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Full text of "Distribution of Quota Registrants in 1990 by Grade Placement, Visual Activity, Reading Medium, School or Agency Type, and Age : A Replication of Wright's 1988 Study"

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Distribution of Quota Registrants in 1990 

by Grade Placement, Visual Acuity, Reading Medium, 

School or Agency Type, and Age: A Replication 

of Wright's 1988 Study 



Karen J. Poppe 



American Printing House for the Blind 
Louisville, Kentucky 

1991 



Running Head: QUOTA REGISTRANTS 






Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Lyrasis Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/distributionofqOOkare 



Distribution of Quota Registrants in 1990 

by Grade Placement, Visual Acuity, Reading Medium, 

School or Agency Type, and Age: A Replication 

of Wright's 1988 Study 



Karen J. Poppe 



American Printing House for the Blind 
Louisville, Kentucky 

1991 



Running Head: QUOTA REGISTRANTS 



P2/£> 



Quota Registrants 

1 



Abstract 

Legally blind students are registered with the American Printing House for the Blind an- 
nually for purposes of the federal Act to Promote the Education of the Blind of 1879. 
This yearly census is used to determine the number of eligible students enrolled in vari- 
ous schools and agencies in order to allocate funds intended for the procurement of books 
and educational materials produced by the American Printing House for the visually 
handicapped. Periodically in-depth studies of these data are conducted to discern trends 
and characteristics of this relatively small, yet diverse population. This study examines 
the data compiled from the 1990 Federal Quota Registration. Additional attention is 
given to comparing the information reported in this study to the 1987 Registration data 
prepared by Wright (1988). As of January 2, 1990, a total of 48,071 legally blind stu- 
dents were registered. Several deletions and alterations were made to this original Regis- 
tration sample; consequently, the current analysis was based on the remaining 45,743 
students, 95.2% of the total number registered. Detailed, via a table-to-table discussion, 
is the distribution of the 1990 quota registrants among categories defining grade place- 
ment, visual acuity, primary reading medium, type of enrolling school or agency, and 
average age. Generally, most students (85.3%) were registered in day school programs as 
reported by State Departments of Education. The remaining 14.7% were enrolled in 
either residential schools for the blind, rehabilitation agencies, or multihandicapped 
facilities. Nearly one-fifth of the students occupied early childhood grade placements; 
30.9% were enrolled in grades 1-12; 14.8% were adult trainees; 30% were other reg is- 
trants : and the remaining registrants were classified as either academic nongraded, post- 
graduate, or vocational students. An almost equal poportion of students were either 
visual readers or nonreaders; 10.1% read braille; 1 1.2% used auditory material; and 
20.1% were classified as prereaders. The majority of the study's population (48.4%) had 
profound visual impairments, yet nearly 44% had acuities which fell between 20/200 and 
8/200 on the opposite end of the visual acuity scale. The remaining 7.7% had acuities 
which fell within the intermediate visual acuity range indicating severe visual impair- 
ment. 



Quota Registrants 

2 



Quota Registrants 

3 

Distribution of Quota Registrants in 1990 

by Grade Placement, Visual Acuity, Reading Medium, 

School Agency Type, and Age: A Replication 

of Wright's 1988 Study 

Each year legally blind students are registered with the American Printing House for 
the Blind for purposes of the federal Act to Promote the Education of the Blind of 1879. 
This annual census of the nation's visually handicapped (termed Federal Quota Registra- 
tion) registers any student who: 

• meets the definition of legal blindness (a central visual acuity of 20/200 or less in 
the better eye with correcting glasses or a peripheral field so contracted that the 
widest diameter of such field subtends an angular distance no greater than 20 de- 
grees) 

• is enrolled in a formally organized, public or private, nonprofit educational program 
of less than college level 

• is enrolled with the registering school or agency on the first Monday in January 

2 

• has a written individual education plan or other written education plan 

The primary purpose of the Federal Quota Registration is to determine the number of 
eligible students enrolled in various schools and agencies in order to allocate funds to be 
used for the procurement of books and educational materials produced by the American 
Printing House for the Blind. The allocations are determined on a per capita basis by 

1. In 1990, the first Monday in January was a legal holiday; therefore, Tuesday, January 2, 1990 was 
declared the effective "as of date. 

2. Students in education programs-but not enrolled in grade 12 or below-are required to have a 
written individual plan or other written education plan and must be enrolled in and attend, on a regular 
basis, an instructional program of at least 20 hours of instruction per week. Social and leisure programs do 
not qualify as instructional programs. 



Quota Registrants 
4 

dividing the total number of students registered into the total amount of funds appropri- 
ated by Congress for quota purposes. 

The information collected through this census also permits the examination of the 
distribution and characteristics of the surveyed population. For each eligible student 
registered, the following data are collected: 

• Student's name 

• Student's date of birth 

• Name of enrolling school or agency 

• Student's grade placement 

• Degree of vision in each eye with correction as reported by an eye specialist 

• Primary reading medium employed by the student 

The American Printing House for the Blind issues a brief report each year detailing 
the distribution of legally blind students according to grade placement, enrolling school/ 
agency, and reading medium. Less frequently, more in-depth studies are conducted to 
discern developing trends within the population and to report general characteristics of 
pupils requiring materials and services for the visually handicapped. Such studies of the 
past reflect the Registration figures of 1960, 1963, 1966, 1969, 1972, 1976, 1979, and 
1987 as prepared by Jones (1961), Nolan (1964, 1967), Nolan & Bott (1971), Bunuan 
(1972), Willis (1978, 1982), and Wright (1988), respectively. The study which follows is 
a detailed examination of the data compiled from the 1990 Federal Quota Registration. 
Additional attention is given to comparing the information examined in this study to the 
1987 Registration data; such an interstudy comparison was not feasible for Wright (1988) 
due to some irregularities in how the data were reported to the American Printing House 
for the Blind during 1987 and the previous years. Categories of information requested 
are since more clearly defined and mutually exclusive, allowing for more direct compari- 
sons. For example, in 1987 the adult trainee category was broadened to include all adult 
students over school age, while all other categories were restricted to preschool and 



Quota Registrants 

5 

school age pupils. Prior to 1987, as Wright (1988) reports, "the postgraduate and other 
registrant categories remained open to adults who met the criteria for these placements" 
(p. 5). 

As of January 2, 1990, a total of 48,071 legally blind students were registered with 
the American Printing House for the Blind. The distribution of these registrants across 
all grade placements is displayed in Table 1 ; the numbers of students reported within 
these categories during the previous three years are also given. This period from 1987 to 
1990, in relation to the Federal Quota Registration, most represented a continuity of 
unaltered reporting code definitions. Brief descriptions of all student placement catego- 
ries as they relate to school/agency type (4 categories), grade placement (20 categories), 
reading medium (5 categories), and visual acuity (9 categories) are appended. 

In preparation for the analysis of the 1990 Registration data, several deletions were 
necessary as to make the current study comparable to Wright's (1988) in-depth examina- 
tion of the 1987 Registration, as well as to eliminate ambiguous data in an effort to make 
the study more experimentally sound. Omission of a student from the total population 
was warranted if: (a) the student was reported by the Hadley School for the Blind, which 
primarily offers adult instruction by correspondence; (b) if a student was reported with a 
visual acuity in category X (field restriction) in one or both eyes making it difficult to 
categorize his/her visual acuity for comparison with other students; or (c) if a student 
with a "better eye" category of VIE (light projection or perception) or IX (totally blind) 
was reported using a visual reading medium, indicating an error in the application of 
reporting codes or in reported acuity. Consequently, a total of 2,328 students were 
deleted from the final 1990 Registration figures. Thus, the current analysis is based on 
data of the remaining 45,743 students, 95.2% of the total number registered. 

Aside from the omissions described above, a single alteration was implemented: all 
students under 6 years of age were assigned a reading medium of prereader . As 



Quota Registrants 
6 

Wright (1988) explains, "it was considered that these students, though working with 
braille, print, or taped materials, were not yet using these as reading media in their studies 
and were, therefore, working at a readiness level" (p.7). A total of 3,900 students 
younger than 72 months of age were reclassified as prereaders. Finally, all students were 
assigned to one of nine visual acuity categories based upon the reported amount of vision 
in the better eye. These categories ranged from a visual acuity of 20/200 to total blind- 
ness as outlined in the Appendix. 

To reiterate, some differences exist between the population upon which many of the 
tables in this report were calculated and the entire population of students registered in 
1990. Tables 2 through 20 which follow reflect these modified figures. 

Actual counts, raw data, are presented in the tables and figures accompanying this 
report. This makes possible further analyses of the data by users of this report. 



Quota Registrants 

7 

Table 1 

Distribution of Registrants bv Grade Placement. 1987-1990 

Table 1 shows the distribution of registrants by grade placement from 1987 to 1990. 
In 1990, a total of 48,071 students were registered, representing an 1 1% increase since 
the last in-depth analysis of the Registration data; at that time, a total of 43,145 students 
were legally blind. This overall increase in the number of students registered was largely 
accounted for by an increase in the number of registrants classified as adult trainees. 
Most likely the escalating number of the adult trainees reported is the result of the im- 
proved application of reporting codes; in 1987, many "over age" students were classified 
as other registrants , in turn contributing to the large population of other registrant stu- 
dents registered that year— 15,532 compared to 13,914 in 1990. The number of early 
childhood registrants in infant and preschool programs also grew from 1987 to 1990 
revealing, respectively, a 36% and 18% increase. This growth is not surprising consider- 
ing the recent federal legislation extending services to young handicapped children. Of 
the remaining grade placements, the postgraduate population dwindled from 91 to 24 stu- 
dents over 3 years, representing the largest decrease in any category. This reduction was 
likely the aftermath of the 1985 resolution, applied for the first time in 1987, which 
limited quota eligibility for students who were not enrolled in grade 12 or below. Also 
evident was a steady decrease in the number of vocational students-almost a 28% de- 
crease since 1987. 

Table 2 

Grade Placement 

Table 2 displays the number of students in each grade placement. Combining the 
numbers of infant, preschool, and kindergarten students reveals that one-fifth of the 
population fell within the early childhood range with infants and preschoolers represent- 
ing similar proportions of the total study population (7.6% and 9.5%, respectively); the 



Quota Registrants 
8 

remaining 2.9% were kindergarteners. As a group, students in grades 1-12 composed 
almost 31% of the total population of legally blind registrants. Between 869 and 1,401 
students (1.9%-3.1% of the total number in the study) were reported in each of these 
grade placements. Academic nongraded students composed slightly less than 4% of the 
total population. Included in this grade placement are those students who work on an 
academic level but are not assigned to a regular grade, such as adventitiously blind school 
age students. Postgraduate registrants studying at less than college level, as well as 
vocational students, represented less than 1% of the total registration. The other regis- 
trant category formed exactly 30% of the study's total. Almost 15% of the registrants 
were classified as adult trainees, the only category reserved for registrants beyond school 
age. However, Table 18 indicated that 1 16 pupils over 22 years of age were reported as 
other registrant students rather than as adult trainees; Wright (1988) reported a much 
greater number of adult students (2,106) who were incorrectly classified as other regis- 
trants . (It should be noted that "normal" school age is extended beyond the standard 22 
years of age in a few states.) The 10.2% decrease that occurred in the number of other 
re gistrant students over the past 3 years is most likely the result of improved application 
of reporting codes. Figure 1 depicts graphically either the growth or decrease in the total 
number of students enrolled in each grade placement from 1987 to 1990; the students in 
grades 1-12 are grouped together. 

Table 3 

School/Agencv 

In order to qualify for textbooks and educational aids produced by the American 
Printing House for the Blind, every legally blind student must be registered through one 
of four types of programs maintained on the APH Student Registration System (SRS) for 
record keeping purposes. These four types of programs represent a variety of day school 
programs (public or private); residential schools for the blind; facilities serving the mul- 
tihandicapped; rehabilitation agencies; and other private/nonprofit programs serving the 



Quota Registrants 
9 

visually handicapped. Students cannot be registered by two programs; if a student is 
attending two programs, the agency providing the major portion of educational services is 
usually the one program with which the student is registered. 

Table 3 shows the number of students enrolled in each of the four types of programs. 
The majority of students (85.3%) were reported by State Departments of Education (day 
school programs); 9.2% were reported by residential schools for the blind; 2.8% were 
reported by multihandicapped facilities; and the remaining 2.7% were reported by reha- 
bilitation agencies. Although State Departments of Education represent a diversity of 
schools and agencies, from rehabilitation services to a few multihandicapped facilities, 
nonresidential schools comprise the majority of those reporting through this program. 
Therefore, for ease of reference, State Departments for the Blind will be referred to as 
"day school programs" throughout the remainder of this report. This is also consistent 
with the terminology used in the last in-depth study of the Registration data. 

Day schools reported a 13.7% increase in the total number of students registered 
through this program since 1987; Figure 2 confirms a total growth of 4,687 day students. 
All other programs witnessed a minimal population loss. Multihandicapped facilities 
reported the largest decrease of only 5.6%. 

Table 4 

Grade Placement by School/Agency 

Table 4 shows the distribution of registrants according to both grade placement and 
type of enrolling school/agency. An even distribution of pupils in grades 1-12 was 
evident in both day and residential schools. Day students outnumbered residential stu- 
dents approximately 12 to 1 in grades 1-6; grades 7-12 contained fewer day versus 
residential students, averaging 7 day students for every student enrolled by a residential 
school for the blind. These ratios indicate a larger disparity than those reported by 



Quota Registrants 
10 

Wright (1988). Table 4 also reveals that pupils in grades 1-12 made up a similar per- 
centage of the total number of registrants in each type of school (32.5% of day students 
and 34.2% of residential students). These figures resemble those reported in 1987 
(34.2% and 37.6%, respectively.) 

Infant, preschool, and kindergarten pupils made up 20.1% of the total number of 
students enrolled in day school programs, as well as 20.1% of the total number of stu- 
dents enrolled in residential schools. This equality of proportions did not characterize the 
1987 Registration data; at that time, a higher proportion of day school students were reg- 
istered as early childhood students. The majority of students reported in infant, pre- 
school, and kindergarten programs were enrolled in day schools, a citing consistent with 
the trend reported by Wright (1988). Predominantly, 81.4% of all infants, 88.3% of all 
preschoolers, and 88.8% of all kindergarteners were served in day schools; only 8.1%, 
9.6%, and 11% respectively, were enrolled in residential schools for the blind. The 
majority of the remaining registrants classified as infants (10.2%) were registered through 
rehabilitation agencies; these infants represented 28.2% of all registrants enrolled in these 
particular agencies. The decreasing number of infants served by rehabilitation agencies 
is concurrent with the increasing number of infants served by day schools~a growth of 
45.4% over the 3-year duration. 

Students categorized as other registrant , a large percentage of the overall population, 
formed 30.8% of all day pupils and 34. 1% of all residential students. Of all the students 
registered through multihandicapped facilities, 23% were classified as other registrant . 
This proportion indicates a drastic decrease from the 63.5% reported in 1987. This 
significant loss is answered by a corresponding increase in the number of adult trainees 
registered by all school/agency types. The increase in adult trainee registrants can be at- 
tributed to the more accurate reporting of students who are 22 years of age or older. 
Looking at the total number of registrants categorized as other registrant , 87.4% were 
reported by day schools, 10.4% received instruction in residential schools, and a mere 



Quota Registrants 
11 

2.1% were claimed by multihandicapped facilities. Less than 1% were reported by 
rehabilitation agencies for the blind. Figure 3 graphically displays the decrease in the 
number of other registrant students within each school/agency type from 1987 to 1990. 

Adult trainees constituted 12.4% of all registered day students and 3.7% of residential 
pupils. Over 66% of students reported by rehabilitation agencies were categorized as 
adult trainees, and 71.5% of the pupils in multihandicapped facilities were also adult 
trainees. The bulk of adult trainees (71.8%) were registered through day schools. Al- 
most equal percentages of adult trainees were registered in multihandicapped facilities 
and rehabilitation agencies (13.5% and 12.4%, respectively); 2.3% of adult trainees were 
enrolled in residential schools. 

Table 5 

Reading Medium 

Each registrant is classified by a primary reading medium or the lack of a reading 
medium ("nonreading students"). The five categories are: visual (regular print or large 
type), braille, auditory (use of a reader or auditory materials), prereader (readiness level 
materials of any type), or nonreader (for students who do not fit into any of these catego- 
ries). (For purposes of this analysis, all students under 6 years of age were assigned 
membership to the prereader category; consequently, a total of 3,900 students were rede- 
fined as prereaders. Therefore, the figures reported in Table 5 and other tables focusing 
upon reading medium do not reflect the final figures of the 1990 Registration.) Of the 
total number of registrants included in the study, 29.2% primarily used visual reading 
materials, 10.1% used braille, 1 1.2% were primarily dependent on auditory materials, and 
29.4% were nonreaders; it can be assumed that these students were 72 months of age or 
older. The remaining 20.1% were prereaders, a category characterized by students who 
are just beginning to read or adventitiously blind students currently receiving braille 
instruction. 



Quota Registrants 
12 

Figure 4 juxtaposes the distributions of students by primary reading medium during 
1987 and 1990. In 1987 there were 9,528 nonreaders; the 13,450 nonreaders registered 
today indicates a substantial increase of 41.2% in the number of students classified with 
an undetermined reading medium. Most of these nonreaders (62.2%), as Table 7 reveals, 
are other registrants . 

Table 6 

School/Agencv bv Reading Medium 

Table 6 shows the distribution of registrants according to reading medium and type of 
reporting school or agency. Day schools served an approximately equal proportion of 
visual readers as residential schools (30.6% and 25.6%, respectively), but differed mark- 
edly in the proportion of braille readers they served (8.2%) as compared with the substan- 
tial 26.9% served by residential schools. Disparity also exists between the proportion of 
registrants dependent on an auditory means of reading as reported by day schools 
(1 1.2%) and residential schools (6.8%), as well as between the proportion of nonreaders 
served by day schools (29.7%) and residential schools (18.8%). The greatest similarity 
noted between day schools and residential schools in this table is the proportion of pre- 
readers served by each (20.3% and 22%, respectively). However, these figures somewhat 
contradict the trend reported in 1987; at that time, day schools served a slightly higher 
proportion of prereaders: 22.2% compared to 18.5% for the residential population. As 
Wright (1988) states, it is necessary to consider a third variable-grade placement- when 
comparing day and residential schools as both represent a diversity of schools and agen- 
cies; Table 8, which reports grade placement, reading medium, and type of reporting 
school/agency, allows for more descriptive comparisons. 

There was a general increase in the total number of students in all reading medium 
categories who were served by day school programs from 1987 to 1990, except for the 
2.4% decrease in the number of auditory readers. Residential schools, on the otherhand, 



Quota Registrants 
13 

showed an increase in two reading medium categories-prereader and nonreader; the 
percentage of increase for each over this short duration was 16.4% and 20%, respectively. 

Prereaders constituted the largest proportion of students registered through rehabilita- 
tion agencies (24.7%). Table 8 reveals that these were predominantly students enrolled 
in infant programs affiliated with rehabilitation agencies, rather than adventitiously blind 
adults learning the braille code. Auditory readers composed the next largest group served 
by rehabilitation agencies; 98% of these registrants were adult trainees as comfirmed in 
Table 8. Of the remaining students served by rehabilitation agencies, 21.5% read braille, 
18.6% used print materials, and 12.2% were classified as nonreaders. 

Multihandicapped facilities registered 71.2% of their students as nonreaders and 14% 
as auditory readers; these same facilities were only accountable for a small percentage of 
those registrants classified as users of braille, print, or readiness materials (prereader). Of 
all the nonreaders in the study (13,450 students), 6.8% were served by multihandicapped 
facilities; the majority of nonreaders (86.3%) were served in day schools. Combined, 
adult trainees and other registrant students represented 85.6% of the total number of non- 
readers reported by day school programs (see Table 8). 

Table 7 

Grade Placement hv Reading Medium 

Table 7 shows the distribution of registrants according to both grade placement and 
reading medium. The percentage of students in each reading medium category enrolled 
in grades 2-12 are somewhat similar from grade to grade. Between 64.7% and 75.9% 
were visual readers, 16.4 to 22.8% used braille, 1.7 to 4.7% used auditory materials, and 
2.6 to 6.8% were nonreaders. From first grade to fourth grade, the number of registrants 
in the prereader category waned from 15.1% to 4.3%. Thereafter, prereaders constituted 
less than 2% of the total for each remaining middle and secondary grade placements. All 



Quota Registrants 
14 

figures reported above are indicative of a continuing trend cited by Wright (1988) during 
the examination of the 1987 Registration data using the same cross-analysis of grade 
placement by reading medium. 

The majority of legally blind infants (95.3%), preschoolers (78%), and kindergarten- 
ers (35.8%) included in the present study were classified as prereaders-a category re- 
served partly for students under 6 years of age. This pattern of distribution of very young 
registrants across reading medium categories is similar to that reported three years ago; in 
1987 "prereader" was the most common classification for these three groups of children. 
Table 7 reveals that nearly 73% of all prereaders (9,217 students) were registered by 
infant and preschool programs combined; only 5.1% of all prereaders were kindergarten- 



Most academic nongraded pupils were visual readers (38.5%), reflecting a growth of 
4.6% in the total number of academic nongraded readers of print and large type since 
1987. Another large proportion of these students (20.4%) were classified as nonreaders; 
15.4% were braille readers, 15.2% were auditory readers, and the remaining proportion 
were prereaders. The majority of postgraduates (64.7%) and vocational students (37.5%) 
relied primarily on visual materials for reading purposes as well. 

The adult trainee category comprised equal percentages of visual and braille readers 
(10.7% each). However, most of these older students (47.6%) were nonreaders; more 
than half of these adult nonreaders (77.5%) were registered by day schools (see Table 8). 
An even 30% were auditory readers and a mere 1.1% composed the total proportion of 
prereaders. It can be assumed that these prereaders represent blind adults just beginning 
braille instruction. 

Figure 5 juxtaposes the total number of adult trainee readers reported in 1987 to those 
reported in 1990 for each reading medium category. Growth was evident in all 5 cate- 



Quota Registrants 
15 

gories. The number of adult auditory readers and prereaders increased at least 80% each 
since 1987; the number of adult nonreaders almost tripled. This substantial growth in the 
number of nonreaders can probably be attributed foremost to the improved classification 
of adult students, as noted in the discussion of Table 2; it can be assumed that many of 
the "over-aged" other registrant nonreaders reported in 1987 were reported as nonreading 
adult trainees in 1990. 

Nearly 61% of all other registrants were nonreaders, 14.7% were auditory readers, 
1 1.5% were visual readers, 8.7% were prereaders, and 4.3% were braille readers. Wright 
(1988) attributes this large proportion of other registrant nonreaders to the additional 
handicaps which often impede the academic progress of these students. 

Table 8 

School/Agencv hv firade Placement bv Reading Medium 

Table 8 shows the interaction of reading medium, grade placement, and type of re- 
porting school or agency. Essentially, it depicts a finer analysis of all variables studied in 
Table 6 and Table 7 combined. 

First focusing attention on the distribution of day and residential students in grades 1- 
12 registered as primarily braille readers, it is apparent that a disparity existed between 
the proportions of tactual readers each of these school types served. Nearly 44% of the 
residential students in grades 1-12 (625 pupils) were dependent upon braille for most, if 
not all, reading tasks; these students represented 14.9% of the total residential population. 
In comparison, only 16.6% of day school students in grades 1-12 were classified as 
braille readers; these students represented a mere 5.4% of the total day school population. 
The proportions given above are consistent with those reported in 1987; this 3-year span 
accounted for a minimal decrease of 3.5% in the total number of residential students in 
academic grades reading primarily braille, and a 6.5% increase in the total population of 
day school students in these same grade placements also classified as tactual readers. 



Quota Registrants 
16 

Disparity was also evident between the percentage of residential other registrant 
students classified as braille readers and the percentage of day students classified as both 
other registrant and braille reader. A higher percentage of residential other registrant 
students (18.8%) were primarily braille users--6.4% of the total residential population. 
Conversely, only 2.6% of other registrant day students used braille-less than 1% of the 
total day school population. Other registrants were more frequently classified as non- 
readers in all four school/agency types. 

Turning attention to the distribution of visual readers in both school types (day and 
residential schools) reveals again marked differences. A substantial 71.4% of day stu- 
dents in grades 1-12 were visual readers. Less than half of all residential students in 
grades 1-12 (48%) used a visual reading medium (regular print or large type). However, 
both types of schools registered almost equal percentages of other registrant visual 
readers (1 1.6% of other registrant students served in day school programs as compared to 
12.4% of the other registrant population served by residential schools). 

Auditory readers constituted 3.1% of pupils in grades 1-12 educated in day schools 
and formed only 1% of students in grades 1-12 instructed in residential schools. Simi- 
larly, day schools reported a slightly higher percentage of other registrants (15.2%) as 
auditory readers than did residential schools; residential schools registered 168 other 
re gistrant students (1 1.8% of their total enrollment of other registrant students) as audi- 
tory readers. Small differences also characterized the proportions of day school adult 
trainees and residential adult trainees who used auditory materials~31.9% and 28.6%, re- 
spectively. This latter finding is similar to that gleaned from the 1987 Registration data; 
at that time, 32.6% of day school adult trainees were auditory readers compared to 31.7% 
of residential school adult trainees. 

Accounting for 29.7% of all day students and 18.8% of all residential students, 
nonreaders were distributed differently from one academic grade to the next. Between 26 



Quota Registrants 
17 

and 125 day school students in grades 1-12 were reported as nonreaders and between 
and 6 residential students, in these same academic grade placements, were classified as 
nonreaders. More descriptively, students with an undetermined reading medium consti- 
tuted 5% of all students in academic grades 1-12 in day schools and 1.9% of school age 
students in residential schools. The majority of other registrant students in both day and 
residential schools were nonreaders— 62% and 47.6%, respectively. Less dissimilarity 
was evident in the percentage of infant, preschool, and kindergarten nonreaders reported 
by both school types. Of all infant, preschool, and kindergarten students registered in day 
schools, 8.2% were nonreaders; 4.6% of all residential students in these three grade 
placements were likewise nonreaders. Nonreading adult trainees formed a small propor- 
tion (6.4%) of the day school enrollment and less than 1% of the total residential school 
population. 

As might be expected, the majority of infants and preschoolers in both day and resi- 
dential schools were prereaders. Nearly 88.8% of the total number of residential students 
in these two early childhood grade placements were prereaders; a slightly lower propor- 
tion of all infants and preschoolers in day schools (86.2%) were reported as prereaders. 
In contrast, prereaders constituted only 3.9% of students in grades 1-12 enrolled in day 
schools and formed 5.4% of students in primary through secondary grade placements 
enrolled in residential schools. Of all other registrants served in both types of schools, 
8.6% in day schools were classified as prereaders; 9.5% of other registrant students in 
residential schools were reported as prereaders. 

Turning to the a less complex analysis of the distribution of students within the 
various reading medium categories who were reported by multihandicapped facilities and 
rehabilitation agencies, it is apparent that these students were almost exclusively infants, 
preschoolers, adult trainees, and other registrants . Most of the students reported by 
rehabilitation agencies (66.7%) were adult trainees. Of these adult trainees registered 
through rehabilitation agencies, 33.9% used primarily auditory materials, 32.2% used 



Quota Registrants 
18 

braille materials, and 27.9% read visually; and approximately 6% were reported as either 
prereaders or nonreaders. Prereaders in infant and preschool grade placements formed 
23% of the total population of students registered through rehabilitation programs; in 
1987, such students constituted a larger proportion (33.4%) of the total rehabilitation 
population. Slightly over 1% of pupils registered in rehabilitation agencies in 1990 were 
other registrant students; the majority of these students (13 out of 14) were nonreaders. 

A substantial percentage of all students instructed in multihandicapped facilities 
(94.4%) were either other registrants or adult trainees. Over half of all students enrolled 
in multihandicapped facilities (52.4%) were classified as both adult trainee and non- 
reader; another 18.1% of the multihandicapped population were registered as other 
registrant with an undetermined primary reading medium. Wright (1988) reported the 
reverse of these figures; in 1987, a larger proportion of multihandicapped students 
(52.6%) occupied the other registrant and nonreader classifications and the smaller 
proportion (17.1%) described the percentage of nonreading adult trainees. This reversal 
can be attributed to the improved application of reporting codes. Three years ago many 
registrants older than 22 years of age were improperly reported as other registrant as 
discussed in Table 2. 

Table 9 

Visual Acuity 

The visual acuity categories in this study are identical to those used in all in-depth 
studies of the Registration figures since 1966. These visual acuity categories originated 
from the visual notations specified on the form, Eye Report for Children with Visual 
Problems published by the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness (Nolan, 
1967). The exact ranges of each category are as follows: 



Quota Registrants 
19 

Category Visual Acuity 

I 20/200-18/200 

II 17/200-13/200 

III 12/200- 8/200 

IV 7/200- 3/200 

V 2.5/200- .4/200 

VI counts fingers 

VII hand movements, form 

and object perception 

VIII light projection and perception 
XI totally blind (nil) 

In general, categories I-III are reserved for each registrant reporting a moderate visual 
disability; these students might depend on regular print or large print, perhaps with the 
assistance of optical aids or special lighting, as their primary reading medium (Scholl, 
1986). The severely visually handicapped, with acuities ranging from 7/200 to "counts 
fingers," are represented in categories IV- VI; frequently these students will either utilize 
high-powered optical devices or CCTV (closed-circuit television) for visual reading 
purposes, or may opt for a nonvisual reading medium. The remaining three categories 
(VII-IX) are reserved for students with profound visual loss. Due to the minimal or total 
lack of residual vision, most of these students are unable to use a visual reading medium. 
Assignment to all categories was based upon the corrected vision in the better eye. (Re- 
member that 820 students with a visual acuity in category X (field restriction) were 
omitted from the original 1990 Registration data for purposes of this analysis because 
acuity was not the determinant of legal blindness.) 

Table 9 displays an uneven distribution of students among the nine visual acuity 
categories. The largest percentage of registrants (33.2%) were reported with the best 
possible acuity recorded (20/200-18/200). Comparably, 21.2% of the registrants had no 



Quota Registrants 
20 

vision (category IX), and 17.6% had only "light projection" or "perception" (category 
VIE). The remaining categories (II- VII) contained between 201 and 4,424 students (be- 
tween .4% and 9.7% of the total population). 

Table 9 also reveals that nearly 79% of the total registration had some residual vision 
(categories I- VIII). Students with the most resticted vision (categories VII-IX) consti- 
tuted the largest proportion (48.4%) of the population studied; a similarly large percent- 
age of students (43.9%) were classified with moderate visual losses. Only 7.7% of the 
registrants fell within the middle categories (IV- VI). 

Figure 6 compares the number of students registered within each visual acuity cate- 
gory during 1990 with those legally blind students registered 3 years earlier. An increase 
is evident for all visual acuity levels. An increase of at least 27% occurred for both cate- 
gory VI and category VII. The total number of students with acuities ranging from 
2.5/200 to .4/200 (category V) remained constant since the last in-depth registration 
analysis. 

Table 10 

School/Agency fry Visual Acuity 

Table 10 presents the distribution of students according to two variables: type of 
school/agency and visual acuity. Day and residential programs mirrored each other in the 
percentage of totally blind pupils they served: 20% of day students and 23.6% of resi- 
dential students were placed in category DC. Thus, 80% of all day registrants and 76.4 % 
of all residential students had some degree of residual vision; these proportions reflect 
minimal changes to those proportions reported in 1987 (79.4% and 76.9%, respectively). 

Figure 7 presents these data from a somewhat different perspective; it compares, via 
two pie charts, the percentage of day students versus residential students who are either 



Quota Registrants 
21 

potential visual readers (categories I-VII) or most likely unable to benefit from print ma- 
terials of any type (categories VIII-IX). Such a comparison was made originally by Jones 
(1961) using the 1960 Registration data. Day schools, as anticipated, reported a larger 
proportion of students (62.9%) with object perception or better (categories I-VII). Never- 
theless, over half of the students in residential schools (54.5%) were classified within this 
same visual acuity range. 

Combining the figures for categories I-HI reveals that 45.8% of day students and 
34.3% of residential students have moderate visual losses. Grouping the three most 
restrictive visual acuity categories (VII-IX) indicates that nearly 47% of the day pupils 
and 54.8% of the residential pupils have profound visual impairments. Severe visual loss 
categories (IV- VI) accounted for a small percentage of the total number of registrants in 
each school/agency type: 7.5% of the day school population and 10.9% of the residential 
population had visual acuities within this intermediate range. 

Rehabilitation agencies reported more than half of their students (57%) with acuities 
in categories (VII-IX), 33.7% of whom were totally blind (category DC). Almost one- 
third of students receiving instruction in rehabilitation agencies reported acuities in 
categories I-III, and the remaining 10.3% fell within the intermediate categories (IV-VI). 

The most severely handicapped population is registered in multihandicapped facili- 
ties, where 70.1% of the students fell within the three lowest visual acuity levels (VII- 
IX); 38.2% of these particular students reported no remaining vision. On the opposite 
end of the spectrum, 27.5% of the pupils registered in multihandicapped facilities fell 
within the three highest acuity categories (I-III); only 2.4% reported visual acuities within 
the intervening categories (IV-VI). 



Quota Registrants 

22 

Table 11 

Gra^e Placement fry Visual Acuity 

Table 1 1 displays the interaction of grade placement and visual acuity. Students in 
grades 1-12 were distributed somewhat evenly from one grade to the next within each of 
the nine visual acuity categories. This trend is consistent with that noted during the 
analysis of the 1987 Registration data. Combining all students in grades 1-12, the major- 
ity of pupils (53.5%) were classified in the least restrictive visual acuity category (cate- 
gory I). Conversely, less than 10% of the registrants were reported with no remaining 
vision (category IX). Sizes of all intervening categories (II- VIII) ranged from .6% to 
13.5%. An overwhelming proportion of all school age registrants had some degree of 
residual vision; in other words, only 1,388 students in grades 1-12 (14,1 18 pupils) were 
totally blind. 

Examining the distribution of students in grades 1-12 according to the three descrip- 
tive levels of vision (i.e., moderate, severe, or profound), it is apparent that most of these 
academic registrants (72%) were reported to have acuities of at least 8/200 or better; 
19.7% fell within the "profound visual impairment" range (categories VII-IX); and the 
remaining 8.3% were classified as having severe visual losses (categories IV-VI). This 
distribution of students in grades 1-12 mirrors that reported three years ago. 

Table 1 1 reveals that the distribution of all kindergarten students across all visual 
acuity categories closely resembles that reported above for students in primary through 
secondary grades, yet differs significantly from the distribution of students in the other 
grade placements. A much greater proportion of infant/preschool students (61.3%) were 
reported within the three most restrictive visual acuity categories; 30.6% had acuities 
within the range of categories I-III; and only 8.1% were classified as having a severe 
visual loss (categories IV-VI). About 18% of the infant/preschool population were 



Quota Registrants 

23 

totally blind, compared with the 9.8% of the students in academic grade placements; 
Wright (1988) offered a threefold explanation for such a difference in proportions: 

1) Young children's degree of vision may be underestimated due to the difficulty of 
obtaining accurate vision assessments. 

2) Young children with moderate visual loss are often not diagnosed and/or not 
registered in vision programs, consequently lowering the relative number of 
infant/preschool registrants with acuities in the least restrictive visual acuity 
categories. 

3) This population is more likely to include students with multihandicaps than is the 

school age population. 

Of all grade placements, the "adult trainee" category comprised the highest percent- 
age of totally blind registrants; nearly 44% of this population fell within category IX. 
Almost equal proportions of adult trainees were reported in categories I and XIII — 
16.8% and 16.7%, respectively. The intervening categories (II- VII) accounted for less 
than 1% to 1 1.2% of the adult population. 

Focusing next on the cross-analysis of other registrant students by visual acuity, it is 
apparent that most (61.3%) of these students were reported within the three most restric- 
tive visual acuity categories (VII-IX); 30.6% were reported within the three least restric- 
tive visual acuity categories (I-III); and less than 10% had acuities within the range of 
categories IV- VI. This present distribution of other registrants across visual acuity levels 
is congruent with the 1987 distribution of other registrant students by moderate, severe, 
and profound visual loss. 



Quota Registrants 
24 

Somewhat equal proportions of other registrant students were reported at opposite 
ends of the visual acuity scale; 24.4% were reported as totally blind (category IX) and 
23.5% were placed in acuity category I. This latter figure differs greatly from the 53.5% 
of school age students (registrants in grades 1-12) within the 20/200-18/200 range of 
visual acuity. Wright (1988) offered the following dual explanation for the relatively 
greater number of other registrant students within the three lowest visual acuity catego- 
ries. First, additional handicaps may be more prevalent with the other registrant popula- 
tion, thus hindering accurate visual assessment of many other registrant students. Sec- 
ondly, the lack of response to visual stimuli demonstrated by low functioning multihandi- 
capped students with cortical blindness might be misdiagnosed as total blindness, thus 
placing many of these other registrant students in category IX. 

Table 12 

School/Agencv hv Grade Placement bv Visual Acuity 

Table 12 displays the interaction between three variables: type of school/agency, 
grade placement, and visual acuity. The distribution of acuities among students in grades 
1-12 in day and residential schools reveals some differences. For example, day school 
programs clearly registered a greater percentage of pupils with moderate visual disabili- 
ties (acuities within categories I-III). Fully 56.2% of academic students enrolled in day 
programs had the least restrictive vision reported (20/200-18/200); nearly 75% were 
placed in visual acuity categories I-III. These figures may serve to explain the greater 
percentage of visual readers in grades 1-12 in day schools as witnessed in Table 8, as 
well as the low percentage of braille readers in these same academic grades. 

In contrast, only 30.2% of students in grade 1-12 in residential programs were placed 
in category I; almost 50% were classified in categories I-III. While 7.5% of day pupils in 
grades 1-12 were classified within the intervening categories (IV- VI), nearly 15% of 
residential students in equivalent grades were reported as having severe visual loss; these 



Quota Registrants 

25 

figures are similar to those revealed in the 1987 registration data. Turning attention to the 
most restrictive visual acuity categories (VII-IX), 17.9% of day students in grades 1-12 
were reported to have profound visual impairments; 9% were reported as totally blind. 
However, 36% of residential pupils in academic grade placements were reported in the 
three lowest acuity categories; 17.4% of these students were reported as having no resid- 
ual vision. 

Also disclosed in Table 12 is the prevalence of infant and preschool, and to a lesser 
extent, kindergarten students within the most restrictive visual acuity categories (VII-IX). 
The majority of early childhood registrants (85.7%) were enrolled in day schools, 9.2% 
were in residential schools, 4.4% were registered through rehabilitation agencies, and less 
than 1% were reported by multihandicapped facilities. Consistent with the trend reported 
3 years ago, a greater percentage of early childhood students registered in rehabilitation 
agencies fell within the "profound visual loss" categories (81.6% versus 75.9% of mul- 
tihandicapped students, 66.1% of residential students, and 55.2% of day students). 
Many infant and preschool students reported by rehabilitation agencies (49.4%) were 
totally blind (category IX). Of the 58 infants and preschoolers enrolled in multihandica- 
capped facilities, 29.3% lacked residual vision. Only 16.3% of residential infant/pre- 
school students and 16.5% of day pupils in infant and preschool placements were re- 
ported within this most restrictive visual acuity category. 

In analyzing the distribution of students reported as adult trainees, it is apparent that 
the majority (71.8%) or these students were reported through day school programs. 
Almost equal proportions of adult trainees were served by rehabilitation and multihandi- 
capped facilities (12.4% and 13.5%, respectively). Only 2.3% were reported in residen- 
tial schools. Adult trainees in day schools have the highest proportion of pupils in the 
three most restrictive visual acuity categories (76.6%); nearly half of the adult trainees in 
day schools (47.3%) were reported as totally blind. On the other end of the continuum of 
acuity levels, less than 20% of adult trainee students in day schools appeared in catego- 



Quota Registrants 

26 

ries MIL Multihandicapped facilities reported only a slightly lower proportion of adult 
students in the three lowest visual acuity categories (VII-IX) than day school programs; 
over 72% of pupils in these facilities were so classified. The majority of these adult 
students in multihandicapped facilities (43.2%) were reported as lacking residual vision. 
Most of the remaining population of adult trainees reported through multihandicapped 
facilities (25.7%) fell within the three upper visual acuity categories (I-III). 

Rehabilitation agencies reported almost equal percentages of adult trainees in the 
lowest and highest acuity categories (45% and 42.8%, respectively). More than half of 
those within categories VII-IX (217 out of 376 students) were totally blind. Residential 
schools, serving only a fraction of the adult trainee population, failed to reveal the simi- 
larity in the proportions of these adult students with "moderate" versus "profound" visual 
loss as shown in 1987; a somewhat higher proportion of adult trainee students in these 
schools were reported with acuities within categories VII-IX (48.7% compared to 38.3% 
in the three highest visual acuity categories). 

Finally, other registrants were represented by all types of schools and agencies in 
varying degrees. The majority of these students were served by day school programs 
(87.4% versus 10.4% in residential schools, 2.1% in multihandicapped facilities, and less 
than 1% in rehabilitation agencies). Within all four school/agency types, the distribution 
of other registrant students across the nine visual acuity categories revealed a heavier 
concentration of students in the three lowest acuity categories (VII-IX) - more than 60% 
of the other registrant population within each school/agency type. Of all profoundly 
visually impaired other registrant students, almost 40% were totally blind— 24.4% of the 
total other registrant population. 

Table 13 

Visual Acuity bv Reading Medium 

Table 13 displays the cross-analysis of visual acuity by reading medium. One may 



Quota Registrants 

27 

wonder while examining the reported figures if possibly a noticible shift, or a "breaking 
point" as Wright (1988) proposes, occurs by which more students, because of a given 
visual acuity, rely primarily upon nonvisual reading materials than upon regular print or 
large type. To examine more precisely if such a discernible transition appears, prereaders 
and nonreaders were temporarily removed from the total study population. Therefore, the 
figures reported in the following discussion are calculated upon the total number of 
visual, braille, and auditory readers. 

In the least restrictive visual acuity categories (I-III), between 82.6% and 88.5% of 
the registrants were visual readers; between 3.0-8.4% read braille; and between 6.6-9.3% 
depended on an auditory medium. The intervening categories (IV- VI) continued to report 
larger proportions of visual readers: 62.5% of the registrants with 7/200-3/200 acuities 
were visual readers; 55.9% of the registrants with 2.5/200-.4/200 acuities were visual 
readers, and 57% of the registrants with the ability to count fingers were visual readers. 
Not until category VII is the trend reversed; nonvisual readers (braille and auditory 
readers combined) outnumbered visual readers for the first time. This "breaking point" 
occurred at a lower degree of visual acuity than that reported by Wright (1988); in 1987, 
category V was the first indication of a reversal in the predominant reading medium. 
Category VII was comprised mostly of auditory readers (48.8%); 30.1% were braille 
readers; and a fewer number of students (21.1%) were visual readers. 

In preparing the Registration data for the present study, all students reported with a 
visual reading medium and visual acuity of either light projection or perception (217 
students) or as totally blind (63 students) were omitted from the total population. As a 
result, category VIII revealed that 45.8% read braille and 54.2% used an auditory me- 
dium. Category IX showed opposite proportions (55.1% and 44.9%, respectively). 



Quota Registrants 
28 

Restoring prereaders and nonreaders to the cross-analysis reported in Table 13, 
figures show that the majority of prereaders (56.1%) were in the three most restrictive 
visual acuity categories: 14.5% were in category VII, 25.1% were in category VIII, and 
16.5% were in category IX. Categories indicating moderate visual loss (I-III) comprised 
34.7% of the total population of prereaders. Only 9.2% of registered prereaders were 
reported in visual acuity categories (IV- VI). 

Like prereaders, the majority of nonreaders (71.5%) fell within the three lowest acuity 
categories, 32.6% of whom were totally blind. Categories I-III comprised 22.3% of the 
total population of nonreaders; only 6.2% of all nonreaders were classified as having 
severe visual handicaps (categories IV- VI). 

Table 14 

Grade Placement fry Reading Medium fry Visual Acuity 

Table 14 presents figures which show the distribution of students according to grade 
placement, reading medium, and visual acuity. First examining the distribution of infant 
and preschool readers, it is apparent that most of these registrants had acuities in the three 
lowest categories (VII-IX) ~ 66.9% and 56.8%, respectively. In comparision, only 
25.1% of infants and a somewhat higher percentage of preschoolers (35.1%) fell within 
the three visual acuity categories on the opposite end of the continuum (I-III). Fully 
95.3% of all infants and 78% of all preschoolers were classified as prereaders; in this 
case, the visual acuity variable was a noninfluential factor since all students younger than 
6 years of age were automatically asssigned to the prereader category for purposes of this 
study. 

Keeping within the analysis of early childhood grade placements, Table 14 also 
reveals that kindergarten students were predominantly visual readers with acuities be- 
tween 20/200 and 18/200 (category I) - 20.7% of the total population in this grade 



Quota Registrants 
29 

placement. This citing is incongruent with the trend reported by Wright (1988); the 1987 
Registration revealed the largest number of kindergarten students as prereaders with 
acuities in category I — 26.7% of the total kindergarten population. Nevertheless, the 
majority of kindergarteners registered January 2, 1990 were indeed prereaders (35.8%); 
visual readers represented a slightly smaller proportion (30.7%). In 1987, these figures 
were 59.2% and 20% respectively, disclosing an even greater dissimilarity. 

Turning attention to the distribution of readers by various media within grades 1-12, it 
is apparent that large numbers of visual readers were reported with acuities between 20/ 
200 and 8/200 (categories I-M) from one grade to the next. In contrast, braille readers 
appeared most frequently within the severe visual impairment range (categories VII-IX) 
throughout all academic grade placements. Surprisingly, large numbers of auditory 
readers reported in these grades had acuities in category I; fully 50% or more of the total 
populations of auditory readers in grades 4, 7, and 9 fell within this least restrictive visual 
acuity range (20/200-18/200). 

The distribution of adult trainees shown in Table 14 reveals that of those with ex- 
tremely low visual acuities (categories VII- DC), 55.4% were classified as nonreaders, 
1 1.7% read braille, and 31.3% relied primarily on auditory reading materials; less than 
2% were classified as either visual readers or prereaders. This heavier distribution of 
adult nonreaders within the three lowest visual acuity categories (VII-IX) echos the 
pattern cited 3 years ago during the analysis of the 1987 Registration data. Wright (1988) 
proposed a twofold explanation for the predominance of nonreaders in this grade place- 
ment that is still applicable today. First, since adult trainees is the only grade placement 
reserved for students beyond normal school age, it is reasonable to assume that some of 
these are multihandicapped individuals. Indeed, 13.5% of adult trainees are currently 
served in multihandicapped facilities (see Table 4). Frequently, low-functioning students 
with additional handicaps are diagnosed as "cortically blind" and fall within acuity 
category IX, thus adding to the population of nonreaders classified as totally blind. 



Quota Registrants 
30 

Secondly, it is possible that adventitiously blind adults beginning braille instruction 
were perceived and classified as nonreaders rather than as prereaders. Only 1.1% of all 
adult trainees were reported as prereaders. Of those adult trainees in the three highest 
acuity categories (I-III), the majority (37.5%) read print or large type materials. Some- 
what equal proportions were nonreaders (29.2%) and auditory readers (25.6%); 5.8% 
read tactually, and a mere 1.9% were prereaders. 

The last page of Table 14 also shows the distribution of other registrants among read- 
ing media and visual acuity categories. Almost 61% of all other registrants were classi- 
fied as nonreaders. Of those registrants with profound visual loss (categories VII-IX), a 
substantial proportion (68.1%) were reported with an undetermined reading medium 
(nonreader). In contrast, only 46.9% of other registrant students with acuities in catego- 
ries I-III were classified as nonreaders; 31.5% read visually; 9.2% were classified as pre- 
readers; 10.6% used auditory materials; and only 1.8% read braille. Describing further 
those students in the lowest acuity categories, 17.7% used auditory media, 7.9% were 
prereaders, 5.5% used braille, and less than 1% read visually. Perhaps the higher percent- 
age of auditory readers versus braille readers in this case can be attributed to the diffi- 
culty, whether perceived or actual, of the braille code. As Wright (1988) explains, tactual 
discrimination of braille, in the past, has been considered a more difficult task than the 
discrimination of print. 

Table 15 

School/Ayencv bv Reading Medium bv Visual Acuity 

Table 15 depicts the relationship between three variables: school/agency type, read- 
ing medium, and visual acuity. Focusing initially on the analysis of registrants in day and 
residential schools, it is apparent that both differences and similarities existed between 
the two school types' distributions of students within the least and most restrictive visual 
acuities among the various reading media. The percentages for day and residential 



Quota Registrants 
31 

students with moderate visual loss (categories I-III) were, respectively: 60.7% and 
62.6% visual readers; 2.5% and 7.6% braille readers; 5.6% and 3.8% auditory readers; 
15.9% and 19.2% prereaders, and 15.2% and 6.8% nonreaders. Corresponding figures 
for students with profound visual loss reveal more variation between the two types of 
schools. The percentage of day and residential students in categories VII-IX were, 
respectively: 1.0% and 1.3% visual readers; 13.5% and 37.9% braille readers; 17.2% and 
8.8% auditory readers; 23.7% and 24.1% prereaders; and 44.5% and 27.9% nonreaders. 

Table 15 also reveals the predominance of prereaders within the lowest visual acuities 
(XII-IX) in rehabilitation agencies. Representing 19.1% of the total enrollment of reha- 
bilitation agencies, these prereaders with profound visual loss were mostly infants and 
preschoolers, rather than "adult trainees" just beginning braille instruction (see Table 14) 
as Wright (1988) also deduced from the analysis of the 1987 Registration data. Three 
years ago reportedly one-fourth of those enrolled in rehabilitation agencies were preread- 
ers with visual acuities which spanned categories VII-IX. The majority of braille readers 
in rehabilitiation agencies (76.6%) also reported profound visual impairments; they repre- 
sented the second largest group within these particular agencies (16.4% of the total 
population reported by rehabilitation agencies.) Sharing an almost equal proportion 
within rehabilitation agencies as braille readers in the present study were visual readers 
with less restricted vision (categories I-III); 86.3% of print and large type readers had 
acuities ranging from 20/200-8/200. Approximately 52% of rehabilitation students pri- 
marily dependent on auditory materials for reading had acuities within the three lowest 
visual categories (XII-IX)- 12% of the total rehabilitation population. 

Analyzing the distribution of students in multihandicapped facilities discloses the 
concentration of nonreaders in the most restrictive visual acuity categories (VII-IX); fully 
81.1% of all multihandicapped nonreaders lacked the ability to count fingers. These 
nonreading students with acuities in the three lowest acuity categories represented nearly 
58% of multihandicapped facilities' total populations. 



Quota Registrants 

32 

Table 16 

Average Age: School/Agencv 

Table 16 displays the average age, in months, of students in each of the four school/ 
agency types. Consistent with the data reported for this cross-analysis in 1987, day and 
residential schools continued to serve students of similar average age. However, while 
residential pupils were slightly older on average than day students three years ago, pres- 
ent data reveal a reversed trend; students registered through day schools in 1990 were 
slightly older, on average, than those students registered through residential schools: 14 
years, 8 months and 13 years, 8 months, respectively. These reported average ages are 
very similar to the average ages of students currently in 6th and 7th grade (see Table 17). 

The average age of pupils in multihandicapped facilities (31 years, 1 month) indicated 
a more adult population, as did the average age of pupils served through rehabilitation 
agencies (29 years, 3 months). Table 4 revealed that a large proportion of students (32%) 
enrolled through rehabilitation agencies were reported in infant and preschool grade 
placements. The presence of over 400 infants and preschoolers in this account undoubt- 
edly contributed to the lower than expected average age of registrants served by rehabili- 
tation agencies. As Wright (1988) asserts, "it might be expected that such agencies 
would serve many older students with degenerative eye conditions" (p.25). 

Table 17 

Average Age: Grade Placement 

The average age of pupils within each grade placement is given in Table 17. Students 
in early childhood grade placements (infant through kindergarten) were slightly older 
than might be expected, and at least 1 1 months older than the students reported in these 
same grade placements during 1987. The average age of infants was 3 years, 7 months; 
preschoolers~5 years, 7 months; and kindergarteners-7 years, 4 months. 



Quota Registrants 
33 

The average ages of students in primary through secondary grades would also appear 
somewhat elevated if compared with the average age of sighted students for each grade 
placement. For example, the average age of registrants reported in first grade was 8 
years, 6 months; second grade-9 years, 8 months; and third grade- 10 years, 9 months. 
The average age increased by 9-14 months with each grade; this degree of increase is 
consistent with the pattern noted by Wright (1988) during examination of this same 
cross-analysis using the 1987 Registration data. However, the average ages of students in 
grades 1-11 increased 9-13 months from 1989 to 1990. Perhaps this across-the-board 
increase in average ages of school age students is the effect of a rising number of mul- 
tihandicapped pupils integrated into day and residential schools. 

The average age of pupils in the other registrant category was 13 years, 4 months; 
Table 18 displays in greater detail these students by average age and school/agency. 

The oldest group of students was unsurprisingly the adult trainees with an average 
age of 37 years, 9 months. The adult trainee grade placement is reserved for all students 
beyond normal school age. The postgraduate placement, in comparison, was comprised 
of students with an average age of 21 years, 3 months— 17 years, 7 months younger, on 
average, than the postgraduate students reported during the 1987 Registration. 

Table 18 

QR Students fry Age fry School/Agency 

Table 18 displays the distribution of other registrants according to age (in months) 
and type of school/agency. Less than 1% of all other registrant students reported were 
beyond normal school age (up to 21-22 years in most states). Apparently a misapplica- 
tion of the reporting codes occurred; the other registrant category is reserved for school 
age students who do not fall into any of the other grade placements (e.g., students in pre- 



Quota Registrants 
34 

vocational classes for the multihandicapped, nonacademic students, etc.). Reassigning 
these 1 16 students (22 years, 1 month to 32 years of age) to the "adult trainee" category 
would not affect the total populations of adult trainees and other registrants as signifi- 
cantly as did the reassignment in 1987 of 2,106 "over-aged" pupils to the appropriate 
category-adult trainee. Three years ago nearly 14% of the other registrant population 
were older than normal school age. Evidently, improved classification of students within 
grade placement categories occurred between 1987 and 1990. 

Other registrants . 0-6 years of age, were served almost exclusively by day schools. 
Day schools continued to serve the majority of other registrant students, but in decreasing 
proportions as the age of students increased from 73 to 384 months. Table 4 reveals that 
87.4% of other registrant students were served by day schools; 10.4% were served by 
residential schools; 2.1% were served by multihandicapped facilities; and less than 1% 
were served by rehabilitation agencies. 

Table 19 

Average Age: Reading Medium 

Table 19 discloses the average age, in months, of students reported in each reading 
medium category. Auditory readers represented the oldest group of students with an 
average age of 23 years, 4 months. This greater average age can be attributed to the 
proportion of adult trainees classified as auditory readers (30%), as confirmed in Table 7. 
Nonreaders claimed the next highest average age of 18 years, 9 months. Almost 24% of 
all nonreaders were classified as adult trainees (see Table 7); this percentage is twice that 
reported in 1987. The largest percentage (62.2%) of these nonreaders were other regis- 
trants (see Table 7). 

Table 19 also reveals that braille readers were more than 2 years older, on average, 
than visual readers (17 years, 8 months and 15 years, respectively). Almost 60% of the 



Quota Registrants 

35 

total population of braille readers were represented in grades 1-12 (see Table 7); an even 
larger proportion of visual readers (73%) were represented in these primary through 
secondary grades, in turn contributing to the lower age of visual readers. Wright (1988) 
also suggests that students may learn to read braille at a slightly later age than print, thus 
elevating the average age of braille readers. Continuing the trend reported 3 years ago, 
only 5.4% of the total population of visual readers were classified as adult trainees; a 
much larger percentage of braille readers (15.6%) were reported as adult trainees. This 
serves as further explanation of the higher age of braille readers. 

The remaining category, prereaders, represented the youngest group of students with 
an average age of 5 years, 8 months. Keep in mind than 3,900 students, who were 
younger than 72 months of age, were reclassified as prereaders for purposes of the pres- 
ent study. Consequently, nearly 72.8% of all prereaders were infants and preschoolers. 
Comparably, less than 1% of all prereaders were adult trainees; the average age of pre- 
readers might have been higher had more adults, just beginning braille instruction, been 
classified as prereaders instead of nonreaders. 

Table 20 

Average Age: Visual Acuity 

Table 20 reports the average age of students in each visual acuity category. The 
average ages of acuity categories I-IX were similar; they ranged from 13 years, 8 months 
to 15 years, 9 months. Category IX contained students whose ages averaged 19 years, 8 
months-more than 2 years older on average than the totally blind students reported in 
1987. Continuing the trend cited by Wright (1988), more adult trainee and other regis- 
trant students were reported in the lowest acuity categories (VII-IX) than in those catego- 
ries containing students with no less than the ability to count fingers. Table 1 1 reveals 
that almost 65% of the students in category IX were reported as adult trainees or other 
registrants . Since the students in these two grade placements tend to be older than those 



Quota Registrants 
36 

reported in other school age categories, it is understandable why the average age of 
students registered as totally blind was somewhat elevated. 

Figure 8 diplays the average age (in months) of the students reported for each visual 
acuity level during 1987 as compared to the average age (in months) of the students 
reported for each visual acuity category during 1990. An increase in the average age of 
students was evident for all higher level acuities (1-111) as well as for all lower level 
acuities (VII-IX) on the opposite end of the continuum. Category DC reported the largest 
increase in average age from 1987 to 1990 of 2.3 years; only categories IV and VI re- 
ported a decrease in average age. 

Summary 

Each year information concerning legally blind students in the nation is reported to 
the American Printing House for the Blind in order to register eligible students for federal 
quota funds. Periodically, these data are examined to discern trends within the popula- 
tion and general characteristics of students requiring materials and services designed for 
the visually handicapped. This study detailed the data compiled from the 1990 Federal 
Quota Registration. Additional attention was given to comparing the information exam- 
ined in this study to the 1987 Registration data; such an interstudy comparison was not 
feasible for Wright (1988) due to some irregularities in how the data were reported to the 
American Printing House for the Blind during 1987 and previous years. Categories of in- 
formation requested are since more clearly defined and mutually exclusive. 

As of January 2, 1990, a total of 48,071 legally blind students were registered with 
the American Printing House for the Blind. In preparation for the analysis of the 1990 
Registration data, several deletions and alterations were necessary to eliminate ambigu- 
ous data and to ensure a true replication of Wright's (1988) in-depth examination of the 
1987 Registration. A total of 2,328 students were omitted from the final 1990 Regis- 



Quota Registrants 

37 

tration figures. Consequently, the current analysis was based on data of the remaining 
45,743 students, 95.2% of the total number registered. 

During the examination of the 1990 Registration, several subpopulations emerged. 
The general characteristics of four selected groups of students are reported below accord- 
ing to average age, visual acuity level, enrolling school/agency, and primary reading me- 
dium as gleaned from the current in-depth study. 

As one subpopulation, students in grades 1-12 composed almost 31% of the total 
population of legally blind registrants. Fully 89.8% of the 14,1 18 academic students re- 
ported in 1990 were served by day school programs as reported through State Depart- 
ments of Education; 10.2% were enrolled in residential schools for the blind; and the 
remaining proportion were served by multihandicapped facilities. An even distribution of 
registrants in grades 1-12 was evident in both day and residential schools, with day 
students outnumbering residential students 12 to 1 in grades 1-6; grades 7-12 contained 
fewer day versus residential pupils, averaging 7 day students for every student enrolled in 
a residential school for the blind. The distribution of students in grades 1-12 in day and 
residential schools across the nine visual acuity levels also revealed some differences. 
Day schools clearly registered a greater percentage of pupils with moderate visual dis- 
abilities (acuities within categories I-HI); nearly three-fourths of day students were placed 
in these visual acuity categories. Fully, 56.2% had the least restrictive vision reported 
(20/200-18/200). On the other end of the visual acuity range, 17.9% of day students in 
grades 1-12 were reported to have profound visual impairments of "hand movements" or 
less; 9% were reported as totally blind. In contrast, 36% of residential pupils in academic 
grade placements were reported in the three lowest visual acuity categories (VH-IX); 
17.4% of these students were reported as having no residual vision. Less than 50% of 
residential students in grades 1-12 were classified in categories I-ffl. While 15% of 
residential students in these grade placements were reported within the intervening visual 



Quota Registrants 

38 

acuity categories (IV- VI), only 7.5% of day pupils in equivalent grades were reported as 
having severe visual loss. These visual acuity figures help to explain the greater percent- 
age of braille readers in residential schools, and in turn, the comparably greater number 
of visual readers in day schools. Nearly 44% of the residential students in grades 1-12 
read braille; conversely, only 16.6% of academic day school students read tactually. 
Furthermore, a substantial proportion (71.4%) of day students in grades 1-12 were visual 
readers; a lesser proportion of residential students (48%) used regular print or large type 
materials. Auditory readers constituted 3.1% of pupils in grades 1-12 educated in day 
schools and formed a mere 1% of the academic students instructed in residential schools. 
Similarly small percentages of school age students in these two agency types were re- 
ported as nonreaders~5% in day schools and 1.9% in residential schools. The average 
ages of students in primary through secondary grades would appear somewhat elevated if 
compared with the average age of sighted students for each grade placement. For ex- 
ample, the average age of registrants reported in first grade was 8 years, 6 months; sec- 
ond grade~9 years, 8 months, and third grade— 10 years, 9 months. The average age in- 
creased by 9 to 14 months with each grade; this degree of increase mirrors the pattern 
noted by Wright (1988) during the examination of the 1987 Registration data. However, 
the average ages of students in grades 1-11 increased 9 to 13 months from 1989 to 1990. 
This across-the-board increase in average ages of school age students is the possible 
effect of a rising number of multihandicapped pupils integrated into day and residential 
schools. 

Combining the number of infant, preschool, and kindergarten students in the current 
study revealed that one-fifth of the total population fell within the early childhood range, 
representing a 22.4% increase in this subpopulation since 1987. This increase, as wit- 
nessed over this 3-year span, is most likely the effect of recent federal legislation, such as 
P.L. 99-457, extending services to young handicapped children. Infants and preschoolers 
composed similar proportions of the total population (7.6% and 9.5%, respectively); 
kindergarteners constituted 2.9% of all legally blind registrants. The majority of early 



Quota Registrants 
39 

childhood registrants (85.7%) were enrolled in day schools, 9.2% were in residential 
schools, 4.4% were registered through rehabilitation agencies, and less than 1% were 
reported by multihandicapped facilities. Kindergarten students across all visual acuity 
categories closely resembled that reported for students in grades 1-12; 56% had acuities 
between 20/200-8/200; 34.9% had acuities of hand movements or less; and the remaining 
9% had visual acuities within the intervening categories (IV- VI). In comparison, a much 
greater proportion of infant/preschool students (61.3%) were reported within the three 
most restrictive visual acuity categories; 30.6% had acuities within the range of catego- 
ries I- III; and only 8.1% were classified as having severe visual losses (catgories IV- VI). 
Slightly more than 18% of the infant/preschool population were totally blind, compared 
with the 9.8% of the students in academic grade placements. Consistent with the trend 
reported 3 years ago, a greater percentage of early childhood students registered in reha- 
bilitation agencies fell within the profound visual loss range (81.6% versus 75.9% of 
multihandicapped students, 66.1% of residential students, and 55.2% of day school 
students). Many infant and preschool students reported by rehabilitation agencies 
(49.4%) were totally blind (category IX). Of the 58 infants and preschoolers enrolled in 
multihandicapped facilities, 29.3% lacked residual vision; only 16.3% of residential early 
childhood students and 16.5% of day school pupils in infant and preschool placements 
were reported within the most restrictive visual acuity category. For purposes of this 
current study, all students under 6 years of age were assigned a reading medium of 
prereader ; consequently, the majority of legally blind infants (95.3%), preschoolers 
(78%), and kindergarteners (35.8%) were so classified. Slightly more than 20% were 
distributed in other reading media categories. The substantial increase in the number of 
early childhood nonreaders reported since 1987 can most likely be attributed to the rising 
number of multihandicapped students, 72 months or older, who are integrated into day 
school programs at these early childhood levels. Students in early childhood grade 
placements were slightly older than might be expected if compared to sighted peers, and 
at least 1 1 months older than the students reported in these same grade placements during 



Quota Registrants 
40 

1987. The average age of infants was 3 years, 7 months; preschoolers-5 years, 7 
months; and kindergarteners-7 years, 4 months. 

The other registrant category, as presently defined is reserved for all school age 
students (up to 21-22 years of age in most states) who do not fall in any of the other grade 
placements. Representing the second largest subpopulation reported in 1990, other regis- 
trant students comprised exactly 30% of the study's total and were served by all four 
school/agency types. The majority of other registrants (87.4%) were reported by day 
schools, 10.4% were reported by residential schools, and a mere 2.1% were reported to 
the American Printing House for the Blind through multihandicapped facilities; less than 
1% were claimed by rehabilitation agencies for the blind. An examination of students' 
ages and school/agency placements revealed that students 72 months of age or younger 
were served almost exclusively in day schools; 87.2% of older other registrant students, 
minus those of adult age (116 students) were also reported within this school/agency 
account. The cross-analysis of other registrant students by visual acuity disclosed that 
most of these students (61.3%) had profound visual impairments; 30.6% were reported 
with acuities between 20/200 and 8/200; and less than 10% had acuities within the range 
of categories IV- VI. More than 60% of the other registrant population within each 
agency/school type had acuities which ranged from "hand movement" to total blindness. 
This distribution of other registrant students across visual acuity levels is congruent with 
the 1987 distribution of other registrant students by moderate, severe, and profound 
visual loss. Somewhat equal proportions of other registrant students were reported at op- 
posite ends of the visual acuity scale; 24.4% were reported as totally blind (category IX) 
and 23.5% wre placed in acuity I. This latter figure differs greatly from the 53.5% of reg- 
istrants in grades 1-12 within the 20/200-18/200 range of visual acuity. The lower acui- 
ties of other registrants may be attributed to the prevalence of students with multihandi- 
caps, thus hindering the accurate visual assessment of many of these other registrants . 
Secondly, the lack of response to visual stimuli demonstrated by low functioning mul- 
tihandicapped students with cortical blindness might be misdiagnosed as total blindness, 



Quota Registrants 
41 

thus placing many other registrant students in category IX. Nearly 61% of other reg is- 
trants were nonreaders; 14.7% were auditory readers; 1 1.5% were visual readers; 8.7% 
were prereaders, and 4.3% were braille readers. The large proportion of other registrant 
nonreaders can be attributed to the additional handicaps which often impede the academic 
progress of these students. A substantial proportion of other registrant students in reha- 
bilitation agencies were classified as nonreaders (92.9% compared to 78.8% of other 
registrant pupils in multihandicapped facilities, 62% in day schools, and 47.6% in resi- 
dential schools for the blind). Of those other registant students with profound visual loss 
(categories VII-IX), a large proportion (68.1%) were reported as nonreaders. In contrast, 
only 46.9% of other registrants with acuities in categories I-III were classified as non- 
readers; 31.5% read visually; 9.2% were classified as prereaders; 10.6% used auditory 
material; and only 1.8% read braille. Describing further those students in the lowest 
acuity categories, 17.7% used auditory materials, 7.9% were prereaders, 5.5% used 
braille, and less than 1% read visually. Perhaps the higher percentage of auditory readers 
versus braille readers in this case can be attributed to the difficulty of the braille code, 
which is believed to be more difficult to discriminate than print. The average age of 
pupils in the other registrant category was 13 years, 4 months. Less than 1% of all other 
re gistrant students reported were beyond normal school age. Reassigning these 116 
students (22 years, 1 month to 32 years of age) to the "adult trainee" category would not 
affect the total population of adult trainees and other registrants as significantly as did the 
reassignment of 2,106 "over-aged" pupils to the appropriate category-adult trainee~in 
1987. Three years ago nearly 14% of the other registrant population were older than 
normal school age. Evidently, improved classification of students within grade place- 
ment categories occurred between 1987 and 1990. 

Almost 15% of the registrants in 1990 were classified as adult trainees, the only grade 
placement intended for registrants beyond school age. In analyzing the distribution of 
students reported as adult trainees, it is apparent that the bulk of these students (71.8%) 
were reported through day school programs. Similar percentages of adult trainees were 



Quota Registrants 

42 

registered in multihandicapped facilities and rehabilitation agencies (13.5% and 12.4%, 
respectively). The remaining 2.3% of adult trainees were enrolled in residential schools 
for the blind. Of all grade placements, the "adult trainee" category comprised the highest 
percentage of totally blind registrants; nearly 44% of this population fell within category 
IX. The proportions of adult trainees within visual acuity categories I and VIII mirrored 
each other (16.8% and 16.7%, respectively). The intervening categories (II- VII) ac- 
counted for less than 1% to 1 1.2% of the adult population. Adult trainees in day schools 
had the highest proportion of pupils in the three most restrictive visual acuity categories 
(76.6%); nearly half of these adult trainees in day schools (47.3%) were reported as 
totally blind. On the other end of the continuum of acuity levels, less than 20% of adult 
trainees in day schools appeared in categories I-III. Multihandicapped facilities, in com- 
parison, reported only a slightly lower proportion of adult students in the three lowest 
visual acuity categories (VII-IX); over 72% of the pupils in these facilities were so 
classified. The majority of these adult students in multihandicapped facilities (43.2%) 
were reported as lacking residual vision. Most of the remaining population of adult train- 
ees reported through multihandicapped facilities (25.7%) fell within the three upper 
visual acuity categories (I-III). Rehabilitation agencies reported almost equal percentages 
of adult trainees in the lowest and highest acuity categories (45% and 42.8%, respec- 
tively); more than half of those within categories VII-IX (217 out of 376 students) were 
totally blind. Residential schools, serving only a fraction of the adult trainee population, 
failed to reveal the similarity in the proportions of these adult students with "moderate" 
versus "profound" visual loss as shown in 1987; a somewhat higher proportion of adult 
trainees in these schools were reported with acuities within categories VII-IX (48.7% 
compared to 38.3% in the three highest visual acuity categories). The adult trainee cate- 
gory comprised equal percentages of visual and braille readers (10.7% each). However, 
most of these older students (47.6%) were nonreaders; an even 30% were auditory read- 
ers; and a mere 1.1% composed the total proportion of prereaders. It can be assumed that 
these prereaders represent blind adults just beginning braille instruction. Of those adult 
trainees with extremely low visual acuities (categories VII-IX), 55.4% were classified as 



Quota Registrants 
43 

nonreaders, 1 1.7% read braille, 31.3% relied primarily on auditory reading materials, and 
less than 2% were classified as either visual readers or prereaders. This heavier distribu- 
tion of adult nonreaders within the three lowest visual acuity categories echos the pattern 
cited 3 years ago during the analysis of the 1987 Registration data. Of those adult train- 
ees in the three highest acuity categories (I-III), the majority (37.5%) read print or large 
type materials. Somewhat equal proportions were nonreaders (29.2%) and auditory 
readers (25.6%), 5.8% read tactually, and a mere 1.9% were prereaders. Adult trainees, 
unsurprisingly, represented the oldest subpopulation with an average age of 37 years, 9 
months. 

Additional information regarding the distribution and characteristics of legally blind 
registrants reported in 1990 can be found in the table-to- table discussion presented in this 
study. As Wright (1988) anticipated, the definitions of reporting codes established in 
1987 did remain stable, thus allowing direct comparisons to be made between the 1987 
Registration data and future studies. This study disclosed the impact of 3 years upon 
such a diverse group of students, and highlighted as well the unchanged characteristics of 
this same population. 



Quota Registrants 
44 



References 

Bunuan, B. P. (1972). Relationships between visual acuity and reading medium of blind 
children. Unpublished manuscript, Illinois State University of Normal. 

Jones, J. W. (1961). Blind children: Degree of vision, mode of reading. Washington, 
D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. (OE-35026). 

Nolan, C. Y. (1965). Blind children: Degree of vision, mode of reading. New Outlook 
for the Blind, 59, 233-238. 

Nolan, C. Y. (1967). A 1966 reappraisal of the relationships between visual acuity and 
mode of reading for blind children. New Outlook for the Blind, 61, 255-261. 

Nolan, C. Y., & Bott, J. E. (1971). Relationships between visual acuity and reading 
medium for blind children- 1969. New Outlook for the Blind, 65, 90-96. 

Scholl, G. T. (Ed.). (1986). Foundations of education for blind and visually handi- 
capped children and youth: Theory and practice. New York: American Foundation 
for the Blind. 

Willis, D. H. (1982). Relationships between visual acuity, reading mode, and school 
systems for blind students -- a 1979 replication. Unpublished manuscript. Depart- 
ment of Educational Research, American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, 
KY. 

Willis, D. H. (1978). A study on relationships between visual acuity, reading mode, and 
school systems for blind students-- 1976. Unpublished manuscript. Department of 
Educational Research, American Printing House for the Blind, Louisville, KY. 

Wright, S. (1988). Distribution of quota registrants in 1987: Grade placement, visual 
acuity, reading medium, school or agency type, and age. Unpublished manuscript. 
Department of Educational Research, American Printing House for the Blind. 



Table 1 
Distribution of Registrants by Grade Placement, 1987-1990 



Year K-12 Adult Postgrad- Voca- Academic Infant Preschool Other TOTAL 







trainee 


uate 


tionfll 


nongraded 






registrant 




1987 


15210 


4280 


91 


260 


1460 


2581 


3731 


15532 


43145 


1988 


15042 


7615 


56 


219 


1528 


2640 


4255 


13466 


44821 


1989 


15576 


7429 


42 


211 


1654 


2980 


4255 


14337 


46484 


1990 


15985 


8194 


24 


188 


1854 


3509 


4403 


13914 


48071 





Table 2 






Grade Placement 




Grade Dlacement 




Number of students 


Infant 




3486 


Preschool 




4348 


Kindergarten 




1308 


Grade 1 




1401 


Grade 2 




1399 


Grade 3 




1325 


Grade 4 




1204 


Grade 5 




1192 


Grade 6 




1166 


Grade 7 




1164 


Grade 8 




1110 


Grade 9 




1132 


Grade 10 




1137 


Grade 1 1 




1019 


Grade 12 




869 


Academic nongraded 




1788 


Postgraduate 




17 


Vocational 




184 


Adult trainee 




6750 


Other registrant 




13744 



TOTAL 45743 



Table 3 
School or Agency 



School or agency 

Day school programs 
Residential school programs 
Rehabilitation programs 
Multihandicapped facilities 



Number of students 

39018 
4195 
1254 
1276 



TOTAL 



45743 







Table 4 












Grade Placement x School/Agency 






Grade placement 


Day school 


Residential school 


Rehabilitation 


Multihandicapped 


Total 




programs 


programs 


agencies 


facilities 




Infant 


2838 


283 


354 


11 


3486 


Preschool 


3838 


416 


47 


47 


4348 


Kindergarten 


1162 


144 


2 





1308 


Grade 1 


1290 


111 








1401 


Grade 2 


1296 


103 








1399 


Grade 3 


1222 


102 





1 


1325 


Grade 4 


1115 


89 








1204 


Grade 5 


1092 


99 





1 


1192 


Grade 6 


1064 


102 








1166 


Grade 7 


1038 


121 





5 


1164 


Grade 8 


978 


132 








1110 


Grade 9 


980 


152 








1132 


Grade 10 


987 


150 








1137 


Grade 1 1 


877 


140 





2 


1019 


Grade 12 


736 


133 








869 


Academic nongraded 


1503 


280 


1 


4 


1788 


Postgraduate 


11 


6 








17 


Vocational 


135 


49 








184 


Adult trainee 


4848 


154 


836 


912 


6750 


Other registrant 


12008 


1429 


14 


293 


13744 



TOTAL 



39018 



4195 



1254 



1276 



45743 





Table 5 






Reading Medium 




Reading medium 




Number of students 


Visual 




13344 


Braille 




4618 


Auditory 




5114 


Prereader 




9217 


Nonreader 




13450 



TOTAL 



45743 



Table 6 
School/Agency x Reading Medium 







Read 


ing medium 








School/agency 


Visual 


PraiHe 


Aud. 


Pre. 


Non. 


Total 


Day school programs 


11949 


3200 


4359 


7909 


11601 


39018 


Residential school programs 


1073 


1127 


287 


921 


787 


4195 


Rehabilitation agencies 


233 


269 


289 


310 


153 


1254 


Multihandicapped facilities 


89 


22 


179 


77 


909 


1276 



TOTAL 



13344 



4618 



5114 



9217 13450 



45743 



Table 7 
Grade Placement x Reading Medium 







Reading medium 








Grade placement 


Visual 


Braille 


Aud. 


Pre. 


Non. 


TotaJ 


Infant 


4 





12 


3322 


148 


3486 


Preschool 


122 


98 


247 


3390 


491 


4348 


Kindergarten 


402 


192 


83 


468 


163 


1308 


Grade 1 


761 


252 


46 


211 


131 


1401 


Grade 2 


905 


247 


44 


108 


95 


1399 


Grade 3 


910 


231 


42 


80 


62 


1325 


Grade 4 


869 


198 


21 


52 


64 


1204 


Grade 5 


857 


238 


26 


23 


48 


1192 


Grade 6 


854 


218 


32 


15 


47 


1166 


Grade 7 


884 


204 


24 


20 


32 


1164 


Grade 8 


768 


253 


39 


10 


40 


1110 


Grade 9 


833 


223 


26 


19 


31 


1132 


Grade 10 


812 


246 


30 


17 


32 


1137 


Grade 1 1 


721 


225 


34 


12 


27 


1019 


Grade 12 


573 


193 


41 


8 


54 


869 


Academic nongraded 


688 


275 


272 


189 


364 


1788 


Postgraduate 


11 


2 


2 


1 


1 


17 


Vocational 


69 


19 


49 


5 


42 


184 


Adult students 


719 


719 


2024 


77 


3211 


6750 


Other registrants 


1582 


585 


2020 


1190 


8367 


13744 


TOTAL 


13344 


4618 


5114 


9217 


13450 


45743 



Table 8 
School/Agency x Grade Placement x Reading Medium 



Reading medium 



School/agencv 


Visual 


Braille 


Aud. 


Pre. 


Non. 


Total 


Grade 














Day school programs 














Infant 


3 





12 


2772 


51 


2838 


Preschool 


112 


63 


237 


2985 


441 


3838 


Kindergarten 


378 


151 


62 


418 


153 


1162 


Grade 1 


731 


200 


44 


190 


125 


1290 


Grade 2 


868 


201 


43 


93 


91 


1296 


Grade 3 


862 


189 


41 


70 


60 


1222 


Grade 4 


813 


172 


21 


48 


61 


1115 


Grade 5 


806 


191 


26 


22 


47 


1092 


Grade 6 


801 


176 


29 


11 


47 


1064 


Grade 7 


814 


156 


24 


16 


28 


1038 


Grade 8 


706 


189 


37 


8 


38 


978 


Grade 9 


756 


157 


25 


11 


31 


980 


Grade 10 


738 


180 


29 


11 


29 


987 


Grade 1 1 


654 


156 


32 


9 


26 


877 


Grade 12 


500 


136 


39 


8 


53 


736 


Academic nongraded 


590 


167 


242 


156 


348 


1503 


Postgraduate 


9 





2 








11 


Vocational training program 


44 


7 


41 


2 


41 


135 


Adult trainee 


374 


393 


1548 


45 


2488 


4848 


Other registrant 


1390 


316 


1825 


1034 


7443 


12008 


Subtotal 


11949 


3200 


4359 


7909 


11601 


39018 


Residential programs 














Infant 


1 








278 


4 


283 


Preschool 


10 


35 


3 


343 


25 


416 


Kindergarten 


24 


41 


21 


48 


10 


144 


Grade 1 


30 


52 


2 


21 


6 


111 


Grade 2 


37 


46 


1 


15 


4 


103 


Grade 3 


47 


42 


1 


10 


2 


102 


Grade 4 


56 


26 





4 


3 


89 


Grade 5 


50 


47 





1 


1 


99 


Grade 6 


53 


42 


3 


4 





102 


Grade 7 


65 


48 





4 


4 


121 


Grade 8 


62 


64 


2 


2 


2 


132 


Grade 9 


77 


66 


1 


8 





152 


Grade 10 


74 


66 


1 


6 


3 


150 


Grade 1 1 


65 


69 


2 


3 


1 


140 


Grade 12 


73 


57 


2 





1 


133 


Academic nongraded 


96 


108 


28 


32 


16 


280 


Postgraduate 


2 


2 





1 


1 


6 


Vocational training program 


25 


12 


8 


3 


1 


49 


Adult trainee 


49 


36 


44 


2 


23 


154 


Other registrant 


177 


268 


168 


136 


680 


1429 


Subtotal 


1073 


1127 


287 


921 


787 


4195 



Table 8 (continued) 
School/Agency x Grade Placement x Reading Medium 

Reading medium 



School/agencv 


Visual 


Braille 


Aud. 


Pre. 


Non. 


Total 


Grade 














Rehabilitation agencies 














Infant 











261 


93 


354 


Preschool 








4 


27 


16 


47 


Kindergarten 











2 





2 


Grade 1 




















Grade 2 




















Grade 3 




















Grade 4 




















Grade 5 




















Grade 6 




















Grade 7 




















Grade 8 




















Grade 9 




















Grade 10 




















Grade 1 1 




















Grade 12 




















Academic nongraded 








1 








1 


Postgraduate 




















Vocational training program 




















Adult trainee 


233 


269 


283 


20 


31 


836 


Other registrant 








1 





13 


14 


Subtotal 


233 


269 


289 


310 


153 


1254 


Multihandicapped facilities 














Infant 











11 





11 


Preschool 








3 


35 


9 


47 


Kindergarten 




















Grade 1 




















Grade 2 




















Grade 3 


1 














1 


Grade 4 




















Grade 5 


1 














1 


Grade 6 




















Grade 7 


5 














5 


Grade 8 




















Grade 9 




















Grade 10 




















Grade 1 1 


2 














2 


Grade 12 




















Academic nongraded 


2 





1 


1 





4 


Postgraduate 




















Vocational training program 




















Adult trainee 


63 


21 


149 


10 


669 


912 


Other registrant 


15 


1 


26 


20 


231 


293 


Subtotal 


89 


22 


179 


77 


909 


1276 


TOTAL 


13344 


4618 


5114 


9217 


13450 


45743 



Table 9 
Visual Acuity 

Visual acuity Number of students 

I 15169 

II 1190 

III 3700 

IV 1255 

V 201 

VI 2066 

VII 4424 
VIH 8029 
IX 9709 

TOTAL 45743 



Table 10 
School/Agency x Visual Acuity 



School/agencv 

Day school programs 
Residential school programs 
Rehabilitation agencies 
Multihandicapped facilities 



II 



III 



Visual acuity 
IV V VI VII Vin IX Total 



13736 


996 


3126 


1018 


134 


1755 


3761 


6684 


7808 


39018 


912 


135 


393 


205 


55 


196 


390 


917 


992 


4195 


262 


34 


114 


24 


10 


95 


108 


185 


422 


1254 


259 


25 


67 


8 


2 


20 


165 


243 


487 


1276 



TOTAL 



15169 1190 3700 1255 201 2066 4424 8029 9709 45743 



Table 11 
Grade Placement x Visual Acuity 



Grade placement 

Infant 

Preschool 

Kindergarten 

Grade 1 

Grade 2 

Grade 3 

Grade 4 

Grade 5 

Grade 6 

Grade 7 

Grade 8 

Grade 9 

Grade 10 

Grade 1 1 

Grade 12 

Academic nongraded 

Postgraduate 

Vocational training 

Adult trainee 

Other registrant 



Visual acuity 
III IV V VI VII Vin Df Total 



763 


23 


88 


47 


7 


226 


624 


1046 


662 


3486 


1252 


45 


227 


155 


15 


183 


584 


1118 


769 


4348 


545 


43 


145 


51 


8 


59 


75 


195 


187 


1308 


666 


46 


202 


70 


7 


68 


65 


132 


145 


1401 


749 


63 


178 


55 


4 


59 


47 


122 


122 


1399 


718 


57 


179 


29 


12 


60 


41 


10) 


128 


1325 


650 


65 


169 


39 


9 


63 


35 


70 


104 


1204 


666 


54 


164 


37 


7 


37 


40 


81 


106 


1192 


658 


57 


166 


34 


3 


50 


29 


65 


104 


1166 


691 


61 


155 


27 


11 


35 


33 


74 


77 


1164 


587 


59 


141 


47 


4 


45 


29 


65 


133 


1110 


617 


70 


147 


45 


8 


38 


22 


71 


114 


1132 


593 


63 


162 


48 


13 


39 


17 


78 


124 


1137 


518 


65 


147 


39 


7 


37 


24 


58 


124 


1019 


446 


51 


90 


33 


6 


41 


32 


63 


107 


869 


614 


61 


161 


76 


13 


77 


146 


278 


362 


1788 


7 


2 


3 








2 








3 


17 


59 


8 


22 


8 


1 


11 


19 


22 


34 


184 


1134 


102 


375 


95 


19 


198 


754 


1124 


2949 


6750 


3236 


195 


779 


320 


47 


738 


1808 


3266 


3355 


13744 



TOTAL 



15169 1190 3700 1255 201 2066 4424 8029 9709 45743 



Table 12 
School/Agency x Grade Placement x Visual Acuity 



$chQQl/agency 
Grade 

Day school programs 

Infant 

Preschool 

Kindergarten 

Grade 1 

Grade 2 

Grade 3 

Grade 4 

Grade 5 

Grade 6 

Grade 7 

Grade 8 

Grade 9 

Grade 10 

Grade 1 1 

Grade 12 

Academic nongraded 

Postgraduate 

Vocational training 

Adult trainee 

Other registrant 
Subtotal 



Residential school programs 

Infant 

Preschool 

Kindergarten 

Grade 1 

Grade 2 

Grade 3 

Grade 4 

Grade 5 

Grade 6 

Grade 7 

Grade 8 

Grade 9 

Grade 10 

Grade 1 1 

Grade 12 

Academic nongraded 

Postgraduate 

Vocational training 

Adult trainee 

Other registrant 
Subtotal 



Visual acuity 
I II III IV V VI VU Vm IX Total 



654 


20 


84 


43 


7 


188 


508 


897 


437 


2838 


1172 


40 


202 


142 


8 


166 


515 


928 


665 


3838 


510 


41 


134 


40 


7 


50 


69 


153 


158 


1162 


642 


43 


191 


61 


4 


59 


54 


118 


118 


1290 


715 


62 


168 


47 


4 


54 


43 


100 


103 


1296 


684 


53 


167 


25 


8 


53 


37 


81 


114 


1222 


621 


61 


149 


35 


5 


58 


32 


62 


92 


1115 


634 


49 


150 


34 


5 


32 


36 


61 


91 


1092 


629 


51 


147 


25 


3 


41 


24 


48 


96 


1064 


649 


56 


136 


22 


7 


23 


24 


62 


59 


1038 


552 


50 


128 


36 


3 


31 


21 


50 


107 


978 


567 


61 


129 


34 


4 


31 


15 


51 


88 


980 


544 


57 


131 


37 


10 


35 


16 


62 


95 


987 


481 


58 


123 


33 


4 


26 


18 


37 


97 


877 


400 


36 


81 


27 


3 


35 


29 


47 


78 


736 


540 


50 


132 


51 


9 


69 


128 


235 


289 


1503 


6 


1 


2 








2 











11 


41 


4 


16 


4 





6 


19 


17 


28 


135 


708 


54 


198 


55 


9 


111 


560 


860 


2293 


4848 


2987 


149 


658 


267 


34 


685 


1613 


2815 


2800 


12008 


3736 


996 


3126 


1018 


134 


1755 


3761 


6684 


7808 


39018 


69 


3 


2 


1 





16 


77 


81 


34 


283 


64 


5 


21 


13 


7 


17 


55 


154 


80 


416 


35 


2 


11 


11 


1 


8 


6 


41 


29 


144 


24 


3 


11 


9 


3 


9 


11 


14 


27 


111 


34 


1 


10 


8 





5 


4 


22 


19 


103 


33 


4 


12 


4 


4 


7 


4 


20 


14 


102 


29 


4 


20 


4 


4 


5 


3 


8 


12 


89 


31 


5 


14 


3 


2 


5 


4 


20 


15 


99 


29 


6 


19 


9 





9 


5 


17 


8 


102 


38 


5 


19 


5 


3 


12 


9 


12 


18 


121 


35 


9 


13 


11 


1 


14 


8 


15 


26 


132 


50 


9 


18 


11 


4 


7 


7 


20 


26 


152 


49 


6 


31 


11 


3 


4 


1 


16 


29 


150 


35 


7 


24 


6 


3 


11 


6 


21 


27 


140 


46 


15 


9 


6 


3 


6 


3 


16 


29 


133 


71 


11 


29 


25 


4 


7 


18 


42 


73 


280 


1 


1 


1 

















3 


6 


18 


4 


6 


4 


1 


5 





5 


6 


49 


31 


6 


22 


12 





8 


15 


15 


45 


154 


190 


29 


101 


52 


12 


41 


154 


378 


472 


1429 


912 


135 


393 


205 


55 


196 


390 


917 


992 


4195 



Table 12 (continued) 
School/Agency x Grade Placement x Visual Acuity 



School/agencv 
Grade 



Visual acuity 
II III IV V VI VII 



Vin IX Total 



Rehabilitation agencies 






















Infant 


39 





1 


3 





22 


38 


64 


187 


354 


Preschool 


6 





2 











8 


20 


11 


47 


Kindergarten 

















1 





1 





2 


Grade 1 
































Grade 2 
































Grade 3 
































Grade 4 
































Grade 5 
































Grade 6 
































Grade 7 
































Grade 8 
































Grade 9 
































Grade 10 
































Grade 11 
































Grade 12 
































Academic nongraded 

















1 











1 


Postgraduate 
































Vocational training 


o 





























Adult trainee 


214 


34 


110 


21 


10 


71 


62 


97 


217 


836 


Other registrant 


3 





1 














3 


7 


14 


Subtotal 


262 


34 


114 


24 


10 


95 


108 


185 


422 


1254 


Multihandicapped facilities 






















Infant 


1 





1 











1 


4 


4 


11 


Preschool 


10 





2 











6 


16 


13 


47 


Kindergarten 
































Grade 1 
































Grade 2 
































Grade 3 


1 


























1 


Grade 4 
































Grade 5 


1 


























1 


Grade 6 
































Grade 7 


4 











1 














5 


Grade 8 
































Grade 9 
































Grade 10 
































Grade 1 1 


2 


























2 


Grade 12 
































Academic nongraded 


3 




















1 





4 


Postgraduate 
































Vocational training 
































Adult trainee 


181 


8 


45 


7 





8 


117 


152 


394 


912 


Other registrants 


56 


17 


19 


1 


1 


12 


41 


70 


76 


293 


Subtotal 


259 


25 


67 


8 


2 


20 


165 


243 


487 


1276 


TOTAL 


15169 


1190 


3700 


1255 


201 


2066 


4424 


8029 


9709 


45743 



Table 13 
Visual Acuity x Reading Medium 



Visual acuity 

I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 

VIII 

IX 

TOTAL 





Reading medium 








Visual 


Braille 


Aud. 


Pre. 


Non. 


Total 


8935 


310 


943 


2572 


2409 


15169 


854 


47 


64 


131 


94 


1190 


2238 


227 


244 


493 


498 


3700 


484 


183 


108 


254 


226 


1255 


81 


43 


21 


30 


26 


201 


526 


248 


148 


568 


576 


2066 


226 


322 


522 


1336 


2018 


4424 





1145 


1356 


2314 


3214 


8029 





2093 


1708 


1519 


4389 


9709 


13344 


4618 


5114 


9217 


13450 


45743 



Table 14 
Grade Placement x Reading Medium x Visual Acuity 



Grade placement 
Reading medium 

Infant 

Visual 

Braille 

Auditory 

Prereader 

Nonreader 
Subtotal 

Preschool 

Visual 

Braille 

Auditory 

Prereader 

Nonreader 
Subtotal 

Kindergarten 

Visual 

Braille 

Auditory 

Prereader 

Nonreader 
Subtotal 

Grade l 

Visual 
Braille 
Auditory 
Prereader 
Nonreader 
Subtotal 

Qradg 2 

Visual 

Braille 

Auditory 

Prereader 

Nonreader 
Subtotal 

Grade 3 

Visual 

Braille 

Auditory 

Prereader 

Nonreader 
Subtotal 



Visual acuity 
J II III H. I II yu ym 



IX Total 



1 


1 


1 











1 








4 
































3 

















2 


6 


1 


12 


734 


22 


87 


43 


7 


222 


603 


1016 


588 


3322 


25 








4 





4 


18 


24 


73 


148 


763 


23 


88 


47 


7 


226 


624 


1046 


662 


3486 


72 


3 


18 


4 


2 


6 


17 








122 


4 


1 


5 


1 





2 


7 


29 


49 


98 


60 


2 


14 


6 





4 


22 


87 


52 


247 


993 


37 


165 


137 


13 


161 


470 


870 


544 


3390 


123 


2 


25 


7 





10 


68 


132 


124 


491 


L252 


45 


227 


155 


15 


183 


584 


1118 


769 


4348 


271 


15 


68 


16 


2 


21 


9 








402 


10 


2 


10 


7 


1 


7 


9 


68 


78 


192 


31 





7 


6 





4 


4 


20 


11 


83 


191 


20 


53 


18 


4 


20 


28 


70 


64 


468 


42 


6 


7 


4 


1 


7 


25 


37 


34 


163 


545 


43 


145 


51 


8 


59 


75 


195 


187 


1308 


498 


38 


146 


31 


3 


28 


17 








761 


15 


1 


14 


18 


2 


10 


12 


76 


104 


252 


17 





6 


1 


1 


1 


2 


9 


9 


46 


92 


7 


26 


13 





22 


17 


20 


14 


211 


44 





10 


7 


1 


7 


17 


27 


18 


131 


666 


46 


202 


70 


7 


68 


65 


132 


145 


1401 


617 


56 


150 


36 


3 


33 


10 








905 


24 


2 


7 


11 





11 


19 


77 


96 


247 


15 


2 


3 


2 





3 


3 


10 


6 


44 


56 


2 


12 


3 





8 


4 


16 


7 


108 


37 


1 


6 


3 


1 


4 


11 


19 


13 


95 


749 


63 


178 


55 


4 


59 


47 


122 


122 


1399 


622 


52 


156 


25 


8 


39 


8 








910 


19 





6 


1 


4 


11 


21 


77 


92 


231 


18 





4 











2 


8 


10 


42 


43 


4 


10 


2 





5 


4 


5 


7 


80 


16 


1 


3 


1 





5 


6 


11 


19 


62 


718 


57 


179 


29 


12 


60 


41 


101 


128 


1325 



Table 14 (continued) 
Grade Placement x Reading Medium x Visual Acuity 



Grade placement 
Reading medium 

Grade 4 

Visual 

Braille 

Auditory 

Prereader 

Nonreader 
Subtotal 

Grade 5 

Visual 

Braille 

Auditory 

Prereader 

Nonreader 
Subtotal 

Grade 6 

Visual 

Braille 

Auditory 

Prereader 

Nonreader 
Subtotal 

Grade 7 

Visual 

Braille 

Auditory 

Prereader 

Nonreader 
Subtotal 

Grade g 

Visual 

Braille 

Auditory 

Prereader 

Nonreader 
Subtotal 

Grade 9 

Visual 

Braille 

Auditory 

Prereader 

Nonreader 
Subtotal 



Visual acuity 
1 II III H V VI VII Vin DL Total 



576 


61 


148 


28 


7 


41 


8 








869 


19 


2 


9 


10 


2 


12 


14 


48 


82 


198 


11 





2 








2 


1 





5 


21 


29 


1 


8 


1 





4 


2 


4 


3 


52 


15 


1 


2 








4 


10 


18 


14 


64 


650 


65 


169 


39 


9 


63 


35 


70 


104 


1204 


617 


51 


141 


19 


2 


19 


8 








857 


17 


2 


16 


17 


5 


16 


19 


56 


90 


238 


10 





1 


1 





1 


2 


4 


7 


26 


10 





5 








1 


1 


4 


2 


23 


12 


1 


1 











10 


17 


7 


48 


666 


54 


164 


37 


7 


37 


40 


81 


106 


1192 


606 


52 


143 


20 


2 


26 


5 








854 


16 


1 


12 


11 


1 


17 


15 


52 


93 


218 


13 


1 


5 


2 





3 


2 


4 


2 


32 


6 


3 


2 


1 





2 


1 








15 


17 





4 








2 


6 


9 


9 


47 


658 


57 


166 


34 


3 


50 


29 


65 


104 


1166 


639 


53 


140 


19 


7 


23 


3 








884 


18 


5 


10 


7 


4 


8 


25 


59 


68 


204 


12 


2 


2 








2 


1 


3 


2 


24 


11 





3 


1 





1 


2 


1 


1 


20 


11 


1 











1 


2 


11 


6 


32 


691 


61 


155 


27 


11 


35 


33 


74 


77 


1164 


531 


58 


120 


30 


2 


22 


5 








768 


22 





12 


14 


2 


18 


18 


52 


115 


253 


12 


1 


6 


3 





4 





8 


5 


39 


7 





2 

















1 


10 


15 





1 








1 


6 


5 


12 


40 


587 


59 


141 


47 


4 


45 


29 


65 


133 


1110 


578 


64 


128 


31 


6 


20 


6 








833 


9 


4 


11 


8 


1 


15 


15 


60 


100 


223 


13 


1 


3 


1 





2 








6 


26 


10 


1 


3 


2 











2 


1 


19 


7 





2 


3 


1 


1 


1 


9 


7 


31 


617 


70 


147 


45 


8 


38 


22 


71 


114 


1132 



Table 14 (continued) 
Grade Placement x Reading Medium x Visual Acuity 













Visual acuity 








Grade placement 


J 


II 


m 


IY 


V 


YI 


vn 


vm 


I2L 


Total 


Reading medium 






















Grade 10 






















Visual 


560 


52 


137 


33 


7 


22 


1 








812 


Braille 


13 


6 


15 


12 


4 


13 


13 


63 


107 


246 


Auditory 


7 


3 


4 


3 


2 


1 


1 


3 


6 


30 


Prereader 


9 





5 














1 


2 


17 


Nonreader 


4 


2 


1 








3 


2 


11 


9 


32 


Subtotal 


593 


63 


162 


48 


13 


39 


17 


78 


124 


1137 


Grade 1 1 






















Visual 


483 


57 


135 


21 


2 


23 











721 


Braille 


10 


3 


11 


11 


4 


12 


19 


43 


112 


225 


Auditory 


6 


2 


1 


7 


1 


2 


3 


8 


4 


34 


Prereader 


9 


2 

















1 





12 


Nonreader 


10 


1 














2 


6 


8 


27 


Subtotal 


518 


65 


147 


39 


7 


37 


24 


58 


124 


1019 


Grade 12 






















Visual 


393 


49 


79 


19 


2 


28 


3 








573 


Braille 


14 


2 


4 


9 


4 


7 


13 


50 


90 


193 


Auditory 


13 





5 


4 





6 


4 


6 


3 


41 


Prereader 


6 








1 














1 


8 


Nonreader 


20 





2 











12 


7 


13 


54 


Subtotal 


446 


51 


90 


33 


6 


41 


32 


63 


107 


869 


Academic nongraded 






















Visual 


460 


39 


93 


34 


10 


31 


21 








688 


Braille 


12 


6 


10 


14 





19 


19 


67 


128 


275 


Auditory 


51 


1 


13 


10 


2 


4 


30 


75 


86 


272 


Prereader 


47 


8 


33 


6 





10 


25 


28 


32 


189 


Nonreader 


44 


7 


12 


12 


1 


13 


51 


108 


116 


364 


Subtotal 


614 


61 


161 


76 


13 


77 


146 


278 


362 


1788 


Postgraduate 






















Visual 


6 


1 


3 








1 











11 


Braille 


























2 


2 


Auditory 


1 














1 











2 


Prereader 





1 























1 


Nonreader 


























1 


1 


Subtotal 


7 


2 


3 








2 








3 


17 


Vocational 






















Visual 


41 


5 


13 


4 





4 


2 








69 


Braille 


2 


1 





2 





3 





5 


6 


19 


Auditory 


6 


1 


3 


2 





1 


8 


9 


19 


49 


Prereader 


3 





1 





1 














5 


Nonreader 


7 


1 


5 








3 


9 


8 


9 


42 


Subtotal 


59 


8 


22 


8 


1 


11 


19 


22 


34 


184 



Table 14 (continued) 
Grade Placement x Reading Medium x Visual Acuity 



Grade placement 
Reading medium 

Adult students 

Visual 

Braille 

Auditory 

Prereader 

Nonreader 
Subtotal 

Other registrants 

Visual 

Braille 

Auditory 

Prereader 

Nonreader 
Subtotal 



Visual acuity 
I II III IY V VI VII VIII 



IX Total 



409 


61 


134 


38 


4 


43 


30 








719 


43 


4 


47 


23 


5 


33 


52 


108 


404 


719 


293 


25 


94 


21 


10 


69 


182 


425 


905 


2024 


23 





7 


1 





1 


15 


10 


20 


77 


366 


12 


93 


12 





52 


475 


581 


1620 


3211 


1134 


102 


375 


95 


19 


198 


754 


1124 


2949 


6750 


955 


86 


285 


76 


12 


96 


72 








1582 


43 


5 


28 


7 


4 


34 


32 


155 


277 


585 


351 


23 


71 


39 


5 


38 


253 


671 


569 


2020 


293 


23 


71 


25 


5 


111 


164 


266 


232 


1190 


1594 


58 


324 


173 


21 


459 


1287 


2174 


2277 


8367 


3236 


195 


779 


320 


47 


738 


1808 


3266 


3355 


13744 



TOTAL 



15169 1190 3700 1255 



201 2066 4424 8029 



9709 



45743 



Table 15 
School/Agency x Reading Medium x Visual Acuity 



Visual acuity 



School/agency 
Reading medium 


I 


II 


ffl 


JV 


v 


YI 


vn 


vm 


IX 


Tota 


Dav school programs 






















Visual 


8179 


730 


1938 


396 


63 


454 


189 








11949 


Braille 


252 


35 


155 


119 


17 


161 


224 


767 


1470 


3200 


Auditory 


771 


49 


184 


90 


13 


107 


460 


1190 


1495 


4359 


Prereader 


2306 


112 


429 


218 


20 


494 


1138 


1953 


1239 


7909 


Nonreader 


2228 


70 


420 


195 


21 


539 


1750 


2774 


3604 


11601 


Subtotal 


13736 


996 


3126 


1018 


134 


1755 


3761 


6684 


7808 


39018 


Residential school programs 






















Visual 


574 


95 


232 


78 


15 


50 


29 








1073 


Braille 


47 


12 


51 


52 


22 


71 


71 


322 


479 


1127 


Auditory 


28 


3 


24 


16 


4 


10 


24 


101 


77 


287 


Prereader 


207 


19 


50 


33 


10 


47 


147 


266 


142 


921 


Nonreader 


56 


6 


36 


26 


4 


18 


119 


228 


294 


787 


Subtotal 


912 


135 


393 


205 


55 


196 


390 


917 


992 


4195 


Rehabilitation agencies 






















Visual 


130 


21 


50 


8 


2 


19 


3 








233 


Braille 


11 





21 


11 


4 


16 


25 


52 


129 


269 


Auditory 


59 


11 


32 


2 


4 


30 


30 


42 


79 


289 


Prereader 


40 





5 


3 





22 


42 


73 


125 


310 


Nonreader 


22 


2 


6 








8 


8 


18 


89 


153 


Subtotal 


262 


34 


114 


24 


10 


95 


108 


185 


422 


1254 


Multihandicapped facilities 






















Visual 


52 


8 


18 


2 


1 


3 


5 








89 


Braille 











1 








2 


4 


15 


22 


Auditory 


85 


1 


4 








1 


8 


23 


57 


179 


Prereader 


19 





9 








5 


9 


22 


13 


77 


Nonreader 


103 


16 


36 


5 


1 


11 


141 


194 


402 


909 


Subtotal 


259 


25 


67 


8 


2 


20 


165 


243 


487 


1276 


TOTAL 


15169 


1190 


3700 


1255 


201 


2066 


4424 


8029 


9709 


45743 



Table 16 
School/Agency x Average Age 

SchQQl/agency Average age (month?) 

Day school programs 176 

Residential school programs 164 

Rehabilitation agencies 35 1 

Multihandicapped facilities 373 



Table 17 
Grade Placement x Average Age 

Grade placement Average age (month?) 

Infant 43 

Preschool 67 

Kindergarten 88 

Grade 1 102 

Grade 2 116 

Grade 3 127 

Grade 4 139 

Grade 5 151 

Grade 6 163 

Grade 7 176 

Grade 8 188 

Grade 9 200 

Grade 10 213 

Grade 11. 222 

Grade 12 234 

Academic nongraded 158 

Postgraduate 255 

Vocational training 211 

Adult trainee 453 

Other registrants 160 







Table 18 








i 


OR Students x Age a 


: School/Agency 






Age (months) 


Day school 


Residential school 


Rehabilitation 


Multihandicapped 


Total 




programs 


programs 


agencies 


facilities 




0-24 


13 











13 


25-48 


103 


3 








106 


49-72 


447 


27 





2 


476 


73-96 


1320 


60 





12 


1392 


97-120 


1828 


124 





17 


1969 


121-144 


1837 


179 


1 


19 


2036 


145-168 


1570 


185 


2 


41 


1798 


169-192 


1326 


198 


2 


38 


1564 


193-216 


1265 


223 


1 


31 


1520 


217-240 


1140 


212 


5 


59 


1416 


241-264 


1073 


192 


2 


71 


1338 


265-384 


86 


26 


1 


3 


116 



TOTAL 



12008 



1429 



14 



293 



13744 



Table 19 
Reading Medium x Average Age 



Reading medium 

Visual 

Braille 

Auditory 

Prereader 

Nonreader 



Average age (months) 

180 

212 

280 

68 

225 





Table 20 






Visual Acuity x Average Age 




Visual acuitv 






Average age (months) 


I 






169 


II 






188 


in 






182 


IV 






164 


V 






189 


VI 






169 


VII 






177 


vm 






165 


IX 






236 



u 


15310 


m 


13779 


b 
c 


12248 


r 


10717 





9186 


1 


7655 


S 


6124 


t 
u 


4593 


d 
e 
n 


3062 
1531 


t 




s 





il 



I 



m 



»I 



mm 



— 1 ^ 



I, 

i 



IP 

i 



p 

^L 



IN 



PS 



KG Grades 1-12 



AN 



PG 



AD 



OR 



ED Year 1987 



Year 1990 



Figure 1 . Total number of students reported within each grade place- 
ment: 1987 and 1990 compared. 



u 


39020 


m 


35118 


b 

c 


31216 


r 


27314 





23412 


f 


19510 


S 


15608 


u 


11706 


d 
e 


7804 


n 


3902 


t 




s 






Day School 



Residential 



Rehabilitation 



Multihandicapped 



El Year 1987 



Year 1990 



Figure 2 . Total number of students within each school/agency: 1987 
and 1990 compared. 



u 


12830 


m 


11547 


b 
c 


10264 


r 


8981 


o 


7698 


f 


6415 


s 


5132 


u 


3849 


d 

c 


2566 


n 


1283 


s 


( 



Day Schools Residential 



Rehabilitation 



Multihandicapped 



□ Year 1987 



Year 1990 



Figure 3 . Total number of other registrant students within each 
school/agency type: 1987 and 1990 compared. 




Visual Braille 

H Year 1987 Year 1990 



Auditory 



Prereader 



Nonreader 



Figure 4 . Total number of students within each reading medium 
category: 1987 and 1990 compared. 



u 


3220 


m 

b 
c 


2898 
2576 


r 


2254 





1932 


f 


1610 


S 

t 
u 


1288 
966 


d 
c 


644 


n 


322 




Visual 



Braille 



Auditory 



Prereader 



Nonreader 



Q Year 1987 



Year 1990 



Figure 5 . Total number of adult trainees within each reading medium 
category: 1987 and 1990 compared. 





15170 


m 


13653 


b 
e 


12136 


r 


10619 


o 


9102 


f 


7585 


S 


6068 


u 


4551 


d 
c 


3034 


n 


1517 



I; 

I 



m^ 



m^ 



i 



• 









I 



IV 



VI 



VII 



VIII 



IX 



E3 Year 1987 



EJ Year 1990 



Figure 6 . Total number of registrants within each visual acuity category: 
1987 and 1990 compared. 



Day Programs 




■ Acuities I- VII 
Acuities VIII-EX 



62.9% 
37.1% 



Residential Schools 




■ Acuities I- VII 
E3 Acuities VIII-EX 



54.5% 
45.5% 



Figure 7 . Percentage of registrants with object perception or better (I- VII) and 
percentage of registrants with light perception and totally blind (VIII-IX): day and 
residential students compared. 



240 _ 

216 

192 _ 

168 _ 

144 

120 
96 
72 _ 

48 . 

24 _ 





f i 



MM 



m 



in 



IS 



£■ 



11 



1 



1 



A 






I 



Q Year 1987 



III 



I Year 1990 



IV 



VI 



VII 



VIII 



I 



i 



EX 



Figure 8 . Average age of registrants within each visual acuity category: 
1987 and 1990 compared 



Apendix 

Reporting Codes 

School and Agency Type— 4 categories 

Day school programs (programs reporting through State Departments of Education) 
Residential schools for the blind 
Rehabilitation agencies 
Multihandicapped facilities 

Grade PIacement--20 categories 
Preschool and school age students : 

Infant (IN) children of preschool age served by infant programs 

Preschool (PS) children of preschool age served by preschool programs 

Kindergarten (KG) children enrolled in kindergarten classes 

Grades 1-12 students of school age, as determined by state law, in 

regular academic grades 1-12 
Academic nongraded (AN) ...students of school age, as determined by state law, who are 
working to establish grade placement in an academic pro- 
gram (e.g., students who are working to acquire skills nec- 
essary for placement in a regular grade) 

Vocational (VO) students of school age, as determined by law, who are in 

vocational training (e.g., students enrolled in a program 
which is designed to lead to independent employment) 
Postgraduate students (PG) ...students of school age, as determined by law, in postgradu- 
ate high school programs, studying less than college level 

Other registrant (OR) students of school age, as determined by law, who do not 

fall into any of the above placements (e.g, students in pre- 
vocational and other classes for nonacademic students) 
Adult students 

Adult trainee (AD) Adults above school age, as determined by law, in educa- 
tional programs of less than college level 

Reading medium -5 categories 

Visual readers (V) students primarily using regular print or large type in their 

studies 

Braille readers (B) students primarily using braille in their studies 

Auditory readers (A) students primarily using a reader or auditory materials in 

their studies 

Prereaders (P) students working on or toward a readiness level (e.g., all 

infants and preschoolers; older students with reading poten- 
tial) 

Nonreaders (N) nonreading students; students who show no reading poten- 
tial; students who do not fall into any of the above cate- 
gories 



Visual acuity-9 categories 

I 20/200-18/200 

II 17/200-13/200 

III 12/200-8/200 

IV ....7/200-3/200 
V 2.5/200-.4/200 

VI ....counts fingers 

VII ...hand movements, form and object perception 

VIII ..light projection and perception 

IX ....totally blind (nil) 



HV1580 Poppe, Karen J. 

P816 Distribution of quota 
registrants in 1990 by 
grade placement, visual 
activity, reading medium, 



HV1580 Poppe, Karen J. 
816 ?»tri*utio n of quota 
registrants in 1990 I 
***** Placement vlS u al 
activity, reading Ual 




AirttRiCAN FOUNDATION FOR THE BLIND, INC, 
15 WEST 16th STREET 
NEW YORK, N. Y. 10011