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HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




LIBRARY 



or THE 



PEABODY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN 
ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY 



GIFT OF 



the Survey 
Received May 10, 1917 




/ 3 G . 3S 



DEPARTMENT OP THE INTERIOR 
Fbanklin K. Lane, "Secretary 



United States Geological Survey 

George Oria Smith, Director 



Water-Sapply Paper 416 



THE DIVINING ROD 

A HISTORY OF WATER WITCHING 



WITH A BIBLIOGRAPHY 



ARTHtTK J. ELLIS 



WASHINGTON 

OOTEBNHENT FEINTING OFFICE 
1917 






( 



ADDITIONAL COPIES 

OF THIS PUBUCATION MAT BE PROCUBED FROM 

THE SUPERINTENDENT OP DOCUMENTS 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFHCE 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

AT 

10 CENTS PER COPY 






CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Introductory note, by 0. E. Meinzer 5 

Form of the divining rod 7 

Origin of the divining rod 8 

Spread of the delusion 12 

Origin of "water witching" 15 

Ecclesiastical controversies 16 

Use of the divining rod in detecting criminals 16 

Scientific controversies 18 

Le Brun and others 18 

Thouvenel 18 

Chevreul and Faraday 21 

Latimer 21 

Baymond 9^ 

Barrett * = . . = c 22 

Mager i 23 

Recent investigations 23 

Mechanical water finders. 23 

Bibliography of "water witching" 26 

Index : 55 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Page. 

FiGUKB 1. Ordinary divining rod held in the usual manner 7 

2. Less common manner of holding the divining rod 7 

3. Various old tyi)es of divining rods and the ways in which they were 

held; after Vallemont (1693) 8 

4. Use of divining rods in prospecting for ore; from Agricola, De re 

metallica (German edition, 1580) 13 

3 



INTKODUCTORY NOTE. 



By O. E. Meinzeb. 



The use of a forked twig, or so-called divining rod, in locating 
minerals, finding hidden treasure, or detecting criminals is a curious 
superstition that has been a subject of discussion since the middle 
of the sixteenth century and still has a strong hold on the popular 
mind, even in this country, as is shown by the large nimiber of inqui- 
ries received each year by the United States Geological Survey as to 
its efficacy, especially for locating imdergroimd water, and the per- 
sistent demands that it be made a subject of investigation by the 
Survey. The bibliography shows that a ttuly astonishing nimiber 
of books and pamphlets have been written on the subject. The 
purpose of the present brief paper is not to add another contribution 
to this enormous volume of uncanny literature but merely to furnish 
a reply to the numerous inquiries that are continually being received 
from all parts of the country. The outline of the history of the sub- 
ject presented in the following pages will probably enable most 
honest inquirers to appreciate the practical uselessness of *' water 
witching '' and other applications of the divining rod, but those 
who wish to delve further into the mysteries of the subject are 
referred to the Uterature cited in the bibhography, in which they will 
find reports in painful detail of exhaustive investigations and pseudo- 
investigations of every phase of the subject and every imaginable 
explanation of the supposed phenomena. 

It is doubtful whether so much investigation and discussion have 
been bestowed on any other subject with such absolute lack of posi- 
tive results. It is difficult to see how for practical purposes the 
entire matter could be more thoroughly discredited, and it should be 
obvious to everyone that further tests by the United States Geo- 
logical Survey of this so-caUed '' witching '' for water, oil, or other 
minerals would be a misuse of pubUo funds. 

A large nimiber of more compUcated devices for locating water 
or other minerals are closely related to the forked twig. A favorite 
trick for appealing to imeducated persons and yet making specific 
disproof impossible is to give as the working principle of such a device 
some newly discovered and vaguely imderstood phenomenon, as, for 
example, radioactivity. Many such devices have been in existence 

5 



6 THE DIVINING BOD. 

since the seventeenth century, and ahnost without exception the 
claims that are made for them are very great. If any genuine 
instrument were invented its merits would no doubt in time become 
well recognized, as have those of other real inventions. The mag- 
netic needle used in detecting iron ore is, of course, not included in 
this category of spurious instruments. 

It is by no means true that all persons using a forked twig or some 
other device for locating water or other mineral are intentional 
deceivers. Some of them are doubtless men of good character and 
benevolent intentions. However, as anything that can be deeply 
veiled in mystery affords a good opportunity for swindlers, there 
can be no reasonable doubt that many of the lai^e group of profes- 
sional finders of water, oil, or other minerals who take pay for their 
"services'* or for the sale of their "instruments" are dehberately 
defrauding the people, and that the total amoimt of money they 
obtain is large. 

To all inquirers the United States Geological Survey therefore 
gives the advice not to expend any money for the services of any 
"water witch" or for the use or purchase of any machine or instru- 
ment devised for locating underground water or other minerals. 



THE DIVINING ROD: A HISTORY OF WATER WITCHING. 



By Arthur J. Ellis. 




FORM OF THE DIVINING ROD. 

.In its mo8t familiar form the so-called divining rod is a forked twig, 
one fork of which is usually held in each hand in such a maimer that 
the butt end of the twig normally points upward (figs. 1 and 2). The 
supposition is that when 
carried to a place beneath 
which water or other min- 
erals he, the butt end will 
be attracted downward, or, 
according to some diviners, 
will whirl round and round . 
There are many modifica- 
tions in both the form and 
the manipulation of the 
device. For instance, a 
straight twig may be held 
at the small end, allowing 

the butt Mid to bob up and ^"'™ l-OrdInarj-dlvining«Hlhddln the usubI mu^er. 

down, the number of bobs being taken to indicate the depth to water 
or ore in fathoms or feet or other common unit of iQeasure. 

The opinion as to the kind of wood of which the twig should consist 
has differed greatly at different times and places, but peach, willow, 
hazel, and witch hazel are 
^ common favorites. By some 

diviners the twig is cut in- 
discriminately from any Kind 
of tree, or the device is made 
of metal or is some common 
implement, such as a buggy 
whip. Formerly incanta- 
tions were used in connec- 
tion with the divining rod. 
Some diviners appear to 
rod. pass into abnormal or psy- 

chical states and have muscular spasms, such as occur in cases of 
hysteria, which, it is contended, can not be repeated at will by the 




8 THE DIVINING BOD. 

diviner when he returns to a normal state. Under such conditions 
the twig may not only rotate, but one fork may be completely twisted 
off by the force with which it is driven round and round. 

Divining rods have been put to a wide variety of uses since the 
superstition first became popular, and it is not uncommon even 
at the present time to find them used by a single person to obtain 
diverse results, among which there is no conceivable relation. For 
example, Henri Mager purports to use the rod to detect the presence 
of water and ores and to meas- 
ure their depth below the 
surface, to analyze water and 
ores, to determine the direc- 
tions of the cardinal points, to 
measure the height of trees, 
and to perform other marvels. 
(See p. 23.) In tracing the 
history of the subject it is 
found that divining rods have 
been used for all of the follow- 
ing purposes: (1) To locate 
ore deposits, (2) to discover 
buried or hidden treasure, (3) 
to find lost landmarks and 
reestabhsh property bounda- 
ries, (4) to detect criminals, 
(5) to analyze personal char- 
acter, (6) to cure diseases, (7) 
to trace lost or strayed do- 
mestic animals, (8) to insure 
immunity against LU fortune 
when preserved as a fetish, 
(9) to locate well sites, (10) 

noTOR 3.-Vartou3 old types ol divining rods and f. i_„„„ ju„ „n„pano „f „n 
the ways to which they were held. (Alter Valle- "^ ^'^"^ "*^ COUrseS 01 un- 

mont,i693.) dei^;ro«nd. streams, (11) to 

determine the amount of water available by driUiog at a given spot, 
(12) to determine the depth at which water or ores occur, (13) to 
determine the direction of cardinal points, (14) to determine the 
heights of trees, and (15) to analyze ores and waters. 

ORIGIN OP THE DIVINING BOD. 

The origin of the divining rod is lost in antiquity. Students of 
the subject have discovered in ancient literatm^ many more or less 
vague references to it, and tiiough it is certain that rods or wands 
of some kind were in use among ancient peoples for forecasting events 
and searching for lost objects, and in occult practices generally, httle 



ORIGIN. 9 

is known of the manner in which such rods were used or what 
relation, if any, they may have to the modem device. The ''rod" 
is mentioned many times in the Bible in connection with miraculous 
performances, especially in the books of Moses. The much-quoted 
passage describing the "smiting of the rock'' (Numbers xx, 9-11) 
has been regarded by enthusiasts of water witching as a significant 
reference to the divining rod,* as have also the following passages: 
"My people ask council at their stocks, and their staff declareth 
imto them" (Hosea iv, 12); and "The king of Babylon stood at the 
parting of the way, at the head of two ways, to use divination; he 
made his arrows bright," etc. (Ezekiel xxi, 21). 

The following paragraphs are quoted from Rossiter Raymond's 
essay ^ on the use of rods for divination: 

The Scythians, Persians, and Medes used them. Herodotus says that the Scythians 
detected perjurers by means of rods. The word rhabdomancy,' originated by the 
Greeks, shows that they practiced this art; and the magic power of the rods of Minerva, 
Circe, and Hermes or Mercury is ^miliar to classical students. The lituus of the 
Romans, with which the augurs divined, was apparently an arched rod. Cicero, who 
had himself been an augur, says, in his treatise on divination, that he does not see 
how two augurs, meeting in the street, coidd look each other in the face without 
laughing. At the end of the first book of this treatise he quotes a couplet from the 
old Latin poet Ennius, representing a person from whom a diviner had demanded a 
fee as replying to this demand, "I will pay you out of the treasures which you enable 
me to find." * * * 

Marco Polo reports the use of rods or arrows for divination throughout the Orient, 
and a later traveler describes it among the Turks. Tacitus says that the ancient 
Germans used for this purpose branches of fruit trees. One of their tribes, the Frisians, 
employed rods in church to detect mm^derers. Finally, if we may trust Gonsalez 
de Mendoza, the Chinese, who seem to have had everything before anybody else, 
used pieces of wood for divination. 

Thus we perceive that the application of the divining rod in historical antiquity 
was mainly or wholly moral — that is, it was employed to detect guilt, decide future 
events, advise coiurses of action, etc. There are but two passages which have been 
quoted to prove its use for physical purposes; one from Ctesias (Apud phot. bibl. 
cod.), who speaks of a rod of the wood Parebus, which attracted gold, silver, other 
metals, stones, and several other things; the other from Cicero (De Officiis, lib. I), 
who says, "If we could obtain with the so-called divine rod everything pertaining to 
food and clothing (ad victum cultumque),'* etc.* 

On the other hand, the silence of many authors is significant, as Chevreul has pointed 
out. Varro does not mention the use of the rod for the discovery of subterranean 
waters or metals. Vitruvius, discussing the means of discovering springs, says nothing 
of it. Pliny, in Book XXX of his Natural History, omits it from his emuneration of 
magical arts and methods, and in Book XXXI, describing (after Vitruvius) the means 
of discovering springs, and Book XXXIII, describing explorations for metals, is 
equaUy silent concerning it. Columella, Palladius, and in the sixth century Cassio- 

1 Latimer, Charles, The divining rod, p. 20, 1876. 

s Baymond, R. W., The divining tod: Am. Inst. Min. Eng. Trans., vol. 11, pp. 415-416, 1883. See also 
U. S. Geol. Survey Mineral Resources, 1882, pp. 610-626, 1883. 

* Rhabdomancy, from the Greek fi6fiSos, rod, and navrtla, divination, is the practice of searching for 
sidings, well sites, precious metals, and oUier things concealed in the earth by means of a divining rod. 

4 This reference in complete tfxcm. reads as follows: " If all that is needful for our nourishment and support 
arrives to us by means of some divine rod, as people say, then each of us, free from all care and trouble, 
may give himself up to the exclusive pursuit of study and sdaice." 



10 THE DIVINING EOD. 

dorns are likewise dumb, though the latter in one of his epistles (Theodoric, LIII) 
extols the utility of the professional water discoverers. 

Whatever significance one may attach to such references as those 
cited above, no conclusive evidence has been found of the use of the 
divining rod as it is now known earlier than the first half of the six- 
teenth century. What is believed to be the first published descrip- 
tion of the rod is contained in Georgius Agricola's "De re metaJlica/' 
which was begun about 1533 and was published in 1666. There 
is a striking similarity between some of the ideas expressed in this 
accoimt and some of those now hdd r^arding the rod and its use, 
which, it is beheved, justify its quotation. The following paragraphs 
are quoted from the Hoover translation: * 

There are many great contentions between miners concerning the forked twig, for 
some say that it is of the greatest use in discovering veins, and others deny it. Some of 
those who manipulate and use the twig first cut a fork from a hazel bush with a 
knife, for this bush they consider more efficacious than any other for reveahng veins, 
especially if the hazel bush grows above a vein. Others use a different kind of twig for 
each metal, when they are seeking to discover the veins, for they employ hazel twigs for 
veins of silver; ash twigs for copper; pitch pine for lead and especially tin, and rods 
made of iron and steel for gold. All alike grasp the forks of the twig with their hands, 
clenching their fists, it being necessary that the clenched fingers should be held 
toward the sky in order that the twig should be raised at that end where the two 
branches meet. Then they wander hither and thither at random through mountainous 
regions. It is said that the moment they place their feet on a vein the twig imme- 
diately turns and twists, and so by its action discloses the vein; when they move their 
feet again and go away from that spot the twig becomes once more inmiobile. 

The truth is, they assert, the movement of the twig is caused by the power of the 
veins, and sometimes this is so great that the branches of trees growing near a vein 
are deflected toward it. On the other hand, those who say that the twig is of no use 
to good and serious men, also deny that the motion is due to the power of the veins, 
because the twig will not move for everybody, but only for those who employ incan- 
tations and craft. Moreover, they deny the power of a vein to draw to itself the 
branches of trees, but they say that the warm and dry exhalations cause these 
contortions. Those who advocate the use of the twig make this reply to these objec- 
tions: WTien one of the miners or some other person holds the twig in his hands, and it 
is not turned by the force of the veins, this is due to some peculiarity of the individual, 
which hinders and impedes the power of the vein, for since the power of the vein in 
turning and twisting the twig may be not unlike that of a magnet attracting and 
drawing iron toward itself, this hidden quality of a man weakens and breaks the 
force, just the same as garlic weakens and overcomes the strength of a magnet. For a 
magnet smeared with garlic juice can not attract iron, nor does it attract the latter 
when rusty. Further, concerning the handling of the twig, they warn us that we 
should not press the fingers together too lightly, nor clench them too firmly, for if the 
twig is held lightly they say that it will fall before the force of the vein can turn it; if, 
however, it is grasped too firmly the force of the hands resists the force of the veins and 
counteracts it. Therefore, they consider that five things are necessary to insure that 
the twig shall serve its purpose: of these the first is the size of the twig, for the force of 
the vein cannot turn too large a stick; secondly, there is the shape of the twig, which 
must be forked or the vein can not turn it; thirdly, the power of the vein which has 
the nature to turn it; fourthly, the manipulation of the twig; fifthly, the absence of 

1 Agricola, Oeprgius, De re metallica, translated from first Latin edition of 1556 by H. C. and L. H. 
Hoover, pp. 38-41, 1912. 



OEIGIN. 11 

impeding X)ecaliaritie8. These advocates of the twig sum up their conclusions as 
follows: If the rod does not move for everybody, it is due to unskilled manipulation or 
to the impeding peculiarities of the man which oppose and resist the force of the 
veins, as we said above, and those who search for veins by means of the twig need not 
necessarily make incantations, but it is sufficient that they handle it suitably and are 
devoid of impeding power; therefore, the twig may be of use to good and serious men 
in discovering veins. With regard to deflection of branches of trees they say nothing 
and adhere to their opinion. 

Since this matter,remains in dispute and causes much dissension amongst miners, I 
consider it ought to be examined on its own merits. The wizards, who also make use 
of rings, mirrors, and crystals, seek for veins with a divining rod shaped like a fork; 
but its shape makes no difference in the matter — ^it might be straight or of some other 
form — ^for it is not the form of the twig that matters [see fig. 3], but the wizard's incan- 
tations which it would not become me to repeat, neither do I wish to do so. The 
ancients, by means of the divining rod, not only procured those things necessary for a 
livelihood or for luxury, but they were able also to alter the forms of things by it; as 
when the magicians changed the rods of the Egyptians into serpents, as the writings 
of the Hebrews relate; and as in Homer, Minerva with a divining rod tinned the aged 
Ulysses suddenly into a youth and then restored him back again to old age; Circe 
also changed Ulysses* companions into beasts, but afterward gave them back again 
their human forms; moreover, by his rod, which was called "Caducous,** Mercury 
gave sleep to watchmen and awoke slumberers. Therefore it seems that the divining 
rod passed to the mines from its impure origin with the magicians. Then when 
good men shrank with horror from incantations and rejected them, the twig was re- 
tained by the unsophisticated common miners, and in searching for new veins some 
traces of these ancient usages remain. 

But since truly the twigs of the miners do move, albeit they do not generally use 
incantations, some say this movement is caused by the power of the veins, others say 
that it depends on the manipulation, and still others think that the movement is due to 
both these causes. But, in truth, all those objects which are endowed with the power 
of attraction do not twist things in circles, but attract them directly to themselves; 
for instance, the magnet does not turn the iron but draws it directly to itself, and 
amber rubbed until it is warm does not bend straws about, but simply draws them to 
itself. If the power of the veins were of a similar nature to that of the magnet and 
the amber, the twig would not so much twist as move once only, in a semicircle, 
and be drawn directly to the vein, and imless the strength of the man who holds the 
twig were to resist and oppose the force of the vein the twig woidd be brought to the 
ground; wherefore, since this is not the case, it must necessarily follow that the manip- 
ulation is the cause of the twig's twisting motion. It is a conspicuous fact that these 
cunning manipulators do not use a straight twig but a forked one cut from a hazel 
bush or from some other wood equally flexible, so that if it be held in the hands, as 
they are accustomed to hold it, it turns in a circle for any man wherever he stands. 
Nor is it strange that the twig does not turn when held by the inexperienced, because 
they either grasp the forks of the twig too tightly or hold them too loosely. Never- 
theless, these things give rise to the faith among common miners that veins are dis- 
covered by the use of twigs, because whilst using these they do accidentally discover 
some; but it more often happens that they lose their labour, and although t^ey might 
discover a vein, they become none the less exhausted in digging useless trenches 
than do the miners who prospect in an unfortunate locality. Therefore a miner, since 
we think he ought to be a good and serious man, should not make use of an enchanted 
twig, because if he is prudent and skilled in the natural signs he understands that a 
forked stick is of no use to him, for, as I have said before, there are the natural indica- 
tions of the veins which he can see for himself without the help of twigs. So if Nature 
or chance should indicate a locality suitable for mining, the miner should dig his 
trenches there; if no vein appears he must dig numerous trenches until he discovers 
an outcrop of a vein. 



12 THE DIVINING ROD. 

There are two accounts of earlier date than *'De re metallica" 
which are mentioned in most histories of the divining rod. One of 
these accoimts is contained in the '^ Novum testamentum" of Basilius 
Valentinus, a Benedictine monk of the fifteenth century, who devoted 
seven chapters of the second book of his work to a didactic accomit 
of the use of the divining rod. But there is some confusion as to the 
date and as to the authorship of this book, and Raymond points out 
that the existence even of Basilius Valentinus is not beyond doubt. 
Gadenus states, in his ^^Historia Erfordiensis" (1675), that Basilius 
was living at St. Peter's convent at Erfurth in 1413, but the earliest 
copy of the **Testamentum/' which is a French translation in manu- 
script, is dated 1651, and the book was not printed imtil about fifty 
years after Agricola. The other accoimt is contained in '*De natura 
rerum,'' IX, by Paracelsus, which was no doubt written prior to 
**De re metallica," for Paracelsus died in 1541, but it was not pub- 
lished until some time later. From this accoimt Hoover * quotes: 

These [divinations] are vain and misleading, and among the first of them are divining 
rods, which have deceived many miners. If they once point rightly they deceive 
ten or twenty times. 

Barrett * considers it practically certain that the birthplace of the 
modem divining rod is in the mining districts of Germany, probably in 
the Harz Mountains, where the most approved mining processes 
were first devised. He says: 

Possibly they were led to its use from the belief, once universal among educated 
men like Melanchthon, that metallic ores attracted certain trees which thereupon 
drooped over the place where those ores were to be found, the drooping no doubt being 
due to the soil or other causes. A branch of the tree was therefore cut and held to see 
where it drooped; later on a branch was held in each hand and the extremities tied 
together, as shown in an old Italian plate [See fig. 4]; finally, for convenience, a 
forked branch was cut, the two ends grasped one in each hand with palms upward; 
the arms of the holder were then brought to the side of the body, so that the forked 
rod was held in somewhat unstable equilibriiun, and the "diviner" set forth on his 
quest with, in old time, certain solemnities and invocations. 

At any rate the divining rod came into common use first in Germany 
as a means for locating mines and also for discovering buried treasure, 
a matter of rather common interest in those days, when the practice 
of burying money and plate for safe keeping was so general. 

SPREAD OF THE DELUSION. 

German miners were imported into England during the reign of 
Elizabeth (1558-1603) to lend an impetus to the industry in Cornwall, 
which had been passing through a period of depression. By them 
the divining rod was introduced into England, and before the end of 
the seventeenth century it had spread through the coimtries of 
Europe. Everywhere it aroused controversy. Its champions, among 

1 Hoover, H. C. and L. H., Agricola, De re metallica, p. 38, 1912. 
« Barrett, W. F., Soc. Psych. Res. Proc., vol. 13, p. 13, 1897-88. 



SPREAD OF THE DELUSION. 13 

whom were some of the m08t learned men of the time, explained its 
operation, as, indeed, tbey explained nearly all fact« of physics and 
chemistry, on the principle of "sympathy" or "attraction and re- 
pulsion." The common phenomena of gravity and magnetism 
doubtless suggested this interpretation. Philippe Melanchthon, in his 
"Discours surla sympathie," 15—?; hb son-in-law, Gaspar Peucer, 
in"Le3devin9," 1584 (book 13, ch. 10};Porta,iQ"Magiaonatm'alis," 



1569(book'l,ch. 8};Keckennann(1673-1609)in"Systemataphysica" 
(book 1, ch, 8); and Michel Mayer, in "Verum inTentum," 1619 (ch. 
4), attribute the action of the divining rod to "sympathetic affinity." 

The adversaries of the divining rod, on the other hand, like Para- 
celsus and Agricola, condemned its use as a superstitious and vain 
practice, without attempting to refute the specific arguments ad- 
vanced by their opponents or flatly denying its supernatural con- 
nections. 

A third view was that involving a demoniac influence, and Ray- 
mond suggests that the adversaries of the rod, including Agricola, 



14 THE DIVINING BOD. 

may have adopted their attitude of reserve on the question of Satanic 
Influences from a desire to avoid possible serious consequences. 
Another view, closely related to that of satanic influence, is de- 
scribed by Raymond * as follows: 

A fourth view was indeed advanced, according to which the operator, as well as the 
rod, was the recipient of a divinely given faculty. It was no doubt with the purpose 
of avoiding the odium attadied to dealings with the Evil One that the professors of 
this science, particularly in Germany, surrounded it with ceremonies and formulas 
oi a highly pious character. It is true that the rules sometimes prescribed for the cut- 
ting of the twig partook largely of heathen sorcery and astrology. They were indeed , to 
some extent, unconscious reminiscences of the old Scandinavian, and even of the 
Aryan mythology. But this was atoned for when the rod was duly Christianized by 
baptism, being laid for this purpose in the bed with a newly baptized child, by whose 
Christian name it was afterward addressed . The following formula, cited by Gaetzsch- 
mann, may serve as an example: '* In the name of the Father and of the Son and of the 
Holy Ghost, I adjure thee, Augusta Carolina, that thou tell me, so pure and true as 
Mary the Virgin was, who bore our Lord Jesus Christ, how many fathoms is it from 
here to the ore?" In this case, the rod was expected to reply by dipping a certain 
number of times, corresponding to the number of fathoms. 

It is readily conceivable that the motive for surrounding this prac- 
tice with a religious atmosphere might not have been altogether a 
belief in its divine character, for at that time anyone f oimd engaged 
in mysterious works was in danger of being charged with sorcery and 
burned to death. 

In Cornwall the belief was common among the miners and still 
persists as a tradition, that the divining rod was guided to the ore 
deposits by the pixies, the fairy custodians of the mineral treasures 
of the earth. 

Not only did the abstract discussion of this subject engage the atten- 
tion of persons in all classes of society, but nobles and peasants, priests 
and philosophers — ^representatives from every class — ^busied them- 
selves trying to locate ore deposits by means of forked twigs. Proba- 
bly the most prominent diviners at this time were Baron de Beausoleil 
(Jean-Jacques de Chatelet), 1576-1643, and his wife. Beausoleil, 
who was one of the foremost mining authorities of his day, traveled 
extensively through the mining regions of Europe, visited America 
iQ his study of mining, and received important commissions from 
dukes and emperors, and even from the Pope. His wife shared his 
responsibilities and honors. But later they fell from favor through 
the machinations of rivals, and the fact that they used divining rods 
and other contrivances was made the basis of a charge of sorcery. 
After some years of persecution they were placed in prison (1642), the 
baron in the BastUe and his wife in Vincennes, where they died about 
1645. Raymond * writes : 

In magnifying the art of discovering mines and springs, and the skill required for 
this purpose, she [the baroness, in "The restitution of Pluto"] gives a description of 

1 Raymond, R. W., The diyinlng rod: Am. Inst. Min. Eng. Tians., voL 11^ p. 419« 1883. 
sid«n»pp.42(M21. 



*< TTTAm-mT^ -rrT-rr^^TT-r^-r^ >> 



ORIGIN OF '* WATER WITCHING. 15 

the means employed, showing that these hidden treasures are to be detected, (1) by 
digging, which is the least important way, (2) by the herbs and plants which grow 
above streams of water, (3) by the taste of the waters which flow from them, (4) by the 
vapors which arise from them at sunrise, and (5) by the use of 16 scientific instruments 
and 7 rods [the 7 rods of Badlius Valentinus] connected with the 7 planets,** etc. 

The first four means were undoubtedly real and really employed. Under the fifth 
head we have an illustration of what is so common in the alchemistic and other medie- 
val writers, namely, the covering of the facts of nature and the methods of investigation 
with assimied mystery to hide them from the vulgar. 

• This raises the interesting question as to the extent to which 
intelligent persons may have used divining rods in the early days for 
the sole purpose of concealing from the uninitiated their real methods 
of prospecting. One can hardly overestimate the respect for the 
divining rod that would be created among common miners if a man 
of real abihty pubUcly attributed his success to its use, and it may 
be that the deep-rooted hold which the superstition obtained on the 
popular mind was due to just such circumstances as this. 

ORIGIN OF ** WATER WITCHING." 

The above quotation from the Baroness Beausoleil is interesting 
also for the reason that in it the divining rod is mentioned as a means 
of discovering springs. The Beausoleils are believed to have been 
influential in bringing about the use of forked twigs in searching for 
water, although Barrett ^ writes as follows in regard to an accoimt 
which he finds in a Life of .Saint Teresa of Spain: 

Teresa in 1568 was offered the site for a convent to which there was only one objec- 
tion — ^there was no water supply; happily, a Friar Antonio came up with a twig in 
his hand, stopped at a certain spot, and appeared to be making the sign of the cross; 
but Teresa says, '* Really I can not be sure if it were the sign he made, at any rate, 
he made some movement with the twig and then he said, * Dig just here '; they dug, 
and lo! a plentiful fount of water gushed forth, excellent for drinking, copious for 
washing, and it never ran dry. ' ' 

Barrett regards this the first historical reference to "dowsing'' for 
water, but Mager ^ and Klinckowstroem ' mention a paper written 
by Claude GaUen in 1630 on the supposed discovery of the Chateau- 
TTiierry mineral water by Baroness Beausoleil as the first reference. 
At any rate, from about this time on the divining rod was used in 
southern Europe as much in the search for water as in the search 
for mines, although, according to Barrett, it was not used for this 
purpose in England imtil near the end of the eighteenth century. 

This new appUcation of the divining rod no doubt tended to popu- 
larize it. It had been of interest chiefly to miners, and outside 
of mining districts it was probably known only in a vague sort of 
way. But as a "water finder'' it became more generally known, 

1 Barrett, W. F., Psychical research, p. 171, 1911. 

* Mager, Henri, Les moyens de d^couvtir les eaux souterraines et de les utlliser, p. 327, 1912. 

B Klinckowstroem^ Graf Carl v.^ BibUographie der Wllnschelrute, p. 38, 1911. 



16 THE DIVINING BOD. 

and in the very nature of things its successes must have outnumbered 
its failures, just as, taking the coimtry over, successful wells outnimi- 
ber unsuccessful ones. 

ECCLESIASTICAL CONTROVERSIES. 

The divining rod continued to be a favorite subject with alchemistic 
writers imtil about 1660, when a new turn of affairs was brought 
about largely by the Jesuit Father Gaspard Schott, who, in his 
"Magiae universalis naturae et artis" (1659), denoxmced it as an 
instrument controlled by the devil. The subject was then taken up 
by the church, and for more than 100 years it was hotly debated by 
churchmen. Some approved of the rod and authorized its use on 
church property; others condemned it and threatened those who used 
it with excommunication. Gaspard Schott later expressed the behef 
that its movements were probably not caused by the devil, as 
"monks of great piety have used it with really marvelous success, 
and affirm positively that the movement is entirely natural and that 
it does not at aU proceed from dexterity or from the strength of 
imagination of him who uses it," and he and A. Kircher were the 
first to advance the theory that the movement of the rod is due to 
unconscious muscular action. '^ 

About 1671 Matthaeus Willenius published an account of the mer- 
cury wand, in which he stoutly defended the use of the divining 
rod, and two years later Jacques Le Royer announced that the mate- 
rial of which the rod is made is of little consequence, as he claimed to 
have obtained equally good results with rods made of wood, oxhom, 
ivory, gold, or silver. 

In 1674 the Jesuit priest Dechales wrote (in "De fontibus nat- 
uraUbus"): 

There are two things which astonish me in this experience: Why this rod turns 
only in the hands of certain persons, and second, why this rod serves equally well to 
locate both underground streams and mines. 

In 1675 J. C. Frommann, a doctor of medicine, ridiculed those who 
explained the movements of the rod as a sleight-of-hand trick, and 
compared the mystery of the rod with the mystery of reproduction. 
In 1684 another doctor of medicine (G. B. de Saint-Romain) ex- 
plained the movements of the rod as due to emanations given off 
from minerals and underground streams. 

USE OF THE DIVINING ROD IN DETECTING CRIMINALS. 

Prior to 1692 the divining rod had been used in trying to locate 
minerals and water and possibly to some extent for other purposes. 
But in that year an incident occurred in southern France which 
added greatly to the notoriety of the divining rod and extended its 
field of operation into the moral world, in which, according to some 



USE IN DETECTING CRIMINALS. 17 

-writers (p. 9), rods for divination had their origin. This incident, 
which is described in great detail by several writers/ was the appre- 
hension and identification of a criminal through the agency of a 
peasant of Dauphiny named Jacques Aymar, who claimed the abihty 
to trace fugitives by the use of divining rods. 

Interest in this case was intense and widespread and called forth 
a large amoimt of Uterature. In commenting on the case Barrett* 
says: 

The other one, a hunchback, who was arrested, confessed the crime and was exe- 
cuted: the last person in Europe who suffered that terrible penalty of being '* broken 
at the wheel/* * * * Strangely enough the depositions made at the trial showed 
that Aymar was correct in every detail, witnesses testifying to the flight and halting 
places of the culprits in the very places Aymar had indicated. * * * Aymar 
became notorious throughout Europe. ,He was, however, subsequently somewhat 
discredited owing to his fetilure in some tests devised by the Prince de Cond6. 

But Raymond, in a decidedly more skeptical treatment of the mat- 
ter, raises some illuminating questions in regard to Aymar^s integ- 
rity. His comment on the work of Aymar ^ includes the following 
statements: 

This man, Jacques Aymar by name, was sent for — or rather it was not necessary to 
send for him, since he proved to be already on hand in the city by the time it was 
decided to eng^ige his services. This fact is significant as giving the key to what 
turned out to be an extraordinary piece of clever detective work. A careful analysis 
of the niunerous official and other records of this case shows it to be quite possible 
that the diviner had obtained important clues before he was publicly set to work. 

* * * The subsequent tracking of a himchback would be no very difficult matter. 

* * * But this achievement of the rod, attested as it was by official records and 
by the public confession and execution of the criminal made a great sensation in 
BVance. * * * Aymar was called to Paris, where both the court and the savants 
interested themselves greatly in his mysterious powers. Many marvelous feats are 
reported of him there; but the shrewd and rigorous experiments of the Prince de Cond^ 
exposed the emptiness of his pretensions * * *. As late as 1703 this man was 
employed during the civil war to point out with his divining rod Protestants for 
massacre, under the plea of pimishment for crimes they had committed. 

The beUef that the divining rod was an instrument invented by 
Satan for the confusion of men was no doubt as old as the superstition 
itself, but, as previously indicated, it was greatly strengthened when 
in 1659 Gaspard Schott proclaimed that the rod was controlled by 
the devil, thereby identifying it with witchcraft and bringing it within 
the jurisdiction of the Church. Although the use of the divining rod 
diflfered essentially from witchcraft in many respects, nevertheless, 
in addition to its direct impUcation by its ecclesiastical adversaries, 
there was in some respects a very close relation between the two, as 

1 Baring-Gould, Sabine, Curious myths of the middle ages, p. 54, 1894. Mager, Henri, Les moyens de 
d^oouvrir les eaux souterraines et de les utiliser, pp. 362-365, 1912. 
« Psychical research, ch. 12, p. 172. 
< Raymond, R. W., The divining rod: Am. Soo. Min. Eng. Trans., vol. 11, pp. 424-427, 1883, 

46874°— WSP 410—17 2 



18 THE DIVINING BOD. 

is suggested by the use of incantations in connection with divining, 
and to this relationship may be ascribed in some measure the strength- 
ening of beUef in the rod. The significance of this hes in the fact that 
witchcraft,^ at the time of the Aymar episode, had become a frenzy, 
and anything — even the simplest occurrences of everyday life — which 
by any stretch of the imagination could be suspected of imphcation 
with witchcraft, became a subject of discussion and the basis of firm 
opinions and beUefs. 

In view of the prevalence of such beliefs as this reign of delusion 
imphes, it is by no means difficult to accoimt for the credence accorded 
to such claims as those made by Jacques Aymar. Moreover, con- 
sidering the ordeals of torture infficted on persons accused of crime 
to extract confessions, by a strange perversion called ^'voluntary," 
and often infficted on the witnesses as well, and considering also the 
fact that a pubUc execution was sometimes r^arded as a highly 
diverting spectacle well worth some effort to bring it about, the 
testimony supporting the claims of Aymar, as repeated to us, com- 
bined even with the reported confession of the accused, f aDs fax short 
of estabUshing the merit claimed by Aymar, or even the guilt of the 
hunchback who was executed. 

In 1701 the Inquisition issued a decree against the further use of 
the divining rod in criminal prosecution, and this use of the device 
rapidly came to an end. 

SCIENTIFIC CONTROVERSIES. 

LEBBTJN AND OTHERS. 

For about 80 years after the decree by the Inquisition abolishing 
its use for the detection of criminals the divining rod continued to be 
a fruitful subject for debate among ecclesiastical authorities, among 
whom was Pierre L^brun, who in 1692 Sist suggested the theory of 
''prior intention, " but in 1780 it was dropped and received no further 
official recognition by churchmen. But the time was then ripe for 
controversies along an altogether new line, namely, the attempt to 
explain water witching as an electrical phenomenon. About this 
time the study of electricity was making great progress, especially 
through the work of Volta and Galvani, and the demonstration by 
Galvani that amputated legs of frogs could be made to twitch imder 
the influence of electrical stimuli was at once misinterpreted by advo- 
cates of the divining rod as giving a scientific basis for water witching. 

THOXJVENBL. 

The controversies relating to electrical phenomena were begun by 
Pierre Thouvenel, a physician to Louis XVI, who interested himself 
in another peasant of Dauphiny, Barth^lemy Bleton, who, like 
Jacques Aymar, had acquired notoriety as a "hydroscope.'' 



SCIENTIFIC CONTROVERSIES. 19 

Bleton was bom at Bouvantes, in Dauphiny, in 1750, or possibly 
a few years earlier, was brought up by charity in a monastery, and 
became a herdsman. The first manifestation of ''hydroscopic" 
faculties in Bleton is described in the following paragraph quoted 
from Barrett,^ who gives it as a translation from Thouvenel's corre- 
spondence dated at Dijon, April 14, 1781: 

Bleton when 7 years of age had carried dinner to some workmen; he sat down on 
a stone, when a fever or faintness seized him; the workmen having brought him to 
their side, the faintness ceased; but each time he returned to the stone he suffered 
again. This was told to the Prior of the Chartreuse, who wished to see it for himself. 
Being thus convinced of the. fact, he had the ground under the stone dug up; there 
they found a spring, which, I am told, is still in use to turn a mill. 

Thouvenel heard of Bleton and chose him as a fit subject on whom 
to test his notions of "animal magnetism,'' and as a result published 
an elaborate essay which he called "M6moire physique et medicinal, 
montrant des rapports 6vidents entre les ph^nomfenes de la baguette 
divinatoire, du magnfitisme et de T^lectricit^.'' The following account 
by Raymond^ presents the principal facts in regard to Bleton's 
achievements in concise form: 

In the first place, Bleton apparently did not profess to discover inmiaterial quali- 
ties or facts, but chiefly confined himself to the detection of running water. In the 
second place, he frankly avowed that the rod possessed no power in itself by virtue 
of its form or material, and that it was merely an index, outwardly exhibiting to the 
spectators his inward feeling. This feeling the doctor declared to be a tremor, attack- 
ing first the diaphragm and communicating itself through the body and. hands to the 
rod. In the third place this tremor was found by Dr. Thouvenel to be weakened, 
though not destroyed, when Bleton was on a tree or ladder or another person's shoul- 
der, instead of the groimd, or when he touched electrified substances; but the tremor 
and also the movement of the rod were completely stopped when Bleton was insu- 
lated from the ground. Upon facts of this kind he based his electrical theory. 
I remark, by the way, that the observations and the theory of Mr. Latimer, in his 
recent work on the divining rod, already mentioned, recall in a striking manner the 
performances of Bleton and the theory of Thouvenel. Mr. Latimer claims to have 
made the new discovery that the effect of the divining rod is destroyed by insulating 
the practitioner, as, for instance, by placing him upon a platform supported by glass 
bottles. If he had known how thoroughly this claim had been examined and refuted, 
almost exactly 100 years ago, he would have had less faith in its novelty and value. 

Thouvenel' s book made no little sensation, and in 1782 Bleton was called to Paris, 
where a remarkable series of experimental tests were applied to him. A newspaper 
report of the day declares that in the presence of many thousands of spectators he 
followed a subterranean aqueduct in the garden of the Luxembourg for 15,000 yards 
without a mistake. The chief engineer of the waterworks is reported to have said 
that the trace was so accurate that if the maps of his office had been lost, Bleton's 
footsteps would have constituted a complete siu^ey to replace them. It is just 
possible that the Journal de Paris was tempted to make a sensation of this case, and 
it is also quite possible that a keen observer might notice indications other than 
those of his own diaphragm, by which he could follow the line of buried pipes. 
A large number of experiments, more calmly reported, certainly do not sustain the 

1 Barrett, W. F., On the so-called divining rod: Soc. Psych. Res. Proc., vol. 15, p. 257, 1900. 
* Raymond, R. W., The divining rod: Am. Inst. Min. Eng. Trans., vol. 11, pp. 431-433, 1883. 



20 THE DIVINING BOD. 

enthusiasm of this account. It was found, for instance, that Bleton often passed 
over running water, when blindfolded, without noticing it; and that when taken 
several times over the same course he would not point out accurately each time the 
spots which he had previously marked. For example, of 16 points once indicated, 
he recognized with the rod on the second roimd but eigfit and missed the other ei^t. 
A single point to which he was repeatedly brought blindfoM he indicated three 
times and missed three times. Of seven channels of nmning water which he was 
made to cross repeatedly, he indicated one once in four times, another once in four 
times, and another once in three times, while still another, which he crossed in two 
spots, affected his diaphragm at one crossing and not at all at the other. The insu- 
lation experiment was repeated by a physician at Paris. At a point where Bleton's 
rod was powerfully affected by alleged subterranean water, he was moimted upon a 
stool with glass legs, and immediately the rod ceased to be affected. When the 
stool was removed, however, and he stood upon the groimd, the rod resimied its 
sensitiveness. But Dr. Charles, who conducted this experiment, took occasion, 
while Bleton stood upon the stool, to bring the top, without his knowledge, into 
electrical communication with the earth by means of a good conductor, thus destroy- 
ing the insulation completely, though the hydroscopist supposed it still to exist. 
Under these circumstances the rod remained inactive, and the destruction of insula- 
tion did not produce the slightest result. This was declared at the time to be a proof 
of Bleton' s charlatanry; but, as we shall see hereafter, it is equally consistent with 
the hypothesis of unconscious mental and muscular action. 

As a final test of Bleton's capacity as a hydroscopist, he was taken blindfold into the 
new church of Saint Genevieve, where there was known to be no water for 100 
feet below the floor, the vaults, foimdations, etc., actually extending all that distance 
below. Here he professed to discover at niunerous points large and small streams of 
water. Thouvenel subsequently asserted that his prot^g6 had been affected by cur- 
rents of damp air circulating in the cellar, but this explanation was universally con- 
sidered BS a desperate attempt to maintain a theory already brought into discredit 
by experimental tests. Bleton, however, though he ceased to be seriously respected 
by impartial scientists, continued to receive much attention, and to do a thriving 
business, both in Paris and subsequently in the provinces. Here, however, he no 
longer worked blindfold or professed to see with his diaphragm. He proceeded 
like the ordinary water diviners, with open eyes, studying all the natural indications, 
and coming to his decisions with abimdant leisure; and imder the circumstances it, 
is beyond doubt that he rendered many valuable services to landed proprietors by 
successfully locating wells. In many cases, however, he failed entirely, and it is 
reported that even in those in which he succeeded, he was seldom right as to the depth 
at which water would be foimd or the quantity which would be obtained. It should 
be mentioned that in Dauphiny, where Bleton discovered a large number of springs, 
he was regarded with an esteem never given to Aymar and some other famous hydro- 
scopists. In other words, the people who knew most about the art of discovering 
water pronounced Bleton to be a real expert, while they believed Aymar and Parangue 
to be more or less charlatans. A review of all the facts leaves little doubt that in 
Bleton's case there was an unusually large proportion of the skill of the prospector, 
combined with rather less than usual of the mysterious claims of the wizard. 

At this time many diviners acquired notoriety, including Parangue 
and Pennet, of Dauphiny, and Campetti, of Italy, but their careers 
differed in no significant respect from that of Bleton. The feature 
of tljis time was the patronage of diviners by scientists and the 
attempt to apply hypotheses of animal magnetism and terrestrial 
electricity to the supposed operation of the divining rod. 



SCIENTIPIC CONTROVERSIES. 21 

CHEVBEXJL AND FABADAY. 

During the first half of the nineteenth century the phenomena of 
''table turning" was introduced, and became so popular that it was 
often employed in drawing-room entertamments. During this time 
also the so-called "magic pendulum/' which had persisted from 
antiquity as a rather obscure divining instrument, was popularized 
and an elaborate system of electrical hypotheses was based on its 
conduct. The magic pendulum consists of a finger ring, watch, piece 
of metal, or any other suitable weight, attached to the end of a cord 
and suspended from the hand. In ancient times it was used to fore- 
cast events by suspending it over a disk on the margin of which were 
the letters of the alphabet, the pendulum being brought to rest and 
held steadily uiitil it finally began to swing, thereby pointing out 
various letters which formed or suggested the words of a prophecy. 
It is said to be fairly common as a toy at the present time and is still 
occasionally used seriously by superstitious people in this coimtry. 
At the beginning of the eighteenth century it was being used, like 
the divining rod, in attempts to locate well sites, for which purpose 
it is still used to some extent. In 1812, however, Michel Eugene 
Chevreul made an investigation of the subject and concluded that 
the whole phenomenon was a result of involuntary muscular move- 
ments in the hand, induced by mental processes. 

In 1854 Michael Faraday showed that table turning was due to 
involuntary muscular movements; and in the same year Chevreul, 
as a member of a committee appointed by the Academy of Science 
to investigate the divining rod and the magic pendulum, wrote with 
regard to the divining rod: 

It is evident to my eyes that the cause of the movement of the wand does not belong 
to the physical world, but to the moral world; I think that, in most of the cases in 
hand, in which the wand is held by an honest man who has faith in it, the movement 
is the consequence of an act of the mind of that man. 

The foundation of the science of psychology was being laid at 
this time, and psychical phenomena were just beginning to be 
recognized in a new Ught. In the conclusions of Faraday and 
Chevreul, therefore, may be recognized the first appUcation of 
those new conceptions of mental processes. This theory was finally 
elaborated in an exhaustive treatment of the subject by Barrett. 
(See pp. 22-23.) 

LATIMEB. 

While all these investigations were being conducted in Europe the 
divining rod was enjoyiag a peaceful existence in the United States, 
forked twigs being used more or less in prospecting for water, oil, 
and other mineral deposits. But in 1875 Charles Latimer* read before 

1 Latimer, Charles, The divining rod: virgula divina baculus divinatoribus, water witching, Cleveland, 
1876. 



22 THE DIVINING ROD. 

the CivU Engineers' Club of the Northwest an essay on ''The divining 
rod," which was later pubUshed (1876) with additional notes, in 
which he undertook to prove that the operation of the rod depends 
on electrical currents transmitted from the ground through the body, 
inducing a magnetic field between the rod and the groimd. He also 
explained a method by which he claimed to be able to determine 
the amount of water available and the depth at which it would be 
reached. 

RAYMOND. 

In 1883 R. W. Raymond ^ published his essay on "The divining 
rod/* which contains a historical outline of the subject and a set of 
conclusions based especially on the works of Chevreul. It concludes 
with the following highly rhetorical epitaph on this venerable 
superstition: 

To this, then, the rod of Moeee, of Jacob, of Mercury, of Circe, of Valentiii, of 
Beausoleil, of Vallemont, of Aymar, of Bleton, of Pennet, of Campetti — even of Mr. 
Latimer — hza come at last. In itself it is nothing. Its claims to virtues derived from 
Deity, from Satan, from affinities and sympathies, from corpuscular effluvia, from 
electrical currents, from passive perturbatory qualities of organo-electric force are 
hopelessly collapsed and discarded. A whole library of learned rubbish about it 
which remains to us furnishes jaigon for charlatans, marvelous tales for fools, and 
amusement for antiquarians; otherwise it is only fit to constitute part of Mr. Caxton's 
"History of himian error.'* And the sphere of the divining rod has shrunk with its 
authority. In one department after another it has been foimd useless. Even in 
the one application left to it with any show of reason it is nothing unless held in 
skillful hands, and whoever has the skill may dispense with the rod. It belongs, with 
"the magic pendulimi" and "planchette,** among the toys of children. Or, if it 
be worthy the attention of scientific students, it is the students of psychology and 
biology, not of geology and hydroscopy and the science of ore deposits, who can 
profitably consider it. 

BABBETT. 

In 1891 W. F. Barrett,^ professor of physics in the Royal College of 
Science for Ireland, in the interest of the Society for Psychical 
Research, undertook- a very laborious investigation of water witch- 
ing, or dowsing, as it is called in England, and later published his 
results in two large volumes. 

Barrett concluded that the movement of the rod or forked twig is 
due to unconscious muscular action arising from subconscious and 
involuntary "suggestion'' impressed on the mind of the dowser, and 
that this subconscious suggestion may be merely an autosuggestion 
or a suggestion derived through the senses from the environment, 
but that in a certain number of cases it appears to be due to a subcon- 
scious perceptive power commonly called clairvoyance. His condu- 

i Raymond, R. W., The divining rod: Am. Inst. Min. Eng. Trans., vol. 11, pp. 411-446, 1883. Pub- 
lished also in U. S. Qeol. Survey Mineral Resources, 1882, pp. 610-626, 1883. 

2 Barrett, W. F., On the so-called divining rod or Virgula divina: Soc. Psych. Res. Proa, vols, 13 and 
15,1897,1901. 



MECHANICAL WATER FINDERS. 23 

sions were therefore in a aense favorable to water witching, although 
completely refuting all claims that there is any physical relation 
between the underground water and the forked twig or its manipu- 
lator, and definitely relegating the subject wholly to the obscure realm 
of occultism with other varieties of f ortime telling. 

HiAGEB. 

In aU its weird history no more extravagant and absurd claims were 
ever made for the divining rod than those which are maintained at 
the present time by Henri Mager. (See p. 8.) Mager is an enthu- 
siastic champion of divining rods, magic pendulimis, and his own 
mechanical device for locating water and ores. His hypotheses are 
presented in his three elaborate volumes — ''Les moyens de d6couvrir 
les eaux souterraines et de les utiliser,'' 1912; "Les sourciers et leurs 
proc6d&,'' 1913; and " Les influences des corps min6raux,'' 1913 — and 
in his pamphlet *' A new method for the study of mining fields and for 
finding ore embedded in deep gromid, '' 1914. At almost every step in 
the advance of science and philosophy some one h as attempted to explain 
the supposed operation of the divining rod by means of the latest 
scientific theories, and Mager^s work is in accord with precedent. 
His claims are built on dicta or speculations in which use is made of 
the terminology of students of radioactivity and electromagnetism. 

BECENT INVESTIGATIONS. 

It remains to be stated that there atre several societies in Germany 
whose sole object is said to be the study of the divining rod, and 
that a subcommittee of the commission of scientific studies in the 
bureau of waters and forests of the department of agriculture of 
France was appointed in 1910 to investigate the subject and in 1914 
was still investigating. 

MECHANICAIi WATER FINDERS. 

About 1640 Baroness Beausoleil, in ''The restitution of Pluto" (see 
p. 16), listed, among means of discovering mines and springs, the use 
of 16 "scientific instruments.'' This is the earUest reference to such 
instnmients that has been discovered in the preparation of this report, 
and it is a matter of considerable interest that even at this early date 
a single prospector should manifest so wide an acquaintance with 
devices for finding water and ore. It is certain that Beausoleirs 16 
were the forerunners of a proUfic race. At least 24 patents of this 
nature are now on file in the United States Patent Office, but this is no 
index to the number which have been rejected and which have never 
been offered for patent in this country, not to mention foreign inven- 
tions. 

» See Joly, J., Radioactivity and geology, 1909, and Bauer, L. A., The physical theory of the earth's 
magnetic and electrical phenomena: Terrestrial magnetism and atmospheric electricity, vols. 15 and 16, 
1910, 1911. 



24 THE DIVINING ROD. 

Most of the present devices are magnetic or electrical instruments^ 
which, taken together, cover ahnost every apphcation of magnetism 
and electricity. They range from ordinary dip needles to telephones 
and devices using wireless waves. Among the most widely advertised 
instruments of this kind are W. Mansfield^s "Patent automatic water 
<md oil finders, " Henri Mager's " Indicator of current ground water, " 
and Adolf Schmids's "Device for detecting subterranean waters." 
Mansfield's instrument was denied a patent in the United States on 
the ground that it was anticipated by the patent of Adolf Schmids. 
Mager's instrument, which is described in all his pubhcations {see 
p. 23), is admitted by him to be only a modification of Schmids's 
device. 

In the lietters patent^ of the Schmids device it is stated that the 
apparatus will "indicate certain atmospheric changes, the nature and 
cause of which are not yet understood but which manifest themselves 
in a peculiar way in the neighborhood of the source and course of sub- 
terranean waters by rapid oscillations of the pointer of the device. " 

The instrument is described as a hollow glass cylinder having an 
axis around which is spirally woimd a soft-iron wire in layers that are 
separated from one another by paraflBned paper, and at intervals 
by layers of tin foil. The outside layer of the spool is covered with 
paper. The wire of this spool forms an open circuit. The end of the 
spool is covered with a glass dial plate having at its center a pivot 
on which a pointer or needle oscillates. 

It is claimed that when the instrument is in the vicinity of a source 
or a stream of subterranean water the needle will after a time oscillate 
rapidly. 

In the literature advertising its "automatic water and oil finders," 
circulated by the Mansfield Co., of Liverpool, England, the following 
claims are made : 

The principle on which the instrument works is the indicating of the presence of 
currents which flow between earth and atmosphere, and which seeking the path of 
greatest conductivity, are always strongest in the vicinity of subterranean water 
courses, the waters of which are charged with electricity to a certain degree. In taking 
observations, wooden pegs are placed at intervals of 20 paces in a direction usually 
southeast to northwest. The instrument is tried over each of these pegs in turn, and 
should the needle move on any one of them, tests are made all roimd it, and the spot 
where the greatest movement ot the needle is obtained is where the boring should be 
made. If the needle does not move subterranean water does not exist under the spot 
where the instnunent is fixed. * * * The instrument indicates water courses 
flowing undergroimd in a natural state and not water pipes or sources that have sprung 
up to daylight. 

Systematic magnetic observations have been made for about 70 
years, and a complete magnetic survey of the earth, imder the direc- 
tion of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, has been in progress 

1 Patent No. 841188, Jan. 15, 1907. 



MECHANICAL WATEE FINDEBS. 25 

for a number of years, but this survey has not yet disclosed the exist- 
ence of local earth-air currents on which to base a method of utilizing 
such currents in determining underground conditions. In view of 
this lack of knowledge any invention based on the assumption that 
such currents exist, as, for example, the Schmid patent, is subject to 
the general criticism that it is unsound in principle, or at least that, 
like the divining rod, it can be subjected to no conclusive scientific 
test. The practical use of such instruments, moreover, seems to be 
incompatible with the known instability of the magnetic and electric 
state of the earth and the atmosphere, in which disturbances of greater 
or less degree are constantly taking place. Investigations^ have 
shown that magnetic disturbance is nearly continuous; that an 
entirely undisturbed day is abnormal. Some magnetic disturbances 
are local; others affect the whole earth simultaneously.^ Bauer ^ 
writes: 

The magnetic disturbances experienced by the earth are generally of a very com- 
plicated nature and reach at times startling magnitudes. Thus during the most 
remarkable magnetic storm of which there is any record— the one of September 25, 
1909 — the compass needle in the vicinity of the city of Washington suffered a change 
of 5 degreBB in the short space of a quarter of an hour and the force acting on it passed 
through a change during the same period amounting to 10 per cent of its full 
value. * * * 

1 confidently expect, as soon as a complete analysis has been made of magnetic 
disturbances covering the greater portion of the earth, it will be found that * * * 
the disturbances will themselves reveal effects from terrestrial, continental, regional, 
and even local causes (earth currents, for example, whose path and intensity depend 
upon local character of soil, etc .). * 

Since the earth's magnetic state is known to be of a very heterogeneous character, 
requiring an exceedingly complicated mathematical expression for even a very 
approximate representation, it may be confidently expected that any magnetic change 
or disturbance, from whatever source it may come and of however simple a type it 
may originally be, by the time it has entered the earth's field and has impressed itself 
upon our magnetic instruments, will have been converted into an equally complex 
type to that of the earth's magnetism itself.^ 

Further study of this subject tends merely to strengthen the belief 
that magnetic disturbances may be due to causes so many and various 
that no confidence can reasonably be placed in any claim that the 
oscillations of a magnetic needle indicate the occurrence of available 
groimd water, much less the depth at which water can be reached or 
the quantity that can be obtained; and it confirms the opinion that, 
in the present state of knowledge, any such claim is purely specu- 
lative. 

1 Baaer, L. A., Analysis of the magnetic disturbance of Jan. 26, 1903, and general considerations regarding 
magnetic changes: Terrestrial magnetism and atmospheric electricity, vol. 15, pp. 22, 24, and 25, 1910. 

'Schuster, Arthur, The diurnal variation of terrestrial magnetism: Roy. Soc. London Philos. Trans., 
ser. A, vol. 208, pp. 184-185, 1908. 

s Bauer, L. A., The physical theory of the earth's magnetic and electric phenomena; Tenestrial ma^et- 
ism and atmospheric electricity, vol. 15, p. Ill, 1910. 

* Op. cit. (Analysis, etc.), p. 25. 

A Idem, p. 22. 



26 THE DIVINING ROD. 

BIBLIOORAPHT OP "WATER WTTCHINO/* 

In compiling this bibliography the author has used the earlier bib- 
liographies of Birot and Roux (Hydroscopic et rabdomancie : Soc. 
agr., sci. ind. de Lyon Annales, 1912) and Elinckowstroem (Bibho- 
graphic der Wiinschclrutc, Munich, 1911). So far as possible the 
books cited have been examined at the Library of Congress and the 
citations verified. 

15 — . Mblanchthon, Pmuppi, Diflcours sur la sympathie [Discourae on sympathy 
(=* * sympathetic affinity " )] . 

1532. Bbrnhardus, R. P., Vera atque brevia deeciiptio viigulae mercuiialiB, etc. 
[True yet brief description of the wand of Mercury, etc.], Prag. 

1556. Agricola, Gborqius, De re metallica[On metals], book 12, Isted.; another 
ed., B&le, 1557. Translated into English by H. C. Hoover and L. H. Hoover, 
and published for the translators by the Mining Magazine, London, in 1912. 

1569. Bbsson, Jacqubs, L'art et science de trouver les eaux et fontaines cach^es 
sous terre [The art and science of finding water and fountains hidden under 
ground]. 

1569. Porta, Jo. Baptista, Magiae naturalis sivede miraculis rerum [Natural magic]. 

1573-1609. Kbckermann, S3rstemata phjrsica [Systematic physics], book 1, ch. 8. 

1580. BoDiN, J., La d^monomanie des sorciers, ou le fl^u des demons et des sorciers 
[The demonomania of sorcerers, or the plague of demons and sorcerers], book 
1, ch. 5; 1st ed. 

1584. Peucer, Gaspar, Les devins [The diviners], book 13, ch. 10, pp. 145-146, 
Anvers. 

1588. Belon, Pibrrb, Les observations de plusieurs singularitez et choses memo- 
rabies [Observations on many singular and remarkable things], book 1, ch. 50, 
p. 102. 

1608. Eglin, Raphael. See Percis, Heliophilus. 

1608. Pbrcis, HBLioPHiLns a (Eglin, Raphael), Disquisitio de Helia artista, in qua 
de metallorum transformatione, adversus Hagelii et Pererii Jesuitarum 
opiniones, evidenter et solide dissertur [Treatise on the Helian art, in which 
the transformation of metals, contrary to the views of Hagelius and Pererius, 
the Jesuits, is clearly and convincingly discussed], Marpurgi. 

1617. LoHNEYSS, Georg E., Bericht vom Bergkwerck, wie man dieselben bauen und 

in guten Wolstandt bringen soil, sampt alien darzu gehdrigen Arbeiten, 
Ordnimg, und rechtlichen Process [Report on mines, how they are made and 
kept in good condition, together with all works, regulations, and laws pertain- 
ing thereto]. No place of publication (at the end: Zellerfeldt). 

1618. LiGNARiDUS, Hermann, Oblectamenta academica, etc. [Academic amuse- 

ments], Oppenhemii. 
1618. MoNTANUs, Ellas, Bergwercksschatz * * * [A treasury of mining lore], 
Frankfort on the Main. 

1618. RoBERTi, JoH., Goclenius Heautontimorumenos [Goclenius, the self-tormentor], 

Luxemburg. 

1619. GuTMANN, Xgidius, Offonbarung gOttlicher Mayest&t, etc. [Revelations of the 

Divine Majesty, etc.], Daschen. 

1619. Mayer, Michel, Verum inventum [The truth discovered], ch. 4, Frankfort. 

1626. Basilius Valentinus [Benedictine monk]. Novum testamentum [New testa- 
ment], French translation, book 2, ch. 22-28. 

1630, Galibn, Claude, La d^couverte des eaux min^rales de Ch&teau-Thierry et de 
leurs propri^t6s [The discovery of the mineral waters of Chateau-Thierry and 
their properties], Paris. 



/ 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 27 

1632. Bbbtebeau, Mabtine de [Baroness Beausoleil], Veritable declaration faite au 
Roy et ^ no6 Seigneurs de Bcm conseil des riches et inestimables tr^rs nou- 
vellement descouverts dans le Royaumede France [True declaration made to 
the King and to our gentlemen of his Council concerning riches and inestim- 
able treasures newly discovered in the kingdom of France]. No place of pub- 
lication. 

1632. Bbbtebeau, Mabtine de [Baroness Beausoleil], Veritable d^laration de la des- 
couverte des mines et mini^res de France, par le moyen desquelles sa Ma- 
jeste et ses subjects se peuvent passer de tous les pays estrangers; ensemble 
des propri^tez d'aucunes sources et eaux min^rales descouvertes depuis peu 
de temps k CMteau-Thierry . [True declaration of the discovery of mines and 
minerals of France, by means of which his Majesty and his subjects are able to 
surpass all foreign coimtries. Together with the properties of certain springs 
and mineral waters discovered a short time ago at Chateau-Thierry]. No 
place of publication. 

1636. Caesius, Bebnabd, Mineralogia [Mineralogy], book 1, ch. 7, sec. 4. 

1636-1651. Schwbnteb, Daniel, and GsoBa Ph. Habsd5bffeb, Deliciae physico- 
mathematicae * * * [Philosophical-mathematical recreations.] Nurem- 
berg, 3 Bd., 6 Teil, 16 Frage. 

1638. Flubd, Robbbt (or Fluotibus, Robebt db), Philosophia moysaica [The Mosaic 

philosophy], sec. 2, book 2, memb. 2, ch. 5, Gouda. 

1639. Plattes, Gabbibl, A discovery of subterraneall treasure, viz, of all manner of 

mines and minerals, from the gold to the coale; with plain directions and 
rules for the finding of them in all kingdoms and countries. Also the art of 
melting, refining, and assaying of them is plainly declared, so that every 
ordinary man, that is indifferently capacious, may with small charge pres- 
ently try the value of such oares as shall be found either by rule or by acci- 
dent, etc., London. AAOther edition, Philadelphia, 1792. 

1640. Bebtbbeau, Mabtine de. La restitution de Pluton. A Mgr. T^minentissime 

Cardinal Due de Richelieu [The restitution of Pluto. To Mgr. the most emi- 
nent Cardinal Due de Richelieu]. 

1645. Kibgheb, Athanasius, Magnes, sive de arte magnetica [The magnet, or con- 
cerning the magnetic art], book 3, part 5, ch. 3, Rome. 

1645. Mounabus, Petbus (Pierre du Moulin), Physicorum seu scientiae naturalis 
libri novem [Nine books of physics or natural science], 197 pp., Amsterdam. 
See book 5, ch. 7, pp. 81-82. 

1648. Aldbovandus, Ulysses, Musaeum metallicum [Museum of metals], book 1, 
ch. 1, art. Metallorum inveniendorum ratio, Bonn. 

1654. Fban^ois, Jean, La science des eaux, etc. [The science of water, etc.], Rennes 

and Paris. 

1655. EiCHHOLTz, Petbb, Creistliches Bergwerck, etc. [Spiritistic mining, etc.], 

Goslar. 

1657-1659. ScHOTT, Gaspab, Magiae universalis naturae et artis, sive recondita 
naturalium et artificialium rerum scientia [The magic of nature and art, or 
occult science of natural and artificial things], 4 vols., Herbipoli. 

1658. Klein, Jacobus. See Sperling, Johann, et Jacobus Klein. 

1658. SPEBUNa, Johann, et Jacobus Klein, An virgula mercurialis agat ex occulta 
qualitate: disquisitio philosophica [Does the rod of Mercury act from occult 
power: a philosophical treatise], Wittenberg (about 1658). 

1661. Bebbn, p. 0. See Liebentantz, Michael. 

1661. Botle, Robebt, Tentamina quaedam physiologica [Some physiologic experi- 
ments], London. 

^661. Liebentantz, Michael, et Phil. Chbistoph Beebn, De magia baculorum; 
dissertatio physico-philologica [The magic of wands, a physical philologic 
dissertation], Wittenberg. 



28 THE DIVINING ROD. 

1662. Rattray, Stlvbstbb, Theatnim sympatheticum auctum, exhibens varios 

authores * * * [A large ''Bympathetic'' theater, exhibitiDg vBrious 

authors], Nuremberg. 
1665-1678. KiRCHBR, Athanasius) Mundus subterraneuB, in XII libros digeetiu 

[The subterranean world, in 12 books], vol. 2, book 10, ch. 7, Amsterdam. 
1665-1667. GiiANva, Joseph [Reply to Robert Boyle's article. See Boyle, Robert, 

1661]: Fhiloe. Trans., vol. 2, Noe. 28 and 39, in the Savoy (London). 

1666. Butschkt von Rutinpbld, Samuel, Erweiterte und verbtoerte Hoch- 

Deutsche Eanzelley, etc. [Broadened and improved high German preaching 
(containing mention ol the divining rod)], Breslau and Jena. 

1667. Pbaetorius, Johann, (}azophylaci Gaudium. Das ist Ein Ausbund von 

Wiindschel-Ruthen oder sehr lustreiche und ergetzliche Historien von wun- 
derseltzamen Erfindungen der SchHtze, etc. [The joy of the treasiurer — ^that 
is, a pattern of divining rod or very pleasurable and entertaining history of 
most strange discoveries of treasures], Leipsic. 

1669. KiRCHMAiER, Theodor, et J. H. MARaius, Dissertatio physica de virgula 
divinatrice [Philosophic treatise on the divining rod], Wittenberg. 

1669. Prabtorius, Johann, Der Abentheuerliche Glttcks-Topf * * * [The 
strange luck pot * * * ]. 

1671. Webster, John, Metallographia: or, an history of metals. Wherein ia declared 
the signs of ores and minerals both before and alter digging, the causes and 
manner of their generations, their kinds, sorts, and differences; with the 
description of sundry new metals, or semimetals, and many other things 
pertaining to min^al knowledge, etc., London [pp. 104-110 on the divin- 
ing rod, which the author condemns]. 

1671. WiLLENius, Matihaeus, orWiLLE, Matthes, DesaUsorigine * * * tracta- 
tus philosophicus [On the origin of salt, a philosophic treatise], Jena, 1671; 
new edition, 1684. 

1673. ScHwmMBR, Johann M., Tractatus physicus ♦ ♦ * [Treatise on philoso- 

phy], Jena. 4**. Diss. 8, pp. 129-134. 

1674. Anhorn, Bartholom, Magiologia, Basel. 

1674. Dechaleb, Ol.-Fr. Millet, Gursus seu mundus mathematicus [General course 
in mathematics], 4 vols., Lyons 1674. 2d ed., Lugduni, 1690. De fontibus 
et fluviis [Concerning springs and streams], vol. 3, tractatus 17. 

1674. Le Royer, Jacques, Traits du baston imiversel [Treatise on the universal 
rod], Rouen. 

1674. Schaub, J. D., Dissertatio physica de viigula mercuriali, quam divina aspirante 

gratia, etc. [Philosophic treatise on the rod of mercury, which divine favor, 
etc.], Marpurgi Cattorum. 

1675. Frommann, Joannes Christian, Tractatus de fascinatione novus et singularis 

[A new and remarkable treatise on enchantment], Nurembeig. 

1676. ScHWiMMER, M. J. M., Kurtz weiliger und physicalischer Zeitvertreiber 

* * * [Amusing and physical pastime * * * ], 2 parts, Jena (Theod. 
Fleischer). Part 1, pp. 219-230. 

1677. Praetorius, Johann, Philologemata abstrusa de poUice; * * * [Hidden 

wisdom of the thumb], Sagani et Lipsiae. 

1678. Fratta et Montalbano, March, Marco Antonio della, Pratica minerale. 

[Containing in chapter 2]: De segni per ritrovar le miniere [The signs for 
finding minerals], Bologna. 

1678. Le Royer, Jacques, Oeuvres de Messire. Contains, pp. 226-359, Traits des 

influences, etc. [Treatise on influences, etc.], Paris. 

1679. BuTSCHKY VON Rutinfeld, Samuel, Wohl-Bebauter Rosen-Thai, etc. [Well- 

made rose valley], Nuremberg. Contains, pp. 728-731, reference to the 
divining rod. 



, BIBLIOGRAPHY. 29 

1679 and 1684. Saint-Romain, G. B. de, Physica sive scientia naturalis scholasUcis 
tricis Uberata [Physics or natural science freed from scholastic trivialities], 
Lugduni-Batav. 

1680. Meltzer von Wolckenstbin, Christian, De Hermunduromm metalluigia 

argentaria * * * [On the silver metallurgy of the Hermunduri], Leipzig. 

1681. Lebenwaldt, Adam von, Ftinfftes Tractatl, von dess Teuffels List und Betrug 

in der Beig-Ruethen und Berg-Spi^l [Fifth tract, on the deviPs cunning 
and deceit in the mining rod and mining mirror], Saltzburg. 

1682. Hohbero, Wolpp Helmh. von, Georgica curiosa. Das ist umstandlicher Bericht 

und klarer Unterricht von dem adelichen Land- und Feld-Leben, etc. [that 
is, a detailed account and clear information concerning the nobility of 
country and peasant life], Nuremberg, 2 vols.; vol. 1, ch. 76, p. 76. 

1684. Saint-Romain. See Saint-Romain, G. B. de, 1679. 

1684. ScHULTZ, Thomas Johann, Des Teuffels Bergwerck; vom Schatzgraben [The 
devil's mining; from the treasure diggings], Wittenberg. 

16j89. KiRCHMANN, M. C, Virtutem virgulae saliaris * * * [The power of the 
divining rod], Wittenberg. 

1689-1702. Szent-Ivany, Martin, Curiosiora et selectiora variarum scientiarum 
miscellanea * * * [Curious and select miscellanies of various sciences], 
3 vols. Tymaviae. See vol. 1, p. 179. 

1691-1693. Bekker, Balthasar, De betoverde Weereld, etc. [The bewitched 
world], Amsterdam. 

1692. Chauvin, Pierre, Lettre h. Mme. la marquise de Senozan, sur les moyens dont 
on s'est servi pour d6couvrir les compjices d'un assassinat commis k Lyon, le 
5 juillet, 1692 [Letter to Madam la marquise de Senozan, on the means em- 
ployed to discover the accomplices in an assassination committed at Lyons 
July 5, 1692], Lyons. 

1692. Garnier, Pierre, Dissertation physique [Philosophic treatise, in the form of 
a letter to M. de S6ve, Sr. de F16ch^res, in which it is proved that the ex- 
traordinary faculties by which Jacques Aymar, with a divining rod, followed 
murderers and robbers, discovered water and buried silver, reestablished 
landmarks, etc., depended on a very ordinary natural cause], Lyons. 

1692. Panthot, Jean-Baptiste, Lettre de M. Panthot, doien du Collie des mMicins 

de Lyon, ^rite ^ Messire Antoine Daquin, conseiller du Roy * * *, sur 
un assassinat des plus 6normes, commis h. Lyon le 5 juillet 1692, et les moyens 
que Ton a pris pour d6couvrir les autheurs [Letter of M. Panthot, dean of the 
collie of medicine of Lyons, to M. Antoine Daquin, adviser to the King, in 
r^ard to a horrible murder committed at Lyons July 5, 1692, and the means 
employed for discovering the criminals], no place of publication or date 
(1692?). 

1693. Bekker, Balthasar, Die bezauberte Welt, etc. [The bewitched world, etc.], 

Amsterdam. 
1693. Bunting, J. P., Sylva subterranea [Subterranean woodland, or the admirable 

usefulness of subterranean coal beds, etc.], Halle. 
1693. Chatelain, Prof. (?), Dissertation physique, dans laquelle il est d6montr6 

clairement que les talens qu'on attribu3 ^ Thomme k baguette * * * 

sent tons talens supposez [Philosophic treatise, in which it is shown clearly 

that the talents attributed to the diviner * * * are all imaginary], 

Grenoble. 
1693. Comiers, Claude, La baguette justifi6e et ses effets demontrez naturels 

[The divining rod justified and its action shown to be natural]: Mercure 

galant, March. 
1693. Comiers, Claude, Reponse h. I'anonime [Reply to an anonymous article]: 

Mercure galant, August. 



30 THE DIVINING BOD. 

1693. Ga&nibb, Pubrbe, HLstoire de la baguette de Jacques Aymar pour faire toutes 
flortes de d^couvertes [History of the divining rod of Jacques Aymar, for 
making all sorts of discoveries], Lyons. 

1693. G.y E. F., Lettre concemant la divination par la baguette [Letter conceniing 
divination by means of the divining rod], k Comiers: Mercure galant, March. 

1693. La Garde, Abb6 de, Dissertation physique, dans laquelle il est d6montr6 
clairement que les talens qu'on attribue k Thonmie k baguette * * * 
sent tous talens supposez [Philosophical treatise, in which it is clearly shown 
that the faculties attributed to the divine * « « ^ae all imaginary], 
Grenoble. 

1693. Lebrun, Pierre, ijettres qui a6couvrent TiUusion des philosophes sur la 
baguette, et qui d^tnusent leurs syst^mes [Letters which expose the illu- 
sion of philosophers in r^ard to the divining rod and which destroy their 
systems]. Published anonymously, Paris, 1693; Amsterdam, 1696. 

1693. Le Lorrain, Abb^. See Vallemont, Abb6 de, 1693. 

1693. Lettre sur la physique occulte de la baguette divinatoire [Letter on the occult 
physics of the divining rod]: Mercure galant, April. 

1693. Nicolas, Jean, of Grenoble, La verge de Jacob, ou Tart de trouver les tr^rs, 

les sources, les limites, les m6taux, les mines, les min^raux et autres choees 

.cach^, par Tusage du bUton fourch6 [The rod of Jacob, or the art of finding 

treasures, springs, boundaries, metals, mines, minerals, and other hidden 

things, by the use of the forked twig], Lyons. 

1693. Panthot, Jban-Bafhste, Traits de la baguette ou la recherche des v^ritables 
usages auxquels elle convient, etc. [Treatise on the divining rod, or the 
investigation of genuine uses to which it is adapted, etc.], Lyons. 

1693. Renaud, Andr^, R^ponse aux objections * * ♦ [Response to the objec- 
tions * * *], Lyons. 

1693. Renaud, Andr^, Critique sincere de plusieurs Merits sur la fameuse 
baguette * * * [Sincere criticism of many writings on the famous divin- 
ing rod * * *], Lyons. 

1693. Vagny, De, Histoire merveilleuse d'un magon qui, conduit par la baguette 
divinatoire, a suivi un meurtrier pendant quarante-cinque heures sur la 
terre et plus de trente heures sur Teau [Marvelous story of a mason who, 
led by a divining rod, followed a murderer for forty-five hours over land and 
for more than thirty hours over water], Grenoble, about 1693? 

1693. Vallemont, Abb6 de (Rerre Le Lorrain), La physique occulte, ou Traits de 

la baguette divinatoire [Occult philosophy, or treatise on the divining rod], 
many editions, Paris. 
1693-94. Tentzbl, Wilhelm E., Monatliche Unterredungen einiger guten Freunde 
von allerhand Biichem und andem annehmlichen Geschichten * * * 
[Monthly conferences of some good friends of various books and other 
acceptable narratives * * * ], Leipzig. 

1694. Bussii:RE, Paul, Lettre^ M. I'abb^ D. L. sur les v6ritables effets de la baguette 

de Jacques Aymar [Letter to M. the Abb6 D. L. on the true effects of 
Jacques Aymar*s rod], Paris. 

1694. Lb Conte, J. Georg. See Zentgravius, D. J. J., and J. G. Le Conte, 1694. 

1694. M^NESTRiER, Cl.-Fr., La philopophie des images ^nigmatiques * * * [The 
philosophy of enigmatic appearances], Lyons. 

1694. OzANAM, J., Recreations mathematiques et physiques * * * [Mathe- 
matical and philosophic diversions * * * ] [see problem 35: To deter- 
mine the places in the earth where springs occur, and problem 36: To 
determine the places in the earth where minerals and treasures are hidden], 
2 vols., Paris. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 31 

1694. Violet, P., Trait6 en forme de lettre centre la nouvelle rhabdomancie ou la 
mani^re nouvelle de deviner avec une baguette fourchtie. Dans lequel on 
refute tout ce qu'on a 6crit pour en justifier Pusage [Treatise in the form of a 
letter opposing the new rhabdomancy or the new manner of divining with 
the forked twig, in which all that has been written to justify its adoption 
is refuted], Lyons. 

1694. Zentgravius, Dan. Joh. Joagh., et Joh. GEORa Lb Contb, Exlegibus Ebraeo- 
rum forensibus codtra magiam de divinationibus magicis: eaque occasione de 
virgula divina et divinatione nupera Jacobi Aymari, Delphinatis, sicario- 
rum et furum investigandorum causa facta [The public laws of the Hebrews 
against magical divination, and the use of the divining rod in recent divina- 
tion by (Jacques) Aymar of Delphinas [the diviner?] for the purpose of discov- 
ering assassins and thieves], Argentorati. Pp. 22-28 on the divining rod. 

1696. Rabus, Pibtek, article in De Boekzaal van Europe, vol. 9, pp. 152-156, P. 

Rabus, publisher. 

1697. Bayle, Pibbbe, Dictionnaire historique et critique [Historical and critical 

dictionary], article "Abaris,** vol. 4, Rotterdam. 

1697. Ettner, Joh. Chr., Des getreuen Eckharts unwiirdiger Doctor, in welchem wie 
ein Medicus, der rechtschaffen handeln will, beschaffen seyn soil, etc. 
[paper on the moral qualifications of a physician], Augsburg and Leipzig. 

1697. Ledel, Sigism., De virgula metallica [Concerning the metalUc wand]: Mis- 
cellanea curiosa sive Ephemer. medico-physic. Germanic. Acad. Caesaro- 
Leopold. curiosorum, Frankfort and Leipzig. 

1697-1722. Sturm, J. C, Physica electiva sive hypothetica [Select or hypothetical 
physics], 2 vols. Nuremberg, see vol. 2. 

1700. RossLER, B.,. Speculum metallurgiae poUtissimum * * * [Mirror of 
metallurgy], Dresden. 

1700. ToLLius, J., Epistolae itinerariae * * * [Letters of travel], Amsterdam. 

1700. Zeidler, Johann Gottfried, Pantomysterium, oder das Neue vom Jahre in der 
Wunschelruthe, als einem allgemeinen Werckzeuge menschlicher verborgenen 
Wissenschaft [Pantomysterium (all mystery), or news of the year concerning 
the divining rod as a imiversal tool of knowledge hidden from man]. Hall 
in Magdeburg. 

1702. Lebrun, Pierre, Histoire critique des pratiques superstitieuses, qui ontsMuit 

le peuple et embarass^ les syavans. Avec la m6thode et les principes pour 
discemer les effets naturels d^avec ceux qui ne le sont pas, par un pr^tre de 
rOratoire [Critical history of superstitious practices which have seduced the 
people and embarrassed the learned, with the method of distinguishing natural 
powers from those which are not natural, by a priest of the Oratory], 3 parts. 
Rouen, 1701; parts 1 and 2 treat of the divining rod. Same work, 3 vols., 
Paris, 1732. Reprinted in Holland (3 vols.) in 1732 and (4 vols.) in 1736. 

1703. Beccher, Joachim, Physica subterranea [Subterranean physics], book 1, sect. 

7, No. 20, Leipsic. 

1703. Yagedbs, Henr., Opera academica, quae seorsim antehac edita in unum 

corpus collegit * * * [Academic papers issued separately, now collected 
into one work], Frankfort and Leipzig. ** 

1704. Albinus, Theophil., Dasentlarvete Idolum der Wtinschel-Ruthe [The exposed 

idolatry of the divining rod], Dresden. A dissertation against the rod, pub- 
lished with the approval of the faculty of Protestant theology of Leipzig. 

1704. Weise, J. M. See Albinus, Theophil. 

1704-1714. Valentini,D.M.B., Museum mus^rum * * * [Museum of museums], 
Frankfort on the Main. 



32 THE DIVINING ROD. 

1705. RiviNus, Quint. Sept. Flob., Enunciata iuriB, ad ordinationem processus 

iudiciarii Saxonici electoralem collecta « * * [Pronouncements of law. 
Saxon judicial judgments collected by electoral order], Leipzig. 

1706. Albinus, Theophile, Eurtze Fortsetzung des entlarvten Idoli der Wiinschel- 

Ruthe, etc. [Short treatise on the idolatry of the divining rod, etc.], Dresden. 
1709. Ppungst, Oskab, Zur Psychologie der Wiinschelruthe [On the psychology of 

the divining rod]: Deutsche Revue, 34th year, Stuttgart and Leipsic. 
1712. Vilbussi^be, Le Commandeur de, Discoius du boiteux sur la baguette divina- 

toire * * * [Discourse of the lame man (Comiers?) on the divining rod 

* * * ], Amsterdam. 

1716. RoHB, Bebnhabd von, Compendieuse Haushaltungsbibliothek * * * 

[Householder's abridged library], Leipzig. 
1719. Fibcheb, Joh. Andb., Facultatis medicae in perantiqua electorali ad hieram 

academia decanus et senior, D. Joh. Andreas Fischer * * * lectori 

benevolo S. P. D. ipsique de complement© votorum suorum solicito virgulam 

divinatoriam porrigit, Erfordiae. 
1719-1724. Flemminq, Hanns Fbiedb. von, Der vollkommene teutsche Jager, etc. 

[The complete German hunter], Leipzig. 

1725. Saint-AndbA, De, Lettres de M. de St. Andr6 [to a friend on the subject of 

magic, etc.], Paris. 

1726. Walch, J. G., Philosophisches Lexicon * * * [Philosophic lexicon 

* * *], Leipzig. 

1726-1740. Fbyjoo, B. G. See Feyjoo, Benito-Geronymo, 1740. 

1728. LoESCHEB, Mabtin Gotthblf, Physica theoretica et experimentalis, etc. 
[Theoretic and experimental physics, etc.], Wittenberg. 

1728. Schmidt, J. G., Die zu guter Stunde ausgeheckte curieuse Grillen * ♦ * 
[The opportunity hatched, curious vagaries * * *], Chemnitz. 

1731. Lavaub, De, Histoire de la fable conf6r6e avec Thistoire sainte. Od Ton voit 
que les grandes fables, le culte et les myst^s du paganisme ne sont que des 
copies alt^r^s des histoires, des usages et des traditions des H6breux [The 
history of mythology compared with sacred history. In which it is seen that 
the great myths, worship, and the mysteries of paganism are merely modified 
imitations of the histories, customs, and traditions of the Hebrews], vol. 2, 
pp. 152-161, Amsterdam. 

1733. Lebbun, Piebbe, Superstitions anciennes et modemes, etc. [Ancient and 

modem superstitions, etc.], Amsterdam. 

1734. Webnheb, J. F., and F. F. Rivinus, Dissertatio inauguralis de finibus per 

virgulam mercurialem non investigandis. Von Aufsuchung derGrentzen 
durch Wtinschel-Ruthen, [Inaugural essay on limits not to be investigated 
by the divining rod], Wittenberg. 

1736-1742. Weqneb, G. W., Schau-Platz vieler ungereimten Meynungen imd Erzehl- 
imgen [Theater of many absurd opinions and reports], Berlin. 

1737-1753. B^LiDOB, Bebnabd Fobbst de, Architecture hydraulique, etc. [Hy- 
draulic architecture, etc.], 2 vols., Paris. Another edition in 4 vols, pub- 
lished in Paris in 1810. 

1737. BbaIjneb, J. J., Phyeicalisch- und historisch-erdrterte Curiositaten, etc. 
[Curiosities philosophically and historically considered], Frankfort. 

1740. Bluhme, Joh. Babth. See Dethardingius and Bluhme. 

1740. Bbuhieb d'Ablaincoubt, J. J., Caprices d'imagination, ou lettres sur diff^rens 
sujets d'histoire, etc. [Caprices of the imagination, or letters on different 
historical subjects, etc.], Paris. 

1740. Dethabdinqius, Geobo, and J. B. Bluhme, Novam scrutationem negotii 
physico-magici per virgulam vacillantem detegendi occulta * * * [A new 
examination of the physico-magical business of detecting hidden things by 
the divining rod], Hafniae. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 33 

1740. Feyjoo, Bbnito-Geronymo, Theatro critico universal, etc. [Universal forum for 

criticism], 9 vols., Madrid, 1726-1740. 

1741. Stobb, Johann Gottlieb, De privilegio metallicorum commentatio [Com- 

mentary on the law of metals], pp. 36-37, Erfordiae. 

1746. Kbugbr, Johann Gottlob, Geschichte der Erde in den alleraltesten Zeiten 

[History of the earth in the most ancient times], Halle. 

1747. KiESSLiNG, Johann Gottfried, Gegrflndete Nachricht von dem Bergbau und 

Schmelzwesen in- der Grafschaft Mannssfeld * * * etc. [Authentic in- 
formation on the mining and smelting in Mannssf eld County * * * etc.], 
p. 97, Leipzig. 

1751. CooKWOBTHY, WiLLiAM, Observations on the properties and use of the virgula 
divina: Gentleman's Mag. and Hist. Chronicle, London. 

1751-1753. Mylius, Chb., Physikalische Belustigungen [Diversions in philosophy] 
3 vols., Berlin. 

1753. Kastneb, a. G., article in Hamburgisches Magazin, vol. 4, pt. 1, p. 41, Hamburg. 

1756. Eyssvogel, Fbidebigh Gottlob, Neu-eroffnetes Magazin * * *, vol. 1, 

ch. 38, Von etlichen Wasser-Ktinsten. Wie man Wasserquellen suchen 
und finden soUe [Newly published magazine. * * * Of sundry water 
arts. How one shoujd search for and find springs of water], Bamberd. 

1757. ScHtJTZE, Heinbich Cabl, Vemunft- und schriftmassige Abhandlung von Aber- 

glauben. * * * [Rational and scriptural treatment of superstition 

* * *]» PP- 218-222, Wemlgerode. 
1757. Wallbrius, J. G., et J. L. Roman, Kort Afhaudllng om Malmg&ngars UpsS- 

kande * * * [Short treatise on the investigation of ore deposits], Upsala. 
1763. Feudivibus, H. F., Gebrauch der Berg- und Wtinschel-Ruthe, etc. [Use of 

the ore- and divining-rod, etc.], Leipzig. 
1770. Alembebt, Jean Baptiste lb Rond d', and Denis Didebot, Encyclop^le, ou 

dlctioimaire raisonn6 des sciences, des arts et des metiers [Encyclopedia or 

analytical dictionary of sciences, arts, and trades], articles on Source, 

Baguette divine, Rabdomancie, etc., Geneva. New ed., 1777. 
1772. Histoire veritable et merveilleuse d'une jeune anglaise * * * [The true 

and marvelous story of an English girl * * * hydroscope * * *], 

Paris. 
1772. Lalandb, J. J. de, Lettre sur le pr6tendu hydroscope [Letter on the so-called 

hydroscope (Paraogue)]: Le Mercure de France, July 2, pp. 169-173; 

1772. Saubi, Abb6, L' hydroscope et le ventriloque [The hydroscope and the ven- 

triloquist], Amsterdam and Paris. 

1773. Cancbinus, F. L., Erste Grttndeder Berg- und Salzwerkskunde [First principles 

of mining and of the salt industry], Frankfort, 12 parts, 1773-1791. See 
part 3 (1773), pp. 26-40. 

1773. JuGEL, Johann Gottpbied, Geometrla subterranea, etc. [Underground sur- 
veying, etc.], Leipzig. 

1777-1778. Kellbb, Ebnst Ubban, Das Grab des Abeiglaubens [The grave of super- 
stition], Frankfort and Leipzig. 

1778. Pbyce, Wiluam, Mlneralogla Comublensts; a treatise on minerals, mines, and 

mining, etc., London. See pp. 113-124. 

1779. Gobet, Les anclens min6ralogistes du royaume de France [The ancient minaral- 

ogists of the kingdom of France], 2 vols., Paris. See vol. 1. 
1781. FoBMBY, J. H. S., Baguette divinatoire [The divining rod]: Dictlonnalre des 
mervelUes de la nature, by Sigaud de la Fond, 2 vols. , Parl& See vol. 1, p. 75. 

46874°— wsp 416—17 3 



34 THE DIVINING EOD. 

1781. Thouvenel. Pibrbb, M^moire physique et m^dnal, montiant des rapports 
^ 6vident8 entre lee ph^om^nes de la baguette divmatolre, du magn^tiame 

animale et de r61ectricit6 [Physical and medical memoir showii^ the evi- 
dent relations between the phenomena of the divining rod and animal mag- 
netism and electricity], Paris and London. 

1782. Arcet, J. D* [etal.], Observations faites sur la vertu de Bleton desentirrimpree- 

sioQ des eaux souterraines coulantes [Observations on the ability of Bleton 

to feel the impression of flowing undeiground waters]: Jour, de Paris, No. 

177, June 26, pp. 719-726. 
1782. DAyeux, [Experiments with Bleton]: Jour, de Paris, No. 230, Aug. 18, pp. 

93^941. 
1782. GuiLLOTiN. See Arcet, J. d*, et al. 

1782. HuviER, Dum^e, article in Jour, de Paris, No. 249, Sept. 6, pp. 1015-1017. 
1782. Lalande, J. J. DE, Lettre sur la baguette divinatoire de Bleton [Letter on the 

divining rod of Bleton]: Journal des syavans. 
1782. LoRTHE, G. A. DE, L*art de faire toumer la baguette divinatoire [The art of 

causing the divining rod to turn], Paris. 
1782. LoRTHE, G. A. DE, Melanges d'opuscules math^matiques [Miscellany of short 

mathematical papers], Paris. New ed., 1785. 
1782. Macquer. See Arcet, J. d', et al. 
1782. MiTouART. See Arcet, J. d', et al. 
1782. PoissoNiER. See Arcet, J. d*, et al. 
1782. Thouvenel. See Arcet, J. d', et al. 
1784-1791. Dbcbemps, La magie blanche d6voil6e * * * avec des r6flexions sur 

la baguette divinatoire, etc. [White magic exposed * * * with some 

r^ections on the divining rod, etc.], 3 vols., Paris. See vol. 1, p. 49. 
1784. Lorthe, G. a. de. Melanges d'opuscules math^matiques. Lettre h. M. 

Thouvenel [Miscellany of short mathematical papers], Paris. 
1784. Thouvenel, Pierre, Second m6moire physique et mMical [Second physical 

and medical memoir], London and Paris. 

1784. Thouvenel, Pierre, Extrait du journal des voyages et des experiences de 

Bleton [Extract from the joiu*nal of the journeys and experiments of Bleton]: 
Jour, de Paris. 

1785. D6couverte des eaux d'Uriage par la baguette magique du sorcier Bleton [Dis- 

covery of the waters of Uriage by the magic wand of the sorcerer Bleton]: 

Jour, histbrique et politique de Gren^ve, Jan. 8. 
1785. Rozier, Abb^, Cours complet ou dictionnaire universel d'agriculture [Com 

plete course or universal dictionary of agriculture], Paris. 
1785. Sterzinqer, Ferdinand, Bemtihung den Aberglaube zu sttirzen [The effort 

to overthrow superstition], chap. 24, pp. 89-92, Munich. 

1785. Trebra, F. W. H. von, Erfahrungen vom Innern der Gebirge, nach Beobach- 

tungen gesammlet imd herausgegeben [Knowledge of the interior of moun- 
tains based on observations gathered and published], Dessau and Leipzig. 

1786. Halle, J. S., Magie, oder die Zauberkrafte der Natur, so auf den Nutzen und die 

Belustigung angewandt worden [Magic, or the magic virtues of nature, as they 
were applied in practical use and in amusement], Berlin. 
1786. Nicolas, M., M6moires sur les maladies 6pid6miques qui ont regn^ dans la pro- 
vince de Dauphin^ d6puis Tan 1780. Avec des observations sur les eaux 
min^rales, sur Thistoire naturelle de cette province, et quelques consulta- 
tions de medicine [Memoires on the epidemic maladies which have prevailed 
in the province of Dauphine since the year 1780. With some observations 
on the mineral waters, on the natural history of that province, and some 
medical advice], Grenoble. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 35 

1790-91. EcKARTSHAusEN, Karl VON, Aufschltisse zur Ms^e aus gepriiften Erfah- 
rungen Clber verborgene philosophische Wissenschaften, etc. [Revelation of 
magic through proved experiences in occult philosophy], Munich . 

1790. Luce, J. W. L., Bemerkungen und Muthmassungen iiber die Wtinschelruthe, 
etc. [Observations and conjectures on the divining rod, etc.], NetfVned and 
Leipzig. 

1790. Regnard, JeanF., Oeuvres completes [Complete works], 6 vols., Paris, 1790. 

New ed., Paris, 1820. Vol. 6, pp. 73-98, contains '* La baguette de Vulcain, 
Com6die.** 

1791. Cancrinus. See Cancrinus, P. L., 1773. 

1791. Fischer, H. L., Das Buch vom Aberglauben [The book of superstitions], 
Leipzig. 

1791. FoRTis, Abb6 A., Lettera del Abb6 Fortis al Sign. Abb6 Lazaro Spallanzani 
sugli sperimenti di Pennet [Letter from Abbe Fortis to Signor Abb6 Lazaro 
Spallanzani on the experiments of Pennet]: Opuscoli scelti sulle scienze e 
sulle arti, vol. 14, Milan. 

1791. Spallanzani, Abb6 Lazaro, Lettera del Sign. Abb^ Spallanzani al Sign. 
Abb6 Fortis [Letter from Spallanzani to Fortis concerning the experiments 
with Pennet]: Opuscoli scelti sulle scienze e sulle arti, vol. 14, Milan. 

1791. Fabrioni, G. V. M., Vera vera verissima relazione dei fatti e detti della 

bacchetta divinatoria, del suo primo awento alia sua morte in Toscana 
[A strictly true account of the promises and performance of the divining 
rod from its first performance to its last in Tuscany], Florence. 

1792. Thouvbnel, Pierre, R^um6 sur les experiences d*61ectrom6trie souterraine 

(Summary of the experiments on imderground electrometry]: vol. 1, Milan; 
vol. 2, Brescia. 

1793. Amoretti, Carlo, Istoria breve [Brief history]. Lettera del Sign. Abb6 Carlo 

Amoretti al P. Prof. Francesco Soave su alcune sperienze electtriche [Letter 
from Signor Abbe Carlo Amoretti to P. Prof. Francesco Soave in regard to 
certain electrical experiments (concerning Pennet, the water finder)]: Opus- 
coli scelti sulle scienze e sulle arti, vol. 16, Milan. 

1793. Ramanzini, Bionigi, Esperienze eseguite da Pennet in Verona nel mese di 
Giuglio, 1793 [Experiments performed by Pennet in Verona in the month of 
July, 1793], Verona. 

1793. Spadoni, Paolo, Lettera idroelettrica suU' esperienze di un secondo Pennet 
(Petroselli) [Hydroelectric letter concerning the experiments of a second 
Pennet (Petroselli), Ancona. 

1793. Spallanzani, Abb6 Lazare, Lettera delF Abbate Spallanzani al Signor 
Thouvenel [Letter from Abb6 Spallanzani to Mr. Thouvenel]: Annali di 
chimica e storia naturale, etc., Pavia. 

1793. Thouvenel^ Pierre, Nouvelles pieces relatives ^ T^lectricit^ organique [New 
papers relative to organic electricity], Vicenza. 

1795. LiCHTENBERG, G. C, uud J. H. VoiGT, Magazin ftir das Neuste aus der Physik 

imd Naturgeschichte, 10 vols., Gotha. See article 1, pp. 144-159. 

1796. Amoretti, Carlo, Su vari individui che hanno la facolta di sen tire le sorgenti, 

le miniere, etc. [Concerning various individuals who possess the faculty of 
sensing springs, minerals, etc.]: Opuscoli scelti sulle scienze e sulle arti, 
vol. 19, Milan. 
1796. Halle, J. S., Fortgesetzte Magie, oder die Zauberkrafte der Natur, so auf den 
Nutzen und die Belustigung angewandt worden [Magic explained, or the 
magic virtues of nature as they were applied in practical use and in amuse- 
ment], 8 vols., Berlin. See pp. 446-458, 



36 THE DIVINING EOD. 

1798. AMORBTTiy CarlO) Ricerche storico-fifliche sulla rabdomanzia, oesia sulla 
elettro-metria sotteranea [Historical-physical researches on ihabdomancy, or 
on subterranean electrometryj: Opuscoli scelti eulle sdensse e sulle arti, 
vol. 20, Milan. 

1798. \^EaLEB, J. C, Die nattLrliche Magie aus allerhand belustigenden und ntitz- 
lichen Eunststdcken bestehend [Natural magic existing in various amusing 
and useful tricks], Berlin and Stettin. 

1800. Lettre de M. J. M. C. k M. de Salgues [editor of the Journal des spectacles, on 
the divining rod]. No place or date (about 1800). 

1800. Wenzel, G. J., Dramatisirte Erz&hlungen aus dem Gebietedes Wimderbarea 

* ♦ * [Dramatized narratives from the realm of the wonderful * * * ], 
Leipzig. 

1801. Amoretti, Carlo, Ricerche storiche sulla rabdomanzia [Historical researches 

on rhabdomancy]: Opuscoli scelti sulle science e sulle arti, vol. 21, Milan. 

1802. FoRTis, Abb^ Albert, M^moires pour servir k Thistoire oaturelle et principale- 

ment k Toryctographie de Tltalie et des pays adjacens [Memoirs on the 
natural history and oryctography of Italy and adjacent countries], 2 vols., 
Paris. See vol. 2, pp. 138-283. 

1802. Thouvbnel, Pierre, La guerra di dieci anni [The 10-year war], Verona. 
1802-1806. Weinholt, A., Heilkraft dee thierischen Magnetismus nach eigenen 

Beobachtungen [Healiog by means of animal magnetism according to per- 
sonal observations], 3 vols., Lemgo, vol. 3, pt. 1, p. 283, 1805. 

1803. Arnim, L. a. von, Neuere Beobachtungen tlber sogenannte untererdlsche 

Elektrometrie [New observations on the so-called underground electrome- 
try]: Annalen der Physik, vol. 13, Halle. 

1804. Amoretti, Carlo, [Miscellaneous letters on rhabdomancy]: Nuova scelta 

d'opuscoli interessanti sulle scienze e sulle arti, vol. 1, Milan. 

1806. Amoretti, Carlo, Deir azione di varie sostanze sobra altre sostenute pendenti 
su di esse spenmenti del fu Alberto Fortis, etc. [Of the action of various sub- 
stances supported above others, based on experiments made by the late 
Alberto Fortis]: Soc. ital. delle scienzaMem., vol. 13, Modena. 

1806. Fortis, Abb^ Albert, M6moire sur les pendules ^lectrom^tres [Memoir on 
electrometer pendulums]: Soc. ital. sci. exactes Bull., vol. 13. 

1806. Thouvenel, Pierre, Melanges d'histoire naturelle, de physique et de chimie; 

m^moires sur Ta^rologie et I'^lectrologie [Miscellanies of natural history, 
physics, and chemistry; memoirs on aerology and electrology], 3 vols., Paris. 
See vols. 2 and 3. 

1807. Aretin, C. F. von, Beytrage zur litterarischen Geschichte der Wiinschelruthe 

[Contributions to the literary history of the divining rod], Munich. 
1807. Paoli, p., Sperimenti col pendolo [Experiments with the pendulum]: Nuova 
scelta d'opuscoli interessanti sulle scienze e sulle arti, vol. 2, Milan. 

1807. Schellinq, F. W. J. von, article in Allgemeine Litteratiu*-Zeltung, Jena. . 

1808. Amoretti, Carlo, Delia rabdomanzia ossia elettrometria animale. Ricerche 

fisiche e storiche [On rhabdomancy or animal electrometry. Physical and 

historical researches], Milan. 
1808. Ebel, Johann Gottfried, Uber den Ban der Erde in dem Alpen-Gebirge, etc. 

[On the geologic structure of the Alps], 2 vols., Zurich. See vol. 2, p. 392. 
1808. Gerboin, Dr., Recherches exp^rimentales sur im nouveau mode de raction 

61ectrique [Experimental researches on a new mode of electrical action], 

Strasbuig. 
1808. Gilbert, L. W., Kritische Aufsatze tiber die in Miinchen wieder emeuerten 

Vsrsuche mit Schwefelkiespendeln und Wiinschelruthen [Critical essay on 

the renewed experimeDts in Mimich with magic pendulums and divining 

rods], Halle, 






BIBLIOGRAPHY. 37 

1808. RiTTEB, WiLHELM, Der Siderismus [Magnetic treatment], TUbingen. 

1810. Salgues, J. B., Des erreurs et pr^jug^s r6pandus dans les diverses classes de la 

8oci6t6 [Errors and prejudices peculiar to different classes of society], 

3 vols., Paris. 5th ed., Brussels, 1847, vol. 1, pp. 81-90, Divining rod (by 

Coudrier). 
1810. Sementini, Luigi, Pensieri e sperimenti sulla bacchetta divinatoria [Thoughts 

and experiments on the divining rod], Naples. 
1810. Steepens, Heinrich, Geognostisch-geologische Aufsatze [Geologic treatises], 

pp. 315^316, 319-320, Hamburg. 

1810. ZoLLiEOFEB, Dr., Rhabdomantische Versuche [Rhabdomantic experiments]: 

Cotta's Morgenblatt ftir gebildete Stande, 4th year, Tubingen. 

1811. FiidREE, H. GusTAV, Repertorium des Neuesten und Wissenswiirdigsten aus 

der gesamten Naturkui^de [Repertory of the newest and best tilings in nat- 
ural science], Berlin. 

1811. Kluqe, Carl A. F., Versuch einer Darstellung des animalischen Magnetis- 
mus als Heilmittel [Investigation of an exhibition of animal magnetism as 
a means of healing], Berlin. Divining rod, p. 296. 

1814. Phillips, W., article in Geol. Soc. London Trans., vol. 2. 

1816. Amorbtti, Carlo, Elementi di elettrometria animale, etc. [Elements of animal 
electrometry], Milan. 

1816. Ginsberg, Fr., Rabdomantische Sensibilitat [Rhabdomantic sensibility]: 
Archiv der Medicin, Chirurgie und Pharmazie, 1st year, Aarau. 

1818. Oken, L., Isis, Oder encyclopadische Zeitung [Isis, or encyclopedic news- 
paper], p. 140, Jena. 

1818. ZscHOKKE, Heinrich, tJberlieferungen ziur Geschichte unserer Zeit [Contri- 

butions to the history of our time], 2d year, pp. 331-335, Aarau. 

1819. Voss, LuDWiG von, [On the divining rod]: Jahrbiicher ftir den Lebensmag- 

netismus, oder Neues Asklapieion, 2 vols., Berlin. See vol. 1, pp. 121, 134. 

1819. Weisse, J. Fr., Erfahrungen tiber arzneiverstandige Sonmambulen, nebst eini- 

gen Versuchen mit einer Wasserf uhlerin [Experiences with somnambulists 
skilled in medical science, together with some experiments with a water 
feeler], Berlin. 

1820. Cuvillers, foiENNE F^Lix, Baron d'H^nin de, Le magn^tisme ^clair6, ou 

introduction aux archives du magn^tisme animal [Magnetism explained, 
or introduction to records of anima? magnetism]. 

1820. Hufeland, C. W., articles in Journal der practischen Heilkimde, Berlin. 

1821. D'OuTREPONT, Prof., [On J. P. Brayer, diviner]: Zeitschrift ftir psychische 

Arzte, Leipzig, pt. 1, pp. 94-109. 

1821. Passavant, Joh. Carl, Untersuchungen tiber den Lebensmagnetismus und 

das Hellsehen [Investigations of animal magnetism and clairvoyance], 
Frankfort on the Main. 

1822. EiESER, D. G., System des Tellurismus, oder thierischen Magnetismus [System 

of the earth or animal magnetism], 2 vols., Leipzig. See vol. 1, pp. 161-176, 
on the divining rod and magic pendulum. 

1825. Collin de Plancy [Abb6 Migne], Dictionnaire infernal. Baguette divinatoire 

[divining rod], 2d ed., vol. 1, pp. 305-311, Paris. 4th ed., Brussels, 1845. 

1826. Loczhart, M., Rapport fait'au nom de la section d*histoire naturelle sur 

Pouvrage de M. le comte de Tristan, intitule Recherches sur quelques 
effluves terrestres [Report made in the name of the section of natural his- 
tory on the work of the Count de Tristan, entitled Researches on some ter- 
restrial emanations]: Soc. roy. sci., belles lettres et arts d' Orleans Annales, 
vol. 8, pp. 82-88, Orleans. 
1826. Tristan, Comte J. de, Recherches sur quelques effluves terrestres [Researches 
on some terrestrial emanations], Paris. 



:. ('. 



••■1. ^ 



38 THE DIVINING EOD. 

1827. Froriep, L. von, Notiz^ aus dem Gebiete der Natur- und Heilkiinde, Erfurt 

See vol. 17, No. 1 (No. 353), pp. 1-9. 
1833. Chevbeul, M. E., Lettre k M. Ampere sur une classe particuli^re de mouve* 

mens musculaires [Letter to Mr. Ampere on a certain class of musculo 

movements. An article on the divining rod and the magic pendulum]^ 

Revue des deux-mondes, vol. 2, pp. 248-257. 
1835. Grimm, Jacob, Deutsche Mythologie [German mythology], Gdttingen. 2d ed 

[Etymology of Wttnschehiite], pp. 926-928, 1854. 
1836-1842. GoRRES, Joseph von, Die christliche Mystik [The Christian mystic], ' 

vols., Regensburg and Landshut. See vol. 3, pp. 186, 208. 
1837. GiLARDiN, Alphonse, Un proc^ k Lyon en 1692, ou Aymar, I'honmie k 

baguette [A trial at Lyon in 1692, or Aymar, the man of the divining rod]^ . 

Revue du Lyonnais, vol. 5, pp. 81-99. 
1840. Menestrier, Cl.-Fr., Reflexions sur les indioitions de la baguette [R^ectlo 

on the indications of the divining rod], Lyons, 1694; reprinted under the titl( 

De la baguette divinatoire, at Avignon. - 

1843. Grasse, Joh. G. Th., Bibliotheca magica et pneumatica [Library of magic an 

spiritism], Leipzig. 

1844. Loubert, J. B., Le magn^tisme et le somnambulisme devant les corps des 

savants, la cour de Rome et les th^logiens [Magnetism and somnambulismi 
before the scholars, the court of Rome, and the theologians], published 
anon3anously, Paris. 

1845. Ybabeau, a., Hydroscopic, L'Abb^ Paramelle [Hydroscopy, Abb^ Paramelle]: , 

Journal d'agriculture pratique et de jardinage, public ♦ * ♦ sous la direc- 1 
tion de Alex. Bixio, 2d ser., vol. 2, pp. 456-460, Paris. 

1846. FoRNARi. See Giraldo, M. de. 
1846. Giraldo, M. de, Histoire curieuse et pittoresque des sorciers, devins, magiciens, 

astrologues, voyants, revenants, etc., depuis Tantiquit^ jusqu'^ nos jours. 
Revue et augment^e par M. Fornari [Curious and picturesque history of 
sorcerars, diviners, magicians, astrologers, clairvoyants, spirit mediums, 
etc., from antiquity to the present time. Reviewed and enlarged by Mr. 
Fomari], pp. 124-125, Paris. 

1846. Latour, BenoIt, Le veritable assureur des r^oltes [The true guarantor of 

crops]. Journal des engrais, February, Orleans. 
1846-47 . Dallac, Abb6, Faut-il croire k kt baguette? [Is it necessary to believe in the 
divining rod?]: Soc. des lettres, sci. et arts TAveyron M6m., vol. 6. 

1847. Degouseb, J., Guide du sondeur [Guide to the driller], Paris. 

1848. Chevalier, Abb4 Casimir, La baguette divinatoire justifi^a scientifiquement 

[The divining rod scientifically justified], Tours. 2d ed., 1853. 

1848. Meyer, Carl, Der Aberglaube des Mlttelalters und der n&chstfolgenden j 

Jahrhunderte [The suparstitlon of the Middle Agas and following centuries], T 

Basel. 8+382 pp. - 

1848. MiGNE, Abb6 [Jacques Albien Simon Collin, known as Collin de Plancy], "i 

Dictionnaire des sciences occultes [Dictionary of occult sciences], 2 vols., 
Paris. Baguette divinatoire [The divining rod], vol. 1, pp. 162-172. 

1849. La clef des sources ou Tart de las d^couvxlr [The key to springs or the art of 

discovering them], par ud eccl^siastique du diocdsa d*3 Langres, Langres. 

1849. MoRTiLLET, Gabriel, Histoire de Thydroscopie et de la baguatte divinatoire 
[History of hydroscopy and of the divining rod], Chambery. 

1849. NoRK, F., Die Sitten und Gebrauche der Deutschen und ihrer NachbarvSlker 
[The customs and iisages of Germans and their neighbors], Stuttgart. 

1850-1852. Sainte-Tulle, Lazare de, articles in L'^rudition, vols. 1 and 2, Ver- 
sailles. 



185 



185 

1S5 



t 



. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 39 

1851. CoLQUHOUN, J. C, An history of magic, witchcraft, and animal magnetism, 2 
vols., London. See vol. 2, pp. 254-284. 

1851. Jacquet, Abb6, Solution du probltoe concemant I'origine et la d6couverte 
des sources [Solution of the problem of the origin and the discovery of springs], 
Lyons. 

1851. Mayo, Herbert, On the truths contained in popular superstitions, with an 
accoimt of mesmerism, Edinburgh and London, 2d ed. 

1851. Solutions de probl^mes concemant Torigine et la d^couverte des sources, ou 
entretiens d'un chevalier r6 volant k son fils la d^couverte des principes hy- 
drog6ologiques [Solution of problems concerning the origin and discovery of 
springs, or conversations of a knight revealing to his son the discovery of 
hydrogeologic principles], Lyons. 

1853. Bersot, Ernest, Mesmer et le magn^tisme animal [Mesmer and animal mag- 
netism], Paris. See pp. 121-132. 

1853. Phippbn, F., Narrative of practical experiments proving to demonstrate the 
discovery of water, coal, and minerals in the earth by means of the dowsing 
fork or divining rod, London. 

1853. RiONDET, d'Hy^sres, La baguette divinatoire employee k la recherche des 
eaux souterraines [The divining rod employed in finding underground 
I waters]: Memoir presented before the Academy of Sciences of Paris. 

1853. Schmidt, C. W., Zur Rhabdomantio, den Erscheinungen mit der Wtinschelrute 
gehorig [On rhabdomancy, the phenomena peculiar to the divining rod]: 
Magikon, vol. 6, p. 106, Stuttgart. 

1854. Carus, C. G., Lebensmagnetismus-Magie [Vital magnetism magic]: Die Gegen- 
wart, vol. 10, Berlin. 

1854. Chevrbul, M. E., De la baguette divinatoire, du pendule dit explorateur, 
et des tables toumantes, au point de vue de Thistoire, de la critique et de 
la m6thode exp^rimentale [On the divining rod, the so-called exploring 
pendulum, and turning tables, from the point of view of history, criticism, 
and the experimental method], Paris. 

1854. MoROQUES, Baron de. Observations sur le fluide organo-61ectrique et sur les 
mouvements 61ectrom6triques des baguettes et des pendules [Observations 
on the organo-electric fluid and on the electrometric movements of divining 
rods and magic pendulums], Paris. 

1854-55. Reichenbach, Karl L. F. von, Der sensitive Mensch und sein Verhalten 
zum Od [The sensitive man and his relation to od], 2 vols., Stuttgart. 

1856. CoTTA, Bernhard, Quellenkimde: Lehre von der Bildung und Auffindung 
der Quellen [Springs: Information on the formation and discovery of springs], 
as an introduction to L*art de d^couvrir les sources, by Abb6 Paramelle, 
Leipzig, 1856; Paris, 1869. 

1856. Dumas, J., La science des fontaines, ou moyen sdr et facile de cr^er partout 
des sources d*eau potable [The science of springs, or sure and easy means of 
establishing everywhere springs of potable water], 1856; new ed., 1857, con- 
tains a chapter on the divining rod (pp. 251-256). 

1856. Gaetzschmann, Moriz Ferdinand, Die Auf- und Untersuchung von Lager- 
statten nutzbarer Mineralien [The discovery and investigation of deposits 
of useful minerals], Freiberg. See pp. 293-^08. 

1856. Paramelle, Abb6, L'art de d^couvrir les sources [The art of finding springs], 
5 editions, from 1856 to 1907. 

1857. RAsiE, Comte de, Histoire et traits des sciences occultes * * * [History 
and treatise on occult sciences * * *], 2 vols., Paris. See vol. 2, ch. 5, 
pp. 159-177. 



40 I'HE blVIKING EOD. 

1858. BiOT, J. B., Melanges scientifiques et litt^raires [Scientific and literary miscel- 
lany], 3 vole., Paris. See pp. 72-77 of the chapter on charlatanism in vol. 2. 

1858. Jacob, P. L. [P. Lacroix], Curiosity des sciences occultes [Curiosities of 
the occult sciences], Paris. Baguette divinatoire (divining rod) under 
"Alchimie,'^ on pp. 141-155 of edition of 1862. 

1858. Lacroix, P. See Jacob, P. L. 

1860. FiGUiEB, Louis, Les myst^res de la science [The mysteries of science], 1860. 
1860-61. FiGuiER, Loins, Histoire du merveilleux dans les temps modemes [History 

of the marvelous in modem times], 4 vols., Paris. See vol. 2, pp. 1-175. 

1861. Amy, F., de Pennessi^res (Jura), Voyages d*un hydroscope, ou Tart de d6- 

couvrir les sources [Journeys of a hydroscope, or the art of discovering springs], 
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1861. Jacqubt, Abb6, De Thydrog^ologie [On hydrology — origin and discovery of 
springs], new ed., Lyons. 

1861. Richard, Abb^ Pierre, article in L'ind^pendant de Saintes, Mar. 14. 

1862. DuFouR, La baguette divinatoire [The divining rod]: Revue savoisienne, 3d 

year, p. 34, Annecy. 
1862. Descosse, de Forgalquier, La d6couverte des sources et exploration des eaux 
.souterraines [The discovery of springs and the exploration of underground 

waters], Marseilles. New ed., 1883. 
1862. Krause, Ernst. See Sterne, Cams. 

1862. Sterne, Oarus (Ernst Krause), Die Wahrsagung aus den Bewegungen lebloeer 

Eorper unter dem Einflusse der menschlichen Hand [Divination by the 
movements of lifeless bodies imder the influence of the human hand], 
Weimar. 
1863-64. BizouARD, Jos., Des rapports de Thomme avec le d6mon [Some relations 
between man and the devil], 6 vols., Paris. See vols. 2 and 3. 

1863. Oarri^, Abb^, L*hydroscopographie et m^talloscopographie, ou Tart ded^ou- 

vrir les sources et les gisements m^tallif^res an moyen de P^lectro-magn^tisme 
[Hydroscopy and metalloscopy, or the art of discovering springs and metal- 
liferous deposits by means of electromagnetism], Saintes. 
1863. Peretti, a., Delle serate del villagio [Evenings in the village], Ivree. No. 4, 
The divining rod. 

1865. Emsmann, H., Die Wtinschelrute [The divining rod]: Westerm. illustr. deutsch. 

Monateh., vol. 18, Brunswick. 

1866. Baring-Gould, S., Curious myths of the Middle Ages, London. New impres- 

sion, London, New York, etc., pp. 55-92, 1901. 
1870. Romain, Manuel du sondeur-puisatier-hydroscope [Manual for the driller, well 

borer, hydroscopist]. 
1873. FiSKE, John, Myths and myth-makers, Cambridge, Mass. 
1873. NoGGERATH, Jacob, Bcitrago zur Geschichte der Bergknappen [Contributions 

to the history of miners]: Zeitschr. Bergrecht, 14th year, Bonn. 
1876. Latimer, Charles, The divining rod: virgula divina baculus divinatoribus, 

water witching, Cleveland. 
1876. N6GGERATH, Jacob, Die Berggeister und die GlClcks- oder Wiinschelruthe in 

alteren Zeiten besonders bei den Bergleuten [The mountain sprites and the 

divining rod in olden times, especially among miners]: Westermann's Jahr- 

buch, Braunschweig, pp. 182-188. 
1876-1879. Laporet, Aug., Le bd,ton, 6tude historique et litt6raire [The wand, a his- 
torical and literary study], 2 vols., Marseilles. See vol. 1, ch. 9, pp. 248- 

281. 
1878. Haslinger, Camillo, Das Quellensuchen [Spring finding]: Psychische Studien, 

5th year, November, pp. 483-486, Leipzig. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 41 

1S79. Clavaikoz, M. F. (L^n Favre), Die Wiinschelrute [The divining rod]: Pey- 
chische Studien, 6th year, July, Leipzig. 

1879. Favbb, L^on. See Clavairoz, M. F. 

1879. FoNViBLLB, W. DE, Comment se font les miracles en-d^hors de Teliae [H6w 
miracles occur without the church], Paris, no date (about 1879). New edition 
under the title: Les saltimbanques de la science. Comment ils font les 
miracles [The humbugs of science. How miracles happen], Paris, no date. 

1882. Caud^ran, Hippolyte, D6couverte des sources. Notice scientifique sur Tabb^ 
Richard et Thydroscopie [Discovery of springs. Scientific note on Abb6 
Richard and hydroscopy], Bordeaux. 

1882. E5HLER, G., article in Gliickauf, Schneeberg. 

1882. Lappinbur, Jxtles, Hydraulique et hydrologie souterraine et superficielle, ou 

traits de la science des sources, de la cr^tion dee fontaines, de la captation 
et de ram6nagement des eaux pour tons les besoins agricoles et industriels 
[Hydraulics and underground and surficial hydrology, or a treatise on the 
science of springs, the formation of fountains, the acquisition and manage- 
ment of water supplies for all agricultural and industrial needs], Paris. 

1883. Hblland, a., Om 0nskelvisten [On the divining rod]: Dagbladet, No. 151, 
June 11, Christiania. 

1883. Lang, Andrew, The divining rod: Comhill Magazine, vol. 47, pp. 83-91, 

London. 
1883. LocHMANN, Prof., discussion in Dagbladet, No. 153, June 13, Christiania. 

1883. Raymond, R. W., The divining rod: Am. Inst. Min. Eng. Trans., vol. 11; and 

U. S. Geol. Survey Mineral Resources, 1882, pp. 610-626, 1883. 

1884. Lano, Andrew, Custom and mjrth, London. 2d ed., pp.' 180-196, 1885. 
1884. Pease, Edw. R., The divining rod: Soc. Psychical Research Proc., vol. 2, pp. 

78-107, London. 

1884. Stinde, Julius, Das Creheimnis der Wiinschelrute [The secret of the divining 

rod]: Schorers Familienblatt, 5 vols., pp. 649-650, 682-683, Berlin. 

1885. Jacob, P. L. [P. Lacroix], Curiosit6s des sciences occultes [Curiosities of the 

occult sciences], Paris. 

1886. Haussen, J. S. (E. Kiesewetter), Ziur Creschichte der Bewegungsphanomene 

[On the history of motion phenomena]: Sphinx, vol. 2, pp. 115-129, Gera. 
1886. Mbunier, Mme. Stanislas, Les soiurces [Springs]: Biblioth. des merveilles. 

No. 3, Paris. 
1886. Pease, Edw., Die Wiinschelrute [The divining rod]: Sphinx, vol. 2, pp. 69-78, 

(Jera. 

1886. RoGHAS, Albert de. La polarity vitale [Vital polarity]: Ooemos, new ser., 

Apr. 19, vol. 4, pp. 59-63. 

1887. BoNNEMisRB [Lionel], La baguette des sourciers vend6ens [The rod of Vendean 

sorcerers]: Soc. d'anthrop. Paris Bull., vol. 10, pp. 780-782. 

1890. EuHLENBBCK, LuDWiG, Spaziorgauge eines Wahrheitssuchers ins Reich der 

Mystik [Walks of a truth seeker in the realm of the mystic], Leipzig. See 
ch. 11, pp. 165-172. 

1891. Kiesewetter, Carl, Geschichte des neueren Occultismus [History of the new 

occultism], Leipzig. See pp. 512-539. 

1892. Schwartz, Wilhblm, Die Wunschelrute als Quellen- und Schatzsucher [The 

divining rod as a spring and treasure searcher]: Ver. Volkskunde Zeitschr., 
2d year, pp. 67-78, Berlin. 

1893. Bjergb, Paul. See Feilberg, H. F. 

1893. Fbilbbbg, H. F., Sp&stikken [The divining rod], in Aarbog for Dansk Eultur 
historie [Yearbook for Danish culture history], by Paul Bjerge, Aaihus. 



42 THE DIVINING EOD. 

1893. MuLLiNS, John, The divining rod; its history, truthfuhieeB, and practical 

utility, Corsham, Wiltshire. 
1893. Pbel, Karl du, Die WOnschelrute [The divining rod]: Die Zukunft, vol. 4, 

pp. 215-225, ^Berlin. 

1895. Haas, H. J., Quellenkunde, Ldire von der Bildung und vom Vorkonunen der 

Quellen und des Grundwassers [Springs. Information on the formation and 
occurrence of springs and ground water], pp. 184-196, Leipzig. 

1896. OsTWALD, WiLHELM, Elektrochomie, ihre Geschichte und Lehre [Electro- 

chemistry, its history and doctrine], ch. 8, p. 230, Leipzig. 

1897. Babbbtt, W. F., The divining rod. Nature, vol. 56, pp. 568-^69, London. 
1807. Chalon, p., Sur la recherche des eaux souterraines [On the investigation of 

ground water]: Soc. ing^nieurs civils de France, M^., vol. 2, pp. 38-39, 
Paris. 

1897. Holmes, T. V., On the evidence for the efficacy of the diviner and his rod in the 

search for water: Anthropol. Inst, of Great Britain and Ireland Jour., vol. 27, 
pp. 233-259, London. 
1897-1900. Barrett, W. F., On the so-called divining rod or viigula divina: Soc. 
Psychical Res. Proc. (liondon), vol. 13, 1897, and vol. 15, pp. 130-383, 1900. 

1898. BoNNiOT, CHANoms V. DB, petter on the discovery of water by means of the 

magic pendulum]: Revue du monde invisible, Oct. 15, p. 314. 
1898. Brothier de Rolli^re. [See Gu4, P. du, and Brothier de RoUi^re. 
1898. Gvty P. DU, and Brothier de RoLui^RS, [article on Thouvenel]: L'interm^ 

diaire des chercheurs et des curieux, vol. 37, pp. 226, 732-733, Paris. 
1898-99. MoRiNAis, G. de la, Les sourciers sont-ils sorciers? [Are the water witches 

sorcerers?]: Revue du monde invisible, 1st year. No. 2, pp. 88-92, Paris. 
1898. Lehmann, Alfred, Aberglaube und Zauberei von den altesten Zeiten an bis in 

die Gregenwart [Superstition and magic from the earliest times to the present], 

pp. 201-203, 375-377, 480, Stuttgart,. 
1898. Parville, Henri de, [two articles on water witching]: Le correspondant, Jan. 

10, pp. 170-178, and Feb. 10, pp. 585-590. 

1898. Tardivel, J. B., La baguette divinatoire et les sourciers [The divining rod and 

the water witches]: Revue du monde invisible, Paris, Sept. 15, pp. 231-233. 

1899. AuscHER, E. S., L'art de d^couviir les sources et de les capter [The art of dis- 

covering and developing underground waters]: Biblioth^ue des connais- 

sances utiles, vol . 49, Ist ed ., Paris. 2d ed . , 1905. 
1899. Beaven, E. W., Tales of the divining rod, London. 
1899. Prel, Karl du. Die Magie als Naturwissenschaft [Magic as a natural science], 

2 vols., Jena. 

1899. Vernhes, Abb^ A., Les sourciers ne sont pas des sorciers [Water witches are not 

sorcerers]: Revue du monde invisible, July 15. 

1900. Ardouane, paper in L'Interm6diaire des chercheurs et des curieux, vol. 41, 

col. 451. 

1900. Beaucorps, a. et F. de, !^tude empirique, au moyen de la baguette, sur les 
origines souterraines de la riviere du Loiret. Projet de captation d'eau pour 
la ville de Paris. Historique de la baguette divinatoire, th^rie de son 
emploi, application au val de la Loire et aux sources du Loiret [Empirical 
study, by means of the divining rod, of the underground source of the river 
of the Loiret. Project for obtaining water for the city of Paris. Histwy of 
the divining rod, theory of its use, application to the valley of the Loire and 
to the springs of the Loiret], Orleans. 

1900. Gvty P. DU, and Brothibr de RoixiisRE, articles in L'intermMiaire des 
chercheurs et des curieux, vol. 42, pp. 162-163, 409-410, Paris. 






BIBLIOGRAPHY. 43 

1900. Dblanne, Gabriel, D'oil vient le pouvoir des sourciere? [Whence comes the 

ability of water witches?]: Jour, du magn^tisme et de la psychologie, 65th 

year, Paris. 
1900. DuRviLLE, H. (director Soc. magn^tique en France), Jour, du magn6tisme et de 

la psychologic, No. 1, January, and following numbers. 
1900. Gataker, L., alias Ismala, Un sourcier modeme [A modem water witch]: Jour. 

du magn6tisme et de la psychologic. No. 6, June, Paris. 
1900. Ismala. See Gataker, L. 
1900. Ooussii^RE, La, article in L'intermMiaire des chercheurs et des cuiieux, 36th 

year, vol. 41, col. 283, Paris. 

1900. Martelli^re, [On the divining rod]: L'interm6diaLre des chercheurs et des 

cuiieux, 36th year, vol. 41, col. 305, Paris. 

1901. Gast, a., Un sourcier [A water witch]: Moniteur des Etudes psychiques, 25th 

year. No. 3, Feb. 5, Paris. 

1901. Saint-Cloud, P., Un homme Strange [A strange man]: Moniteur des Etudes 

psychiques, 25th year, Paris. 

1902. Battandibr, A., Sur la baguette divinatoire [On the divining rod]: Cosmos, 

May; Revue du monde invisible, Nov. 15. 
1902. IjEfebre, a., article in Cosmos, June 14, Paris. 

1902. Urban, Michael, Wtinschelruthe, Wunschspi^el und Zauberwurzeln [Divining 

rod, magic mirror, and magic roots]: Mittheil. Nordb5hm. Excursions-Clubs, 
pp. 350-357, Leipa. 

1903. Betschlao, F., Aus dem wissenschaftlichen Leben * * * der Wiinschelrute 

[From the scientific life * * * the divining rod]: Naturwiss. Wochenschr., 
vol. 18, pp. 321-322, Apr. 5. 

1903. BouRCARD, 1. 1., Zur Frage der Wttnschelruthe[On the question of the divining 
rod]: Psychische Studien, 30th year, pp. 212-213, Leipzig. 

1903. BfJLOW-BoTHKAMP, Cai von, [Personal experiments in rhabdomancy]: Prome- 
theus, 14th year. No. 687, pp. 173-174, Berlin. Partisan. 

1903. Darapskt, L., Altes und Neues von der Wtinschelrute [Old and new ideas 
on the divining rod], Leipzig. 

1903-4. Di^NERT, F., Contribution k T^tude des courants souterrains au moyen de 
la boussole et des courants 61ectro-magn6tiques [Contribution to the study of 
underground currents by means of the compass and electro-magnetic cur- 
rents]: Soc. beige de la geologic et d'hydrologie M^m. 

1903. Falkenhorst, C, Alte und modeme Wiinschelrutenforscher [Ancient and 
modem divining-rod investigators]: Die Gartenlaube, Leipzig. 

1903. Fauchon, Dr., Rapport surle m^moire qui pr^cMe — Les fluides bacillogires 
6tudi6s au moyen de la furcelle par de Comte de Tristan [Report on the 
preceding memoir. The bacillogic fluids studied by means of the forked stick 
by Count Tristan]: Soc. agr., sci., belles lettres et arts d'0rl6ans M6m., vol. 
3, pp. 322-336. 

1.903. Grassbt, Dr., L'hypnotisme et la suggestion [Hypnotism and suggestion]. 

1903. Gaoel, C, Das Grundwasser [Groimd water]: Naturwiss. Wochenschr., No. 30, 
Apr. 26. 

1903. Gagel, C, Der "Nutzen" der Wtinschebute [The "use" of the divining rod]: 
Prometheus, No. 69, pp. 353-356, Berlin. 

1903. HiRSCHFBLD, LuDwiG, Internationale Mineralquellen-Zeitung, Vienna. 

1903. Keilhack, K., article in Naturwiss. Wochenschr., No. 27, vol. 18, pp. 321-322, 
Apr. 5, Jena. 

1903. Kniepf, a., Zum Problem der Wiinschelrute [On the divining-rod problem]: 
Psychische Studien, 30th year, pp. 82-89, Leipzig. 



44 THE DIVINING ROD. 

1903. Lanqb, G. a., article in Die dberednnliche Welt, 11th year, p. 107, Berlin. 
1903. Leppla, a., article in Naturwifis. Wochenschr., 18th year, pp. 321-322, Jena. 
1903. Naoel, L., article in Die abersinnliche Welt, 11th year, pp. 107, 192, 435, 

Berlin. 
1903. RiCHTEB, Emil, Die Wtinechelrute [The divining rod]: Sachsische Volkskunde 

Mitteil., Dresden. 
1903. SoKELAND, Hermann, Die Wtlnschelrute [The divining rod]: Ver. Volkskunde 

Zeitschr., 13th year, pt. 2, pp. 34-43, Berlin. 
1903. Sourciers * * * sorciers? Peut-on voir Peau sous terre? [Water witches 

* * * sorcerers? Can one see water under the ground?]: Les lectures 

pour tons, 5th year, August. 
1903. SuRBLED, Georges, Le secret des sourciers [The secret of water witches], Paris, 

1st ed., 1903; 2d ed., 1908. , 
1903. Tristan, Comte J. de, Les fluides bacillogires 6tudi^ au moyen de la furcelle 

[Bacillogic fluids studied by means of the furcelle]: Soc. d'agr., sci., belles 

lettres et arts d*0rl6ans M6m., vol. 3, pp. 280-336, Orleans. 

1903. Uhl, G., Die Wtlnschelrute [The divining rod]: Daheim, Berlin, Sept. 12, 

pp. 18-21. 

1904. Chabrand, Ernest, La baguette divinatoire et les sourciers. Les ph^notn^nes 

de la baguette. Le Bletonisme. Les faits et les thanes [The divining 
rod and diviners. The phenomena of the divining rod. Bletonism. Facts 
and theories]: Soc. dauphin, d'ethnol. et d'anthropol. Bull., vol. 2, Grenoble. 

1904. Grassbt, Dr., Le spiritisme devant la science [Spiritualism in the presence of 
science]: Montpellier and Paris. 

1904 . Hennig, Rich . , Wunder und Wissenschaft ; eine Kritik und ErklSnmg der okkul- 
ten Phanomene [Wonder and science; a criticism and elucidation of occult 
phenomena], Hamburg. 

1904. Elapper, J., Beschwdrungsformeln bei Gewinnung der Wtinschelrute [Formu- 
lae of exorcism for use in obtaining the divining rod]: Schlesischen Gesell. 
Volkskunde Mitteil., vol. 6, pt. 14, pp. 51-58, Breslau. 

1904. Pabst, Oamille, Recherche et captage des eaux souterraines [The investigation 
and acquisition of ground waters]: L'agriculture modeme, supplement 
agricole du Petit journal, 9th year, Paris. 

1904. Poetters, Karl, Die Wiinschelruthe [The divining rod]: Brandebuigia, 12th 

year, Berlin. 

1905. Diepenbach, M., article in Die Umschau, No. 37, p. 740. 

1905-6. Ehlert, H., article in Technisches Gemeindeblatt, No. 19, p. 296, Berlin. 
1905. Ehlert, H., Zur Wunschelruthenfrage [On the divining-rod question]: Zen- 

tralbl. Bauverwaltung, Nos. 103 and 104, Berlin. 
1905. Franzius, G., Die Wtinschelrute [The divining rod]: Deutsche Klempner- 

Zeitung, 25th year, Berlin, and Zentralbl. Bauverwaltung, 25th year. No. 74, 

pp. 461^62, BerUn. 
1905. Grasset, Dr., article in Revue des deux-mondes, Mar. 15. 
1905. Heim, a.. Das Quellenfinden mit der Wtinschelrute [Spring finding with the 

divining rod]: Zeitschr. Bayer. Rev., 9th year, Munich. In 1907 Mr. Heim 

called a conference of the Society of Sciences of Zurich to discuss rhabdo- 

mancy. 
1905. HiLDEBRANDT, GoTTHOLD, Zum Problem der Wtinschelrute [On the problem 

of the divining rod]: Das Echo, 24th year, June 22, pp. 1971-1974, BerUn. 
1905. Schmidt, E., article in Deutsche Welt, 8th year, Nov. 5, Berlin. 
1905. Weber, L., Die Wtinschelrute [The divining rod], Kiel and Leipsic. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 45 

1906. ARtJDY, L. d', La baguette magique [The magic wand]: L*6cho du merveil- 

leux, No. 236, pp. 412-413, Paris. 
1906. Bavib, H., tJber die wahrecheinliche Mdglichkeit der Aufsuchung von nutz- 

baren Erzlagerstatten mittelst einer photographischen Aufnahme ihrer elek- 

trischen Ausstrahlung [On the apparent possibility of discovering useful ore 

deposits by photographing their electric emanations], Prague. 
1906-7. Bbbgeb, Die Wtinschelrute und zur Wiinschelrutenfrage [The divining rod 

and on the divining-rod question]: Der Kulturtechniker, 9th and 10th years, 

Breslau. 
1906. BiBK, A., articles in Neue Freie Presse, Aug. 30, Vienna. 
1906. Dbssoib, Max, Die Wunschelnite [The divining rod]: Die Woche, No. 38, pp. 

1637-1639, Berlin. 
1906. Dbyveb, F. W., Mozai'ek allerlei op het gebied van geschiedenis, volks- 

eigenaardigheded, etc. [Miscellaneous gleanings in history, popular cus- 
toms, etc.], Groningen. 
1906. Ehlbbt, H., Wider die Wtinschelrute [Against the divining rod]: Schillings 

Jour. Grasbeleuchtung und Wasserversorgung, 49th year, pp. 71-75, 402-404, 

Berlin. 
1906. Ebbstein, a., Die Wtinschelrute [The divining rod]: lUustr. Zeitung, vol. 

120, Leipzig. 
1906. FtJBSTBNAu, R., Theorien und Experimente tiber die Wtinschelrute [Theories 

and experiments on the divining rod]: Die Umschau, No. 38, Frankfurt, 1906; 

see also Technische Rundschau, Nos. 16 and 17, April, 1909. 
1906. Gbssmann, G., article in Arena, No. 6, pp. 617-622, Berlin. 
1906. Gbassbt, Dr., Le psychisme inf^rieur [The inferior psychics], Paris. 
1906. Heinbichs, Ludw., Die Wtinschelrute [The divining rod]: Die Wahrheit, 40th 

year, pp. 727-734, Munich and Stuttgart. 
1906. HopPB, O., Die Wtinschelrute, der Franklin'sche Blitzableiter und die Antenne 

der drahtlosen Telegraphie in technisch-wissenschuftlichem Zusammenhange 

[The divining rod, the Franklin lightning rod, and the antennae of the wireless 

telegraph in technical relationship]: Naturwiss. Wochenschr., 21st year, pp. 

609-616, Jena. 
1906. Kniepp, Albebt, Radioactivitat und Wtinschelruthe [Radioactivity and the 

divining rod]: Die Gegenwart, vol. 70, pp. 166-169, 182-184, Berlin. 
1906. KuLLMANN, Heinbich, article in Schillings Jour. Gasbeleuchtung und Was- 
serversorgung, p. 75, Munich and Berlin. 
1906. La Baume, W., Die Wtinschelrute [The divining rod]: Kosmos, 3d year, 

pp. 201-205, 311, Stuttgart. 
1906. Len6tbb, G. articles in Le Monde illustr6. Mar. 31; La nature, Apr. 15; 

L*ficho du merveilleux, Apr. 15. 
1906. Maibb, F., Zur Erklarung der Wtinschelrute [The explanation of the divining 

rod]: Psychische Studien, 33d year, pp. 550-554, Leipsic. 
1906. MoNTENAY DU Menhy, Comte de. Notes sur les sourciers [Notes on water 

witches]: L*6cho du merveilleux, Paris, Sept. 1. 
1906. Ohnstbin, Albebt, Ein automatischer Quellenfinder [An automatic spring 

finder (the Schmid apparatus)]: Technische Rundschau, 12th year, No. 47, 

pp. 613-614. 
1906. Rege, Euqenon von. Die Wtinschelrute [The divining rod]: Der Deutsche, 

Sept. 29, Berlin. 
1906. SiEGEBT, A., Das Quellensuchen mit der Wtinschelrute [Spring finding with 

the divining rod]: Zeitschr. Bayer, revis., 10th year, Munich. 



46 THE DIVINING BOD. 

1906. Stoss: P., [On the divining rod]: Die Uberainnliche Welt, 14th year, pp. 4, 

57, 93, Berlin, 
1906. Tanck, W., Die Wttnachelrute [The divining rod]: Die Heimat, 16th year, 

Kiel. 
1906. ViGEN, Chables, L'Abb6 Richard, hydrog^logue: £tade sur sa vie et son 

secret pour la d6couverte des sources. L'hydroscopie sensitive et la baguette 

[The Abb^ Richard, hydrogeologist: Study of his life and his secret for 

finding springs. Sensitive hydroecopy and the divining rod]: Revue de 

Saintonge, La Rochelle. 
1906. ViGEN, Charles, La baguette divinatoire dee souiciera [The divining rod of 

the water witches]: La nature, pp. 101-103. 
1906. Warcouer, R., and Barr.ett, W. F., [Experiments with the divining rod]: 

Annalee des sci. psychiques, 16th year, pp. 745-751, Paris. 
1906. Weissenberg, H., [Against the divining rod]: Die Umschau, No. 34, p. 680, 

Frankfort on the Main. 
190&-7. WiLLFOBT, M., Das Wasserfinden mit der WOnschelrute [Water finding with 

the divining rod]: Bautechniker, 26th and 27th years, Vienna. 

1906. Wolff, Wilhblm, [Against the divining rod]: Schillings Jour. Gasbeleuchtung 

und Wasserversoigung, Munich and Berlin. 

1907. Bla-nco, F., article in Le Corriere della sera, Apr. 9. Discusses the divining 

rod in Italy. 
1907. Blom, v., Zur Theorie der Wdnschelrute [The theory of the divining rod]: 

Prometheus, 18th year, pp. 12^134, Berlin. 
1907. DiENERT, Fr^d^rig, Hydrologie agricole [Agricultural hydrology]: Encyclo- 

p4die agricole, pp. 198-293, Paris. 
1907. FiEBELKORN, Dr., Empfiehlt sich fOr den Zi^geleibesitzer die Anwendung der 

Wiinschelrute zur Aufsuchung von Wasser auf seinem Grundstucke? [Is 

the use of the divining rod suitable for finding water on a brickyaid owner's 

land?]: Deutsch..Ver. Ton-, Zement- und Kalkindustrie, Mittdl. Berlin. 
1907. Frrz, J., Od imd die Wiinschelrute [Od and the divining rod]: Oigan dee 

"Verein der Bohrtechniker,'* 25th year. No. 9, pp. 103-106, Vienna; also 

Ver. Osterr. Gesundheitstechniker Zeitschr., Vieima. 
1907. Fleisghmann, Dr. O., Elektrische Metallfunde [Electrical metal finding]: Der 

Deutsche, June, pp. 409-411, Berlin. 
1907. Franzius, G., Melne Beobachtungen mit der WUnschelrute [My observations 

with the divining rod], Berlin. 
1907. Friedrich, Albrecht, Zur Erklarung der WUnschelrute [On the explanation 

of the divining rod]: Der Deutsche, August, pp. 582-584, Berlin. 
1907. GocKEL, A., Grundwasser und atmospharische Elektrizitat. Ein Beitrag zur 

Wdnschelrutenfrage [Ground water and atmospheric electricity. A contri- 
bution to the divining-rod question]: Natur imd Offenbarung, vol. 53, 

Milnster. 
1907. GoupiL, Discussion en AUemagne sur la baguette divinatoire employ^ k 

d6couvrir les sources [Discussion in Germany on the divining rod employed 

to discover springs]: Annales des ponts et chauss^es, 77th year, 8th ser., 

vol. 25, pp. 218-224, Paris. 
1907. Helbiq, Die Wiinschelrute [The divining rod]: Pharmazeut. Zentralhalle f. 

Deutschland, 48th year, pp. 185-189, 226-230, Dresden. 
1907. HusiNQ, G., Um die Wunschelrute [Concerning the divining rod], Dissen near 

Osnabruck, 
1907. Jaeger, G., Nochmals die Wiinschelrute [Once again the divining rod]: Prof. 

Dr. G. Jaeger's Monatsblatt, 26th year, pp. 33-36, 49-53, 67-69, Stut4:art. 
1907. Rniepf, a., Die Physik der WGnschelrute [The physics of the divining rod]: 

Zentialbl, f. Okkultismus, 1st year, pp. 9-12, Leipsic. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 47 

» 

1907. K6llbr-Cabow, Von, Das Fiasko der Wlinschelrute [The failure of the- divin- 
ing rod]: Zeitschr. fiir Spiritusindustrie, 30th year, No. 8, p. 77, Berlin. 

1907. KdNia, F., Emstes und Heiteres aus dem Zauberreiche der Wtinschelrute 
[Serious and comical from the fairy realm of the divining rod], I^eipzig. 

1907. Ohlsbn, O., Die Wlinschelrute in Italien [The divining rod in Italy]: Psy- 
chische Studien, 34th year, pp. 376-379, Leipzig. 

1907. ScHOWALTBB, A., Die Wlinschelrute in Stidafrica [The divining rod in South 
Africa]: Der Deutsche, Berlin. 

1907. TbAbucq, S., article in Jour, du magn6tisme, \rol. 33, 3« trimeetre, Paris. 

1907. VoQDT, G^en die Wlinschelrute [Against the divining rod]: Zeitschr. Spiri- 
tusindustrie, 30th year. No. 5, pp. 39-40, Berlin. 

1907. VoGBL, P., Grenzfeststellungen mit der Wlinschelrute [Establishing boundaries 
with the divining rod]: Zeitschr. Vermessungswesen, vol. 36, pp. 554-559, 
Stuttgart. 

1907 . Wappleb, a . F., Alte s^chsische Wlinschelrutengeschichten [Old Saxon divining- 
rod stories]: Mitteil. d. Freibeiger Altertums-Vereins, Freiberg. 

1907. WoLPP, W., Wider die Wlinschelrute [Against the divining rod]: Deutschen V^. 

von Gas- imd Wasserfachmanner Verb. . Munich. 

1908. DiENBBT, F., A. GuiLLBBD, and Mabbbc, Del'emploi de TacoustMede Daguin 

pour la recherche des bruits souterrains [The use of the **acoust^le " of Daguin 

for the discovery of subterranean sounds]: Acad. sci. Comp. rend., vol. 146, 

pp. 1182-1184, Paris. 
1908. Haussmann, Ka.bl, Die Wlinschelrute und Xhnliches [The divining rod and 

similar devices]: Mitteil. aus dem Markscheiderwesen, pp. 74-78, Freiberg, 

Saxony. 
1908. M^BY, Gaston, Comment je me suls t6v616 sourcier [How I discovered myself 

to be a water witch]: L'^ho du merveilleux, November; several other 

articles in the same journal, 1906-1908. 

1908. ScHOBBB, G., and Rbdlibn, Aufruf gegen die Wlinschelrute [Smnmons against 

the divining rod]: Pumpen- und Brunnenbau, 4th year, Berlin. 
1908-9. SuBYA, G. W., Die okkulte Seite der Wlinschelrute [The occult side of 
the divining rod]: Zentralbl. flir Okkultismus, 2d year, September, pp. 
97-102, Leipzig. 

1909. Adolp, H., articles in Ver. Gas- und Wasserfachmanner in Osterreich-Ungam 

Zeitschr. No. 6, Mar. 15, and No. 10, May 15. 

1909. AiQNBB, Edguabd (of Munich), Die Wlinschelrute [The divining rod]: Jour. 
Grasbeleuchtung imd Wasserversorgung, 52d year, pp. 936-939, Munich and 
Berlin. 

1909. Baybb, H. C, Mit der Wlinschelrute, etc. [With the divining rod, etc.], Stutt- 
gart. 

1909. Bbaikowich, F., article in Ver. Gas- und Wasserfachmanner in Osterreich- 
Ungam Zeitschr., No. 10, May 15. 

1909. Bbuno, E., La radioactivity des sources [The radioactivity of springs]: li'^cho 
du Merveilleux, Apr. 1. 

1909. DoMiNiK, H., Die Wlinschelrute [The divining rod]: M£b*z, 3d year. No. 13, 
pp. 18-23, Munich. 

1909. Dbbhbb, K., Die Wlinschelrute von Podebrad in Bdhmen [The divining rod of 
Podebrad in Bohemia]: Uber Land und Meer, 51st year, Stuttgart. 

1909. DupouBQ, Fb., La d6couverte des soiu'ces et le magn^tisme animal [The dis- 
covery of springs and animal magnetism]: L'6cho du merveilleux, October 
and December. 

1909. DiJNKBLBEBo, Prof . Dr., Die Erschlirfung der Quellen [The discovery of springs]: 
Das Wasser, 5th year, No. 28, October, Halle. 



48 THE DIVINING EOD. 

1909. Fbanzius, G., Zur WOnschelrutenfrage [On the divining-rod question]: Zen- 
tralbl. der Bauverwaltimg, 29th year, pp. 201-203, Berlin. 

1909. Fbenzel, Paul, Filr die Wassermutung durch hierzu geeignete sensitiv veran- 
lagte Personen [For water finding by persons fitted therefor by virtue of an 
endowed sensitiveness]: Zeitschr. Vereines der Gas- und Wasserf. in Oesterr.- 
Ungam, No. 9, May, Vienna. 

1909. Gallego, £., Descubrimiento de aguas subterrineas. El invento del P. Garcia 
Mufioz. [The discovery of underground waters. The invention of P. Grarcfa 
Mufioz]: La energla el6ctrica, vols. 11 and 13, Madrid, 1909 and 1911. 

1909. Grimm, J., Wilnschelrutenaberglaube [Divining-rod superstition]: Es Werde 
Licht, March, pp. 185-187, Munich. 

1909. Hartmann, a., WOnschelrute rediviva [The divining rod restored]: Urania, 2d 
year; No. 11, pp. 164-166, Vienna. 

1909. Jacoby, Ein Beitrag zur Ldsung der Wtknschelrutenfra^ [A contribution to the 
solution of the divining-rod question]: Wochenschr. Architekt. zu Berlin, 
4th year. 

1909. Mager, Henri, Les radiations des corps min^raux; recherches des mines et 
des sources par leurs radiations [The radiations of mineral bodies; the search 
for mines and springs by their radiations], 3d ed., Paris. 

1909. PosKiN, A., La rabdomancie ou Tart de d^ouvrir les mines et les sources, 
au moyen de la baguette divinatoire [Rhabdomancy, or the art of finding 
mines and springs by means of the divining rod]: Soc. beige, de g6ol., 
pal^ont. ethydrol. M6m., vol. 23, pp. 28-57. • 

1909. RoHRBACH, Dr. P., Wassererschliessimg in Deutsch-Slidwestafrika [Water find- 
ing in German Southwest Africa]: Kolonie und Heimat in Wort und Bild, 
2d year, No. 14, pp. 2-3, Berlin. 

1909. Schmids, Adolf, Automatischen Wasserfinder [Automatic water finder]: 
Deutsch. Landw. Mitteil., vol. 24, Berlin. 

1909. Wegner, Dr., [Against the divining rod]: Natur imd 0£tenbarung, vol. 45, pp. 

600-615, Monster i. W. 

1910. Barrett, W. F., The history and mystery of the so-called divining or dowsing 

rod, London. 

1910. BiESEE, E., Fiir und wider die Wiinschelnite [For and against the divining rod]: 
Jom*. Gasbeleuchtung und Wasserversorgung, 53d year, pp. 885-896, Munidi 
and Berlin. 

1910. Endriss, Karl, Zimi Problem der Wtinschelrute [On the divining-rod prob- 
lem]: Psychische Studien, 37th year, pp. 449-456, Leipzig. 

1910. Endriss, Karl, Wilnschelrute und Wasserfachmanner [The divining rod and 
professional water finders]. 

1910. Geinftz, E., Experimente mit der Wtinschelrute [Experiments with tiie divin- 
ing rod]: Aus der Natur, 6th year, pp. 641-644, Leipzig. 

1910. GuiLLEMAiN, C, Die Wtinschelrute [The divining rod]: Das Wasser, 6th year, 
pp. 223-224, Halle. 

1910. Heyd, Th., Von der Wiinschel/ute und vom automatischen Quellenfinden [On 
the divining rod and automatic water finders]: D. Stadt. Tiefbau, Heidelbersj. 

1910. HocH, J., Die Wftnschelrute [The divining rod]: Deutsch. landw. Gesell. 
Mitteil., vol. 25, Berlin. 

1910. Klinckowstroem, Graf Carl von, Virgula divina. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte 
der Wtinschelrute [Virgula divina. A contribution to the history of the 
divining rod]: Dokumente des Fortschritts, 4th year, pp. 583-588, Berlin. 

1910. Kniepp, Albert, Die Wtinschelrute und die Wissenschaft [The divining rod 
and science] : Psychische Studien, 37th year, pp. 114-117, Leipzig. 

1910. Lancelin, Charles, La sorcellerie des campagnes [The witchcraft of the coun- 
tryside], Paris. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 49 

1910. L'art des sourciere [The art of water witches]: Lea inventions illnstr^, 13th 
year, Paris. 

1910. Les baguettes divinatoires m^talliques et les proc^d^s pseudo-scientifiques [Me- 
tallic divining rods and pseudo-scientific methods]: L'eau, March 15, 
Asni^res near Paris. 

1910. Mager, Henri, Un appareil scientifique pour la d6couverte' des sources [A 
scientific apparatus for finding springs]: L'^dilit6 technique, Paris. 

1910. Maoer, Henri, Pour d^couvrir les sources, les mines et les tr^rs au moyen 
de la baguette divinatoire et de divers appareils scientifiques [For the dis- 
covery of springs, mines, and treasures by means of the divining rod and various 
scientific apparatuses], 2d ed., Paris. 

1910. Maoer, Henri, Sur la baguette divinatoire pour la d6couverte des sources, 
mines et tr^sors [On the divining rod for the discovery of springs, mines, 
and treasures]: L'^cho du merveilleux, Paris. 

1910. Maoer, Henri, Les radiations de la terre, et experiences susceptibles de prouver 
les causes des mouvements de certaines baguettes [The radiations of the 
earth, and experiments adapted to prove the causes of the movements of 
certain divining rods]: First Cong. Exper. Psychology Rept., pp. 196-206, 
November, Paris. 

1910. Metha, H. K., Experiments with the water finder of Messrs. Mansfield & Co. 
in the trap area of western India: Dept. Agr. Bull. 38, Bombay. 

1910. RoTHE, Georo, Die Wtinschelrute. Historisch-theoretische Studie [The di- 
vining rod. Historical-theoretical study], Jena. 

1910. Slobt, L. a. J. W., De plan ten in het Germaansche volksgeloof en volksge- 
bruik [Plants in Teutonic beliefs and customs], p. 80, 's Gravenhage. 

1910. VoLL, Dr. Ad All, Die Wtinschelrute und der siderische Pendel. Ein Versuch 
zu einer praktisch-wissenschaftlichen Studie [The divining rod and the 
sidereal pendulum . An attempt at a practical scientific study], Leipzig. 

1910. Weber, M., Prof. Weber iiber die Wiinschelrute [Prof. Weber on the divining 
rod]: Das Wasser, 6th year, No. 28, pp. 578-579, Halle. 

1910. WoLPP, W., Haben die geologischen Landesanstalten die Pflicht, gegen das 

Unwesen der Wtinschelrute vorzugehen? [Is it the duty of geologic institu- 
tions to antagonize the divining-rod nuisance?]: ProtokoU. ti. d. Versamml. 
d. Direkt. d. geolog. landes d. deutsch. Bundes-stat., Berlin. 

1911. AiQNER, Ed., Die Wtinschelrute [The divining rod]: Balneol. Zeitschr., 22d 

year, Berlin. 

1911. AiGNER, Ed., Der gegenwartige Stand der Wflnschelruten-Forschung [The 
present status of divining-rod investigations], Munich. Published as a pref- 
ace to the bibliography by Klinckowstroem. 

1911. Barrett, W. F., The so-called divining or dowsing rod: Psychical research 
[Home Library series], ch. 12, pp. 167-186, London. 

1911. Behme, Dr., Die Wtinschelrute: zur Frage der Wasserbeschaffung [The divin- 
ing rod; on the question of procuring water]: lUustr. Rundschau, 1st year, 
Hanover. 

1911. Beyer, P., Ein Beitrag zur Klarung der Wtinschelrutenfrage [A contribution 
for the elucidation of the divining-rod question]: Deutsche Brief zeit, 7th 
year, Naunhof near Leipzig. 

1911. BoRMANN, W., Allerhand tiber die Wtinschelrute [Miscellaneous items on the 
divining rod]: Die tibersinnliche Welt, 19th year, Berlin. 

1911. Braikowich, F., Zur Wtinschelrutenfrage [On the divining-rod question]: 
Ver. Gas- und Wasserfachmanner in Osterreich-Ungam Zeitschr., vol. 51, 
Vienna. 

46874*»— W9P 416—17 4 



i>0 



THE DIVINING BOD. 



1911. BrunnhofbBi H.y Der WtUuschelrutenwahn [The divining-rod mania]: SoDn- 

tagsblatt des **Bund" 1911, Berne. 
1911. Cabmejbanne, C, letters in L'eau, 1910, and in Jour, du magn^taame et du 

peychisme exp^r. 
1911. DoBBERKAu, E. W., Experimente dber WaaserfOhlen von Quellen in der Er- 

dentiefe [Experiments on the detection of water in underground springs]: 

Die (ibersinnliche Welt, 19th year, Berlin. 
1911. DouxAHi, Henri, La rabdomancie ou Tart de la baguette divinatwe [Bhab- 

domancy, or the art of the divining rod]: Soc. linn^nne de Lyon Annales, 

vol. 57, pp. 33-49. 
1911. Drbtbr, Otto, M^^thologische Deutung der Wtlnschelrute [Myth<4ogical sig- 
nificance of the divining rod]: Niedersachsen, 17th year, Bremen. 
1911. Franzius, G., Zur Wttnschelrutenfrage [On the divining-rod question]: 

Yer. Gas- und Wasserf. in Osterr.-Ungam Zeitschr., vol. 51, Vienna. 
1911. Gbrhard, William Paul, Ein Beitrag zur Wtlnschelrutenfnige [A cMitribu- 

tion to the divining-rod question]: Gesundheitsingenieur, 34Ui year, Munich 

and Berlin. 
1911. Graevb, Otto Edler von, Die WQnschelrute und ihre Anwendung in der 

Praxis [The divining rod and its application in practice], Osterode. 
1911. Hesse, Dr., Altes and Neues von der Wttnschelrute [The old and new of the 

divining rod]: Hygiene und Industrie, Dresden. 
1911. HoHBNFBLS, Hans VON, Die Wflnschelrute. Ihre magischen Wimderskrafte 

und die Kunst * * * [The divining rod. Its magic powers and the art 

* * *], Munich. 
1911. Hubbr, Carl, Telepathie und Wflnschelrute [Telepathy and the divining rod]: 

Die ttbersinnliche Welt, 19th year, Berlin. 
1911. ExiNCKOwsTROEM, Graf Carl von, Wasserversorgung imd Wttnschelrute [Water 

supply and divining rod]: lUustr. Rundschau, 1st year, Hanover. 
1911. ExiNCEOwsTROEM, Graf Carl von, Bibliographie der Wflnschelrute [Bibli- 
ography of the divining rod (with a preface by Aigner)], Munich. 
1911. Koch, K. R., Das Phonendoskop als Wflnschelrute [The phonendoscope as a 

divining rod]: Physikal. Zeitschr., 12th year, Leipzig. 
1911. K5NIO, F., Der Wiinschelrute geheimnisvolles Walten — ein Blendwerk [The 

mysterious action of the divining rod — ^a delusion]: Ver. Gas- und Wasserf. 

in Osterr.-Ungam Zeitschr., vol. 51, pp. 36-40, Vienna. 
1911. Lanz-Liebenpels, J., Theologie und Radiologie [Theology and radiology] 

Der T tinner, 14th year, Stuttgart. 
1911. Loth, Arthur, articles in L'univers, Aug. 24, Aug. 31, Sept. 21, Dec. 28. 
1911. Luttenbacher, H., Neue Experimente mit der Wtinschelrute [New experi- 
ments with the divining rod]: Psychische Studien, 38th year, pp. 57-60, 

Leipzig. 
1911. Meter, G., Die Wtinschelrute und ihre Berechtigung [The divining rod and its 

right]: Ver. Gas- und Wasserf. in 5sterr.-Ungam Zeitschr., vol. 51, pp. 148- 

156, Vienna. 
1911. Obst, Walter, Meine Erfahrungen mit der Wtinschelrute [My experiences with 

the divining rod]: AUgem. Beobachter, Ist year, Hamburg. 
1911. Paine, Ralph D., The book of buried treasure, London, pp. 361-384. 
1911. ReuBch, Hans, En ny bok om 0nskekvisten [A new book on divining]: Naturen, 

35th year, pp. 274r-275, Bergen. 
1911. Roth, Karl, Die Wtinschelrute auf dem Thermengebiet von Hombuig v. d. 

Hdhe [The divining rod in the hot-spring region of Homburg on the Hdhe]: 

Frankfurter Zeit- und Handelsbl., 55th year, Frankfort. 
1911. Ruppel, Willy, Stunden mit der Wtinschelrute [Lessons with the divining rod]: 

Hildebrandts Zentralbl. Pumpen und Wassertechn., 4th year, Berlin. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 51 

1911. VoLL, Adam, Die WOnachelrute [The divining rod]: SdddeutBche Monats- 

hefte, 9th year, pp. 75&-758, Munich. 
1911. Wbbbb, M., Die Wtinschelrute [On the divining rod]: Jour. Gasbeleuchtong 

nnd WaseerveiBoigang, 54th year, pp. 201-203, Munich. 
1911. WsBTHSUSR, J., Experiments with water finders: Royal Soc. Arts Jour., vol. 

59, pp. 384-389, London. 

1911. Wolff, W., Grundwasser und WtHnschelrute [Ground water and divining rod]: 

Deutsche Forstateitung, vol. 26, Neudanun. 

1912. BxHRXNiyr, P., Die Versuche nut Rutei^ftngem im Kalibeigwerk Riedel bei 

H&nigsen (Hannover) am 29 September, 1911 [The experiments with diviners 

in the Riedel potash mine near Hanover on the 29th of September, 1911], 

Stuttgart. 
1912. BmoT, ^., and Roux, Cl., ''Hydroscopie et rabdomancie — G^n^n^t^a— 

bibliographie/' and '* Exp^ences de rabdomancie faites ou k faire k Lyon 

en 1912 et 1913 '* [Experiments in rhabdomancy made, (nt to be made, at 

Lyon in 1912 and 1913 (with bibliograf^y)]: Soc.d'agr., sd. ind. Lyon An- 

nales, pp. 129-192. 
1912. BoBXANN, Dr. W., Femeres dber die WOnschelrute [More on the divining 

rod]: Die dbendnnlidie Welt, 20th year. 
1912. DucLAUx, Jacqubs, La constitution de Teau [The constitution of water]: 

Revue g^n^rale des sciences, vol. 23, pp. 881-887. 
1912. Fbhbman, Eabl L., Ein Beitrag zur WUnschelrutenfrage [A contribution to 

the divining-rod question]: Ver. Gas- und Wasserf. in Osterr.-Ungam 

Zeitschr., vol. 52, Vienna. 
1912. Hbnnio, R., Der Eampf um die WOnschelrute [The dispute over the divining 

rod]: Natur, 3d year, Leipzig. 
1912. Hobbnbs, R., Die Wtlnschelrute [The divining rod]: Monatzeit. Osterr.- 
Ungam, 19th year, Graz. 
1912. Elinckowstbobm, Graf Cabl von, Bibliographie derWtlnschelrute seit 1910 

und Nachtrage [Bibliograf^y of the divining rod since 1910 and addenda]: 

Schriften Verbands z. Klarung WUnschelrute, part 3, Stuttgart. 
1912. Klinckowstbobm, Graf Cabl von. Die Versuche mit der Wtknschelrute im 

Kalibergwerk Riedel und die Kritik [The experiments with the divining 

rod in the Riedel potash works and criticism]: Ver. Gas- und Wasserf. in 

Osterr.-UngaiTi Zeitschr., vol. 52, Vienna. 
1912. Lbjbaux, Jban, Le secret des sources [The secret of springs]: Le journal, 

June 7, Dec. 27. 
1912. Lbjbaux, Jban, D6couvrez vous-mdme les sources [Discover springs yourself]: 

La vie k la campagne, Nov. 15. 
1912. Maobb, Hbnbi, Les moyens de d^couvrir les eaux souterraines et de les utiliser 

[The means of finding and utilizing undergroimd water], 775 pp., Paris. 
1912. UsLAB, Von, Des Landrats von Uslar Arbeiten mit der WtLnschelrute in SQd- 

westafrica [Landrat von Uslar's work with the divining rod in Southwest 

Africa], Stuttgart. 
1912. Vesblt, J., Kouzeln^ Proutek [The rod of divination], Zlata Praha, 29th year, 

Prague. 
1912. ViOBN, Chablbs, La baguette divinatoire en Allemagne. Etudes r^entes [The 

divining rod in Germany. Recent studies]: La nature, Aug. 17. 

1912. Wetbauch, R., Der Begriff des Erfolges bei Arbeiten von WUnschelruten- 

gluigem {The conception of the results of the work of divining-rod operators], 
Stutt^urt. 

1913. BiBOT, Emilb, La recherche des eaux souterraines et les sourciers [The investi- 

gation of ground water and water witches]: Lyon-Colonial, March. 



52 THE DIVINING BOD. 

1913. Dbsoboiz, Two articles on the Oongrees (of diviners) of 1913 and the exx)eri- 
ments in ihabdomancy: L'eau, April. 

1913. HiMON, Camille, La semaine des sourciers [Tlie week of water witches]: Ex- 
celsior, Apr. 7. 

1913. Elingkowstroem, Graf. Oabl yon, Ergebnisse der T&tigkeit des Landrats von 
Uslar in Deutschland [Results of iJie work of the Landrat von Uslar in 
Grermany]: Verbands z. Kl&rung Wiinschelrute Schriften, No. 4. 

1913. Maobb, Henbi, Les influences des'corps min^raux: Recherche par leuis influ- 
ences des eaux soutemdnes, des corps enfouis ou dissimul^e, des gisements 
m^tallif^res [The influence of mineral bodies: Investigation of their influ- 
ence on underground water, buried or hidden substances, and metalliferous 
deposits], 236 pp., Paris. 

1913. Maoeb, Henri, Les sourciers et leurs proc6d^: la baguette et le pendule 
[Water witches and their methods: the divining rod and the magic pendu- 
lum], Paris. 

1913. Maoeb, Henbi, Oommimication sur les lignes de force susceptibles d'influencer 
rhomme et d'etre enregistr^ par une simple baguette [Communication, on 
the lines of force capable of influencing man and of being registered by a 
simple divining rod], address before the Academy of Science, Apr. 21 and 28. 

1913. Martel, E.-A., Rapport sur le congr^ des baguettisants k Paris en mars 1913, 
pr^nt6 le 7 avril 1913 k la Commission sp^iale d'hydrologie souterraine 
du Minist^re de Tagriculture [Report on liie congress of diviners at Paris 
in March, 1913, presented to the special commission of undergroimd hydrol- 
ogy of the Ministry of Agriculture, Apr. 7, 1913]. 

1913. QuiNCY, C, et H. Guillbmin, Les sourciers et la baguette divinatoire [The 
water witches and the divining rod]: Soc. sci. nat. Sadne-et-Loire, Bull., vol. 
19, pp. 21-28. 

1913. Rendu, Dr. Joann , Rapport sur les trois premieres experiences foites par la 
commission charg6e d'^tudier la question de la baguette divinatoire, janvier- 
f^vrier, 1913 [Report on the first three experiments made by the commission 
directed to study the question of the divining rod, January-February, 1913]: 
Soc. d*agr., sci. ind. Lyon Annales, Travaux de la Commission lyonnaise 
d'6tudes hydroscopiques, fasc. 3. 

1913. RoLU^RE, Brothier de, La baguette des sourciers. Classification des faits et 
des m^thodes anciennes et modemes [The divining rod of water witches. 
Classification of ancient and modem facts and methods]. 

1913. Rouyer, C, Experience sur la baguette divinatoire [Experiences with the 
divining rod]: Soc. sci. nat. Sadne-et-Loire, new ser., vol. 19, pp. 51-56. 

1913. Roux, Cl., and fi. Birot, La d^couverte et le captage des eaux souterraines dans 
le D^partement du Rhdne [The discovery and acquisition of underground 
waters in the department of the Rhone]: Soc. d'agr., sci. ind. Lyon Annales, 
1912, 1913. 

1913. Varigny, H. de, Articles sur la baguette et sur le concoiUB des sourciers k Paris 
en mars, 1913 [Articles on the divining rod and on the congress of watey 
witches at Paris in March, 1913]: Journal des d6bats, March and April. 

1913. ViRE, Armand, L'art de decouvrir les sources. Les sourciers et la baguette 
divinatoire [The art of finding springs. Water witches and the divining rod]: 
La nature, April. 

1913. The divining rod in Germany: Harper's Weekly, vol. 57, Feb. 22, p. 22, New 
York. Discusses revival of faith in divining rod in consequence of drought. 

1913. The mystery of the divining rod: Independent, vol. 76, Oct. 9, pp. 64-65, New 
York. 

1913. The divining rod again called into court: Review of Reviews, vol. 48, July, 
pp. 101-102, New York. 



BIBUOGBAPHY. 53 

1913. The study of the divining rod: Literary Digest, vol. 46, Feb. 15, p. 341, New 

York. Translation of an article by E. A. Martel in La nature, Paris, Dec. 
21, 1913. 

1914. Magbb, Henri, A new method for the study of mining fields and for finding 

ore embedded in deep ground. 8 pp. Paris. 
1916. Smith, J. T., The divining rod as an oil finder: Petroleum World, vol. 13, 
no. 191, p. 371. 

PUBLICATIONS NOT DATED. 

Anbbdcont, D*, La science hydrologique [The science of hydrology]. 

Br6viaire du d^vin et du sorcier; contenant le traits de la baguette divinatoire; le 
dragon rouge; les merveilleux secrets du Petit Albert, Tenchiridion du Pape 
L6on III, etc. [Breviary of the soothsayer and the water finder; treatise on 
the divining rod; red dragon; secret marvels of Petit Albert, the manual 
of Pope Leo III, etc.], Paris; figures. 

Ohaxon, p.. Recherche et captage des sources [Investigation and development of 
(underground) springs], 2d ed. 

Chuj), S. T., Water finding. 

DsiiSUZE, Histoire critique du magn^tisme animal [Critical history of animal mag- 
netism]. 

Dblrio, Les pratiques superstitieuses de la branche de coudrier [The superstitious 
uses of the hazel twig], Disquisit. magic, book 3. 

Endriss, Karl, many articles on the divining rod in Grerman periodicals. 

Holt, Henbt, On the cosmic relations. 

Janet, Piebre, L'automatisme psychologique [Psychological automatism]. 

RiCHET, Charles, Les mouvements inconscients [Unconscious movements]. 

RiOLS, J. DE. See Toumier, Paul. 

RocHAS, A. DE, Effluves odiques [Odic emanations]. 

TouBNiER, Paul, L'art de d^couvrir les sources propres k donner naissance k des 
fontaines jaillissantes [The art of finding springs capable of giving rise to 
spouting fountains], Le Bailly, Paris. 



INDEX. 



A. Page. 

Adolf, H., died. 47 

Agrioola, (leorgius, cited 26 

on the use of rods for finding ores 10-11 

Aigner, Edouard, dted 47,49 

AIWnus,Theophil,dted. 31,32 

Aldrovandus, Ulysses, dted : 27 

Alembert, Jean Baptiste le Bond d', and 

Diderot, Denis, dted 33 

Amorettl, Carlo, dted 35,36,37 

Aniy,F.,dted 40 

Andrimont,D',dted 53 

Anhom, Bartholom, dted 28 

Arcet,J.dMetal.], dted 34 

Ardooane, dted 42 

Aretin,C.F., von, dted 36 

Amim,L. A., von, dted 36 

Art dee sourders,!', dted 49 

Arady,L.,dted. 45 

Aii8dier,B.S.,dted 42 

Aymar, Jacques, tracing of criminals by. . 16-17, 18 

B. 

Baguettes divinatoires m^taUiques, les, 

dted 49 

Baiing-Gould,S.,dted 40 

Barrett, W. F., ascribes movements of rod to 

miooiisdous muscular action 22-23 

dted 42,48,49 

on the finding of water for Saint Teresa. . 15 

on the origin ofthe modem divining rod.. 12 
on the tradng of a criminal by Jacques 

Aymar...... 17 

and Warcolier,R., dted 46 

Battandier, A.,dted..„ 43 

Bauer, L. A., on magnetic disturbances in the 

earth 25 

Bavir,H.,dted 45 

Bayer, H.C., dted 47 

Bayle, Pierre, dted 31 

BeanccMps, A. et F. de, dted 42 

Beausolell, Baron and Baroness, use of divin- 

ingrodsby 14-15 

Beausolell, Baroness, dted 27 

BeavQn,£. W.,dted 42 

Beodier, Joadiim, dted 31 

Beem, Phil. Christoph., dted. 27 

Behme, Dr.,dted 49 

Behrendt, P.,dted 51 

Bekker,Balthasar,dted 29 

B^dor, Bernard Forest de, dted 32 

Belon, Pierre, dted. 26 

Berger,dted 45 

BenihardU8,R. P.ydted 26 

Bersot, Ernest, dted 39 

Bertereau, Martine de, dted 27 

Be88on,Jaoquea,dted 26 



Pag^ 

Beyer, P., cited 49 

Beyschlag, F., cited 43 

Bianco, F., dted 46 

Bible, use of rods mentioned in 9 

Bibliography 26-53 

Bieske, E., cited 48 

Biot,J.B.,cited 40 

Bhrk,A.,dted 45 

Birot, ^Unile, cited 51 

and Roux, Claude, cited 26, 51, 52 

Bizouard, Jos., dted 40 

Bjerge, Paul. See Feilberg, H. F. 

Bleton, BarthAemy, finding of water by 18-20 

Blom,V.,dted 46 

Bluhme, Joh. Barth., and Dethardingius, 

Georg,dted 82 

Bodhi,J.,cited 26 

Bonnem^, [Liond], cited 41 

Bonniot, Chanoine V. de, cited 42 

Bormann, W., cited 49, 51 

Bourcard, 1. 1., cited 43 

Boyle, Robert, cited 27 

BraDcowich, F., cited 47, 49 

Brftuner, J. J., cited 32 

Br^viare du devin et du sorcler, cited 53 

Bruhierd'Ablainoourt,J. J.,cited 32 

Brtumhofer, H., dted 50 

Bruno, E., cited 47 

BtUow-Bothkamp, Cai von, cited 43 

Bunting, J. P., dted 29 

Bussi^, Paul, dted 30 

Butsdiky vcn Rutinfeld, Samud, cited 28 

C. 

C, M. J. M., lettre de, k If. de Salgues, cited. 36 

Caesius, Bernard, cited 27 

Cancrinus, F. L., cited 33 

Carmejeanne, C, cited 50 

Carnegie Institution of Washington, magnetic 

surveyby 24 

Carrie, Abb6, cited 40 

Carus, C. O., cited 39 

Caud6ran, Hippolyte, cited 41 

Chabrand, Ernest, cited 44 

Chalon, P., cited 42,53 

Chatdain, Prof., cited 29 

Chauvin, Pierre,eited 29 

Chevalier, Abb6 Casimir, cited 38 

Chevreul, Michd Eugene, cited 38,39 

explanation of the divining rod and magic 

pendulumby 21 

Child, S.T., cited 53 

Cicero on divination 9 

ClavairoE, If . F., cited 41 

Collin dePlancy[Abb6 If igne], cited 37,38 

Colqohomi, J. C, dted 39 

55 



56 



INDEX^ 



Page. 

Comiers, Claude, cited 29 

Conoealment of real methods, use of diviniiig 

rod for 15 

Controversies, early, oonoeming the diviniiig 

rod 12-14 

Cookworthy, William, cited 33 

Cotta, Bemhard, cited 39 

Coussidre, La,cited 43 

Criminals, use of the rod in detecting 16-18 

Cuvillers, ^tienne F^lix Baron d'H^nin de, 

cited 37 

D. 

Dallac, Abbd, cited. 38 

Darapsky, L., cited 43 

Deception, intentional and unintentional 6 

Dechales, Cl.-Fr. Millet, cited 28 

oni)eculiaritiesoftherod. 16 

D^oouverte des eaux d'Uriage, cited 34 

Decremps, cited 34 

Degouste, 7., cited 38 

Delanne, Gabriel, cited 43 

Deleuze, cited 63 

Delrio, cited 63 

Desoosse, de Forcalquier, cited 40 

Descroix, cited 62 

Dessoir, Max, cited 46 

Dethardingius, Qeorg, and Bluhme, Joh. 

Barth.,cited 32 

D^yeux, cited 34 

Diderot, Denis, and Alembert, Jean Baptiste 

le Rond d', cited 33 

Diefenbach, M., cited 44 

Dienert, FrAi^ric, cited 43,46 

Oufllerd, A., and Marrec, cited 47 

Divining rod again called into court, cited ... 63 

Divining rod in Germany, cited 62 

Dobberkau, E. W., cited 50 

Dominik, H., cited 47 

Douxami, Henri, cited 60 

Dowsing, use of term 22 

Dreher, K., cited 47 

Dreyer, Otto, cited 50 

Dryver, P. W., cited 46 

Dudaux, Jacques, cited 61 

Dufour, cited. 40 

Dufourg, Fr.,cited 47 

Dumas, J., cited 39 

Dflnkelberg, Pro! Dr., cited 47 

Durville, H., cited 43 

E. 

Ebel, Johann Gottfried, cited 36 

Ecclesiastical controversies, features of. 16 

Eckartshausen, Karl von, cited 36 

Eglin, Raphael, cited 28 

Ehlert, H., cited 44,46 

EichholtE, Peter, dted 27 

Electricity, movements of rod ascribed to 18-20 

Emsmann, H.,cited. 40 

Endriss, Karl, cited 48,63 

England,' introduction of the divining rod 

into 12 

Brbstein, A., cited 45 

Ettner, Johan Christian, cited 31 



Europe, spread of the divining rod throoi^.. 12-13 

Eyssvogel, Friderich Oottlob, cited 33 

F. 

PabrionI, O. V. M., cited 35 

Falkenhcfst, C, dted 43 

Faraday, Michael, explanation of table tum- 

ingby 21 

FandiOQ, Dr., cited 43 

Favre, L^oo. See Clavairoz, M. F. 

Fehrman, Karl L., cited. 51 

Feilberg, H. F., cited 41 

Feudivirus, H. F., cited 33 

Feyjoo, Benito-Geronymo, cited 33 

Fiebelkom, Dr., cited. 46 

Figuier, Louis, cited. 40 

Fischer, H.L., cited 35 

Fisdier, Joh. Andr.,dted 32 

Fiske, John, dted 40 

Fits, J., cited 46 

Fleischmann, Dr. O., dted 46 

Flemming, Hanns Friedr. von, cited 32 

Fldrke, H. Gustav, cited 37 

Fluctibus, Robert de, cited 27 

Flodd, Robert, cited 27 

Fonvielle, W. de, dted 41 

Form of the divining rod 7-8 

Formey, J. H. S., cited 33 

Fomari. See Giraldo, M. de. 

Fortis, Abb4 Albert, cited 35,36 

France, current investigations in 23 

Francois, Jean, cited 27 

Franiius, G., cited 44,46,48,50 

Fratta et Montalbano, MaidL Marco Antonio 

della,cited 28 

Frenzel, Paul, cited 48 

Friedrich, Albrecht, cited 46 

Frommann, Joannes Christian, cited 28 

defense of the rod by 16 

Froriep, L. von, cited 38 

Ftlistenaa, R., dted. 45 

G. 

G.,E. F.,dted 30 

Gaetzsohmann, Moriz Ferdinand, cited 39 

Gagel, C, cited 43 

Galien, Claude, cited 26 

Gallego, E., dted 48 

Gamier, Pierre, dted 29,30 

Gast, A., cited 43 

Gataker, L., alias Ismala, dted 43 

GeiDitz,E.,dted 48 

Gerbdn, Dr., dted 36 

Gerhard, William Paul, cited 50 

Germany, current investigations in 23 

Gessmanu, G., cited 45 

GHardin, Alphonse, cited 38 

Gilbert, L. W., dted 36 

Ginsberg, Fr ., dted 37 

Giraldo, M. de, dted 38 

Glanvil, Joseph, dted 28 

Gobet,dted 33 

Gockel, A., cited 46 

Gold and silver, attraction of, by rod 9 

Gorres, Joseph von, dted 38 

Goupil, cited 46 



INDEX. 



57 



Page. 

Qraeve, Otto Edier Ton, cited fiO 

Grasse,Joh.G.Th., cited 38 

Grasset, Dr., cited 43,44,45 

Orimm, J., cited 48 

Grimm, Jacob, cited 38 

Qud, P. do, and RoUi^, Brothier de, cited. . 42 

Guillerd, A., Dienert, F., and Marrec, cited. . 47 

GuiUemain, C, cited 48 

Goillemin, H., et Quincy, C, cited S2 

Guillotin. jSm Arcet, J. d'. 

Gutmann, Agidius, cited 26 

H. 

Haas, H. J., cited 42 

Halle; J. 8., cited 34,35 

Hartmann,A.,cited 48 

HasUnger, Camillo, cited 40 

Hanssen, J. 8., cited. 41 

Haussmann, Karl, cited 47 

Heim,A.,cited 44 

Heinilchs, Ladw., cited / 45 

Helbig, cited 46 

HeDand, A.,cited 41 

Htoioa, Gamine, cited 52 

Heimig, Rich., cited 44,51 

Hesse, Dr., cited 50 

Heyd, Th., cited 48 

Hfldebrandt, Gotthold, cited 44 

Hirsohfeld, Ludwig, cited 43 

Histoire d'une jeune anglaise, cited 33 

Hoch, J., cited 48 

Hoemes, K., cited 51 

Hohberg, Wolff Helmh. von, cited 29 

Hohenfels, Hans von, cited 50 

Holding rod, manner of 7, 8 

Hcdmes, T. V., cited 42 

Holt, Henry, cited 53 

Hoppe, O., cited 45 

Huber, Carl, cited 50 

Hnfeland, C. W., cited 37 

Hilsing, O., cited 46 

Hnyier, Dum^e, cited 34 

I. 

Inoantatioms, use M, with divining rods 11 

Information, demand for 5 

Inquisition, use of rod in criminal prosecution 

ended by 18 

Instruments for finding water, patents on . . . 23-25 
Ismala. See Oataker, L. 

J. 

Jacob, P. L., cited 40,41 

Jaooby, cited 48 

Jaoquet , A bb6 , cited 39, 40 

Jaeger, O., cited 46 

Janet, Pierre, cited 53 

Jugel, Johann Gottfried, cited 33 

K. 

KSstner, A. G., cited 33 

Keckermann, cited 26 

Keilhack, E., cited 43 

Kdler, Ernst Urban, cited 33 

Eieser, D. G., cited 37 

Kiessewetter, Carl, cited 41 

8u alio Haussen, J. S. 

KiessUng, Johann Gottfried, cited 33 

Klroher, AthaoAsius, cited 27,28 



Page. 

Kirchmaler, Theodor, et Martins, J. H., cited. 28 

Kirchmann, M. C, cited 29 

Klapper, J., cited 44 

Klein, Jakobus, et Sperling, Johann, dted. . . 27 

Klinckowstroem, Giaf Carl von, cited 26, 

48,50,51,52 

Kluge, Carl A. F., cited 37 

Knlepf, Albert, cited 43,45,46,48 

Koch, K. R., cited 50 

K6hler,Q., cited 41 

K611er-Carow, Von, dted 47 

K6nig, F., cited 47,50 

Krause, Ernst. iS«« Sterne, Cams. 

Kriiger, Johann Gottlob, cited 33 

Kuhlenbeck, Ludwig, cited 41 

Kullmann, Heinrich, cited 45 

L. 

La Baume, W., cited 45 

Ladef des sources, dted 38 

La Garde, Abb6 de, dted 30 

Lacroix, P. See Jacob, P. L. 

LafBneur, Jules, cited 41 

Laforet, Aug., dted 40 

Lalande, J. J. de, cited 33, 34 

Lancelin, Charles , cited 48 

Lang, Andrew, dted 41 

Lange, G. A., cited 44 

Lanz-Liebenfels, J., dted 50 

Latimer, Charles, ascribes movements of rod 

to magnetism 21-22 

dted 40 

Latour, Bendt,dted 38 

Lavaur, De, dted 32 

Le Conte, J. Georg. See S^ntgravlus, D. J. 

J., and Le Conte, J. Georg. 
Le Lorrain, Pierre. See Vallemont, Abb6 de. 

Le Royer, Jacques, cited 28 

Lebenwaldt, Adam von, dted 29 

Lebrun, Pierre, cited 30,31,32 

theory of " prior intention" advanced by. 18 

Ledel, Sigismund, dted 31 

Iiefebre, A., dted 43 

Lehmann, Alfred, dted 42 

Lejeaux, Jean, dted 51 

Len6tre, G.,dted 45 

Leppla, A., dted 44 

I ..ettre sur la baguette divinatoire, cited 30 

Lichtenberg,G.C.,andVoigt,J.H.,dted — 35 

Liebentantz, Michael, dted 27 

Lignaridus, Hermann, dted 26 

Lochmann, Prof., dted 41 

Lockhart, M., dted 37 

lioesdier, Martin Gotthelf, dted. 32 

Ldhneyss, GeorgE.,dted 26 

L<^he, G. A.,de,dted 34 

Loth, Arthur, cited 50 

Loubert, J. B.,cited 38 

Luce, J. W. L., dted 35 

Luttenbaoher, H., dted 50 

M. 

Macquer. <9ee Arcet, J. d\ 

Mager, Henri, dted 48,49,51,52,53 

recent claims for the divining rod by 23 

''Magic pendulum," use of 21 

Magnetic disturbances, terrestrial, scope of . . . 25 



58 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Maier,F.,clted 45 

Mansfield, W., water finder of 24 

Ifartel, E.-A., cited 52,53 

MartelliAre, dted 43 

Martius, J. H. See Kirchmaier, Theodor, et 

Martias, J. H. 

Marree, Dienert, F., and OtdUerd, A., cited.. . 47 

Materiab, various, used for rods 16 

Mayer, Michel, cited 26 

Mayo, Herbert, cited 39 

Meinzer, O. E., introductory note by 5-6 

Melancthon, Philippe, cited 26 

Meltzer von Wolokenstein, Christian, cited . . 29 

Mtoestrier, Cl.-Fr., cited 30,38 

M6ry, Gaston, dted 47 

Metha, H. K., cited 49 

Meunier, Mme. Stanislas, cited 41 

Meyer, Carl, cited 38 

Meyer, G., cited 60 

Migne, Abb^, cited 38 

8u also Collin de Plancy. 
Mitouart. See Arcet, J. d'. 

Molinaeus, Petrus,cited 27 

Money, advice agdnst expenditure of 6 

Montanus, Ellas, cited 26 

Montenay du Menhy, Comte de, cited 45 

Morinais, G. de la, cited 42 

Morogues, Baron de, cited 39 

"^ Mortillet, Gabriel, cited 38 

Moulin, Pierre du, cited 27 

Mullins, John, cited 42 

Murderers, use of rods for detecting 9 

Muscular movements, involuntary, magic 
pendulum, table turning, and 

divining rod explained by 16,21 

Mylius, Chr., cited 33 

Mystery of the divining rod, cited 53 

N. 

Nagel, L., cited 44 

Nicholas, Jean, cited 30 

Nicolas, M., cited 34 

NOggerath, Jacob, cited 40 

Nork, F., cited 38 

O. 

Obst, Walter, cited 50 

Ohlsen, O., cited 47 

Ohnstein, Albert, cited 45 

Oken, L., cited 37 

Origin of the divining rod 8-9 

Ostwald, Wilhelm, cited 42 

Outrepont, Prof., cited 37 

Ozanam, J., cited 30 

P. 

^ Pabst, Camille, cited 44 

Paine, Ralph D. , cited 60 

Panthot, Jean-Baptiste, cited 29,30 

Paoli, P., cited 36 

Paracelsus, on the untrustwrathiness of di- 
vining rods 12 

Paramelle, Abb6, cited 39 

Parville, Henri de, cited 42 

Passavant, Joh. Carl, cited 37 

Pease, Edw. R., cited 41 

Percis, Heliophilus a, cited 26 

Peretti, A., cited 40 



Peijurers, use of rod for detecting 9 

Peucer, Gaspar, cited as 

Pfuagst, Oskar, cited. 32 

PhilUps, W., dted 37 

Phippeo, F., cited 39 

Pixies, belief in ag«ney of 14 

Plattes, Gabriel, dted 27 

Pliny, silence of, on divining rods 9 

Poetters, Karl,cited 44 

Poissonier. 8eeAx<xit,3.d\ 

Porta, Jo. Baptlsta, cited. 26 

Posldn, A., cited 48 

Praetorlus, Johann, dted 28 

Prel, Earlda,dted .• 42 

"Priorintention," theory of 18 

Pryce, William, cited. 33 

Psydiology, rise of. 21 

Q. 

Quincy, C, et Goillemin, H., dted 52 

R. 

Rabus, Pleter, dted 31 

Ramanzlni, Dionlgi, cited 35 

Rattray, Sylvester, cited 28 

Raymond, R. W., dted 41 

on religious rites connected with the di- 

vinJngrod 14 

on the bdief in the divining rod 22 

on the detedion of criminals by Jacques 

Aymar 17 

on the early use of the divining rod 9-10 

on the finding of water by Barthflemy 

Bleton 19-20 

on the prospecting methods of Baron 

Beausolefl 14-15 

Redlien, and Schober, G., dted 47 

Rege, Eugenon von, cited 45 

Regnard, Jean F., dted. 35 

Reichenbach, Karl L. F. von, cited 39 

Religious rites connected with the divining 

rod 14 

Renaud, Andr^, cited 30 

Rendu, Joanny, cited 62 

R&ie, Comte de, cited 39 

Reusdi, Hans, dted 50 

Rhabdomancy, meaning of 9 

Richard, Abb6 Pierre, dted 40 

Richet, Charles, dted 53 

Richter, Emil, dted 44 

Riols, J. de, dted 53 

Riondet, d'Hyferes, dted 39 

Rltter, Wilhelm, cited 37 

Rivinus, F. F., and Wemher, J. F., cited ... 32 

Rivlnus, Quint. Sept. Flor., dted 32 

Roberti, Joh., dted 26 

Rochas, Albert de, cited 41, 53 

Rohr, Bemhard von, cited 32 

Rohrbadi, P., dted 48 

Rolli^re, Brothier de, cited 52 

and Gu6, P. du, cited 42 

Romain, dted 40 

Roman, J. L., and Wallerius, J. G., dted 33 

RSssler, B., dted 31 

Roth, Karl,cited 50 

Rothe, Georg,dted 49 

Roux, Claude, and Birot, Emile, dted. 26,51,52 



INDEX. 



59 



Page. 

Rouyer, C, cited 52 

Rosier, Abb6, cited * 34 

Ruppel, WiUy, cited 60 

S. 

Saint-Andrd, De, cited 32 

Saintdoud, P., cited 43 

Saint-Romaiii, O. B. de, cited 29 

movements of rod explained by 16 

Sainte-Tulle, Lazare de, cited 39 

Salgues, J. B.y'cited 37 

Satanic influence, movements of divining rod 

attributed to 13-14,17-18 

Saori, Abb6, cited 33 

Schaub, J. D., cited 28 

Sebelling, F.W.J. vcai,cited... 36 

8(dimid, Adolf, water finder of 24,25 

Schmid, Adolf, dted 48 

Schmidt, C. W., cited 39 

Schmidt, E., cited 44 

Schmidt, J. G.,ci£ed 32 

Schober, G., and Redlien, dted 47 

Schott, Gaspard, dted 27 

earlier and later beliefs of 16, 17 

Schowalter, A., cited 47 

Schults, Thomas Johann, dted 29 

Schtltze, Heinrich Carl, dted 33 

Schwartz, Wilhelm, cited 41 

Schwenter, Daniel, cited 27 

Schwimmer, Johann M., dted 28 

M. J. M., cited 28 

Sementini, Luigi,dted 37 

Siegert, A., cited 45 

Sloet, L. A. J. W., cited 49 

Smith, J. T., cited 53 

Sffkeland, Hermann, dted 44 

Solutions de probltaies eonoemant les 

sources, dted..; 39 

Sourders * * * sordersf Peut-on voir Peau 

sous terre? dted 44 

Spadoni, Paolo, cited 35 

Spallanzani, Abb6 Lazaro, cited 35 

Spasms, muscular, of diviners 7-8 

Steftens, Heinrich, cited 37 

Sterginger, Ferdinand, dted 34 

Sterne, Cuns, dted 40 

St&ide, Julius, dted. 41 

Stoer, Johann Gottlieb, cited 33 

Stoas, P., cited 46 

Study of the divining rod, cited 53 

Sturm, J. C, dted 31 

Surbled, Georges, cited 44 

Surya, G. W.,cited 47 

Szent-Ivany, Martin, cited 29 

T. 

"Table turning," rise of 21 

Taack, W., cited 46 

Taidivel, J. B., cited 42 

Tentzel, Wllhelm E., cited 30 

ThoQvenel, Pierre, cited 34,35^36 

explains water witching by animal mag- 
netism 18-20 

See also Arcet, J. d'. 

Tollius.J., cited 31 

Tonmier, Paul, cited 53 



Page. 

Trebra, F. W. H. von. cited 34 

Tr^buoq, S., cited 47 

Tristan, Comte J. de, dted 37, 44 

U. 

Uhl,G., cited 44 

United States, use of divining rod in 21-22 

Urban, Midiael, dted 43 

Uses for divining rods 8 

Uslar, Von, cited 51 

V. 

Vagedes, Henr., cited 31 

Vagny, De, cited 80 

Valentini, D. M. B., cited 31 

Valentinus, Basilius, dted 26 

on the use of the divining rod 12 

Vallemont, Abb4 de, dted 30 

Varigny, H. de, cited 62 

Varro, silence of , on divining rods 9 

Vemhes, Abb4A.,cited 42 

Vesely. J., dted 61 

Vigen, Charles, cited 46,61 

Vilbussi^, Le Commandeur de, cited 32 

Violet, P., cited 31 

Vire, Armand, dted 62 

Vitruvius, silence of, on divining rods 9 

Vogdt, cited 47 

Vogel, P.,cited 47 

Voigt, J. H., and Liditenberg, G. C, cited. . 36 

Voll, Adam, cited 49,61 

Voss, Ludwig von, cited 37 

W. 

Waldi. J. G.,clted 32 

Wallerius, J. G., et Roman, J. L. , cited 33 

Wappler, A. F., cited 47 

Warcolier, R. , and Barrett, W. F., cited 46 

"Water witching," origin of 15-16 

Weber, L., cited 46 

Weber, M., cited 49,51 

Webster, John, cited 28 

Wegner, Dr., cited 48 

Wegner, G. W., dted 32 

Weinholt, A., cited 36 

Weise, J. M. See Albinus. Theophil. 

Welsse, J. Ft., cited 37 

Weissenberg, H., cited 4 

Wenzel, J. G.,cited 36 

Wemher, J. F., and Rivinus, F. F., cited.... 32 

Wertheimer, J., cited 51 

Weyrauch, R., cited 61 

Wiegleb. J. C, cited 36 

Wille, Matthes. See Willenius, Matthaeus. 

Willenius, Matthaeus, dted 28 

Wfllfort,M., cited 46 

Witdicraft, movements of rod ascribed to. 16,17-18 

Wolff, Wilhehn, cited 46,47,49,51 

Wood, kinds used for rods 7 

Working {irindple of rod. claims concerning. 5-6 

Y. 

Ysabeau, A., dted 38 

Z. 

Zeider. Johann Gottfried, cited 31 

Zentgravius, Daniel Jdban Joachim, et Le 

Conte, Johan Georg, cited 31 

Zollikofer, Dr.. cited 37 

Zschokke, Heinrioh, cited 37 



O