under the consideration of the 
Government, I am, perhaps, intruding my opinion on a sub- 
ject in which, as a stranger, I have no concern ; but having 
had an advantage enjoyed by few, of being acquainted with 
the concerns of this country since the commencement of the 
contest, and having been sensible, both in the last and in 
the present campaign, of the disadvantages suffered by 
Spain from the want of a measure of this description, I have 
thought it proper, as an individual well wisher to the cause, 
to bring it under the consideration of the Government; 
assuring them, at the same time, that I have never had the 
slightest communication on the subject with the Government 
of my own country ; nor do I believe that they have ever 
turned to it their attention. What I have above stated are 
my own opinions, to which I may attribute more weight 
than they merit ; but they are formed upon experience and 
long reflection, and are founded upon a sincere devotion to 
the interests of this country. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Don Juan CfDonoju.' < WELLINGTON. 



VOL. X. 2 F 



434 SPAIN. 1813. 

To Sir Charles Stuart, K.B. 

< MY DEAR SIR, ' Castro-xeriz, llth June, 1813. 

' I observe, upon looking over the accounts of the revenue 
of last month, a much larger sum employed upon naval 
expenses than it was agreed should be incurred ; and like- 
wise that the sum for the Junta de Viveres is paid in 
metal. I shall be obliged to you if you will notice these 
circumstances. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Sir Charles Stuart, K.B: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY LORD, ' Villadiego, 13th June, 1813. 

' I have the honor to enclose a letter from Captain Sir 
George Collier, containing the report of the capture of Castro 
Urdiales by the enemy. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY LORD, ' Villadiego, 13th June, 1813. 

' The army passed the Carrion on the 7th, the enemy 
having retired across the Pisuerga ; and on the 8th, 9th, 
and 1 Oth we brought forward our left and passed that river. 

' The celerity of our march up to this period, and the pro- 
bable difficulties in, and the necessity of providing for the sub- 
sistence of the army in our farther progress, induced me to 
make short movements on the 1 1 th, and to halt the left on 
the 12th ; but on the latter day I moved forward the right 
under Lieut. General Sir R. Hill, consisting of the 2nd Bri- 
tish, General Morillo's Spanish, and the Conde de Ama- 
rante's Portuguese divisions of infantry ; and the Light 
division under Major General Baron Charles Alten; and 
Major General Fane's, Major General Long's, Major Gene- 
ral Victor Alten' s, Brig. General Ponsonby's, and Colonel 
Grant's (Hussar) brigades of cavalry, towards Burgos, with 
a view to reconnaitre the enemy's position and numbers 
near that town, and to force them to a decision whether to 
abandon the castle to its fate, or to protect it with all their 
force. 



1813. VILLADIEGO. 435 

' I found the enemy posted with a considerable force, com- 
manded, as I understand, by General Reille, on the heights 
on the left of the Hormaza, with their right above the village 
of Hormaza, and their left in front of Estepar. We turned 
their right with the hussars and General Ponsonby's bri- 
gade of cavalry and the Light division from Isar, while 
General Victor Alten's brigade of cavalry, and Colonel the 
Hon. W. O'Callaghan's brigade of the 2nd division moved up 
the heights from Hormaza, and the remainder of the troops 
under the command of Lieut. General Sir R. Hill threatened 
the heights of Estepar. 

' These movements dislodged the enemy from their posi- 
tion immediately. The cavalry of our left and centre were 
entirely in the rear of the enemy, who were obliged to retire 
across the Arlanzon by the high road towards Burgos. 

' Although pressed by our cavalry, and suffering consider- 
able loss by the fire of Major Gardiner's troop of horse 
artillery, and obliged to make their movements at an accele- 
rated pace, that they might not give time to our infantry to 
come up, they made it in admirable order ; but they lost 
one gun and some prisoners, taken by a squadron of the 14th 
light dragoons, commanded by Captain Milles, and a de- 
tachment of the 3rd dragoons which charged their rear. 

' The enemy took post on the left of the Arlanzon and 
Urbel rivers, which were much swollen with rain, and in the 
course of the night retired their whole army through Burgos, 
having abandoned and destroyed as far as they were able, 
in the short space of time during which they were there, the 
works of the castle which they had constructed and improved 
at so large an expense ; and they are now on their retreat 
towards the Ebro by the high road of Briviesca and Miranda. 
In the mean time the whole of the army of the allies has 
made a movement to the left this day ; and the Spanish 
corps of Galicia under General Giron, and the left of the 
British and Portuguese army under Lieut. General Sir 
Thomas Graham, will, I hope, pass the Ebro to-morrow at 
the bridges of Rocamunde and San Martin. 

'In the course of the 9th, 10th, and llth, Don Julian 
Sanchez was very active on the left of the enemy, and took 
several prisoners. 

2r2 



43G SPAIN. 1813. 

' The Conde de la Bisbal with the army of reserve of 
Andalusia will arrive at Medina del Campo on the 14th. 

' I have received a letter from General Elio of the 1st 
instant, in which he informs me that the 3rd Spanish army 
had joined the 2nd, that these armies had taken the positions 
before occupied by the 2nd army and the Anglo-Sicilian 
troops under Sir John Murray, and that General Sir John 
Murray had embarked in obedience to the orders which he 
had received with the troops under his command ; had sailed 
from Alicante with a fair wind, and was out of sight on the 
1st instant. 

' I have had the castle of Burgos examined this day, and 
I am happy to inform your Lordship that I have reason to 
believe that it is possible to put it in a state of repair at a 
reasonable expense. It is a post of the greatest importance 
to the country, particularly during the winter ; and if I 
should find it practicable I will have it put in a state of 
defence. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
1 Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Villadiego, 13th June, 1813. 

' I enclose the last weekly and daily state. We keep up 
our strength, and the army are very healthy, and in better 
order than I have ever known them. God knows how long 
this will last. It depends entirely upon the officers. 

' I have nothing to tell you excepting what is contained 
in the dispatch of this day. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst' ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 
' MY DEAR HENRY, Villadiego, 13th June, 1813. 

' I have no news from hence to give you besides what is 
in my dispatch. I think we are getting on well; and I 
consider the evacuation of the castle of Burgos a very im- 
portant event. 

' I have no news from England. The French have a 



1813. MASA. 437 

bulletin of the 24th of May, when Napoleon was at Dresden. 
They talk of successes ; but as he was still at Dresden on 
the 24th, having arrived there on the 8th, they cannot be 
very important. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

SirH.Wellesley.K.B: 

To Lieut. General Sir T. Graham, K.B. 

' MY DEAR SIR, ' Masa, 14th June, 1813, 1 1 P.M. 

' I received last night your letters of yesterday, and I 
would have written to you, only that I had the Cadiz and 
English mails to dispatch. 

' You will have heard from Murray that the enemy blew 
up the castle of Burgos in the morning, but the destruction 
is not so complete as they hoped to make it. I under- 
stand that the explosion destroyed many men. The whole 
army was at and near Burgos on the day before yesterday, 
and marched yesterday morning towards Briviesca, leaving 
the same rear guard as before, in the neighbourhood of 
Gamonal. The rear guard had not moved at dusk yester- 
day evening, but I suppose they went off last night. 

' In regard to , I will appoint him to the 

Adjutant General's Department, if this arrangement should 
be thought likely to be of use to prevent his doing a very 
foolish thing ; but I do not see how I can with propriety 
give the hint which you suggest. I could do so only on 
public grounds ; and I am afraid there are too many Staff 
Officers in this army similarly attended to allow of my 
making this condition in his case. If the appointment of 

is not likely to have the wished for effect, 

I acknowledge that I feel unwilling to make it. There are 
some officers in the army who have lost their appointments 
to the Staff by going home on account of their health, and 
have staid away more than two months, who have claims 

to be appointed ; and there are others, such as , of the 

Guards, whom I have long been desirous of appointing when 
there should be an opportunity ; all of which claims will be 
postponed by this arrangement. But if it will produce the 



438 SPAIN. 1813. 

wished for effect, I shall not feel any objection to postpone 
these claims, and will appoint him. 
' I return his letter. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

SirT. Graham, K.B.' 

To General Giron. 

4 a Masa, ce 14 Juin, 1813. 
' MoN CHER GfcNfeRAL, a 11 Leures du matin. 

' J'ai recju avant hier votre lettre du 1 1, et hier celle du 
13. J'ai cru que j'avais fait un arrangement pour les sub- 
sistances, sur lequel il ne pourrait pas avoir ou meprise ou 
dispute ; mais je vois que je me suis trompe. Mais il parait 
que c'est dans 1' execution qu'il a manque ; et j'ai donne ordre 
hier que dorenavant on vous dira les noms des endroits d'ou 
vous devez tirer vos subsistances, auxquels notre Commissaire 
General ne doit envoyer personne. 

* II y a des difficultes en tout, mais surtout en subsistances 
de guerre, quand quelques-uns vont au marche avec de 1'ar- 
gent, et les autres sans le sou. Mais il ne faut pas se relacher. 
Pour ce qui regarde Palencia, Fromista, et Carrion, il me 
parait qu'ils ne sont ni sur votre gauche ni sur vos derrieres. 
Mais je vous prie de me faire savoir les noms de ces com- 
missaires qui se sont apoderados des fours a Palencia et 
Fromista. Us seront indubitablement punis, parceque je ne 
permets pas 1'usage de la force par les Messieurs de cette 
espece. 

1 Pour ce qui regarde 1'argent, j'ai fait tout ce que 
j'ai pu avec le Gouvernement, mais, je suis fache d'ajouter, 
sans effet. II parait que le Gouvernement pense que 1'armee 
peut operer sans argent, et que les Generaux se plaignent 
sans raison. Je tacherai de vous donner encore 100 mille 
duros a la fin du mois d'Aout. 

' Je n'entends pas exactement 1'affaire des officiers du 
regiment d'Almanza et des hussards d'Estremadure comme 
vous 1'avez represente ; et je vois qu'il y a quelque meprise 
de la part de ces officiers. En tout cas, ils ne peuvent pas 
quitter les corps ou ils sont sans ordrc ou permission. 
aime assez les eaux troublees ; mais il faut 



1813. MASA. 439 

qu'il apprend que c'est le devoir d'un General dans sa posi- 
tion de calmer, au lieu d'exciter, les inquietudes. Je ferai 
mieux de causer la dessus avec vous a la premiere occasion, 
avant de faire quelques demarches sur ce sujet. 

' Vous savez que 1'ennemi a fait sauter le chateau de Bur- 
gos, et est en pleine retraite sur 1'Ebre. 

' Agre"ez, &c. 
El General Giron.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To General Elio. 
' SIR, ' Masa, 14th June, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your letters of the 30th 
May and the 1st instant, and I have requested the Chief of 
the Staff to send you an answer to that which you wrote me 
respecting the operations of the 2nd and 3rd armies. 

' In answer to your other letter of the 1st June, enclosing 
one from the Inspector of Infantry of the 29th May, I write 
to you myself to request you to continue your efforts in the 
service of your country, in hopes that some remedy may be 
found for the various evils of which you complain. I am 
perfectly sensible of those evils, and, I am sorry to say, that 
experience has proved to me that time only can find a remedy 
for some of them ; and it is incumbent on us in high situations 
to set the example of patience and perseverance in the per- 
formance of our duty, of which we have witnessed such signal 
instances in the lower classes of society, and in the inferior 
ranks of the army. 

' Your Excellency may depend upon my attending to your 
wishes in every respect, as far as may be in my power, and 
upon my neglecting no means in my power to induce the 
Government to attend to the necessities of their army. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' General Elio.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don Luis Wimpffen. 

' MON CHER GK'NE'RAL, ' & Masa, ce 14 Juin, 1813. 

' Je vous prie d'envoyer un officier de TEtat Major General 
dans la province de Soria, pour les objets dont.nous avons 
parle ce matin. II se mettra en communication avec le 



440 SPAIN. 1813. 

General Duran, et il recevra de lui et des autres officicrs 
commandants des corps en cette province, et en Aragon, des 
etats de leur corps ; et il s'informera ou ils sont stationes, et 
comment ils sont habilles, armes, et equipes ; et quels sont 
leurs moyens pour entreprendre vine operation quelconque 
contre 1'ennemi. II s'informera aussi quels sont les postes 
occupes par 1'ennemi au nord de 1'Ebre dans ces parties la, 
et par quelle force. 

' II serait tres important aux operations des arinees de 
ce cote ci et du cote du bas Ebre, si on pouvait preridre 
possession de Saragosse ; et si on pouvait couper la com- 
munication entre Suchet et le Roi. Apres Saragosse il me 
parait que le point le plus important a occuper par les 
troupes de ce cote la serait Tudela de 1'Ebre, enfin de nous 
donner les ressources de ces provinces a nos operations 
ulterieures. L'officier dira ceci an General Duran ou a celui 
qui y commandera. 

' Agreez, &c. 
' Don Luis Wimp/en: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Don Luis Wimpffen. 

' a Masa, ce 14 Juin, 1813. 
' MON CHER GENERAL, a 2 heures du soir. 

' En ecrivant au Comte de la Bisbal sur sa marche, je vous 
prie de lui dire de tirer des subsistances de Tordesillas et de 
Valladolid; et, apres avoir passe Valladolid, de Lerma, Roa, 
&c. et le pays entre le Pisuerga, le Duero, et TArlanzon. 

' Agreez, &c. 
' Don Luis Wimpffen. ' WELLINGTON. 

' Je ferai arreter le courier jusqu'a Tarrivee des ordres sur 
ce sujet, en cas que vous ayez ecrit le premier avant de re- 
cevoir celle-ci.' 

To Don Juan O'Donoju. 

* SIR, ' Masa, 14th June, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 26th 
of May, enclosing the decree of the Cortes Regency of the 
18th of May, in regard to the Intendants of the armies and 
the Intendants of the Provinces, which I consider as the 



1813. MASA. 441 

determination of the Government, upon the different repre- 
sentations which I have made to your Excellency in regard 
to the abuses, whose existence thus perpetuated, absolutely 
prohibits the existence of a Spanish army. 

' Since the month of December last, I have apprized the 
Government of the fatal consequences to the military opera- 
tions of the army resulting from the abuses in the financial 
system ; and I have recommended measures, which have not 
only not been adopted, but nothing has been adopted in 
their stead. 

' I have forwarded to the Government, from the Generals 
of all the armies, representations of the prevailing abuses in 
the finance, and of the misery suffered by the troops under 
their command respectively. It is at the same time obvious, 
that the existing system is as cruelly oppressive upon the 
people as it is ruinous to the army and to the State, and is 
more likely to alienate the affections of the people from the 
Government, than a system of finance rigidly carried into 
execution, which should provide for the wants of the armies. 

' It is a fact, Sir, that the troops of Spain, in diminished 
numbers, are starving in rich provinces, which, only last year, 
maintained ten times the number of French troops in plenty. 
It is also a fact that this is owing to inexperience, and mal- 
administration, and to the misapplication of the public funds. 

' There are about 24,000 Spanish troops belonging to the 
4th army, and the army of reserve of Andalusia, serving with 
the grand army of the allies under my command. Nine- 
tenths of the revenues of Seville and Andalusia, of Estre- 
inadura, of Galicia, and of Old Castillo, that is to say, of more 
than three-fourths of Spain, now freed from the enemy, are 
said to be allotted to the support of these troops ; and yet I 
assure your Excellency, that, if it were not for the sums 
which are given to these troops from the military chest of 
the British army, which so far diminish the efficiency of that 
army, these troops would not have a shilling to pay. Their 
provisions are forced from the country by a description of 
plunder. 

' The Government have been made acquainted with the 
consequences to be expected from these evils ; and they arc 
so obvious, and the Generals commanding armies feel them- 



442 SPAIN. 1813. 

selves so incapable, under existing circumstances, of applying 
a remedy, or of avoiding the fate which awaits us all, that 
two of them have already desired leave to resign, and to 
serve in inferior stations. 

'I have had many reasons to regret that your Excellency 
should have been separated from head quarters ; but I regret 
particularly that you were called to the responsible situation 
which you now fill, before you were a witness of the dreadful 
consequences to the discipline and efficiency of an army., of 
being without pay or resources of any description, at the 
moment at which the efforts and exertions of all are required 
to be directed against the common enemy. Your experience 
would then have given double weight to the counsel which I 
feel convinced you have given to the Government on these 
subjects, with a view to draw their attention to the finances 
of the state, in order to ensure the support of that army, 
upon whose efficiency the state depends for its existence. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Don Juan O'Donoju.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, KB. 
' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Quincoces de Yuso, 17th June, 1813. 

' The whole army have crossed the Ebro, and we are in 
march towards Vitoria and the high road to France, of which 
I hope that we shall be in possession in a day or two. 

' It is reported that the King is in march by Haro and 
Logrono towards Pamplona. We have not yet heard of 
any very large force on this side of the Ebro. The last 
large corps I heard of was encamped at Briviesca, on the 
night of the 14th. We saw the lights of a small corps last 
night at Frias. 

' We have, by Coruna, English papers to the 3rd, which I 
have sent to Sir R. Hill, or I would enclose them. There 
were severe actions at and in the neighbourhood of Bautzen, 
on the 20th, 21st, and 22nd, in which Buonaparte acknow- 
ledges that he lost 12,000 men. The Due de Friuli was 
killed. The allies retired, and on the 23rd Buonaparte's 
head quarters were at Gorlitz. The victory is claimed by 
the French, royal salutes fired, &c., &c. ; but 1 hear from the 



1813. QUINCOGES DE YUSO. 443 

frontiers that Buonaparte lost 50,000 men in these actions. 
It appears to have been defensive on the side of the allies, 
and I suspect that there was hard fighting on the two first 
days, and none on the last, when Buonaparte turned them, 
and they retired. If that is the case, they have lost ground, 
but are unhurt. He has offered (before the battle) to con- 
sent to a congress at Prague, to consist of ministers from 
himself, the King of Denmark, King of Spain, and the United, 
States of America; and from England, Russia, Prussia, les 
insurges dEspagne et la masse belligerente. An armistice, 
to commence when the ministers shall arrive at Prague. 
Then follows the usual Philippic against England, about 
her rights on the ocean, and her egotism ; and it is obvious, 
from the whole paper, that he means, if he can, to make 
peace with Russia and Prussia, and, at all events, to get an 
armistice, but to pursue his objects in Spain. 

' There are so many lies on all sides, that it is impossible 
to know the real state of the action on the 20th, 21st, and 
22nd, and I do not think that the Russians and Prussians 
can agree to the armistice without submitting entirely. 
It was supposed, before the last battle, that the Emperor 
of Austria would join the allies. 

' The King of Saxony has joined Buonaparte, and his 
troops were in the last battle. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, K.B. 

' The Catholic Bill is thrown out of the House of Com- 
mons ; I do not know what was the majority. The minority 
was 248.' 

To Comte de Gazan. 

' Au Quartier General, 
< MONSIEUR LE GENERAL, ce 19 Juin, 1813. 

' J'ai eu 1'honneur de recevoir la lettre de votre Excel- 
lence du 14, dans laquelle vous me proposez 1'echange du 
Capitaine Hay, pour le Capitaine d'artillerie Cheville, pri- 
sonnier de guerre en Angleterre, et vous me dites que vous 
renverrez le Capitaine Hay ici. J'ai 1'honneur de prevenir 
a votre Excellence que j'ecris aujourd'hui en Angleterre ; 



444 SPAIN. 

qu'on renvoyc en France le Capitaine Cheville, et je vous 
pric de faire renvoyer le Capitaine Hay. 

' Tai 1'honneur d'etre, &c. 
Comte de Gazan.' l WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' Subijana, on the Bayas, 
' MY LORD, th June, 1813. 

' The left of the army crossed the Ebro on the 14th, by 
the bridges of San Martin and Rocamunde, and the re- 
mainder on the 15th, by those bridges and that of Puente- 
arenas. We continued our march on the following days 
towards Vitoria. 

' The enemy assembled on the 16th and 17th a con- 
siderable corps at Espejo, not far from the Puente Larra, 
composed of some of the troops which had been for some time 
in the Biscayan provinces in pursuit of Longa and Mina, and 
others detached from the main body of the army, which 
were still at Pancorbo. They had likewise a division of 
infantry and some cavalry at Frias since the 16th, for the 
purpose of observing our movements on the left of the 
Ebro. Both these detachments marched yesterday morn- 
ing; that from Frias, upon San Millan, where it was found 
by the Light division of the Allied army, under Major 
General Charles Alten; and that from Espejo, on Osma, 
where it met the 6th and 5th divisions, under Lieut. General 
Sir Thomas Graham. 

' Major General Charles Alten drove the enemy from 
San Millan, and afterwards cut off the rear brigade of the 
division, of which he took 300 prisoners ; killed and wounded 
many, and the brigade was dispersed in the mountains. 

' The corps from Espejo was considerably stronger than 
the Allied corps under Sir Thomas Graham, which had 
arrived nearly at the same time at Osma. The enemy 
moved on to the attack, but were soon obliged to retire ; 
and they were followed to Espejo, from whence they retired 
through the hills to this place. It was late in the day 
before the other troops came up to the advanced position 
which those under Lieut. General Sir Thomas Graham had 
taken; and I halted the 4th division, which relieved the 
5th, near Espejo. 



1813. 



SUBIJANA. 



445 



( The army moved forward this day to this river. I found 
the enemy's rear guard in a strong position, on the left of 
the river, having his right covered by Subijana, and his 
left by the heights in front of Pobcs. 

' We turned the enemy's left with the Light division, while 
the 4th division, under Lieut. General Sir L. Cole, attacked 
them in front ; and the rear guard was driven back upon 
the main body of the army, which was in march from Pan- 
corbo to Vitoria, having broken up from thence last night. 
I am informed that the enemy have dismantled Pancorbo. 
Colonel Longa's division joined the army on the 16th, on its 
arrival at Medina de Pomar. 

' The Conde de la Bisbal will arrive at Burgos on the 
24th or 25th. 

' I have not received any intelligence from the eastern 
coast since I addressed your Lordship last. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
* Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

Return of the Killed, Wounded, and Missing of the Army under the Command of 
Field Marshal the Marquis of Wellington, K.G.,from the \2th to the 19/A 
June, 1813. 









oJ 

















Total loss of Officers, 












Non-Commissioned 







"a 


a 


. 


Officers, and Rank 




8 


1 


M 


Z 


and File. 




O 


V 


3 


a 




Killed . . . 





4 


23 


18 


27 


Wounded . . 


9 


7 


137 


26 


153 


Missing ... 











7 






To the Conde de la Bisbal. 
' MONSIEUR LE GENERAL, ' a Subijana, ce 20 Juin, 1813. 

' J'ai eu 1'honneur de recevoir votre lettre du 16, et je 
ferai tout en mon pouvoir de vous donner des armes a feu 
pour votre cavalerie. Je crois que j'en pourrais oter la 
moitie a la grosse cavalerie Anglaise si je n'en peux pas 
trouver autrement. 

' Votre cavalerie ne pourra pas servir sans armes a feu. 

' L'ennemi est aujourd'hui campe enire nous et Vitoria. 



446 SPAIN. 1813. 

Je les attaquerai demain matin s'ils ne font pas la retraite 
dans la nuit. Je crois qu'il faut vous tenir au moms pres de 
nous pour le moment, parceque 1'ennemi est tres fort ; et 
1'armistice ayant ete fait en Allemagne, il faut s'attendrc 
qu'il sera renforce. Mais il y a assez a faire pour tous. 

' J'ai ecrit a mon frere il y a quelque temps de vous faire 
avoir 100,000 duros a la fin de ce mois de Juin. 

' J'ai 1'honneur d'etre, &c. 

El Conde de la Bisbai: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY LORD, ' Salvatierra, 22nd June, 1813. 

' The enemy, commanded by King Joseph, having Mar- 
shal Jourdan as the Major General of the army, took up 
a position, on the night of the 19th instant, in front of 
Vitoria ; the left of which rested upon the heights which end 
at La Puebla de Arganzon, and extended from thence across 
the valley of the Zadorra, in front of the village of Arinez. 
They occupied with the right of the centre a height which 
commanded the valley to the Zadorra. The right of their 
army was stationed near Vitoria, and was destined to defend 
the passages of the river Zadorra, in the neighbourhood 
of that city. They had a reserve in rear of their left, at 
the village of Gomecha. The nature of the country through 
which the army had passed since it had reached the Ebro, 
had necessarily extended our columns ; and we halted on 
the 20th, in order to close them up, and mOve'd the left to 
Murguia, where it was most likely it would be required. I 
reconnaitred the enemy's position on that day, with a view 
to the attack to be made on the following morning, if they 
should still remain in it. 

'We accordingly attacked the enemy yesterday, and I am 
happy to inform your Lordship, that the Allied army under 
my command gained a complete victory, having driven them 
from all their positions ; having taken from them 151 pieces 
of cannon, waggons of ammunition, all their baggage, pro- 
visions, cattle, treasure, &c., and a considerable number 
of prisoners. 

' The operations of the day commenced by Lieut. General 
Sir Rowland Hill obtaining possession of the heights of 



1813. SALVATIERRA. 447 

La Puebla, on which the enemy's left rested, which heights 
they had not occupied in great strength. He detached 
for this service one brigade of the Spanish division un- 
der General Morillo; the other brigade being employed 
in keeping the communication between his main body on 
the high road from Miranda to Vitoria, and the troops 
detached to the heights. The enemy, however, soon dis- 
covered the importance of these heights, and reinforced 
their troops there to such an extent, that Lieut. General 
Sir Rowland Hill was obliged to detach, first, the 71st regi- 
ment and the light infantry battalion of General Walker's 
brigade, under the command of Lieut. Colonel the Hon. H. 
Cadogan, and successively other troops to the same point ; 
and the Allies not only gained, but maintained possession of 
these important heights throughout their operations, notwith- 
standing all the efforts of the enemy to retake them. 

' The contest here was, however, very severe, and the loss 
sustained considerable. General Morillo was wounded, but 
remained in the field ; and I am concerned to have to re- 
port, that Lieut. Colonel the Hon. H. Cadogan has died of a 
wound which he received. In him His Majesty has lost an 
officer of great merit and tried gallantry, who had already 
acquired the respect and regard of the whole profession, 
and of whom it might have been expected that, if he had 
lived, he would have rendered the most important services 
to his country. 

' Under cover of the possession of these heights, Sir Row- 
land Hill successively passed the Zadorra, at La Puebla, and 
the defile formed by the heights and the river Zadorra, and 
attacked and gained possession of the village of Subijana 
de Alava, in front of the enemy's line, which the enemy 
made repeated attempts to regain. 

' The difficult nature of the country prevented the com- 
munication between our different columns moving to the 
attack from their stations on the river Bayas at as early an 
hour as I had expected; and it was late before I knew that 
the column, composed of the 3rd and 7th divisions, under 
the command of the Earl of Dalhousie, had arrived at the 
station appointed for them. The 4th and Light divisions, 
however, passed the Zadorra immediately after Sir Rowland 
Hill had possession of Subijana de Alava; the former at 






448 SPAIN. 1813. 

the bridge of Nanclares, and the latter at the bridg-e of 

O 

Tres-puentes ; and almost as soon as these had crossed, the 
column under the Earl of Dalhousie arrived at Mendoza; 
and the 3rd division, under Lieut. General Sir Thomas 
Picton, crossed at the bridge higher up, followed by the 
7th division, under the Earl of Dalhousie. These four 
divisions, forming the centre of the army, were destined to 
attack the height on which the right of the enemy's centre 
was placed, while Lieut. General Sir Rowland Hill should 
move forward from Sub ij ana de A lava to attack the left. 
The enemy, however, having weakened his line to strengthen 
his detachment on the hills/abandoned his position in the 
valley as soon as he saw our disposition to attack it, and 
commenced his retreat in good order towards Vitoria. 

' Our troops continued to advance in admirable order, not- 
withstanding the difficulty of the ground. In the mean 
time, Lieut. General Sir Thomas Graham, who commanded 
the left of the army, consisting of the 1st and 5th divisions, 
and General Pack's and Bradford's brigades of infantry, 
and General Bock's and Anson's of cavalry, and who had 
been moved on the 20th to Murguia, moved forward from 
thence on Vitoria, by the high road from that town to 
Bilbao. He had, besides, with him the Spanish division 
under Colonel Longa; and General Giron, who had been 
detached to the left, under a different view of the state of 
affairs, and had afterwards been recalled, and had arrived on 
the 20th at Orduna, inarched that morning from thence, so 
as to be in the field in readiness to support Lieut. General 
Sir Thomas Graham, if his support had been required. 

' The enemy had a division of infantry with some cavalry 
advanced on the great road from Vitoria to Bilbao, resting 
their right on some strong heights covering the village of 
Gamarra Mayor. Both Gamarra and Abechuco were strongly 
occupied as tetcs de pont and the bridges over the Zadorra at 
these places. Brigadier General Pack with his Portuguese 
brigade, and Colonel Longa with his Spanish division, were 
directed to turn and gain the heights, supported by Major 
General Anson's brigade of light dragoons, and the 5th 
division of infantry under the command of Major General 
Oswald, who was desired to take the command of all these 
troops. 



1813. SALVAT1ERRA. 449 

' Lieut. General Sir Thomas Graham reports, that in the 
execution of this service tho Portuguese and Spanish troops 
behaved admirably. The 4th battalion of caqadores, and 
the 8th caqadores, particularly distinguished themselves. 
Colonel Longa being on the left, took possession of Gamarra 
Menor. 

' As soon as the heights were in our possession, the village 
of Gamarra Mayor was most gallantly stormed and carried 
by Major General Robertson's brigade of the 5th division, 
which advanced in columns of battalions, under a very heavy 
fire of artillery and musketry, without firing a shot, assisted 
by two guns of Major Lawson's brigade of artillery. The 
enemy suffered severely, and lost three pieces of cannon. 

' The Lieut. General then proceeded to attack the village 
of Abechuco with the 1st division, by forming a strong bat- 
tery against it, consisting of Captain Dubourdieu's brigade, 
and Captain Ramsay's troop of horse artillery ; and under 
cover of this fire, Colonel Halkett's brigade advanced to the 
attack of the village, which was carried ; the light battalions 
having charged and taken three guns and a howitzer on the 
bridge. This attack was supported by General Bradford's 
brigade of Portuguese infantry. 

' During the operation at Abechuco the enemy made the 
greatest efforts to repossess themselves of the village of 
Gamarra Mayor, which were gallantly repulsed by the 5th 
division, under the command of Major General Oswald. 
The enemy had, however, on the heights on the left of the 
Zadorra, two divisions of infantry in reserve ; and it was im- 
possible to cross by the bridges till the troops which had 
moved upon the enemy's centre and left had driven them 
through Vitoria. 

' The whole then co-operated in the pursuit, which was 
continued by all till after it was dark. 

' The movement of the troops under Lieut. General Sir 
Thomas Graham, and their possession of Gamarra and Abe- 
chuco, intercepted the enemy's retreat by the high road to 
France. They were then obliged to turn to the road towards 
Pamplona ; but they were unable to hold any position for 
a sufficient length of time to allow their baggage and artil- 
lery to be drawn off. The whole, therefore, of the latter 

VOL. x. 2 G 



450 SPAIN. 1813. 

which had not already been taken by the troops in their 
attack of the successive positions taken up by the enemy in 
their retreat from their first position at Arifiez and on the 
Zadorra, and all their ammunition and baggage, and every 
thing they had were taken close to Vitoria. I have reason 
to believe that the enemy carried off with them one gun and 
one howitzer only. 

' The army under King Joseph consisted of the whole of 
the armies of the South, and of the Centre, and of four divi- 
sions and all the cavalry of the army of Portugal, and some 
troops of the army of the North. General Foy's division of 
the army of Portugal was in the neighbourhood of Bilbao ; 
and General Clause!, who commanded the army of the North, 
was near Logrofio with one division of the army of Portugal 
commanded by General Taupin, and General Van-der-Mae- 
sen's division of the army of the North. The 6th division 
of the allied army under Major General the Hon. E. Paken- 
ham was likewise absent, having been detained at Medina 
de Pomar for three days, to cover the march of our maga- 
zines and stores. 

' I cannot extol too highly the good conduct of all the Ge- 
neral Officers, Officers, and soldiers of the army in this action. 
Lieut. General Sir R. Hill speaks highly of the conduct of 
General Morillo and the Spanish troops under his command, 
and of that of Lieut. General the Hon. W. Stewart, and the 
Conde de Amarante, who commanded divisions of infantry 
under his directions. He likewise mentions the conduct of 
Colonel the Hon. R. W. O'Callaghan, who maintained the 
village of Subijana de Alava against all the efforts of the 
enemy to regain possession of it, and that of Lieut. Colonel 
Rooke of the Adjutant General's department, and Lieut. 
Colonel the Hon. A. Abercromby of the Quarter Master 
General's department. It was impossible for the move- 
ments of any troops to be conducted with more spirit and 
regularity than those of their respective divisions, by Lieut. 
Generals the Earl of Dalhousie, Sir Thomas Picton, Sir 
Lowry Cole, and Major General Baron Charles Alten. The 
troops advanced in echelons of regiments in two, and occa- 
sionally three lines ; and the Portuguese troops in the 3rd 
and 4th divisions, under the command of Brigadier General 



1813. SALVATIERRA. 451 

Power and Colonel Stubbs, led the march with steadiness 
and gallantry never surpassed on any occasion. 

'Major General the Hon. C. Colville's brigade of the 3rd 
division was seriously attacked in its advance by a very 
superior force well formed, which it drove in, supported by 
General Inglis's brigade of the 7th division, commanded by 
Colonel Grant of the 82nd. These officers and the troops 
under their command distinguished themselves. 

1 Major General Vandeleur's brigade of the Light division 
was, during the advance upon Vitoria, detached to the sup- 
port of the 7th division ; and Lieut. General the Earl of 
Dalhousie has reported most favorably of its conduct. Lieut. 
General Sir Thomas Graham particularly reports his sense 
of the assistance he received from Colonel De Lancy, the 
Deputy Quarter Master General, and from Lieut. Colonel 
Bouverie, of the Adjutant General's department, and from 
the officers of his personal staff ; and from Lieut. Colonel 
the Hon. A. Upton, Assistant Quarter Master General, and 
Major Hope, Assistant Adjutant General, with the 1st 
division; and Major General Oswald reports the same of 
Lieut. Colonel Berkeley of the Adjutant General's depart- 
ment, and Lieut. Colonel Gomm of the Quarter Master 
General's department. 

' I am particularly indebted to Lieut. General Sir Thomas 
Graham, and to Lieut. General Sir Rowland Hill, for the 
manner in which they have respectively conducted the ser- 
vice entrusted to them since the commencement of the ope- 
rations which have ended in the battle of the 21st; and for 
their conduct in that battle ; as likewise to Marshal Sir 
W. Beresford for the friendly advice and assistance which 
I have received from him upon all occasions during the late 
operations. 

' I must not omit to mention likewise the conduct of 
General Giron, who commands the Galician army, who 
made a forced march from Orduna, and was actually on the 
ground in readiness to support Lieut. General Sir Thomas 
Graham. 

' I have frequently been indebted, and have had occasion 
to call the attention of your Lordship to the conduct of the 
Quarter Master General Sir George Murray, who in the 

2o 2 



452 SPAIN. 



1813. 



late operations, and in the battle of the 21st of June, has 
again given the greatest assistance. I am likewise much 
indebted to Lord Aylmer, the Deputy Adjutant General, 
and to the officers of the departments of the Adjutant and 
Quarter Master General respectively ; and also to Lord 
FitzRoy Somerset, and Lieut. Colonel Campbell and those 
of my personal staff: and to Lieut. Colonel Sir Richard 
Fletcher, and the officers of the Royal Engineers. 

' Colonel his Serene Highness the Hereditary Prince of 
Orange was in the field as my aide de camp, and conducted 
himself with his usual gallantry and intelligence. 

' Mariscal de Campo, Don Luis Wimpffen, and the In- 
spector General Don Thomas O'Donoju, and the officers 
of the staff of the Spanish army have invariably rendered 
me every assistance in their power in the course of these 
operations ; and I avail myself of this opportunity of ex- 
pressing my satisfaction with their conduct ; as likewise with 
that of Mariscal de Campo Don Miguel Alava ; and of the 
Brig. General Don Josef O'Lalor, who have been so long 
and usefully employed with me. 

' The artillery was most judiciously placed by Lieut. 
Colonel Dickson, and was well served ; and the army is par- 
ticularly indebted to that corps. 

' The nature of the ground did not allow of the cavalry 
being generally engaged ; but the General Officers com- 
manding the several brigades kept the troops under their 
command respectively close to the infantry to support them, 
and they were most active in the pursuit of the enemy after 
they had been driven through Vitoria. 

' I send this dispatch by my aide de camp Captain Fre- 
mantle, whom I beg leave to recommend to your Lordship's 
protection. He will have the honor of laying at the feet of 
His Royal Highness the colors of the 4th batt. 100th regi- 
ment, and Marshal Jourdan's baton of a Marshal of France 
taken by the 87th regiment. 

' I enclose a return of the killed and wounded in the late 
operations, and a return of the ordnance, carriages, and 
ammunition taken from the enemy in the action of the 21st 
inst. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Earl Bathunt: ' WELLINGTON. 



1813. 



SALVATIERRA. 



453 



Return of Killed, Wounded, and Missing of the Allied Army under the Command of 
General the Marquis of Wellington, K.G., in the Action with the French Army, 
under the Command nf King Joseph Buonaparte, at Pitoria on the 21*< June, 1813. 









* 


Total loss of Offi- 



















cers, Non-com- 






o 









.2 


d 


missioned Officers, 




. 


9) 

3 






2 


as 


9 


and Rank and 


i4 


OS 


M 






U 


V 


4 


File. 


9 


a 




X 




O 


cn 


1 







a, 


o 
fh 


H 


Killed . 


33 


19 


688 


740 


501 


89 


150 


92 


Wounded 


230 


158 


3782 


4174 


2807 


464 


899 


68 


Missing . 





1 


265 


266 








-.y; 


26 



1 Serjeant, 2 drummers, and 263 rank and file have been returned missing by 
the several corps of the army, British and Portuguese. It is supposed that the 
greater number of them lost their regiments in the course of the night, and that 
very few of them have fallen into the hands of the enemy. 

AYLMEK, Deputy Adjutant General. 

Return of Ordnance, Carriages, and Ammunition, captured from the 
Enemy in the Action at Vitoria on the -list of June, 1813 
151 Brass Ordnance, on travelling carriages. 
415 Caissons. 

14,249 Rounds of Ammunition. 
1,973,400 Musket Ball Cartridges. 
40,668 Ibs. of Gunpowder. 
56 Forage Waggons. 
44 Forge Waggons. 

A. DICKSON, Lieut. Colonel, 
Commanding the Artillery. 

To Don Juan G'Donoju. 
< SIR, ' Salvatierra, 22nd June, 1813. 

' I have the honor to inform you that I yesterday attacked 
the enemy's army commanded by King Joseph, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Vitoria, and gained a complete victory, having 
taken from the enemy more than 120 pieces of cannon, all 
their ammunition, baggage, cattle, provisions, treasure, &c. 

' The enemy, prevented from retiring by the direct road 
to France, are on their retreat to Pamplona. I followed 
them this day with the advanced guard, to within six leagues 
of that place, to which the whole army are in march. 

' Our loss has not been severe. I send this letter by 



454 SPAIN. 1813. 

post; but I propose to-morrow to dispatch my aide de 
camp with all the details of this battle, which I hope that 
your Excellency will receive before this letter. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Don Juan O'Donoju.' ' WELLINGTON. 



To the Right Hon. Sir H. Wellesley, K.B. 

' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Salvatierra, 22nd June, 1813. 

' I have the pleasure to inform you that we beat the 
French army commanded by the King, in a general action 
near Vitoria yesterday, having taken from them more than 
120 pieces of cannon, all their ammunition, baggage, pro- 
visions, money, &c. Our loss has not been severe. They 
are on their retreat to Pamplona, and we are following 

them. 

' I am much concerned to add to this account, that of 
the severe wound and reported death of Cadogan. He had 
distinguished himself early in the action, as you will see by 
the detailed report, a copy of which I will send you to-mor- 
row. But he received a Avound in the spine as I am in- 
formed, and he died last night. 

' This is Churchill's account, for which I cannot vouch ; 
but it is certain that he was wounded, and as I have not 
heard from himself, I am afraid that the consequence is too 
true. 

' His private character and his worth as an individual 
were not greater than his merits as an officer, and I shall 
ever regret him. It is a curious instance of his attachment 
to his profession, and of the interest he felt in what was 
going on, that after he was wounded and was probably aware 
that he was dying, he desired to be carried and left in a 
situation from which he might be able to see all that passed. 
' The concern which I feel upon his loss has diminished 
exceedingly the satisfaction I should derive from our success, 
as it will yours. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, K.B. 

' I have received your letters about Roche's affair, and 
La Carlota, which I shall answer immediately. I expect 



1813. IRURZUN. 455 

that this army, as also Sachet's, will evacuate at least this 
part of Spain.' 

To Don Juan O'Donoju. 
< SIR, ' Salvatierra, 24th June, 1813. 

' The recent operations of the army under my command, 
of which I have the honor to report to you the details by 
this occasion, afford me an opportunity of which I am anxious 
to avail myself, to draw the attention of the Regency to the 
conduct of some officers, and to recommend them for pro- 
motion. 

' I beg leave to recommend that the Mariscal de Campo 
Don Fr. Copons, Don Luis Wimpffen, Don P. A. Giron, Don 
Manuel Freyre, the Prince of Anglona, and Don Juan 
O'Donoju may be promoted to be Lieut. Generals ; that 
Brigadier General Don Pablo Morillo may be promoted to 
be Mariscal de Campo ; and that Colonel Don Manuel 
Llauder may be promoted to be a Brigadier General. 

' All these officers have rendered important services during 
the war ; and although the occasion applies only to a certain 
number of them, I do not think I can with propriety or jus- 
tice recommend some to the Regency without attending to 
the claims of others. 

' I likewise hope that the Regency will have promoted 
Colonel Don Francisco Longa, according to my former re- 
commendation. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Don Juan O'Donoju: ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Right Hon. Sir H. Wellesley, K.B. 
' MY DEAR HENRY, ' Irurzun, 24th June, 1813. 

' I refer you to the enclosed dispatches for the details of 
our operations since I wrote to you on the th. I wrote to 
you also on the 22nd, but I hope that you will first receive 
this letter. 

' I know how much you will feel for the loss of poor Cado- 
gan, which has distressed me exceedingly. He was so 
anxious respecting what was going on, that after he was 
wounded and knew that he was dying, he had himself car- 
ried to a place whence he could see all the operations! 
Pray let George and Louisa know of their misfortune. 



456 SPAIN. 1813. 

' King Joseph and his army must quit Spain ; indeed, 
they have already this night retired from Pamplona. I 
am trying to cut off some of the others, and I shall try to 
turn them all out of Spain before they can be reinforced. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

* The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Wellesley, K.B.' 

To the Commissioners of the Transport Office. 

GENTLEMEN, ' Irurzun, 24th June, 1813. 

' Captain Leith Hay of the llth Foot, who was taken 
prisoner a short time ago, having been permitted to return 
to the British army, I will thank you to send to France in 
exchange for him Captain Cheville of the French artillery, 
now a prisoner on parole at Abergavenny. 

' I enclose a letter for that officer, which I request you 
will be so good as to have forwarded to him. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

The Commissioners ' WELLINGTON. 

of the Transport Office- 

To Earl Bathurst. 

'Mv LORD, ' Irurzun, 24th June, 1813. 

' The departure of Captain Fremantle having been de- 
layed till this day by the necessity of making up the returns, 
I have to report to your Lordship that we have continued 
to pursue the enemy, whose rear reached Pamplona this 
day. We have done them as much injury as has been in 
our power, considering the state of the weather and of the 
roads ; and this day the advanced guard, consisting of Major 
General Victor Alton's brigade, and the 1st and 3rd batta- 
lions of the 95th regiment, and Captain Ross's troop of 
horse artillery, took from them the remaining gun they had. 
They have entered Pamplona therefore, with one howitzer 
only. 

' General Clausel, who had under his command that part 
of the army of the north, and one division of the army of 
Portugal which was not in the action of the 21st, approached 
Vitoria on the 22nd, where he heard of the action of the 
preceding day; and finding there the 6th division, which 
had just arrived under the command of Major General the 



1813. IRURZUN. 457 

Hon. E. Pakenham, he retired upon La Guardia, and has 
since marched upon Tudela de Ebro. 

' It is probable that the enemy will continue their retreat 
into France. 

' I have detached General Giron with the Galician army 
in pursuit of the convoy which moved from Vitoria on the 
morning of the 20th, which I hope he will overtake before 
it will reach Bayonne. 

' I have the honor to enclose a report * which I have 
received from General Copons, of a very gallant affair in 
Catalonia on the 7th of May, by a brigade of Spanish troops 

* To General the Marquis of Wellington, K. G. 

' Head Quarters at Villa Franca, 
' MOST EXCELLENT SIR, 18th May, 1813. 

'The God of armies favors the operations of that which I have the honor to 
command. 

'The 2nd brigade of the 2nd division, under the command of Colonel Don 
Manuel Llauder, has completely destroyed, on the 7th instant, an enemy's 
column, composed of 1500 men, commanded by the Marshal who left Puycerda, 
for the purpose of attacking Colonel Llauder's flank, while he was engaged in 
the blockade of Olot : 4 officers and 290 men made prisoners, 12 caissons, and 
more than 500 muskets, and the reduction of the enemy's number to some 300 
men, are the results of this fortunate affair. 

'General Maurice Mathieu, with a corps of 6000 infantry, 300 cavalry, and 
5 pieces of cannon, under Generals Espert and Debans, marched to Tarragona, 
for the purpose of protecting a convoy. 

'I followed with the 2nd brigade of the 1st division, the 1st of the 2nd, the 
battalion of the General, and 30 cavalry, making a total of 3200 men. On the 
return of General Mathieu for Barcelona, I endeavored to draw him to an advan- 
tageous position, which I occupied at the village of La Bisbal, where I offered him 
battle on the 17th. At half past seven in the morning the fire began, and soon 
became general along the whole line: the attack and movement of the enemy to 
turn my flank were unavailing. At half past twelve he attacked, with the great- 
est spirit, and being repulsed and vigorously pursued, commenced his retreat, in 
sight of our valiant soldiers. 

' The field remained covered with bodies and arms : the enemy's loss exceeded 
600 men, killed, wounded, and prisoners. One commanding, and five inferior 
officers, were among the first, and seven were wounded. 

1 The enemy confessed this loss in the village, in which he left part of his 
wounded, under charge of a French surgeon. 

' My loss is not accurately ascertained, but I know that it bears no proportion 
to that of the enemy. When the different reports are received, I shall forward 
them to your Excellency ; but, in the mean time, I have the honor to give your 
Excellency this information for your satisfaction. 

1 God preserve your Excellency many years. 

' General < FRANCISCO DE COPONS NAVIA. 

the Marquis of Wellington, K.G.' 



458 SPAIN. 1813. 

under the command of Colonel Don Manuel Llauder ; and I 
have received a report, not official, stating that on the 17th 
of May General Copons had defeated the enemy in the 
position of Correal, near La Bisbal. 

' General Mina informs me that he has accounts of the 
landing of the force under Lieut. General Sir John Murray 
in Catalonia, and of the capture of the Coll de Balaguer 
and of Tarragona by them after a siege of eight days. I 
have hitherto received no accounts of these events. 
' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY DEAR LORD, ' Irurzun, 24th June, 1813. 

' I shall take an opportunity of answering your letter 
regarding Mr. Sampayo's concerns when I shall have more 
leisure. I shall now only say that the reasoning of the 
Commissary in Chief, in his letter to the Treasury, would be 
very good, if his facts were true, but they are all false. 
However, it is no concern of mine. It is the business of 
the Treasury, and of the Commissary in Chief, to find money 
to perform His Majesty's engagements to the powers in the 
Peninsula ; and I hope they will perform that duty. I have 
nothing more to do with it. 

' I likewise beg leave to suggest to your Lordship the 
expediency of adopting some measure for the protection of 
the navigation of the coast of Portugal, and of the north 
coast of Spain. Sir C. Stuart informs me that many vessels 
have lately been taken off the coast of Portugal. 

' Ammunition required for the army has lately been de- 
layed at Lisbon for want of convoy ; and it is not yet arrived 
at Santander, and I am obliged to use the French ammu- 
nition,, of a smaller calibre than our muskets, to make good 
our expenditure in the late action. The army cannot 
remain in this part of the country without magazines, not- 
withstanding its successes, and these magazines must be 
brought by sea, or they must be purchased with ready 
money. For the first time I believe it has happened to any 
British army, that its communication by sea is insecure ; and 
certainly we have not money to purchase in the country all 
we want. 



1813. ORCOYEN. 459 

' The increase of the naval force on the Lisbon station is 
likewise necessary, because our money must be transported 
from Lisbon by sea once a fortnight. We are too far from 
Lisbon to transport it by land ; and the expense would be 
enormous. 

' I trust that your Lordship will adopt some measures to 
afford us the wished for security in the navigation of the 
coast. 

1 Believe me, &c. 

Earl Bathurst: ( WELLINGTON. 



To Major General Roche. 

' SlR, ' Near Pamplona, 25th June, 1813. 

' Sir Henry Wellesley has transmitted to me your letter to 
him, and that to me of the 1st instant, and the copy of his 
answer of the 12th, with which I concur so entirely, that I 
need only refer to it for a statement of my opinion. 

' I do not know the person who made the statement to 
Government which induced them to order me to call upon 
you for your accounts of the issues of the stores entrusted to 
you, and to investigate those accounts. But if I had received 
such a statement I should have acted as they have. 
' I have the honor to be, &c. 
Major General Roche.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To General Castano.s. 

' MON CHER GENERAL, ' Pres de Pamplona, ce 25 Juin, 1813. 

' J'ai reu votre lettre du 18 ; et comme vous avez appris 
des autres tout ce qui est arrive ici, je ne vous ecris pas 
la dessus. J'espere que nous pourrons attraper Clausel. Le 
Hoi et ses debris sont partis pour la France. Nous bloquerons 
cette place demain matin. 

' Je vous donnerai des billets sur 1'Angleterre pour toutes 
les sommes d'argent que vous pouvez mettre dans la caisse 
militaire, qui seraient employees a payer les troupes de la 
4 me armee. 

' J'avais 1'intention de reparer le chateau de Burgos ; 
mais si vous 1'avez detruit, n'importe. 

' Agreez, &c. 
' El General Caslanos? ' WELLINGTON. 



460 SPAIN. 1813. 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry JVellesley, K.B. 

1 Orcoyen, near Pamplona, 
' MY DEAR HENRY, 25th June, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 12th regarding the 
pretensions of the Princess of Brazils to the Regency of 
Spain. 

' When I was at Cadiz, I had a conversation with the 
Portuguese Minister upon this subject, upon the occasion of 
his pressing me to declare myself in her favor. My answer 
was, that I never interfered in concerns of that description, 
and that I had come to Cadiz upon military business, and 
would not interfere in any other ; that I was the servant 
of three masters, and had not received the instructions of 
any one of them to talk to any body, or to interfere in any 
manner in that concern ; and that, as far as 1 had any know- 
ledge, I believed that to urge the pretensions of the Princess 
at that moment was repugnant to the wishes of the Prince 
of Brazils, equally with the English Government and the 
Spanish Cortes and Regency. 

* I then said, that, as a matter of private opinion, I thought 
that the Princess had behaved very indiscreetly on many 
occasions which I could enumerate, but particularly in her 
declarations against the English alliance. That in other 
times, and under other circumstances, the policy of that 
alliance might be doubted with fairness ; but that the per- 
son who declared against it under the existing circumstances 
must be either a fool or knave, as it was quite clear that it 
afforded the only hope of saving Spain and the Peninsula 
from the hands of the French. That in consequence of all 
these reflections, he must excuse me from giving my opinion 
in any manner on the subject. 

' I cannot convey what I think regarding the appointment 
of the Princess to the Regency in stronger terms ; and you 
may make what use you please of this letter. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir H. Welleslcy, K.B." 



1813. ORCOYEN. 461 

To Lieut. Colonel Bourke. 

< SIR, ' Orcoyen, near Pamplona, 2Gth June, 1813. 

I tend herewith the duplicate of my dispatches to the 
Secretary of State of the 22nd and 24th instant, and of this 
day, containing accounts of the battle of the 21st, near 
Vitoria, and of subsequent events in this quarter. 

' You Avill see by the last that I propose to lay siege to 
Pamplona ; and I mean to make use, in that operation, of 
twenty eight French 12 pounders, taken from the enemy in 
the battle of Vitoria. 

' I enclose letters to the commanding officers at Ferrol and 
in the province of Galicia, to order them to concert with you 
the means of sending round to Deba 12 pounder shot, to the 
amount of 28,000 ; and I request you to press forward as 
much as may be in your power the delivery of the shot from 
the arsenals, and to arrange with the Commissary General 
and the officers of the British Navy at Coruna, or any other 
British authority who may be there, the hire of vessels to 
carry the shot to Deba; and to impress upon them the 
necessity that, for the good of His Majesty's service and 
the cause, all persons should exert themselves to carry this 
service into execution. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

Lieut. Colonel Bourke.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To Captain Sir George Collier, R.N. 
' SIR, ' Orcoyen, near Pamplona, 26th June, 1813. 

' I had this day the honor of receiving your letter of the 
19th instant. Before you will receive this, you will probably 
have heard of our victory of the 21st. The enemy are on 
their retreat into France ; and I propose forthwith to make 
the siege of Pamplona. 

' I dispatched yesterday an officer to Santander, with di- 
rections to bring to the port of Deba the battering train 
and its equipment, which is now, I hope, at Santander. I 
am afraid it will be necessary to tranship the ordnance, &c. 
into smaller vessels ; but the communication by land from 
hence with Deba is so much more convenient than by Bilbao, 
that I have given directions that the ordnance, &c. may be 
transhipped into small vessels, to be hired at Santander, if, 



462 SPAIN. 1813. 

upon inquiry there, it should be found that the ships in which 
they are now embarked cannot enter Deba on account of 
the lowness of their draught of water. 

' I request you to aid these measures by your influence 
and assistance at Santander. 

' I propose to use in the siege of Pamplona some of the 
French 12 pound ordnance captured in the battle at Vitoria; 
and I have sent to Coruna for 28,000 twelve pounder shot 
for that service, which must likewise be brought to Deba. 
It would be very desirable if this shot could come in a ship 
of war of a small size ; and, at all events, I request you to 
adopt immediate measures to give it convoy. 

' After having taken Pamplona, it will not be difficult to 
make ourselves masters of Santofia, Castro Urdiales, and 
even San Sebastian ; and it is not impossible that the mea- 
sures to take those places might hereafter, with your assist- 
ance, go hand in hand with those for the capture of Pam- 
plona : but at present we must direct all our efforts to the 
latter. 

' I send this letter to you off Bilbao, and a duplicate to 
Santander. 

( I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Captain Sir G. Collier, R.N.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To General Castanos. 

' MON CHER GENERAL, ' Pres de Pamplona, ce 26 Juin, 1813. 

' J'ai requ ce matin votre lettre du 24, pour laquelle je 
vous suis bien oblige. Je vous ai ecrit hier. J'ai envoye 
ordre au Comte de la Bisbal de tacher de prendre Pancorbo, 
et je lui ai envoye un ingenieur Anglais, qui a fait la recon- 
naissance de la place pour 1' aider. Je fais 1'investiment de 
cette place ; et, en mme temps que nous rejettons la grande 
arme"e en France, je vais tacher d'attraper Clausel, qui est 
encore sur 1'Ebre avec 1.5,000 hommes. Au moins nous le 
renverrons sans canon ou voitures. 

' Agreez, &c. 
' El General Castanos." ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Orcoyen, 26th June, 1813. 

' I have received your letter of the 1st instant, containing 
the copy of one from the Commissary in Chief to the Lords 



1813. ORCOYEN. 463 

of the Treasury, in regard to the importation of grain from 
America. 

' Your Lordship is mistaken in supposing that Mr. Sam- 
payo has made a contract for the supply of that article at 
the Lisbon prices. The fact is, that under a commission 
from Sir Charles Stuart, he purchased grain on account of 
the Government, with bills on the Treasury, furnished him 
by His Majesty's Minister, and Government enjoyed all the 
profit arising from the difference of price at Lisbon, and at 
the place at which the corn was purchased. 

1 Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 
' MY LORD, ' Orcoyen, near Pamplona, 26th June, 1813. 

' The enemy continued their retreat yesterday morning 
from the neighbourhood of Pamplona, by the road of Ron- 
cesvalles into France, and have been followed by our Light 
troops. 

' The fort of Pamplona has been invested this day ; and 
I have made arrangements for landing and bringing up the 
train of artillery to attack that place. 

' I enclose the copy of a letter which I have received from 
Colonel Longa of the 22nd, stating that he has taken six 
pieces of artillery from a detachment of troops under the 
command of General Foy, on their retreat into France by 
the high road at Mondragon. 

' I ought to have informed your Lordship in my dispatch 
of the 24th, that on the 23rd instant I had detached Lieut. 
General Sir Thomas Graham to the left towards Tolosa, 
Avith a view to the operations to be carried on in that quar- 
ter. By a letter from him of the 25th, it appears that he 
arrived yesterday at Tolosa, having been opposed in his 
occupation of that town by the troops which retired under 
the command of General Foy. He mentions the assistance 
which he had received from Colonel Longa, and from two 
battalions of the army of Galicia, which General Giron had 
left with him in his attack upon Tolosa. 

' I have not received any official intelligence of the state 
of affairs on the eastern coast ; but General Mina told me 
yesterday that the allied troops were certainly in possession 



464 SPAIN. 1813. 

of the lower town of Tarragona, which they had stormed, 
and that Lieut. General Sir John Murray had commenced 
his attack upon the upper town ; and that an officer belong- 
ing to one of the regiments under his command, on the 
frontiers of Catalonia, had reported to him on the 23rd that 
the fire at Tarragona had ceased entirely. 

' Sir John Murray had certainly landed in Catalonia on 
the 3rd instant, and had taken possession of the Coll de 
Balaguer on the 7th, in which fort were found seventeen 
pieces of cannon. Some prisoners were taken. 

' It is likewise reported in the country that the Spanish 
troops are in possession of Valencia. 

' I have the honor to be, Sec. 
' Earl Bathurst: f WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY LORD, ' Orcoyen, 26th June, 1813. 

' When I wrote to your Lordship on the 10th February 
regarding the battering trains to be prepared in England, 
I had in contemplation, in the first ihstance, the siege of 
Burgos, and afterwards that of Pamplona and other places 
in the enemy's possession between the Ebro and the French 
frontier. I now therefore beg your Lordship to order to 
Santander the other trains requested to be in readiness for 
this service. 

' In the mean time I am about to use in the siege the 
12 pounder ordnance taken from the enemy. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst. e WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Sir T. Graham, K.B. 

< MY DEAR SIR, ' Orcoyen, 27th June, 1813. 6 A.M. 

' I have just now received your note of yesterday from 
Tolosa. Knowing that Murray communicated to you all 
that was passing on this side, I have not written to you ; 
and 1 refer you to the letter which he wrote to you yesterday, 
and of which he will send a duplicate this morning, for the 
detail of what I intend to do. 

' I am just setting out after Clausel with the 4th division 
and Light division. Sir Rowland Hill will invest this place. 



1813. CASEDA. 465 

I shall get him likewise to post a strong force towards Ron- 
cesvalles. -..#> 

' You must be too late to do Foy any mischief, but you 
might push him on ; and afterwards take your defensive on 
the great road, according to the instruction of yesterday. 

' I propose to bring the artillery, &c. for the siege of 
Pamplona from Deba by Tolosa. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General 'WELLINGTON. 

Sir T. Graham, K.B.' 

To Lieut. General the Hon. W. Stewart. 

' MY DEAR GENERAL, ' Orcoyen, 27th June, 1813. 

1 I have just received yours of yesterday. I have already 
stated to you the arrangements for the command of brigades 
in the 2nd division, and it is not in my power to give Gene- 
ral Ross the command which you ask. I have besides reason 
to believe that he is desirous of staying where he is. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

the Hon. W. Stewart' 

To Lieut. General Sir T. Graham, K.B. 

* Caseda, on the Aragon, 
'MY DEAR SIR, 28th June, 1813. 2 P.M. 

' I received in the night your report to the 26th*, and this 
morning from Lord March your letter of the 27th; and 

* To Field Marshal the Marquis of Wellington, K.G. 

' MY LORD, ' Tolosa, 26th June, 1813. 

' It was so late on the 23rd when I received the order to march by the Puerto 
San Adrian on Villa Franca, and the weather and the road were so extremely 
bad, that but a small part of the column could get over the mountain that day : 
and it was not till late on the 24th that I could move from Segura on Villa 
Franca, with Major General Anson's brigade of light dragoons, the light bat- 
talions of the King's German Legion, and the two Portuguese brigades ; the 
rest of the troops not being yet come up. 

'The rear of the enemy's column was then just passing on the great road from 
Villa Real to Viila Franca, and he occupied, in considerable force, some very 
strong ground on the right of the great road, and of the river Oria, in front of 
the village of Olaverria, and about a mile and a half from Villa Franca. 

'Major General Bradford's brigade marched by Olaverria, and was employed 
to dislodge the enemy on the right, while the remainder of the troops advanced 
by the chautiee, defended by the enemy's tirailleurs on the heights, and a 
strong body at the village of Beasayn. 

VOL. X. 2 H 



466 SPAIN. 1813. 

General Murray has shown me two letters which he had 
received from you last night and this morning. 

' I know of nothing that has retreated from Vitoria by the 
great road, nor that is on the great road at present, except- 

' As the enemy reinforced the troops on his left, it became necessary to push 
on by the chaussee, which was done by the light battalion, under Colonel Hal- 
kett, assisted and flanked by some companies of Major General Pack's Portu- 
guese brigade ; and this service was performed, in the most gallant style, by these 
brave troops, who drove the enemy from the village of Beasayn. 

' The enemy having troops ready posted on the succession of strong heights 
on each side of the deep valley, at the bottom of which the road runs, a consider- 
able time become necessary to reach his flanks, during which he evacuated Villa 
Franca, without further dispute. 

' The Portuguese brigades on the right and left of the valley pushed on their 
advance to Isasondo, and the troops assembled at Villa Franca. Here, like- 
wise, the head of General Giron's corps and all Colonel Longa's arrived in the 
course of the evening. 

' The next morning (the 25th) the enemy evacuated Celequia ; and, as he had 
taken up a very strong position between that and Tolosa, covering the Pam- 
plona road, the Spanish corps of Colonel Longa was marched by Alzo towards 
Lizarza, to turn his left, while Lieut. General Mendizabal was requested to dis- 
patch some battalions from Azpeitia to turn his right, appuyed on a high moun- 
tain, with an inaccessible ravine in front. 

' The enemy was driven from the summit of an important hill, lying between 
the Pamplona and Vitoria roads, by a very skilful attack of Lieut. Colonel Wil- 
liams, with two companies of the grenadiers of the 1st regiment, and three of 
the 4th ca^adores, belonging to General Pack's brigade. 

' The conduct of Lieut. Queiros, and of Ensign Vasconcellos, of the 4th ca^a- 
dores, was distinguished on this occasion. The latter officer lost an eye by a 
musket shot. 

'This hill was immediately occupied by Major General Bradford's brigade, 
supported by the three line battalions of the King's German Legion. 

' The rest of the day was chiefly spent in skirmishing with the enemy's tirail- 
leurs, to give time for the Spanish corps arriving at their destination. 

' A general attack began between six and seven in the evening. Two guns of 
Captain Ramsay's troop, and two 9 pounders of Captain Dubourdieu's, under an 
escort of Captain Childer's troop of the llth light dragoons, and of the ad- 
vance of Colonel Halkett's light battalions, were brought rapidly forward on 
the chaussee, and fired with effect against several formed bodies of the enemy in 
the plain near the town ; while the column, consisting of the German light bat- 
talions, the brigade of Guards, and a Spanish division of General Giron's, con- 
tinued to advance by the c/iaussee. 

' Two Spanish battalions and one Portuguese, forming a separate column on 
the left of the chaussee, passed quickly on the left of the town. General Brad- 
ford and the line battalions of the Germans driving in the enemy on their 
front, by the Pamplona road, and Colonel Longa from the side of the moun- 
tains, still more on the right, turning and forcing, from very strong positions, 
all the posted bodies of the enemy on the right of the town. 

' Still the enemy held possession of the town, which was much more capa- 
ble of defence than had been represented. 

' The Vitoria gate was barricaded, and also the Pamplona gate on the 



1813. CASED A. 467 

ing the troops which came with Foy from Bilbao, and the 
garrisons which he has picked up on his way. 

1 The troops stated to have passed from Irurzun by the 
Tolosa road towards San Estevan, certainly returned to 
Irurzun, and marched with the remainder of the army to 
Pamplona, from whence the whole have retired by Zubiri. 
At Zubiri, the armies of the South and Centre, and part of 
that of Portugal, went to St. Jean Pied de Port, where they 
arrived on the 26th. Part of that of Portugal went by Ber- 
rueta towards Bayonne. 

' The account, however, which you have given of the 
Spanish and Portuguese troops, in your letter to General 
Murray, has induced me to alter my plans a little. The 
5th and 6th divisions were brought between Vitoria and 
Logrono, with a view to Clausel's probable movement upon 
Salvatierra, according to all the authentic reports of the 
moment, and to a letter in cipher which he wrote to the 
King. 

bridge ; and both were flanked by convents and other large buildings occupied 
by the enemy, and the town was nowhere open. A 9 pounder was therefore 
brought up under cover of the fire of the light battalion, close to the gate, which 
was thus burst open. 

' It was now dark, and it was not possible to distinguish the troops of the 
different nations engaged, which gave the enemy, now flying from every point, 
an opportunity of escaping with much less loss than he must have suffered, had 
we had daylight. 

' The conduct of all the troops concerned in this attack was highly creditable ; 
that of the line battalions on the Pamplona road, and of the light battalions at 
the Vitoria gate, was such as was to be expected from these distinguished corps, 
and the column of the left did equal honor to the Spanish and Portuguese arms. 

' Colonel Longa's corps, after a repetition of long and severe marches, under- 
took and executed, with the greatest spirit, the fatiguing duty of this day, and 
behaved in the most gallant manner. The battalions sent from Azpeitia by 
Lieut. General Mendizabal repulsed, with great steadiness, an attack of the 
enemy, and afterwards pursued him down from the mountains, taking a good 
many prisoners. 

' I have not yet got the return, but I believe above 200 prisoners were taken 
by the two Spanish corps, and many wounded men were left here. The enemy's 
loss in killed, too, must have been considerable. 

'This place has, besides the defences at the gates, new towers to flank the 
exterior wall, and a strong wood blockhouse in the square, which shows the 
importance the enemy attached to its occupation. 

' It would be unjust to the troops employed in this assault, not to mention 
their exemplary conduct when in possession ; there was no excess committed. 
The German Legion and Colonel Longa's corps passed on, and formed imme- 
diately beyond the town. 

' I have the honor to enclose a return of the killed and wounded of the British 

2n 2 



468 



SPAIN. 



1813. 



' His movement having, however, been directed along the 
Ebro, I have ordered back the 5th division of infantry ; and 
you will learn from the Quarter Master General at what 
time they will be at your disposal. 

' Secondly ; if we cannot depend upon the operations of 
the Spanish and Portuguese troops in pursuing a flying 
enemy, we certainly cannot depend upon them in those 
operations which must be carried on to cover the siege of 
Pamplona. 

' I therefore propose to blockade that place rather than 
lay siege to it. We shall get the place at a later period ; 
but other advantages will attend this mode of proceeding. 

' Clausel arrived at Tudela last night. I have moved in 
this direction in order to try to stop him on his march 
towards Jaca ; but I think he will continue his march along 
the Ebro to join Suchet. 

' Believe me, &c. 

Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir T. Graham, K.B. 

f I wish your report had arrived in time to go by the 
mail of the 26th; but as it has not gone, and you have 

and Portuguese in these two days, which, considering the nature of the service, 
could not have been expected to be less than considerable. 

'The Spaniards lost several officers killed and wounded yesterday, but I have 
not had any return of them . 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Field Marshal ' T. GRAHAM, Lieut. General. 

the Marquis of Wellington, K. G.' 

Return of the Killed, Hounded, and Missing of the Army tinder the Command of 
Field Marshal the Marquis of Wellington, K.G,,24th and 25th June, 1813. 









a> 












PK 




Total loss of Officers, 






ta 






Non-commissioned 




2 


a 


rt 


CO 




Officers, and Rank 




u 




4> 




S2 

o 


and File. 




O 




M 


w 




Killed . . . 


2 


3 


54 





61 


Wounded . . 


26 


12 


278 





316 


Missing . . 


1 





44 





45 



%* The Portuguese loss included : all the Missing were Portuguese. 



1813. CASED A. 469 

reason to be dissatisfied with the conduct of some of the 
Portuguese and Spaniards, do you not think it would be 
desirable to qualify the report in some degree in regard to 
them ? 

' I have not yet got the return of killed and wounded. I 
am sorry to observe from your letter to General Murray 
that you have been hit ; but I hope that you have not been 
materially hurt, and that in the mean time you will keep 
yourself quiet till you are well.' 

To Lieut. General Sir R. Hill, K.B. 
* MY DEAR HlLL, ' Caseda, 28th June, 1813. 8 P.M. 

* I am anxious that some measures should be adopted for 
the more close and strict blockade of Pamplona, and I sug- 
gest the following for your consideration. 

* First; That the water which supplies the town by the 
aqueduct should be cut off. It will not be difficult to effect 
this object without mischief to the country, by cutting the 
aqueduct at any place under which there may be a channel 
through which the water might run. 

' Secondly ; In order to complete the annoyance of this 
measure, it will be necessary to establish posts upon the 
river, to fire day and night at any persons who may ap- 
proach it for water. These posts should be covered by a 
trench. A redoubt should likewise be constructed at the 
distance of musket shot from each of the bridges ; each to 
hold a sufficient number of men to support the posts on the 
river, in case the enemy should make a sortie upon them. 
There should be a gun or two in each of these redoubts, 
which we can bring from Vitoria. 

' Thirdly ; There is a wood to the southward of the place, 
on the same side of the river ; and that should be examined, 
and, if possible, an abbatis should be formed in it, to protect 
the blockade on that side, which should be brought as close 
as possible. 

1 Fourthly; The remainder might be occupied by piquets 
at the usual distance, communicating well with each other, 
having support at hand, in redoubts armed with artillery. 
One of these might be where the old hornwork is. 

* Fifthly; Measures should be taken, without loss of 
time, to cut and carry away, or, if that cannot be done, to 
burn the corn between our posts and the place. These 



470 SPAIN. 1813. 

measures must be well considered, and must not be allowed 
to fail. 

' I beg that all this may be done without loss of time ; 
and the sooner it is done, the sooner I shall be able to 
relieve your troops entirely from this blockade, and give it 
in charge to the Spaniards. 

' I do not think we shall be able to do much against 
Clausel. He has passed Tudela on his march to Zaragoza. 
I propose to try him on the road to Jaca. 

' Believe me, &c. 

' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir R. Hill, K.B: 

To General Castanos. 

' a Caseda sur 1'Aragon, 
' MON CHER GENERAL, ce 28 Juin, 1813. 2 heures P.M. 

' Alava vous aura fait savoir que j'ai requ dans la nuit 
une lettre de mon frere, dans laquelle il me dit que vous 
6tes rappelle au Conseil d'Etat de Cadiz ; et que Giron doit 
tre remplace dans le commandement de 1'armee. Sa lettre 
est du 17, et je n'ai rien du Ministre. La reponse qu'on a 
fait aux remonstrances de mon frere sur ces mesures a ete 
que vous etiez necessaire au Conseil d'Etat, et qu'on etait sur 
que je serais satisfait des raisons qui les avaient motives. 

' Je suis bien sur que je n'en serai pas satisfait. Mais je 
vous prie de m'approcher un peu avant que vous ne partiez 
a fin que je puisse causer avec vous. 

' J'ai beaucoup a vous dire qu'on ne peut pas ecrire ; mais je 
ne perds pas cette occasion de vous remercier pour toutes 
les bontes que vous avez cues pour moi, depuis que j'ai eu le 
bonheur de vous connaitre ; pour les aides que vous m'avez 
donne en toute occasion, et pour la cordialite avec laquelle 
nous avons conduit tant de mauvaises affaires a un resultat 
heureux. Je suis sur que le service du public ne peut pas 
gagner, et peut perdre par aucun changement qu'on fera ; 
et de long temps je n'ai et6 si fache ni mortifie comme je le 
suis, depuis que j'ai rec,u cette lettre de mon frere. 

' Agreez, &c. 
' El General Castanos. ' WELLINGTON. 

' Clausel 6tant arrive avant nous a Tudela, je suis venu 
ici pour l'arrter en sa marche en Aragon vers Jaca. II 
etoit a Tudela hier au soir.' 



1813. CASEDA. 471 

To General Copons. 

'Caseda, on the river Aragon, 
* SlR, 28th June, 1813. 

' I have the honor to inform you that I gained a com- 
plete victory over the enemy's army, commanded by the 
King, near Vitoria, on the 21st instant. We took from 
them 151 pieces of cannon; all their ammunition, baggage, 
treasure, &c. The enemy cut off from the high road to 
France, retired upon Pamplona, and thence into France, 
by Roncesvalles, on St. Jean Pied de Port, where they 
arrived on the 26th instant. 

' General Clausel, with about 12,000 or 14,000 men, com- 
posed of part of the Army of the North, and of one division 
of the Army of Portugal, was on the Ebro during the 
action, and was not engaged in it. I have now turned 
towards him, and shall endeavor to cut him off, if he at- 
tempts to retire by Jaca. He was last night at Tudela. 

' I have heard that General Sir John Murray had landed 
in Catalonia on the 3rd; that he obtained possession of 
Coll de Balaguer on the 7th, and proceeded immediately 
to the siege of Tarragona, of which it is reported that he 
had possession of the lower town in eight days ; and I learn 
that since the 23rd no firing has been heard at Tarragona. 

' It is likewise reported that Sir John Murray has pro- 
ceeded to the siege of Tortosa ; but this must be conjecture. 

' I shall be very glad to know the state of affairs in 
Catalonia, and on the Eastern coast. It would be most de- 
sirable, if you could establish a regular communication 
along the right of the Ebro, as far as Tudela, with which 
town I could communicate. 

' I beg you to send this letter to Sir John Murray. 

' I enclose a copy of the return of Suchet's army of the 
13th of May. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' General Copons.' ' WELLINGTON. 

To the Right Hon. Sir Henry Wellesley, K.B. 

' Caseda, on the river Aragon, 
' MY DEAR HENRY, 28th June, 1813. 

' I received in the night your letter of the 17th, in which 
you have informed me of General Castanos' removal from 



472 SPAIN. 1813. 

the command of the 4th army and its provinces, which has 
annoyed me a good deal, both on account of the circum- 
stance itself, and of the manner in which it has taken place. 
I do not propose, however, to take any notice of what has 
passed till I shall hear from the Minister at War. 

' Castarios has gone on always perfectly well with us, par- 
ticularly latterly ; and I am certain that great inconvenience 
will result from his being removed. 

' I shall speak to him respecting the Princess of Brazils, 
and his conduct in general at Cadiz, before he goes ; and I 
shall communicate to him the letter which I wrote to you the 
other day on the former subject. 

' As for your leaving Cadiz, I do not think it will have 
any effect. The people of the country, at least those 20 
miles from Cadiz, never think of what passes there; nor 
is there sufficient communication between Cadiz and the 
country for them even to know of your absence. The people 
think of nothing but getting rid of the French, and avoid- 
ing to contribute any thing towards the support of any 
army. And if they can accomplish these objects, they do 
not care much about others. 

' If the Government or the Cortes cared about the opinion 
of their ally, or about carrying on the war, 1 should ac- 
quiesce in the measure ; but it is heartbreaking to see that 
they care about neither the one nor the other, and there is no 
tie over them. All they appear to care about, is the war 
against the clergy ; and it appears as if the measures for 
carrying on the war against the enemy were incompatible 
with those for the prosecution of the more favorite hostilities 
against the priests. 

< I have come here in pursuit of Clausel, who, after all, 
will, I am afraid, get out of our reach. 

' Ever yours most affectionately, 

' The Right Hon. ' WELLINGTON. 

Sir Henry Welleslcy, K.B.' 

To Earl Bathurst. 

1 Caseda, on the river Aragon, 
< MY DEAR LORD, 29th June, 1813. 

' It is desirable that any reinforcements of infantry which 
you may send to this army may come to Santander, not- 



1813. CASEDA. 473 

withstanding that I am very apprehensive of the conse- 
quence of marching our vagabond soldiers through the 
province of Biscay in that state of discipline in which they 
and their officers generally come out to us. It may be de- 
pended upon, that the people of this province will shoot 
them as they would the French, if they should misbehave. 

' We started with the army in the highest order, and up 
to the day of the battle nothing could get on better; but 
that event has, as usual, totally annihilated all order and 
discipline. The soldiers of the army have got among them 
about a million sterling in money, with the exception of 
about 100,000 dollars, which were got for the military chest. 
The night of the battle, instead of being passed in getting 
rest and food to prepare them for the pursuit of the follow- 
ing day, was passed by the soldiers in looking for plunder. 
The consequence was, that they were incapable of inarching 
in pursuit of the enemy, and were totally knocked up. The 
rain came on and increased their fatigue, and I am quite 
convinced that we have now out of the ranks double the 
amount of our loss in the battle; and that we have lost 
more men in the pursuit than the enemy have ; and have 
never in any one day made more than an ordinary march. 

' This is the consequence of the state 'of discipline of the 
British army. We may gain the greatest victories ; but we 
shall do no good until we shall so far alter our system, as to 
force all ranks to perform their duty. The new regiments 

are, as usual, the worst of all. The th are 

a disgrace to the name of a soldier, in action as well as else- 
where ; and I propose to draft their horses from them, and 
to send the men to England, if I cannot get the better of 
them in any other manner. 

' Believe me, &c. 
Earl Bathurst: ' WELLINGTON. 

To Earl Bathurst. 

' MY DEAR LORD, ' Cascda, 29th June, 1813. 

' I enclose the copy of a letter, which I received some time 
ago from a very sensible gentleman, a member of the Cortes, 
in answer to one which I had written to him ; which conveys, 
in my opinion, a very accurate representation of the state 



474 SPAIN. 1813. 

and spirit of parties in the Cortes and at Cadiz, with the 
exception only of that part of the letter which relates to the 
French party supposed to exist in the Cortes. I believe that 
that party ought more properly to be called anti- Anglican 
than French. The Cortes are, however, getting on at a 
fine rate. 

'They have now removed General Castanos from his 
situation, and his nephew from the command of the Galician 
army, for reasons they have not disclosed to my brother. I 
have not yet received from themselves any intimation of 
these arrangements, which are in direct breach of their 
agreements with me. 

' I believe that they propose to carry on the war against 
the bishops in Galicia ; and that they have removed General 
Castanos, and appointed General Lacy to be Captain General 
in that province, because they think the latter more fit for 
their purpose than the former. 

' The consequence of this war will be that we shall have a 
disturbance on our communications. We and the French 
shall change sides. They will have the clergy and lower 
orders in their favor in future. 

' It is difficult to advise a line of conduct under such cir- 
cumstances. We and the powers of Europe are interested 
in the success of the war in the Peninsula ; but the creatures 
who govern at Cadiz appear to feel no such interest. All 
that they care about really is to hear the praise of their foolish 
Constitution. There is not one of them who does not feel 
that it cannot be put in practice ; but their vanity is in- 
terested to force it down people's throats. Their feelings 
respecting the Inquisition are of the same description. I 
apprized them, when at Cadiz, of the danger of hurrying 
on that measure ; and it was repeatedly represented to them 
by others. But they were determined to persevere, although 
they knew that the abolition of the Inquisition was disagree- 
able to the clergy, and to the great body of the people. Then 
their vanity is interested in forcing this absurd measure, and 
the still more absurd, because insulting, mode of carrying it 
into execution, upon the clergy and people. The bishops 
and clergy in Galicia have openly resisted this law, and I 
understand that the people in that province are by no means 



1813. MONREAL. 475 

favorably disposed to the Constitution and new order of 
things. In Biscay the people positively refused last year to 
accept of the Constitution, as being a breach of the privileges 
of their province. 

' I mention this subject at present, in order to draw the 
attention of Government towards it. Hereafter I shall bring 
it under your Lordship's view in a more formal manner ; and 
it will rest with Government to determine what shall be 
done. It appears to me that as long as Spain shall be 
governed by the Cortes acting upon Republican principles, 
we cannot hope for any permanent amelioration. To threaten 
that you would withdraw your assistance, without withdraw- 
ing if there were no amelioration, would only make matters 
worse. You must be the best judges whether you can or 
ought to withdraw ; but I acknowledge that I do not believe 
that Spain will be an useful ally, or at all in alliance with 
England, if the Republican system is not put down. 

' Believe me, &c. 
' Earl Bathurst." * WELLINGTON. 

To General Castafios. 
< SIR, ' Monreal, 30th June, 1813. 

f I have had the honor of receiving your letter of the 27th 
instant, in which you have enclosed the Redactor General of 
the 17th, containing a report from the Minister at War to 
the Cortes, that you had been called to attend the sittings of 
the Council of State, as you were not at the head of the 4th 
army, the command of which had been confided to you. 

' I had already received intimation of this arrangement, as 
I have informed you, though not from the Government, nor 
from the Minister, nor was the cause made known to me. I 
lament this arrangement, whatever may be the cause, as it 
deprives me of your valuable assistance, and the public of 
your services against the common enemy, at the moment 
when they might be most important. 

' I concur with your Excellency in thinking that the mode 
in which this arrangement has been made, and the cause 
assigned for it, are not less injurious to your Excellency's re- 
putation than the arrangement itself is to the public service ; 
although I am convinced that the Regency is too just inten- 
tionally to inflict such a disgrace upon a meritorious public 



476 SPAIN. 1813. 

servant, without at least hearing him in his defence, and too 
patriotic to deprive the public of your services at such a 
moment, if they were aware of the circumstances. 

'I think it but just, however, on my part, to take this 
opportunity, and to adopt this mode of stating to your 
Excellency, what I shall state to the Minister at War, for 
the information of the Regency, that, in point of fact, but a 
small proportion of the 4th army was in the field collected in 
one body, and that it was necessary to keep the different 
divisions of which it is composed separate, for a variety of 
reasons, some referring to their local situation, and others to 
finance, into which it is not now necessary to enter, but which 
are perfectly well known to the Government ; and your Excel- 
lency would have been out of your place in the organization 
of the arm)'-, if you had been at the head, as it is called, of 
any one of these bodies of the 4th army. 

' But it is forgotten that your Excellency, besides being 
Commander in Chief of the 4th army, is Captain General 
of the provinces of Estremadura, Old Castille, and Galicia. 
It was your duty, and it was absolutely necessary for the 
cause, that your Excellency should take measures to esta- 
blish the Spanish authorities in the different towns and 
districts of which the kingdom of Castille is composed, in 
proportion as by the operations of the armies they should 
be successively evacuated by the enemy. This was the 
plan for your conduct, settled with me before we broke up 
from the Agueda in May; and you have continued to act on 
this plan since we separated at Salamanca. 

' I am convinced that, considering the importance to the 
Government and to the army of the services which you have 
rendered, and adverting to the manner in which the army of 
Galicia has been commanded by Don P. A. Giron, you could 
not have been so advantageously employed elsewhere; and I 
am persuaded that if the Government had adverted to the 
necessity of the performance of the duties of Captain General 
in settling the Government in Castille during the rapid 
advance of the army, they would not have allowed a stigma 
to be thrown upon your reputation, whatever might be the 
cause for removing you from your command, to call you to 
attend the sittings of the Council of State. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 
' General Castafios.' f WELLINGTON. 



1813. HUARTE. 477 

To General Castanos. 
' MON CHER GENERAL, ' a Monreal, ce 30th Juin, 1813. 

' J'ai requ vos lettres du 27, et vous aurez deja vu ce que 
j'ai senti sur ce que vous est arrive ; et je vous envoie une 
lettre officielle aujourd'hui dont vous ferez 1'usage qui vous 
conviendra. Pour moi, je crois qu'on prefere faire la guerre 
aux Eveques en Galice a la faire aux Franc, ais ; et on vous 
6te parcequ'on vous croit assez fou pour etre d'opinion que 
c'est essentiel avant tout de chasser les Frangais. 

' Pour ce qui regarde la fin de votre lettre, je peux faire 
ce que vous desirez d'une maniere ou d'une autre. Mais il 
est essentiel pour vous que personne n'en sache rien excepte 
vous, mon frere, et moi. Nous causerons quand je vous verrai 
sur la mode. La chose n'est pas difficile. 

' Je me retourne vers Pampelune. L' Alcalde de Tudela 
a ruine notre affaire centre Clausel * ; et il a pass6 vers Sara- 
gosse; et comme il avoit trop le devant sur nous, je n'aipas 
voulu tacher de le couper de Jaca en quoi je n'aurais pas 
reussi ; et je 1'aurais force de se joindre avec Suchet. 

' Agreez, &c. 
4 El General Castanos: f WELLINGTON. 

To Lieut. General Lord William Bentinck, K.B. 
' MY LORD, ' Huarte, 1st July, 1813. 

' I have had the honor of receiving your Lordship's dis- 
patches, Nos. 1, 2, and 3, of the 19th and 20th of June; 
the first having a postscript dated Alicante, the 23rd June. 

' The enemy's army, commanded by King Joseph, was 
totally defeated by that of the allies under my command, in 
a general action fought near Vitoria on the 21st of June. 
The enemy lost 151 pieces of cannon, all their ammunition, 
baggage, treasure, &c. They have since fled into France, 
followed by our troops. General Clausel, with about 12,000 
men of the army of the North, was on the Ebro during the 
action. He has since made various attempts to get into 
France by the passes northward of Vitoria, and by Pam- 
plona. 

' I marched against him with a detachment on the 27th, 
from the neighbourhood of Pamplona, to endeavor to cut him 
off, but he arrived at Tudela de Ebro before I could reach 

* This report appears, by subsequent letters, not to have been well founded. 



478 SPAIN. 1813. 

him, and continued his march upon Zaragoza ; and I then 
considered it more for the advantage of the allies to leave 
the road into France open for this corps by Jaca, than, by 
pushing the pursuit farther, to force Clausel to join himself 
with Suchet. 

' I have therefore returned, and am now on my way to 
the frontier, to superintend the operations of the troops there. 
Pamplona is blockaded. 

' From this outline of the state of affairs here, your Lord- 
ship will judge of the consequences which may be the result 
of the unfortunate commencement of the campaign on the 
east coast of the Peninsula. Sir John Murray, in a letter 
of the 23rd, refers me to one of the 14th, which has not 
reached me ; and from that of the 23rd, I can form no idea 
of the progress of events, or of the circumstances which com- 
pelled Sir John Murray to raise the siege, to leave his 
cannon and stores behind him, and to embark ; nor am I 
enabled to judge, excepting from the report of the courier, 
where the Duque del Parque and General Elio are ; nor to 
form the most distant notion of the force left by Suchet in 
Valencia. 

' In his dispatch of the 23rd, Sir John Murray talks of 
Suchet's having left about 10,000 men in Valencia. If that 
be true, it appears by the enclosed return of his force, found 
amongst King Joseph's papers, that he could not have 
brought into Catalonia much more than 5000 men. This, 
with General Mathieu's column from Barcelona of 8000 men, 
and the troops which the enemy may have drawn from Tor- 
tosa, is the whole amount of the disposable force which it 
appears occasioned the unfortunate measures to which I have 
above referred. 

' There can be no doubt of the truth of the inclosed 
return. Suchet has, besides, 3000 men in the province of 
Aragon under General Paris, which he cannot withdraw 
without losing that province entirely. 

' In order still further to make your Lordship acquainted 
with the state of affairs on the eastern coast, I enclose the 
copy of the last letter which King Joseph addressed to Su- 
chet, which I have had only since yesterday. From that it 
appears that the King has suggested to Suchet the expe- 
diency of retiring upon Zaragoza ; but as it appears from 



1813. HUARTE. 479 

letters from Suchet to the King, that he was very desirous, 
and considered it of the utmost importance to the interests 
of the Emperor, that he should keep Valencia, it is not im- 
possible that he may not attend to the King's letter of the 
16th, of which the order is not positive. 

' It now remains for me to instruct your Lordship as to 
your future proceedings. 

' I have not by me the state of the heavy ordnance and 
stores which were sent round to the eastern coast for the 
proposed service, nor have I an accurate notion of what has 
been lost by the raising the siege of Tarragona. From the 
demands of Captain Williamson, of the Artillery, I should 
suppose the equipment to be, in its present state, unfit for 
the accomplishment of any of the objects in view when it was 
formed. 

' But adverting to the state of Suchet's force, which I 
enclose, it appears to me that that under the command of 
your Lordship is fully equal to obtain possession of the open 
country of Valencia, and to prosecute the objects held out in 
my instructions of the 14th of April, so far as to establish 
itself on the Ebro. This operation would at least have 
the effect of diverting the attention of Suchet from this 
army ; and if it should not succeed in that object, the allies 
would gain ground on the eastern coast, in proportion as 
our difficulties would be increased on this side by the in- 
crease of the force opposed to us. 

' I beg your Lordship, therefore, to proceed to carry into 
execution the other objects in my instructions of the 14th of 
April. 

' Adverting to the nature of the force of which the army 
under the command of your Lordship is composed, to the 
state of equipment of the whole, and particularly of the 
allied British and Sicilian corps, I have always been of opi- 
nion that a maritime expedition was best suited to its means; 
and your Lordship will be the best judge, when you shall be 
in possession of your equipment of ordnance, &c., whether it 
is most expedient to embark and again attack Tarragona, 
or to cross the Ebro and attack Tortosa, or to endeavor to 
obtain possession of the enemy's fortified posts on the coast 
of Valencia. For this last object, indeed, it is possible that 
the ordnance equipment may be sufficient in its existing 



480 SPAIN. 1813. 

state. Wherever you may determine to embark, I believe 
you will be able to accomplish your object with equal facility 
as at Alicante, supposing you should determine to attack 
Tarragona. 

' I recommend to you, in your advance through Valencia, 
to place the allied British and Sicilian corps on the right, 
and to keep open your communication constantly with the 
sea on your flank, and to move your fleet on a line with your 
army. These measures will compensate for the want of 
means of transport, and you will always be well supplied. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Lieut. General 'WELLINGTON. 

Lord William Bentinck, K.B. 

' P.S. I see a largfe demand made for spherical case shot by 
Captain Williamson, and I beg to know whether that article 
has been left behind as well as every thing else. 

1 Since writing the above, the Chief of the Staff of the 
Spanish army has received a letter of the 24th of June from 
the Duque del Parque, from San Felipe, from which it 
appears that Suchet had arrived on the 23rd at Valencia, 
and the Duque del Parque intended to retire from the Jucar.' 

To Lieut. General Lord William Bentinck,' K.B. 
' My LORD, ' Huarte, 1st July, 1813. 

' I enclose the copy of a dispatch, No. 124, which I have 
received from the Secretary of State, enclosing one for 
your Lordship, directing that certain transports should be 
sent to England. 

' I likewise enclose the copy of a letter from the Secretary 
of State of the 4th of June, by which his Lordship has modi- 
fied the orders which he had conveyed on the 2nd. 
' I have the honor to be, &c. 

1 Lieut. General ( WELLINGTON. 

Lord William Bentinck, K.B.' 

To Lieut. General Lord William Bentinck, K.B. 
' MY LORD, ' Huarte, 1st July, 1813. 

' In answer to your Lordship's dispatch of the 20th, No. 3, 
I have to observe, that I conceive that the island of Sicily is 
at present in no danger whatever. 

* I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Lord William Bentinck, K.B.' 



1813. HUARTE. 481 

To Lieut. General Lord William Bentinck, K.B. 
' MY LORD, ' Huarte, 1st July, 1813. 

' Since I closed my dispatches to your Lordship of this 
day, Captain Carroll of the Royal Navy has arrived, and has 
delivered to me Lieut. General Sir J. Murray's letters of 
the 14th ult. 

' I now enclose for your Lordship's perusal, a private and 
public letter which I have written to the Lieutenant General, 
and I will thank you to have them delivered or sent to him 
as soon as it may be possible after you have made yourself 
acquainted with their contents. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

4 Lieut. General 'WELLINGTON. 

Lord William Bentinch, K.B.' 

To Lieut. General Lord William Bentinck, K.B. 
' MY DEAR LORD, ' Huarte, 1st July, 1813. 

' I received yesterday your dispatches and your private 
letter of the 23rd. 

' Sir John Murray's misfortune will create a devil of a 
breeze ; and, according to the information I have at present, 
I can form no opinion of the merits of the question, and 
therefore do not write any to him. I shall send his letters 
home without comment on my part, excepting to draw the 
attention of the Government to my instructions, of which 
they have a copy. 

' I do not consider Sicily to be in any danger whatever at 
present, and I believe that the fleet at Toulon is not manned, 
and in some degree dismantled. At all events, a landing 
on an island is a ticklish operation ; and if the British troops 
on the island will do their duty, it would probably fail. I 
do not exactly know how many men you have there now, but 
I suppose from 10,000 to 15,000. 

' In regard to Italy, I entertain no doubt that its preser- 
vation is more important to the power and resources of 
Buonaparte than Spain; but I have always doubted the 
existence of such a state of affairs in Italy, that the employ- 
ment of a British force there would shake the influence of 
Buonaparte ; or that our efforts would end in any thing but 
disgrace. It is an useless waste of your time and mine to 
enter at present into a discussion of these opinions, as your 

VOL. x. 2 i 



482 SPAIN. 1813. 

late discussions with Murat's agents have entirely altered 
the appearance of affairs in Italy ; and I entertain no doubt 
that the English and Murat, or the English and any other 
power that could put 30,000 or 40,000 men in the field, 
would create a revolution in Italy. 

' It is very difficult to form an opinion of Murat's sin- 
cerity ; but I am quite certain he will do nothing unless the 
Emperor of Austria should take a line with the Allies. In 
that case he will probably conclude with you. If he should 
conclude with you, I authorize you to embark from Spain all 
your Anglo-Sicilian corps, and to take them where you 
please, in order to carry into execution your treaty with 
Murat. 

' You will in that case throw the Spaniards on the defen- 
sive, unless you should think them strong enough to pursue 
the objects of their instructions alone. 

' Believe me, &c. 

4 Lieut. General ' WELLINGTON. 

Lord William Bentinck, K.B: 

To Lieut. General Sir John Murray. 

f SlR, 'Huarte, 1st July, 1813. 

' I had last night the honor of receiving your letter of the 
23rd June, by a courier from Alicante, and this afternoon 
that of the 14th *, by Captain Carroll, of the Navy. In the 

* To Field Marshal the Marquis of Wellington, K.G. 
' M* LORD, 'Camp before Tarragona, 9th June, 1813. 

' In my letter of the 28th of May, I had the honor to inform your Lordship, 
that, in obedience to your Lordship's instructions, the British army was then 
embarking. On the 31st we sailed, and anchored to the eastward of Salon 
Point on the evening of the 2nd instant; on the 3rd the army disembarked, and 
I invested Tarragona. 

' Previous to coming to an anchor, I detached Lieut. Colonel Prevost's brigade, 
under convoy of the Brane, to attack the Fort of San Felipe ; and, in the night, 
General Copons, at my request, detached a brigade of infantry to co-operate. 
The brigade of Colonel Prevost consists of the 2nd batt, 67th, and the battalion 
of Roll Dillon, and to these was subsequently joined the brigade of Spanish 
troops, commanded by Colonel Llauder. The fort has been taken, and I have 
the honor to enclose Colonel Prevost's report to me, with the returns which he 
has sent. 

' This capture, in the present situation of our affairs, is of great importance, as 
it blocks up the nearest and most accessible road from Tortosa to Tarragona. 

'Admiral Hallowell, with that alacrity and zeal for which he is so much dis- 
tinguished, sent Captain Adam, in the Invincible, to conduct the naval part of 
the expedition, and added the Thames, Captain Peyton ; Volcano, Captain Carroll ; 






1813. HUARTE. 483 

hurry in which you state you wrote your dispatch of the 14th 
June, you have omitted to give me a narrative of your pro- 

Strombolo, Captain Stoddart ; Brune, Captain Badcock. Lieut. Colonel Prevost 
speaks highly of the exertions of these officers and their men, and I know how 
valuable and important their services were found to be. The troops of both 
nations bore their fatigue and performed their duty with the greatest alacrity of 
spirit, and deserve every commendation. The Lieut. Colonel has, in a former 
dispatch, particularly noticed the gallantry and good conduct of Ensign Nelson, 
of the 67th, and Ensign John Dermot, of Roll Dillon's battalion. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 
' Field Marshal J. MURRAY, Lieut. Gen. 

the Marquis of Wellington, K.G. 

1 P.S. I have omitted to say, that Captain Carroll's services were particularly 
meritorious; and Lieut. Corbyn, of the Invincible, who commanded a battery 
manned by seamen, kept up a well directed and heavy fire. The importance of 
this acquisition, and the rapidity with which the fort has been taken, make it 
quite unnecessary for me to say how much I approve the conduct of Lieut. 
Colonel Prevost and of Captain Adam, 

To Lieut. General Sir J. Murray. 
' SIR, < Fort San Felipe, Coll de Balaguer, 7th June, 1813. 

' I have the honor to inform you, that, in obedience to your orders, I proceeded 
on the 2nd instant, with the brigade under my command, consisting of the 2nd 
batt. 67th regiment, and Roll Dillon's regiment, to which was added a de- 
tachment of the Royal Artillery, with two field pieces, under the command of 
Captain Arabin, and Roll's rifle company, to attack the Castle of San Felipe, 
in the Coll de Balaguer. 

' Captain Adam, of His Majesty's ship Invincible, joined off Salon, for the 
purpose of co-operating with the troops under my command. 

' We landed on the 3rd instant, at eleven o'clock in the forenoon, about one 
mile to the eastward of the entrance to the Pass from Tarragona. I was then 
joined by the Spanish regiments of Barcelona and Palma, under the command 
of Don Josef Carles. 

' I immediately directed Roll's rifles, the light company of the 67th, and Roll's 
light company, under the command of Captain Muller of Roll's, to invest the 
fort as closely as possible, which he did so completely by two o'clock, that the 
enemy could not show himself before his parapet. 

' One 6 pounder was brought up the Sierra del Tasal, a very steep mountain, 
within seven hundred yards of the fort, to annoy the enemy with Shrapnell shells. 

' The Engineer officers not having arrived with the entrenching tools till very 
late, nothing further could be undertaken that evening. 

' The Fort of San Felipe is situated upon the eastern extremity of an insu- 
lated village, in the centre of the Coll de Balaguer, commanding completely the 
great road through the pass. It is a square fort, with some bastions, but com- 
manded on two sides by almost inaccessible mountains. 

'On the 4th, two 12 pounders and 1 howitzer, under the command of Lieut. 
Corbyn, of His Majesty's ship Invincible, and manned by the crew of that ship, 
were likewise brought up to the Tasal. This battery continued to play upon the 
fort the whole day, in order to attract the attention of the enemy, whilst Cap- 
tain Chyne, of the Royal Engineers, was tracing out the ground for the breach- 
ing batteries, within three hundred yards of the place, and tlie troops busied in 
filling the sand bags. At night, the whole of the seamen and troops were em- 

2 i 2 



484 SPAIN. 1813. 

ceedings from the time of your making the coast of Catalonia 
to the time of your quitting it, and you have not adverted 
to this omission in your dispatch of the 23rd. 

' I am therefore entirely ignorant of all the circumstances 
which occurred, which led to the result which you have re- 
ported, and it is impossible for me to form the judgment, 

ployed, the former in bringing up five 24 pounders, shot, 'powder, &c., for the 
battery, whilst the troops constructed the work. The ground being very unfa- 
vorable, the whole could not be completed before break of day. 

' The embrasures were therefore filled up, and the work deferred till the follow- 
ing evening, when Captain Adam and myself sent a summons to the command- 
ing officer, offering the most favorable terms ; but they were rejected. On the 
5th the batteries continued a heavy fire upon the fort. In the evening the work- 
ing parties and seamen went down early to the battery. 

' The enemy having perceived the filing down, kept up a heavy and galling 
fire of shells, round and grape shots, during the whole of the night, which occa- 
sioned some loss. 

' Unfortunately about ten o'clock a most violent storm of thunder and light- 
ning commenced, which impeded the works greatly, and as the seamen and 
troops were quite exhausted, we found it expedient again to delay bringing the 
guns upon the platforms, and to keep the embrasures masked. In the evening 
a battery of two 8 inch mortars (commanded by an officer of the Marine 
Artillery, belonging to the Strombolo bomb) was placed upon the road, within a 
few hundred yards of the castle, under the breaching battery, as was likewise one 
of two 4 poundersj upon the heights to the right, where the riflemen were sta- 
tioned. At daybreak these three batteries opened to protect the workiug party 
at the breaching battery, and kept up a tremendous fire until six o'clock, when 
that of the castle having completely ceased, their expense magazines upon the 
batteries being blown up by the shells from the mortars, the white flag was 
hoisted upon the castle : Captain Zehnfenning, and Captain Stoddart, of the 
Royal Navy, were sent in, and returned in about five minutes, with an offer of 
surrender, upon conditions of marching out and grounding their arms upon the 
glacis, and of being permitted to carry their personal baggage with them. 

'As Marshal Suchet's approach was hourly expected, Captain Adam and 
myself judged it right to grant them the terms required, as we should by that 
means get the fort in a good state of defence. 

'The advance of the division immediately took possession of the Castle. 

' I have the honor to enclose you a return of the ordnance, ammunition, pro. 
visions and stores, found in the place, as likewise a return of the prisoners taken. 

' I now come to the pleasing task of calling your notice to the admirable con- 
duct of the whole of the officers, non-commissioned officers, and soldiers I have 
had the honor to command. 

' Their labour and exertion have been severe, but I should be wanting in my 
duty did I not particularize Captain Chyne and Lieut. Gipps, of the Royal En- 
gineers, Captain Arabin, of the Royal Artillery, and Captain Muller, of the 
advance. 

' The success of this expedition may in a great measure be attributed to the 
zealous and indefatigable exertions of Captain Adam, and the officers and sea- 
men of the Royal Navy. 

' I beg likewise to particularize Captain Carroll, of His Majesty's ship Volcano, 
and Lieut, Corbyn, of the Invincible. 



1813. 



HUARTE. 



485 



which in your public and private letters you desire I should 
form on your proceedings. You have likewise, in your dis- 

' I impute our loss being so trifling to the tremendous and well directed fire 
kept up by the latter from his battery. I have the honor to enclose you a return 
of the killed and wounded since our disembarkation. 

' I have the honor to be, &c. 

' Lieut. Gen. f WM. PREVOST, Lieut. Col. 

Sir John Murray, Bart' Commanding 2nd Brigade, 1st Division. 

Peturn of the Killed, Wounded, and Missing of the Allied troops under the command 
of Lieut. Colonel Prevost, of the 67th Regiment, at the taking of Fort San 
Felipe, from the 3rd to the 7th of June, 1813. 









1 




Total loss of Officers, 




. 


00 


"3 




No n-commissioned 




2 


a 


a 





Officers, and Rank 




jg 




a 

el 


2 

o 


and File. 







* 


M 


n 




Killed . . . 


1 





4 





5 


Wounded . 





1 


38 





39 


Missing ... 


















%* The Spanish loss included. 

To Field Marshal the Marquis of Wellington, K. G. 

MY LORD, ' H. M. S. Malta, 1 4th June, 1813. 

' Admiral Hallowell has just decided on sending a ship to Alicante, and I have 
merely time to state to your Lordship, and I do so with great regret, that I have 
been under the necessity of raising the siege of Tarragona, and embarking the 
army under my command. In my private letter of the 7th instant, I mentioned 
to your Lordship the reports of the assemblage of the French forces at Barce- 
lona, and that Marshal Suchet was likewise in march from Valencia, and stated 
it as my own opinion, that, should these reports be confirmed, the object your 
Lordship had in view could not be accomplished. Unfortunately, these rumours 
proved true, and reluctantly I resolved on raising the siege and embarking the 
army, as the only means of avoiding a general action, which must have been 
fought under every disadvantage. I cannot at this moment refer to dates, but 
it is sufficient for the present to state, that the French force at Barcelona was 
never rated to me at less than 8000, and that previous to their march it would 
amount to 10,000, with 14 pieces of artillery. I have, however, no account that 
it ever exceeded eight, and that is the number on which my calculation was 
formed. This force upon the evening of the 9th, or morning of the 10th, 
marched out from Barcelona, and entered Villa Franca at four o'clock in the 
evening of the llth, from whence it was reported to me to march at twelve 
o'clock at night for Vendrell, distant only eighteen or twenty miles from Tarra- 
gona, by the great road, and a few miles farther by another road, by which 
cannon can easily pass. On the 9th or 10th the arrival of Marshal Suchet at 
Valencia was made known to me ; his exact force was never perfectly ascer- 
tained ; but, from the intelligence received from Valencia, be marched from 



486 SPAIN. 1813. 

patch of the 23rd, expressed a wish that His Majesty's 
Government should decide on the subject; and as you acted 

thence with 9000 men, and certainly in the rear of that place had the power 
of drawing great reinforcements to his army. 

'To these corps must be added, a body of 1000 men, which had previously 
arrived at Tortosa, and another corps, independent of the garrison of 2500 men, 
who had arrived at Lerida. These corps, which I am sure I do not exaggerate, 
amount to 20,500 men, with which, in four or five days, Marshal Suchet could 
attack the allied army, if he thought proper, or avoid an action, if he wished 
still more to reinforce his army. Your Lordship, on the other hand, will observe 
that I could scarcely bring into the field 12,000 men, and that the army of 
Catalonia was stated to me at 8500, making 20,500, of which two British and 
two Spanish divisions were at the Coll de Balaguer, and could not be withdrawn, 
and I could not leave less than 2500 to cover the artillery and stores, and to 
contain the garrison of Tarragona. The two corps, at the least, would amount 
to upwards of 4500 men, leaving me 16,000 men to meet the best French troops 
in Spain, amounting to upwards of 20.000. 

' I am sure there is nobody more willing to give full credit to the gallantry of 
the Spanish troops than I am, but your Lordship well knows that they are 
unable to move, and I could not therefore depend upon the execution of any 
order which necessarily obliged them to make a movement