(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The distributions of the native land mollusks of the Eastern United States"

UNIVERSITY OF 

ILLINOIS LIBRARY 

AT URBANA CHAMPAIGN 

BIOLOGY 



J 



90.5 BIX 

I 

4 JE 1985 





1ANA 



Zoology 

NEW SERIES, NO. 24 



The Distributions of the Native Land Mollusks 
of the Eastern United States 

Leslie Hubricht ALL 

7 1985 



June 28, 1985 
Publication 1359 



PUBLISHED BY FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



Information for Contributors to Fieldiana 

General: Fieldiana is primarily a journal for Field Museum staff members and research associates, although 
manuscripts from nonaffiliated authors may be considered as space permits. The Journal carries a page charge of $65 
per printed page or fraction thereof. Contributions from staff, research associates, and invited authors will be con- 
sidered for publication regardless of ability to pay page charges, but the full charge is mandatory for nonaffiliated 
authors of unsolicited manuscripts. Payment oi at least 509t of page charges qualifies a paper for expedited process- 
ing, which reduces the publication time. 

Manuscripts should be submitted to Dr. Timothy Plowman, Scientific Editor. Fieldiana, Field Museum of Natural 
History, Chicago. Illinois 60605-2496. USA. Three complete copies of the text (including title page and abstract) and 
of the illustrations should be submitted (one original copy plus two review copies which may be machine copies). No 
manuscripts will be considered for publication or submitted to reviewers before all materials are complete and in the 
hands of the Scientific Editor. 

Text: Manuscripts must be typewritten double-spaced on standard-weight, 8'/ 2 - by 11-inch paper with wide margins 
on all four sides. For papers longer than 100 manuscript pages, authors are requested to submit a "Table of Contents/' a 
-List of Illustrations." and a "List of Tables." In most cases, the text should be preceded by an "Abstract" and should 
conclude with "Acknowledgments" (if any) and "Literature Cited." All measurements should be in the metric system. 
The format and style of headings should follow those of recent issues of Fieldiana. For more detailed style informa- 
tion, see The Chicago Manual of Style ( 13th ed.), published by The University of Chicago Press, and also recent issues 
of Fieldiana. 

In "Literature Cited." authors are encouraged to give journal and book titles in full. Where abbreviations are 
desirable (e.g.. in citation of synonymies), authors consistently should follow Botanico-Periodkum-Huntianum and 
TL-2 Taxonomk Literature by F A. Stafleu & R. S. Cowan ( 1976 et seq. ) (botanical papers) or Serial Sources for the 
Biosis Data Base (1983) published by the BioSeiences Information Service. 
References should be typed in the following form: 
Croat. T. B. 1978. Flora of Barro Colorado Island. Stanford University Press. Stanford, Calif. . 943 pp. 
GRUBB, P. J.. .1. R. Ll OYD, \ndT. D. PENNINGTON 1963. A comparison of montane ami lowland rain forest in Ecuadoi 

forest structure, physiognomy, and floristies. Journal of Ecology. 51: 567-601. 
LANGDON, li. J. VI. 1979. Yage among the Siona: Cultural patterns in visions, pp. 63-80. In Browman, D. L.. and R. A. 

Schwarz, eds.. Spirits. Shamans, and Stars. Mouton Puhlishers, The Hague. Netherlands. 
MURRA, J. 1946. The historic tribes of Ecuador, pp. 785-821. In Steward. J. H.. ed.. Handhook of South American Indians. 
Vol. 2. The Andean Civilizations. Bulletin 143. Bureau of American Ethnology. Smithsonian Institution. Washington. 1 ).C. 
STOLZE, R. G. 1981. Ferns and fern allies of Guatemala. Part II. Polypodiaceae. Fieldiana: Botany, n.s.. 6: 1-522. 
Illustrations: Illustrations are referred to in the text as "figures" (not as "plates"). Figures must be accompanied by 
some indication of scale, normally a reference bar. Statements in figure captions alone, such as "x 0.8." are not 
acceptable. Captions should be typed double-spaced and consecutively. See recent issues o\~ Fieldiana for details ot 
style. 

Figures as submitted should, whenever practicable, be 8V2 by 11 inches (22 X 28 cm) and may not exceed 
16': inches (30 x 42 cm). Illustrations should be mounted on boards in the arrangement you wish to obtain in the 
printed work. This original set should be suitable for transmission to the printer as follows: Pen and ink drawings may 
be originals (preferred) or photostats: shaded drawings should be originals, but within the size limitation; and photo- 
stats should be high-quality, glossy, black and white prints. All illustrations should be marked on the reverse with 
author's name, figure number(s). and "top." Original illustrations will be returned to the author upon publicatior 
unless otherwise specified. Authors who wish to publish figures that require costly special paper or color reproductior 
must make prior arrangements with the Scientific Editor. 

Page Proofs: Fieldiana employs a two-step correction system. Each author will normally receive a copy oi the 
edited manuscript on which deletions, additions, and changes can be made and queries answered. Only one set ot page 
proofs will be sent. All desired corrections of type must be made on the single set of page proofs. Changes in page 
proofs (as opposed to corrections) are very expensive. Author-generated changes in page proofs can only be made 1 
the author agrees in advance to pay for them. 



FIELDIANA 



Zoology 

NEW SERIES, NO. 24 



The Distributions of the Native Land Mollusks 
of the Eastern United States 

Leslie Hubricht 

4026 35th Street 
Meridian, Mississippi 39305 



Accepted for publication April 18, 1984 
June 28, 1985 
Publication 1359 



PUBLISHED BY FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



© 1985 Field Museum of Natural History 
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 84-63120 

ISSN 0015-0754 
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 



Table of Contents 



Abstract 1 

Introduction 1 

Acknowledgments 1 

Materials and Methods 1 

Recommendations for Future Work 2 

List of Taxa 3 

Papers from Which Distribution Records 

Were Obtained 50 

Distribution Maps 55 

Index 173 



List of Maps 

1. Hendersonia occulta (Say) 55 

2. Helicina orbiculata (Say) 55 

3. Helicina clappi Pilsbry 56 

4. Lucidella tantilla (Pilsbry) 56 

5. Chondropoma dentatum (Say) 56 

6. Truncatella pulchella Pfeiffer 56 

7. Truncatella floridana Hubricht 56 

8. Truncatella scalaris clathrus Lowe ... 56 

9. Truncatella regina Hubricht 56 

10. Truncatella subcylindrica (Linne) .... 56 

1 1. Pomatiopsis lapidaria (Say) 57 

12. Pomatiopsis cincinnatiensis (I. Lea) .. 57 

13. Veronicella floridana (Leidy) 58 

14. Carychium mexicanum Pilsbry 58 

15. Carychium clappi Hubricht 58 

16. Carychium stygium Call 58 

17. Carychium exiguum (Say) 59 

18. Carychium nannodes Clapp 59 

19. Carychium riparium Hubricht 59 

20. Carychium exile exile H. C. Lea 60 

2 1 . Carychium exile canadense Clapp ... 60 

22. Cochlicopa lubricella (Porro) 61 

23. Cochlicopa nitens (Gallenstein) 61 

24. Cochlicopa lubrica (Muller) 62 

25. Cochlicopa morseana (Doherty) 62 

26. Vallonia pulchella (Muller) 63 

27. Vallonia costata (Muller) 63 

28. Vallonia parvula Sterki 64 

29. Vallonia cyclophorella Sterki 65 

30. Vallonia excentrica Sterki 65 

31. Vallonia gracilicosta Reinhardt 66 

32. Planogyra aster iscus (Morse) 66 

33. Vallonia perspectiva Sterki 67 

34. Zoogenetes harpa (Say) 67 

35. Pup ilia muscorum muscorum 

(Linne) 68 

36. Pupilla muscorum sinistra Franzen ... 68 



37. Pupilla blandi Morse 68 

38. Pupoides albilabris (C. B. Adams) .... 69 

39. Pupoides hordaceus (Gabb) 69 

40. Pupoides modicus (Gould) 69 

41. Pupoides inornatus Vanatta 69 

42. Gastrocopta contracta (Say) 70 

43. Gastrocopta similis (Sterki) 70 

44. Gastrocopta armifera (Say) 71 

45. Gastrocopta rupicola (Say) 71 

46. Gastrocopta procera (Gould) 72 

47. Gastrocopta cr is tat a (Pilsbry & 
Vanatta) 72 

48. Gastrocopta holzingeri (Sterki) 73 

49. Gastrocopta pellucida (Pfeiffer) 73 

50. Gastrocopta abbreviata (Sterki) 74 

5 1 . Gastrocopta ruidosensis (Cockerell) ... 74 

52. Gastrocopta riparia Hubricht 74 

53. Gastrocopta corticaria (Say) 75 

54. Gastrocopta paracristata Franzen & 
Leonard 75 

55. Gastrocopta scaevoscala Taylor 75 

56. Gastrocopta chauliodonta Taylor .... 75 

57. Gastrocopta tappaniana (C. B. 

Adams) 76 

58. Gastrocopta servilis (Gould) 76 

59. Gastrocopta falcis Leonard 76 

60. Gastrocopta sterkiana Pilsbry 76 

6 1 . Gastrocopta pentodon (Say) 77 

62. Gastrocopta riograndensis (Pilsbry & 
Vanatta) 77 

63. Gastrocopta venusta Leonard 77 

64. Gastrocopta clappi (Sterki) 77 

65. Vertigo milium (Gould) 78 

66. Vertigo oscariana (Sterki) 78 

67. Vertigo ovata Say 79 

68. Vertigo rugosula Sterki 79 

69. Vertigo elatior Sterki 80 

70. Vertigo oralis Sterki 80 

7 1 . Vertigo ventricosa (Morse) 81 

72. Vertigo teskeyae Hubricht 81 

73. Vertigo tridentata Wolf 82 

74. Vertigo hubrichti Pihuxy 82 

75. Vertigo gouldi (A. Binney) 83 

76. Vertigo modesta modesta (Say) 83 

77. Vertigo morsei Sterki 84 

78. Vertigo pygmaea (Draparnaud) 84 

79. Vertigo nylanderi Sterki 84 

80. Vertigo paradoxa Sterki 84 

8 1 . Vertigo parvula Sterki 84 

82. Vertigo clappi Brooks & Hunt 85 

83. Vertigo hannai Pilsbry 85 

84. Vertigo bollesiana (Morse) 85 



85. Vertigo alpestris oughtoni Pilsbry .... 85 

86. Vertigo binneyana Sterki 85 

87. Vertigo perryi Sterki 85 

88. Vertigo meramecensis Van Devender . . 86 

89. Vertigo brier ensis Leonard 86 

90. Vertigo occulta Leonard 86 

91. Vertigo arthuri von Martens 86 

92. Vertigo concinnula Cockerell 86 

93. Vertigo alabamensis Clapp 86 

94. Vertigo conecuhensis Clapp 86 

95. Vertigo hebardi Vanatta 86 

96. Columella columella alticola 

(Ingersoll) 87 

97. Columella simplex (Gould) 87 

98. Pupisoma dioscoricola (C. B. Adams) . . 88 

99. Pupisoma macneilli (Clapp) 88 

100. Columella hasta (Hanna) 88 

101. Bothriopupa variolosa (Gould) 88 

102. Sterkia eyriesi rhoadsi (Pilsbry) 88 

103. Strobilops labyrinthica (Say) 89 

104. Strobilops texasiana Pilsbry & 

Ferriss 89 

105. Strobilops aenea Pilsbry 90 

106. Strobilops affinis Pilsbry 90 

107. Strobilops sparsicostata F. C. Baker . . 91 

108. Cerion incanum (A. Binney) 91 

109. Strobilops hubbardi A. D. Brown .... 91 

1 10. Oxyloma retusa (I. Lea) 91 

111. Oxyloma groenlandica (Moller) 92 

112. Oxyloma peoriensis (Wolf in 

Walker) 92 

1 1 3. Oxyloma effusa (Pfeiffer) 92 

1 14. Oxyloma salleana (Pfeiffer) 92 

115. Oxyloma subeffusa Pilsbry 92 

116. Oxyloma haydeni (W. G. Binney) .... 92 

117. Succinea Indiana Pilsbry 93 

118. Succinea ovalis Say 94 

1 19. Succinea forsheyi I. Lea 94 

120. Succinea unicolor Tryon 95 

121. Succinea greeri Tryon 95 

122. Succinea grosvenori I. Lea 95 

123. Succinea luteola Gould 96 

1 24. Succinea paralia Hubricht 96 

125. Succinea chittenangoensis Pilsbry .... 96 

126. Succinea campestris Say 97 

127. Succinea wilsoni I. Lea 97 

128. Succinea putris (Linne) 97 

129. Succinea bakeri Hubricht 97 

130. Succinea solastra Hubricht 97 

131. Succinea urbana Hubricht 97 

132. Succinea jloridana Pilsbry 97 

133. Succinea barberi (Marshall) 97 

134. Catinella avara (Say) 98 

135. Catinella oklahomarum (Webb) 98 



136. Catinella hubrichti Grimm 98 

137. Catinella wandae (Webb) 99 

138. Catinella pugilator Hubricht 99 

1 39. Catinella vagans (Pilsbry) 99 

140. Catinella gelida (F. C. Baker) 99 

141. Catinella aprica Hubricht 99 

142. Catinella exile (Leonard) 99 

143. Philomycus carolinianus (Bosc) 100 

144. Philomycus togatus (Gould) 100 

145. Philomycus venustus Hubricht 101 

146. Philomycus virginicus Hubricht 101 

147. Philomycus sellatus Hubricht 101 

148. Philomycus flexuolaris Rafinesque ... 101 

149. Pallifera dorsalis (A. Binney) 101 

150. Megapallifera mutabilis (Hubricht) ... 102 

151. Pallifera secreta (Cockerell) 102 

152. Pallifera marmorea Pilsbry 102 

153. Pallifera hemphilli (W. G. Binney) ... 102 

154. Pallifera varia Hubricht 102 

155. Megapallifera wet her by i (W. G. 

Binney) 102 

156. Pallifera fosteri F. C. Baker 103 

157. Megapallifera ragsdalei (Webb) 103 

158. Anguispira alter nata (Say) 104 

159. Anguispira strongylodes (Pfeiffer) .... 104 

160. Anguispira mordax (Shuttleworth) ... 105 

161. Anguispira kochi (Pfeiffer) 105 

162. Anguispira fergusoni (Bland) 105 

163. Anguispira rugoderma Hubricht 106 

164. Anguispira knoxensis (Pilsbry) 106 

165. Anguispira Jessica Kutchka 106 

166. Anguispira cumberlandiana (I. Lea) . . 106 

167. Anguispira alabama (Clapp) 106 

168. Anguispira picta (Clapp) 106 

169. Discus shimeki (Pilsbry) 106 

170. Discus nigrimontanus (Pilsbry) 106 

171. Discus cronkhitei (Newcomb) 107 

172. Discus catskillensis (Pilsbry) 108 

173. Discus macclintocki (F. C. Baker) .... 108 

174. Discus patulus (Deshayes) 109 

175. Discus bryanti (Harper) 109 

176. Discus clappi (Pilsbry) 109 

177. Polygyriscus virginianus (P. R. 

Burch) 109 

178. Helicodiscus notius notius Hubricht . . 109 

179. Helicodiscus singleyanus (Pilsbry) .... 110 

180. Helicodiscus eigenmanni eigenmanni 
Pilsbry 110 

181. Helicodiscus roundyi (Morrison) 110 

182. Helicodiscus tridens (Morrison) 110 

183. Helicodiscus hadenoecus Hubricht ... 1 10 

184. Helicodiscus notius specus Hubricht .. 110 

185. Helicodiscus parallelus (Say) Ill 

186. Helicodiscus shimeki Hubricht Ill 



IV 



Helicodiscus inermis H. B. Baker .... 112 

Helicodiscus nummus (Vanatta) 112 

Helicodiscus diadema Grimm 112 

Helicodiscus lirellus Hubricht 112 

Helicodiscus triodus Hubricht 113 

Helicodiscus fimbriatus Wetherby .... 113 
Helicodiscus bonamicus Hubricht .... 113 
Helicodiscus hexodon Hubricht 113 

195. Helicodiscus saludensis (Morrison) ... 113 

196. Helicodiscus aldrichianus (Clapp) .... 113 

Helicodiscus multidens Hubricht 113 

Helicodiscus barri Hubricht 113 

Helicodiscus punctatellus Morrison ... 113 

Punctum minutissimum (I. Lea) 114 

Punctum vitreum H. B. Baker 114 

Deroceras laeve (Mtiller) 115 

Deroceras aenigma Leonard 115 

Punctum smithi Morrison 115 

Nesovitrea electrina (Gould) 116 

Nesovitrea binneyana (Morse) 116 



187 
188 
189 
190 
191 
192 
193 
194 



197. 
198. 
199. 
200. 
201. 
202. 
203. 
204. 
205. 
206. 

207. Punctum blandianum Pilsbry 116 

208. Punctum parvulum Leonard 116 

209. Nesovitrea dalliana (Pilsbry & 
Simpson) 116 

210. Nesovitrea suzannae Pratt 117 

211. Glyphyalinia virginica (Morrison) .... 117 

2 1 2. Glyphyalinia vanattai (Pilsbry & 
Walker) 117 

213. Glyphyalinia wheat leyi (Bland) 117 

214. Glyphyalinia lewisiana (Clapp) 118 

215. Glyphyalinia cumberlandiana (Clapp) ..118 

216. Glyphyalinia clingmani (Dall) 118 

217. Glyphyalinia specus Hubricht 118 

218. Glyphyalinia raderi (Dall) 118 

219. Glyphyalinia jloridana (Morrison) ... 118 

220. Glyphyalinia pentadelphia (Pilsbry) ..118 

22 1 . Glyphyalinia ocoae Hubricht 118 

222. Glyphyalinia indentata (Authors) .... 119 

223. Glyphyalinia rhoadsi (Pilsbry) 119 

224. Glyphyalinia roemeri (Pilsbry & 

Ferriss) 119 

225. Glyphyalinia solida (H. B. Baker) .... 120 

226. Glyphyalinia cryptomphala (Clapp) . . 120 

227. Glyphyalinia caroliniensis 

(Cockerell) 120 

228. Glyphyalinia pecki Hubricht 120 

229. Glyphyalinia rimula Hubricht 120 

230. Glyphyalinia luticola Hubricht 121 

231. Glyphyalinia umbilicata (Singley in 
Cockerell) 121 

232. Glyphyalinia latebricola Hubricht .... 121 

233. Glyphyalinia junaluskana (Clench & 
Banks) 121 

234. Glyphyalinia picea Hubricht 121 



235. Glyphyalinia praecox (H. B. Baker) . . 122 

236. Glyphyalinia sculptilis (Bland) 122 

237. Mesomphix inornatus (Say) 122 

238. Mesomphix perlaevis (Pilsbry) 122 

239. Mesomphix friabilis (W. G. Binney) . . 123 

240. Mesomphix globosus (MacMillan) ... 123 

241. Mesomphix andrewsae (Pilsbry) 123 

242. Mesomphix subplanus (A. Binney) ... 123 

243. Mesomphix rugeli (W. G. Binney) ... 123 

244. Mesomphix cupreus (Rafinesque) .... 1 24 

245. Mesomphix latior (Pilsbry) 124 

246. Mesomphix vulgatus H. B. Baker .... 1 24 

247. Mesomphix anurus Hubricht 124 

248. Mesomphix pilsbryi (Clapp) 124 

249. Vitrinizonites latissimus (Lewis) 124 

250. Mesomphix capnodes (W. G. Binney) . . 125 

251. Paravitrea multidentata (A. Binney) . . 125 

252. Paravitrea significans (Bland) 126 

253. Paravitrea conecuhensis (Clapp) 126 

254. Paravitrea lamellidens (Pilsbry) 126 

255. Paravitrea clappi (Pilsbry) 126 

256. Paravitrea variabilis H. B. Baker 126 

257. Paravitrea umbilicaris (Ancey) 126 

258. Paravitrea andrewsae (W. G. Binney) . . 126 

259. Paravitrea dentilla Hubricht 126 

260. Paravitrea capsella (Authors) 127 

261. Paravitrea petrophila (Bland) 127 

262. Paravitrea varidens Hubricht 127 

263. Paravitrea mira Hubricht 127 

264. Paravitrea ternaria Hubricht 127 

265. Paravitrea tridens Pilsbry 127 

266. Paravitrea reesei Morrison 127 

267. Paravitrea amicalola Hubricht 127 

268. Paravitrea septadens Hubricht 128 

269. Paravitrea subtilis Hubricht 128 

270. Paravitrea bidens Hubricht 128 

27 1 . Paravitrea seradens Hubricht 128 

272. Paravitrea toma Hubricht 128 

273. Paravitrea lacteodens (Pilsbry) 128 

274. Paravitrea calcicola H. B. Baker 128 

275. Paravitrea placentula (Shuttleworth) ..128 

276. Paravitrea Marina Hubricht 128 

277. Paravitrea pilsbryana (Clapp) 129 

278. Paravitrea tiara Hubricht 129 

279. Paravitrea alethia Hubricht 129 

280. Paravitrea bellona Hubricht 129 

28 1 . Paravitrea ceres Hubricht 1 29 

282. Paravitrea diana Hubricht 129 

283. Paravitrea her a Hubricht 129 

284. Paravitrea tantilla Hubricht 129 

285. Para vitrea metallacta Hubricht 129 

286. Paravitrea lapilla Hubricht 129 

287. Paravitrea pontis H. B. Baker 129 

288. Paravitrea simpsoni (Pilsbry) 129 



289. Hawaiia minuscula (A. Binney) 130 

290. Hawaiia alachuana (Dall) 131 

291. Paravitrea aulacogyra (Pilsbry & 
Ferriss) 132 

292. Pilsbryna aurea H. B. Baker 132 

293. Pilsbryna castanea H. B. Baker 132 

294. Gastrodonta interna fonticula Wurtz . 132 

295. Gastrodonta interna interna {Say) .... 132 

296. Ventridens pilsbryi Hubricht 132 

297. Ventridens decussatus (Walker & 
Pilsbry) 132 

298. Ventridens monodon Hubricht 132 

299. Ventridens coelaxis (Pilsbry) 132 

300. Ventridens gularis (Say) 133 

301. Ventridens cerinoideus (Anthony) .... 133 

302. Ventridens lasmodon (Phillips) 133 

303. Ventridens percallosus (Pilsbry) 133 

304. Ventridens eutropis Pilsbry 133 

305. Ventridens collisella (Pilsbry) 133 

306. Ventridens theloides (Walker & 

Pilsbry) 133 

307. Ventridens suppressus (Say) 134 

308. Ventridens virginicus (Vanatta) 134 

309. Ventridens demissus (A. Binney) 134 

310. Ventridens lawae (W. G. Binney) .... 134 

311. Ventridens arcellus Hubricht 1 34 

312. Ventridens ligera (Say) 135 

313. Ventridens brittsi (Pilsbry) 135 

314. Ventridens volusiae (Pilsbry) 135 

315. Ventridens acerra (Lewis) 135 

316. Ventridens intertextus (A. Binney) ... 136 

317. Zonitoides elliotti (Redfield) 136 

318. Zonitoides patuloides (Pilsbry) 136 

319. Zonitoides limatulus (W. G. Binney) . 136 

320. Zonitoides lateumbilicatus (Pilsbry) ..136 

321. Zonitoides arboreus (Say) 137 

322. Zonitoides nitidus (Muller) 138 

323. Striatura meridionalis (Pilsbry & 
Ferriss) 138 

324. Striatura milium (Morse) 139 

325. Striatura exigua (Stimpson) 139 

326. Zonitoides kirbyi Fullington 140 

327. Striatura ferrea Morse 140 

328. Euconulus chersinus (Say) 140 

329. Vitrina alaskana Dall 140 

330. Vitrina limpida Gould 140 

331. Euconulus fulvus (Muller) 141 

332. Euconulus trochulus (Reinhardt) 141 

333. Euconulus dentatus (Sterki) 142 

334. Guppya sterkii (Dall) 142 

335. Euconulus polygyratus (Pilsbry) 143 

336. Haplotrema concavum (Say) 143 

337. Dryachloa dauca Thompson & Lee . . 144 

338. Guppya gundlachi (Pfeiffer) 144 



339. Haplotrema kendeighi Webb 144 

340. Euglandina rosea (Ferussac) 144 

341. Euglandina texasiana (Pfeiffer) 144 

342. Euglandina singleyana (W. G. 

Binney) 144 

343. Varicella gracillima (Pfeiffer) 144 

344. Lacteoluna selenina (Gould) 145 

345. Thysanophora horni (Gabb) 145 

346. Thysanophora plagioptycha (Shuttle- 
worth) 145 

347. Hojeda inaguensis (Weinland) 145 

348. Cochlodinella poeyana (Orbigny) .... 145 

349. Microceramus pontificus (Gould) 145 

350. Microceramus texanus (Pilsbry) 145 

351. Holospira goldfussi (Menke) 145 

352. Metastoma roemeri (Pfeiffer) 145 

353. Rabdotus mooreanus (Pfeiffer) 146 

354. Rabdotus alternatus (Say) 146 

355. Rabdotus dealbatus dealbatus (Say) ..146 

356. Rabdotus dealbatus ragsdalei 

(Pilsbry) 146 

357. Drymaeus dominicus (Reeve) 146 

358. Drymaeus dormani (W. G. Binney) . . 146 

359. Drymaeus multilineatus (Say) 147 

360. Orthalicus Jloridensis Pilsbry 147 

361. Orthalicus reses (Say) 147 

362. Liguus fasciatus (Muller) 147 

363. Polygyra cereolus (Muhlfeld) 147 

364. Polygyra uvulifera (Shuttleworth) .... 147 

365. Polygyra septemvolva Say 147 

366. Polygyra auriculata Say 147 

367. Polygyra auriformis (Bland) 148 

368. Polygyra postelliana (Bland) 148 

369. Polygyra subclausa Pilsbry 148 

370. Polygyra peninsulae Pilsbry 148 

371. Polygyra hausmani Jackson 148 

372. Polygyra delecta Hubricht 148 

373. Polygyra texasiana (Moricand) 148 

374. Polygyra avara Say 148 

375. Polygyra triodontoides (Bland) 149 

376. Polygyra polita Pilsbry & Hinkley ... 149 

377. Polygyra tamaulipasensis (I. Lea) .... 149 

378. Polygyra leporina (Gould) 149 

379. Polygyra pustuloides (Bland) 149 

380. Polygyra pustula (Ferussac) 150 

38 1 . Polygyra plicata (Say) 1 50 

382. Polygyra troostiana (I. Lea) 150 

383. Polygyra fatigiata (Say) 150 

384. Polygyra peregrina Rehder 1 50 

385. Polygyra jacksoni (Bland) 150 

386. Polygyra deltoidea (Simpson) 150 

387. Polygyra simpsoni Pilsbry & Ferriss ..150 

388. Polygyra hippocrepis (Pfeiffer) 150 

389. Polygyra mooreana (W. G. Binney) . . 150 



VI 



390. Polygyra tholus (W. G. Binney) 151 

391. Polygyra gracilis Hubricht 151 

392. Polygyra lithica Hubricht 151 

393. Polygyra dorfeuilliana (I. Lea) 151 

394. Stenotrema spinosum (I. Lea) 151 

395. Stenotrema edgarianum (I. Lea) 151 

396. Stenotrema barbigerum (Redfield) ... 152 

397. Stenotrema edvardsi (Bland) 152 

398. Stenotrema waldense Archer 152 

399. Stenotrema pilsbryi (Ferriss) 152 

400. Stenotrema labrosum (Bland) 152 

401. Stenotrema altispira (Pilsbry) 152 

402. Stenotrema depilatum (Pilsbry) 152 

403. Stenotrema florida Pilsbry 152 

404. Stenotrema calvescens Hubricht 152 

405. Stenotrema barbatum (Clapp) 153 

406. Stenotrema stenotrema (Pfeiffer) 153 

407. Stenotrema angellum Hubricht 154 

408. Stenotrema magnifumosum (Pilsbry) .. 154 

409. Stenotrema simile Grimm 154 

410. Stenotrema pilula (Pilsbry) 154 

411. Stenotrema morosum Hubricht 154 

412. Stenotrema exodon (Pilsbry) 154 

413. Stenotrema hirsutum (Say) 154 

414. Stenotrema turbinella (Clench & 
Archer) 1 54 

415. Stenotrema deceptum (Clapp) 154 

416. Stenotrema blandianum (Pilsbry) .... 155 

417. Stenotrema unciferum (Pilsbry) 155 

418. Stenotrema brevipila (Clapp) 155 

419. Stenotrema cohuttense (Clapp) 155 

420. Stenotrema maxillatum (Gould) 155 

421. Stenotrema leai cheatumi Fullington ..155 

422. Stenotrema wichitorum Branson 155 

423. Stenotrema hubrichti Pilsbry 155 

424. Stenotrema fraternum montanum 
Archer 155 

425. Stenotrema fraternum imperforatum 
(Pilsbry) 155 

426. Stenotrema leai leai (A. Binney) 156 

427. Stenotrema leai aliciae (Pilsbry) 156 

428 . Stenotrema fraternum fraternum 

(Say) 157 

429. Praticolella griseola (Pfeiffer) 157 

430. Praticolella pachyloma (Menke in 
Pfeiffer) 157 

431. Praticolella Candida Hubricht 157 

432. Praticolella berlandieriana 

(Moricand) 158 

433. Praticolella trimatris Hubricht 158 

434. Praticolella taeniata Pilsbry 158 

435. Praticolella jejuna (Say) 158 

436. Praticolella bakeri Vanatta 158 

437. Praticolella lawae (Lewis) 158 



438. Praticolella mobiliana (I. Lea) 158 

439. Mesodon inflectus (Say) 159 

440. Mesodon approximans (Clapp) 159 

441. Mesodon smithi (Clapp) 159 

442. Mesodon edentatus (Sampson) 159 

443. Mesodon magazinensis (Pilsbry & 
Ferriss) 159 

444. Mesodon subpalliatus (Pilsbry) 159 

445. Mesodon sargentianus (Johnson & 
Pilsbry) 159 

446. Mesodon appressus (Say) 159 

447. Mesodon panselenus Hubricht 159 

448. Mesodon wetherbyi (Bland) 159 

449. Mesodon zaletus (A. Binney) 160 

450. Mesodon chilhoweensis (Lewis) 1 60 

451. Mesodon indianorum (Pilsbry) 160 

452. Mesodon jonesianus (Archer) 160 

453. Mesodon binneyanus (Pilsbry) 160 

454. Mesodon clenchi (Rehder) 1 60 

455. Mesodon kiowaensis (Simpson) 160 

456. Mesodon leatherwoodi Pratt 160 

457. Mesodon ferrissi (Pilsbry) 160 

458. Mesodon clausus clausus (Say) 161 

459. Mesodon orestes Hubricht 161 

460. Mesodon wheatleyi (Bland) 161 

461. Mesodon rugeli (Shuttle worth) 161 

462. Mesodon perigraptus (Pilsbry) 161 

463. Mesodon clingmanicus (Pilsbry) 161 

464. Mesodon christyi (Bland) 161 

465. Mesodo n clausus trossulus Hubricht .. 161 

466. Mesodon thyroidus (Say) 162 

467. Mesodon sayanus (Pilsbry) 162 

468. Mesodon clarki (I. Lea) 162 

469. Mesodon andrewsae W. G. Binney ... 162 

470. Mesodon elevatus (Say) 163 

471. Mesodon laevior Hubricht 163 

472. Mesodon pennsylvanicus (Green) 163 

473. Mesodon mitchellianus (I. Lea) 163 

474. Mesodon roemeri (Pfeiffer) 163 

475. Mesodon normalis (Pilsbry) 163 

476. Mesodon downieanus (Bland) 163 

477. Mesodon kalmianus Hubricht 164 

478. Mesodon sanus (Clench & Archer) ... 164 

479. Mesodon archeri Pilsbry 164 

480. Triodopsis fulciden Hubricht 164 

48 1 . Triodopsis rugosa Brooks & 
MacMillan 1 64 

482. Triodopsis anteridon Pilsbry 164 

483. Triodopsis fraudulenta (Pilsbry) 164 

484. Triodopsis pendula Hubricht 164 

485. Triodopsis picea Hubricht 164 

486. Triodopsis neglecta (Pilsbry) 164 

487. Triodopsis claibornensis Lutz 164 

488. Triodopsis vulgata Pilsbry 165 



Triodopsis discoidea (Pilsbry) 165 508. 

Triodopsis tennesseensis (Walker & 509. 

Pilsbry) 165 

Triodopsis alabamensis (Pilsbry) 165 510. 

Triodopsis juxtidens (Pilsbry) 165 511. 

Triodopsis denotata (Ferussac) 166 

Triodopsis vultuosa (Gould) 166 512. 

Triodopsis vannostrandi (Bland) 166 513. 

Triodopsis complanata (Pilsbry) 166 514. 

Triodopsis burchi Hubricht 166 515. 

Triodopsis platysayoides (Brooks) .... 166 516. 

Triodopsis henriettae (Mazyck) 166 

Triodopsis albolabris (Say) 167 517. 

Triodopsis major (A. Binney) 167 518. 

Triodopsis messana Hubricht 167 519. 

Triodopsis obsoleta (Pilsbry) 167 520. 

Triodopsis foster i (F. C. Baker) 168 

Triodopsis soelneri (Henderson) 168 521. 

Triodopsis affinis Hubricht 168 522. 

Triodopsis obstricta (Say) 168 523. 



Triodopsis palustris Hubricht 168 

Triodopsis occidentalis (Pilsbry & 

Ferriss) 168 

Triodopsis tridentata (Say) 169 

Triodopsis hopetonensis (Shuttle- 
worth) 169 

Triodopsis cragini Call 169 

Triodopsis fallax (Say) 169 

Triodopsis dentifera (A. Binney) 1 70 

Triodopsis multilineata (Say) 1 70 

Triodopsis alleni (Wetherby in 

Sampson) 1 70 

Triodopsis divesta (Gould) 1 70 

Triodopsis lioderma (Pilsbry) 170 

Allogona profunda (Say) 171 

Oreohelix strigosa cooperi (W. G. 

Binney) 172 

Cepolis varians (Menke) 172 

Triodopsis caroliniensis (I. Lea) 172 

Cepaea hortensis (Miiller) 1 72 



The Distributions of the Native Land Mollusks 
of the Eastern United States 



Abstract 

Distribution maps of the 523 native species and 
subspecies of land mollusks from the eastern 
United States are presented, based upon the 
monograph of Pilsbry (1939-1948), collections by 
the author throughout this region, examination of 
materials in major museum collections, and iden- 
tifications performed by the author for other work- 
ers. 

Systematic and nomenclatural changes since the 
publication of Pilsbry's Land Mollusca of North 
America (North of Mexico) are documented. Notes 
on habitat preferences and significant patterns of 
variation are included. 



Acknowledgments 

I am grateful to the many curators who over the 
years have aided my study of materials in collec- 
tions under their charge; to the many fellow stu- 
dents and collectors who have sent me material 
for identification and shared knowledge of various 
taxa; and to Alan Solem, Field Museum of Natural 
History, for his editorial help during the publi- 
cation process. My thanks to Tanisse Bezin for the 
arduous task of preparing and mounting the orig- 
inal maps for publication. 



Introduction 

This work consists of maps showing the known 
distributions of all the recognized species of native 
land snails found east of a line comprising the 
western borders of North Dakota, South Dakota, 
Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and that part of 
Texas lying east of the Pecos River. A native species 
is here defined as one which was not introduced 
through the agency of man. Thus, any species for 
which there is evidence for its presence in pre- 
Columbian times is considered native and includ- 
ed in this survey. Species known only from the 
Pleistocene are included, but Pliocene taxa are not. 
Mexican species recorded from the United States 
only in beach drift from southern Texas are listed, 
but their distributions are not mapped. 



Materials and Methods 

The maps are based primarily upon the data 
presented in H. A. Pilsbry's Land Mollusca of 
North America (North of Mexico), Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Monographs, No. 
3, volumes 1 and 2, published in four parts be- 
tween 1939 and 1948 (hereafter abbreviated as 
LMNA), and material in the collection of the au- 
thor. The latter amounts to about 43,000 lots with 
perhaps 500,000 specimens. This material has been 
accumulated over 55 years of collecting activity 
throughout most of this region. Over the last 20 
years, land mollusks from the eastern United States 
in the collections of the National Museum of Nat- 
ural History (Washington, D.C.), Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences of Philadelphia, Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology (Harvard), Field Museum of 
Natural History, University of Michigan Museum 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



of Zoology, and Carnegie Museum (Pittsburgh) 
have been studied to verify published records. Ma- 
terial that I have identified for others is incorpo- 
rated, and records from local lists that fill in county 
records within an area known to be inhabited by 
a species have been utilized. In numerous places, 
however, suggested synonymies that I consider to 
be incorrect are indicated by "[ ]" as being erro- 
neous. Reported range extensions that seem 
doubtful, and for which I have been unable to 
consult the specimens on which they are based, 
also have not been recorded. 

This is thus a record of distributions that I have 
been able to confirm directly or that have been 
extracted from comprehensive monographic data. 
The scale of the maps is such that a county is the 
basic distributional unit. Three symbols are used 
to indicate the nature of the record: 

1. Where a species is known to be living in 
a county, the county has been blacked in 

2. Where a species is known only as a fossil, 
an " x " has been placed in the county 

3. Where a species is known only from river 
drift, an "O" has been placed in the county 



not published previously will be published else- 
where. This distributional paper was deemed an 
inappropriate place to present justification of such 
taxonomic decisions. 

The list of species provides a reference to LMNA, 
and then to subsequent literature in which taxo- 
nomic changes have been suggested. If such no- 
menclatural or rank changes are not valid in my 
opinion, I have enclosed them in "[ ]". For species 
described subsequent to LMNA, or not recorded 
in that monograph, the original description and 
subsequent faunistic records are provided. 

Some remarks on variation have been included, 
when necessary, and habitat notes indicate the more 
usual places in which a species occurs. No attempt 
has been made to list all the known habitats, but 
only the preferred ones. 

Since many species reach their limits of distri- 
bution on the fringes of the area covered by this 
report, notes on extralimital distributions have 
been provided where appropriate. 



Recommendations for Future Work 



The last category is subject to the greatest degree 
of error. The fact that specimens were taken from 
creek or river drift rarely is recorded on either the 
museum label or in published reports, yet dead 
shells can be transported considerable distances 
by flood waters. It is not always possible to rec- 
ognize drift material by examination of museum 
specimens as contrasted with dead shells collected 
in situ. 

The order of families basically follows that of 
Zilch's Euthyneura section of the Handbuch der 
Palaeozoologie, published in 1959 and 1960. Ge- 
neric order within families is a compromise be- 
tween Zilch and Pilsbry's LMNA; species order 
within genera follows Pilsbry and/or my opinion 
as to species relationships. 

Limited use has been made of subspecific cat- 
egories. None of the many "forms" and "variet- 
ies" of such taxa as Liguus fasciatus is listed, and 
subspecies based originally on size alone are not 
recognized. Usually these have been found to in- 
tergrade completely when adequate material is 
available. Only such subspecies as show a rather 
sharp differentiation from each other are mapped 
separately. Where supposed subspecies have been 
found to occur sympatrically without intergrada- 
tion, probable speciation is indicated. The evi- 
dence for changes in rank for taxa on which I have 



Much faunistic and revisionary work remains 
to be done on the land mollusks of the eastern 
United States. The recorded distributions for such 
widely distributed species as Zonitoides arboreus 
(Say) (map 321), Discus cronkhitei (Newcomb) 
(map 1 7 1), or Carychium exiguum (Say) (map 1 7) 
demonstrate that the records are not uniformly 
complete. Some states will have most counties filled 
in, while others show only a few records. Ranges 
that end at a state line are almost certain indicators 
of differential collecting effort. Michigan is prob- 
ably the best collected state, and it is doubtful that 
further collecting there would add any significant 
range extensions, especially for the larger species. 
Other states in which collecting effort has been 
intensive are Alabama, Maryland, Illinois, Kan- 
sas, and Oklahoma. The states most in need of 
faunistic surveys are North and South Dakota, 
Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Nebraska. In- 
diana, Pennsylvania, and all the New England states 
have scattered records. Western Tennessee and 
southern Georgia also are very poorly known. 
There thus exists a set of challenges to local nat- 
uralists of these areas— to extend known ranges 
and fill in (or confirm) distributional gaps. 

It is equally evident that knowledge of different 
families is uneven. Particularly in the northern 
United States, records are sparse for several fam- 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



ilies. This is in part the result of comparatively 
little collecting effort in these areas in recent years, 
in part reflecting the effects of deforestation, and 
in part patchy distributions caused by postglacial 
colonization. It also reflects difficulty in making 
identifications for many species. Specific com- 
ments follow. 

Philomycidae 

Most collectors of land snails ignore slugs. Fur- 
thermore, the slug collections in several institu- 
tions have been neglected. Specimens have been 
allowed to dry out, which prevents meaningful 
study. In former years, specimens were killed by 
drowning and then preserved without fixation. 
Many such specimens are practically unidentifi- 
able. Thus, records for the Philomycidae are based 
primarily on the collections of the author. 

Succineidae 

While some species can be identified from the 
shell only, most species must be dissected for pos- 
itive identification. Most museum sets consist of 
shells only and thus cannot be identified with ac- 
curacy. Older records for such species as Succinea 
"grosvenorr and "avara" are worthless. 

Zonitidae 

In many instances, it is necessary to dissect spec- 
imens of the indentata group of Glyphyalinia, the 
"capsella" group of Paravitrea, and the vulgata 
group of Mesomphix for positive identification. In 
the absence of any anatomical material, many mu- 
seum records cannot be used. 

Pupillidae 

Especially in Vertigo, there is a very high inci- 
dence of mixed lots and misidentifications in mu- 
seum collections. Time has not been available for 
me to sort out and reidentify this very extensive 
material, so that the records for this family are 
based primarily on my own collections and Pils- 
bry's monograph. 

It is intended that this volume be a working 
document— that new records be added to the maps, 
and taxonomic changes inserted as knowledge ad- 
vances. 



List of Taxa 



Class GASTROPODA 

Subclass PROSOBRANCHIATA 

Order ARCHAEOGASTROPODA 

Superfamily NERITACEA 

Family HELICINIDAE 



Helicina orbiculata (Say, 1818) 



Map 2 



Helicina orbiculata (Say), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 

1082. 
Helicina orbiculata tropica Pfeiffer, Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 1084. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Prefers sunny situa- 
tions, roadsides, and glades. It sometimes occurs 
in woods, but is not as abundant in such habitats. 
In Texas and Florida, it is sometimes semiarbo- 
real. 

Variation— In the western part of its range, 
Texas to Missouri, the lip is usually much thick- 
ened (H. o. tropica); however, I have found col- 
onies with thin lips in central Texas and colonies 
with thickened lips in central Kentucky. 

Helicina clappi Pilsbry, 1 909 Map 3 

Helicina clappi Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 1080. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Semiarboreal. Climbs 
about on shrubbery and the trunks of trees in wet 
weather, but may be found on the ground. 

Variation— The shell is whitish or pale yellow, 
frequently with reddish brown bands or flecking 
on the upper surface. 

Helicina chrysocheila Binney, 1851 

Helicina chrysocheila Binney, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2: 1081. 

Habitat— Widely distributed in eastern Mexi- 
co, but in the United States is known only from 
beach drift in southern Texas. 

Helicina fragilis elata Shuttleworth, 1852 

Helicina fragilis elata Shuttleworth, Hubricht, 1 960, 
Nautilus, 74: 83. 

Remarks— Another Mexican species known 
only from beach drift in southern Texas. 



Hendersonia occulta (Say, 1831) 



Map 1 



Hendersonia occulta (Say), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
1087. 

Habitat— A calciphile. In the unglaciated area 
in southwestern Wisconsin and northeastern Iowa, 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



this species is usually found on floodplains; but in 
the southern Appalachians, it is found on river 
bluffs, talus slopes, in ravines, and on mountain- 
sides. In dry weather it is found in leaf litter; in 
wet weather it is found crawling on leaves, logs, 
and rocks. What is probably the largest colony in 
existence is near the northern end of Shenandoah 
National Park. This colony is at least 15 miles 
long and extends from near the base of the moun- 
tain to well above the Skyline Drive. 

Variation— The shell is usually reddish brown, 
but may be pale yellow. There is no difference 
between specimens from the unglaciated area and 
the southern Appalachians, despite the long sep- 
aration of these populations. 



Lucidella tantilla (Pilsbry, 1902) 



Map 4 



Lucidella tantilla (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
1085. 

Habitat— Found in hammocks crawling on 
leaves, logs, and trunks of trees in wet weather. 
Also found in eastern Cuba. 

Lucidella lirata (Pfeiffer, 1 847) 

Lucidella lirata (Pfeiffer), Hubricht, 1960, Nautilus, 
74: 83. 

Remarks— A widely distributed Central Amer- 
ican species occasionally found in beach drift in 
southern Texas. 



Order MESOGASTROPODA 

Suborder TAENIOGLOSSA 

Superfamily LITTORINACEA 

Family POMATIASIDAE 



Chondropoma den tat urn (Say, 1825) 



Map 5 



Chondropoma dentatum (Say), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2: 1076. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found crawling on rocks 
and tree trunks in wet weather, frequently in pairs, 
the larger female pursued by the smaller male. 



Superfamily RISSOACEA 
Family POMATIOPSIDAE 



Pomatiopsis lapidaria (Say, 1817) 



Map 11 



Cyclostoma lapidaria Say, 1817, J. Acad. Nat. Sci., 

Philadelphia, 1: 13. 
Pomatiopsis lapidaria (Say), Binney, 1865, Land & 

Freshwater Shells North America, III: 93. 
Pomatiopsis hinkleyi Pilsbry, 1896, Nautilus, 10: 37. 



Pomatiopsis scalaris F. C. Baker, 1927, Nautilus, 40: 

119. 
Pomatiopsis praelonga Brooks & MacMillan, 1940, 

Nautilus, 53: 96. 

Habitat— A calciphile. This species has often 
been referred to as amphibious or even aquatic. 
But, having collected it at more than 300 localities, 
it is my opinion that, were it not for its aquatic 
affinities, it would have been accepted as a land 
snail without question. Found crawling on damp 
mud on floodplains, but usually above the normal 
high-water line; also on talus slopes, in ravines, 
and on mountainsides. During winter floods it may 
be washed into streams, where it may live for some 
time. During warmer weather it may climb up on 
plants and tree trunks to escape the water. It can 
close its operculum tightly enough to survive 24 
hours in alcohol. 

Variation— In dry habitats it may have a more 
slender, thicker shell; in very wet habitats it may 
have a more obese, thinner shell. This difference 
is rather insignificant, although it has been the 
basis for two specific names. 

Pomatiopsis cincinnatiensis (I. Lea, 1840) 

Map 12 

Cyclostoma cincinnatiensis I. Lea, 1 840, Proc. Amer. 

Phil. Soc, 1: 289. 
Pomatiopsis cincinnatiensis (I. Lea), Walker, 1918, 

Misc. Pub. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 6: 148. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found on shaded, mud- 
dy stream banks, usually a foot or more above the 
normal low- water line. It occurs closer to the stream 
than P. lapidaria normally does, but there is over- 
lap, and the two species sometimes occur together. 
The distribution records for this species are some- 
what scattered, but this is probably due to poor 
collecting, rather than to rarity. Because of its pe- 
culiar habitat, one must look especially for it. 



Family TRUNCATELLIDAE 

Truncatella pulchella Pfeiffer, 1839 Map 6 

Truncatella bilabiata Pfeiffer, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 

2: 1069. 
Truncatella pulchella Pfeiffer, Torre, 1960, Nautilus, 

73: 83. 

Habitat— The most abundant species of the ge- 
nus in southern Florida. Found in and under sea- 
weed in the strand at or above high-tide line, usu- 
ally in rocky places. I have never found it on sandy 
beaches. A common West Indian species. 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Variation— An extremely variable species, 
ranging from nearly smooth, with only traces of 
the costae in the sutures, to strongly costate. 

Truncatella floridana Hubricht, 1983 Map 7 

Truncatellafloridana Hubricht, 1983, Gastropodia, 2: 
19. 

Habitat— This species is sometimes found in 
the high-tide strand where the dead seaweed is 
lapped by the sea at high tide, but it is also found 
in the storm-strand, which may be 100 ft or more 
back from the high-tide strand, and is the debris 
washed in by severe storms. This debris has the 
salt leached out by rains and dries out during dry 
weather. Truncatella floridana is the only species 
which can survive in this habitat. 

Truncatella scalaris clathrus Lowe, 1830 Map 8 

Truncatella clathrus Lowe, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
1069. 

Truncatella scalaris clathrus Lowe, Torre, 1960, Nau- 
tilus, 73: 86. 

Habitat— Found in the strand associated with 
T. pulchella and T. subcylindrica. Common on 
the Florida Keys. The only places on the Florida 
mainland where I have found it are at Flamingo, 
in the Everglades National Park, and on the Rick- 
enbacher Causeway, in Miami. A West Indian 
species. 

Variation— Unlike T. pulchella and T. sub- 
cylindrica, this species in Florida usually shows 
little variation in the development of the costae. 
On Little Torch Key, there is a colony in which 
some shells are smooth, but show dark streaks on 
the shell where the costae should be. 



Truncatella regina Hubricht, 1983 



Map 9 



Truncatella regina Hubricht, 1983, Gastropodia, 2: 
18. 

Habitat— Found associated with T. pulchella, 
T. subcylindrica, and T. scalaris clathrus on the 
Florida Keys. 

Truncatella subcylindrica (Linne, 1767) Map 10 

Truncatella pulchella Pfeiffer, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 

2: 1070. 
Truncatella caribaeensis "Sowerby" Reeve, Torre, 

1960, Nautilus 73: 84. 
Truncatella subcylindrica (Linnaeus), Hubricht, 1983, 

Gastropodia, 2: 19. 

Habitat— Usually found with T. pulchella, but 
sometimes occurs alone. 



Variation— This species, like T. pulchella, 
shows great variation in the development of the 
costae, but the variation in the number of the cos- 
tae is not as great. A common West Indian species. 



Subclass PULMONATA 

Superorder SYSTELLOMMATOPHORA 

Order SOLEOLIFERA 

Superfamily VERONICELLACEA 

Family VERONICELLIDAE 



Veronicella floridana (Leidy, 1851) 



Map 13 



Veronicella floridana (Leidy), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2: 1063. 

Habitat— Found in a variety of habitats in 
Florida; in hammocks, along roadsides and rail- 
roads, and in gardens in urban areas, wherever 
there is adequate cover. I have never seen it in 
large numbers. It is native to Florida and intro- 
duced into Louisiana. Common in Cuba. 



Superorder BASOMMATOPHORA 

Superfamily ELLOBIACEA 

Family CARYCHIIDAE 



Carychium clappi Hubricht, 1959 



Map 15 



Carychium costatum Hubricht, 1951, Nautilus, 65: 59 

[not C. costatum Freyer, 1856]. 
Carychium clappi Hubricht, 1959, Nautilus, 73: 36. 

Habitat— Usually found in deep pockets of 
leaves on wooded hillsides and talus slopes, where 
leaves have blown up against the side of a log or 
in "tree graves." 



Carychium exile exile H. C. Lea, 1 842 Map 20 

Carychium exile H. C. Lea, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
1058. 

Habitat— Found in much the same habitat as 
C. clappi, but the two species are rarely found 
together. 



Carychium exile canadense Clapp, 1 906 Map 2 1 

Carychium exile canadense Clapp, Pilsbry, 1948, 
LMNA, 2: 1059. 

Carychium canadense Clapp, Leonard, Frye, & John- 
son, 1971, 111. State Geol. Surv., Circ. 461: 11. 



Habitat— Found in the same habitat as C. ex- 



ile. 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



Carychium mexicanum Pilsbry, 1891 Map 14 Cochlicopa morseana (Doherty, 1878) Map 25 



Carychium floridanum G. H. Clapp, Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 1056. 
Carychium exile mexicanum Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 1060. 
Carychium mexicanum Pilsbry, Hubricht, 1974, Mal- 

acol. Rev., 7: 33. 

Habitat— Found in wetter habitats than C. ex- 
ile, although they are sometimes found together. 
In Florida it is usually found in swamps. Common 
in eastern Mexico. 



Carychium stygium Call, 1897 



Map 16 



Carychium stygium Call, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
1054. 

Habitat— Known only from the total darkness 
of caves, where it feeds on the guano of the cave 
cricket. 



Carychium exiguum (Say, 1822) 



Map 17 



Carychium exiguum (Say), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 

1052. 
Carychium perexiguum F. C. Baker, 1938, Nautilus, 

51: 128; Taylor, 1960, U.S. Geol. Surv., Prof. Paper, 

337: 51. 
[Carychium exile H. C. Lea, Branson, 1 96 1 , Proc. Okla. 

Acad. Sci., 41:61.] 

Habitat— Usually found in wetter situations 
than C. exile, although they are sometimes found 
together. 

Carychium riparium Hubricht, 1978 Map 19 

Carychium riparium Hubricht, 1978, Malacol. Rev., 
10: 50. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter on the floodplains 
of streams. It is probably more widely distributed 
than the records on the map would indicate. 



Carychium nannodes Clapp, 1905 



Map 18 



Carychium nannodes Clapp, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
1055. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as C. clap- 
pi, with which it is frequently found. It is some- 
times found with C. exile, but not nearly as often 
as with C. clappi. 

Superorder STYLOMMATOPHORA 

Order ORTHURETHRA 

Superfamily COCHLICOPACEA 

Family COCHLICOPIDAE 

The following treatment uses contemporary Eu- 
ropean nomenclature and cites a standard field 
guide for illustrations and further data. 



Cionella lubrica morseana Doherty, Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 1049. 
Cionella morseana Doherty, Hubricht, 1961, Ster- 

kiana, 3: 12. 

Habitat— A secretive species; found in moist 
upland woods. In dry weather and in the winter, 
it is found on the ground under pockets of deep 
leaves, its aperture closed with a white epiphragm. 
During wet weather it crawls about in the leaf 
litter. It is rarely found on the surface of the leaves. 



Cochlicopa lubrica (Miiller, 1774) 



Map 24 



Cionella lubrica (Miiller), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
1047. 

Habitat— Found in meadows and along road- 
sides, a species of moderately wet grassy situa- 
tions. I have never found it in woods. In northern 
New York, it is found in concrete culverts. A Hol- 
arctic species. 



Cochlicopa lubricella (Porro, 1838) 



Map 22 



Bulimus lubricus var. lubricella Porro, 1838, Mala- 
cologia terrestre e fluviale della Provincia Comasca, 
pp. 53-54. 

Cionella lubrica form exigua (Menke), Hubricht, 
1962, Sterkiana, 7: 1. 

Cochlicopa lubricella (Porro), Kerney & Cameron, 
1979, Field Guide to the Land Snails of Britain and 
North-west Europe, Collins, London, p. 62, pi. 1, 
fig. 10. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as C. lu- 
brica and frequently found with it. A Holarctic 
species. 



Cochlicopa nitens (Gallenstein, 1848) Map 23 

Bulimus nitens Gallenstein, 1848, Systematisches 
Verzeichniss der in der Provinz Karnten bisher ent- 
deckten Land- & Siisswasser-Conchylien, mit An- 
gabe der wichtigsten Fundorte, nebst einer kurzen 
Anleitung fur angehende Conchylien-Sammler, p. 
10. 

Cochlicopa nitens (Gallenstein), Kerney & Cameron, 
1979, Field Guide to the Land Snails of Britain and 
North-west Europe, Collins, London, p. 62, p. 1 , fig. 
12. 

Habitat— Usually found in wetter habitats than 
those of C. lubrica, but sometimes found with it. 
Also found in central and eastern Europe. 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Superfamily PUPILLACEA 
Family VALLONIIDAE 

Vallonia pulchella (Muller, 1774) Map 26 

Vallonia pulchella (Muller), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
1023. 

Habitat— A species of grassy places, roadsides, 
meadows, and lawns. Common in concrete cul- 
verts in northern New York. 

Variation— This and other species of Vallonia 
occur in two forms: one with a round umbilicus 
and one with an eccentric umbilicus. The form 
with the round umbilicus is usually larger than the 
form with the eccentric umbilicus. A Holarctic 
species. 



Vallonia excentrica Sterki, 1893 



Map 30 



Vallonia excentrica Sterki, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 

1025. 
Vallonia pulchella form excentrica Sterki, Hubricht, 

1950, Nautilus, 64: 35. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as V. pul- 
chella and frequently found with it. A Holarctic 
species. 



Vallonia costata (Muller, 1774) 



Map 27 



Vallonia costata (Muller), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
1026. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as V. pul- 
chella and V. excentrica and frequently found with 
them. A Holarctic species. 

Vallonia gracilicosta Reinhardt, 1883 Map 31 

Vallonia gracilicosta Reinhardt, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 

2: 1028. 
Vallonia albula Sterki, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2:1031. 

Habitat— Most records for this species in the 
eastern United States are of Pleistocene fossils. I 
have never collected it alive. Common in the west- 
ern United States, except for the coastal states. 

Vallonia parvula Sterki, 1893 Map 28 

Vallonia parvula Sterki, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 1027. 

Habitat— Found in grassy situations, but in 
dryer habitats than those of V. pulchella. 



aspen grove at high elevations in the Wasatch 
Mountains of Utah. Common in mountain areas 
of the western United States. 



Vallonia perspectiva Sterki, 1892 



Map 33 



Vallonia perspectiva Sterki, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
1033. 

Habitat— A calciphile. A species of wooded tal- 
us slopes and along railroads; also western United 
States and Mexico. 



Planogyra asteriscus (Morse, 1857) 



Map 32 



Planogyra asteriscus (Morse), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2: 1038. 

Habitat— A species of wet places. Found in 
swamps and about the edges of marshes. 

Zoogenetes harpa (Say, 1824) Map 34 

Zoogenetes harpa (Say), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 1043. 

Habitat— A species of low wet places; in leaf 
litter and moss near the margins of lakes and 
swamps. 



Family PUPILLIDAE 
Subfamily PUPILLINAE 

Pupilla blandi Morse, 1865 Map 37 

Pupilla blandi Morse, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 929. 

Habitat— Most or all of the records from east 
of the Rocky Mountains are either Pleistocene fos- 
sils or river drift (probably washed from Pleisto- 
cene deposits). Common in the Rocky Mountain 
region from Alberta to New Mexico. 

Pupilla muscorum muscorum (Linne, 1758) 

Map 35 

Pupilla muscorum (Linne), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
933. 

[Pupilla muscorum sinistra Franzen, Bequaert, & Mil- 
ler, 1973, Moll. Arid Southwest, p. 80.] 

Habitat— A calciphile. A species of grassy 
roadsides and meadows. Found in concrete cul- 
verts in northern New York. A Holarctic species. 



Vallonia cyclophorella Sterki, 1892 Map 29 Pupilla muscorum sinistra Franzen, 1946 



Vallonia cyclophorella Sterki, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2: 1035. 

Habitat— The only lot of this species which I 
collected alive was found under leaf litter in an 



Map 36 

Pupilla muscorum sinistra Franzen, Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 935. 
Pupilla sinistra Franzen, Tuthill, Laird, & Frye, 1964, 

Proc. North Dakota Acad. Sci., 18: 145. 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



7 



Habitat— Known only as a Pleistocene fossil. 

Pupoides albilabris (C. B. Adams, 1821) Map 38 

Pupoides albilabris (C. B. Adams), Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 921. 
[Pupoides modicus (Gould), Bequaert & Miller, 1973, 

Moll. Arid Southwest, p. 177.] 

Habitat— A species of bare ground, roadsides, 
old quarries, glades, and waste ground, usually in 
calcareous areas. Found crawling on the ground 
or up the stems of plants in wet weather. 

Variation— Apparently due to some diseased 
condition, one sometimes finds specimens with 
fewer whorls than normal. Such specimens have 
been confused with P. modicus. 



Gastrocopta abbreviata (Sterki), Hubricht, 1972, Nau- 
tilus, 85: 74. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in the same hab- 
itat as G. armifera, with which it is sometimes 
found. 



Gastrocopta similis (Sterki, 1 909) 



Map 43 



Pupoides modicus (Gould, 1 848) 



Map 40 



Pupoides modicus (Gould), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
923. 

Habitat— Found in much the same habitats as 
P. albilabris, but restricted to peninsular Florida 
and the Bahamas. 



Pupoides hordaceus (Gabb, 1866) 



Map 39 



Pupoides hordaceus (Gabb), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
924. 

Remarks— All records from east of its main 
range in the Rocky Mountains are either Pleisto- 
cene fossils or river drift (probably washed from 
Pleistocene deposits). 



Gastrocopta armifera form similis (Sterki), Pilsbry, 

1948, LMNA, 2: 877. 
Gastrocopta armifera form affinis (Sterki), Pilsbry, 

1948, LMNA, 2: 877. 
Gastrocopta similis (Sterki), Hubricht, 1972, Nautilus, 

85: 75. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in the same hab- 
itat as G. armifera, with which it is sometimes 
found. 



Gastrocopta ruidosensis (Cockerell, 1 909) 

Map 51 

Gastrocopta armifera ruidosensis (Cockerell), Pilsbry, 

1948, LMNA, 2: 877. 
Gastrocopta proarmifera Leonard, Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 878; Hubricht, 1972, Nautilus, 85: 76. 
Gastrocopta tridentata (Leonard), Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 880; Hubricht, 1972, Nautilus, 85: 76. 
Gastrocopta ruidosensis (Cockerell), Hubricht, 1972, 

Nautilus, 85: 75. 

Habitat— In our area it is known only as a 
Pleistocene fossil or as river drift which was washed 
from Pleistocene deposits. A western species. 



Pupoides inornatus Vanatta, 1915 Map 4 1 Gastrocopta clappi (Sterki, 1 909) 

Pupoides inornatus Vanatta, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
926. 

Remarks— All, or most, of the records from east 
of its main range in the Rocky Mountains are either 
Pleistocene fossils or river drift (probably washed 
from Pleistocene deposits). 

Subfamily GASTROCOPTINAE 



Map 64 

Gastrocopta armifera clappi (Sterki), Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 878. 
Gastrocopta clappi (Sterki), Hubricht, 1 962, Sterkiana, 

7: 1. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in the same hab- 
itat as G. armifera, with which it is sometimes 
found. 



Gastrocopta con tr acta (Say, 1822) 



Map 42 



Gastrocopta armifera (Say, 1821) 



Map 44 



Gastrocopta armifera (Say), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
874. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Usually found in sunny 
situations, roadsides, along railroads, in cedar 
glades. Sometimes found in open woods. 

Gastrocopta abbreviata (Sterki, 1909) Map 50 

Gastrocopta armifera abbreviata (Sterki), Pilsbry, 1948, 
LMNA, 2: 877. 



Gastrocopta contracta (Say), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 

880. 
Gastrocopta contracta climeana (Vanatta), Pilsbry, 

1948, LMNA, 2: 881; Hubricht, 1965, Sterkiana, 

17:4. 

Habitat— This species is found in so many hab- 
itats that it seems impossible to pinpoint its re- 
quirements. It is found in low, wet places, as well 
as places which are quite dry. It is also found in 
sunny roadsides and along railroads and in leaf 
litter in deep woods. It appears to be a calciphile. 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Gastrocopta holzingeri (Sterki, 1889) Map 48 

Gastrocopta holzingeri (Sterki), Pilsbry, 1 948, LMNA, 
2: 883. 

Gastrocopta holzingeri agna (Pilsbry & Vanatta), Pils- 
bry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 884; Branson, 1961, Proc. 
Okla. Acad. Sci., 41: 56. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Usually found on talus 
slopes in semishady situations. 

Gastrocopta venusta Leonard, 1 972 Map 63 

Gastrocopta venusta Leonard, 1972, Nautilus, 85: 80. 
Habitat— Known only as Pleistocene fossils. 



Gastrocopta falcis Leonard, 1 946 



Gastrocopta f aids Leonard, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
885. 

Habitat— Known only as a Pleistocene fossil. 



Gastrocopta pentodon (Say, 1821) 



Map 61 



Gastrocopta pentodon (Say), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 

886. 
Gastrocopta carnegiei (Sterki), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 

2: 890; Hubricht, 1968, Sterkiana, 32: 6. 
[Gastrocopta tappaniana (C. B. Adams), Bequaert & 

Miller, 1973, Moll. Arid Southwest, p. 88.] 

Habitat— A calciphile. Usually found in up- 
land woods in rather dry situations, but is some- 
times found in low, wet places in company with 
G. tappaniana. 

Variation— The number of teeth in the aper- 
ture varies from 5 to 9, with 5 or 6 being the most 
frequent number. In G. tappaniana 7 and 8 are 
the most usual numbers of teeth. However, the 
real difference between G. pentodon and G. tap- 
paniana is in the larger size of the latter. Gastro- 
copta tappaniana normally has a larger shell, hav- 
ing about twice the volume of G. pentodon. 

Gastrocopta tappaniana (C. B. Adams, 1 842) 

Map 57 

Gastrocopta tappaniana (C. B. Adams), Pilsbry, 1948, 
LMNA, 2: 889. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Usually found in wet 
places, margins of ponds, floodplains of streams, 
and marshes. In the southeastern United States, it 
is found on the undersides of palmetto leaves. Often 
found in the company of Vertigo ovata. 



Gastrocopta corticaria (Say, 1816) 



Map 53 



Gastrocopta corticaria (Say), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
894. 



Habitat— A calciphile. Found crawling on logs 
and tree trunks in wet weather. Rarely found in 
large numbers. 



Gastrocopta ru pi cola (Say, 1821) 



Map 45 



Gastrocopta rupicola (Say), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 

905. 
Gastrocopta rupicola matecumbensis Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 906; Cheatum & Fullington, 1973, Dallas 

Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull. 1: 22. 

Habitat— Found under old ties along railroads, 
on roadsides, about logs in woods, and on the 
undersides of palmetto leaves in swamps. 



Map 59 Gastrocopta procera (Gould, 1840) Map 46 



Gastrocopta procera (Gould), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2: 907. 

[Gastrocopta procera sterkiana Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2: 908; Cheatum & Fullington, 1973, Dallas Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Bull. 1: 19.] 

Gastrocopta procera mcclungi (Hanna & Johnston), 
Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 910; Cheatum & Fulling- 
ton, 1973, Dallas Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull. 1: 19. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Usually found on rather 
dry ground with sparse vegetation. Frequently 
found with Pupoides albilabris. 



Gastrocopta sterkiana Pilsbry, 1912 



Map 60 



Gastrocopta procera sterkiana Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2: 908; Hubricht, 1978, Malacol. Rev., 10: 50. 

Habitat— Found in drier habitats than those of 
G. procera. 



Gastrocopta riparia Hubricht, 1978 



Map 52 



Gastrocopta procera form riparia Pilsbry, 1948, 
LMNA, 2: 908; Hubricht, 1978, Malacol. Rev., 10: 
50. 

Habitat— Usually found in wetter habitats than 
those of G. procera; low woods, in urban areas, 
and along railroads. 

Gastrocopta riograndensis (Pilsbry & Vanatta, 
1892) Map 62 

Gastrocopta riograndensis (Pilsbry & Vanatta), Pils- 
bry, 1948, LMNA, 2:911. 

Habitat— Known only from river drift in Tex- 
as. A Mexican species. 



Gastrocopta servilis (Gould, 1 843) 



Map 58 



Pupa servilis Gould, 1 843, Boston J. Nat. Hist., 4: 356. 
Gastrocopta servilis (Gould), Pilsbry, 1916, Man. 

Conch., (2), 24: 70; Hubricht, 1978, Malacol. Rev., 

10: 50. 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



Habitat— A calciphile. Usually found in open, 
grassy places, along railroads, dumps, and lawns. 
A Neotropical species that has been widely dis- 
persed by commerce. 

Gastrocopta cristata (Pilsbry & Vanatta, 1900) 

Map 47 

Gastrocopta cristata (Pilsbry & Vanatta), Pilsbry, 1948, 
LMNA, 2:911. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Most records are from 
river drift or fossils. It is a species of grassy places, 
often where it is quite dry. The species has been 
introduced into eastern Maryland. Its main range 
is Texas and Oklahoma west to Arizona. 

Gastrocopta chauliodonta Taylor, 1954 Map 56 

Gastrocopta chauliodonta Taylor, 1954, Univ. Mich. 
Mus. Zool., Occas. Pap., 557: 12. 

Habitat— Known only as Pleistocene fossils. 

Gastrocopta scaevoscala Taylor, 1960 Map 55 

Gastrocopta scaevoscala Taylor, 1 960, U.S. Geol. Surv., 
Prof. Paper, 337: 70. 

Habitat— Known only as Pleistocene and Plio- 
cene fossils. 



on the leaves in upland woods in wet weather. Also 
found on the undersides of palmetto leaves. 



Vertigo oscariana (Sterki, 1890) 



Map 66 



Vertigo oscariana (Sterki), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
946. 

Habitat— Usually found in leaf litter in ravines 
and on talus slopes. Also found on the undersides 
of palmetto leaves. 



Vertigo rugosula Sterki, 1890 



Map 68 



Vertigo rugosula Sterki, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 948. 
Vertigo wheeled Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1 948, LMNA, 2: 979; 
Hubricht, 1974, Malacol. Rev., 7: 33. 

Habitat— A species of grassy roadsides and ce- 
dar glades; often in rather dry situations. 



Vertigo oralis Sterki, 1898 



Map 70 



Vertigo rugosula oralis Sterki, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 

2: 950. 
Vertigo oralis Sterki, Hubricht, 1964, Sterkiana, 16: 

10. 

Habitat— Usually found in low, wet woods, 
either crawling on the ground or on logs, and on 
the undersides of palmetto leaves. 



Gastrocopta paracristata Franzen & Leonard, 
1947 Map 54 

Gastrocopta paracristata Franzen & Leonard, 1947, 
Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 31: 346. 

Habitat— Known only as Pleistocene and Plio- 
cene fossils. 



Vertigo alabamensis Clapp, 1915 



Map 93 



Vertigo alabamensis Clapp, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
950. 

Habitat— Found under rotting leaves in a ra- 
vine. 



Gastrocopta pellucida (Pfeiffer, 1841) Map 49 

Gastrocopta pellucida hordeacella (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 

1948, LMNA, 2: 913. 
Gastrocopta pellucida (Pfeiffer), Branson, 1961, Proc. 

Okla. Acad. Sci., 41: 59. 

Habitat— Usually found in open, grassy places 
or in open woods; often in dry, sandy places. In 
Florida it is sometimes found on the undersides 
of palmetto leaves. 



Subfamily VERTIGININAE 



Vertigo conecuhensis Clapp, 1915 



Map 94 



Vertigo alabamensis conecuhensis Clapp, Pilsbry, 1948, 
LMNA, 2:951. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter on wooded hill- 
sides. 



Vertigo clappi Brooks & Hunt, 1936 Map 82 

Vertigo clappi Brooks & Hunt, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2:951. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter and moss on 
wooded hillsides. 



Vertigo milium (Gould, 1840) Map 65 

Vertigo milium (Gould), Pilsbry, 1 948, LMNA, 2: 944. 

Habitat— Usually found in wet places in com- 
pany with V. ovata, but sometimes found crawling 



Vertigo morsei Sterki, 1894 Map 77 

Vertigo morsei Sterki, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 952. 

Habitat— Found in wet places, margins of 
ponds, and marshes. 



10 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Vertigo teskeyae Hubricht, 1961 Map 72 

Vertigo teskeyae Hubricht, 1961, Nautilus, 75: 62. 

Habitat —An inhabitant of wet places, margins 
of ponds, and swamps. Often found associated with 
V. ovata. 



Vertigo ovata Say, 1822 



Vertigo ovata Say, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 952. 
Vertigo ovata diaboli Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 

2: 953. 
[Vertigo teskeyae Hubricht, Bequaert & Miller, 1973, 

Moll. Arid Southwest, p. 92.] 

Habitat— Usually found in wet places near 
ponds and in swamps. It is also found on the un- 
dersides of palmetto leaves. 



Vertigo binneyana Sterki, 1890 



Map 86 



Vertigo binneyana Sterki, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
955. 

Habitat— Known only from river drift in our 
area. A species of the western United States and 
Canada. 



Vertigo elatior Sterki, 1 894 Map 69 

Vertigo elatior Sterki, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 956. 

Habitat— The only specimens of this species 
which I have collected alive were found in wet 
woods. 



Vertigo ventricosa (Morse, 1865) 



Map 71 



Vertigo ventricosa (Morse), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
957. 

Habitat— Found in marshes and low wet woods; 
also in upland woods in leaf litter. 

Vertigo pygmaea (Draparnaud, 1801) Map 78 

Vertigo pygmaea (Draparnaud), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2:961. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in low, grassy 
places. Common in concrete culverts in northern 
New York and Ohio. A Holarctic species. 

Vertigo tridentata Wolf, 1870 Map 73 

Vertigo tridentata Wolf, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 965. 

Habitat— Found crawling on herbs in low, sun- 
ny places. I found it abundant on mint near a 
spring at Fern Glen, Missouri. It did not occur on 
any other species of plant. 



Vertigo perryi Sterki, 1905 Map 87 

Vertigo perryi Sterki, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 966. 

Habitat— This species was collected at Dux- 
bury, Massachusetts, in the vicinity of cranberry 
bogs. 



Map 67 Vertigo alpestris oughtoni Pilsbry, 1 948 Map 85 



Vertigo alpestris oughtoni Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
968. 

Habitat— Known only as a Pleistocene fossil 
in the United States. A Canadian species. 

Vertigo parvula Sterki, 1890 Map 81 

Vertigo parvula Sterki, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 969. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter in upland woods 
and crawling on logs in wet weather. 

Vertigo nylanderi Sterki, 1909 Map 79 

Vertigo nylanderi Sterki, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 970. 

Habitat— I have never collected this primarily 
Canadian species. 



Vertigo gouldi (A. Binney, 1 843) 



Map 75 



Vertigo gouldi (A. Binney), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
971. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter in upland woods. 



Vertigo paradoxa Sterki, 1 900 



Map 80 



Vertigo gouldi paradoxa Sterki, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2: 972. 

Habitat— Similar to that of V. gouldi and 
sometimes found with it. 



Vertigo hubrichti Pilsbry, 1934 



Map 74 



Vertigo gouldi hubrichti Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 

2: 973. 
Vertigo hubrichti Pilsbry, Leonard & Frye, 1960, 111. 

State Geol. Surv., Circ. 304: 9. 

Habitat— Known only as a Pleistocene fossil. 

Vertigo hannai Pilsbry, 1919 Map 83 

Vertigo hannai Pilsbry, 1919, Man. Conch., (2)25: 1 14. 
Vertigo gouldi hannai Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2: 976. 

Habitat— Known only as a Pleistocene fossil. 

Vertigo meramecensis Van De vender, 1979 

Map 88 

Vertigo meramecensis Van Devender, 1979, Nautilus, 
93:71. 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



11 



Habitat— Found living among lichens on a cliff. Columella simplex (Gould, 1 841) 



Map 97 



Vertigo brierensis Leonard, 1972 Map 89 

Vertigo brierensis Leonard, 1972, Nautilus, 85: 79. 
Habitat— Known only as a Pleistocene fossil. 

Vertigo occulta Leonard, 1972 Map 90 

Vertigo occulta Leonard, 1972, Nautilus, 85: 78. 
Habitat— Known only as a Pleistocene fossil. 



Pupa simplex Gould, 1841, Boston J. Nat. Hist., 3: 

403. 
[Columella edentula (Draparnaud), Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 1002.] 
Columella simplex (Gould), Hubricht, 1971, Ster- 

kiana, 42: 45. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter in moist woods, 
talus slopes, and ravines. 

Remarks— This is at least two species, probably 
three. 



Vertigo arthuri von Martens, 1 884 Map 9 1 Columella hasta (Hanna, 1911) 



Vertigo arthuri von Martens, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2: 977. 



Habitat— Known only from river drift. 



Vertigo concinnula Cockerell, 1897 



Map 92 



Vertigo concinnula Cockerell, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2: 978. 

Habitat— I have never collected this species of 
the western United States. 



Vertigo hebardi Vanatta, 1912 Map 95 

Vertigo hebardi Vanatta, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 980. 

Habitat— I have never collected this species, 
but it is probably arboreal. All of the museum 
material that I have seen was collected dead. 



Vertigo bollesiana (Morse, 1865) 



Map 84 



Vertigo bollesiana (Morse), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
981. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter on wooded hill- 
sides and in marshes. 



Map 100 

Columella hasta (Hanna), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
1005. 

Habitat— Known only as a Pleistocene fossil. 
Remarks— This is possibly only an aberrant 
specimen of Gastrocopta armifera. 



Subfamily NESOPUPINAE 

Pupisoma dioscoricola (C. B. Adams, 1 845) 

Map 98 

Pupisoma dioscoricola (C. B. Adams), Pilsbry, 1948, 
LMNA, 2: 1007. 

Habitat— An arboreal species. Most frequently 
found on the undersides of palmetto leaves, but 
also on orange and magnolia leaves. 

Remarks— The slime of species of this genus is 
much more adhesive than that of other land snails. 
They are not as likely to be dislodged by storms 
as other arboreal species would be. A widely dis- 
tributed Neotropical species. 



Vertigo modesta modesta (Say, 1824) Map 76 
Vertigo modesta (Say), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 982. 

Habitat— All of the definite records I have seen 
are of Pleistocene fossils, but it has been reported 
from the New England states. A primarily Cana- 
dian species. 

Columella columella alticola (Ingersoll, 1875) 

Map 96 

Columella alticola (Ingersoll), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 

2: 1003. 
Columella columella alticola (Ingersoll), Bequaert & 

Miller, 1973, Moll. Arid Southwest, p. 190. 

Habitat— In our area it is known only as a 
Pleistocene fossil. 



Pupisoma macneilli (Clapp, 1918) 



Map 99 



Pupisoma macneilli (Clapp), Pilsbry, 1 948, LMNA, 2: 

1010. 
Pupisoma minus Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 

1008. 

Habitat— An arboreal species. Usually found 
crawling on the trunks of ironwood and other 
smooth-barked trees in wet weather. Rarely found 
on the undersides of palmetto leaves. 

Bothriopupa variolosa (Gould, 1848) Map 101 

Bothriopupa variolosa (Gould), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2: 1011. 

Habitat— Unknown. I have never collected this 
species. Also reported from Yucatan. 



12 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Sterkia eyriesi rhoadsi (Pilsbry, 1899) Map 102 

Sterkia eyriesi rhoadsi (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2: 1016. 

Habitat— The only specimen which I have col- 
lected was found crawling on a log after a shower. 

Remarks— When this form is better known, it 
may prove to be specifically distinct from S. eyrie- 
si, a widely distributed Neotropical species. 



Family STROBILOPSIDAE 



Habitat— Found in the same habitat as 5". laby- 
rinthica, with which it frequently occurs. It is found 
on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, where S. labyrin- 
thica does not occur. 

Strobilops hubbardi A. D. Brown, 1861 

Map 109 

Strobilops hubbardi A. D. Brown, Pilsbry, 1948, 
LMNA, 2: 865. 

Habitat— Found in low woods crawling on logs 
in wet weather. 



Strobilops labyrinthica (Say, 1817) Map 103 

Strobilops labyrinthica (Say), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 

2: 854. 
[Strobilops labyrinthica texasiana Pilsbry & Ferriss, 

Branson, 1961, Proc. La. Acad. Sci., 24: 29.] 

Habitat— Found crawling on logs in wet weath- 
er and in leaf litter in dry weather. 

Strobilops texasiana Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1 906 

Map 104 

Strobilops texasiana Pilsbry & Ferriss, Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 856. 
Strobilops texasiana floridana Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 858. 
Strobilops labyrinthica form parietalis Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 

1948, LMNA, 2: 856. 
Strobilops aenea spiralis Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1 948, LMNA, 

2: 865. 
Strobilops parietalis Pilsbry, Hubricht, 1971, Ster- 

kiana, 42: 45. 
Strobilops lonsdalei Ho & Leonard, 1961, Nautilus, 

75: 43. 

Habitat— Often found in wetter habitats than 
those of S. labyrinthica. I have never found the 
two species together. 

Strobilops sparsicostata F. C. Baker, 1938. 

Map 107 

Strobilops sparsicostata F. C. Baker, 1938, Nautilus, 
51: 127. 

Habitat— Known only as a Pleistocene or Plio- 
cene fossil. 

Strobilops affinis Pilsbry, 1893 Map 106 

Strobilops affinis Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 860. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as S. laby- 
rinthica. 

Strobilops aenea Pilsbry, 1926 Map 105 

Strobilops aenea Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 862. 



Order MESURETHRA 

Superfamily CLAUSILIACEA 

Family CERIONIDAE 

Cerion incanum (A. Binney, 1851) Map 108 

Cerion incanum (A. Binney), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 
2: 162. 

Habitat— Usually found attached to grass stems, 
shrubs, and tree trunks near the beach, but there 
is a thriving colony in the very center of Big Pine 
Key. 



Order SIGMURETHRA 

Suborder AULACOPODA 

Superfamily SUCCINEACEA 

Family SUCCINEIDAE 

Oxyloma groenlandica (Moller, 1841) Map 1 1 1 

Oxyloma groenlandica (Moller), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 

2: 776. 
Oxyloma verrilli (Bland), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 

777; Harris & Hubricht, 1982, Can. J. Zool., 60: 

1608. 

Habitat— In the United States, it is known only 
from below Chittenango Falls, New York. Re- 
corded from Iceland, Greenland, and Canada. 



Oxyloma retusa (I. Lea, 1834) 



Map 110 



Oxyloma retusa (I. Lea), Pilsbry, 1 948, LMNA, 2: 785. 
Oxyloma decampi (Tryon), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 

779; Grimm, 1971, Sterkiana, 41: 56. 
Oxyloma decampi gouldi Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 782. 

Habitat— Found in low, wet places in marshes 
and the margins of ponds, crawling on the mud 
or on plants such as cattails. 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



13 



Oxyloma peoriensis (Wolf, in Walker, 1892) 

Map 112 

Oyxloma decampi peoriensis (Walker), Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 784. 
Oxyloma deprimida Franzen. 1973, Nautilus, 87: 66; 

Hubricht, 1983, Gastropodia, 2: 16. 

Habitat— Crawling on cattails in wet weather; 
aestivating and laying eggs in the sheaths. 



Oxyloma effusa (Pfeiffer, 1853) 



Map 113 



Oxyloma effusa (Pfeiffer), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
788. 

Habitat— Found on the undersides of Sagit- 
taria leaves, crawling on plants, and sometimes 
on the ground. 



Oxyloma subeffusa Pilsbry, 1 948 



Map 1 1 5 



Oxyloma effusa subeffusa Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 

790. 
Oxyloma subeffusa Pilsbry, Grimm, 1971, Sterkiana, 

41: 55. 

Habitat— Found crawling on the mud near 
ponds, rivers, and marshes. 

Remarks— The shell of this species does not 
appear separable from that of O. salleana and may 
represent introductions of that species. It needs to 
be compared anatomically. 



Oxyloma salleana (Pfeiffer, 1849) 



Map 114 



Oxyloma salleana (Pfeiffer), Pilsbrv, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
792. 

Habitat— Similar to that of O. retusa. 



Oxyloma haydeni (W. G. Binney, 1858) 

Map 116 

Oxyloma haydeni (W. G. Binney), Pilsbry, 1948, 
LMNA, 2: 797. 

Habitat— Similar to that of O. retusa. A west- 
ern species. 

Succinea barberi (Marshall, 1926) Map 133 

Lymnaea barberi Marshall, 1926, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 
68(11): 1. 

Oxyloma sanibelensis (Render), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2: 793. 

Oxyloma barberi (Marshall), Taylor, 1966, Malacolo- 
gia, 4: 114. 

Succinea barberi (Marshall), Hubricht, 1968, Nauti- 
lus, 82: 68. 

Habitat— Found on the dead leaves of grasses 
growing in the water. 



Succinea paralia Hubricht, 1983 Map 124 

Succinea paralia Hubricht, 1983, Gastropodia, 2: 15. 

Habitat— Found in brackish marshes, crawling 
on the mud and herbs in wet weather. 



Succinea wilsoni I. Lea, 1864 



Map 127 



Succinea wilsoni I. Lea, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 823. 
Succinea pronophobus Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 809 

Grimm, 1971, Sterkiana, 41: 56. 
Succinea bayardi Vanatta, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2 

814; Grimm, 1975, Nautilus, 89: 39. 
Succinea crisfieldi Jackson, 1958, Md. Natur. 28: 17 

Grimm, 1975, Nautilus, 89: 39. 
Succinea pyrites Hubricht, 1 960, Nautilus, 73: 113 

Grimm, 1975, Nautilus, 89: 39. 
?[Succineaforsheyi I. Lea, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila., p. 109; Hubricht, 1974, Malacol. Rev., 7 

33.] 

Habitat— Found in brackish marshes, usually 
on the ground, but sometimes climbing on stems 
of plants. 

Remarks— F. W. Grimm examined the holo- 
type of S. wilsoni and concluded that it was the 
same as 5. pronophobus. I examined this holotype 
and concluded that it was the same as S. forsheyi. 
It will probably be necessary to re-collect it and 
study the animal to be sure of its identity. I once 
tried to find it at Darien, Georgia, the type locality, 
but was not successful. 



Succinea ovalis Say, 1817 



Map 118 



Succinea ovalis Say, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 801. 
Succinea ovalis optima Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1 948, LMNA, 
2: 805. 

Habitat— Commonly found in the vicinity of 
water, but also found on wooded hillsides and, in 
the southern Appalachians, on mountaintops, 
where it is found on Veratrum plants. 



Succinea chittenangoensis Pilsbry, 1 908 

Map 125 

Succinea ovalis chittenangoensis Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 807. 
Succinea ovalis pleistocenica F. C. Baker, Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 808. 
Succinea chittenangoensis Pilsbry, Hubricht, 1972, 

Sterkiana, 45: 33. 
Succinea ovalis form chittenangoensis Pilsbry, Solem, 

1976, Nautilus, 90: 108. 

Habitat— Known from a ravine below a wa- 
terfall in New York and on mountaintops farther 
south. 



14 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Succinea campestris Say, 1817 



Map 126 



Succinea campestris Say, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
826. 

Habitat— Usually found on the dunes along the 
beaches, climbing or aestivating on the grasses. 



[Succinea unicolor Tryon, Hubricht, 1963, Nautilus, 

76: 135.] 
Succinea witteri Shimek, Hubricht, 1963, Nautilus, 

76: 136; Hubricht, 1974, Malacol. Rev., 7: 33. 

Habitat— Usually found on the banks of small 
creeks and on gravel bars. 



Succinea floridana Pilsbry, 1905 Map 132 Succinea grosvenori I. Lea, 1857 Map 122 



Succinea luteola floridana Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1948, 
LMNA, 2:831. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found crawling on the 
ground, where the vegetation is sparse in sunny 
situations, usually near the coast, where the water 
is somewhat brackish. 

Succinea luteola Gould, 1848 Map 123 

Succinea luteola Gould, Pilsbry, 1 948, LMNA, 2: 828. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found crawling on bare 
ground after rains. Prefers full sun. 

Succinea urbana Hubricht, 1961 Map 131 

Succinea urbana Hubricht, 1961, Nautilus, 75: 33. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found crawling on the 
ground or on the stems of plants in wet weather. 
Aestivates on the stems of grasses in dry weather. 



Succinea indiana Pilsbry, 1905 



Map 117 



Succinea indiana Pilsbry, 1905, Nautilus, 19: 28; Hu- 
bricht, 1962, Nautilus, 75: 123. 
[Succinea aurea Lea, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 815.] 
Succinea vaginacontorta Lee, 1951, Univ. Mich. Mus. 
Zool., Occas. Pap., 533: 2; Hubricht, 1 962, Nautilus, 
75: 123. 

Habitat— Usually found in rather dry, sunny 
situations on bare ground. 

Remarks— Because S. indiana must be dissect- 
ed for identification, there are not enough records 
to determine its true range. 



Succinea unicolor Tryon, 1866 



Map 120 



Succinea unicolor Tryon, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
817. 

[Succinea concordialis Gould, Hubricht, 1963, Nau- 
tilus, 76: 135.] 

Habitat— Found in marshy places, usually near 
lakes or along streams. It prefers sunny situations. 



Succinea forsheyi I. Lea, 1864 



Map 119 



Succinea forsheyi I. Lea, 1864, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Phila., p. 109; Hubricht, 1974, Malacol. Rev., 7: 33. 

[Succinea concordialis Gould, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2: 833.] 



Succinea grosvenori I. Lea, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 

819. 
Succinea (Desmosuccinea) pseudavara Webb, 1954, 

Gastropodia, 1: 18; Hubricht, 1963, Nautilus, 76: 

135. 
[Succinea bakeri Hubricht, Browne & Bruder, 1968, 

Bull. Amer. Paleontol., 54: 141.] 

Habitat— Usually found in sunny situations, 
where the vegetation is sparse, and the ground 
remains damp after rains. 

Remarks— Succinea grosvenori has been used 
in the past as a catchall for any succineid which 
could not be as readily identified as some other 
species. As a result most published records could 
not be used. The species can be identified only 
from a study of the genitalia. Thus, records are 
widely scattered, and the true range of the species 
is not known. 

Succinea bakeri Hubricht, 1963 Map 129 

Succinea bakeri Hubricht, 1963, Nautilus, 76: 136. 
Habitat— Known only as a Pleistocene fossil. 



Succinea greeri Tryon, 1866 



Map 121 



Succinea greeri Tryon, 1866, Amer. J. Conchol., 2: 
232; Hubricht, 1963, Nautilus, 76: 136. 

Habitat— One of our most xerophilous land 
snails. Found on loess banks with a southern ex- 
posure, on bare ground in full sun, and in Okla- 
homa on the bare face of a cliff with a southern 
exposure. Because of its confusion with S. gros- 
venori, its true range is not known. 

Succinea solastra Hubricht, 1961 Map 130 

Succinea solastra Hubricht, 1961, Nautilus, 75: 30. 

Habitat— Found crawling on bare ground after 
rains, frequently in the company of S. luteola. 



Succinea putris (Linne, 1758) 



Map 128 



Succinea pennsylvanica Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 809. 
Succinea putris (Linne), Grimm, 1977, Bull. Amer. 
Malacol. Union, 1976: 53. 

Habitat— Common in marshes, skunk cabbage 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



15 



swamps, and along roadsides, wherever there is 
sufficient moisture. A very common species within 
its range. I found no other species of Succineidae 
with it. It appears to crowd out all other species. 
A European-Asian species. 



Catinella avara (Say, 1824) 



Map 134 



Succinea avara Say, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 837 (in 

part). 
Succinia vermeta Say, 1 829, New Harmony Dissem- 
inator, 2: 230. 
Quickella oklahomarum loculosa Webb, 1954, Gas- 

tropodia, 1: 20. 
Quickella vermeta (Say), Hubricht, 1 958, Nautilus, 72: 

60. 
Catinella vermeta (Say), Grimm, 1960, Nautilus, 74: 

12. 
Catinella texana Hubricht, 1961, Nautilus, 75: 6 1 . 
Catinella avara (Say), Burch, 1962, How To Know the 

Land Snails. Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa, 

p. 67 (in part). 
[Quickella wandae Webb, Branson, 1963, Proc. Okla. 

Acad. Sci., 43: 80.] 
Catinella parallela Franzen, 1979, Nautilus, 93: 63. 
Catinella waccamawensis Franzen, 1981, Nautilus, 95: 

116. 
Catinella protracta Franzen, 1983, Nautilus, 97: 138. 

Habitat— Usually found on wet ground in low, 
wet places, floodplains, margins of ponds, marsh- 
es, and swamps in both shady and sunny situa- 
tions. 



Catinella gelida (F. C. Baker, 1927) Map 140 

Succinea grosvenori gelida F. C. Baker, Pilsbry, 1 948, 
LMNA, 2: 823. 

Catinella gelida (F. C. Baker), Hubricht, 1963, Nau- 
tilus, 76: 137. 

Habitat— Known only as a Pleistocene fossil. 



Catinella exile (Leonard, 1972) Map 142 

Succinea exile Leonard, 1972, Nautilus, 85: 82. 
Habitat— Known only as a Pleistocene fossil. 

Catinella oklahomarum (Webb, 1953) Map 135 

Quickella oklahomarum Webb, 1953, J. Tenn. Acad. 

Sci., 28: 220. 
Catinella pinicola Grimm, 1960, Nautilus, 74: 11; 

Grimm, 1968, Nautilus 81: 84. 
[Catinella vagans (Pilsbry), Branson, 1963, Proc. Okla. 

Acad. Sci., 43: 79.] 

Habitat— Usually found in the leaf litter of 
wooded hillsides or in pine woods on the coastal 
plain. Usually on acid soil. I have never found it 
abundant. 



Catinella aprica Hubricht, 1968 Map 141 

Catinella aprica Hubricht, 1968, Nautilus, 82: 68. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found crawling on the 
ground litter after rains, where there are calcareous 
rocks and full sun. 



Catinella wandae (Webb, 1953) 



Map 137 



Quickella wandae Webb, 1953, J. Tenn. Acad. Sci., 
28: 216. 

Habitat— Found in the leaf litter on well- 
drained wooded slopes in deciduous forest. 

Catinella vagans (Pilsbry, 1900) Map 139 

Quickella vagans (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 

843. 
Catinella vagans (Pilsbry), Hubricht, 1978, Malacol. 

Rev., 10: 50. 

Habitat— Found crawling on the mud around 
the margins of ponds. 

Catinella pugilator Hubricht, 1961 Map 138 

Catinella pugilator Hubricht, 1961, Nautilus, 75: 61. 

Habitat— Found on the ground near the mar- 
gins of brackish or freshwater marshes in weedy 
places. 

Catinella hubrichti Grimm, 1960 Map 136 

Catinella hubrichti Grimm, 1960, Nautilus, 74: 9. 

Habitat — Climbing on plants in brackish 
marshes. 



Superfamily ARIONACEA 
Family PHILOMYCIDAE 

Philomycus carolinianus (Bosc, 1 802) Map 1 43 

Philomycus carolinianus (Bosc), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 

2: 753. 
Eumelus nebulosus Rafinesque, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 

2: 770; Hubricht, 1952, Nautilus, 66: 46. 
Eumelus lividus Rafinesque, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 

770; Hubricht, 1952, Nautilus, 66: 47. 
Philomycus quadrilus Rafinesque, Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 770; Hubricht, 1952, Nautilus, 66: 46. 
Philomycus batchi Branson, 1968, Nautilus, 81: 129; 

Hubricht, 1974, Malacol. Rev., 7: 33. 

Habitat— Found in floodplain woods over most 
of its range, but becomes an upland species in the 
mountains. It does not occur much above 2,000 
ft. To be looked for under the loose bark of logs 
and crawling on the trunks of smooth-barked trees 
at night and during wet weather. 



16 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



(Gould, 1841) 



Map 144 Megapalliiera ragsdalei (Webb, 1951) Map 157 



Umax togata GoukL Gould. 1841. Invert, of Mass., 

P- 3. 
Phitomvcus caroiimanus coUimts Hubricht, 1951. 

Nautilus, 65: 21. 
PhUomvcus caroiimanus togatus (Gould), Hubricht. 

1956, Nautilus, 79: 16. 
PhUomycus togatus (Gould), HubrichL 1968, Ster- 

lriana,32:5. 

Habitat— An upland species found on wooded 
hillsides and ravines, under loose bark of logs, and 
crawling on the trunks of smooth-barked trees at 
night and in wet weather. 

Philormcus flexuolaris Rafinesque, 1820 

Map 148 

PhUomvcus caroiimanus flexuolaris Rafinesque. Pils- 

bry, 1948, LMNA 2: 756. 
PhUomycus flexuolaris Rafinesque, Hubricht, 1951, 

Nautilus, 65: 21. 

Habitat— Found in upland woods up to more 
than 5,000 ft in the Smoky Mountains. Occurring 
in much the same habitat as P. togatus. 

Philomycus Tirguucvs Hubricht, 1953 Map 146 

PhUomycus virginicus Hubricht, 1953, Nautilus, 66: 
80. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as P. to- 
gatus. 

Philormcus >enusrus Hubrvh:. 1953 Map 145 

PhUomycus venustus Hubricht, 1 953, Nautilus, 66: 79. 
PhUomycus bisdosus Branson. 1 968, Nautilus, 81: 1 27; 
Hubricht, 1974, MalacoL Rev., 7: 33. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as P. flex- 
uolaris and frequently found with it . 

PhUomycus sellatus Hubricht, 1972 Map 147 
PhUomycus sellatus Hubricht, 1972, Nautilus, 86: 17. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as P. to- 
gatus. 

Megapallifera wetherbyi (W. G. Binney, 1874) 

Map 155 

Pallifera wetherbyi W. G. Binney, Pilsbry, 1948, 
LMNA, 2: 769. 

Eumehts wetherbyi (W. G. Binney), Webb, 1951, Nau- 
tilus, 65: 35. 

Megapallifera wetherbyi (W. G. Binney). Hubricht, 
1976, Nautilus, 90: 106. 

Habitat— Found on rocks and on the trunks of 
smooth-barked trees at night and in wet weather. 
A species of river bluffs and ravines. 



Eumetus wetherbyi ragsdalei Webb, 1950, Trans. 
Amer. Mkroscop. Soc, 69: 56. 

Pallifera ragsdalei (Webb). Hubricht, 1956. Nautilus. 
69:126. 

[PallUera mutabUis Hubricht, Branson, 1962, Trans. 
Kan. Acad. Sri.. 65: 114.] 

MegapallUemragsdalei (Webbl Hubricht, 1976, Nau- 
tilus, 99: 106. 

Habitat— Found in rock slides, cliffs, and the 
mouths of caves. Sometimes found on smooth- 
barked trees. 

Megapallifera ■■tabtlts (Hubricht, 1951) 

Map 150 

[Eumehts tiridus Rafinesque, Webb, 1950, Trans. 

Amer. Mkroscop. Soc, 69: 56.] 
PallUera mutabUis Hubricht, 1951, Nautilus, 65: 57. 
MegapaUUera mutabUis Hubricht, Hubricht, 1976, 

Nautilus, 99: 106. 

Habitat— Usually found in upland woods, 
crawling on the trunks of smooth-barked trees at 
night and in wet weather. It is also an urban slug. 
found in lawns and on shade trees. In Montgom- 
ery, Alabama, I found it in an old cemetery feeding 
on the lichens growing on the tombstones. 

Pallifera dorsalis (A. Binney, 1842) Map 149 

PallUera dorsalis (A Binney), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA 

2:760. 
PallUera ohioensis (Steriri), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA 2: 

763. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter in upland woods. 

Pallifera varia Hubricht, 1953 Map 154 

Pallifera varia Hubricht, 19S3, Nautilus, 66: 78. 

Habitat— Found crawling on the ground in wet 
weather in upland woods. 

Pallifera hemphilli (W. G. Binney, 1885) 

Map 153 

Pallifera hemphilli (W. G. Binney), Pilsbry, 1948. 
LMNA 2: 765. 

Habitat— Found crawling on the ground in wet 
weather in the spruce-fir forests at elevations above 
5,000 ft. 



Pallifera marmorea Pilsbry, 1948 



Map 152 



Pallifera hemphilli marmorea Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA 

2:766. 
Pallifera marmorea Pilsbry, Hubricht, 1 956, Nautilus, 

69: 125. 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



17 



Pallifera tornescalis Branson, 1968, Southwest. Nat- 
ur., 13: 457; Hubricht, 1974, Malacol. Rev., 7: 33. 

Habitat— Found in pockets of damp leaves in 
upland woods. 



Pallifera secreta (Cockerell, 1 900) 



Map 151 



Philomycus secretus Cockerell, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 

2: 767. 
Pallifera secreta (Cockerell), Hubricht, 1951, Nautilus, 

64: 102. 
Pallifera hemphilli secreta (Cockerell), Beetle, 1977, 

Sterkiana, 49: 28. 

Habitat— Found in deep pockets of wet leaves 
in upland woods; up to 5,000 ft in the mountains. 



Pallifera fosteri F. C. Baker, 1939 



Map 156 



Pallifera fosteri F. C. Baker, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 

768. 
Pallifera fosteri oughtoni Webb, 1952, Gastropodia, 

1:6. 
Pallifera megaphallica Grimm, 1961, Nautilus, 74: 

104; Hubricht, 1974, Malacol. Rev., 7: 33. 

Habitat— An adaptable species found in a va- 
riety of habitats; in floodplain as well as upland 
woods, in leaf litter and about logs, from near sea 
level to above 5,000 ft. It has been found associ- 
ated with P. hemphilli. 



Family DISCIDAE 

Anguispira alternata (Say, 1816) Map 158 

Anguispira alternata (Say), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 

568. 
Anguispira clarki Vanatta, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 

585; Hubricht, 1974, Malacol. Rev., 7: 33. 

Habitat— A species with a wide habitat toler- 
ance. Found in woods about logs, hollow trees, 
and rocks; in weedy roadsides and along railroads; 
in urban areas in vacant lots and gardens. 

Variation— There is considerable variation in 
the degree of angulation of the periphery. This 
angulation is most pronounced in the region about 
the northern end of the range of A. mordax and 
appears to be the result of introgression from that 
species. 



Anguispira Jessica Kutchka, 1938 



Map 165 



Anguispira alternata Jessica Kutchka, Pilsbry, 1948, 
LMNA, 2: 577. 

Anguispira Jessica Kutchka, Hubricht, 1965, Ster- 
kiana, 17: 3. 

Habitat— Usually found at high elevations in 



the mountains, but is sometimes found at low el- 
evations. 

Anguispira fergusoni (Bland, 1861) Map 162 

Anguispira alternata fergusoni (Bland), Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 575. 
Anguispira fergusoni (Bland), Jeffries, 1952, Nautilus, 

65: 127. 

Habitat— A species of the Atlantic Coastal Plain 
which has moved up the floodplains of the larger 
rivers into the Piedmont area. Usually found about 
logs, hollow trees, and in the leaf litter in deciduous 
woods. Also a common urban snail. 

Anguispira knoxensis (Pilsbry, 1901) Map 164 

Anguispira alternata knoxensis (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1948, 
LMNA, 2: 584. 

[Anguispira rugoderma Hubricht, Pilsbry, 1948, 
LMNA, 2: 585.] 

Anguispira knoxensis (Pilsbry), Hubricht, 1954, Nau- 
tilus, 67: 92. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as A. al- 
ternata. 

Anguispira rugoderma Hubricht, 1938 Map 163 

Anguispira rugoderma Hubricht, 1938, Nautilus, 51: 

131. 
Anguispira alternata rugoderma Hubricht, Mac- 

Millan, 1940, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 27: 390. 

Habitat— Found about old logs on the north side 
of Pine Mountain, Kentucky. 

Anguispira strongylodes (Pfeiffer, 1854) 

Map 159 

Anguispira alternata strongylodes (Pfeiffer), Pilsbry, 

1948, LMNA, 2: 577. 
Anguispira alternata crassa Walker, Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 579. 
Anguispira alternata macneilli Walker, Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 576; Hubricht, 1974, Malacol. Rev., 7: 

33. 
Anguispira crassa Walker, Hubricht, 1953, Nautilus, 

66: 125. 
Anguispira strongylodes (Pfeiffer), Hubricht, 1960, 

Nautilus, 74: 82. 
Anguispira macneilli Walker, Hubricht, 1965, Ster- 
kiana, 17: 3. 

Habitat— Found in much the same habitats as 
A. alternata and sometimes found with it. 

Variation— The shells are rather coarsely striate 
in the northern part of its range, where the range 
overlaps that of A. alternata; but in the southern 
part of the range, the striae become weaker {mac- 
neilli). 



18 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Anguispira mordax (Shuttleworth, 1852) 

Map 160 

Anguispira alternata mordax (Shuttleworth), Pilsbry, 

1948, LMNA, 2: 581. 
Anguispira alternata lawae Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 578. 
Anguispira alternata paucicostata Kutchka, Pilsbry, 

1948, LMNA, 2: 581. 
Anguispira alternata smithi Walker, Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 583. 
Anguispira cumberlandiana columba (Clapp), Pilsbry, 

1948, LMNA, 2: 588. 
Anguispira smithi Walker, Hubricht, 1965, Sterkiana, 

17:3. 
Anguispira columba (Clapp), Hubricht, 1965, Ster- 
kiana, 17: 3. 
Anguispira mordax (Shuttleworth), Hubricht, 1968, 

Sterkiana, 32: 5. 
Anguispira paucicostata Kutchka, Hubricht, 1972, 

Sterkiana, 45: 33. 
Anguispira mordax paucicostata Kutchka, Hubricht, 

1973, Sterkiana, 49: 15. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitats as A. al- 
ternata and A. strongy 'lodes, with which it hybrid- 
izes. 

Variation— A nguispira mordax apparently oc- 
curs pure only in the mountains of North Carolina. 
West of the mountains, it hybridizes with A. al- 
ternata in the northern part of its range and with 
A. strongylodes in the southern part. Through in- 
trogression with A. alternata, it produced the form 
angulata of that species. In the southern part of 
its range through hybridization with A. strongy- 
lodes, it produced A. smithi and A. columba. There 
has been very little introgression into A. strongy- 
lodes. Hybrid colonies have remained local, with 
very little spread of genes into the surrounding 
populations. Anguispira lawae appears to be a 
population of A. mordax with a small amount of 
A. alternata in it. 



Anguispira cumberlandiana (I. Lea, 1840) 

Map 166 

Anguispira cumberlandiana (I. Lea), Pilsbry, 1948, 
LMNA, 2: 586. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found climbing on 
rocky ledges and cliffs at night and in wet weather. 



Anguispira alabama (Clapp, 1920) Map 167 

Anguispira cumberlandiana alabama (Clapp), Pilsbry, 
1948, LMNA, 2: 588. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as A. cum- 
berlandiana, but never found with it. 



Anguispira picta (Clapp, 1920) 



Map 168 



Anguispira cumberlandiana picta (Clapp), Pilsbry, 

1948, LMNA, 2: 589. 
Anguispira picta (Clapp), Hubricht, 1972, Sterkiana, 

45: 33. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as A. cum- 
berlandiana, but never found with it. 



Anguispira kochi (Pfeiffer, 1845) 



Map 161 



Anguispira kochi (Pfeiffer), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 

594. 
Anguispira kochi strontiana (Clapp), Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 594. 
Anguispira kochi roseoapicata (Clapp), Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 594. 

Habitat— Usually found on river bluffs, crawl- 
ing about on the ground in wet weather, or under 
the leaves in dry weather. Also found in ravines 
and upland woods, sometimes in rather dry situ- 
ations. 

Discus cronkhitei (Newcomb, 1865) Map 171 

Discus cronkhitei (Newcomb), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 

2: 600. 
[Discus cronkhitei catskillensis (Pilsbry), Branson, 1 964, 

Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci., 44: 33.] 

Habitat— A species of low, wet places; mead- 
ows, roadsides, and margins of marshes. A fre- 
quent urban snail. 

Discus catskillensis (Pilsbry, 1898) Map 172 

Discus cronkhitei catskillensis (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1948, 
LMNA, 2: 605. 

Discus catskillensis (Pilsbry), Muchmore, 1959, Nau- 
tilus, 72: 86. 

Habitat— Usually found in upland woods, in 
leaf litter, about logs, etc. Occasionally found in 
low ground with D. cronkhitei. 

Discus macclintocki (F. C. Baker, 1928) 

Map 173 

Discus macclintocki (F. C. Baker), Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 606. 
Discus macclintocki angulata (F. C. Baker), Pilsbry, 

1948, LMNA, 2: 607. 

Habitat— The only known locality where this 
species is found alive is at the mouth of a cave, 
where a blast of cold air provides a Pleistocene 
habitat. All other records are of Pleistocene fossils. 



Discus patulus (Deshayes, 1830) 



Map 174 



Discus patulus (Deshayes), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 
608. 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



19 



Discus bryantwalkeri (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2: 61 1; Hubricht, 1963, Nautilus, 77: 62. 

Discus patulus brooksi Kutchka, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2: 610; Hubricht, 1963, Nautilus, 77: 62. 

Habitat— Usually found under logs in upland 
woods, but sometimes found in deep pockets of 
moist leaves. 

Discus nigrimontanus (Pilsbry, 1 924) Map 1 70 

Discus bryanti nigrimontanus (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1 948, 
LMNA, 2: 613. 

Discus patulus form edentulus Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2:610. 

Discus patulus edentulus Hubricht, 1 963, Nautilus, 77: 
63. 

Discus nigrimontanus (Pilsbry), Hubricht, 1963, Nau- 
tilus, 77: 63. 

Habitat— Usually found in rocky upland woods, 
where the leaf litter is rather thin. 

Remarks— Discus nigrimontanus sometimes 
hybridizes with D. patulus. Some of these hybrids 
reached the mountains of western Arkansas during 
the Pleistocene, producing edentulus. These have 
become quite uniform and are very common there. 

Discus bryanti (Harper, 1881) Map 175 

Discus bryanti (Harper), Pilsbry, 1 948, LMNA, 2: 6 1 2. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter in rocky upland 
woods. 

Discus clappi (Pilsbry, 1924) Map 176 

Discus clappi (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 615. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in leaf litter on 
rocky wooded hillsides. In Franklin County, Ten- 
nessee, found under bark fallen from a dead tree. 

Discus shimeki (Pilsbry, 1890) Map 169 

Discus shimeki (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 617. 

Habitat— With the exception of one record from 
South Dakota, all of our records are for Pleistocene 
fossils. In South Dakota it was found "on the un- 
derside of moist boulders at the bottom of a large 
pile along the edge of the flats of Spearfish Creek" 
(H. B. Baker). A species of western North America. 



Polygyriscus virginianus (P. R. Burch), Solem, 1957, 
Fieldiana: Zool., 41: 9; Solem, 1 975, Nautilus, 89(3): 
80. 

Habitat— A calciphile. A burrowing species. 
The series which I collected was found deep down 
in a rock pile. 

Helicodiscus multidens Hubricht, 1962 Map 197 

Helicodiscus multidens Hubricht, 1962, Nautilus, 75: 

102. 
Helicodiscus enneodon Hubricht, 1965, Nautilus, 79: 

6; Hubricht, 1976, Nautilus, 90: 106. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found under rocks and 
leaf litter on river bluffs; also in caves. 

Helicodiscus diadema Grimm, 1967 Map 189 
Helicodiscus diadema Grimm, 1967, Nautilus, 80: 1 19. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in limestone 
rubble at the base of a hill. 

Helicodiscus lirellus Hubricht, 1975 Map 190 
Helicodiscus lirellus Hubricht, 1975, Nautilus, 89: 10. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in limestone 
rubble at the base of a hill. 



Helicodiscus triodus Hubricht, 1958 Map 191 

Helicodiscus triodus Hubricht, 1958, Trans. Ky. Acad. 
Sci., 19: 75. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found under leaves and 
in limestone rubble on wooded hillsides; also in 
caves. 



Helicodiscus tridens (Morrison, 1935) Map 182 

Pilsbryna tridens Morrison, Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 
393. 

Helicodiscus tridens (Morrison), Hubricht, 1 964, Nau- 
tilus, 78: 28. 

Habitat— All of the material I have seen is either 
Pleistocene fossils or river drift. Some of the latter 
appears to be Recent. It should be looked for 
around the roots of grasses. 



Family HELICODISCIDAE 

Polygyriscus virginianus (P. R. Burch, 1947) 

Map 177 

Polygyra virginiana P. R. Burch, Pilsbry, 1948, 
LMNA, 2: 1097. 



Helicodiscus fimbriatus Wetherby, 1881 

Map 192 

Helicodiscus fimbriatus Wetherby, Pilsbry, 1948, 
LMNA, 2: 628. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter and under rocks 
on wooded hillsides. 



20 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Helicodiscus bonamicus Hubricht, 1978 

Map 193 

Helicodiscus bonamicus Hubricht, 1978, Malacol. Rev., 
10: 49. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter on a wooded hill- 
side. 



Helicodiscus notius specus Hubricht, 1962 

Map 184 

Helicodiscus notius specus Hubricht, 1962, Nautilus, 
75: 105. 

Habitat— Known only from the total darkness 
of caves, where it feeds on cave cricket guano. 



Helicodiscus hexodon Hubricht, 1966 Map 194 Helicodiscus shimeki Hubricht, 1962 Map 186 



Helicodiscus hexodon Hubricht, 1966, Nautilus, 80: 
55. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter in low woods. 



Helicodiscus saludensis (Morrison, 1937) 

Map 195 

Clappiella saludensis Morrison, Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 

2: 433. 
Helicodiscus saludensis (Morrison), Hubricht, 1962, 

Nautilus, 75: 105. 

Habitat— Found under leaf litter in an oak- 
pine woods. 

Helicodiscus aldrichianus (Clapp, 1907) 

Map 196 

Clappiella aldrichiana (Clapp), Pilsbry, 1 946, LMNA, 

2:431. 
Helicodiscus aldrichiana (Clapp), Hubricht, 1964, 

Nautilus, 78: 28. 

Habitat— A burrowing species. Found on the 
undersides of stones, in chert rubble, and in deep 
pockets of leaves. 

Helicodiscus eigenmanni eigenmanni Pilsbry, 
1900 Map 180 

Helicodiscus eigenmanni Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 630. 
[Helicodiscus eigenmanni arizonensis Pilsbry & Fer- 

riss, Bequaert & Miller, 1 973, Moll. Arid Southwest, 

p. 86.] 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found under leaf litter 
in ravines and on river bluffs; also a common cave 
snail. Common in western United States and Mex- 
ico. 



Helicodiscus notius notius Hubricht, 1962 

Map 178 

Helicodiscus notius Hubricht, 1962, Nautilus, 75: 104. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter on wooded hill- 
sides and ravines. Occasionally found in caves. 
Usually found in dryer habitats than those of H. 
parallelns. 



Helicodiscus shimeki Hubricht, 1962, Nautilus, 75: 
103. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter in upland woods, 
often on very acid soil. 

Helicodiscus parallelus (Say, 1817) Map 185 

Helicodiscus par allelus (Say), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 

2: 625. 
[Helicodiscus multidens Hubricht, Branson, 1964, Proc. 

Okla. Acad. Sci., 44: 34.] 
[Helicodiscus eigenmanni Pilsbry, Branson, 1 964, Proc. 

Okla. Acad. Sci., 44: 34.] 
[Helicodiscus notius Hubricht, Branson, 1964, Proc. 

Okla. Acad. Sci., 44: 34.] 
[Helicodiscus diadema Grimm, Bequaert & Miller, 

1973, Moll. Arid Southwest, p. 86.] 
[Helicodiscus triodus Hubricht, Bequaert & Miller, 

1973, Moll. Arid Southwest, p. 86.] 
[Helicodiscus saludensis Morrison, Bequaert & Miller, 

1973, Moll. Arid Southwest, p. 86.] 

Habitat— Found on floodplains, as well as up- 
land woods, in leaf litter, under trash on roadsides, 
under old ties along railroads, and on vacant lots 
in urban areas. Unlike H. notius, I have never 
found H. parallelus living in a cave. 

Helicodiscus roundyi (Morrison, 1935) 

Map 181 

Paravitrea (?) roundyi Morrison, Pilsbry, 1 946, LMNA, 

2: 387. 
Helicodiscus roundyi (Morrison), Hubricht, 1963, 

Sterkiana, 9: 23. 

Habitat— Known only as a Pleistocene fossil 
or from river drift. 

Helicodiscus barri Hubricht, 1962 Map 198 

Helicodiscus barri Hubricht, 1962, Nautilus, 75: 105. 

Habitat— Known only from the total darkness 
of caves, where it feeds on the guano of the cave 
cricket. 

Helicodiscus hadenoecus Hubricht, 1962 

Map 183 

Helicodiscus hadenoecus Hubricht, 1962, Nautilus, 75: 
106. 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



21 



Habitat— Usually found in the total darkness 
of caves, where it feeds on the guano of the cave 
cricket, but has also been found burrowing in soil 
and deep in rock slides. 

Helicodiscus punctatellus Morrison, 1 942 

Map 199 

Helicodiscus punctatellus Morrison, Pilsbry, 1948, 
LMNA, 2: 640. 

Habitat— Known only from dead but recent 
shells from a cave and Pleistocene fossils from a 
talus deposit. 

Helicodiscus singleyanus (Pilsbry, 1890) 

Map 179 

Helicodiscus singleyanus (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1948, 
LMNA, 2: 636. 

[Helicodiscus singleyanus inermis H. B. Baker, Be- 
quaert & Miller, 1973, Moll. Arid Southwest, p. 87.] 

[Helicodiscus intermedius Morrison, Bequaert & Mil- 
ler, 1973, Moll. Arid Southwest, p. 87.] 

Habitat— A species of open, grassy places, 
roadsides, along railroads, and meadows. 

Helicodiscus inermis H. B. Baker, 1929 

Map 187 

Helicodiscus singleyanus inermis H. B. Baker, Pilsbry, 

1948, LMNA, 2: 637. 
Helicodiscus inermis H. B. Baker, Hubricht, 1968, 

Nautilus, 82: 68. 
Helicodiscus intermedius Morrison, Pilsbry, 1948, 

LMNA, 2: 638; Hubricht, 1962, Nautilus, 82: 68. 

Habitat— Found in open, grassy situations, 
roadsides, along railroads, meadows, and old fields; 
also in caves. 

Helicodiscus nummus (Vanatta, 1899) Map 188 

Helicodiscus nummus (Vanatta), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2: 639. 

Habitat— Known only from river drift or as 
fossils. 



Family PUNCTIDAE 

Punctum minutissimum (I. Lea, 1841) Map 200 

Punctum minutissimum (I. Lea), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2: 644. 

Habitat— Found in deep pockets of leaf litter, 
where leaves have blown up against logs or into 
depressions in the ground. 



Punctum parvulum Leonard, 1972 Map 208 

Punctum parvulum Leonard, 1972, Nautilus, 85: 84. 
Habitat— Known only as a Pleistocene fossil. 

Punctum blandianum Pilsbry, 1900 Map 207 

Punctum blandianum Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2: 645. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as P. mi- 
nutissimum. 

Punctum vitreum H. B. Baker, 1930 Map 201 

Punctum vitreum H. B. Baker, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 
2: 649. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as P. mi- 
nutissimum, but is not as common. 



Punctum smithi Morrison, 1935 



Map 204 



Punctum smithi Morrison, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 

654. 
Punctum lamellatum Hubricht, 1951, Nautilus, 65: 

58; Hubricht, 1974, Malacol. Rev., 7: 33. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as P. mi- 
nutissimum and usually found with it. 



Superfamily LIMACACEA 

Family LIMACIDAE 

Subfamily LIMACINAE 



Deroceras laeve (Miiller, 1774) 



Map 202 



Deroceras laeve (Miiller), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 2: 

539. 
Philomycus oxyurus Rafinesque, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 

2: 770; Hubricht, 1952, Nautilus, 66: 46. 
Philomycus fuscus Rafinesque, Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 

2: 770; Hubricht, 1952, Nautilus, 66: 46. 

Habitat— A species of open ground, meadows, 
roadsides, and clearings. Common in urban areas. 
I have never found it in deep woods. A Holarctic 
species. 

Remarks— Believed by some to be an intro- 
duced species, but the presence of its plates in 
Pleistocene deposits establishes it as native. It is 
quite probable that European strains have been 
introduced into urban areas. 



Deroceras aenigma Leonard, 1950 



Map 203 



Deroceras aenigma Leonard, 1950, Kan. Univ. Pa- 
leontol. Contrib., 8: 38. 

Habitat— Known only as Pliocene and Pleis- 
tocene fossils. 



22 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Family ZONITIDAE 
Subfamily ZONITINAE 

Nesovitrea elect rina (Gould, 1841) Map 205 

Retinella electrina (Gould), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 
256. 

Nesovitrea electrina (Gould), Zilch, 1959, Handb. Pa- 
laozool., 6(2): 246. 

Nesovitrea hammonis electrina (Gould), Bequaert & 
Miller, 1973, Moll. Arid Southwest, p. 145. 

Habitat— A species of low, wet ground; flood- 
plains, meadows, and margins of ponds and 
marshes. 

Nesovitrea binneyana (Morse, 1864) Map 206 

Retinella binneyana (Morse), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 

2: 259. 
Nesovitrea binneyana (Morse), Hubricht, 1962, Ster- 

kiana, 7: 4. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter in upland woods. 



Nesovitrea dal liana (Pilsbry & Simpson, 1 ! 

Map 209 

Retinella dalliana (Pilsbry & Simpson), Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 262. 
Nesovitrea dalliana (Pilsbry & Simpson), Hubricht, 

1964, Sterkiana, 16: 7 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found under leaf litter, 
logs, and rocks; usually in low, wet places, margins 
of swamps, etc. 

Nesovitrea suzannae Pratt, 1978 Map 210 

Nesovitrea suzannae Pratt, 1978, Nautilus, 92: 19. 
Habitat— Found in leaf litter in live-oak woods. 

Glyphyalinia virginica (Morrison, 1937) 

Map 211 

Retinella virginica Morrison, Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 

2: 265. 
Glyphyalinia virginica (Morrison), Hubricht, 1971, 

Sterkiana, 42: 42. 

Habitat— Found in pockets of deep leaf litter 
on mountainsides. 

Remarks— Mature shells of this species are ex- 
tremely fragile. Picking them up, unless extreme 
care is used, will cause them to break. 

Glyphyalinia cumber landiana (Clapp, 1919) 

Map 215 

Retinella cumberlandiana (Clapp), Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 269. 
Retinella cumberlandiana roanensis H. B. Baker, Pils- 



bry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 271; Hubricht, 1965, Nauti- 
lus, 78: 133. 

Glyphyalinia cumberlandiana (Clapp), Hubricht, 1964, 
Sterkiana, 16: 7. 

Glyphyalinia roanensis (H. B. Baker), Hubricht, 1965, 
Nautilus, 78: 133; Hubricht, 1976, Nautilus, 90: 105. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in leaf litter in 
ravines, sinks, and hillsides, usually in rocky places. 

Glyphyalinia wheatleyi (Bland, 1883) Map 213 

Retinella wheatleyi (Bland), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 

272. 
Retinella burringtoni (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 

2: 266. 
Retinella circumstriata (Taylor), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 

2:271. 
Glyphyalinia circumstriata (Taylor), Hubricht, 1963, 

Sterkiana, 10: 2. 
Glyphyalinia wheatleyi (Bland), Hubricht, 1964, Ster- 
kiana, 13: 12. 
Retinella zikmundi Branson, 1964, Proc. Okla. Acad. 

Sci., 44: 27; Hubricht, 1967, Nautilus, 81: 66. 
Glyphyalinia burringtoni (Pilsbry), Zilch, 1 959, Handb. 

Palaozool., 6(2): 253; Hubricht, 1976, Nautilus, 90: 

105. 

Habitat— Found in moist leaf litter on wooded 
hillsides, in ravines, etc. 

Glyphyalinia vanattai (Pilsbry & Walker, 1902) 

Map 212 

Retinella vanattai (Pilsbry & Walker), Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 273. 
Glyphyalinia vanattai (Pilsbry & Walker), Hubricht, 

1970, Sterkiana, 39: 13. 

Habitat— Found in moist leaf litter in ravines 
and on wooded mountainsides. 

Glyphyalinia clingmani (Dall, 1890) Map 216 

Retinella clingmani (Dall), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 
275. 

Retinella approxima (Walker & Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1946, 
LMNA, 2: 276; Hubricht, 1974, Malacol. Rev., 7: 
34. 

Glyphyalinia clingmani (Dall), Hubricht, 1970, Ster- 
kiana, 39: 13. 

Habitat— Found under logs and rocks and un- 
der moist leaf litter at high elevations in the Black 
Mountains. 

Glyphyalinia roemeri (Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1 906) 

Map 224 

Retinella roemeri (Pilsbry & Ferriss), Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 277. 
Glyphyalinia roemeri (Pilsbry & Ferriss), Zilch, 1959, 

Handb. Palaozool., 6(2): 253. 

Habitat— Found under rocks and in moist 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



23 



leaves on wooded talus slopes, in ravines, and in 
caves. 

Glyphyalinia lewisiana (Clapp, 1908) Map 214 

Retinella lewisiana (Clapp), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 
279. 

Glyphyalinia lewisiana (Clapp), Hubricht, 1962, Ster- 
kiana, 18: 3. 

Habitat— A calciphile. A burrowing species, 
usually found on the undersides of stones. 

Glyphyalinia specus Hubricht, 1965 Map 217 
Glyphyalinia specus Hubricht, 1965, Nautilus, 79: 5. 

Habitat— Known only from the total darkness 
of caves, where it feeds on cave cricket guano. 



Glyphyalinia raderi (Dall, 1898) 



Map 218 



Retinella raderi (Dall), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 281. 
Glyphyalinia raderi (Dall), Grimm, 1971, Sterkiana, 
41: 53. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Probably a burro wer. 
The few specimens which have been collected were 
found amongst rocks. 

Glyphyalinia floridana (Morrison, 1937) 

Map 219 

Retinella floridana Morrison, Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 
2: 283. 

Habitat— Known only as a fossil. 

Glyphyalinia pentadelphia (Pilsbry, 1 900) 

Map 220 

Retinella pentadelphia (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 

2: 284. 
Glyphyalinia pentadelphia (Pilsbry), Hubricht, 1973, 

Sterkiana, 49: 13. 

Habitat— Found in pockets of moist leaves in 
upland woods. 

Glyphyalinia rhoadsi (Pilsbry, 1899) Map 223 

Retinella rhoadsi (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 

286. 
Retinella rhoadsi austrina H. B. Baker, Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 287. 
Glyphyalinia rhoadsi (Pilsbry), Zilch, 1959, Handb. 

Palaozool., 6(2): 253. 
Glyphyalinia rhoadsi austrina (H. B. Baker), Beetle, 

1973, Sterkiana, 49: 29. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter in upland woods. 

Glyphyalinia indentata (Authors) Map 222 

Retinella indentata (Say), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 
288. 



Retinella indentata paucilirata (Morelet), Pilsbry, 1946, 
LMNA, 2: 291; Hubricht, 1965, Nautilus, 78: 133. 

Glyphyalinia indentata (Say), Zilch, 1959, Handb. Pa- 
laozool., 6(2): 253. 

Habitat— Found in a variety of habitats, most 
commonly in leaf litter in woods, but also along 
roadsides and railroads, meadows, and urban areas. 

Remarks— What has been called Glyphyalinia 
indentata (Say, 1823) is a series of anatomical 
species, with little or no shell differences. Until 
specimens from the vicinity of Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania, the type locality, have been dissected, it 
will not be possible to identify the true G. inden- 
tata and to describe the others. 

Glyphyalinia ocoae Hubricht, 1978 Map 221 

Glyphyalinia ocoae Hubricht, 1978, Malacol. Rev., 
10: 39. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter on wooded hill- 
sides and in ravines. 

Glyphyalinia caroliniensis (Cockerell, 1890) 

Map 227 

Retinella caroliniensis (Cockerell), Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 292. 
Glyphyalinia caroliniensis (Cockerell), Hubricht, 1968, 

Sterkiana, 32: 3. 

Habitat— Usually found under moist leaf litter 
on river bluffs, but sometimes found on moun- 
tainsides. 

Glyphyalinia crypt omphala (Clapp, 1915) 

Map 226 

Retinella cryptomphala (Clapp), Pilsbry, 1 946, LMNA, 

2:295. 
Glyphyalinia cryptomphala (Clapp), Hubricht, 1964, 

Sterkiana, 16: 7. 

Habitat— Usually found in moist leaf litter on 
river bluffs and ravines. Sometimes found in caves. 

Glyphyalinia solida (H. B. Baker, 1930) 

Map 225 

Retinella cryptomphala solida H. B. Baker, Pilsbry, 

1946, LMNA, 2: 298. 
Glyphyalinia solida (H. B. Baker), Hubricht, 1965, 

Nautilus, 78: 134. 

Habitat— Usually found in moist leaf litter on 
wooded hillsides and ravines. 

Glyphyalinia pecki Hubricht, 1966 Map 228 
Glyphyalinia pecki Hubricht, 1966, Nautilus, 80: 55. 

Habitat— Known only from the total darkness 
of caves. 



24 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Glyphyalinia rimula Hubricht, 1968 Map 229 
Glyphyalinia rimula Hubricht, 1968, Nautilus, 82: 63. 

Habitat— Usually found in moist leaf litter on 
wooded hillsides and ravines; also in kudzu banks. 
Sometimes found in caves. 

Glyphyalinia latebricola Hubricht, 1968 

Map 232 

Glyphyalinia latebricola Hubricht, 1968, Nautilus, 82: 
64. 

Habitat— Found on the undersides of stones 
on a rocky wooded hillside. 

Glyphyalinia luticola Hubricht, 1966 Map 230 

Glyphyalinia luticola Hubricht, 1966, Nautilus, 80: 
54. 

Habitat— Found crawling on the muddy ground 
in wet weather in floodplain woods. Also found 
in waste ground in urban areas. 

Glyphyalinia umbilicata (Singley, in Cockerell) 

Map 231 

Zonites indentatus var. umbilicatus 1893, Singley, in 

Cockerell, Brit. Natur., 3: 8 1 . 
Glyphyalinia umbilicata (Singley), Hubricht, 1976, 

Nautilus, 90: 105. 

Habitat— Usually found under logs and leaf lit- 
ter in the woods bordering streams. Also found on 
waste ground in urban areas. 

Glyphyalinia praecox (H. B. Baker, 1930) 

Map 235 

Retinella praecox H. B. Baker, Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 

2: 299. 
Glyphyalinia praecox (H. B. Baker), Hubricht, 1964, 

Sterkiana, 16: 7. 

Habitat— Found under leaf litter on talus slopes 
or on floodplains. 

Glyphyalinia junaluskana (Clench & Banks, 
1932) Map 233 

Retinella sculptilis junaluskana Clench & Banks, Pils- 
bry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 304. 

Glyphyalinia junaluskana (Clench & Banks), Hu- 
bricht, 1962, Nautilus, 75: 125. 

Habitat— Found in moist leaf litter in decid- 
uous woods on mountainsides. 

Glyphyalinia picea Hubricht, 1976 Map 234 

Glyphyalinia picea Hubricht, 1976, Malacol. Rev., 9: 

127. 



Habitat— Usually found in moist leaf litter on 
wooded hillsides. 

Glyphyalinia sculptilis (Bland, 1858) Map 236 

Retinella sculptilis (Bland), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 

300. 
Retinella sculptilis subdola H. B. Baker, Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 303; Hubricht, 1965, Nautilus 78: 134. 
Glyphyalinia sculptilis (Bland), Zilch, 1959, Handb. 

Palaozool., 6(2): 253. 

Habitat— Usually found under moist leaf litter 
in upland woods. 

Mesomphix inornatus (Say, 1821) Map 237 

Mesomphix inornatus (Say), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 
307. 

Habitat— Found about logs and in leaf litter in 
upland woods. A common species within its range. 

Mesomphix andrewsae (Pilsbry, 1895) Map 241 

Mesomphix andrewsae (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 

2:310. 
Mesomphix andrewsae montivagus (Pilsbry), 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 312. 

Habitat— Found in moist leaf litter on moun- 
tainsides. 

Mesomphix subplanus (A. Binney, 1 842) 

Map 242 

Mesomphix subplanus (A. Binney), Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2:312. 
Mesomphix subplanus planus Banks, Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 315. 

Habitat— Found about logs and in moist leaf 
litter, from about 2,000 ft to the summits of the 
mountains. 

Remarks— Mesomphix s. planus represents one 
extreme of variation. Some other mountaintop 
populations are intermediate between it and typ- 
ical M. subplanus. 

Mesomphix rugeli (W. G. Binney, 1879) 

Map 243 

Mesomphix rugeli (W. G. Binney), Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2:318. 
Mesomphix rugeli oxycoccus (Vanatta), Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2:318. 

Habitat— Found under leaf litter on wooded 
hillsides or on mountains. 

Mesomphix globosus (MacMillan, 1 940) 

Map 240 

Mesomphix pilsbryi globosus (MacMillan), Pilsbry, 
1946, LMNA, 2: 343; Hubricht, 1962, Nautilus, 
76:6. 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



25 



Mesomphix ruidus Hubricht, 1958, Trans. Ky. Acad. 
Sci., 19: 74; Hubricht, 1974, Malacol. Rev., 7: 34. 

Habitat— Usually found in leaf litter on low 
ground, floodplains, and swamps. 

Mesomphix latior (Pilsbry, 1900) Map 245 

Mesomphix latior (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1 946, LMNA, 2: 

321. 
Mesomphix latior monticola Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 322; Hubricht, 1962, Nautilus, 76: 5. 

Habitat— Found under leaf litter on wooded 
hillsides. 

Mesomphix perlaevis (Pilsbry, 1900) Map 238 

Mesomphix perlaevis (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 
2: 319. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitats as M. 
latior, but I have never found them together. 

Mesomphix vulgatus H. B. Baker, 1933 

Map 246 

Mesomphix vulgatus H. B. Baker, Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 324. 
Mesomphix derochetus Hubricht, 1962, Nautilus, 76: 

4; Hubricht, 1974, Malacol. Rev., 7: 34. 

Habitat— Found under leaf litter on wooded 
hillsides, ravines, and sinks. 

Mesomphix anurus Hubricht, 1962 Map 247 
Mesomphix anurus Hubricht, 1962, Nautilus, 76: 2. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitats as M. 
vulgatus, but I have never found them together. 

Mesomphix friabilis (W. G. Binney, 1857) 

Map 239 

Mesomphix friabilis (W. G. Binney), Pilsbry, 1946, 
LMNA, 2: 328. 

Habitat— Usually found on floodplains under 
leaf litter, but sometimes found on river bluffs and 
in ravines. 



Mesomphix cupreus (Rafinesque, 1831) 



Mesomphix cupreus (Rafinesque), Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 333. 
Mesomphix cupreus politus (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 338. 

Habitat— Found under leaf litter in upland 
woods. 

Mesomphix capnodes (W. G. Binney, 1857) 

Map 250 



Mesomphix capnodes (W. G. Binney), Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 339. 
Mesomphix cupreus ozarkensis (Pilsbry & Ferriss), 

Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 337; Hubricht, 1962, Ster- 

kiana, 8: 2. 
Mesomphix cupreus miktus Pilsbry, 1 946, LMNA, 2: 

339; Hubricht, 1965, Nautilus, 78: 134. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Usually found under leaf 
litter in upland woods. 



Mesomphix pilsbryi (Clapp, 1 904) 



Map 248 



Mesomphix pilsbryi (Clapp), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 
342. 

Habitat— Found on floodplains, as well as in 
upland woods, under leaf litter. Also found in waste 
ground and gardens in urban areas. 

Vitrinizonites latissimus (Lewis, 1875) Map 249 

Vitrinizonites latissimus (Lewis), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 

2: 345. 
Vitrinizonites uvidermis Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1 946, LMNA, 

2: 347; Hubricht, 1961, Nautilus, 74: 166. 

Habitat— Found under leaf litter or crawling 
on the ground in wet weather. Usually found above 
2,000 ft in the mountains, but may occur below 
1 ,000 ft in the outlying hills. 



Paravitrea multidentata (A. Binney, 1 840) 

Map 251 

Paravitrea multidentata (A. Binney), Pilsbry, 1946, 
LMNA, 2: 352. 

Habitat— Found in pockets of deep, moist leaf 
litter on wooded hillsides and in ravines. 

Remarks— This species may have either radial 
rows of small teeth or oblique lamellae, with the 
former being more common. Shells from the 
northern part of the range (north of Pennsylvania) 
have the periphery rounded. South of Pennsyl- 
vania the shells have an angulate periphery. I have 
not seen enough material from Pennsylvania to 
determine whether these two forms intergrade or 
remain distinct. 



Map 244 Paravitrea lamellidens (Pilsbry, 1898) Map 254 



Paravitrea lamellidens (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 
2: 358. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitats as P. 
multidentata, but also occurs at higher elevations. 



Paravitrea clappi (Pilsbry, 1898) 



Map 255 



Paravitrea clappi (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1 946, LMNA, 2: 
359. 



26 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Habitat— Found in moist leaf litter, usually 
above 5,000 ft. 

Paravitrea variabilis H. B. Baker, 1 929 

Map 256 

Paravitrea variabilis H. B. Baker, Pilsbry, 1 946, LMNA, 
2: 363. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitats as P. 
multidentata, but I have never found the two 
species together. 

Paravitrea umbilicaris (Ancey, 1887) Map 257 

Paravitrea walked (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 
362; Hubricht, 1976, Nautilus, 90: 106. 

Paravitrea umbilicaris (Ancey), Hubricht, 1976, Nau- 
tilus, 90: 106. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitats as P. 
multilineata, but does not occur with it. 

Remarks— This species has a character which 
I have not seen in any other species of Paravitrea 
and which is not mentioned in any description 
that I have seen. On the base next to the umbilicus, 
there is a spiral lamella which is about Vi whorl 
long. In the lamellate form of the species, this 
spiral lamella is well developed; in the dentate 
form, it is well developed only near the rows of 
teeth, becoming obsolete between. 

Paravitrea andrewsae (W. G. Binney, 1879) 

Map 258 

Paravitrea andrewsae (W. G. Binney), Pilsbry, 1 946, 
LMNA, 2: 367. 

Habitat— Found in moist leaf litter on wooded 
mountainsides. 



Paravitrea dentilla Hubricht, 1978 



Map 259 



Paravitrea dentilla Hubricht, 1978, Malacol. Rev., 10: 
41. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter on river bluffs. 



Paravitrea varidens Hubricht, 1978 Map 262 

Paravitrea varidens Hubricht, 1978, Malacol. Rev., 
10: 43. 

Habitat — Found in leaf litter on wooded 
mountainsides. On the summit of Roan Moun- 
tain, it was found in a bramble patch. 



Paravitrea ternaria Hubricht, 1978 Map 264 

Paravitrea ternaria Hubricht, 1978, Malacol. Rev., 10: 
41. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitats as P. mira. 



Paravitrea tridens Pilsbry, 1 946 



Map 265 



Paravitrea capsella tridens Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 

375. 
Paravitrea tridens Pilsbry, Hubricht, 1965, Nautilus, 

78: 134. 

Habitat— Found in moist leaf litter on wooded 
hillsides. 



Paravitrea reesei Morrison, 1937 



Map 266 



Paravitrea reesei Morrison, Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 
373. 

Habitat— Found under moist leaf litter or rocks 
on river bluffs or ravines. 



Paravitrea amicalola Hubricht, 1976 Map 267 

Paravitrea amicalola Hubricht, 1976, Malacol. Rev., 
9: 129. 

Habitat— Found in pockets of deep, moist leaf 
litter on wooded hillsides. 



Paravitrea septadens Hubricht, 1978 Map 268 

Paravitrea septadens Hubricht, 1978, Malacol. Rev., 
10: 39. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as P. mul- 
tidentata and usually found with it. 



Paravitrea subtilis Hubricht, 1978 



Map 269 



Paravitrea subtilis Hubricht, 1978, Malacol. Rev., 10: 
40. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter on wooded hill- 
sides and in ravines. 



Paravitrea bidens Hubricht, 1963 Map 270 

Paravitrea bidens Hubricht, 1963, Nautilus, 76: 140. 

Habitat— Found in pockets of deep, wet leaves 
on wooded hillsides. 

Remarks— This species becomes mature in mid- 
winter and dies off during the forepart of April. 



Paravitrea mira Hubricht, 1975 Map 263 

Paravitrea mira Hubricht, 1975, Nautilus, 89: 1. 

Habitat— Found under moist leaf litter on 
wooded hillsides and in ravines. 



Paravitrea seradens Hubricht, 1972 Map 271 
Paravitrea seradens Hubricht, 1972, Nautilus, 86: 16. 

Habitat— Found in moist leaf litter on wooded 
hillsides and in ravines. 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



27 



Paravitrea toma Hubricht, 1975 Map 272 

Paravitrea toma Hubricht, 1975, Nautilus, 89: 2. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as P. sera- 
dens. 

Paravitrea lacteodens (Pilsbry, 1903) Map 273 

Paravitrea capsella lacteodens (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1 946, 
LMNA, 2: 376. 

Habitat— Unknown, but probably in leaf litter 
on a mountainside. 

Paravitrea significans (Bland, 1866) Map 252 

Paravitrea significans (Bland), Pilsbry, 1 946, LMNA, 
2: 380. 

Habitat— Found under moist leaf litter on 
wooded hillsides and in ravines. 



Paravitrea calcicola H. B. Baker, 1931 



Map 274 



Paravitrea calcicola H. B. Baker, Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 
2: 378. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found under moist leaf 
litter on rocky wooded hillsides and in ravines. 

Paravitrea conecuhensis (Clapp, 1917) Map 253 

Paravitrea conecuhensis (Clapp), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 
2: 384. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found under moist leaf 
litter on wooded floodplains and talus slopes. 

Paravitrea placentula (Shuttleworth, 1852) 

Map 275 

Paravitrea placentula (Shuttleworth), Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 369. 
Paravitrea placentula lithodora Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 

2: 371; Hubricht, 1968, Sterkiana, 32: 4. 
Paravitrea lithodora Pilsbry, Branson & Batch, 1968, 

Sterkiana, 32: 13. 

Habitat— Found under leaf litter on wooded 
hillsides and in ravines. 

Paravitrea pilsbryana (Clapp, 1919) Map 277 

Paravitrea pilsbryana (Clapp), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 
2: 379. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found under moist leaf 
litter on rocky wooded hillsides and in ravines. 



Paravitrea capsella (Authors) 



Map 260 



[Paravitrea placentula (Shuttleworth), Hubricht, 1974, 
Malacol. Rev., 7: 34.] 

Remarks— What has been called P. capsella by 
Pilsbry and others is not that species, but a com- 
plex of anatomically distinct species with little or 
no shell differences. It will be necessary to re-col- 
lect all of the lots that have been labeled P. capsella 
and dissect them to make a positive identification. 



Paravitrea tiara Hubricht, 1978 



Map 278 



Paravitrea tiara Hubricht, 1978, Malacol. Rev., 10: 
44. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter on wooded hill- 
sides. 



Paravitrea alethia Hubricht, 1978 



Map 279 



Paravitrea alethia Hubricht, 1978, Malacol. Rev., 10: 
44. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter in a wooded ra- 
vine. 



Paravitrea bellona Hubricht, 1978 



Map 280 



Paravitrea capsella (Gould), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 
374 (in part). 



Paravitrea bellona Hubricht, 1978, Malacol. Rev., 10: 
46. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter on wooded river 
bluffs and in ravines. 

Paravitrea ceres Hubricht, 1978 Map 281 

Paravitrea ceres Hubricht, 1978, Malacol. Rev., 10: 
46. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter on a wooded hill- 
side. 

Paravitrea diana Hubricht, 1983 Map 282 

Paravitrea diana Hubricht, 1983, Gastropodia 2: 14. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter on a wooded hill- 
side. 

Paravitrea hera Hubricht, 1983 Map 283 

Paravitrea hera Hubricht, 1983, Gastropodia, 2: 15. 
Habitat— Found in leaf litter on river bluffs. 

Paravitrea blarina Hubricht, 1963 Map 276 

Paravitrea blarina Hubricht, 1963, Nautilus, 76: 141. 

Habitat— Found under moist leaf litter on 
wooded hillsides and in ravines. 

Paravitrea tantilla Hubricht, 1963 Map 284 

Paravitrea tantilla Hubricht, 1963, Nautilus, 76: 141. 



28 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Habitat— Found under moist leaf litter on 
wooded hillsides and in ravines. 

Paravitrea metallacta Hubricht, 1963 Map 285 

Paravitrea metallacta Hubricht, 1963, Nautilus, 76: 
142. 

Habitat— Found under moist leaf litter on 
wooded hillsides and in ravines. 

Paravitrea lapilla Hubricht, 1965 Map 286 

Paravitrea lapilla Hubricht, 1965, Nautilus, 79: 5. 

Habitat— Found under moist leaf litter on 
wooded hillsides and in ravines. 



Paravitrea (Pilsbryna) aurea (H. B. Baker), Riedel, 
1980, Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, Rotterdam, 
p. 52. 

Habitat— Found in pockets of deep, wet leaves 
on wooded hillsides. 

Pilsbryna castanea H. B. Baker, 1931 Map 293 

Pilsbryna castanea H. B. Baker, Pilsbry, 1 946, LMNA, 

2:391. 
Paravitrea {Pilsbryna) castanea (H. B. Baker), Riedel, 

1980, Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, Rotterdam, 

p. 52. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as P. au- 
rea. 



Paravitrea pontis H. B. Baker, 1928 Map 287 Hawaiia minuscula (A. Binney, 1840) Map 289 



Paravitrea pontis H. B. Baker, Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 

2:381. 
Paravitrea grimmi Hubricht, 1968, Nautilus, 82: 66. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found under leaf litter 
on wooded hillsides and in ravines. 

Paravitrea simpsoni (Pilsbry, 1889) Map 288 

Paravitrea simpsoni (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 
2: 383. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found under moist leaf 
litter on wooded hillsides and in ravines. 

Paravitrea petrophila (Bland, 1883) Map 261 

Paravitrea petrophila (Bland), Pilsbry, 1 946, LMNA, 

2: 385. 
Paravitrea smithi (Walker), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 

384; Hubricht, 1976, Nautilus, 90: 106. 

Habitat— Found under moist leaf litter on 
wooded hillsides and in ravines. 

Paravitrea aulacogyra (Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1 906) 

Map 291 

Paravitrea aulacogyra (Pilsbry & Ferriss), Pilsbry, 1 946, 
LMNA, 2: 387. 

Remarks— To the best of my knowledge, this 
species is known only from the original collection, 
a single dead shell. The large size (8 mm diameter) 
and the few whorls (5 ! /2> distinguish it from any 
other species of Paravitrea. This large size and few 
whorls suggest that it may not belong in that genus. 
Until living, mature specimens are collected and 
dissected, its status will be in doubt. 

Pilsbryna aurea H. B. Baker, 1929 Map 292 

Pilsbryna aurea H. B. Baker, Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 
2: 389. 



Hawaiia minuscula (A. Binney), Pilsbry, 1 946, LMNA, 

2: 420. 
[Hawaiia minuscula alachuana (Dall), Bequaert & 

Miller, 1973, Moll. Arid Southwest, p. 145.] 

Habitat— A species of bare ground. I have nev- 
er found it in leaf litter. Found crawling on the 
bare ground on floodplains, meadows, roadsides, 
along railroads, and on waste ground in urban areas. 



Hawaiia alachuana (Dall, 1885) 



Map 290 



Hawaiia minuscula alachuana (Dall), Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 424. 
Helicodiscus jacksoni Hubricht, 1962, Nautilus, 75: 

106. 
Helicodiscus alachuana (Dall, 1885), Hubricht, 1978, 

Malacol. Rev., 10: 48. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in leaf litter in 
deciduous woods. 

Gastrodonta interna interna (Say, 1822) 

Map 295 

Gastrodonta interna (Say), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 
428. 

Habitat— Found in and about rotting logs or 
in deep pockets of wet leaf litter. 

Gastrodonta interna fonticula Wurtz, 1 948 

Map 294 

Gastrodonta fonticula Wurtz, 1948, Nautilus, 61: 86. 
Gastrodonta interna fonticula Wurtz, Beetle, 1973, 
Sterkiana, 49: 30. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as the typ- 
ical subspecies. 

Remarks— The diameter of the umbilicus var- 
ies considerably in G. i. interna. It may be essen- 
tially closed to distinctly open. In specimens from 
Lauderdale County, Mississippi, the umbilicus is 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



29 



intermediate between typical interna and fonti- 
cula. There is no intergradation, however, between 
interna andfonticula in the area where their ranges 
join. The range of fonticula appears to be distinct 
from that of typical interna. 

Ventridens collisella (Pilsbry, 1896) Map 305 

Ventridens collisella (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1 946, LMNA, 

2: 450. 
Zonitoides (Ventridens) collisella (Pilsbry), Riedel, 

1980, Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, Rotterdam, 

p. 21. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in leaf litter on 
wooded hillsides and in ravines. Found only at 
low elevations, usually below 1,000 ft. 

Ventridens decussatus (Walker & Pilsbry, 1 902) 

Map 297 

Ventridens gularis decussatus (Walker & Pilsbry), Pils- 
bry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 448. 

Ventridens decussatus (Walker & Pilsbry), Hubricht, 
1964, Malacologia, 1: 420. 

Zonitoides ( Ventridens) decussatus (Walker & Pilsbry), 
Riedel, 1980, Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, Rot- 
terdam, p. 21. 

Habitat— Found at higher elevations in leaf lit- 
ter in oak woods, usually above 3,000 ft. 



Ventridens pilsbryi Hubricht, 1964 Map 296 

Ventridens pilsbryi Hubricht, 1964, Malacologia, 1: 

418. 
Zonitoides (Ventridens) pilsbryi (Hubricht), Riedel, 

1980, Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, Rotterdam, 

p. 21. 

Habitat— A species of wooded hillsides and in 
ravines, where it is found under leaf litter and 
around logs. Usually found on limestone, but also 
occurs on sandstone. 



Ventridens theloides (Walker & Pilsbry, 1 902) 

Map 306 

Ventridens gularis theloides (Walker & Pilsbry), Pils- 
bry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 447. 

Ventridens gularis form nodus Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 
2: 447. 

Ventridens theloides (Walker & Pilsbry), Hubricht, 
1964, Malacologia, 1: 420. 

Ventridens nodus Pilsbry, Branson & Batch, 1971, 
Sterkiana, 43: 6. 

Zonitoides (Ventridens) theloides (Walker & Pilsbry), 
Riedel, 1980, Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, Rot- 
terdam, p. 21. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as V. pils- 
bryi, but rarely found with it. 



Ventridens monodon Hubricht, 1964 Map 298 

Ventridens monodon Hubricht, 1964, Malacologia, 1: 

420. 
Zonitoides (Ventridens) monodon (Hubricht), Riedel, 

1980, Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, Rotterdam, 

p. 21. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in leaf litter on 
wooded hillsides and in ravines. 

Ventridens lawae (W. G. Binney, 1892) 

Map 310 

Ventridens lawae (W. G. Binney), Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 453. 
Ventridens lawae cumberlandicus Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 455; Hubricht, 1964, Malacologia, 1: 422. 
Zonitoides (Ventridens) lawae (W. G. Binney), Riedel, 

1980, Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, Rotterdam, 

p. 21. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as V. pils- 
bryi, but rarely found with it. 

Ventridens coelaxis (Pilsbry, 1899) Map 299 

Ventridens coelaxis (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 

2: 456. 
Zonitoides (Ventridens) coelaxis (Pilsbry), Riedel, 1 980, 

Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, Rotterdam, p. 21. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter on mountain- 
sides, usually at higher elevations. 

Ventridens lasmodon (Phillips, 1841) Map 302 

Ventridens lasmodon (Phillips), Pilsbry, 1 946, LMNA, 

2: 457. 
Zonitoides (Ventridens) lasmodon (Phillips), Riedel, 

1980, Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, Rotterdam, 

p. 22. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitats as V. 
pilsbryi, but rarely found with it. 



Ventridens gularis (Say, 1822) 



Map 300 



Ventridens gularis (Say), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 443. 
Ventridens suppressus magnidens Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 442; Hubricht, 1964, Malacologia, 1: 424. 
[Ventridens gularis cerinoideus (Anthony), Grimm, 

1971, Sterkiana, 41: 54.] 
Zonitoides (Ventridens) gularis (Say), Riedel, 1980, 

Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, Rotterdam, p. 21. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter on wooded hill- 
sides and in ravines; also on floodplains and on 
roadsides. 

Ventridens cerinoideus (Anthony, 1865) 

Map 301 

Ventridens cerinoideus (Anthony), Pilsbry, 1946, 
LMNA, 2:451. 



30 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Ventridens gularis cerinoideus (Anthony), Grimm, 
1971, Sterkiana, 41: 54. 

Zonitoides (Ventridens) cerinoideus (Anthony), Rie- 
del, 1980, Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, Rotter- 
dam, p. 21. 

Habitat— A species of the Atlantic Coastal 
Plain. Found under litter in swamps and marshes, 
floodplains, and on roadsides. 



Ventridens suppressus (Say, 1829) 



Map 307 



Ventridens suppressus (Say), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 

438. 
Ventridens suppressus divisidens Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 

2: 442; Hubricht, 1964, Malacologia, 1: 424. 
Zonitoides (Ventridens) suppressus (Say), Riedel, 1 980, 

Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, Rotterdam, p. 21. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter in upland woods, 
often in rocky places. 

Ventridens virginicus (Vanatta, 1936) Map 308 

Ventridens suppressus virginicus (Vanatta), Pilsbry, 
1946, LMNA, 2: 440. 

Ventridens virginicus (Vanatta), Hubricht, 1964, Mal- 
acologia, 1: 425. 

Zonitoides (Ventridens) virginicus Vanatta, Riedel, 
1980, Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, Rotterdam, 
p. 21. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitats as V. 
suppressus, but not found with it. 

Ventridens demissus (A. Binney, 1 843) Map 309 

Ventridens demissus (A. Binney), Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 459. 
Zonitoides (Ventricallus) demissus (Binney), Riedel, 

1980, Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, Rotterdam, 

p. 19. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter on wooded hill- 
sides, in ravines, and on floodplains. Also a fre- 
quent urban snail. 

Ventridens arcellus Hubricht, 1976 Map 31 1 

Ventridens arcellus Hubricht, 1976, Malacol. Rev., 9: 

129. 
Zonitoides (Ventricallus) arcellus (Hubricht), Riedel, 

1980, Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, Rotterdam, 

p. 20. 

Habitat— Found at higher elevations (above 
3,000 ft) in the mountains. Usually found in litter 
or crawling about in wet weather. 



Ventridens brittsi (Pilsbry, 1892) 



Map 313 



Ventridens demissus brittsi (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 460. 
Ventridens brittsi (Pilsbry), Dundee, 1955, Nautilus, 

69: 17. 



Zonitoides (Ventricallus) demissus ssp? brittsi (Pils- 
bry), Riedel, 1980, Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, 
Rotterdam, p. 19. 

Habitat— Found on mountainsides and in ra- 
vines, under rocks and logs, and in leaf litter. 

Ventridens percallosus (Pilsbry, 1898) Map 303 

Ventridens percallosus (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 

2: 465. 
Zonitoides (Ventricallus) percallosus (Pilsbry), Riedel, 

1980, Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, Rotterdam, 

p. 20. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitats as V. de- 
missus. 



Ventridens acerra (Lewis, 1870) 



Map 315 



Ventridens acerra (Lewis), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 

463 (in part). 
Zonitoides (Ventricallus) acerra (Lewis), Riedel, 1980, 

Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, Rotterdam, p. 20. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter on wooded hill- 
sides and in ravines, usually in rocky places. A 
species of lower elevations, below 2,000 ft. 



Ventridens ligera (Say, 1821) 



Map 312 



Ventridens ligera (Say), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 465. 

Zonitoides (Ventricallus) ligerus (Say), Riedel, 1980, 

Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, Rotterdam, p. 20. 

Habitat— A species of wet, weedy, open ground; 
meadows, roadsides, railroads, etc., but some- 
times found in low woods. 

Ventridens intertextus (A. Binney, 1841) 

Map 316 

Ventridens intertextus (A. Binney), Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 468. 
Zonitoides (Ventricallus) intertextus (Binney), Riedel, 

1980, Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, Rotterdam, 

p. 20. 

Habitat— Found under leaf litter in woods, often 
where the soil is quite acid. 



Ventridens eutropis Pilsbry, 1 946 



Map 304 



Ventridens intertextus eutropis Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 

2: 470. 
Ventridens eutropis Pilsbry, Hubricht, 1965, Nautilus, 

78: 135. 
Zonitoides (Ventricallus) eutropis (Pilsbry), Riedel, 

1980, Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, Rotterdam, 

p. 20. 

Habitat— Found under leaf litter in upland oak 
woods. 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



31 



Ventridens volusiae (Pilsbry, 1 900) Map 3 1 4 

Ventridens intertextus volusiae (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1946, 
LMNA, 2:471. 

Ventridens volusiae (Pilsbry), Hubricht, 1965, Nauti- 
lus, 78: 135. 

Zonitoides (Ventricallus) volusiae (Pilsbry), Riedel, 
1980, Genera Zonitidarum, Backhuys, Rotterdam, 
p. 20. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in litter in rather 
wet places in the St. Johns River drainage. 



Zonitoides elliotti (Redfield, 1856) 



Map 317 



Ventridens elliotti (Redfield), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 

2:471. 
Zonitoides elliotti (Redfield), MacMillan, 1949, Ann. 

Carnegie Mus., 31: 179. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter and about rotting 
logs on mountainsides and in ravines. 

Remarks— Placed in the genus Ventridens by 
Pilsbry because of its size and thickness and the 
presence of a basal callus on its peristome. In its 
shape it resembles Zonitoides patuloides, which 
also has a thin basal callus on its peristome. 

Zonitoides patuloides (Pilsbry, 1895) Map 318 

Zonitoides patuloides (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 
2: 485. 

Habitat— Found in pockets of deep, moist 
leaves on mountainsides and in ravines. 

Zonitoides limatulus (W. G. Binney, 1 840) 

Map 319 

Zonitoides limatulus (W. G. Binney), Pilsbry, 1946, 
LMNA, 2: 484. 

Habitat— Found in floodplain woods, crawling 
on muddy ground in wet weather. 

Zonitoides lateumbilicatus (Pilsbry, 1895) 

Map 320 

Zonitoides lateumbilicatus (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1946, 
LMNA, 2: 486. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in leaf litter on 
wooded hillsides and in ravines in eastern Ken- 
tucky. In northeastern Alabama it is found in places 
which are unusually cool, such as northern hill- 
sides near large springs. 



Zonitoides nitidus (Miiller, 1774) 



Map 322 



Zonitoides nitidus (Miiller), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 
476. 

Habitat— A species of low ground. Found about 



logs and litter on floodplains, marshes, and wet 
roadsides. A Holarctic species. 



Zonitoides arboreus (Say, 1816) 



Map 321 



Zonitoides arboreus (Say), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 
480. 

Habitat— Usually found on rotting logs and in 
floodplains, as well as upland woods. It is also 
found on roadsides and along railroads and is a 
common urban snail. 

Zonitoides kirbyi Fullington, 1974 Map 326 

Zonitoides kirbyi Fullington, 1 974, Nautilus, 88: 91. 

Habitat— Originally described from a cave, but 
has since been found to be an epigean species also. 
Found under logs, along railroads, and about the 
mouths of caves. 



Striatura milium (Morse, 1859) 



Map 324 



Striatura milium (Morse), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 
495. 

Habitat— Found in moist leaf litter, usually in 
upland woods. 

Striatura meridionalis (Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1 906) 

Map 323 

Striatura meridionalis (Pilsbry & Ferriss), Pilsbry, 1 946, 
LMNA, 2: 493. 

Habitat— Found in moist leaf litter on wooded 
hillsides and in ravines. Occasionally found on 
floodplains. 



Striatura exigua (Stimpson, 1847) 



Map 325 



Striatura exigua (Stimpson), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 
490. 

Habitat— Found in swampy woods in the north, 
but in moist leaf litter in the Appalachian Moun- 
tains. 

Striatura ferrea Morse, 1864 Map 327 

Striatura ferrea Morse, Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 497. 
Habitat— Found in leaf litter in upland woods. 



Family VITRINIDAE 

Vitrina limpida Gould, 1850 Map 330 

Vitrina limpida Gould, Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 497. 
Vitrina angelicae limpida Gould, Forcart, 1955, Arch. 
Molluskenk., 84: 155. 



32 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Habitat— A species of open, grassy places; 
meadows, roadsides, etc. It becomes mature in 
early winter and dies off in March. 

Vitrina alaskana Dall, 1905 Map 329 

Vitrina alaskana Dall, Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 503. 

Habitat— Found both in woodland and grassy 
situations. Common in western United States and 
Canada. 

Superfamily ARIOPHANTACEA 
Family HELICARIONIDAE 



Euconulus fulvus (Muller, 1774) 



Map 331 



Euconulus fulvus (Muller), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 
235 (in part). 

Habitat— Found in moist leaf litter on wooded 
hillsides and in ravines. A Holarctic species. 



ture in winter and dies off in April, it is not col- 
lected as often as E. chersinus and E. trochulns. 

Dryachloa dauca Thompson & Lee, 1981 

Map 337 

Dryachloa dauca Thompson & Lee, 1981, Malacol. 
Rev., 13: 37. 

Habitat— Found in lawns and along roadsides. 
Possibly an introduced species. 



Guppya gundlachi (Pfeiffer, 1840) 



Map 338 



Guppya gundlachi (PfeifFer), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 

244. 
Guppya miamiensis Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 

244; Hubricht, 1976, Nautilus, 90: 105. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter in swamps and 
other wet places and on the undersides of palmetto 
leaves. Common in Central America and the West 
Indies. 



Euconulus chersinus (Say, 1821) 



Map 328 



Euconulus chersinus (Say), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 
239 (in part). 

Habitat— Found in moist leaf litter on wooded 
hillsides and in ravines. 



Guppya sterkii (Dall, 1888) Map 334 

Guppya sterkii (Dall), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 245. 

Habitat— Found in moist leaf litter on wooded 
hillsides and in ravines. 



Euconulus polygyratus (Pilsbry, 1899) Map 335 

Euconulus chersinus polygyratus (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 

1946, LMNA, 2: 240. 
Euconulus polygyratus (Pilsbry), Grimm, 1971, Ster- 

kiana, 41: 53. 

Habitat— Found in much the same habitats as 
E. fulvus. 



Euconulus trochulus (Reinhardt, 1883) Map 332 

Euconulus chersinus trochulus (Reinhardt), Pilsbry, 

1946, LMNA, 2:241. 
Euconulus trochulus (Reinhardt), Hubricht, 1983, 

Gastropodia, 2: 13. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitats as E. 
chersinus. 



Suborder HOLOPODOPES 

Superfamily RHYTIDACEA 

Family HAPLOTREMATIDAE 



Haplotrema concavum (Say, 1821) 



Map 336 



Haplotrema concavum (Say), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 

2: 208. 
[Haplotrema kendeighi Webb, Branson, 1964, Proc. 

Okla. Acad. Sci., 44: 29.] 

Habitat— Usually found in leaf litter in upland 
woods. 

Remarks— Reputed to be a carnivorous snail, 
but I have found it feeding on dead shells more 
often than on living ones. This suggests that it is 
more interested in the lime than in food. 



Euconulus dentatus (Sterki, 1893) 



Map 333 Haplotrema kendeighi Webb, 1951 Map 339 



Euconulus chersinus dentatus (Sterki), Pilsbry, 1946, 
LMNA, 2: 242. 

Euconulus dentatus (Sterki), Hubricht, 1965, Nauti- 
lus, 79: 5. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter, but usually in 
dryer situations than those of E. chersinus and E. 
trochulus. 

Remarks— Because E. dentatus becomes ma- 



Haplotrema concavum kendeighi Webb, 1951, Trans. 
Kan. Acad. Sci., 54: 78. 

Haplotrema kendeighi Webb, Hubricht, 1956, Nau- 
tilus, 69: 126. 

Habitat— Found on mountainsides in leaf litter 
or crawling on the ground in wet weather. Usually 
found at higher elevations (above 2,000 ft), fre- 
quently in company with H. concavum. 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



33 



Superfamily OLEACINACEA 
Family OLEACINIDAE 

Euglandina rosea (Ferussac, 1818) Map 340 

Euglandina rosea (Ferussac), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 

2: 194. 
Euglandina rosea bullata Gould, Pilsbry, 1 946, LMNA, 

2: 194. 

Habitat— Found in a variety of habitats; in 
woods, roadsides, the edges of marshes, and waste 
ground and gardens in urban areas. 

Remarks— Shells from peninsular Florida are 
more slender than those from other parts of its 
range. In Florida there is a race in which the shell 
is quite small. This small shell size appears to be 
genetic, as this race lays a smaller, more elongated 
egg. 



Habitat— A calciphile. Found on the under- 
sides of rocks, logs, old palm fronds, and other 
litter; in hammocks or other woodlands. The shells 
are usually heavily coated with fine, dead plant 
material arranged to give the shell a carinated ap- 
pearance. Common in the West Indies. 



Subfamily THYSANOPHORINAE 



Thysanophora horni (Gabb, 1866) 



Map 345 



Thysanophora horni (Gabb), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 
1: 986. 

Habitat— Found under logs, dead palm fronds, 
and trash; usually in woods, but also in rather open 
scrubland. Common in Arizona, New Mexico, and 
Mexico. 



Euglandina texasiana (Pfeiffer, 1857) Map 341 

Euglandina texasiana (Pfeiffer), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 
2: 195. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in rather low 
places, where it is damp and there is cover. Also 
found climbing on the sides of buildings in urban 
areas in wet weather. Found in Mexico as far south 
as San Luis Potosi. 



Thysanophora plagioptycha (Shuttleworth, 1854) 

Map 346 

Thysanophora plagioptycha (Shuttleworth), Pilsbry, 
1940, LMNA, 1: 989. 

Habitat— Found on the undersides of palm 
leaves, either living or dead on the ground; also 
under stones. Usually in rather wet places. Com- 
mon in West Indies and Central America. 



Euglandina singleyana (W. G. Binney, 1892) 

Map 342 

Euglandina singleyana (W. G. Binney), Pilsbry, 1946, 
LMNA, 2: 197. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Usually found under and 
near rocks on stream bluffs. Also found in concrete 
culverts. 

Varicella gracillima (Pfeiffer, 1839) Map 343 

Varicella gracillima floridana Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 200. 
Varicella gracillima (Pfeiffer), Hubricht, 1983, Gas- 

tropodia, 2: 13. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in leaf litter or 
under rocks, usually in hammocks, but sometimes 
under sea grape above the beaches. Climbs up the 
trunks of trees in wet weather. Common in western 
Cuba. 

Family SAGDIDAE 
Subfamily SAGDINAE 



Lacteoluna selenina (Gould, 1848) 



Map 344 



Lacteoluna selenina (Gould), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 
1:981. 



Hojeda inaguensis (Weinland, 1880) Map 347 

Hojeda inaguensis (Weinland), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 
1:983. 

Habitat— Found in moist leaf litter in ham- 
mocks. Also found in the Bahamas. 



Superfamily ACHATINACEA 

Family ACHATINIDAE 

Subfamily SUBULININAE 

Lamellaxis mexicanum (Pfeiffer, 1866) 

Lamellaxis mexicanum (Pfeiffer), Hubricht, 1960, 
Nautilus, 74: 82. 

Habitat— A Mexican species known from beach 
drift in southern Texas. 

Beckianum beckianum (Pfeiffer, 1846) 

Synopeas beckianum (Pfeiffer), Hubricht, 1 960, Nau- 
tilus, 74: 82. 

Beckianum beckianum (Pfeiffer), Baker, 1961, Nau- 
tilus, 75: 84. 

Habitat— Known from beach drift in southern 
Texas. Ranges throughout most of Neotropica. 



34 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Superfamily BULIMULACEA 

Family UROCOPTIDAE 
Subfamily UROCOPTINAE 

Cochlodinella poeyana (Orbigny, 1841) Map 348 

Cochlodinella poeyana (Orbigny), Pilsbry, 1946, 
LMNA, 2: 105. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found under stones, 
usually in sunny situations, but also in hammocks. 
The main range of this species is in western Cuba. 



Holospira roemeri brevissima Pilsbry, 1950, Nautilus, 

64: 56. 
Metastoma roemeri (Pfeiffer), Thompson, 1971, Bull. 

Fla. State Mus., Biol. Sci., 15: 300. 
Metastoma roemeri brevissima (Pilsbry), Cheatum & 

Fullington, 1973, Dallas Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull. 1: 

43. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found on or near rocks 
and ledges on stream bluffs, mountainsides, and 
in ravines. Also found in New Mexico. 



Subfamily MICROCERAMINAE 



Family BULIMULIDAE 
Subfamily BULIMULINAE 



Microceramus pontificus (Gould, 1848) 

Map 349 

Microceramus pontificus (Gould), Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 109. 
Microceramus floridanus (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 1 10; Hubricht, 1977, Malacol. Rev., 10: 

37. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found under stones, 
usually in hammocks, climbing up the trunks of 
trees in wet weather, but also along railroads and 
in dumps. 

Microceramus texanus (Pilsbry, 1898) Map 350 

Microceramus texanus (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 
2: 110. 

Habitat— Found on or around rocks, usually 
on wooded bluffs along streams. 



Subfamily HOLOSPIRINAE 

Holospira goldfussi (Menke, 1847) Map 351 

Holospira goldfussi (Menke), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 

2: 115. 
Holospira goldfussi anacachensis Bartsch, Pilsbry, 

1946, LMNA, 2: 117. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found on or near rocks 
in the hill country above the Balcones Escarpment. 



Holospira montivaga Pilsbry, 1 946 
Holospira montivaga Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 123. 

Habitat— Known from beach drift in southern 
Texas; main range in Guadaloupe Mountains of 
New Mexico. 

Metastoma roemeri (Pfeiffer, 1848) Map 352 

Holospira roemeri (Pfeiffer), Pilsbry, 1 946, LMNA, 2: 
114. 



Rabdotus alternatus (Say, 1830) 



Map 354 



Bulimulus alternatus mariae (Albers), Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 14. 
Bulimulus alternatus (Say), Hubricht, 1 960, Nautilus, 

74: 68. 
Rabdotus alternatus alternatus (Say), Pratt, 1969, 

Amer. Malacol. Union, Ann. Rep., 1969: 47. 
Rabdotus alternatus hesperius (Pilsbry & Ferriss), Pratt, 

1969, Amer. Malacol. Union, Ann. Rep., 1969: 47. 

Habitat— A semiarboreal species. Found on 
shrubs, fenceposts, etc., in upland scrub. Also found 
in concrete culverts. Common in eastern Mexico. 



Rabdotus mooreanus (Pfeiffer, 1868) Map 353 

Bulimulus dealbatus mooreanus (Pfeiffer), Pilsbry, 

1946, LMNA, 2: 12. 
Bulimulus dealbatus jonesi Clench, Pilsbry, 1946, 

LMNA, 2: 10; Hubricht, 1962, Nautilus, 75: 166. 
Bulimulus schiedeanus pecosensis Pilsbry & Ferriss, 

Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 17. 
Bulimulus mooreanus (Pfeiffer), Hubricht, 1 960, Nau- 
tilus, 74: 69. 
Bulimulus mooreanus pecosensis Pilsbry & Ferriss, 

Hubricht, 1960, Nautilus, 74: 69. 
Rabdotus mooreanus (Pfeiffer), Pratt, 1969, Amer. 

Malacol. Union, Ann. Rep., 1969: 47. 
Rabdotus mooreanus jonesi (Clench), Pratt, 1974, Bull. 

Amer. Malacol. Union, 1973: 25. 

Habitat— A semiarboreal species. Found on 
grasses and shrubs, usually in open country. 



Rabdotus dealbatus dealbatus (Say, 1821) 

Map 355 

Bulimulus dealbatus (Say), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 
2: 7. 

Bulimulus dealbatus ozarkensis Pilsbry & Ferriss, Pils- 
bry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 10; Branson, 1962, Proc. Okla. 
Acad. Sci., 42: 75. 

Rabdotus dealbatus dealbatus (Say), Pratt, 1 969, Amer. 
Malacol. Union, Ann. Rep., 1969: 47. 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



35 



Habitat— A calciphile. Found crawling on the 
ground or on low vegetation in wet weather. Found 
in concrete culverts in Texas. 

Rabdotus dealbatus ragsdalei (Pilsbry, 1890) 

Map 356 

Bulimulus dealbatus ragsdalei (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1 946, 

LMNA, 2: 11. 
Rabdotus dealbatus ragsdalei (Pilsbry), Pratt, 1969, 

Amer. Malacol. Union, Ann. Rep., 1969: 47. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitats as the 
typical subspecies, but in a drier region. 

Drymaeus dominicus (Reeve, 1850) Map 357 

Drymaeus dominicus (Reeve), Pilsbry, 1 946, LMNA, 
2:24. 

Habitat— An arboreal species. Found on the 
outer twigs of trees or on the undersides of palm 
fronds. 

Drymaeus dormani (W. G. Binney, 1857) 

Map 358 

Drymaeus dormani (W. G. Binney), Pilsbry, 1946, 
LMNA, 2: 23. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as D. 
dominicus, but I have never seen them together. 

Drymaeus multilineatus (Say, 1825) Map 359 

Drymaeus multilineatus (Say), Pilsbry, 1 946, LMNA, 
2:26. 

Habitat— Found on the twigs of trees and 
shrubs, rarely more than 6 ft above the ground. 
Also found on brick walls and the sides of houses. 
Reported from Central America, Mexico, and 
northern South America. 



Subfamily ORTHALICINAE 

Orthalicus floridensis Pilsbry, 1899 Map 360 

Orthalicus Jloridensis Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 
2:35. 

Habitat— An arboreal species. Found on the 
larger branches of smooth-barked trees. 



Liguus fasciatus (Muller, 1774) 



Map 362 



Orthalicus reses (Say, 1830) 



Map 361 



Orthalicus reses (Say), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 32. 
Orthalicus reses nesodryas Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 
33. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as O. flori- 
densis. 



Liguus fasciatus (Muller), Pilsbry, 1946, LMNA, 2: 
53-101. (No attempt will be made here to list all of 
the "subspecies" and color varieties reviewed by 
Pilsbry.) 

Habitat— An arboreal species. Found on the 
trunks and larger limbs of smooth-barked trees in 
the hammocks. Also lives in Cuba. 



Superfamily POLYGYRACEA 

Family POLYGYRIDAE 

Subfamily POLYGYRINAE 

Polygyra cereolus (Muhlfeld, 1818) Map 363 

Polygyra cereolus (Muhlfeld), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 
1: 582. 

Polygyra cereolus jloridana Hemphill, Pilsbry, 1940, 
LMNA, 1: 586; Hubricht, 1976, Nautilus, 90: 105. 

Polvgyra septemvolva volvoxis (Pfeiffer), Pilsbry, 1 940, 
LMNA, 1: 590; Hubricht, 1976, Nautilus, 90: 105. 

Polygyra septemvolva febigeri (Bland), Pilsbry, 1 940, 
LMNA, 1: 591; Hubricht, 1976, Nautilus, 90: 105. 

[Polygyra septemvolva (Say), Hubricht, 1953, Nauti- 
lus, 66: 116.] 

Habitat— Found in low ground in sunny situ- 
ations. In peninsular Florida it is generally dis- 
tributed, but elsewhere it is confined to coastal 
regions, above the high strand and on the margins 
of salt marshes. In Lauderdale County, Mississip- 
pi, it is found in an area where the well water is 
salty. 



Polygyra septemvolva Say, 1818 



Map 365 



Polygyra septemvolva Say, Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 
587. 

Habitat— Usually found in wetter habitats than 
those of P. cereolus, but sometimes found with it. 



Polygyra uvulifera (Shuttleworth, 1852) 

Map 364 

Polygyra uvulifera (Shuttleworth), Pilsbry, 1940, 

LMNA, 1: 593. 
Polygyra uvulifera striata Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 

596. 
Polygyra uvulifera margueritae Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1 940, 

LMNA, 1: 597. 
Polygyra uvulifera bicornuta Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1940, 

LMNA, 1: 597. 

Habitat— Found in grassy places, usually in 
sunny situations; also in lawns in urban areas, 
climbing the grass stems in wet weather, and in 
the litter in dry weather. 



36 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Polygyra auriculata Say, 1818 



Map 366 Polygyra oppilata (Morelet, 1849) 



Polygyra auriculata Say, Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 598. 
Daedalochila auriculata (Say), Zilch, 1959, Handb. 
Palaozool., 6(2): 579. 

Habitat— Found in wet, weedy places, usually 
in sunny situations, but sometimes in swamps. 



Polygyra auriformis (Bland, 1859) 



Map 367 



Polygyra auriformis (Bland), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 
599. 

Habitat— Found in rather wet, grassy places, 
usually in sunny situations. 



Polygyra postelliana (Bland, 1828) 



Map 368 



Polygyra postelliana (Bland), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 

1:601. 
Polygyra postelliana Carolina Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 

1: 603; Hubricht, 1953, Nautilus, 66: 1 16. 
Polygyra postelliana espiloca (Bland), Pilsbry, 1 940, 

LMNA, 1: 604. 

Habitat— Found in much the same habitats as 
P. auriformis, but is also a common urban snail. 



Polygyra subclausa Pilsbry, 1899 



Map 369 



Polygyra postelliana subclausa Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1 940, 
LMNA, 1: 605. 

Habitat— Found in open, grassy situations, 
usually near water. 



Polygyra peninsulae Pilsbry, 1 940 



Map 370 



Polygyra postelliana peninsulae Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 
1: 605. 

Habitat— Found in wet, weedy, usually sunny 
situations. 



Polygyra hausmani Jackson, 1 948 



Map 371 



Polygyra postelliana hausmani Jackson, 1 948, Nau- 
tilus, 62: 4 1 . 

Habitat— Found in sunny, grassy places along 
roadsides and railroads. 



Polygyra delecta Hubricht, 1976 



Map 372 



Polygyra delecta Hubricht, Hubricht, 1976, Malacol. 
Rev., 9: 126. 

Habitat— Found in wet, weedy places, usually 
in sunny situations. 

Polygyra avara Say, 1818 Map 374 

Polygyra avara Say, Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 605. 

Habitat— Found in low, wet places, the mar- 
gins of lakes and streams, etc. 



Polygyra oppilata (Morelet), Pilsbry & Hubricht, 1956, 
Nautilus, 69: 94. 

Habitat— A Mexican species that has been col- 
lected from beach drift in southern Texas. 

Polygyra im plica ta (von Martens, 1865) 

Polygyra implicata (von Martens), Pilsbry & Hubricht, 
1956, Nautilus, 69: 94. 

Habitat— A Mexican species that has been col- 
lected from beach drift in southern Texas. 



Polygyra rhoadsi Pilsbry, 1899 

Polygyra rhoadsi Pilsbry, Pilsbry & Hubricht, 1956, 
Nautilus, 69: 94. 

Habitat— A Mexican species that has been 
found in beach drift in southern Texas. 



Polygyra ariadnae (Pfeiffer, 1848) 

Polygyra ariadnae (Pfeiffer), Pilsbry & Hubricht, 1956, 
Nautilus, 69: 94. 

Habitat— A Mexican species that has been 
found in beach drift in southern Texas. 



Polygyra texasiana (Moricand, 1833) Map 373 

Polygyra texasiana (Moricand), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 

1:617. 
[Polygyra triodontoides (Bland), Branson, 1962, Proc. 

Okla. Acad. Sci., 42: 67.] 
[Polygyra tamaulipasensis Lea, Branson, 1 962, Proc. 

Okla. Acad. Sci., 42: 67.] 
[Polygyra scintilla Pilsbry & Hubricht, Branson, 1 962, 

Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci., 42: 67.] 
[Polygyra polita Pilsbry & Hinkley, Branson, 1962, 

Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci., 42: 67.] 
Polygyra rexroadensis Taylor, 1960, U.S. Geol. Surv., 

Prof. Paper, 337: 82; Hubricht, 1974, Malacol. Rev., 

7:34. 

Habitat— Usually found on low ground under 
litter. May be found both in woodland or in prai- 
rie. 

Remarks— There are two clines of variation in 
this species. Along the Texas coast, the species is 
radially striate above and below; in the central part 
of its range, the base becomes smooth, and only 
the upper part is striate. In the western part of its 
range, it is smooth above and below, and the lip 
teeth are close together. Eastward these teeth be- 
come gradually further part. In the eastern part of 
its range, it may be confused with P. triodontoides, 
but the teeth do not become as far apart as those 
in that species. 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



37 



Polygyra triodontoides (Bland, 1861) Map 375 

Polygyra triodontoides (Bland), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 
1: 616. 

Habitat— Found in the litter in low, wet ground 
near ponds and lakes and along rivers. 

Polygyra polita Pilsbry & Hinkley, 1907 

Map 376 

Polygyra polita Pilsbry & Hinkley, 1907, Nautilus, 21: 

38. 
Polygyra scintilla Pilsbry & Hubricht, 1956, Nautilus, 

69: 94. 

Habitat— Common in parts of Mexico. At the 
only known locality within the United States, it is 
found in an open, grassy place along a railroad. 

Polygyra tamaulipasensis (I. Lea, 1857) 

Map 377 

Helix tamaulipasensis I. Lea, 1857, Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci., Philadelphia, 1857: 102. 
Polygyra texasiana texasensis Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1940, 

LMNA, 1: 619 (in part). 
Polygyra texasensis Pilsbry, Pilsbry & Hubricht, 1956, 

Nautilus, 69: 94. 
Polygyra texasiana tamaulipasensis I. Lea, Pilsbry & 

Hubricht, 1956, Nautilus, 69: 95. 
Polygyra tamaulipasensis (I. Lea), Hubricht, 1961, 

Nautilus, 75: 27. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in rock piles and 
under fallen yucca on high ground in semiarid 
situations. 



Polygyra pustula (Ferussac, 1822) 



Map 380 



Polygyra pustula (Ferussac), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 

608. 
Daedalochila pustula (Ferussac), Zilch, 1959, Handb. 

Palaozool. 6(2): 580. 
Lobosculum pustula (Ferussac), Pilsbry, 1930, Proc. 

Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, 82: 320. 

Habitat— Usually found in sandy woods, under 
logs and dead palm fronds, and in leaf litter. 

Polygyra pustuloides (Bland, 1851) Map 379 

Polygyra pustuloides (Bland), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 
1:610. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Usually found in rocky 
woods, about logs and rocks, and in leaf litter. 



Polygyra leporina (Gould, 1848) 



Map 378 



Polygyra leporina (Gould), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 
611. 

Habitat— A species of low, wet places; in flood- 
plain woods, meadows, near springs, etc. 



Polygyra plicata (Say, 1821) Map 3 8 1 

Polygyra plicata Say, Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 626. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in leaf litter on 
dry, wooded hillsides and in cedar glades. 



Polygyra troostiana (I. Lea, 1839) 



Map 382 



Polygyra troostiana I. Lea, Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 
630. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in the same hab- 
itats as P. plicata, but never found with it. 



Polygyra fatigiata (Say, 1820) 



Map 383 



Polygyra fatigiata Say, Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 628. 
Polygyra fatigiata internuntia Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 
1: 629. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Usually found crawling 
on bare ground in open, sunny situations after 
rains. 



Polygyra peregrina Rehder, 1932 



Map 384 



Polygyra peregrina Rehder, Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 
631. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in rocky, sunny 
situations and crawling about in wet weather on 
cliffs and rocks. 



Polygyra jacksoni (Bland, 1866) 



Map 385 



Polygyra jacksoni (Bland), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 
631. 

Habitat— Found on wooded hillsides under 
stones. 

Polygyra deltoidea (Simpson, 1889) Map 386 

Polygyra jacksoni deltoidea (Simpson), Pilsbry, 1940, 

LMNA, 1: 632. 
Polygyra deltoidea (Simpson), Branson, 1962, Ster- 

kiana, 7: 5. 
[Polygyra jacksoni simpsoni (Pilsbry), Branson, 1962, 

Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci., 42: 69.] 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in the same hab- 
itat as P. jacksoni, but not found with it. 

Polygyra simpsoni (Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1907) 

Map 387 

Polygyra jacksoni simpsoni Pilsbry & Ferriss, Pilsbry, 
1940, LMNA, 1: 633. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in the same hab- 
itat as P. jacksoni and P. deltoidea, but never found 
with them. 



38 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Polygyra hippocrepis (Pfeiffer, 1848) Map 388 

Polygyra hippocrepis (Pfeiffer), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 

1: 638. 
Daedalochila hippocrepis (Pfeiffer), Zilch, 1 960, Handb. 

Palaozool., 6(2): 580. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found under rocks on 
rocky, wooded hillsides. 

Polygyra mooreana (W. G. Binney, 1857) 

Map 389 

Polygyra mooreana (W. G. Binney), Pilsbry, 1940, 
LMNA, 1: 622. 

Habitat— Found under leaf litter, rocks, and 
logs from river bluffs to hilltops, usually in wooded 
areas. 



Habitat— Found on logs and in leaf litter on 
wooded hillsides. Never found in numbers. 

Stenotrema barbigerum (Redfield, 1856) 

Map 396 

Stenotrema barbigerum (Redfield), Pilsbry, 1940, 
LMNA, 1: 645. 

Habitat— Found on logs on wooded hillsides 
and in ravines. 

Stenotrema edvardsi (Bland, 1856) Map 397 

Stenotrema edvardsi (Bland), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 
1: 646. 

Habitat— Found on logs and in leaf litter in 
rocky woods. 



Polygyra tholus (W. G. Binney, 1857) Map 390 Stenotrema waldense Archer, 1938 Map 398 



Polygyra tholus (W. G. Binney), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 
1: 624. 

Habitat— Known only from river drift and 
beach drift. 



Stenotrema waldense Archer, Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 
1: 648. 

Habitat— A calciphile. The two places where I 
found it alive were near stone walls along a road. 



Polygyra gracilis Hubricht, 1961 Map 391 

Polygyra gracilis Hubricht, 1961, Nautilus, 75: 26. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter on stream bluffs, 
in ravines, and on floodplains. 

Polygyra lithica Hubricht, 1961 Map 392 

Polygyra lithica Hubricht, 1961, Nautilus, 75: 28. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found under logs, rocks, 
and leaf litter in dry, upland woods. 

Polygyra dorfeuilliana (I. Lea, 1838) Map 393 

Polygyra dorfeuilliana I. Lea, Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 

1: 634. 
Polygyra dorfeuilliana sampsoni Wetherby, Pilsbry, 

1940, LMNA, 1: 636. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as P. lithi- 
ca but never found with it. 

Stenotrema spinosum (I. Lea, 1830) Map 394 

Stenotrema spinosum (I. Lea), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 
1: 643. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Usually found about 
rotting logs in rocky woods. 

Stenotrema edgarianum (I. Lea, 1841) Map 395 

Stenotrema edgarianum (I. Lea), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 
1: 644. 



Stenotrema pilsbryi (Ferriss, 1900) Map 399 

Stenotrema pilsbryi (Ferriss), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 
1: 650. 

Habitat— Found crawling on a rock slide on a 
wooded mountainside in wet weather. 



Stenotrema labrosum (Bland, 1862) Map 400 

Stenotrema labrosum (Bland), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 

1: 650. 
Stenotrema glassi Branson, 1964, Nautilus, 66: 100; 

Hubricht, 1974, Malacol. Rev., 7: 34. 
Stenotrema abaddona Branson, 1964, Nautilus, 77: 

103; Hubricht, 1967, Nautilus, 81: 65. 

Habitat— Found under leaf litter, rocks, and 
logs on wooded hillsides or in ravines. 

Stenotrema altispira (Pilsbry, 1894) Map 401 

Stenotrema altispira (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 
1: 652. 

Habitat— Found about logs and in leaf litter at 
higher elevations in the mountains. 

Stenotrema depilatum (Pilsbry, 1895) Map 402 

Stenotrema depilatum (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 

1: 654. 
Stenotrema altispira depilatum (Pilsbry), Archer, 1948, 

Geol. Surv. Ala., Mus. Paper, 28: 33. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitat as S. al- 
tispira and sometimes found with it. 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



39 



Stenotrema florida Pilsbry, 1940 Map 403 

Stenotrema florida Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 655. 

Habitat— Found under and about logs and in 
leaf litter on wooded stream bluffs and floodplains. 

Stenotrema calvescens Hubricht, 1961 Map 404 

Stenotrema calvescens Hubricht, 1961, Nautilus, 75: 
28. 

Habitat— Found in open, grassy places, clear- 
ings, roadsides, and along railroads. 

Stenotrema barbatum (Clapp, 1904) Map 405 

Stenotrema hirsutum barbatum (Clapp), Pilsbry, 1 940, 

LMNA, 1: 665. 
Stenotrema barbatum (Clapp), Archer, 1948, Geol. 

Surv. Ala., Mus. Paper, 28: 30. 

Habitat— Usually found under logs and leaf lit- 
ter in floodplain woods, but becomes an upland 
species in West Virginia and Pennsylvania. 

Stenotrema angel I urn Hubricht, 1958 Map 407 

Stenotrema angellum Hubricht, 1958, Trans. Ky. Acad. 
Sci., 19: 70. 

Habitat— Found under logs and leaf litter on 
wooded hillsides and in ravines. 

Stenotrema stenotrema (Pfeiffer, 1819) Map 406 

Stenotrema stenotrema (Pfeiffer), Pilsbry, 1940, 

LMNA, 1: 655. 
Stenotrema stenotrema voluminosum Clench & Banks, 

Archer, 1948, Geol. Surv. Ala., Mus. Paper, 28: 37. 

Habitat— Found in a variety of habitats. Usu- 
ally found in leaf litter on wooded hillsides and in 
ravines, but may be found along roadsides, in old 
pastures, and in clearings. 

Stenotrema magnifumosum (Pilsbry, 1920) 

Map 408 

Stenotrema magnifumosum (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1940, 
LMNA, 1: 660. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter on mountainsides 
from about 1,000 to 4,500 ft. 

Stenotrema simile Grimm, 1971 Map 409 

Stenotrema simile Grimm, 1971, Nautilus, 85: 12. 

Habitat— Found under logs and leaf litter on 
rocky wooded hillsides. 



Habitat— Found under logs and in leaf litter 
on rather dry, wooded hillsides. 

Stenotrema morosum Hubricht, 1978 Map 41 1 

Stenotrema morosum Hubricht, 1978, Malacol. Rev., 
10: 37. 

Habitat— Known only as a Pleistocene to Re- 
cent fossil within a cave. 



Stenotrema hirsutum (Say, 1817) 



Map 413 



Stenotrema pilula (Pilsbry, 1900) 



Map 410 



Stenotrema pilula (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 
661. 



Stenotrema hirsutum (Say), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 

662. 
Stenotrema burringtoni Grimm, 1971, Nautilus, 85: 

14; Hubricht, 1974, Malacol. Rev., 7: 34. 

Habitat— Found under logs and in leaf litter in 
rather dry upland woods. 

Stenotrema exodon (Pilsbry, 1 900) Map 4 1 2 

Stenotrema exodon (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 
1: 666. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found on and about 
rocks on wooded hillsides. 

Stenotrema turbine 11a (Clench & Archer, 1933) 

Map 4 1 4 

Stenotrema exodon turbinella (Clench & Archer), Pils- 
bry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 668. 

Stenotrema turbinella (Clench & Archer), Hubricht, 
1965, Sterkiana, 17: 1. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in leaf litter and 
on logs on wooded hillsides and in ravines. 

Stenotrema deceptum (Clapp, 1905) Map 415 

Stenotrema deceptum (Clapp), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 
1: 668. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in leaf litter and 
about logs on wooded hillsides and in ravines. 

Stenotrema blandianum (Pilsbry, 1 903) Map 4 1 6 

Stenotrema blandianum (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1940, 
LMNA, 1: 669. 

Habitat— Found under and about rocks on riv- 
er bluffs and in ravines. 

Stenotrema unciferum (Pilsbry, 1 900) Map 4 1 7 

Stenotrema unciferum (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 
1: 670. 

Stenotrema unciferum caddoensis (Archer), Pilsbry, 
1940, LMNA, 1: 671. 

Stenotrema caddoensis (Archer), Archer, 1948, Geol. 
Surv. Ala., Mus. Paper, 28: 47; Hubricht, 1972, Ster- 
kiana, 46: 15. 



40 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Habitat— Found on and around logs on wood- 
ed mountainsides. 



Habitat— Known only from the Wichita 
Mountains of Oklahoma. 



Stenotrema brevipila (Clapp, 1 907) Map 418 

Stenotrema brevipila (Clapp), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 
1: 672. 

Habitat— Found in rocky places on and under 
rocks and in leaf litter. 



Stenotrema cohuttense (Clapp, 1914) Map 419 

Stenotrema cohuttense (Clapp), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 
1: 673. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter on wooded hill- 
sides and in ravines. 



Stenotrema maxillatum (Gould, 1848) Map 420 

Stenotrema maxillatum (Gould), Pilsbry, 1940, 
LMNA, 1: 674. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter and about rocks 
and logs on wooded hillsides and in ravines. 



Stenotrema leai leai (A. Binney) 



Map 426 



Stenotrema monodon (Rackett), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 

1: 676. 
Stenotrema leai (A. Binney), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 

2: 1099. 

Habitat— A species of low, wet places, marshes 
and swamps, floodplains, meadows, and road- 
sides. 

Stenotrema leai aliciae (Pilsbry, 1893) Map 427 

Stenotrema monodon aliciae (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1940, 

LMNA, 1: 676. 
Stenotrema leai aliciae (Pilsbry), Hubricht, 1956, 

Nautilus, 69: 125. 
[Stenotrema fraternum imperforatum (Pilsbry & Fer- 

riss), Branson, 1962, Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci., 42: 71.] 

Habitat— Usually found in meadows, along 
roadsides, and near springs, but also found in 
floodplain woods. 

Stenotrema leai cheatumi Fullington, 1974 

Map 421 

Stenotrema leai cheatumi Fullington, 1974, Nautilus, 
88: 92. 

Habitat— Found under logs and dead palmetto 
fronds in a palmetto swamp. Known only from 
the type locality. 

Stenotrema wichitorum Branson, 1972 Map 422 

Stenotrema wichitorum Branson, 1972, Southwest. 
Natur., 16: 311. 



Stenotrema hubrichti Pilsbry, 1940 Map 423 
Stenotrema hubrichti Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 687. 

Habitat— Found in crevices of shaded cliffs, 
often more than 20 ft above the ground. 

Stenotrema fraternum fraternum (Say, 1 824) 

Map 428 

Stenotrema fraternum (Say), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 

681. 
Stenotrema fraternum cavum (Pilsbry & Vanatta), 

Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 684. 

Habitat— Usually found about logs and in leaf 
litter in upland woods. 

Stenotrema fraternum montanum Archer, 1939 

Map 424 

Stenotrema fraternum montanum Archer, Pilsbry, 

1940, LMNA, 1: 685. 
Stenotrema fraternum fasciatum Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 

1: 686. 
Stenotrema fasciatum Pilsbry, Archer, 1948, Geol. 

Surv. Ala., Mus. Paper, 28: 56. 

Habitat— Found on logs, in leaf litter, and un- 
der stones on mountainsides and in ravines. 

Stenotrema fraternum imperforatum (Pilsbry, 
1900) Map 425 

Stenotrema fraternum imperforatum (Pilsbry), Pils- 
bry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 686. 

Habitat— Found under logs and rocks on 
wooded hillsides and in ravines. 

Praticolella griseola (Pfeiffer, 1841) Map 429 

Praticolella griseola (Pfeiffer), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 

1: 690. 
Praticolella campi Clapp & Ferriss, Pilsbry, 1940, 

LMNA, 1: 693; Hubricht, 1983, Veliger, 25: 244. 

Habitat— Found in open weedy places near the 
coast or where there is some salt in the soil, aes- 
tivating on the stems of plants. A common Central 
American species. 

Praticolella pachyloma (Menke, in Pfeiffer) 

Map 430 

Praticolella berlandieriana pachyloma (Menke), Pils- 
bry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 697. 

Praticolella pachyloma (Menke), Pilsbry & Hubricht, 
1956, Nautilus, 69: 96. 

Habitat— Found in either open or wooded 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



41 



places, usually in sandy soil, hiding under litter or 
burrowing in the sand in dry weather. 

Praticolella Candida Hubricht, 1983 Map 431 
Praticolella Candida Hubricht, 1983, Veliger, 25: 246. 

Habitat— Found in open, grassy places, aesti- 
vating on the stems of plants. A frequent urban 
snail. 

Praticolella berlandieriana (Moricand, 1833) 

Map 432 

Praticolella berlandieriana (Moricand), Pilsbry, 1 940, 
LMNA, 1: 694. 

Habitat— Usually found in woods near streams, 
but also found in open places. It aestivates on the 
stems of plants. 

Praticolella trimatris Hubricht, 1983 Map 433 
Praticolella trimatris Hubricht, 1983, Veliger, 25: 248. 

Habitat— Usually found in open, low, wet 
places. A common urban snail. 



Praticolella lawae (Lewis, 1874) 



Map 437 



Praticolella taeniata Pilsbry, 1 940 



Map 434 



Praticolella berlandieriana taeniata Pilsbry, 1940, 

LMNA, 1: 696. 
[Praticolella berlandieriana campi Clapp & Ferriss, 

Hubricht, 1961, Nautilus 75: 29.] 
Praticolella taeniata Pilsbry, 1940, Hubricht, 1983, 

Veliger, 25: 248. 

Habitat— Usually found in open, grassy places. 
An abundant urban snail, where it is found in 
lawns and vacant lots. Aestivates on the stems of 
grasses. Also in Tamaulipas and Nuevo Leon, 
Mexico. 



Praticolella jejuna (Say, 1821) Map 435 

Praticolella jejuna (Say), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 697. 

Habitat— Found under logs and leaf litter in 
upland woods, both pine and hardwoods, and 
sometimes in tropical hammocks. Also found along 
roadsides and railroads. Usually found where oth- 
er species of land snails are scarce. 



Praticolella bakeri Vanatta, 1915 



Map 436 



Praticolella bakeri Vanatta, Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 
699. 

Habitat— Found under logs on sandy soil in 
open pine woods and along railroads and road- 
sides. 



Praticolella lawae (Lewis), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 

699. 
Praticolella lawae tallulahensis (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1 940, 

LMNA, 1: 700. 

Habitat— A species of open pine woods, clear- 
ings, and glades, usually on sandy soil. 



Praticolella mobiliana (I. Lea, 1841) Map 438 

Praticolella mobiliana (I. Lea), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 

1: 701. 
Praticolella mobiliana floridana Vanatta, Pilsbry, 1940, 

LMNA, 1: 702. 

Habitat— A species of open pine woods on 
sandy soil. 

Mesodon rugeli (Shuttleworth, 1852) Map 461 

Mesodon rugeli (Shuttleworth), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 
1: 767. 

Habitat— Found under and about logs and rocks 
and in leaf litter in upland woods. 



Mesodon inflectus (Say, 1821) 



Map 439 



Mesodon inflectus (Say), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 770. 
Mesodon inflectus mobilensis (Clapp), Pilsbry, 1940, 

LMNA, 1: 775; Hubricht, 1965, Sterkiana, 17: 2. 
[Mesodon inflectus edentatus (Sampson), Branson, 

1962, Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci., 42: 66.] 

Habitat— A common species, found in a va- 
riety of habitats. Found under logs, rocks, and leaf 
litter in woods; under old ties along railroads and 
on roadsides; under trash in waste ground and 
gardens in urban areas. 

Remarks— Mesodon inflectus and. M. rugeli will 
hybridize and there is some introgression, so that 
the outer tooth of M. inflectus is often a little wider 
and slightly immersed within the range of M. ru- 
geli. Whereas outside the range of M. rugeli, the 
outer and basal teeth are nearly the same. 

Mesodon approximans (Clapp, 1905) Map 440 

Mesodon inflectus approximans (Clapp), Pilsbry, 1 940, 
LMNA, 1: 774. 

Mesodon approximans (Clapp), Hubricht, 1965, Ster- 
kiana, 17: 2. 

Habitat— Found under rocks and logs on 
wooded hillsides and in ravines; also under trash 
on waste ground in urban areas. 

Mesodon smithi (Clapp, 1905) Map 441 

Mesodon smithi (Clapp), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 769. 



42 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Habitat— A calciphile. Found under logs and 
rocks on wooded hillsides and in ravines. 

Mesodon edentatus (Sampson, 1889) Map 442 

Mesodon injlectus edentatus (Sampson), Pilsbry, 1 940, 
LMNA, 1: 776. 

Mesodon edentatus (Sampson), Hubricht, 1949, Nau- 
tilus, 62: 99. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found under rocks and 
logs on wooded hillsides and in ravines. 

Mesodon magazinensis (Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1893) 

Map 443 

Mesodon magazinensis (Pilsbry & Ferriss), Pilsbry, 
1940, LMNA, 1: 777. 

Habitat— Found on and around the rock slides 
on the north side of Magazine Mountain, Arkan- 
sas. 

Mesodon subpalliatus (Pilsbry, 1893) Map 444 

Mesodon subpalliatus (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 
1: 760. 

Mesodon verus Hubricht, 1954, Nautilus, 68: 65; Hu- 
bricht, 1974, Malacol. Rev., 7: 34. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter and around logs 
and rocks in the mountains above 2,000 ft. 



Mesodon appressus (Say, 1821) 



Map 446 



Mesodon appressus (Say), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 
749. 

Habitat— Usually found in rocky places, river 
bluffs and roadsides, but also found in urban areas. 



Mesodon laevior Hubricht, 1968 



Map 471 



Mesodon appressus form laevior Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 

1: 753. 
Mesodon laevior Pilsbry, Hubricht, 1968, Nautilus, 

82: 25. 

Habitat— Usually found in rocky places, but 
also about logs, on river bluffs, and in ravines. A 
common urban snail, which has been widely in- 
troduced into cities and towns. 

Mesodon sargentianus (Johnson & Pilsbry, 
1892) Map 445 

Mesodon sargentianus (Johnson & Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 

1940, LMNA, 1: 753. 
[Triodopsis obstricta occidentalis Pilsbry, Vagvolgyi, 

1968, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 136: 210.] 

Habitat— A calciphile. Most common about the 
mouths of caves, but also found about rocks in 
cool ravines and northern hillsides. 



Mesodon perigraptus (Pilsbry, 1894) Map 462 

Mesodon perigraptus (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 
1: 755. 

Habitat— Found on and about logs and in leaf 
litter in upland woods. Also occurs as an urban 
snail. 



Mesodon panselenus Hubricht, 1976 Map 447 

Mesodon panselenus Hubricht, 1976, Malacol. Rev., 
9: 127. 

Habitat— Found under rocks and logs on 
wooded floodplains, hillsides, and ravines. 



Mesodon wetherbyi (Bland, 1873) 



Map 448 



Mesodon wetherbyi (Bland), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 
757. 

Habitat— Found under logs and in moist leaf 
litter on wooded hillsides and in ravines. 

Mesodon jonesianus (Archer, 1938) Map 452 

Mesodon jonesianus (Archer), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 
1: 759. 

Habitat— Found crawling on the leaf litter in 
wet weather in the beech woods at about 5,000 ft 
elevation. I never found it in the leaf litter in dry 
weather, so it may burrow into the ground at such 
times. 



Mesodon sayanus (Pilsbry, 1 906) 



Map 467 



Mesodon sayanus (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 
762. 

Habitat— Usually found in moist leaf litter or 
near logs on wooded hillsides. 

Mesodon chilhoweensis (Lewis, 1870) Map 450 

Mesodon chilhoweensis (Lewis), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 
1: 764. 

Habitat— Found under leaf litter or in rock piles 
or crawling on the ground or on the boles of trees 
in wet weather. 

Remarks— This species is rarely found in num- 
bers. Where it occurs, one frequently finds broken 
shells on the ground. Other large Mesodon may 
be present in greater numbers, but one does not 
find as many of their broken shells. The shell of 
M. chilhoweensis is thinner and more easily bro- 
ken by birds, so that more members of this species 
are killed in this way. This is probably the reason 
it is not more common than it is. 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



43 



Mesodon indianorum (Pilsbry, 1899) Map 451 

Mesodon indianorum (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 

1: 739. 
[Mesodon indianorum lioderma (Pilsbry), Branson, 

1962, Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci., 42: 64.] 
[Mesodon binneyanus (Pilsbry), Branson, 1962, Proc. 

Okla. Acad. Sci., 42: 64.] 

Habitat— Usually found in leaf litter in rather 
dry upland woods. 

Mesodon binneyanus (Pilsbry, 1899) Map 453 

Mesodon binneyanus (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 

1: 742. 
Mesodon binneyanus chastatensis (Pilsbry & Ferriss), 

Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 743. 

Habitat— Usually found in leaf litter on wood- 
ed hillsides and in ravines. 



Mesodon clenchi (Rehder, 1932) 



Map 454 



Mesodon clenchi (Rehder), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 
743. 

Habitat— Found in dry, rocky places with a 
southern exposure. 



Mesodon kiowaensis (Simpson, 1888) Map 455 

Mesodon kiowaensis (Simpson), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 
1: 744. 

Habitat— Found under rocks and leaf litter in 
dry upland woods with a southern exposure. 



Mesodon roemeri (Pfeiffer, 1 848) 



Map 474 



Mesodon roemeri (Pfeiffer), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 
745. 

Habitat— Found under rocks, leaf litter, and 
logs on wooded slopes near streams. 

Mesodon leatherwoodi Pratt, 1971 Map 456 

Mesodon leatherwoodi Pratt, 1971, Veliger, 13: 342. 

Habitat— Found in rocky, shaded places; ac- 
tive at night. 



Mesodon ferrissi (Pilsbry, 1897) 



Map 457 



Mesodon ferrissi (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 

736. 
Mesodon ferrissi sericius (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1940, 

LMNA, 1: 738. 

Habitat— Found at elevations above 2,000 ft 
under rock ledges, in rock piles, and about logs; 
active at night. 



Mesodon orestes Hubricht, 1975 Map 459 

Mesodon orestes Hubricht, 1975, Nautilus, 89: 1. 

Habitat— Found in crevices in rock ledges or 
crawling on the ground in wet weather. Lives at 
high elevations in the Plott Balsam Mountains. 



Mesodon wheatleyi (Bland, 1860) 



Map 460 



Mesodon wheatleyi (Bland), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 
734. 

Habitat— Found under rocks, logs, and in leaf 
litter from about 2,000 ft to the summits of the 
mountains. 

Mesodon clingmanicus (Pilsbry, 1904) Map 463 

Mesodon wheatleyi clingmanicus (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 
1940, LMNA, 1: 736. 

Habitat— Found from about 2,000 ft to the 
summits of the mountains under rocks, logs, and 
in leaf litter. 

Remarks— There are two distinct anatomies 
found in M. clingmanicus without any detectable 
shell differences. One has a rather short, stout pe- 
nis, and the other has a long, slender one. Both 
types appear to have the same ranges. They are 
probably two species, but there is not enough an- 
atomical material available to clarify this problem. 

Mesodon christyi (Bland, 1 860) Map 464 

Mesodon christyi (Bland), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 
733. 

Habitat— Usually found in leaf litter in upland 
oak woods. 



Mesodon archeri Pilsbry, 1 940 



Map 479 



Mesodon archeri Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 
732. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter and under rock 
ledges in a ravine. 



Mesodon clarki (I. Lea, 1858) 



Map 468 



Mesodon clarki (1. Lea), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 730. 
Mesodon clarki nantahala (Clench & Banks), Pilsbry, 
1940, LMNA, 1: 731. 

Habitat— Found under leaf litter, or crawling 
about during wet weather, on mountainsides. 

Mesodon elevatus (Say, 1821) Map 470 

Mesodon elevatus (Say), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 727. 

Habitat— A species of river bluffs, where it is 
found crawling on the ground in wet weather. 



44 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Mesodon pennsylvanicus (Green, 1827) Map 472 Mesodon downieanus (Bland, 1861) Map 476 



Mesodon pennsylvanicus (Green), Pilsbry, 1940, 
LMNA, 1: 726. 

Habitat— Usually found on wooded hillsides 
or in ravines, under leaf litter or under stones. Also 
found on grassy roadsides. 

Mesodon zaletus (A. Binney, 1837) Map 449 

Mesodon zaletus (A. Binney), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 

1: 722. 
Mesodon zaletus ozarkensis Pilsbry & Ferriss, Pilsbry, 

1940, LMNA, 1: 725; Branson, 1962, Proc. Okla. 

Acad. Sci., 42: 63. 

Habitat— Most common on river bluffs, but 
also found in ravines and on mountainsides. Found 
up to about 5,000 ft elevation. 



Mesodon normalis (Pilsbry, 1 900) 



Map 475 



Mesodon andrewsae normalis (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1 940, 
LMNA, 1: 720. 

Mesodon normalis (Pilsbry), Hubricht, 1956, Nauti- 
lus, 69: 140. 

Habitat— A species of noncalcareous soils. 
Found crawling on the ground in wet weather, in 
ravines, and on mountainsides up to about 5,000 
ft elevation. 

Remarks— Despite its large size, Mesodon nor- 
malis is an annual species. Specimens which are 
born in the spring become mature the following 
spring, lay their eggs then, and die during the early 
summer. Those born in the fall become mature 
the following fall, lay eggs then and again the fol- 
lowing spring, and also die during early summer. 
I never saw a living mature snail during August. 

Mesodon andrewsae W. G. Binney, 1879 

Map 469 

Mesodon andrewsae W. G. Binney, Pilsbry, 1940, 

LMNA, 1:717. 
Mesodon andrewsae intermedins (Walker), Pilsbry, 

1940, LMNA, 1: 719. 
Mesodon andrewsae altivaga (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1 940, 

LMNA, 1: 721. 

Habitat— Found crawling on the ground at high 
elevations in the southern Appalachians. 

Remarks— There are six forms of this species 
on Clingmans Dome in the Smokies. There is the 
widespread olive-green shelled form, a form with 
a reddish band above the periphery, and a form 
which is all red. These three color forms may have 
a parietal tooth, or it may be absent. I have not 
seen this variation at any other locality. 



Mesodon downieanus (Bland), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 
1: 716. 

[Mesodon mitchellianus downieanus (Bland), Hu- 
bricht, 1950, Nautilus, 64: 7.] 

Habitat— Usually found in leaf litter on the 
summits of flat-topped mountains, where the soil 
is somewhat acid. 

Mesodon kalmianus Hubricht, 1965 Map 477 
Mesodon kalmianus Hubricht, 1965, Nautilus, 79: 4. 

Habitat— Usually found in open, grassy places, 
meadows, and roadsides, but also in kudzu banks. 

Mesodon mitchellianus (I. Lea, 1839) Map 473 

Mesodon mitchellianus (I. Lea), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 
1:715. 

Mesodon mitchellianus downieanus (Bland), Hu- 
bricht, 1950, Nautilus, 64: 7. 

Mesodon burringtoni Hubricht, 1958, Trans. Ky. Acad. 
Sci., 19: 71; Hubricht, 1974, Malacol. Rev., 7: 34. 

Habitat— A species of meadows, roadsides, and 
floodplains. Found crawling on the ground in wet 
weather or under litter when it is dry. 

Mesodon sanus (Clench & Archer, 1933) 

Map 478 

Mesodon sanus (Clench & Archer), Pilsbry, 1940, 
LMNA, 1: 714. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found in leaf litter on 
wooded hillsides and in ravines. 

Mesodon clausus clausus (Say, 1821) Map 458 
Mesodon clausus (Say), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 712. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Usually found in low, 
open, weedy places, meadows, roadsides, and along 
railroads. Sometimes found in woods. 

Mesodon clausus trossulus Hubricht Map 465 

Mesodon clausus trossulus Hubricht, 1966, Nautilus, 
80: 53. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found crawling about 
after rains on wooded hillsides. 



Mesodon thyroidus (Say, 1816) 



Map 466 



Mesodon thyroidus (Say), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 

706. 
Mesodon thyroidus sanctisimonis (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 

1940, LMNA, 1: 712. 

Habitat— Found in a wide variety of habitats. 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



45 



Usually found in floodplain woods under leaf lit- 
ter, but also found on hillsides and in ravines, on 
roadsides and along railroads, in meadows and 
marshes, and in waste ground and in gardens in 
urban areas. 



Subfamily TRIODOPSINAE 

Triodopsis fulciden Hubricht, 1952 Map 480 
Triodopsis fulciden Hubricht, 1952, Nautilus, 65: 81. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter and about logs in 
upland oak woods. 

Triodopsis rugosa Brooks & MacMillan, 1940 

Map 481 

Triodopsis rugosa Brooks & MacMillan, Pilsbry, 1 940, 

LMNA, 1: 802. 
[Triodopsis rugosa anteridon Pilsbry, Vagvolgyi, 1 968, 

Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 136: 161.] 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter and about logs in 
ravines and on wooded hillsides. 

Triodopsis anteridon Pilsbry, 1940 Map 482 

Triodopsis rugosa anteridon Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 

803. 
Triodopsis anteridon Pilsbry, Grimm, 1975, Bull. 

Amer. Malacol. Union, 1974: 24. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter and about logs on 
wooded hillsides and in ravines. 

Triodopsis fraudulenta (Pilsbry, 1894) Map 483 

Triodopsis fraudulenta (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 

1: 804. 
[Triodopsis picea Hubricht, Vagvolgyi, 1968, Bull. Mus. 

Comp. Zool., 136: 181.] 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter and about logs on 
wooded hillsides and in ravines; also on roadsides 
and in old pastures. 



Triodopsis vulgata Pilsbry, 1 940 



Map 488 



Triodopsis fraudulenta vulgata Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 
1: 805. 

Triodopsis vulgata Pilsbry, Hubricht, 1954, Nautilus, 
67:91. 

Triodopsis neglecta vulgata Pilsbry, Vagvolgyi, 1968, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 136: 175. 

[Triodopsis hopetonensis claibornensis Lutz, Vagvol- 
gyi, 1968, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 136: 175.] 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter and about logs in 
ravines and on wooded hillsides. 



Triodopsis pendula Hubricht, 1952 Map 484 
Triodopsis pendula Hubricht, 1952, Nautilus, 65: 82. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter and about logs in 
upland oak woods. 



Triodopsis picea Hubricht, 1958 



Map 485 



Triodopsis picea Hubricht, 1958, Trans. Ky. Acad. 
Sci., 19: 73. 

Habitat— Found in rocky woods, in leaf litter, 
and about rocks and logs, usually at higher ele- 
vations. 

Triodopsis neglecta (Pilsbry, 1899) Map 486 

Triodopsis neglecta (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 
1: 807. 

Habitat— Usually found on river bluffs and in 
ravines, under stones and logs, and in leaf litter. 

Triodopsis claibornensis Lutz, 1950 Map 487 

Triodopsis hopetonensis claibornensis Lutz, 1950, 

Nautilus, 63: 121. 
Triodopsis claibornensis Lutz, Hubricht, 1973, Ster- 

kiana, 49: 13. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter in rocky woods 
and on roadsides. 

Triodopsis juxtidens (Pilsbry, 1 894) Map 492 

Triodopsis tridentata juxtidens (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1940, 
LMNA, 1: 798. 

Triodopsis juxtidens (Pilsbry), Hubricht, 1953, Nau- 
tilus, 66: 117. 

Triodopsis juxtidens stenomphala Vagvolgyi, 1968, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 136: 169. 

Habitat— Found under leaf litter, logs, and rocks 
on wooded hillsides and in ravines. Also found 
along roadsides, in pastures, and on waste ground 
in urban areas. 

Triodopsis discoidea (Pilsbry, 1904) Map 489 

Triodopsis tridentata discoidea (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1 940, 

LMNA, 1: 799. 
Triodopsis juxtidens discoidea (Pilsbry), Vagvolgyi, 

1968, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 136: 171. 

Habitat— Found under rocks, logs, and leaf lit- 
ter on river bluffs. 



Triodopsis tridentata (Say, 1816) 



Map 510 



Triodopsis tridentata (Say), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 

792. 
Triodopsis tridentata edentilabris (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 

1940, LMNA, 1: 797; Vagvolgyi, 1968, Bull. Mus. 

Comp. Zool., 136: 151. 



46 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Habitat— Found in a variety of habitats, but 
usually found in upland woods in leaf litter and 
under logs and rocks; also along roadsides, rail- 
roads, and old pastures; and on waste ground in 
urban areas. 

Triodopsis tennesseensis (Walker & Pilsbry, 1 902) 

Map 490 

Triodopsis tridentata tennesseensis (Walker), Pilsbry, 

1940, LMNA, 1: 797. 
Triodopsis tennesseensis (Walker), Hubricht, 1950, 

Nautilus, 64: 8. 

Habitat— Found under leaf litter and logs on 
wooded hillsides and in ravines. 

Triodopsis complanata (Pilsbry, 1898) Map 496 

Triodopsis tridentata complanata (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 
1940, LMNA, 1: 801. 

Triodopsis complanata (Pilsbry), Vagvolgyi, 1968, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 136: 157. 

[Triodopsis tridentata tennesseensis (Walker), Vagvol- 
gyi, 1968, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 136: 157.] 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter and about logs on 
the bluffs along the south side of the Cumberland 
River in the vicinity of Lake Cumberland. 



Triodopsis vultuosa (Gould, 1 848) 



Map 494 



Triodopsis burchi Hubricht, 1950 



Map 497 



Triodopsis tennesseensis burchi Hubricht, 1950, Nau- 
tilus, 64: 8. 

Triodopsis burchi Hubricht, Hubricht, 1958, Trans. 
Ky. Acad. Sci., 19: 72. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter and under logs in 
upland oak woods, in ravines, and on mountain- 
sides. 

Triodopsis platysayoides (Brooks, 1933) 

Map 498 

Triodopsis platysayoides (Brooks), Pilsbry, 1940, 

LMNA, 1: 801. 
Triodopsis complanata platysayoides (Brooks), 

Vagvolgyi, 1968, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 136: 159. 

Habitat— Found in deep, moist leaf litter just 
below the summit escarpment (sandstone). Known 
only from the type locality. 

Triodopsis henriettae (Mazyck, 1877) Map 499 

Triodopsis vultuosa henriettae (Mazyck), Pilsbry, 1940, 

LMNA, 1: 821. 
Triodopsis henriettae (Mazyck), Cheatum & Fulling- 

ton, 1971, Dallas Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 1(1): 45. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter and under logs in 
dry upland woods. 



Triodopsis vultuosa (Gould), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 

818. 
Triodopsis vultuosa copei (Wetherby), Pilsbry, 1940, 

LMNA, 1: 820; Branson, 1962, Proc. Okla. Acad. 

Sci., 42: 73. 
Polygyra latispira Pilsbry, Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 

622; Hubricht, 1976, Nautilus, 90: 105. 
Triodopsis copei (Wetherby), Vagvolgyi, 1968, Bull. 

Mus. Comp. Zool., 136: 199. 
[Triodopsis vultuosa henriettae (Mazyck), Branson, 

1962, Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci., 42: 73.] 

Habitat— Found in similar habitats to T. hen- 
riettae. 



Triodopsis cragini Call, 1886 



Map 512 



Triodopsis cragini Call, Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 821. 
Triodopsis vultuosa cragini Call, Branson, 1 962, Proc. 

Okla. Acad. Sci., 42: 72. 
Triodopsis copei cragini Call, Vagvolgyi, 1968, Bull. 

Mus. Comp. Zool., 136: 201. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter and about logs in 
dry upland woods. 

Triodopsis fallax (Say, 1825) Map 513 

Triodopsis fallax (Say), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 809. 

Habitat— A species of open ground. I have nev- 
er found it in the woods. Found in clearings, along 
roadsides, and railroads, and on waste ground in 
urban areas. 

Triodopsis messana Hubricht, 1952 Map 502 

Triodopsis messana Hubricht, 1952, Nautilus, 65: 80. 
Triodopsis fallax messana Hubricht, Grimm, 1975, 
Bull. Amer. Malacol. Union, 1974: 26. 

Habitat— Found on the Atlantic Coastal Plain 
in usually open situations, roadsides, along rail- 
roads, and on waste ground in urban areas. 

Triodopsis obsoleta (Pilsbry, 1894) Map 503 

Triodopsis hopetonensis obsoleta (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 
1940, LMNA, 1: 814. 

Triodopsis hopetonensis chincoteagensis Pilsbry, 1940, 
LMNA, 1: 813; Hubricht, 1953, Nautilus, 66: 121. 

Triodopsis obsoleta (Pilsbry), Hubricht, 1952, Nauti- 
lus, 65: 80. 

Triodopsis fallax obsoleta (Pilsbry), Vagvolgyi, 1968, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 136: 187. 

[Triodopsis palustris Hubricht, Vagvolgyi, 1968, Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., 136: 187.] 

Habitat— A species of the Atlantic Coastal 
Plain, where it is restricted to Pleistocene land. 
Found on low, wet ground and in swamps. A com- 
mon urban snail. 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



47 



Triodopsis soelneri (J. B. Henderson, 1907) 

Map 505 

Triodopsis soelneri (J. B. Henderson), Pilsbry, 1940, 
LMNA, 1: 814. 

Habitat— Found about logs and under litter in 
swamps, but also occurs under trash in pine woods. 

Remarks— Typically this species is without teeth 
on the lip, but shells from pine woods have a small 
but distinct tooth in the outer lip. It is probable 
that this tooth and the ability to survive in the 
pine woods is due to introgression from T. mes- 
sana. 



Triodopsis affinis Hubricht, 1954 



Map 506 



Triodopsis fallax affinis Hubricht, 1954, Nautilus, 68: 
28. 

Habitat— An urban snail. Found on vacant lots 
and in gardens in urban areas and where trash had 
been dumped near the roadside in rural areas. 

Remarks— Triodopsis affinis is a population re- 
sulting from hybridization between T. fallax and 
T. alabamensis. Despite its hybrid origin, it is re- 
markably uniform, which would indicate that it is 
being strongly selected to fit its peculiar habitat. 
It probably originated in some town in western 
South Carolina, where the ranges of T. fallax and 
T. alabamensis join, and has since been spread by 
commerce through the towns in the Piedmont of 
North and South Carolina. 



Triodopsis hopetonensis (Shuttleworth, 1852) 

Map 5 1 1 

Triodopsis hopetonensis (Shuttleworth), Pilsbry, 1 940, 

LMNA, 1: 811. 
Triodopsis fallax hopetonensis (Shuttleworth), Beetle, 

1973, Sterkiana, 49: 31. 

Habitat— Found in moderately wet places in 
either woodland or open ground. A very common 
urban snail. Widely introduced into Alabama, 
Mississippi, and eastern Tennessee, where it oc- 
curs as an urban snail or in roadside dumps. 

Triodopsis palustris Hubricht, 1958 Map 508 

Triodopsis palustris Hubricht, 1958, Trans. Ky. Acad. 
Sci., 19: 74. 

Habitat— Found about logs and in leaf litter in 
low, wet, floodplain woods. 

Triodopsis denotata (Ferussac, 1821) Map 493 

Triodopsis notata (Deshayes), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 

1: 824. 
Triodopsis denotata (Ferussac), Pilsbry, 1948, LMNA, 

2: 1100. 
Xolotrema denotata (Ferussac), Webb, 1952, Gastro- 

podia, 1: 8. 
Triodopsis obstricta denotata (Ferussac), Vagvolgyi, 

1948, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 136: 206. 

Habitat— Found on or about logs usually on 
wooded hillsides, but sometimes on floodplains. 



Triodopsis alabamensis (Pilsbry, 1902) Map 491 Triodopsis obstricta (Say, 1821) 



Map 507 



Triodopsis vannostrandi alabamensis (Pilsbry), Pils- 
bry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 818. 

Triodopsis fallax alabamensis (Pilsbry), Hubricht, 
1954, Nautilus, 68:29. 

Triodopsis alabamensis (Pilsbry), Hubricht, 1964, 
Sterkiana, 16: 6. 

Habitat— Found in leaf litter and about logs in 
upland woods, either pine or oak. Rarely found as 
an urban snail. 

Triodopsis vannostrandi (Bland, 1875) Map 495 

Triodopsis vannostrandi (Bland), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 

1:815. 
Triodopsis vannostrandi goniosoma (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 

1940, LMNA, 1: 817; Hubricht, 1953, Nautilus, 66: 

118. 
Triodopsis fallax vannostrandi (Bland), Grimm, 1975, 

Bull. Amer. Malacol. Union, 1974: 26. 

Habitat— A species of the Atlantic Coastal 
Plain. Found in the dryer woods, in both pine and 
oak, under leaf litter and about logs. Also found 
along roadsides and railroads and in urban areas 
on waste ground. 



Triodopsis obstricta (Say), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 

827. 
[Triodopsis caroliniensis (Lea), Vagvolgyi, 1968, Bull. 

Mus. Comp. Zool., 136: 209.] 

Habitat— A calciphile. Usually found on rocky 
river bluffs near logs. 

Triodopsis occidentalis (Pilsbry & Ferriss, 1 907) 

Map 509 

Triodopsis obstricta occidentalis (Pilsbry & Ferriss), 

Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 829. 
Triodopsis occidentalis (Pilsbry & Ferriss), Hubricht, 

1972, Sterkiana, 45: 33. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found under rocks on 
rocky wooded hillsides and in ravines. 

Triodopsis caroliniensis (I. Lea, 1834) Map 522 

Triodopsis caroliniensis (I. Lea), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 
1: 829. 

Habitat— Found about logs on wooded flood- 
plains and hillsides. 



48 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Triodopsis fosteri (F. C. Baker, 1932) Map 504 Triodopsis multilineata (Say, 1821) Map 515 



Triodopsis fosteri (¥. C. Baker), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 

1:831. 
Triodopsis fosteri hubrichti (F. C. Baker), Pilsbry, 1940, 

LMNA, 1: 833. 
Xolotrema fosteri (F. C. Baker), Webb, 1952, Gastro- 

podia, 1: 8. 
Triodopsis hubrichti (F. C. Baker), Leonard & Frye, 

1960, 111. State Geol. Surv., Circ, 304: 9. 

Habitat— Found in a variety of habitats; under 
leaf litter, logs, and rocks; on floodplains, hillsides, 
and in ravines; on roadsides and along railroads; 
and in urban gardens and waste ground. 



Triodopsis albolabris (Say, 1816) 



Map 500 



Triodopsis albolabris (Say), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 

835. 
Xolotrema albolabris albolabris (Say), Webb, 1952, 

Gastropodia, 1: 8. 

Habitat— Found on wooded hillsides and in 
ravines, under logs and rocks, in leaf litter, and 
along roadsides and railroads; and on waste ground 
in urban areas. 



Triodopsis alien i (Wetherby, in Sampson, 1883) 

Map 516 

Triodopsis albolabris alleni ('Wetherby' Sampson), 

Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 840. 
Triodopsis albolabris fuscolabris (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 

1940, LMNA, 1: 842. 
Xolotrema albolabris alleni ('Wetherby' Sampson), 

Webb, 1952, Gastropodia, 1: 8. 
Triodopsis alleni (Wetherby), Hubricht, 1965, Ster- 

kiana, 17: 2. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitats as T. al- 
bolabris, but not found with it. 

Triodopsis major (A. Binney, 1837) Map 501 

Triodopsis albolabris major (A. Binney), Pilsbry, 1 940, 

LMNA, 1: 843. 
Xolotrema albolabris major (A.. Binney), Webb, 1952, 

Gastropodia, 1: 8. 
Triodopsis major (A. Binney), Hubricht, 1965, Ster- 

kiana, 17: 2. 

Habitat— Found in the same habitats as T. al- 
bolabris, but not found with it. 

Triodopsis dentifera (A. Binney, 1837) Map 514 

Triodopsis dentifera (A. Binney), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 
1: 844. 

Habitat— Found under leaf litter and about logs 
and rocks on wooded mountainsides, often where 
the soil is quite acid. 



Triodopsis multilineata (Say), Pilsbry, 1 940, LMNA, 
1: 847. 

Xolotrema multilineata (Say), Webb, 1952, Gastro- 
podia, 1: 7. 

Xolotrema chadwicki (Ferriss), Webb, 1952, Gastro- 
podia, 1: 7. 

Triodopsis altonensis (F. C. Baker), Leonard & Frye, 
1960, 111. State Geol. Surv., Circ, 304: 9. 

Triodopsis algonquinensis (Nason), Leonard & Frye, 
1960, 111. State Geol. Surv., Circ, 304: 9. 

Habitat— Found in low, wet places, in marshes, 
floodplains, meadows, and margins of lakes and 
ponds, under litter and drift. 



Triodopsis divesta (Gould, 1851) 



Map 517 



Triodopsis divesta (Gould), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 
851. 

Habitat— Found on rocky wooded hillsides un- 
der rocks, logs, and leaf litter. 

Triodopsis lioderma (Pilsbry, 1 902) Map 5 1 8 

Mesodon indianorum lioderma (Pilsbry), Pilsbry, 1940, 
LMNA, 1: 741. 

Triodopsis lioderma (Pilsbry), Hubricht, 1967, Nau- 
tilus, 81: 65. 

Habitat— Found under stones on river bluffs. 



Allogona profunda (Say, 1821) 



Map 519 



Allogona profunda (Say), Pilsbry, 1940, LMNA, 1: 877. 
Allogona profunda strontiana (Clapp), Pilsbry, 1 940, 
LMNA, 1: 880. 

Habitat— Found under leaf litter on wooded 
floodplains, hillsides, and in ravines. 



Superfamily HELICACEA 
Family OREOHELICIDAE 

Oreohelix strigosa cooperi (W. G. Binney, 1858) 

Map 520 

Oreohelix strigosa cooperi (W. G. Binney), Pilsbry, 
1939, LMNA, 1: 443. 

Habitat— Found in forest above 3,700 ft. Other 
subspecies in various parts of the western United 
States and Canada. 



Family HELMINTHOGLYPTIDAE 
Subfamily CEPOLIINAE 

Cepolis varians (Menke, 1829) Map 521 

Cepolis varians (Menke), Pilsbry, 1939, LMNA, 1: 28. 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



49 



Habitat— An arboreal species. Found on the 
outer twigs of trees near the beach on the Florida 
Keys. Now nearly extinct. Common in the Ba- 
hamas. 



Family HELICIDAE 

Cepaea hortensis (Mviller, 1774) Map 523 

Cepaea hortensis (Mttller), Pilsbry, 1939, LMNA, 
1:6. 

Habitat— A calciphile. Found on the offshore 
islands along the New England Coast. Introduced 
into urban areas. Main distribution in western and 
central Europe. 



Papers from Which 

Distribution Records Were Obtained 

Alexander, R. C. 1947. Report on the land mollusks 
of Cape May, N.J. Nautilus, 60: 97-100, 61: 4-6. 

. 1952. Checklist of New Jersey land snails. Nau- 
tilus, 66: 54-59. 

Allen, D., and E. P. Cheatum. 1961. A Pleistocene 
molluscan fauna from near Byers, Clay Co., Texas. J. 
Graduate Res. Centre, 29: 137-169. 

Allen, J. F. 1954. Notes on the molluscan fauna of 
Galesville, Maryland. Nautilus, 67: 108-112. 

. 1954. Notes on the gastropods collected in the 

vicinity of Crisfield, Maryland. Nautilus, 67: 92-94. 

Archer, A. F. 1948. Land snails of the genus Steno- 
trema in the Alabama region. Mus. Pap. Ala. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., No. 28: 1-85. 

Beasley, C. W., and R. W. Fullington. 1978. Gas- 
tropods of Taylor County, Texas. Sterkiana, 69: 1-2. 

Beetle, D. E. 1 967. Mollusks of the Outer Banks, N.C. 
Nautilus, 81: 61-65. 

. 1972. Kudzu vine and an associated land snail 

fauna. Bull. Amer. Malacol. Union, 1971: 6-7. 

. 1972. A note on land snails associated with 



Kudzu vine. Nautilus, 86: 18-19. 
. 1973. A checklist of the land and freshwater 



mollusks of Virginia. Sterkiana, 49: 21-35. 
. 1977. Mollusks of Badlands National Monu- 



ment, S.D. Bull. Amer. Malacol. Union, 1976: 49-50. 

Berry, E. G., and B. B. Miller. 1966. A new Pleis- 
tocene fauna and a new species of Biomphalaria (Ba- 
sommatophora: Planerbidae) from southwestern Kan- 
sas, U.S.A. Malacologia, 4: 261-267. 

Bickel, D. 1967. Preliminary checklist of Recent and 
Pleistocene Mollusca of Kentucky. Sterkiana, 28: 7- 
20. 

. 1968. Correction for preliminary checklist of 

Recent and Pleistocene Mollusca of Kentucky. Ster- 
kiana, 31: 14. 



. 1968. Checklist of the Mollusca of Tennessee. 

Sterkiana, 31: 15-39. 

Blakeslee, C. 1947. Some Mollusca of Ilion Gorge, 
Herkimer County, New York. Nautilus, 60: 78-81. 

Bogan, A. A., C. C. Coney, and W. A. Tarpley. 1 982. 
Distribution of the Polygyridae (Mollusca; Pulmona- 
ta) in Tennessee. J. Tenn. Acad. Sci., 57: 16-22. 

Branson, B. A. 1959. Oklahoma gastropods: Range 
extensions, a faunal addition, and a nomenclatural 
change. Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci., 37: 30-32. 

. 1959. The Recent Gastropoda of Oklahoma. 

Part 1 , Historical review, general comments and higher 
taxonomic categories. Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci., 39: 21- 
37. 

. 1959. Notes on Oklahoma snails (Gastropoda), 



with new records. Southwest. Natur., 3: 224-226. 
. 1959. Notes on Oklahoma slugs, with addi- 



tions to the previously known fauna. Southwest. Nat- 
ur., 4: 143-147. 
. 1960. Gastropods of the Rob and Bessie Wel- 



der Wildlife Foundation Refuge, San Patricio County, 
Texas. Southwest. Natur., 5: 143-159. 
. 1961. The Recent Gastropoda of Oklahoma, 



III. Terrestrial species: Pupillidae, Carychiidae, Stro- 
bilopsidae and Oligyridae. Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci., 41: 
45-69. 
. 1961. Notes on some gastropods from northern 



Louisiana. Proc. La. Acad. Sci., 24: 24-30. 
. 1962. Some distribution records for Louisiana, 



Arkansas, and Missouri Gastropoda. Sterkiana, 7: 
5-6. 

-. 1962. The Recent Gastropoda of Oklahoma, 



part IV. Terrestrial species, families Polygyridae and 
Bulimulidae. Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci., 42: 60-80. 

1962. The slugs (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) of 



Oklahoma and Kansas with new records. Trans. Kan. 
Acad. Sci., 65: 110-119. 
. 1963. New mollusk records from Oklahoma 



and their zoogeographical significance. Trans. Kan. 
Acad. Sci., 66: 501-512. 

1963. The Recent Gastropoda of Oklahoma, 



V. Terrestrial species, Valloniidae, Achatinidae and 
Succineidae. Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci., 43: 73-87. 
. 1963. Additions to and distributional anno- 



tations on the Kansas gastropod fauna. Trans. Kan. 
Acad. Sci., 66: 72-75. 

1964. Records and two new species, Stenotre- 



ma abaddona and S. glassi, from Oklahoma. Nautilus, 
77: 100-105. 

1964. The Recent Gastropoda of Oklahoma, 



VI. Terrestrial families, Endodontidae and Haplotre- 
matidae. Revisions and Retinella zikmundi sp. nov. 
Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci., 44: 25-41. 

1968. Two new slugs (Pulmonata; Philomy- 



cidae: Philomycus) from Kentucky and Virginia. Nau- 
tilus, 81: 127-133. 
. 1969. Snail records from various southern, 



eastern and middle states. Sterkiana, 35: 1-4. 

1970. An ecological study of the valley-forest 



gastropods in a mixed mesophytic situation of north- 
ern Kentucky. Veliger, 12: 333-350. 



50 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



. 1971. Locality records for Oklahoma Mollus- 

ca. Sterkiana, 41: 35-40. 
. 1972. Mollusca of the Wichita, Arbuckle, and 



Black Mesa Uplifts of Oklahoma, and description of 
Stenotrema wichitorum, new species. Southwest. Nat- 
ur., 16: 307-320. 
. 1975. The Recent Gastropoda of Oklahoma, 



Part VII. The Zonitidae. Sterkiana, 52: 28-44. 

Branson, B. A., and D. L. Batch. 1968. Land snails 
from Pine and Big Black Mountains, Kentucky. Ster- 
kiana, 32: 6-17. 

. 1971. Annotated distribution records for Ken- 



tucky Mollusca. Sterkiana, 43: 1-9. 
Branson, B. A., J. Taylor, and C. Taylor. 1962. A 

Pleistocene local fauna from Caddo and Canadian 

Counties, Oklahoma. Okla. Geol. Notes, 22: 280-295. 
Branson, B. A., and I. E. Wallen. 1959. Some further 

records of snail distribution by counties in Oklahoma. 

Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci., 36: 34-37. 
Bretet, R., and E. C. Carswell. 1952. A rich locality 

in the New York City area. Nautilus, 65: 100-102. 
Briscoe, M. S. 1963. A survey of land and freshwater 

snails in Jefferson County, West Virginia. Sterkiana, 

9: 41-48. 
Browne, R. G., and P. M. Bruder. 1963. Pleistocene 

Mollusca from the loesses of Kentucky. Sterkiana, 11: 

53-57. 



. 1968. Wisconsin molluscan faunas from Hen- 
derson County, Kentucky. Bull. Amer. Paleontol., 54: 
187-275. 

Browne, R. G., and D. MacDonald. 1 960. Wisconsin 
molluscan faunas from Jefferson County, Kentucky. 
Bull. Amer. Paleontol., 41: 165-183. 

Burch, J. B. 1952. A preliminary list of the Mollusca 
of Hanover County, Virginia. Nautilus, 66: 60-63. 

. 1954. The landsnails of Henrico County, Vir- 
ginia. Nautilus, 68: 30-33. 

1955. The land snails of Hanover, Henrico, 



and Chesterfield counties, Virginia. Va. J. Sci., N.S. 
6: 154-162. 

1955. Some ecological factors of the soil af- 



fecting land snails in Virginia. Nautilus, 69: 62-69. 
-. 1956-1957. Distribution of land snails in plant 



associations in eastern Virginia. Nautilus, 70: 60-64, 
102-105. 

1969. Land mollusks of the southern Appa- 



lachians, pp. 247-264. In The Distributional History 
of the Biota of the Southern Appalachians. Part 1 : 
Invertebrates. Monograph 1. Virginia Polytechnical 
Institute, Research Division, Blacksburg. 

Burch, P. R. 1950. Mollusks, pp. 129-137. In The 
James River Basin— Past, Present, and Future. Vir- 
ginia Academy of Science, Williamsburg. 

Burch, P. R., and L. Hubricht. 1951. Mesodon an- 
drewsae normalis (Pils.) in Virginia (Pulmonata: Poly- 
gyridae). Va. J. Sci., N.S. 2: 60-61. 

Bushey, C. J. 1 950. Land snails from Clifty Falls State 
Park, Jefferson County, and from Versailles State Park, 
Ripley County, Indiana. Nautilus, 64: 54-55. 

. 1950. Land snails from Grant County, Indiana. 

Nautilus, 63: 119-121. 



Camp, M. J. 1973. Pleistocene lacustrine deposits and 
molluscan paleontology of western Ohio, eastern In- 
diana, and southern Michigan. Sterkiana, 52: 1-27. 

. 1974. Pleistocene Mollusca of three south- 
eastern Michigan marl deposits. Sterkiana, 56: 21-64. 

Camp, M. J., and A. L. Ginder. 1978. Pleistocene 
Mollusca of the Sunbeam Prairie lacustrine deposit, 
Darke Co., Ohio. Ohio J. Sci., 78: 1 1 1-1 18. 

Cheatum, E. 1976. Molluscan fauna of the Gore Pit 
site in Comanche County, Oklahoma. Plains Anthro- 
pol., 21: 279-282. 

Cheatum, E., and D. Allen. Pleistocene land and fresh- 
water mollusks from north Texas. Sterkiana, 18: 1- 
17. 

Cheatum, E., and R. W. Fullington. 1971. The 
aquatic and land Mollusca of Texas. Part One. The 
Recent and Pleistocene members of the gastropod 
family Polygyridae in Texas. Dallas Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Bull. 1: i-vi, 1-74. 

. 1973. The aquatic and land Mollusca of Texas. 



Part Two. The Recent and Pleistocene members of the 
Pupillidae and Urocoptidae (Gastropoda) of Texas. 
Dallas Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull. 1: i-iii, 1-67. 
Clark, A. L. 1961. Pleistocene molluscan faunas of 
the Castalia deposit, Erie County, Ohio. Sterkiana, 3: 
19-39. 

Clark, C. F. 1962. Records of Gastropods collected 
in western Ohio. Sterkiana, 6: 1 5-22. 

Clench, W.J. 1954. Mesodon thyroidus (Say) in Flor- 
ida. Nautilus, 68: 23-24. 

Coney, C. C, W. A. Tarpey, J. C. Warden, and J. W. 
Nagel. 1982. Ecological studies of land snails in the 
Hiwassee River basin of Tennessee, U.S.A. Malacol. 
Rev., 15: 69-106. 

Conklin, J. E. 1957. Larger land snails of Sleepy Hol- 
low, Kentucky. Nautilus, 71: 10-11. 

Conklin, J. E., and B. M. Conklin. 1961. Fossil land 
snails from the loess at Vicksburg, Mississippi. Trans. 
Ky. Acad. Sci., 22: 11-15. 

Cornejo, J. 1961. Pleistocene molluscan faunas of the 
Souder Lake Deposit, Franklin County, Ohio. Ster- 
kiana, 4: 35-49. 

Couri, C. C. 1973. A new Pleistocene faunule from 
Meade County, Kansas. Sterkiana, 51: 1-9. 

Cvancara, A. M., J. B. Van Alstine, and W. E. Fennar. 
1973. Land snails of North Dakota, a preliminary 
report. Proc. N.D. Acad. Sci., 26: 43-50. 

Dawley, C. 1955. Minnesota land snails. Nautilus, 69: 
56-62. 

Dexter, R. W. 1955. Extension of known range of the 
slug Pallifera fosteri F. C. Baker. Nautilus, 69: 35-36. 

Dundee, D. S. 1955. Additional localities for land 
Mollusca in Oklahoma. Nautilus, 69: 16-18. 

. 1957. Aspects of the biology of Pomatiopsis 

lapidaria (Say). Misc. Pub. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 
no. 100: 1-37. 

Dundee, D. S., and H. A. Dundee. 1958. Extensions 
of known ranges of 4 mollusks. Nautilus, 72: 51-53. 

Dundee, D. S., and P. Watt. 1961. Louisiana land 
snails with new records. Nautilus, 75: 79-83. 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



51 



Einsohn, B. 1981. New records of land Mollusca in 
New York City. Nautilus, 95: 82-83. 

Franzen, D. S. 1971. Anatomy and geographic dis- 
tribution of the succineid gastropod, Succinea vagi- 
nacontorta Lee. Nautilus, 84: 131-142. 

Freed, S. 1957. Land and fresh water mollusks of Union 
County, New Jersey. Nautilus, 70: 135-136. 

Frest, T. J., and L. P. Fay. 1981. Vertigo marame- 
censis (Pulmonata: Pupillidae) from the Niagran Es- 
carpment, Iowa. Nautilus, 95: 33-37. 

Frest, T. J., and R. S. Rhodes II. 1981. Oreohelix 
strigosa cooperi (Binney) in the midwest Pleistocene. 
Nautilus, 95: 47-55. 

Fullington, R. W., and W. L. Pratt, Jr. 1974. The 
aquatic and land Mollusca of Texas. Part Three. The 
Helicinidae, Carychiidae, Achatinidae, Bradybaeni- 
dae, Bulimulidae, Cionellidae, Haplotrematidae, He- 
licidae, Oreohelicidae, Spiraxidae, Streptaxidae, Stro- 
bilopsidae, Thysanophoridae, and Valloniidae 
(Gastropoda) in Texas. Dallas Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., 
1: i-iv, 1-48. 

Getz, L. L. 1962. Localities for New Hampshire land 
mollusks. Nautilus, 76: 25-28. 

Grimm, F. W. 1959. Land snails of Carroll County, 
Maryland. Nautilus, 72: 122-127. 

. 1959. Land snails from Maryland and Virginia. 

Nautilus, 73: 21-22. 

1961. Pallifera fosteri, with P. megaphallica, 



new. Nautilus, 74: 102-105. 

1961. Land snails from the upper Patuxent 



Estuary margin (Maryland). Nautilus, 74: 106-109. 
1961. Land snails from Maryland coastal plain. 



Nautilus, 74: 160-161. 

1963. Triodopsis fosteri in Ohio. Nautilus, 77: 



72. 
. 1964. Striatura meridionalis in Michigan. 

Nautilus, 77: 108. 
. 1971. Annotated checklist of the land snails of 



Maryland and the District of Columbia. Sterkiana, 41: 

51-57. 

. 1975. A review of Succinea wilsoni a coastal 



marsh snail of eastern North America. Nautilus, 89: 
39-43. 

. 1975. Speciation within the Triodopsis fallax 



group (Pulmonata: Polygyridae)— A preliminary re- 
port. Bull. Amer. Malacol. Union, 1975: 23-29. 
Guilday, J. E., H. W. Hamilton, E. Anderson, and P. 
W. Parmalee. 1978. The Baker Bluff Cave deposit, 
Tennessee, and the late Pleistocene faunal gradient. 
Bull. Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist., 11: 1-67 (Table 1, 
Mollusca, pp. 11-12). 

Heilman, R. A. 1951. The mollusks of Dauphin Coun- 
ty, Pennsylvania. Nautilus, 64: 100-101. 

. 1952. The mollusks of Berks County, Penn- 
sylvania. Nautilus, 65: 103-104. 

1958. Mollusks of Lebanon Co., Pennsylvania. 



Nautilus, 72: 58-60. 
Hubricht, L. 1950. The invertebrate fauna of Ozark 
caves. Nat. Speleol. Soc. Bull., 12: 16-17. 

. 1950. The distribution of Triodopsis soelneri 

(J. B. Henderson) in North Carolina. Nautilus, 64: 67. 



. 1 950. The Polygyridae of Pittsylvania County, 

Virginia. Nautilus, 64: 6-9. 

1950. Mesodon andrewsae normalis (Pils.) in 



Kentucky. Nautilus, 63: 106. 

. 1950. Notes on Pallifera. Nautilus, 63: 106. 

1951. The Limacidae and Philomycidae of 



Pittsylvania County, Virginia. Nautilus, 65: 20-22. 
. 1951. Pallifera secreta (Cockerell). Nautilus, 



64: 102-103. 

1952. The land snails of Pittsylvania County, 



Virginia. Nautilus, 66: 10-13. 

1953. The Zonitidae of Pittsylvania County, 



Virginia. Nautilus, 67: 22-24. 
. 1953. Land snails of the Southern Atlantic 



coastal plain. Nautilus, 66: 1 14-125. 
. 1954. The snails from two Indian shellmounds 



near Clarksville, Virginia. Nautilus, 67: 90-92. 
. 1956. Land snails of Shenandoah National Park. 



Nautilus, 70: 15-16. 
. 1956. Land snails from Louisiana. Nautilus, 



69: 124-126. 
. 1956. Haplotrema kendeighi Webb. Nautilus, 



69: 126-128. 
. 1 960. Distribution records of land snails in the 



southeastern United States. Sterkiana, 2: 9-12. 

1960. Pomatiopsis lapidaria on the southern 



Atlantic coastal plain, with remarks on the status of 
P. praelonga and P. hinkley. Nautilus, 74: 33-34. 

1 960. The cave snail, Carychium stygium Call. 



Trans. Ky. Acad. Sci., 21: 35-38. 

1 960. The genus Bulimulus in southern Texas. 



Nautilus, 74: 68-70. 
. 1960. Beach drift land snails from southern 



Texas (exclusive of Polygyridae). Nautilus, 74: 82-83. 
-. 1 960. Hendersonia occulta fossil in Mississip- 



pi. Nautilus, 74: 83. 
. 1961. Land snails from the loess of Mississippi. 



Sterkiana, 3: 11-14. 
. 1962. Land snails from the Pleistocene of 



southern Texas. Sterkiana, 7: 1-3. 

-. 1 962. Land snails from the loess in the vicinity 



of New Harmony, Posey County, Indiana. Sterkiana, 
7: 3-4. 

. 1 962. Mesomphix vulgatus and its allies. Nau- 



tilus, 76: 1-7. 
. 1962. Pleistocene land snails from southern 



Mississippi and adjacent Louisiana. Sterkiana, 8: 1- 
11. 
. 1962. Drift land shells from the Red River, 



Arkansas. Sterkiana, 8: 33-34. 

1963. Some Succineidae, with a new species. 



Nautilus, 76: 135-138. 

1963. Triodopsis hopetonensis (Shuttleworth) 



in the Gulf States. Nautilus, 76: 152. 
. 1963. Some land snail records from Louisiana. 



Sterkiana, 10: 1-3. 

-. 1963. The range of Succinea ovalis. Nautilus, 



77:30-31. 
. 1 964. Some Pleistocene land snail records from 



Missouri and Illinois. Sterkiana, 13: 7-17. 



52 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



. 1 964. Land snails from the caves of Kentucky, 

Tennessee, and Alabama. Nat. Speleol. Soc. Bull., 26: 
33-36. 

1 964. The bidentate species of Ventridens (Sty- 



lommatophora: Zonitidae). Malacologia, 1: 417-426. 
1 964. Strobilops aenea west of the Mississippi 



River. Nautilus, 78: 27-28. 
. 1964. Pleistocene land snails from the talus of 



Kentucky and Tennessee. Sterkiana, 16: 3-4. 
— . 1964. The land snails of Georgia. Sterkiana, 



16: 5-10. 
. 1965. 



The land snails of Alabama. Sterkiana, 



17: 1-5. 



1965. 



Pleistocene land snails from Muddy 
Creek, Mississippi. Sterkiana, 16: 6. 
. 1965. Notes on Zonitidae. Nautilus, 78: 133- 



135. 



. 1966. Some land snail records from Arkansas 

and Oklahoma. Nautilus, 79: 1 17-1 18. 
. 1 967. Some land snail records from Oklahoma 



and Arkansas. Nautilus, 81: 65-67. 
. 1968. The land snails of Mammoth Cave Na- 



tional Park, Kentucky. Nautilus, 82: 24-28. 

1968. The land snails of Kentucky. Sterkiana, 



32: 



1-6. 
-. 1970. 



The land snails of North Carolina. Ster- 
kiana, 39: 11-15. 
. 1971. The land snails of South Carolina. Ster- 



kiana, 41: 42-44. 

1971. The land snails of Virginia. Sterkiana, 



42: 41-45. 

. 1972. Land snail records from Missouri. Ster- 
kiana, 45: 34-35. 

. 1972. Some river drift land snails from Okla- 



homa. Sterkiana, 45: 36. 
. 1972. The land snails of Arkansas. Sterkiana, 

46: 15-17. 
. 1973. The land snails of Tennessee. Sterkiana, 



49: 11-17. 
. 1973. The land snails of Mississippi. Sterkiana, 

67: 1-4. 
. 1983. The genus Praticolella in Texas (Poly- 

gyridae: Pulmonata). Veliger, 25: 244-250. 
. 1983. Five new land snails from the south- 



eastern United States, with notes on other species. 
Gastropodia, 2: 13-19. 

Ideker, J. 1979. The associated gastropod fauna of the 
Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge with notes on a 
colony of the snail, Helicina orbiculata. Southwest. 
Natur., 24: 687-689. 

Kaplan, M. F., and W. L. Minkley. 1 960. Land snails 
from the Doe Run Creek Area, Meade County, Ken- 
tucky. Nautilus, 74: 62-65. 

Leonard, A. B. 1959. Handbook of gastropods in Kan- 
sas. Univ. Kan. Mus. Nat. Hist., Publ. No. 20: 1-224. 

Leonard, A. B., J. C. Frye, and W. H. Johnson. 1971. 
Illinoian and Kansan Molluscan faunas of Illinois. 111. 
State Geol. Surv., Circ. 461: 1-23. 

Levi, L. R., and H. W. Levi. 1950. New records of 
land snails from Wisconsin. Nautilus, 63: 131-138. 



Lutz, L. 1950. A list of the land Mollusca of Claiborne 
County, Tennessee with description of a new subspe- 
cies of Triodopsis. Nautilus, 63: 99-105, 121-123. 

MacMillan, G. K. 1950. The land snails of West Vir- 
ginia. Ann. Carnegie Mus., 31: 89-238. 

Mickelson, E. H. 1953. A preliminary survey of the 
land mollusks of Alachua County, Florida. Nautilus, 
67: 33-35, 48-53. 

Miles, C. B., and R. L. Reeder. 1969. A preliminary 
report on the distribution of land snails in northern 
Missouri. Amer. Malacol. Union, Ann. Rep., 1969: 
40-42. 

Miller, B. B. 1966. Five Illinoian Molluscan faunas 
from the southern Great Plains. Malacologia, 4: 1 73— 
260. 

Muchmore, W. B. 1959. Land snails of E. N. Huych 
Preserve, New York. Nautilus, 72: 85-89. 

Murphy, J. L. 1971. Molluscan remains from four 
archeological sites in northeastern Ohio. Sterkiana, 43: 
21-25. 

Nave, F. R. 1969. Pleistocene Mollusca of southwest- 
ern Ohio. Sterkiana, 34: 1-48. 

Neck, R. W. 1977. New county records of land snails 
of Texas. Sterkiana, 65: 5-6. 

Pilsbry, H. A., and L. Hubricht. 1956. Beach drift 
Polygyridae from southern Texas. Nautilus, 69: 93- 
96. 

Pratt, W. L., Jr. 1974. A revision of the mainland 
species of the bulimulid land snail genus Rabdotus. 
Bull. Amer. Malacol. Union, 1973: 24-25. 

Rawls, H. C. 1955. The occurrence of Polygyra tex- 
asiana (Moricand) in Alabama. Nautilus, 68: 77-79. 

Reeder, R. L., and C. D. Miles. 1976. Land snails 
from northern Missouri. Sterkiana, 61: 15-18. 

Rehder, H. A. 1949. Some land and freshwater mol- 
lusks from the coastal region of Virginia and North 
and South Carolina. Nautilus, 62: 121-136. 

Reigle, N. J. 1963. Northern records of Gastrocopta 
procera. Nautilus, 77: 16-18. 

. 1964. The distribution of the genus Ventridens 

(Mollusca, Gastropoda) in Michigan. Amer. Midi. 
Natur., 72: 507-508. 

Robertson, I. C. S., and C. L. Blakeslee. 1948. The 
Mollusca of the Niagara frontier region and adjacent 
territory. Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Hist., 19: 1-191. 

Roscoe, E. J. 1954. Terrestrial gastropods from the 
Black Hills, Lawrence County, South Dakota. Proc. 
Utah Acad. Sci. Arts Lett., 31: 67-72. 

Roy, E. C, Jr. 1963. Checklist of Pleistocene and liv- 
ing Mollusca of Wisconsin. Sterkiana, 10: 5-21. 

. 1964. Pleistocene non-marine Mollusca of 



northeastern Wisconsin. Sterkiana, 15: 5-77. 

Taft, C. 1961. The shell-bearing land snails of Ohio. 
Ohio Biol. Surv., Bull. 1: i-xii, 1-108. 

Taylor, D. W. 1954. A new Pleistocene fauna and a 
new species of fossil snail from the high plains. Occas. 
Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 577: 1-16. 

. 1955. A new Pleistocene fauna from Harper 

County, Oklahoma. Okla. Geol. Surv., Circ. 37: 1-23. 
. 1960. Late Cenozoic molluscan faunas from 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



53 



the High Plains. U.S. Geol. Surv., Prof. Paper, 337: 
i-iv, 1-94. 

1 966. Summary of North American Blancan 



nonmarine mollusks. Malacologia, 4: 1-172. 

Taylor, R. W., C. L. Counts III, and S. L. Stryker. 
1977. The land snails of Carter Caves State Park, 
Carter County, Kentucky. Sterkiana, 65: 37-38. 

Teskey, M. C. 1954. The mollusks of Brown County, 
Wisconsin. Nautilus, 68: 24-28. 

. 1955. The mollusks of Warm Springs, Georgia. 

Nautilus, 69: 69-71. 

Tucker, J. K., and R. S. Funk. 1977. Succinea witteri 
Shimek (Gastropoda: Succineidae) in Illinois. Nat. Hist. 
Misc. (Chicago), No. 198: 1-7. 

Tucker, J. K., R. S. Funk, and D. Moll. 1977. Dis- 
tributional records of polygyrid snails in Illinois with 



an addition to the state fauna. Trans. 111. State Acad. 
Sci., 70: 86-90. 

Tuthill, S. J. 1 962. A checklist of North Dakota Pleis- 
tocene and Recent Mollusca. Sterkiana, 8: 12-18. 

Wayne, W. J. 1959. Stratigraphic distribution of Pleis- 
tocene land snails in Indiana. Sterkiana, 1: 9-18. 

Wilson, D. 1960. Land snails from central south Flor- 
ida. Nautilus, 73: 137-139. 

Wurtz, C. B. 1948. Some land snails from West Vir- 
ginia and description of a new species. Nautilus, 61: 
80-89. 

. 1948. Some snail records from south-eastern 

Ohio. Nautilus, 62: 91-93. 

Wurzinger, K-H. 1975. The land snails of New York 
State. Preliminary report. Sterkiana, 57: 33-39. 



54 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 





--VJ ipLW 


ran *N£^fN 












^rKjTj^^^^S~x, /"\Y^ 














^TW^T 1 'jrBM 






h7 il\U' 1 


1 1 1 1 1 #^r^ 






^s3 = 5 












S^iJffiS^U 












t£:£ 


" d^ti-lxda-lS 






^-^S+iSpiw 






j#F$ 


~fll-- = 5%fflSBB 






- jim^ 














I v 1 1 L 














III 1 1 l-l 


"TToBKV^iiaf 


























1. Hendersonic 


I oc 


-culta (Say) S^-F/ 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



55 




3. Helicina 
clappi Pilsbry 




4. Lucidella 
tantilla (Pilsbry) 




5. Chondropoma 
dentatum (Say) 




6. Truncatella 
pulchella Pfeiffer 




7. Truncatella 
Jloridana Hubricht 





9. Truncatella 
regina Hubricht 




56 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



57 





58 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




18. Carychium nannodes Clapp 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



59 




FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



61 







24. Cochlicopa lubrica (Mtiller) 








fViVt 


ira^t 






~3S 








TTT ] "H" 










III LJ II I 


"ttP^I^^ 


















tt-uLJI-lJlXl- 


AArVT^Vr^Wi 




-1+fAJ i 1 1 


TTTL-KPJim. 


'--^WlV7l>i5S4WL 




"Tip — p-j- 


















__L 


































'in^TYTdr 




H44£ 



25. Cochlicopa morseana 


(Doherty) 


ycW^S 


r t i py-^—^. <t^ 




gg^sr^^ 


[■ j ( | \L^ J t^-(%-)~7 r 4-4A55 p TH 


Bllli 


yh-\ TTTi ' ,^-pO UrTr* 


irni'iV H , 'i v p u^Vr 












'TS?dMmFTO 




— rrru \ U J J ) Pi/r-r 




^"^^WiltWrV^-Sir 






V ~d±t#TOH-W^ 


i ± _ _ " 35£ £ iTOrey? 


T - : PS^J^S^T§| 


3~ ""if" "5l*apm?S 




3-tt — r~ ~ ~ ~ rPtPAK-A\DT>? 












" ''"^ttBKtM^Su^ 




yi 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



26. Vallonia pulchella (M tiller) 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



63 




64 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



29. Vallonia 
cyclophorella 
rSterki] 




30. Vallonia excentrica Sterki 


y^/X) 


03^' 




^wH^Sf 










tffitt^aK 






g 























HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



65 




66 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



33. Vallonia perspectiva Sterki 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



67 



35. 


Pupilla muscorum muse 


orum (Linne) 




VK&s~/ 




4UJJU r 






























VinTViwGiAm^ 






— f— -HvUr 


ii > ilaaT3 












firTOLOT 


= PP Z ~ L ~--^ 


T^ttMt f 




£ JjX' ' ' " 




JiA sf~ 










F ~ tW jJ-tEzH-^-bS^FTOS 






1 1 Lj^fl- 










M_ — ~L_ 










^B 




pCtfidi^Yt 












r — ^ I r 




n^TFWrT 


1 1 — r 










37. Pupilla 
blandi Morse 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



69 




70 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



71 







Kttm-hcttFW i^mji P ^^I^VflWd* 






>U ''I I 








ixTmii II 


^'_L 


11 j-VS 1 r~|/ \_JrTr-Tl 1 »l * jv\\ J5j£"Vv*"( * V r ^S*^" 


-£L. J r-S! 






II 






j^-rfi J 


r Ti — 1 






WtYt 






TZkttUM^H-iitw&xxHittrw^ 


I TTxi 


rtJ±VrV3^w^^ 


"~ r-J / 1 Cv^ -LfJf 


= fe^ 










51 1 L 








dpHf J~" J 1 T - ' 






J - jHrT - 








JX.IL_ 
















1 — ■~^Vr S34-"£lJ!iv5i^ C^J VJ-K A-V^,v/ 










■C fl-J (-i-K-^tA — [ i ~^\\~r^ \A-L^f^^t^TX^x^^c v\y~^3~A^Vc^^ < v/ 7 ~T' 






















46. Gastrocopta procera (Gould) %MH 




72 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




^^t^WrVi 








^JW^Jtt-H 


- ir UrS 








~- — rT-"-- 






ij— -t — " 


= ^^Su^^^^ 








-rtrH|7[fir^^ 




WOy^^lhj 




M^^gT 






ffilf 49. Gastrocopta pellucida (Pfeiffer) ^[B 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



73 















rU 1 
















Ujf^ m ' 


I I'M 














ivJ/ 1 ' ' 'i 


jj ' 14-li-l fe?Vfflf ^ 




i^TT WnTlS^SmV^T 




-J 1 jT 




l:l:__j 






I ITLl 




i-MV — 111 




9jfrt-5 






















Tor 






l \ i Tr 






mTj'hs 


). Gastrocopta 
abbreviata (Sterki) 


T^O^C 




tMhT 5( 







FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 





55. Gastrocopta^ 
SZ scaevoscala Taylor 



54. Gastrocopta 
paracristata 
Franzen & Leonard 



I I I I I I I T 





Y 56. Gastrocopta -)-f^ [J-j^ - 
_\Hchauliodonta Taylor 



-L I ■ ■ -T-.-I f.-. 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



75 




58. Gastrocopta 
servilis (Gould) 



76 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 











J III V 






Trw 1 




vi-TvVrn — U — t-*Os fi /»? * '"i^Bnt Vi^_5 ^SK. /u V(t i vL/rV 


>Wn 




i 'i — | i 


* Vri 














-1,1, 




?5 = ^ft 








^F$D^t^C^Ltdii^ 


5 




^SfZvTtfrii 1 ^ 


II 






i i r 


r 








\^w~^\ ffil 




6 1 . Gastrocopta pentodon (Say) ^vB 



- 62. Gastrocopta ; 
"^ riograndensis 

(Pilsbry & Vanatta) \ 





63. Gastrocopta]^ 
jz venusta Leonard 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



77 















M 1 II ^ 




























U-l II TTh 








■n.i 1 1' U 


i4TrT)jM? 


\yQ\l£-J / — 6 y/LX^TU^^y^^' 










-HrA 'Mi DXTO-HPR1* 




" ~ tt S^'ViiLu TTrvpciH 








^u 
















Jtjr-- 


v~IUril — 
























""^[MPwittr $; 
















iTiil"^ Ifli'i 'i )T^'ct~T- 






65. Vertigo miliur 


n (Gould) ^m 





==g^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 




_:zUJ. 






rr i ms 


I J 




f I ' 


4 : r- 


jE-t _u— 


: ^^^^^^^ 




TTfr^ 


^HixjV 


— y-^ - I ^ ^Vtjtt H! 


:T2vui?Ps!?44^? 






1 I ! v_ 










(Sterki) ^S 










y~Vj\ 66. Vertigo oscariana 



78 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 




B3»M^# 






J2 y^ JU 

F= == ±gt 




. - i nS 




fl-t_L-:- 


- 5^~2^Vjvjrn 




Tl/rp^v: 


i i nrfc 








4i-% 70. Vertigo oralis Sterki 





80 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



81 




FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 









\ RjB^T^rt \V-— J 




~cWJ^3br 


£U-JJ I'll .JV^rx r^ 


JjT^Tizt^T^PT'v^^ CZr. 






Ti "H 1 i'n'4\ 


5fFR= 


jy^& ^St^Sctil/ 






TlJ^Vrl U 


i — n^^ 11 ^-^!!!!^^ 




iHvJ ' 


LVl \\cuM-fl? 














&yffi£i5STOm 










f£fe 8-- 




^^^S 


j^iEE 


-£ = : _ = ^W^^^^^ 




















Jywffi 














iiixxrrr 








75. Vertigo gouldi 


(A. Binney) 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 




79. Vertigo %, 
nylanderi Sterki 





U A 


80. Vertigo paradoxa Sterki 






JllsS^ 








"v-j^bS**"* 




-^ '- 1 



84 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 







£WJUi^3z 




1 iTrrL 1 


r-i — f— 


p L --yv-^ L\fcg 


?n 1 i II a 










^ jl-Sah iii 






r-i-irn 1 1 1 




T 86. Vertigo Jjrytp 
L -pt binneyana Sterki 


1 



87. Vertigo / 
perryi Sterki 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



85 




89. Vertigo^t L. 
>£ brierensis Leonard 




UJ ' 'VrV^flV ViinT 


: l^^m^ 


^^^^^^^^^ 


tj occulta Leonard 5fr? 



93. Vertigo 
alabamensis 
Clapp 





92. Vertigo Wil- 
' ( concinnula Vr 1 -^ 
~7 Cockerell Y j | 


_LL 






-Uf 






ir 








_L 


1 


J J 




95. Vertigo 
hebardi Vanatta 



86 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Q^Jl/j^ 




rn 1 ttt^it ^WtrtvFrWj 






Yr--n rrr^ l\n>-U-l/ 






5§3± 






fM ^dddL T ^4yYTA#U\^ 
















jSc!™ 


jjjj5 w\^^B8^yK 


Siiiiiii 






4-V-WnQCrVv^^ 






JTTnnHr 




Tl 1 1 1 1 i 


















jT 96. Columella columella ^C 
3^ alticola (Ingersoll) 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



87 




tfr 


1 1 1 1 1 1 MM 


: ss=MSb 




^vw^^> ; 


^TV-iVk22?^U 


u 1 "-] — 1 jiri l\ 


IC^^^Wi 


tm 






willi (Clapp) 


X-r-/ 


f MTrfefr 




f-4- 




). Pupisoma maci 


■L.I 1 J 

/ zfc 


vHl 9 - 




100. Columella 
ZXhasta (Hanna) 




101. Bothriopupa 
variolosa (Gould) 




102. Sterkia 
eyriesi rhoadsi 
(Pilsbry) 



88 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 













Ml'! ?V^ 


^^ \ Cp^L. 


C > X^~rSr^ Jv 


=M I I4=PT 


Vx M-2^ > <, I] M, 
















T'tXn^jpiiL^™ PfTT'^r—-' S ^u/a H" 














^JiS 


1 1 1 T ! 






=R-r-Tr 








yK53 






^^^^^^^^^^^S^^^ 




-J_J__J 


t:±:- 








i- 1 ~i5B J 




^^S|g: 




























TfTTl I I 
































103. Strobilops labyrinthica (Say) ;m~J 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



89 




90 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 




114. Oxyloma 
salleana (Pfeiffer) 



115. Oxyloma 
j££p subeffusa Pilsbry 



92 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 





-r-n , , , _tl cr- -' 




RiSx^ 


j J / i — ^v-* 


S^lUlj ^rJL. ^ 


— ^C J^^i^j^^-W 


nJjTfv- 


. - -J a "^k-^-^^n 






T l I 1 Pi — i/Oi'S/ >{*r\ 
LJ— TT (H — l^-tC&'CI lLj \« 






/j-i — V-Lfrv - )'— 1 — 11 — i-Li T/; 




'■4^1n 


TT TTTn • M I^POltFrW) 




ii |]J 'i '| M'l .\YljTTTl/ 








-Cfir i'i \-n^"jxY^^Ql4A 




^•^SIuT m ' WrCHgPlr 






- :3V H_lVrMnTCS*^Twt 








~^F~C2Ti/*~ == r~i~ 








4 1 .i M^~j 


Se;[|^^S 




I f I 






r-v^sLET I'Nj 






^T] T J (— j—f-4- t-t "Y" 


VVrWnPDrV^-^^ 


diana Pilsbry Snl 










T.I I 1 T 










\ 117. Succinea in 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



93 






^ppwii iiV II IT 1 ! 


^^^^4^ 






1 1 1 1 \N-J. 1 1 r— 













Z JJjIrV 


V'l 1 


\ T^tm5^^3ttt\ 




J J-tJ 






"1 TT 


s 


^^^gE^^^^^^^^TO 


/"I -J — j— J — pH 








--IfU- 






| [ 


.-"nT 




























































I Pt 






























119. Succineafo 


r sheyi I. Lea ^\\j 



94 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



95 




125. Succinea chittenangoensis Pilsbry j 




96 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




129. Succineajj Wvffil^ 
U bakeri Hubricht raw 






Mill fiffStttM! - 




UlnBErTl 




| | 1 1 1 H/LURK/* sJL_ 






















^^""^^^r^^s 



132. Succinea%ffi r 
floridana Pilsbry 




133. Succineatffi 
barberi (Marshall) 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



97 









SC§jeS$^ 






4-W ' 








"l-J 






1TV 












^"i — r~— C— 1 ? 


3±=P 










Sw 












r4 ' 






_, i "-u__ vi ^k v _J^l.r7lJtJ>^«-^5^lPtp l £^7T'fy^ 




~^~~ 






Lr-HI>-H-t- liL' 




' ' f* JL l 








/ 1 ' \H ^~ v- 




/ | IS— 1 






ftf 






~T~h 


f~_L^v. ' ' JBfl ' M| ^Kn^rVtr^A F*^c*r 












^>^cVv^^~ : ^^^^^ ! r5l£2^ 










1 34. Catinella avara (Say) ^SU 




136. Catinella fC&iSK* 
' ■ hubrichti Grimm %?r 




98 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



i u ii 111 m iiii-l ii iiifwr 
137. Catinella wandae (Webb) 




139. CatinellaX&r&l 
vagans (Pilsbry) *£? 




~*vLLD^l4ji 


v J9UI r-^s ^C"™^"" 










ffliWr'tw^flH 




Ffflg^^W^M 






ida (F. C. Baker) *&T 




140. Catinella gel 




141. Catinella 
aprica Hubricht 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



99 




^ 




Ck^^^3~X. /\«WloFr 


^J-i-fMJprVVw ' yjK-4 \\ ) "~ ' ^y&> "Vv^MP^"\^~t^\Ii<'b 


| | i i i i I. \ rfi 1 J If 


YDiP-i 1 ^)/ / — ^VX-VV\ U ?rfSii^fe^'' 


-JwC^iVrVXvTrEk 




^W^ffi*™ 




T V I V T Vr™ffiAJ 




1LLLL 




" = : ^ 


uZjiSlS/^r 


t W!iH L\&^yr^"*&f*^K^-^&v^/ 


Wm^m^ 










144. Philomycu 


? togatus (Gould) ^H3J\ 



100 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



55 KjQx^SlWx^Ci^w^ 










HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



101 








OT^croKorYTj 












aldBS?^ a 


rPrKI 




■ i ^ ' .•-.-> ? 


TAIXTl 




■^L./ ^ s 




ffl (1 1 




W|( £ 1 


r~ 










_ I 1 1 i 








-ixd 












, ..._ 





102 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 







HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



103 





PI 1/ ^4 '■;/ ^^M^ 


158. Anguispira alternata (Say) j 




1 ! 1 £L 


M 










: -==~f§r 


v^B 


jS¥ndr 








jt-is^^w^' 




104 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



105 



163. Anguispira\ 




166. 

Hcun 


A nguispira ^5^^ 
iberlandiand&tfo 



167. Anguispira\ 
alabama (Clapp) - 




168. Anguispira\ 
picta (Clapp) i 





106 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 





171. Discus cronkhitei (Newcomb) oflk 


Lr-j I .jr~_~r 


^U^JUMOlJ-Wrv ^' 


















ir*^£P^?^~\ ^LmLn } wT 










s — l r~^-— i— _j ^^^ 


■bu^Vr-lX 


' TTnTrp^A] 1j7W} 






I^HyJr 


■ ' 'Ja TiJVrTiJnf 


^t^^b*" - ^™ ^Hi 1 'v*^-* — ts^ P v ^^^' ■ 






-i ^liail^JJ'Mf-r^Wli 




\- ■' -'i mMzLnMrn 




=H4S = 5 


- ^TOSJ =tpjijEBr 








- ~ji . I'i'i' i J -r 1 _?*f'WfTr P=C 








tPK^^^^^T^S 














T-J8_ X = - 


ir ~ ~ ~ j— ^P^tTv]^^&-il 








i H V — 1 rn v-Sriff 7 


■i^S-WxIj^W^tO^Scv^ PCw^M JrifflE ' 












ri rM-A 1 11 ' ' n V/^—Ti7xj7\ W 7ti^V^yj^^zVf , ^r? M W-V^r r< r^ y 




V'rWnC^JTV^-n^^ 












7 'I r " it 












^^^3tCL§^^^ ; 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 











' \zs 






172. Discus catskillensis (Pilsbry) 1 








\?jf\ 














i\-^5^' 






■9 a^J ■/ 








sl§l$§ 






^^•^ 




n~T 4 ~ l H i 


,n 


1 1 ,1-X* 


1 L 








THTyrnHrx^ 








~~^\VH^R 




i J^ffi 




— _ ~[+PnT 




■Uil'rWj^Y^ 


















108 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



109 




110 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 















-H ■ r q 




rLj-'pt^ 


jVi l i u 






rS 








1 IIS 


^ U i-4 ^" v -^^TVrti-^ r ^?* <Ci=c::: ' S ^K^l IV 




.1 J- 


~I — P Trl / \ I l~^ — \^r^x\r'' '*''T^k~~"~^ ^ "V 1 - ^ -^^^-^^^ *J ^~~^M 














irf 


ffiiSffifiJSw fflcl^_^i t r^5K]5^? 
















JJjIr 


•?ri 


I.I J 
TXT 


WwTl^^M^Wi 1 ?^^^ 






§8 




LLL. 








— ~ ■— -O 












V-Vv^^^^t £ 












1 Ml 






~3p?xi 






1 


85. 


Helicodiscus parallelus (Say) lyTl 







186. Helicodiscus shimeki Hubricht J^& 






1 1 s%^ 


^jp^ >, ^^k _/* 




r^)XJirw 
















\ ', I ■^^^USf^^^'^r— 2 \ /'^U^jH^T 








"H — LW*Ak Ik* ; 'i^^il \V_5 ^W"^^rlW M^^i 






1 I 1 ' Trft.YlIT 








in M|i 1 i ■ -«, - 


^^a\-*c\\\A-\ i — ^1/vX \J?TT\ ^V-V-x^^i^ 














ii^^R 




S^tW^*^®^ 






rg-Jf - 


3g*atgt 










-jjjj^^^ 








— qj jy nC- -pjil LWHfAPrlAWAAtl^jte^yj^^^^V^J 7^ /vX/fc^feJ " 






r it i : - ^ffi^^^S 1 












j^rrn^^T 














^ff^P^^+TT^ 









HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 




188. Helicodiscus , 
nummus (Vanatta) 



112 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



191. Helicodiscus^ 
Modus Hubricht * 




[194. Helicodiscus J 
hexodon Hubricht ! 




195. Helicodiscus] 
saludensis 
(Morrison) ! 



197. Helicodiscus, 
multidens Hubricht- 





;i96. 

Maid 
S(C1< 


Helicodiscus^^ 
nchianus^^^^ 



198. Helicodiscus] 
^barri Hubricht; 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



113 




114 














? n?LI VH i 


TTiiTnmTKhW 






J T^nifl 


^lt^_MVu>+fl{ 




J r~*~H 








ftrWrri l Six^ttiiS 








'-4V 1 1 1 l I l Uftv&V-fr- 






■-r-trl ll/PTrTjr 








3++ 1 1 UJzH^H/yyy 




\vh~k — ^ l 




-puU IJHt^HvWTU 






-IjJ. L_ 


^S^^^^^ffi 




\j ^i___ — " 


o[ — Tx j "^ ~k!a / LlT^7%->V~0^^-^-^ 


wQltt ; {-i k 


-t == ==^^^^^? 






















r-V-b4TTCTr7V v ^"TTWvVi" 




I 203. Deroceras aenigma Leonard W-faSRRxi 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



115 











205. Nesovitrea electrina (Gould) 1 


^ 






1 1 ""J 


J"^^^^« ££. 




w l Lu 










■oVii — j r^CCrffl 




T)j_L 














Ej^Jm 


1 | j 1 ] VI 1 rH'fijAPfTQ 


&Vjiig 










3%h? 




ff'i'iV, , 


[■Ij-rMiTJ^r^l* 






feut^A/B^ 














r ~Tp 




_Tc5 






















U-rU j 1 ' 1 1 






















~~^'^OirvN 









206. Nesovitrea binneyana (Morse) 








Tnii 1 l' i 3 w "T s '> c ^ — i 


-J-t 












m-I i i i'm u i .TrO lurr*!) n \ Wi \\ ) r^s n >SM>?r **t" 




^MIttY 1 ] l'i XIX LV'QTTn/ \vi \+g ry <f 'TlX^TT^vV 






T>If rViXi . , T\vAvvv-4\-P- l^Tiru+^f. .^fnrfm^P^r-^l^ 


=t : = -^^dtt^^^^m^^^^^^mn^^^B 


--S^^i^^^^fflr^^m^^^^^^ffi^^r 


ITt 




-+^" r ^&i^ffS^§*fflK^^^^^^^^^^^9 


iLlll 


1 _ — "Qj — y -4-~tid3 iT&^fc-^-Vi-A^ * 








1 — — LJ _ 3 — rf\\jj T_f~TvilLJ^ 








J? -qt T; = : : ^^^S^^^^^^^^^^^^^^\ 












V- II 1 - 1 l'i -Hn — 1 CcQrdB T-i^ "-^~ < " 1 'r >st ' J H / !3 < .*~x 1 T' 1 KrV^'p^g_' 












tnb^rMyi^ter 



d£207. fu " rtum 3j[WR% 
"K5 blandianum \p£rrffl& 
Off Pilsbry f^^^W^^ 



208. Punctumfi 
parvulwnl 
Leonard [ 





209. Nesovitrea 
dalliana 
(Pilsbry & Simpson) 



116 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



210. Nesovitrea ^£?$\ 
suzannae Pratt J^ttl 


























c — 1 




IVjBBr' 










211. Glyphyaliniar^ 
R virginica &fc\r$r 
j£ (Morrison) \£jf 




212. Glyphyalinia.' 
Qvanattai' 
t(Pilsbry& Walker) 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



117 



^ 214. Glyphyalinia^^^W^^^^^£i^^v 


--^-LElj^VOiC 




^S<^^^^^QtQ^/ 


j-Jnu^-'^ ^J — ^^"^^\irc 


$~i 




219. Glyphyalinia 
jloridana 
(Morrison) 



118 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 







222. Glyphyalinia indentata (Authors) #\ 




l~\\ ' 1 ' ' 






frw 1 l 


— VUTVlH 1 J — Y+-X W,rf* ''JJ^^^Lt \\r~S ,— ^^^« fit) Kjj^ 
















rrl.Ri 


i 


^-FMrlfPsJ^'O rl $r( HBwi\ J —wTf^VV^rljjP^^^. 




ai (Li ii 


1 1 i 








1 - 




rf : '¥~ 




"Ej 


1--+- 




1 r~ 


/ J jSgfl 




^B ^^^_xTs_<, ' ,¥ LL-rlmKPW^KBUJ/ >- fr^TI R P9V V^^f / 


Trrn 








XlTJl 






v~w4 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



119 




228. Glyphyalinia^ 
^pecki Hubricht 



120 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




232. Glyphyalinia: 
latebricola] 
Hubricht" 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



121 




122 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



\n — mi ra* rarnrroyggBsr 

.~V239. Mesomphix friabilis T£f-Hr?& 
&-| (W. G. Binney) ^YtTtoJSkS 






s 






— — W3: — " 


fe^fe 




















V 


rffistiK 




el 


^Jt=tLj^^W^'' 






YSr 












HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



123 




124 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



125 




254. Paravitredfrfft 
\klamellidens (Pilsbry) 



255. Paravitrea \ 
clappi (Pilsbry); 




257. Paravitrea- 
umbilicaris (Ancey) ' 



258. Paravitrea andrewsae% 
(W. G. Binney) 





126 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



127 




128 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



129 




130 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



131 



291. Paravitrea 
] aulacogyra 
, (Pilsbry & Ferriss) 





296. Ventri dens^^^^^^^^^^j^ 
jApilsbryi HubrichtS^^^^^^^^^iy^ 










^S^^W^ 



298. Ventridens, 
monodon Hubricht, 




132 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




302. Ventridens \ 
t\lasmodon' 
3 (Phillip s): 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



133 




BpC 


19. Ventridens demissus (A. Binney) ^iz^n^aSd^^ 


: Tro 






mfc 






J ]_!_ 




(i i7i A- 




















Qjr ^^L* 





310. Ventridens. 
lawae (W. G. Binney) ; 




311. Ventridens : 
arcellus Hubricht 




134 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



135 




136 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



137 




138 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



139 




-1 Lo^^mW 


327. Striatura ferrea Morse 


J-V- 


w** 
















Pi 






















140 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 







HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



141 



QX 333. Euconulus dentatus (Sterki)/^ /tfXfWy^Q 


\JY£W£/' 






' U l \TK 










r~^ ^^"^ — ^^ vifOv v-t 1 r^^tt 




142 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 









335. Euconulus polygyratus (Pilsbry) /. 


^fe^-» 


1 1 JV-^r 


1 "^Pn 


T@^ 




irnviCwi 




I I TrH 1 1 


ic=> 


III Mil! 


l i 


SislL 




I, 1 1 VA tTCvn J , J- 


:V— ft i 1 I 1 1 i i,l, 












iic*TYK4§>^^ 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



143 




341. 

^tex 
f(Pf 


Eui 
asia 
eiffe 


tfandina \Vr%S>& 



















r 342. Euglarutim¥£U&#± 
singleyana (W. G. Binney)_! 





343. Varicella 
gracillima 
(Pfeiffer) 



144 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



[UVHJff::: 




_ 1 1 IT" 


4 iL J FtV~H~ ~ "M 1 rfaL h ^ 


345. Thysanophora Y-Xjj[ 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



145 




354. Rabdotustf 
Lalternatus (Say) 






-rrV = 4 


i=5SS^Siiiji 






iCS 




















JT-- 








F^2 














/ / fcy^^Tt^ppTy 




















J^ "tM^LM Pi ' ' 






















N 






3 


55. Rabdotus 
dealbatus (Sa 


dealbatus 





357. Drymaeus* 
dominicus 
(Reeve) 




358. Drymaeus'' 
dormant 
(W. G. Binney) 



146 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



359. DrymaeusQf 
multilineatus (Say) 



362. Liguus$&f 
fasciatus (Miiller) 




1 


. 1 .1 i -^- *s II 1 1 l 






1 1 


1 m TpWt 






P^^^^W" 










;65. Polygyra sep 


emvolva Say ^j^P 




366. Polygyra 
auriculata Say 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



147 




148 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




379. Polygyra 
pustuloides (Bland) 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



149 




380. Polygyra 
pustula (Ferussac) 




384. Potygyfafm 
peregrina Render r 1 





386. Polygyra 

4- deltoidea (Simpson) 






388. Polygyra' 
hippocrepis (Pfeiffer) 



389. Polygyra mooreana 
(W. G. Binney) 




150 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



390. PolygyraZU 

ZL tholus rCS^yr 
4(W. G. BinneyTfi: 






















i—*~ ^~-l »^ 



















HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



151 




396. Stenotrema ■_ 

^ barbigerum (Redfield) ; 



399. Stenotrema- 
pilsbryi (Ferriss)' 




400. 

iliab 

T i u 


Stenotrema "t^SC 
rosum (Bland) 5j7 















'■' ' I ■ W ' ■ 

401. StenotremaQ; 
-^ altispira (Pilsbry) 




403. Stenotrema 
florida Pilsbry 



152 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



153 



407. Stenotrema. 
angellum Hubricht> 



408. Stenotrema: 
magnifumosumi 
(Pilsbry)^ 





410. Stenotrema) 
l^pilula (Pilsbry); 




411. Stenotrema^ _. 
^y morosum Hubricht' 




412. Stenotrema i. 
f^exodon (Pilsbry) j 




154 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



416. Stenotrema 
blandianum l 
!(Pilsbry)' 





418. Stenotrema __ 
£jj brevipila (Clapp) 



419. Stenotrema 
\S cohuttense (Clapp) j 



420. Stenotrema 

^ maxillatum (Gould) | 



421. Stenotrema 
j-leai cheatumi^ 
□ Fullington jCA; 



422. StenotremajX\\_ 
wichitorum tC— 




424. Stenotrema fraternum 
montanum Archer 





HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



155 




156 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



157 



432. Praticolella] 
berlandieriana 
^f (Moricand) £ 




5437. Praticolella^^^^^. 
Sn- /# u>££ (Lewis) ^^^^^^^s 










438. Praticolella 
mobiliana (I. Lea) 



158 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



^rt 439. 


Mesodon injlectus (Say) 3$M &55n/rS 1 ^CS?^Ti^ft^ 




mi i III iTnTj \VrtTXfl{ Ymtpv \Y £ _ xlX\TA^Lft^ 






ipjTNrV, rH-m^LX^im '*rjKE*i * l \Ap>{^^^'Xk\i£ 




n 71^ ' iluiuu-iii iTiSSl 1 ' X^^WriHn^ ' M V 1 --*!^]/ 


— ~^u n vVtH^hOStct Btj^HWM^y^^^^^^A^'V^- 1 A 




= = Q^^jtBttBrT^^Cp^^^^^^ / ^^^, 


1 1 i ; _ 


m 


SEtS 




rrj-v_. 


1 lv ^J ■*■ '/flfiB^^^S^E^i^M^rV^c^w^ 


1 1 1 1 T" 


"^^BASh TMSHH^BBmB^fif 









440. Mesodon £&tf2^ 
approximate (Clapp) 




441. Mesodon. 
smithi (Clapp) ■ 




442. Mesodon'KS^Cf 
"t edentatus (Sampson) 



443. Mesodon 
magazinensis} 
(Pilsbry & Ferriss)j 




445. 7 


Mesodon £uj^r\ 
entianus w^ 
nson & Pilsbry) 



448. Mesodon. 
wether byi- 
(Bland)t " 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



159 



. IT57H hwVfc^UJ 
449. Mesodon zaletus (A. Binney) 




160 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




463. Mesodon 
£r clingmanicus \ 
l^(Pilsbry) 1 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



161 




162 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



470. Mesodon elevatus (Say) 





475. Mesodon ^^a\XhXX2^ 
tJ; normalis (Pilsbry) A^r^/fUv 




52l 






476. Mesodon\ 
downieanust 
(Bland)" 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



163 




164 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



-5Tj488. Triodopsis vulgata Pilsbry^ ^%7vSt<Ql 


v 1 L i-i^irAApLiLiA 




^ffi^^i^ 






■■C^^C^^^^PrOpKfTJHrVl^X/rvV^^.' 




^^^^^^^^ 



489. Triodopsis 
discoidea (Pilsbry)? 





HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



165 



494. Triodopsisz^ 
CI vultuosa (Gould) 

~| J II II \ i i V-c4hl 






pl ,1 ,1 J-.1 .1 . 1 J fJHI 










m 












166 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



167 



505. Triodopsis\ 
soelneri • 
(Henderson)?! 




507. Triodopsis 
obstricta (Say) 




508. 
Z&pah 
&£Hul 


Triodopsis ¥$$$: 

istris #TKD£k% 
jricht^CwvS 







509. Triodopsis 
■tf occidentalism 
(Pilsbry & Ferriss) 




168 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 





511. Triodopsis 
hopetonensis (Shuttleworth) 



T 512. Triodopsis cragini 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



169 



514. Triodopsis dentifera 
(A. Binney) 




1 5 16. Triodopsis alleni (Wetherby in Sampson) 




517. Triodopsis i 
divesta (Gould); 




5 


18. 7/nWo 
lioderma'h 
(Pilsbry) - 


WI 


slffl^ 






= T i v-'i _o 




= 










i i ' 'JJPE 

















170 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



519. Allogona profunda (Say) 




HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



171 



- — - — — 1 - \ yy 

520. Oreohelix strigosa cooperi \ 

(W. G. Binney)J 





521. Cepolis 
varians (Menke) 



522. Triodopsis caroliniensis (I. Lea); 




172 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Index 

All references to map numbers are in boldface; to text pages, in regular type. Subspecies, forms, and 
synonyms are listed in regular type, with their synonymy following in parentheses. All recognized species 
are listed in italics. 



abbadona, Stenotrema (Stenotrema 
labrosum) 39 

abbreviata, Gastrocopta 50, 8 

abbreviata, Gastrocopta armifera 
{Gastrocopta abbreviata) 8 

acerra, Ventridens 315, 31 

acerra, Zonitoides (Ventricallus) 
( Ventridens acerra) 3 1 

ACHATINACEA 34 

ACHATINIDAE 34 

aenea, Strobilops 105, 1 3 

aenea spiralis, Strobilops (Strobi- 
lops texasiana) 1 3 

aenigma, Deroceras 203, 22 

affinis. Gastrocopta armifera form 
(Gastrocopta similis) 8 

affinis, Strobilops 106, 13 

affinis, Triodopsis 506, 48 

affinis. Triodopsis fallax (Triodopsis 
affinis) 48 

agna, Gastrocopta holzingeri (Gas- 
trocopta holzingeri) 9 

alabama, Anguispira 167, 19 

alabama, Anguispira cumberlandi- 
ana (Anguispira alabama) 19 

alabamensis, Triodopsis 491, 48 

alabamensis, Triodopsis fallax 
(Triodopsis alabamensis) 48 

alabamensis, Triodopsis vannos- 
trandi (Triodopsis alabamen- 
sis) 48 

alabamensis, Vertigo 93, 10 

alabamensis conecuhensis, Vertigo 
(Vertigo conecuhensis) 10 

alachuana, Hawaiia 290, 29 

alachuana, Hawaiia minuscula (Ha- 
waiia alachuana) 29 

[alachuana, Hawaiia minuscula] 
(Hawaiia minuscula) 29 

alachuana, Helicodiscus (Hawaiia 
alachuana) 29 

alaskana, Vitrina 329, 33 

albilabris, Pupoides 38, 8 

albolabris, Triodopsis 500, 49 

albolabris, Xolotrema albolabris 
(Triodopsis albolabris) 49 

albolabris albolabris, Xolotrema 
(Triodopsis albolabris) 49 

albolabris alleni, Triodopsis (Trio- 
dopsis alleni) 49 

albolabris alleni, Xolotrema (Trio- 
dopsis alleni) 49 

albolabris fuscolabris, Triodopsis 
(Triodopsis alleni) 49 

albolabris major, Triodopsis (Trio- 
dopsis major) 49 



albolabris major, Xolotrema (Trio- 
dopsis major) 49 

albula, Vallonia (Vallonia gracili- 
costa) 7 

aldrichiana, Clappiella (Helicodis- 
cus aldrichianus) 21 

aldrichiana, Helicodiscus (Helico- 
discus aldrichianus) 2 1 

aldrichianus, Helicodiscus 196, 21 

alethia, Paravitrea 279, 28 

algonquinensis, Triodopsis (Trio- 
dopsis multilineata) 49 

aliciae, Stenotrema leai 427, 4 1 

aliciae, Stenotrema monodon 
(Stenotrema leai aliciae) 4 1 

alleni, Triodopsis 516, 49 

alleni, Triodopsis albolabris (Trio- 
dopsis alleni) 49 

alleni, Xolotrema albolabris (Trio- 
dopsis alleni) 49 

Allogona profunda 519, 49 

Allogona profunda strontiana (Al- 
logona profunda) 49 

alpestris oughtoni, Vertigo 85, 1 1 

alter nata, Anguispira 158, 18 

alternata crassa, Anguispira (An- 
guispira strongylodes) 1 8 

altemata fergusoni, Anguispira (An- 
guispira fergusoni) 18 

alternata Jessica, Anguispira (An- 
guispira Jessica) 18 

alternata knoxensis, Anguispira 
(Anguispira knoxensis) 18 

alternata lawae, Anguispira (An- 
guispira mordax) 19 

alternata macneilli, Anguispira (An- 
guispira strongylodes) 1 8 

alternata mordax, Anguispira (An- 
guispira mordax) 19 

alternata paucicostata, Anguispira 
(Anguispira mordax) 19 

alternata rugoderma, Anguispira 
(Anguispira rugoderma) 18 

alternata smithi, Anguispira (An- 
guispira mordax) 19 

alternata strongylodes, Anguispira 
(Anguispira strongylodes) 18 

alternatus, Bulimulus (Rabdotus al- 
ter natus) 35 

alternatus, Rabdotus 354, 35 

alternatus, Rabdotus alternatus 
(Rabdotus alternatus) 35 

alternatus alternatus, Rabdotus 
(Rabdotus alternatus) 35 

alternatus hesperius, Rabdotus 
(Rabdotus alternatus) 35 



alternatus mariae, Bulimulus (Rab- 
dotus alternatus) 35 

alticola, Columella (Columella col- 
umella alticola) 1 2 

alticola, Columella columella 96, 1 2 

altispira, Stenotrema 401, 39 

altispira depilatum, Stenotrema 
(Stenotrema depilatum) 39 

altivaga, Mesodon andrewsae 
(Mesodon andrewsae) 45 

altonensis, Triodopsis (Triodopsis 
multilineata) 49 

amicalola, Paravitrea 267, 27 

anacachensis, Holospira goldfussi 
(Holospira goldfussi) 35 

andrewsae, Mesodon 469, 45 

andrewsae, Mesomphix 241, 25 

andrewsae, Paravitrea 258, 27 

andrewsae altivaga, Mesodon 
(Mesodon andrewsae) 45 

andrewsae intermedius, Mesodon 
(Mesodon andrewsae) 45 

andrewsae montivagus, Mesom- 
phix (Mesomphix andrewsae) 
25 

andrewsae normalis, Mesodon (Me- 
sodon normalis) 45 

angelicae limpida, Vitrina (Vitrina 
limpida) 32 

angellum, Stenotrema 407, 40 

Anguispira alabama 167, 19 

Anguispira alternata 158, 18 

Anguispira alternata crassa (An- 
guispira strongylodes) 1 8 

Anguispira alternata fergusoni (An- 
guispira fergusoni) 18 

Anguispira alternata Jessica (An- 
guispira Jessica) 18 

Anguispira alternata knoxensis (An- 
guispira knoxensis) 1 8 

Anguispira alternata lawae (Angui- 
spira mordax) 19 

Anguispira alternata macneilli (An- 
guispira strongylodes) 1 8 

Anguispira alternata mordax (An- 
guispira mordax) 19 

Anguispira alternata paucicostata 
(Anguispira mordax) 19 

Anguispira alternata rugoderma 
(Anguispira rugoderma) 18 

Anguispira alternata smithi (An- 
guispira mordax) 19 

Anguispira alternata strongylodes 
(Anguispira strongylodes) 18 

Anguispira clarki (Anguispira alter- 
nata) 18 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



173 



Anguispira columba (Anguispira 
mordax) 19 

Anguispira crassa {Anguispira 
strongylodes) 18 

Anguispira cumberlandiana 166, 19 

Anguispira cumberlandiana ala- 
bama (Anguispira alabama) 19 

Anguispira cumberlandiana colum- 
ba (Anguispira mordax) 19 

Anguispira cumberlandiana picta 
(Anguispira picta) 19 

Anguispira fergusoni 162, 18 

Anguispira Jessica 165, 18 

Anguispira knoxensis 164, 18 

Anguispira kochi 161, 19 

Anguispira kochi roseoapicata (An- 
guispira kochi) 19 

Anguispira kochi strontiana (An- 
guispira kochi) 1 9 

Anguispira macneilli (Anguispira 
strongylodes) 18 

Anguispira mordax 160, 19 

Anguispira mordax paucicostata 
(Anguispira mordax) 19 

Anguispira paucicostata (Angui- 
spira mordax) 19 

Anguispira picta 168, 19 

Anguispira rugoderma 163, 18 

[Anguispira rugoderma] (Angui- 
spira knoxensis) 18 

Anguispira smithi (Anguispira mor- 
dax) 19 

Anguispira strongylodes 159, 18 

angulata, Discus macclintocki (Dis- 
cus macclintocki) 19 

anteridon, Triodopsis 482, 46 

anteridon, Triodopsis rugosa (Trio- 
dopsis anteridon) 46 

[anteridon, Triodopsis rugosa] 
(Triodopsis rugosa) 46 

anurus, Mesomphix 247, 26 

appressus, Mesodon 446, 43 

appressus form laevior, Mesodon 
(Mesodon laevior) 43 

approxima, Retinella (Glyphyalinia 
clingmani) 23 

approximans, Mesodon 440, 42 

approximans, Mesodon inflectus 
(Mesodon approximans) 42 

aprica, Catinella 141, 16 

arboreus, Zonitoides 321, 32 

arcellus, Ventridens 311, 31 

arcellus, Zonitoides (Ventricallus) 
( Ventridens arcellus) 3 1 

ARCHAEOGASTROPODA 3 

archeri, Mesodon 479, 44 

ariadnae, Polygyra 37 

ARIONACEA 16 

ARIOPHANTACEA 33 

[arizonensis, Helicodiscus eigen- 
manni] (Helicodiscus eigen- 
manni eigenmanni) 2 1 

armifera, Gastrocopta 44, 8 

armifera abbreviata, Gastrocopta 
(Gastrocopta abbreviata) 8 



armifera clappi, Gastrocopta (Gas- 
trocopta clappi) 8 

armifera form affinis, Gastrocopta 
(Gastrocopta similis) 8 

armifera form similis, Gastrocopta 
(Gastrocopta similis) 8 

armifera ruidosensis, Gastrocopta 
(Gastrocopta ruidosensis) 8 

art huh, Vertigo 91, 12 

asteriscus, Planogyra 32, 7 

aulacogyra, Paravitrea 291, 29 

AULACOPODA 13 

aurea, Paravitrea (Pilsbryna) (Pils- 
bryna aurea) 29 

aurea, Pilsbryna 292, 29 

[aurea, Succinea] (Succinea In- 
diana) 15 

auriculata, Daedalochila (Polygyra 
auriculata) 36 

auriculata, Polygyra 366, 36 

auriformis, Polygyra 367, 36 

austrina, Glyphyalinia rhoadsi 
(Glyphyalinia rhoadsi) 24 

austrina, Retinella rhoadsi (Glyphy- 
alinia rhoadsi) 24 

avara, Catinella 134, 16 

avara, Polygyra 374, 37 

avara, Succinea (Catinella avara) 1 6 

bakeri, Praticolella 436, 42 

bakeri, Succinea 129, 15 

[bakeri, Succinea] (Succinea gros- 
venori) 15 

barbatum, Stenotrema 405, 40 

barbatum, Stenotrema hirsutum 
(Stenotrema barbatum) 40 

barberi, Lymnaea (Succinea bar- 
ber i) 14 

barberi, Oxyloma (Succinea bar- 
beri) 14 

barberi, Succinea 133, 14 

barbigerum, Stenotrema 396, 39 

barri, Helicodiscus 198, 21 

BASOMMATOPHORA 5 

batchi, Philomycus (Philomycus 
carolinianus) 16 

bayardi, Succinea (Succinea wil- 
soni) 14 

beckianum, Beckianum 34 

beckianum, Synopeas (Beckianum 
beckianum) 34 

Beckianum beckianum 34 

bellona, Paravitrea 280, 28 

berlandieriana, Praticolella 432, 42 

[berlandieriana campi, Praticolella] 
(Praticolella taeniata) 42 

berlandieriana pachyloma, Prati- 
colella (Praticolella pachy- 
loma) 41 

berlandieriana taeniata, Praticolella 
(Praticolella taeniata) 42 

bicornuta, Polygyra uvulifera (Poly- 
gyra uvulifera) 36 

bidens, Paravitrea 270, 27 

bilabiata, Truncatella (Truncatella 
pulchella) 4 



binneyana, Nesovitrea 206, 23 

binneyana, Retinella (Nesovitrea 
binneyana) 23 

binneyana, Vertigo 86, 1 1 

binneyanus, Mesodon 453, 44 

[binneyanus, Mesodon] (Mesodon 
indianorum) 44 

binneyanus chastatensis, Mesodon 
(Mesodon binneyanus) 44 

bisdosus, Philomycus (Philomycus 
venustus) 17 

blandi, Pupilla 37, 7 

blandianum, Punctum 207, 22 

blandianum, Stenotrema 416, 40 

blarina, Paravitrea 276, 28 

bollesiana, Vertigo 84, 12 

bonamicus, Helicodiscus 193, 21 

Bothriopupa variolosa 101, 12 

brevipila, Stenotrema 418, 41 

brevissima, Holospira roemeri (Me- 
tastoma roemeri) 35 

brevissima, Metastoma roemeri 
(Metastoma roemeri) 35 

brierensis. Vertigo 89, 1 2 

brittsi, Ventridens 313, 31 

brittsi, Ventridens demissus (F^/i- 
tridens brittsi) 3 1 

brittsi, Zonitoides (Ventricallus) de- 
missus ssp.? ( Ventridens brittsi) 
31 

brooksi, Discus patulus (Discus pa- 
tulus) 19 

bryanti, Discus 175, 20 

bryanti nigrimontanus, Discus (Dis- 
cus nigrimontanus) 20 

bryantwalkeri, Discus (Discus pa- 
tulus) 19 

BULIMULACEA 34 

BULIMULIDAE 35 

BULIMULINAE 35 

Bulimulus alternatus (Rabdotus al- 
ternatus) 35 

Bulimulus alternatus mariae (Rab- 
dotus alternatus) 35 

Bulimulus dealbatus (Rabdotus 
dealbatus dealbatus) 35 

Bulimulus dealbatus jonesi (Rab- 
dotus mooreanus) 35 

Bulimulus dealbatus mooreanus 
(Rabdotus mooreanus) 35 

Bulimulus dealbatus ozarkensis 
(Rabdotus dealbatus dealbatus) 
35 

Bulimulus dealbatus ragsdalei 
(Rabdotus dealbatus ragsdalei) 
35 

Bulimulus lubricus var. lubricella 
(Cochlicopa lubricella) 6 

Bulimulus mooreanus (Rabdotus 
mooreanus) 35 

Bulimulus mooreanus pecosensis 
(Rabdotus mooreanus) 35 

Bulimulus nitens (Cochlicopa ni- 
tens) 6 

Bulimulus schiedeanus pecosensis 
(Rabdotus mooreanus) 35 



174 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



bullata, Euglandina rosea (Euglan- 
dina rosea) 34 

burchi, Triodopsis 497, 47 

burchi, Triodopsis tennesseensis 
(Triodopsis burchi) 47 

burringtoni, Glyphyalinia (Glyphy- 
alinia wheat leyi) 23 

burringtoni, Mesodon (Mesodon 
mitchellianus) 45 

burringtoni, Retinella (Glyphyali- 
nia wheat leyi) 23 

burringtoni, Stenotrema (Stenotre- 
ma hirsutum) 40 

caddoensis, Stenotrema (Stenotre- 
ma unciferum) 40 

caddoensis, Stenotrema unciferum 
(Stenotrema unciferum) 40 

calcicola, Paravitrea 274, 28 

calvescens, Stenotrema 404, 40 

campestris, Succinea 126, 15 

campi, Praticolella (Praticolella gri- 
seola) 4 1 

[campi, Praticolella berlandieriana] 
(Praticolella taeniata) 42 

canadense, Carychium (Carychium 
exile canadense) 5 

canadense, Carychium exile 21, 5 

Candida, Praticolella 431, 42 

capnodes, Mesomphix 250, 26 

capsella, Paravitrea 260, 28 

capsella lacteodens, Paravitrea 
(Paravitrea lacteodens) 28 

capsella tridens, Paravitrea (Para- 
vitrea tridens) 27 

caribaeensis, Truncatella (Trunca- 
tella subcylindrica) 5 

carnegiei, Gastrocopta (Gastrocopta 
pentodon) 9 

Carolina, Polygyra postelliana (Poly- 
gyra postelliana) 37 

carolinianus, Philomycus 143, 17 

carolinianus collinus, Philomycus 
(Philomycus togatus) 14 

carolinianus flexuolaris, Philomy- 
cus (Philomycus jlexuolaris) 17 

carolinianus togatus, Philomycus 
(Philomycus togatus) 17 

caroliniensis, Glyphyalinia 227, 24 

caroliniensis, Retinella (Glyphyali- 
nia caroliniensis) 24 

caroliniensis, Triodopsis 522, 48 

[caroliniensis, Triodopsis] (Trio- 
dopsis obstricta) 48 

CARYCHIIDAE 5 

Carychium canadense (Carychium 
exile canadense) 5 

Carychium clappi 15, 5 

Carychium costatum (Carychium 
clappi) 5 

Carychium exiguum 17, 6 

[Carychium exile] (Carychium exi- 
guum) 6 

Carychium exile (Carychium exile 
exile) 5 



Carychium exile canadense 21, 5 

Carychium exile exile 20, 5 

Carychium exile mexicanum (Car- 
ychium mexicanum) 6 

Carychium floridanum (Carychium 
mexicanum) 6 

Carychium mexicanum 14, 6 

Carychium nannodes 18, 6 

Carychium perexiguum (Cary- 
chium exiguum) 6 

Carychium riparium 19, 6 

Carychium stygium 16, 6 

castanea, Paravitrea (Pilsbryna) 
(Pilsbryna castanea) 29 

castanea, Pilsbryna 293, 29 

Catinella aprica 141, 16 

Catinella avara 134, 16 

Catinella exile 142, 16 

Catinella gelida 140, 16 

Catinella hubrichti 136, 16 

Catinella oklahomarum 135, 16 

Catinella parallela (Catinella avara) 
16 

Catinella pinicola (Catinella okla- 
homarum) 16 

Catinella protracta (Catinella avara) 
16 

Catinella pugilator 138, 16 

Catinella texana (Catinella avara) 
16 

Catinella vagans 139, 16 

[Catinella vagans] (Catinella okla- 
homarum) 16 

Catinella vermeta (Catinella avara) 
16 

Catinella waccamawensis (Catinel- 
la avara) 1 6 

Catinella wandae 137, 16 

catskillensis, Discus 172, 19 

catskillensis, Discus cronkhitei 
(Discus catskillensis) 19 

[catskillensis, Discus cronkhitei] 
(Discus cronkhitei) 1 9 

cavum, Stenotrema fraternum 
(Stenotrema fraternum frater- 
num) 41 

Cepaea hortensis 523, 50 

CEPOLIINAE 49 

Cepolis varians 521, 49 

cereolus, Polygyra 363, 36 

cereolus floridana, Polygyra (Poly- 
gyra cereolus) 36 

ceres, Paravitrea 281, 28 

cerinoideus, Ventridens 301, 30 

cerinoideus, Ventridens gularis 
( Ventridens cerinoideus) 3 1 

[cerinoideus, Ventridens gularis] 
( Ventridens gularis) 30 

cerinoideus, Zonitoides (Ventri- 
dens) (Ventridens cerinoideus) 
31 

CERIONIDAE 13 

Cerion incanum 108, 13 

chadwicki, Xolotrema (Triodopsis 
multilineata) 49 



chastatensis, Mesodon binneyanus 
(Mesodon binneyanus) 44 

chauliodonta, Gastrocopta 56, 10 

cheatumi, Stenotrema leai 421, 41 

chersinus, Euconulus 328, 33 

chersinus dentatus, Euconulus (Eu- 
conulus dentatus) 33 

chersinus polygyratus, Euconulus 
(Euconulus polygyratus) 33 

chersinus trochulus, Euconulus 
(Euconulus trochulus) 33 

chilhoweensis, Mesodon 450, 43 

chincoteagensis, Triodopsis hope- 
tonensis (Triodopsis obsoleta) 
47 

chittenangoensis, Succinea 125, 14 

chittenangoensis, Succinea ovalis 
(Succinea chittenangoensis) 14 

chittenangoensis, Succinea ovalis 
form (Succinea chittenangoen- 
sis) 14 

Chondropoma dentatum 5, 4 

christyi, Mesodon 464, 44 

chrysocheila, Helicina 3 

cincinnatiensis, Cyclostoma (Po- 
matiopsis cincinnatiensis) 4 

cincinnatiensis, Pomatiopsis 12, 4 

Cionella lubrica (Cochlicopa lubri- 
ca) 6 

Cionella lubrica form exigua (Coch- 
licopa lubricella) 6 

Cionella lubrica morseana (Cochli- 
copa morseana) 6 

Cionella morseana (Cochlicopa 
morseana) 6 

circumstriata, Glyphyalinia (Gly- 
phyalinia wheat leyi) 23 

circumstriata, Retinella (Glyphyali- 
nia wheat leyi) 23 

claibornensis, Triodopsis 487, 46 

claibornensis, Triodopsis hopeto- 
nensis (Triodopsis claibornen- 
sis) 46 

[claibornensis, Triodopsis hopeto- 
nensis] (Triodopsis vulgata) 46 

clappi, Carychium 15, 5 

clappi, Discus 176, 20 

clappi, Gastrocopta 64, 8 

clappi, Gastrocopta armifera (Gas- 
trocopta clappi) 8 

clappi, Helicina 3, 3 

clappi, Paravitrea 255, 26 

clappi, Vertigo 82, 10 

Clappiella aldrichiana (Helicodiscus 
aldrichianus) 21 

Clappiella saludensis (Helicodiscus 
saludensis) 21 

clarki, Anguispira (Anguispira al- 
ternata) 18 

clarki, Mesodon 468, 44 

clarki nantahala, Mesodon (Meso- 
don clarki) 44 

clathrus, Truncatella (Truncatella 
scalaris clathrus) 5 

clathrus, Truncatella scalaris 8, 5 

CLAUSILIACEA 13 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



175 



clausus, Mesodon {Mesodon clau- 
sus clausus) 45 
clausus, Mesodon clausus 458, 45 
clausus clausus, Mesodon 458, 45 
clausus trossulus, Mesodon 465, 45 
clenchi, Mesodon 454, 44 
climeana, Gastrocopta contracta 

{Gastrocopta contracta) 8 
clingmani, Glyphyalinia 216, 23 
clingmani, Retinella {Glyphyalinia 

clingmani) 23 
clingmanicus, Mesodon 463, 44 
clingmanicus, Mesodon wheatleyi 

{Mesodon clingmanicus) 44 
COCHLICOPACEA 6 
Cochlicopa lubrica 24, 6 
Cochlicopa lubricella 22, 6 
Cochlicopa morseana 25, 6 
Cochlicopa nitens 23, 6 
COCHLICOPIDAE 6 
Cochlodinella poeyana 348, 34 
coelaxis, Ventridens 299, 30 
coelaxis, Zonitoides (Ventridens) 

( Ventridens coelaxis) 30 
cohuttense, Stenotrema 419, 41 
collinus, Philomycus carolinianus 

{Philomycus togatus) 1 7 
collisella, Ventridens 305, 30 
collisella, Zonitoides (Ventridens) 

( Ventridens collisella) 30 
columba, Anguispira {Anguispira 

mordax) 19 
columba, Anguispira cumberlandi- 

ana {Anguispira mordax) 19 
Columella alticola {Columella col- 
umella alticola) 12 
columella alticola, Columella 96, 1 2 
Columella columella alticola 96, 12 
[Columella edentula] {Columella 

simplex) 12 
Columella hasta 100, 12 
Columella simplex 97, 12 
complanata, Triodopsis 496, 47 
complanata, Triodopsis tridentata 

{Triodopsis complanata) 47 
complanata platysayoides, Trio- 
dopsis ( Triodopsis platysa- 
yoides) 47 
concavum, Haplotrema 336, 33 
concavum kendeighi, Haplotrema 

{Haplotrema kendeighi) 33 
concinnula, Vertigo 92, 12 
[concordialis, Succinea] {Succinea 

forsheyi) 15 
[concordialis, Succinea] {Succinea 

unicolor) 15 
conecuhensis, Paravitrea 253, 28 
conecuhensis, Vertigo 94, 10 
conecuhensis, Vertigo alabamensis 

{Vertigo conecuhensis) 10 
contracta, Gastrocopta 42, 8 
contracta climeana, Gastrocopta 

{Gastrocopta contracta) 8 
cooperi, Oreohelix strigosa 520, 49 
copei, Triodopsis {Triodopsis vul- 
tuosa) 47 



copei, Triodopsis vultuosa {Trio- 
dopsis vultuosa) 47 

copei cragini, Triodopsis {Triodop- 
sis cragini) 47 

corticaria, Gastrocopta 53, 9 

costata, Vallonia 27, 7 

costatum, Carychium {Carychium 
clappi) 5 

cragini, Triodopsis 512, 47 

cragini, Triodopsis copei {Triodop- 
sis cragini) 47 

cragini, Triodopsis vultuosa {Trio- 
dopsis cragini) 47 

crassa, Anguispira {Anguispira 
strongylodes) 18 

crassa, Anguispira alternata {An- 
guispira strongylodes) 1 8 

crisfieldi, Succinea {Succinea wil- 
soni) 14 

cristata, Gastrocopta 47, 10 

cronkhitei, Discus 171, 19 

cronkhitei catskillensis, Discus 
{Discus catskillensis) 1 9 

[cronkhitei catskillensis, Discus] 
{Discus cronkhitei) 1 9 

cryptomphala, Glyphyalinia 226, 24 

cryptomphala, Retinella {Glyphy- 
alinia cryptomphala) 24 

cryptomphala solida, Retinella 
{Glyphyalinia solida) 24 

cumberlandiana, Anguispira 166, 19 

cumberlandiana, Glyphyalinia 215, 
23 

cumberlandiana, Retinella {Glyphy- 
alinia cumberlandiana) 23 

cumberlandiana alabama, Angui- 
spira {Anguispira alabama) 19 

cumberlandiana columba, Angui- 
spira {Anguispira mordax) 19 

cumberlandiana picta, Anguispira 
{Anguispira picta) 19 

cumberlandiana roanensis, Retinel- 
la {Glyphyalinia cumberlandi- 
ana) 23 

cumberlandicus, Ventridens lawae 
( Ventridens lawae) 30 

cupreus, Mesomphix 244, 26 

cupreus miktus, Mesomphix {Me- 
somphix capnodes) 26 

cupreus ozarkensis, Mesomphix 
{Mesomphix capnodes) 26 

cupreus politus, Mesomphix {Me- 
somphix cupreus) 26 

cyclophorella, Vallonia 29, 7 

Cyclostoma cincinnatiensis {Po- 
matiopsis cincinnatiensis) 4 

Cyclostoma lapidaria {Pomatiopsis 
lapidaria) 4 



Daedalochila auriculata {Polygyra 

auriculata) 36 
Daedalochila hippocrepis {Polygyra 

hippocrepis) 38 
Daedalochila pustula {Polygyra 

pus tula) 38 



dalliana, Nesovitrea 209, 23 

dalliana, Retinella {Nesovitrea dal- 
liana) 23 

dauca, Dryachloa 337, 33 

dealbatus, Bulimulus {Rabdotus 
dealbatus dealbatus) 35 

dealbatus, Rabdotus dealbatus 355, 
35 

dealbatus dealbatus, Rabdotus 355, 
35 

dealbatus jonesi, Bulimulus {Rab- 
dotus mooreanus) 35 

dealbatus mooreanus, Bulimulus 
{Rabdotus mooreanus) 35 

dealbatus ozarkensis, Bulimulus 
{Rabdotus dealbatus dealbatus) 
35 

dealbatus ragsdalei, Bulimulus 
{Rabdotus dealbatus ragsdalei) 
35 

dealbatus ragsdalei, Rabdotus 356, 
35 

decampi, Oxyloma {Oxyloma re- 
tusa) 13 

decampi gouldi, Oxyloma {Oxy- 
loma retusa) 1 3 

decampi peoriensis, Oxyloma 
{Oxyloma peoriensis) 14 

deceptum, Stenotrema 415, 40 

decussatus, Ventridens 297, 30 

decussatus, Ventridens gularis 
( Ventridens decussatus) 30 

decussatus, Zonitoides (Ventridens) 
( Ventridens decussatus) 30 

delect a, Polygyra 372, 37 

deltoidea, Polygyra 386, 38 

deltoidea, Polygyra jacksoni {Poly- 
gyra deltoidea) 38 

demissus, Ventridens 309, 3 1 

demissus, Zonitoides (Ventricallus) 
( Ventridens demissus) 3 1 

demissus brittsi, Ventridens {Ven- 
tridens brittsi) 3 1 

demissus ssp.? brittsi, Zonitoides 
(Ventricallus) ( Ventridens britt- 
si) 31 

denotata, Triodopsis 493, 48 

denotata, Triodopsis obstricta 
{Triodopsis denotata) 48 

denotata, Xolotrema {Triodopsis 
denotata) 48 

dentatum, Chondropoma 5, 4 

dentatus, Euconulus 333, 33 

dentatus, Euconulus chersinus {Eu- 
conulus dentatus) 33 

dentifera, Triodopsis 514, 49 

dentilla, Paravitrea 259, 27 

depilatum, Stenotrema 402, 39 

depilatum, Stenotrema altispira 
{Stenotrema depilatum) 39 

deprimida, Oxyloma {Oxyloma 
peoriensis) 14 

Deroceras aenigma 203, 22 

Deroceras laeve 202, 22 

derochetus, Mesomphix {Mesom- 
phix vulgatus) 26 



176 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



(Desmosuccinea) pseudavara, Suc- 
cinea (Succinea grosvenori) 1 5 

diaboli, Vertigo ovata ( Vertigo ova- 
ta) 11 

diadema, Helicodiscus 189, 20 

[diadema, Helicodiscus] (Helico- 
discus parallelus) 2 1 

diana, Paravitrea 282, 28 

dioscoricola, Pupisoma 98, 1 2 

DISCIDAE 18 

discoidea, Triodopsis 489, 46 

discoidea, Triodopsis juxtidens 
(Triodopsis discoidea) 46 

discoidea, Triodopsis tridentata 
(Triodopsis discoidea) 46 

Discus bryanti 175, 20 

Discus bryanti nigrimontanus (Dis- 
cus nigrimontanus) 20 

Discus bryantwalkeri (Discus patu- 
lus) 19 

Discus catskillensis 172, 19 

Discus clappi 176, 20 

Discus cronkhitei 171, 19 

Discus cronkhitei catskillensis (Dis- 
cus catskillensis) 1 9 

[Discus cronkhitei catskillensis] 
(Discus cronkhitei) 19 

Discus macclintocki 173, 19 

Discus macclintocki angulata (Dis- 
cus macclintocki) 19 

Discus nigrimontanus 170, 20 

Discus patulus 174, 19 

Discus patulus brooksi (Discus pa- 
tulus) 19 

Discus patulus edentulus (Discus 
nigrimontanus) 20 

Discus patulus form edentulus (Dis- 
cus nigrimontanus) 20 

Discus shimeki 169, 20 

divesta, Triodopsis 517, 49 

divisidens, Ventridens suppressus 
( Ventridens suppressus) 3 1 

dominicus, Drymaeus 357, 36 

dorfeuilliana, Polygyra 393, 38 

dorfeuilliana sampsoni, Polygyra 
(Polygyra dorfeuilliana) 38 

dormani, Drymaeus 358, 36 

dorsalis, Pallifera 149, 17 

downieanus, Mesodon 476, 45 

[downieanus, Mesodon mitchelli- 
anus] (Mesodon downieanus) 45 

downieanus, Mesodon mitchelli- 
anus (Mesodon mitchellianus) 
45 

Dryachloa dauca 337, 33 

Drymaeus dominicus 357, 36 

Drymaeus dormani 358, 36 

Drymaeus multilineatus 359, 36 

edentatus, Mesodon 442, 43 
edentatus, Mesodon inflectus 

(Mesodon edentatus) 43 
[edentatus, Mesodon inflectus] 

(Mesodon inflectus) 42 
edentilabris, Triodopsis tridentata 

(Triodopsis tridentata) 46 



[edentula, Columella] (Columella 
simplex) 12 

edentulus, Discus patulus (Discus 
nigrimontanus) 20 

edentulus, Discus patulus form 
(Discus nigrimontanus) 20 

edgarianum, Stenotrema 395, 39 

edvardsi, Stenotrema 397, 39 

effusa, Oxyloma 113, 14 

eflusa subeffusa, Oxyloma (Oxy- 
loma subeffusa) 14 

eigenmanni, Helicodiscus (Helico- 
discus eigenmanni eigenman- 
ni) 21 

[eigenmanni, Helicodiscus] (Heli- 
codiscus parallelus) 2 1 

eigenmanni, Helicodiscus eigen- 
manni 180, 21 

[eigenmanni arizonensis, Helico- 
discus] (Helicodiscus eigen- 
manni eigenmanni) 2 1 

eigenmanni eigenmanni, Helico- 
discus 180, 21 

elata, Helicina fragilis 3 

elatior. Vertigo 69, 1 1 

electrina, Nesovitrea 205, 23 

electrina, Nesovitrea hammonis 
(Nesovitrea electrina) 23 

electrina, Retinella (Nesovitrea elec- 
trina) 23 

elevatus, Mesodon 470, 44 

elliotti, Ventridens (Zonitoides el- 
liotti) 32 

elliotti, Zonitoides 317, 32 

ELLOBIACEA 5 

enneodon, Helicodiscus (Helico- 
discus multidens) 20 

espiloca, Polygyra postelliana (Poly- 
gyra postelliana) 37 

Euconulus chersinus 328, 33 

Euconulus chersinus dentatus (Eu- 
conulus dentatus) 33 

Euconulus chersinus polygyratus 
(Euconulus polygyratus) 33 

Euconulus chersinus trochulus (Eu- 
conulus trochulus) 33 

Euconulus dentatus 333, 33 

Euconulus fulvus 331, 33 

Euconulus polygyratus 335, 33 

Euconulus trochulus 332, 33 

Euglandina rosea 340, 33 

Euglandina rosea bullata (Euglan- 
dina rosea) 34 

Euglandina singleyana 342, 34 

Euglandina texasiana 341, 34 

[Eumelus lividus] (Megapallifera 
mutabilis) 17 

Eumelus lividus (Philomycus caro- 
linianus) 16 

Eumelus nebulosus (Philomycus 
carolinianus) 16 

Eumelus wetherbyi (Megapallifera 
wetherbyi) 17 

Eumelus wetherbyi ragsdalei (Meg- 
apallifera ragsdalei) 17 

eutropis, Ventridens 304, 3 1 



eutropis, Ventridens intertextus 

( Ventridens eutropis) 3 1 
eutropis, Zonitoides (Ventricallus) 

( Ventridens eutropis 3 1 
excentrica, Vallonia 30, 7 
excentrica, Vallonia pulchella form 

( Vallonia excentrica) 1 
exigua, Cionella lubrica form 

(Cochlicopa lubricella) 6 
exigua, Striatura 325, 32 
exiguum, Carychium 17, 6 
[exile, Carychium] (Carychium exi- 
guum) 6 
exile, Carychium (Carychium exile 

exile) 6 
exile, Carychium exile 20, 5 
exile, Catinella 142, 16 
exile, Succinea (Catinella exile) 16 
exile canadense, Carychium 21, 5 
exile exile, Carychium 20, 5 
exile mexicanum, Carychium (Car- 
ychium mexicanum) 6 
exodon, Stenotrema 412, 40 
exodon turbinella, Stenotrema 

(Stenotrema turbinella) 40 
eyriesi rhoadsi, Sterkia 102, 13 

falcis, Gastrocopta 59, 9 

fallax, Triodopsis 513, 47 

fallax aflinis, Triodopsis (Triodopsis 
affinis) 48 

fallax alabamensis, Triodopsis 
(Triodopsis alabamensis) 48 

fallax hopetonensis, Triodopsis 
(Triodopsis hopetonensis) 48 

fallax messana, Triodopsis (Trio- 
dopsis messana) 47 

fallax obsoleta, Triodopsis (Trio- 
dopsis obsoleta) 47 

fallax vannostrandi, Triodopsis 
(Triodopsis vannostrandi) 48 

fasciatum, Stenotrema (Stenotrema 
fraternum montanum) 4 1 

fasciatum, Stenotrema fraternum 
(Stenotrema fraternum mon- 
tanum) 4 1 

fasciatus, Liguus 362, 36 

fatigiata, Polygyra 383, 38 

fatigiata internuntia, Polygyra 
(Polygyra fatigiata) 38 

febigeri, Polygyra septemvolva 
(Polygyra cereolus) 36 

fergusoni, Anguispira 162, 18 

fergusoni, Anguispira alternata (An- 
guispira fergusoni) 18 

ferrea, Striatura 327, 32 

ferrissi, Mesodon 457, 44 

ferrissi sericius, Mesodon (Mesodon 
ferrissi) 44 

fimbriatus, Helicodiscus 192, 20 

flexuolaris, Philomycus 148, 17 

flexuolaris, Philomycus carolini- 
anus (Philomycus flexuolaris) 
17 

florida, Stenotrema 403, 39 

floridana, Glyphyalinia 219, 24 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



177 



floridana, Polygyra cereolus (Poly- 
gyra cereolus) 36 

floridana, Praticolella mobiliana 
(Praticolella mobiliana) 42 

floridana, Retinella (Glyphyalinia 
floridana) 24 

floridana, Strobilops texasiana 
(Strobilops texasiana) 1 3 

floridana, Succinea 132, 1 5 

floridana, Succinea luteola {Succi- 
nea floridana) 15 

floridana, Truncatella 7, 5 

floridana, Varicella gracillima ( Var- 
icella gracillima) 34 

floridana, Veronicella 13, 5 

floridanum, Carychium (Cary- 
chium mexicanum) 6 

floridanus, Microceramus (Micro- 
ceramus pontificus) 35 

floridensis, Orthalicus 360, 36 

fonticula, Gastrodonta (Gastrodon- 
ta interna fonticula) 29 

fonticula, Gastrodonta interna 294, 
29 

forsheyi, Succinea 119, 15 

[forsheyi, Succinea] (Succinea wil- 
soni) 14 

foster i, Pallifera 156, 18 

fosteri, Triodopsis 504, 49 

fosteri, Xolotrema (Triodopsis fos- 
teri) 49 

fosteri hubrichti, Triodopsis (Trio- 
dopsis fosteri) 49 

fosteri oughtoni, Pallifera (Pallifera 
fosteri) 18 

fragilis elata, Helicina 3 

fraternum, Stenotrema (Stenotrema 
fraternum fraternum) 41 

fraternum, Stenotrema fraternum 
428,41 

fraternum cavum, Stenotrema 
(Stenotrema fraternum frater- 
num) 4 1 

fraternum fasciatum, Stenotrema 
(Stenotrema fraternum mon- 
tanum) 41 

fraternum fraternum, Stenotrema 
428, 41 

fraternum imperforatum, Stenotre- 
ma 425, 4 1 

[fraternum imperforatum, Stenotre- 
ma] (Stenotrema leai aliciae) 41 

fraternum montanum, Stenotrema 
424,41 

fraudulenta, Triodopsis 483, 46 

fraudulenta vulgata, Triodopsis 
(Triodopsis vulgata) 46 

friabilis, Mesomphix 239, 26 

fulciden, Triodopsis 480, 46 

fulvus, Euconulus 331, 33 

fuscolabris, Triodopsis albolabris 
(Triodopsis alleni) 49 

fuscus, Philomycus (Deroceras laeve) 
22 

Gastrocopta abbreviata 50, 8 



Gastrocopta armifera 44, 8 

Gastrocopta armifera abbreviata 
(Gastrocopta abbreviata) 8 

Gastrocopta armifera clappi (Gas- 
trocopta clappi) 8 

Gastrocopta armifera form affinis 
(Gastrocopta similis) 8 

Gastrocopta armifera form similis 
(Gastrocopta similis) 8 

Gastrocopta armifera ruidosensis 
(Gastrocopta ruidosensis) 8 

Gastrocopta carnegiei (Gastrocopta 
pentodon) 9 

Gastrocopta chauliodonta 56, 10 

Gastrocopta clappi 64, 8 

Gastrocopta contracta 42, 8 

Gastrocopta contracta climeana 
(Gastrocopta contracta) 8 

Gastrocopta corticaria 53, 9 

Gastrocopta cristata 47, 10 

Gastrocopta falcis 59, 9 

Gastrocopta holzingeri 48, 9 

Gastrocopta holzingeri agna (Gas- 
trocopta holzingeri) 9 

Gastrocopta paracristata 54, 10 

Gastrocopta pellucida 49, 10 

Gastrocopta pellucida hordeacella 
(Gastrocopta pellucida) 10 

Gastrocopta pentodon 61, 9 

Gastrocopta proarmifera (Gastro- 
copta ruidosensis) 8 

Gastrocopta procera 46, 9 

Gastrocopta procera form riparia 
(Gastrocopta riparia) 9 

Gastrocopta procera mcclungi 
(Gastrocopta procera) 9 

[Gastrocopta procera sterkiana] 
(Gastrocopta procera) 9 

Gastrocopta procera sterkiana 
(Gastrocopta sterkiana) 9 

Gastrocopta riograndensis 62, 9 

Gastrocopta riparia 52, 9 

Gastrocopta ruidosensis 51, 8 

Gastrocopta rupicola 45, 9 

Gastrocopta rupicola matecumben- 
sis (Gastrocopta rupicola) 9 

Gastrocopta scaevoscala 55, 10 

Gastrocopta servilis 58, 9 

Gastrocopta similis 43, 8 

Gastrocopta sterkiana 60, 9 

Gastrocopta tappaniana 57, 9 

[Gastrocopta tappaniana] (Gastro- 
copta pentodon) 9 

Gastrocopta tridentata (Gastrocop- 
ta ruidosensis) 8 

Gastrocopta venusta 63, 9 

GASTROCOPTINAE 8 

Gastrodonta fonticula (Gastrodonta 
interna fonticula) 29 

Gastrodonta interna (Gastrodonta 
interna interna) 29 

Gastrodonta interna fonticula 294, 
29 

Gastrodonta interna interna 295, 29 

GASTROPODA 3 

ge//rfa, Catinella 140, 16 



gelida, Succinea grosvenori (Cati- 
nella gelida) 1 6 
glassi, Stenotrema (Stenotrema lab- 

rosum) 39 
globosus, Mesomphix 240, 25 
globosus, Mesomphix pilsbryi (Me- 
somphix globosus) 25 
Glyphyalinia burringtoni (Glyphy- 
alinia wheat ley i) 23 
Glyphyalinia caroliniensis 227, 24 
Glyphyalinia circumstriata (Gly- 
phyalinia wheat leyi) 23 
Glyphyalinia clingmani 216, 23 
Glyphyalinia cryptomphala 226, 24 
Glyphyalinia cumberlandiana 215, 

23 
Glyphyalinia floridana 219, 24 
Glyphyalinia indentata 222, 24 
Glyphyalinia junaluskana 233, 25 
Glyphyalinia latebricola 232, 25 
Glyphyalinia lewisiana 214, 24 
Glyphyalinia luticola 230, 25 
Glyphyalinia ocoae 221, 24 
Glyphyalinia pecki 228, 24 
Glyphyalinia pentadelphia 220, 24 
Glyphyalinia picea 234, 25 
Glyphyalinia praecox 235, 25 
Glyphyalinia raderi 218, 24 
Glyphyalinia rhoadsi 223, 24 
Glyphyalinia rhoadsi austrina (GTy- 

phyalinia rhoadsi) 24 
Glyphyalinia rimula 229, 25 
Glyphyalinia roanensis (Glyphyali- 
nia cumberlandiana) 23 
Glyphyalinia roemeri 224, 23 
Glyphyalinia sculptilis 236, 25 
Glyphyalinia solida 225, 24 
Glyphyalinia specus 217, 24 
Glyphyalinia umbilicata 231, 25 
Glyphyalinia vanattai 212, 23 
Glyphyalinia virginica 211, 23 
Glyphyalinia wheatleyi 213, 23 
goldfussi, Holospira 351, 35 
goldfussi anacachensis, Holospira 

(Holospira goldfussi) 35 
goniosoma, Triodopsis vannostran- 
di (Triodopsis vannostrandi) 48 
gouldi, Oxyloma decampi (Oxy- 

/oma retusa) 1 3 
gouldi, Vertigo 75, 1 1 
gouldi hannai, Vertigo ( Vertigo 

hannai) 1 1 
gouldi hubrichti, Vertigo (Vertigo 

hubrichti) 1 1 
gouldi paradoxa, Vertigo (Vertigo 

paradoxa) 1 1 
gracilicosta, Vallonia 31, 7 
gracilis, Polygyra 391, 38 
gracillima, Varicella 343, 34 
gracillima floridana, Varicella ( Var- 
icella gracillima) 34 
greeri, Succinea 121, 15 
grimmi, Para vitrea (Para vitreapon- 

tis) 29 
griseola, Praticolella 429, 4 1 
groenlandica, Oxyloma 111, 13 



178 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



grosvenori, Succinea 122, 15 

grosvenori gelida, Succinea (Cati- 
nella gelida) 1 6 

gularis, Ventridens 300, 30 

gularis, Zonitoides (Ventridens) 
( Ventridens gularis) 30 

gularis cerinoideus, Ventridens 
( Ventridens cerinoideus) 3 1 

[gularis cerinoideus, Ventridens] 
( Ventridens gularis) 30 

gularis decussatus, Ventridens 
( Ventridens decussatus) 30 

gularis form nodus, Ventridens 
( Ventridens theloides) 30 

gularis theloides, Ventridens {Ven- 
tridens theloides) 30 

gundlachi, Guppya 338, 33 

Guppya gundlachi 338, 33 

Guppya miamiensis (Guppya gund- 
lachi) 33 

Guppya sterkii 334, 33 

hadenoecus, Helicodiscus 183, 21 

hammonis electrina, Nesovitrea 
(Nesovitrea electrina) 23 

hannai, Vertigo 83, 1 1 

hannai, Vertigo gouldi {Vertigo 
hannai) 1 1 

Haplotrema concavum 336, 33 

Haplotrema concavum kendeighi 
(Haplotrema kendeighi) 33 

Haplotrema kendeighi 339, 33 

[Haplotrema kendeighi] (Haplotre- 
ma concavum) 33 

HAPLOTREMATIDAE 33 

harpa, Zoogenetes 34, 7 

hasta, Columella 100, 12 

hausmani, Polygyra 371, 37 

hausmani, Polygyra postelliana (Po- 
lygyra hausmani) 31 

Hawaiia alachuana 290, 29 

Hawaiia minuscula 289, 29 

Hawaiia minuscula alachuana (Ha- 
waiia alachuana) 29 

[Hawaiia minuscula alachuana] 
(Hawaiia minuscula) 29 

haydeni, Oxyloma 116, 14 

hebardi, Vertigo 95, 1 2 

HELICACEA 49 

HELICARIONIDAE 33 

HELICIDAE 50 

Helicina chrysocheila 3 

Helicina clappi 3, 3 

Helicina fragilis elata 3 

Helicina orbiculata 2, 3 

Helicina orbiculata tropica (Heli- 
cina orbiculata) 3 

HELICINIDAE 3 

HELICODISCIDAE 20 

Helicodiscus alachuana (Hawaiia 
alachuana) 29 

Helicodiscus aldrichiana (Helico- 
discus aldrichianus) 2 1 

Helicodiscus aldrichianus 196, 21 

Helicodiscus barri 198, 21 

Helicodiscus bonamicus 193, 21 



Helicodiscus diadema 189, 20 
[Helicodiscus diadema] (Helico- 
discus parallelus) 2 1 
Helicodiscus eigenmanni (Helico- 
discus eigenmanni eigenman- 
ni) 21 
[Helicodiscus eigenmanni] (Heli- 
codiscus parallelus) 2 1 
[Helicodiscus eigenmanni arizonen- 
sis] (Helicodiscus eigenmanni 
eigenmanni) 21 
Helicodiscus eigenmanni eigen- 
manni 180, 21 
Helicodiscus enneodon (Helicodis- 
cus multidens) 20 
Helicodiscus fimbriatus 192, 20 
Helicodiscus hadenoecus 183, 21 
Helicodiscus hexodon 194, 21 
Helicodiscus inermis 187, 22 
Helicodiscus intermedius (Helico- 
discus inermis) 22 
[Helicodiscus intermedius] (Heli- 
codiscus singleyanus) 22 
Helicodiscus jacksoni (Hawaiia 

alachuana) 29 
Helicodiscus lirellus 190, 20 
Helicodiscus multidens 197, 20 
[Helicodiscus multidens] (Helico- 
discus parallelus) 2 1 
Helicodiscus notius (Helicodiscus 

notius notius) 2 1 
[Helicodiscus notius] (Helicodiscus 

parallelus) 2 1 
Helicodiscus notius notius 178, 2 1 
Helicodiscus notius specus 184, 21 
Helicodiscus nummus 188, 22 
Helicodiscus parallelus 185, 21 
Helicodiscus punctatellus 199, 22 
Helicodiscus roundyi 181, 21 
Helicodiscus saludensis 195, 21 
[Helicodiscus saludensis] (Helico- 
discus parallelus) 2 1 
Helicodiscus shimeki 186, 21 
Helicodiscus singleyanus 179, 22 
Helicodiscus singleyanus inermis 

(Helicodiscus inermis) 22 
[Helicodiscus singleyanus inermis] 

(Helicodiscus singleyanus) 22 
Helicodiscus tridens 182, 20 
Helicodiscus triodus 191, 20 
[Helicodiscus triodus] (Helicodiscus 

parallelus) 21 
Helix tamaulipasensis (Polygyra ta- 

maulipasensis) 38 
HELMINTHOGLYPTIDAE 49 
hemphilli, Pallifera 153, 17 
hemphilli marmorea, Pallifera (Pal- 
lifera marmorea) 17 
hemphilli secreta, Pallifera (Pallif- 
era secreta) 1 8 
Hendersonia occulta 1, 3 
henriettae, Triodopsis 499, 47 
henriettae, Triodopsis vultuosa 

(Triodopsis henriettae) 47 
[henriettae, Triodopsis vultuosa] 
(Triodopsis vultuosa) 47 



hera, Paravitrea 283, 28 
hesperius, Rabdotus alternatus 

(Rabdotus alternatus) 35 
hexodon, Helicodiscus 194, 21 
hinkleyi, Pomatiopsis (Pomatiopsis 

lapidaria) 4 
hippocrepis, Daedalochila (Poly- 
gyra hippocrepis) 38 
hippocrepis, Polygyra 388, 38 
hirsutum, Stenotrema 413, 40 
hirsutum barbatum, Stenotrema 

(Stenotrema barbatum) 40 
Hojeda inaguensis 347, 34 
HOLOPODOPES 33 
Holospira goldfussi 351, 35 
Holospira goldfussi anacachensis 

(Holospira goldfussi) 35 
Holospira montivaga 35 
Holospira roemeri (Metastoma roe- 

meri) 35 
Holospira roemeri brevissima 

(Metastoma roemeri) 35 
HOLOSPIRINAE 35 
holzingeri, Gastrocopta 48, 9 
holzingeri agna, Gastrocopta (Gas- 
trocopta holzingeri) 9 
hopetonensis, Triodopsis 511, 48 
hopetonensis, Triodopsis fallax 

(Triodopsis hopetonensis) 48 
hopetonensis chincoteagensis, Trio- 
dopsis (Triodopsis obsoleta) 47 
hopetonensis claibornensis, Trio- 
dopsis (Triodopsis claibornen- 
sis) 46 
[hopetonensis claibornensis, Trio- 
dopsis] (Triodopsis vulgata) 46 
hopetonensis obsoleta, Triodopsis 

(Triodopsis obsoleta) 47 
hordaceus, Pupoides 39, 8 
hordeacella, Gastrocopta pellucida 

(Gastrocopta pellucida) 10 
horni, Thysanophora 345, 34 
hortensis, Cepaea 523, 50 
hubbardi, Strobilops 109, 13 
hubrichti, Catinella 136, 16 
hubrichti, Stenotrema 423, 41 
hubrichti, Triodopsis (Triodopsis 

fosteri) 49 
hubrichti, Triodopsis fosteri (Trio- 
dopsis fosteri) 49 
hubrichti, Vertigo 74, 1 1 
hubrichti, Vertigo gouldi (Vertigo 
hubrichti) 1 1 



imperforatum, Stenotrema frater- 

num 425, 4 1 
[imperforatum, Stenotrema frater- 

num] (Stenotrema leai aliciae) 

41 
implicata, Polygyra 37 
inaguensis, Hojeda 347, 34 
incanum, Cerion 108, 13 
indentata, Glyphyalinia 222, 24 
indentata, Retinella (Glyphyalinia 

indentata) 24 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



179 



indentata paucilirata, Retinella 

(Glyphyalinia indentata) 24 
indentatus var. umbilicatus, Zo- 

nites (Glyphyalinia umbilicata) 

25 
Indiana, Succinea 117, 15 
indianorum, Mesodon 451, 44 
[indianorum lioderma, Mesodon] 

{Mesodon indianorum) 44 
indianorum lioderma, Mesodon 

(Triodopsis lioderma) 49 
inermis, Helicodiscus 187, 22 
inermis, Helicodiscus singleyanus 

(Helicodiscus inermis) 22 
[inermis, Helicodiscus singleyanus] 

(Helicodiscus singleyanus) 22 
inflectus, Mesodon 439, 42 
inflectus approximans, Mesodon 

(Mesodon approximans) 42 
inflectus edentatus, Mesodon 

(Mesodon edentatus) 43 
[inflectus edentatus, Mesodon] 

(Mesodon inflectus) 42 
inflectus mobilensis, Mesodon 

(Mesodon inflectus) 42 
inornatus, Mesomphix 237, 25 
inornatus, Pupoides 41, 8 
intermedius, Helicodiscus (Helico- 
discus inermis) 22 
[intermedius, Helicodiscus] (Heli- 
codiscus singleyanus) 22 
intermedius, Mesodon andrewsae 

(Mesodon andrewsae) 45 
interna, Gastrodonta (Gastrodonta 

interna interna) 29 
interna, Gastrodonta interna 295, 29 
interna fonticula, Gastrodonta 294, 

29 
interna interna, Gastrodonta 295, 29 
internuntia, Polygyra fatigiata 

(Polygyra fatigiata) 38 
intertextus, Ventridens 316, 31 
intertextus, Zonitoides (Ventrical- 

lus) ( Ventridens intertextus) 3 1 
intertextus eutropis, Ventridens 

( Ventridens eutropis) 3 1 
intertextus volusiae, Ventridens 

(Ventridens volusiae) 32 



jacksoni, Helicodiscus (Hawaiia 
alachuana) 29 

jacksoni, Polygyra 385, 38 

jacksoni deltoidea, Polygyra (Poly- 
gyra deltoidea) 38 

[jacksoni simpsoni, Polygyra] (Poly- 
gyra deltoidea) 38 

jacksoni simpsoni, Polygyra (Poly- 
gyra simpsoni) 38 

jejuna, Praticolella 435, 42 

Jessica, Anguispira 165, 18 

Jessica, Anguispira alternata (An- 
guispira Jessica) 18 

jonesi, Bulimulus dealbatus (Rab- 
dotus mooreanus) 35 

jonesi, Rabdotus mooreanus (Rab- 
dotus mooreanus) 35 



jonesianus, Mesodon 452, 43 
junaluskana, Glyphyalinia 233, 25 
junaluskana, Retinella sculptilis 

(Glyphyalinia junaluskana) 25 
juxtidens, Triodopsis 492, 46 
juxtidens, Triodopsis tridentata 

(Triodopsis juxtidens) 46 
juxtidens discoidea, Triodopsis 

(Triodopsis discoidea) 46 
juxtidens stenomphala, Triodopsis 

(Triodopsis juxtidens) 46 

kalmianus, Mesodon 477, 45 
kendeighi, Haplotrema 339, 33 
[kendeighi, Haplotrema] (Haplotre- 
ma concavum) 33 
kendeighi, Haplotrema concavum 

(Haplotrema kendeighi) 33 
kiowaensis, Mesodon 455, 44 
kirbyi, Zonitoides 326, 32 
knoxensis, Anguispira 164, 18 
knoxensis, Anguispira alternata 

(Anguispira knoxensis) 18 
kochi, Anguispira 161, 19 
kochi roseoapicata, Anguispira (An- 
guispira kochi) 19 
kochi strontiana, Anguispira (An- 
guispira kochi) 1 9 



labrosum, Stenotrema 400, 39 
labyrinthica, Strobilops 103, 13 
labryinthica form parietalis, Stro- 
bilops (Strobilops texasiana) 13 
[labyrinthica texasiana, Strobilops] 

(Strobilops labyrinthica) 1 3 
lacteodens, Paravitrea 273, 28 
lacteodens, Paravitrea capsella 

(Paravitrea lacteodens) 28 
Lacteoluna selenina 344, 34 
laeve, Deroceras 202, 22 
laevior, Mesodon 471, 43 
laevior, Mesodon appressus form 

(Mesodon laevior) 43 
lamellatum, Punctum (Punctum 

smithi) 22 
Lamellaxis mexicanum 34 
lamellidens, Paravitrea 254, 26 
lapidaria, Cyclostoma (Pomatiopsis 

lapidaria) 4 
lapidaria, Pomatiopsis 11, 4 
lapilla, Paravitrea 286, 29 
lasmodon, Ventridens 302, 30 
lasmodon, Zonitoides (Ventridens) 

( Ventridens lasmodon) 30 
latebricola, Glyphyalinia 232, 25 
lateumbilicatus, Zonitoides 320, 32 
latior, Mesomphix 245, 26 
latior monticola, Mesomphix (Me- 
somphix latior) 26 
latispira, Polygyra (Triodopsis vul- 

tuosa) 47 
latissimus, Vitrinizonites 249, 26 
lawae, Anguispira alternata (An- 
guispira mordax) 19 
lawae, Praticolella 437, 42 
lawae, Ventridens 310, 30 



lawae, Zonitoides (Ventridens) 

(Ventridens lawae) 30 
lawae cumberlandicus, Ventridens 

(Ventridens lawae) 30 
lawae tallulahensis, Praticolella 

(Praticolella lawae) 42 
leai, Stenotrema (Stenotrema leai 

leai) 41 
leai, Stenotrema leai 426, 4 1 
leai aliciae, Stenotrema 427, 41 
leai cheatumi, Stenotrema 421, 41 
leai leai, Stenotrema 426, 4 1 
leatherwoodi, Mesodon 456, 44 
leporina, Polygyra 378, 38 
lewisiana, Glyphyalinia 214, 24 
lewisiana, Retinella (Glyphyalinia 

lewisiana) 24 
ligera, Ventridens 312, 31 
ligerus, Zonitoides (Ventricallus) 

( Ventridens ligera) 3 1 
Liguus fasciatus 362, 36 
LIMACACEA 22 
LIMACIDAE 22 
LIMACINAE 22 
limatulus, Zonitoides 319, 32 
Limax togata (Philomycus togatus) 

17 
limpida, Vitrina 330, 32 
limpida, Vitrina angelicae (Vitrina 

limpida) 32 
[lioderma, Mesodon indianorum] 

(Mesodon indianorum) 44 
lioderma, Mesodon indianorum 

(Triodopsis lioderma) 49 
lioderma, Triodopsis 518, 49 
lirata, Lucidella 4 
lirellus, Helicodiscus 190, 20 
lithica, Polygyra 392, 38 
lithodora, Paravitrea (Paravitrea 

placentula) 28 
lithodora, Paravitrea placentula 

(Paravitrea placentula) 28 
LITTORINACEA 4 
[lividus, Eumelus] (Megapallifera 

mutabilis) 17 
lividus, Eumelus (Philomycus car- 

olinianus) 16 
Lobosculum pustula (Polygyra pus- 
tula) 38 
loculosa, Quickella oklahomarum 

(Catinella avara) 16 
lonsdalei, Strobilops (Strobilops 

texasiana) 13 
lubrica, Cionella (Cochlicopa lubri- 

ca) 6 
lubrica, Cochlicopa 24, 6 
lubrica form exigua, Cionella 

(Cochlicopa lubricella) 6 
lubrica morseana, Cionella (Coch- 
licopa morseana) 6 
lubricella, Bulimus lubricus var. 

(Cochlicopa lubricella) 6 
lubricella, Cochlicopa 22, 6 
lubricus var. lubricella, Bulimus 

(Cochlicopa lubricella) 6 
Lucidella lirata 4 
Lucidella tantilla 4, 4 



180 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



luteola, Succinea 123, 15 

luteola floridana, Succinea (Succi- 
nea floridana) 15 

luticola, Glyphyalinia 230, 25 

Lymnaea barberi (Succinea barberi) 
14 



macclintocki, Discus 173, 19 
macclintocki angulata, Discus (Dis- 
cus macclintocki) 1 9 
macneilli, Anguispira (Anguispira 

strongylodes) 18 
macneilli, Anguispira alternata (An- 
guispira strongylodes) 1 8 
macneilli, Pupisoma 99, 1 2 
magazinensis, Mesodon 443, 43 
magnidens, Ventridens suppressus 

( Ventridens gularis) 30 
magnifumosum, Stenotrema 408, 40 
major, Triodopsis 501, 49 
major, Triodopsis albolabris (Trio- 
dopsis major) 49 
major, Xolotrema albolabris (Trio- 
dopsis major) 49 
margueritae, Polygyra uvulifera 

(Polygyra uvulifera) 36 
mariae, Bulimulus alternatus (Rab- 

dotus alternatus) 35 
marmorea, Pallifera 152, 17 
marmorea, Pallifera hemphilli (Pal- 
lifera marmorea) 1 7 
matecumbensis, Gastrocopta rupi- 

cola (Gastrocopta rupicola) 9 
maxillatum, Stenotrema 420, 4 1 
mcclungi, Gastrocopta procera 

(Gastrocopta procera) 9 
Megapallifera mutabilis 150, 17 
Megapallifera ragsdalei 157, 17 
Megapallifera wetherbyi 155, 17 
megaphallica, Pallifera (Pallifera 

fosteri) 18 
meramecensis, Vertigo 88, 1 1 
meridionalis, Striatura 323, 32 
Mesodon andrewsae 469, 45 
Mesodon andrewsae altivaga 

(Mesodon andrewsae) 45 
Mesodon andrewsae intermedius 

(Mesodon andrewsae) 45 
Mesodon andrewsae normalis 

(Mesodon normalis) 45 
Mesodon appressus 446, 43 
Mesodon appressus form laevior 

(Mesodon laevior) 43 
Mesodon approximans 440, 42 
Mesodon archeri 479, 44 
Mesodon binneyanus 453, 44 
[Mesodon binneyanus] (Mesodon 

indianorum) 44 
Mesodon binneyanus chastatensis 

(Mesodon binneyanus) 44 
Mesodon burringtoni (Mesodon 

mitchellianus) 45 
Mesodon chilhoweensis 450, 43 
Mesodon christyi 464, 44 
Mesodon clarki 468, 44 



Mesodon clarki nantahala (Meso- 
don clarki) 44 
Mesodon clausus (Mesodon clausus 

clausus) 45 
Mesodon clausus clausus 458, 45 
Mesodon clausus trossulus 465, 45 
Mesodon clenchi 454, 44 
Mesodon clingmanicus 463, 44 
Mesodon downieanus 476, 45 
Mesodon edentatus 442, 43 
Mesodon elevatus 470, 44 
Mesodon ferrissi 457, 44 
Mesodon ferrissi sericius (Mesodon 

ferrissi) 44 
Mesodon indianorum 451, 44 
[Mesodon indianorum lioderma] 

(Mesodon indianorum) 44 
Mesodon indianorum lioderma 

(Triodopsis lioderma) 49 
Mesodon inflectus 439, 42 
Mesodon inflectus approximans 

(Mesodon approximans) 42 
Mesodon inflectus edentatus (Meso- 
don edentatus) 43 
[Mesodon inflectus edentatus] 

(Mesodon inflectus) 42 
Mesodon inflectus mobilensis 

(Mesodon inflectus) 42 
Mesodon jonesianus 452, 43 
Mesodon kalmianus 477, 45 
Mesodon kiowaensis 455, 44 
Mesodon laevior 471, 43 
Mesodon leatherwoodi 456, 44 
Mesodon magazinensis 443, 43 
Mesodon mitchellianus 473, 45 
[Mesodon mitchellianus downiea- 
nus] (Mesodon downieanus) 45 
Mesodon mitchellianus downiea- 
nus (Mesodon mitchellianus) 45 
Mesodon normalis 475, 45 
Mesodon orestes 459, 44 
Mesodon panselenus 447, 43 
Mesodon pennsylvanicus 472, 45 
Mesodon perigraptus 462, 43 
Mesodon roemeri 474, 44 
Mesodon rugeli 461, 42 
Mesodon sanus 478, 45 
Mesodon sargentianus 445, 43 
Mesodon sayanus 467, 43 
Mesodon smithi 441, 42 
Mesodon subpalliatus 444, 43 
Mesodon thyroidus 466, 45 
Mesodon thyroidus sanctisimonis 

(Mesodon thyroidus) 45 
Mesodon verus (Mesodon subpal- 
liatus) 43 
Mesodon wetherbyi 448, 43 
Mesodon wheatleyi 460, 44 
Mesodon wheatleyi clingmanicus 

(Mesodon clingmanicus) 44 
Mesodon zaletus 449, 45 
Mesodon zaletus ozarkensis (Meso- 
don zaletus) 45 
MESOGASTROPODA 4 
Mesomphix andrewsae 241, 25 
Mesomphix andrewsae montivagus 
(Mesomphix andrewsae) 25 



Mesomphix anurus 247, 26 
Mesomphix capnodes 250, 26 
Mesomphix cupreus 244, 26 
Mesomphix cupreus miktus (A/e- 

somphix capnodes) 26 
Mesomphix cupreus ozarkensis 

(Mesomphix capnodes) 26 
Mesomphix cupreus politus (Me- 
somphix cupreus) 26 
Mesomphix derochetus (Mesom- 
phix vulgatus) 26 
Mesomphix friabilis 239, 26 
Mesomphix globosus 240, 25 
Mesomphix inornatus 237, 25 
Mesomphix latior 245, 26 
Mesomphix latior monticola (Me- 
somphix latior) 26 
Mesomphix perlaevis 238, 26 
Mesomphix pilsbryi 248, 26 
Mesomphix pilsbryi globosus (Me- 
somphix globosus) 25 
Mesomphix rugeli 243, 25 
Mesomphix rugeli oxycoccus (Me- 
somphix rugeli) 25 
Mesomphix ruidus (Mesomphix 

globosus) 25 
Mesomphix subplanus 242, 25 
Mesomphix subplanus planus 

(Mesomphix subplanus) 25 
Mesomphix vulgatus 246, 26 
messana, Triodopsis 502, 47 
messana, Triodopsis fallax (Trio- 
dopsis messana) 47 
MESURETHRA 13 
metallacta, Paravitrea 285, 29 
Metastoma roemeri 352, 35 
Metastoma roemeri brevissima 

(Metastoma roemeri) 35 
mexicanum, Carychium 14, 6 
mexicanum, Carychium exile (Car- 
ychium mexicanum) 6 
mexicanum, Lamellaxis 34 
miamiensis, Guppya ( Guppya 

gundlachi) 33 
MICROCERAMINAE 35 
Microceramus floridanus (Micro- 

ceramus pontificus) 35 
Microceramus pontificus 349, 35 
Microceramus texanus 350, 35 
miktus, Mesomphix cupreus (Me- 
somphix capnodes) 26 
milium, Striatura 324, 32 
milium, Vertigo 65, 10 
minus, Pupisoma (Pupisoma mac- 
neilli) 12 
minuscula, Hawaiia 289, 29 
minuscula alachuana, Hawaiia (Ha- 
waiia alachuana) 29 
[minuscula alachuana, Hawaiia] 

(Hawaiia minuscula) 29 
minutissimum, Punctum 200, 22 
mira, Paravitrea 263, 27 
mitchellianus, Mesodon 473, 45 
[mitchellianus downieanus, Meso- 
don] (Mesodon downieanus) 45 
mitchellianus downieanus, Meso- 
don (Mesodon mitchellianus) 45 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



181 



mobilensis, Mesodon inflectus 

(Mesodon inflectus) 42 
mobiliana, Praticolella 438, 42 
mobiliana floridana, Praticolella 

{Praticolella mobiliana) 42 
modesta, Vertigo ( Vertigo modesta 

modesta) 12 
modesta, Vertigo modesta 76, 1 2 
modesta modesta, Vertigo 76, 12 
modicus, Pupoides 40, 8 
[modicus, Pupoides] (Pupoides al- 

bilabris) 8 
monodon, Strenotrema (Stenotre- 

ma leai leai) 4 1 
monodon, Ventridens 298, 30 
monodon, Zonitoides (Ventridens) 

{Ventridens monodon) 30 
monodon aliciae, Stenotrema 

(Stenotrema leai aliciae) 41 
montanum, Stenotrema fraternum 

424,41 
monticola, Mesomphix latior (Me- 
somphix latior) 26 
montivaga, Holospira 35 
montivagus, Mesomphix andrews- 
ae (Mesomphix andrewsae) 25 
mooreana, Polygyra 389, 38 
mooreanus, Bulimulus (Rabdotus 

mooreanus) 35 
mooreanus, Bulimulus dealbatus 

(Rabdotus mooreanus) 35 
mooreanus, Rabdotus 353, 35 
mooreanus jonesi, Rabdotus (Rab- 
dotus mooreanus) 35 
mooreanus pecosensis, Bulimulus 

(Rabdotus mooreanus) 35 
mordax, Anguispira 160, 19 
mordax, Anguispira alternata (An- 
guispira mordax) 19 
mordax paucicostata, Anguispira 

(Anguispira mordax) 19 
morosum, Stenotrema 411, 40 
morseana, Cionella (Cochlicopa 

morseana) 6 
morseana, Cionella lubrica (Coch- 
licopa morseana) 6 
morseana, Cochlicopa 25, 6 
morsei. Vertigo 77 ', 10 
multidens, Helicodiscus 197, 20 
[multidens, Helicodiscus] (Helico- 
discus parallelus) 2 1 
multidentata, Paravitrea 251, 26 
multilineata, Triodopsis 515, 49 
multilineata, Xolotrema (Triodop- 
sis multilineata) 49 
multilineatus, Drymaeus 359, 36 
muscorum, Pupilla (Pupilla mus- 

corum muscorum) 7 
muscorum, Pupilla muscorum 35, 7 
muscorum muscorum, Pupilla 35, 7 
muscorum sinistra, Pupilla 36, 7 
[muscorum sinistra, Pupilla] (Pu- 
pilla muscorum muscorum) 7 
mutabilis, Megapallifera 150, 17 
mutabilis, Pallifera (Megapallifera 
mutabilis) 17 



[mutabilis, Pallifera] (Megapallifera 
ragsdalei) 17 

nannodes, Carychium 18, 6 
nantahala, Mesodon clarki (Meso- 
don clarki) 44 
nebulosus, Eumelus (Philomycus 

carolinianus) 16 
neglecta, Triodopsis 486, 46 
neglecta vulgata, Triodopsis (Trio- 
dopsis vulgata) 46 
NERITACEA 3 
nesodryas, Orthalicus reses (Or- 

thalicus reses) 36 
NESOPUPINAE 12 
Nesovitrea binneyana 206, 23 
Nesovitrea dalliana 209, 23 
Nesovitrea elect rina 205, 23 
Nesovitrea hammonis electrina 

(Nesovitrea electrina) 23 
Nesovitrea susannae 210, 23 
nigrimontanus, Discus 170, 20 
nigrimontanus, Discus bryanti (Dis- 
cus nigrimontanus) 20 
nitens, Bulimulus (Cochlicopa ni- 

tens) 6 
nitens, Cochlicopa 23, 6 
nitidus, Zonitoides 322, 32 
nodus, Ventridens ( Ventridens the- 

loides) 30 
nodus, Ventridens gularis form 

( Ventridens theloides) 30 
normalis, Mesodon 475, 45 
normalis, Mesodon andrewsae 

(Mesodon normalis) 45 
notata, Triodopsis (Triodopsis de- 
notata) 48 
notius, Helicodiscus (Helicodiscus 

notius notius) 21 
[notius, Helicodiscus] (Helicodiscus 

parallelus) 21 
notius, Helicodiscus notius 178, 21 
notius notius, Helicodiscus 178, 21 
notius specus, Helicodiscus 184, 21 
nummus, Helicodiscus 188, 22 
nylanderi, Vertigo 79, 1 1 



obsoleta, Triodopsis 503, 47 
obsoleta, Triodopsis fallax (Trio- 
dopsis obsoleta) 47 
obsoleta, Triodopsis hopetonensis 

(Triodopsis obsoleta) 47 
obstricta, Triodopsis 507, 48 
obstricta denotata, Triodopsis 

(Triodopsis denotata) 48 
[obstricta occidentalis, Triodopsis] 

(Mesodon sargentianus) 43 
obstricta occidentalis, Triodopsis 

(Triodopsis occidentalis) 48 
occidentalis, Triodopis 509, 48 
[occidentalis, Triodopsis obstricta] 

(Mesodon sargentianus) 43 
occidentalis, Triodopsis obstricta 

(Triodopsis occidentalis) 48 
occulta, Hendersonia 1, 3 



occulta, Vertigo 90, 1 2 

ocoae, Glyphyalinia 221, 24 

ohioensis, Pallifera (Pallifera dor- 
salis) 17 

oklahomarum, Catinella 135, 16 

oklahomarum, Quickella (Catinella 
oklahomarum) 16 

oklahomarum loculosa, Quickella 
(Catinella avara) 16 

OLEACINACEA 33 

OLEACINIDAE 33 

oppilata, Polygyra 37 

optima, Succinea ovalis (Succinea 
ovalis) 14 

oralis, Vertigo 70, 10 

oralis, Vertigo rugosula ( Vertigo or- 
alis) 10 

orbiculata, Helicina 2, 3 

orbiculata tropica, Helicina (Heli- 
cina orbiculata) 3 

OREOHELICIDAE 49 

Oreohelix strigosa cooperi 520, 49 

orestes, Mesodon 459, 44 

ORTHALICINAE 36 

Orthalicus floridensis 360, 36 

Orthalicus reses 361, 36 

Orthalicus reses nesodryas (Orthal- 
icus reses) 36 

ORTHURETHRA 6 

oscariana, Vertigo 66, 10 

oughtoni, Pallifera fosteri (Pallifera 
fosteri) 18 

oughtoni, Vertigo alpestris 85, 1 1 

ovalis, Succinea 118, 14 

ovalis chittenangoensis, Succinea 
(Succinea chittenangoensis) 14 

ovalis form chittenangoensis, Suc- 
cinea (Succinea chittenangoen- 
sis) 14 

ovalis optima, Succinea (Succinea 
ovalis) 14 

ovalis pleistocenica, Succinea (Suc- 
cinea chittenangoensis) 14 

ovata. Vertigo 67, 1 1 

ovata diaboli, Vertigo ( Vertigo ova- 
ta) 11 

oxycoccus, Mesomphix rugeli (Me- 
somphix rugeli) 25 

Oxyloma barberi (Succinea barberi) 
14 

Oxyloma decampi (Oxyloma retu- 
sa) 13 

Oxyloma decampi gouldi (Oxyloma 
retusa) 13 

Oxyloma decampi peoriensis (Oxy- 
loma peoriensis) 1 4 

Oxyloma deprimida (Oxyloma peo- 
riensis) 14 

Oxyloma effusa 113, 14 

Oxyloma effusa subeffusa (Oxyloma 
subeffusa) 14 

Oxyloma groenlandica 111, 13 

Oxyloma haydeni 116, 14 

Oxyloma peoriensis 112, 13 

Oxyloma retusa 110, 13 

Oxyloma salleana 114, 14 



182 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Oxyloma sanibelensis (Succinea 

barberi) 14 
Oxyloma subeffusa 115, 14 
Oxyloma verrilli {Oxyloma groen- 

landica) 13 
oxyurus, Philomycus (Deroceras 

laeve) 22 
ozarkensis, Bulimulus dealbatus 

(Rabdotus dealbatus dealbatus) 

35 
ozarkensis, Mesodon zaletus (Meso- 

don zaletus) 45 
ozarkensis, Mesomphix cupreus 

(Mesomphix capnodes) 26 



pachyloma, Praticolella 430, 41 

pachyloma, Praticolella berland- 
ieriana (Praticolella pachy- 
loma) 4 1 

Pallifera dorsalis 149, 17 

Pallifera fosteri 156, 18 

Pallifera fosteri oughtoni (Pallifera 
fosteri) 18 

Pallifera hemphilli 153, 17 

Pallifera hemphilli marmorea (Pal- 
lifera marmorea) 1 7 

Pallifera hemphilli secreta (Pallifera 
secret a) 18 

Pallifera marmorea 152, 17 

Pallifera megaphallica (Pallifera 
fosteri) 18 

Pallifera mutabilis (Megapallifera 
mutabilis) 17 

[Pallifera mutabilis] (Megapallifera 
ragsdalei) 17 

Pallifera ohioensis (Pallifera dor- 
salis) 17 

Pallifera ragsdalei (Megapallifera 
ragsdalei) 17 

Pallifera secreta 151, 18 

Pallifera tornescalis (Pallifera mar- 
morea) 18 

Pallifera varia 154, 17 

Pallifera wetherbyi (Megapallifera 
wetherbyi) 17 

palustris, Triodopsis 508, 48 

[palustris, Triodopsis] (Triodopsis 
obsoleta) 47 

panselenus, Mesodon 447, 43 

paracristata, Gastrocopta 54, 1 

paradoxa, Vertigo 80, 1 1 

paradoxa, Vertigo gouldi (Vertigo 
paradoxa) 1 1 

paralia, Succinea 124, 14 

parallela, Catinella (Catinella avara) 
16 

parallelus, Helicodiscus 185, 21 

Paravitrea alethia 279, 28 

Paravitrea amicalola 267, 27 

Paravitrea andrewsae 258, 27 

Paravitrea aulacogyra 291, 29 

Paravitrea bellona 280, 28 

Paravitrea bidens 270, 27 

Paravitrea blarina 276, 28 

Paravitrea calcicola 274, 28 



Paravitrea capsella 260, 28 
Paravitrea capsella lacteodens 

(Paravitrea lacteodens) 28 
Paravitrea capsella tridens (Para- 
vitrea tridens) 27 
Paravitrea ceres 281, 28 
Paravitrea clappi 255, 26 
Paravitrea conecuhensis 253, 28 
Paravitrea dentilla 259, 27 
Paravitrea diana 282, 28 
Paravitrea grimmi (Paravitrea pon- 

tis) 29 
Paravitrea hera 283, 28 
Paravitrea lacteodens 273, 28 
Paravitrea lamellidens 254, 26 
Paravitrea lapilla 286, 29 
Paravitrea lithodora (Paravitrea 

placentula) 28 
Paravitrea metallacta 285, 29 
Paravitrea mira 263, 27 
Paravitrea multidentata 251, 26 
Paravitrea petrophila 267, 29 
Paravitrea pilsbryana 111, 28 
Paravitrea (Pilsbryna) aurea (P/Vi 1 - 

feryrtfl aurea) 29 
Paravitrea (Pilsbryna) castanea 

(Pilsbryna castanea) 29 
Paravitrea placentula 275, 28 
[Paravitrea placentula] (Paravitrea 

capsella) 28 
Paravitrea placentula lithodora 

(Paravitrea placentula) 28 
Paravitrea pontis 287, 29 
Paravitrea reesei 266, 27 
Paravitrea roundyi(?) (Helicodiscus 

roundyi) 21 
Paravitrea septadens 268, 27 
Paravitrea seradens 271, 27 
Paravitrea significans 252, 28 
Paravitrea simpsoni 288, 29 
Paravitrea smithi (Paravitrea petro- 
phila) 29 
Paravitrea subtilis 269, 27 
Paravitrea tantilla 284, 28 
Paravitrea ternaria 264, 27 
Paravitrea tiara 278, 28 
Paravitrea toma 272, 28 
Paravitrea tridens 265, 27 
Paravitrea umbilicaris 257, 27 
Paravitrea variabilis 256, 27 
Paravitrea varidens 262, 27 
Paravitrea walkeri (Paravitrea um- 
bilicaris) 27 
parietalis, Strobilops (Strobilops 

texasiana) 13 
parietalis, Strobilops labyrinthica 
form (Strobilops texasiana) 1 3 
parvula, Vallonia 28, 7 
parvula, Vertigo 81, 1 1 
parvulum, Punctum 208, 22 
patuloides, Zonitoides 318, 32 
patulus, Discus 174, 19 
patulus brooksi, Discus (Discus pa- 
tulus) 19 
patulus edentulus, Discus (Discus 
nigrimontanus) 20 



patulus form edentulus, Discus 

(Discus nigrimontanus) 20 
paucicostata, Anguispira (Angui- 

spira mordax) 19 
paucicostata, Anguispira alternata 

(Anguispira mordax) 19 
paucicostata, Anguispira mordax 

(Anguispira mordax) 19 
paucilirata, Retinella indentata 

(Glyphyalinia indentata) 24 
pec/c/, Glyphyalinia 228, 24 
pecosensis, Bulimulus mooreanus 

(Rabdotus mooreanus) 35 
pecosensis, Bulimulus schiedeanus 

(Rabdotus mooreanus) 35 
pellucida, Gastrocopta 49, 10 
pellucida hordeacella, Gastrocopta 

(Gastrocopta pellucida) 10 
pendula, Triodopsis 484, 46 
peninsulae, Polygyra 370, 37 
peninsulae, Polygyra postelliana 

(Polygyra peninsulae) 37 
pennsylvanica, Succinea (Succinea 

putris) 15 
pennsylvanicus, Mesodon 472, 45 
pentadelphia, Glyphyalinia 220, 24 
pentadelphia, Retinella (Glyphyali- 
nia pentadelphia) 24 
pentodon, Gastrocopta 61, 9 
peoriensis, Oxyloma 112, 13 
peoriensis, Oxyloma decampi 

(Oxyloma peoriensis) 14 
percallosus, Ventridens 303, 3 1 
percallosus, Zonitoides (Ventrical- 

lus) ( Ventridens percallosus) 3 1 
peregrina, Polygyra 384, 38 
perexiguum, Carychium (Cary- 

chium exiguum) 6 
perigraptus, Mesodon 462, 43 
perlaevis, Mesomphix 238, 26 
perryi, Vertigo 87, 1 1 
perspectiva, Vallonia 33, 7 
petrophila, Paravitrea 267, 29 
PHILOMYCIDAE 16 
Philomycus batchi (Philomycus 

carolinianus) 16 
Philomycus bisdosus (Philomycus 

venustus) 17 
Philomycus carolinianus 143, 16 
Philomycus carolinianus collinus 

(Philomycus togatus) 1 7 
Philomycus carolinianus flexuolaris 

(Philomycus flexuolaris) 17 
Philomycus carolinianus togatus 

(Philomycus togatus) 17 
Philomycus flexuolaris 148, 17 
Philomycus fuscus (Deroceras laeve) 

22 
Philomycus oxyurus (Deroceras 

laeve) 22 
Philomycus quadrilus (Philomycus 

carolinianus) 16 
Philomycus secretus (Pallifera se- 
creta) 18 
Philomycus sellatus 147, 17 
Philomycus togatus 144, 17 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



183 



Philomycus venustus 145, 17 

Philomycus virginicus 146, 17 

picea, Glyphyalinia 234, 25 

picea, Triodopsis 485, 46 

[picea, Triodopsis] ( Triodopsis 
frandulenta) 46 

/j/c/a, Anguispira 168, 19 

picta, Anguispira cumberlandiana 
(Anguispira picta) 19 

pilsbryana, Paravitrea 277, 28 

pilsbryi, Mesomphix 248, 26 

pilsbryi, Stenotrema 399, 39 

pilsbryi, Ventridens 296, 30 

pilsbryi, Zonitoides (Ventridens) 
( Ventridens pilsbryi) 30 

pilsbryi globosus, Mesomphix (A/e- 
somphix globosus) 25 

Pilsbryna aurea 292, 29 

(Pilsbryna) aurea, Paravitrea (P//s- 
bryna aurea) 29 

Pilsbryna castanea 293, 29 

(Pilsbryna) castanea, Paravitrea 
(Pilsbryna castanea) 29 

Pilsbryna tridens (Helicodiscus tri- 
dens) 20 

pilula, Stenotrema 410, 40 

pinicola, Catinella (Catinella okla- 
homarum) 16 

placentula, Paravitrea 275, 28 

[placentula, Paravitrea] (Paravitrea 
capsella) 28 

placentula lithodora, Paravitrea 
(Paravitrea placentula) 28 

plagioptycha, Thysanophora 346, 34 

Planogyra asteriscus 32, 7 

planus, Mesomphix subplanus (Me- 
somphix subplanus) 25 

platysayoides, Triodopsis 498, 47 

platysayoides, Triodopsis compla- 
nata (Triodopsis platysayoides) 
47 

pleistocenica, Succinea ovalis (Suc- 
cinea chittenangoensis) 14 

plicata, Polygyra 381, 38 

poeyana, Cochlodinella 348, 34 

polita, Polygyra 376, 37 

[polita, Polygyra] (Polygyra texas- 
iana) 37 

politus, Mesomphix cupreus (Me- 
somphix cupreus) 26 

Polygyra ariadnae 37 

Polygyra auriculata 366, 36 

Polygyra auriformis 367, 36 

Polygyra avara 374, 37 

POLYGYRACEA 36 

Polygyra cereolus 363, 36 

Polygyra cereolus floridana (Poly- 
gyra cereolus) 36 

Polygyra delecta ill, 37 

Polygyra deltoidea 386, 38 

Polygyra dorfeuilliana 393, 38 

Polygyra dorfeuilliana sampsoni 
(Polygyra dorfeuilliana) 38 

Polygyra fat igiata 383, 38 

Polygyra fatigiata internuntia (Poly- 
gyra fat igiata) 38 



Polygyra gracilis 391, 38 
Polygyra hausmani 371, 37 
Polygyra hippocrepis 388, 38 
Polygyra implicata 37 
Polygyra jacksoni 385, 38 
Polygyra jacksoni deltoidea (Poly- 
gyra deltoidea) 38 
[Polygyra jacksoni simpsoni] (Poly- 
gyra deltoidea) 38 
Polygyra jacksoni simpsoni (Poly- 
gyra simpsoni) 38 
Polygyra latispira (Triodopsis vul- 

tuosa) 47 
Polygyra leporina 378, 38 
Polygyra lithica 392, 38 
Polygyra mooreana 389, 38 
Polygyra oppilata 37 
Polygyra peninsulae 370, 37 
Polygyra peregrina 384, 38 
Polygyra plicata 381, 38 
Polygyra polita 376, 37 
[Polygyra polita] (Polygyra texas- 

iana) 37 
Polygyra postelliana 368, 37 
Polygyra postelliana Carolina (Po/y- 

gyra postelliana) 37 
Polygyra postelliana espiloca (Poly- 
gyra postelliana) 37 
Polygyra postelliana hausmani 

(Polygyra hausmani) 37 
Polygyra postelliana peninsulae 

(Polygyra peninsulae) 37 
Polygyra postelliana subclausa 

(Polygyra subclausa) 37 
Polygyra pustula 380, 38 
Polygyra pustuloides 379, 38 
Polygyra rexroadensis (Polygyra 

texasiana) 37 
Polygyra rhoadsi 37 
Polygyra scintilla (Polygyra polita) 

38 
[Polygyra scintilla] (Polygyra tex- 
asiana) 37 
Polygyra septemvolva 365, 36 
[Polygyra septemvolva] (Polygyra 

cereolus) 36 
Polygyra septemvolva febigeri 

(Polygyra cereolus) 36 
Polygyra septemvolva volvoxis 

(Polygyra cereolus) 36 
Polygyra simpsoni 387, 38 
Polygyra subclausa 369, 37 
Polygyra tamaulipasensis 377, 38 
[Polygyra tamaulipasensis] (Poly- 
gyra texasiana) 37 
Polygyra texasensis (Polygyra ta- 
maulipasensis) 38 
Polygyra texasiana 373, 37 
Polygyra texasiana tamaulipasensis 
(Polygyra tamaulipasensis) 38 
Polygyra texasiana texasensis (Poly- 
gyra tamaulipasensis) 38 
Polygyra tholus 390, 38 
Polygyra triodontoides 375, 37 
[Polygyra triodontoides] (Polygyra 
texasiana) 37 



Polygyra troostiana 382, 38 
polygyratus, Euconulus 335, 33 
polygyratus, Euconulus chersinus 

(Euconulus polygyratus) 33 
Polygyra uvulifera 364, 36 
Polygyra uvulifera bicornuta (Po/y- 

gyra uvulifera) 36 
Polygyra uvulifera margueritae 

(Polygyra uvulifera) 36 
Polygyra uvulifera striata (Polygyra 

uvulifera) 36 
Polygyra virginiana (Polygyriscus 

virginianus) 20 
POLYGYRIDAE 36 
POLYGYRINAE 36 
Polygyriscus virginianus 177, 20 
POMATIASIDAE 4 
POMATIOPSIDAE 4 
Pomatiopsis cincinnatiensis 12, 4 
Pomatiopsis hinkleyi (Pomatiopsis 

lapidaria) 4 
Pomatiopsis lapidaria 11, 4 
Pomatiopsis praelonga (Pomatiop- 
sis lapidaria) 4 
Pomatiopsis scalaris (Pomatiopsis 

lapidaria) 4 
pontificus, Microceramus 349, 35 
pontis, Paravitrea 287, 29 
postelliana, Polygyra 368, 37 
postelliana Carolina, Polygyra (Poly- 
gyra postelliana) 37 
postelliana espiloca, Polygyra (Poly- 
gyra postelliana) 37 
postelliana hausmani, Polygyra 

(Polygyra hausmani) 37 
postelliana peninsulae, Polygyra 

(Polygyra peninsulae) 37 
postelliana subclausa, Polygyra 

(Polygyra subclausa) 37 
praecox, Glyphyalinia 235, 25 
praecox, Retinella (Glyphyalinia 

praecox) 25 
praelonga, Pomatiopsis 4 
Praticolella bakeri 436, 42 
Praticolella berlandieriana 432, 42 
[Praticolella berlandieriana campi] 

(Praticolella taeniata) 42 
Praticolella berlandieriana pachy- 

loma (Praticolella pachyloma) 

41 
Praticolella berlandieriana taeniata 

(Praticolella taeniata) 42 
Praticolella campi (Praticolella gri- 

seola) 41 
Praticolella Candida 431, 42 
Praticolella griseola 429, 4 1 
Praticolella jejuna 435, 42 
Praticolella lawae 437, 42 
Praticolella lawae tallulahensis 

(Praticolella lawae) 42 
Praticolella mobiliana 438, 42 
Praticolella mobiliana floridana 

(Praticolella mobiliana) 42 
Praticolella pachyloma 430, 41 
Praticolella taeniata 434, 42 
Praticolella trimatris 433, 42 



184 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



proarmifera, Gastrocopta {Gastro- 
copta ruidosensis) 8 

procera, Gastrocopta 46, 9 

procera form riparia, Gastrocopta 
{Gastrocopta riparia) 9 

procera mcclungi, Gastrocopta 
{Gastrocopta procera) 9 

[procera sterkiana, Gastrocopta] 
{Gastrocopta procera) 9 

procera sterkiana, Gastrocopta 
{Gastrocopta sterkiana) 9 

profunda, Allogona 519, 49 

profunda strontiana, Allogona {Al- 
logona profunda) 49 

pronophobus, Succinea {Succinea 
wilsoni) 14 

PROSOBRANCHIATA 3 

protracta, Catinella {Catinella avara) 
16 

pseudavara, Succinea (Desmosuc- 
cinea) {Succinea grosvenori) 1 5 

pugilator, Catinella 138, 16 

pulchella, Truncatella 6, 4 

pulchella, Truncatella {Truncatella 
subcylindrica) 5 

pulchella, Vallonia 26, 7 

pulchella form excentrica, Vallonia 
( Vallonia excentrica) 7 

PULMONATA 5 

punctatellus, Helicodiscus 199, 22 

PUNCTIDAE 22 

Punctum blandianum 207, 22 

Punctum lamellatum {Punctum 
smithi) 22 

Punctum minutissimum 200, 22 

Punctum parvulum 208, 22 

Punctum smithi 204, 22 

Punctum vitreum 201, 22 

Pupa servilis {Gastrocopta seni- 
lis) 9 

Pupa simplex {Columella simplex) 
12 

Pupilla blandi 37, 7 

PUPILLACEA 7 

Pupilla muscorum {Pupilla musco- 
rum muscorum) 7 

Pupilla muscorum muscorum 35, 7 

Pupilla muscorum sinistra 36, 7 

[Pupilla muscorum sinistra] {Pu- 
pilla muscorum muscorum) 1 

Pupilla sinistra {Pupilla muscorum 
sinistra) 7 

PUPILLIDAE 7 

PUPILLINAE 7 

Pupisoma dioscoricola 98, 12 

Pupisoma macneilli 99, 1 2 

Pupisoma minus {Pupisoma mac- 
neilli) 12 

Pupoides albilabris 38, 8 

Pupoides hordaceus 39, 8 

Pupoides inornatus 41, 8 

Pupoides modicus 40, 8 

[Pupoides modicus] {Pupoides al- 
bilabris) 8 

pustula, Daedalochila {Polygyra 
pus tula) 38 



pustula, Lobosculum {Polygyra 

pustula) 38 
pustula, Polygyra 380, 38 
pustuloides, Polygyra 379, 38 
putris, Succinea 128, 15 
pygmaea, Vertigo 78, 1 1 
pyrites, Succinea {Succinea wilsoni) 

14 

quadrilus, Philomycus {Philomycus 

carolinianus) 16 
Quickella oklahomarum {Catinella 

oklahomarum) 16 
Quickelia oklahomarum loculosa 

{Catinella avara) 16 
Quickella vagans {Catinella vagans) 

16 
Quickella vermeta {Catinella avara) 

16 
[Quickella wandae] {Catinella avara) 

16 
Quickella wandae {Catinella wan- 
dae) 16 

Rabdotus alter natus 354, 35 

Rabdotus alternatus alternatus 
{Rabdotus alternatus) 35 

Rabdotus alternatus hesperius 
{Rabdotus alternatus) 35 

Rabdotus dealbatus dealbatus 355, 
35 

Rabdotus dealbatus ragsdalei 356, 
35 

Rabdotus mooreanus 353, 35 

Rabdotus mooreanus jonesi {Rab- 
dotus mooreanus) 35 

raderi, Glyphyalinia 218, 24 

raderi, Retinella {Glyphyalinia ra- 
deri) 24 

ragsdalei, Bulimulus dealbatus 
{Rabdotus dealbatus ragsdalei) 
35 

ragsdalei, Eumelus wetherbyi {Meg- 
apallifera ragsdalei) 17 

ragsdalei, Megapallifera 157, 17 

ragsdalei, Pallifera {Megapallifera 
ragsdalei) 17 

ragsdalei, Rabdotus dealbatus 356, 
35 

reesei, Paravitrea 266, 27 

regina, Truncatella 9, 5 

reses, Orthalicus 361, 36 

reses nesodryas, Orthalicus {Or- 
thalicus reses) 36 

Retinella approxima {Glyphyalinia 
clingmani) 23 

Retinella binneyana {Nesovitrea 
binneyana) 23 

Retinella burringtoni {Glyphyalinia 
wheatleyi) 23 

Retinella caroliniensis {Glyphyali- 
nia caroliniensis) 24 

Retinella circumstriata {Glyphyali- 
nia wheatleyi) 23 

Retinella clingmani {Glyphyalinia 
clingmani) 23 



Retinella cryptomphala {Glyphyali- 
nia cryptomphala) 24 

Retinella cryptomphala solida {Gly- 
phyalinia solida) 24 

Retinella cumberlandiana {Glyphy- 
alinia cumberlandiana) 23 

Retinella cumberlandiana roanen- 
sis {Glyphyalinia cumberlan- 
diana) 23 

Retinella dalliana {Nesovitrea dal- 
liana) 23 

Retinella electrina {Nesovitrea elec- 
trina) 23 

Retinella floridana {Glyphyalinia 
floridana) 24 

Retinella indentata {Glyphyalinia 
indentata) 24 

Retinella indentata paucilirata {Gly- 
phyalinia indentata) 24 

Retinella lewisiana {Glyphyalinia 
lewisiana) 24 

Retinella pentadelphia {Glyphyali- 
nia pentadelphia) 24 

Retinella praecox {Glyphyalinia 
praecox) 25 

Retinella raderi {Glyphyalinia ra- 
deri) 24 

Retinella rhoadsi {Glyphyalinia 
rhoadsi) 24 

Retinella rhoadsi austrina {Glyphy- 
alinia rhoadsi) 24 

Retinella roemeri {Glyphyalinia 
roemeri) 23 

Retinella sculptilis {Glyphyalinia 
sculpt His) 25 

Retinella sculptilis junaluskana 
{Glyphyalinia junaluskana) 25 

Retinella sculptilis subdola {Gly- 
phyalinia sculptilis) 25 

Retinella vanattai {Glyphyalinia 
vanattai) 23 

Retinella virginica {Glyphyalinia 
virginica) 23 

Retinella wheatleyi {Glyphyalinia 
wheatleyi) 23 

Retinella zikmundi {Glyphyalinia 
wheatleyi) 23 

retusa, Oxyloma 110, 13 

rexroadensis, Polygyra {Polygyra 
texasiana) 37 

rhoadsi, Glyphyalinia 223, 24 

rhoadsi, Polygyra 37 

rhoadsi, Retinella {Glyphyalinia 
rhoadsi) 24 

rhoadsi, Sterkia eyriesi 102, 13 

rhoadsi austrina, Glyphyalinia 
{Glyphyalinia rhoadsi) 24 

rhoadsi austrina, Retinella {Gly- 
phyalinia rhoadsi) 24 

RHYTIDACEA 33 

rimula, Glyphyalinia 229, 25 

riograndensis, Gastrocopta 62, 9 

riparia, Gastrocopta 52, 9 

riparia, Gastrocopta procera form 
{Gastrocopta riparia) 9 

riparium, Carychium 19, 6 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



185 



RISSOACEA 4 

roanensis, Glyphyalinia (Glyphyali- 
nia cumberlandiana) 23 

roanensis, Retinella cumberlandi- 
ana (Glyphyalinia cumberlan- 
diana) 23 

roemeri, Glyphyalinia 224, 23 

roemeri, Holospira (Metastoma 
roemeri) 35 

roemeri, Mesodon 474, 44 

roemeri, Metastoma 352, 35 

roemeri, Retinella (Glyphyalinia 
roemeri) 23 

roemeri brevissima, Holospira ( Me- 
tastoma roemeri) 35 

roemeri brevissima, Metastoma 
(Metastoma roemeri) 35 

rosea, Euglandina 340, 33 

rosea bullata, Euglandina (Euglan- 
dina rosea) 34 

roseapicata, Anguispira kochi (An- 
guispira kochi) 19 

roundyi, Helicodiscus 181, 21 

roundyi, Paravitrea(?) (Helicodiscus 
roundyi) 2 1 

rugeli, Mesodon 461, 42 

rugeli, Mesomphix 243, 25 

rugeli oxycoccus, Mesomphix (Me- 
somphix rugeli) 25 

rugoderma, Anguispira 163, 18 

[rugoderma, Anguispira] (Angui- 
spira knoxensis) 18 

rugoderma, Anguispira alternata 
(Anguispira rugoderma) 18 

rugosa, Triodopsis 481, 46 

rugosa anteridon, Triodopsis (Trio- 
dopsis anteridori) 46 

[rugosa anteridon, Triodopsis] 
(Triodopsis rugosa) 46 

rugosula, Vertigo 68, 10 

rugosula oralis, Vertigo ( Vertigo or- 
alis) 10 

ruidosensis, Gastrocopta 51, 8 

ruidosensis, Gastrocopta armifera 
(Gastrocopta ruidosensis) 8 

ruidus Mesomphix (Mesomphix 
globosus) 25 

rupicola, Gastrocopta 45, 9 

rupicola matecumbensis, Gastro- 
copta (Gastrocopta rupicola) 9 

SAGDIDAE 34 

SAGDINAE 34 

salleana, Oxyloma 114, 14 

saludensis, Clappiella (Helicodiscus 
saludensis) 2 1 

saludensis, Helicodiscus 195, 21 

[saludensis, Helicodiscus] (Helico- 
discus parallelus) 2 1 

sampsoni, Polygyra dorfeuilliana 
(Polygyra dorfeuilliana) 38 

sanctisimonis, Mesodon thyroidus 
(Mesodon thyroidus) 45 

sanibelensis, Oxyloma (Succinea 
barberi) 14 

sanus, Mesodon 478, 45 



sargentianus, Mesodon 445, 43 
sayanus, Mesodon 467, 43 
scaevoscala, Gastrocopta 55, 1 
scalaris, Pomatiopsis (Pomatiopsis 

lapidaria) 4 
scalaris clathrus, Truncatella 8, 5 
schiedeanus pecosensis, Bulimulus 

(Rabdotus mooreanus) 35 
scintilla, Polygyra (Polygyra polita) 

38 
[scintilla, Polygyra] (Polygyra tex- 

asiana) 37 
sculptilis, Glyphyalinia 236, 25 
sculptilis, Retinella (Glyphyalinia 

sculptilis) 25 
sculptilis junaluskana, Retinella 
(Glyphyalinia junaluskana) 25 
sculptilis subdola, Retinella (Gly- 
phyalinia sculptilis) 25 
seer eta, Pal lifer a 151, 18 
secreta, Pallifera hemphilli (Pallif- 

era secreta) 1 8 
secretus, Philomycus (Pallifera se- 
creta) 18 
selenina, Lacteoluna 344, 34 
sellatus, Philomycus 147, 17 
septadens, Paravitrea 268, 27 
septemvolva, Polygyra 365, 36 
[septemvolva, Polygyra] (Polygyra 

cereolus) 36 
septemvolva febigeri, Polygyra 

(Polygyra cereolus) 36 
septemvolva volvoxis, Polygyra 

(Polygyra cereolus) 36 
seradens, Paravitrea 271, 27 
sericius, Mesodon ferrissi (Mesodon 

ferrissi) 44 
servilis, Gastrocopta 58, 9 
servilis, Pupa (Gastrocopta servil- 
is) 9 
shimeki, Discus 169, 20 
shimeki, Helicodiscus 186, 21 
SIGMURETHRA 13 
significans, Paravitrea 252, 28 
simile, Stenotrema 409, 40 
similis, Gastrocopta 43, 8 
similis, Gastrocopta armifera form 

(Gastrocopta similis) 8 
simplex, Columella 97, 12 
simplex, Pupa (Columella simplex) 

12 
simpsoni, Paravitrea 288, 29 
simpsoni, Polygyra 387, 38 
[simpsoni, Polygyra jacksoni] (Poly- 
gyra deltoided) 38 
simpsoni, Polygyra jacksoni (Poly- 
gyra simpsoni) 38 
singleyana, Euglandina 342, 34 
singleyanus, Helicodiscus 179, 22 
singleyanus inermis, Helicodiscus 

(Helicodiscus inermis) 22 
[singleyanus inermis, Helicodiscus] 

(Helicodiscus singleyanus) 22 
sinistra, Pupilla (Pupilla muscorum 

sinistra) 1 
sinistra, Pupilla muscorum 36, 7 



[sinistra, Pupilla muscorum] (Pu- 
pilla muscorum muscorum) 7 
smithi, Anguispira (Anguispira 

mordax) 19 
smithi, Anguispira alternata (An- 
guispira mordax) 19 
smithi, Mesodon 441, 42 
smithi, Paravitrea (Paravitrea pe- 

trophila) 29 
smithi, Punctum 204, 22 
soelneri, Triodopsis 505, 48 
solastra, Succinea 130, 15 
SOLEOLIFERA 5 
solida, Glyphyalinia 225, 24 
solida, Retinella cryptomphala 

(Glyphyalinia solida) 24 
sparsicostata, Strobilops 107, 13 
specus, Glyphyalinia 217, 24 
specus, Helicodiscus notius 184, 21 
spinosum, Stenotrema 394, 39 
spiralis, Strobilops aenea (Strobi- 
lops texasiana) 1 3 
stenomphala, Triodopsis juxtidens 

(Triodopsis juxtidens) 46 
stenotrema, Stenotrema 406, 40 
Stenotrema abaddona (Stenotrema 

labrosum) 39 
Stenotrema altispira 401, 39 
Stenotrema altispira depilatum 

(Strenotrema depilatum) 39 
Stenotrema angellum 407, 40 
Stenotrema barbatum 405, 40 
Stenotrema barbigerum 396, 39 
Stenotrema blandianum 416, 40 
Stenotrema brevipila 418, 41 
Stenotrema burringtoni (Stenotre- 
ma hirsutum) 40 
Stenotrema caddoensis (Stenotre- 
ma unciferum) 40 
Stenotrema calvescens 404, 40 
Stenotrema cohuttense 419, 41 
Stenotrema deceptum 415, 40 
Stenotrema depilatum 402, 39 
Stenotrema edgarianum 395, 39 
Stenotrema edvardsi 397, 39 
Stenotrema exodon 412, 40 
Stenotrema exodon turbinella 

(Stenotrema turbinella) 40 
Stenotrema fasciatum (Stenotrema 

fraternum montanum) 41 
Stenotrema florida 403, 39 
Stenotrema fraternum (Stenotrema 

fraternum fraternum) 41 
Stenotrema fraternum cavum 
(Stenotrema fraternum frater- 
num) 41 
Stenotrema fraternum fasciatum 
(Stenotrema fraternum mon- 
tanum) 41 
Stenotrema fraternum fraternum 

428,41 
Stenotrema fraternum imperfora- 

tum 425, 41 
[Stenotrema fraternum imperfora- 
tum] (Stenotrema leai aliciae) 
41 



186 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Stenotrema fraternum montanum 

424,41 
Stenotrema glassi (Stenotrema lab- 

rosum) 39 
Stenotrema hirsutum 413, 40 
Stenotrema hirsutum barbatum 

(Stenotrema barbatum) 40 
Stenotrema hubrichti 423, 41 
Stenotrema labrosum 400, 39 
Stenotrema leai (Stenotrema leai 

leaf) 41 
Stenotrema leai aliciae 427, 41 
Stenotrema leai cheatumi 421, 41 
Stenotrema leai leai 426, 41 
Stenotrema magnifumosum 408, 40 
Stenotrema maxillatum 420, 41 
Stenotrema monodon (Stenotrema 

leai leai) 4 1 
Stenotrema monodon aliciae 

(Stenotrema leai aliciae) 4 1 
Stenotrema morosum 411, 40 
Stenotrema pilsbryi 399, 39 
Stenotrema pilula 410, 40 
Stenotrema simile 409, 40 
Stenotrema spinosum 394, 39 
Stenotrema stenotrema 406, 40 
Stenotrema stenotrema volumino- 

sum (Stenotrema stenotrema) 

40 
Stenotrema turbinella 414, 40 
Stenotrema unciferum 417, 40 
Stenotrema unciferum caddoensis 

(Stenotrema unciferum) 40 
stenotrema voluminosum, Steno- 
trema (Stenotrema stenotrema) 

40 
Stenotrema waldense 398, 39 
Stenotrema wichitorum 422, 4 1 
Sterkia eyriesi rhoadsi 102, 13 
sterkiana, Gastrocopta 60, 9 
[sterkiana, Gastrocopta procera] 

(Gastrocopta procera) 9 
sterkiana, Gastrocopta procera 

(Gastrocopta sterkiana) 9 
sterkii, Guppya 334, 33 
striata, Polygyra uvulifera (Polygyra 

uvulifera) 36 
Striatura exigua 325, 32 
Striatura ferrea 327, 32 
Striatura meridionalis 323, 32 
Striatura milium 324, 32 
strigosa cooperi, Oreohelix 520, 49 
Strobilops aenea 105, 13 
Strobilops aenea spiralis (Strobilops 

texasiana) 13 
Strobilops affinis 106, 13 
Strobilops hubbardi 109, 13 
STROBILOPSIDAE 13 
Strobilops labyrinthica 103, 13 
Strobilops labyrinthica form pa- 

rietalis (Strobilops texasiana) 1 3 
[Strobilops labyrinthica texasiana] 

(Strobilops labyrinthica) 1 3 
Strobilops lonsdalei (Strobilops tex- 
asiana) 13 



Strobilops parietalis (Strobilops tex- 
asiana) 13 

Strobilops sparsicostata 107, 13 

Strobilops texasiana 104, 1 3 

Strobilops texasiana floridana 
(Strobilops texasiana) 1 3 

strongylodes, Anguispira 159, 18 

strongylodes, Anguispira alternata 
(Anguispira strongylodes) 18 

strontiana, Allogona profunda (Al- 
logona profunda) 49 

strontiana, Anguispira kochi (An- 
guispira kochi) 19 

stygium, Carychium 16, 6 

STYLOMMATOPHORA 6 

subclausa, Polygyra 369, 37 

subclausa, Polygyra postelliana (Po- 
lygyra subclausa) 37 

subcylindrica, Truncatella 10, 5 

subdola, Retinella sculptilis (Gly- 
phyalinia sculptilis) 25 

subeffusa, Oxyloma 115, 14 

subeffusa, Oxyloma effusa (Oxy- 
loma subeffusa) 14 

subpalliatus, Mesodon 444, 43 

subplanus, Mesomphix 242, 25 

subplanus planus, Mesomphix (Me- 
somphix subplanus) 25 

subtilis, Paravitrea 269, 27 

SUBULININAE 34 

[Succinea aurea] (Succinea Indiana) 
15 

Succinea avara (Catinella avara) 16 

Succinea bakeri 129, 15 

[Succinea bakeri] (Succinea gros- 
venori) 15 

Succinea barberi 133, 14 

Succinea bayardi (Succinea wilsoni) 
14 

Succinea campestris 126, 15 

SUCCINEACEA 13 

Succinea chittenangoensis 125, 14 

[Succinea concordialis] (Succinea 
forsheyi) 15 

[Succinea concordialis] (Succinea 
unicolor) 15 

Succinea crisfieldi (Succinea wil- 
soni) 14 

Succinea (Desmosuccinea) pseuda- 
vara (Succinea grosvenori) 1 5 

Succinea exile (Catinella exile) 16 

Succinea floridana 132, 15 

Succinea forsheyi 119, 15 

[Succinea forsheyi] (Succinea wil- 
soni) 14 

Succinea greeri 121, 15 

Succinea grosvenori 122, 15 

Succinea grosvenori gelida (Cati- 
nella gelida) 6 

Succinea indiana 117, 15 

Succinea luteola 123, 15 

Succinea luteola floridana (Succinea 
floridana) 15 

Succinea ovalis 118, 14 

Succinea ovalis chittenangoensis 
(Succinea chittenangoensis) 1 4 



Succinea ovalis form chittenan- 
goensis (Succinea chittenan- 
goensis) 14 

Succinea ovalis optima (Succinea 
ovalis) 14 

Succinea ovalis pleistocenica (Suc- 
cinea chittenangoensis) 14 

Succinea par alia 124, 14 

Succinea pennsylvanica (Succinea 
putris) 15 

Succinea pronophobus (Succinea 
wilsoni) 14 

Succinea putris 128, 15 

Succinea pyrites (Succinea wilsoni) 
14 

Succinea solastra 130, 15 

Succinea unicolor 120, 15 

[Succinea unicolor] (Succinea for- 
sheyi) 15 

Succinea urbana 131, 1 5 

Succinea vaginacontorta (Succinea 
indiana) 15 

Succinea wilsoni 127, 14 

Succinea witteri (Succinea forsheyi) 
15 

SUCCINEIDAE 13 

Succinia vermeta (Catinella avara) 
16 

suppressus, Ventridens 307, 3 1 

suppressus, Zonitoides (Ventridens) 
( Venitridens suppressus) 3 1 

suppressus divisidens, Ventridens 
( Ventridens suppressus) 3 1 

suppressus magnidens, Ventridens 
( Ventridens gularis) 30 

suppressus virginicus, Ventridens 
( Ventridens virginicus) 3 1 

susannae, Nesovitrea 210, 23 

Synopeas beckianum (Beckianum 
beckianum) 34 

SYSTELLOMMATOPHORA 5 

taeniata, Praticolella 434, 42 
taeniata, Praticolella berlandieriana 

(Praticolella taeniata) 42 
TAENIOGLOSSA 4 
tallulahensis, Praticolella lawae 

(Praticolella lawae) 42 
tamaulipasensis, Helix (Polygyra 

tamaulipasensis) 38 
tamaulipasensis, Polygyra 377, 38 
[tamaulipasensis, Polygyra] (Poly- 
gyra texasiana) 37 
tamaulipasensis, Polygyra texasiana 
(Polygyra tamaulipasensis) 38 
tantilla, Lucidella 4, 4 
tantilla, Paravitrea 284, 28 
tappaniana, Gastrocopta 57, 9 
[tappaniana, Gastrocopta] (Gastro- 
copta pentodon) 9 
tennesseensis, Triodopsis 490, 47 
[tennesseensis, Triodopsis triden- 
tata] (Triodopsis complanata) 
47 
tennesseensis, Triodopsis tridentata 
(Triodopsis tennesseensis) 47 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



187 



tennesseensis burchi, Triodopsis 
{Triodopsis burchi) 47 

ternaria, Paravitrea 264, 27 

teskeyae, Vertigo 72, 1 1 

[teskeyae, Vertigo] {Vertigo ovata) 
11 

texana, Catinella {Catinella avara) 
16 

texanus, Microceramus 350, 35 

texasensis, Polygyra (Polygyra ta- 
maulipasensis) 38 

texasensis, Polygyra texasiana 
{Polygyra tamaulipasensis) 38 

texasiana, Euglandina 341, 34 

texasiana, Polygyra 373, 37 

texasiana, Strobilops 104, 13 

[texasiana, Strobilops labyrinthica] 
{Strobilops labyrinthica) 1 3 

texasiana floridana, Strobilops 
{Strobilops texasiana) 1 3 

texasiana tamaulipasensis, Polygyra 
{Polygyra tamaulipasensis) 38 

texasiana texasensis, Polygyra 
{Polygyra tamaulipasensis) 38 

theloides, Ventridens 306, 30 

theloides, Ventridens gularis ( Ven- 
tridens theloides) 30 

theloides, Zonitoides (Ventridens) 
( Ventridens theloides) 30 

tholus, Polygyra 390, 38 

thyroidus, Mesodon 466, 45 

thyroidus sanctisimonis, Mesodon 
{Mesodon thyroidus) 45 

Thysanophora horni 345, 34 

Thysanophora plagioptycha 346, 34 

THYSANOPHORINAE 34 

tiara, Paravitrea 278, 28 

togata, Limax {Philomycus togatus) 
17 

togatus, Philomycus 144, 17 

togatus, Philomycus carolinianus 
{Philomycus togatus) 17 

toma, Paravitrea 272, 28 

tornescalis, Pallifera {Pallifera mar- 
morea) 18 

tridens, Helicodiscus 182, 20 

tridens, Paravitrea 265, 27 

tridens, Paravitrea capsella {Para- 
vitrea tridens) 27 

tridens, Pilsbryna {Helicodiscus tri- 
dens) 20 

tridentata, Gastrocopta {Gastrocop- 
ta ruidosensis) 8 

tridentata, Triodopsis 510, 46 

tridentata, Vertigo 73, 1 1 

tridentata complanata, Triodopsis 
{Triodopsis complanata) 47 

tridentata discoidea, Triodopsis 
{Triodopsis discoidea) 46 

tridentata edentilabris, Triodopsis 
{Triodopsis tridentata) 46 

tridentata juxtidens, Triodopsis 
{Triodopsis juxtidens) 46 

[tridentata tennesseensis, Triodop- 
sis] {Triodopsis complanata) 47 



tridentata tennesseensis, Triodopsis 

{Triodopsis tennesseensis) 47 
trimatris, Praticolella 433, 42 
triodontoides, Polygyra 375, 37 
[triodontoides, Polygyra] {Polygyra 

texasiana) 37 
TRIODOPSINAE 46 
Triodopsis qfflnis 506, 48 
Triodopsis alabamensis 491, 48 
Triodopsis albolabris 500, 49 
Triodopsis albolabris alleni {Trio- 
dopsis alleni) 49 
Triodopsis albolabris fuscolabris 

{Triodopsis alleni) 49 
Triodopsis albolabris major {Trio- 
dopsis major) 49 
Triodopsis algonquinensis {Trio- 
dopsis multilineata) 49 
Triodopsis alleni 516, 49 
Triodopsis altonensis ( Triodopsis 

multilineata) 49 
Triodopsis anteridon 482, 46 
Triodopsis burchi 497, 47 
Triodopsis caroliniensis 522, 48 
[Triodopsis caroliniensis] {Triodop- 
sis obstricta) 48 
Triodopsis claibornensis 487, 46 
Triodopsis complanata 496, 47 
Triodopsis complanata platysa- 
yoides ( Triodopsis platysa- 
yoides) 47 
Triodopsis copei {Triodopsis vul- 

tuosa) 47 
Triodopsis copei cragini {Triodopsis 

cragini) 47 
Triodopsis cragini 512, 47 
Triodopsis denotata 493, 48 
Triodopsis dentifera 514, 49 
Triodopsis discoidea 489, 46 
Triodopsis divesta 517, 49 
Triodopsis fallax 513, 47 
Triodopsis fallax affinis {Triodopsis 

affinis) 48 
Triodopsis fallax alabamensis 

{Triodopsis alabamensis) 48 
Triodopsis fallax hopetonensis 

{Triodopsis hopetonensis) 48 
Triodopsis fallax messana {Trio- 
dopsis messana) 47 
Triodopsis fallax obsoleta ( Triodop- 
sis obsoleta) 47 
Triodopsis fallax vannostrandi 

{Triodopsis vannostrandi) 48 
Triodopsis fosteri 504, 49 
Triodopsis fosteri hubrichti {Trio- 
dopsis fosteri) 49 
Triodopsis fraudulenta 483, 46 
Triodopsis fraudulenta vulgata 

{Triodopsis vulgata) 46 
Triodopsis fulciden 480, 46 
Triodopsis henriettae 499, 47 
Triodopsis hopetonensis 511, 48 
Triodopsis hopetonensis chincotea- 
gensis {Triodopsis obsoleta) 47 
Triodopsis hopetonensis claibor- 



nensis {Triodopsis claibornen- 
sis) 46 

[Triodopsis hopetonensis claibor- 
nensis] {Triodopsis vulgata) 46 

Triodopsis hopetonensis obsoleta 
{Triodopsis obsoleta) 47 

Triodopsis hubrichti {Triodopsis 
fosteri) 49 

Triodopsis juxtidens 492, 46 

Triodopsis juxtidens discoidea 
{Triodopsis discoidea) 46 

Triodopsis juxtidens stenomphala 
{Triodopsis juxtidens) 46 

Triodopsis lioderma 518, 49 

Triodopsis major 501, 49 

Triodopsis messana 502, 47 

Triodopsis multilineata 515, 49 

Triodopsis neglecta 486, 46 

Triodopsis neglecta vulgata {Trio- 
dopsis vulgata) 46 

Triodopsis notata (Triodopsis de- 
notata) 48 

Triodopsis obsoleta 503, 47 

Triodopsis obstricta 507, 48 

Triodopsis obstricta denotata ( Trio- 
dopsis denotata) 48 

[Triodopsis obstricta occidentalis] 
{Mesodon sargentianus) 43 

Triodopsis obstricta occidentalis 
{Triodopsis occidentalis) 48 

Triodopsis occidentalis 509, 48 

Triodopsis palustris 508, 48 

[Triodopsis palustris] ( Triodopsis 
obsoleta) 47 

Triodopsis pendula 484, 46 

Triodopsis picea 485, 46 

[Triodopsis picea] {Triodopsis frau- 
dulenta) 46 

Triodopsis platysayoides 498, 47 

Triodopsis rugosa 481, 46 

Triodopsis rugosa anteridon {Trio- 
dopsis anteridon) 46 

[Triodopsis rugosa anteridon] 
{Triodopsis rugosa) 46 

Triodopsis soelneri 505, 48 

Triodopsis tennesseensis 490, 47 

Triodopsis tennesseensis burchi 
{Triodopsis burchi) 47 

Triodopsis tridentata 510, 46 

Triodopsis tridentata complanata 
{Triodopsis complanata) 47 

Triodopsis tridentata discoidea 
{Triodopsis discoidea) 46 

Triodopsis tridentata edentilabris 
{Triodopsis tridentata) 46 

Triodopsis tridentata juxtidens 
{Triodopsis juxtidens) 46 

[Triodopsis tridentata tennesseen- 
sis] {Triodopsis complanata) 47 

Triodopsis tridentata tennesseensis 
{Triodopsis tennesseensis) 47 

Triodopsis vannostrandi 495, 48 

Triodopsis vannostrandi alabamen- 
sis ( Triodopsis alabamensis) 48 

Triodopsis vannostrandi gonioso- 



188 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



ma (Triodopsis vannostrandi) 
48 
Triodopsis vulgata 488, 46 
Triodopsis vultuosa 494, 47 
Triodopsis vultuosa copei ( Triodop- 
sis vultuosa) 47 
Triodopsis vultuosa cragini {Trio- 
dopsis cragini) 47 
Triodopsis vultuosa henriettae 

{Triodopsis henriettae) 47 
[Triodopsis vultuosa henriettae] 

{Triodopsis vultuosa) 47 
triodus, Helicodiscus 191, 20 
[triodus, Helicodiscus] {Helicodis- 
cus parallelus) 21 
trochulus, Euconulus 332, 33 
trochulus, Euconulus chersinus 

{Euconulus trochulus) 33 
troostiana, Polygyra 382, 38 
tropica, Helicina orbiculata {Heli- 

cina orbiculata) 3 
trossulus, Mesodon clausus 465, 45 
Truncatella bilabiata {Truncatella 

pulchella) 4 
Truncatella caribaeensis {Trunca- 
tella subcylindrica) 5 
Truncatella clathrus {Truncatella 

scalaris clathrus) 5 
Truncatella floridana 7, 5 
Truncatella pulchella 6, 4 
Truncatella pulchella {Truncatella 

subcylindrica) 5 
Truncatella regina 9, 5 
Truncatella scalaris clathrus 8, 5 
Truncatella subcylindrica 10, 5 
TRUNCATELLIDAE 4 
turbinella, Stenotrema 414, 40 
turbinella, Stenotrema exodon 
{Stenotrema turbinella) 40 

umbilicaris, Paravitrea 257, 27 
umbilicata, Glyphyalinia 231, 25 
umbilicatus, Zonites indentatus var. 

{Glyphyalinia umbilicata) 25 
unciferum, Stenotrema 417, 40 
unciferum caddoensis, Stenotrema 

{Stenotrema unciferum) 40 
unicolor, Succinea 120, 15 
[unicolor, Succinea] {Succinea for- 

sheyi) 15 
urbana, Succinea 131, 15 
UROCOPTIDAE 34 
UROCOPTINAE 34 
uvidermis, Vitrinizonites {Vitrini- 

zonites latissimus) 26 
uvulifera, Polygyra 364, 36 
uvulifera bicornuta, Polygyra {Poly- 
gyra uvulifera) 36 
uvulifera margueritae, Polygyra 

{Polygyra uvulifera) 36 
uvulifera striata, Polygyra {Polygyra 

uvulifera) 36 

vagans, Catinella 139, 16 
[vagans, Catinella] {Catinella okla- 
homarum) 16 



vagans, Quickella {Catinella va- 
gans) 16 

vaginacontorta, Succinea {Succinea 
indiana) 15 

Vallonia albula {Vallonia gracili- 
costa) 7 

Vallonia costata 27, 7 

Vallonia cyclophorella 29, 7 

Vallonia excentrica 30, 7 

Vallonia gracilicosta 31, 7 

Vallonia parvula 28, 7 

Vallonia perspectiva 33, 7 

Vallonia pulchella 26, 7 

Vallonia pulchella form excentrica 
( Vallonia excentrica) 1 

VALLONIIDAE 7 

vanattai, Glyphyalinia 212, 23 

vanattai, Retinella {Glyphyalinia 
vanattai) 23 

vannostrandi, Triodopsis 495, 48 

vannostrandi, Triodopsis fallax 
{Triodopsis vannostrandi) 48 

vannostrandi alabamensis, Trio- 
dopsis {Triodopsis alabamen- 
sis) 48 

vannostrandi goniosoma, Triodop- 
sis {Triodopsis vannostrandi) 48 

variabilis, Paravitrea 256, 27 

varians, Cepolis 521, 49 

varia, Pallifera 154, 17 

Varicella gracillima 343, 34 

Varicella gracillima floridana ( Var- 
icella gracillima) 34 

varidens, Paravitrea 262, 27 

variolosa, Bothriopupa 101, 12 

(Ventricallus) acerra, Zonitoides 
( Ventridens acerra) 3 1 

(Ventricallus) arcellus, Zonitoides 
( Ventridens arcellus) 3 1 

(Ventricallus) demissus, Zonitoides 
( Ventridens demissus) 3 1 

(Ventricallus) demissus ssp.? brittsi, 
Zonitoides {Ventridens brittsi) 
31 

(Ventricallus) eutropis, Zonitoides 
( Ventridens eutropis) 3 1 

(Ventricallus) intertextus, Zoni- 
toides {Ventridens intertextus) 
31 

(Ventricallus) ligerus, Zonitoides 
( Ventridens ligera) 3 1 

(Ventricallus) percallosus, Zoni- 
toides ( Ventridens percallosus) 
31 

(Ventricallus) volusiae, Zonitoides 
( Ventridens volusiae) 32 

ventricosa, Vertigo 71, 1 1 

Ventridens acerra 315, 31 

Ventridens arcellus 311, 31 

Ventridens brittsi 313, 31 

Ventridens cerinoideus 301, 31 

(Ventridens) cerinoideus, Zoni- 
toides ( Ventridens cerinoideus) 
31 

Ventridens coelaxis 299, 30 



(Ventridens) coelaxis, Zonitoides 
( Ventridens coelaxis) 30 

Ventridens collisella 305, 30 

(Ventridens) collisella, Zonitoides 
( Ventridens collisella) 30 

Ventridens decussatus 297, 30 

(Ventridens) decussatus, Zonitoides 
( Ventridens decussatus) 30 

Ventridens demissus 309, 3 1 

Ventridens demissus brittsi {Ven- 
tridens brittsi) 3 1 

Ventridens elliotti {Zonitoides el- 
liotti) 32 

Ventridens eutropis 304, 3 1 

Ventridens gularis 300, 30 

(Ventridens) gularis, Zonitoides 
( Ventridens gularis) 30 

Ventridens gularis cerinoideus 
{Ventridens cerinoideus) 31 

[Ventridens gularis cerinoideus] 
( Ventridens gularis) 30 

Ventridens gularis decussatus ( Ven- 
tridens decussatus) 30 

Ventridens gularis form nodus 
( Ventridens theloides) 30 

Ventridens gularis theloides {Ven- 
tridens theloides) 30 

Ventridens intertextus 316, 3 1 

Ventridens intertextus eutropis 
( Ventridens eutropis) 3 1 

Ventridens intertextus volusiae 
{Ventridens volusiae) 32 

Ventridens lasmodon 302, 30 

(Ventridens) lasmodon, Zonitoides 
( Ventridens lasmodon) 30 

Ventridens lawae 310, 30 

(Ventridens) lawae, Zonitoides 
( Ventridens lawae) 30 

Ventridens lawae cumberlandicus 
( Ventridens lawae) 30 

Ventridens ligera 312, 31 

Ventridens monodon 298, 30 

(Ventridens) monodon, Zonitoides 
( Ventridens monodon) 30 

Ventridens nodus {Ventridens the- 
loides) 30 

Ventridens percallosus 303, 3 1 

Ventridens pilsbryi 296, 30 

(Ventridens) pilsbryi, Zonitoides 
( Ventridens pilsbryi) 30 

Ventridens suppressus 307, 3 1 

(Ventridens) suppressus, Zonitoides 
( Ventridens suppressus) 3 1 

Ventridens suppressus divisidens 
( Ventridens suppressus) 3 1 

Ventridens suppressus magnidens 
( Ventridens gularis) 30 

Ventridens suppressus virginicus 
( Ventridens virginicus) 3 1 

Ventridens theloides 306, 30 

(Ventridens) theloides, Zonitoides 
( Ventridens theloides) 30 

Ventridens virginicus 308, 3 1 

(Ventridens) virginicus, Zonitoides 
( Ventridens virginicus) 3 1 

Ventridens volusiae 314, 32 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 



189 



venusta, Gastrocopta 63, 9 
venustus, Philomycus 145, 17 
vermeta, Catinella (Catinella avara) 

16 
vermeta, Quickella (Catinella avara) 

16 
vermeta, Succinia (Catinella avara) 

16 
VERONICELLACEA 5 
Veronicella floridana 13, 5 
VERONICELLIDAE 5 
verrilli, Oxyloma (Oxyloma groen- 

landica) 13 
VERTIGININAE 10 
Vertigo alabamensis 93, 10 
Vertigo alabamensis conecuhensis 

( Vertigo conecuhensis) 1 
Vertigo alpestris oughtoni 85, 1 1 
Vertigo arthuri 91, 12 
Vertigo binneyana 86, 1 1 
Vertigo bollesiana 84, 1 2 
Vertigo brierensis 89, 1 2 
Vertigo clappi 82, 10 
Vertigo concinnula 92, 12 
Vertigo conecuhensis 94, 1 
Vertigo elatior 69, 1 1 
Vertigo gouldi 75, 1 1 
Vertigo gouldi hannai ( Vertigo han- 

nai) 1 1 
Vertigo gouldi hubrichti (Vertigo 

hubrichti) 1 1 
Vertigo gouldi paradoxa (Vertigo 

paradoxa) 1 1 
Vertigo hannai 83, 1 1 
Vertigo hebardi 95, 1 2 
Vertigo hubrichti 74, 1 1 
Vertigo meramecensis 88, 1 1 
Vertigo milium 65, 1 
Vertigo modesta (Vertigo modesta 

modesta) 12 
Vertigo modesta modesta 76, 1 2 
Vertigo morsei 77, 10 
Vertigo nylanderi 79, 1 1 
Vertigo occulta 90, 1 2 
Vertigo oralis 70, 10 
Vertigo oscariana 66, 10 
Vertigo ovata 67, 1 1 
Vertigo ovata diaboli ( Vertigo ova- 
ta) 11 
Vertigo paradoxa 80, 1 1 
Vertigo parvula 81, 1 1 
Vertigo perryi 87, 1 1 
Vertigo pygmaea 78, 1 1 
Vertigo rugosula 68, 10 
Vertigo rugosula oralis ( Vertigo or- 
alis) 10 
Vertigo teskeyae 72, 1 1 
[Vertigo teskeyae] (Vertigo ovata) 1 1 
Vertigo tridentata 73, 1 1 
Vertigo ventricosa 71, 1 1 
Vertigo wheeleri ( Vertigo rugosula) 

10 
verus, Mesodon (Mesodon subpal- 

liatus) 43 
virginiana, Polygyra (Polygyriscus 

virginianus) 20 



virginianus, Polygyriscus 111, 20 

virginica, Glyphyalinia 211, 23 

virginica, Retinella (Glyphyalinia 
virginica) 23 

virginicus, Philomycus 146, 17 

virginicus, Ventridens 308, 3 1 

virginicus, Ventridens suppressus 
( Ventridens virginicus) 3 1 

virginicus, Zonitoides (Ventridens) 
( Ventridens virginicus) 3 1 

vitreum, Punctum 201, 22 

Vitrina alaskana 329, 33 

Vitrina angelicae limpida (Vitrina 
limpida) 32 

Vitrina limpida 330, 32 

VITRINIDAE 32 

Vitrinizonites latissimus 249, 26 

Vitrinizonites uvidermis (Vitrini- 
zonites latissimus) 26 

voluminosum, Stenotrema steno- 
trema (Stenotrema stenotrema) 
40 

volusiae, Ventridens 314, 32 

volusiae, Ventridens intertextus 
( Ventridens volusiae) 32 

volusiae, Zonitoides (Ventricallus 
( Ventridens volusiae) 32 

volvoxis, Polygyra septemvolva 
(Polygyra cereolus) 36 

vulgata, Triodopsis 488, 46 

vulgata, Triodopsis fraudulenta 
(Triodopsis vulgata) 46 

vulgata, Triodopsis neglecta (Trio- 
dopsis vulgata) 46 

vulgatus, Mesomphix 246, 26 

vultuosa, Triodopsis 494, 47 

vultuosa copei, Triodopsis (Trio- 
dopsis vultuosa) 47 

vultuosa cragini, Triodopsis (Trio- 
dopsis cragini) 47 

vultuosa henriettae, Triodopsis 
(Triodopsis henriettae) 47 

[vultuosa henriettae, Triodopsis] 
(Triodopsis vultuosa) 47 



waccamawensis, Catinella (Catinel- 
la avara) 16 

waldense, Stenotrema 398, 39 

walkeri, Paravitrea (Paravitrea um- 
bilicaris) 27 

wandae, Catinella 137, 16 

[wandae, Quickella] ( Catinella 
avara) 16 

wandae, Quickella (Catinella wan- 
dae) 16 

wetherbyi, Eumelus (Megapallifera 
wetherbyi) 17 

wetherbyi, Megapallifera 155, 17 

wetherbyi, Mesodon 448, 43 

wetherbyi, Pallifera (Megapallifera 
wetherbyi) 17 

wetherbyi ragsdalei, Eumelus (Meg- 
apallifera ragsdalei) 1 7 

wheat leyi, Glyphyalinia 213, 23 

wheatleyi, Mesodon 460, 44 



wheatleyi, Retinella (Glyphyalinia 

wheatleyi) 23 
wheatleyi clingmanicus, Mesodon 

(Mesodon clingmanicus) 44 
wheeleri, Vertigo ( Vertigo rugosula) 

10 
wichitorum, Stenotrema 422, 4 1 
wilsoni, Succinea 127, 14 
witteri, Succinea (Succinea forsheyi) 

15 

Xolotrema albolabris albolabris 
(Triodopsis albolabris) 49 

Xolotrema albolabris alleni (Trio- 
dopsis alleni) 49 

Xolotrema albolabris major (Trio- 
dopsis major) 49 

Xolotrema chadwicki (Triodopsis 
multilineata) 49 

Xolotrema denotata ( Triodopsis 
denotata) 48 

Xolotrema fosteri (Triodopsis fos- 
teri) 49 

Xolotrema multilineata (Triodopsis 
multilineata) 49 

zaletus, Mesodon 449, 45 
zaletus ozarkensis, Mesodon (Meso- 
don zaletus) 45 
zikmundi, Retinella (Glyphyalinia 

wheatleyi) 23 
Zonites indentatus var. umbilicatus 

(Glyphyalinia umbilicata) 25 
ZONITIDAE 23 
ZONITINAE 23 
Zonitoides arboreus 321, 32 
Zonitoides elliotti 317, 32 
Zonitoides kirbyi 326, 32 
Zonitoides lateumbilicatus 320, 32 
Zonitoides limatulus 319, 32 
Zonitoides nitidus 322, 32 
Zonitoides patuloides 318, 32 
Zonitoides (Ventricallus) acerra 

( Ventridens acerra) 3 1 
Zonitoides (Ventricallus) arcellus 

( Ventridens arcellus) 3 1 
Zonitoides (Ventricallus) demissus 

( Ventridens demissus) 3 1 
Zonitoides (Ventricallus) demissus 

ssp.? brittsi ( Ventridens brittsi) 

31 
Zonitoides (Ventricallus) eutropis 

( Ventridens eutropis) 3 1 
Zonitoides (Ventricallus) intertex- 
tus ( Ventridens intertextus) 3 1 
Zonitoides (Ventricallus) ligerus 

( Ventridens ligera) 3 1 
Zonitoides (Ventricallus) percallo- 

sus ( Ventridens percallosus) 3 1 
Zonitoides (Ventricallus) volusiae 

(Ventridens volusiae) 32 
Zonitoides (Ventridens) cerinoideus 

( Ventridens cerinoideus) 3 1 
Zonitoides (Ventridens) coelaxis 

( Ventridens coelaxis) 30 



190 



FIELDIANA: ZOOLOGY 



Zonitoides (Ventridens) collisella Zonitoides (Ventridens) lawae Zonitoides (Ventridens) theloides 

( Ventridens collisella) 30 ( Ventridens lawae) 30 ( Ventridens theloides) 30 

Zonitoides (Ventridens) decussatus Zonitoides (Ventridens) monodon Zonitoides (Ventridens) virginicus 

( Ventridens decussatus) 30 ( Ventridens monodon) 30 ( Ventridens virginicus) 3 1 

Zonitoides (Ventridens) gularis Zonitoides (Ventridens) pilsbryi Zoogenetes harpa 34, 7 

( Ventridens gularis) 30 ( Ventridens pilsbryi) 30 

Zonitoides (Ventridens) lasmodon Zonitoides (Ventridens) suppressus 

( Ventridens lasmodon) 30 ( Ventridens suppressus) 3 1 



HUBRICHT: DISTRIBUTIONS OF LAND MOLLUSKS 191 




Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 60605-2496 
Telephone: (312)922-9410