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A gr i c . - Forestry . M ain Library -
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tea. u s. PAT. aft.
CONTAINING A TREATISE
ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF
AND HOW TO KEEP THEM
IN ORDER, ft TOGETHER
WITH OTHER INFORMATION
OF KINDRED CHARACTER.
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1907, by HENRY DISSTON & SONS, Incorporated
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C.
HENRY DISSTON & SONS
Keystone Saw, Tool, Steel and File Works
PHILADELPHIA, U. S. A.
, BRANCH .EV.U5KS'
CHICAGO, ILLS. CINCINNATI. OHIO
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON BOSTON, MASS.
NEW ORLEANS, LA. MEMPHIS, TENN.
SAN FRANCISCO. CAL. PORTLAND. OREGON
VANCOUVER, B. C. TORONTO, CANADA
HENRY DISSTON & SONS,
Back Saws 161, 163
BAND SAWS 96-122
The Making 96-99
Brazing Clamps .... 111-113
Breakage of Small Band Saws 114
Care and Management . . . 102
Crowning or Straight-back . 100
Kccentric Band Saw
Swage 99, 119
Filing Room Outfit . . . . 110
Guide Saw 122
Instructions . . 102
Joining Ill, 113
Mill Left-hand 100
Order How To . .100, 101
Outfit for Filing Room . . 110
Screwpress Hand 118
Setting Machine 121
Sharpener Automatic Ma-
Swage Shaper 117B
Teeth Shapes of 115
Tension Gauge 105
Barrel Saws 66
Bevels The Making of ... 178
Bilge Saws 66
Buck or Wood Saws 175
Butcher Saws 162
The Making 174
Circular Knives 198
Inserted Tooth . . . 50-61, 79, 83
The Making . . .
Americn Saw Co. Designs . 60
Directions for using Chisel
Points and Holders . 57
Dressing Points 55
File Chisel Point 55
Frozen Timber .56
Inserted Tooth No. 16 . . .59
Inserting New Points . . . . 54
Milling Saws .... 76, 79, 83
Machine for Sharpening
"Premier" Saw Teeth . 83
Order How to 53
Metal Saw 79
Re-Saws No. 16 58
Sharpening Chisel Points . . 54
Spaulding Tooth No. 10 . . 58
Stone Saw Inserted
Diamond Tooth .... 61
Swaging Points 55
Teeth The 53
Teeth Styles of 24
Trenton Tooth .60
Uses of Chisel-point Saws . . 53
Width of Cutting-edge ... 56
SOLID TOOTH SAWS . . 19-24
The making 20-23
Adjusting Saw to Mill ... 29
Aligning Saw with Carriage . 28
Anvils, Hammers, Straight
Causes for Complaint . . . .27
Cold Weather Hints .... 38
Cut-off Saws 35, 36
Fitting Instructions for . . 32
Gauge for Shape of Teeth . . 33
Gullet Tooth Circular Saws . 40
Hints to Sawyers and
Sawmill Men . . . . .27
Lining Saw with Carriage . . 28
Order Directions 26
Setting Carriage Track ... 28
Sharpening 32, 41
Sharpening and Gumming
with Emery Wheels . . 38
Speed of Saws 29
Square Corners in Gullets , . 36
Swage Bar 93
Teeth for Soft and Hard
Teeth Styles of 24
Thin and Extra-thin
Large Saws 31
Trammel * * * 39
Chromol Hack Saw Blades . . 73
Clamps for Saw Filing, 167b, 168
Concave Saws 65
Combination Cold-saw Cut-
ting-off Machine . . . . 82
Compass Saws 162
CROSS-CUT SAWS . . . 124-136
The Making .... 124-127
Diamond Point Vim
Champion and Oriole . . 131
Felling Saws 132
Gauge for Regulating
Raker Teeth 135
Imperial Cross-Cut Saw
Tool . . 134-136
One-man Cross-cut Saw . . 133
Patterns of Teeth . . . 128-130
Setting, Sharpening or
"Fitting" .... 134-136
CYLINDER SAWS 66
Gauge for Setting 64
Discs for Cutting Hot or
Cold Iron 76
Eccentric Swage 99, 119
Emery Wheels 38
FILES AND RASPS . .183-195
The Making 183-187
General Description .... 187
Filing Guide and Clamp . . . 169
Flanges Shingle Saw . . . . 63
Frames Hack Saws ... 74, 75
Gang Saws 123
Gauge for Regulating Length
of Cleaner Teeth . . . 135
Gauge for Setting Shingle .
Saws ... 64
Gauge for Shape of Circular
Saw Teeth 33
Gauge Standard and
Equivalents . . . .25, 200
Grooving Saws 68, 69
Gummer for Cylinder Saws . 67
Gummers Parts, etc. . . . 44, 48
Gumming Press and Shear . .118
Hack Saws, 72-75, 162
Hack Saw Frames . . . . 74, 75
Handles for Cross-cut Saws
The Making . . . . 137
Handles for Hand Saws
The Making . . . 171-173
HAND SAWS 138-164
The Making . . . 138-148
Acme Hand Saw No. 120 . 170
Angle of Teeth 160
Bevel of Teeth .... 156, 158
Construction of Saws . 149, 162
Combination Saws 164
Cross-cut Hand Saws . . . 154
Filing ........ 156, 160
Gauge Saws 164
Graduated Rip Teeth ... 163
Handles The Making, 171, 173
Hand Saws Length of . . 163
Hook or Pitch of Teeth . . 157
Jointing 160, 165
Laying-out Teeth ..... 163
No. 77 Hand Saw 170
Panel Saws Length of . . 163
Peg Teeth ,155
Points of Saws .... 151, 152
Rip Saws 153
Length of 163
Setting Teeth 155, 162
Tenon Saws 163
Heading Saws 62
Imperial Cross-cut Saw Tools . 134
Jointer Hand Saw 165
Handy Saw Clamp 167 B
Handy Saw Kit 165
Knives Cane, Corn,
Hedge and Machete . . 199
Knives Circular 198
Knives Machine .... 196, 197
Levels The Making 176
Lock Corner Cutters 69
Machine Hack Saw Blades . . 74
Mandrels 94, 95
Metal Saws 71, 83
Milling Saws 76, 79, 83
Mitre-box Saws - . 163
Mitre Saws Circular 70
Plumb and Levels The
Pruning Saw Teeth 161
Re-filing Cylinder and
Bilge Saws 66
Saws Specially Toothed
and Filed 168A
Saw Sets ...... 34, 166, 168
Setting- Stake .... ... 35
Screw-drivers The Making . 179
Screw Press Hand 118
Screw Slotting Cutters .... 78
Scroll and Web Saws .... 162
Set Gauge Shingle Saws ... 64
Shingle Saws 62
Side File 34
Slitting Saws for Metal . . . . 78
Soft-Back Hacksaw Blade . . 73
Speed Indicators 30
Speed of Saws 29
Stave Saws 66
Steel Disston's 16, 71
Weights of 200
Swage Bar 93
Swages Conqueror . . . . 33, 49
Swage Shaper 117B
Teeth Band Saw
Styles of 115-118
Teeth Circular Saws
Styles of 24
Tenon Saws 163
Terms List of Sawmakers' . 208
Terms of Warranty 7
Trammel for Circular Saws . . 39
Trowels The Making . . 180-182
Try-squares The Mak-
ing 177, 178
Useful Information . . . 201-205
Veneering Saws Segment . . 64
Web Saws 162
Wood Saws . . 175
The various articles in this book, describing the
making of the goods, are essentially short, and while
giving the general or most important processes many
intermediate operations are not mentioned, which, of
course also have an important bearing on the workman-
ship and quality of the finished tool.
The interior views of the factory are from photographs
of Sections only of Departments, and while serving to
give some idea of the facilities, etc., do not by any means
convey an adequate impression of the immensity of the
Plant, which can only be appreciated by a trip through
TERMS OF WARRANTY.
A LL GOODS branded Disston are fully guaran-
teed as to material and workmanship.
If at fault in any particular all necessary
repairs will be made free of charge, or the article
replaced, if returned within thirty days from date
This warranty does not cover saws improperly
refitted the filing of square corners in the gullets,
case-hardening by excessive emery wheel gumming,
reaming, or altering center holes of circular saws.
HENRY DISSTON # SONS,
PAST am) PRESENT
As far as can be learned the first saws of any kind manufactured
in the United States were made by William Rowland, who started in
business in Philadelphia in 1806. In 1823 Aaron Nichols, started a
small plant in Philadelphia, and in 1828 or 1829 a firm in New York
City commenced the making of circular saws from English Steel,
which were about the first circular saws made in this country. Noah
Worrel started in New York about 1835 to make trowels and small
circular saws. In 1833 William & Charles Johnson commenced the
manufacture of saws in Philadelphia and it was with this concern that
Henry Disston learned his trade.
In 1840 the firm of William & Charles Johnson
failed and Henry Disston accepted from them some
tools, steel and such material as he could get in the
saw manufacturing line on account of amount due
him and began the manufacture of saws in his
own name. After this there were several small
industries started, such as Jonathan Paul in 1840, J. Bringhurst in
1842, James Turner in 1843 and Walter Cresson in 1845. These
latter were each in turn bought out by Henry Disston.
Previous to 1855 all the crucible steel used in this country in the
manufacture of saws was brought from England. In that year, Henry
Disston built and operated the first successful crucible-steel melting
plant for saw steel in the United States. The crucible steel so made
by Henry Disston was hauled from the works to a mill some 5 or 6
miles away and there under his guidance, was rolled into sheets and
taken back to the Disston Works to be made into saws. After
several years successful trial making steel in this way, Henry Disston
built a rolling mill and from then on used his own make of steel for
It was a long and hard struggle for Henry Disston to secure
recognition and command trade for his American- made goods, but
how he succeeded is now well known.
Up to this time the American market was supplied almost
entirely by the foreign manufacturers, but the growth and development
of this business in the United States since then has been phenomenal,
as now and for some years past there have been practically no saws of
any foreign manufacture imported into the United States, whilst on
the other hand the American-made goods are exported very largely to
all parts of the civilized globe.
But little or no advances were made in the manufacture of saws
previoiivS to the time of Henry Disston, and practically all the improve-
ments in quality, style and methods of manufacture were made by
him and his successors and to them is due the credit of placing
American-made saws in their present position at the head of the
markets of the World for quality, finish and correctness of pattern.
Improvements on the old time patterns have been made from time to
time, the aim being to make each as perfect as possible and suitable
for the particular class of work for which it is intended.
Henry Disston & Sons, Inc., Philadelphia, Pa. have a very large
export trade, shipping great quantities of Saws, Files and other goods
to all the South American States, England, France, Germany, Russia,
India, Australia, South Africa, in fact it is impossible to name a
country in which saws are used where the Disston Goods are un-
known, and in these foreign countries, as well as at home, they are
looked upon as second to none, in support of which fact the large
business will testify.
The first patent issued for a saw in the United States
was to L. R. Bump, in 1828, for Barrel Saw.
A Mulay saw was patented in 1832.
The first circular saw patented was by I,. Hitchcock,
A Bilge saw with inserted teeth was patented in 1835.
It is generally conceded the idea of a bandsaw was conceived as
early as 1808, by Wm. Newberrj , but is of comparative recent
introduction, having laid for years as a curiosity.
Some time after the close of the War before 1866, Henry
Disston went to Paris where he learned of a new Bandsawing machine
and brought back two of these machines with saws. The blades used
were ^ inch wide and with the larger machine there were some
slightly wider saws.
These were the first band sawing machines in this country, so far
as can be learned, and when they were first installed in the Disston
Works there was hardly half a day's work done in the shops, for the
curiosity of the men was aroused and all must have a look at the new
machines. It took some little while to break in the men to work on
these machines for they all had fear of the saw breaking and cutting
off their arms.
Henry Disston had been trying every way possible to obtain some
method or machine by which to better saw out handles than he had
been doing. He gladly seized this opportunity, and, proving success-
ful, it was not long before he installed two other band sawing machines
which were made in this country.
Prior to this, with the old walking-beam jig saws then in use, the
handles were sawed inside and outside and a man could only do about
20 dozen a day, but when the band sawing machines were in operation
there was a plentiful supply of ' ' sawed-out ' ' work.
The first Band sawing machines spoken of above were constructed
of iron frames somewhat similar in form to those now in use, the later
improvements consisting mainly of changes in guides and tightening
mechanism. These machines, unfortunately, were lost in the fire
which destroyed the plant of Henry Disston in the latter part of 1872.
The SIX INCH WIDE BANDSAWS exhibited by Henry
Disston & Sons at the Centennial Exposition in x 1876 were looked
upon as great curiosities. Considerable trouble, at that time, was
experienced in running what were then termed "such wide saws,"
whereas at the present time Henry Disston & Sons are making band
saws as large as 18 inches wide, 64 feet long, and are also making
them with teeth on both edges so as to cut both ways the forward and
backward movement of the log, these saws being as large as 17 inches
wide, 53 feet long. These are the largest saws of the kind ever made
and are working satisfactorily.
Henry Disston & Sons have made Inserted Tooth Circular Saws
for cutting metal, as large as 87 inches in diameter, 1 inch thick, and
cutting a kerf l T 3 g- inch, the teeth of which were made of air-hardened
steel, and were adjustable in blade. This saw was made in 1893 and
was considered the largest of its kind in this country at that time. In
1905, Henry Disston & Sons m?de the largest Inserted Tooth Circular
Stone Saws ever manufactured, which are capable of sawing at the
rate of 16 inches per minute. They were 100 inches in diameter, one-
third inch thick, weighed 800 pounds each, and contained 180 teeth in
each of which was embedded a diamond for cutting purposes. Since these
were put in use, duplicate orders have been received from time to time.
With reference to improvement in quality of goods, so far as
Saws are concerned there is such a material difference in these that it
would be difficult to explain. For instance, take circular saws as
made years ago. Then a 54 inch or 56 inch saw was about the largest
made. These were ground by having a man on each side of the
grindstone, running the saw over the top of the stone to grind it.
When it came to * ' balancing ' ' this saw to make it run without
" wobbling " as the term is, it had to be balanced by being placed on
a mandrel supported by uprights, the saw given a slight turn when
naturally the heavier part would settle or turn down. Pieces of steel
or rings were then hooked to the teeth on the upper or lighter portion
to balance and determine the quantity of metal to be ground off the
heavy side. This was done mostly by guess, but nevertheless the saw
had to be made so it would balance, Now the saws of to-day are
ground on automatic machines 'which make them absolutely true to
gauge throughout their entirety and it is not necessary to do any work
for balancing. Again, saws are made to-day up to 100 inches in
diameter, and by the Disston method of grinding they are made true
and perfectly balanced.
This would seem like progress and it is not the sacrificing ci
quality to price, for the saws can be made very much better and at less
cost, from the fact that a man will grind five or six saws in a day
where it would have taken two men a whole day to grind one of the
same size by the old method.
Again, saws were formerly hardened and tempered from the
furnace bottom and a man to smith or straighten one of these circular
saws in a day would be doing good work, but the Disston saws are
now hardened and tempered by a patent process exclusively our own
and one man can do eight saws in a day against one in former years,
and the quality is bettered by so doing for the less hammering required
on a circular saw the better the saw will run and hold its tension.
This is where the cheapness comes in with a corresponding better-
ment of quality and uniformity, for the machinery turns them out accu-
rately, whilst when made by hand there were variations in size and shape.
The same thing applies to handsaws and smaller blades. In the
early days all the teeth were put in by a treadle press, eleven dozen
being a good day's work, while with the appliances of to-day a man
will do 120 dozen, do them better and more accurately. This follows
also as to the grinding and other processes.
In the sharpening of saws a great many Files were consumed and
it was on this account that Henry Disston decided to make his own
files. To decide was to act and in 1869 a plant was established fully
equipped with the latest appliances, machinery and skilled workmen
secured. From that time on improvements were made where vei
possible in order to obtain a file superior in quality, shape and teeth
and to-day there is no better plant of its kind or one of its size that
has a greater output of a superior quality, making the multiplicity of
all kinds of files necessary to the trade. At least 35,000 dozen Disston
Files are used annually in the Disston Saw Works.
All new ideas, inventions and suggestions in the way of improve-
ments are fully tried out. For this purpose is maintained a special
department wherein are constantly employed a staif of mechanical
engineers, designers, a large corps of machinists employed in the
machine shop, which is fully equipped and wherein all specially
designed Disston machinery is built and that already installed kept in
up-to-date working condition, machinery being discarded irrespective
of whether worn out or not as soon as improvement is effected.
With the invention and installation of perfected machinery comes
a corresponding and direct benefit to the mechanic, both from a
physical and financial standpoint, for while there is a greater and
better output and consequent increase in earning capacity, the physical
strain is lessened and the surroundings more healthful. For instance,
before oil was introduced for firing the furnaces, the hauling of coal
for both the small and large furnaces, the raking and cleaning out of
ashes several times a day tended to the raising of dust and causing
discomfort, whereas now the shops are kept clean and comfortable,
the ground floors being of cement are washed up every week. Metal-
lic lockers and enameled iron wash stands are provided on account of
their sanitary effect and general improvements made throughout
looking to the comfort and well-being of the employees. Showe?
baths being installed for the use of those employed in the polishing
and grinding rooms, whilst in all departments where there is dust
emery, sand, sawdust, shavings, etc., there are large pipes con-
nected with exhaust fans which carry the dust out of the buildings
and into independent pits. Great care has been taken to obtain the
best light and thorough ventilation, special ventilators being provided in
such rooms and departments where there is considerable heat. Kvery
precaution is taken to allow egress from the buildings in case of fire,
various iron bridges connect the second stories of the different build-
ings so that in case of conflagration employees can easily pass from
one building to the other and these bridges in connection with the fire
escapes are considered as being the best method of procuring safety.
In no factory is the well-being of the employees looked after 01
considered to a greater extent, nor does a better affiliation exist
between the employer and emplo)'ees than in the establishment of
Henry Disston & Sons. In connection with this it may be stated
that there are twenty-one men having service records of fifty to sixty-
two years; eighty men, forty years and upward; one hundred and
eighty-eight, thirty to forty; three hundred and thirty, twenty to
thirty, and six hundred and nine, ten to twenty years, while working
beside these 1228 men are more than 2300 younger saw and tool makers
of highest skill very largely sons and grandsons of the older men, which
speaks for progressiveness. All the old employees, incapacitated by
reason of age are retired under a pension for the remainder of their
" With a firm composed of men practical in their line, work-
ing on a policy tried and proven, a management fully up to date,
a corps of efficient salesmen and an army of competent and skilled
workmen, of whom they are justly proud, together with the use of
machinery specially invented for various purposes, is there any
cause to wonder why the Disston products became so famous and
renowned throughout the entire world."
SINCE ITS INCEPTION THE DISSTON SAW WORKS
HAS EVER BEEN IN THE LEAD.
WE WERE THE FIRST
To make Crucible Sheet Steel in the United States,
And are the only Saw Manufacturers making their own steel for
the full line of saws.
To build and install an Electric Furnace in the United States, in
which Crucible Steel was made.
To build and install automatic machines for toothing saws, cutting
an average of 1500 teeth per minute, which machines we
To build and install automatic machines for toothing graduated
rip saws, which machines we originated.
To introduce improved process of filing saws.
To harden saws under specially designed dies, thus keeping the
To temper saws under hot dies, which insures uniformity of
temper owning the first patent in the United States, it being
of French origin.
To use automatic hammers in smithing saws, which we originated,
f o use automatic machines for grinding saws, which we originated.
To (< stiffen" saws, thus restoring the natural spring after being
worked upon, which process we originated.
To introduce in the United States bandsawing machinery for the
cutting of wood in making saw handles, having purchased
.sample machines at Paris before -1866.
To make Machine hacksaw Blades.
Saw manufacturers in the United States to make their own Files.
In the United States to make Inserted Tooth circular saws for
We originated and patented many saws and tools including
inserted Teeth for circular saws for cutting both wood and metal,
Gullet Tooth circular saws, etc., Cross-cut saws, Skew-back Handsaws,
etc., various small saws, new and improved machinery, processes of
manufacturing, and in addition to these we have a number of other
valuable improvements not patented and which are used exclusively in
the Disston Saw Works.
If earnestness of purpose, coupled with
skill, experience and modern facil-
Then the DISSTON BRAND qf SAWS
will continue as the STANDARD by
which the merits of all other saws
Necessarily the strongest material is required for the making of
Saws, and that is STEEL of Highest Quality.
The evidence before us in the great quantity of steel annually
produced, the many plants engaged in its manufacture, the fact that
we see it on every hand and put it easily and familiarly to every use,
may lead us in error to assume that Steel of High Quality is readily
produced. Not so, however, for it is necessary to combine in " Saw
Steel," by the exercise of great care, extreme accuracy and experience,
certain and expensive elements or alloys to produce a steel capable of
resisting the greatest strain, for each tooth of a good saw must be
sufficiently hard to withstand the wear and retain its sharp edge
the longest possible time, yet tough enough to swage readily and
perfectly without flaw, hard enough to require force to bend it and at
the same time so tough that it will bend flat upon itself if necessary.
No chain is stronger than its weakest link, no saw better than its
STEEL, therefore, is required absolutely free from blow-holes,
pipes, seams, splits and other physical defects, it must be uniform in
hardness in a word, perfectly homogeneous.
Steel of 60000 pounds tensile strength, considered perfectly safe
for the construction of a boiler, a bridge or building, is not one-third
strong enough for the making of a satisfactory saw.
After repeated and unsuccessful efforts to procure steel of desired
quality, Henry Disston in 1855 erected a Crucible Steel plant expressly
adapted to the manufacture of SAW STEEL, and since, by constant
effort and unlimited expenditure of time and money in research
and improvement of process and machinery, the plant has been
extended and enlarged until now it is undoubtedly the largest and
best of its kind in the World.
Illustrations Nos. 1, 2 and 3 show defects as they originate In the
ingot under usual methods.
There is also another serious defect which cannot be discovered in
the fracture of the steel, and that is "Segregation," which is caused
especially in large masses of cast steel by a separation of some of the
elements from certain portions of the mass segregating or collecting
in other portions, thus producing steel that is not homogeneous or
uniform, being harder in some parts than hi others and weaker in
various other parts.
In the Disston "Special Process" this segregation is perfectly
overcome by so casting the ingots that the cooling is uniform
throughout and by the use of certain Rich Alloys as a mordant in
a particular manner know a only to a few experienced workmen,
Sound and Uniform,
enables the production of steel perfectly sound >
free from blow-holes, sponginess, pipe and all
other physical defects, and ABSOLUTELY
UNIFORM IN QUALITY. See illustration
STEEL of High Quality cannot be pro-
duced from cheap or inferior material. By the
selection of best materials, Swedish refined iron,
and carefully melted in plumbago crucibles, the
Disston product is of highest quality and superior
strength ; a recent test of a sample showing
Tensile strength 220,000 Ibs.
Elastic limit . .168,000 "
Taken from the mould in which it is cast, the steel ingot in
the form of a solid block, in weight 200 to 800 pounds as required, is
very carefully inspected, the surface flaws, if any, removed by chipping,
the ingot is then very carefully heated and hammered to a ' ' saw slab ' '
of dimensions as required. After again being very carefully inspected
it is sent to the mill for rolling into plate or plates. Here again
great care must be used in the heating and working, for large " saw
plate ingots ' ' of considerable size must be drawn to large dimensions
without injury to. the quality of the steel. As the steel itself is hard
and tough, mills of enormous strength and nicety of working parts
are essential to produce saw plates of uniformity, avoiding the
injurious strains that careless rolling and working may often develop.
After the plate is rolled it is very carefully heated to a certain
uniform temperature to soften it and bring it to a condition of
uniformity. It is then pressed under dies and flattened, after which it
is carefully trimmed and inspected. If passed, it is then sent 10
the Saw Shop for the operations of making into a saw.
PATENT GULLET-TOOTH CIRCULAR SAW.
With over seventy-five years' experience in saw-making, by
constant watchfulness and application, we have acquired a thorough
knowledge of the requirements of all kinds of saws and achieved a
state of perfection in material, machinery, methods and workmanship
justifying the claim that Disston Saws are superior to all others.
It is our determination to maintain the high standard of our goods
established for so many years.
EVERY SAW BEARING THE BRAND OF HENRY. DISSTON
THE MAKING of
Disston Solid Tooth Circular Saws.
Rolling* Ci?-cuHr Plate.
Holing. Toothing and Filing Circular Saws or "Getting-out" Department.
The " Plates," trimmed round, are sent b}' the Steel Mill to the
Saw Department, and the first operation is cutting in the center hole,
which is done on a drill-press. The plate is then "Toothed" on
a special press, there being different presses, each of which is adapted
for certain sizes and thicknesses of plates. The teeth are now
Hardening* Circular Saws.
" Dressed " by hand or emery-wheel, then follows the " Hardening "
which is done on similar lines to other Disston saws, excepting the
furnaces and baths for this work are necessarily a great deal larger.
This applies also to the " Tempering " so far as heating is concerned,
for, since the photograph, as shown, was made, a special apparatus has
Tempering' Circular Saws.
been invented by which more uniform and better results are obtained
than from the former method.
The blade is now ready for " Smithing," under which process it
is straightened, leveled and trued up by hand, making it perfectly flat
and even. Then comes the " Grinding " which is done on machines
designed specially for the purpose, some of which have single and
others double stones. Taking the double-stone machine, the blade is
Smithing', Hammering' and Blocking' Circular Saws.
Grinding Circular oaws.
placed on a spindle, and while revolving, is run back and forth
between the stones and both sides ground at the same time, the
machine being of such a character that it will grind to a true and
perfect taper, that is from thin on tooth-edge to thick towards the
:entre or collar-line, or vice versa, or it may be arranged to grind an
even thickness throughout as required. In the use of these machines
perfect grinding and true balance of the saws are insured.
These machines, originated, invented and installed in the Disston
Works, marked a revolution in circular saw grinding and enabled the
production of saws of uniform thickness throughout.
The blade is now " Examined" and if fully up to the Disston
Standard is passed for the " finish Grinding," after which it is
"Polished;" being adjusted on a face-plate which is revolved at a
suitable speed and by a series of rubbing and dusting with emery the
high polish is obtained.
In the " Blocking," which follows, the blade is again examined
and given the proper tension for the speed at which the saw is to run.
This is done by hammering, for, in a circular saw, "tension " means
having the centre sufficiently " open " to offset centrifugal force when
the saw is revolved up to high speed, thus keeping the edge strained
on a true line, otherwise the saw would not run smoothly or cut
straight. The teeth are now '* dressed" on an automatic saw-
sharpener, thus insuring uniformity of teeth and roundness of blade.
The ' * Swaging " or * ' Setting of Teeth ' ' is now in order. Some
SWAGED circular saws have the teeth " put in order" by swaging, or
TEETH, "spreadset, " others by spring-setting. In swaging, a Conqueror
Swage is placed in proper position on the tooth and by the
application of light blows of a hammer the cutting-edge of
tooth is upset or shaped according to the work required,
swaging being the spreading of the points of the teeth so
they extend beyond each side of the blade for clearance of the
body of the saw while cutting and to prevent friction.
With the swaged tooth, each corner of the tooth cuts,
hence will do twice the work in comparison with a
spring-set tooth which cuts only half the kerf, the
swage i tooth, consequently, will stand more "feed."
Swaging is also accomplished by the use of an
Eccentric Swage in which pressure is brought to bear
on the tooth by means of a lever. In ' ' Spring-setting' '
the points of the teeth are bent, one to the right, the
next to the left, and so on alternately throughout
the entire saw, which serves for the purpose of obtaining
The process of " Sharpening " follows. This is done on
automatic machines and by hand-filing, careful attention being
given to bringing up each tooth keen and sharp.
The Saw is now given a final inspection, then " Etched "
with the Disston Brand, and is complete.
STYLES OF TEETH.
The illustration below represents the general Styles of Teeth for
Circular Saws, from which selection may be made of the kind desire'd.
These cuts show shape only, the teeth being made in various sizes.
Solid Tooth Saws. Teeth Nos. 2, 4, 5 and 17 are for Cross-
cutting ; Nos. 11, 12, .13 and 14 for Ripping; Nos. 1, 6 and 8 for
Cross-cutting or Ripping ; No. 18 for Mitreing or
Cross-cutting. The " Slotted Rim" is adapted to
to any pattern of Solid Tooth saw. The slots allow
for expansion and contraction in rim of blade, thus
lessening the risk of breakage particularly in oper-
ating circular cut-off saws.
Special patterns of Solid Tooth saws made to order.
Inserted Tooth Saws. The Chisel Point is the best form of
inserted tooth for general mill use. No. 10 is used principally on the
Pacific Coast. No. 16 for thin saws, re-sawing, etc. The American,
Trenton, Prosser, Dunbar and Goulding are styles formerly made by
the American Saw Co.
DISSTON STANDARD GAUGE.
The Disston Gauge corresponds exactly with the Stubbs and Birmingham Gauge
LIST OF EQUIVALENTS OF GAUGES.
PART OF INCH.
BROWN 4 SHARP
22 /64 Scant
% a Full
17 /64 Scant
i% 4 Scant
3 /i 6 Scant
i/ 8 Scant
% 2 Full
% 4 Scant
I s i .7 g & g
r? 4. . * a - & '1? -
8 x u Zl
w '13 <tj
! t I I
B & " w
Hints to Sawyers arid Saw Mill Men.
A GOOD SAW.
Our saws stand at the head of the market on their merits, and
although they are unequaled for quality of material, workmanship,
toughness and elasticity, it is quite important that they should be
adapted to the capacity of the mill and the class of timber they
have to cut.
When in need of saws write us giving a full description of the
mill and timber they are wanted to cut, and we will guarantee to
furnish saws adapted to the requirements.
SOME OF THE CAUSES WHICH GIVE RISE TO COM-
PLAINTS AGAINST SAWS AND SAW MAKERS.
Insufficient power to maintain regular speed.
Too thin a saw for the class of work required .
Not enough or too many teeth for the amount of feed carried.
Weak and imperfect collars.
Collars not large enough in diameter.
Ill-fitting mandrel and pin holes.
Uneven setting and filing.
Not enough set for proper clearance.
Too much pitch or hook of teeth.
Irregular and shallow gullets.
Out of round and consequently out of balance.
A sprung mandrel, or lost motion in mandrel boxes .
A carriage track neither level nor straight.
Carriage not properly aligned with saw.
Lost motion in carriage trucks.
Heating of journal next to saw.
Guide-pins too tight or not properly adjusted.
Backs of teeth too high for clearance.
Attempting to run too long without sharpening*
SETTING THE CARRIAGE TRACK AND HUSK OR
It is very essential to good work that the foundation of the mill
should be amply strong to withstand the shocks it is subjected to in
turning logs ; the track stringers should be good sound heart lumber,
preferably Yellow Pine, as this is a firm wood and will resist moisture.
The sizerof the stringers should not be less than 8" x 8" and as few
pieces as possible to make up the necessary length. These stringers
should be set perfectly level and parallel with the mill house &n& gained
into the girders and joists of the mill floor or foundation timbers, and
secured by keys and bolts so that they will not change position when
logs are rolled against the head blocks. The track irons, particularly
the V side, should be firmly bolted to the stringer and when finished
be perfectly straight and level.
It is quite as important that the saw frame should be firmly
secured to its place as that it should be level and solid, for the vibration
and strain are of such a nature that the frame would quickly change
position unless very firmly secured. The slightest change would make
a vast difference in the running of the saw and necessitate relining.
When putting in the husk stringers, use well seasoned wood and put
them down in such a manner that they cannot possibly change their
position, then find the position of the husk on the stringers and fasten
down securely with through bolts.
LINING THE SAW WITH THE CARRIAGE.
The amount of ' ' lead ' ' required for circular saws should be the
least amount that will keep the saw in the cut and prevent it heating
at the centre. If the lead into the cut is too much, the saw will heat
on the rim ; if the lead out of the cut is too much, the saw will heat at
centre, we therefore give the least amount that is used, which is
one -eighth of an inch in twenty feet.
Of the various methods used for lining a saw with the carriage, we
give what we think will be the most easily understood : First, see that
the mandrel is set perfectly level, so that the saw hangs plumb and true
when screwed between the collars, and is flat on the log side. Draw
a line running ten feet each way from centre of mandrel and parallel
with the V track, fasten a stick to the head-block, so that it comes up
to the line at the end in front of saw ; run the carriage forward
the twenty feet, move the rear end of line one-eighth of an inch away
from former parallel position, then slew the end of mandrel either
forward or backward until it is exactly at right angles to the new
position of line, and the saw parallel with same.
All end play must be taken out of the mandrel and carriage
trucks when lining a saw to the carriage, and the track must be laid
solid, level and true, so that the carriage will run straight and smooth.
COLLARS FOR SAWS.
For a perfect running saw it is indispensable to have the collars
and stem of mandrel true and well fitting ; any imperfection in these
points is multiplied as many times as the saw is larger than the collars ;
they should fit exactly.
For large saws we prefer collars that have a perfect bearing of
three-quarters of an inch on the outer rim, the other part clear, as they
hold tighter than a solid flat collar. Examine the collars carefully to
see if they are true, if not, have them made so ; also be sure that stem
of mandrel fits the hole nicely and offers no obstruction to the saw
slipping easily up to and against the fast collar. We advocate the use
of six inch collars for portable and semi-portable mills. Collars for
steam feed mills should be larger.
Test the saw with a straight edge, and if it is found true, place it
on the mandrel, tighten up the collars with a wrench, test again with
a straight edge and see if the position of the blade has been altered ;
observing whether it shows true, if not, the fault is sure to lay in the
collars and will be likely to ruin the saw. The best results cannot be
obtained from the mill until the defects are remedied.
We finish all our circular saws by a process which insures each
side of the saw plate being perfectly true throughout its entire surface ;
by this invaluable process, every particle *of uneveness is removed ; the
saw never requires packing (providing the collars are true), and all the
trouble which has hitherto perplexed the sawyer in this particular
ADJUSTING SAW TO MILL.
See that the saw slips up freely to fast collar and hangs straight
and plumb when tightened up ; that the mandrel is level, in proper line
with the carriage, and that it fits in its boxes as neatly as possible
without heating, for when the mandrel heats, by transmission, the saw
will heat also and thus expand in the centre, which will make it work
badly, injure, and perhaps ruin it. We do not warrant a saw to run
on a mandrel that heats, although if we knew exactly to what degree
it heats we could make a saw that would admit of that much
expansion, but a heating mandrel will always give more or less trouble.
To get the best results from a mill this must be overcome. (See article
on mandrels for circular saws, page 1)4.)
Take up all end, play or lateral motion in mandrel as the grain of
the wood will draw or push the mandrel endwise, no matter how well
the saw is kept. See that the carriage track is level, straight, solid and
in proper line, also that rolls or trucks have ng end play. Keep
all gum or sawdust off the tracks.
SPEED OF SAWS
This is a very important point for consideration, as a hundred
revolutions, more or less, will always make a great difference in the
running of the saw. We can adjust the tension of saws to overcome
a slight variation in speed provided full instructions are given when
ordering, though we would advise a regular speed at all times. Our
experience has been that saws work better when run at a regular speed
even if it is necessary to reduce the number of revolutions one hundred
below that given in table, than to have a variable speed. If the
power is too light to maintain the standard speed, run the engine at a
higher regular speed, put a larger diameter receiving pulley on the
mandrel, and the results will be better both as to quality and capacity.
This will be much better than the throttle plan, even if the speed does
fall below that given in the table ; the regularity is the most desirable
point to look after. Following is a table of speeds :
SPEED OF SAWS RUNNING 10,000 FT. PER MINUTE ON THE RIM.
72 in., 530 revolutions per min.
36 in., 1,080 revolutions per min.
Portable mills, of limited capacity, are usually run at a speed about one-third
less that given above.
RULES FOR CALCULATING SPEED, ETC.
PROBLEM 1. The diameter of driving and driven pulleys and the speed of
driver being given, find the speed of driven.
RULE. Multiply the diameter of driver by its number of revolutions, and
divide the product by the diameter of the driven ; the quotient will be the number
of revolutions of driven.
PROBLEM 2. The diameter and revolutions of the driven pulley being
given, find the diameter of the driver.
RULE. Multiply the revolutions of driven by its diameter and divide the
product by the revolutions of the driving shaft ; the quotient will be the diameter
Millmen and Sawyers should know the correct speed of all saws
and machinery operated by them. It is very important that exact
speeds be given with all orders for large circular saws. We guarantee
the accuracy of the indicator illustrated above and advocate its use.
THIN AND EXTRA THIN LARGE SAWS.
As we have said in the preceding pages, all saws and saw-mil!
machinery must be kept in the proper shape to obtain the best results ;
this is especially necessary in running thin saws, for while a thick or
standard gauge saw will give very fair results where only medium skill
in the management of saw and mill is used, a thin saw would fall far
short of giving fair results under the same methods and management.
A thin saw cannot reasonably be expected to stand as much crowding
as a thick one and requires more skill and better appliances to give
It is always necessary to have enough set in a saw to give
sufficient clearance, which means enough to prevent the log from
rubbing on the body of saw.
In the usual gauges of large circular saws, say 7, 8 and 9, used
in the ordinary manner on the average feed and lumber, -fa of an inch
equally divided (^- on each side of saw) is about the least clearance
that should be used, except in hard wood and frozen timber, then less
may be used. A thin saw requires just as much clearance as any other
saw, consequently, in proportion to thickness, the thin saw has the
most strain to bear. For this reason alone the best skill and mill are
required to successfully run a thin saw. We do not wish to convey
the idea that we do not make thin saws, but simply desire our
customers who contemplate putting them in to appreciate the differ-
ences in working between thick and thin saws. The difference in
thickness between 8 gauge and 10 gauge is -^ of an inch ; the set for
clearance of each being the same, -% is all it is possible to save in kerf,
and between an 8 gauge and 11 gauge the difference is -^ of an inch
full, hence the saving in the instances above is very small so small, in
fact, that in nine cases out of ten it is offset by reduction in capacity
or in poorly manufactured lumber.
As to saving in power, the difference in nineteen cases out of
twenty is not in favor of the thinner saw, for, being so much lighter, it
will deviate from its line much easier, and any deviation, ever so slight
in the length of the cut, will consume by friction all the power saved
in difference of kerf.
These are plain facts that any man who knows the gauges can
figure out for himself, and we advise every mill man to study the
subject well before ordering extra thin saws. If the mill, skill of
employees and value of timber is such as to justify extra thin saws,
then have them by all means, and we claim that out saws, ir
workmanship, toughness, elasticity, and standing-up quality of steel t
are unequaled, whether thick, thin, or extra thin.
In ordering, please note that thin saws require more teeth than
heavier ones to do the same class of sawing, as this equalizes the strain
on the rim as well as prevents springing of the teeth.
Regularity of speed is desirable with all saws, but particularly so
with thin ones, as they depend more than the others upon the velocity
to hold them up to their work. In extra thin saws, one-sixth more
speed than given in the table will be advantageous.
for SETTING arti SHARPENING or FITTING
The best saw that could be made would not manufacture lumber
in a satisfactory manner, nor be safe from possible vital injury unless
kept properly set and sharpened. It is therefore very necessary that
all saws should be kept in best possible condition, though the
SPRING contrary is too often the case for the most general
BRIAR ca use of trouble is a dull or improperly fitted saw. SWAGED
DRESS. There are two styles of "fitting" Rip saws ; the
' ' swage-set and square dress, ' ' and the ' ' spring-set
and briar or slightly beveled dress."
The swage-set is best adapted to and recommended
for mills of moderately large feed and capacity, while
the spring-set and briar dress is best adapted to mills
of light power and capacity, the reason for which is
found in the fact that one tooth of the swage-set and
square dress style practically equals in capacity two
teeth of the spring- set and briar dress pattern. It
thus follows that up to its limit of capacity a saw with
the spring- set and briar dress fitting will run easier
than a saw containing the same number of teeth that
are swage- set and square-dressed.
TO PROPERLY FIT UP A RIP SAW WITH SWAGE-SET :
first see that the saw is perfectly round. No saw will give good
results if it is " out of round." Each tooth in the saw should do the
same amount of cutting and if the saw has long and short teeth, the
long tooth will be subjected to a strain that should be equally divided
between two, three or four teeth, which renders the saw liable to
accident, and at best largely reduces the capacity of mill and turns out
poorly manufactured lumber.
If the saw is not round it should be made so by ''jointing" it
until all thfc teeth are of the same length. In the absence of a saw-
sharpening machine, the jointing can be accomplished best by holding
a piece of grindstone against the teeth whilst the saw revolves at a
medium or moderate speed. If a piece of grindstone is not available,
take a piece of soft emery wheel or any other kind of stone that will
grind the long teeth down to a common length.
After jointing, file all the teeth to a keen point, taking care to
just file out the marks of the stone, thus leaving all the teeth of the
same length, and as near as possible the same shape, for the teeth
cannot be swaged
or upset to advan-
tage unless filed
sharp and to the
proper shape. To
do this without a
gauge requires con-
and experience. A
gauge as per illus-
tration is furnished
application and one
is included with
Gauge by which to File and Regulate the Shape
qf Saw-Teeth gf Large Saws.
The next oper-
ation is "swaging" the teeth for clearance, which under ordinary con-
ditions, should be one-sixteenth inch on each side of the teeth. Taking
for granted the back of the tooth is in good shape, the swaging must
DISSTON from the
CONQUEROR SWAGE, JUMPER OR UPSET. front or
" r ake "
sary reduction in diameter of saw.
Swaging consists, first, of holding the convex side of the
Conqueror Swage or Up-set on the tooth, striking it half a dozen or
more firm hammer-blows until the tooth is spread to the desired
width ; after which the straight or fiat side of swage is used on the
teeth ; one or two blows being sufficient to flatten or square up the
In Swaging, care must be taken to hold the swage at such an
angle that the lines or contour of backs of teeth are not changed as
the swaging marks should show principally on the fronts of teeth
where practically all the filing will be done. The operator must also
be careful not to hold the swage at materially different angles as this
would have a tendency to fracture the teeth as well as making the saw
badly out of round by driving some teeth down and others up.
IMPROVED SIDE FILE.
MADE IN THREE SIZES.
Following swaging, the saw must again be jointed and each tooth
then filed or ground until brought to a keen point. If filed by hand,
due care must be taken to file -square across the teeth so that all
cutting-edges will be at right angles to the side of saw, for if the saw
is not filed square it will ' * lead " in or out of the log according to the
side of the saw bearing the high corners ; high corners on the log side
of a saw will cause it to run into the log and vice versa. It is also
important that the same ' ' hook ' ' or pitch line and general shape of
teeth be maintained.
The next operation consists of "side-filing" which simply means
bringing all the points to one uniform width. It is very difficult to
swage or set a saw so accurately that all the teeth are exactly the same
width, and as a slight variation in the widths of
cutting points of a saw will not only cause it to
work badly but will make rough lumber, it is
therefore desirable that all the points of teeth be
made exactly the same width, which is readily
accomplished by the use of our Side File.
This completes the operations of Setting and
Sharpening, or fitting the saw, and if the work
is done according to these directions and the saw
is properly operated on a correctly adjusted mill,
it will saw easy and true until dull again, but it
should be re-sharpened before it is allowed to get
so dull as to show a tendency to pull extra hard,
leave its true line, or heat up. There is no
economy in attempting to run a saw too long
without sharpening. Many hours time have
been wasted and many saws ruined through the
false economy of not sharpening them often
enough. We have never seen a saw mill where
it was not true economy to sharpen saws from
two to four times in a full day's sawing. A saw,
properly swaged or set, will stand from two to
five filings before it needs
re-swaging or re-setting. DISSTON
mf SAMSON SAW-SET
I he operation ot tit- TOT MOST T7SEFDL) POWERFUL AND OTS IRABI. MA M .
ting a "Spring-set," or
briar-dress Rip saw is
the same as the forego-
ing in all respects except
the swaging is omitted and the points of the teeth are bent alternately
right and left with a ' ' Samson ' ' or similar setting tool to give the
This file must be so adjusted
by means of the set screws as
to conform to the width of
set desired. The jam-nuts
are for the purpose of secur-
ing the set screws in the
desired position. When the
Side File has been properly
adjusted it must be held in
position by means of theclips
A," against the saw-blade,
the points of the set-screws
''B"only touching the blade.
Each tooth in succession must
be filed until the set of tooth
conforms to the gauge of the
set-screws. Thus all uneven
or overhanging corners will
necessary clearance to each side of the saw ; then all teeth are filed
straight through or square to side of saw on the fronts, but each
alternate tooth is slightly beveled
on the backs similar to sketch
VOR ClRCtTIiAR SAWS.
Circular Cut-off saws are fitted the same as briar-dress rip saws, ex-
cept the teeth are given more bevel both front and back as shown in
There are several different kinds of tools on the market for setting
small circular saws, but the most efficient one we know of is our
circular saw Setting-Stake, with which tool each tooth is given
DISSTON practically the same amount of
IMPROVED ADJUSTABLE SETTING-STAKE set.
Probably half the saws sent
back to the factory for repairs
have been injured or ruined just
through neglect on the part of
the owners or operators, who
really know how to properly fit
saws, but put off the re-setting
and sharpening of their saws just
as long as they can force the
saw through a cut of any kind. Other men, through lack of experi-
ence do not know how to "fit" saws. The result is the same in
either case, after wasting time and lumber enough to pay a careful
and capable fitter or sawyer, who would without injury to the saw or
unnecessary wear to appliances turn out the maximum amount of well
manufactured lumber for the power available, the careless or inexperi-
enced men nave to send the saw to the factory for repairs or purchase
a new one, when due regard to a few simple rules would have saved
the saw, a quantity of lumber and a great deal of lost time.
The saw is like a razor or any other cutting tool, it will not work
This valuable tool can be adjusted to Bet any saw from
six to thirty inches in diameter. The cone "A" is
moved in or out to suit the diameter of the saw, and
raised or lowered, as may be required. The movable
anvil " B" is made of hardened steel, and some por-
tions of the face being beveled more than others, the
operator can regulate the amount of set as desired.
unless it is kept in order and an attempt to force it when not in order
means a broken saw or a repair bill.
NOTE : Do not file square corners in the gullets of the saw as it
prevents proper circulation of saw-dust and is very liable to cause
breakage a s
shown at "D"
"" in cut, particu-
larly when the
teeth are dull,
or in frosty
= weather. Our
not cover saws
filed in gullets .
It will be observed in the illustration that in addition to having
sharp corners in the gullets, teeth "A" and "B" are very dull;
tooth "C" shows how the points and gullets should be dressed.
The gullets should be kept rounded out, either with a gummer or a file.
Cut " A " shows proper shape of tooth for cross-cutting soft wood.
Cut "B" shows tooth best adapted to cutting hard wood, space of
teeth or distance from point to point, being governed by conditions.
Cut-off saws, with the front of the tooth undercut into a round
gullet, are the best (see cut "G"). If the teeth are kept in this
form, less time will be required in filing, and the bad results from
running a dull saw would
be prevented ; use as little
set as possible ; file as soon
as saw becomes dull, thus
saving time and power, re-
ducing the strain and lia-
bility of breakage of the
We can furnish cut-off
saws with rounded or under-
cut gullets as shown above
and give any desired amount
of rake or space of teeth.
The great loss in the breaking of circular cross-cut or cut-off saws
to the mill man and manufacturer of saws induces us to call particular
attention to the general neglect in the keeping of these saws in order
for the work they have to perform, for there is not the same care given
to a cut-off as there is to the larger saws for ripping lumber.
Nearly every case of broken cut-off saws that has come under our
notice, has been caused by the careless manner in which they have been
filed or gummed, If the time, labor and files consumed in filing the
long bevel down the backs and fronts of teeth, were used in filing the
gullets down with a round file, or cutting them out carefully with a
round face emery wheel, many saws would be saved and much less
power consumed, as fil-
ing long bevels on the
teeth forms square
notches in the gullets,
which will cause cracks
to start, besides prevent-
ing free circulation of
sawdust. * See Cut "C".
The bevel on cross-
cut teeth should never
extend into the gullets ;
in fact only a small por-
tion of the tooth from the point needs beveling. The remainder of the
tooth and gullets should be dressed straight across, as shown in cut
" D ". In heavy cutting the front of the tooth should be filed with
very little or no bevel. This will prevent much of the lateral strain
and chattering caused by the teeth being forced out of line into the
sides of the cut. Saws are frequently broken from this cause,
particularly if they are dull.
HINTS FOR COLD WEATHER.
As many saws are broken in winter, owing to the great risk in
sawing frozen timber, the greatest care should be taken to prevent any
undue strain. Keep the points out full, square and sharp, or the
saw will dodge out of the cut, particularly in slabbing, as the corners
on the log side do the most cutting and soon get dull in sawing knotty
frozen timber. Use no more set than is absolutely necessary ; have
the teeth widest at the extreme points, but do not have them weak ;
taper the set nicely from point to back. Sharp corners should never
be filed in the gullets as cracks are sure to start from such misuse of
the saw, particularly in cold weather.
SHARPENING AND GUMMING WITH EMERY WHEELS.
In sharpening or gumming saws with emery wheels always use a
good, free-cutting wheel, and never put so much pressure on it or
crowd it so fast that the teeth are heated to such an extent they
become blue, for when teeth are blued, glazed, or case-hardened by the
emery wheel, they are apt to break or crumble when in the cut or the
next time they are swaged. Joint the emery wheel occasionally to
retain the shape of its face and to remove glaze.
When gumming, it is best to gum around the saw several times
instead of finishing each tooth at one operation, for by going over the
teeth several times, they are less liable to case-harden or blue, and a
more uniform gullet is obtained. After gumming, it is advisable to
file all around the saw, taking care to remove the fash or burr left on
the edges and all glazed or hard spots. Gumming and sharpening
with the emery wheel will cause the saw to ( * let down ' ' or lose its
tension much quicker than by the use of the file or burr-gummer, as it
heats and expands the rim of saw, putting it in the shape generally
termed by mill-men "buckled," which makes it appear loose and
limber and causes it to run tl snakey ' ' in the cut. Many saws are con-
demned just from this cause and thrown aside as worn out, when by
proper work and hammering they can be made as good as new saws of
the same size.
In sending us old saws for repairs mark plainly on the case
whom they are from, write us full instructions as to the work to be
done, and we will guarantee to put as good and durable tension in
them as they had originally.
We carry a stock of emery wheels, for the requirements of mill-
men, at regular market prices.
TRAMMEL FOR CIRCULAR SAW TEETH.
The above cut represents a device for laying out and keeping in
order the teeth of circular saws. By its use the teeth can be kept
in proper shape, regular in depth, and an equal amount of pitch given
to the front of each tooth.
To rod A is attached chuck B y which holds a steel point for
marking a circle for the bottom of the teeth. If all the teeth are on
this circle, they will be equal in depth. The strip of steel (C) can be
set at any distance between the centre and the edge of the saw, and it
will give the same pitch to the front of each tooth. The ordinary
pitch is that which is obtained by placing the steel strip at a distance
of three-fifths from the centre towards the edge of the saw-plate.
There is a diversity of opinion concerning the proper pitch to be given
to the fronts of teeth ; knotty timber requires less than clear timber ;
with light power and light feed more can be used. The pitch can be
increased by moving the steel strip nearer to the edge of the saw, but
should the teeth become weakened, the backs or tops of the teeth
should be strengthened, or they will either break or chatter in the work.
PATENT GULLET-TOOTH CIRCULAR SAW.
By reference to the above engraving, it will be observed that the
back or point-line of each tooth is the continuation of the spiral lines
Z, and the sharpening is mainly done by the reduction of the gullet or
throat only. This is readily accomplished by the use of our patent
gummers. (See pages 44 to 48.)
The course pursued by this cutter is spiral, and while it is in the
act of reducing the front or throat of tooth D, it is prolonging the back
or point-line tooth of C. The engraving represents a two-inch tooth
or gullet. The saw D is the saw A worn down. When the saw has
been reduced on centre line from G to /% it has been worn away but
six inches, yet has presented a cutting surface on spiral line Zfrom G
to Y, a distance of twenty-four inches. But this is only one of the
advantages claimed for our patent gullet-tooth. The throat or gullet
being chambered out on a half circle, forms a larger receptacle or
chamber for dust, and thus a one-and-a-half-inch tooth of this pattern
will keep a saw as free from choking as a two-inch tooth of the
The saving of the saw-plate by the use 01 a smaller tooth is
evident to the most casual observer.
In sharpening, a saving in time and files is effected by taking a
good, deep, full cut, instead of a light, scraping one. A tooth
becomes dull on its face in proportion to the depth of cut taken at
each revolution of the saw ; for instance, when each tooth cuts a
thirty-second of an inch, it takes thirty- p
two teeth to cut one inch, whereas when
each tooth cuts one-sixteenth of an inch,
it takes only sixteen teeth to cut the
same amount. In other words, the fibre
or grain of the lumber has to be broken
thirty-two times in one instance, and
only sixteen times in the other ; and
when the tooth starts to break the fibre
one-sixteenth of an inch in the log, it
will do it with nearly as much ease and
consume very little more power than if
the cut was a thirty-second of an inch per tooth. Of course one tooth,
in this example, becomes dull for one-sixteenth of an inch under the
point, and the other only one thirty-second of an inch, but it consumes
nearly as much saw -plate, time and files to bring up one tooth as the
other ; it is, however, easy to overdo this ; there is reason in this as
well as in everything else. On tooth,
Fig. 4, A A are original lines of tooth,
dotted line B shows where the point
first wears ; dotted line CCC shows
how it should be filed back on the
periphery line ; but, too frequently,
on account of the long surface to be
filed, operators file the top of the
tooth only as represented by the dotted
Filing back on the Periphery Line.
Showing Old and Gullet Style Tooth.
line D. It is plain to be seen that by filing back on the dotted
line CCC the saw has been reduced in diameter only from dotted line
E to F, while by filing from the top of the tooth the reduction will be
as shown by dotted lines from E to D.
This shows that by filing on top five times as much of the saw has
been wasted as by proper filing. This difficulty is overcome by the use
of the Gullet tooth, as represented by cut Fig. 5.
Fig. 5 shows the outlines of both straight tooth and the gullet
tooth ; by using the latter only a small space is left to file and gives no
excuse for filing OH top.
Illustration of Tooth after cutting 300,000 feet of Lumber.
The above cut represents a section of our gullet-tooth saw (kept
in order by Chambering Machine) after cutting 300,000 feet of hem-
lock lumber. Dotted line D and point A show the original diameter
of the saw ; dotted line E and point C show the saw after cutting the
above amount of lumber, only reducing the length of teeth three-
sixty-fourths of an inch, as can be plainly seen between dotted lines
D and E. According to this, a fifty-inch saw will cut 6,000,000 feet
and only reduce the diameter of saw to forty-eight inches, showing the
great advantage derived by using our Patent Tooth and Gummer.
The accompanying cut is a fac-
simile of the condition of the teeth of
a large circular saw sent to our factory
to be gummed. The owners had been
using some gummer upon the saw,
which actually did more harm than
good ; as shown by line B the ragged
throat so obstructed the circulation of
saw dust that the parties were com-
pelled to send it to the factory to be
gummed out. Dotted line C shows
the condition the gullet would have
been in had our chambering machines been used upon it.
REDUCED XO ONE-HALF NATURAL SIZE.
Figs. 7 and 8 show, by periphery lines, the difference in the wear
of the saw. We will here remark that it is of the greatest importance
to file back on these periphery lines. It will be seen by this tooth the
point on the face is very small. The smaller it is the less filing it takes
to keep it sharp. One stroke of the file on this point will effect more
than ten strokes on the face of a tooth that has to be kept back from
point to bottom of gullet ; and when there is so little point to keep
Teeth for Soft Wood.
back, it will be found easier to sharpen the saw from the face than to
file from the top, and a saving in the diameter of saw is effected.
When we know the kind of lumber to be sawn, the speed, feed
and capacity of mill, we will make the teeth best suited for the work,
save waste of saw and extra time it would require to keep unsuitable
Teeth for Hard Wood.
teeth in order. For instance, for one-inch feed, we would not recom-
mend over twenty -four teeth and should not (where our gummer is
used) give over one-and-a-quarter-inch depth of tooth, for a five-inch
feed, not less than fifty teeth, and depth to correspond ; for a three-inch
feed, we would give thirty-two teeth.
The gullets of the saw should be chambered out, or gummed as
soon as the teeth have been worn back enough to allow the file to
strike the back of the chamber as shown in Fig. 9, tooth A. Tooth B
shows full gullet.
THE VICTOR PATENT SELF-FEEDING SAW GUMMER.
FIG. 1. ADJUSTED TO GUM CIRCULAR SAWS.
We call special attention to this machine, as being superior to any
other gummer on the market ; a fact which will prove itself upon trial.
The victor is made of the very best material ; the lighter parts being
of malleable iron and the shaft of steel, making it lighter and at the
same time stronger than other gummers . Its simplicity of construction
makes it unnecessary to give any instruction for use, as an exam-
ination of the cuts will enable anybody to operate it. The Victor
will gum all saws, from a small circular saw, with a Y% inch gullet, to
the largest made, with 1^ inch gullet ; also all mill, mulay and
cross-cut saws. Fig. No. 1 shows the Victor gummer in position for
work on a sixty -inch circular saw, and No. 2 on a mill or mulay
saw. The self- feeding mechanism can be regulated to fast or slow
speed without any change of parts, and the machine can be changed
from hand to self feed in an instant. The adjustable stop throws out
the feed pawl at any required depth of tooth. This gummer is fitted
D I S S T O ]Sr HANDBOOK
THE VICTOR PATENT SELF-FEEDING SAW GUMMER.
FIG. 2. ADJUSTED TO GUM MILL OR MULAY SAWS.
with three sizes of arbor. In ordering be sure to state which size
is wanted. The large size is suitable for the following cutters : 1
inch, 1^6 inch, 1^ inch, 1^4 inch, and 1> inch. The. medium size is
suitable for ^ inch, ^ inch, ^ inch, and ^ inch cutters. The small
size is suitable for ^ inch cutters. Each gummer sent complete with
one arbor of either size, three cutters, cutter grinder and wrench.
Additional arbors furnished extra price. For range of work this
machine has no superior,
When ordering state size of cutter and arbor hole.
No. 1 PATENT DOUBLE-GEARED SAW
GUMMER, OR CHAMBERING MACHINE
FOR LARGE CIRCULAR SAWS.
Cutter-Grinder and three cutters of either size 1, 1J
1J, If or 1 inches, with each machine.
DIRECTIONS FOR USING.
Before using the gummer see that the oil holes are clear. A few
drops of oil will be sufficient for from three to five hours' use. After
using the gummer remove the chips or turnings that accumulate back
of the cutter. If allowed to remain they will cause trouble by getting
into the working parts of the machine. Run the cutter back by means
of screw G as far as necessary. Then place the machine on the saw,
with the cutter close up in the chamber of the tooth to be gummed.
If the teeth are regular and the same distance apart, start the
cutter in any chamber ; but if they are irregular, make them even by
commencing in the smallest tooth. After gumming the saw a few
times the teeth must become regular. E is a set screw to regulate the
depth of gullet. Fasten the machine to the saw by means of the
screw BB> and proceed to gum the first tooth, one of the points of the
star being struck at each revolution by a projection on the handle the
cutter is steadily fed in until arrested by set screw E. Remove the
machine to the next tooth, after having run the cutter back and
proceed as before until all the teeth are gummed. Should the gullet
or chamber be worn smooth, and the cutter fail to bite, rough the
gullet with a file. The cutter is so arranged as to slide on its axis, and
when one portion becomes dull, by removing a washer from back to
front, a new sharp cutting surface will be presented, so continuing to
change the washers until the whole face of the cutter becomes dull.
To take the cutter off the shaft, put the pin, hanging to the
glimmer, in the hole in the ratchet wheel, to keep the shaft from
turning while unscrewing the nut, which has a left-hand thread.
The hand wheel on end of feed screw, outside of the star, is to allow
the operator to feed easily and gently with the hand when starting in
to cut rough gullets, until the cutter gets a bearing, when by tightening
the jam-nut on opposite side of star, the machine is made self-feeding.
The rachet by which the cutter is moved, effectually prevents any back
motion, which has hitherto been a serious objection.
This gummer is a most invaluable machine, and should be in the
hands of every mill-man. It saves power, files and time, and is
so simple in its mode of operation that any one of ordinary intelligence
can be taught to use it. We pronounce this the best gummer
CUTTER GRINDER FOR HOLDING THE CUTTER OF
CHAMBERING MACHINE IN POSITION DURING
PROCESS OF SHARPENING.
To GRIND THE CUTTERS
the stone should have a perfectly straight face and turn from the
operator. Lower the adjustable frame of grinder until the cutter
touches the stone, then adjust spring in proper position. When
properly adjusted, the backs of teeth of cutters can be ground so the
cutting edge will be a little the highest and the cutters round and sharp.
Furnished with either No. 1, 2 or 3 (Pin) shaft.
LIST OF PARTS OF VICTOR SAW GUMMER.
1, Plate; 2, Shaft; 3, No. 1 Rachet; 4, Wrench ; 5, Brass Gauge ; 6, No. 2
Ratchet Spring ; 7, Feed Screw ; 8, Stop Gauge; 9, Stop ; 10, Crank ; 11, Throw ;
12, No. 1 Ratchet Spring ; 13, Stand ; 14, No. 1 Pawl ; 15, Ball Lever ; 16, Carriage ;
17, Ball Lever Spring; 18, Long Clamp; 19, No. 2 Pawl; 20, Short Clamp; 21,
No. 2 Feed Ratchet ; 22, Cam.
LIST OF PARTS OF No. I SAW GUMMER.
1, Star; 2, Arm; 3, Frame; 4, Large Wrench; 5, Small Wrench; 6, Swivel
Bearing ; 7, Left Hand Crank ; 8, Cutter Shaft ; 9, Feed Screw ; 10, Crank Shaft ;
11, Gauge ; 12, Gauge ; 13, Swivel Nut ; 14, Cross Handle ; 15, Right Hand Crank,
16, Ratchet; 17, Ratchet Spring ; 18, Large Gear Wheel ; 19, Pawl ; 20, Out Bear-
ing ; 21, Wrought Iron Gauge ; 22, Collar for Feed Screw.
When ordering, specify the No. of part wanted, whether for Victor or No. 1
,C < G w "rt oJ '~
<* S"- fe 8
_ e P; .
-5 J rt-M g
THE MAKING of a
Disston Inserted Tooth Circular Saw.
All "Plates" for Inserted Tooth Circular Saws are made under
the same processes as those for Solid Tooth Saws, with the following
additional operations :
The plate, in which the sockets have been cut, is sent to the In-
serted Tooth Department, where it is thoroughly inspected. If true
and round, it is ready for the first operation that of milling the V
Milling Solid Tooth Metal Saws and Cutting Sockets
in plates for Inserted Tooth Saws.
projection on the edge of socket. This is done on special machines de-
signed and built in the Disston Works, which insure uniformity and
The "Holder" or "Shank" is cut out of steel, of suitable thick-
ness, in the form required. This steel blank, is now forged and flat-
tened to gauge, then placed in a milling machine and grooved on lines
to fit the V projection of the socket; after which it is stamped with the
number designating the particular style or pattern. Testing for di-
ameter of circle takes place ; then follows the milling cf the head and
the grooving of top, in which rests the bottom of "Point." It is now
inspected for "ball" as well as size and shape, and, if correct, is "Har-
dened" and "Tempered" under special processes to a spring temper,
its function being, as its name implies, to hold the point or bit in place.
The Holder is now critically tested and gauged.
The "Tooth," usually termed "Point" or "Bit," is drop-forged
to shape and at the same time an impression is made thereon of num-
bers designating the style and gauge of the tooth. This forging is an-
nealed for trimming; thoroughly inspected and if properly filled up
Forging Teeth for Inserted Tooth Circular Saws.
to shape is ready for the next operation. Any improperly forged,
that is not filled up at the heel or other parts, are thrown out as scrap.
The forging is "trimmed," "formed," then "ground" to remove the
surplus stock, and "side-dressed," after which it is "hardened" and
"tempered" under the Disston process. It is now passed through
the final "grinding and sharpening" operation.
Each "Tooth" is accurately tested for uniformity of width of
cutting-edge, thickness and shape, and only those strictly correct in
each detail are passed. So rigid are the rules in this respect that the
gauges themselves, used for testing, are inspected every week.
All the regular Disston Points and Holders are made to standard
gauges, each inserted tooth circular saw is given a number, of which a
record is kept at the factory, for the purpose of supplying duplicate
points and holders when required.
PATENT CHISEL-TOOTH CIRCULAR SAW.
Inserted Tooth, Chisel-Point
Inserted tooth saws were first introduced with the object of pre-
serving the diameter.
The first patterns were crude affairs, consisting of square pieces of
steel set in the rim of the blade and secured with a rivet. Scores of
designs were presented from time to time, each possessing some im-
provement in the shape of the teeth and means for securing them.
Later inventions sought to facilitate the removal of the worn out teeth
and the insertion of new ones.
We manufacture different forms of Inserted Tooth Saws, some
of which are illustrated and described in this Handbook. The highest
development of the art is the improved Chisel- Point Saw shown in
cut, which comprises everything desirable in the method of securing
the teeth in the blade by means of rotary locking Holders or Shanks,
requiring but a few moments to replace the teeth. This is done with-
out making the slightest alteration in the tension of the blade.
I S S T O N HANDBOOK
The 1902 style provides ample throat room and clearance to suit
all classes of work to which this pattern of saw is applicable.
These Chisel-Point Saws are constructed on scientific principles,
and^to secure perfection, special machinery is employed.
The Points and Holders in each size are exact duplicates, and
when ordered in accordance with instructions, are guaranteed to fit.
USES OF CHISEL-POINT SAWS.
Chisel-Point Saws are unexcelled for board saws in saw mills, from
the smallest water power to the largest steam mills employing indepen-
dent steam and shot-gun feeHs for gang edging saws, lath bolter saws,
lath saws, clapboard saws, boxboard saws, bench saws and rift saws.
HOW TO ORDER CHISEL-POINT SAWS.
Full directions and a list of particulars necessary to order saws of
this description will be found on pages 24, 26.
These particulars should be carefully given, and in cases where
the gauge and number of teeth are left to our judgment, it is necessary
to specify the horse power available to drive the saw, the speed both
in and out of the cut, the greatest feed in inches per revolution, the
kind of timber to be sawed, and the daily capacity of the mill.
It is essential to give the exact size of centre hole. If the centre
hole is altered after the saw leaves our hands it is liable to throw the
saw out of round and consequently out of balance.
These are made in several sizes to suit different classes of work
and the kind of timber grown in various localities.
The popular sizes are Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 4J and 6. No. 1 being the
largest, is designed principally for the heavy timbers of the Pacific
Coast. The No. 4J and No. 6 are the smallest sizes, permitting the
insertion of the maximum number of teeth for board saw mills carry-
ing high feeds and also being suitable for edgers, bolters and lath saws.
For general sawing, hard and soft woods, in small and medium-
sized mills the No. 33 pattern cannot be excelled. This size is also used
for rift saws, heavy edger saws, and bench saws.
TheNo.44pattern is suitable for board saws, edger and bench saws.
The No. 2 pattern is used largely in the firs and pines of the Pacific
Coast, is useful for general sawing of both hard and soft woods where
a greater amount of throat room is desired than the No. 3 provides.
This is a good all around tooth and has proven its efficiency in the
Southern States and in the Middle West.
In sawing sandy or gritty logs, the edges of the inner circles of the
holders are liable to wear and become rounded. This permits a portion
of the dust to pass down between the side of the saw and the log,
instead of being properly chambered and carried out of the cut. The
tendency then is to create friction and heat, which is detrimental to
good work. To prevent this, the edges of the inner circles of the
holders should be filed across and kept square. Holders which have
become thin from long usage should be discarded and replaced.
The swaged pattern of holder, which is one-and-one-half gauges
heavier in the throat than the sawplate proper, will be supplied if speci-
Holders of the Swaged and Slotted pattern are made in all sizes
for those who prefer the slotted pattern of holder.
vVhen the sockets holding the shanks are worn large, it is advisable
to order the special sizes of shanks or holders designed to take up this
wear. There are two special sizes; one is -fa" and the other y larger
in the circle than regular.
Unless shanks fit snugly, they are liable to break or cause the
points to break. A shank that has become strained or compressed
through accident can be expanded by removing it from the saw, lay-
ing it on an anvil, and striking it sharply on both sides, on the inner
circle; consequently there is no reason for the shanks or bits ever fit-
ting loosely. It must be noted, however, in hammering the shank,
unless an even number of blows are struck on each side, the shank will
be bent out of shape.
Millmen often make the mistake of setting the Guides too close to
the rim when operating Inserted Tooth Saws. This is an important
item, and the operator should see that the guides CLEAR THE HOL-
DERS by at least one-quarter of an inch, otherwise the saw will run
unsteadily and the holders and points will be turned out of place.
INSERTING NEW POINTS.
Oil the grooves carefully. Place the new point or bit squarely on
the head of the shank. If the point should not turn into position
readily, lift the wrench enough to permit the ball or head of the holder
to assume its proper place in the point; then start again and the point
will be found to move steadily into position. Do not use undue force,
the stops should meet lightly, and no additional pressure should be
applied to the wrench when the heel of the bit has reached the shoulder.
SHARPENING CHISEL- POINTS.
The points or bits should be sharpened or filed without taking
them out of the saw, thereby preventing unnecessary wear. The tem-
per of these points is such that they may be sharpened by the use of
a good file. The following illustration shows the File specially designed
for this purpose.
Made 8, 9 and 10 inches in length.
Most of the filing should be done on the front or the throat of the
tooth. It is only necessary to file enough on the back to remove the
burr. Very little work is required to sharpen points. Care should be
exercised to keep the cutting edge at right angles to the side of the
saw. Do not use a square-cornered file, as this will leave a sharp nick
under the point. A bit left in this condition is liable to break and
injure the blade.
No. 1 shows the point when new. No. 2 shows the point when it
has been properly filed until worn out. No. 3 shows the point improp-
erly filed, which method weakens it.
Should a bit be broken by accident, the new one must be dressed
to the length and width of those in the saw.
If the bits are to be swaged, the work should be done with a light
hammer, drawing out the corners just enough to square the points;
then the set should be dressed by a side file. Relieve the corners so as
to give proper clearance. In swaging, be careful not to strike hard
enough to upset the shoulder or strain the shank, for the saw is liable
to be ruined in this manner.
A section of saw containing one tooth, for use in a vise when
swaging points, will be supplied at a small cost.
Particular attention is called to the necessity for keeping the cut-
ting edges of the points widest. It is desired that this important item
may not be lost sight of, since most complaints may be traced to a
disregard of this requirement. If the points are filed so that they are
wider behind the cutting edges than on the extreme corners, good
work cannot be accomplished. The following diagrams, No. 6, No. 7,
and No. 8, were taken from bits removed from saws, concerning which
complaint was made. The reason is at once apparent. Diagrams
No. 4 and No. 5 show two styles of side dressing, either of which is
good, depending on the class of work in hand. The spread or swage
should be distributed evenly on both sides of the saw.
No. 4. No. 5. No. 6. No. 7. No. 8.
WIDTH OF CUTTING-EDGE.
Chisel-Points are made in various widths of cutting-edge. A
small booklet, containing a list of these sizes, will be supplied on ap-
plication. The regular width is furnished, unless directions are given
to the contrary. The booklet mentioned gives full instructions on this
Before starting to cut frozen timber, equip the saw with a new set
of swaged holders, laying the old ones aside for Summer sawing. This
expenditure will be found a paying investment. The swaged holder
is a gauge and a half heavier in the throat than the sawplate proper,
and is designed to hold and carry out of the cut the finest dust, which
would, otherwise, pass down the side of the saw, freeze to the log, and
force the saw out of line.
For Winter work it is not desirable to use a side file, which will
leave flat places on the sides of the points parallel to the sides of the
saw. Should a side file be used, be careful to see that the bits are
relieved behind the points to the extreme edge. To do successful work
in this class of sawing the corners must be sharp.
It is possible to use narrower bits than in Summer sawing. In
some sizes a special short bit, particularly designed for Winter work,
is made. This short bit is illustrated and described in the pamphlet
" Chisel- Points and Holders."
A number of our customers operate chisel-point saws very suc-
cessfully in Winter by using worn points, discarded during the Sum-
mer months; they should be selected in sets of even length so that the
saw will be round.
The old points may be swaged a trifle. Use no more set than is
absolutely necessary. Taper back nicely from the points by careful
side dressing, have the teeth widest at the extreme points, and do not
allow the corners to become round, or the saw will dodge out of the
cut, particularly in slabbing. The corners next to the log do most of
the cutting, and soon become dull in frozen timber, consequently it
is necessary to watch for this very particularly, before the saw is
allowed to run out of the cut and become strained or buckled.
No. 33 CHISEL TOOTH
DIRECTIONS FOR ORDERING CHISEL-POINTS AND HOLDERS.
Every Chisel-Tooth Saw of our manufacture has a shop number,
which will be found directly under our brand, midway between the
eye and the rim. Invariably give this number when ordering points
When there is the slightest doubt about sizes, or gauges, or where
the shop number cannot be obtained, send a sample tooth or holder
(an old one will answer) with the order.
The gauge of both teeth and holders should be the same as the
saw plate (except in special cases), and this may be determined by
applying a Disston Standard Wire Gauge, which corresponds exactly
to the Stubbs or English Wire Gauge.
To fill an order properly, we require to know the size of the tooth,
the gauge and the width at cutting edge. Teeth of standard width of
cutting-edge are always sent unless otherwise specified.
The size of the Holders or Shanks always corresponds with the
size of the Teeth used. If No. 33-8 gauge teeth are used, the proper
size of Holder to order is No. 33-8 gauge. In instances of special
styles, specify the pattern stamped on Holder in addition to Number
and Gauge of tooth, also whether solid, swaged or swaged and slotted.
When returning Chisel-Tooth Saws for repairs, please leave all the
teeth and holders in place, for they are needed in adjusting the
tension. Unless teeth and holders are returned we shall supply a
new set at regular prices. Be sure to mark the name of the shipper on
the case for purposes of identification.
No. 10 TOOTH.
This tooth is sometimes termed the Spaulding Tooth, and is used
principally in heavy mills on the Pacific Coast.
The No. 10 Tooth is made in three sizes suitable for small, medium
and large timber.
INSERTED TOOTH RE-SAWS, No. 16 PATTERN.
The difficulty occasioned by wearing down or reduction in diameter
of re-saws, has created a demand for an inserted tooth saw of this class
and to supply this want, we are now making re-saws with the improved
re-saw inserted tooth, of which the following cut is a representation.
The advantages claimed for this style of saw are numerous, the most
important of which is that the original diameter of the saw is retained.
This point will readily be seen by all practical operators and sawyers;
for the saw must be the proper diameter and thickness at rim and
centre to give the best results; if the diameter is decreased, the periphery
or cutting edge is brought closer to the heavy centre or flange of saw,
not only cutting out a heavier kerf, but bringing an undue strain upon
both saw and machine and causing the pieces being sawed to take
a short, sharp spring-off, and in sawing short stuff where flanged saws
are used, the flange or collar, by its close proximity to cutting edge
of saw, splits a portion of piece from the bolt instead of sawing it,
giving very unsatisfactory results both as to quality and quantity
of work done. Therefore, if the saw is right at the start, by retaining
original thickness and size, these difficulties are entirely obviated,
and to do this, inserted tooth saws must be used, or the solid tooth
must frequently be replaced.
INSERTED TOOTH SAW, No. 16.
This saw can be made in gauges from 12 to 17 at the rim. By
replacing the teeth when they are worn out the saw is practically
renewed at a very trifling expense.
These saws are no experiment, they have been used for years with
satisfactory and economical results, and we give the same warranty
with them that we give on all goods bearing our brand.
INSERTED TOOTH SAWS.
AMERICAN SAW CO.'S DESIGNS.
We continue to manufacture and supply all of the styles of Inserted
Tooth Saws and the teeth, bits, springs, or holders for same, formerly
made by the American Saw Company, of Trenton.
We are prepared to supply the American Tooth, the Trenton Tooth
regular, the Trenton Tooth 1894 style, the Brooke Bit and Spring,
the Dunbar Tooth, the Risdon Tooth, the High Speed Tooth, the Pros-
ser Tooth, and the Goulding Bit. These teeth are sharpened and
dressed the same as a Solid Tooth Saw, and the directions in this Hand-
book for the dressing of Solid Tooth Saws will apply. The teeth are
all ribbed on the back to lessen the amount of swaging necessary.
When sharpening, the same cutting angles should be preserved,
and the gullets kept round, either with a round file or by the use of a
When changing teeth, first drive them into position by placing a
swage on the cutting edge and striking a blow with a light hammer.
Care should be exercised not to expand the rim of the saw by riveting
too tightly, for if this operation is not properly done the tension of the
saw will be destroyed. It is only necessary to rivet enough to secure
the tooth firmly. The surplus metal must then be chipped off with a
cold chisel in order that it may not interfere with the running of the saw.
For those who prefer this form of Inserted Tooth Saw to the Chisel
Point, the Trenton Tooth 1894 style is recommended. The Trenton
Tooth is made in two sizes, No. 1 (large) and No. 2 (small).
Inserted Diamond Tooth p
Circular STONE SAW.
100 inches diameter. ^ inch thick. 800 Ibs. weight.
180 teeth, in each of which is embedded a diamond.
SHINGLE AND HEADING SAWS.
When ordering Shingle Saws, give full specifications, as follows:
Diameter of saw in inches, thickness or gauge at centre, thickness or
gauge at rim, number of teeth, right or left-hand, speed of saw. If
we are to furnish the flange, state size of machine and maker's name,
or send correct and full templet of old flange, giving size and location
If we are to furnish the saw only, send the flange to us that we
may fit it to the saw. If you cannot forward the flange send templet
of holes and sample of screw by which to drill and countersink saw.
See cut above.
SCREWS FOR SHINGLE SAWS.
Particular attention is called to the import-
ance of using screws that are suitable to the thick-
ness of the saw; we frequently receive screws
as samples by which to drill and countersink, that
have heads entirely too large for the thickness
of saw, and which require the flange to be coun-
tersunk (as shown in Fig. 1), thereby reducing
the length of thread in flange, making it impossi-
ble to bind the saw firmly to the flange.
Fig. 2 shows the correct size the screw heads
should be, thus getting a good bearing for the screw
heads on countersink in saw and the full thickness
of flange is retained for thread.
In no case should the screw heads be deeper
Fig. i. than thickness of saw. Thin saws require smaller
screw beads than thick saws.
FLANGES OR COLLARS
SHINGLE AND HEADING SAWS.
The Flanges to which shingles saws are attached are usually made
of cast-iron and are necessarily much heavier and stiffer than the saws.
This being the case it is perfectly manifest that if the faces of the flanges
are not true no saw, no matter how accurately ground or hammered,
will be flat or true when screwed fast to a stiff, untrue flange; nor can
any saw reasonably be expected to do good work under such circum-
Cast-iron flanges are easily and frequently sprung out-of-true
when "shingle bolts" break loose from the dogs and are jammed
between the saw and frame of machine.
All flanges should be carefully examined before new saws are put
on them and if a flange shows out-of-true, it should be sent to the
factory for correction. It is always a good plan to send the old flanges
when ordering new saws, then if the flanges are sprung, the manufac-
turer will correct the trouble, the charge for which will be merely
nominal and nothing in comparison with the amount that might be
wasted in time and material trying to run perfect saws on imperfect
flanges, besides running the risk of ruining the saws.
FOR SHINGLE, VENEER AND HEADING SAWS.
The illustration represents
gauge for regulating amount of set
for shingle, heading and jointer
As shown, the gauge is a sim-
ple contrivance, having three set
screws and two projecting arms, and
is operated from flat side of saw.
The amount of set required
being known, it is an easy matter
to adjust; thus First adjust gauge
to flat side of saw by use of bottom
screw and side arms, then turn
upper or gauge screw on left hand
side until it rests lightly on side of
plate or tooth before it has been
set, then reverse gauge screw until
the amount of set wanted is shown
ILLUSTRATION ONE-HALF ACTUAL SIZE. between end of screw and tooth;
fasten in this position by the jam on screw, then adjust right side of
gauge in same manner, and tool is ready for use.
VENEERING SAWS IN SEGMENTS.
Segment-Saws are used both for re-sawing boards and planks into
thinner stock, and for cutting veneers, but since the advent of the
Band Re-saw, the segment saw is used principally for sawing veneers.
Usually the stock from which the veneers are cut is very valuable
wood, therefore manufacturers save as much of the stock as possible
by reducing the saw kerf to the finest practicable width. To do this,
a large cast iron plate or flange is used to make up the centre of saw,
the segments being attached to the flange by countersunk screws.
The segments, when new, are from 12 to 15 inches deep, usually
7 or 8 gauge at the heel and taper to 19 gauge or thinner on the toothed
edge. The countersunk side of the whole saw is flat ; all the taper of
flange and segments being on the other side of the saw. The veneer
being only one-eighth inch or less in thickness readily springs away
from the thick part of flange^ leaving it practically free from friction and
heat which, while less detrimental to the operating of segment saws is
The attention of the manufacturers of chair or wheelwright lumber,
barrels, etc., is respectfully called to concave saws, of which we are
manufacturing large numbers. They are dished and tempered by an
entirely new and patented process, and guaranteed to be of superior
quality in every respect. To keep concave saws in order, set both
sides of the teeth alike ; file the front of the teeth square and bevel the
backs a trifle. Have the same amount of rake on the fronts of all the
teeth ; keep the gullets round. Do not run a dull saw.
We are prepared to furnish these saws of a superior quality, ground
and tempered by our special process. They are made of the best
crucible steel and will give satisfaction. Old Cylinder or Barrel Saws
resteeled and repaired.
RE FILING CYLINDER AND BILGE SAWS.
The instructions and sketch below give a correct rule for filing
and keeping this class of saws in proper order. While T y is given as
base for depth of teeth, this is subject to variation to suit the different
To OBTAIN THE CORRECT DEPTH OF TEETH. See that all the
points of old teeth are even, if not, raze off until they form an even
edge. Chalk the surface of the saw to retain a pencil mark, on which
scribe a line T y from end of razed points, per dotted line on sketch.
PROPER PITCH FOR FRONT OP TEETH : Draw a line 6" length-
wise with axis of saw ; from the end of this step off 4" parallel with
edge of saw, then draw a line from this point to point of tooth and
this will give the angle or pitch.
It is only necessary to lay out two teeth in the manner suggested,
after which a tin templet can be cut to correspond with same and the
balance of teeth marked out accordingly.
To SHAPE THE TEETH AND GULLETS a y%" Round File is gen-
erally used, the balance of the tooth being finished with an ordinary
Mill File, shaping the front and back of tooth as shown on sketch.
Particular attention should be given to file the gullets round at bottom,
for sharp, square corners will cause breakage.
When dressing the teeth , file the cutting edge square with the face
or front of tooth. The set should be sufficient to just clear the saw
and extend no more than one-third the depth of tooth. A uniform set
can be obtained by using a tin or metal templet and springing each
tooth to same.
Fastened overhead of machine, the
Gummer is always in position.
The arm is adjustable in height
and the wheel to any angle.
These useful little tools are too well known to require special
mention. They are ground thinner at centre than at rim, so that little
or no set is required or just sufficient to keep the extreme points
of teeth perceptibly wider than body of tooth. We make them any
gauge at edge or centre as may be wanted. In ordering grooving
saws, state whether wanted straight or hollow ground, if the latter,
give size of collar.
SPECIAL GROOVING SAWS,
We manufacture Grooving Saws with various patterns c r shapes
of teeth, to cut grooves of any width, depth, or special lihape on
bottom or side.
DISSTON KEYSTONE GROOVER.
Cuts grooves from }i inch to any width desired. Gives a clean,
smooth finish either with or across the grain. Each head consists of
two outside and three inside cutters, to cut grooves from }i inch to fy%
inch in any width, and cuts may be varied y 1 ^ or ^ inch as required.
These are used for dovetailing and are made in any diameter,
thickness, and with any number of teeth, suitable for the various
widths of grooves desired.
Circular Mitre Saws.
- \ \ >
These saws are
ground to run with-
out set; especially
adapted for smooth
cutting, such as
Cabinet and Cigar
g^ When ordering,
^ give size of centre
r' hole, also diameter
of collars on man-
showing taper grinding
CIRCULAR MITRE SAW with CLEANER TOOTH.
This style of saw
can be made for
either ripping or
cross cutting .
When made for rip-
ping a greater num-
ber of cleaner teeth
are put in than for
cross cutting. It
will cut equally as
smooth in either
ripping or cross cut-
DISSTON SPECIAL STEEL
for METAL-CUTTING SAWS.
DISSTON HIGH SPEED STEEL.
This steel is the development of careful metallurgical research and
extensive experiments, a combination of rare and valuable alloys with
the finest quality tool steel, producing a metal capable of resisting
the severest impact and preserving a good cutting-edge under severe
Lathe, planer and milling tools made of this steel will do more
work and keep sharp longer than those of any other known material.
Circular Metal Saws, of small diameter, made of this steel have
run as long as six days continuously, cutting metal, without resharp-
The Teeth for the ' ' PREMIER ' ' Inserted Tooth metal cutting
saws are made of this steel, one of which saws, under test by a large
Steel and Iron Co., was worked continuously day and night, for ten
days, cutting steel forgings and this was done without re-sharpening.
After being re-sharpened it was again placed in work and run for two
additional weeks without further sharpening. The same excellent
results are being had from the various Premier- Saws now in use. If
the material to be cut is properly annealed we guarantee the saw will
perform its duty.
DISSTON MANGTUNG STEEL.
In this steel is combined sufficient of the High Speed Steel elements
to give it the facility of retaining a good cutting edge under severe
conditions without the sacrificing of strength. It is principally used
in the making of Solid Tooth Milling Saws of the larger diameters.
DISSTON CHROMOL STEEL.
The material in the CHROMOI/ hack saw blade possesses the
peculiar qualities of High Speed Steel, making it specially adapted
for saw blades to be used for cutting metal ; it so takes the special
hardening and tempering that the teeth of the CHROMOIy blade will
not crumble off as in the case with some other makes of saws, but is
so tough and strong that it readily maintains its cutting-edge and will
wear longer than any other saw.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF
Saws For Cutting Metal.
The demand for Hack Saws or Saws for cutting metal has been
constantly increasing from year to year owing to the great variety of
purposes to which iron and steel and other metals are being adapted.
Some years back, the working of metal to size was done in what
may now be considered a very crude, laborious and expensive method.
It was usually done in a blacksmith shop, the smaller work being forged
to shape, the larger sheared off and dressed up with a file, while in
such cases where joints or mitres were desired on beams, etc., the
work was sheared to length, the required angle then cut on a shaper
or planer. This method afterwards gave way to the adoption of shears,
but this did not make an accurate angle and necessitated dressing off.
All of these methods consumed considerable time.
The use of the circular metal and hand hack saws has rendered
possible to a greater extent the employment of metals in the trades, as
modern appliances for shaping and cutting with this class of tool has
reduced to a nominal figure the hitherto prohibitive cost, the work
now being done with comparative ease.
Hack Saw Blades, ordinarily, are narrow in width and from six to
sixteen inches in length ; some are hardened throughout (our Chromol)
and others on tooth-edge only, leaving the back soft (our Soft-
Our Hack Saw Blades are made of the best crucible steel, hardened
and tempered under a special process. For durability and fast cutting
they are unequaled.
The Teeth have the correct pitch and shape for cutting metal.
For toothing, straightening and shaping these blades, intricate and
expensive machinery has been built by us, by which the work is done
with greater accuracy and at much less cost than would be possible if
done by hand. The blades have come into general use by workmen of
all trades, and are so inexpensive that when worn dull are replaced
with new ones,
D I S S T O IN" HANDBOOK
For particular work, where accuracy is desired, the Disston Hollow-ground
Hack Saw Blades are recommended. These are made of special crucible steel,
have milled teeth, the blade is hollow-ground to run without set, and tempered
so they may be re-filed. The length is measured over all.
The amount of work that can be done with one of these little tools is
marvelous, though, of course, considerable depends upon the manner in which
it is used. To cut steel that has not been properly annealed is hard work for a
saw, and too heavy a pressure or a sudden thrust into the work is detrimental to
the life of the blade. The first few strokes with a new blade should be made
with light pressure.
Made of "Chromol Steel," a high grade material peculiarly suited for
metal cutting blades.
The teeth are milled, giving the greatest possible strength and making them
sharp and clean ; set in such a manner that every third tooth is straight acting
as a cleaner while the two intervening teeth are set alternately right and left.
This arrangement allows each tooth to do its full share of the work and the action
of the cleaner teeth, to a great extent, relieves the set teeth of part of the wear,
which considerably prolongs the life of the blade.
They are hardened throughout by the Disston Process which renders them
hard and tough without being brittle.
For cutting the various classes of material we recommend blades, for hand
frame use, of the following number of " Points " to the inch :
Soft steel, Cast iron, etc., and all general work 16 points, or 15 teeth
Tool steel, light angle iron, and hard metals 18 " " 17 "
Brass, Copper, Drill Rods, Iron Pipe, and Sheet Metal. . . 24 " " 23 "
Tubing and Metal thinner than 22 gauge 32 " " $1 "
The stock sizes are y 2 inch wide, 23 gauge for 8, 9 and 10 inch, and %e inch
wide, 23 gauge for 12, 14 and 16 inch blades.
Length measured from centre to centre of holes.
The regular Soft-Back Hack Saw Blades are made > inch wide, 23 gauge,
16 points to the inch, this tooth being best adapted for general purposes. For
cutting sheet metal and other classes of small work we furnish blades with finer
teeth, either 22 or 26 points to the inch, as desired. For cutting Tubing, Brass,
Aluminum, etc., we recommend the fine tooth blade, 26 points to the inch.
The Soft Back Blade is also furnished in coils of sufficient length for use on
Band Sawing Machines.
For Lockmakers, we make a blade X incn wide, 23 or 25 gauge, 16 or 22
points, and the same width blade, 28 gauge, 30 points, for Jewelers.
Length measured from centre to centre of holes.
MACHINE OR POWER USE.
We were the pioneers in the manufacture of Hack Saw Blades for use in
Power Cutting-off Machines.
These are necessarily somewhat thicker and wider than the " Chromol "
blades for use in hand frames, but are made of the same steel and in the same
manner, excepting they are fitted with suitable sizes of teeth for the work intended.
We recommend the following " Points " to the inch for the respective classes
of work : , v . .
Light Power 15 points or 14 teeth
Brass, Copper, Iron Pipe, etc 18 " " 17 "
Heavy Power Work 11 " " 10 "
We are prepared to furnish them in sizes suitable for any make of machine.
HACK SAW FRAME, No. 25,
Solid steel back 1 inch x % inch, depth 5% inches from inside
edge of frame to tooth edge of blade, Polished Hardwood Handle.
This is the strongest frame made. No riveted parts. Reversible
stretcher, special adjustment, sockets of solid steel forged. Made
for 12 inch blades only.
While there is quite a variety of Hack Saw Frames on the market, the
Disston line has been specially designed for durability, strength, rigidity and
ease of adjustment. They are made of steel, some patterns having the eyes or
sockets solid forged on frame, others with with riveted sockets. All stretchers
are simple in construction but effective.
IMPROVED ADJUSTABLE HACK SAW FRAME, No.
Steel frame, nickel-plated, adjustable by half inches to take
in blades 8 to 12 inches. Riveted sockets. Reversible stretchers,
will not fall out while adjusting blade.
This is the most improved form of extension frame ever put on the market,
and is well made and finished throughout.
Metal saws are made in the form of the regular carpenter's hand-
saw, also in the shape of Back or Tenon saws. These are of a special
steel and temper, hollow ground for clearance and may be resharp-
ened with a good file. Tenon saws of this class are principally used
in mitre boxes in the manufacture of show cases, etc., while the hand
metal saws are for purposes where a framed hack saw cannot conveni-
ently be used.
L,arge saws, in the form of hand saws, are also made for cutting
metal and may be operated by two men in the same manner as a cross-
cut saw, the handle for small end of saw, being adjustable, can be at-
tached or detached at will. These are principally used in foundries
for sawing off "gates," etc., from large castings.
Portable hand machines are now made for the working of a small
circular milling saw, and are employed in railroad construction and re-
pairs; the rail being clamped in the machine and the saw adjusted to
cut either straight or diagonal. This is a great improvement over the
hammer and chisel formerly used for this work. While these machines
are adapted for hand, they are also arranged to work by power. There
are also portable machines made, in which the straight blades are used.
RAIL HACK SAWS.
.Length of blades measured from centre to cenf re of hoies.
CIRCULAR MILLING SAWS.
HOT SAWS AND FRICTION DISCS.
For fast cutting of cold steel or iron, friction Discs are used.
For hot steel and iron, Saws having teeth varying from %i inches to
^6 inches in space are used, the angle of teeth being equally divided
by a line drawn from points of teeth to centre of saw. These saws are
run at a lower speed than friction discs. The Discs and Saws are made
of a special steel which we manufacture expressly for the purpose.
To give the best results, these discs and saws should be run at a
high and uniform rate of speed. Hot saws should run about twenty
thousand feet per minute, rim motion. Discs for cutting cold iron or
steel should run about twenty-four thousand feet per minute, rim
INSERTED TOOTH MILLING SAWS.
Milling saws with inserted teeth have come into very gen-
eral use for large work, such as cutting structural iron, large castings,
steel and iron forgings, etc. Whilst there are many patterns of in-
serted tooth saws on the market of more or less practical value, we are
in position to offer the users of saws the most practical and economical
inserted tooth milling saws ever made. After lengthy and expensive
experiments and trials we have perfected the styles and patterns il-
These saws are run at a speed governed to a great extent by the
hardness and size of the stock to be cut, varying from 40 to 60 feet per
minute, rim motion, with a feed of ]^ inch to 1^ inch per minute.
It is highly important that the mandrels and collars should be
amply heavy, lajge and true and so secured in boxes to the framework
or housing as to avoid all vibration. The arbor should neatly fit the
centre-hole of saw. This is essential for good work.
In cases where the motion of these saws is reduced from any cause,
the feed should be reduced proportionately, or work should be sus-
pended altogether until proper speed can be regained. In no case
should the work be forced suddenly or crowded on the saw.
The ordinary solid tooth or slow motion milling saws, when cut-
ting steel rails, beams, etc.. should run about 45 feet rim motion per
BIS S TON HANDBOOK
minute, with a feed of ^ to ^ inch per minute. While the rim speed
of saw, i. e., 45 feet per minute, should be maintained for any diam-
eter, the feed must be reduced to correspond to a less number of teeth.
For instance, a saw 28" diameter, to run at this speed, should have
200 teeth with about )4 inch pitch or space.
For cutting rails and beams, T 7 inch space of teeth in solid tooth
saws 24 to 30 in. diameter is considered right. On large saws, for special
purposes, with inserted teeth, the space varies from 1 inch to 3^ incnes.
To cut wrought iron the speed may be increased to 60 feet, rim
motion, and feed to 1 inch per minute.
For brass or soft metals, the speed may be increased to about five
times that for cutting iron.
When cutting metal tubing, fine teeth must be used, and the speed
and feed in accordance with metals, as given above.
In cutting small sections, a closer space or pitch of teeth is
required than when cutting larger sections. There should always be
two or more teeth in the cut at the same time.
Saws for cutting iron should be kept well sharpened, otherwise they
will jam in the work and are liable to break.
The Flanging w r hich takes place upon the rims of discs should be
frequently removed particularly before it becomes ragged, or cracks in
the plate will result.
For deep cuts the speed should be slowed down to prevent jam-
ming of chips in the gullet. It is best to have a wire brush rigged
over the saw for the purpose of knocking the chips from between the
teeth so they will not be carried around again in the cut. This brush
need not have any motion, except such as it gets from coming in con-
tact with the saw.
If the work be fed to the saw below the centre line, the saw should
run from the operator. If the work is fed above the centre line, the
.saw should run toward the operator. This will prevent the work
from being pulled in on the saw from any lost motion that may occur
and prevent the teeth or saw from being broken.
Proper lubrication is of great importance. Failure to obtain good
results can often be traced to its absence.
When ordering any of these saws, state the kind of metal they are
intended to cut, also the speed and feed at which they are to be operated.
SCREW SLOTTING CUTTER.
As the name implies, these saws are used for cutting the slots in
METAL SLITTING SAWS.
The teeth are of such shape as to render them strong and effective
cutters. Accurately ground for clearance.
SHAPES cf TEETH
FOR MILLING SAWS.
TEETH "BACKED OFF" FOR CLEARANCE.
BRYANT PATTERN TOOTH.
REGULAR PATTERN TOOTH.
We make Milling Saws and saws for cutting metal at either high
or low rates of speed, of any diameter up to sixty inches, and of any
The above saws are made of a quality of steel exactly suiting the
purpose, and hardened under our new improved process. See page 71.
PATENTED MARCH STH. 19O7
THE FASTEST CUTTER anb MOST DURABLE SAW tf the KIND EVER MADE.
The " PREMIER" Inserted Tooth
Saw for Cutting Metal.
In the "PREMIER" Saw we present the highest development of
the art of saw making. The designs of the teeth and wedge are ab-
solutely unique, differing from anything of the kind now in use.
Many severe tests, which were made with the object of arriving
at the limit of the capabilities of the " PREMIER" Saw, resulted in
reaching the limits of the machines. In no instance has the saw given
down, even under the heaviest feed. These tests have fully demon-
strated the superiority of the "PREMIER" overall other metal cut-
The Plates are of high carbon steel of our own manufacture
throughout, ground to a uniform gauge, and stiffened. They are
peculiarly adapted to withstand the strain to which they are subjected
while at work.
In design the tooth is simple and practical. A glance at the ;1 -
lustration will demonstrate to the mechanic its effectiveness.
The Wedge which secures the tooth being inverted operates in an
opposite direction from any heretofore used. It is held in position by
a screw and when tightened does not disturb the rim of the blade.
This screw is inserted in such a manner that it cannot jar loose and
drop out. The wedge backs up and strengthens the tooth at the heel,
directly back of the cutting edge, where strength is most needed. It
not only secures the tooth perfectly, but provides a protection for the
plate should a tooth break. The destruction of a wedge is of little
moment ; it can be replaced quickly at a small cost, while an injury to
the plate is a serious proposition, as it frequently destroys the efficiency
of the saw.
"PREMIER" Teeth are made of Disston High Speed Steel, which
is produced in our own steel works. This steel is the result of many
costly experiments and has proven better adapted to the purpose than
any other steel we have been able to produce heretofore or purchase.
For the purpose of Inserted Tooth Metal Saws it cannot be surpassed
while it can be made extremely hard, it is tough and durable. See
The shape of the cutting edges of the teeth is such that the chips
are rolled and drawn toward the centre of the cut, thus preventing
these chips from jamming on -the sides. The teeth alternate round
and oval top ; the round teeth being narrower than the oval teeth.
The round tooth breaks down the way and the oval tooth cuts out the
full width of the kerf, thus providing sufficient clearance for the blade.
The teeth have considerable hook ; the direction or hook of the fronts,
combined with the size and shape of the cutting edges, provides a saw
which does the work rapidly, in the best possible manner, and with the
least expenditure of power.
Practical results of sixty-seven years' experience in making saws are
applied in the " PREMIER" Saw. It contains all the improvements
that time has suggested.
The "PREMIER" Saw is useful for steel foundries, steel forges,
railroad work, structural work, locomotive shops, and all heavy metal
We jnvite the attention of those interested in this style of saw to
the records of tests which can be supplied upon application. These
tests have been made under practical conditions in the shops of those
eminently qualified to pass upon the efficiency of tools of this character.
A special booklet describing the "PREMIER" Saw will be
mailed on application.
SUGGESTIONS For Operating DISSTON "PREMIER"
Inserted Tooth Milling Saws:
See that teeth are firmly bedded on adjusting screw, also that
round and oval teeth are set the proper height from periphery of
blade the round teeth being set slightly higher than the oval teeth
this may readily be accomplished by use of the gauge specially de-
signed for this purpose, and which we furnish with the saw.
In tightening up the wedges, we find that after making them as
.secure as possible by use of the screw driver, if a drift or punch is
inserted under the wedge and given one or two light blows, a half to a
full turn may be taken on the wedge screw. This makes the teeth and
wedges absolutely tight and saw is ready for work.
After the saw has been operated for one to two hours, stop the
machine and carefully examine teeth in saw to see that each tooth is
doing its full share of work or, in other words, that all the teeth are
making the same depth of cut, respectively for the round and oval
teeth. If any variation is found, correct same immediately by ad-
justing screws and tightening wedges. This relieves saw from any
unnecessary strain and lengthens life of the teeth by preventing
This examination should be made at least once a day, as a pre-
cautionary measure, although experience has demonstrated that as the
saw is used the teeth naturally find their proper bed and very little ad-
justing is necessary after the first examination and re-adjustment.
& 5 a
/} + . .9
43 . cs
- g bfl
[V ** 4J..C
The tooth is fastened in holder and the arrangements are such
that the proper grinding of "Round" and "Flat" top teeth is easily
and quickly accomplished.
HAMMERING ano ADJUSTING
The many inquiries we have in regard to the method of hammering
and adjusting the tension in saws has induced us to print a few simple
instructions on the subject, which if carefully followed can not be
otherwise than a benefit to beginners and others seeking information
in this line. All saws of whatsoever kind, if properly made, are what
we will call ' ' loose, ' ' through or towards the centre to suit the different
kinds of work for which they are intended. The object is to keep the
edge strained on a straight line, to prevent it from chattering or cutting
a zig-zag kerf through the timber ; what applies to any one kind of
saw in the method of hammering, applies to all. The circular saw,
however, is the most difficult to treat, and even after the most careful
instructions we could give, would require practical experience and
close observation on the part of those having these saws in charge,
before they can successfully hammer them.
The strain in running and the process of gumming will stretch the
edge of the saw and it will begin to run snakey , rattle in the guides and
make bad lumber. However, before concluding that the saw must be
hammered to adjust the tension, se^e if there is not some other cause for
the trouble, such as improper lining, the adjustment of the guides, the
collars ; the saw out of balance and the dressing of the teeth ; these
matters, however, are all referred to in this hand-book, and are only
mentioned here for those who have not had experience. Our object
being to treat here on the hammering necessary to keep the saw true
and in proper tension, which means that it must be open sufficiently
and properly from the edge towards the centre to suit the motion of
saw and feed of the mill.
What is required in the way of tools is an anvil, one round-face
and one cross-face hammer, two straight-edges, one from 14 to 18
inches long, one about 48 inches long, and one try-mandrel ; we find
that these tools for fitting up saws are being put in many of the large
mills ; the men who handle the saws are making themselves proficient
in the hammering of the saws to suit their wants ; this knowledge they
have acquired by perseverance and practical experience, the only way
in which it can be obtained.
In studying the matter of how to hammer circular saws, it would
be as well for those who have to take charge of them, to examine the
saws as to the tension when first received, taking for granted that they are
right as to the hammering when they leave the maker ; for all the saws
made by us will be as true as it is possible to make them, and will
appear for tension as shown by figure 1 to a greater or less extent,
according to the speed and feed to be used. A saw that has lost its
tension will show as at figure 2 and needs hammering with a round-face
hammer, as shown by figure 3, but before commencing to hammer to
restore the tension, examine or test the saw all around as in figure 5,
and if any part of the saw between edge and centre falls away from the
straight-edge, mark around this spot as shown by figure 4, and do not
hammer as much, if any, at that place. In testing for the tension, be
sure to have the straight-edge at right angles with that part of the saw
resting on the board and the opposite edge which is being raised with
the left hand, while the straight-edge is held and gently pressed down
with the right hand. Do not lean the straight-edge to one side but
hold it up straight, or it will fall to the form of the saw and not show
what is desired. A straight-edge reaching from the centre hole well
out to the edge of the saw is the best to use in hammering to regulate
the tension, and when this straight-edge is applied as above, the saw
should fall away from a straight line as shown by figure 5 ; this will
show that the centre of the saw is stiff, as it must always be to run
properly and do good work, and if a short straight-edge about 6 inches
long was pressed directly over the centre, it would show the saw to be
nearly flat or of equal tension at that part. We will here say that it
is very seldom necessary to hammer a saw at the part covered by the
When ready to hammer, as at figure 3, see that the face of ham-
mer is ground so that the blow will be round and do not strike too
heavy, for it is better to go over the saw a number of times than to
hammer too much at one operation, and put the saw in worse shape
than it was before it was hammered.
After hammering one side, mark off the other side and repeat the
operation with as near as possible the same number and weight of
blows as struck on the first side and as directly over them as can be
done. Now, stand the saw on the floor ; hold it up straight and test
it with the long straight-edge as shown by figure 6 ; if the hammering
has been done alike on both sides, the saw will be very nearly true ; if,
however, it shows full on one side and dishing on the other, mark these
places that are full.
Place the saw on the anvil with the round side up ; hammer lightly
on full places ; test again with the long straight-edge, and if it appears
true, put it on the anvil and test it as explained, to see if it has the
proper tension ; if not, repeat the operation with the round-faced ham-
mer until desired tension is obtained. After again testing with long
straight-edge, put the saw on the try-mandrel to test it with the short
straight-edge for running true. This mandrel must also be true,
which can be determined by changing the position of the saw on the
mandrel to see if the same parts of the saw run off and on at the
pointer. Mark the places as they run off or on as shown by figure 7,
while turning the saw slowly around, and where the saw runs off,
lumps will be found most likely as at 1, 1, 1, or what is termed twist
lumps as at 2> 2, 2 of figure 8, or both may occur ; these lumps must
be taken out with a cross-face hammer and struck as shown in the
direction that the straight-edge shows the lumps to run. The saw may
also be thrown out of true by lumps running toward the centre as No.
3, figure 8 ; in this case the saw will be on or off at points about oppo-
site each other. This part of the hammering must be done carefully,
and if the hammer is of the proper weight and the face properly ground,
the saw can be made to run true without altering the tension to any
great extent. The testing on the mandrel by an inexperienced hand
should be done with the full side of the saw towards the pointer, and
by knocking down the lumps from that side will make the plate flat ;
when the saw is fairly flat, test from both sides and operate in like
manner and get same results. Now put saw on the arbor and if for a
high motion, it will sway gently from side to side in getting up to full
speed and then run steady and do its work, but if it acts as hereto-
fore stated (runs snakey and rattles in the guides,) it needs to be made
more open toward the centre. An experienced man, however, will
stand the saw on the floor, taking hold at the top edge and give it a
sudden shake and if the centre vibrates and the edge stands stiff, he
knows it to be open towards the centre. He will also test by leaning
the saw over, to see if it falls away from the straight-edge sufficiently
as shown by figure 9, and consequently knows it to be right before
putting it on the arbor. If the saw is too open at the centre it will run
from side to side, mostly out of the log, and needs to be hammered
as shown by figure 10, and the distance to hammer in from the edge
depends upon where the loose parts are on the saw ; if the centre is
loose on line 1, hammer to that line ; if to line 2 or 3, hammer to those
lines, or the looseness may be irregular, as shown by figure 11, and
needs to be hammered as shown to regulate the tension ; after this is
done proceed, as explained, with cross-face hammer to free saw from
twists and lumps to make it run true. If the saw should be buckled
by an accident, true it with the cross-face hammer as explained by
figures 6, 7 and 8 before regulating tension and final truing ; do the
same in case of buckling by burned spots or sharp lumps over the
collar line; to remove or level these lumps, lay two thicknesses of
strong, heavy paper on the anvil, place the saw on the anvil with the
spot or lump resting on the paper and by giving a few well directed
blows the lumps can be hammered down without expanding the metal
as it would if straightened on the bare face of anvil. When hammer-
ing with the round-face hammer, work on lines drawn from the edge
towards the centre ; this will prevent putting twist lumps in the saw
and obviate much of the trouble in truing with cross-face hammer.
It is very important to have the blows distributed properly over the
surface to be hammered. Hammering too much at one place would
cause a loose spot or lump that would be difficult to take out, or burn
a blue spot on the saw in the cut.
If it is necessary to go over the hammering more than once for
tension, make lines between those that have already been operated on.
The dressing of the faces of the hammers is important ; the round face
should be nicely rounded so that if a light blow was struck on the oiled
surface of the saw, it should show about half inch in diameter ; the
cross-face so that it would show a blow three-quarter by three-eighth
inch, for a sharp cutting blow is not effective in either knocking down
a lump or stretching the metal.
In concluding to these instructions, we make the following sugges-
tions to beginners :
Do not be discouraged by the failure of first attempts ; make
yourself perfectly familiar with instructions given and persevere in
properly applying them.
Carefully study the amount of opening the saw requires towards
the centre for tension to suit the motion and feed used, and for regu-
lating this, always use the round-face hammer.
The stem of the try-mandrel need only be one inch or less in
diameter and bushings used for larger arbor holes.
Beginners in the art of hammering should take a small circular
cross-cut saw (for this class of saws, as a rule, are given very little
attention in the mills), one that can be easily handled; go through the
operation as instructed and, if successful it will show advancement in
the art and the ability to operate on larger saws without the same risk
In regard to large circular saws cracking and breaking over the
collar line ; the saws when first put in use have been hammered or
left open enough for a certain speed. If the speed is reduced while in
the cut, the saw will run either in or out of the log (most generally
out), forming as it were, a wedge between the saw and headblocks,
eventually cracking or breaking the saw at or near the collar line by
forcing it over this rigid point, hence the importance of maintaining a
uniform speed and having the tension adapted to it. In mills where
steam feed is used great care should be taken not to crowd the feed on
the saw when it loses its speed from any cause, such as insufficient
boiler, engine or belt power, for if the feed is not decreased in propor-
tion to the speed, the saw will be " crowded out "and forced over the
collar the same as though the tension was not properly adjusted.
ANVIL, HAMMERS arti STRAIGHT EDGES for
The above cut represents the tools necessary for altering or
adjusting the tension of circular saws. (See page 84).
HAMMER am) SWAGE BAR.
The above cut represents our swage bar and hammer for use on
circular and gang saws. We make the hammers in two sizes ; the bars
of any shape, size or weight desired.
DISSTON CIRCULAR SAW MANDRELS.
OF THE LATEST AND MOST APPROVED STYLE.
No. 000 PULLEY ON END.
Our stock mandrels with pulley on end or in centre range in sizes
suitable for saws 10 to 38 inches in diameter. Special sizes made to order.
In order to obtain the best results and the maximum output from
Circular Saws a good mandrel is an absolute necessity.
The Disston Mandrels are superior in quality and workmanship.
In service they will last longer and giver better satisfaction than any
other make on the market.
The Shafts of Steel, accurately turned, possesses in the various sizes
a good safe margin of strength to prevent springing or undue vibration
under the heaviest feed or pressure that may be put on the saw they are
designed to carry. All Collars or Flanges are of sufficient diameter to
give proper support to the saw, accurately machined and recessed,
giving a perfect bearing on the blade. The Pulleys are turned up after
being placed on shaft. The Boxes, extra long and heavy, are of grey
iron , well fitted and babbitted, insuring true balance and smooth running.
A mandrel should not be too light for the work to be done or it
will spring, causing it to heat. See that the bearings are well propor-
tioned and fitted. All bearings should be at least three times as long
as diameter of mandrel : longer would be no detriment. The boxes
should fit neatly enough to prevent lost motion, but not so tightly on
the quarters as to cut off the supply of oil. One of the main causes of
mandrels heating is want of proper lubrication. The cutting of
channels from the front side of bottom half of boxes running down and
under shaft to point of hardest bearing will be a great benefit in all
cases where self-oiling boxes are not used ; then use a good heavy body
oil or lubricant. In some mills where there are three bearings on the
mandrel, heating is caused by getting bearings out of line when shifting
for lead or adjustment. Again, some arbors have the collars for prevent-
ing end motion against the box nearest the saw ; they should be on the
other end, as the bearing nearest the saw has the most strain on it at all
times. Heating is often caused by a short and tight belt ; where there
is trouble with a heating journal and slipping belt, it would be advis-
able, as well as economy, to increase the diameter of the receiving
pulley on mandrel, even at the sacrifice of some of the speed. Belts
should be of good length, and in all cases should have the strain on the
lower side and slack on the top ; then when practicable, put a balanced
tightener or stress pulley on the top, placing it so that it will give as
much lap of belt on the pulley as possible; this, with the balanced
tightener, will take much strain off the mandrel, rendering it less liable
to heat. A saw running badly from other causes, by undue crowding
and straining, will frequently cause a mandrel to heat that would
otherwise run cool. See suggestions on keeping saw and mill in order.
J > I S S T O X II A X r> 75 O O K
DISSTON CIRCULAR SAW MANDRELS.
WITH SELF-OILING BOXES.
No. 00 PULLEY IN CENTER.
No. 201 YOKE.
No. 301 CONNECTED BOX.
The boxes of Nos. 201 and 301 Mandrels being yoked or connected makes it
impossible for the journals to get out of line with each other.
Above Mandrels are made with pulley on right-hand side with left-hand
thread unless otherwise ordered.
No. 400 CORDWOOD.
Made with pulley on left-hand side with right-hand thread, unless otherwise
All these Mandrels have self -oiling boxes and require no additional attention
in this respect for a long time after filling of oil reservoir, the oil being carried to
bearings by a ring revolving on shaft.
THE MAKING tf a
DISSTON BAND SAW.
In the making of a Band Saw it may be of interest to state that a
Band 68 feet long, 18 inches wide, 12 gauge, or 7-64ths inch thick, is
made from an ingot measuring 16 inches x 5 inches x 30 inches, weigh-
ing 624 pounds. This is hammered to 18^ inches x 2^ inches
x 55 inches, the weight now being about 530 pounds, then hot-rolled
to 19 inches x 3-16 inches x 45 feet, and now cold-rolled and trimmed
to 69 feet long, 18 inches wide, 12 gauge tight, weight 483 pounds,
This work is done with extreme care, for the obtaining of uniform
thickness of blade in the beginning insures more perfect results in
the hardening, tempering and grinding operations.
After the bands are received in the Saw Department, the first opera-
lion in the making of a Band saw is the " Hardening," then follows
" Tempering." Owing to the extreme length of the bands, for their
hardening and tempering, furnaces and apparatus of particular design
are used, which were first invented, built and installed in the Disston
Works. By the use of these in connection with the exclusively
Shearing to Width.
Disston process, a true and uniform temper, otherwise unobtainable,
is secured throughout the entire length of the band.
The next step is the ' ' testing for temper ' ' which is done by
experts who have tested the bands for the past ten years and none
but what are strictly up to the Disston Standard are passed.
The ends are now cut off and the band is ' ' Smithed ' ' in the black
to make it level and even for grinding purposes ; then ' ' Ground ' ' to
the thickness required, after which it is accurately sheared to width
under a power press, leaving a true, solid edge for the toothing. It is
then placed on a machine specially adapted for the grinding of the
edges to obtain a uniform width of blade. The edges are next tested
with a file to make sure no part has been case-hardened by the
grinding, so particular are the rules and instructions for the making of
a Disston Saw.
The process of ' ' Toothing ' ' takes place, which is done by
means of a power press in which a suitable die is inserted for the
particular pattern of tooth wanted ; one tooth being cut at each stroke
of the press.
The second * ' Smithing " is in order ; this being a finer degree
of work in tensioning, flattening or leveling the surface on both
sides, trueing up the band, and it is here that skilled workmanship
particularly counts. The band is now " Re-ground," this being done
on a machine of special design, the purpose being to grind it still
closer to gauge and prepare for polishing.
And now the ''official gauge" passes judgment as to the thick-
ness of the band ; then the band is further ' ' Examined ' ' and given
such additional hammering as may be required. It is then ready for
" Polishing," after which follows " Blocking." In this latter process
the band is again examined as to tension, etc., and placed in perfect
condition for the succeeding operation.
Next the band is cut to the exact length wanted and is ready for
brazing. In ' ' Brazing " or joining the ends together for the making of
"Fitting" and Brazing.
an endless band, the ends or laps are beveled on a special milling
machine and given a finish dressing by handfiling so that there shall
be a uniform and perfect joint. After inspection, the laps are placed
together, with a strip of best quality silver-solder between them ;
adjusted in a clamp so they are held in proper position, heated irons
placed under and on the part to be brazed, which are subjected to
heavy pressure until the solder is thoroughly melted and the brazed
part somewhat cooled off. The part joined is then dressed and ten-
sioned the same as the other portion of the saw. The Disston method
of brazing insures a thorough fusion or weld ; the part is strong,
perfectly joined and is the result of constant efforts to excel.
" Grinding of the Teeth " follows, which is done on an automatic
grinding machine ; the endless toothed band being placed on this
machine which is set for the particular size and shape of tooth to
After this the teeth are " Swaged" or
ECCENTRIC BAND SAW SWAGE. "' ' Set.' The larger band saws, those
intended for mills or
machinery of large
capacity are usually
swage-set, that is, the
points of the teeth are
spread so they will extend beyond each side
of the blade for clearance of the body of the
saw while cutting, to prevent friction.
With the swaged tooth each corner of
1 is adapted the tOOth CUtS, hcUCC it will do twice
USEtn\ 1 win XrSXiS the work in comparison with the spring-set
from No. 16 to No. 21 gauge. , . , , . r - - ^^1
tooth which cuts only half a kerf. The
-swaged saw, consequently, will stand more feed.
Very Narrow Band Saws are usually " Spring-set " for clear-
ance, that is, the point of one tooth is bent to the right, the next
to the left, and so on alternately throughout the saw.
The teeth are now ' ' Sharpened ' ' which is done on automatic
machines after the same principle followed for the grinding of
the teeth. By this method the teeth throughout are exactly the
same, which is an absolute necessity for uniform work in cutting.
This applies particularly to the larger saws, for in the case of
narrow band saws with fine teeth, these are oftentimes filed by
The band saw is ready for ' * Htching ' ' or branding ; then
follows the * ' Stiffening ' ' or bringing up the elasticity of the saw to its
All Disston Saws are ' ' put-up ' ' or fitted with full regard as to
their use and the conditions 1 under which they are to work, so far as
information or instructions to this end can be obtained.
BAND SAW MILL
CUT No, 1.
When ordering Band Saws, be particular to state whether Right-
or lyeft-Hand Saws are desired ; also give full particulars as to
gauge, style of tooth, back edge, etc. If the saws are to be crowning
on back we finish them ^Y ' crowning to each 5 feet in length, unless
We will supply, on application, an order blank giving details to be
BAND SAW MILL
CUT No. 2.
specified, and if this is properly filled out it will enable us to make up
the saws exactly as required.
The above illustration, together with the one on preceding page,
gives views of two mills, by which the "hand" of saw can readily be
determined, i. e., cut No. 1 shows design of a Left-Hand Mill, the log
being on the left side of saw when standing facing the mill, whilst
cut No. 2 shows Right-Hand Mill, the log being on the right-hand
side of saw.
Suggestions and Instructions
CARE ant MANAGEMENT
SINGLE ant> DOUBLE EDGE.
THE BAND SAW.
The life of a band saw depends very largely on the way it is
handled, particularly when it is new and before it has been perfectly
adapted to the wheels on which it is run. Many men expect a new
saw to do more work than one that has been perfectly adapted and
adjusted to the wheels and the alignment of the mill. This is a
mistake, for there are peculiarities about every mill, and until a new
saw is adjusted to the face of the wheels, their aligning or tilt, the
speed and feed, they cannot be expected to give as good results as the
Saw which has been adjusted to the mill. There is a certain quality
about a new band saw which we can best describe by calling * 'surplus "
elasticity, and until this quality is brought down to its proper
bearing by the judicious use of the hammer and saw stretcher in
connection with the first " runs " of the saw, it will not be at its best.
The manufacturer is not in a position to subject the saws he sends out
to the same strains they receive in the mills, hence a saw will change
more on the first run than on any succeeding one, and should be gone
over with extra care the first time it comes off; in fact, if the system
of running a saw only half an hour on its first run, then taking it oft
and touching it up wherever necessary, was more generally followed,
there would be fewer cracked blades, and the life of all saws would
be materially increased. All experienced filers and mill men know
that excessive speed, too much tension, uneven tension, case-hardening,
or glazing from the emery wheel, guin adhering to face of wheels,
crystallization from too heavy hammering, cuts on the surface of saw
from sharp-faced hammers, vibration of either machine or saw, sharp
angles in the gullets, imperfectly adjusted guides, backs of saws too
long or too short and excessively cross aligned to make them "track,"
insufficient throat room and hook, crowding the saw against guard
wheel, will cause it to crack. These are all well-known causes of
breakage, yet notwithstanding the knowledge that all band saws are
more or less subject to these conditions, too often the cause of fracture
is attributed to the quality of the steel or over-hardness. In justice to
the saw manufacturer, due consideration should be given the fact, that
the saw is only one item, while each and every one of the above
named causes is a great factor in producing cracks in band saws.
We receive many letters from Band Mill owners and operators
asking our advice as to the best manner to fit, tension and operate the
saws to attain the best results in capacity and quality of the lumber
made and at the same time get the most wear out of the saws. The
best advice we can give our band-mill friends is to employ experienced
and skillful handsaw fitters. Such men, compared with inexperienced
bandmen, will save their wages many times over in the quality and
quantity of the lumber manufactured, to say nothing of the saw bill,
for inexperienced men invariably spoil a large proportion of the lumber
manufactured and ruin one or more sets of saws before they realize the
trouble lies in their lack of knowledge, hence we repeat, the services
of competent bandsaw fitters are indispensable to the successful
operation of bandsaws. It is impossible to lay down a set of rules to
fit all cases, or answer correctly any single one without knowing all
the conditions under which the saws are run, but we will give a few
of the most important points in reference to the care and management
of the band saw which, if followed out carefully, will benefit those
who have heretofore neglected any of these points.
Vibration is one of the greatest causes of bad results in the use of
band saws and, knowing this, particular attention should be given to
the wheels and their shafts, the journals and boxes ; the wheels must
be round and in perfect balance and the shafts must run free in their
boxes with no lost motion.
Band Mill builders are giving less crown to the wheels than they
were a few years back, some are making flat wheels. Each style
has its advocates and will give good results when properly handled,
and as some mill builders give one 64th of an inch crown in a 12 inch
face wheel, it seems a question of education or preference with the
Perfectly uniform tension is the important point, for if a saw has
fast and loose spots in it, the tendency to crack is largely increased,
the fast spot cracking from undue tensile strain and the loose spot from
constant buckling of surplus metal.
The principal tools required for tensioning Band Saws are an
Anvil, Leveling Block, a Cross Face Hammer, a round or Dog Head
Hammer, a Twist Face Hammer, each weighing about 3^ pounds,
and a Roll Saw-Stretcher (see page 110, of complete outfit). The
Anvil should have a flat face and be perfectly true. Strike light fair
blows, using care not to cut or mark the surface of the saw by the
hammer, as cracks are apt to start from such marks, particularly when
occurring near the edges.
To experiment, cut a piece three feet long from a worn out
or broken band saw, lay it on the anvil, taking your position at //in
figure 1. Commencing at the end of the piece furthest from you place
the straight-edge square across the blade and holding the blade with
the left hand cause it to bend or curve as shown in figure 2. The
places drawn to the straight-edge, as in figure 3, are * * Fast " and those
places that drop from the straight-edge are ' * Loose. ' ' The first object
is to make the saw " Flat," or stiff as shown
in figure 4, after having knocked down all the
lumps. Having located a "fast " place you
will notice that it shows on both sides of the
blade similar to the manner in which a lump
shows when the saw is lying flat. Remove
the "fast" by use of the round hammer,
working alternately on both sides of the blade,
and trying frequently with the short straight-
edge. Be careful at all times to keep the
edges true. Now take out the "loose" by
use of the same hammer until you have the
piece stiff or flat throughout. Then proceed
to locate and remove the "twists " still work-
ing from both sides of the blade and using the
Now proceed to ' 'Open' ' or tension the saw
until it shows the required amount of drop
from the straight-edge, figure 5, usually about
a sixteenth of an inch in a ten inch saw.
The greatest opening should be done in the
centre of the blade, decreasing gradually to
within about an inch from the tooth edge and
about one-half inch from the back edge,
varying a little according to the work to be
performed. Be careful not to get the saw too
open and examine from time to time with
the' small straight-edge. To insure the saw
travelling on the wheels without any lateral
motion, and to keep the vibration of slack side of saw down to lowest
point, the tension must be perfectly uniform throughout the entire
The proper amount of tension varies according to the feed of the
mill and crown of the wheel, but under no circumstances do we think
it judicious from any point of view to put in so much tension that the
saw will not lie flat from its own weight on the leveling table.
The use of a ten-
sion gauge with one TENSION GAUGE.
edge curved to the fij^Uf HI
amount of tension
wanted will be found
of great service in ad-
. . j ... Made in lengths from six to twelve iuches, with curved
JUSting and putting adapted to face of the wheels and the tension requm
Fig. 1. Showing proper po-
sition of table, etc., in front of
windows E and D ;' XX being
blank wall. A, anvil ; B, level-
ing table; FF, continuation of
bench; G, table holding ham-
mers, etc.; H, position of opera-
tor at work ; S, position of Roll
tens on in saws. Place the saw on anvil as in hammering, hold
the tension gauge square across the blade at arms length as in figure 2,
and if the tension has been properly adjusted the saw will conform to
the curved edge of the tension gauge from tooth edge to back To
reduce the amount of tension or stiffen the blade, hammer gently along
the edge of the saw (both sides) taking care not to strike nearer than
a quarter of an inch from the edge or bottom of a tooth, figure 7.
To increase the tension (or " open up ") hammer the centre or body
of blade, testing frequently with the tension gauge, figure 8.
After the saw has been properly tensioned it should be accurately
fitted. The swaging and fitting of the teeth is practically the same
as in a full swaged circular saw, the swaging being side dressed or
shaped to a uniform width with an under and back cut in order to
leave the extreme point of tooth a trifle the widest, the full amount
of swage when side dressed should never exceed No. 9 gauge in a
14 gauge saw and in hard timber can be run with less clearance ;
it is advisable to run with as little swage as practicable for it decreases
tensile strain on the saw as well as saving lumber in the kerf and
requiring less power. It is also necessary to frequently re -sharpen
bandsaws. Many saws are ruined by being run after they have become
dull. No band saw should be run longer than two and a half hours
on one sharpening.
Well tensioned and well fitted bandsaws, when properly handled,
will stand the maximum feed and manufacture good lumber, but after
the corners of the saws become worn or dull the saws will dodge or
leave the line, which has the effect of destroying the tension and
fracturing the saws.
The amount of "hook" ranges from four inches to six and one-half
inches in a ten inch saw, being governed by the timber to be sawn and
the amount of feed carried ; when a properly hammered and fitted saw
runs perfectly true on the wheels out of the cut, but ' * chases ' ' back on
cocccccc o ooocoooov
the wheels as soon as it enters the log, increase the amount of hook
until saw retains practically the same position on wheels both in and
out of the cut.
In sharpening use a medium soft emery wheel and do not crowd it
on its work as this would result in case-hardening the gullets. Cracks
are liable to start from any of these case-hardened spots.
"Do not have sharp gullets to the teeth ; this concentrates the bend
of the saw too much at one point as it runs over the wheels. Use a
long round gullet, as large as practicable, with no sharp corners or
Never let the back edge of saw come in contact with back guard
wheel or any other hard surface, as case-hardening is bound to ensue
from which cracks will surely result. Should the saw be accidentally
forced against the guard and case-hardened, remove the glaze at once
by holding a piece of soft emery wheel against back edge while saw is
running slowly. Do not take for granted that the back edge of the
saw has not been in contact with the guard wheel, try a file on the
edge of the saw frequently as it has only to make one revolution with the
back edge against the guard to do the case-hardening, and is done so
quickly that it often happens without the knowledge of the operator.
It is essential to have toothed edge of saw tighter than any other
part and to accomplish this without materially affecting the uniformity
of tension, roll the saw a little longer on the back edge. Let the
increased length begin at the point in saw where greatest tension
shows and let the back edge show about % of an inch rounding in
every five feet then tilt upper wheel forward enough to make saw have
s strong a pressure on wheel at back edge as at front ; this will leave
that part of saw between wheels with a tight toothed edge without
subjecting it to that undue strain brought about by making tooth edge
tightest by an all tilt movement. The guides should be lined with
either soft Babbit metal or hard end wood and adjusted as closely to
the side of saw as possible without heating the blade by friction against
the metal or wood. The side of the saw must be in perfect alignment
with the V track and guides adjusted to saw, under no circumstances
should the saw be deflected by guides, but have free, small and equal
clearance on both sides. The tensile strain should be only sufficient
to prevent slipping of saw on lower wheel, the highest capacity and
best operated mills now rarely exceed a strain of 6000 pounds on a 12
inch saw, which is all sufficient if saw and mill are in proper condition,
while no amount of strain will make an irregularly tensioned saw or a
poorly aligned mill make good lumber, but will instead bring more
strain on every part of the mill and cause the saw to crack.
The majority of the large mills are now using the Roller or
Stretching machine for putting in the tension. The desired effect can
be attained in a shorter time and with less injury to the saw than if the
tension be put in by hammer. It is necessary, however, to use the
hammer for finishing and regulating, after the use of the stretcher.
LIST OF MACHINES AND TOOLS TO MAKE
COMPLETE OUTFIT FOR BAND
SAW FILING ROOM.
1 Automatic Sharpener,
1 Roll Saw Stretcher.
1 Scarfing Machine.
1 Fitting-up Clamp.
1 Set of Pulleys and Stands.
1 Brazing Clamp.
1 Re-toother and Shear.
1 Forge for Heating Brazing Irons.
1 Patch Machine.
1 Straight-edge 5 or 6 feet long.
1 Short Straight edge.
1 Tension Gauge.
1 Back Gauge.
2 Hammers 1 Cross Pean, 1 Ball and Pean.
1 Hand Swage.
1 Swage Shaper.
1 Leveling Block.
We are prepared to furnish customers with any of the above tools
and will be pleased to supply description and quote price on anything
required for the keeping and fitting of saws. Correspondence solicited.
HENRY DISSTON & SONS' METHOD OF
BRAZING BAND SAWS.
We illustrate cut of brazing clamp for the purpose of reference ;
this pattern we have in use at our factory.
The parts to be joined should be beveled to a feather edge on
opposite sides to a width of ^8 inches to a very nice fit ; the ends of
bevels should be perfectly square, and taper of bevel must be uniform
throughout. Too much attention cannot be given to this point, for if
the bevel is not uniform and surface of same not perfectly even, a good
joint cannot be made.
Clean the beveled parts with slacked lime. We recommend
slacked lime instead of muriatic acid, as a great deal of the acid of
commerce is very impure. Place the scarfed ends of saw on the
brazing table with the back edges against the back of brazing clamp
or whatever part serves as a straight edge, to insure having ends of the
saw in line with each other. Have the centre of lap directly over the
centre of irons when in position. Arrange the main brazing clamps so
that the saw when clamped will be in perfect contact with the body of
table, so that final pressure can be applied quickly without disarrang-
ing the position of saw after the hot irons are in place. Cut a strip of
Silver Solder the same size as lap and clean this in the same manner as
parts to be joined, taking care to remove all traces of grease and dirt ;
place this between the laps. Slip the irons, which should have a good
true surface, in position, one under and one over the saw, centrally and
squarely across the surface of laps. After making sure the adjustment
is correct remove irons and heat them to a bright red in a moderate
fire, using charcoal or coke.
When the irons are at the proper heat scrape all the scale from tha
sides to be applied to the saw, replace them as originally adjusted and
apply the pressure on the main clamps quickly, after which loosen the
side clamps adjoining the braze to allow for expansion and to relieve
the strain on body of saw.
As the irons cool, tighten the main clamps from time to time.
Allow them to remain on the saw until they become black, then remove
them. This will leave sufficient temper in the saw to hold the tension
when hammered and prevent that portion of the saw just brazed from
becoming too hard. Be sure the irons have always a good true surface.
After using a few times they should be dressed off, which is necessary
to get an even pressure.
The closer the scarfed ends fit, the less solder will remain in the
joint and the better it will hold. In clamping down the irons, see that
they are placed square across the saw. Use nothing but Silver Solder
of the very best quality as furnished by Henry Disston & Sons, and
see that both solder and scarfed edges are perfectly free and clean
from grease. This is absolutely necessary to make a good joint.
Do not remove the irons too quickly, nor attempt to cool off the
blade with water, as this is apt to make it brittle. When the braze
is cool enough to handle, the joint can be cleaned, straightened,
dressed to thickness of balance of the blade and hammered and rolled
to the same tension.
To those desiring to use a flux, we recommend the following ;
Cover the laps with a thin borax paste to make a good flux. The
borax for making the paste should be burned in a pan over a slow fire
and frequently stirred to allow all the gases to escape ; after burning,
pulverize as fine as possible, mix with water, and apply a thin coat to
silver solder and parts to be joined just prior to placing the hot irons.
By carefully following the above directions, you will be able to
make a satisfactory braze.
DIRECTIONS FOR JOINING SMALL BAND SAWS.
SMALL BRAZING CLAMP AND TONGS.
The parts to be joined must be beveled to a nice fit. Secure the saw
at both ends in clamps, as per cut. See that the edges are parallel, or
a short and a long edge will be the result, which will cause the saw to
run badly and to break on the short edge when strained. Put on the
filed parts a thin coat of borax paste. Cut a piece of very thin sheet
silver solder of the same size as joint to be made, which place between
the lap. Take a pair of tongs having suitably sized jaws for the joint
and that have been heated to a bright red, sufficiently to melt the
solder. Scrape all the scale off between the jaws with an old file;
hold the joint with the hot tongs until the solder has thoroughly
melted ; remove the hot tongs carefully and follow up with another
pair heated to show a dull red, which will set the solder and prevent
the joint from being chilled too suddenly. The joint can then be
dressed to thickness of the saw blade. It would be as well to have a
pair of cold tongs to clamp the hot jaws firmly to the joint, as the hot
iron must fit nicely over the whole width of the saw. In joining, do
not make the lap longer than is absolutely necessary.
BREAKAGE OF SMALL BAND SAWS.
Among the most frequent causes of breakage the following may
be named : The use of inferior saws of unsuitable gauge for the work,
pulleys being out of balance or too heavy, the use of improper tension
arrangements, not slackening saw after use, thus preventing the free
contraction of saw blade on cooling down after work, the framing of
machine column being of too light a section or too nigh, thus causing
excessive vibration, joint in saw not being of the same thickness as the
rest of the blade, improper method of receiving the back thrust of saw,
consequently case-hardening the back of saw blade and cracking same,
using band saws with angular instead of rounded gullets at root of
teeth, top pulley over-running saw, working dull saws, feeding up work
too quickly to the saw, allowing saw dust to collect on face of saw-
wheel, thus causing it to become lumpy and uneven, stopping or
starting a machine too suddenly, especially while using a light blade,
will almost certainly snap a saw in two.
Always endeavor to have a full knowledge of the working and
condition of each saw in your charge and examine each blade carefully
as it comes off the wheels. Close application in studying the condi-
tions under which the saw works, along with good judgment as to
when it is properly fitted for its particular work, is what is wanted in
every filer who wishes his band saw to run successfully.
SHAPES AND SPACING
OF TEETH IN
DISSTON BAND SAWS.
SPECIAL PATTERNS MADE TO ORDER.
BAND RE-SAW TEETH.
LOG BAND SAW TEETH.
Above illustrations FULL SIZE. Order by Letter on Cut, and state space desired.
LOG BAND SAW TEETH.
Above illustrations FULL SIZE. Order by Letter on Cut, and state space desired.
LOG BAND SAW TEETH.
Above illustrations FULL SIZE. Order by Letter on Cut, and state space desired.
LOG BAND SAW TEETH.
LOG OR BAND RE-SAW TEETH.
LOG BAND SAW TEETH.
Above illustrations FULL SIZE. Order by Letter on Cut, and state space desired.
BAND RE-SAW TEETH.
BAND CROSS-CUT TEETH.
DISSTON SWAGE SHAPER
FOR BAND AND GANG SAWS.
Patented March 27, 1906
Having each tooth in a band or gang saw of the same width is
quite as important as having them of a uniform length.
The Disston Swage Shaper is designed for the purpose of making
all the teeth of a uniform width and at the same time give them the
"back" and "under cut" necessary for proper clearance and smooth
This swage shaper can readily be adjusted to rapidly shape teeth
on band saws of any thickness.
All wearing parts are made of best tool steel, accurately machined
and milled to a perfect fit.
DISSTON HAND SCREW PRESS.
No. 2 Press, Fitted for Gumming Band Saws.
This Press is made in two sizes or weights, and of a style rendering
it strong and durable for punching, slotting, toothing or shearing
The No. 1 Press weighs 460 pounds, and is adapted for gumming
saws or punching steel up to 5 gauge (^ inch) in thickness.
The No. 2 Press weighs 250 pounds and will gum saws up to 8
gauge (^ inch) in thickness.
The above illustration shows the No. 2 Press fitted for retoo thing
Band saws. Special dies and punches, or shear blades will be furnished
This is a very desirable and powerful machine, and we recommend
it as superior to any other pattern for retoothing Band, Gang and
other saws, as well as for general purposes.
STANDARD SHAPE OF BAND SAW TOOTH.
Special shapes or spaced teeth made to order.
I) I S S T O ]NT HANDBOOK
DISSTON ECCENTRIC BAND SAW SWAGES.
Made in three sizes. No. 1, adapted for saws 12 to 16 gauge ; No. 2, 16 to 19
gauge ; No. 3, 20 gauge and lighter. By the use of extra brackets this swage can
be used on cylinder and circular saws. When ordering, state thickness of saws
on which swage is to be used and send sketch of teeth.
LIST OF PARTS.
1, Die ; 2, Long Clamp Screw; 3, Short Clamp Screw; 4, Anvil; 5, Bracket ;
SA, Bracket Screw; SB, Bracket Washer ; 6, Tooth-Rest; 6A, Tension Screw ; 6B,
Tension Spring; 6c, Tension Stud; 60, Button-head Screw for Tooth-Rest (for
No. 3 only) ; 7, Lever Rest ; 8, Lever Guide Screw ; 9, Anvil Top Screw ; 10, Clamp
Screw Nut; 11, Clamp Screw Lever ; HA, Die Lever; 12, Lever Rest Screw; 13,
Packing Piece for Short Clamp Screw ; 14, Anvil Set Screw, also Die Lever Set
Screw ; 15, Short Clamp Screw Set Screw ; 16, Block ; 16A, Bushings for Block ;
17, Wrench for SA, 9, 10 ; 18, Wrench for 12, 14 and 15. 6A, 6B and 6c, not used
on No. 3.
When ordering, specify the No. of part and state whether for No. 1, 2, 3 (or
No. for Circular Saws) Kccentric Swage.
FOR BAND SAWS
The above cut illustrates an Automatic Band Saw Sharpening
Machine that will sharpen saws from 8 inches to 20 inches in width.
By the use of Automatic Sharpening Machines the saws are kept
uniform in width and the form of the teeth is maintained alike
throughout the entire saw which insures the best possible results
NARROW BAND SAW SETTING MACHINE.
PRACTICAL AND DURABLE.
Will set saws %" to 1V 2 " wide, with teeth He" to %" space, setting points of
teeth uniformly ; the vise automatically gripping the blade while tooth is being
set, prevents twisting of narrow saws.
The machine should run 100 revolutions per minute, enabling operator to set
a saw in four to five minutes.
NARROW BAND SAW FILING MACHINE.
Strongly made, easily adjusted, requiring no attention after being started.
Will take saws %" to 1%" wide, with teeth He" to %" space, and will file old
saws with uneven teeth as perfectly as new ones ; all teeth being filed to same
height, saws will keep sharp longer, and each tooth doing its proportionate
amount of work prevents breakage.
Uses 6 /x Taper Saw Files, and should run 50 to 60 revolutions per minute.
BAND SAW GUIDE.
AU important and vital feature of a band saw machine is the Saw Guide.
To insure even and easy running it is necessary that the blade should move with
all possible freedom and the best guide is one that offers the least resistance to the
motion of the blade.
The above cut illustrates a guide calculated to prevent the friction at the back
of the blade. The wheel forming the back-guide has a concave surface on its
periphery, and is set on an angle so that the back of the saw passes diagonally
across the periphery of the wheel and revolves it. Thus the point of bearing of
the wheel against the back of saw is constantly changed and prevents the saw
grooving the surface of the wheel by a continued action in any one place. The
saw has a bearing of n/le of an inch at the back and will not twist or turn even if
the side pieces are removed. The wheels run on a Ball Bearing; requires very
little oil, and is always in proper position. The Shouldered-screw adjusts for saws
of different widths. The Thumb-screw at side adjusts for different gauges.
Wood and metal side pieces are sent with each guide.
Our Gang Saws are made from steel that is peculiarly adapted to
the strains to which all gang saws are subjected in use, and for quality
of material, temper, elasticity, tension and edge-holding qualities, we
guarantee they have no equal.
THE MAKING of the
DISSTON CROSS-CUT SAW
Ready for Rolling Long-Saw Plate.
The "Plates" trimmed to the various shapes required, are sent by
the Steel Works to the Cross-cut ' 'Getting-out' ' department. The first
operation, "Toothing," is done under powerful presses especially
Cutting to shape.
built for this work ; dies being inserted of the particular pattern of
tooth desired. The holes in ends, for handles, are then punched and
The blade is now ready for "Hardening" which is done under a
method similar to that for Hand Saws; then follows "Tempering,"
that is the extreme hardness is drawn to such? a state as will make the
blade suitable for the purpose intended. This is done under the
Disston special process which insures uniform and highest set and edge-
holding qualities, and also leaves the blade practically flat, thus re-
ducing to a minimum the work required for the next operation ; that
of "Hammering" for tension, and at the same time the blade is trued
for "Grinding" which is done by machinery of Disston design and
invention, whereby is obtained the maximum amount of clearance
without sacrificing elasticity and stiffness, in other words a perfectly
even thickness throughout the entire toothed-edge and thinner towards
and on the back from two to five gauges to prevent kerf-binding, as
may be required for the particular pattern and to suit the conditions
under which the saw is to work.
Now follows "Glazing" by machinery invented for the purpose;
then "Blocking", which is next in importance to tempering and grind-
ing, this being a higher degree of work in tensioning and upon the
skill employed in this operation depends in a great measure the suc-
cessful working of the saw.
Next in order is " Polishing" then the blade is examined before
passing to the operation of "Stiffening" by which the elasticity of the
blade is brought up to its highest efficiency. This is a distinctively
Disston operation of great value.
Filing Long Saws.
The blade is again inspected and if up to the Disston Standard, it
is "Etched" with the name and brand and is then ready for "Filing
and Setting." Contrary to the method pursued on hand saws the filing
of Cross-cut Saws is done before the Setting for the reason that much
better and more uniform results are obtained owing to the blade being
heavier and the teeth much larger. In Setting, the, points of the teeth
are bent one to the right, the next to the left and so on alternately,
for clearance in cutting. A well-sharpened cross-cut saw is one that
has the teeth in proper alignment and the alternate teeth on each side
filed to an exactness of bevel and pitch, the amount of which is de-
termined by the work the saw is to do.
Cross-cut Saws are made from three feet in length, for timber fram-
ing and tie cutting, up to twelve feet and longer as may be required
for cutting the giant Redwood trees of the Pacific Coast and the large
timber of Tasmania, etc.
The Perfection of Temper in all saws is controlled very largely
by the quality of the steel.'
As manufacturers of our own steel, being thoroughly familiar with
its make-up, we are able to absolutely adjust the hardening and
tempering processes to the degree giving that perfect combination of
hardness and toughness that produces the " edge and set-holding
qualities " for which the Disston Saws are renowned.
The process of Grinding saws is second only in importance to the
material and temper. Our methods and machinery for this work are
of our own design and used exclusively by us. The Disston process
of grinding gives the saws the maximum amount of clearance without
sacrificing their elasticity and stiffness ; insuring an even thickness on
the cutting-edges, with a relative and uniform thickness throughout
the body to a thin or extra thin back.
In the Blocking, Polishing, Stiffening and final processes of
manufacture, the same high order of skill is exercised as in the
Hardening, Tempering and Grinding, the result being saws of the
highest quality and efficiency that human ingenuity coupled with skil)
is capable of producing.
No expense or care is spared in our efforts to produce the best saws
in the World, and we guarantee the Disston Saws, under the same
conditions, will last longer, cut faster and run easier than any other
brand of saw on the market.
Illustrations of Different Patterns of Teeth,
O>( OBSTONicy, EXTRA HIGH TEMPER, SUPERIOR
*% QUALITY STEEL, WORKMANSHIP
u u s> s ^ inifiF
., SPRING STEELS/WARRANTED, . , , E , V .EIGUGES THINNER OM BACK,
^ ,, .'..:, iiswA^
THE ABOVE STYLES MADE ESPECIALLY FOR PACIFIC COAST.
Illustrations of Different Patterns of Cross-Cut Saw Teeth.
DIAMOND POINT VIM CHAMPION.
No. I GREAT AMERICAN.
Illustrations of Different Patterns of Cross-Cut Saw Teeth.
SPRING STEEU WARRANTE
'<* DEL PHI *
vvwvv^ i ^^^^^r i : iXi ^vV^wvwv x
V oiVs TON R ,
The above patterns represent a general line of cross-cut saw teeth.
We make various other styles and shapes, however, as shown in our
VH .'2 b/3
Cd O C
Disston Imperial Cross-cut Saw Tools
THIS SET OF TOOLS INCLUDES A JOINTER, RAKER TOOTH GAUGE
SETTING BLOCK OR ANVIL, AND SET GAUGE
We call special attention to the following points in the make-up of the IMPERIAL:
The parts that rest and slide on the cutting teeth of the saw, while jointing,
in all tools are subject to the greatest wear. In the Imperial these parts are made of
high-grade 4 steel and specially hardened, thus making for greatest durability and
overcoming a feature so objectionable in
all other Cross-cut Saw Tools on the market.
The Raker Gauge is also made of
steel and hardened to such a degree that
the best superfine file will not cut it. This
gauge is "milled" t<3 an accurate width and
thickness, and is fitted in its recess, which is
also "milled," so neatly ttiat misalignment is impossible, thus insuring a positively
uniform length of Rakers throughout the entire length of any saw that is fitted with
Another important feature, found in no other Cross-cut Saw Tool, is the
improvement in the screw adjustment to set the Raker Gauge, whereby the Gauge
can be adjusted to the smallest fractional part of an inch to obtain the particular
length of Raker desired. When adjusted and locked with the two lock-nuts on the
lower end of Raker Gauge and retaining screw on side, the gauge cannot work loose
and will remain in its position indefinitely, requiring re-adjustment only when a
different length of raker is desired to suit the changes necessitated by the kind of
timber to be cut.
The material entering into the make-up of this Imperial Cross-cut Saw Tool
is the best that can be procured for the purpose, the workmanship is most thorough,
and we unhesitatingly pronounce it superior to any Cross-cut Saw Tool on the market
one that fills a long-felt want.
SETTING AND SHARPENING OR "FITTING"
With Disston Imperial Cross-cut Saw Tools
To properly fit up a Cross-cut Saw, it is necessary: ^^\
First That the teeth be uniform in length. To
accomplish this place an 8-inch mill File edgewise
in the frame, and secure it by thumb-screws. }
Pass the tool lightly over the teeth until file
touches shortest cutting tooth, see Fig. 1.
Second Where swaged rakers are
used, the swaging should follow the joint-
ing. The two points of the rakers are first
filed to sharp edges without reducing their
1 8 (!)
FIG 1. JOINTING
length after which each raker point should be swaged or bent outward and downward
by the use of the swaging hammer as shown in Fig. 2, reducing the length of rakers
FIG. 2. METHOD OF SWAGING RAKERS
from one one-hundredth to one thirty-second of an inch, according to the kind
of timber to be cut. The uniformity in the length or height of raker points can
readily be gauged by the use of the raker-tooth gauge in ,the Imperial Cross-cut
Third To "fit" the straight or unswaged raker, where preferred place the
gauge over the raker teeth, as shown in Fig. 3, adjust for length of raker required
and file them down. Care should
be taken to have the rakers short-
er than the cutting-teeth. If the
rakers are too long they will not
allow the cutting-teeth to come
in proper contact with the work
and the saw will not cut freely.
For the very hardest and
driest woods the raker should be
one-hundredth of an inch shorter
than the cutting-teeth, FIG. 3. FILING RAKER TOOTH
For hard, green wood the rakers should be one sixty : fourth of an inch shorter
than the cutting-teeth, and graduated from one sixty-fourth to one thirty-second
of an inch, according to conditions and timber when cutting softer wood.
Fourth When filing, bring each tooth to a keen cutting-edge, taking care
not to reduce the length of the teeth any more than is necessary to remove the
marks of Jointing. The amount of bevel to the teeth should be determined by the
class of timber to be cut. Hard wood requires less bevel than soft wood.
A and B show styles of fitting which we strongly recommend, particularly
for very hard or dry stock. These styles of fitting produce a long, knife-like edge,
which, through a shearing cut, readily severs the fibre of the hardest wood.
Note particularly how the saw is filed when new, and keep it as near that
shape as possible.
Fifth If a saw requires Setting, lay the block
or anvil, Fig. 4, on some convenient, flat, solid surface,
and hold the saw so that the point of the tooth
projects over the beveled edge of anvil. about one-
quarter of an inch. Give two or three blows with
a light hammer, striking the tooth always about
one-quarter of an inch from point.
It is very important that the "Set" should be perfectly uniform, or exactly
the same amount of Set to each tooth. This can be regulated by the use of Set
Gauge, Fig. 5. The amount of set required is largely
determined by the kind of timber to be cut and the
manner in which the saw is ground. The Disston
Extra Thin Back Saws when properly filed, do not
require more than one-hundredth part of an inch set !
to each side of the saw in general sawing, and can be _^ J
run with less set in hard, firm-grained timber. F IG . 5. SET GAUGE.
FIG. 4. SETTING BLOCK
Sectional View of DISSTON
No. 109 CROSS-CUT SAW HANDLE
DISSTON HANDLES for CROSS-CUT SAWS.
All Disston Handles are made of carefully selected, well-seasoned
wood ; beech and maple being principally used, and are of such shape
as to give a comfortable grip. The fittings used are of best malleable
iron, well made and finished,
and of designs particularly
adapted for the purpose.
Some patterns of handles
are made to fit on the saw, the
the loop over
the end of
Headed both ends.
edge of blade;
the pin of
in hole at
on Saw when
Strong in Body.
Well cut Threads.
No. 10$ ,
The Strongest and most Efficient Loop Handle
for Cross-Cut Suws ever placed on the market.
end of saw, and tightened by
screwing up thumb- nut.
The most perfect handle
is one, while strong and dura-
ble, permits of a quick adjust-
ment and removal; particularly
so is this the case with those used for Felling Saws, where it is often
necessary to remove the handle to withdraw -the saw from the cut the
moment the tree is about to fall.
Another important feature
in certain patterns is the fact
that they are reversible, thus
enabling the use of the saw
in various positions.
Quality of material and work-
manship, design and weight of cast-
ings being considered, the Disston
Handles for Cross-cut Saws are the
cheapest on the market, and should
not be compared with those of
in fact, was the first
for saw steel, and
in line with the
making of pro-
gress, on April
24th, 1906, an /
was installed in
the Disston Steel
Works and suc-
erated for the
melting of cru-
cible steel, it also
being the first of
its kind in the
United States. The
tons of Ingots.
processes of manufactur-
ing and tempering guar-
antees the production of
saws that for toughness,
standing-up quality and
uniformity of temper
have never been equaled.
The Disston Saw
Works was the first to
manufacture saws from
the raw material to the
finished article. This,
successful Crucible Steel Melting Plant in America
Ready for Charging Crucibles.
material to be melted is carefully selected, of best
quality, the va-
from the melting
to the rolling,
. are performed by
men of long ex-
perience, and all
steel is fully in-
spected before it
is sent to the
ment, thus in-
^ suring the high-
Pouring Steel. est perfection.
Rolling Hand Saw Plades.
In the Saw Department the sheets of Crucible Steel, rolled to
gauge, are trimmed under shears and cut into blanks for either straight
or hollow-back saws as required. The blanks are now presumably of
the same size and thickness, but to determine this, each blank is
weighed, the heavier ones being used for saws with larger size teeth.
The next operation is that of cutting the teeth, which is done on
a machine of .special design, the blanks being fed in by hand.
To the untrained eye the saw blade now looks as if it were
rial. The next
step is an im-
portant one and
is one of a series
which helps to
and value to the
tool, i. <?. , the
saw blades at this
stage are in the
soft state and
must be " Hard-
ened. "To do this
Trimmmg and Weighing. they are placed
THE MAKING of the
DISSTON HAND SAW.
The operations required in the making of the DISSTON HAND
SAW are both numerous and varied, to describe each would require
considerable space, therefore the principal processes only will be taken
up in their regular order.
All Disston Saws and Tools are made throughout in the Disston
Works, from the selecting and melting of the material itself to the
finishing process ; every operation being under the care of experienced
superintendents and subjected to frequent inspection and tests.
The Factory consists of fifty-eight buildings ; ground enclosed
fifty acres, and there are 3,600 employees the Disston Saw Works,
without exception, being the largest in the world and its production
Quality and Quantity considered the FINEST and GREATEST,
The Disston Laboratory Used Exclusively for Making Physical and Chemical
Tests of Disston Steel.
The DISSTON STEEL WORKS, which is part of the plant, is
fully equipped with the latest appliances, machinery, etc., and has
exceptional facilities for the making of CRUCIBLE STEEL peculiarly
adapted for saw requirements.
This is an important factor in
the making and maintaining of
HIGH QUALITY SAWS, for
the steel is the foundation upon
which rests all subsequent work.
From the time saws were
first made saw manufacturers had
the greatest difficulty in obtain-
ing steel of uniform quality,
free from flaws and seams. This
difficulty was overcome in the
Disston Steel Works after years
of careful study and costly exper
imenting. The Disston method
of casting steel ingots not only
does away with splitting, spalling
and crumbling of teeth, but
makes a hard, tough, elastic steel
This Steam Hammer strikes a blow
equal to 2 1 L- tons.
of the highest quality, which
with the improved and patented
in the hardening furnace, which is heated by the use of fuel oil. The
saw blades in this furnace are heated to a certain temperature, then
Hardening ant) Tempering.
taken out and plunged edge iirst into a special hardening Bath. This
makes them extremely hard, in fact as hard as it is possible to make
them and they must therefore be handled very carefully until properly
In order to make the saw blades so they can be used they must
now be "Tempered," or a certain amount of this extreme hardness
drawn according to the quality of saw desired, which is done by
bringing them in contact with less heat than they were subjected to
in the hardening furnace. This operation is a very delicate one.
The next step is that of "Smithing." "In this the blades are
flattened and made perfectly straight, all inequalities being taken out
by the skillful hammering of the mechanics.
The blades are next ' ' Ground" to gauge and to a taper so that the
back will be thinner than the cutting edge. The back of the hand saw
_ ______^ mmmm ^^ m ^ blade is ground to
'" 7?<tii taper from the teeth
\\V\ to the back and
. j)\\ from handle to
I s point, the tooth-
UV*VWW/IVVVWVVM/VVVVW*VI/IAAVV/M^^ cdsfc beiiiQr of even
thickness from end to end. A saw not ground to proper taper cannot
be ranked as a high-class tool.
Now follows " Tensioning." In this the blades are hammered so
that they shall not be too "fast" or too "loose;" but shall possess
the proper tension, spring or character. If the blade is what is termed
"fast" the metal is too long on the edge and needs expanding through
the centre, or, if too "loose" the metal must be stretched on the
edge. A saw not properly tensioned will run out of its course, in
other words it will not cut straight and true.
After being tensioned they are returned to the smithers for
" Looking-over " and preparing for next operation.
The blades are again passed to the grinder for the purpose of
"Drawing" which is a finer process of grinding and prepares the
surface to take the higher polish to be given by the " Glazing."
Now comes the
is an important
\ operation and re-
quires the highest
order of skill. Each
blocker is provided
with an anvil and
"*~- i.^.-,,. lignum- vitae block
on which he cor-
The Largest Grindstone here shown measures
72 inches diameter. 13 inches face. rectS any slight
irregularities that may have been developed by the previous processes.
The blades then undergo the "Polishing " process, then through
to this latter, the
ses and hammer-
ing under which
the blades have
passed, has alter-
ed the arrange-
ment of the mole-
cules in the
metal and in or-
der to restore the
and spring they
are stiffened in
a special bath,
which was origi-
nated and is
known only to
Polishing. now pass to the
where the name,
etc., are -put on.
The next stage
is "Setting the
fefr Teeth . ' ' Each tooth
is set by one or
more strokes of a
^'i hammer ; the ex-
' work with wonder-
ful accuracy and
rapidity. Setting the teeth of a saw consists of bending them so that
the point of one tooth is inclined to the right, the next to the left, and
so on throughout the entire length of the blade, thus they slightly
protrude beyond the side of the saw blade, which is necessary to obtain
sufficient clearance for the body of the blade so it will not bind in
the cut, the amount of set required being somewhat lessened by
the special grinding which leaves the blade tapering from toothed edge
to thin-back, though extra thin-back saws are made so they will run
without any set, but these are particularly adapted for hard, dry,
They are now ready for ' ' Sharpening, ' ' which, as will be
noticed, is done after setting so as to avoid injury to the
teeth. Bach saw is well sharpened and filed so true that on
holding it up to the eye and looking along its edge it will
show a central groove down which a fine needle will freely
slide the entire length. In filing and sharpening, the teeth
are given a certain amount of bevel, according to the class
of work for which they are intended ; saws for hard wood re-
quiring less bevel as well as pitch than saws for cutting soft wood.
The next oper-
ation is "Hand-
handle for the
Saws is sepa-
rately slit, bored
and fitted to its
bl ade to in-
sure the correct
' 'hang' ' or pitch
to the saw when
"Handling-Up- work Thg com .
pleted handle is placed on the blade, holes marked with a punch, the
handle is then removed, holes punched in blade, the handle replaced
and bolted on.
The saw is now complete ; subjected to examination for correctness
in hang of handle, then fully inspected, cleaned, and is ready for
The making of the Disston High Grade Hand Saws from start to
finish calls for the most careful workmanship and constant attention.
At each stage of the work the saws are inspected and the system for
accomplishing this is so thorough that it is almost impossible for an
inferior article to pass out of the works as a high grade and perfect
tool. The brand "Disston" is reserved exclusively for the high
grade goods which are never sent out under any other brand.
' ' The growth and development of the saw business in the United
States has been phenomenal, as now and for some years past there have
been practically no saws of any foreign manufacture imported into the
United States, whilst on the other hand the American-made goods are
exported very largely to all parts of the civilized globe."
"THE WORLD IS OUR MARKET."
How to Keep Them in Order.
The demand for an article of instruction on saw filing having been
demonstrated to us not only by personal inquiry and letter, but also by
the return of fine quality saws, pronounced defective through a lack of
knowledge of how to keep them in order, or by the use of extensively
advertised so-called saw sets and other tools, which pull the saw
blade apart or so distort it as to render it unfit for use has led us to
compile this book for gratuitous distribution for the enlightenment of
the amateur and the improvement of the expert mechanic.
We will endeavor to give, in the following pages, such practical
information as to the proper methods of keeping saws in order and of
the tools with which to do so, that will overcome the above mentioned
pit-falls to the proper working of the saw. We offer our wide experience
and the reputation of our goods for the efficiency of this treatise, which
has been gleaned from the most scientific saw makers and most practical
saw filers in the world. While we admit there are other methods of
putting saws in order, we claim our modes to be the easiest and equally
or more effective.
We take occasion to thank our patrons for their appreciation of
our products. The High Standard, which is the basis of our constantly
increasing business, shall be maintained, and we trust thereby to retain
their good will and increase our trade in future.
HENRY DISSTON & SONS, Incorporated.
The following cuts are full size of the respective number of teeth
and points ^er inch which they represent. It will be noticed that in
one inch space there is one tooth less than there are points. Order
all saws by the number of " POINTS" to the inch measuring from
point to point of teeth.
Rip saw teeth are graduated from butt to point of blade, the
narrow end being one point to the inch finer than at butt ; the
41 POINTS" being measured at butt of blade.
The following cuts are full size of the respective number of teeth
and points per inch which they represent. It will be noticed that in
one inch space, there is one tooth less than there are points. Order
all saws by the number of "POINTS" to the inch, measuring from
point to point of teeth.
Ik Ik A
PRINCIPLE OF CONSTRUCTION.
The saw is either reciprocating or continuous in action, the first
being a flat blade and practically straight edge, making a plane cut, as
in hand, mill, jig and sash saws ; the latter, either a circular or rotating
disc, cutting in a plane at a right angle to its axis, a cylindrical or
barrel shape with a convex edge cutting parallel to its axis, or a
continuous ribbon or band running on two pulleys making a plain or
curved cut with a straight edge parallel to their axis^ of rotation.
Practically speaking, the teeth are a series of knives set on a circular
or straight line, each tooth cutting out its proportion of wood and
prevented from cutting more by the teeth on either side of it. Kach
tooth should cut the sam2 amount and carry out the chip or dust,
dropping it below the material being sawed. Different kinds of wood
require teeth varying in number, angle or pitch and style of filing.
The perfection of a saw is one that cuts the fastest and smoothest
with the least expenditure of power ; to do this, it is evident that each
tooth should be constructed and dressed as to do an equal proportion
of the work, for if any 'of the teeth are out of line or shape, they are
not only useless themselves, but a disadvantage to the others. We
find many good mechanics who frankly acknowledge that they never
could file a saw satisfactorily ; the probable reason is that they never
studied the principle of the action or working of the tool. There is no
reason why any man of ordinary mechanical ability should not be able
to file, and keep his saw in order, but like all trades, it requires
practice and study of the subject.
The following illustrations and explanati6ns will greatly assist in
the selection of a saw and show the best method of keeping it in
proper working order. These should be carefully studied.
A saw tooth has two functions paring and scraping. A slitting
or ripping saw for wood should have its cutting edge at about right
angles to the fibre of the wood, severing it in one place, the throat of
tooth wedging out the piece.
In a cross-cut wood saw, the cutting edge also strikes the fibre at
right angles to its length, but severs it on each side from the main body
before dislodging it.
Fig. 1 is a four-point rip or slitting saw with the rake all in front,
wnere the cutting duty is. This saw should be filed square across,
filing one-half the teeth from each side after setting, which will give a
slight bevel to the cutting edge of tooth, as it should be for soft wood ;
for medium hard woods a finer toothed saw with five points to the inch
should be used and dressed in the same manner ; for the very hardest
and toughest cross-grained woods a still finer toothed saw is required,
with the teeth filed slightly beveling, as ripping cross-grained stuff
partakes a little of the nature of cross-cutting. In all cases where
ripping is done, the thrust of the saw should be on an angle of about 45
to the material being cut, as shown in Fig. 2, this makes a shearing
cut, an advantage that can be quickly demonstrated with an ordinary
pocket knife cutting any piece of wood. For ripping thoroughly dry
lumber, it will be found advantageous to use an extra thin back saw
which will run without set.
CROSS-CUT HAND SAWS.
In cross-cutting the fibre of the wood is severed twice on each
side of the saw the thrust dislodging and carrying the dust out.
Fig. 3 is a five-point peg tooth cross-cut saw with the rake on the
side. For the same reason that the rip saw has the rake on front of
tooth, the cross-cut has it on the side, as that is where the cutting duty
is. The bevel or fleam to teeth in Fig. 3 is about 45, while there is
no pitch at all ; the angle on each side being the same, forms the " peg
tooth," which is best adapted to cutting soft, wet and fibrous woods.
This style of tooth is principally used in Buck-saws.
In all cases, the size and length of teeth depend largely upon the
duty required ; a long tooth has the demerit of being weak and liable
to spring, but the merit of giving a greater clearance to the saw-dust.
The throat space in front of each tooth must be large enough to contain
the dust of that tooth from one stroke ; the greater the feed, the deeper
the dust chamber required, or, more teeth.
The first point to be observed in the selection of a saw is to see
that it ' l hangs " right. Grasp it by the handle and hold it in position
for working, to see if the handle fits the hand property. These are
points of great importance for comfort and utility. A handle should
be symmetrical, and the lines as perfect as any drawing. Many
handles are made of green wood ; they soon shrink and become loose,
the screws standing above the wood. We season our handle- wood three
years before using. An unseasoned handle is liable to warp and
throw the saw out of shape. The next thing in order is to try the blade
by springing it, seeing that it bends regularly and evenly from point to
butt in proportion as the width and gauge of the saw varies. If the
blade is too heavy in comparison to the teeth, the saw will never give
satisfaction, because it will require more labor to use it; the thinner
you can get a stiff saw the better ; it makes less kerf and takes less
muscle to drive it. This principle applies to the well-ground saw.
There is less friction on a narrow true saw than on a wide one ; you
will get a smaller portion of blade, but you will save much unnecessary
labor at a very little loss of the width.
See that it is well set and sharpened and has a good crowning
breast ; place it at a distance from you and get a proper light on it, by
which you can see if there is any imperfection in grinding or hammering.
We should invariably make a cut before purchasing a saw. even if we
had to carry a board to the hardware store. We set our saws on a
D I S S T O 1ST HANDBOOK
Stake or small anvil with a hammer ; a highly tempered saw takes
several blows, as it is apt to break by attempting to set it with but one
blow. This is a severe test, and no tooth ought to break afterwards
in setting, nor will it, if the mechanic adopts the proper method, The
saw that is easily filed and set is easily made dull. We have frequent
complaints about hard saws, though they are not as hard as we would
make them if we dared ; but we shall never be able to introduce a
harder saw until the mechanic is educated to a more correct method of
setting it. As a rule, saws are given more set than is necessary, and if
more attention was paid to keeping points of teeth well sharpened, any
well-made saw would run with very little set, and there would be fewer
broken ones. The principal trouble is that too many try to get part
of the set out of the body of the plate, whereas the whole of the set
should be on the teeth. Setting below the root of the tooth distorts
and strains the saw-plate, which may cause a full-tempered cast-steel
blade to crack and eventually break at this spot ; and it is always an
injury to the saw, even if it does not crack or break.
The teeth of a hand saw should be filed so true, that on holding it
up to the eye and looking along its edge, it will show a central groove
down which a fine needle will slide freely the entire length ; this groove
must be angular in shape and equal on each side, or the saw is not filed
properly and will not run true.
Fig. 4 shows how the groove should appear on looking down the
edge of the saw ; the action should be such that the bottom of kerf will
present the appearance as shown in Fig. 5, and not like Fig. 6 ; the
cutting action is as shown in Fig. 7, the cutting being done with the
outside of tooth, the fibre of the wood is severed in the two places and
the wood is crumbled out from point to point by the thrust of the saw.
The proper amount of bevel to give the teeth is very important, as
is demonstrated by the above figures, for if too much bevel is given,
the points will score so deeply that the fibres severed from the main
body will not crumble out' as severed, but be removed by continued
rasping, particularly in hard woods, as they require less bevel, as well
as pitch, than soft wood.
Fig. 8 on next page, shows a six-point cross-cut saw filed with a
medium amount of bevel on front or face of tooth, and none on the
back. This tooth is used in buck-saws, on hard wood, and for general
sawing of woods of varying degrees of tenacity. This style of dressing
is the best, but a number of saws each having teeth suited to its
particular work, will be found more advantageous than trying to make
one saw serve for all kinds of hand saw work.
We will now consider the cross-cut saw tooth, in regard to rake or
pitch ; this being one of the most important features, too much care
cannot be taken to have the correct amount of pitch for the duty
required. To illustrate this, Fig. 9 represents a board, across which we
wish to make a deep mark or score with the point of a knife ; suppose
we hold the knife nearly perpendicular as at B, it is evident it will push
harder and will not cut as smoothly as if it was inclined forward as at
A ; it follows then that the cutting edge of a cross-cut saw should
incline forward as at C, rather than stand perpendicular as at D.
Too much hook or pitch, and too heavy a set are very common
faults, not only detrimental to good work but ruinous to the saw ; the
first by having a large amount of pitch, the saw takes hold so keenly
that frequently it " hangs up" suddenly in the thrust the result, a
kinked or broken blade ; the second, by having too much set, the strain
caused by the additional and unnecessary amount of set is out of
proportion to the strength of the blade, and is broken in the same
manner. The most general amount of pitch used is 60, though this
maybe varied a little more or less to advantage, as occasion may
The next point to be considered is the bevel^ or fleam, of the point.
To obtain this, as shown in Figs. 10, 11 and 12, the file is supposed to be
horizontal to the perpendicular of the side of saw, and on an angle of
about 45 longitudinally with the length, measuring from file line
Fig. 10 is a .five-and-a-half-point cross-cut saw showing the same
amount of fleam front and back, this saw is best suited for work in soft
wood, and where rapid, rather than fine work is required. A shows
the position of the file, B an exaggerated view of shape of point, and C
the shape of point.
Fig. 11 is a seven-point saw for medium hard woods, illustrated
in same manner as Fig. 10. This tooth has less fleam on the back,
which gives a shorter bevel to point, as at C.
Fig. 12 is a still finer saw, having eight points to the inch. This
saw has no fleam on back, the result being very noticeable at C and B.
This style of point is for hard wood.
It will be seen that the bevel on the front of teeth in Figs. 10, 11
and 12 is the same, but the bevel of the point looking the length of
saw is quite different, consequent upon the difference in the angles of
Fig 13 is a representation of some of the saws we have seen ; there
are entirely too many such now in use, and we have no doubt their
owners are shortening their lives in the use of them as well as those of
the saws. To owners of such saws we say, take them to the factory
and have them re toothed, or buy a new saw and take a fresh start,
and steer clear of this style of filing.
Care should be taken in filing a saw to keep the teeth of uniform
size not one large and one small, one up and one down. Unless the
teeth are regular, the set can never be regular. When the teeth of a
saw become irregular in size it is useless to attempt to regulate them
without filing them down (called jointing) until all are of equal height.
Then proceed to regulate the size by filing straight through. We
know from experience that not one man in a thousand, be he ever so
practical and proficient, can regulate the teeth of a saw without first
filing them down and then filing straight through.
When this is done if some of the teeth still show slight " tops,"
these should be given another cut with the file on front and back.
The teeth, now shaped and of even height, are ready to be set, as
referred to on pages 32 and 39.
In sharpening, you can start from either point or butt of saw.
When the saws are manufactured the sharpening is usually done by
filing every other tooth from point to butt or handle end. The filer,
standing at the point of saw holding the point of the file inclined
toward the handle, works in that direction and against the front or
cutting-edge of the tooth set toward him. After filing every alternate
tooth, maintaining a uniform angle and bevel, the saw is reversed in
the clamp, the filer changing his position accordingly and proceeding to
file the alternate teeth on this side, also beginning with the first tooth
set toward him.
By this method the operator is in better position to see if the fronts
of the teeth are being brought up keen. It also does away with the
' ' feather-edge ' ' thrown up on the cutting-edge of tooth which is done
by holding point of file toward point of saw, or in other words filing
against the set of the back of the tooth. It is essential that the filer
place the edge of the file well into the gullet, letting the sides
find their own bearing against fronts and backs of teeth, the angle of
the file being the same as that of the tooth. By doing this, the origi-
nal shape of the tooth is maintained.
If the blade is securely fastened in the clamp, with just sufficient
of tooth-edge extending so the file will clear the jaw, with a good file,
firmly grasped and sufficient pressure applied, the sharpening should
be easily done without the file chattering or screeching.
After the saw is properly set and sharpened, lay it flat on a true
board, rub over the points of the teeth on the side with a smooth or
partly worn flat file, which will regulate the set and insure smooth
cutting, making the filing last longer.
After this operation, should the saw not run true, take another
cut with the file over the side toward which it leads. A fast cutting
cross-cut saw should have deep teeth.
In the preceeding illustrations, we have given only the coarser saws
that are in most general use, but the same principle of filing should be
applied to the finer toothed saws regarding angles and pitch suitable
for woods of different degrees of hardness, the only actual difference
being that one saw has finer points, and they being finer, require a little
more care and delicate touch in setting and filing.
Fig. 14 is a section of an eleven-point saw suitable for the finer
kinds of work on dry, soft woods, such as cutting mitres, dove-tailing,
pattern work, etc.
Fig. 15 shows a section of saw with same number of points as
Fig. 14, but filed same as Fig. 12. This saw is for finer work, same
as Fig. 14 only on the medium hard woods.
Fig. 16 is a still finer saw for fine work on the very hardest woods
having same dress as Fig. 14.
Fig. 17 is the finest toothed saw of its kind that is made for wood.
All the above mentioned saws in Figs. 14, 15, 16 and 17, are made
especially hard and will not admit of setting, but being made thinner
at the back, when properly filed, will cut clean and sweet. Teeth such
as shown in Fig. 17 are used principally on Back Saws and smooth
cutting hand saws. To maintain the original shape of these teeth use
our cant safe back file.
Fig. 18 is a section of a pruning saw which differs from a cross-cut
hand saw, in being thicker, having a little more pitch to the teeth and
being ground thinner on the back in proportion to its width. These,
of course, are made for cross-cutting only, as there is not as great a
variety in the work, nor as much difference in the woods to be sawed
as to degrees of hardness, being used only as a pruning saw on fruit
and shade trees, which are always practically green and comparatively
The illustration on page 38 .shows number of points, pitch and
bevel most generally used and best adapted to such work.
The ' ' Nib ' ' near the end of a hand saw
has no practical use whatever, it merely
serves to break the straight line of the back
of blade and is an ornamentation only.
These saws are for miscella-
neous sawing. The best form of
tooth for this purpose is the same as
Fig. 18, excepting that it has a trifle
less bevel. As the nature of the work partakes about as much of cross-
cutting as of ripping, and as a cross-cut saw will rip better than a rip
will cross-cut, it is apparent the shape of tooth should be between
the two. These saws are all ground thinner at back but set same as
any hand saw.
Scroll and Web saws are ground, filed and set in the same
manner, and should have pitch according to the work to be done. If
more ripping than cross-cutting is done, as in large felloes, more pitch
is given than in compass saws and vice versa, though these saws are
almost universally run with a rip-saw tooth and have very little variation
in the pitch.
These saws are for cutting bones . The pitch and number of points
are about the same as a fine tooth hand saw for medium hard wood,
but filed straight through without fleam or bevel to tooth, with light,
even set, same as in fine hand saws.
These saws are for cutting metal, such as brass, iron, or un tem-
pered steel, and should have a little finer tooth than the average butcher
saw. They are so hard that none but the best metal-saw Pile will
sharpen them. Like the butcher saws, the filing must be straight
through and no bevel.
SETTING THE TEETH OF SAWS.
This is an important part of the work of keeping a saw in order
and should always be done after the teeth axe jointed and before filing.
In all cases the set should be perfectly uniform, as the good working of
the saw depends as much on this as on the filing. Whether the saw is
fine or coarse, the depth of set should not go, at the most, lower than
half the length of the tooth, as it is certain to spring the body of saw if
not break the tooth out. Soft, wet woods require more set as well as
coarser teeth than dry, hard woods. For fine work on dry woods,
either hard or soft, it is best to have a saw that is ground so thin on
the back that it requires no set ; such saws are made hard and will not
stand setting, and an attempt to do so would surely break the teeth out
HAND arid RIP SAWS?
As a matter of interest it may be stated whilst there is a general
understanding in the Hardware Trade that Hand saws arc 26 inches
long and Rip saws 28 inches long, this is not carried out by facts.
There are a great many Rip saws made of shorter lengths, such as 22
and 24 inch, for the term " Rip" applies to shape and style of tooth
only and not to the length of the saw. Likewise the Cross-cut or
Cutting-off saws may be made in any length desired.
As to the graduation of teeth in Rip Saws, the purpose of this is
to enable the user to start the saw in the work more easily by
commencing the cut with the end or point of blade where the teeth
are somewhat finer than those at the butt.
PANEIy SAW is a term commonly applied to any Hand Saw
with cross-cutting teeth, shorter than 26 inches in length. It was
formerly used in designating cross-cutting Hand Saws with fine teeth,
of any length, but is now obsolete in that particular.
TENON SAW. Some mechanics apply this term to Panel Saws,
though it more properly applies to a Back Saw.
BACK SAW, sometimes termed Tenon Saw, is used for fine
bench work, pattern-makers, joiners, etc., and is also made in special
lengths and widths for use in mitre-boxes for cutting moulding, etc.
The MITRE-BOX SAW has a peculiar shaped butt or heel, making
the toothed edge two inches shorter than the full length of blade.
The purpose of this is to prevent the " heel " from catching in the
The following cuts show the method of laying-out Rip saw teeth
and Cross-cut saw teeth, the angles for the teeth remaining the same as
in these sketches for all sizes of teeth. It will be noted that the Rip
saw tooth is made with a straight front, whilst the front of the Cross-
cut tooth is given a slight pitch or rake.
RIP TEETH " SPACE
CROSS-CUT TEETH \" SPACE.
We receive letters from time to time in which the writers offer fof
sale patents, or what they term improvements in Hand saws, whidh in
character, are similar to the ideas embodied in our Combination Hand
Saws. These saws we have made for many years and from the etching
on the blade it will be noted a patent was granted as long ago as 1856,
The Gauge Saw we have also been making for quite a long time.
PATENT IMPROVED COMBINATION SAWS.
One of the most complete and useful saws ever offered to the trade.
A full combination saw, comprising the additional advantages of a
Square, 24-inch Rule, Level, Plumb, Straight-edge and Scratch Awl.
No. 43- Combination Saw, with 24-inch Square and Rule,
Straight-edge and Scratch Awl ; Apple Handle, with Plumb and I,evel
attachment. Blade same quality as DisSTON's No. 7 Hand Saw.
Made in 26 inch length only.
Adapted to tenoning, shouldering, dovetailing, curving, cog-cut-
ting, or any purpose where a definite depth of cut is required. Same
quality as DISSTON'S No. 7.
DISSTON HANDY SAW KIT, No. 101.
The combination of Blades in this set provides a Handy Patented Nov. 2, 1909
Kit for the practical mechanic, householder, farmer, etc.
-~ >tvv^vj v, n v^vvvv
C) ^ST O|V
> 1 M 1 1 1 V I TvTv V VVVV V H 1
^;>,.j Adjustable Handle
20-inch 10 Point Cross-cut
20-inch 7 Point Rip Saw
Hardwood Handle, Carved and Polished, with a special
lever device which is arranged to hold the blades comprising
the Set rigid and the special formation of the butt of the
blades prevents wobbling.
The Special shaped Lever Bolt, permits by a quarter or
half turn of same, the keeping of the Lever in position so it c c
will not interfere with the working of the saw. canvas i*ase
The Plumbers' Saw Blade is specially tempered for cutting nails, spikes,
bolts, gas pipe, soil pipe, etc.
The blades are made of DISSTON CRUCIBLE STEEL, ground and polished.
Specially Adapted for Hand Saws, Narrow Band Sawi, Etc.
When the teeth of a saw become irregular in size it is absolutely necessary to
dress them down until all are of an equal height, and this should always be done
before attempting to reset or sharpen the saw. To facilitate this work and insure
evenness we fully recommend the above Jointer, which is simple in construction
and readily adjusted.
THE STAR SAW-SET.
There are many saw-sets
that ruin the saw ; the best
form is one that involves the
principle of the hammer and
anvil ; with such a set the
teeth would all be bent evenly,
and cannot be otherwise,
though repeated blows be
given. In the Star saw-set,
represented in the following
engraving this principle is
involved, and we guarantee
this tool to do the work satis-
Prominent among the advantages claimed for this set is that it can
be operated by the foot by means of a treadle, thus leaving the hands
free to guide the saw ; or it can be used by striking on the top with a
A is the plunger, operated by a treadle attached to E, under the
machine, a slight tap with the foot setting the tooth ; B> the hammer
or striking part ; C, the anvil ; >, the movable gauge ; /*) the screw to
regulate the amount of set. The striking part, and the anvil, or
portion which receives the blow, are star-shaped, and similar in con-
struction. The points are all of different sizes, numbered from one to
six, and are designed to set different sized teeth. It will strike a blow
as sharp and effective as though by a hammer, and is the most useful
and complete saw-set that has ever been offered. If the saw is hard,
several blows should be given in setting it, raising the back of the saw
from the guide-screw F when the first blow is given, and gradually
lowering it with each blow until- the process is complete ; thus many
a good saw will be saved from utter ruin. A trial will suffice. Be sure
to clean the saw teeth before setting.
We wish to call special attention to the particular merits of the MONARCH
SAW set. Many Hand Saw sets are imperfect for the reason that the power is
applied by the upper handle of the tool, making it necessary to change the posi-
tion of the hand every time the pressure is given to the tooth. To perfectly set a
saw it is necessary that the Saw-Set should be held in the same relative position
on every tooth. In the Monarch, the power is applied by the lower lever, making
it very easy to hold the saw-set in the proper position and obtain the necessary
pressure by simply closing the fingers. The head of the set is made open and the
work in plain view at all times, enabling the operator to quickly adjust the
Saw -Set to the tooth. The gauge "B" for regulating the depth of set has a wider
bearing than in most Saw-Sets, thus doing away with the tendency to incline the
tool to one side or the other, which would give an uneven set to the teeth. The
anvil "E" is fitted with four beveled surfaces suitable for different sizes of teeth.
The amount of set on each tooth is regulated by set screw "C" which is held firmly
in place after adjustment by the small lock-nut or lever in the rear. This is of
considerable importance, as the screw "C" cannot work loose during the operation
of setting, which is the case with many other saw-sets, and insures an even
amount of set throughout the entire length of blade. IN OPERATING, first ad-
just the anvil so that the bevel most suitable for the size tooth to be set is brought
into position ; hang the Saw-Set on the saw so that guide "B" rests on the teeth ;
adjust this guide for the depth of set to be given by use of set screw "A." Use.
care not to go too deeply into the tooth as all of the set should be in the tooth
itself. Taking too deep a hold is liable to distort the body of the blade, or break
out tfce teeth. The top of plunger "D" should be in line with the top of the tooth
to be set. Next adjust set screw "C" for amount of set required taking care not
to put on any more set than is absolutely necessary.
The Monarch Saw-Set is adapted for setting saws three quarter inch and
wider. Made in three sizes ; the small size No. 2 being suitable for Hand Saws,
Back Saws, etc., the medium No. 12 and large No. 20 size for Circular, Cross-Cut
Saws, etc. Each size is Barff finished.
Patented Oct. 31, 1899.
Specially adapted for Hand Saws, Cross-Cut Saws, Circular
Saws and all Small Saws.
The idea embodied in this Saw-Set is one that will commend itself to every
user of a saw-setting tool. The principal feature is the use of two plungers
operated by the two levers or handles ; pressure on the lower lever forcing
plunger " D " against the body of the saw, thus holding it rigidly in position and
preventing slipping, whilst a continuation of the pressure on the upper lever
operates plunger " C" in setting the tooth.
In action it is easy and powerful, and while it will perfectly set wide and
heavy saws, it is also particularly adapted for narrow blades, such as web saws,
narrow band saws, etc. If the gauge " B "is properly adjusted, the result will be
a uniformity of set that cannot be obtained by any other hand set.
Another important point is the head of the Set is made open, enabling the
operator to quickly adjust the Saw-Set to the tooth, the work being in plain view
at all times. The gauge "B," for regulating depth of set, has a wider bearing
than in most saw-sets, thus doing away with the tendency to incline the tool. to
one side or the other, which would give an uneven set to the teeth. The anvil is
fitted with four beveled surfaces, suitable for different 'sizes of teeth.
IN OPERATING first adjust the anvil " E " so that the bevel most suitable for
the size tooth to be set is brought into position ; hang the Saw-Set on- the saw so
that the gauge " B " rests on the teeth ; adjust this gauge for the depth of set to
be given, by the use of set-screw "A." Use care not to go too deeply into the
tooth, as all of the set should be in the tooth itself. Taking too deep a hold is
liable to distort the body of the blade or break out the teeth. The top of plunger
" C " should be in line with the top of tooth to be set.
We claim this to be the best Hand Set ever put on the market, and a trial will
convince anyone of its superior merits. If the instructions as to adjustment are
carried out the results will be entirely satisfactory to the operator.
The Triumph Saw-Set is manufactured in three sizes, the smaller size, No. 28
being suitable for Hand Saws, Back Saws, Web Saws, narrow Band Saws, etc.;
the medium size, No. 18 for small Circular Saws, etc., and the large size, No. 8
for Cross-Cut Saws, Circular Saws, etc.
The No. 280 Triumph Saw-Set is similar in size and style to the No. 28, but is
fitted with a SMALLER SIZE SETTING PLUNGER, thus making it especially
adapted for saws 30 to 16 points to the inch.
Finished, each size made with bright polished head, Barff finished handles.
SAWS MUST BE SPECIALLY TOOTHED AND
FILED FOR DIFFERENT KINDS OF WORK.
The majority of users do not know or give little thought to the fact that to
obtain the best results in any particular class of work the saw must be specially
toothed and filed for the sawing to be done.
A man called at our works some lime ago carrying a Disston handsaw. He
seemed very much aggrieved and complained bitterly about our sending out such
a saw as the one he had.
"Why," he said, "it will not cut wood; in fact, it will not cut anything."
This struck us as being rather curious, for in 70 years of sawmaking some
millions of saws have been made and sold by us. Upon examining the saw, however,
the cause of the difficulty was readily apparent. Our superintendent casually
asked the visitor if he thought the saw would cut iron. "No, of course it won't,"
said the visitor emphatically.
Asked if he could wait a few minutes, he said he would. Our superintendent
took the saw out in the shop, had it specially filed to cut iron (notice the specially
filed part), brought the same saw back, took the visitor in the machine shop, got a
piece of iron bar about 2 inches in diameter, placed it in a vise, tightened it up,
put the saw to work, and in short order neatly sawed the bar in two without any
trouble whatever, and the teeth were still in fair condition.
The visitor was utterly amazed. "Well," he said, "I wouldn't have believed
After an explanation of the trouble simply a matter of the condition of the
teeth in the saw he asked: "Can you put it in proper condition for sawing wood?"
"Well, do it, and I will never complain about a Disston Saw again."
Years of experimenting have determined just what shape or space, angle and
bevel should be given to the teeth, as well as the amount of set best suited for this
or that class of sawing; that the tooth best adapted for sawing soft woods is not at
all suitable for cutting hard woods. Of course, the work could be done after a
fashion, but the result would not be as good as that obtained by the use of a saw
properly toothed for its particular purpose. You can take a rip saw and cross-cut
with it, but note the difficulty.
In line with this, it may be noted that even a saw blade made for cutting
soft metals is not at all adapted for sawing the harden- metals nor will a saw made
for sawing wood stand the work of cutting a combination of wood and metal without
injury to the points of the teeth, thereby spoiling it for further use in making a clean,
sweet cut in wood.
A saw that is "fitted-up" for sawing wood has the teeth filed with a bevel
back and front, given a proper set, enabling it to do fast cutting. A hand saw for
sawing metal has no set on the teeth, but is ground for clearance and filed straight
across the front of the tooth, and while to a limited extent it would cut wood, it
would not do so in the manner a mechanic desires. In other words, it is not adapted
for wood cutting, and its temper also is different from that of a wood cutting saw.
It is for these very reasons that various patterns of saws are made, and specially
toothed for the different kinds of work. Experience in this line is the best teacher.
Take a saw fitted up for sawing wood, try it on a piece of metal. No matter what
kind of a saw it may be, or whose make, it positively will not do as good work after-
ward in sawing wood without being refitted.
HANDY SAW CLAMPS.
No. 5. Fastened to Bench by Screws
Length over all, 14| inches. Filing length of jaw, 13 inches. Weight, 3| pounds.
No. 6. Fastened to Bench by Screw-lug's
Same dimensions as No. 5. Weight, 5 pounds, 9 ounces.
The Handy Saw Clamp was designed with the particular view
of making it light in weight and at the same time strong and durable;
to take up the least possible space, and easily carried in a tool chest.
The material is grey iron, the arches are re-inforced to give the
requisite strength where needed. Tightened by means of the eccentric
lever permits of quick and positive action. There being three points
of pressure on the jaw, proper contact with the blade is obtained along
the entire length of the jaws, which insures the holding of the saw
blade firmly and rigidly in position.
DISSTON'S SAW FILING GUIDE.
Especially Designed to Assist Those Not Skilled in the Art
of Filing to File a Saw Correctly.
This cut shows a saw and clamp with attachment in proper position
for filing the first side. There are three marks on the upoer hub of
the swivel attachment, and one mark on the other. One of the three
marks show when it is in position for first side and the other designates
when it is in position for filing the other side. The third, or centre
mark, shows when it is in position for filing Rip Saws. To obtain the
correct position loosen the wing nut and move the guide around to the
point desired ; after tightening wing nut, loosen screw in file handle
and adjust the file for the shape tooth wanted.
A good way is to select a tooth of correct shape and let file down
into it, tighten set screw in handle, then file a tooth to see if the shape
suits. If not, turn the file a little to the right or left and try another
tooth until the proper shape is obtained. Then file every other tooth.
When one side is filed, reverse saw and attachment and file the other
teeth. For Rip Saws, place the file at right angles with the saw, and
file every tooth. Always keep the file as nearly horizontal as possible.
This guide is sold only attached to our Nos. 2 or 3 clamps, and
price includes Clamp, Filing Guide, File and Handle.
No. 120 ACME SAW.
Made to Run Entirely Without Set. in Dry, Seasoned Lumber Only.
In filing the No. 120 Saw for Cross-cutting, the saw should be
placed in a clamp that is set at an angle of about 45 degrees. USE
A DISSTON SIX INCH CANT SAFE-BACK FILE which is
made expressly for filing this style of tooth.
Hold the file horizontally, at an angle of
30 degrees to the side of blade, which will SECTION
give the proper bevel.
File the front and back of each alternate
tooth the entire length of blade, per illustra-
Showmg actual Size-and Shape
tion of section, then turn the saw around of sF^pSn'teto i^ch TH
and file the remaining teeth in the same way.
NOTE : The FRONT of the 120 Rip Tooth should be at right
angles with the cutting edge of saw. Place the Rip Saw vertically
in clamp, hold the file horizontally and at an angle of five degrees to
the side of blade, which will give a slight bevel. Care must be taken
not to change the front of tooth while filing. If properly sharpened
in this manner the saw will clear itself and make a smooth, clean cut.
No. 77 SAW.
Made to Run Entirely Without Set, in Dry. Seasoned Lumber Only.
The No. 77 Saw for Cross-cutting, to be filed, should be placed
in a clamp set in a VERTICAL position. Use a Disston 4^ inch
Regular Taper File. Hold the file hori-
zontally to the side of blade and at an
angle of 45 degrees to side of blade, which
will give the proper bevel. File the front
Showing actual Size and Shape , , 1 c 1
of Cross-cutting TOOTH and back of each alternate tooth the entire
Six Points to Inch.
length of blade, per illustration of section,
then turn the saw around and file the remaining teeth in the same way.
The No. 77 Saw for RIPPING is filed in the same manner as the
No. 120 Rip Saw mentioned above.
THE MAKING cf
DISSTON SAW HANDLES,
All DISSTON Handles are made of carefully selected lumber,
thoroughly seasoned. This lumber is stored in large piles in the yard,
Section of Lumber Yard.
which well compares in size with many large commercial yards. It is
air seasoned for at least three years and then receives the complete and
" Belting " or Sand-Papering.
final drying in the drying room, whence it passes to the planing
machines, where it is planed down to an even thickness. It is next
sawed into small pieces, generally of such size that two handles
Varnishing and Polishing.
may be made from each of them. The markers then trace the shape
of the handles with lead pencils around sheet steel patterns. They
are then cut out by the band saws, after which a hole is bored in the
centre through which the jig saw enters and cuts out the centre piece.
They are now sent to the "nosing " machine where the nose is shaped.
"Jimping" is the next operation. In this the roughly cut out
handles are brought in contact with swiftly revolving cutters, and the
edges are rounded. The handles now pass on to the filers, who work
them into the finished shape. This is followed by " sand- papering " on
The next step is ' ' varnishing, ' ' after which comes ' ' slitting " as it
is termed, or the process of sawing the slot in the handle in which the
blade rests. In connection with this operation the handles are bored
and countersunk for the bolts or screws.
If the handle is to be "carved," that work is now done, then
follows * ' polishing. ' '
The woods used chiefly for making handles are beech, apple,
cherry, walnut and other hard woods. Beech is the wood generally
used, but apple is the favorite.
THE MAKING of the
DISSTON BUTCHER SAW.
The steel is rolled in bars of the required thickness and width, oval
or flat in shape according to the pattern of saw to be made ; then cut
in multiples suitable for the length desired.
Taking one of these pieces, which are straight as to length, the
ends are bent or forged by machinery to form the sides of the butcher-
back or frame ; the * ' eye ' ' or socket at the end near the handle is
formed and welded ; the inside being either round or square as per
design. It will be noticed that the entire back and socket are made of
one single piece of solid steel, forged, consequently is stronger than if
made with the ends riveted on.
Next the "Back " is straightened, that is made even and true,
then "ground." Now follows "glazing" the character of finish
being in accordance with the quality of the saw ; the higher grades, of
course, being given a finer degree of work. The pin-hole in point of
frame is now " drilled, ' ' this end being also ' ' slitted ' ' to take in the end
of blade. The ' ' eye ' ' at butt of frame is then fitted for either a square
or round stretcher ; the stretcher, as the name implies is for the
purpose of tightening the blade, being made of various- designs or
shapes, though the usual method of stretching is by means of a wing
or a hexagon- nut, which requires the threading of the end of stretcher.
The "Back" is now stamped with the name and brand. The
handle, properly bored, is fitted on the end of frame in position ; the
holes marked oti "back," handle removed and holes drilled, after
which the handle is adjusted and fastened with three or four screws as
the case may be. The saw is then inspected and handle tested to see
whether it " lines " up with the back.
THE MAKING cf a
DISSTON WOOD SAW
The lumber principally used is Maple ; the boards having been
well-seasoned for several years, are cross-cut to length, sawed in strips
of required width for the ' ' long arm, " ' ' short
arm" and "brace."
These pieces are "planed" to proper thick-
ness, " j imped," that is, formed to shape and the
edges rounded; after which they are ' ' mortised "
for the insertion of the ends of " stretcher " or brace.
In the next operation the arms are "bored" and
"slit" for the blade, and the tops "looped" for rod.
They are now "belted" smooth on round edges, "sanded"
on flat sides, then "stained," "buffed" and "varnished."
The pieces for ' ' stretcher " or " brace, ' ' in other words the centre-
piece, are cut to length and width, "planed," and marked out to be
"band sawed" to shape. They are now "jimped," "tenoned" on
ends to fit the mortise in arms, then ' ' belted ' ' smooth on round edges.
After being "bored" two pieces are "riveted" together, then
"sanded" smooth on flat sides, "stained," "buffed" and "varnished."
Now the "long arm" is labelled, and the parts are ready for
"assembling" or framing up. The two arms are laid on a bench,
about the proper distance apart ; blade inserted, pins placed in holes,
the stretcher inserted, and rod or " tightener 11 placed on ends at top
These frames, when properly tightened up, are strong and rigid,
there being no lost motion or give.
THE MAKING of
DISSTON PLUMB anZ LEVELS
TRY SQUARES and BEVELS.
The wood used is principally Beech, Cherry and Mahogany. This
is air-seasoned for fully two years in the lumber yard before being
In the making of a Disston Plumb and L,evel the first operation
is the sawing up of the rough lumber into stocks or pieces of suitable
size. These undergo another seasoning of at least four weeks in a
dry-room before any further work is done on them.
The stock is now planed, then bored and mortised, ready for the
insertion of the level vials, after which it is sand-papered, then passed
on to the fillers and stainers. It is now in shape for the insertion of
the top and side vials, which constitute the vital parts of the level.
All vials used for the Disston high grade plumbs and levels are
made of the finest flint glass ; the liquid therein is pure alcohol and
ether, which will not freeze in the coldest weather, while its action is
so sensitive it will show the slightest variation.
This vial, in the Disston adjustable plumb and level/ is placed in
ah iron casting and held in position by plaster-of-paris, which when
set, forms a very firm bed. This casting is then fitted in the mortise,
the left-end, fastened with a screw, being
round underneath permits a slight rocking up
or down ; the right or adjusting-end is fitted
with two screws, a round-head screw fitting up
in the recess or countersink under and at the
extreme end, thus up-holding the casting, while the flat-head screw at
the same end bears down on the casting, which holds it firmly and
securely in position. The method of adjusting is extremely simple,
consisting merely of removing the protecting shield, loosening the
flat-head screw, raising or lowering the round-head screw as may be
required, then tightening up the flat-head screw, the most delicate
adjustment being thereby easily obtained and maintained.
The brass plates are now fastened on and serve to protect the vials
from breakage. The stock is then varnished, and, when dry, the
plumb and level is fully inspected.
Some Plumb and I,evels are made of single-piece stock, whilst
others have double and triple stocks, that is, made of two or three
pieces firmly glued together, such stocks being of course more ex-
pensive but are less liable to spring or warp. Again, some are finished
with brass ends for the protection of the corners and ends when in use.
N0. 16. Plumb and Level, Arch Top Plate, two Side Views, Solid Brass Ends,
Polished. Made in assorted sizes, 26 to 30 inches.
In the making of a Try Square, the Disston No. 1 Square will be
taken for example.
All stocks are made of well-seasoned wood, the same as Disston
Plumb and Levels ; for Rosewood stocks, the lumber being bought in
the log, cut into planks, which in turn are sawed into strips, planed,
then cut to multiples.
The next operation is preparing the face-plate, it being a piece of
heavy brass, sawed to size of inside face of stock, and designed to take
up the wear at that point.
In this plate holes are punched, deeply countersunk, then it is
fitted in position on the stock and securely fastened by the use of
oval-head-countersunk brass screws. The tops of these screws are now
ground off, together with a slight portion of face of plate. This insures
,a perfectly true, even and smooth surface and avoids those objections
which arise by reason of ordinary countersinking and depressions.
Now follows the slotting of end of stock to receive the blade.
This slot is sawed through both brass and wood, on a special machine
arranged to secure accuracy.
The blade, made from sheet steel cut in strips, is hardened and
'i'l/l ' I 1 IT I ' l;l ' L'l 1 I'
tempered ; ground and glazed ; then cut to multiples of the length
desired ; the edges are then breasted
and trued, and the blade blued.
It is now ready for the marking of
the graduations, which is done on
special automatic machines by which accuracy is insured
All parts are now assembled and the blade riveted in stock
after a method which renders them strong and rigid. The
square is then^ ground-off, tested for accuracy, polished,
1 'I'l'l 1 'I'l'l' M'l'l' i|i|'l M'|'
A BEVEL, made with wood-stock, requires practically the same
processes as the wood-stock Try Square, with the exception of the
fact that the blade of the Bevel is
adjustable and is tightened with a
thumb-screw ; the same care being exercised in
their manufacture as with the previous named
In the making of the Iron Stock Try Square and Bevels, the
same processes are followed for the fitting. The blades in these are
of steel,, while the stock, being of
iron, is milled by special machinery
which results in a perfectly flat
surface and parallel width. The
blade of the Disston No. 3 iron-stock Bevel is tightened by
thumb-nut at end, which draws or releases a simple mechanism
in the body of the stock, and by this means the operation
of tightening or releasing the blade is easily and quickly
These iron-stock Squares and
Bevels, while made with metal
stocks, are of such pattern as to be
exceedingly light in weight, but strong and durable,
and the method of their manufacture guarantees accu-
racy. They are not only adapted for carpenters' use but
also for the more particular work of the machinist.
THE MAKING of the
In the making of Screw-Drivers, the wood for handles is of the
same well-seasoned quality as that used for other Disston Tools.
The planks sawed into strips, are cut in multiples of desired length.
These pieces are, one by one, placed in the automatic turning machine
where it is " formed " to shape. The ferrule is now placed in position
on the end of handle and by means of heavy pressure is forced on.
The handle is then spun in a lathe, finished smooth and is ready for
The Blade, which is of best crucible steel, is " forged " to shape ;
then " hardened " and " tempered." It is now thoroughly tested for
durability and then passes under the ''polishing " operation.
The handle is now " bored," tang of blade inserted and driven in
until the driver is of proper length. While the blade is thus made
quite secure in the handle, to prevent any possibility of its turning in
the socket or coming loose, a boring is made through ferrule, handle
and tang, in which a pin is inserted, and this pin headed on both ends.
The blade is then " stamped," handle varnished and, when dry,
the screw-driver is carefully inspected.
THE MAKING of the
The making of a Brick Trowel, in the various evolutions, is quite
curious and interesting, particularly so when it is considered that, with
the exception of the wood-handle, the entire trowel with blade measuring
12" long by 5^ inches wide, or 18 inches long from tip of blade to end
of tang, is made from a small diamond shaped piece of steel 5 inches
by 3 inches, and $/%" thick.
This piece of steel is heated and from one of these points is
forged what may be termed a stem, which in due course forms the
' ' tang ' ' of the trowel. This blank, being now of a somewhat triangu-
lar shape with extended stem, is ag?in heated and placed under a drop-
hammer which forges or spreads, to a certain extent, the flat portion,
thus reducing its thickness but increasing the width and kngth. The
blank is re-heated, the stem cut to length ; then placed on a die and
by one powerful blow of the drop-hammer is transformed into the crude
shape of a trowel including the shape and incline of the tang. This
being done under a die insures a uniformity of "lift" or hang of
handle in the completed trowels.
The blank, for it may yet be so termed, is now passed along for
the " rolling " operation. For this, the blank is re-heated and passed
again and again under heavy rolls until it has been drawn to proper
thickness, taper and so shaped as to allow the necessary spring to
blade. Then follows the operation of " cutting-out " for shape, which
is done under punch and die.
" Hardening " and " Tempering " now takes place, which is done
under the Disston special process. The next course is "smithing " or
straightening; after which the blade is "ground" to the requisite
thickness and taper. The blade is now ' ' glazed ' ' and then ' ' stiffened"
by which latter process the elasticity is brought up to its highest
It is to be noted, as stated before, that the entire trowel, with the
exception of the wood-handle of course, is made entirely from one
small piece of solid steel.
After a careful inspection, the blade is "handled-up " in the most
approved manner; some patterns having the tang extending clear
through the handle and riveted.
The trowel is now thoroughly inspected and tested for quality and
spring, shape of blade and " lift " or hang of handle, etc.
A f * Pointing Trowel,'* as its name indicates, is used for pointing
the bond or mortar between the bricks. It is smaller in size than the
regular brick trowel, but made on similar lines and under the same
The sheets of steel are sent by the Steel Works to the Cutting-
room where they are cut in strips of a length making three blades, and
in width according to the length and pattern of trowel to be made.
The holes are now punched in the centre for the fastening of the
mounting, after which the plate is passed through rolls to take off
any fash left by the cutters on the edges or by the punches in the holes,
then follows countersinking of the holes for the rivet -heads. The next
course is " Hardening " and " Tempering " which is done under the
Disston special process. The plate is now ' ' smithed ' ' or straightened,
then "ground," the top being left flat while the bottom or working
side is made somewhat beveled towards the edges to insure the trowel
going over the work smoothly and without catching, after which the
plate is " glazed."
This plate is now cut apart making three trowel blades. The
blade is u re-glazed" and then undergoes a special process which
fa necessitated by reason of the after operation of grinding of rivet-
heads, and this process insures an even and true blade. The name
and brand is now " etched " on the blade, and it is ready for the
The shank or " mounting,*' made of malleable iron, is " straight-
ened," " ground " flat on base or part fitting on blade, then " glazed."
In the assembling, the mounting is riveted on blade under a power-
hammer which has two motions ; perpendicular and at the same time
the hammer-head has a rotary, motion which insures a thorough dis-
tribution of the blows on the rivet -head. The blade is now inspected,
then the rivet-heads ground flush with the blade, and this part receives
a course of "glazing." Another inspection is made; the blade
" blocked, " and is then ready for " handling-up."
The wood-handle, having been bored and mortised, is drhen on
the tang, the latter having extended fins or shoulders which entering
the wood prevent the turning of handle while in use. This tang
extends through the handle, a washer put on and the end riveted.
From four to ten rivets are used in fastening the mounting of a
plastering trowel, according to the design, pattern or quality.
The trowel is now given the final inspection for ' 'lift, ' ' riveting, etc.
Cementers' Trowels are made under processes similar to a
Plasterers' Trowel, with the exception that the blade is heavier, some
have one edge rounded or curved, and the mounting stronger, the
latter usually being of double-post owing to the extra heavy pressure
These are made for " inside " or " outside " angles, also rounding
for inside and outside circles, and are used by plasterers and cementers
for squaring and rounding corners, etc.
THE MAKING of the
DISSTON FILES AND RASPS
The manufacturing of Files and Rasps is a long and tedious pro-
cess requiring the exercise of great care throughout. In describing the
principal processes in the making of files and rasps the term " Files*'
only will be used.
Steel Room, Cutting to Multiples.
Files as generally known are made of crucible steel, and the
experience of the American File-maker is that steel made in this
Country is far superior to foreign steel which was used exclusively in
this art some years ago.
The principal and necessary conditions of a good file are tough
steel of high grade, sharp and well formed teeth, thorough hardening
and careful inspection at every stage of the work.
All the steel used in the manufacture of the Disston Brand of
Files is of the finest quality Crucible Steel and is made in the Disston
Steel Works under careful supervision. It is rolled to different shapes
such as ROUND, HALF-ROUND, FLAT, etc., of various thicknesses
and widths suitable for the numerous kinds of files and then sent to the
File Shop where it is cut into sections of the length required.
These sections of steel are forged into shape for the files and are
then called " File Blanks."
The "Tang " means that portion which is shaped for the handle,
and is not included when measuring the length of the file.
After inspection, the file blanks are then annealed by heating,
which softens the steel so that they can be ground and the teeth cut in
them. When the blanks are annealed, each one is carefully straightened,
then ground to remove the scale and oxidizing and make the surface
The ground blanks are again inspected, then "Stripped," that is
' . ,
"Stripping" mid ''Cutting" Small Files.
"Cutting" Large Tiles.
a hardened file is used on them in such a way as to make the surface
even, flat, smoother and firmer for the tooth cutting process.
The " Teeth " were formerly cut in the blanks entirely by hand,
with a hardened steel chisel, but they are now almost exclusively and
more perfectly cut by machinery, particularly in this country.
After the teeth are cut, the files are inspected, and branded, then
"Hardened," a process requiring great care. Inpreparation forthisthey
are coated with a special paste which protects the teeth while the file
is being heated to the degree necessary, for the points are so fine they
would otherwise be burned off before the body of the file became
The coated file is heated by being immersed in molten lead, then
withdrawn and plunged deep in the bath, moved back and forth a few
times until somewhat cooled. From a comparatively soft state it has
now become so hard that an attempt to bend it will cause breakage.
Files are never tempered, but hardened to a particular degree which
gives greatest durability.
After being scoured, washed in lime-water to neutralize any
tendency to rust, then steam dried, Blueing- the-tang follows, by which
its hardness is drawn and the tang toughened so it can be driven into
the handle without breaking.
Each file is now oiled, neatly arranged in wooden trays and
delivered to the inspectors for final examination and test for straight-
ness, cutting quality and durableness. Passing successfully they are
ready for packing.
Of all tools known there are none used for so many purposes and
of so many styles and kinds as files. There are several hundred kinds
of regular files and several thousands of regular and special combined,
all of which are designated by a name according to the length, shape
and grade of the cut ; besides the hundreds of special names for the
purposes for which they are made and used.
The kinds in common ordinary use are Flat, Mill, Hand, Square,
Round, Half- Round and Three-Square Files, and Flat, Half -Round,
Cabinet and Half -Round Rasps, Horse and Shoemakers Rasps.
The name " Flat File " is not used because the file is flat, but it
is the name given to a particular kind of file, for Flat, Mill and Hand
files are, in appearance, all flat files.
Full sectional sizes and .shapes of the file steel of which most of
the regular files are made.
HALF-ROUND. ROUND. SQUARE. 3-SQUARE
Many of the shapes now accepted by the trade as regular stock
goods were originated and first made by us, such as Great American
Cross-cut Saw Files, Chisel Point Files for Inserted Tooth Circular saws,
Acme Files with safe back for filing Hand-saws, etc.
MACHINE MADE VERSUS HAND MADE FILES.
Some years ago there was much doubt, argument and speculation
as to the relative quality of machine made and hand made files which
now, however, has passed away in favor of the machine made files for
we can and do make finer files with machinery than can possibly be
made by hand ; we make a file for special use in which the teeth can
hardly be seen with the naked eye, there being 150 teeth to the inch.
There are some files yet cut by hand and people often wonder how a
file cutter can space the different grades of teeth so regularly with a
hammer and chisel guided only by the eye. The fact is a hand cutter
of files is not guided by sight near so much AS "by the feel with the
chisel and the weight of the hammer. A good hand file cutter, blind-
folded, can cut one file nearly like another.
Illustrations showing the different " cuts " in general use. These
are engraved from files 12 inches long. If longer than 12 inches the
"cuts" will be coarser; if shorter, they will be finer in proportion.
Every person using files should have a file brush and card to keep
the files free from filings. To obtain good files select the brand of the
maker who has the best means of testing the quality of their own
make which is strictly the case with the DISSTON brand. We use
35000 dozen Disston Files annually in our Saw Works, Handle
Factory and Machine Shops.
Rough-cut, Coarse-cut, Bastard-cut, Second-cut, Smooth-cut and
Dead-Smooth-cut files mean coarser or finer cut files, that is, files
having more or less teeth to the inch.
A " Rough-cut ' ' file has the least number of teeth to the inch, and
a " Dead-Smooth" file the greatest.
A "Coarse-cut" file is a degree finer than a Rough-cut, while
Bastard-cut, Second-cut, Smooth-cut and Dead-Smooth-cut are each a
degree finer. All regular files of the different- lengths and shapes are
graded into three regular or usual sizes of teeth known as Bastard cut,
Second-cut and Smooth-cut. We have often been asked the meaning
of the name "Bastard" as applied to the cut of a file. The name
" Bastard " as applied to the cut of a file comes from the days when
files were entirely made by hand and the name is supposed to have been
given to a ' ' cut " between what was termed a ' ' rough-cut ' ' and the finer
grades of cutting and the file became a standard, taking the place of
rough or coarse cuts and has been known since then as the ' ' Bastard-
cut." The same is the case in the names of "Flat" Bastard and
" Hand " Bastard files, while both are the same as to cut, they vary a
little in shape, and both are often used for the same purpose.
All the files in ordinary use as named above, except the Three-
Square, are cut with teeth two or more degrees of coarseness or fineness
for different kinds of work. The " Bastard- cut " is the ordinary cut,
that is, there are more ordinary files * ' Bastard-cut ' ' than any
Three-Square files are never cut coarser than Bastard-cut but
generally cut finer.
There is no established rule fixing a certain number of teeth to
the inch for Bastard-cut or any cut, consequently there may be a slight
variation in the cuts by different makers.
SINGLE-CUT AND DOUBLE-CUT FILES.
A ' ' Single-cut ' ' file has but one course of chisel cuts across the
surface, the cuts are parallel to each other, but oblique across the file
A " Double-cut " file has two courses of chisel cuts crossing each
other and both oblique across the file blank. The first course is called
the "Over-cut," the second course is called the "Up-cut" and its
direction being across the first course the chisel cuts through the
over-cut, consequently the teeth of double-cut files are" points " and
the teeth of single-cut files are ' ' chisels. ' '
KINDS, SHAPES and USES of FILES.
" Flat Files " are forged tapering from near the centre to point,
are narrower and slimmer at point, are double-cut on side and the
edges single-cut. These are generally used by machinists and mechanics
on coarse and rough work.
" Hand Files " are forged thinner from near centre to point ; are
parallel in width and double-cut on sides, one edge is single-cut, but the
other edge is not cut in order that the file may be used in a corner
without filing both sides of the angle. They are generally finer than
bastard-cut and are used by machinists and engineers for finishing flat
"Square P^iles " are forged tapering, some are made the same
size from heel to point, generally double-cut on the four sides though
a few are made single-cut. These are used where other files cannot be
employed on account of their width, i. e. filing apertures, dressing out
square corners, etc.
(( Half-round Files " are forged tapering from near centre to point ;
double-cut on the round and flat sides, are used for general machine
' ' Mill Files ' ' are forged tapering from near centre to point ; are
thinner and narrower at point ; some are made with one and others with
two round edges, single cut on the sides and edges. These are generally
used for filing Mill Saws, sharpening Planer Knives, Mowing and
Reaping Machine Cutters, and for certain kinds of work by mechanics,
such as lathe work, draw-filing, etc. Having chisel teeth, they leave
a comparatively smooth surface, which double-cut point teeth do not,
though the double-cut point teeth cut faster. A few Mill Files are
"Round Files" are generally forged tapering, though some are
made of uniform size from heel to point, and are single-cut. These are
used principally for gulletting, enlarging holes, etc.
" Three-Square Files ' ' are made from three-cornered steel, gener-
ally forged tapering, have teeth on three sides only, double-cut to the
point, leaving the edges very sharp. They are sometimes made single-
cut, also blunt or parallel. Used principally for cleaning out sharp
angles, filing cutters, taps, etc.
" Taper Saw Files " are also made of three-cornered steel, usually
forged tapering, but differ from the Three-Square in that they are
smaller, generally single-cut, have teeth on edges as well as sides, and
are not cut quite to the point. They are also made double-cut as well
as blunt or parallel. "Tapers" are used for filing band saws and
all small saws. The double- cut Tapers having point teeth file faster
than the single-cut but the latter, having chisel teeth, file smoother.
Some Tapers are forged tapering at both ends, without tang for
handle, are single cut at both ends, making two files in one piece.
These are termed ' ' Double End " or ' ' Reversible Tapers. ' '
Again, some Tapers are made longer than others from the same
size steel and are called "Slim Tapers." There is a greater length of
stroke in filing with these.
KNIFE Files are forged tapering and similar in shape to the blade
of a pocket knife ; are double-cut and used for filing the inner angles
of the sear, mainsprings of gunlocks and work of similar shape.
Rasps differ from single or double-cut files from the fact that the
teeth are detached and not shaped like single or double-cut point
teeth each rasp tooth being made with a pointed tool called a ' 'punch. ' '
The essential features are that the teeth thus formed are so placed
that in use they produce uniform work and cut fast.
The ordinary Horse-shoeing Rasp is forged the same at both ends,
has punched teeth on one side and double-cut teeth on the other.
Some Horse Rasps are forged with a tang at one end for handle,
punched teeth on one side and double-cut teeth on the other. In the
ordinary Horse Rasp the punched teeth on one side and double-cut
teeth on the other are formed to cut from each end to the centre.
Horse Rasps are single cut on the edges.
Flat Wood Rasps are forged similar to Flat Files, are single-cut
on the edges and punched teeth-on the sides.
Half- Round Wood Rasps are formed similar to Half- Round Files,
have punched teeth on both round and flat sides.
Half- Round Shoe Rasps are forged parallel to width, with sides
slightly tapered from the middle. The ends are round and single-cut ;
the edges are not cut ; the sides are usually made half file and half
rasp reversed and are fast taking the place of the old fashioned
Cabinet Rasps and Files are half- round ; forged thinner than other
half-round rasps and files. The rasp is punched on round and flat sides
and some have their edges single-cut. The File is double-cut on round
and flat sides. These Rasps and Files are used by cabinet, saddle-tree,
pattern and last-makers, gunstock makers and fine woodworkers
There are many other files which are more or less used, such as
Auger Bit Files,
Band Saw Files,
Gin Saw Files,
Pit Saw Files,
Stave Saw Files,
Mowing Machine Files Topping Files,
Needle Files, Tumbler Files,
To describe these, their shapes and uses would extend this article
unduly, for in connection with them the whole class of Superfine Files
has been omitted.
These latter are made in various shapes and sizes, with extremely
fine teeth, graded from No. 00 (the coarsest) to No. 8 (the finest).
They are used principally for fine tool making and work on fine
machinery, where close, smooth filing is necessary.
Section of Superfine File Department.
EVERY FILE STAMPED
AS A FILE
A FULL LINE OF
THE VARIOUS KINDS
AND SIZES OF FILES.
SPECIAL PATTERNS MADE TO ORDER.
To produce good knives there are three important requisites ;
Good steel, good temper, and good workmanship. The "Disston"
Knives have attained their enviable reputation through careful and con-
stant attention to these three points.
All our steel is made especially for the purpose intended, and of a
superior quality; the welding of steel face to back in the " Disston"
Knives insures the strongest union possible, see illustration ; the
temper cannot be excelled for uniformity and toughness, and our work-
manship is the best that skilled labor can produce.
We are prepared to furnish knives of any size or kind for cutting
wood, paper and metal, including Planer, Chipper, Hog, Moulding,
Spoke, Stave, Stave Jointer, Mitre, Paper Trimming, Veneer and Bob-
bin Knives, Shear and Stop Cutter Blades, Moulding Cutter Blanks, etc.
In ordering Planer and similar knives with slots, place sample
knife face down on a piece of paper and mark around to show length,
position and size of slots, state width and thickness, number of knives
wanted and number in a set ; also state temper required, whether high
to grind only ; medium to file slowly ; soft to file easily.
All Planing Machine Knives will be made with square backs,
unless otherwise ordered.
Orders for Moulding Knives should be accompanied with sample
piece of moulding or an outline drawing of shape of moulding desired,
or ordered by pattern number as shown in National Moulding Book,
list adopted April 15th, 1896, by Sash, Door and Blind Manufacturers'
Association ; also give width of cylinder head and size of bolt used.
We are pleased to furnish information at all times regarding
knives, also diagram sheets for marking out patterns of knives. Cor-
DISSTON MACHINE KNIVES.
SOLID MILLED MATCHER BITS.
ukr attStion^o^I^to^ CHIPPER KNIVES.
Machine Knives, of which CONCAVED KNIVES-
CHAIR ROUNDING KNIVES.
Having made Knives for years
and in our own factory use
quantities of Planer Knives,
Moulding Knives, Shear
Blades, etc., we therefore
have a practical knowledge
of what they should do, and
make them so they will do it.
SPOKE KNIVES for DEFIANCE LATHES.
The Disston Knives are man-
ufactured of a Steel made in
our works expressly to suit
the purpose intended ; our
method of welding the face
to back insures the strongest
union possible; the temper
is uniform throughout, and
the results obtained warrant
us in claiming the
DISSTON KNIVES ARE UNEQUALED.
FLAT or SPIRAL
CORK, LEATHER, PAPER OR CLOTH KNIVES.
Our stock for these knives is made especially for the purpose and
is the finest quality of edge-tool steel. This with our new process of
tempering and grinding and the highest class of workmanship, enables
us to turn out knives that for general superiority stand unequaled.
In ordering knives give diameter, gauge, size of hole, whether to
be beveled on both sides or only on one, and how deep bevel is to run.
If knife is a large one and screws to plate or flange send flange to us
or an accurate tracing of holes, stating whether one or both sides are
to be beveled ; if only one side, state whether screw holes are to be
counter-sunk or flat on beveled side. Circular and straight knives for
cutting rubber, cork, etc., made to order.
We manufacture all sizes and styles of Springs, Cutting
Implements and Tools.
Flat Springs, Slitter Blades, Candy Knives,
Loom Springs, Perforator Blades, Shuttle Covers,
Flat and Curved Plates for Scoring, Cutting and Creasing
Presses. Steel Cut to all shapes*
These are Made of Various Patterns.
TABLE SHOWING VALUE of DISSTON WIRE GAUGE
Corresponds Exactly with Stubb's English Gauge.
In Decimal and fractional parts of an inch, with the weight of a
square foot of Sheet Steel.
DISSTON WIRE GAUGE
ca o DIS
/ O O n n $
U L LTLTr
No. I. Small Gauge, I to 26
To find circumference of a circle multiply diameter by 3.1416.
To find diameter of a circle multiply circumference by .31831.
To find area of a circle multiply square of diameter by .7854.
To find surface of a ball multiply square of diameter by 3.1416.
To find side of an equal square multiply diameter by .8862.
To find cube inches in a ball multiply cube of diameter by .5236.
To ascertain heating surface in tubular boilers multiply the
circumference of boiler by length of boiler in inches and add to it the
area of all the tubes. The actual effective heating surface of a tube,
however, is only 1 J times its diameter, multiplied by its length.
One-sixth of tensile strength of plate multiplied by thickness of
plate and divided by one-half the diameter of boiler gives safe working
pressure for tubular boilers. For marine boilers add 20 per cent, for
Steam rising from water at its boiling point (212 degrees) has a
pressure equal to the atmosphere (14.7 Ibs to the square inch).
To find the horse-power of Engines, multiply the area of piston by
the average steam pressure. Multiply this product by the travel of
piston in feet per minute, divide this product by 33,000 and the quotient
will be the horse-power.
NOTE. As there is always a very appreciable difference between
the pressure of steam in boiler and on piston we advocate figuring the
average steam pressure on the piston at one- half the pressure carried on
boilers. The result will then be nearer the actual power.
A cubic foot of water contains 7J gallons, or 1,728 cubic inches,
and weighs 62J pounds.
A gallon of water contains 231 cubic inches, and weighs 8J pounds
(U. S. standard).
The friction of water in pipes is as the square of the velocity.
The capacity of pipes is as the square of their diameters; thus
doubling the diameter of a pipe increases the capacity four times.
The height of a column of fresh water, equal to a pressure of one
pound per square inch, is 2.31 feet. (In usual computations, this is
taken as two feet, thus allowing for ordinary friction).
To find the area of a piston, square the diameter and multiply by
Each horse-power of boilers requires 30 Ibs. of water from feed at
a temperature of 100 degrees to steam at 70 Ibs. pressure.
To compute the horse-power necessary to elevate water to a given
height, multiply the total weight of column of water in pounds by the
velocity per minute in feet, and divide the product by 33,000. (An
allowance of 25 per cent, should be added for fricton, etc.).
To compute the capacity of pumping engines, multiply the area of ,
the water piston, in inches, by the distance it travels, in inches, in a
given time. The product divided by 231 gives number of gallons in
To find the capacity of a cylinder in gallons, multiply the area, in
inches, by the length of stroke, in inches, which will give the total
number of cubic inches ; divide this product by 231 (which is the
cubical contents of a gallon in inches), and quotient is capacity in
CARE OF BOILERS.
The following rules are compiled from those issued by the various
Boiler Insurance Companies in this country and Europe, supplemented
by our own experience. They are applicable to all boilers, except as
ATTENTION NECESSARY TO SECURE SAFETY.
1. SAFETY VALVES. Great care should be exercised to see that
these valves are ample in size and in working order. Overloading or
neglect frequently lead to the most disastrous results. Safety valves
should be tried at least once every day to see that they will act freely.
2. PRESSURE GAUGE. The steam gauge should stand at zero
when the pressure is off, and it should show same pressure as the safety
valve when that is blowing off. If not, then one is wrong, and the
gauge should be tested by one known to be correct.
3. WATER LEVEL. The first duty of an engineer before starting,
or at the beginning of his watch, is to see that the water is at the
proper height. Do not rely on glass gauges, floats or water alarms,
but try the gauge cocks. If they do not agree with water gauge, learn
the cause and correct it.
4. GAUGE COCKS AND WATER GAUGES must be kept clean.
Water gauge should be blown out frequently, and the glasses and pass-
ages to gauges kept clean. The Manchester, Kng. Boiler Association
attributes more accidents to inattention to water gauges, than to all
other causes put together.
5. FEED PUMP OR INJECTOR. These should be kept in perfect
order, and be of ample size. No make of pump can be expected to be
continuously reliable without regular and careful attention. It is always
safe to have two means of feeding a boiler. Check valves and self-
acting feed valves should be frequently examined and cleaned. Satisfy
yourself frequently that the valve is acting when the feed pump is
6. Low WATER. In case of low water, immediately cover the
fire with ashes (wet if possible), or any earth that may be at hand. If
nothing else is handy use fresh coal or saw dust. Draw fire as soon as
it can be done without increasing the heat. Neither turn on the feed,
start or stop engine, or lift safety valve until fires are out, and the
boiler cooled down.
7. BLISTERS AND CRACKS. These are liable to occur in the best
plate iron. When the first indication appears there must be no delay
in having it carefully examined and properly cared for.
FUSIBLE PLUGS, when used must be examined when the boiler is
cleaned and carefully scraped on both the water and firesides, or they
are liable not to act.
ATTENTION NECESSARY TO SECURE ECONOMY.
8. CLEANING. All heating surfaces must be kept clean, outside
and in, or there will be a serious waste of fuel. The frequency of
cleaning will depend on the nature of fuel and water. As a rule, never
allow over T V inch scale or soot to collect on surfaces between cleanings.
Hand-holes should be frequently removed and surfaces examined,
particularly in case of new boiler, until proper intervals have been
established by experience. Scale T V of an inch causes a loss of about
'13% in fuel, and \ inch scale a loss of 38%.
9. HOT FEED WATER. Cold water should never be fed into any
boiler when it can be avoided, but when necessary it should be caused
to mix with the heated water before coming in contact with any portion
of the boiler. If feed water is raised from 55 degrees to 200 degrees,
which a good heater should do, it will save 13J% in fuel.
10. FOAMING. When foaming occurs in a boiler, checking the
outflow of steam will usually stop it. If caused by dirty waters,
blowing down and pumping up will generally cure it. In case of violent
foaming, check the draft and fires.
-^ " 203
11. AIR LEAKS. Be sure that all openings for admission of air
to boiler or flues except through the fire are carefully stopped. This
is frequently an unsuspected cause of serious waste.
12. BLOWING OFF. If the feed-water is muddy or salt, blow off
a portion frequently, according to condition of water. Empty the
boiler every week or two, and fill up afresh. When surface blow-cocks
are used, they should be often opened for a few minutes at a time.
Make sure no water is escaping from the blow-off cock when it is
supposed to be closed. Blow-off cocks and check- valves should be
examined every time the boiler is cleaned.
ATTENTION NECESSARY TO SECURE DURABILITY.
13. L,EAKS. When leaks are discovered, they should be repaired
as soon as possible.
14. BLOWING OFF. Never empty the boiler while brick-work
15. FILLING UP. Never pump cold water into a hot boiler.
Many times leaks, and in shell boilers, serious weakness, and sometimes
explosions are the result of such an action.
16. DAMPNESS. Take care that no water comes in contact with
the exterior of the boiler from any cause, as it tends to corrode and
weaken the boiler. Beware of all dampness in seating or coverings.
17. GALVANIC ACTION. Examine frequently parts in contact
with copper or brass where water is present, for signs of corrosion. If
water is salt or acid, some metallic zinc placed in the boiler will usually
prevent corrosion, but it will need attention and renewal from time to
18. RAPID FIRING. In boilers with thick plates or seams
exposed to the fire, steam should be raised slowly, and rapid or intense
firing avoided. With thin water tubes, however, and adequate water
circulation, no damage can come from this cause.
19. STANDING UNUSED. If a boiler is not required for some time
empty and dry it thoroughly. If this is impracticable, fill it quite full
of water and put in a quantity of common washing soda. External
parts exposed to dampness should receive a coating of linseed oil.
20. GENERAL CLEANLINESS. All things about the boiler room
should be kept clean and in good order. Negligence tends to waste
The average thickness of single belts is T 3 ^- of an inch and a safe
working load is assumed to be 45 Ibs. per inch in width, which, at a
velocity of 60 square feet per minute is equal to one horse power.
Belt motion should not exceed 3,000 feet per minute. Where
narrow belts are run over small pulleys a distance of 15 feet between
shafts, and which gives a sag of 1^ to 2 inches in the belt is good
practice. For main belts working on large pulleys a greater distance
and sag is desirable.
The strongest side of the belt is the flesh side one-third the way
through, therefore run the grain (hair) side on the pulley.
A common rule for determining the width of a single belt T \ of an
inch thick to transmit any number of horse power, is to multiply the
actual horse power by 1,000 and divide by the velocity of belt in feet
per minute, which gives the width in inches.
A belt 1 inch wide, 800 feet per minute one horse power.
To find the length of a belt, add the diameter of the two pulleys
together, divide the result by 2 and multiply quotient by 3-f, then add
the product of twice the distance between centre of shafts and you
have the length required.
The resistance of belts to slipping is independent of their breadth.
There is no advantage derived in increasing the width beyond that
necessary to resist the strain to which it is subjected.
Long belts are more effective that short ones.
The strain of 350 lb. per square inch of section is a safe working
load. The pulley should be a little wider than belt.
STRENGTH OF ICE.
Ice 2 inches thick will bear men on foot.
Ice 4 inches thick will bear men on horseback.
Ice 6 inches thick will bear logging teams with light loads.
Ice 8 inches thick will bear logging teams with heavy loads.
Ice 10 inches thick will bear 1.000 Ibs. to the square foot.
This table is for pure sound ice.
To ascertain the number of feet (board measure) in a log of a
given size, deduct four inches from its diameter at small end, square the
remainder, multiply the product by the length of log and divide by 16,
the result will be the board measure contents of log. Logs over 24
feet in length are usually measured at centre for diameter.
In 1840 Henry Disston made but FEW Saws a day.
1850 Made SOME Dozens each of various kinds of Saws pet
1860 The DISSTON SAW WORKS turned out HUNDREDS
OF DOZENS of Saws per week.
1865 Factory destroyed by fire immediately rebuilt.
1870 Sales increased to THOUSANDS OF DOZENS per month.
Factory again destroyed by fire and rebuilt.
1880 Mounted up to TENS OF THOUSANDS OF DOZENS
1885 Handle Department destroyed by fire rebuilt at once.
1890 Leaped to HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF DOZENS
1900 MILLIONS of Saws of various patterns were made AND
1916 SALES STILL INCREASING AND THE DEMAND
FOR DISSTON BRAND OF SAWS AND TOOLS UN-
It is the perfectly natural result of an earnest, well-
directed effort to make Saws that would DO the work intended;
formed to do it with the greatest ease ; of a superior quality of
material so tempered as to hold the cutting edge the longest pos-
sible time, and finished in a workmanlike manner.
WE MANUFACTURE A COMPLETE LINE OF
Barrel Stave Saws
Beef Splitter Saws
Brazing Clamps forBandSaws
Butcher Blades and Saws
Chisel Tooth Circular Saws
Machine for Sharpening
Circular Saws for Wood
Circular Saws for Metal
Circular Saws for Slate
Clamps for Brazing Saws
Clamps for Filing Saws
Combination Hand Saws
Concave Saws Circular
Crosscut Saws and Tools
Discs for Cutting Cold Metal
Eccentric Bandsaw Swage
Emery Wheel Gummer
Files and Rasps
Filing Guides and Clamps
Flanges for Saws
Handles for Saws
Hand, Panel and Rip Saws
Hand Hack Saws
Inserted Tooth Circular Saws
Jointer for Handsaws
Knives Cane, Corn, Hedge
Knives Circular for Cork,
Cloth, Leather, Paper
Levels Masons', Pocket,
Leveling Blocks for Bandsaws
Lock Corner Cutters
Mason's Mitre Rods
Metal Slitting Saws
Midget Saw Punch
Milling Saws for Metal
Mitre Rods Masons'
Mitre Saws Circular
Nest of Saws
One-man Crosscut Saws
Pattern Makers' Saws
Pit Saws and Tiller Handles
Plumb and Levels
Pork Packers' Saws
Pruning Hook and Knife
Pruning Saw and Knife
Punch for Saw Blades
Rail Hack Saws
Gauges Carpenters' Marking Rift Saws
Mortise Saw Clamps & Filing Guides
Wire Saw Knives
Gin Roller Blades Sawsets
Grooving Saws Saw Screws
Gummers Saw Scrapers Cabinet
Hack Saw Blades, Frames Screw Drivers
Hack Saw Handsaw pattern Screw Press
Half-back Bench Saw Screw Slotting Saws
Scroll Saws Fay's
Shear for Trimming
Slate Saws Circular
Slitting Saws for Metal
Solder for Brazing Bandsaws
Springs, Tools, etc.
Squares Machinists' ,
Mitre, Try and Bevel
Tiller and Box Handles
Tools for Fitting X-cut Saws
Tools for Repairing Saws
Tools and Springs, etc.
Top Saws for Double Mills
Webs Canadian, Felloe,
Fay, Turning or Chair
Web Saw Frames
Boys' Buck Saws
Bucks, Frames, Rods
Wrench for Chisel Tooth Saws
Disston High Speed Steel
" Special Tool "
" Extra Tool "
" Standard Tool"
Disston Special Steels for all
Sheets, Bars, Hot Rolled,
Cold Rolled, Hammered
USED IN THE
MAKING, RUNNING art REPAIRING SAWS
Alignment 28, 103
Balance Out of 84
Blocking 23, 98
Briar Dress 32, 34
Brazing 98, 111
Buckled 38, 56, 91
Burr . 38
Chattering 38, 39, 84
Clearance 23, 31, 33
Crowding ........ 31, 92
Crowning 100, 104
Dodge 38, 107
Dressed 21, 23
Fast . . . . 104
Feed . . 27, 43
Fitting 32, 35
Flat 28, 88, 105
Gauge or thickness 25
Gullet 36, 40
Gumming 38, 44
Hand 36, 101
Heating 28, 38, 94
Hook .34, 108
Jumper 33, 49
Kerf . 31
Lead 28, 34
Left-Hand 26, 101
Log side 28
Loose ... .... 38, 84, 104
Lump Twist . < 89, 91
Open 23, 84, 105
Out of Balance 84
Out of Line 38
Out of Round 32
Pitch 39, 67
Rattle 84, 90
Set t .... 31, 34
Side Filing 34
Smithing 21, 97
Snakey 38, 84, 90
Speed 30, 43
Spread Set 23, 32
Spring Set 23, 34
Square Corners 36
Swaging 23, 32. 33
Tension 23, 29, 38, 84
True 28, 29, 89
Under Cut 37
Upset 23, 33, 49
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