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n,g,t,..dt, Google 

Irimtton: C. J. CLAY and SONS, 




Idpllg: F. A. BROCKHAUS. 








Hon. LL.D. and D.C.L. 




1 901 

[AU Rights rtttrvtd] 


prill,:" ME'.'.AM 










In this edition of Demosthenes on the Crown I have 
attempted to supply students with what I deem most essential 
to a thorough understanding of this masterpiece of oratory. 
No mere commentary, however learned and lucid, can make 
a speech like this intelligible to those who have not a full and 
accurate knowledge of the events which are discussed, and of 
their relation to other events. No adequate treatment of 
historical points is possible in scattered notes, and references to 
a general history (even to Grote or Curtius) are not sufficient. 
The student of Demosthenes needs a connected narrative, in 
which he will find a detailed account of the events which 
especially concern him, with copious references to the authorities, 
without being distracted by other details in which he has no 
immediate interest. To meet this want, I have given a lai^e 
space to an "Historical Sketch" of the period from the acces- 
sion of Philip to the battle of Chaeronea, in which I have en- 
larged disproportionately on the events and questions discussed 
in the orations of Demosthenes and Aeschines on the Crown 
and on the Embassy, and have alluded slightly (or perhaps 
not at all) to many important matters which are not essential 
to the study of these speeches. This would be unpardonable 
in a history ; but this sketch assumes a general knowledge of 
the history of the period which it covers, and makes no pretence 
to being such a history in itself With this view, I have given 
what may seem undue prominence to the negotiations which 
led to the Peace of Philocrates; for a minute knowledge of these 
is absolutely necessary to a correct understanding of the brief 


viii PREFACE. 

but cedent ai^ument of Demosthenes in Cor, §§ 17 — 52, and to 
a fair judgment of the whole political course of both Demos- 
thenes and Acschines at this decisive crisis in the history of 
Athens. Much new light has been thrown upon the whole 
period which I have treated from inscriptions recently dis- 
covered by the French explorers at Delphi and from the Corf its 
Inscriptionum Atticarum. In preparing this sketch I have made 
constant use of Grote and of Schaefer's Demosthenes utid Seine 
Zeit, as my references will show. 

In revising the text I have in most cases followed the 
authority of the Codex 1, especially when it is supported by 
its companion L', See Essay vii. In preparing the com- 
mentary I have been constantly aided by the long line of 
editors, whose names are too familiar to need mention, I must, 
however, express my great obligation to Westermann and Blass, 
especially for references to parallel passages and to other illus- 
trations. I have found it impossible to give credit for every 
remark and reference which may be borrowed from these or 
other recent editors: many of these are found in the notes of 
Dissen and the older editors, and many have long been in my 
own collection of notes. Nothing is harder to trace than old 
references, and most of those relating to Demosthenes on the 
Crown may now be assumed to be common property, 

I take great pleasure in expressing (not for the first time) 
my deep indebtedness to Dr Henry Jackson of Trinity College, 
Cambridge. He has done me the inestimable service of reading 
and revising my proofs and giving me the benefit of his wide 
experience. There are few pages in this book which have not 
had the benefit of his criticism. 

Notwithstanding the size of this volume, I have omitted the 
discussion of many interesting questions, especially some which 
belong to the whole subject of Attic oratory rather than to the 
study of a single oration. One of these relates to the rhythmical 
character of the language of Demosthenes, which could not be 
treated briefly or incidentally. 1 must refer those who are 
interested in this to Blass, Attische Beredsamkeit, III. i, pp. 105 
— 141, with the Anhang. 

I have avoided many discussions of grammatical points in 



the notes by references to my Syntax of the Greek Moods and 
Tenses (M. T.), and 1 have occasionally referred to my Greek 
Grammar (G.). The references to Grote IX. — xil, are made to 
the first edition ; those to earlier volumes to the second edition. 
Those to Schaefer's Demosthenes are to the second edition ; and 
those to Bocckh's Staatshaushaltung der Atkener to the third 
edition by Frankel (1886). 

I have made no attempt to be neutral on the question of the 
patriotism and the statesmanship of Demosthenes in his policy 
of uncompromising resistance to Philip. It seems to me that 
the time for such neutrality is past. I cannot conceive how any 
one who knows and respects the traditions of Athens, and all 
that she represents in the long contest of free institutions against 
tyranny, can read the final attack of Aeschines and the reply of 
Demosthenes without feeling that Demosthenes always stands 
forth as a true patriot and statesman, who has the best interests 
of his countr}' at heart and upholds her noblest traditions, while 
Aeschines appears first as a trimmer and later as an intentional 
(if not a corrupt) ally of Philip in his contest with Athens. 
That the policy of resistance to Philip's aggressions failed at last 
is no discredit to the patriotism or the statesmanship of Demos- 
thenes. Can any one, even at this day, read the pathetic and 
eloquent appeal of Demosthenes to posterity in Cor. §§ 199 — 
208, and not feel that Athens would have been unworthy of her 
glorious past if she had submitted to Philip without a struggle 
for liberty, even if Chaeronea and all its consequences had been 
seen by her in advance? Her course was plain : that of De- 
mosthenes was even plainer. 


Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass., 
November 15, igocx 




Hypotheses 3—6 

Oration on the Crown 7— «7 

Historical Sketch : — 

I. From the Accession of Philip to 353 B.C . 339—234 
II. Early Life of Demosthenes.— Events from 352 to 

348 B.C . ■ 234—343 

III. The Peace of Philocrates 342-268 

IV. Six years of nominal Peace, 346 — 340 ftc. . 368 — 285 
V. The War with Philip, from 340 ac. to the Battle of 

Chaeronea in 33B b.c 285- -299 

Table of Dates 300 — 305 

The Attic Year 305— 3"? 

Essay I. Argument of the Oration, with remarks on 5§ 120, 

121 308—316 

Essay II. The ypmp'i irapavoitav 316 — 327 

Essay III. The Suit against Ctesiphon .... 327—332 

Essay IV. Trials of Aeschines and PhilocrAtes in 343 ac . 332 — 337 

Essay V. Constitution of the Amphictyonic Council 338 — 339 

Essay VI. The Hero Physician and the Hero KaXofunji 339 — 342 

Essay VII. Manuscripts of the Oration on the Crown 343—35° 
EssAV Vlll. Stichometry In the Manuscripts of Demos- 

ihenes 350 — 355 

Indexes 357—368 


Page 14S, Noles, cot. i, I. 1, riaJ Vesp. 957. 
„ 150, „ „ 1. II, „ Philoch. 



n,g,t,..dt, Google I 



TEIXOS fiiv o p^Twp vtrkp 'Aff^vaiwv irpov^aXero twv vvp^- 
6av TovTnav km jfeipoTrof^Tuv appevyitrrepov re xal ^iKriov, t^v tc 
«'? rifv woXiv evvotav Kal irepl \6yoiK SeivoTrjra, (o? outo? eiprfKev 
" ov >uOoK Koi irXivBoii tA? 'A^Tj'i/as wxvpoxra, aXX^ fityakant 
Svpdp^ai Kal TToWtj tivi cvfifuij^C^, t^ fiev etc yijv, Tp Si ix 
SaKaTTtf^" oil fir/v aXXA xal etV tow j^eiptytroiijTov Trepi^oKov oi 
321 fuxp^ TJJ TToKet ffvve^dXero. TreirovyjicoTO^ yip Kara ttoXK^ f*^PV 
Tov reixovv rots 'A^ijyotot?, itreiBti Ifiofev avopBovv avTo,ripe6r]ffa3> 
iiri TO epyov avSpe^ SsKa, t^uX^; cKao'T^^ els, o&e ISei rr^v iiri/i4- 
Xetov irapkxfvBai ifnX^v ri ykp avdkapa Si)fi6<Tiov. eh roivt/v a 
TOVTfov KoX Q pr)TOip •yevo/icfo; ov% afiola^ tok 3XS.oi^ t^c itripA- 
Xeiav ftovTjv etff^veyKe t^ ypeia, oKKi to ftev Ipyov dfiip/jrrti)^ 
airereXeae, to Si "x^prip^ira eSmxev olKoBev Tp "TToXei. hrjiveaev 
ainov t^jj eHvoiav TaCt^v ^ ^ovXrj, Kal ri}P TrpoOvfdav ^fieiyjtaro 
VTe^nivtp ')(fiv<r^' ?roifioi yip 'ABrjiiaioi wpoi tAs y^dpiraf tmw ev 
iroiovvrav, KnfKrt^&v Si ^v o ttjc Tvw/iijc eiTrafi' «bs Sei irre^av&aai j 
TOV Arjfioa-diirqv, ev fiev xaip^ tok AiovvKnoii, iv Si rowtp t^ toC 
AiovvfTov Bedrp^i ev Si QeaToX^ traai to« " E\X7;jr(.c, 069 i) -nav^- 
yvpK Krvv^arfC' Kal TOtrrwv evavriov avetirelv tov KTjpvKa Srt 
trre<f>avot Ar)fiotr8iv7]v Arj/xoo'Oevov'i Hatavtia ^ -itoXk aper^^ 
<TVp,TTaxrr)% evexa xal evvoia^ T79 vpo^ aiiT^v. r)v ovv •rravTaj(pBev 
ij Tifti} BavfuuTTi}. Sti) Kai (f>66va^ auT^? ^^Jraro, Kal tov ■<fn}tf)i- 4 
<TfMiTO<! a-7rriv6j(B7} tTapavopaiv ypa^^. Aitrxivij<} yap e-)^6ph<! mv 
TOV A'TjfioaBevov^ ay&va trapavofjuov em^yyeiKe KTrftrt^mvTi, \4yeiv 
dpjfovTa yeyovora tov Ai]fioa8evj}v xal pt) Sovra \6yov vtrtvBvvov 
elvat, vopav Si KeKevuv tov^ virevOvvov^ fjoj are^/avovv, Kai iraKtv 



vofiiov vapex^f^vo^ tov KeXevovra, iiv fiev Tiva o ?^fio<i 6 ' KBt^voIoiv 
UTe^avot, iv t^ eKK\T)<rltf rov <TTe<f>avov dvarfopeveirBai, eiw &i t) 

5 fiovXi}, iv TjJ ^ov\evT7)pi^, aXKaypBi Bi ni] i^etvai. ip^irl Se Kal 32: 
TOvv ^Traivovt elvai Toii^ ^i. t^ ^'t}fjMa6ivei -^euSetv* ^ 7^/} 
ireTroKirevcrBai, teaXmv top p^ropa, dWi koI SapoSoKov e^vtu xal 
TToKKoiii KOKOiv aiTiov t^ woKet. Kal T(£fct ye Tavrrj 7^? xaTT}- 
70/MOS A(V^ii^5 K^xpV^^'h "TTpSiTOv eliriav trepi rov twi' inrevdvtxav 
voftov kal SevTfpov irepi rov rwv Kt^pvyfidraiv Kal rpirov ifepX t^? 
•jroKtreLa'!' rj^uotre Be Kal rov ^rjfioaSevriv r^c airrijv rd^tv ttomj- 

6 <raa0ai. 6 Be p^rap icaX dira t^? TroXireiai rf)v dp^^v eTTOtijiraTO 
Kal irdXiv cts ravTr}v tov \6yov Kariavpe>jre, reyyiK^^ rroi^v Bet 
fhp apyeaSai re awo r&v la~xypOT€pwv Kal X'^eiv et's ravra- 
ftiira Bi riOeuce ri irepl r&v vofuav, Kal r^ /^ev irepX rS>v urrew- 
Svvtov dvrnidi)<ri Siapow, r^ Si irtpl rav K^pvyfidrav vo/iov 
Irtpov ^01 vofiov fjtepo^, <S? if)^ffiv avra^, iv cu o'vyKex^pV''^^ 
Kal ev Ty Sedrptp Ktjpvrreiv ihv o Bfj/toi! ^ ^ /SovX^ rovro 


'Aftjiaiot Kal Sji^aiat iroXe/iowin-es wjoo? ^tKivirov iv Xat- 
ptavei^, TToXet t^s Botmrtav, r/rrtfOTja-av. eTriKpar^aa^ oiv it 
MaKeBiav i^povpdv /iev els ris QiJjSas ivi^aXe, Koi elxi^v vwo xelpa 
SovXevovtrav. i\vliTavre<; oJiv to avro -rraOeiv 'A67}vaioi koI Strop 
ovSiTTw Kar avriiiv fj^eiv rrpaaSoKoivres rov rvpavvov, ea-Ke^avro 2 
rh rreTTOPrfKora ptepv) t^ yp6v<p rov reij(pv^ irravopBoivaaQat, Kal 
Brf d^ iKdoTT]^ tj>v\ij^ reij(oiroioi irpoeffK^dijtTav. roiovBe Kal ij 
UavBtovi'i i^ favT^s eTXero irpoi rijv ;i^«'tu' tov p'^ropa. rrj^ toLvvv 
ipyatrCas iv "Xfptrlv oitrrj^, wpoa'BeT}d£l>i eri "xptjfiarwv fierd tA SeSo- 
fieva viro rijt woXews, prjrrap ix r&v IBiav iBairdvr]ae, ical ovk 
2 eXoyiaaro avrd Tp troXei, aXXd KaT€)(apttTaro''. ravr-qv d<j>opfir)v 
Kn/ff-t^wn, eU rS>v troXiTevofiivav, Be^dp^vos elff^veyKe yvw/ii/v ev r^ 
fiovXi} "Trepl avrov rotavrrjv, " etreiBT) BiareXel A'qfioa-devij'i Aij/10- 
trSh^QVi trap SXov rov ^iov evvotav eU rijv iroXiv iiriBeiKvvp^vo^, Kal 
vOv Bi TctjjoTToio? lev Kal -TrpoffBeridels ^(prjfidriiiv otxaSev Trapea^e 
Kol ixapi^o-ro, StA rovro SeBojiffai rp /SouX^ Kal r^ Bijfi^ arei^voii- 
ff&ai avrov j(fiv<ri^ <TTe^vtp iv r^ Bedrp^, rpa/ytpBtSiv drfofievtav 

1 HSS. jtal ixaptsaTo. " Malim taTrxapiiraTo." G. H. Schaefer. 



>v" lff<o<! Sre -itX^Oti iTVvrpij(ei hrtOvfiovvra Kaiv& Spdfiara 
ffXSireui. eura/fofiivov Toivw koX els top B^/mv rov trpo^ovKev- 3 

woXireia^ vvdp'}(wv ^Bpo^, wapavofiov elvat <f>d<rK(Dv Trpo^ Tpei^ 
vofiov^ TO ^^<l>i<Tfia, ?va fiiv rov KeKevovra rhv virevGwov fttf 
ffT€<f>avova-6ai vpXv av Sp tA? ev0vva<f ovttw Si ravrai, t^aiv, 6 
^ilfiotr0iv7}^ iSeBatxei Kal rti ffeapixh SiotK&p xal teixotto^i', koI 
eSet dva/ieivai xal iirurxeiv to yiptm lat av o^>$^ xaffapov i^f- 
TOtrOei^. hevrepov Se hvarftymaKti, poftov top Kekevovra iv WvKv'i 4 
creiftavovtrBai ev rp iKKKtivia, SiafidKXap roils ttoA/tos toik 

324 Se^afihrow iv t^ Bedrp^ ava/jopevdijpai toO At}p,oa9evov^ rov 
trre^xtvop. o Si rptro^ vofio^ c($ Trfv okijp apa. tov ^iov koX t^c 
woKiTelai i^iraertp- weXevet r^kp firtherore y^evBfj ypafifiaTa «'? to 
'i/lrjTp^QV eltrdyeiv, evffa itrrlv SXa ri Sf}ft6<ria ypdp.para, i^frev~ 
traro Bk, tjyijiilp, e&poiap xal trtravSiiv fiaprvpi^tTas r<^ Arj/UMTSivet' 
KaKOvovs yap /j^XKov KaX TroXeftto^ eupitTKerai rp -jraTpLhk. tovtov 5 
ToS vofiov ■)(p^aip/>v rvyxdvovroi, tov rpirov, dpTi\a^6fi€P0<i aitnrep 
TWO? dyicvpas 6 p^raip KareKaKaiae top avrihtKop, fu66S^ Seiva- 
raTTj Kol a'oif)o>Td7Tj t^ wepl tov Kortjyopov j(pr}<Tdfievo^' iKeiBev 
yhp eiTj(€ 'Ka^i}v eX^ti' xal KaTorfavitraaOat tov woXifiiop. tow? 
ftev yip oXXov? Svo vofiovt, tov ts tmi* tnrtvffvvtov Kal top tov 
K^pvypMTot, «s TO fiiaov tov \6yov dirippf^e, trrpaTrfyuc&i 
" KaKoiii €? fil<r<rov iXdtraa^^" Ttij hk ta^vpoTaTtp ei's T^ axpa 
TTpoaKi-xjyqrai,, to tradpop tS>p oKKmv ef exaT^pov pavvv<t. SoiKe Si 6 
KoX ScoiKelv TTpo<! TO avfL^ipop top \6yop, Kal ov a-tf>6Spa dpaiSS>s 
Ti)v T€j(yr)v hrtheiKvvfuvo^. SoxStv yh,p iv irptoToi^ inrep^alvew to 
vofUfiov, ereptp Tpinrtp r^ vopXfup ■irpoa-KixpV^'^*' *<** 7^P vo/iov 
dveyvto Aio^t't^j? top Trepl tSiv VTetftdpoiv' ^ev&i], vpoit hv 6 p^Twp 
wjroKpLvoftepoi! evpe xaiphv et? /letrop dyar/eiv ri eavrov iroXiTev- 
fuira, tti? pofup^ fia')(6p^vot. KaX ^ (ikv BiolKt]<Tt^ tov \6yov 
TotavTTj, KeifidXaiov Si layypov T^ pip h.l<r)(lvj) to pofu/tov, TfS Si 
p^Topt TO Sucaiop, KOtvop Si diro rov Xaov to wfupipov, ovk ix°^ 

225 tfrnvephv tt/v i^iratrtp. ^ trrdaK Syypa>l>ov irpar/fiaTuc^' irepX 
frt)Tov ykp ro i^^itrpa. 

T^S Si ypatf>ijs ert ^iKl-mrov fwin-o? diroTeSeltnji, 4irl 'AXe- 7 
^dvSpov Sui&f^afievov Ti}v dpj(i]v 6 Xoyot iirri xal ^ kjUo-k. w^ ykp 
diriSave '^IXf/tiros Kal rijp ^povphv oi %i}^atoi TeOaptrriKOTt^ 

' II. tv. 199. See G. H. Schaefer'* Dote. 

■ uss. vre^m. Weil M^pirrw*. Blus ypa^imii'. 



VKo^ev, elra fitrayvovs ^i t^ ireTTpayfiSvtp i^exfiipv^ "^l EXXa- 
S09 attr)(wo/ievo<; Kal Kark -rmv ffap^dpaiv iarpdrtwev, oi Si 
'ASifvaim Kiupov ^eiv evofuvav xplaei irapaBovvat toii^ irpoiorai 
Toi)^ Ti/v 'EXKdBa aSiteijtravTai;, jcal oUrto <rvv€KpoTq$Ji to Sixa- 



nPflTON /Jtkv, m avSpes 'A^vatbi, rots dcol; evxo/^ott 
TToa-i Kot jra<rais, oa-rjv cvi'oiav ej^aiv eytu SiarcXa! Ty re 

Critical Notes. Title: Afitioaffivout irip tou Zre^eu Z; but at the end of 
the oration Inrip tou Ktk(Ti^i»™ rtpl tou Zrt^rov. 

Text. S 1. Line i. JuinXw om. V6. re above line L. 

PnooEMittM: If 1— «. The solemn 
earnestness with which Deinosthenei 
undertook this vindication of his whole 
potittcal life is shown by the unusual and 
impcessive prayer with which he b^ns, 
and stiil more by its repetition. He shows 
the same spirit in the appeal to the Gods 
in 9 141, with which he introduces his 
account of the fatal events which led to 
Chaeronca, and in his peroration (§ 354). 
His earnest appeal to the judges to grant 
him an impartial hearing, which struck 
Cicero by its humility {summissius a 
prima, Orat. 16} and Quintilian by its 
timidit]' {limHe sttmmisseqtu primipio, 
Ki. 5), was no mere rhetorical device 
or capitis btHcugltntiai, but chiefly an 
honest recognilioii of bis position as an 
advocate, who was no party to tlie suit, 
and so in manj' respects at the mercy of 
the court. This prooemium was fre- 
quently qooted with laudation by (he 
aadent rhetoricians. Dionysius dwells 
on (he rhythm of the periods; and he thus 
dividet the lirit clause, wpSrrer itti'...Ti- 

«ui, into feet; ipx" Patcx'"" fiuSiidt, 
irtiS' hrtnu aTvifttiot, elra dtriittuffTot, 
Kal M«ri ToPro Irtpot aroilkat, tiff ^9f 
Jt/JTTlltol I/Wri, tTTDvAtlOt 6k h TtKtVToXm. 

This is -_-|---| 1--1 



1 he c 

pares the last four feet with the 1 
Kfni<rf«i h ^vBiioit ratJa itiKyjiwittr. 

% t. I. to;* hotfinn Kol into-ow, A 
all Iht Cads and Gaddasei. Sfcft is Goddess 
OS well 3S God, BA being poetic; thus 
fl 6<it is the common title of Athena. 
A slight extension of the solemn formula 
tSjii tat iriiriut becomes absurdly comic 
in Ar. Av. 86S iBxt'Bi ipmrtr '0\vnrioa 
nal 'OXvuri^t iraai Kal riirjiatt. Cf. 
Thesm. 331— 334. The scholiast on Ar. 
Eq. 765 thinks that Demosthenes was 
helped here by Ibe mock invocation of 
Cleon in Eq. 763—768 1 

1. (x<** SuvrAw: dn-t tbG del f^w, 
'AmtQt. Schol. (See M.T. 879.) The 
words fx*^ JfarrXcT with tffroia probably 
occurred in Ctesiphon's decree: in the 
apnrioui document in | 1 18 we have ^t 




iToXci Kal Tra,<Tiv vfiiv, 7o<ra.vrqv vvap^ai fioi wap' vfi^v tt^ jjg 
TOUTOvl Tof dyMva, eireiff oirtp itrrX fioKitrff virep vfimv Kal 

5 TTJi vfieripa^ evtrefieia^ re koI So^s, tovto iTapaaT!j(rai 
Tovq dcou; vfj-lv, jM^ Tov avrlZiKou avfi^ovKov iT0i,-^a'a<r6ai 
TTepl TOW TTws aKoveiv vpa.^ ip,ov Sei (o^erXioj' yap av eii} 

3 rovTo ye), aXXa tows vopov; Koi roc opKov, iv ^ iTpo<; airatri 
Tots aXXots OiKaioK Kal tovto yiypa-nTai, to op-oUa^ apifmu' 
aKpoa,<ra<r0ai. toCto 8' itrrlf ov /lovoc to pi) irpoKaTeyvto- 
Kfvai pyjSkf ovSe to r^v evvoiav t(n}v diroBovvat, aXXd to 

5 Kol Tp Ta^et Kou rg dvokoyi^, ois jSe^ouXTjTOi xal trpo^prfraK 
Tmv dytavt^opevatv ((coittos, ovtojs idtrai )(p^va<r0ai. 

i 9. 3- dupadiracrftii S, B; iKpoaaBat L, vulg.; AxpoitincrSat Spengel, Bl- 
4- tiJiTi' d^aripmi Z (7/1), L', vulg.; iiupor. om. 2, L', Ai. <IXX4 tJ icoi 

2, L, Al : ilXXd ital rt vulg. 5. aal t4 rj d»oXo7i? Y j Kal TJ oirS droX. Ai. 

6. TijnisBa.i Ai, above x/ijiarfai L (yp). 

IXf ItarAct. Aeschines (in. 49} quoies 
from the decree 5ri JianXn cal Uvur cal 
wpi-nwr: 5«e the spurious indictmenl 
(below) 854", and 3 j?'''. FordVom see 
SS "0,311,335. 

3. <mi^ifjn,i(graalcdnie[6emaJe 
available U me). The fundamental idea 
of irapxii in (his sense is best seen in ri 
JrdreoiTo, iAt resourcts or Mf existing 
amditiens, i.e. wAo/ i> available, ■aihat om 
has to dtpfttii OH : see note on hnifx"* 
% 95*, and pi\TtaTiHi liraf%ti, IX. 5. 

4. dywva: see nole on dTurlfo^uu, 
g 3*.— (mS*, secondly: simple frcira 
(without ii) is the regular rhetorical for- 
mula after irpSnw /**■ (see gg 8, 18, 177, 
*35. '48; cf-367). Thucydides generally 
has this, but often fnira j^.^«np dr-rl; 
rfx"*"", *>j^oi^i (Schol.), referring to the 
whole sentence &Ttp...ix!>ai/taa8iA.. The 
relation of Irtp to rovra here is clearly 
that of i Ti {\ S') to the following roDra: 
otheiirise we might be inclined to lake 
5x<^ here as = itf ya«/, explained by 
To£)T'«...iUpo<ia(urS(u. — Ivrl p^Xio^' ihrlp 
J|MV, eencems you apiHaUy (more than 

£. ribipflai: referring to the oath 
(9 a). Greek liai^aa. reached a low^r 
level than our /u^, including n^atlve 

abstinence from impiety, so that one who 
does not break his oath is so far (Otre^iit. 
— toOto 'rofatrrijoui (litf, may ful thii 
into your hearts: -nOro refers back em- 
phatically to the omitted anlecedenl of 
irtp, as BOrtiit (3 t') to that of lin, and is 
explained by iiii ri* dfriiutw k.t.\. 

7. irMt...B«t: explained by t4 Koi... 
XpiSffofffiiu (end of S 1): cf. »epl...*/i7ii- 
aiToi, Hdt. viii. 79, and repi lou Svrwa 
rpisw xpij f6». Plat. Rep. SS^ o- 

|a. I. TivSpKov: the Heliastic oath, 
which each judge had swom. The docu- 
ment in XXIV. 149—151 purporting to be 
this famous oath (hardly authentic] has 
this clause: xai di/xnoDfuu rw KaT>p/6(iiHi 
Koi ToO diroXryou^Pou bfiolwt dii^div. For 
the connection of the laws with the oath, 
see note on § 6'. 

a. fiucotoH, jttsi provisions, perhaps 
pnniisions o/ law. WesL cites for the 
latter meaning XX. 94, raaaiTiar trrur 
SiKotua' ; but two lines above Slcoia has 
clearly its ordinary force o( just, applied 
to provisions of liw. 

3. (Upoiffavfu: this or ijtpeaaBax 
is f»t preferable to the emendation 
ijcpeiatatai.. The InGn. with rb here 
denotes simply Ihi provision for hiaring 
both sida impartiaify. This inRn. ii 



IloXXa fifv o5c eyory* iKarrovfiai Kara tovtovi tov dyoifa 8 
Aur^^ifov, Suo S*, ^ avSp€? 'Adrjvaiot, koX fi-eyaXa, tv fj,h> 
oTi ov irept Tciv icrav dyotviCofiai' ov yap ifrriv ktov wv 
ifiol T7J% Trap' vfiav evvoia<; ^tofLapreiy Koi rovr^ pi) eX.cZi' 
■n)v ypaffr^v, dX.k' ipol piv — ov fiovKopat SvCT^e/ws tiir^v 5 
ovSev dpxopevo^ tov \6yov, o5to^ 8' ix nepiotKriat p-ov 

gS. 3. worn. L. 4. (Oi-oiat SunrwfiVVe. M^ttr (w. t overij) 2; 

Xa^(& (over Aei>) B. {. V (<<"' '"«') B (y«>). V (7p). «i 0«;X<viai « 

L, vulg.; Si om. S', above line 2', B (yp). Suaxepii oiStt tlxtir L, Ai, V6. 

commoaly a verbal noun iviiheul timpo- 
ral farci, and js |renerally presenl or 
aorist (M.T. 96). The perfect is some- 
times needed to expiesa completion (as 
»pMarF7iiii>ri»ai, below) and the future 
may emphasize futurity, an without the 
article. The infin. with ri is occasion- 
ally found in or. obi., with its tense (iiUy 
preserved, or with Sr. (See Birklein, 
Substant. Infiti., p. 94; and M.T. 109, 
113, 111, 794.)~^Td p.i) irpMtaTrywiiMu : 
not having decided i^aiml (card) eillur 
party in aJr/ancez t6 fiij irpwaTayt^ai 
would be timeless, like ri itptieaaSiu 
(above) and to ttetevrtu and ri l&aiu 

4. odSl (sc. ^or), HOT enfy (cC 

5. mU T^ TaE(i...xpii'aff<ai, i.e. /* 
tido^t not only (cal) that ardtr a/arguvient 
bui also (koI) thai gtntral plan of defence 
which etc. — ^...iKoa-rM; for the rhe- 
torical amplification see note on g 4'. 
fcaiTTOT is made subject of the relative 
clause, as this precedes; we reverse the 
order, and translate it with ^(/r^iriurSiu. — 
■IvoXsyff refer* strictly to the defence, 
which alone remained. 

6. rfiv d-rmttoiiiMtv fcwrrM {not 
inirtpet), acc. to Weil, is '"tout homme 
qui plside sa cause," a general eipres- 
sioD. He remarks that iyurlfoiuu ap- 
plies especially to the defendant, citing 
XIX, 114 (end). XXI. 7> 90. xxiti. 100, 

XXIV. 18, .31, [XXVI.] ,0. 

This is a dignified appeal against the 
ofiensive demand of Aeschines (in. im), 
that the court should either refuse to hear 
<r (at least) compel him to 

follow bis adversary's order of ailment. 
Spengel (see Dindorf's note) calls tbis ar- 
gument "sophistical," since granting free- 
dom of arrangement is not fairly included 
in rA it^xiUi)^ d/tpoir AfpodiraaBai. But 
both parlies could not be heard imparti- 
ally if one were compelled iy tie cturl 
itself to present his case in the most 
damaging order at his opponent's dic- 

I S. 1. woXXd: sc. AarrilifuiTa. 

3. d'yiai'Ctafiai, like dyur, used of 
contests of all kinds, here of a lawsuit. 
See the pun on the two meanings of 
AyuvltratrBot rtpl Saj'dro}/ in iv. 47. 

4. SiaiM^nVtv, to forfeit 1 cf. ixaart- 
pttv$ai, i 5*, and the fbllowii^ words. — 
|i,i| fiUtv -rfyi Ypo^*, no! la gain his cast: 
cf. 'OXii^Tia riitlv, Thuc. I. T16; ^^fr>ui 
ru^ Aesch. III. 68; iraXXii...-)'pi^i 
Stiijai oiStular clXcr, Ant. 1, A*, 5. i\ta 
7po^r (or Umiw) may also have a direct 
accusative, as Stuat rfXn Rtwdkat SAt, 
Isae. VII. 10: these expressions are used 
only of the plaintiff; a victorious defend- 
ant is said -ypa^r IfilKrii) StwB^vytai, a 
defeated defendant 7po#V (*t«7*) i#Xei>. 

5. dXX' j|uil )l)v; a familiar inoatdt- 
Ti^it, often quoted by the rhetoricians. 
What is plainly meant would sound un- 
pleasant {iinTxtpit) and suggest disaster 
in the opening of his speech. Aquila 
Rom. (de fig. 5) translates; sed mihi qui- 
dem — nolo qoicqaara initio dicendi omi- 
nosius proloqui. See Quint, ix. 1, 54, 
who quotes "quos ego — sed motos prae- 
Slat componere fluctus," Aen. i. 13J. 
Cf. (It- <J-, g «' i Tire I'—, g i9j». 



KaTT}yop€t enpov B', $ i)>vcrtt vaira/ andptairoK VTrapx^h 
Ttov flip \oiBopioiv Koi TQtP KaTfffopxMv aKOV€Lv T^iw^, rol? 

4 en-ati^ufrt 8' aurous d^Bfirdai- rovTcav toCpvp o p.ev itrrt 
jrpos iJSoioji' TovTiu SeSorai, o Se iratriv <u5 eJros eiTreu' 
woj^Xei \oltt6v E/ioi. Kai* ^ev evXajSov/^evo; tovto p-ij Xeyo* 
ra iKiTpayp.€va ipMVT^, ovk e^ei-v d.iTo\v<T<urdai, ra Kanj- 

5 yoprjuiva Bo^ot ouS' c<^' ols a^uS rt/xatr^at SeimTivaf io»' 
S' ^^' a Kai wewOiTjKa koX weTTokiTevfLai. fioBtO", iroXXatci; 
\eyeaf dvayKa(r6'q<rofiai. vepl ifiavrov. weipda-Ofiai. fih/ ovv z 

8. ri» (before ™r.) om. O. dic»i(ir above line S, L', om. L'. 9. arfn-out 

Zj S' uVroAi L, Tulg. ; riiit S' inur. iavrtit {can. itoai S' airoln). 

g«. 4. nanrropai/itra O. j. ^ £, L, A3, VS ; dc vulg. ti. J' om. $. 

.^n an aiundaiue, like a rich man who 
stakes lillle compared with his wealth. 
In Luke xxi. 4., the rich cast into the 
treaniiy "of their abundance" or "super- 
fluLty/' iK ToG Trrptffvt^orroi airdij. See 
Dem. XI.V. 67, where ot h wepiauirim 
roniiNif is equivalent to d1 litr' rimplat 
rwijpof and opposed to ol /ut' intelai 
{ntTipol}; Plat. Theaet, 154 D, in rtpi- 
omriai dXX^Aur arowapti/urai, liying sue 
analAtr (with arguments) Tvan/anlj' or 
fffr mere paitime (see Campbell's note) ; 
Thuc- V. I03i TO^T dri wtpioueiai xpatfU- 
roui air) (i\wlii), those viho indulge hope 
vihin tkry have abundant reiounes, and 
VI. 5J. ToXX^ Tif Ttfiiim ToC atr^aXnui 
KiiTCiifar7<rc. Harpocration (under it 
Ttpiovalaf) thus explains our passage: iyit 
liir repl TUf irxarwr jccFiuiiniu, oStdj t' ix 
v(}XXa£i TDU TtptifToi fiov Konrfyapti. 

7. (npov 8' (bc. JXiTTBifia) corresponds 
to fv ^r in 3, and keeps up the construc- 
tion of rD\Xi ^XarroCfiai in i. West. 
makes trtfiot noni. (sc. rferlr). — 8...6»<tp- 
XS> icAfcA I'r a naturaJ disfieiMon of thi 
whole human race: iraaa drSpiimti sug- 
gests the subject of diciii!n» and ix^Kreai, 
which are in apposition to trtpor (M.T. 

9«. 1. im wfiit '^/tow^, maies Jbr 
fleaiuri {larir ifii, Schol.): cf. AcJchyl. 
Pr. 494. Sr (fir taliuvw Tpi% ^Sor^*- 

». ih hrot ilwftv (M. T. 777) modifiel 
raatr. Aeschines (ill. 141) had warned 
the court against the self-^lorilicalion of 


4. d*oXJr(ur4ai : see g 50* and note. 
6. Kal nwo(i]Ka Kal 'rtnXCTtv|Uii : a 

familiar form of rhetorical amplificalioD 
(opposed to modem ideas of style), for 
which ordinaiy speech would use TtroXI- 
Tvnat alone. Other instances ate ^1^16- 
Xi^rat KoX rpo^pijTtu [% 3^), wfrpayfAtptar 
Kal rtroXirtufAirur and Karr^iOiQU jtoI 
SUpaXX/, (I I [*■'), irpay^n «al S,E(in 
{% 13'), diipaXKi K-d Ji.fBf. (S 14'). ill- 
Saiai (oi IttifjXStt {% 11*), waMlUii' tal 
iia^ptaeoi (I ji*). In these cases one 
verb is generic and the other spccilic; 
but sometimes two verbs of nearly or 
quite the same meaning are used together 
for a similar rhctorica] cHect, as rpintai 
Kal ««:► (9 61). fliFTur «l Irrwr (g 71), 
— poSIla, procetd, more formal than come 
or ge. TOii^ i)ii\k-^am ilit TporiirJ)i> iv 
TpiMtpSmx a6 xaXwr xt^hnfr r^r \i\a. 
Schol. The Scholia to Aesch. ill. I 
censure "metaphor in the prooemium," 
calling irttpiTofui ' Tpufiitiintpia' , but 
ffTouiN) iiU TapaY7'Xla in Dem. XIX. r 
'iraX(r(ici^e^>'. Blass says of ^Hiat: 
"doch ist ^aH^ nicht gleich lu, sondem 
bedeutet 'geradejwegs (frisch, ohne Be- 
denken) eingehen auf,' " and he refer* to 



(09 nerpttarara, tovto Troiiiv o ti 8' av to irpayixa airro 
avayica^Q, tovtov rijv tUTtav ovto^ itrri SiKaio; ^ei" o 
TotovTow dyava h^<rrq(Ta^am%. 

yfjcraL Koivov etvai tovtovI toi* dySai ifiol koi KTi}a-uj>avTi 
Kai ovScf eXiiTTOVOS a^iof crffoi/SiJs e^ot- ■jtavrotv fih' yap 
airo<mpei<r6ai, Xmrqpov iari koX j^oXcttov, aXXttic re k&v vtt 
i^dpov Ttfi rovTo (TVfL^cuvy, /laXiora 8i r^s trap' vftMv evvoia^ S 
KOI (ftiKavSpairCa'i, otr^ep koX to rvxetv rovrav fi^iarov 
i(mv. wepl tovtoiv 8' 6vTo<i rovrovX tov ayo>vo%, d^w koa 6 
Seo/tai TravTotv 6fi.oiai^ iifxtav aKov<rai fiov irepi rav KaT^yo- 
pyjfia/Q/v airoXoyov/jxvov SifCtuu;, acrvep ol v6p.oi KcXevova-tv, 

8. TBvT» «ire& At, 

S S. I. 'A^., &r dfw^- 2i L; riimii b d/uiX. vulg. 'AffijraT« 2, L, O; 

Suca^rralvulg.; iS'A8.,». A(; West. om. Jl bi-'ABrp,. i. ^»ul S>, B': ^fioi re 

1?, L, vulg. 3. iiir oni. V6. 4. dxoffT«p«i(rfla( Z [yp], L, vulg.; d»i>(i*M-fltti 2; 
irorTtf^Sai 0. 5. r«>nii 0'. ouuSodj Ai, V6. eS»o[ai T< lat *tX. 

Ai, V6, V. 

^ojuwttu in the same seiue in SS £8, 
363. See other examples in the Index 
OemiMlh. of Preuss. 

8. <t( impuiraTa : cF. the full foitn in 
9M 56rw/iat p^TpuMtraTOj S ^5^. — ( tl... 
<t»aYKdlD, mkatevcr tht cait itself may 
requirt of me (lit. compel m£) % with 6.tay- 
iiifia withoat an inGo. cC. Quint. xi. i, 
11, qui iee te coegisset. 

9. S6(iuot fx<H': the coTUEnon per- 
EOD>l conslmction (M.T. 763). The apo- 
dosis is future in sense, after the future 
In St aveyni^. 

10. tchoOtov iymra, a suit ef this 
iind, i.e. in which Ciesiphon is indicted 
and Demosthenes accused ; cf. SSu — 16. 

gS. I. cEvifMXoY^ru: West, omits 
(S Atipfi 'AS^nuDi, probably to avoid dr 
after a comma, as 2 and L give it. But 
this position, thoi^h unusual, is not ob- 
jectionable when words belonging to the 
clause with a* (as here ilia! rirrai) pie- 
cede the inserted clause. (M. T. sii.) 
See Ar. Fac. 137, dXV, i2 >iA', Sr >ui 
airlur SirXdr IJei,.Bnd Aeschyl. Ag. iji, 
TO fiA\<v, twd Y^of'i w iXlimt (or with- 

out commas). On the contrary, ri aiv 
if nt trroi, Dem. I. 19, and a few simi- 
lar expressions, in which probably little 
01 no pause was felt, are irregular. In 
1. 14 we must read tii 3r ttwm wilh 2. 
3. oiSh' IXaTTofot, guite as gnai. — 
wiyjity d«a<mptta4u, In 6e deprived ef 
anylhing: cf. iriwTaxi"'. anyvihere, g 81'. 

h (by s< 



plied reaairif is felt as limiting p4Xarra 
(SC. Xinrirpjr ml xaKewbn). — Ka\ before ri 
ruxctr expresses the parallelism {so to 
speak) between luting and gaining the 
privities: see a col ftwwXWr), 9 60*, 
and note. Such a ini can seldom be 
expressed in English, except by emphasis. 

S«. I. d{uiKalSfe|iai: seeooteon 

3. Gucadt* belongs to digCirai, from 
which it is separated partly for emphasis, 
and partly to bring it directly before 
waTtp. It cannot be taken with dvoXo- 
•jovuhov, as the laws referred to have no 
refereikce lo iriiKayia, but require the 
judges lo bear both udes impartially 



oiff 6 Tt$el^ i^ ^PX^^ X6\(ov, ciVovs ^v v/ilv xaX SijiioriKO^, 
ov fi.6vov T^ ypatJMu KVptov? ^cro Setv eWi aXXa kol t^ 

7 Tov? Su(a£oi^a$ SfiatfioKevat, ovk a/nurrSiv Vfitv, (us y' ejxot 
^cufCTtu, aXX* o^oii' on ra; oiria; kol Tas Sia^oXa;, oT; cV 
Tov iTp6Tepo<; Xeyeu' 6 SnuKfuv la^vei, ovk evi t&> i^cvyoi^i 
irapiXBeiv, el fi/t) twv hiKa^ovrav Ikoxtto^ vfj.S>v ■n)v irpo^ 

5 Tous 0COVS einT€0etav ^vkarrtav Kat, to, tov Xeyovros ixTTcpov 
SiKOt evvo'iKa^ TTpo^rBe^erttt, koI wapaa^itv eavrbv l<rov koX 
KOivov d.p<f>OT€poi^ ojcpoarqv ovtw TTfv SidyvtiKrtv novrja-fTai 
W€pl a.vavT<av. 

(|. iut^rrai £, L, Ai, B, F; &■:, i/at vulg. 

! 1, I, i^ O'. m y' i/ul Z, L, F,*,Y,0; A y4 ftoi Tulg- 3- »)>*«(k» 

Ai', V6. J. ^uXdiTB. £, U. Aj; Sio^X. valg, 4irT/p<.v S>, L', Al, 

V6, Y; Bm-tptr 2", L', B, vulg. 7. wtiroiijrai A3. 8. iidn-w 2, L, 

Ai.3, V6; riymrmls- 

4. i nMf i{ dpxiHi >-^- '^' arigiaal 
maitr: & vefiw riitlt is used like ks;u- 
BiTJi^, for the /iia'.fritfr, whose title ii 
perpetual. In i riiuw Btli Ihe paiticipial 
: appears with its designali 

In 3 

- 35 " 

e 4 »tU T 

and in 17 i rbr ri/ior TifiiU, both refening 
to the same lawgiver and the same law 
(from diRerent points of view). — Si||um- 
K^, a friend of Ike pafU or of papular 
gevtmmtnl \ see At. Nub. 1187, b 24Xuf 
i iraXaiAt ^ ^\ititliet H)r ^6va. Aeschi- 
nes (ill. 163—170) gives tive marks of a 
i^fWTuiii, which Demosthenes ridicules in 
S 111. Aesch. opposes the Shyofix"'^' 
to the lhuuiTix6t. 

5. oi fidixn',..l|UifUHcfr<u: i.e. Solon 
thought that these provisions for an im- 
partial heaiiag should have not merely 
the ordinary sanction which all laws have 
by enactment (t^ ypiifrai), but the fiirthet 
security which they gained by the judges 
swearing to uphold them. This double 
sanclioD was secured by enEu;ting that 
these provisions should be a part of the 
Heliastic oath. We do not know whether 
they were alio enacted in a distinct law, 
apart from the oath, ypd^, besides 
meaning la fropasi a lata or dtcra, often 
refers to Ihi enattmrni as a whole, as 

here used likeXwJopiaTdcoJoJT-ioin XXH. 
31, 11- There afria is thus defined, as 
opposed to (Ke^x"*'- a'Tfa iiit ym t«rai 
irojf Ttl i^tX^ •j^flrfffiiitro\ \6yifi /xij rapk- 
irxw* itlmr ur \iytt, IXcyxoi St Btot 
wr ir ilr^ tii col TiXrfiit i»uD iflfp. 
Commonly, alrla refers to an accusation, 
whether true or false: cf. | 11* (tlrtp 
V"' oXijfleii). 

3. rod Tpinpot Xty»v : in public suits 
(Tpa^ni) in the Heliastic courts, each 
side spoke once (though the time might 
be divided among several speakers), the 
plaintiff first ; in private suits, and in the 
Areopagus, each side was allowed a 
second argument. 

4. wopAtflv, U *Kape {git fy): &% 
iwl Sfioiiiitr, Schol. 

5. T06 Uyot-ret fljT J pOT, lit stcottd 
[taitr) ipeaker, i.e. the defendant (toO 
^tiyomi): see Ar. Vesp. 15, ai UfsF 
Tpirt/xn, Hyper. Em. | 15, h irpAripoi 
iiuii W^wr. Cf. Dem. I. 16, tdiJi bark- 
Twi...(JTi>rat. (West.) 

6. SIkw', pltadingt, the statement of 
his right, : cf. § f (see West.).— wpooWS"- 
T«, lAall rtcmit kindly, tail under Ait 

7. dint repeats with emphasis the 
idea of wapaax<iv.-.iKpaaT^, 




MeXXoif Se roC re IBCov fiLov iiavTo%, at^ eolkc, \6yov 8 

BiZovai r^iiepov koX rmv Koivy venokirevjiii/tav, 0ov\ofi<u 

Tra.\LV rot>c $eovi irapaKaXeaai, Kai ivavriov vfJMV €V)( 

vparov flip, ocrqv ewouw cxatv iyot Starekci r^ iroket Kal 

228 iratTtv ifxa', Toa-avrrjv virdp^ai, /tot ei<s tovtovi toc ayava, s 

irpo% eixrefieiav cKatrr^, tout© irapafrrfjcrai irairiv VfLtv trepi 
Taim}<Tl r^s yp<ufy^^ yvZi/tu. 

Et fikv o^v vepi av iSCotKe p-ovov KaTy/yoprjo-ev Aurxii^s, 9 
Kay<o TTCpi aiiTOv row irpofiovXevparo^ evBv^ S.v dTTeXoyou/xijf 
iwei&r) 8' ovK iXdrTot \6yov rdWa Bie^tav dv^KotKe koi to. 
vXeloTa Kareij/evcraTO pov, dvayKaioi' eXvai. vopi^O} Kal StKatoy 
ap^ fipa\€a, w dvSpe^ 'A&rjvdioi, wepl Tovratv eiirelv wparov, S 

9 e. [. piav Ota. At', O. 1. PoiXaiiat naOi-wtp it 6liixv vu'e-i °^- V6 ; Kotf. 

A' dpxS om. Z, L', Ai. 1. J. irarrlarO. 4. ^ om. V. r^TiiX«S<, L; 

TD « rSKti vulg. J. /UN 2', L', Aj 1 lun rap' O/ivr vulg. 6. /iii.\ai V6, O 

(coiT.). 7. To/wirT^tu MSS. ; rapoirT^at Bk., Bl. ro^ #e(H>t (after rraixurrjnu) 
vulg. J om. 2, L'. Ai. 

g «. 3. XAyur O'. irdXwrc B*. 4. rXefw Ai. 5. elnb xpQ- 

TOf Z', L, Ai ; wpuTor lirttr X (cora.), vulg. 

S a. I. X6yov GiAJni, /s rend^rr an 
afcoun/, used often of ihe formal accounts 
which all officeis of stale rendered at the 
tWunu: sec Aesch. ill. 11, it, and of. 
3 61' (below), Uyar.,.\aPe:r. 

6. S n.-AKimf. : 

7. wopoarijrai; sc 

In SS •— *3 the orator replies to 
charges which ate foreign to the indict- 
ment ((fu T^i ypafvt). We hsve (i) an 
introduction in S 9 i then (2) he speaks of 
his private life in gS 10, 11 ; then (3) of 
his public policy in SS n — 51- 

Under (3) we have an introduction 
(^ 11—16), and the defence of his policy 
concerning the Peace of Philocrates (gg 17 
—ji). The last contains an introduction 
(S 17). the narration [S§ t8-+g), and the 
conclusion (g3 so— S»)- 

IB. .. A,..Ka.tTnifn\rty. i.e. if hi 
hait lonfined hu aieusation (in his speech) 
'' l7P"*^) ; 

fOfKi and jr/rfrs 

e distim 


1 belwi 

1. «papoiiAjv)ia,T(it ; Ihe strict name 
of a bill which had passed only the 
Senate, though Ihe less exact ^ij^o-^ was 
often applied to it : see S 56'.— mWt 4» 
&v<XcYCiv^i|v, I should at once procitd V&l. 
bt ntna proceeding^ to my dtfnuc^ etc, Cf. 

3. OVK IXdrrN, quilt as much (as in 
his proper accusation). — rdXXo Gu£ulf 
belongs to both d*^\iiw[( and irart^fisaTD. 
— tA irXtlffra ; the antithesis to the comp. 
01)11 Anrru seems to show that Ihe superl. 
is to be taken literally. The statements 
repudiated by Demosthenes about his 
private life and the Peace of Philocrates 
can well be said to eutnumbtr all ibe 


14 AHM0Z0EN0Y2 

Ifa /ii/Scls v/jMP TOis €^(o$€v Xoyois 'Ty/iO'OS dkkorpwrepov 

tS>v xnrkp r^s ypatfnj^ htKoiav o-kovq fiov. 

^^ Hepl fihf hiYf Twv iSioif o<ra \o\Zopovft^vo^ /SejSXcur^ij/xTjKe 

TTCpi ifiov, 0ed(Tatr0€ a<s air\a koX StKawc Xeyat. et fi€v Tcrre 

fie ToiovTov otov o5tos priaro (ou yap aXXo^i wow ^e^ioiKo. 

Tj jra/>' w/iic), ^ijSe <ftaVT}P auaayTftrde, p-'r}8' ft irdvra ra 

S Kotva vwfpev ir«roXiTeu/«u, aXX' (U'doraiTes icaTai|nj^craiTde 

^St/' €1 Se iroXA.6> ^iKrita tovtov KtCi €K fiekTioi/atv. koX 

p,T)Bevb<s rS>v fitTpiotv, Xva p,t)hhi eira.')(df^ Xeyto, -^eCpova Kal 

ifiA Kal Tovs ifiovs uiretXTj^aTe koX yLyvt^a-Kere, Toury fiev 

fiT/o' virep tSiv oXXtof iriOTeuerf (SiJXoi' yap aps ofioitos aiKun 

10 eirXoTTCTo), ^/xol 8', tji* n'apa Trowa tov •)(fi6vov evpoiav 

A'Seoei;^0c cjti iroXX^v dyo^ftoc twi' irporepov, koX vx/vl wapd- 

6. T«j*f«Y. 

glO. I. «)iom. ♦. 3- oilr*. O. 4. itaUfW Ai. *<»;»» #«u L 

(7/)). rtrro Mir" O'- 5. iwtpiv E. iraTaifrij^iiraifSai 2, 0'- 7. Koi 

om. V6. 8. TodTVMi'l^V. ir. rfii' Tpiripw S, U.Ai. ), V6 ; rffli- irpir, 

ytytrTiiUrar Ai (mg.). I (mg.). B, vulg. 

6. &XXoTpi(*rfpov. Its! kindly (with 
greater alitnalien). 

7. Tuir.,,8iKcUan': like Bfiriua, S 7*- 
Two genitives with ixoba are rare, though 
eithei alone is common.— vrip : io the 

IS x<p(. a 


who, however, often observe the common 
distinction. Cf.g I'and g 1 1* • °, and xxill. 
19, roui -wtfA Twr w6itvr \670111 iKoias fov. 

The reply in g§ lO, II 10 the charges 
against his private life and character 
amounts merely lo a scomful refusal to 
discuss (hem, and an ap|>eal 10 the judges 
to decide the cose at once against him if 
they believe them. 

§ 10. I. Tipl ™v ISW: with a™ 
|9e^\!Hr^,iiTj« (not with X^yw), the omitted 
anlec. of the cugnate iaa being under- 
stood a^ limiting BiiaaaSt-.^ita, ai ri- 
gards ail tkt taiumnies vihich he has 
abwivtiy ullered about my private Ufa. 
The whole sentence Titfl /iir—Myu is 
parallel to brip iiit...iieTiira in g 11'. 
(West,, Bl.|— XoLSapoli|Mvot pipXav^- 
|it|Kt : for the relation of \oillopla and 
;8Xa^iI*t(a to KOTTryopia see % 113'. Cf. 
Cic. Cael. 3, 6 ; accusa«io crimen de- 

siderat, rem u( definiat, hominem ut 
notel, argumento probet, teste contirmet ; 
maledictio autem nihil habet propositi 
praeter contumeliam. p\aipriiiia is slan- 
der, a special form of XoiSapia, aiuse in 
general. Our word blasphemy (like many 
others) never goes beyond the special 
meaning which itderives from the eccleu- 
astical Greek : cf. angel, apoille, Aypeerile, 
liturgy, etc. 

3. ToiaOrov; sc. irra (M, T. 911). 
So x'tf"' (1- ?)■ 

^ryy6/tirir /te AyiffxV^'- '■"• 'l^P my 
speech at once. — «i£ii-ni -ni Koivd: i.e. they 
may settle the case without reference to 
his public acts. 

6. P<Xt<(» K<a in PtXrufvaiv, better and 
belter barn, a common expression : cf. 
XXII. 63, 6S ; and Wi i2r tal rfrur, % It6' 
(below). See Terent. Ph. i. j, 65, bonam 
bonis progiutam. 

7. pitiBfyij Tov p«TpUv x'tpova. i.e. 
guite as good as any of our respeetaiie 
cilitens : this moderate exprf:»sion is made 
more effective by ti'ai...\iya> : see S iifi'. 

II. tvl voXiMf ir/Avw: see §§ 149, 




^07}^, Tous nepl Ttiv tre.trpa.'YiLemav Kai mirokiTevfi^wv 
Xoyous aiftevTa fie wpos tos XolBopiav ras jrapa <rov Tp€\j/e- 
22g irdou. oil &r) iroiijtro} toSto* ou^ ovrm Terui^w^ai' dXX* 
ujre^ fjtiv raiy veiroXiTevfievoiv a KaT€\li€vBov kol Sie^aXkeq 5 
i^erderca, r^s Se Tro^Treias ravn^s t^s a.vihqv yeyeyrjfierrji 
vtmpov, h.v ySouXo/ievovs aKouct*' ^ TOVTOtci, fiv7)<r6-q<rofiat. 

i IX. I. TO*, (corr. fr. roi-) I. 3. 

6. iftriiffu 2, L, B. F, *, y, V6 ; aftrfto H 
{t over (£•) 2 ; di>iiiiqv Ai, B, vulg., Prise. I 
ofrrwffiom. S. L», Ai. J, V6. 7. go^X 

^Mi Ai, F (ing.), vulg.; 

dr^S-j* L. Ai. V6 ; d»d.air» 

ouTwol TryfFJjM^rijt vulg. ; 

!i» 2, L, B (mg.}, Ai. a, Vfi ; 

Toi^ouTlS, L(yp), Ai,B, 

550, where he speaks of being brought 
to trial "daily" after the battle of 

an untraiulatcable raporonairla, the sar- 
castic effect of which, as pronounced by 
Demosthenes, can easiiy be imagined. 

.aiiirtd (in the 


double <ense of our limpli). 
(imperfectly expressed) is : malieieus {iil- 
nalurtd) ftlbrto though yuit an, yim con- 
ceived Ihis perfeclty simpit [silly) notion. 
Demosthenes seldom uses Ihis figure ; 
bat in XXI. 107 we have a play on the 
name of Eubulus: dXX' tl na*Cit i)U 
paOXri TOitir, Ell^v\t. 

1. vnrpa'Yii'Mtv Kol vnrokiTCvjtJiwv : 
see note on g 4". These words are re- 
pealed in sense in rtroXtTtuitlrwu (s). but 
the same figure imniedialely follows in 
KBTi^tiSoo nol iUpaWtt. 

^. Tiru^liai : cf. rerv^uir^ai. IX. lo. 
See Harpocr. : drri toS iitfiippl»r<iiiat, 
l(u Tiar f psnin Y^yoi-a, iJTOi diri r^ 
Pfiornji, ^ ilirJ tw* irl rir Tu^iifO lUtt' 
^pofUtur vnrirTur, q svi tup Tif^whia' 
taXoauJi-iiir rrtilliiTiiHi, b (Hj loi a&ri i&- 
OTt^mr aSfiiut KaTappayivTu. 'AXuoun, 
"■winnr Si Tu^s f* ir' fXm ^.piras." 
AriiuxrS. irrip Kn)a, If T<ip6v is thus 
connected with Tu^iQf or T«<^, Ttrtf- 
^iuu must mean / anj distracted or 
crated, like fiifipimrrn (g »43')- If '* " 

derived from tS^si, mist or j« 
Lidd. & Sc.),reTi)^fuu means /i 
fiid, befogged or wrapt in inioie. 
6. iro|LirtCiLi, ribtildry\procesn 
See Harpocr. : 




Xw!. MharSfioi UepirSlf, '• {rl tow 
i^uifiui' rim iTDfiiTfuiJ TifJt (T^Aipa Xof- 
Ag/w." The Scholia have: ronmlai, 
Xoiioplas, P^piui' ir TsTt iro^rcui Tf>«r- 

SUdui, i}i iv iopT% TiIfovr», ^rt duofur 
^p6iiir<u. See ^f i;idfi)!, § iii', and 
Suidas quoted in note ; and ratiWfutir, 
% IJ4''. The chorus of mystae in the 
Frogs (416—430) givea a vile specimen, 
which probably exaggerates the genuine 
TO^reia.-^v^V, loosely, without check : 
cl. orintK and btistt. 1'he Scholia recog- 
nize the false reading iniSrijr (iid r^t 
(1^*47701') as equivalent to itataxi''"'n. 

7. fiv.,.TOVTourl : (/ these (judges) 
shall wish to hear it. See Thuc. VI. 46, 
rip Niitip tpoaStxopAvif ^, and other 
examples in M. T. 900. WtiisCoo com- 
pares Liv. XXI. 50, quibusdam volentibus 

$$ la—ia. Af^er thus dismissing the 
private choices as unworthy of a reply, 
he comes to the charges against his con- 
duct with regard to the Peace of Philo- 
crates in 346 B.C. In this introduction 



12 Ta fth> oJJv Koni'YopTfii.eva ^oXXa, koX vepi av ivCtav 
fieyaXa^ Kol tixs eo^aros ol vofMi SiSoacrt TifiMfna^- tov 
o€ TTCLpovTO'i oyStvo^ ij TTpoaUpfO'i'i avTTf i)(0pov fiiv imjpeuw 
^ei Kid vfipw Kol XotSopCav koX wpointXaKurp^v Ofiov koX 
5 iravra ra TOtavra' rmv fievroi KarrfyopiMv koi tZv alruav 
tS>v eipijp.^otv, eiwep r}<rav aXrfdtt^, ovk hfi r^ voXci hltCTjv 

18 a^av ka^eiv, ovh' iyyv^. ov yap a<f><up€l<r0aL to irpoiTfX- 

|ia. 1. raXUS, Li, Al.l,V6; ■■DXXa«aia«>'ivu1g. i. S<M»n Z, L, 

Ai, ♦ (-y/)). B (tp); TdrroiHTi L (t/i), vulg. 3- dinj' (thus) 2 j attn? * ; aiVr^' L; 

afr-^ Ai, V6, B, Y. ^iWioi' S {yp)i L . vulg- ; rpoalpcnv Z ; iirpaaijHrir L'. 

4- 6110O Z (not «/M>D u sUted), L. vulg. 6. ?» 2 (7^), L', Ai ; i<rTt uid Jrl Ai 

(coiT.) ; »x" S. L". Ai : W t (corr.), Y, V6. 

g IS. I. i^iMptifSv Z (with later Sti crowded into the line); i^iptiiiBai Sci 

he dwelU on the ontrage of bringing luch 
grave charges igainal a statesman in a 
way which neither aJlows the accused a 
fair opportunit]' to defend himself, nor 
gives the state any adequate remedy 
against him if he is guilty, while it may 
entail grave consequences on an innocent 

g 19. I. *tpl iv hrlmv, abetit tuhuA 
in lome cans : Mar qualities uv (Wesl.). 
Cf. III. II, rois xfpi TiBf VTpaT. irlaiii, 
and XXVII. ij, cal Saatrtai alsoThuc. 1. 
€, 4^ TgSi fiap^pott ftrrtw air. 

3. ^ vpaalpwK ii6n|- (so 2); offnc 
is much more expressive than air^ (with 
no stop), pointing vividly to (he follow- 
ing statement of the true purpose of 
Aeschines. It also gives tuv fiATw 
cBTiTTOpiur K.r.X. (5) its proper relation 
lo ix^poB lUr. The Schol. charges this 
passi^ with ^lifHui iroXX^. The thought 
is as follows : — The charges inclade 
some of the gravest known to the law, 
which provides the severest penalties for 
the offences ; but this suit was never 
Itrought 10 punish anybody for these. I 
will tell you what its object is (afiri)) : it 
is to give a personal enemy an oppor- 
tunity to vent his spite and malice, while 
it gives the state no means of properly 
punishing my crimes if 1 am guilty. 
The first clause, t4 ^...Tiftuplai (1, 1), 
states the gravity of the actual charges, 
and is opposed to the following tov ii... 

The latter introduces the double 
;on, (a) ix^poS iiir...Toia.vr<i and 
[i] Tur iUrToi...oii' ^TTiSi, in which the 
motive of Aeschines and the inadequacy 
of this suit to deal with the alleged 
crimes are declared. The last two 
clauses are confirmed, (a) by at y^-.. 
Umthr iimr {% I3'-'), (4) by eXV {*' oil 
...ypa^pirrow (g 13'-'°). Finally, ei ykp 
i^rou...iypi^aTo (9 ij""") shows thai 
AcKbiaes, by his present action, virtually 
admits that the course just pointed out 
{i^'eti..,yiM^6lHr«r) is the only consistent 
one. — hn|p«av, ma/iti (ct. g 13'): see 
iwTipfitv, malidausfy intuit, gS tjS*, 

4. Ix«i, involves, contains. — ipoS ; this 
(not ^/loC) is the only reading of £. 

6. tlnp Jtrav &Xi|e<Et. si verat irant 
(not issaa), a simple supposition, with 
nothing implied as to its truth ; (here is 
no need of reading odx Ir^ in the apo- 
dusis. — <An Ivi, (■( ij not pBssibIt, i.e. by 
this suit. «lir fx" (S' L') would be in 
strong antidiesis to txa {^) with the 
same subject, b wofiai ayiit : West, 
transbles this iietel sie nieht dit Moglich- 
keit. But is 4 iyia abn txa rg viXei 
tiKT/r Xb^cif a possible construction in 
this sense f 

7. 0*8' *Tir»i (sc. of (a»), Hur anjUAiHg^ 



6eiv T«I SiJ/i^ KaX \Qyov TV}(ilv — ovh' h/ ltrqp&.ai rafei koX 
ff>06vov toGto woieiv — oure /wi tows ^eovs opdSi^ expv o5t€ 
■TroXiTiKoi' ovre Stfctuoi' t(mv, (3 avZpei 'A&rfvalof aW i<f>' 
ow doiKovi^a /i' eupa rrjv iroXtv, oi<ri yt n^XiKOurois ijXifca 5 
mJi' erpay^Sti Kal Sw^et, rai? eV twc voftMv Ttfinijw'ais 7ra/>' 
awra Todimj/taT-a ■)(pr)<rda.t, &, fLkv eio-ayyeXia? a|^ia irpdrrovS' 
etapa, cio-ayyeXXoi^a kcu toOtov tov rpoirov eU KpCtrtv Kadi- 
7. xp*raffS»t L, vulg. TfKlrrwro 2, L' ; vpiTTorri lu vulg. 

purpose (ixSpov ir^ptnu), viz. his bring- 
ing > fotm ot suit by which he hoped to 
deprive Demosth. of (he power to defend 
himaelr (Xiyov rvxi!'). Il must be re- 
membeied that Aesch. had not merely 
proseculedCtcsipfaon instead of Demosih., 
but had also (too— joi) besought Ihe 
judges most earnestly to refuse Demosih. 
peniiission to speak as Ctesipbon's advo- 

I. oi ifif d^aifita-S(u k.t,\. : if we 
oroii iti after dtpaiptieSiu (see crit. note), 
a^ip^laSoi and tduto tokiv with theic 
adjuncts are subjects of a0r(.,.lj;i>i' olht 
iro\iTiiiir i>6ti iliaiir icnr, the negation 
of ei and M' being thrice repeated in 
ofrt. As we natarally omit 06 in transla- 
tion (that we may translate oJr«), we can 
give the emphatic oii' (1] the force of 
itiU mart [data, Bl.), and tianslale, for 
la try In taki teiuay my right to come it/are 
tie faof^t and be heard— still more to da 
this by way of malire and sfdte — is neither 
right nor patriotic (see note on 4) ner 
jutl. o^/kTuPsi is conative (cf. g 107'). 
For a^atpetadtu as subject (where we 
might expect tA i^ptiaSai, were it not 
for the following rb Ti>oat\9f!r), see 
Thuc. HI. 38, iniraeeai Si, Tif raBcir Sri 
^yyvrirta xrltatioy, iiTbra'Koi' or /li^iffra 
rill' TitlMfitar ira\aiifidni, and II. 87, 
rtiK,yl'yrtTai,..rauiia.xtu'-^^ irpMnXhtv 
...TVX^Cvhere ii Ihe right of every accused 
eitiien 10 be heard before the popular 
conrt, which is here called Sijiun, asvihea 
it is addressed trSpii 'A^qKubi. 

1. tr hn)pda.t Ti{n, by way 0/" (vent- 
ing) malice: cf. % 63*, ir TS...Ti(tt, and 
xx.St,t^fx9poSiU/iti. Similaris til. 31, 

ir inipfTOii Kal rpoaS^tTp /U/xt. 

3. o6n...oht..,atrt after oi : see 
Eur. frag. 31J (N.), o*k tmr oCre Ttix't 
odT-e x/'^*«""a out' 4XXo Si/a<pi\ajtTor oASir 
Ml 7ia<i( — iptAt t)^ov^. stronger than 

4. woXirvKi*, properly bihr^ng ta 
the state (see % 146*), here due to l»4 state 
from a citizen ; cf. x. 74, odi tsuf oMi 
rsXiTiJEut. Such conduct, it is meant, is 
net fair to the stale. In ix. 48, roXirucfii 
refers to the simple old-fashioned Spartan 
style of warfare.— 4^' ot«...Wpa'. the 
condensed form for ta-l r«t ABuciiimaai i 
liiuaEvri fie Upa : cf. g I4'. 

S- oio% niXuco^rroic ( = tl iff njXi- 
icaOra), supptsing thtnt to have been so 

6. irpaYvSai ¥jb.\ Gi^i (see note on 
g 4'), set ferlk in his tragic style {i.e. 
pomfoHsly), referring to the theatrical 
days of Aeschines, like iroKptreriu, g 15*, 
Cf. XIX. 189, Toira Tpayifiti.^~mf' , at 

7. XPi°^^ (^' ^'f»i» Tl'j supplied 
from JftaiAip Arn* in 1. 4), he might to 
have employed. 

B. iUraYyAXovra and •\^i^fmav 
(10) express the manner of xfSffflBi, and 
with it make the apodoses to the condi- 
tions tl...tiipa and eL-.rapdsiofia (sc. 
iiipa) : cf. i^' oTt i^pa (4). tlaaYyiWa is 
to indict by tlvayytUa, as ypd^itai is 
(properly) to indict by ordinary ypa^. 
Notice the distinction between ypd^orra 
Topinita, proposing illegal measures, and 
lapnti/uii* ypa^iiinr, indictingfor illegal 
proposals. For the double meaning of 
the passive of ypi^ see note on § 56*. 



trrdin-a trap' vyxu', cl Se ypa^ovra. napdvofia, irapavofuov 
lo ypaiftofievop- ov yap Sijirov KT7)<rLtfmvTa p^ SuiiaTai Smkclv 

Si' ip^, ip^ 8', ettrep i^tkeyietP iv6pi,^€v, avrov ovk Av 
14 iypatjiaTo. koX pijv el T^ t^v oKXiav £v wvl Si€0aKKe koX 

Ste^et rj koX aXX' ortovv aSucovvrd pe vpa^ i(opa, elcrl vopot 

irepi travTofv kuX riptiiplai, koX dyav€^ koX Kpicnt^ iriKpa koX 

peydXa ^ovtrat rdTriTt/iia, Koi rourois i^rjv diracrw y^pTJfrdai' 
5 Kal OTTtjpLK €<f»aiueTO Tavra veTrotrjKot^ koX tovtov tov rponov 230 

K€)(firripevo% Tois Jr/)ds pe, atpoXoyeiT Slv r) KaTijyopia. tois 
IB epyoi's avTov. vvp 8' iKord^ rrj's opOyji Kal SiKcuas oSov xal 

iftvywp Tovs Trap airrd rd irpdypara ikey)(Ov^, TO<rovTOis 

1 1. ^f A^(u. Ai, V6 ; iitXtyx'" U vulg., 2' ({ over x). 

g I«. 3. jtal Ti/iupiru after ipdreuAl, V6. 3,4, xM^...iir.Tffuo vulg,, 2 

(only mg. w. 'Vy). 4. txovtu vulg.; ^x""" ^ (>iig.)i L', * (7/)). <£ir air^ 

THfft Ai, V6. XTOirffBi 2, L', B, F, V, *, O 1 »>*rS«i kbt' tiui!) Ai, V6. 6. x/nii 
fK S ; rpii V L. vulg. 

f IB. 1. Til oDi. O', with i\iYx,'>''^—'"'^l'-l'^'"^- 

10. «v f^...tYp<li|iaTs: oS yifl Jttou 
belongs to both clauses Knrir. iiiv and 
^»iJ i' it.T.X. : for it surtly cannel it that 
ht U proseculing Ctaiphen on my aecovit, 
and yet ■aiguld not have indUtid me if 
tic. Without woid$ like lih and ii to 
mark the two uitilhetical clauses, which 
are n^atived joinlly, but not severally, 
(his common rhetorical figure would be 
impossible. The Latin uses qitidem and 
ltd in such expressions for jiit and ti, 
but with less effect : see note on § i ;9*. 

11. Si' j|il, J|il 8' : emphatic rcpeti- 

g 1«. I. il n...iiofa: if he ever 
smv tile etc., a simple anpposition, 10 
which tlal riiiai and iiv' are ^ natural 
apodosis ; /{^, kt might, implies no un- 
real condition. Cf. i^' iU iiipa, § 13*. — 
4i'...GUpaXXi Kol SuCliti, i.e. vihicA he 
slanderously related : cf. B 1 3*. 

1 — 4- (^^...-rdn'ripa: there is no 
tautolt^y here. He first mentions latei 
and their prescribed penallifs (n^uploi), 
which would be used in dyuvci kTliOfm ; 
then /™«i-JM and (special) suifs, in which 
heavy penalties could be inflicted by vote 
of the court (aTuiw ri>i)n'ol)- italiua, 
like Ti/i^^UTU, are especially penalties 

which the judges assess (ri^cwri). (See 
Meier and Schomann, Atl. Proc, pp. 
^oS-iii, 9S6.) 

5. ivTivbc' l^cilvrro is so nearly 
equivalent to er rare ii»airtTa (M. T. jaS). 
that if he had ever heat leen best tiBDslaies 
il. Il is often impossible to express an 
unreal condition In English by a relative 
sentence : here whenever he had been seen 
would not be clear, 

6. KPHfr\fAy«t TOtt wfi% )m, le have 
dealt viith mi {managed his rotation! tff 
me) : den Streit gegen mich so gefilhrt 
(Bl.). West, strangely renders -nUt rpii 
lit die auf mid anwendbarin Sechts- 
miltel, referring to rbitm, a^iDvci, etc. (so 
Weil). — ■p>Xo'Y(tT' av, TKould have been 
consistent, the impf. referring to the 
various occasions of xexfititinit. If he 
had brought the proper suits (li-ywri xol 
Kfiaeii) against me personally at the time 
of each offence, his style of accusation 
(itonry^p'a) before the court would have 
been consistent with his conduct ; where- 
as now narijTopci itiw t/ioS, Kplttt ti tbv- 
Torl [% 15*), the latter being his present 

g IS. 1. -nMroirait Grrtpov ]^>ivwt: 
the Peace of Philocrates (of which he i> 




varepov ■)(p6vot^ airtas Ktu, trKafifiaTOL Koi XoiSopia^ <rvfi.- 
tftop^o-as vTroKpCvertu- elra Ka-njyopei fjxv i/s-ov, KfAvei Si 
TOVTovl, Kal row [lev ayavoi okov ttjv ir/ws €fi €)(dpav S 
TTpotaraTa.!., ovSo/ioS S' inl ra&rqv aTnjvrrjKox; ifLOt t^v 
ir^pov ^-qTuv ktrvTipiav at^eXccr^ai <f>a£veTai. koitoi irpo^ 16 
awatriv, <3 avSpe^ 'A^Tji^aioi, Tots dWois ofs iv etireLV ti? 
vire/3 Kr)7cr«^M-os ^01, Kal Toirr e/wttyc Soxei k<u fidk' 
eucoToif iy Xeytif, ori r^s -^fier^pas ^Bpai •fffia.'; €<f>' rffiStv 
avTcov SiKaiov ^v tov i^erao'iiov TroteicrBat., ov to p^v iTph% s 
oXXijXov; dyoivtietr^fu wapakftwew, kript^ 8' orw KaKOf tl 
ha><rop.€v ^TiTtiv vw€p0o\r) yap a&iKia^ touto ye. 

Jlawa ^ev toiwiv to. Karrjyopijfiey 6p.oi<at iK tovtov dv 17 

3, 4- fftwaYavttiF ove 
jie. I. airatfu'...t; 

SuaJoit over oti L' ; ara 

3. tout6 y' /iwl Ai, V6. 

Urtrair^io (i over i,) 2. 

over «ir) L ; TopaAiireo' Ai. *. 
i 17. I. rd om. L'. 

2, L, Aj; 
r. liXX., u dr. 'Ad., oil a> T. 
Saioi B. 
6. xaptXtit 

especially (peaking) was ten years old 
when Aesch. first brought his suit (336 

4. WoKplvtrai, ht plays his fart -. cf. 
trpa-fifttt in § 13*. The word implies 
not only pompoaiiy but dissimulation, 
though fai less of this than our hypocrisy 
and hypocriti. (See note on lo".)— «*"]- 
•yap<l.,.Kp(v»: see note on § i+*. 

5. Tofl dYiSvot SXov vpotirTwnu. 4f 
pulsfortmest in {al the hiad of) his whale 

6. oWatuO, noaihere, i.e. never ; cf. 
oC in I us' with following irTmea.—hA 
Tavn;v, ufioH thii ground (thai of our 
enmity), keeping the figure of ainjinjicclt 
i;uil,—OT vrith a view to this, i.e. to fight 
it out (West., Weil, Bl.): cf. irraJS' 
ii»V"l"i, S 'is'- 

7. farm|i(av A^iXJirtw,, i.e. to inflict 
anu£a, which Ctesiphon would incur as a 
public debtor if he were unable to pay his 
fine if convicted. The spurious indict- 
ment in g J5 sets this at fifty talents (see 
note on Hist, g 8). 

% la. 3. Soml, personal, sc. 711 (from 

1): we translate it seems that one might 
say, because we must use a finite verb to 
express ir tJym (M. T. 754). 

5. Umaun ^v, iiie ought (M, T, 416) r 
here of present time.— rJi" ^jtrwayAv 
«outir<U, te settle up. "iitraa/iii in 
der klass. Literatur nur hier : sonst i^f- 
roiTit." Bl. Bekk. Anecd. 93, lO, says of 
its use here, of ^oin S6KifL0f rTrtu ofru 
rMiuror. Cf. OirMir ir«^ifei», 9 laS*. 

6. MfHf Sr^.-.trp^v, te seei tehat 
other man me can harm, tripif standing 
emphatically before the indirect interrog. 
fry: the direct question would be fripif 
Tiri.,,Siiisoiut; Weil, who makes Srif a 
common relative, with Wj^i assimilated, 
quotes Aen. t, 573, urbem quam stalno 
vestra esl. But we haidly eipect this 
"inverted assimilation" (G. 1035) in (he 
language of this speech. 

For the argument of 3§ 17 — S9 on 

the Peace of Fhilocrates, with its three 
divisions, see note before j 9. 

i 17. 1. i|w^ "i»i '^■^ "11 

3— a 



Tis tSot ovre BtKoioi^ ovr iir a\7)0€ia^ ov&efitSs elprjfiiva' 
fiovXofjLCu Si KoX Kaff tv eKoarov ainmv ^fercwrai, Kal fioKtirff 
otra vwkp t^s elpijvTjs Kal Trji irpc<rj8aas KaTt^j/eviraTo fiov, 
S ra ireirpayfiev itayr^ fLera ^ikoKparovi; dfarideU efj.oC. eon 
8* dvayKotop, Z dvS/)cs 'A^iji-aiot, koX vpotrr^Kov lawi, ois 
KttT Ikuvovi; tows j(/3ovov? cl^c Tix ■TTpayfjLaT lU'a/u^a'CUi 
wa TT/ws Tov wd/Jx"'^"' ftcupov exaora 0eQ}p^T€. 
18 ToS ydp 4>aiicucov truoratTos iroXc/iou, ou St' ifie {ov yap 
iyorye ivoXiTevofirjv iroi Tore), vp^Tov fi.€P vptei^ ovrto Si«- 
Keurde wm <i>o>Kea^ fikv ^ovktadai <ratd^vai, Koiirep ov 231 
SiKoia irou){Was optitvrei, %'q^aiot^ S' tyriovv &v i<{)7)cr0TJi'at 

3. Kal (bef. n0') om. V5. xatf' fr haarow vulg. ; iia^' fr ^kmt' Z ; m$' 

^coirrw Ai, V6 ; Jmfl' ?ic«#t' B1. 4. tita yt O- fi. u oin. ♦. 7. i»a- 

./ir^oi £, L. Ai ) dvcwip4<''0* ^MBt O ; dra/i. Afiat vulg. S. 8<i*pitTt (^ over fi) V<S. 

f la. I. xoXtitov auvTirToi Ai. •x' T^fi Z, L, Ai. 1, V6: e6 Yi'f it B, 

■vulg. I. ler* (from Tiri) I (yp), B', F, *. O'. 3. ip<>6\taet Y. 4. in- 

^Trf ft /ru/A, — ilfijiUva: er. aii. with 
f3« dr.. Bl. puts a comma after tSoi. 

3. Kofl' tfi lingiy. $appourT6t iffTit 
Syar ri ^aiXtffffiu (at Kara f/pot iirrdtiir 
t4 Tp(i7/ioTO. Schol. — luaeTOf. obj. of 
Jf(Triirai (West.); cf. khS' Ira hainor 
i^/iur iraaTc/Kui . XXi. I4I. Bl. omits If 
and reads Uaar' (Z), But it may be right 
to read xaS' Irhorr' ofrifr /firdsoi: cf. 
X^pii (lOimt irieirDumt, xxiir. ic. 

4. iirlp (like Ttpit : see note on S 9'- 
J, avanhlt l|iaC, pulling upon me. 

Originally Aeschines prided himself on 
his close connectioD with Philociates in 
making the peace : see 1. I74,ri)i- clpitnj' 
r))r &' iiiov taX HKoxpiTovt ytyinitUriir. 

6. Kal «paai|Kav b-of, uni^ btcoming 
as well (as necessary): [irui, ifi«^i 

7. i{i«^vii)vai: EC. &;i£i, which is 
added in most mss. Cf. xx. 76, ravtf" 

S. vpit,,.KUf>iv, unV^t reference to its 
ipecial accasion (thai which de/anged to il). 

§ IB. I. ^MKucoit vaU|uiv: the 
Sacred or Phocian War began in 356 — 
35J and ended in 346 B.C. Demosthenes 

Hist, i 


pare this judicious account of the feeling* 
of the Athenians towards the Phodans 
and Thebans in 346 B.C. and earlier with 
the impassioned language of the speech 
on the Embassy and of the Second and 
Third Philippics, we see (he sobering; 
ellect of lime and of recent events. When 
the Thebanswere exulting in the devasta- 
tion of Phocis by Philip, and the political 
interests of Athens demanded that the 
Phocisns should be protected as allies, 
Demosthenes seemed to overlook their 
sacrilegious plundering of Delphi, which 
he now acknowledges. Again, the inti- 
mate alliance of Thebes and Athens in 
339 B.C., and still more the destraction of 
Thebes by Alexander in 335, had changed 
the Athenians' bitter hatred to the deepest 
syropatliy. Still the orator cannot deny 
the old hostility against Thebes, nor the 
chief ground for it, 

4. (Aim) frrurfh' £v i^i|«r<iiv(u vd- 

■ S9' 

and ] 

It i 



■n-a^ovtrii', ovk oXoyais oiS" aSiKoti aiToZs opyi^ofievof oh S 
yap ein-uxTqKea^cw iv A€VKTpoL<; ov fierploj'; iK€)(pT)VTo' ^irei6^ 
■I) UeXoTTowTfaoi airaa-a SvcwmjKet, Kai ovff ot ^wroiWcs- 
AoKcScu/Minou; 0VT(i>s urxvov ^are awXeiv aurows, o5^ oV 
•jTpoTtpov St' iK€iva>v ap^ovT€i Kvpioi T^v w6\€<av ^<row, aWd 
rc$ -^v aKpiTo^ Koi irapa tovtol^ koX wapa rot; aWoi; awatrw lo 
ejots Kal Tapa)(TQ. TaSra S' opoiv o 4»iXwriros (ou yap ■^v 10 
o^oj^) Tois trap* eKaoTOts wpoSorais xp^/juiTa avaKi<rK<i>v 

6. cOrcTiryi^Einii' V6. lo. ra/Kk roTt dXX«t S, L, Ai. i, V6 ; *apcb om. B, 

vnlg. diraau £' {'EXA^v above), Bi aroo'v'EXXiro'w L, At, V 6, F {yp), 4 

M, o. 

and the finite moods with iSart, and often 
impossible when ihe infin. has it and 
must therefore be translated by a finite 
verb. We should generally IranBlate 
here, ynt inert so diipesid that you 
■a!uhed...and-U!truld hmii beat plfoiid eti., 
as ir we had idirrt i^Bi\m6t...i^<!Birtt 
Sr, whereas the though! is, yeu ■wert {se^ 
disposed {as) le viisA...iind to fed thai 
you TUBuld bi pUastd itc, which is not 
me{M.T. J84]. See Gildersleeve 
in Amer. Jour, of Philol. vil. iSi— 175. 
^Tjinu it with its protasis ToMtvam, 
general sense, represents t4n)ii9a\ia 
&* ([ Tiflmff. The position of 4<bia:^i 
flit and Squint S' shows their strong 

J, 6. ol* nrvf^wMrvt, their sacctssts: 
SC rmi timixfiiukaai (obj. of intyjrrfiro). 
ex. rtpi ur it^vatoffyiMswi, % 94'. — kt 
Arficrpoif; for the battle of Leucira in 
371 B.C. see Grote x. Ch. 78- Bl. quotes 
Iioc. Phil. 53 on the effect of Leucira 
npon the arrogance of Thebes. See xx. 
109, showing the bitter feeling of De- 
mosth. himself in 355 B.C. ; >«ifo» eij- 
fkUtt ^pertOvw It' ui^injTi (ai Tonipif 
ij &ftttt iwl ^Ovi^pvtt^ jcal Ty rA JUkoio. 
ffe^^rBai. Cf. Diod. XVi. 58, Ti Aevjt- 
Tfui ^(nu^/iaro {Leaetric inselenee) an- 
ffniXu rOf BouruW. See note on S 98*. 

6. twtiM', after rpwror iiir: see note 

7. SisvtiJkh, HUH in dissension (£i- 
trotted), — o( pMroSvTf*: these were espe- 
cially Ihe Messenians and Arcadians, witb 

their new cities Messene and Megalopo- 
lis, established by Epaminondas, and the 
Argives. See v. 18: tl Tip 'ApyttK /liv 
•Ml Mc<rinii>tiK mt MtTsXoT 



KttiatfiOi'Laui yf/uy < 

tmnjfflur Saoi 

Sii rypi xpit Ao- 
iiipi/tetay txfi^ 
.T.X : and Xen. Hellen. III. 
ykp Tjiii KaraktiHtTtLi a^ots 
(Aait.) tiiurrij; ciiK 'kfrttini fiir otl roTt 
iiMriitrth aliTei't li-wApxaiisir ; 

8. ol Tpdrtpev dp^ai-m are not the 
ip/UHTTo/ and Satapxiai of Lysander (g 
96'J, bat oligarchies which were main- 
tained by Sparta in Peloponnesus before 
Leucira and were overthrown by the 
later revolutions. For example, Phlius 
was captured by Agesilaus in 380 B.C., 
and B council of One Hundred was esta- 
blished there in the Spartan interest : in 
366 Phlius and Corinth made a treaty 
with Thebes which recognized their inde- 
pendence. (See Xen. Hellen. v. 3, 15 ; 
vu. ^, 10.) Mantinea was captured by 
Agesipolis in 385, and divided into five 
villages; in 371 the city was reestablished 
and was independent of Sparta (ibid. v. 
1, 1—7; VI. 5, 3—5). For the revolt of 
Tegea from Sparta see ibid. vn. 5, 6—9. 

10. Sitfvnt Ipii Kal Topax^i- hopeliss 
strife and confusion, itprnt is not ad- 
tititlingof setllemtnt{tiiaa). See Hellen. 
VII. ,^, 17 : djT/Mtf la ^ jral ropax^ In TXeiujr 
fwri -rift It^X^ ("f Mantinea) iyinTv 17 
wpjHTerr if Ty'BMJi: (BI.) 

i 1». 1. «po86Tu«: for the names 



iratn-as iTwiKpovf Koi irpos aurous erdpaTTev etr h> ots 

■fjfJMfyravov oXXoi Kai KaxSt^ itftpovovv, ainoq ira/jco-Keva^eTO 

5 Koi Kara wavrotv itftvero. a>« Se roXatn-w/sou^cvot rai fi-qKu 

Tov TTokifiov ot TOT€ /icv ^aptts vvv 8' aTu^eis Srf^aXoi 

ifiavepol wafriv ^irav dvayKa<r0r)a-6fiefot. KaTa(f>euyti,v €ij>' 

v/xas, *i\tffTro5, tva ^■i^ rovro ycWiTo fiTfSk ODvikdoitv oi 

ffoXcis, u/iiv /«v etp^vTjv eKCtvois S« ^o^deiav hrqyy&XaTO. 

90 Ti oJf oT»'i7yw>a<TaT' avr^ ir/w to XajSelv oXiyow oeZi' v^as 

CKOiTas i^aTTara/jkefov^ ; 17 Twf oXXiui/ 'EX.X'jji'aii', eirc j(p^ 

KaKiav cit' ayi^taf eirc Kal dfjuftorepa ravr' eiTrcii', 01 

^oXcftof aTJV€)(rf koi p.aKpov TrokefLowTOtf vfiav, koj. tovtov 

5 wrkp tS>v jratrt av/xif>ep6vT<oi', m ^py<{> <f>av€pov yeyovev, owre 

f I*. 3. Tirra Ai, V6- airroln £, L' ; dJiX-^Xovt L^ Ai, V6 ; 4avToii 

vulg. 4. AXXoi £ {— above), L, Al ; ol dAXu vulg. 6. rvvt S' Ai ; rutl 

V6. 8. ♦(X.inn.iZi (Acorr.).4*iX. L, vulg. 7^«™ S (con.?), L, vulg. j 

ytnirat Ai, V6, B {oi a above) ; ^ivip-o O, 9. i/uV V6. 

§ aO. 1. irirrat btiat Al , V6 : sec Vomel's note. J. rw' ran 2, V, Ai ; 

T&r mrp tSvi *nlg- 

of some of these see S 48; a long block 
lUt is given in g 495: cf. XIX. 159, 
wicjiiia ita^ iitriwTiMtr <Ii rip ' EXXdia, 

, itvu^ii into colUsiett 
(knocitd IffgllArr) : cf. BvriKfiewr, i6g', 
■nd ivyKpa6ta, Thuc. I. 44. — *v otf 
^)U(pTa*n> AXw, IK ef^cT-j-' blimdiri, 
ef. oTi rfrujrtmffoi', 8 18*. fr oIi here 
is often taken aa ^^r oli xP^<"'t vihilt; 
bat cf. ^r oti ^TurreiViiTc in g loo", ^v oil 
»iffiryyeAW*»ii» in g 150', <)■ n't tfpfi- 
ttfuu in i »s8', «!» oti limuBW in g iBI?, 
ft irft nJnljt'?'*'' in § 313'. ir oimti oIi 
Xapljurro. in IX. 63. 

5. Kvrd womn" *+rf«To, A« ivat grmo- 
ing abwt all thtir heads, i.e. so as to 
threaten them ali. — ry )t^ic«L: cf. ItKtnfi 
ftrftrvt, Aescb. III. 14B. 

6. P>(mCIi everbiaring, offtnsivi. — vO* 
8' dnijittc: after 335 B.C. See Schot. , 
and notes on gg 18* and 3j'. 

7. ^vayuu Oi|ii iifjav, \ in or, obi. with 
the personal 0art/»l ^ii» (M. T. 90;). — 
vami^A^'i kif vfui: no auch possi- 
bility is suggested by the language of 

Demosthenes at the time of the peace; 
but (imei had changed. 

g SO. 1. dUfov Gitv, full rorm of 
dXfrau {M. T. 779), qualities jcorrai 
^(amT., almasi ■aiiUing dafits: cf. liopwi, 

i !!■*■ 

1. i)...'EXX^iwv: the actual subject 
appears in the alteTiistivee[TF...c(T(. See 
% 170', and XXUl. i;6: 1^ iiiitripa, u dr3. 
'AS., tht TisA) ^iXarfpwirdu' X^i* rftf* 
j Ti Jfrori, In Isocr. XV. JO the original 
case is retained wirh ttrt...ttTe: rt/A T^ 
iii^ ((re ^>Ltv6t icaXrir Svrintm dr* 

3. kokCov, boMHfts, here in the sense 
of 'WBrlklmntis. Bl. cites for this milder 
sense gg 68", 197'; and for (hat of posi- 
tive viUkedritss (To«)p(o) §§ 93', i79', 
303'. Bal in § 197' <o<£o is applied to 
the whole list f^ Irailois, though Tonipia 
is added as a stronger and more correct 

4. in{X4|u>* faKpiv: the so-calted 
Amphipolilan War with Philip (357 — 
346 B.C.), which ended with the Sacred 
War. See Hut. I 3. 



')(fiT]fi,a(riv ovre a-tafiatrw ovt aXXot ouScfL riav avavroiv 
<rw€\dfipcwov VfLiv ot^ koX StK(U(i>9 KaX TrpofrrfKovrtn^ otyyt- 
iofioKn eroCfiot^ vnrfKovcrare tw OiXittttw. 19 /tev ovv rore 
«32 (Tvyxoip^OeitTa elfrqvTj Sta Tavr', ov St' ifik, ap? o5to5 Ste)3a\- 
Xev, ljTpa.-)($ij- TO S^ Tovrto*' aSurr^^ra wot $a)/}oSofct}pi,T' o* 10 
a.vrQ ThiV wvi, irapovTfDv irpayiiaTfav, av rw i^erd^^ Sucaiois, 
euTi' €vp-q{rii. koX tovti n-ai*^ UTrcp t^s oXij^eios axpi^oko- 31 
yovp,ai. KoX 8i€$epxop-cu- el yap ^vai n Sokolt) to, /loXtor' 
ev TQVTois ahiKTifLa, ovSev ioTi Stjttov irpo^ ip.£ ' dX,X' o p^kv 
irpStTo^ dirtiiv koX p.v7)cr9els virep rfj's elpijvrjq 'AptoToSij/ios 
■^v 6 vjroKptrr)^, 6 S' iKSe^dfitvoi Koi ypdypas kou, eavritv s 
fiera tqvtov purdwra^ eirl ravra ^iKoKpdjT}^ 6 'Ayvovirio^, 
o tros, Aia-xt'"}, KOivotvoi, ou;^ 6 ^/i,ds, ovS' iv crv &uLppay^s 

6. oiS' aK\v V. *. 
Xa/l^>lf«lrTO Z (>p], 4<. 
Q. «Wn Tif iMwwif 1 
II. ofngL, vulg.; curia 2,'; ai' 

Sal- I, rauTaAl.Ve. 

.2; «pi(over6ir*p)L'(7p). S- <ii»tjii;iw(.i (X over J) L (7/.). 6. fufg^a, 

lia-i To^ov V6. AYTodiriot B ; 'A^rDdnaf vulg. ; a^roAriot S. 7. ody i 

</<4i2, L; (rf< ^jiit vulg. mia'tt.*. fc«p^-yeJi^L'(7ri,Ai.V6. O. 




; «ir™i- 1 


; arrw 





om. 0. 

om. A I, ' 



!«p<.*. om. 

. 0'. 

[. Mr V6. 

t,Iivei: cf. 9 6^. (tboi) any/auU; ot it may be an em- 

g. wyxop'i'itira, csneidrd, acquiaetd phatic fatnre eipression, as in Pind. Istb. 

in: Athens showed no alacrity in making IV. (v.) 14, tovt' (x"*' '' "' ''oOna luXfi' 

the peace, though she was deceived as 10 itpitotrt itaXfl*, yeu have the vikole, ihould 

the main point.— WPoWuv. slanditvusly a short of that glories fall to you : so 

declared: see Aesch. J7 (end), 60. Pyth. I. 81. 

II. TBiv wi>l...fipi{<ni (sc. rit): the 4. 'AfLtrrMiiiief '. a tragic actor of 

'firm foolhold in Greece which Philip good repute, one of the company in which 

secured by the peace, especially his in- Aeschines once served (xix. 146). For 

fluencB in the Amphictyonic Council, il his infonnal mission to Philip in 348 — 

fi implied, made him at last the victor of 347 B.C. see Grote xi, 517, ji8, Schaefer 

Chaeronea. ll. 191. See Hist. % ig. Aeschines (ll. 

I ai. I. 4rt(i Tiji (Ui|fc(ai, from 15, irt) calls this mission a rptirpeJo. 

regard for {in tie itUeresI of) truth.— 5. i ti<B^(i«io»,^ii ji«-«jjw (he who 

^pipoXoYvAfuu ml 8u(Jpx<i|''"' ' ^^ '""^ the business front him], — YpiH^w: 

note on { 4*. sc. -r^r tip^iwyi*: the peace was named 

t. rd (tdXioV, DMSI elearly, with from this motion of Philocratea. 

ie*At): cf. f 95'. 7. ot&' S.v ri StoppAY^t, Hot tvtn if 

3. o<iih...itpi*l^,itiitti>(anremBf ym ifilii: cf. the common imprecation 

mine: cf. |g 44', 60*. This may be an itappnyiliii (Ar. Av. 1). Aeschines is 

emphatic present apodosii, referring to now as eager to repudiate PhilocnUes as 

the present condition implied in il ..3a- be was in 345 B.C. lo claim him as an 

tai^, if il ihauld appear that there it assodatei see note on j 17*. 



t}>ev86fj,evoi, ol Sc (nn/uirovre? orov &iqvot€ €i>£Ka {i& yap 
TovTo y iv Tw vapovTi.) EvfiovXos koX Kriifn,<ro<f>&v eyo> 8* 

8a oiiBev ovSofjiOv. dXX' ofJM^, Tovroif roiowuf ovrtov xaX iw 
avriji ■nj'i aXitOeCai ourai heiKWfiivKov, €ts to5^ ^k€v aroi- 
Seuis wot* eroX/xa X^cir ais liyj' eyi w/)os r^ t^s ci/mJit;? 
oiTios yeyej^ff^cu fcal KeKo»Xuicft»s etijv rtjv wokiv ftera koivov 
5 (TVveBpCov rwv 'EXXt^raiv ravrqv iroiTJcraa-dai. etr w — ri &v 
etirtov (re rts 6p6ci<; irpofreiTroi ; e<rTw oirov cry irapatv 
Tt\KiKavrt)v irpa^LV Kai trv/x^a^ia^ i^Xiktjc wvl Sic^cty op^f 
a^aipovfjievov /*€ r^s wdXtius, ^ai'a*o-»j(7-as, ^ vapfkBotv 

28 Tavra a wui* KarT^o^eis eSi8a$a^ Koi SicfiJX^es ; koI firfv el 
TO Ktakverat Tqv TOiv EXX^i'ui' Kowaviav iirtupaKeiv eyii 

§ as. 3- uCTt friX/ia Al ; iJffT( raXnat V6 ; woTecTDX/iS (Jnd « erased) Z ; «ti)T« 
TsXcifvutg. 4. Irurolvulg.; friom. 2, L'. Al, V6, F, *. 5. j-oiiTiir 2, 

L; oiJr*!' vule, 7. Fwl 2, L; i-ur L (-yp), vulg. infiftii 2, L, Al ; trpayif- 

itit tat Sii(. L (7p), vulg. ; SitTfiay. rai Jitf ■ B. V. 9, vvr 2' {cott. «*!) ; rurt 

L; HOT vnlg. icoJTj7op«ij X vulg,; Kanjyiptit Vom., West., Bl. xol (^ 

aboTe) £ ; ««! L, Ai, V6 ; ij vulg. 

gaa. 1,5. .i ri 2 (no ™ visible). 1. fy«r,eAi. 

ft. Stov Sifwon hwca, ^r 
r/aiBn lit may have ittn): Jijrwf, like 
aft>, makes j^rii indefinite. This is is 
sirong language as Demosthenes wishes to 
use of Eubulus, the conservative states- 
man, universaJIy resi>ected. and perfectly 
hanest. but a strong advocate of "peace 
at any price." For Eubulus see Grote 
XI. 386,387; Schaefeii- 186— 1S8. Of 
Cephisophon's connecEioa wiih the peace 
nothing further is known : he is probably 
the Paeanian mentioned in § 7;, in Xtx. 
19.1, and in Aesch. II. 73. Droysen, 
Vomel, Wettermann, and others think 
Knjri^flr should be read here: cf. xix. 
n, 18.97, Jis- 

10. oWa^wB: cf. § !{'. and foTttSrou; 
% 11*. Demnsth. ii fully joslKied in this 
strong denial. 

% aa. I, s. SvTwv, SMcwit frav 1 ad- 
versative (M. T. 841). 

4). -frftriiaiax, KoniXwinl* il,i\v: for 
the perfects see M.T. 103, 109. The 
whole sentence (3—5) if 4>"...»-«5)<™. 
rfoi refers to the elaborate charge of 
Aesch ines (j8 — 64), that Demosthenes 

pressed the negotiations for peace with 
indecent haste and thereby excluded other 
Greek states from the benefits of the 
treaty. The answer in § 13 ii perfectly 
satisfactory. (See Hist. 9§ 31, 31.) 

■;. rwtSpCov: a special meeting of 
delegates summoned by Athens from vari- 
ous Greek states, which never met ; not 
the regular synod of the allies of Athens, 
which was in session when the peace was 
made (Aesch. lit. 69, 70). — i, Ti dv... 
'■povtlvoii itraaiiiirriau and Sutrkpurtt 
combined (Bl.) ; for the regular position 
of i.y before el-ri^. see M. T. 534. Cf, 
ilTlff'itra; Ar, Nub. 1378. 

6. ImvS«oti: temporal, like ofJa/isi! 
in i§ 15' and J I '".— TrofHli' belongs to 
ipCiii,..irfviiirtatit, {...iitf^^^ir; (as ft 
whole) : the meaning is, ttieri ygu evtr 
fresinl vihm you saw me, etc. t 

7. irpa£iT Kol rt^jfa-fya : the general 
before the particular. In % 191* the order 

I as. 1. hwpdiMLv; even the best 
Mss. of Demosth. give this form of the 
plupf., while those of Plato {[enerall; 


^ikCinrat, trot to ftr) (Tvyfjtrai. konrov tjv, oWa ySoaf kou. 
SuxfiafyTVpe(r8cu Kal ^\ovv TOVToieri. ov toCwv AroiTjcras 
233 ovSafiov Toirra, ovB' ijKOUff^ a-ov Tovnjv rf/v tftatv^v ovSeif- j 
ovr€ yap ^v wpetT^eta wpo^ ov&ev a.w€<mikii.iv7j rare ratv 
Ekk^voiP, aX\a irdkai iravns 170'af i^eXifXeyfievoi, ovff 
oStos vyve% -mpX ro-OTOiV ttprjKfv ovSey. x'^P'-^ ^* rovT<iiv 94 
Kal 8ia^d\\eL r^v iroXtf ra p.eyiaTa h> ols ipev^erai' ei yap 
v^cLs a/ia T0U5 ^1^ 'EXX-iji/as €W TTokep-ov wapeKaXcXTf, avroi 
Bk TTyaos ^XiTTTTOv wepl TTJ^ elp^vr)^ TrpcV^Seis hrifXTrere, 
Eipv^drov vpayp.a, ov wokfot^ epyov ouS^ xPV^^^" dvBpta- 5 
■JT^v SieirpdrreirBe. aXX* ouk eori ravra, ovk Icm- ri yap 

4. liOttapTipaaBat Ai ; -(oAii (a overc) L. {• ^i^JafuC Ai. ailtlf 

• tlttrut. Al, V6; tlxirat. om. £, vulg. 6. oiSdm Z, L, vulg.; oASA'aT O', V6, 

Cob., Dind. 7. rin (for 'dXsi) B (ritXai lag.) ; tAtc riiXai L'. 

%a*. 3. nwi/iji' AXXout'EU. L, vulg.; ifX\i>ut om. £, Ar. 3, V<S. 4. r^i 

tfp4n|i 2 ; tl/tiprrit L, vulg. ti. iitupArrttet [Bi corr. fram flu) £. 

have tbe older Atlic iotra in -ir (For -tn), 
as ^piUii in Rep. 336 D. 

3. Ti |i^ inYri<ra>i: Wesl. «ys ihat 
this RrgumenI recurs in various form» 
7* times, citing 89 '3, "7. n*. JSSff., 
196, iia, jjg, 343, ijj,— fffll Xowiv ^*, 
il Tiauiintd for ysu, aflet (J ititfixitf, 
supposing Ihat I had said (a simple suppo- 
sition). If (I irtTp. were made an un- 
real condition (oti the ground of oil... 
Toirro in 4, 5). ^oiirAr ^r woUld be classed 
with ISei, ilKoiar q>, etc. (M. T. 416), 
and imply ^'HM ought to have ktpl siltnct. 
But see note on % 63^ — poav might refer 
(o the loud voice of Aesch., like rr^- 
FOffjcjicwt, g 308'; but Demosth. uses it 
also of himself (g 143'), and it is pnabably 

6. dfrn '^y ... <lvtoTaX|Uvi) TOTf 1 
Holmes calls this an "audacious asser- 
tion." It must be remembered that ^ 
drnrraViA^ is not an ordinary plupf. like 
dr^oTaXro (M. T. 45), which would have 
meant that no tmbassy had ever hem sttil : 
the compound form means that thtrt was 
HO emlHtssy then out nn ill miisiatt. The 
embassies were probably infonna! in 
most cases, and no deRnitc report was 

expected from them in case of failure. 
(See Hisl. % 31.) The next sentence 
telU the whole truth, Ti\(u...i^\t,^ffiJ- 
coi, i.e. ai! had long be/ere this been 
thoroughlji canva3ud{it.TAU3\i.TiA wanting). 
Cf. lo*"', oi>re...ifu». Even Aeschines 
(it. 7g) took the Fiame view fourteen 
years earlier; o<H(»4t i' itB/Koruai in- 
rovpoStTDs rj t4X«, dXXi tUv nir rtpt- 
optifToni i Ti av/iff^rriu, tJIii Si vvnn- 

3 a«. 1. b oil iHSnai: cf. § ig>. 

The argument of 1 — 6 is that the nego- 
tiations lor peace show that Athens could 
not have been expecting such envoys at 

5. Eupupdrov irpa7|uii: Eurybatus 
was a proverbial scoundrel, said to have 
been an Ephesian who was hired by 
Croesus to raise an army and gave the 
money to Cyrus. See Harpocr. nnder 
^ipiparar ; Aesch. ill, 137 ; and Paroem. 
Or.. Diogcn. I v. 16, under ttpu^rtitirBiu, 
with note. — wiXtMt tpyav, oh act fit for a 

6. o4k Im-.trn.: seethe same repe- 
tition before the oath in g loe*. 



^iri r^i' elpj)yf]v; aXX' uir^/))fO' oTrairw. aXX' ^l TOf 

iroKtfLQv, a\X' avrol ire/sl elfnjvr)^ ifiovkakfr0€. ovkovv 

lo oifre T^9 ^f o^PX^^ ei/^i^wjs ij7«fi<i>i' ouS' aiTLog wi" eya* t}>cuvo- 

fiai, oure twi' aXXoic av KaTojievaaTO ^ov ovSev aXi^^es ov 

30 'En-els'^ toivui' iiroiij<raTO rffv elprfvjfv ij woXis, ivravBa. 
iraX.u' <TK€\}>ap-6€ ri '^fioif cKarepos irpoetXcTO vparretv koX 
■yap ex rovrtov euretrOe tis t^i/ o 4>iXi7nr{i) iravra. uwa.yiavi.^o- 
fievQi;, KoX rt's o Trparrtov mrip vpMv Kal to rjj iroXei trvp,- 
5 <fiepov ^TjTav. eyat fiev toCwvv eypaijia ySovXeiiatv oTroTrXeic 
T^i' Ta)(i<m}p Tous vpea-^eK ivl tovs tojtous A" ofs iv ovra 
^iKi,irffov irwddvmvTat,, Koi tovs opKOvi airoXafi^aveiy ovrot 

96 S« owSe ypaA\iavTO% ifiQV ravra TToieiv ^^eXTjcac. rt Se tovt' 
tJSwoTO, <Z avSp€% 'AdifvaXot ! iyii hiZd^ot. ^iktvw^ fxkv 
■^v iTvpAJtepov (ills irXetOTOi' tov /terafu j^ovov yeviirBoA Totv 

9- oUnnv Z, Y, V6: odiotii' L, vulg. ii. tiSir helote tat O'. fuu om. Y. 

IJ. ^oflifTBt V6. 

S aa. J. «<il">»*'" 2. Uairrm V6. 3. i*ttf9e rii Al, V6. *iX. 

ri^rn iTtim7«>'if. Z (■/?). L', vulg. ; tA. T« Ti^i- «ipij«)>' ffwOY. S', L' i iiX. tV cff>. 
dyunf. Al. 4. Tiom. O'. 6. M ro^ T&rsvi L, vulg.i oni. S' (in ng. 

with ■/.); '''"J"*">"Ai, V6. 7. ri.»iX. Ai.i, V6. rivffd^wToi V5. 

fpnwi Tj)* raxlji-nir I?, Ai, V6. 8. oOM vulg. 1 du £' [Si above). 

g as. t. (a^aro Al. iJ om. B, *, O, V6. 3. rdr om. F, *. V. 

7. fmtwtfiK^tV 4v, iwhA/ j-eu Aoiv — il«MrX<tv, wiib fypa^a, fropostd. The 
*^oi tending) bill vfm passed on ihe thiid of Munyehi- 

8. hnjpxw Aronv, i.e. peace wot on (April 19) : «ee Aesch. [i. gj, and Hist. 
«p«n le thni all : see note on g i*. 9 39- No concurrent vote of ihe As- 
ia Tiif 1{ ^pxi]! itH**)*' i-'' ''^' seiobly was needed here, Hgt ^u\V 

earlier itages of thi peace. Bui nj» rpo- wet^ffowoi r«0 M^ou itupiar, Xlx. rj*. 

ripar tl|l^lr■<f in Aesch. lii. 58 is the 6. iy oil Svwin*di™K™i(M.T. 694'); 

Peace of Pbilocrates, opposed to that of cT. g| iS', 17', ig"; xix. 154. 

Demadcs (338 B.C.). 7. roit SpiW"* Jwo»*|ipiwii', ^ «rf- 

§ aa. I. hviSi): see note on § ^i*. minister Ihe oalAs (i.e. » rai-fiiv 'i^m): 

— frraMa, iere (temporal) : cf. ofiJa^D, SpKous iroiiSirai ii to lake Ihe ealhs (i.e. 

I 15". la gine Ihem). See S "5*. ""d Kix. 318. 

a. t( wpOf(X«re wpjTTMVj to4o/ »ai 8. o«W ^pib^mit, «(rf <wn a/*»- I 

kis ■tpadfean {purpose m policy)? had propesed the bill (its passage is 

5. pvsMav: Demosth. wasoneof the implied). 

Senate of 500 in 347—346 B.C., and he S «•• '■ -K.-iW***"! vihatdidlhit 

presided, as trurrarrit rir TpaiSpait, in (s — 8) signi/y/ Cf. Vlll. jj, xxi. 3r. 

the Assemblyof IheisthofElaphebolion 3. riv |ut«{4 xP^"^ rmviftmv, Ihe 

(Aesch. III. 61, 73 — 74>. See Hist. J 38. intervening time (after making the peace) 


opKo>v, v/uv S' 01? ^Xa;^icrTO»'. Swt n ; oTt v/«is fi-kp ovk aif>' 
334 ^s afioa-aS" rifi4pa<i fiovov, oXX* a^' lys ■^XmtraTe t^>' elpi^VTjv s 
eretr^ai, iracras e^Xutrare ras TrapatrKeva.^ ras roS iroXcfiov ' 
6 Sc Tovr' ^K TTOi^o? Tov x/"'"'*" fidXiCTT IwpayfiaTeveTO, 
vofi.l^Qji', oirep -^v oXtj^^s, oca r^s iroXeat? wpoka^i wpo tov 
Toin opKov^ ajToSowoi, vavra Tavra jSeySauu? Ifeir ■ ouS6'a 
■yap T^c tipTfirqv Xuceu' tovtoic e'€Ka. ayo» TTpoopttip.a>o<;, 27 
anZpfi ^Adrfpoioi, Kal Xoyi^o^efo; to }jnjt}>t(rp.a tovto ypa^xti, 
■nXeiv eTTt tovs tojtous & ots Av ^ 4>iXi.inros >cai rovs opKovi 
TTfv rax}<rrriv awoKafi^dvetv, iv €)(6vt<ov rav 6p^Ka)>', Tiov 
vfierepmt' <rvpftax<av, ravra. ra -x<i>pia a vvv oStos StcoT^/ac, S 
TO %4pp\ov Kot TO Mvpn)v6t' KoX rf}!' 'EpyC<rK7)v, otlrat 

5, iiUpat itifor Z, L, Ai. i ; ttiror ^jt. B, »lUfi. riji' om, B, ♦, Y, 6. i(t\i- 
aa-tt 2, L, vulg. ; tfy\vaiuiBt B. rii (bef. toO) om. V6. ;{s\iiiraT« riti roD 

loX^u L'. 7. toBto* [t erased) 2. 9. tbCto wixra Ai. 10. (mkw Ai, 

ga7. 1. iSd-Jpnvulg.jiJom. 2, L, Y, O. t-oDto t-J ViJ^ur/m Ai. 5. i,^- 
ripur Al. To57-ar4x"f>'a2, L; rixwyj, Tdufl' vulg. 6. l/p/xor 2, L' 

(7ri. vulg.! r/pfXiorL', V. Mtiprtn-i* Ai; Mu/mji'oi' (TioverT) I; MiSpruw 

V6; 3II)/rrir (nor over tit) L; MujJTip- L (>p); Mitprini* O ; Miiprio* vulg. 

Atf'orv A< (Philip) lAeuM take the ixUk. 
SfiKwr refers to Philip's oath, not to the 
cuths of the two panics. Sec Shilleto'i 
note on XIX, 16+ (p. 393 R.), ri ilf x\ti- 
irrat Tit ;ura(it XP^" SuiTpupBftrM vpi 
TvO To^ 5jw»irt aroXa^cir (4iX.) : he quotes 
At. At. 187 ir utsif d^p iirri yi/t, ietwtm 
earth (and heaven) ; Ach. 433, hiitcu 
V tniBtr tSv Qvtariim tanvf, laraii 
rSr Irouf, i.e. ietv/tun thin rags and 
thosi of Ino\ Thuc. III. 51 ^i tA /urofA 
rflt njjou, into the passage btt-amn tht 
uJiutff (and the mainland). 

6. i£lXiaurt, you hreke off {slafpid) : 
the active, though soinevrhRt less expres- 
sive than the middle, conveyH the whole 
idea, and has ihe best us. authority. 

7. rety,hls own plan, to prolong the 
Lme when Athens must be quiet while he 
could act, referring to 3, 4, — In warrAi 
ToS Xf>'*'<"'i '■'' 'i''*™ Philip's Grsc sug- 
gestion! of peace (iee| ii<). 

8. tra vpeXo^ alt that he might 
tecun /rem Ihe city: we might have 69' 
arrptMfif in the same sense (cf. S ij*). 

9. (nlSfra...Xi<r4ii> c 
p#/. from t(ar. Even an optative is 
sometimes thus continued, as in 1. 11, 
BAm SuHKtlr (M. T. 67s). 

g a7. a. fif+uqia Ypd+« wXill-: 
cf. lypafa irowXtir {% 3;') — rofrro, i.e. 
the deciee just mentioned. 

{. SUnifH, ridieuled (Itire in fiects), 
refers to Aesch. ill. Sa, where he charges 
Demosth. with malting trouble, after the 
peace was concluded, by mentioning all 
the insignificant places captured b/ Philip: 
ohit iany i rpHrat iittipla "Sippar riixet 
Kol Aoplriov Kol 'E/ryfoK^r lol Mvprlo-mfv 
kbI r&Koi Kal ravidSa, x"/*'" >i' °'^^ 
ri dvduara ^itiu* Tplntpm. Herodotus 
mentions Doriscus seven times; Demosth. 
(VIII. 64, IX. ij) mentions Doriscus and 
Serrion as captured by Philip in time of 
peace. MtprJo-it^ (or Mupvtffi:^) is pro- 
bably Mufn-qvAt jocosely assimilated to 
'B/iydroi. See Hist, g 39. 

6. o(>T«, under these tiraimslances 
(hardly translatable), sums up the pre- 
ceding ixl>"wi...''BfrilfKV- 



yiyvoivff oX opKoi, koX fir) trpoKpL^iov ixfivo^ tov^ hriKoipovq 
rSiv rovotv Kvpu>q ttJs 6p^»oj5 xarcurrati;, fitfSk iroXXZv fihf 
-)(p7jp,aT<ov TToXXoii' hk oTpaTiotTmv einropr/jtriK ^k tovtwv 
98 p<f.SC(o^ TOis XoiTToZs iwL^eLpoCTf wpdyfiatrtv. ctra tovto phf 
ow;i(l Xeyei to i/nj^ur/ia ouS' avayiyv<a(rKfi- ei 8c /SouXevtov 
vyat TTpoo-dyeiv tows trpitr^cK ^p-y)v Seiv, touto /low Bta0ak- 
kei. aX.\a ti ixPV*' C^ wowm'; ^^ Trpoa-dyeo' ypw^ai. tows 
5 eirl ToC^ ijKOJTas, Tc' u/iii' huiKe)(dS><riv ; ij ^ccw ^^ Karo- 

7. TfTTotrS' (md r, end oftine, later?) 2. g. (Amiilfrai V6. 

S ••. 3. v/tiTF xpo(td7«» V6. 

7. hriKatpout, seasanablf, here oi/- 
vatilagtau! for attacking the Athenian 
possessions, especially [he Chersonese. 

8. KBTovTolii and tirix<^p>'<| ('<>) 
conlinue the final clause with tra (4).^ 
wnXXay \fit\f/i!nnii: from the rich Ttira- 
cian gold mines. Dissen refers to Diod. 
XV]. S. where it is said that Philip had a 
revenue of a thousand talents (;£ioo,ooo) 
from hii mines at Crenides (Fhihppi), 

10. Tolt Xomtf (cf. g 9i'°). vihai 
rcmairud to it dont. 

§ BB. g, M^— (ivayiiYviisxii, re- 
citti—ha: U read (by the clerk). \iyt. 
properly reciU, riptat, is the term most 
commonly used for rtad in addressing the 
clerk. In S 30J we have X^ti mI am.- 
7ru0i Xo^ur, probably in (he same sense 
ai the same verbs here. We find X^( 
Xo^ur, ifi.f<n>S<. \apwt, XajM, \apt col 
X^c, ifiipt Hal X^, and iii used in the 
same way. 

3. irpDirn'Yti* TOv» -rpJoftLi (sc. (It 
riir itK\-^iar) : these were the ambassa- 
dors sent by Philip to negotiate the peace- 
Foreign embassies first presented them- 
selves to the Senate, which by a decree 
provided for their introduction to the 
Assembly: see Aesch. II, jS, roTt Si 
ftmoii wpirPtloif if pou\>i t4i th rir 
J^fioj' rpoff66ovt rpofioiiXr^t, See C- 1- 
Atl, II. No. 51, 11. I» — is: rpoaayayar 
K TO»i rpfafitn tit t4» SSihw rit rfyr »pi4- 
np iwXijffla*, of an embassy from the 
tyrant Dionysius (369 — 3S8B.C.). Such a 
rpo^odXru/ui was proposed by Demosth. 

in the Senate before the arrival of the 
ambassadors, appointing a special meetii^ 
of the Assembly to receive them on the 
eighth of Elaphebolion: afterwards the 
discussion of the peace was postponed 
to the eighteenth and nineteenth. (See 
Hermann, Staatsall. § 85'; Headlam, 
Election by Lot, 66 — 68-|— to9t{ pmi: 
)wv is possessive. West, quotes Ir ai 
lUBi Siiavptj, % igg'i and rairifr 3ia|J<^4- 
jEOffl lau, LVii. 30; and Bl. caXXft'O^itpou 
imiPouiTH, Plat. Rep. 383 a. 

j. Uav...KtXfOnui (sc. txp^) "^gil 
I net la hose ardcrtd tht arckilici |of tbe 
theatre) ta lusign them stall (as I did)? 
atu, pUui to sit\ ci. iStiipovr (7): this 
would be the rpofipla (Aesch. III. 76). 
The stone Dionysiac theatre was at ihii 
time building under the direction oT 
Lycurgus; and the lessee was called 
dpx'v/icrur, as an important part of hli 
duties was the superintendence of the 
work of building. This name itill re- 
mained in use in much later limes. See 
C. I. Att. II. No, 164 (probably about 
335 B.C.), in which the d/ixiri^Tiw ii 
directed to provide seats for some public 
guests. A much later inscription, No. 
33fi 'n honour of certain irirutvai, pro- 
vides <I»0( efrroit TpotSfla* in w&ai rait 
iy(iai.,,talTir d|>>:iW>:Tera rir del nfi- 
aTiikae* taTariiuir airoa r^ 9iar. 
Other names of the tecsee of the theatre 
were BtaTpowiiXiti and tfnrpi^irt. See 
Boeckh, Staatsh. d. Athener i. 178. See 
Diirpfeld and Reisch, Griech. Theater, 



vetfJMt TOi' apxiTtKTova avrot^ KtKtvo'ai; aXX' ev row &voiv 
o/SoXotf idedtpovv ic, ei JIX19 tovt' iypa^ri. to. fitKpa av/s.- 
(ftepovra r^s iroXeois eSci /ic <^t'XaTT€«', ra 8' oXa, <u<nr€p 
otroi, weirpaKevai ; ou S^irou. Xeyc Totwv fioi to \lrj<fn(TiJi.a 
tovtI \afiatv, h <r€uf>a^ oStoi elSoi'i irapf^T}, 10 


[ E/jtI &pj(pvTO^ HinjaitfiiKov, eKorofi^aiStvo^ evp ital via, 
0fX^C 7rpvTav€vov<rr]'i HavSiovtSo^, Arjfioa'dei'i}^ ^'t}/iotr0h'OV% 
Ilamcievf elirev, itreiBi) OiXittwos aTroerTctXa? wpio'^tK irepl Ttj^ 
eip-^vrjv ofiioXoyovfiiva^ ■ntvolijrai irvvdTjKas, SeSo^Sat r^ ffovXy S 
Kai T^ S-^/itp Tp 'AdTjvaiav, own)? &v ij elp^vr} iiriTeXecrff^ ^ ^t- 
j^eipoToinjdeiaa iv rjj irp^Tij ixieX'^aitf, Trpeir/Sets eXeo-^at ^« 
TravTttfv 'A0i)vaiaiv ijSti trivrt, tow? Se ^^ei/joroi/TjSevTa! dwoS^jfuiv 
fi/^Sefiiav VTrepffoXiji' iroiovfiivovi, Sirov &v Svra, Trvvdavtavrai t^v 
<I>tX(7rirov, xal Tovf SpKovi Xa/Scif re Tra^' a^roO xal ^ovvat T^f 10 
rajfiaTrfv eVi Tat; wfioKoyripApaK avv6^KaK avr^ wpm top 
^A-Bifvaitiv ifjfMi', trvfi/jrtpiKaft^dvovTav xal tov; exaripav trvft- 

7, iiufi L*, vole., om. 2' i a/utpi 2' (above line), L', Ai. 8. yui) (for /tt) 

Ai ; fttr Ai; om. V6. 9. Kirpait/rai S, L, A3, ♦, Y, B; rirfi. tMrrif Ai, 

volg. 10. ('&^ oCr«t Ai ; tliiit Z* ([Kully erased), om. £■. Xfyi (afier 

rapipi,.) vulg. 

36—40. where the building of the theatre 
is assigned to about 350—315 B.C. It 
appears that a part of the stone seats were 
in place in 340. Aeschines (61, 76) 
makes this official politeness of Demo- 
sthenes one ground of his grotesque charge 
of flattering Philip! To this Demosth. 
alludes in 8 194.', 81 Tip i/iol ^Aima/^i, 
E.T.X. Aesch., however, mentions only 
the introduction to the theatre. 

6. h> Totv Svotv jpoXotv, in the ttoo- 
abol leatt, Ihe three-penny seats of the 
ordinary citizens. The i\api\la,, which 
was [hen given from the iheoric fund as 
festiva] money lo every citizen who asked 
for it, paid the entrance fee to the theatre. 
It is implied that the distinguished 
Etrangers could have been admitted, like 
other people, to the common seats by 
merely paying their two obols. With i* 
Ttiw SixSw 6pcketr cf. ir Toil lx9ivw, Ar. 

Vesp. 789 (see Ran. 1068), i« Ike fish- 
market, i* r^ liipf, Eq. 1375. 

7. rd W-*P^ <rvjM^povTa; it is jo- 
cosely assumed that Aesch. objected to 
the higher price which the state probably 
paid to the lessee for the front seats, or 
perhaps to the state paying al all for the 
seats of the ambassadors. 

8, 9. Tiji voXtBt ; cf. Tff TiXtt, gS 30't 
and iiP. — ^niXilTTtiiV, ***p(uciv<u: the 
change of tense may perhaps b« seen in 
a paraphrase ; luai it my duty to viatek 
tit petty interests ef the stale, after I had 
told her highest interests Hit these meat 
With tXa, whale, entire, cf. ■tHh S\af ti, 
E ■"78'. 

§ a*. This decree is a good specimen 
of ignorant forgery. The Archon's name 
and the date are both wrong ; it is called 
a decree of the Senate and the People, 
when it was passed by Ihe Senate alooej 




ttdxov<;. wpeirffei^ ripidtjaav EC^owXo? 'Avo^XiwrTMH, Altrxivif^ 
Ko0foKi&^i, Ki}i^itToif><!>v 'Pa/ipovvtos, Ai)fiOKpdr7j<t OXvev;, KXitoi' 

30 Tavra ypafjiayro^ i/iov totc koX to Tg iroXei avfi.<ft€pov 
ov TO OiXiTTTT^ ^TjTouiTOS, /Spax" <l>povTi<TavT€'i 61 )(pr)aTol 
vpe<r^£i^ oJhoi KaBrjvr' iv MaKeSovCq. rpei^ oXous /i'^i'as, eiws 
^X^c *iXi,n-7ros «k %p(fKT)i vd-Prtx Ka.Taxjrpf^d.p.evo'i, i^v 

5 "fjfiepMv ScKa, ofioCto^ 8e rpuav Tj TtTrdpotv, ew toi' 'EXXTf<7iro»'- 
TO*" d^LX^'^'' '^'"'^ ™ xiafia (rwo-ai, Xa/SoiTas tou9 opKous 
TT^ii' cKcii^i' ^fcXeii' aura' ow yap &.v ■^^a.r avriav vapovrtau 
■^fjiStv, ■^ ovK Sv a>pKi^op.ey avrov, wotc r^s elp^vjii; &v 
BirjfiaprQKei. xal ovk fii" a.p.^6T€p et^Cj kcu t^i* ttpijvTjv 236 
10 Kai rd x<ofKa. 

31 To ^ev ToCwv iv r§ irpfO'^eit}. wpHrov kkifipAx ph/ 
OtXiTTjrou 8otpo&6Kr}p,a Sc Twc dSiKoif toutoh' avOp^irav 

S so. I. rj Tt}t ir6Xf ui O. 1. od rA ^Minri^ 2, L, B, F ; oA ri tm) $cXl«^rou 

Ai 1 of ry ^iiXfTTy vulg. 4. KfTaarpti/iiiB-K £ 1 icamTTp. rdHi vnlg. ; Ti 

^jcnKarnrrp. Z*. L, Ai. 2. j. i^wt Z, L>, Ai. 1 ; ni)Aer X {yp, lale), L'. 

7. ^ftXciv a^Tjr V6. 8. i/ivr 2 ) Vut vulg.; L has boih. ttptiiuntr (jnd w 
coir, from 0) 2. 

Sai. 3. IrfffHiriw £, U, Ai. 1; {irBp^iwuir} BL (i>0pi^w> ncJ dttit 
ix^pur vulg. ; om. Hermog. 

it provides for the sppointment of five 
envoys when there were len, and these 
had been appointed long before; it pro- 
vides for the oaths lo be taken by Athens 
and her allies, when these had already 
been taken ; and most of the five names 
of the envoys are wrong. 

g ao. T* Tj ■ ■" _ _ 

where ri eviupifMrra is a pure substan- 

3. rpttt tXo*t piijvM.' "sat still in 
Macedonia three whole months" is of 
course a rhetorical exaggeration, which is 
corrected by Demosih, hitnself. In xix. 
J- he says dirfw*'"*"'' ''P«« l^^'o-i 
jiow (cf. 158), somewhat less incorrectly; 
but in s8 — 60 he gives the exact dates, 
by which we see that the emtiassy was 
absent from Athens only alxiut len weeks- 
See Hist. g3 40, 43. 

4. irdvra KoraoTpfifi^ficvot: see $17. 

—1^v...i^*QX..,rmvm.\: ^ir represents 

iiWi and i^XxOat is a proper perfect (M. 
T. 109) ; lit. il ■a/as in aur fxrmer lo have 
{already} arrivtd and Id save the tawiM, 
i.e. we might have done both of these. 

;. d)Lg(wti qvitt as iveli (as in ten 
days): the comtnon reading fwWoii would 

7. •wafiKrTmv = il «upi5»iw, if tue had 
icen Ihtrt. For the various past lenses 
with &r, all of which are in 7 — 9, see 
M. T. 413: thus ^rfl tip. it Si^iMpr^tti 
is ie aiau/d have failed te secure Ike peaec 
(which he had already secured by our 
absence), and obi or aitt6Ttp' d^i is he 
would not have had both (as he did 

9 BI. I. HUjifui ^ : cf. M i'\ivT 
r6if, II. [. 131. The position of t"* 
shows that the seven words t>efore KXi/ijta 
belong to both iMittui and lopotimiita. 



TotoGrof iyevero' vvkp ot ical Tore ical vvv Koi dei o/ioXoyS 
KoX iroXtfietv koi hta^ipetrdai tovtok. erepov S' cv^vf 
e^efij? rri rowrou ^elfoi' KaKovfyyrjfjia Ofda-ourde. eirei^ 33 
•yap otp.oXoyrfO'i T^v el/Mji'ijv o 0iX«nros npoXafiotv rt)v 
Sp(fK7]v 8ta. TOi/Tovs o^X^ TreurdevTai r^ ip.^ *ln]<f>LarpaTi, 
iraXiP wcciTai wap* auroii' ottws /i^ awLfiei' ck McuceSovCa^ 
ems Tii T^s oTpareia^ rrj^ em tous <I>((i*ceas evrpeTrrj wotij- 5 
traiTo, tfa ^^, Sevp' airayytiXavrav ijfiMv oti //«XXei koX 
irapao'Keva.^eTai iTop€v€<r$ai, i^eXBotre u/j.ei; xal wepiirXev- 
(Tovzes Tats Tpi-^pecriv «is FlvXas OMnrep irportpov KXelcaiTf 
TOv TOiTov, aXX' a/i' d/couoiTe Tawr dirayyeXXoiTwc TjpSiv 
KaKelvo^ €UTO^ ely) HvX&v koX fi,r}8kv €)(0i6' vp,€is ■JToi^<rai, 10 

Kal (bef. w-oXt/inf) 2, L', Ai; om. rulg. Toivonri Ai. 


iiluiKbyiiiie £, L, B, vulg.; liftUHTf L (mg.), Ai, B {-ff). i om. 

Ai." «(«• (after *iX.) L". B. vulg.; om. I, L, Ai. i. wpaaXafii^ Y. V6, (Al?). 
3. Toifretpt Tain Ai. 4. im/K* Bk. Anec. p. 119', Cob., Vom., West., Lips., Bl. ; 
ixloiur £, L, Ai; irlutttr (m over loi, i.e. dnn/ur for £iri^i». Vom.) B; iriwfier 
(aw ovei/io") F; i-rlimrir vulg. j. (wt 2, L, Ai ; (au aip L (yp), vulg. erpa- 

r.atL(Tp), Ai. irpfrfl Aj. 6. iiii^r Z, L. Ai, B [yp], F (yp), * (yp); 

tOrOr L (tp), B, vulg. 7. ^JAPflT' (w. •\tiinr7-<, dtodtirt. txrrt, 8, 9, :o), V6. 

8. Kf^laiuTt 2, L ; nKtiarrrt L (^p), Ai. 1 ; tXelirtrt *, B (oi over isl e) ; icWffWTt 
Tolg. 9. t4»«» Z, L. Ai. 1, B (yp), F (yp), * (yp) ; rapBuir L (yp), B, vulg. 

4/wv, £, L, Ai ; 6^ (4 over i) V6; iV/ur rwiTui' L< (yp), B, vulg. 

4. voXqutv Kol 8ta4Jp«r4cu: these 
TepTesent(in or. oil.) the p^t, ihe present, 
and the emphatic future indicated by Tire, 
rvr, and ifl [M. T. 31, iig). 

3 9S> 3. iiA ravTavt oifO^ inurSJirnit 
(without Toi>«) is, bteaun of their disobedi- 
ence, lilte ^(rrd Zvpatoiaat nlKtaBfisM, 
Thnc. VI. 3, and post urbem cooditam. 
This is rare in Greek, where we should 
expect 3td r4 p.ii TtiaS^an (M. T, 819"). 
See % 41', with Twr-.tuaSuaiirmn'. 

4. •Ivitnu...&<ritt |i^ JirifUr, fie bribes 
tAem (to effect) /Aa/ we shall not depart 
(M. T. 339)' 4"W (as ftil.. M. T. 19) 
is mare regular after aitttmi. than di-I- 
u^i, and has commended itself to nearly 
all recfiit editors, though it rests only on 
a grammarian's authority. It is difficult 
to dedde between the two readings. We 

might have had ^tIikiu*, corresponding 
to r<K,i^a.™ (i). 

5. i«>t...«ni)au-ni, after the historic 
present lirciriu. The clause with tun has 
a final force (M. T. 614), the idea being 
ttiat he hiibed them to wait long tnaugh 
far him la get his army ready. 

6. Im |i^...iroiTJ<raiL ([o): the purpose 

7. l{ASwn refers only to the land 
force. — vifHirXturairTtt firirtp wpinpoy 
refeistothe famous expedition in 351 B.C., 
when Athens stopped Philip at Thermo- 
pylae. See IV. 17; XIX, 84, 319; Grote 
XI. 403—405; and Hist, i 7. 

8. KX4(r<uT( riv rfirav. i.e. make 
Thermopylae impassable. 

9. ilTftYlf'^^'^"''' P'^sentto ijtoifotTt, 
as ivayyeAirraw in 6 is past to iifKBatTt. 



33 0^(0 S' ■^v 6 ^iknnro'i iv <f>6fi^ koI ttoXX^ a.y<avCa., p,^ kou. 
Tawra irpoetXtj^ftoro^ aiiTov, et vph toS tou? OotKca; airo- 
Xeo-^cu j}n}^i(rai.(r$e fiorjdelv, iK^vyoi to, irpayiiar avrov, 
tucrre p-urdovraL rov KaTdirrvaTov tovtouI, ovKcrt koo/^ /xera 

5 Twv akkatv irpia-^tfav, aXX.' 1819. Kaff avrof, roiaOra ir/)os 

34 iip-a.^ ctirctf koI airayyeZXat Si* o>v airavr airaXero. a^ia 
8e, <a avhpK 'A0T)vaiot, koX S^o/iai rovro p.£fiv7}(r6aL trap' 
oXop Tov dy^va, cfri prj Karrjyop-^o-atTO? Aio^ii/ou p-rfScv 
efoi T^5 ypatfr^^ ouS* Ai" eyw Xoyoi* ouSei'' hroiovpijv erfpov 237 

5 watrat? S' amaif (coI ^Xatr^piax-i a/ia tovtou K€)(pTfp^ov 
dvdyicq Kofioi irpb^ eKaara twc Karrfyop-rfpi^imv fitKp' awo- 

35 KptPotrdat. rices o5c i^o-av 01 n'a^a rovrou Xoyoi tot« 
pj)devTt.'i, K(u Si* ous dwcan dTrw\ero ; <iis ov Set Bopv^titrBai 

g 9S. I. (Ol ToXXg iyuiriif £, L, Ai, F (mg.). 4> (mg.), vulg.; om. Ai, B, F, 
♦.Y. 3. (;x^reC2(w. i.^«m3),Pal. i; irpi ™5 (w. .aJ ijt0ii7« in 3) L, 

vulg. iroXiireai Z, L. Ai; droX. iio6vams L', vulg. 3. ^ij^<ua-fi* 

vulg.; }lni4>lniaei Z, Ai. 3, <(: ^«iDtir0( Ven. ^e^fir B, F, Y, <l> ; tsA iliwnu- 

ffi* /3(ni*«« S, L ; jSoij*** airroU vulg. itil>6yK (w. eJ in ]) S ; ml «^« L, vulg, 

4. MffT« *(tXi» vulg. ; iii>.M om. I, L', B'. J. ItUf. nil jiaS' (ayri. V6. 

% 84. I, 3. ilftu ij u^i A: ; iiiiat om. Z, L, Ai ; lUtiwyiaBiu i/iRt vulg. 
3. ayura (7 chg'd from 1, late a> after a7, and ma in next line) £. 4. /vHoii;!^ 
odS^m V6. J. riiirui £, L' ; lirdinut vulg. t' durau Z' (re^riH; mg. ) ; r* 

iirr' {an above) L' (>p Tm^ou) ; tovtou Aa. 6. tiiti L {yp), Ai. nanfyc^n- 

W">* vulg.; Kanty'pwiUnar (ij over ou) L; xarjiyopliii^ur (H con. for?) 2; t^- 
liirur Z (yp), F {mg. ), 4 (mg.). diMplKur^oi £, L, Ai ; iwoKpitraBiu B, vulg. ; 

droXayeJaffiu Z |7p) ; dirDXiryfa'atfSw F (7p), 4 (7p) ; a-wo\o6f»<r6ai {y^ over 11) L {yp). 

g tS. 1. icai om. Lips. 

g S«. I. ofriw: antecedent of iJo-ti 
(4).-~£Y<>vlf, am/ut {of mind): Vontel 
refers Hesych. it iyvrtf, tr /Hptitrn, 
to this passage. 

i. A wpi ToO ; the oldei editions 
with nearly all MS5. omit li and lead 
Kol ^1^11701 in 3, making t^^laairSt de- 
pend on *i^.— irpi Ta<)...iIiraXjirtu, i.e. 
before he could have time to lay Phocis 
waste: cf. xix. 113. 

4. Am iiurfcOTM : a clear case of 
«WT« requirbg the indicative (M. T. jSi, 
583). — oixiri. Ktivi: Aeschines alone 
was indicted ior wapairptaptla.. See g 41'. 

6. Si' iv here and ii' oh in g 35* 
approach each other very closely, both 
refening to the same thing: "beides 

gleich sinngemass" (Bl.). For da-iiXero 
see VI. 3S (=nd). 

g •«. I, 1. iiM, 1 ask tt/yeu (as 
something dftor) ; E^i^iai. / tnireal. See 
g 6', and note on g +'. 

4. !{■ TTJt 'Yp<uH*= liE '1^ alreadj 
(g g) justified the discu&sion of the peace; 
and he repeats his apology now, as West, 
remarks, merely to call special attention 
to what follows. — liraunl(kip> dv refei^ to 
his prtsati argument (cf. g g*). — (npov, 
like HAirpar : cf. trtpn \liyos o^m, | 44'. 

g SB. I . al. . .^Uvrtt : see the fuller 
account of this speech in xix. 10 — 11. 
Aeschines ssjd that the Thebans had set 
a price on his head for his anti-Theban 
advice to Philip. See Hist, g 44. 




Tw Tra/jeXf^X.v^o'ai ^ikiirtrop eio-<ii TlvX^v ecrrai yap airavff' 
otra ^ovXea-O' u/ieis, Slv e^rjB" rftrv^fCav, kol a.Kov(r€<r$€ Siww* 
7} rpuitv j)p.e.pS)v, of? p.€v i)(0po^ ijft'. (ftiXov avrov yey&n)- 5 
fjLevov, ols Se i^i'Xos, TovvayrCov ^9p6v. ov yap to p'qfxara 
raq olKeiorrjTa^ cifinj /BcjSaiovu, fi.d\a <r€fivoi<; ovoixd^av, dXXa 
TO TavTo. (rvp.<f>€p€i,v (rvp,<f}epeiv Se ^tXtwiry *fai 4'(nic«)o"i 
Kot i;^w opoiw^ airafri t^s ai'aXyijo'tas (cai r^s fiapvrr}To<; 
airaKkayyjvai, t^9 twc &r)fi<uo»>. ravra 8' dtr^o'ajs twcs 36 
ijKovov avTov Sta t^v to^ UJrou<Ta»' air^^eiav ir/so? tou? 
STj^tuovs. tC otv awe^T) p.€Ta ravr ev6v^, ovk <« p.aKpav ; 

4- ay Z, L; tir vulg. Or Srfrr* A I ■ 

2, L, Ai. 1, F, ♦, O ; niTlw tx«pi' vu[g. 8 

S S9. 1. t60' iwifiX""!"" Ai. 3, 

J. aiJr4» oin. V6. 6. ix^P*' 

tv/i^pta Si 1 ; auM^pti Si L, vulg. 
Iitri toSt' Y. 

3. T^ vofATiXiMvai: he begged the 
people nol to be dislurhed by news that 
Ph. iad aJreatiy paiitd Ti\erraopj[iie, 

4. Suolv f[ rpuav i^pupvv: so K[X. 
ao, 74- 

5. 6. alt |i)f, the Phocians; olt 8), 
the Thebans. 

6. ^ijiuiTa; e.g. (he Thebans' title of 
allies of Philip (cf.gjij*), 

7. fkiXa v^ivAt ivaf^av, using very 
ifflimn ixprasans. He often jokes about 
the etiirlrtifi of Aesch. Bi. quotes §3 13a, 
'33. >S8. and xix. 13, Kortp^ /idXo 

8. <rw|uHp»»'' "114^** 

triking Til iMirVtroi 

9. droXyiiiriat. want of feeling, ex- 
plained by the Schol. as ii>iu,e6T)iila,t. 
There can be little doubt that this wotd, 
like iraiaffifTOi in | 43', refers to the 
dulness and lack of keen perception for 
which the Thebans were proverbial. See 
West, on XX. 109, and his references: 
Nep. Epam. j, i, namque illi genii plus 
virinm quam iogenii, and Alcib. 11, 3, 
omnes enim Boeotii magis firmitalt cor- 
poris quam ingenii acumini inserviunt; 
Cic. de Fato IV, 7, Athenis tenue caelum, 
ex quo acutiores patantur Atlici; eras- 
sam Thebis, ilaque pingues Thebani et 
valentes; Hor. Epist. 11. i. 144, Boeo- 
lam in crasso aere natum. This dnlness, 
and the consequent illiteracy of Thebes 
G. D. 

compared with Athens, gave rise to the 
proverb BoiutJib' vr, Pind. Ol. vl. 90 : 
see the Schol., to dp^otoi irtiJot, rovr- 
(irri H|i> To^aidr StaSoKTjr -Hit irt rf 
ilMveUf. The iraXyvrla and drourthjirla 
of the Thebans were said to make them 
also unfeeling towards enemies, and this 
appears in the terms liitinit and rnr^pla 
which Demosth. applied to them in 
3ij B.C. (XX. 109). Cr.draX7it7-ui,Soph. 
Aj. 1333. Now he prefeis the milder 
terms papArtis. evtrbairiHgntS! (see § 19") 
and droiTiwIa. Aristotle, Eth. ill. 7, 7, 
says of a man lacking in ^i^, tti) S' it 

rtiir/ibr ififTt tiiiara, 
and in 111. 11, 7, of those insensible to 
pleasure, i\Mirorm U t4 »<pl t4i 
ilSatkt sol ijrroii j Sfl xa'/»''''i 01) nirii 
ylmrtaf oi-yip a»flpwrnit iarir i) roia&ni 
iniiae-i]irla. Aristotle here means stu- 
pidity and slowness, not moral obliquity, 
by both il»dX-irt|Toi and iyataS^Tiii. 

g •«. 3. T^v rii' vrofnrav (cf. Br- 
«m, § 315*): a mild way of speaking of 
the enmity against Thebes in 346 B.C. 
See notes on §g 18, 19. 

3. oAk At fatcpdv {sc. iS6v), nol mu^h 
latir, nol a long -oiay off, i.e. from Sciro- 
phorion 16 to 17 : cJi of looking forward 
to an end, as in S iji'i A* irvkaia*. So 
At. Vesp, 454. 



Tov? fih> ^oiKca^ d,iTo\€<r$ai koX KarauTKatftijvai, ray ttoXcis 
S aVTuv, Vfia^ S' "fiavjfCav a.yayoma'i koX tovt^ weurdevra^ 
fiiKpov wmpov (TK€vay(i)yw fK TWf ' aypZv, tqvtov Se 
y^pvirCov ka^tiv, koX iri irpo^ rourois Trjv p.kv air^Osiav rrfv 
ffpos ©i^/Soious Kcu. 8«TaX.o«s t^ jtoXci yevia-dai, Trfv 8e 

37 "X^Okptv T^v imkp rav irewpayfi.evan' ^tXtTTTrw. on o* ovriu 
Tavr' ^ci, Xeyc fioi to re tou KoA.Xio'^ei'ou? \jrjtj>i(rfia Kal 
rr)v iiTurToKijv tov OiXimrow, i^ &v aji^oriptov Ta-vff awofff' 
vfjiiv icrraL <ftai/epa.. Xeye. 

5 *H*I2MA. 2 

['EIttI i/ivr)trnf)i\ov ap-^ovro^, tTvyxXrjrau eKKK-qata^ vtto <rTpa- 
Ttiy&v /cal wpvrdiietiiv, [«cai] ffouXfj-i •yviofi,^, fMii/j,aKrT}pia)VO^ SfKaTij 
a-jriovTOi, KaWirrSein]'; 'EreopiKov 0a\r)peu^ elire p.r]heva ^kdi)- 
vaitov fiijSefua Trapfvpeaei ev t§ x°*P9 iconatap yiyveaBai, aXX' 
lo iv dtrrti Kal Tltipmti, Offot ftrf if tok ^povpLoK elir'iv airoTero^- 
fjAvoi' TovTtiv 5' e/edarov; ijv irap4\affov Ta^iv BtaTjjptZv /iijre 

38 a<pt}p.epevovTa<t fiijrt airoKOirovvTai;. S9 5' &v airnBijffrf r^e 

^ij T( aSvvarop eiriSeiKvvi} nepi kavrov iv wepl Be tov aBvparov 
iirtKpiveTO) 6 itri t&v SirXtov ffrpaTttyov Koi, 6 eirl r^t SioiK^ffeaf 
5 KoX 6 jpafifunevi: 7^5 jSouX^?. KaraKOfU^siv Be koX tA «« twi* 
dryp&v TTavra T^fv Ta\iim]v, rh ftev «to5 araSiiop eicarw elKtMTiv 
etf cfoTV Kal Heipata, tA Be ^ktoc craSi^v exarov eiKo<rtv n? 
'EX(tf(rii>a ical 4>vX^i' icat 'A^tSvaf ivat 'Pa^i'ouin'a xai Soi/vioi'.] 

4- TOitt |i)v... Ik nirAlfpiiv ((i): eleven trait to i»cua7U7cii-. — rffV ^v itxfyfin"* 

days>fter Iheieportorthesecondembass)' ...4tX(«i^: i.c- Athens by her vadlltU- 

to the Assembly, the alanning news of ing course got nothing but Ihe ill will of 

the surrendei of the Fhociansat Thenno- Philip's Greek friends, who believed that 

pjlae arrived. See Hist. % 47. she would have protected the Fhocians if 

6. vKtmyvfAr: as indered by the she had dared to; while Philip had all 

decree of Callisthenes {% 37]. the credit for ending the Sacred War and 

J. xfvriov XaPriv : in malicious con- punishing the sacrilegious Phocians. 



*Ap* iwl ravrais rais ikirio-i rrfv elpr^VTiv iiroieurde, 
i} Tavr' eiTTfyyiKKeft Vfjuv oSros 6 fxurdtoro^; 10 

Aeyc 8^ TTfy hiUTTokqv ijf eirefj,^ 4>iXi,inros fiera, ravra. 88 

[BatrtXevt MaKeSovoiv iPiXiinrov 'ABrfvaitov Tij ^ovXfj Koi Tp 

xar^ T^i" ^oiKiBa v<f)' eavrou; irewoiTj/iei/ous, icai otra fiev tKOvirito^ S 
239 vpoatriBtTO rS>v woXiir/idTcov, if>poiiph<} einwyfjo^ora^, rit Bk /ttf 
vwoKovovra Kara Kparov Xaffomt^ Koi e^avhpaTrohurdfievot leare- 
afedfjrap'ev. aKOvmv Be Ka't vp.a^ vapaaKeval^eaBai ^or\6tiv a&TOt^ 
•jeypa^a v/itv, tva CTrt v\eov ivty)^ria6e "Trepl Tovrwv Tot? fikv 
•yhp oKoii; ovhev fUrptov fioi SoKetre troielv, rr^v elptjv^n (ruvSifiepoi 10 
fcal ofiotcttv avTfirape^dyovre^, Koi raura ovSk trv/iWfpietX'rfp.fiivav 
Twc ^Qijeemv eV rat? KOipai<; fjp^v tTVv0^Kat<!. mart iitv fJ.i) ep- 
fiiurfre TOK aftoXoyijftevoK, ovBiP irpoTep^vere e^at toO itpSoKivai 

'Akoucte (US erai^s Si^Xoi Kal BiopiCerat if r^ wpo% 40 
vfia^ eiriOToX^ irpoi tov^ iairrov <TVfi.fid)(ov^, ort iyat ire- 
iroiTjKa rauT* aKovTotv 'A$t}vaiaiv Kal \virovfievaiv, 
(Zo-t', etw€p cS <f>pov€iT€, w ©TjjSaiot Kai ©eTTaXoi, tou- 

f aa. 9. tV ([«»Hi- iroiiTff»€ Z, V, Al, B, F, O (^ for iTl ; t. tip. (■miiraaSt 
U iyp), Ai ; iweuiffSi r. tip, vulg. 

g8«. I. JJiH)>Z,L,A*, B, F.«; S'ah^V6; J'ttMi^HitAt; J'BEHt'vntg. 
tw^yj/t £, L>, Ai ; Stvp' frtn^i vnlg, 

I 40. t. A>ta> (ii over 4) L; qii^i V6. ), 3. iy"^ rtrtli^ica n 

iyi> TaJxa TtxiJ. 2' ; tuCto Jiiit ir<T. vulg. ; " 

% S8. 10. raftr' imiYvfXXte' ; i.e. wilhwhalPhilipbaddonefbrtheThetMnE 

how does the decree just read to you and Thessalians, to juitify what is said of 

agree with the report of Aeschines it in 1 40. Grote remarks thai Demosth. 

(g 3{)? would have spoken much more severely 

3 as. This letter has feir of the marks of a letter so insolent as this one. Still 

by which its genuineness can be abso- Westennann says; "es ist mbglich dass 

lutely denied or established. It must be es echl ist," It is safest to class it with 

remembered that there is (since Benlley) the other documents »s a forgery, 

ageneralpresuniptionagainst thegenuine- g 40. 1. wpdt nifi|uCxo«l. with Ii)- 

ness of ancient epistles ; and this is in XoT tal Siopl^troi. The letter, though 

very bad company. The genuine letter, addressed 10 the Athenians, «nis really 

it would seem, should have more definite written for Philip's allies. — Sn before 

allutioDs to the dissatislaction of Athens the direct quoiatiou (M.T. 711]. 

3— a 




5TOUS fjiev i-x^Opovt wiroXTj«/»eo'06 ifiol Sk jri<rT€wo'*r€, — 
ov TOVTOK TOis p-^fiaa-t ypdifia^, ravra 8e ^ovK6fi€V<K SeiKVU- 
vcu. TOiyapovv 4k Tovrtav ^X^' ^Kavov^ Xa^av e« to /iijS' 
OTLOvv irpoopav tIov fi€Ta ravra pT]8' at(r$d.vea'6ai., aX\' 
iaa-ai iraiTa ra irp6.yp.aTa Ik^vqv vtfi' iavr<^ iroiija-aa-Baf 

lo e'f we Tais ffa^ovtrais <rvfjnf>opal<i oi raXaiiroipoL Ke)(pyjVTai. 

41 o Se Tavn/5 rij? iriCTTCws awr^ triwe^os Kal <rwayati'iOT^S, 

Kal o hevp arrayyfika'i to. ^ev^jj Koi ^cvaKtVa; vp,a% o&ros 

ioTiP 6 TO, %r)^altav o8vp6p,€vos vvv jraBif koI Su^ioh' at; 

olxTpa, KaX TOVTtov Kal tSu/ ev Oei>icev<ri Koxtav xal Sir aXXa 

5 weirovOaa-iv ol "EAXijve? airavroiv avros aiv aiTio^. S^X.oi' 
yap oTi ail /xec dXyeis iiri Toi? o'vpfie^TjKotrw, A.ttr)(Ctnj, 
KoX Tous ©ij/3<u'ovs cXcets, kt^^' ^otf ew t^ Bouon'^ (cat 
yetopywv ra iK(iv<av, i,y<o 8« xaipo), 09 eu^us efpTov/ATjv 
vjTo TOW ravra irpa^avTOt. 240 

5. uTpXiiKiPto'S* 2. 7. eiOxyrh. 8. irpooi 
>w £ ; raXaf. Oif^auM L, B, vulg. j raX. i^. 6 

g 41. 1, 3- oh-in Inv L, vulg. : burtUTi (6l Ovi 
; vOr om. V6. 4. iml (bef. ToOna) om. Ai. 

iv L, vulg. 8. cEl)T«l)/iqi' S. 

3. rfir Mu^MCO' 

7. ^(t' 4Ki(*out XaPiiy, ^« carrtid 
them (hii allies) <iu>ii>' (M.T. 89;): ihe 
figure is continued in At ri «'iih the 

10. ol ToXcUvapoi; @in9awi is added 
in all Mss. except 2. Or coune the 
destruction of Thebes by Alejiander is 
chiefly meant, and this suggests the di- 
gression in $41; but the condition of 
Thessaiy after the peace, which had been 
in Philip's power since 3^1 B.C., may well 
be included. See I 

; oix^ Tij tdX] 

(bI t 


^ wapi/n^a, lal r. 

rpafixl"' «<"■<- 


WW, Eva /IT) nSrow jtaT 

i ri\tu dXXd 


kot' *»»)] Sou\fi<iTiv; 

See aUo vu. 


; XIX. 160. 


41. I. i81...nntp7at, i.e. Arioso 


X-^ *((n /*«! le ptriu. 

aJe Ail a/lies: 

h iri<rrt«i cf. warrtieeri 

r, S Acfi. 

.. L^ffOM ^ +~Wi= see % 35. 


XIX. 4, Demosth. puts 

■ir d,r,>TT.A<, 

3. jSiipjp«>«t : see the solemn and 
eloquent invocation of Aesch. in III. 133, 
8^|S(U Si, Qij^ai, wi\a iarvyihur, c.r.X., 
with 156, 157. 

7. Krqpi' (x*** '■ Aesch. is charged 
with holding a confiscated Theban estate 
{trfilta. so 2 alone) by the gift of Alex- 
ander; as in x[x. 145 Philociates and 
Aeschines are charged with having kttJ- 
>uiTa (ol yiufiylBi rau,r\j)8tU in Phocis 
by gift of Philip. We have no inde- 
pendent evidence on either of these 

8. lCffTod|H|y: Demoslh. was among 

Ihe eight or ten Attic orntors who were 
demanded by Alexander after hia destruc- 
tion of Thebes in 335 B.C.; AeschJnet 
was not. See Grote xii. 59 — 6». 



'AXXa yap ifiwiwrotKa ets \6yoiK, oSs avriKa fiakkov 43 
uroi; apiiocrei Xeyea-. iwdvetixi Si} ird\iv eirl ras airoSeifcis 
oi? Tii TOVTiitv a.8i,Ki}fiaTa tS>v wvl Trapovrtav irpayfjMToiv 
yeyovep atrta, 

'EwetS^ yap i$r}TTdrr](r$e ph^ VfjLei^ xnro tov ^OUwwov 5 
Sta TOVTtov rSiv iv tcu« irpe<r^dai^ ju,ur^w<rawci>c eawovs 
Kot ouSev dkrjOk^ awayyeiXavrtiiv, i^wdrtjvro Sc 01 
TakaliTbtpot, ^fuKCi9 Kat avyprjvro ai ffoXeis avrwi', Tieyo^ro; 
01 fiat KaTavTvaroi. BenaXol koX dvaicrdrfToi ^^aloi <f>C\ov, 43 
€vtpyerr]v, a-oyrripa tov ^IXiinrov -fiyovvro- irdvT ^Kcivo^ 
rjv avTois- ov&e tftcitvTjv ^kovov ei tis oXXo ti ^ovkoiro 
Xeyeiv. v/^ei; S* vij>op^fj,€voi to. Trmrpa.yfi.4va koX Svo^e- 
palvovres iTyerc t^i* elpijvrfv ofiat^- ov yap ■^v o ti &v s 
iiTOi£tT€, Kai oi dXkot 8' 'EXXtj^'c?, ofwiot^ vpXv V€<f>£va- 
KUj-fL&oi Kot SiTjfiaprtjKOTe^ eov 7}\TTurav, -rjyov t^v elpijvTfv 

I «S, I. aMm iid\a Ai, Hermog. (w. Da-Tepo* for firtiit}. j. tarn ifiiiiati 

X#y«i»S,L,A* B,0; ip^ti X#>(i» to-i^vulg.; r™i om. V6 anii Oxyrh. St (for 

aif)V6. Oxyrh. (bycorr.). K"' "1^" 1?) Oxyrh. </. (for ;»i) V6. 3. UtT^^ra 
X, V, Oxyrh.; (Ui«, ™1 JuprfoniiMa™ 2 (y^), Ai; SupoS. lol aSuc, L», B, vulg. 
4. oJria Ai. 6. ianni^ Ai ; javrD^t ri^ ^iMrr^i S. L, vulg., (auraut [«n>H 

Oxyrh. Perhaps t^ ♦tMrr^j here, omitting vri rou iiX. in s- is correct. 
8. raXaixiupw om. V6. ri tai iy^rtra; Aj. iy-fTo over ><7okf V6. 

g«a. 1. ^iXmiir Oiyrh. i. viU S, Ai. i; ,tl oHi L (corr.), vojg. 

4 7-11 Al. 6. irtulTtZ, Ai, Oxyrh.; irottiTt ^ini L, B, vulg.; ivM^t uim O. 

§1 42— 4». After the digression in 

§ 41, the orator here speaks of the 
disastrous consequences which have come 
from the peace and from the corruption 
by which it was made, and of the miser- 
able fate of most of the traitors in Greece 
who aided Philip in his schemes, 

I 4S. f. hmS^ here has three plu- 
perfects, while commonly it has the less 
precise aorist, as in $| ij', n' (M,T. sg). 
So in Latin pestquam vtnii is more 
common than ptstijuam ventrat. Both 
iwtiH) and poslqaam contain the idea of 
c^tr that, which the ptpf. only empha- 





sst Jut ■n^nui 


wtureirTat, i 3 

11', and 

see note. 

S 48. I. 4v(U<r9i|TM: see note on 
S 36'- 

3. rirr' lK«tvot ^» : cf. irdjr' i[» 
'AX^jMjpoi, xxill, no; BBpua oaroit 
rdrra y/r, Thuc. VIII. pj ; Demetrius iii" 
unusomniaesi, Liv.xi..ii. (See West.) 

3. o«8i..potXoi're(M.T.46i): 41COHV 
is strongly frequentative, tike lyyoCrra (3), 
and dXXo ri is anything opposed to ^ov, 
litpytrrii, aari^pB.. 

4. i^opa^MVOi, viaoin^withmsfiieuM 
ipwb like JUi^ in tusficia). 

5. a<,..(rautn: most MSS. add fidrm. 
This passage represents the state of mind 
in which Demosthenes delivered hit 
speech on (he Peace (v-) in 346 B.C. See 
Hist. S 50. 


38 AHM020EN0YS 

[ao'fievoi., KoX] avTol rpowov tw' iK rroXXoC iroXefiOvfievot. 

44 ore yap ir^piiMV OiXtinros 'IXXv/jious Koi T^tjSoXXovf, rwa; 
8^ KoX T<av 'EXXtjcoic KaTe(rTpe<f>€ro, koI Swafieis voXkm 
KaX fieydKa<; inoietff' v<fi' cavr^, *cai rwes rail' tK rStv iroKtatv 
Art Tp TT\<i elp^vTjq i^ovcrlif. ^aBCCovres cKeio-e &L€<j>$£tpotn-o, 
5 iwf cts oStos ^f, Tore Travres ci^' ous ravra -rrap^iTKevdt/er 
iKelvo^ iiTokefiovvTo, ft Se firj -^irBdvovTo, irepos Xoyo5 

40 o5ros, ou jrpos c/xe. ^oi fikv yap vpovK^ov ical BiefiapTV- 
pofjiffv Kai wap' vp.iv del koI oiroi Trep^0ti-qv al hk irdXeis 

8. icfitroi, Kol vulg.. Vom. 

S««. I. *l\ivi 
t\ki)niip Oxyrh. 
5, wofifffKtvAfii 2. 6. Irtpoi i \&ytt (4 erased) 2; frtpot Xirot L, 

j 4S. I. lu^prvptUi)!' Al. 1. diet £, L. 

1. ; 001. 2, Oxyrh., Bk. 
«2, Al, Oxyrh.; i*iX. L, B, viilg. 1, 


S. [Ao-iuvM, Kol] : I have bruckeied 
these words, unce the authority or the 
Oxyrhynchus papyrus is now (Nov, 1899) 
added to that of 2 for omitting 
them.— avrol...*oX((iov|iin«t. Mpi^A //ley 
ihimsihui in a certain viay had bem 
Warred against for a teng time : noKeiioii' 
litroi (impf.) is paal to vy*. which covers 
the whole lime of the peace to 340 B.C. 
See irtAiiitOrTo, % 44'. 

g«4. I. 'IXXupLoAcKalTpiPaXXolit: 
Diodonis (xvi. 69) mentions a victorious 
inroad of Philip into Illyria in 344 B.C., 
and Porphyrius Tyr. (Muller, Hist, Gr, 
111. p. 691) says of Philip, oiT« tdi>i 

/ii^ut, pouXtie<tl ad aimtit "EXXijcoI iri 

See Schaefer 11. 346. 

1. 'EUilvw: see Grote Xl. 611— 
614, and Hist, gg 51, 58— 6 1 . — Sui^ii, 
like our fsTCts, but including money as 
well as troops: see g ijj' with El.'s 

3. Tvv k Titv wiXntf: cf. % 145'. 
He counts Aesch. as one of those who 
took advantage of the peace to visit 
Macedonia, implying that the process of 
corruption was still going on. In xtx. 
13 he says he first discovered the corrup- 

tion of Aesch. on the return of the Rrsi 
embassy b the spring of 346 B.C. 

6. Irqxii UyM ovTOt, Ihit 11 anothtr 
matter -, cf. SXXoi tr etij X4701 ouioi, 
IX. ]6 ; 2>t\Bi If ^ XA701, [xiu.] 7. In 
ail these dWai (frfpar) \6yoi is predicate. 
In Plat. Leg. 634 D, i Xiyat in tTipot (tij, 
the construction is different 

% 4S. I. &i4|iaprvpj|it|V, froltited 
(called. Gods and men to witness): cf. 
obleitor. See g 199' and VI. tv- 

1. nf' ifiXv probably refers to ora- 
tions VI., viii. and ix.^-Svu v^i^Mipr, 
whilhersoevir Iioas sent, referring to the 
various embassies mentioned in VI. 19, 
IX. 71, in g 144 (below), and probably to 
others. In g 344* we have fo-K iniitil^, 
referring to some oF the same embassies 
as i-wa, TiiupSiiiir here. But there the 
negative form of the leading clause, oOSa- 
lieu..,irii\9or, makes il particular, not 
genera] ; and its verb is aorist, not im- 
perfect (as here); the relative clause is 
therefore particular and has the indicative 
regularly |M.T. 536). If he had said 
/ ahoays cam 0^ superior in % 344', 
we should have Srn vtii^dqr there : 
see kt sFt tfUKniBSft . . . carctrrp^^n-a, 
g 144*. West, says of §144: "iriiuf^Vi 
objectiv g;ehsgt, dagegen % 45 Srai rtft- 

*s<iv" (?) 




ivoa-ow, t£v fjLtv iv r^ iroXtTcveo-^ai koX TTpa.TTf.i.v Zo>pQ- 
1 hoKovvT<av KaX 8iatl>6et.pof*.a'<iiv iirl yjyrffuuri, twv 8' IZunTav 
KoX TToiiXiuv ra fikv ov wpooptufievotv, to. Sc t^ Kaff* '^fiepav 5 
pf^iTTatirQ KuX a-)(oky SeXea^Ofievoiv, kol toiovtovl tl iraBoi 
•nt.TTOv66T(ov airavTav, ttX-^v ovk i<f> tavroiis eKafrrav olo- 
fievtov TO Seivov "^^eiv Kal Sta rSiv er£po>v ki.vBvvoh' ra iavrSii' 
a(r<f>aXS)q cr^-qtreiv orav ^ov\tnvT<u, elr' otfiai (rvfi0^^f]K€ ^ 
Tois fiev TrX-qdeo'ti' tiwl rfj'; iroXX^s foi aKotpov padvfiia.% 
ri)v iXcvdepCav atroktiiXeKevai, tois Se irpocoTTjKOO'i koX 
raWa irXi^v eovrov? olo/xevoK iraXeiv irpmrov^i cavrous ttc- 
irpaKOfTLv al<r0€<r6ai,' avri yap <f>Cka>v koI ^evtov, a Tore 5 
QtvofidCovTO rjVLKa ihatpohoKovv, vvv KokaKe^ koX deoti ix.^pol 
KaX rdW a ti poirffKa iravr aKovovcriv. ovhtxk yap, avSp€% 47 
'A^catoi, TO Tov wpo8iS6vTO<! irvp.<f)epov fTjToiv j(pi}p.aT 
avaXCiTKei, ovS* iiretBav av S,v irpt'qTa.i Kvpu>% yevTjrai t<^ 

6. rwavrorft £; roievtoiri Ai; TMDurM- L, B. vulg. 7. ^miffnin' olo^i^rur 

2, L, Ai; o/o«. i., vulg. 8. ni Sia 2, L», Ai, Y; a\\4 «.4 L', vulg. 

9. •ncM'" 2, L"; ax^atir iroKav^itTur L,'.va]g. 

i IS, 4. rXJji' taiTDh Z (t erased), L, vulg. ; rXV J^^om P (yp). f. diaSt- 

irPaiZ (jjover ist ai), L ( ij over islaiandt); alaeiir$<u Ai ; pirfl^ffeai vulg,. Oxyih. 
d om. 2'. 6. flroimtp corr. to flfoti Oxyrh. 7. xdira o'koiIoi'itui ■ (iKiraii 

vulg. : riKOTwt om, 2, L, B, F, O". 

§47. 1. SviliMi 2, L; (3(£r3/Ht vulg, 3. ir|»MrTDi 4. J. ur Tpiifrcu 

Ai; rpiiiTai ati (?) Oxyrh. : "the word following ifltp-oi is neither irtpni nor -y^ni- 
Tui " (Kenyon). 

3. iviamni : Demosth. is especially 
fond of (his figure of a diseased state : 
see 11. 11; IX. 11, 39, jo; xtx. 159 

(West.).— riti.-.irpiiTr.w (one substan- 
tive) ; cf. § 1 1' and nole on i +'. 

4. irl xpi||uia'k, /or [la'tA a vine to) 
Biffn^l not 6y mimey,, Like hirh j^nujAritiy. 
VSmel explains, " corrumpi sub pccunia 
piomisia, con data nisi post perpetratam 
prodilioncm." — ISugra*: here opposed <o 
Tiir...'*pi.rrta (3), private Hiitem; gene- 
rally, any men who are not of a given 
class, as not senalnrs, X;X. rS; cf. 'arpii 
ni /3iiiri)i, Thuc. 11. 48. 

6. SiXutsfiiyvv, laught, as hy 1 bait 
(WX«v).— Toimnwl...trtird»Wrm' is ex- 
plained by iKivTur oloiUriiir k.t.X. 

7. vX^v oiK t^' fawTvit, H/m all but 

8. T»v trjpwv KwMvuv, otAtrf (not 
flCA/r) dangers. 
% 4e. 1. Tott iitv «Xi]S«a-iy, /Af 

fmnnwn paple (cF. rfip xoXAuJc, J 45') 
in various slates: cf. tdr /tif. ..rSr Si in 

3, 4. &iraX«gXu(4vai (M.T. 109): i.e. 
the result has been that Ihcy Aave lost 
their liberty; the idea of the perfect in 
the next clause appears more naturaJly in 
•wiiFpaKhakv tban in aindiuBoA, to Jind out 
thai they have sold thtmselvis first (M.T. 
904). For the case of nai^ixbaa see G. 

7. ixtAtniwi, KiAX-axiX, they hear thttn- 
sekvs called: cf. Hor. Ep. 1. 16. 17. h 
curas esse qaod audis. 

g 47. 3. I«iUv...y')'i|tu. afier At 
has bteemt masltr ef wluxt he has b«iigkt : 




vpoSoTQ <ruii,^ovk<f irtpi 7S>v XotTroif eri, ■)(j}^Tat • ovSkv yap av 

5 ^v evBoifioveiTTepov trpoZorov. <iXX' ovk «m Tavra* irodeu; 

jToWov ye Kai Bel. dXX* erreiZav ratv irpayiiaToiv eyKpaTX}^ 

6 ^TjTftii' ap)(€iv Karourrg, koX t^v ravra dwoSofiePiav Se- 

tmronjs itrrl, tt/v Se 7T0vr)pi<w elBo}^ Tore 8^, tot€ Kai p-uret 

tS Kal airiOTer /ecu wpomjXaKLlet. (rKoveire S^* Kot yap el 

■jTapek-^'kvdev 6 t5v wpaypdrtav Katp<K, 6 tov y tji^xvox ra 

TOiavra Kaipoi del wdpe<m rois eS <ftpovov(n.. P-^XP*- '"O'^**" 

Aaardart)^ iftCko^ tufo^afcro, elios irpovhaxev "OXwdov p^^^t 

Stovtov TijxoXas, cms airoiXco-e ©Tj^as* pexpi toutov EuSikos 

Kat Siju^c o Aa/}to'ai09, eius ©eTTaXtaw vjto ^tXiwir^ eiroit}- 

5- flf2; a* fl* L, vulg, filTUx^'^P"' B'. oui: fimrToSro Z, Ai: tix 

tUTui repeated after ravra vulg. {Of. % jt'). iroBtT ; tyca. B. 7. ai-sti&i- 

Ithur Ai ; onjiihi^ Y. 8. ran /lurtT Ai. 

S4B. I. mSoTN) Al. 4. «a<ii i&tD(ulI»Te Z, V; «iMn-v added Z (7^), 

^iXiirrou L, vulg. j. TifuXoM MSS. ; (ee g 195". ro^ou (bef. E0J.) L, vulg. ; 

later raf over roi* Z. 6- A AofXtfaFot Z { ol Xapiaoiot B, A 1 ; ^ \apuriyaioi L ; oj 

AafM0ir. L*, vulg. 

the rel. past time comei entirely from (he 
force of iwatif, postquam {M.T. go). 
For the assimilation of up Jlr nfiifrai, 
which really conditions «:il(«ot TfrTjTai, 
see M.T. 563: in such a dependent 
general condition the indie, also is al- 

4. ov8h'...irpoSJT<ni, /ir (otherwise) 
nothing wstdd bi happitr than a traitor. 
To omit ir here (with 2 and a few other 
MSS.) would be against all usage; in xxi. 
liO, «fi yip 5^ ^iwrir, cited by Vdniel, 
there is a potential force iti ^r puorii; 
I could not have lived. 

J. *Mnr:...S<t: cf. H 51', i4o", and 
rwt -ydp; I 313". 

7. Kol, also, with ruir iirgici>i^i>u>i'. 

% 4S. 3. (iixpt TOJTou with tus, 
twice repeated. WesL refers to a similar 
iia^fti of roXXa in g 8i'~', of nix i in 
I isoM", and of ai)( in % 311'-'. Ex- 
pressions tike this show the relative 
character of tai and other partidet mean- 
ing »i>/i7. (M.T. 6ir,6i3.) 

4. A(urMvi|i: Lasthenes and Euthy- 
crates are often mentioned as traitors 
who betrayed Olynthiu Co Philip: see 

VIII. 40; IX. 66; XIX. 165, 341 : Diod. 
XVI. S3. Cf, Plu't. Mor. p. 178 B: riir 
Si *(pl AcurStrTir riy 'OMremr iyna- 
\o6rTtir tal AyarnKToirTiiir Sri rpaSirat 
afrout frioi rui wi/A riv ^Xiirrar dr«- 
KaiXavoi, ffKotoiii f^ (»:. ^Dktirieo%) ^att 
tal iypoitBvi ebai ttatrtimt lal r^v 
oia^V o'la^lir Xifotni, i.e. they caUtd 
a ifiade a spade. 

5. Ti)>^Xa«: TimolauswasaTheban, 
who was probably active in causing the 
surrender of Thebes to Philip after Chae- 
ronea. Dinarchus (Dem. 74) calls him 
a friend of Demosthenes 1 Theopompus 
(Alhen. x. 436 b) calls him the greatest 
voluptuary who was ever engaged in 
state aflairs. Sec note on g 195', with 
the quotation from Polybius. 

6. £t}u>t: Simus (ace. to Harpocr.) 
belonged to the Thessalian house of the 
Aleundae at Larissa, who called in Philip 
against the tyrants of Pherae in 351 B.C. 
with the usual result (Diod. Xvl. 14 and 
35). See Hist, g 6.— i Aopuratot (to 
X. L) belongs only to Zifwt, who is called 
a Larissaean in [Lix.] 108, and h dirraXit 
in 14. Aristotle (Pol. viii. (v.) 6, 13), 



triw. cTt' ikavvofievoif koX v^pi^Ofievotv kol tI kokov ou^l 
242 iraa-)(ovT(iti' iracra Tf oiKOv/j,€irrf fietrr^ yeyoyev. tC S' 'A^- 
OT/wiTOS A* ^iKvaivi, Kal ri IIcpiXXos eu Meya^ots,- ovk 
aweppifj.fieyoi, ; i^ biv xal o-a^eVrar' dv rt? iSoi on o /xa- 49 
Xwrra <^uAaTT(ui' r^*' eauroO iraTpi8a koI ttXcutt' (u^tXeyftiv 
toiJtois, ovtos u/xii', Ala-)(Cv7], rots irpoSiSoScri kcu purdap- 
vovcri, TO exeii' €<^' ot^ StupoSo/o/o-ere vepiwoifi, kcu Sia tou? 
TToWou? TOvTavi Kal Tous ai^^toTo^o'Ous rots vp€T€poi^ S 
^ovkTjfiaa-iv vpeti iare <T<aoK koX €ppi.(r$ot, iirel Bid ye vfj^^ 
avTOvs TrdXcLi if awtok-at^fiTe. 

Kai wfpi fxev rav Tore irpaxOevrtov €)(<av eri iroWa, 60 
Xeycif, »cai Taura Tfyovpai irXciiJ r^v LKOvav etprja-dcu. 
aiTios 8' o5to5, wtTTrep toiKoKpaiTCat' rivd pov rij^ TTotrrjpia^ 

7. iral I'ftKf. oni. Ai. 8. yiyarer S; ^^vwe ipoitoTiJ* 2 (Tp), L, vulg. 

9. n^piXXot Phut.. Harp., Suid. ; IlipOiaot S. L. vulg. (see Vom. and 3 195''). 

8 4B. I. 4 above lines. 3. _V> Ai. «Aiox'»lO. 5. tou- 

rui'l 2, L. Ai ; roiiri* vulg. T«t affliifTO>iJ»oii 2' (ench « changed to ov). 
B, F. 6. 7. iliat airodi Z. 7. aroX^Xtire Z, vulg.; dvuXiiXnTC L, 

Bekk. An. p. 116. 33. 
§ 50. 3. oiTHri B. 

after speaking of two factions calling in 
mercenaries, and an arbiter who some- 
times gels the mastery of both, adds: 
Srtp avri^ Ir Aapiffu kiti rip rur 'AXtua- 
t&r ifiXV* '''"'" "pl Zf^ioi'. Eudicus is not 


V oixl "inoTiiiyTMv; = oiSiii 
tcuAi' oixt (i.e. wdrra (died) T(ur>:ii^uv. 
irpoJoTiSi' follows 7^0K in all MSS. bulS: 
it is easily understood. 

8. vtura ^ olKovpiin] is properly tie 
whele habilable ^vorld, i.e. tkt Crak 
■werid; as in Ev. Luc. ii. 1 it is lh€ whole 
Raman ivorlil. But here it is merely s 
loose expression with no special limit. 
We should say. " all the world is fiill of 
these wretches."— 'AptoTpoTof, a tyrant 
of ^icyon ; see the account of his portrait 
by Melanthus and Apelles, destroyed by 
order of Aratus. in Plut. Arat. r3. 

9. mpiWot, of Megaia: see XIX. 
195. Perillus and Aristiatus are in the 
" black-list " of Cor. 3 195. For Philip's 
imriguesinMtsaraseeGtote XI. 613,6]!. 
See Hist. gs» (end). 

g 4B. 4. -ri fx.iiv...'np»roi4t, secura 
for you your opportunitiis for being bribed 
(the wherewithal to be bribed). 

6. im v^oi Kal l|iftur6oi, i.e. you 
survive lo be venal. — 6id...avToAi, if you 
■mere 1/fl to yourselves (M.T. 471). The 
orator surprises his audience by this 
original reason why the Athenian traitors 
have been saved from the fate of traitors 
in other states, i.e. the honest citizens 
thwart their schemes and thus save Ibem 
from the ruin of success. This brilliant 
attack is followed up sharply in what 

§9 SO— SI : the peroration lo the 
argument on the Peace of Philocrates. 

the transactions concerning the peace. 
The suggestion in the first sentence that 
he will drop this subject makes this sud- 
den recurrence to the charge of venality 
all the more effective. 

3, atrivt, i-e, of my speaking wXtlu 
rUr Itar&r.—imp, ai ilwere (M.T. 867), 
with JuX«paitIar, not with icarBVnJMUf. 



Trj<i iavTOv \_Kal twv aZiKq^iwratv] KaratrKeSaa-a^, rjv avayKtuov 

S ^v TTpo% TOWS vfdynpovi Twv weirpayfievotp airo\.v(r<t(r$aL. 

'JTafyr)Vii>'xhr{cr6t S' lcro>^ oi *cai vpXv ip.k eiwetc onouf ciSores 

01 T^v TowTou Tore fiurSapvCtw. kcutoi ifyikiav ye Kal ievitw 
avrifv ovofidC^t, koX vvv ctire wov Xeyftii* o tj^v 'AXe^dv- 
Spov fefiai- ocei.St^ciii' e'/toi. ^<il crot ^evlav 'Ake^dv- 
Spov; ir60tv ka^ovTL ^ irws d.^unBhn'i; ovt€ ^iKimrov ^evov 
5 out' 'Ake$dvSpov <^Xoc eCnoifx kv iyd <re, oux ovrtu fiai- 
vofxat, el fj.^ Kol roir; B^pitrras koX rov'i oXXo rt p-urBov 
irpdTTOVTa<i ^iXovs kai ^Vous Set koXcii' TWf p,i(r6at<rafiev{itp, 

63 dXX' ouK eoTi Tauro- ttoO^v; ttoXXov ye *f(u Sei. oXXa 

Hermog,. Harp,, Zonsr., Suid.; in [] West., 

ii taut S, 1.' ; 8' iiuU but Ai ; it lol u>i(tt 

2. L, Al ; In. tlr. B, vuig. 7. rirt rij» O. 

4. .01 t£ 
Lips. 6. 
U^ U. B, VI 

lie- ilrily iTioOi- Z 

S«i. 1. 

«v«n^«r V 6. 
JM. I. 

7iS, L, T. 
viK hn repeated after 

— imkoKpOiviay, a mixture vf ilalt Jregi, 
lit. a mixtiirt of Ihc refust (esp. heel-lapi) 
eflasi nighfi feast (lu\a, ktslerna). The 
Scholia say : i xfi^s ml wfii^f tttfost 
rpayita Tiifupit w «b™x'*'. "ol W 

So Didymiu, quoted by Hurpocr- See 
Bckk. An. p. 558: ji naTaxii"! Tflr fio- 
^liir Tur iui\v itinar (ri rout ■»>iu- 
Utrtvj Tut UiinmriiiTwt. Xnii^vcrai ij 
KSl <«■! Tj KOTTTT'opip dpx"''" irpa,y)iATar. 
This bunt of indignation refers especially 
to ihe audacious conduct of Aeschines 
(57) in chatting Demosthenes with the 
same cooperation uith Philocmles in 
making the peace which he had once 
claimed for himself as a merit ([■ 174). 
See % 17° (above). Demosthenes calls 
this treatment "deluging me with the 
stale refuse uf bis own villainy." In 
XXI. i[i old ofTences are spoken of as 
riiiuHuiaS' luKa xai ^vxp°- ^or iiiiXo- 
tpaala, see PluL Mor. p. 148 A, Mmi tli 
araj/ra rir fitop infiitti t6 rpis dXXT^Xour 
Svffafltarw, iSirrtp iu\aiipaalii ut tpptui 
tl iprjTji ir ofry ftFoii^i^, and Lucian, 
Conv. 3, ToXX))' TTir iiii\oKpa<rlar KOra- 

4. West, bracitets ital rur iSiK^narur : 
see critical note. 

5. nvripovt : the youngest judges 
present might have been only fourteen 
yean old in 346 B.C. — Airo\tgiw<tti, U 
{tear myself of: there is no need of 
the emendation tlreXgil(ra<r0ai or droiXu- 
(Tofffloi. See Thuc. viii. 87, i»<.Xw*oi 
rp^i aiiTtnji tAt Sta^aiKai. 

6. vapT|vii}iXi)a^ : addressed to the 
older judges (cf. inoxXti, J 4'). 

SSI. I . ^tXIav, ((v(av, properly^^ifi/- 
skifi and guetlfriendship. here seem to 
be used with little thought of the dis- 
tinction. Cf. f»fa» 'W^aipw (j) and 
o6ri ^X. f^ror eOrt 'AXe^ ^w (below). 
See Vomers notes. 

1. (tin XJY>v;cr. (lire ^urur.Aeschyl. 
Ag. aoj, "spake, saying." 

3. 4v«S4<>v: Aescb. had said («6), i 
rip- (trior iuoi rpniptput riji 'AXtf- 

4. irdh*...a{taWvni wiib dramatic 
enet^ for tiSev...(\Bfift ti rUt Ifii^v! 
cf.g '*8'. 

6. 6tpi«-rdt, rtapers, properly txtra 
farm-haitds, called in at the harvest 



fLurObiTov ^a <re ^Ouirwov irporepov koX vw 'A\e$dv&pov 
KoXbi, Kol oSroi irdvTf^. ei S' diriarcis, ipwrqirov avrow^' 
jioXkov S' iyiii rovff virep crov iroiijcra). worepov vfitv, 
243 €a avSpe's ^Adrfvaloi, Sokci /iitr^otros Aierx^i^s ^ f«^? eli-ai 5 
' AXef oj'Spou ; aKovet; a Xeyoutrtv, 

BovXo^ai ToCwv i}Sj) koX vepl Ttjl ypa^^ avrr)^ airo- 03 
\.oyrf(T<uTB<u fcal Sic^eX^CLi* to. ireirpa.y^iv ifjiavr^, Tiv 
KoCircp elSat^ Ala^Cmjs ofua-i aKOv<rQ Si* a t^^i KaX TOvrav 

Tav TTpO^E^OvKfVfi.€V<aV KoX IToW^ flitCoVOIV CTt TOVTfaV 

hoipeSiv hiKato<i ctvai Tvy)(a.v€iv, Kai fioi keye t^v ypaifi^v 5 
avrr/v Xa^aiv. 

rPA<l»H. M 

A(o-;^(OTj? 'Arpo/itjTou Koff&KiSri^ liinjpeyiee irpits tw dpyovra 
Trapavofiwv Kork Krijirt^Ai^O! rov Aeat^Seirov^ ' Ava^XvaTiov, 

i. TiAnpaftiX. 

Ai. i rC, 



>rpAT.p«r (, 


om. F, 0. V6. 

B, V6.(L. 

: 50 V6mel 

; iilaei^nt 

(changed from -rii). 


f . SUau^ 0. I 

S. ailrVS 

:, L', ■v 


rB*n)-L', Al. 

|93. 3. oiroivdvniprobably included 
bolh court snd aadJcDce. 

5. (uofarr^; nosl MSS. (Z only b^ 
coTTCction) read fUcrdwroT, following the 
absurd slory of Ulpian (see Schol.), that 
Demosth. pronounced this woid f/ladum 
to make the judges correct his accent by 
shouting out the very word Mur^urii which 
he wanted to hear. It is much more 
likely — indeed, it is certain — thAt he saw 
by the facet of hii hearers ihat it was 

§S as— l«a. Having finished his 
reply to the charges foreign lo the indict- 
ment, he now proceeds to the indictment 
itself. We have (i) an introduction 
(S! 53— !9)' (») = discussion of his public 
life (S§6o— 109), (j) a reply to the charge 
that the orator was IrwrSBvrin when it was 
proposed to crown him (Si no— iig), 
(4) a defence of (be proposal to crown 
him in the theatre (Hiio, iir),and(;)a 
conclusion (U ill — iij). 

H ca— S». Introduction, including 

safe for him lo put this question boldly, 
and he was probably greeted by m over- 
whelming shout of iiiaSurrij, fuffSwrAi, 
from both court and audience. The 
Judges, more than four-firtbi of whom 
voted in a few hours to acquit Ciesiphon 
and to condemn Aeschines to a fine and 
ari^o, were by this time ready to re- 
spond (o such a sudden appeal, after 
listening to this most conclusive argu- 
ment with its brilliant close. 

the reading of the indictment. 

|SS. 4. TBv irpsPtPovXn)fUvin'(paES.), 
strictly accurate for tAe fireviiiimt af Iht 
rpofiiii\iu)ia of Ctesiphon, which had 
passed only the Senate. The correspond- 
ing phrase for the items of a V40i>'/'<> 
wonid be ri' ii'V^aMirair. Ct rUr 
ytypaii/Urur, % 56*. 

5. SAnuat d*m, tiat I datrnt-. per- 
sonal use of Aicoiot (M. T. 761). 

§§ S4, 5S. This spurious document 
«nce passed for the " single undoubtedly 



5 oTi eypaijre irapavofiov i^tii^uTfiM, U¥ apa Bel areiftav&aai Aq- 
fjLOO'devT}!' A7i/io(rdivovi Hataviia "Xpva^ tfre^dv^, koI avarjo- 
ptvirai iv rw dearpep Aioftxruxt TOts ;«7(tXo(9, TpayyBotv kuivok, 
OTt <7T€tfiai/oi a Sfjfiov AtjfiotrOevrjv Arj/iOffOevov^ Ylaiapiea j^vtr^ 
iTT€tpavq> dpeti}^ eueKa, Koi. evvoia'i ^f e^^ww SiaTeXei e's re tow? 
10 EWijca? a-Travra'! Kai rav Sfjftai' riiv 'AOrjvalujv, xal dvBpayadiai, 
Kol BtoTi BiaTeXei irpdrTinv koX Xiyoiv ri 0e\Ti<rTa r^ ^V/"P *<*•■ 
8B trpoBvfM^ etrri TroiEtv o rt &v BvvijTai dyaffov, vdvra Tavra -^evSfj 
ypa>fra^ koi Ttapdvofia, t&v vofuiav ovk idttmnv trpSirov fiev ijteuBel^ 
7/ia^f et's TO Bj/fiotria ypd/ifuiTa Kara^dWfirdai, elra tov inrev- 
Ovvov OTt^avovv (eim. Bk Aij^off^einjs T€*^owO(os koI eVi t^ 

5 ffftuptK^ rerar/fxei/oi!), en Be /tij dvayapeveiu rov trrei^irov iv toJ 
OeaTptp Aiovvaioi^ rpaytpSSiP Ti? KaiV^, liXX' iair fitv ^ ySouX^ 244 
(TTei^ayot, ey tw 0ovXevrf}piip dveitrelv, Up Bi ^ TrdXts, en HvkvI ev 
Tp eKKK-qaia, ritiTjpa rdXavra irevrrjieovTa. KXrfTfjpev K.rj^iffo<f>o)i/ 
KT7i^«ro^wfTo? 'Pafivovffto^, KXemi/ KXeoifo? Kd^oik^;.] 

ravr' etrni'. eyat S' dw' avTatx toi/twi' irpwrov otfiai S^Xoi^ 
v/Atr iroiijo'eti' on irai^a Sikcuus awoXoyijcrofiaf rifv yap 

tlo/ioi erased [n Z before flii^ti. 

eenuine Athenian indictment-" Chaeron' 
dat was archon in 338 — 337 B.C.; but 
the indictment was brought in the spring 
"f 336- The ffm^ rapariiuiir came be- 
fore the BiviioBirtu, not before the Chief 

The enpression rpayifBda raivoii, § 54', 
on the day of the new Iragtdiant, i.e. 
when new tragedies were performed, is 
confirmed by roii TpayifSolt, Aesch. ill. 
45, Tpayiflur ytyiioiiiruii nvrwn, 34, and 
Tpayifioa (r ti} StiTpip, 36. In § Ss' 
TpayiflkSr rS xaifi is doubtfai and per- 
haps eomipi : there is another reading, 
Tpayifiaii coivur {sc. dyuri[iiitirur}. But 
with rp Koiri we might perhaps undec- 
lUUid ilffiSv with Wolf, or iyariif with 
others. Boeckh, Corp. Ins. Gr. 11. p. 
459, gives 3. decree of Calymna with 
KutXlur tJ -rpuTji (sc. rapM^ or eUiSip]. 
In C. I, Atl. n. No. 331 is TpayifiSiir t^j 
dyuri Ti^ (furili- and in N05. 300 and 311 

rpayifSiiii rif stuk. 

See note on the spurioaa wpa^\tvfui 
of Ctesiphon in g tiS. 

SS^ I- 'A )iilv SulKfi : the passages of 
the decree quoted in the indictment are 
all that are accused of illi^lilr. 

3. wdrm SiKaCan dnXayiio-oiiat: 
this is a sarcastic allusion to the demand 
of Aesch. (101) that the court compel 
Demo&th., if he is allowed to speak at 
all, to follow his opponent's order of 
argument: afii^are rir Aii^uwSA^f rir 
airir Tpixor ire\i>ytuiSai 9rr<p Kayii 
nanr/iptina- See note on g 1'. It so 
happens thai Aesch. has stated the 
chat^es in the indictment in the order in 
which Demosth. wishes to reply to them, 
just Ihe order which Aesch. is anxions 
to prevent him from following: in his 
speech he has followed an entirely differ- 
ent order. See Eissay I. g 4. 




avniv TOVT^ tronja-dfievos twv yeypaftfidvatv Ta^ii". irepl 
TTavrav ipm koS" eKoarov iiftt^s Koi ovBev cKoif wapaX^tjita. 5 
Toil fih/ ow ypdrfiat irpdrrovra koI Xeyovra to. jScXriOTa /« 57 
T^ S^fi^ SiareX-Cif koX Trpoffvp-ov eXfai Troicif o Tt &vvafj,at 
dyaOhv, kcu. iiraiviiv iirX tovtois, iv tois TreiroXiTcv^Vois rriv 
KpL(TLv cTiJaL vapi^w ■ dtro yap rovTotv iieTtL^ofLevcm/ eipe$ij- 
{rerai etr aXi^^ irepi ipxtv yeypa»j>i KTqa-itjtwv ravra Kai S 
irpoa-qKovra eire xat \jiev8i) ■ to Se /i^ irpo<rypdij/avTa 88 
circiSav xas ev^uvas S^ <rre<j>avovv xal dveiTreiv iv r^ 
Oedrp^ Tov <rre<f)avov xek^wrai, Koivatveiv pkv -^yovpxu 
Kal TOVTO TOts ireiro\i.T€vp4voK, eir a^io^ tip.*, tov (rreiftdvov 

|ST. I. Ti{[arrm)Ai. ypi-fm am. Ai. ^Xrurrd uc S, L, B, F, O ; 

xpirrtrri tu Tolg. ; yjyorrd /it A(. 3. t n tiratAiu S, L* (L' S ri ar); S riar 

■SiVwfuu vnlg. 4. (!»a( /KM L', Ai. tufi^exf Ai, L' (vp). S- rfrf 

Kt. yiypa^t ™i^ •■(pi <w5 (so Vom.) V6. 6. ttri il^tilij O. 

% sa. 3. rbr tri'panr txKtvaai Z, L, Al, V ; iicX. rii tnt^anr B, vulg. 

4. (i/^ £{<M V. roi om. V6. 

items 0/ the ia^lmtnl: ^-iil'. ytynafi- 
*uu and iypi^r niay be iisnl as poK^ivcs 
of both Tpd^w, fropose (a bill), and 7/xi- 
^fuu, indict \ see Jicafdn yiypatittira, 
xxiii. 101, ^ T^fMTTiu, ibid. 18; ri 
ypa^irra, Iht proposed meaiures. Cor. 
§ 86'; oiW 7>ja«A'Ta, iw/ O'en inUiiled, 
% iji^. Bat yiypaiiiuu is genendly 
middle (seldom passive) of ypi^itiu, in- 
dict; as below, g i9*, yryptLit-iiirot toCto; 
cf. T^Ypo^ai, § 119'. 

5. Kot' iKOffTav t^itijl : by Caking np 
each point in the order of the indictmenc, 
he will ensure completeness iti bis de- 
fence. The ssune sarcasm is kept up, 

§87. I. ■roeYp^^i...mllwaiMlv (sc. 
Kniot^firT-a) depends on ttj* ipdrir (4). 
riiirrorTiL...a,ya8l>* (1—3) is in substance 
quoted from the decree : cf. g| 59'. 86*, 
SS*. Aesch. (in. 49) professes to quote 
the exact words, trt iiortXri ta\ \iyiiir 
col wpdrrar ri, Aptirra rif S-tiiuf : cf. other 
references in Aesch. loi, 137. 

3. twoiyttv: ice g 113' and note. 

5. iXrjKi.^tpoa^ianrra, and <fni&^ (6) 
ire predicate* to raSta, 

6. dn N*! iftuS^: nil expresses paral- 

lelism with E\i)#«: cf. etTt Kal fi^.S $8*. 
See note on xai before iiei!uXi)0ii § 60*. 

gas. I. Ti...KAtim{i), He adding 
me (in his decree) I0 be crvioned...andtke 
iTOvm to bi proclaimed in the Ikratre 
(arr^oroLv and orenrcir in the usual 
active form): this clause is repeated in 
rvvTo as subject of Koaiiiactt. — pii) wpoc- 
ypdifiavTa ... G^ : Aesch. makes it a 
special act of shamelessness in Ctesjphon 
(see 11, 11) 10 omit this saving clause. 
It was frequently added in such decrees; 
see C. I. Alt. 11. Kos. 114 (343 B.C.), 

pur JTtiiir Tcki %iBin,t Sif, and 190. 
This proviso, according to Aesch. (11), 
make the decree legal, though 

: showed c 

I the 

3. Koivitrit¥,..vwraKvmrirmt, eh'... 
Kal |m{ (j), lit. ItAini this too is tonierntd 
■with my fttblie acts (namely with the 
question) whether I deserve the crovin etc. 
or not. The loose relation of At' S^/M 
elfu s.r.X. to Tctt weroXiTiviUfou, which 
it explains. Is permissible after the full 
form in g jj*"'; without this it would be 




S KOI TTf^ avappTI<Ti<a% T^S €V TOUTOl? €IT€ icat ll,r)- «Tl fLCVTOl 

Kal Tov; vofiov^ BfiKnof ftvou fioi. Soicct ko^ ovs ravra 
ypdifteiv i^rji' tovt^. ovTwfri fiev, (S avBpe^ 'A8r}vau>t, Si- 
Ktuotf Kat av\ca^ rrfv anokoytav eyvotKa iroL€i<rdai, ^oSlov- 

59 ftaL S' eff aura a irewpaKTol poi. Kai fit /ii^Scis vTrokafi-g 
awapTav rov \6yov t^5 ypa<{njq, iav ets 'EXXt^ciko.? wpd^ei.^ 
KOL XtJyovs ifivda-ot- 6 yap ^laKov tov >/r»j^tcr/taTos to \eyeiv 
Koi vparreiv to. dpiard fi€ koX yeypap-pivoi ravra a% ovk m 
5 akj^d^, oSrds t'cmi' 6 tows wcpi airawcor tSi/ c/iol ireTroXiTCu- 
fievav Xoyovs oiicftovs itai dfayicauivs Tg yp<uf>y irtirotTjKtas- 
etra xal woWMf irpo(up€a-€0>v ov<r!av t^s iroXtTfla? T^i* ircpt 
Tas 'EiXXv^i'iKas irpd^et^ eik6fi7}v cyw, wtrre (tai tos d.Trooei^'Cis 
iK TovTtav SiKai6% etfu troieta-dai. 

80 "A fiai ovv Trph tov irokiTevetrdoi koX Sjiprfyopeiv c/te 

i.Y, ♦(>?); Ti}tirotti.B. 

«<.! {bef. M) oi 

nroX. (aj xtwpayiJuau A i , B, vulg. 

.Ai, V,*(vp). 
-S.L', Aj.O'; 

£. Jv Tojrroit: i.e. fr/^rv Me paptt 
(in the theatre). 

6. TOV* vJ|unif: the arguments are 
given in §8 no— III. 

I »». 1. 'EXXi)vu(at...UY«v*< i-e- o 
disiuishn of our foriign polity, i.e. our 
relations to other Greek stales. Athens 
could not be said to have a "policy" 
U'ith barbarians, though her relations to 
them could be expressed by (n'lcd; see 
note on olttlav, "S.Wr^ui^r. and {cvucur, 
% 311*. Demosthenes selected foreign 
affairs as his special department: see 
9 6*'. 

3. ToO i(nj^tcr(iaTot. depending On Ti 
'>^(ui...ltx, i.e. thi dausi dtdaring lU. 

4. Tryponfifcoi (middle): see note on 
§ 56*- 

7 . ffpooipjcriaiv Ti|f irctXtTlfofl, depart' 
mints of Iki goveritmetil (open to choice). 

§§•0— 10». In this general defence of 
his public policy, (1) he defends his fixed 
principle of opposition to Philip's aggres- 

sions (iS 60— 7J); (5) he speaks of the 
events which immediately preceded the 
outbreak of war with Philip in 3*0 B.C. 
(88 73— ">'). avoiding all mention of the 
later Amphissian war and the other 
events which led to the battle of Chaero- 
nea; (3) he defends his trierarchic law 
(S3 101- to9). 

See Fox's elaborate analysis of this 
argument, Kramrede. pp. 8S— ro8. 

§ eO. I, »po T08 inXiTn«v4u: the 
public life of Demosth. properly began 
with his speech on the Symmories in 
354 B.C. (see Hist, g 11); but his re- 
sponsibility for the foreign policy of 
Athens began after the peace of 346. 
Still, his fixed policy of opposing Philip, 
though unsuccessful at first, goes back at 
least to the First Philippic in 351; and 
he is here (jg 60—73) defending generally 
his public life as a whole, seldom men- 
tioning his special acts. He reserves 
these for a later part of bis argument 
(98 79—94. an^ after S '59)- 



iTpovK.a^f Koi Karecrxe OiXittttos, idKrin' ouStv yap Tfyovfiai 
TOVTiov etfai. jrpos ^fi^' a, 8' a<^' ^9 rjfidpa^ iiri ravra 
iiT€<m)v iyo} koX Si€k<oXv^, ravra dvapv^a-oi Koi tovtoiv 
v<f>€^a koyov, TocrovTOv imf-mav. irXeoveKTrjiui, avSpet s 
'A0i]vaioi, p-iy* inrrjp^e ^ikiiriTqt. irapa. yap tois EkXtja-iv, 61 
ov Titrlp, aXX' anatriv opoio}^, tfrnpav irpohoTutv koi Stapo- 
BoKoiv Kat deoh ir)($p5>v avOpaiTOiv trvvi^ yevicrdai Tocravnjv 
o<n]v ouScis TTOi TfpoTipov pip-VYfTai yeyovvXav o&s <rvvay<a- 
vKTTai; Kol (7wepyov% kafiotv kol irportpov KaxSi^ tov5 5 
'EXA.T/i'as ejfoiras wpos eavrous Kai trrao'iatrTtKaie ert )(€ipov 
SUdr)Ke, Tovs ^wv t^airaTfov, rot? Sc S180U5, tov5 Se vdvra 
rpoTTOv &ia<f>6€ip(ov, Kal Sie'tmjo-ei' C15 /tcpi; TroXXa ecos tov 
<rvfjnj>€povTOi dTTOO-ti' oi^os, KtoXueiv cVcu^i' pJrfav yiyve<T6ai. 
iv Totavrg S^ KaTaarda-ei Koi er dyvoCq. tov (TwitrrayAvov 62 
Kol <f>vofUvov KaKOv rav avavrotv 'EXK-^vtav ovrtav, Set 

S«0. 1. itaTBox' S._ 4- ™l iwimM^i) 2, L (-uw over -iWifl; koJ om. 

Ai. 1, B, Tulg. J, u> SrSpa vulg.; (J om. £■ 

Sei. 1. aXV ira-rir Z, L; iXXiL WMrit va]g. 5. Xa^ur 2, L, vulg. ; Xo^ilw 
i «0urrOT Ai, B, F, i; O (mg.). 

% ea. 1. ^uo iiinw Z' [from ^upo^ufvoti ?). rivrwr (om. rwr) V6. 

1. ■KpoSKa^ and icatiirxa combined 
have the idea of iicuriHg iy being befort- 
hand: see nole on g 4". 

4. 2 Kal SuK»XvtT|: see note on 
g J 7'. jcal expresses parallelism witli 
rpoffXa^ icol car^ax'i ''^'^ strengthens 
the antithesis between what Philip did 
before Dem. appeared and what he was 
p'menledfi-omdQtnga.htcwa.iAi. dSttKU- 
\i8Ti represents an active form & airrbt 
a«j(ii\vffa: no infinitive is undeistood. 



the foUoaing. Demosth. has no prefe: 
ence for the forms in -it (e.g. roabtit) in 
referring to what is to follow, 

6. ivijpt* : see nole on ^id/jfcu >««, 

g ai. 1. ^opdv, a (rap: see the list 
of this crop of traitors in § igj. 

5. Ka\ vpJTtpor . . . Ixovrat — ii mil 
■wflittpai (oitui (Ixo*! inipf- partic. Cf. 

voo-oOtTai ir o^wt, IX. 50, and ta»ii% 
iitntl/itea, IX. 18. See g| 45—49- Blass 
notices the coinddence in rhythm in nd 
rpirrpw JtairiSj and icol OTOffiooTiiruit. 

8. 8Uo-niow...-iroXXJ: ct. [x.] 51, 
yryii'aoi kb9' afrroif hairroi, 'ApTfiw, 
6i||3alK, AajTtaai^ioi, Et^rfftot, 'Apxii- 
J(i, iiiuU. (B1.) 

9. KvXtev: in apposition with 4rdt 
rou su^^^porroi. An apposilive infinitive 
g;enerally has the ailicle in the fully 
developed language; but not necessarily, 
for the construction is even Homeric, as 
ttt olairii ipivraj, ifiirtaSat wtpi rirp^, 
11. XII. 143- 

g aa. I. It* LyvoC^ (sc. lr)...lvntv 
= It' dTHwtSrTur, Mr' belonging to iytolf. 
Vomel; fuum adhae ignarartnt etc — 
vvnrro^finm: cf. VI. 35, liat...avTlcra- 
Toi ri. rpdYfiara. 




(rKOTTeZv Vfia't, avSpe$ '\0T)vatot, n irpoa-rJKov -^v iKea-Oat 
iTpdmtv Kai iroiiiv r^v iroXiv, xal TOVTOtv \6yov irap' ifiov 

5 Xa^etc* 6 yap iinavd' eavTov rafas T^5 iroXircias fip.' eyat. 

63 iTorepoy olvt^v i)(prjv, AuT)(ivr), to ^p6vr)fi.a a.<f>ficrav koI ttjv 246 

a^iav rifv auT^s iv rg OcttoXwi' xal Aokoirav rofei a-vyKara- 

KTcurdai ^iXiTTiry rrfv rav 'EXk^vav aLp)(T)v koX tcl tZv 

irpoyovtav koKo. koX ZlKOiia avcuptlv ; ■^ rovro fiiv pi] iroieu', 

5 Seiraf yap u; ak7}6a$, d B' etapa (rvfi^-QO-ofiG^a c( ^i/SeU 

3. u arSpti vulg. ; w om. 2, L. if OXn. L, A), O'. 

8 •«. I. airtj, Z ; iam-Si L, Al, B, vulg. ; air^ O. 4. M*i (for «<xU) ♦. 

J. wpori\Kav ^y : 

n § (5j'. 

When these words do not have their 
proper distinction of da ind mnie, they 
sometimes have no apparent distinction ; 
see % 146*'*, and IV. 5, mJiWv ir up rvti 
rrroljiKtr lxpa(er. 

lvTa<ie'...riit woXvnCat: pariJlive. 



thought to mean augif sir to kavi helpid 
him to acquire ere. (which she 1/(1/ Hotilo')'! 
Bal here ii.ii xmew in % 63' and ^aijpax 
in I 71'* refer lo whU actually happened. 
The con^deration of these examples has 
convinced me thai we are often wrong in 
assuming the idiomatic use where it does 
wist. See notes on §g 190*, 339". 

T^ rcpov afn] V (xp<iv — dvoL- 
p<Cvi should sh{...iiatu helped Philip lo 
gmit his dominion ever the Greeks, and 
(to) have sit al naught the glerunis and 
just deeds of but ancestors f Here, and 
in (iiij roKiV end ■wtptkitai (also depend- 
ing on iysnpi), in tpnaitKc r^vr and 
Mn \hi%a ij >pil*«» in S dd^^, in i'xjStr 
rintiv in J 69*, and ^ar^rcu ijtP^ i" 
g 71'°, we have (I think) simply the 
ordinary use of the infinitive depending 
on a past verb expressing duly or pro- 
priety, with none of the idiomatic force 
by which (for example) titi at iXBttr 
often means you ouglit to have gptte (but 
did not go). These expressions are all 
repetitions or enlargements of rf rpoa- 
flKQt ^v in g 61', which obviously ssks 
OD\yiiihal wax il right for Athens to do} 
with no implied idea that she did or did 
not do the right thing. So in g 63' the 
question is simply mm it right for her lo 
help Philip etc.? See M.T. 417, and 
V9- 403, 404. In such cases the idio- 
matic use is often forced upon the ex- 
pressions, and iitpfy airfKotntT&ffSM is 


which » 

take such expressions. But 
when (with (he present infinitive) they 
refer to prestnt lime, as tw^o-jf ii.ii ^fyt 
till, these ought net to be alivi. Soph. 
Phil. 418, the use is always idiomatic. 

The reiteration of the question, noticed 
above, was called ^riiiar^. See H«r- 
iQC^encs (ill. pp. 166, it-] W.): rott 
irilMfA tif ur l^6oiur irpay/iiTur 
Ttfi^lKBa, un i jdirwp it rtf rcfil orr^drDU, 
rbrtpor, ^nfal, riji' T6\ir ixp^^--T^r 
ia ur^i, Kii 7-4 /£^t. toiJt]] 7*^ rj inoif, 
r\ioii 71 TfTpdKit iv rairri^ T^rtp Kij(pip9*f 
ral i4 itiyiiinir iid roO aliriA ^x^nam, 
X^w Toy kqt' iptlmjirkv i^ Aroorpo^^t. 0iA 
yip ri trSo^av 7-$i iryolas itinirti laii 
Siirut irUtiTOi Ttf ix0p¥< Ta?i autrx^vir 
/pVT^taii' o6t' d*ttT»eIp iHr, — li ^pi- 
v^|La Nol Ti)v ifCav, her spirit and her 

t. hr.. .rifyi implies a dtseent to their 
level. The Thessalians helped Philip in 
the Amphissian war; the Dolopians are 
probably mentioned only to disparage the 
Thessalians further. 


nEPl TOY rrE<t>ANOY 49 

KOtkv(r€i, Kol ■nporQ(r0a,vfff «s &iko' iK voKKov, ravra wepu- 
Seiv yvyvoitxva ; oXXa vvv eyayye top fiMkurr' iirvrifiSnn-a 64 
T015 weirpayftevoK T7Sews &-v ipoiinff, t^s voias fiepC&o^ 
■yeve<r0ai r^v it6\iv ^fiovKer av, irorcpov t^s trvvamas tS>v 
trvfifie^rjKOTOiP toZ; *EAAij<rt xaKav Koi alayjtStv, jji &v 
QeTToXous Kol Tovs /icTa TovT<av ciTToi Tis, ^ r^s nepteopa- 5 
fcvtaf ravra ytyvofieva iirl rg r^? i3ia9 wKeovf^ias cXn-tSii 
ijs Ai* 'ApKoSa; Kal MetroTji'tovs xai 'Apyetovs BeiTffiev. 
aXka KoX TovTOtv voWoi, /ioXXoi/ 8€ jrovres, X'V*'*' '7/'*'*' ^* 
amjXXa^ao'i.i'. (cal yap ei iikv ws iKpa,Tt}<r€ ^tXiinros ^x**" 
€v8€<a$ aTTtftif jcal ^icra raDr' Tyyei* T)<rv)(ia.v, firjre t!ov avrov 
a-vfj:,fia)(<ov fiT^Tf Ttav oXXoii' 'EXXtJi^i* fivjSfi/a p,r}&ev Xtrtnjo-as, 
■^c ai- Tis Kara ratv ivavTuaOevruv ots (.Trpwirfv IkHvo^ s 
fj^fiilits Kol KaTTfyOpia.- fl Se ofioCaii atTavTcav ro a^CotfLa, T^v 
Tfy^lLoviav, Tr}v ikevdtptav wepteiXero, fiSiKkov 8c *cai ras 

gS«. 3- rill' t4W >(»<ir flat Y. ^liXfr" Ai ; ^Xkt' (( overai) V(5. 5. rtpt- 
tfpurvfai S; n^iupniEiibif L, vulg., Bk.; repin)pa*:i;lai Dind., Vom., West,, lip«.i 
Weil, Bl- 7. (ir (f by cotr.) 2. 

|aa. ]. 7Apom. Ai. 3. rieiut 1, L, Ai; t6ein va\g. airrov Z; 

atrofi L; oftrer vulg, j. ij» i* 2, L', Ai; i;«ifT ^^ S* vulg. tHw oi* trarT. 

(the common otder teading) Y (mg.)i O (mg-)i other mss. om. ohr. 

cf. Aesch. III. 90, 9 irpMiiXw V 'vi- 
fuvsi' il /il) (oiXiJa'm. In both we might 
have the future optative. 

these aeis to go Bti\ ttpv.i^ ytfd/iewa 
would be la aito^ Ikeni to kappm (M.T. 
148 and 903', with the dUcussinn of 
■rtpu.iiai TfoiStira* and TipiUittii Tjuqtf^nu 
inThuc 11. 18, 10). 

i •«. 1. cev, now, when the light 
for liberty U ended: rcut rrrfHyu^rMt 
refers to the fight itself. — TJr luiXurr' 
tn.Ttiimv ro, i.e. the stvrrat critic. 

3. y f fu 't n , rt ywi (not /o bilgrig 

5. viptMpainiiaf : I have adopted this 
form on the almost unanimous authorit; 
of modern scholars, even against the MSS. 
See BlaM-Kiihner, gg 198*, 3+3. 

6. Yiyi^poa: cf. note on % 63*. 

7- 'AfK^Soi c.T.\. : see Polyb. xvil. 
14 (qiiot«l in note on | igj») for a defence 
of these neutrals. 
G. D. 

g «a. 1. lit lKpdTi)n : i.e. at Chae- 
ronea. Philip treated Athens with great 
consideration after the battle, restoring 
her 1000 prisoners without ransom 1 but 
wreaked bis vengeance on Thebes (as a 
former ally) and invaded Peloponnesus, 
(Grote XI. 699— 705.)— ft(»T' 4«ull>: for 
this and similar expressions see M.T. 

J. ^v dv nt...KaTnY*p'>t '^""t might 
ferhafa be some grvund for blame and 
accuioiioH etc. ; the older editions have 
SfiutTiT Sr Tit and xari tot oit iramu- 
9irrur, with an entirely different meaning. 
(See critical note.) 

6. Hfmfa...1fy^o¥U¥...0^i4^Uw: 
see XIX. 160, raSra ri Tpayna (the cor- 
ruption of leading men by Philip) Ofrra- 
\Qr ;iJr...H)>> Irytuwiaii Koi ri CMrJr 
dflu^ta druXwX^Mt, wSr S' Ijii, Kai Tilt 
iXtvdfpiar irapaiptiTat ' t4t yip ixpo^ 
TJXtii oAnlr Mar MontJlm ^povptiaif. 
For Euboea see g ; i (below). 



66 'AXX' iKel<r iwavfpxofiai. tI t^v irokiv, AiuyivTf, 
Trpo(rrJKe troietv a-pyyiv koa Tvpawioa twv 'EKKijviov opmrav 
€avT^ KaTa<TKeva^6fievov OtXnrTro*' ; ^ ti top 0"ti/ijSot;Xo»» 247 
eSct Xeyeiv t) ypa^etv tov 'Adjjvrja'Lv {koI yap tovto 
5 TrXeujToc Sio^c/sei), Ss truiT/Sei.i' fifv iK wavrh^ tov yjiovov 
p-€)(pi r^i 7}fjL€pa<i a^' ^s auro; irn to ^'ijfia avd^rfv, aa 
iTfpt vp<nnitiH' KoX Ti/i-^s Jcat Sofi^s ayiovtiofUvrfv rrfv 
waTpiSa, KoX trkeua koX -xf^fiaTa koX o-ci/iora avifXiaKvlav 
vwep ^iXoTifua^ rcac T(av TTa<Ti <rvfuftep6m<Dv 1} Ttav oXXtov 
. 67 'EXXijvwi' wep ainStv dt^XtoKourtv CKooTot, cdpotv 8* avrov 

8. Sffw Al, B'i toa. Y. B', F(7p.). 

g ••■ I. JTBiH V6. I. 4(Ar"' ™'' 'BX\. Al. 3. tUt trvitpoDKur 

(.i« iwice over .of) L". 4. Yp<t*. fl Wy. V. 'M^. l^i valg.; tM oro. Z. 

L'. 4, j. (al...&a^/Mtoni. V6- J. irvr^w M^f 2, L. Ai. f. uiir alltr 

rwrrii B, vulg. 6- rQt ^f^pai Z. L', At; t^JIc t^ i^ Ai ; r^f ^ft. iair^ 

B, vulg. 7. i-tjieiMtipO (cf. 5 6t«). 8. T>irisj...ffii*uira2, L; rX. «ai 

iFiifi, (al xp4it. Al. 1; r\. iriii;i. (al xM''- ^^'g- it^Xitiriitar (and dn)Xui(atfii> in 

I. 10) Z, L; dniXiM. (in both) vulg. 9. tan Z. I.'. Al. l; aroffi Te?i 'EXX^tfi 

B,vulg. 10. ot t4 irip B, vulg. ririom-S, L.A1.1. irip «w (« over 


8. voXirdot. j^ gnvrrumtHlt. See 
Arist. Pol. VI, (IV.) 8, 3, ftm ■>*(> i* 
roXiTilo tilt drXiIi riretf /lifit i\i7a;p);lot 
Eol Ji;;ioi|iaTlai, cji^airt JU KoKtv rdi ^v 
dirpcXttoL^aaf cIft wpot r^ ^n/AOJrparfor 
i-oXiT(lai, t4i ti vpit ttj* iXi-yapxit"' 
/iSXAor ipuiTOKparlat ltd ri fiaXXov lUs- 
Xeuttir ratitlay itaX f6ytK\aw roii tiri}- 
paripMi. Sec Dem. vitl. 43, ix^pir 

xparlat diiiUXaicror iKta-w, and Vi. ji, 
oii 7Ap (Ur^aXti't rail vaXtTtlati oi 'pii 
Tovi TVpiii'vaiii aj^mi Xfar d/uXfcu. Aris- 
totle uses mXtTtla in a special sense 
(Pol. in. 7, 3) for his third form of good 
government, opposed to trytaKpaTla, its 
Tap^K^sit. — dlnmav : partitive with 
MniliTKta. So ei-ptinliTtiT iiSpiInim in 
XEX. 50, awaiaj(yi'TiTa.T ivI^pt^TvrinXXVjj. 
18, ^['u^ar' atdpjfrww in xxix. 18. 

§ •■, I. tK&r' intv(f\ofMA, I re- 
turn le my qutithii, i.e. after the digres- 

sion In g 61. 

■X. ffpoo^M voMt* ; see note on 

5. 8« (Tw^Sdv: the antecedent, t4» 
saii^iiknr, refers to the speaker, and 
must MSs. insert int after 'A^imw.— 
4K...x^vav; see§io.l'. 

6. A^' ^1, m^nt (t>i) Tehkh), strictl; 
btgittning with wAkh, cauHiing /rem 
ivhich (as a dale). 

7. AY'""'t<'l*T' ■ i^- "*^- ^^" ffi*j- 
3((r, like dnjXuiiuiar <S) ; cf. four parti- 
ciples after iwpi^, % 67'. 

8. yifiif^Tti Na\ o^jiara, tiienty and 
lives. With the lordly boast of this pas- 
sage compare (he allusion to Salamis in 

9. ^iXoTi|iiIat, her Aeneur; properly 
leve ef katumr, but often used like Ti>ti)i 




Tov ^tkiiriTov, irpos tp -qy Tjfuv 6 ayotv, imep apx^9 Kai 
Swatrreia? tov S^daX/iov ixKeKOfi^vov, Tr)v xXetv Karea- 
yora, ■nji' j(€lpa, to (TKeXos iremfpatfievov, irav o rt 0ov\i}0wt] 
ftepo^ 17 "'X'? '"'^^ ctil^Tos irapeXeV^ai, tovto ir/sow/i.ecoj', s 
ware t^ Xotir^ /iera rifirj^ koi Sofijs i['V>' ; «ai /t^" oiSe 68 
Tovrd y' ovScU av etTTctv ToX/ii/<r(u, w r^ fiev iv Xlekk-Q 
Tpa^VTi, -^^atpUf} aoo^tf rore y ovtl Kal fnKpi^, rotravrrfv 
fi£yaK.o^Vf(i.a^ vpov^Ksv iyy^etrOai iwcrrc r^s tu>p 'EIXXtji-wc 
OLpxyjs iwi6vp.i}crai koX tout' €W tov coui' €/t/3aA.cV^ai, v/iti/ s 

g M. a. 1^ om. O. V6. irMi" Aa. 4. « 
^ovXq^ Geil. 5. ToShot t, toDto wp&Unirar 

rpoUli. S {yp), Ai; rot^o tfSiat cai ^d^uk rpcU/i. 1 
L, Ai. 

§ as. 1. TvX^^inu £; Ta\^4i7u(-e(cr Qvei-Bi) L; 
^e yniaiiu Ai. j. rii rir n>D» 2, L, Ai ; 7i 

tr |3ou\ii0(Iii Ai ; J Ti or 
L>, Gell-t TtOrn haiiitn 
valg. 6. ri Xwrio 

I, conlrasled with 

te(p...av/i^pirTui' in S 6ff. Jvfwrrefa 
U properly a government of farce, not 
based on ihe popular will; see § i;o*. 
Ariat. Pol. vi. (iv.) 5, 1, speaking of 
the extreme oligarchy, irar ipxv M ^ 
r6)iat d>tX al ijjjjiwTej, s»y«, kbJ Imv 
Arrlrrpo^t aBni it roll S^efapxltut wa- 
rifi ^ Tvparrtt h tqii fwiapxlals laJ rtpl 
igt rchfuralat t[TCifi<>' 4?i^iEparJaf ^v tcli^ 
tijiioKparltui (unbridled unconstitutional 
democracy), tai Ka\oSaai H) rtin tomi^f 
6\iyafixla.r ivracTtiar, But Demosth. 
uses Suramilai in ^ 311' of the power of 
Alhens. Il is generally, however, an 
odious term. 

JUt eye inmked oiti, passive of the active 
form itxirttt rtt ah$ ri* 6^a\/i6r, re- 
taining the accus. of the thing. The 
(blluwing KOTiayiTa is passive in sense, 
and has the same consliuclion. Cf. iro- 
Turfiitrn rii Kt<t>aMi, Xen. An. II. 6, 1, 
Tepresenling irirriioi' B^ratt rii ict^Xili. 
For other examples see Thuc. I. 11C, 
140"; Ar. Nub. 711 Plato, Men. S7C; es- 
pecially Thuc. I. 73, tl Kal il' 6x\i>u ftiWar 
tvm Atl rpe^aX\o,tfrM |bc. ri TAifiiri), 
repiesenling rpufidiAoiiit iiilr Tit ltf]itKd, 
as is obscurely suggested by Kiiigei. Of 
Philip's wounds the Scholiast says, ((*j 

MtSiic];, riir it kXcu- ir 'lUirfMoit, tA Si 
ffirfXot Kid T^t Ktipf- i" ZuiScut. For 
Methone, captured by Philip in 353 i.e., 
see Hist, g 3 (end). For the Illyrians 
see Cor. g 44, and for the Scythian cam- 
paign of Philip ID 339, see Hist. S 69. 

J. irpoUp^vov, i.e. alxeayt ready to 
sttcrifiee, followed by S n fiovXiiBtlii. 

g SS. 1. roXiMfrxu: I have retained 
this form, with most recent editors, on 
Ihe authority of S, though the form in 
-tu is far more common in Demosthenes 
and in other Attic prose. See Blass- 
Kiihner II. p. 74 j on the oiher side 
Rutherford's New Phtynichus, pp. 433 — 
438. Arisiolle has the form -ai quite as 
often as -tit. — Iv HftX'g rpa^'i'n; cf. 
Hegesippus [Dem. vil.] 7, irpdi t4f it 
II/X\i|i ipiui)itrow, with the same sarcasm. 
Pella wai a small place until Philip en- 
larged and adorned it. See Strab. vil. 
fr. 13 : Tjp- XIAXtv aSrat /unpir rpin-tpiir 
^Ctiirrat th /iijxos ij(¥'J«'< Tpa^U i* 

4. |MYa\oifvx'*''> ^"Jfy aifiratiBtw. 
Aristotle (£th. IV. 3, j) says of the luy^- 
\i>j/i!^ot. the great- souled 01 high-minded 
man, Sotii tlriu i iieyttaM- iavrAr dftfir 
iiun wK. Cf. g 169'. 

J. tit rAt voO* l|ipaMr4«u: cf. our 
phrase taie il inJa hii head. 





8' oZ<riv 'A0T)vaMH^ tc<u Kara rtjv rffUpav iKatrrrfv iv iracrt 
KoX \.6yoK KoX Bewpijfuuri rfjs reiv wpoyovav apenj^ vtto- 
fwijfiaB^ opmrt TOtravrrfv KaKiav inrdp^at tuoTc t^9 ikevOepia^ 
avT€wayyf\TOV^ iffAovra^ irapa)(OipT}<rai ^liXwirtfi. ovS' 

69 ^ ct; ravra <f>^ir€iia'. \oiirov Totwv ■^v kol avayKoiov dfjLo. 
■naa-iv of? tKeivo^ iirparro' aSucav v/ia? iyavriova-dat 
oiKaCto^. tovt' iwoieLT€ pfv Vfieii i^ °-pXV^ cikotcd; koI 
vpoirrfKOvrat^, typa^v 8e Kai irvvi^ovKtvov koX iya> KaB" 248 

5 0U5 l7ToKiTtv6p.T}v )(/3d»'0i;s. ofioXoySt, oXXa ti i^P^" /** 
iroieJi'; -^Stj yop <r* iptara, iravra toXX' a^i;> ^Ap^CwoXw, 
Hwvav, tloreCBaiav, 'A\.6wr](rof ovBevit^ tovtwv fiepvTfp,af 

70 Xepptov Bi KoX ^opUrxov xat r^^f Tleirap^ffov iT6p0T}<rtv koX 
o<r' oKka 17 iroXi5 ^Sikcito, owS' «i ykfovfv olSa. koitoi tnJ 

6. (uri rV ^^jni ^(dmp £, L*, Ai ; xoff' i^t- '«■ L> (ri>). B, vulg. 7. tAi 
(ror T^i) VG. Iinhiinuta St^im J, (w over ov), L', Ai; inta/iriinae' ipuair 

: (YP). vulg. 8. r^ 'Xtu0. £, L', Ai; r^ rdr BXX^vw Aiitf. vulg. 

9. «0eXo(Tai£l ^SAorrat L, Ai. 10. fi^in S, VG; ^ijvttf L, vulg. 

{ •». 1. JrunoCirtfc Z, 3. i>>uit f ^X^ Z. L, B, Ai 1 If ipx- l»i- vulg. • 

4. kbI (before ^^ib) om. Ai. 

S 70. 1. T^ om. V6. t. fa' AUa Z, L<, An drs AXXa mwra vulg. 

fJintni Z, L, t; i^tlnrro vulg. 

6. Jv wtt<r> . ■ . fcupijiittoi, i.e. m all 
that yeu htar and ite : Stiiipfiiia is veiy 
rare fur Haiia. 

7. 4T0)u^(Uit' iptMn, htholdmg me- 
morials ; ipwirt by a slight leugtOL in- 
cluding Xiyoit: cf. Aeschyl. Prom. 11 

8. KOMlav: see note un g 10* — iw6f- 
(u and iyytrirtoi (4) depend on rpar- 

9. a^nrny^mt MtXoinAt, ai ic//- 
offtredvolunUiri: cf. g 99»,— •«' &k <tt: 
Me M. T. T19: a^J' fit (separated) =^>w 
iiniu quidtm, nol a man. 

S 99, I. diwYKatov £^: cf. ira- 
ysiuar xal IlKSior b^ul, | 9*. 

t. K p aTTtr dSui«)>, in stiong anii- 
ihesis to iramoOaSai Smalut. 

3. I( ^x^*- ^^'1 ''efers sEiictly only 
to the time of his own tcadership (<aS' 
oDf ^roXjrtvJtiit* xpiivt)' But be modest- 
ly and spedouily appears 
his own vigorous policy as a 
of euiier energy. When Philip < 

luring Amphipolis, Pydna, and Potidaea, 
Alheni was supioely inactive; but De- 
mosthenes was not yet a responsible 
adviser. In gg 18 and Go he expiesslj 
disclaims all responsibility for these earlier 

•,, tC Ixpn* I" *^M[v ; see note on 
! 63'- 

6. Hin r' Ipuni : the third time of 
asking. See note on % 63' and the quo- 
tation fiom Hermogenes. — i^\%, ttinratg 
tut of accetint: for Ampbipotis, Pydna, 
and Potidaea, see Hist, g 3; for Halon- 
nesus, Hist. Hjj, sG, 57. 

g 70. T. For Serrhium and Doiiscus 
sec note on % 17'. For the sacking of 
Peparethns (in 341 — J40 B.C.) see Hist, 
g GG. toAr^ iwb^^ti' kijupot voiiiipxM 
tqG 4>iXJrTau, Schol. The people of Pe- 
parethus, an ally of Athens, had taken 
HalonnesuB from Philip and captured his 


la: cf. 1 

I- 78. 



y €^<r0a, /xe rawra Xeyovra eis ^dpav ififiaXeiv rovTov<rl, 
Ev0ovkov Kal 'Api<rro<l>MyTO$ koX Aion^Wov^ tuiv vepl 
TovToiv ij/TjiftUTfidTOiv ovTOtv, ovK €fi,mv, H Xey^v ev^c/xu; 5 Tt s 
if 0ov\T)0fjs. ovSe vw wepl tovtoiv ipa. dA.X' o t^v 71 
Ev^ouLV €K€ivo? <T<l>tTepil^6fi€vo^ KoX KaTOCTKevdi^tav iniTci- 
Xi-<Tf^ I-ttX t^v 'A.rrtKTfv, koX Meyapots hri^eipiav, koX xara- 

4- 'A^aTft^wrTM 2 (mgO' ' 
irruw ifni^, A I . X^w {r 

i 71. 1. ^>iTax'''f>'''' ^■ 

(dots beneath), Ai. 

atparttiVH of his exhteact. — n»y l^i)irfti: 
see AescK III. 81, i^xla airm initSou 
ToX^fuu vol rofiux^'- 

3. Taftra Xiyovra (not rfx-drra), i.e. (tv 
fiin-lastmglj talking aioul that. 

4. EMposXou Kal 'AfHirro^avTot : in 
replying to Aeschines (as quoted above) 
lie is glad to be able 10 refer to decrees oF 
his political opponents while there were 
none of his own. Eubulus, though he 
WBS the leader of the peace party and 
always friendly to Philip, might have 
proposed decrees directing negolialions 
with Philip about Ihe lowtiK captured by 
Philip orthelateralTair of Pepaiethus; and 
he might have proposed one remonstral- 
ing against the seizure of Athenian ships 
<S 73). 'ike the spurious one in H 73, 74. 
The decreet of Eubulus and ' Arislophon 
read to the court (^ 73— 7 j) may have 
referred to any of these subjects. As 
Aruiophon lived to near the age of a 
hundred, he may have proposed bills 
from 346 lo 340 B.C., though he was 
born before the Peloponoesian War. See 
SchaefcT r. 138, 183.— Diopithei is prob- 
ably not (he genera], but (he Sphetlian, 
of whom Hyperides (Eux. xxxix. 19) 
$ays, tt Sfitiraret ttita elvcu rSr it ri 

6. ai»k...ipi: ihe (hird rapdXnV'tt 
(cf. SI 6^, 7o>), in which a fact is im- 
presDvely stated b^ declaring that it shall 
not be mentioned. 

i 71. t. liUtm: this position is 
allowed the demonstrative when another 
qnalifiFiT^ word follows the article! cC 
il vTfH) aSni il6i, Xen. An. iv. 1, 6. 

Bui even (hen. Ihe regular order may be 
kept (Madvig, Synt. g ir).~ir^«Tif>i{4- 
(uvoi (from ri^frcpoi), appropriating, 
making hii eon, of unlawful or unjust 
appropriation: cf xxxil. 1, a^frepiira- 
<rd(u, and Aeschyt. Suppl. 39, Xirrpur 
r^mpi(ititfw i-riffiirai. For Ibe active 
ia^iripviat see Plat. Leg. jis A. I am 
indebted to Dr Murray of Oxford for an 
example of the English verb spheteriti, 
in a letter of Sir Wm Jones in S. Parr's 
Works (1818), I. 109, "Remember to 
reserve for me a copy of your book. I 
am resolved to spheleritt some passages 
of it." The dictionaries often refer to 
Burke for (his word. — hnrtlxurfus M 
T^» 'Amit^, as a fortras aimmtmtSng 
Attica. An ^irdxHr^ia is properly a 
fortress in an enemy's country, used as 
a military basis, like ihe Spartan fort at 
Deceles in the Peloponnesian War. Here 
Euboea in Philip's hands is liguntively 
described as such a fortress commanding 
Attica ; and the sight of i(s high moun- 
(ains across the narrow strait made the 
tiguie especially vivid to dwellers in the 
east of Attica : see | 87* And note. See 
VIII. 36, of the (yiBMs in Ere(ria and 
Oreua, ii/o iw EGfiot^ Karianffft Tvpdfvovi, 
t4» /tir iramipd t% 'ArrtK^t ^it(i)j(- 
ma, Tir df irt ZxiaBow. Cf. Thuc. I. 
I. 141", VI. Qt*", v!i. i8'. This pas- 
sage relates (o Philip's operations in 
Euboea in 343— 341 B.C. See j 79' 
with note, and Hist. % 5S. 

3. HcYiifK»t *wixii(w»: in 344—343 
B.C. Philip ailempied (o get possesion of 
Megan, with (he help ol his friends in 



\afi0dvmv 'ilp€ov, Kal tcaToa-Kdirrmv Tlopfffiov, xal Ka^toToy 

S ev fj.€v 'ilpe^ 0i\iaT£&T)v rupavvov iv S' 'Eper/M^. Kk^Lrapyov, 

Kai Tov Bi)iXTJ<nTOvTov iif)' iai/r^ irou>Vfi€V€>i, koX hv^avriov 

■troKiopKav, icoi irdXei? 'EXXi^iaSa; a; p-kv avaip^v tli a; Se 

TOWS ^vyoSas Karayaif, worepov ravra vdvra iroiw -qSCxei 

Kal irapfiTirov&et koX i\v€ rifv etp^vTjv 1j ov; koI irortpov 

lo iftainjvai Tiva twv 'EXXtjcoij' tov ravra KaXvcrovra iroteiv 

78 avTov ixPV" V f'-V •' *^ Z*^*" y°-P f'-V ^XPV^' ^^^ ^'' Mvtrtut' 

Xeiav Ka)u>vp€V7)v rT)v 'EWaSa odcrav otftO^vai ^avrotv Kal 

ovTtav ^ KBifvauav, Tr€ pev iya wept Tovnav eliritv, 

irepieCpyatrrai, 8' 7} ttoXis rf ir€i<r0euT ipol, eirra Sc aZimj- 

S para iravr a ireirpaicTai xal apaprrqpaT epd. «t S' «8« 

uir and w 


L, Aq, B 

Older edilions have riHt...Tirdt c 

t-bP™ F; rirra om. L. 9. 

g 7a. 1. Xcfor (« fr. <} Z. 
Al, R, Y, «; Tilfra Tai>ra vulg. 

1. TiBv^lrrKir Al (cf. gSo*). 7. oi W :^ 

i£iN 2, L,Ai.i, B; <ft rat S«0'(r? erased). 
i...Tii: see Reiske and Dobson. 8- irdrm 

■ flp. l\vr L. 
fwtr.'Atf. (nl jrr. vulg. j. vdrra ^. I., 

ihe city. See g ^S" and Hist. 8 !*■ 
M^ara is mentioned here wilh Kuboea 
because ils close proximity to Athens 
would have made it, in Philip's hands, 
another trcrtlxtviui irl r^r 'ArTuntv. 

6. Tiv 'EXXifrwovnv: for Philip's 
operations in the Hellespont and at By* 
zantium, see §g 87— .S9, and 144. 

7. dt fi¥...At A* U: very rare for 
rii fi/t...<[r Til 1<: in XLI. 11 we have 
S uir (cod. A t& ^f)...TS>' « ..rd ti. 
See Philem. frag. 99 (Kock) iJ» >**» Jid 
nlxv, ^ W i'" ^ain-Bii. (See Vhmel.) 

8. Toil ^vyoSot mnt('Y*v: i^e. re- 
ileringiijs own exiled partizaas. 

9. i] afi: sc. -/jSUh ic.r.X.; but (in 11) 
fl (iif ; sc. ^M^M. 

10. -rir TaftrOi K»X»»«Ta=)j r. jtu- 
Xiicret (final); in g 71* is the simple 
twkirrriw; both predicates with ^r^rai. 

11. ^XP^i* ^ l"i- the question is here 
put for the fourth time: see note on 
S 6.1'. 

§ 7a. 1. il |dv yip |») Ixpiiv-. the 
alternative is t' i' ISn {•,) — -n)v Hw*v 
Xttav, Afyiian booty, i.e. like the Mysians, 

a prey to everybody, wofioiitla- Td7T«r«t 
M M Tuv liArrtr col clroirfui aroXXlfi^- 
rwr (Schol.). rapA^iJa, ^t ^nfin A^fuw 
■rifr apxJj» Xa^fii' H»4 Tiii» mraSpo^iimrir 
urriryfiTirwr re ibI XpirruP tV Miwlar 
(srA H|r TiiX^^K tdD ^offtX^ut a^raf^AiIa', 
Harpocr. This refers to the wanderings 
of Telephus, disguised as a beggar, in 
quest of Achilles, wlio had wounded him 
and alone could cure his wound. This 
was the plot of the much -ridiculed Tele- 
phus of Euripides: see Plat. Gorg. 511 Bi 
ArUl. Khet. I. 11. 90. 

». t^rai: sc. ^xp*' (without /i^).— 
\liirrwr icat IiTan' : see note on g 4*. 
See Plat. Rep. 369 D, roO <ItaJ re noj 

3. ««pu(pYar|UU, / havr dent a tatUtt 
(superfluous) nvi : jttpfrrSn laX aii* iira.- 
7«llut Tappread re ^u Kol ti tAXit 4 
rtivfiiura iiaTijn intleBTf (Schol.). 

4. Iim...l|ui; aifoifuira Kai dusfmt- 
liara. i/iA is predicate 10 frrw. See 
Mtrina, eriiiie, and i>idfn-t|/ia, bltmdtr, 
distinguished in g 174. 



TLva TOVTOtv KukvTVfv ^i^i/ttt, TW oXXoi' ^ Tov '\.di}va.uav 

19 8^/ioc Trpo<T^Kfv yevetrdai ; ravra toCvw eiro\iT€v6fif]V eyot, 

Koi opmv KaTaZovKov^Lwoy irai/ra9 dvffpwirov<i iKCivov -^vav- 

TiovfiTjv, Kai npokeycov koX BiSdaKotv /i.^ vpotecrBat SiercXoui'. 

Kal fi^p T^p tlpiji'Tjv y iKeivoi eXvcrc to. irXoia \a^<av, 73 

f^ipt 8' avra Ta t/n^^ur^ara ical T^i- eVuTToX^f t^i' tov 
^iXiinrou, ical Xtye c'^efij?" awo ya/s rovrtov tis twos otrids 
^CTTt yeinj<r€rai iJMftpov. 5 


avyxXijTov inrit aTpaTtjyav, Eff^owXos Mvijcri^«bv Koirpeto? «7irei', 
Sdftairra tov t'at/ap;^iii' xai. r^ fter avrov airoaraXivTa aKtitfnj 10 

6. Toiriar nri iiu\6rtir O; rtCrni jtajXimj* (without th*) vutg. ; Ti»4 TOtfrw* ituX. 
Z (rM^Twr coTT. from tdC^iw?) L; T«!TUrcH\. ^mr. Ar (mg.)' ^XXov (for SXXor) 

A(. 7. i^BW 'ASw. L, Tpoaijttr S; irpoc^H L, Al, F, ♦; rpo^utt vulg. 

f»<An-eu4fiii» r4r' vulg.; rir' om. 2, L, Ai. i. 9. TptUrBoi Z, L, Ai; 

roetecSu roDra 4>iUnb> vulg.; TaoiaSai Al, O. JitrAoiA' Z, L', Al. 4, ^: 

om. F, Y. 

S7». 3. 1*2, V6: »' L, Ai; «i vulg . raCro A». HjrroBom. Ai. 

4. To^ur 2i,l,>, Ai; rniruviftTaj'a^u* £ (late mg.t.L'Img.), vulg. 5. Ut*- 

(at end) vulg. ; oin. S, L, F, V. 

i^ |ii) wpo t wrfat, tiBl to mait sur- 
renders (nut lo give up ytur otu«). »/>et- 
nrSai is here absolute, ns in Arisl. Elh. 
HI. 5, I4: rij-f iikr eJf iS^¥ airi fdj 
lovtir, ■wpatiUyif f eiK^Ti, i.e. af/er he 
kai san-ijSced Mil health. 

g 7S. I. Kal^i)v...Xap^: thiiseiniK 
of meichant ships bj Philip's cruiseis, of 
which we have no olher knowledge, was 
the overt act which Athens made the 
occasion of her declaration of war. It 
perhaps hastened (his declaration by a 
few weeks: but after the letter of Philip 
(S 76), which wBi practically a declaration 
of war on his part, only one course was 
opcD to Athens. For the formilittes with 
which Athens declared war and removed 
the column on which the peace of Philo- 
crales was inscribed, see Hist. § 6S, with 
the not«i. This probably took place in 

the autumn of 340 B.C. 

3. tl^: M. note OD § i8".- 
OTaXi)v: this was a detailed % 
of Philip's grievances, with a defence of 
his own conduct towards Athens, eodiog 
with a fonnal declaration of wsr. The 
document numbered X[[. among the ora- 
tions of Demosthenes purports to be this 
letter; and it is accepted as genuine 
(at least in substance] by most modem 
scholars, including Grote (XI. 6jo)- 6ee 
Hist, g 68, The letter contained in 
gS 77, ;8 is of couTw spurious. 

4. rCt rtvot: such double interroga- 
tives are common in Greek, but colloquial 
or comic in English, as wht's what An 
increase of the number becomes comic in 
Greek) as in iv. j'^, rti xfyry*!. -■»'*'■« 
(al rapA raS col t1 Xa^^ra ri Set TOitar. 



etKOffW ivl Tifv Tov fftTov Trapavoftwifv eJ? EXXiJo^ofTov o Trapa 
^iXhrirov irTpaTtjyov ^Afivvra^ KaT<vf^oj(tv eh M.aieeSovlav koI ev 
^vKoK^ ex'^i'i ivifieXrjd^vat roiii irptrrdvas kcu Tovt ffTpaTTiyoiK 
Wa)? ^ fiovXi} ffuvayd^ Koi aipfdSKrt irpiv^eK •tpo^ 4>tXi,7nroi', 
74 oiVtce? vapof^evaftevoi BtaXe^ovrai Trpo? ainov irepl tov d^e&^va^ 
TOP vavap-jfov teaX rri irXota koX tov? crrpariwra^. koX et /*€v Si 
ayvoiav TavTa weiroCijKfv o 'A/twiTO?, Sri oil fien'yfriftoipet o S^/M>s 
ovBev avT^' et Se Tt v\tififi.t\ovvTa irapit rk eirearaXfiiva Xafiatv, 
S iri iiriaKt^dfievoi 'XBtivaiot iviTift^o'ova'i Kork Ti)f rflt oXtytapiat 
d^iiov. el Si p,rfSeTepou tovtcov iarlv, dXX' IBia arfvwfiovoua iv t^ 3 
o awtxTTtiKav ^ o awearaXpivo^, koI rovro X^ttv, tva alaSavofievow 
Stjfiov ^avXewnjrat ri Set Troielv.] 

70 ToDro /lev roiwv to ^<{n<rfj,a BvySouXo; Pypa^ev, ovk 
iyo}, TO 8' iifif^^ 'ApwTTO^i', (W 'HyjjtrMnros, ftr 'Apiaro- 
<f>S>v TToXip, eTra ^iXoKpdrr)?, eXra Kr)<j>ttro<l>^v, ftra wavre^- 
iyos S' oiihiv irepi tovtqiv. Xeye. 

S ^H*I2MA. 

Pfiirt NeOKXcotf ap')(pirTo^, ^orjSpopi&vo^ hfji Kai via, fiovX^f 
yvtitfitj, irpirrdveK Kal arpaTijyot fj(pripMTiaav ri ix rffv iicKXifffia^ 
aveveyKOPTff!, art eSo^e t^ fiij/ip Trpiff^eif eXeirSai irpi)^ ^tXinnrov 
wepl Trji T&v irXoimv avoKopiifp koX ivToXh>i hovvai Kara rd ck 
loT^f €KK\i}ffia^ •^^ivpMTa. xal eXXovro rovaBe, Kjitpuro^&VTa 
KX^cafOf 'Ai/o^XiSfTTtoi', Ai}fi6Kptrov ^ijfto^&vToit ^ Avarpjpdaiov, 
XloXvKptTOv 'Airqpdvrov Ko6wKiSjjv. irpvraveli} ^vXtji 'Iwtto- 
detVT^oii, 'AptvTo^v KoXXwrev? TrpoeSptx; dwev.^ 

76 'iliTTTep ToCvw iyoi ravra BtiKvvo) to. yjrr)<f>itriiaTa, ovrot 
Kal (TV Stifov, AujTjfi*^, ovolov eyw ypai/ra; i/nj^icr/ui atrtos 

4. X#T.. 2; X#r€ ri 

I 75. 4. tyit 8' oMtc w^l Toirm 1 ypitfiarriH for ^T^^ff^wra yp^^'iiitbi] : see 

thi« wiib S 76* is a positive denial of the Hist, g 68, note. Though Demosthenes 

statement at Aeschinei (ill. a) that the wu constantly proposing deciees al this 

decree declariog war was proposed by time, he cannot have proposed the ooe 

Demosthenes. The authority of Philo- whichforniallf declared war or any on the 

chonu.clainiedl'orthisstatement, is based matlen mentioned in g 70 or about the 

on an unnecessary emendation {^^t^a seizure o( ships (i.c npl raOrar). 



flfii Tov vo\^fiov, aXX* ovK Ilv ^ois* «i yap elxw, ovBiv 
Av avTov irporepov vwl vaptaypv. Koi fiifv ovS' 6 "ttXimros 
ovSkv aiTMrai e/t' virep tov iroXe/iov, erepois iyKokav. 5 
X^^ S' avr^i* r^i* ejrtoroA.'^v t^i* tov 4>t\ifnrov. 

[Ba«'iX«vv MohceSoiwi' Ot'Xtw-iro? '\dijvaiav rfj ^ov\§ xal Tp 77 
151 S"!^ X***/"**"- irapayevofievoi vpo^ ifte ol Trap' vftiav Trpeafievrai, 
K7}<f>wo^S>v xal ^-rffioKpirot! koX UokuxpiTo^, SteXeyovro irepl 7^9 
T&v TrXaiav d^eaeax; £v evavdp)(et. AeaSdfiai. Koff" oXov ftiv 
oSv sfiMirfi ^aiveade iv neyaKt) evrjdtla !<rttT6ai, el oittrit ifii j 
\av0dtietv on i^aireiTTdXt} Tavra Td w\ola itpo^ofTiv /tiv &i tov 
vXtov wapavifi't^avra iic tov 'EAAijottohtow elt Arjfivop, /SoijftJ- 
<TovTa Se ^v^uffpiavoK toU vtt eftov fUv woXtopicovfttvoK, ov 
a-vftwepieikij/ipAvoii! Bi iv Ta« tiJ? ^iXia; Koivy Kctfievati iiftlv 
<Tvv6^icai^. Kai ravra avvcraxOv ''V ^avapyf^ip dvev fiev toO B^fMv 78 
rov ' Adrfvaitai', viro Be Ttvotv dpj(0VTa)v Kai kreptov ISudtwp nev vxiv 
Svrijiv, ix watrrov Bi rpovov ^ovXofiAtiaiii tov S^fiov avrl t$; fSc 
virapj^ovaTj<i frpo^ ifii 0(\i'af TOf tr oKeftov avdka^elv, tro\K0 
/ioKKov <l>iXoTifiov/tiviitv touto <rvvTeTe\4<T&ai ^ tois XifXvffptavoU $ 
fioTlff^trai. Kai viro\a/ifidvov<TiP owrot? to rotovro TrpoaoBop 
ivevOai- oil iiiiiTot fxoi, Sojeei tovto ■xp^atp.of tnrapyeiv oSff vfiXp 
OUT iftoi. Siowep rd re vvv Karaj^devTa trkoia vpo^ ^/iSv d<pii]/u 
v/Hv, Kol TOV Xotirou, ^ap SovXrfuBe fitf eirtrpiTrew toi? wpoetmf- 
KOa-if iifuiv KOKO^Bw^ voXirevetrOai, r/XV iiriTifidTe, vetpaao/uu 10 
Koyat BttujuiXdrTeiv t^v elp^v^v. evrv^eiTe.] 

'EvTav6^ ovSafLov ATffj,o<rd€vr)v yeypatftev, ouS* alriav 79 
ovSe/uav Kar ifiov. n wot t>5r rot? aWois iyxaX^v tZv 
ifiol treiTpay/ifvtiiV ouxi fUp-vrfrai, ; ot* tS>v aSiKyj/iarav &v 
i/iefivrfTo t<ov avrov, el Ti vepl ipLov y hfpoj^ev ■roxn<av 

3. rix«ir[ff fromr'?)2. 5. i^ X, U S; lu vaig. 6. rJ)»™BI, F, V, 

Ai; rV om. L, vulg. 

I 79. 4. iauraS O, V6. yrypa^t Z; -riypaift L, vulg.; 7' lypa^tr 

Droysen (1O39); iytypi^i Devarius, Oiiid. 

I ?•■ 6. lrurToXi)vl lee Dote on recent case in which Demosth. had op- 

§ 73*. posed him, wilhoiit alluding (o some 

g 79. 3. tn...iwtr afrroS: this im- disgrweliil acl of his own. 

plies that Philip could not speak of any 4. A y' lypB^n- : this absolutely 




S yap €l)(6fn}v ^q> koX towtois ■^vavrtovii'ijv. koX wp^Tov (iJev i 
rqv ii% Tlekoir6vvy)iTov •ape.o'^ta.v Hypa^a., ore irpStrov iKeivo<; 
<ts ncXojroioT/croi' irapeSvero, etra Tf)v eU Ev^otav, tji'ik' 
Ev0oia^ ■^'TTrero, etra rtfv hr ^Upeov efoSoi/, ovKeri TTpea-^eCav, 
Kol Tr)p «i; 'Kperpiav, ^irctS^ rvpamfov^ iKeivo^ iv ravrais 
80 TCtts TToXetrt. Koreonjo-ec /icra ravra S« tous awooTokov^ 
awaPTa^ aweimiXa, Koff m)% ^€pp6vr)(T0% €(Tto6r) Kai to 
Bv^at^iof Koi iravreq ol <Tvp,p.a)(oi,. i^ tov vp2v pxv to. 
KaWurra, hrtxivot,, h6^<u,, ort^avoi, yapi/n^ irapa 

STotv c5 weirovBoTotv virrjp^ov tS>v 8* aZiKOVnivtav rots /*^ 
vpXv Tore mto'dela'Lv r/ <Ta>ni)pCa nepieyeveTo, T0t5 S' oXiyo- 
pyja-aa-i to iroXKaKK &v v/iec; ir/JoetTrarc p,efivi}<rdai koX 
vofiXCetv vfi.a^ p-Tf povov evvov$ eavTol^ aXka Kal (f>povipov^ 
av0p^wov% KOX pdprei^ etvai' iravTa yap fK^iprfKiv a, 

8. "tVvAi. 

g BO. 1. furi SI raCn £', Al ; furi ToOra M X (corr.), vnlg. t. rdrrCT 

Ai. T* Bur. 2, L, Ai {cf. % Ti"): t4 om. vulg. 3. ni* iiur V6. 

5. {nr^xor 2, L', Ai ; fy(>».>*ro L* (over iirflpx"), vnlg, 6. iii^ V6. 
8. ^ain-ait £ (line throu^ J), L, A:, i; ctfiroii B, vulg. 

certain but long neglected 
Droysen (1839), hardly an emendation, 
is now generally adopted for the im- 
possible yiypa^tr or yiyfia^ of the 
MSS. Othen read iyrypi^t : see G. H. 
Kchaefet'a note (Appai. Ciit. et Exeg.)' 

5. ilx^Jiil*, elung te, fellmutd up 

6. i.\ IItXo«4vvi|(rov : probably the 
embassy of .144, on which Demosth. made 
the siieech to the Messenians and Argives 
which he quotes in the Second Philippic, 
iO— 35. This agrees better with 3re 
rpdrf raptiiera than Ihc later embassy 
mentioned in the Third Philippic 71. 
See Isoc. v. 74, and Hist. S3 .(i, jj. 

7. vofMSWra, Kwj vvrting his tuay, 
stealing in : cf. rapiiv, KXll. 4B. — nji" 
«lt Eepaiav (sc. rptaPtlar) : this was 
sent in 343—3+1 B.C., when Philip was 
establishing the tyrannies at Eretria and 

8. T^ tw' 'nffiv...'Ep>rpCBV: ttieie 
are the two military expeditions to Eu- 

boea in 341 h.c, by which the two 
tyrannies in Oreus and Eretria were 
suppressed, the tyrants Philistides and 
ClitaichuE were killed, and the whole 
island was left free from Philip's infliiencc. 
See Hial. g 64. 

9 BO. I. ^irotrrdXiwi : the oralnrs use 
iriirraXat, properly 1 mtisfagtr (N. Test. 
afiulle), for a naval arniameat: cf. iMTre 
itiml Kpor^irBt ^\Btr Sr Tore tr6\tf, olh-e 
Ttfn *r.\.. VI. 36. 

1. &«4aniXa : properly used with 
dr«rrdXavi, / lail aiit (by my decrees): 
cf. rpti^tlar typa^. g 79'. — Xippiv^nt 

■■■•^IM»X«*' »" S 87—89, 140, 141. 

4. f'nu*oi...xi[piTii: the decrees con- 
ferring these grateful rewards on Athens 
were read afier % 89. 

6. ToEi G' jXjiY''P^<'^urL : this refers 
to the Peloponnesians who n^lecled the 
advice of Demosthenes in 344 B.C. (g 79*) 
and later [ix. 17, 34), and to the early 
refusal of Oreug and Eretria to listen to 
Athens (IX. S7. 66, 68). 



irpoeiTrare. koX firjv ort ttoXXo fiev S,v j(pjjft.aT' iBtoxe 81 

€)(€tv 'EperpuLv, 7roX.X.a. 8' auros 6 OiXwrjro? tuorc ravS" 
virap\eiv e<^' vfias avr^ «ai irc^t Toix' aXXtuv fJirjSky e'fcXey- 
■)(ta-$tu, /tTjS' a TTOiwi/ '^SiKci firf&at' cfeTa^eii' irovra^jfoil, 5 
ovScl; dyi/oei, ^al Traj^tuf ijKioTa <rv- oi yap irapa tov 82 
K\eLTdpj(ov KoX Tov ^iXurriBov totc irpda-^fi^ Bevp' a^iKvo-v- 
pL€voi. TTapa <Tol KariXvov, A.i<r)(tvrf, koX <rv vpov^ivti^ avrotv 
0&5 17 fikv 7rd\i5 (is e)(0pov'i kol oiiTc SiKaia ovrc a~vti<f>epovTa 
XeyopTai; a.TnjXatrei', ffoi S' -^a-av <f)i\oi. oi toluvv hrpdyByi 5 
TOVTOiV oioev, Z ^Xaa-tfyrffiav irepl ifiov xal \eyoiv ok; cnanrw 
'53 fi€v Xaj8cui/ ;8o£ 8' dfaA.u<ra;. dXX' ov <tv, dXAd /3o^ /ici' 
€)(<ov, iravirci Se ovSeiror iav p/tj ere 0^01 TtavcoMrtv aripd- 

10. TpMfTOTC £, L' ; rpotb 
SBl. I. &» um. Ai. 
2; a6T<f L, volg. ; nuTyj Bk. 

Tt airci'i L', vulg. 

. (i/HU** ((overoi) Z (cf.87:*'). 4. auTm 

iMyxiaSiu Ai, V. 

3. AioxW om. Y. J. AiHi\aatr 2, 

7. vA 2 ; ffi -ft L, vulg. Ij. raivti £, L ; 

*n>ui<rn»T« O' (d Corr. to w, yp). 

% al. 3. fio-n -nM' imtpxMV, Ma< 

i^ m/j*/ have Ikese (the two towns under 
the two tyranls) to dtfttut on. i.e. as ^w^- 
rttxiana-To. itl ri)»*ATT<tiir (g 71). 

4. liifSlv 4tiUyx<ff4u (sc. sabj. a-b- 
rbr) : cf. the «:tLve conslr. in Plat. Ap. 
13 A, £ Of dAXov j{iU7{a>. 

;. varrax'S, ariyvihere: cT. «i£i^«r, 
I 5*- 

6. wdvTBv ^KLTTn v^: asudden oul- 
burac of personal it}'. 

I aa. 1. d^uc*ov|uy«i.,.i[aTA.iM)'; 
the tenses imply that luch envoys oF the 
tyrantB were regular gucKts of Aeschines. 
These viwls were probably connected 
*ith the embassy sent by Callias of 
Chains to Athens in 343— 3+« B.C. lo 
negotiate a treaty (Aesch. [II. gtj, which 
alarmed the tyrants. See Ht!t. <{ $S. and 
Schaefer 11. 410, 411. 

3. kotAim*. Iedg>!d(i£ -nefAy palup), 
lit. Ul dewn, originally Hji^dTH/Jifrf; cf. 
Od. IV. 38, Ka,r<iMiioiixt iiKita Xrrovt. — 
• w f irt fjh iait aMiir,jiBu were their trp^m : 

this might be metaphorical ; but there is 
good reason for thinking that Aeschines 
was the official representative at Athens 
of Oreas. if not of Erelria. See Hist. 
g 39, note on Aesch. 11. 89, rpaitvlas 

■. dwijXoffw, rtjccttJ {i.e. their pro- 
posals). Cf. 11.6, IX, 1)6. — oi Totvw... 
oMlv : i.e. nethiHg ef the kind vias ever 
suieessful viitk me, referring lo iroXXA iiir 
ft* xMm"tb tiaKc jf.T.X. in 3 81. 

6. ^t otim* ivoXilvnt : quoted 

from memory from the speech of Aesch. 
(118), ah V aliuu Xafiiir fUt inirlyt,Kat, 
itaXtiaat St xiKpa-jaf. 

7. Po^s ^X"*: y"' ^"P "" '/iBuHng: 
cf. Ar. Nub. 509, H nwrriiftit txar; 
(M.T. 8j7). 

8. TfttwrtL . ■ . noAtrwny, you Jvi/I not 
ttofi uitleis these jiiiigei slap you. — Li^f^ 
vnvTfi, i.e. by not giving you a fifth of 
their votes, the result of which would he 
the partial iniiia ai losing the right to 
bring a nimitar suit hereafter, with a line 




88 (Torres nj/tepof. arc'JMtvata'a.vTav tmvw v/jmv ifi iwl tov- 
rois Tore, Kal ypd^avTO^ ^ApuTTOviKov tos avras (rvXXa/3a9 
MTwep ovToa-l Krr)a-t<f>atv vw yeypa^>€i', xat avapprjdcvro^ 
iv T^J Otdrptp TOW (TTtiftdvov, — xal Sevrepov $CT}pvyp.aTO^ 
5 "^Stj /m>i toutov ytrfvopxvQV, — ovr' dvTfvirev Aur)(Cvyf^ irapitv 
ovTc TOP elwovT iypai{iaTo. Kcu juot Xey« »cai toOto to 


84 ['Eiri XotfjuvSov 'H'yjJ/toi'Of ap;^oi'T09, 7a/:i.i7\icdi'Ot fteri; awiov- 

Tos, ^uX^f 71-/7 irravefoijo'i)? Aeoi^t'Sos, 'ApwTdc(«o5 ^pedppio^ elrrev, 

eVeiS^ ^■r{ft,oir$ivi}v AijfunrSevov^ Xlatavuir^ iroXXa; xal fieydXav 

Xpeiat ■7rapiiT](i}Tai t^ £17^ rp 'Aflijvaiwi' «ai woXXot? twh 

5 <rvfifia'}^mv Kai irporepov, <al iv rip -rrapavri Kaip^ ^e^oijdr}K€ Sta 

tSiv i^ift^urfiaTioi', xai rira; toiv iv t^ Eirfioia iroKemv ^XevOipaoKe, 

Kol SuiTeket eHvov^ wv rip Sijfup rp 'ABTjvalav, xal Xeyei Kal irpaTTei 

5 Tt &v hiivijTai dyaOov virep re air&v 'Affrfvalav Kat twv aXXav 

'EXXiji'SDv, heh6\6ai rS /Soi/Xp xal t^ B^/t^ t^ ^Afftivatav ivat- 

10 vevai AT)/j,o<T0€vt}v AiffioaSevou^ \laiavUa leai tTre^avwffiu ■)(fiviT^ 

9. T^iupof rtpi ri ^^fia O. 

i 99. 3. yiypa^ tBr Ai. 4. Tirifircv (for Staripov) Spengel. ■;■ frra- 

fi/ftir Ai. irtUtr 1' (r above (he line). 6. rir arr cirwra £; irrti- 

irirm h, F (7p), ♦ [yp); irri rirra Aj. «ai (brf. TtSro) Ora. Ai, B. touto 

corr. for rwireir £. 

result of this (rial. 

This was actually the 

the two decrees were essentialJy identical 
in Sotw. In g 113 he says or a later 
decree, ri» Btrdr (ruXXa;84i cat TofrA 
^/uiTs fx'*- £ven this does not include 
such details as dates, names, etc. 

4. h T^ (mCtpv : this anticipates th« 
argument on the place of proclamation 
(SS 110, iti)> »"<! gives a precedent for 
Ctesiphon's propo5al.-^nrrJpBv..,TafrToii 
yvfYCfinn : Tt>i>TOU is here ambiguous, 
and West, and Bl. thinlt it is corrupt. 
If we refer the words to Ctesiphon's 
decree (with Blass, who omits To&niv), 
assuming that the crown proposed by 
Demomeles and Hyperides in 33B was 
never [voclaimed on account of the battle 
of Chaerooea, we cannot explain ri nV 

Xdiit a&rii (m^arOaftu in g iio'. We 
must thereloie refer rorfrou to the proposal 
of Arislonicus, and understand the clause 
SfUTipm...yiywo//drov to mean that one 
crown had been given to Demosth. in 
the theatre before that of Artstonicvs. 
yiyra/iireu ii imperfect, and we might 
have bad Se&Ttpar tiipuyiui IjBii fwi ro5re 
iylyrm, the imperf. implying that he 
mai that rtttiving the distinction for the 
second time. In the Lives of the Ten 
Orators (Demosth., end) Aristonicus is 
said to have been the lirst to propose to 
crown the orator: but the writer may 
have interpreted mdnw in our pasnge 
wrongly. No solution of the difficulty ii 
perfectly satisfactory: Spengei proposes 
to emend itvttpov to rrrd^w (i.e. J']. 

J. wnflv, Humgh prtiSHl. 

6. htx^^o: 


nEPt TOY rrE*ANOY 6i 

are^v^, Koi avayoptwTiu rip cri^avov iv r^ Bearptp Aiovvaioi^, 
Tptvf^&OK Katvoh, TTJ^ hi dvarfoptvaeto^ rov trrt^avav ^tiie\i}07jyiu 
'54 '^h'" irpvravevovtrav tfn/Ki]v iai rou dywvodirrfv. etirev 'ApurroviKOi 
6 ^pedpptot.] 

'EiOTiv otiv o<rTis vfjMv ot84 rwa aLcrj(yvr)v rg iroXei 86 
(rv/ifiaa-av 8ta tovto rh ^Ir^tfuo-fia ^ x\eva<rfihv ^ yeXwra, 
a vvv ovTof i<f>7] (TV^jSifo'ecr^ai &f eyit trre<f>ai'Wfiai ; xaX 
fLTfv orav J) via Kai, Yvapifia ircuri Ta irpdyfiaTa, idv re 
KoXw fXV' X**/'""*" Tvyj^difi, idv & ats erep^s, TifiwpCas. 5 
(fKuvofiiu Toiwv iyo) x'^P'-'^^^ TervyyjKm Tore, koX ov fUfi.*li€(iK 
ovSe Tip.wpia.'i. 

OvKovv li^xP'' Z*^*" ™'' 'XP^'""^ ixiCvaiv Iv oX% ravr' 86 
eTrpd^Br), irdvr' dv(ttfio\6YT}fiai to apurra, irparretv rg iroXet, 
T^ vi,kS.v or e^ov\ev€(r0e \eytuv koX ypdt^atv, t^ Karairpa- 

SSS. I. rSv6\timiifiS^arZ,h,At,\;trviifi-rSwi\.B,vii]g. 3. ^i 

O'. Sr 2, L. V6; tbr vulg. 6. rire (corr. for ?) r. 

% ■«. 4. r^mt ifuiaiK. rait XP^**"' ^ {yp)i L, valg.; rote xp^rovt om. Z; 
rtrr' (for idiTai) West., Lips., wirnti Dobr., V5m. wpimir «al X^«» 

2 (tp). ♦ (yp)- 

i SB. 9. •ii|riParBC = Ari wri^ : and w« teem Compelled to dedde be- 
ef, ^abuniat TCTOTciiiin (6)< tween the conjeclures rirr' utd rirrai. 

3. I^ii) gT»(L p ii mu l m : seeAesch.tsi, V/viutve wirrut iffriftu' in J is^*, ACC 

Btw rir TOtouTOii trSpurai BTt^arwTi', to Preuss (Index) Ihe only case of idrrtM 

oiK »Ua9t it raff tu» 'E\XTi»«r JKfuf in Demoalh. This would connect rv 

o-v^TTwdoi ; ruu etc. more closely with dru/wU- 

j. ^ li 4pn t , otkermiit, in Iht olhrr yuiAi ; but rirra t& ifum makes a, 

leajr (opposed to «oXa»), used to avoid most natural object to w-pdrrei*.— wpd-r- 

(uui. This is the adv«b of ri trtpai, ™w is imperfect (for fvparrw). On the 

as CMniruf (ui aJhtn) of ri afri, and ui contrary, rucif, i:araT/>a^0i7Tai, and 7*- 

dXqfwt of ri dXijWi. We find also lin rArAu are distinguished only like ordinary 

troiutt, Aeschyl. Sum. 534, 1^ iniriiiiin, present and aorist infinitives (M.T. 87, 

Soph. El. 1451 i and in rtpa.r\iiitltn, 96). This is always the case with these 

HdU VII. 119'. This is the eiploDation tenses of the infinitive with the article, 

of Fox, Kranzrede, pp. 19B, i99i in except in occasional examples of traiie 

which West, and B!. concur. See xxii. abUqua (M.T. 794). Madvig's rule (Synl. 

II, LfoSi. % Birtpa, I>a /n|Ui- tlra g 171 j), that the aor. infin. with both 

ftticSifar, which shows the cuphemislic the article and a subject is always past 

character of ia M/mn here. except in purpose clauses, cannot be 

I a«. 3. -Kirt' ...wpimvt, lAal I mainlained. It fails in g 33', rpi rnO 

did tverylhing that was ieii. It is diflS- TDi>t tuxiat droUirAiu, and in Thuc. vtl. 

cult to choose even the most probable 6S»-" (ri irtXStlr and ri xtAove^u). 

reading here. Both rirrat (X) and rcrw^Sat (6) Is the regular perfect (M.T. 

rdrru rods xp^'^ "^ objectionable, loi, 109)- 



;^^i'ai TO ypatf>evTa Koi aT€if>avov% ef avr<i>i' t^ irdXei leai 

5 ifiol Kol iraaw yeveaBat, tw $v<rta^ toIs deoU Kal TrpocriiSovs 

&»s ayadStv rovrotv ovrtov vfia^ vewoLTja-dai.. 

B7 'EttciS^ Tolwv CK r^5 EvjSoia; o <t>iXi7nros u^' vfimv 

i^hi07), — 7045 fifv 07rXoi9, rp Sc woXirei^ Kai rots }jrr)if>t- 

(riiatrt, k&v Siappaywiri rtves rovriav, vw' ifwv, — ercpov 

Kara t^s ttoXcois ^7rtTeij(io'/to»' ^£tJt«. o^wf S' ori cCt^ 

S iraiTCKw avffpiovoiv n\eiaTti> ■)(p(op.€&' eireicraKT^, ^ouXoficvos 

T^s o-iToiro/iTTias Kvpio'i y€V€<rBat, vaptkBotv eiri ^p^jcr)^ 

Bvl^avTiovi, crvfifjMj^ov^ ovrat avraJ, to /iev irpSnov Tj^iov 

J. roffv 2, L' , A I ; roinr £fu> vulg. 'y'"'^ Ai. roit (oft lAec Tpori- 

Jiwi Ai. 6. lii urn. L'. 

g 87> I. f<^' ^/Mc (corr. (or i^r, Vom.) ^{ifXdfti r«( iUt Swkoa (&^' £/Uir 
added later over iwXwil S (i>*' ^<uif dotted for erasure); i^' i/uar if^X. rati 
/I. JlirXwt L, same w. li^y vitSi* Ai, in bott> i^^' i^^iur added alter SwKut; liip' li/tur 
liir iiii\- r. Bi-\. Y ; JfijX. r«f ft^ JrX. iiip' i/iir A I , B, vulg. 6. fftroTg^rlat 

Z, L, V, F, *. Al. t; aiTortuwdat vulg. 7. /Wat ouwi' V6. oftyv L, 

vulg.; avTdK S, ai>TJ> Bk. 

4. Til -Ypa^^fv = <! Crpo^; see note 
on % 56*. — ml Ipl Kal toviv repeats the 
idea of Tj ri\n. 

5. ■wp<iva<nt, firiK/isieHs: cf. 9 irS*. 
g B7. 1. TDlf ^ SvXoH, / miaM, by 

aims, added, as if by afterthoughl, to 
limit inti iiitwi, as mXtrcl? and •pit^ruavt 
limit ^' (fuu. The interruption is col- 
loquial and designedly spontaneous. See 
note on § lai', rur S' A^aipuv liip^. 

3. kS.v ^MffOfmn: seegii''. 

4. iTLTuxurfidv, i.e. Byzantium, as a 
point from which to threii,len Athens : 
see note on g ;i'.— irirf twtvr6x.Tf: the 
same words are found in xx. 31, where 
it is said that the grain from the Euxine 
was about half of the whole amount im- 
ported by Athens. See Sandys's notes 
on XX. 31^33. The thin soil of Attica 
(ri Xfrrbytur, Thuc. I. 1) could not 
supply grain enough for the population, 
even in the best seasons, and the fruitful 
shores of the Euxine were the most im- 
portant sources of supply. Hence it 
would have been fatal to Athens to have 
the Hellespont and the Bosporus in 
hostile hands <cf. S§ 141, 301). Boeckh 
estimates the grain annually consumed 

in Attica at about 3,400,000 /iMi^vot 
(5,100,000 bushels), of which only 
1,400,000 lUStiuHn could be raised at 
home. See Slaatsh. d. Ath. Book 1. Ch. 
15. Strabo (p. Dii) says that in the 
Tauric Chersonese (the Crimea) the seed 
produced thirty-fold. See Hdt. vn. 147 
for the characteristic story of Xerxes 
complacently viewing the ships leaded 
with grain sailing by Abydos to Aegina 
and Peloponnesus to supply his army. 

6. mLpAMi* hrl 6p4")* ' '*>'' P'°'>- 
ably refers to the advance of Philip to 
the siege of Perinthus in 340, when be 
protected his fleet in its passage through 
the Hellespont by marching an army 
through the Chersonese, The appeal lo 
Byiantiam, as an ally, to help him in hia 
coming war with Athens was perhaps 
sent from Perinthus, which he besieged 
unsuccessfully before he attacked Byun- 
tiam. Sec Hist. H 66, 67. Threats of 
hostilities against Byzantium by Philip 
are mentioned a year earlier (see Vlii. 66, 
JX. 3j); but the present passage must 
refer to the time immediately before the 
war with Athens. 

7. BattUTfavi : with both ^iaa and 




crvfJiiroke/ieLt' top npo^ v/ia; iroXe/ioi', a>s 8' ovk rj$t\.ov oiiB' 
ciri TOUTOts c^cav njv avfi-ftaylav w€irot^a-6ai, Xeyoi^es 
dXij^, ^dpaxa /3aXo/i«^s w/ws t^ iroXei. Kal ixtjjfavijfjM.T' to 
ciriOTJjcas ^iroXid/j(cei. tovtwv Se ytyvo/t^i'wi' o Tt /icv 88 
irpo<r^K€ irotelp vfiat, ovk i'jrep<aTi}{rof h'ijkov yap itTTiv 
ass airacriv. oXXa tis 'iji' 6 0or)07J<ra^ rots Bu^oi^iots koi 
o'tucrav avTovs; Tis o KOiXvo'as tov EXXijiTTroiTOi' aXXoT^wu- 
drjvai. Kar ixeCvov; tous ^^/mSvous ; vfiei^, avSpet 'AdyjvaToi. 5 
TO S' v/iei? orac X^w, rrfv ttoXw Xeyoi. Tis B' 6 rg iroXei 
Xeyoiv KoX ypd4»av koX irpdmnp Koi OTrXws eavritv eis to. 
■iTpa.yp.aT a(f>eiBw SiSous; eyw. aXXa fiifv rf\tKa toOt* 89 
oi<f>€\y]a-ev ajravTa^, ovk€t' ix row X<}you Set pM,dav, oXX' 
€/)')'^ TTCTTapaa-Oe- 6 yap totc cvoras iroXe/i05 av€v tow 

(c*i for c. 


i ••. 1. TpoirflKf vulg. ; irpoinJit« 2, L. i/iat S, L, Ai. *; wii vulg. 

ofK /vqiwr^fTu Z, L, Ai, 4> (7p)i silii^' ^pur^tfu vulg. 4. draWor/udit)^! Ai. 

5. w iiSpa »ulg- ; « oni. 2, L. 6. Jra* W7W 2, L; flrar rfTOi vulg. 7. ofrrto 
V6. S. ioii S, L, vulg., Bk.; iiie6t Ai, mosi «dd. 

_J 8». 1. bMt- 2, L, Ai; oiK vulg. toC X4>ou H, L, Ai; XSyw vulg. 

5ti om. O. ;ui0«lk' Cvisi Al. 

iwoi^bpat (11). — njifiAX'*'!- aflei By- 
zBuduin left the Athenian alliance in the 
Social war, she became an ally of Philip 
(XV. 3, IX. 3s]. But now she had been 
brooght into Triendship and alliance with 
Alheni by the skcilful diplomacy of De- 
mosthenes before Philip's appeal to her 
for help (Hist. 363). 

3. aihc ffiAtM oM' l^ovuv, rtfused 
and dinieii. 

10. ]i<(paxa, tiexe a falisoiU, generally 
a pale or foUi see Harpocr. x^P^^a' 

XwT-i Ti»(i VTpoTcrwiiif iwl iramipif. See 
VI. 13, x^P"^/"To itoi Ttlxn uttl rd^poi. 
— |*iIX"'^I''>t' iirurnjini.* : cf. IX. 17, 
go. The si^e of Byzantium marks an 
epoch in engines of war: sec Scbaefer 11. 

g SS. I. f n vpori^Kt : the question 
already asked in §| 63, 66. 69, 71. 

t. o^ hnpmT^trm, I viii nvt rtptat 

the qiuilien : the common reading ofrfr' 

iptrHfiu gives nearly the same sense. 

3. tI* ^v i ^oTi^rat; like who was 
the SHI whe did it 1 (M.T. 41). 

7. Xtym . . . SiSovt ; these participles 
ate imperfect, and so contrasted with the 
preceding ffwiB^at etc Few editois 
venture to accept S<i6t for iiinit, though 
it is supported by £ and L. Vomel says : 
" Nee puto Demoslhenis aures tolerasse 
conlinuatas ayllabas— ii3i !oi>i. Sed in 
tfllibus nihil affinnarim." The aorisl 
Suit after the preceding imperfects would 
doubtless odd force, like di fSwn for It 
iSiSav. But how al>out the sound ? 

g av. «. Ik toO Uyoo, in the familiar 
antithesis to fpyif, 

3. i JwT^, ivAich broke gut (*» M' 
ar<i\\ cf. itnajifefL, -was upon us, % tj")". 
— dvev, besides {without rectaning) : cf. 
{xiii.J 7, dvtu T»D cvfi^ptir, and xxiii. 




KoXrjv So^W iveyKew h> vaxri toi5 Kara rhv fiiov a^Bovtari- 

5 poll KoX evaivorepots Berj-yev v/jms r^9 vvv exfyqvi)^, ■^v oStol 

Kara 1^5 irarpiBo'i rrfpovtriv oi j(pr)(rrol iirl TaT? fieWovcaK 

w*' aiiTol ■7rpoypT}VTai.. Xeye S* avrois Kal tov^ tIov Bv^twrLav 
10 <rTe<f>a.vovi koI tous to)!' UeptvOCtov, ot; itrrt^ayovv ix Tovrtav 
TT^v itoKlv. 

t t\ fofik iimBaii 

Biljyir S, 1^; SiiiyarfO' vulg. in&t j\i]g,; 4*<atAi. 

■at fifl-dirxaKr £, L; nJ ntj /urdrxo"'' vulg. 

■ u>S, LrtDveri-); Vi> B, F(6 

■r (in both) mo. vulg. 

TO*f nJi- Buf. 2, L, 1 

r Ilt/i. sune, with F, #; 

4. b na-i,..liiii'yn' ■)>•>*. -xn" jv 
tmppSfd (cartitd jnm thrimxk) toith ail 
tht ntcesaaria ef lift itt greater idmallaHii 
and deafer. 

J/nv (SchoL), the peace of Demades, 
under which Athens had been living since 
Chaeronea. — ^^'--^^IP^''^*'- '^' Mace- 
donian party had been sirong enough to 
prevent Athens from openljr helping 
Thebea in her revolt in 335 B.C., or the 
Peloponnesisni undec Agis in 330. See 
Grote XII. 44, 59 ; 380—383- 

6. XP^I*'""*^' '^^' '^' larcastic xfifrri, 
i 318*.— till... IXirfinv, I'M (with ■ view 
to) lAeir hofies ef future gain: Arffgwri 
74^ twariKiiirra, t4» ■AX(f d»8po» dri rfl* 
'RtpaSm piri&M rnVT-cHt yifi^^tBwk in rpo- 
Mnuf (Scfaol.). 

7, 8. Hal |Mr(l«x«*"'., .|<f^ twroBsCar; 
this reading of 2 gives an entirely different 
sense from that of the common text, cal 
ji\ )UTiff%iiio ...iiiftk iirraBBiir. The 
meaning is, Jffay they fail in Ihest Ikeir 
hepes ; and may they rather be allaved It 
share wilk you patriots in the bUsiingi 
far wiieh you fray, that they may not 
involve you in Ikt calamities wkith Itwald 
result from Ikeir policy. It is impossible, 
I think, to take it^ ^urajotn' as a mere 
continuation of the wish of iirriax'^"' • 
the asyndeton would be too hardl. Mi) 
ItertMtei must be a final clause, assimi- 
lated to the optative lariaxtitr (M.l'. 
iSi), as in t\9in Sren yhain \vr^piat. 

Aeschyl. Eum. 397, and ■fifotTD...b!' al 
Mi;ifl»ai yroitr. Soph. Phil. 314. For 
II linal optatives and 10 subjunctives 
afier wishing optatives (all poetic) se« 
M.T. iSi. I know no other case in 
prose ; hut I know no other final clanse 
(of any kind) depending on a wishing 
optative in prose,wfaic)) it hardly strange. 
But an optative in a condition is as good 
for our purpose as one in a wish ; and we 
have in Plato Rep. 370 D, tl piKili>.tnt 
rpooBei/Atr, &a...f>:<ii'' poOi, and Xen. 
Cyr. I. 6, 11, tl riiaaa twenrtr ai irA- 
\9it, !rut 3i{ai> Xi^wt ; see other cases 
in M.T. 180''. M4 introducing a pure 
finsJ clause is a gradually disappearing 
construction. In epic and lyric poetry 
the proportion of thii to that of the final 
particles with n^i is 131 : 50; in tragedy 
it is 76 : sg; and in Attic prose it is 
almost wholly confined to Plato (14) and 
Xenophon (n). In the Attic orators 
there are only four cases of simple fi4> 
two of which (not counting the present 
one) are in Demosthenes: see xix. S15, 
a4 rtf tS-g, and xxxviii. 16, ^1) /u ^Smr. 
See Weber, Absichtssiltze, pp. 184, 111, 
I45 — 147. Those who are not satisfied 
with lii) lUTttSettr in this sense mutt re- 
turn to lafii furaloifr as a wish. 

9. J* a4T«l Tpojpip^at, i.e. their 
TfUHlpccrii : rifi SevXilat B^Jmrin (Schol.). 
— ToOi...II<pii4(«i', i.e. the crowns voted 
by these towns and sent to Athens as 
marks of honour. 




["E^t iepofivafiovo^ RoffwopL'^m AaftayriTo^ iv t^ eiKia eKe^ev, 90 
4k Tas ^teiKw XojSwi' pdrpav, eireiSt) 6 Safto^ 6 ^A0ai>aiav ev re 
TOK irptr/eyevafiivoiv xatpoK tuvoewv htaTfXeei Bv^oitiok koI toi; 
irvfi/idxoiv KoX ffvyyevetri flepivdtoK ical iroWd^ /cat fieyoKa^ 
■)(p4iat; trapea^riTaL, Iv re t^ irapetrraieori Kaip^ ^iKiirira r£ 5 
MaKeSovoi; €TTitrTpar€v<favTo<; evl ran ympav koX tov itoKiv eir 
356 afao-rdtTet Bv^avritev xai Htpii/Biatp leal rdv X'^P'^" Satorro? Kol 
SevBpoKOireovTO'!, ^o^d^aw; •jr\oLoi<; ixarov koI etKotri xal vittp k«u, 
/ScXeo-i KM oirXiraK sfeiXero dp.i eK TtSi- fieydXav KivSvvav xal 
dtroKareinaae tov TraTptov •n'oXtTtiav Koi r^f vop^K Kat TWf 10 
T<i0Q)f, BeBoxSai 1*^ Bdft.<p t^ hv^atrrioaP koI Yleptvfflap 'A0avaioi^ ftl 
Sofitp eirtrfap,Lav, iraXtTeiaf, eyxTaffiv yai koI otxiop, vpoeBpiav ev 
TOK drfmvt, TToOoBap ttotI toij ^aiKav Kctt top Bafu>v trpdroK /Mra 
Ta Upd, leal roii learotKeeip eOeKovai rdv iroXti' dXeirovpyqrots 
^fiev vavop t&p Xeirovpytav trratrat Bk koI flxopa^ rpeh iKxatSe- 5 
Kairdx^K (P t£ ^mropeuf, are^opovfiepop toi/ BShop top 'Adapairop 
inro TtS Sdpa> rw Bv^l'airrt'&if xal TlepivOiav dTrofrreiXeu Be xal 
Oeapiav c; ra! ev to, EXXoSc iravarfvpia';, '\a8pta Koi t^ip^a xal 
'0\vfi!7ria xal Iltidia, Koi avaxapO^ai T(U9 trre^dpwv ol; e<ne^dv(o- 
Tat 6 BdfMK 6 'A6avaitDp 60' ripiuv, Sttw? eTrurTkrePTai oi'^i^Xavet 10 
rap re ^A$avaUop dperdv xal rdv Bufaj/riojc koX Tl^piv0Ca>p evxo-' 

Aeye Koi tovs vapa rSiV iv Xeppov^vto orei^i'ovs. 93 


[XeppopfftrtTUP oi xaTQixoupret SijffToi', 'EXeoui^o, MaSwrou, 
' ATiMvexopprfffop, trreipavovffiv 'A0i}paia>p rrjp fiovXijp xai Toy 
Bfjfiop j(pviT^ aTetfiiivip aTTo ToKaPTotv i^ijxovra, xal j^a/WTo? ffiapMp 5 
iSptioprai xai B^fiov ' Affijpaioiv, Sri irdpratv fitjitrrav dfYa0tap 
irapairto<! yiyove "Xtppovrjairai^, e^e'X.ofievo'; ex t^9 ^tXimrov xal 
^57 dvoBovv Ta? irarptBat, Toiit vopow;, t^p eKev0epia.p, rd iepd. xal 
fp T^ p.erd Taura aluvt navrl ovx eXXei-^et evx^ptfraip xal rrottSv 
5 rt &v Svviirai dya06v. ravra h^rt^aavro ip t^j koiv^ ffov-'io 

g SS, I. \iyt.,,aTt^aroutom. O. 





B3 OwKow ov fxovov to X€pp6p7}<rov koX Bu{a»^M)i' (rw<Tai, 
ouSc TO KuXvcrai toc "EXXiJoTroiTOf wo <I»iXiinry y€t4<rdtu. 
TOT«, owSe TO TLfiaaOai t^v iroKiv ^k tovtoiv ■^ vpocUpetri^ 17 
€/t^ ical 17 iroXtreui Si£vpd$aTo, aXka koX tratriv e&et^ev 
5 ap$ptoiroK rqv re t^5 irdXews KakoKayaBiav koX tt^v 4>tXiinroi> 
KaKiai'. o /i^ yap <rvp.p.axo% tov tok Bv^avrioi^ TroXtopKoiv 
auTOvs eatpoTO viro irdvrav, o5 ti yevoir &v aio^wv ^ 

S^ piapaT€pov ; v/xci; S', ot kcu fiepApap-evot iroXXa ical Sixat' 
iv eK«i(«>i.? €iicoT(i»s vepl <5v ^y^'oifioi^Keo-ai/ «w v/ia$ iv 
TOis tpirpofrdtv )(p6voi'i, ov p.6vov ov ptnja-iKaKovtne^ ovSe 
npoU/iivoi T0U9 oBiKOvp-evov^ aXXa #cal o-qI^ovtc? i<f>tuv€iT0€, 
5 e^ wv Sdfai', evi'oiai/ napa. wavrcov eKraa-de. Kal p-qv ort 
/lec TToXXous ecm^av<i>Kar ijBr] tuv ttoXltcvo/^cvcui' ajravres 
lo-otn- St' ovTo/a S' aXXov 17 vq\i% iaTf<f><iy<iiTai„ (rvp,^ovXov 
Xcyai Kal prffTopo., TtKipi Si' ^^, ouS' a,v ets eiirei*' ^ot. 

3 •». 4, 5. n«{cr drffp. £, L, Ai, Y, t; irBf. lltift vulg. 6. fijr yip 

I, L', As, B (7p) ; ^ 7« S lyp). L', vulg. iiiwiaxiii t3» 2, L', A» ; *IX.»ro laU 

over irtiwuixat L'; 4>iXot ml ain/iaxai ^f Z (7^), vulg. ; ^Xoi fair (at o^/ifuxot 
Ai. 7. (bI ifor ■{) Ai, Vfi. 

S94. 5. «{«. (llFHa* vulg.. Lips., BI.; (wilh comma) Vom., West.; *if««U 
rUrma* only i], Bk. ; S6(a* iiV«» n/iJir Ai. 6. lUn tdXXoi)! £, L, Ai ; xoW. 

fLir vulg. mXircuoii/iiiiit 2, L, B, vulg. ; TiwoXtTtviUnar F. (Eirarrei >d<l. 

over line 2. 8. Xiyv om. Yi. 

g 88. 1. ouKder introduces the con- 
clusion to which (he decrees point. 

1. »i» (sc. ^or) : cl. tiSt, S 1*. 

3. <H wpaalftm^ koX ■)) voXirtCa : cf. 
IS 391*, 317'. In 3 191' we have riir 
xpeaipMit riji »«XiTeiBi in nearly the 

6- o^ji+ioxo* A-: cf. g8;'. 

g 84. I. alf4fi^fxim£v = at i^/x- 
ifnaSt dr. — itoUul kkI ttKai' 4iiiCvott: 
cf. Ai. Plut. 8, Aofff tLtiLfui SutUaf 

I. ilv iJYwapjv^ nwTiv tli vfut : cf. 
oti (itnix^Miriv, g 18°. This refen 10 
the conducl of Byzanlium in the Social 

3. |un|rut(UCo4iiT«i : rtmimbtring eld 
gruc^ (maliciously) : cf. g 99^. See ftii 

liniaiKair/iatiw jn the oath of oblivion 
after the restoration in 403 B.C., Xen. 
H.n. n. 4, ,3. 

5. Ufa*, «<h>Mav: the asyndeton U 
more emphatic than Jifo* nut tInKcur: 
■ee gg 96^', 134', and XIX. 190 and no. 
(Sm Wml.l 

6. Ta* To\iTn>d|Mvm, your fublit 
mm : the other reading tujc rtwoKrrttr- 
lUruw might be neut. pass, (as in gg 8*, 
II*-') and causal. 

7. aii|ipouXoy...^Topa: Pbocion as 
general was probably one of the excep- 
tions here implied (West.); see xxil. 75, 
for the inscription on a crown at Athens, 
'Ki^otlt i\tv0tpa0irTtl imipiniaar- rit 
i^>w>, which Blass refers to the famous 
expedilion to Euboea under Timotheus 
in 3SJ B.C. See g 99*. 




'Iva Toiwv Koi ras fi\.aa-^ft.ia^ as Kara rSiv Evfioetav 96 
Koi Tav Bvl,avTio>v eiroi.i}<raTO, tl Ti Zv(r)(€pks avrois ewe- 
irpOKTO wpoi vfia.'i viroiJ.i.fiv^<rKo>v, (rvKo<l>avTia<; ovtra^ 
iiTioei^tn /i^ fioyov t&j i/ievSci; etfai (tovto fiiv yap v7rdp)(€Lv 
v/iAs ciSoTas ■^oC/xat), aXXa «oi T^, ei ra /iaXwT* ^o-av s 
dXifOel^, ovTOfi lis eyw Kexf^p^t tok irpdyiiaa-L <Tvp<^petv 
•)(f^a-a<r$ai., tv t] Svo /3ovXo/uu tSv xa^ vfia^ wevpayfiepotv 
258 KoXiiv r^ TToXei Ste^eXOetv, koX Tavr ec fipa\i<Tt,- Kaiydp 
ivSpa iSiy xai TToXii' koiv^ irpo^ to. Kakkitrra t(op vwap- 
■)(6vT<i>v act Set weipacrBai, ra XoiTra Trpdmiv. v/ieis roiwv, 96 
ai/S/jes 'AffijvoLOL, AoKeSatfioviav y^s koi ^aXoTTT^S a/)xo'^«'*' 

§ Oft. 5. fltirai (doited for ensure) under ijyoO^ai Z, same (tlSir<u erased) L. 
6. svii^pn V6. 7. U'^'^ Ai, O. lo. rtipatSai ri \Bixi S, L; ri, 

Xoiiri r«p. vulg. 

I •«. 1. SrSpn S, L; u ArV? vulg. 

H 90 — 101. Historical psraileU are 
cited to show that the considerate treat- 
ment of Euboea and Byzantium was in 
accordance with the traditional polic; of 

S Sft. I. Tcii pXiiD^niifat refera to 
the long tirade of Aeschines (ni. 8j — 93) 
against the proceedings in Euboea in 
341—340. There is nothing in the speech 
of Aesch., as it now stands, iclating to 
the help scat to Byzantium. 

a. Sw^iptt, utipliaiant, is a euphem- 
ism adapted to the changed state of 
feeling towards Euboea and Byzantium 
since 3+3. 

4. trw6f^twi ifa% ilSirat, that yeu 
may bt praunied la kiuna \ cf. g US'. 
This is not a mere expanded tliirai (as 
if (Ifu were used), but we have the 
fundamental idett of inripxa added ; see 
note on % i'. In line 9, tw* inaiixirTUt 
a.pplies to the glories of our ancestors as 
material stored up for us to emulate. 

J. Tf . . . <rv(i^pAV, like r^ ^(vj<(t 
expresses means. — A...i]a 

r«n/) : cf. 8 , 

(ulXiirra see § - 

7. Tf/i^raviv*, deal wtfA, tiutnagt. — 
Twv Kot' (|tH, o/lkt evmtt of your tinu, 
b^ioning with the Girioihian war of 

395 B.C. This war was now 6s years 
old ; but there were probably old men in 
the immense audience who distinctly re- 
membered it and who would be pleased to 
have it spoken of as in their day. Stiti, 
he feels that these earlier events hardly 
^1 within his limit of koS' iiiAt, for he 
says T^r rlirc 'kii\¥aiiia' in % 96', directly 
after jfilX^n-t dt 'A\laim>w, and ol i/ti- 
TtpM rp6yont, followed by inai ol rpia- 
pirtpm, in % 98*. 

9. dv8patS(9...irpdrmvi this belongs 
(ace. to BI.) to the class of yvwtuu discuss- 
ed by Aristotle, Khet. 11. 11, 15: txoivt 
S' (ttuI/uu) lit rolls X^bi Po^iiar iKfi- 
X'rji't filar /tiif click Tipi ^prix&rttTa TW* 
ixfioaTur- x'"'/"""'' V^p ^^^ ''" *a86\<ni 
\fyani trirCxv ruf io£Mi h iKtim iraTd 
Ittpoi fxiB^f- — '"pit. TBith reference (or 
r^ard] te : cf. t4 rpis Ti, Aristotle's 
category at rtiaiiait. 

10. -rd Xoin^ (cf. § 17"), opposed 10 
TIM' htapxfiiiTiiiir. 

g VS. 1. AcM(S<w|u>vtinr. . .4fi][Ji>Twv : 
after the Peloponnesian War, Lysander 
established in most of the conquered 
ton'ns, and even in some which were 
previously friendly to Sparta, a Spaitan 
governor (ip/Munji) with a military force 
(^pobpd), and a board of ten citizens of 




KOL TO kvk\^ rfj'i 'Aminjv KaT£XpVT<oy apuooToZq xal 
^povpaXi, Evfiotav, Tdvaypav, r^v BoLbtrtof airatrof, Me- 
5 yapa, Atyivav, K4(ov, ra^ aXXa$ vi^trovi, ov vav^ ov TeC^vj 
T^s iroXecus tot* Knj<ra,fUvr)i, i^\dere eis 'Akiaprov koX 
iraXw oil TroWai^ TipApa-i^ wrrepov ei9 KopLvdov, rStv tots 

3. lol (before Td) on. At. 5. E^ur, tAt fiX\ai Dobree; KX<a»it, AXXai 2; 

KXrurit, Tit dWat L, vulg. oi raih oi rtlxi vulg. ; eC.ollTt S, L. 6. itTT- 

tafUnii £>, L, Ai; icciin)fi^t S" (ov« KTii<ra^n;f), vulg. 

the sub)ect state (idcajofix'a), who were 
parliians of Sparla. See Plutarch, Ly- 
sand. I,;; KaTakivr Hi roit Hiuavt ml tAi 

it rur Ar^ a^oj/ iruyKttponjfiJriin' vardt 
rAXiv iratpnav ' Kol raOra wpiTTiim A^iolus 
If Tt Talt wokt/Uiut tal Tall ffuji/iixo't 
ytyiTTi/Unut wii^n, raf4r\ti vx'*^'*'- 
SecGroleix. isj. 

3. tA K&icXy Tijt 'ATTUCTJt: more 
rhetorical than ri -rtpt r^r 'jLTTixir, 
Kix'Sifi having the adverbial sense of 
arouitd. See IV. 4°, (txow »d»Ta t4» 
rirw Dbciov mtiXy. and XIX. 155, kwo- 
pt6i»TQ jn^icXy, iAey traveUed round. 

4. &lipoiav..,A['Yivav: Euboea and 
Megara had l>een in the hands of the 
Spartans befare the end of the Pelopon- 
nesian war. Tanagia was held by friends 
of Sparta in 377 h.c. (Xen. Hell. v. 4, 49), 
and we see here that il was Spartan 1031)5. 
Aegina. which Athens had settled with 
her own people in 431, after enpelling 
the native population, was restored to its 
former owners (so far as this was possible) 
by Lysander in 405, as he was on his 
way to attack Athens (Thuc. 11.37; Xen, 
Hell. u. 1. 9J. Boeotia as a whole was 
nominally allied with Sparta; but Thebes 
and other towns became disgusted with 
Sparta's tyrannical conduct soon after the 
end o( the war, and though Thebes had 
been the greatest enemy of Athens when 
the peace was made, she harboured Thra- 
sybulus and his fellow exiles before they 
attacked the Thirty in 403. This dis- 
affection ended in the Boeotian war in 
39s, in which Athens aided Thebes (see 
lielow)i in the battle of Haliartus the 

allies gained a doubtliil victory over 

Sparta, which was made decisive by the 
death of Lysander on the field. {See 
Grote tx. 409.) The invasion of Boeotia 
t>y Lysander and his Spartan army justi- 
fies 1^ Bouin-fov aratro^ from the Athe- 
nian point of view. It must not be 
thought that old Spartan allies like 
Megara were subjected to Lysander's 
hannosts and garrisons, notwithstanding 
Plutarch's remark quoted above. 

J. 'KAmr, -nliAXXat vijrant, i.e. Ceos 
and the adjacent islands, Tenos, Andros, 
Cythnus, Melos, etc. Mclos ismentioned 
as restored to its old inhabitants by Ly. 
Sander (Plul. Lys. 14). The emendation 
SAir, r&t oXXni rliaom for KXrurat. 
£U«i fV"" (2) removes the difficulty 
caused by [he mention (for no apparent 
reason) of Cleonae, a town between 
Corinth and Argos, under ri niiiXjf 1% 
'Attuc^i. If Cleonae were named, it 
would naturally precede Aegina and 
follow Megara. Cf. Alyvrar ad Kia xoi 
•Aripgr. Xen. Hell. V. 4, 6 1 .— «v niOt OJ 
rrfx^ f^ KTi|ir«fiin|t ; Athens was re- 
quired by Spaita to demolish her I>ong 
Wallsand the walls of thePirseus. not those 
of the tb^u ; and she was allowed to keep 
tweivewar-ships:seeXen. Hell. it. a, lo. 
Here tSti utijo-bbApi;! (not incnuiirTft) 
means that she had not yet acquirtd any 
ships or walls beyond what were left her 
at the end of the war. West, thinks that 
iraicniaiiiiiiiitj (the strictly correct word) 
was avoided as suggestive of previous lost. 

6. tU' AXfoprov : see note on 1. 4. 

7. oil woXXatt i^iJk^pait: according to 
the accepted chronology, the battle of 
Haliartus was in the autumn of 39; B.C., 




Kai ST}ficuoi9 rSiv irepl TOf AeK^etKOP trokefiov irpa-yd^oiv 
aXX ovK iiroiovv touto, ou8* eyyv^. Kairoi Tore ravra 97 
afifftorepa, Ai<r)(iv7}, ov$' xnrtp evepyerav eiroCovv ovt' axiv- 
ovv eoipcitv. dXX' ov oia Tavra ■npotzvro tows Kara^evyovriK 
e>f>' eavroii^, aXk' vvep evBo^Ca^ koI ti/xiJs yjOtkov T019 Seu^if 
auTous SiSovcu, opdSt^ Koi KaXm<; fiovkevofiam. ir4pa<; pht 5 
yap awaa-tv avdpamoi'iia-Tl tov $Cov ^wotos, kSoi iv olKi<rK<i> 
Tis avTOv KoBttp^as TJjp^- S« Se tous ayadoii^ di-Spas 
eyxetpeo' piv airaurw ael rois «oXois, t^i* ayaS'^i' wpofiaXko- 
p4vov% ikvtZa, <f>fp€iv S' dv 6 0eos StS^ ytwcUto^. ravr'ss 

8. ^. ^icoXfU' «oJ e.M9. (ol K«p. V(5. 9. A«<X(«Sr L, Ai, B, Etjm. Magn. 
p. 30, ; (see Vomel); AnnWir S {but iejtfXtutoC in XXIi. 15). 

5 »7. I,' Tirt om. Ai. 3. rpiikfTe 2, L', Aa; wpotim L', A;, B, O; 

Tp6tirT0 vulg. 4. ;^' a6Tffl>i B, Oi ir' airtvt Ai, 6. edtarti £, L, 

Ai. 1, B. Y, O; i tfib-BTM vulg. 9. ^pev J' w B i #«ii i.Jv S ; ■piptii' S' S n 

ir *(ii iiJ^i S (tp), vulg. ; S or Slob. ; & it liSf Schol. II. v, J33 ; in Vom., later edd. 

andlhat of Corinth in the summer of 394, 
in the year of Eubulides (see (he inscrip- 
tioD below). The Corinthian war was 
the result of a combination of Alheniansi 
Corinthians, Boeotians, Euboeans, Ar- 
givcs, and others agaiosl Sparta. In the 
battle of Coiint}!, called 4 ttryd\ji lidx^ 
in XX. ji, the Spartans were victorious. 
See Grote IX. 416 — 419. The beautiru] 
monuroent, repieseming a young warrior 
on horseback, now standing near the 
Dipylon gate of Athens, was erected in 
honour of Dexileos, one of the Athenian 
horsemen slain in this battle. The inscrip- 
tion is : ^iiXius Avofvlov eoplitm. \ ^■ 
WTO ^i T(urii»iipou dpxaTTot, \ iwfSane ir' 
EOfimAlitv I ^7 KopttStf rSir xirn Inriut. 
See C. I. Att. II. .1, Nos. 1084 and 1G73 ; 
also in Hicks, Gr. Inscr., Nos. 69 and 
58. Nos. 6s, 66 and 67 in Hicks refer 
to the relations of Athens to the Boeo- 
tian and Corinthian wan. 

8. woM' £v Jx^iTOV {r6\\' or •t^w), 
i.e. tAejr mighl havt dant se, pottdssenl. 
M. T. 114. 

9. AoMhtHiJv viXifw*, a name often 
given to the last years of the Pelopon- 

Spartans held the fortress of Decelea in 

10. o4S*JyY*»' cf. 313'. 

% •7, j. ir^Ht |ih'...n|p§; this 

was celebrated as a. gnomic sayii^ in 
various forms; see Dindorf's note. In 
Lucian, Dem. Encom. 5, it is compared 
-31S; and the following 

words, iei...Airiihi, 

IV. Ku.) ,- 

Dissen q 
The . 

ning i! 

r (413- 

,c.) . 

the flat truism, "death is the end of all 
men's lives," but all mtrCs lives have 
a fixed limit in dtalh, and this is made 
a ground for devoting our lives to noble 
ends, for which it is worthy to die. 

6. ir oUCo-Ky, itt a rhamber: irrl 
ToB iiitp^ Twi oiiTTjfiari, Harpocralion, 
who refers to an erroneous attempt of 
Didymus to explain oUlaKtf here by a 
comic use of the word for rtpntPorpo^eim', 
bird-cage, or daoecote. The same error 
appears in the Scholia to Demosthenes. 

S. wpoPoXXofifrovt OvkHo., pralecling 
themsehxs by kofit [holding il be/are /Aeni, 
like a shield). Dissen quotes Menander, 
frag. 573 (Kock); Srar n rpirr-jii oaiot, 
iya$iir f\.wlta | wpifiaXkt cain-^, tdS/to 


;o AHM010EN0Y2 

evoiovv oi vfUrepot vpoyovoi, TaW vjueZs ot wpea-^vrepoi, 

ot, AaxeSaifiovCov^ ov <f>i\ovi ovras ovB' fiKpyera^, aXka, 

voXka T^v iroXif rffiav ■^SucrfKora^ koI fieyaXa, iweiS'^ 

S ©T/jSawt KpaT^travres iv Afvicrpot.^ dfcXcu' iiT€)((.ipovv, S«- 

KcoXvo-are, ov ifto0rf$dpT€i tt)v t6t€ ©i^^atois pwp.-qv koX 359 

oojew vira^x^ovtrat', ouS' VTrcp ola irewotTjKorciiv avdpiatrotv 

99 Kif SweucrcTC SiaXoyura/tei'ot • ical yap Toi jratri tow 'EXXt^o-ii' 

c'Seifare ^k rovrati' cfn, k&v oriovv tis ets u/ta? i^apMprg, 

rovratv Tr}v opyf/v eU toXX* ^«T-e, eai- S* wep iratnjpias ^ 

eKtv0epia^ Kiv8w6t Tis avrows KwrakapfiairQ, ovt€ fLvrftriKa- 

S (c^<rcT« oiff* vTro\oyi€i(r0e. Kai ovk eirl Tovratv povov ovro)? 

9*8. I. i^i^nrpot r, L, vulg.; V^'P"' Ai; i/«T. ft over u) V6. rW" (for 

g ••. i. JJri om. V6. Tn om. Ai. 3, toOtim I; re^y 2 (tp), L, 

vulg. iiwZ.L; er volg. 4. tt«u#<pIo» ^ ownjpfai Ai. 5. /lino* S, 

volg.; fi^uv L, Ai. 1, Dind., Bl. 

Yfyn&ffiur <Sri { TdXfCB iica^ col Onf trtiX- 

\aitffdrii. Cf- TV Tfw^Xiffffoi, g 195". 

§ ©•. I. vp^yovH : see note on % 95'. 

— ti|utt: cf. rap' iiiO* tut rpiirfioTjpijr, 

XX. SI. 

3. A(u<*S<u^vCovt, obj. of ittXtJv, 
Jitrui^iIffOTe having toi>i 9ij;8o/oiii, or per- 
haps simply TO rpSyfoi, undeislood u its 
object. From the position of Aair. we 
should expect it to belong to the leading 

5. KfoinjravTtt (v Atjirrpoit: the 
' ■ Lenctric i nsolerce " ofThebes (Diod .x vi . 
S8), which made her rather than Sparta 
the natur»l enemy of Athens from 371 lo 
339 B.C., was notorious. See ?§ |8' and 
36*. In 3JO, a year after Lcuctra, Epa- 
minondas with a Theban army invaded 
Laconia and marched up to the city 
of Sparta itself; but he did not venture 
to enter the unwalled city and withdrew 
into Arcadia. At this time he established 
the new cities of Messene and Megalo- 
polis, to hold Sparta in check. In this 
trying emei^ency, Sparta humiliated her' 
self so far as to ask help from her old 
enemy, Athens. Her request was granted, 
and Iphicrates was sent into Peloponne- 
sus to the aid of Sparta with 13,000 
Athenians in the spring of 369 B.C. This 

saved Sparta from another invasion at 
this time. See Xen. Helt. VI. 5, 33 — 51, 
and Grotc X. 310—316. The alliance 
then formed remained unbroken, though 
sometimes strained, until after the battle 
of Mantiuea in 361 B.C., in which Athens 
fought on the side of Sparta. Nations 
seldom go to war from the pure sense of 
juslicewhich Demosthenes here attributes 
to Athens; of course fear of the gmwii^ 
power of Thehes under Epaminondas, 
as well as political sagacity, had great 
influence on her policy towvds Sparta. 

g 99. 3, Tovntv. /or (Ms, referring 
to irioSi/, as tarn can always have a 
plural antecedent. 

4. piin|aaKaKif««r«...vvaXo7Mla4t: /(n|- 
auaKto; though usually intransitive (cf. 
g 101'), may have an accusative, as /AFf- 
Bucaininu ripi i)\iiilar, Ar. Nub. 999. 
Thus both verbs may here have the same 
object, so^ested by irioCr, 

5. iirl toiSthv )i^vav: cf. XV. ij, rf 
■p«SJ(UF i^MV iiinr, and IX. 57, iropd 
rw^Dii n6ror. In these cases /tiroii modi- 
fies the whole sentence as an adverb, 
where we should expect the adjective 
/iiniiy or Ai>v with the noun. We aie 
often careless about the position ot enfy; 
as "he only went to London once." 



i(rj(T)Ka.Te, oXXa iraXw tr^jterepi^ofitvon/ Srffiaiotv r^v Evfioiav 
oil irepteCSere, ovB' cav vwo ©e/iurtuvo? koX StoStopov vepl 
'nponrhv ■qhitcTftrdt avep.v^<r6y)Te, dXX' ifiorfdijcraTe koX 
TOVTOK, Tav idtKovrSiV roTt rpi/qpap^atv irpSrTov yevop.iv<av 
TQ iroXci, oiv ei; ijv iyio. oXX' owrto irepl tovt<ov. koI 100 
KoKov fjuev iwoitja-aTe koX to cwcrai t^p vi}<rov, ttoXX^ S' in 
TOvTov KoXXiov TO KaTooTai^cf Kvpioi Kai Toiv vtafiaTiav Kai 
Tmv irdXcwi/ anohovvtu raSra ZiKalai% av70i9 rots i^p,aprri' 
k6<tiv CIS vfias, /tT^Sev <5»' '^Sifojo'de cv oTs iwiaTev0i}Tf 5 
uTToXoyura/ievoi. fivpia Toiwv erep* tiwtlv extav wapaXeivoi, 

g. teiXorTur B; WfXitru? S, L, vulg. (see § 68'). rire rpt^pipxtir L; 

Tpii)pi.frxb^ r/yrt B; rbrt -rpitipapxiJ' ^< As; rptiyw^ut tAtc votg. 

j lOO. I. ml Z, *; naJrn L, vulg. s. /r oil ('^' att VG) irtmi- 

e^Tt 2 (7/1), L', Dind. and Uler edd.; om. S, L*, Ai. 6. frepo om. Ai, 

6. a^tnfKXfifhtir Tit* ESpoui*: cf. 
71*. Enboea had be«n under the control 
of lliebes since the battle of Leuclia, but 
in 557 B.C. a Theban army was sent to 
quiet some disturbances in the isEand. The 
Eretiians called on Athens for help against 
her local enemies, who were supported 
by the Thebans; and the Athenians with 
great enei^ sent an army to Euboea, 
which drove the whole Theban force from 
the island in thirty days. This is the 
famous expedition to which the orators 
always referred with pride. See Dem. 
VIII. 74, 7s, IV. 17; Aesch. in, 85, ii, 
164; Diod. xvt. 7; Grote xi. Ch. 86, 
pp. 306—309. 

7. o4 j y nfB iT« : cf. JtHuXiif-art, 
S gSK—Btfiirmvof. a tyrant of Eretiia, 
who in 366 B.C. took from Atheni the 
frontier town of Ornpus and gave it to 
Thebes. Theodorus, another Euboean, 
was concerned in this seiiure. (Grote, 
X. Ch. 79, p. 391-) Oropus had long 
been a bone of contention lietween Athens 
and Thebes. It was stipulated that 
Thebes should now hold the town only 
until the right to it could be settled by 
arbitration (fi^xpi JCn^, Xco. Hell. Vll. 
4, t). The ''case of Oropus" was a 
protracted one ; and it is said that Demo- 
sthenes as a boy was first inspired with 
a passion for oratory by bearing an elo- 

quent plea of Callistratus in defence of 
the rights of Athens (Plut. Dem. 5). 

9. Toiron; the Euboeans.— Tw» Ma- 
Xa»™i>,..TJ wdXiL, i.e. tie siali then fer 
tht first time oblaintd the s/rvita of 
■mlunteer trierarchs (rur, because these 
became an institution ; see Boeckh, 
Staatsh. d. Ath. I. 638, 657. 666. Most 
MSS. have McXdrrwr for the noun i9*\n- 
™r (see g 68»). See xxi. 161 : *yfri»ro 
At B0|Souir JiriSiirfU Tap' (>u> rpwnu' 
ToifTtav ttfxi r^ MeiJ£ar, dXX' ^701, koX 
awTfitiipt(%at iir lun iaXu-oj. See XKII. 
14. Demosthenes therefore was joint 
trierarch with Phalinus for the expedition 

10. dAX' olhni *«pl TS^TW : this maj 

look forward to the orator's account of 
his public services in g 167, or possibly 
to the discussion of his trierarchic reform 
m §g 101—109. atru-. sc. \i(ia, but in 
XIX. 100, n'^u Tavm: sc. tCwuntw. 

% 100. 1. K(U TJ S-HO-BL Tl)v C^OVV, 

even saving tie island, i.e. this by itself, 
opposed to roXX^ (['...jtclXXiiif, sc. irw^ 

5. |n|5h' AveXttyiraiuVM : lafiir 

shows that the participial clause is closely 
connected with ri diroisuru, not with 
rt'MiJffare (understood). The meaning is 
vrithout taking inie aecaunt, rather than 
net laiing ittta aeeount. This use of i>4 


72 AHM0I9EN0Y2 

vavfia^Ca^, ^foSovs TTe£as, arpaTfiaq koX iraXai yeyowia^ 
KoX vvv i<f>* riiuov ainrnv, as airoo-as y) woXw r$s twi* oXXcov 
101 'EXXiji'ttff iKevBepta^ xal o'orrrjpCa'i we.woC7]Tai. «It* eyA 
TedeotprjKO)^ ev toctovtok koI toiovtok r^v ■jrokiv vjrip rav 
Toi? oXAois (rv/uftepovTOtv i6e\ova-av aymvi^eirBat, virep 
auT^s TpoiTov Twa T^s (8owX.^s ou<njs tC €fie)^Xov KeKcv<r€w 
S -^ Tt (rvp.0ovkev<r€Lv airrg ffo«T>' ,■ iun^(Tt.KaKtiv in) Ata irjoo? 
Tou; ^ov\ofi€vovs <T<^^t<T$ax, KOA irpo<f>cur€i,^ j^TjTeii' S(* a; 
ajrai^a vpor}<r6p.e0a. koX tis ovk Av on-e'KT€t(^' /te Stfcat&)9, z6o 
et Ti Twi* vira/>j(0'^ft'»' t^ iroXet KoXoii' Xoy^ pMvov KaroMrxy- 
viiv cV€X«pi?o-' »'''■ ^^ei TO ye epyop ovk fii/ htoi/^<Taff 

7,8. rauM<>X^l-''4/"i'>' b^< 
S, V6. 8. «*«5r2, L, Ai, 
■BXMJrt.i' L', B, vulg.; 'EXJiiffi 

IX. 76). 


I. F, ^; lifwi' vnlg. ^Xaw om. Al 
• trtx' Ai;'EXXi(fu> run. V6i frdK 

9. Ii-tx' 

jm. Z, L (cf. 

,-'iIiTu(M(& L, B*, V6; lirqaitsK-iiriir £, B*, vulg.; uripnrat^nt 

is by coiT. 2. If. iprnisiiiiBa. Z, L, Ai. », B, F, *; wpovt. 

"' " '" afcx*'''" Al. 

B", vulg.. Plat. 

TtBapiniitiii L'. 

H.Wolf. 6, it by COIT. 2. 7. rptnttiiuBm X, 

r4 aiin^parra vulg.; »-j>i»;yif9-i(«fla 0'. 8. fiivun 

g. iiitxtlims' ir £, Li <»ej;(ifiiifftt li- Ai, F', B', *; it 
riiTt (for t6 7;) Al. iwot/yia98' Ai. 

shows (he diatinclion belween ri...i»o- 
JaDnu and tTt...irii<>n, Ihf giving up 
and (tkt fiul) that you govt up, though 
we often have lo translate both by the 
same or equivalent expressions : cf. the 
diatinclion between uart out i-wribrt and 
livrt liii iiroioiiiai i/iat, which is often 
very hard to express (see M.T. sBi, 583), 
and has often been overlooked. — hi ot« 
<noTiiifti|Ti (for iw iKtirea a), lepresent- 

ililcifaSi represents dimi* raCro iii&i : 
cf. §S '8' and tq>. 

•}. l£J8ovt ■wiM, l<"i^ expediliims 
(after raxttayin) ; rrpartCM, camfaigju. 

S. «iit...wn|plM, rare genitive oF 
purpose or motive, generally (mind with 
tteKo, which is added here in most MSS. 
So JiTX. 76, »■£«■' di-oTij ™l ttx,"l aVM- 
VKend^Bi! ToC rtpl twKiai SKtSptv, with 
similar variety of reading. (See G, m?-) 
I'he infinitive with tdD is common in this 
construclioD, especially in Thucydides 
(M.T. 79B) ; an example occurs in g 107', 




tht qtustioi 


S- r^ ACo, in bitter irony: cf. XX. 

6. ti' &t vpoi]0'd|uta (erciijn) for 
uiH/i^ng («r„l). 

8. {nmfixivTHV (cf- g9S*]: the glories 
(caXd) are viewed as a public possession. 

9. kwrnjAfufr' &y. I follow this reading 
of the best MSS. with little hesitation, 
chiefly because 1 cannot see how such a 
change could creep into the best uss. 
by corruption, if the genuine reading 
were simply d inxtliniva, if I had uniitr- 
iaien, which would lie perfectly clear. 
There is no objection to iC ivex'^p'l''' "I*, 
as to either grammar or sense. It is 
amply justified by xix, 171, where there 
are no various readings and nobody 
doubts the text : tl /i^ Jtik ri TRtT«n 
^o6\ia9iu ounu, ^fuAijt droXol^irr xal 
Tpo<AXt7f tl rpwrJiofiibr y &f dfiyApton 
tdfii roXi) fAtrA to6tup irpfirfitvffa- 
There tl ixptc^tvati tr'-aifl leeuld iatt 



vfiet^, axpi^Z^ o\Z* eytti* ei yap i^vXetrffe, n rjv e^itoScuv ,- lo 
ovK i^v ; ouj( inr^pj(o» ol ravr ipovvre^ oSroi ; 

Bovkofiat, Toivw hraviKdw it}>' a Ttwroiv «f^? iwoh,T€v6- 109 
p-yjv leai o-KoireiTe iv toutois TraXiv o5 ri to 7-p TrdXei 
yScXTwrro*' ^i". opcui' ya/), w dcSpes 'A^fcubi, to vawTiicof 
vfiZv KaToXvofifyov, Kol tov^ pxv Tr\ova-iov$ drcXcIs airo 
ftiKpav afaKtap.a.Tiav yvyvofievov^ tovj Sc pArpC t) piKpa $ 

KeKTTfpXVOV% TfUV Vokl/rSlV TO, OVT airoWvOVTai, €Tt o' UOT€- 

lo. diEpi^wi om. Ai. II. oiK irr^pxir Z, 

i lOa. I. iriXStlr 0. t- ri^om. O. 3. rv^par V V6. 5. yit^- 

lUroin ♦; ya-ofUrMt V6, xai (for ^) Ai. 5. Tuw »o\iTco» om. Ai. rd 

J.t' om. X"i rtom. O'. droJiMofTiit 2, L', Aa,*; (w. uB, L»); d»oXW»™tF; 

^>i£ iiB til cmbaiiy, as cI ^Ttx([|>i|a'<t Sr 
here is // / iu>uld hmu undclaien (for 
anjr consideralion). See M.T. 506. Is 
there not ■ justification of iitxtlprfl' ir 
in the following ri 7' {'p7ii>' n^ ftr 
4ref^a,B' i)/u?i, jvh taould mil havi dent 
tht Ihing in reality (Ifr/if), opposed to 
the pieceding supposition, if I had ieen 
cafiai/e of undtrtaking it aitn in ward 

II. mix 4v{ipxov..,v(TM; wtrt net 
that mat hire ready lo Ull yoa this I 
rai>ra refers to ia'itatxBxtir.,.tpayiiriitrSa 

KlOa— lOQ. The orator defends his 
Trierarchic Law (340 B.C.) against the 
al lacks of Aeschines. 

S lOa. I. InviXhtv: after the di- 
gression in {g 95 — loi, he now returns to 
his own political acts. Next in order to 
hia rescue of Byiantium and the Helles- 
pont (roln-ur i^) he speaks of his reform 
of the trierarchy b( Athens. This im- 
portant measDre was carried in 340 B.C., 
al about the lime of ihe outbreak of Ihe 
war with Philip (see 9 107'). See note 
on % 103'. For an account of the law of 
Demostbenes and of the various systems of 
trierarchy which preceded it, see Boeckh's 
^laatsh. d. Ath. I. Bk 4, Ch. 11—16. 

4. KwniaifmBif, brtaJdHg uf : notice 
the following descriptive present parti- 
ciples dTaXf[|...-YiY*oH''^''*> Ifofing 

txttnft (from all ' hliugies ") tysmallfay- 

mtnlt. As all the members of a tvrri\na 
(under Ihe former system) were assessed 

equally for the support of their ship, the 
richer swreKtU niighl satisfy the law (as in 
Ihe case supposed in g 104) by paying -f^ 
of the expense of one ship; and as no one 
could be required to take more than one 
'lilur|^' in the same year, they would thus 
be exempt from all other services. But the 
richest of all, ihe leaders of the synuno- 
ries (g 103^1, somelimes ingeniously Used 
their l^al duty of advancing the money 
for the Irierarchy in case of special neces- 
sity as a means of avoiding even their 
own legal share of the expense. They 
could bargain with a. contractor lo do all 
the work for a fixed sum (e.g. a talent), 
which ihey advanced, afterwards assess- 
ing this whole sum, or an unfair part 
of it, on their poorer colleagues. See 
Dem. XXI. 155 : ore irpvTov /iif Suuoalovt 
xai X'^'""' •fWOi^itBTe aurriXeU i/uit. 
Tap ur tlarpaTTSiitrai rdXurnv ro- 
Xiif^DU fuffffoifffi Tit Tpiijpapxiai wtm 
(i.e. rich men like Midias),...ivirT' oirrA)' 
/i-fw> t5 iXtiBelf ri ittfitr iMoKuaax taX 
Stft'ir \iK-^TiivprfTiKi*iu Kal rair IXXwr 
\jlTtvpyiQt dreX^fft yrymjcdat rtpl- 

6. Ttl 5vt' iwoXXiornw ; a strong 
expression of the injustice 10 which the 
poorer inirriXiti were liable. — irrtpt- 
toiHrai'...T«r KoifM', as we say, itiind 




pC(,ov<rav ix rovratp t^v iroXtv tS>v xaipiiv, effrfKa vofLov Koff 

hv TOWS ^v to, hiKOXfji. n-ouZf -^vdyKMra, [tovs wXov(rM>w5.] 

TOW? Si W€vr)Ta^ iiravir d&tKovft£vovs, t^ irdXct S' oirc^ -^v 

lo j(pr}<, iv xaipi^ yiyvea-daL 70.5 Trapaa-Keva^ eTrotTjo-a. 

103 Kai ypaif>£l<; tov aryStva tovtov ei; u/ia; €U7T)\dov ko-l aire'^v- 

yov, Kox TO fiepot twv t/nj^oiv d SLCufcoii' ouk cXo/Sev. Kouroi 

irdtra -xfyr^fLaTu. tovs ijye/idi'as twi' <rv/i/AO/]t<di' ^ rows S€vt€/mus 

KoX TpVTov^ ottrrOe fiot SiSovoi atrre /laXurra /mv /i.^ Oeivai 

5 TOf vofiov TOVTOV, CI 8« /i^, KaTtt/SaXXoi^' eav «/ vn-atjxoo-^^ ; 

J. <« toiItu* iartplt- Y. 7, 8. icaS' St redt lUt L, vulg. ; roin om. 2, *. 

8. Toin tXomtIovi om. West., in [ ] Lips. lo. mimicit (for nti) Z (yp)> B (mg.), 

4 (ing.), Reiske. 

S lO*. 1. "rfU^ctt t(t Ai ; ta,Trrj«(nt9<it L-; ypa^dt rapariiuiir £ (iiii;-)i ">£- °' 
B, F, and *; toDtdv wapar6iiiiir vulg.; i-aporiuwr om. S, L, Ai, F. i. ri jtipoi 

2, L', F, *; Tiri^rrw^potAi. B, vulg. (cf. SS ill. 150.166). 3. T9»nbef. 

ih*M-) om- O'. 4. Bfiral ixt vulg.; ;« om. 2, L, Ai. 1, B. j. raTa^dXXom 
2. L', ♦, Y; ™rn" ■' '- - ■ - ■ . - " 


rafi. vulg.; om. Z, L, Ai. 

8. (-rait vX«iio^«vl] : I bracket these 
wonis (which West, omits), as an ex - 
planalion of roit nir, which needs no 
such note, not venturing to read mttf' S* 
niv (without TM^) with £. The reading 
is veiy doubtful, though the sense is clear. 

§ lOS. 1. ypB^lt: 5c. Topewiiuitr. 
— t4v d^ava toOtov. . .tLrtiXtov, i.e. I stood 
(entered or) my trial on this iisiie btferi 
you, til i>»3i implying coming into court. 
T<>iFTai> refers to 7pa#flt, meaning the trial 
which followed his being indicted. CT. 
tlvffKSoii r^ ypa^, % loj". 

1. tA ^AfM (sc. wiiir-nt) : cf 9 i66>. 
See note on § 81^. 

3. IfftfivM ■nh' mimiopwr, Uaders 
ef the lymmoHts. here probably the 
symmories of the trierarchy, though the 
term commonly refers to the 300 richest 
citizens (dI rpuuAi»M, % T7i*}t >vho were 
leaders raf the symmories of the property- 
tax Ult^fii.]. Under the system which 
prevailed from 357 to 340 B.C., the 1100 
richest dliiens, who alone were liable to 
the duly of the trierarchy, were divided 
into 10 lymmories, regularly of 60 men 
each- To each of these symmories was 
aaaigned a number of triremes lu be titled 
out in each year, regulated by the needs 
of the stale. The symmory divided itself 


into smaller bodies (vurr^Xttai). 
which equipped a sii^le ship. The 
expense was borne equally by all the 
members, without regard lo their wealth. 
Each symmory probably had a single 
leader, and Ihe to leaders, with the two 
classes called jflfripoi and rplrM (who are 
not mentioned elsewhere), evidently be- 
longed to the Tpiu6«iiii, perhaps including 
all of that cla!.s in the symmories (15 tn 
each)- The new law of Demosthenes 
imposed the burden of the trierarchy on 
the members of each symmoiy according 
to tbdr property, thus greatly increasing 
the assessment of the richer and dimini^- 
ing that of the poorer members. Of this 
a striking case is given in g 104*'. This 
is all the certain knowledge thai we have 
of Ihi<: important law. The details often 
quoted from S 106 are untrustworthy. 

4. BiSJHii, efftfid, representing ^H- 
Swar, which appears in g 104*. — p^Xirra 
|<rlv, oAinw ail things, opposed to cf ti 
fii) (s), mhemise, if not (M.T. 478).— H 
Mvai, not lo enact, i.e. not to bring the 
new law before the miioBfrai. 

g. KaiopdXXorr' lav h Wap«o^ /g 
drop it and let it lit under notice of ituiiel- 
ment (ht. under Ihe praiiculor'i talk tt 
bring an indictment). Whenever anyone 




elvelv. Kfu, raw' eiKOTM^ IvpaTTOv iKiivoi. ^v yap avroi? 104 
Ik fikf Twc wpoTepatv vofuav <rvv€KKiuS^Ka k^Tovpyeo', avrow 
fiiv fJLiKpa Koi ovBev avaXttrKovo't, tov9 S' airopov^ r^f 
361 iroXiT&Ji' €inTpifiov<rtv, ix 8e rou e/xov vop-ov to yiyuofLevov 
Kara, ttjv oixriav eKaarov riOevaL, Kai Svolv i4>dvT) Tpv^papypq 5 
o T^s /iwts cKTos Kol SeVaTOS vpoTtpov o-wj^cXtj?- ouSe yap 
Tptr}pdpj(ovi er' utPOfjuil^ov «aiTOVS, dXXa oi/i^cXets. atoTc 
01J Tavra Xv^cot xai /i^ ra SiKaia iroieti' avayKaa-BTJpai, 
ovK ea-ff' o Ti ow« eSiSoerac. wat /lot Xeye wpwrov fih/ 10ft 
TO ^fr^(f»,crfLa xaff o €la~ijX0ov rfiv ypaif>r)v, tlra T0V5 

6. ir tlxtir iyCi rpAi iiiiai A[, 4 {yp), Y. 

9104. 1. rpircpof Al. aiy itnalBiKiL O. 

om, 2", Ai, B, F, *. irpirtpoi Ai. 7. 

Iia^ B, vulg. at>rmlt V6. iSvTt Owip tc 

iraytaaS^iu om. L'. 9- i>i)( fffTtr V6. 

6. WtoTot iij» L, vulg.; li* 
ri (frvinafw £, L, Ai. i; jir«»>£- 
roi>ra2(Yp), 8. «ai M^.., 

foniiBlly declared his inlentlon of bringing 
a ypa^ ■wafar&iu)* against a law or 
decree, he was required to bind himself 
by an oath, called uxu/uala, to prosecute 
the case. This had the effect of suspend- 
ing the law or deciec if it was already 
finally passed, or of slopping b, decree 
which had passed only the Senate (i.e. a 
Tp^ovKaiita) from being voted on by the 
Assembly, until the y taint rapar6/uiir 
could be tried. (Fur an account of this 
process see Essay 11.) The meaning here 
is that Demosthenes was offered large 
sums if he would either decline 10 bring 
his new law before the ronofiriu [/iij 
Slim) or else let it quietly drop (^r) 
when a 7pa^ raparifiwr was brought 
against it aifei it was passed. This pas- 
sage shows that dropping a law under 
indicCmcDt was not illegal. 

g 104. I. ^*...X7|T0«pYrtv, i.e. lAty 
might ptrfernt tkt semiii (of the trierarchy) 
in bedUs afsixtttn : this is probably stated 
as an extreme case under the old law, in 
contrast with an equally extreme case of 
a man with two whole triremes to support 
under the new law. 

1. oAtoI* ykt, tktmsikies {iftii), op- 
posed to nit S' ±rip€ut (3). 

3. |UKpd Nol oMtv 1 see note on 

g tOJ*. 

4. tinTplflovmv, diitrtising- (grind- 
ing). — ^ 'yi'yvdiuyov nMvai, tspaythtir 

qunta [tvial ftli to each) : cf. rifl^foi t4i 
tlS^pit. XXII. 43. 

5- Ka-nl T^v owrfav, according te his 
profitrly ; rord ri rlu'tfa. according Ib his 
valuation, would be more slriclly accu- 
rate, as the rlnTina, or taxahlf property, 
in different classes bore a differing pro- 
portion lo the oiwia. — 8w>[i'...otwtA4i! 
it was a possible case that a man who 
had been asses.4ed (as supposed above) 
for only one-sixteenth part of the expense 
of one ship might be compelled to pay 
for two whole ships under the new law. 
^pi^P^PX.'" su^esls TpHjpwf and Tpi-ipetn 
for SvMY and ^lai. 

7. s-uvTiXtCt, as members of a aurri- 

\ti<t (sei 

s of a 

n 9 103'): 

ip, of whom perhaps 
no one even saw the ship, were absurd ! 

9. UlSoo'ai', offind\ cf. iiUnu as 
imperfect in 9 103*. 

% I05. 1. i|r^^iff]ui, : this cannot be 
the trierarchic law itself, which was no 
^tJ^/w; but a decree passed after the 
iwuiiMla, which (as West. expUini it) 



KaToXoyous, Tov t ix tov irporipov vofjMv kox tov Kara tov 
ifj^v. \eyt. 


['Ejb-1 dp^ovTO^ Ilo\vieX4ow, tt.t)po<! 0otiSpofuS>vo^ ^kti; eiri 
Seica, ^vX^f irpvravevovatfv 'l-mrodavrtSot, AiffiOffffemt^ Aij/io- 
trdevov^ Tlaiavitin ela^veyKe vofuiv Tpi7ipapj(iKov avrX rov vporepov, 
Kaff" hv ai trvvTeKeiat ^<yav tSiv Tpi.ripdp\wv real iwexeipor6v7)fr€v 
lo r/ ffovXrf Kol o Srifiof mai a-rr^veyKe Trapavofieav ^7ifJM<rd4p€i 
llarpoKXij^ ^Xvew, icai ro fi.epo^ rav -^i^tov ov Xa0il>v averure 

106 0e/9e Si) koX rof koXov Karakoyov. 

[Tows rpiripdpj(pvv KoKetaQai eVi T^v Tpiijpi} trvviKKaiSexa «« 
T&f fv TOK \6-)(oi.<! truvreXeLwv, dira tttcoai km irevre irmp e« 
5 TtTTapoKOvra, hrX Xtrov ijj x^ptfilt} jj^pw/iicow?.] 

0c/3e ori TTtipa. tqvtov rov €k tov ifiov fofiov KaTokoyov. 


[Tou? Tpiifpdpj^ovi; alpeiffSai evl ttjv rpiijpti diro t^? oinriat 
Korh rifiijtTiv, dvb raXavrmv Sexa' i^v Be trXeiovav f/ ovtria 
10 avoTeTifiTjftevT] tJ ■)(fii}p,dTav,iiarh^ tov dva\oyiff/j.ov ?qi? rpt&v irXoitov 
Koi virrjpfTixov ^ XeiTovpyia etntn. Kara Tr)v avrtjv Se dva\oyiav 
ioTW Kal ols eKdTTo>v aixrla i<rrX tS>v Sixa roKavroiv, et's OT/m-fXeiav 
cvvwyoiievoK et; to. Bexa raXoiTa.] 


ordered the suspension of the law, or documents weie two lists of citizens of 

(as Blass suggests) provided for the tiisl various degrees of wealth, with stute- 

of the case. — koA' i •= i/ciindum ipiod, ex ments of their assessmects fot the trier- 

guB, not firofitr gu^ [V/est.). orchy under the old law and under the 

TOilt KEiTiiXd^vt: the stupidity of the law of Demosthenes. The contrast b«- 

interpolator of the false documents never Iween the two called forth the question 

shows to greater advantage than in the with which g 107 li^ns. The doeu- 

two fragments of a pretended decree ment in g 105 is not a decree, but a 

given as KariXoyn in g 106. The real memorandum. 




*A/30 fiiKpa fiorfjBfi<r<u, rots irGn^trtv vfJav ZokZ, ■^ ^t^' Vi7 
ai>aXuo-(u hy tov fir/ to. SiKcua iroi^lv iBikav ol irXowMn ; 
ou Toiwv fiovov T^ fii) KaBwftetvai Tavra fTtft-vuvofxtu, ovSe 
T^ ypcujiel'i ano^vyelv, oXXa fcal Ttu <rvfi,if>epovTa delvtu rhv 
vofiov Koi T^ weLpav ipyoi SeSoiKevai. iroU-ra ya/) rov $ 
iroXefiov tIov airoiTToktiiv yiyvofidvwv Kara tov voftov Tov 
efihv, ov\ LKerrfpLov iOrfxe Tpii^pap)(0'i ovdei9 ir(oiTO^ a>s 
aZiKovfJbevo^ trap vfLLv, ovk i» 'Mowt^Ltf, ixaBel^ero, ov^ wo 

i 107. I. Ipd fi L, valg.; yt om. Z', *. i/uir 2, L, vulg.; ifiw V6, 

Kal (over ij) 2». a. d*aX(4fffi<U' i* F (Yp) ; lUoXfflffoi lu- itrl Ai. t1 toO L' . 

roC L", vnlg. M^Xcvom. Ai. 3. 4. -ypa^ F, «. dro^c^a' (sic) 

Z ; iro^vyto' L* ; ixD^*uii(i» ^Tilg. »*» om. V6. j. itbimui (for rtipar) 

V6. 7. & om. Z'- S. Hovvuxf; Hss.; Xoiirtxtf Kirchhoff, Attic in- 

9 t07. I. fUitp' ivcXimt. &V...W- 
Xav, (^j iV lAnn A^^ tiat lit rich 
laiuid have btm viilling le spend {pniy) 
a lUtU to citape doing justUt? With ol 
wXoiaun supply HoKaSeur. dtoXutacu de- 
pends on ie(\ttT ir, which repments 
^6i\w Sr. TOV iHi iroutv is genitive of 
purpose. Many editors omil IBO^ta, 
and take i> with ij/olKSvai ( = ar4\w- 
tar ir), depending directly on ioKtSei* 
undenitood. But /^Aiir is in the best 
MSs,, though it must be confessed that 
the sentence would be simpler without it. 

3. Kotw^itviw, dropping: cf. (sra- 
^&A.arrt.,% 103'. — BiiS): sc fiiror. 

4- <r»jt^ifpB»Ta Mmu rd* viifM* : cf. 
■nirAi Itiiirtit rii (Kulias, Eur. fiag. 173. 

5. T^ vttpa* 8^8^nd^la^ either m ny 
having givtn a ItsI of it (sc. i^\ or 
OTi tht laa having givtn a ItsI of ilstlf 
(sc. rir tAfur). It is much more natural 
to continue the subject iiU from ta9o- 
ipcirv, diTD^vyiiy, and Beirat, but usage 
favour!' the ellipsis of the reflexive. See 
i Ipi'"! a 7< *«lW reipo* tSaiKi, which 
did not ram give us a lest of thtmtehies ; 
XXIV. 14, Ttijiar o^idi' roUiuii ScSi^ 
Kaacr (sc. ol pAao') Art aviu^ptrrti lipit 
(Jiri (with oiJTW expressed); Thuc. 1. 
138* (of Tbemistocles), drA roC riipor 
9ifM>t fwrrji ^KrSoi, i.e. en /rso^ (sc. 
fairToS). Demosthenes, however, is eager 
to make his own agency prominent- 

Compare the perfect Stiutirai with the 
timeless aorists which precede (M. T. 
109, 96). 

6. dvorri^My: see § 80' ; and cf, IV. 
35, Tei>t i' drcrriXort rdrrat i/u> iiartpl- 

7. txtniptav (sc. fid^ii*), lufpliaHfs 
ivgA- generally of olive, bound with 
wool, which a suppliant laid on the altar 
of a divinity whose succour he invoked. 
See Schol. on Ar. Plut. 383, Ihtti^ 
^otI (\d3oi iXalat ipiif nrXeyfi^M, and 
Hermann, Gottesdienstl. Alt. g 14, 14. 
Here rap' i/ilr shows thai it was the 
altar in the Fnyx where the helpless 
trierarch soi^ht the protection of the 
Assembly. Aristotle (Pol. Alh. 43), in 
describing the regular meetings of (he 
Assembly, says: Iripar Si rail Uenipiaa, 
iw i edi It Pov\iittrot ittryiplay {liwip) 
aw or ^ottXijTai ml ISiiiw itai JhffiofffiiB' 
a<aX/ftT<u wpit ri* HjiAW. a. Poll. 

vm. 96. 

8. iv Uowrixlf : I'Ba irrlr Itpir Mov 
cux'ai 'A/rrffiStJ ' tanri f^ir/w oItihi 
TWf Tf(ij|)it/ix'>" ■iSixoSi'Tii, 17 ravTat ij nvci 
tQw i£tTa[ofUyar i, ri? Ilapairl (Schol.). 
See Lys. Xill. 14, taBltouttr fri rbr 
^a/iir Mowix'""'- 1'1'e form Mowixla 
is found almost exclusively in inscriptions 
of the best period. See Meisterhans, 
Gr. d. Gr. Inschr.f 13,8. 




rif airooToXeav iSddy), ov Tpf^prf^ out' e^ KaraXet^tfeur' 
lo airiaXero rg irokeL, ovt ainov a.irek€i^0r} ov Swafidvi} tu'a- 

108 ye<rdai.. kcutol Kara tovs irpoTtpovi voiuiv^ ajrai^a raGra 
eyCyvero. to 8' atriov, iv row wdinjo-w ■^v to Xj^ow/>yeu'- 
ffoXXa 8^ TOL&vvaTa irwi^aivev. ^w S' ix rStv avopotv «? 
Tou? tvTTopov^ /len^vfyKa tols rpiTipap^cK- wavT o3c Ta 
5 Se'oi^a eyiyvero. tctu p.T)v «oi war' avro tovto ol^w% fip.i 
iiTcuvov TUj(C«'i OTi TTOj^a Ta TOMtura trpfygpovp.rfv voXirei- 
fjMTa aift' 0)1' o/ut So^ai Kal ripil Kol Sufa/tei; a-wi^tuvov 
rg woXei' ^dfTKavav Zk kou iriKpitv xal KaKOTj&es ovScV ioTi 163 
jroXtT€u/xa «/AOK, ovSc Taweivoc, oiSe r^5 iroXews avd^iov. 

100 TavTO Toiwv ^60% e^v tv tc tow waTix t^v irdXii' TroXireu/iao'i 

9. inxmXuii O. 
'6 and some others. 

% lOS. 3. jc T^ Al. 

ulg.; \^ovprjiu Bl.. Alt. i 
. Gr. Inschr. §15. 3. ■ 

\tiToupyar £, L, $; \e(Torfp7<u' ft^ 66iia^at X {ypit 
plions: "XtiT. only after 300 B.C.," Meisterhans, Gt. 
^ i* Y, O (corr.}. 4. r*. om. O. 5. "r4 

re nual) am. V6. 8. Si rticpir (om. koI) O. 

9. i'TorraUm': see Bekk. Anecd. . 
435, 39: i'wiarv'KtU- Sixa rty ipteiiir 
ifOC"^" i"'"'! "' i'i '^! rKwoiiriji rSir 
nXmiaat T/H-fiiMw Toi tJii' iwayo/tirur 
•rriXur iwoStSfiyniroi. They were chosen 
for each occasion, and had charge of sup- 
plying the trierarehs wilh rigging and 
other material for the triremes from the 
public stores, and of seeing thai these 
were properly restored at the end of the 
voynge. Uocckh's Att. Seewesen, Urk. 
No. X.I shows how matiy and serious were 
the complaints agaiusl trierarehs in regard 
to these supplies: cf No. x\v. p. 466, 
10 — 15, where the di-nrToXtii are men- 
tioned. These documents and the pre- 
sent passage show that the symmories 
contained many men of very narrow 

9, 10. !{« K(LTaX«^4<ta', aieaidontti 
at lea; bvtoO ilnXiCi^, li/l dthiml in 
pari. We have 10 decide between these 
forms and tKriiKif^tita and dxfXTJ^Pn. 
But (araXir^eiOa (which has iittle MS. au- 
thority) would rather denote that the ship 

was caught or dtlained by an enemy. 
whereas the meaning obviously is that 
she WHS unseaworlhy. Sec Plat. Rep. 
496 B, Irwo ^cyiji KaraKq^ir, of a noble 
character delaiutd and hdd fast for phi- 
losophy by exile. And i.Tt\ii^6i[ is siiU 
less suited to the case of a ship ton badly 
fitted out to leave the harbour. — adroS, 
BH tht rfol, i.e. in port, where she was 
lying; ^fr^XiM^iiiKTicricrtWTcif (Schol.). 
See Plat. Rep. 371 c, airrov nhorras ripl 

S 10a, 1. tA 6' ^nov. withoat Sn, 

like nifHtar S4 and t»fh(|uo' Si : cf. 

3. dUvara, caia of iir^sabilily. 

6. wpogpa^iiitv : cf. irpoaipteit, % 93*, 
and often. 

7. hmifMt, power (of various kinds) : 
cf. SS44'. '33'. '37'- 

8. pdtTNavov, maUciota: see Haipocr., 
imX Toti ^XaJrinr Ksi wn^rtixhit. — 
KOK^an: see ifiot, % loij'. 

§ lO*. I. 4loi,^'ftft)»/<i (of action), 
felilUal ckaraeter: see note onf 114'. 



Koi h> Trnfi 'EXXi^viKoZ; ifxunja^fjMi,- ovre yap ev rg voKei 
TOts troLpa rStv irXovtrlotv ^dpira^ paXkov i) ra twv iroXXaiv 
htKaut eiX6pT)v, ovT iv rot? 'EXXijcucots Ta ^Ckiifnov hStpa 
Koi T^v ^evtav ■^ydirr}<ra avrl rStv koutq iraa-i rots EXK7)<rt 5 

'HyovpMi TMwv XoMToc etfoi /xoi vipi. tov KrjpvypaTOS 110 
etveiv Koi rmv evOwmv to yap is rapurrd t ^.trpaTTOV Kai 
Swt iravrhi; euvov? ei/it koX iTpodvfioi e3 iroielv vpM^, iKofu; 
Cfc ruv elpijp^vtuv SeS>}Xb><r9(u ^ot fo^^oi. kcutol ra pxyiara 
yc Totv TTenokvrevpevtav k<u. irevpaypdvatv ipavT^ napaXeiirot, 5 
vTroKap^dviiiv Trptarov pev ti^e^s rous irepi aurou toO wapa- 
vopov \6yov^ dwoSovval pt Betv, elra, Kav pT)8ev elirm mpl 

S 10». 1. ir 
% 110. I. lu 

UK {for caJriH) Ai. 

r >h V^u At, B. yt (for 

r« (for y) O. loXirtBo/ifriw O. 

1. i* ToI« 'EXXT|Vuratt, opposed to ir 
TtSt rari tH}> iri\i>: see 59'. 

5. (Cvrf, ro/Afr- tian, like ^tSXXor q' (3). 

IS 110— tai contain the replf to the 
fiist two arguments of Aeschines, that on 
the responsibility of Demosthenes as an 
ipX'*' at the lime when Clesiphon pro- 
posed his decree <£g 111 — iig), and that 
on the pl&ce of proclamation (§3 1117, iii). 
8 no isinlroductory. |g 133 — 135 are a 
peroration to Ibe division of the argmnent 
beginning with g 53. 

jlXO. i.*4plre€ Kr\fiyftmt,i,c,ai<ntt 
tlU place ef pratlamalien, this being the 
onl; poitit in dispute under this head. 

1. tmv iMmmv: this concerns only 
the question whether Demoalheoes was a 
" responsible magistrate" when Ctesiphon 
proposed to crown him. — rd vdp...i|i£«, 
i.e- (tie statement in Ctesiphoo's decree 
thai I did etc., tM.h\. of M^&rtfiu: with 
this reference to the words of the decree 
ef. 57". 

4. Til yiium refers especially to his 
important pubLic services in the year 
before Chaeronea {339—338), the ac- 
cowit of which ia reserved to the later 

division of his argument, where it comes 
in with far greater effect. 

5, iTBpaXdin*, I leave aside (not ne- 
cessarily / amil). This whole passage, 
with the implied doubt about any future 
mention of these "greatest acts," is full 
of rhetorical art. He has no intention 
whatever of omitting these acts or abridg- 
ing his account of them ; but he skilfully 
implies that his earlier acts, already 
related, are ample for the l^al justifi- 
cation of Ctesiphon, so that he could 
aiford to his greatest achievements 
unmentioned. He also diverts attention 
from one of his main objects, that of 
concealing the weakness of his argument 
on the e68vrai by placing it between two 
most effective political harangues. 

6. k^^t. in due crder: cf. 9 s6>. 
In S 56 abtt* itixi ropaXcf^u is said 
with no reference to this passage, but it 
simply states his general purpose of giving 
a full account of his public life. — aurafl 
Tsd 'nfardlMV, tkt strict quation of 
illegality, with which alone the 7pa^ 
Topurj^tur is properly concerned. 

■ - - note on fi It*". 




Ttay XoiTTMV Tro)nT€vfjMTtav, ofiouo^ irap vftMV CKotrr^ to 
crvvetSc'S vvapxetv fiot. 
Ill Tbif fih' oSv koyoit', o&s 0^09 djw xaX Karia Sicucvicuc 
«X*y€ wepl tSiv napayey paiJ,fi.eya>v vofioiv, ovre pA tovs 0eovs 
otpai vfiAi pavOdvcLv ovr' avrbs iSwdpyiv {rweofou Tovq 
TToXXous' an-Xttis Sc t-^i" opffijv irepl tS>v Sikeuoii' SioXe'^/mii. 
5 TofTOvTtf yap 8e(o \eyew ws ovk tlpX im€v6vvo^, & vvv 06x05 
SujSaXXe (cat Suo/xfero, wtr^ aJra*Ta roc /Sioi* wnJ^vos 
etpoi op^koyw av fj SioJcexeiptKa ^ v€Tro\iTevp.tu irop* ufu*'. 

S. iiciimf Z, I., At. a iKirTovB,vu\g. 9. ^(i/]X« O', F. 

§ 111. 1. ovrn om. V6. kueu* Ai, Y; rvK\'2r Ai ; B««u«\(«» above) L. 

». Tiii' om. Ai. rfWpayiUmiir 2, L, Ai; vapaytypafi.iiin» S (7(>) ; 7n'po/'- 

;i6'ur L* (mg-), Al. 0. 3- ol^mi u^i 2. F, 4, O; ifat oroucu L; ijf^i o^uu A'> 

B. Xa»eilMi» B. <Tuninu. Aa. +. ofrriSi' (after xo\Xdi)i) L (mg.), Ai. 

F (tp). ♦ (tp). V, O. -Hi* 6p6%„ 2, L, F, *; tV ip«V i**' vulg.; M4» after 

Jiicalu* L (mg.). Y. S- Toffoifrv 2, L (f over u), ♦; Tfeafnm vulg. oJrot 

2, L, F; ourWToXAdnt Tulg. 7. ijf ^Jij Ai. SuKexttputa 2, O (if over 

last 1); iiuex''/'^™ L, Y, V6. 

8. i|ia(a»i, all Ihtsanu. — rap' Apav... 
thnLpX.*"' H"^! ''^''' -^ ""'^ '''4' "" " ''""' 
sciouitusi af thtm in aicA of your minds ; 
cf. % 9s' and note. 

gill. I. Twv XiY»v< depending on 
rai)t nXXiH^.— jiM) Kol Kdru StoKviMV, 
miiiHglkim in altrr confusion. See IX. 
]6, rivdi nl fiiTu TiTofqice, and without 
mi II. 16, orparelait roTf Iru cdru, and 
IV. 41, oviacafaBtiTt S*i» jcdrw, up and 

1. 'nfafi^fpamUMn' : the laws which 
the indicted decree (tA ^Oyor ifr^aiia) 
was charged with violating were ■uirillin 
on a tablet (aorfiiw) 1^ its side, and this 
was posted in the court- room. See 
Aesch. III. too: it raXx ypa^aff ti> 
Topapd/udP Topd'rciTcu Kttriiir tov StKoiov 
Tovri r6 rv/lSnai Kai ri ^^ur/ia xai ol >^jU(. 

4. T^» ipft^w (sc. iS6r), is we say, 
straigkiforward : see Ar, Av. 1, r)^* 
KcXeiieit;— T>v SucoCnv, /^^ nj^^j af the 
case, opposed to rSir Xiytw (i). 

5. Twrofrr^p him My*''*- ^ ""' " f"*" 
from saying : tiwoiStv with Hu as with 

comparatives: so in IX. 17. Most MSS. 
have tdiToiItou in both passages, and all 
have it in vill. 70. 

6. GUpaMUKolSuipfttro: seeg4*. 

7. £v.,.v«iroXfT«U|UU, i.e. either far 
money lAal I kaee handled or for piMie 
acts that I have done. 

% lia. The sophistical character of 
the argument of §§ 111 — iig explains the 
anxiety of the orator to cover its weak- 
ness by its position in the oration (see 
note oD 3 1 10*). The reply of Aeschines 
(m. 17 ff.) to this i^uiTTw \bioy, ir ^nat 
iiriitoaSirit!, probably written or greatly 
modiliEd after hearing this passage, is 
conclusive. The law quoted by Aesch. 
( II I Ti>i>i irtuBinin /tit (rrf^iwaOr certainly 
made no exception for those who gave 
money to the slate while in office. In- 
deed, this very claim is one which needed 
to be established by the tUSvnu, in which 
it might be disputed : see Aesch. 13, fiuw 
il^i^^T|7-$(rai irH rir pouMiitun- rijr 
irsXiru* in o6t iwiSuxat. The claim of 
Demosthenes at least amounts to this, 
that any officer who asserts (bat he has 
expended mote in the service of the state 
than he received should be exempt from 
the law TDi>t vTtvdivovs /iij aTr^aj/oGo. 
The specious argument that a man cannot 
fairly be called Co account (or the ex- 
penditure of bis own money on public 



Si}^, ovBffiiav TifLepav inrevOvvoi eXval <fn)fu {oKovtis 
264 AUr)^Lvr} ;) ovS* aXXoi/ ovSeVa, ovB' &v tS>v iwi' apj(6vT<av 

fjA^avdpomia^ fieoTOS wrre roc Sdi^a Ti rw»' (Slu>v kcu s 
iroLij<ravTa wpay/j.a (fttKavOpanrov koX ifn^oSiopov -rrj^ )(dpiTO$ 
likv avoarepw, cis tows <rvKo<f>dvTai 8' ayea*, koX tovtovs 
^l Tos eu^was wf eSoiKCf ei^itrrafcu; ouSc cfs. €1 Se ^(nv 
oJ/TOSt hn^drot, Kaym arep^a kcu o-toimfcro^ai. aXX' ouk 113 
eoTiv, avSpet 'Al^vatoi, aXX* oSros <rvKO<f>avTav, ort cirl t^ 
deotpiK^ TOTC w eireStoKa ra ■)(p^fiaTa, iiryvto'ev avroi'. 

•riwo^. J' dvcir Ai, Y; ili 3i T(M>t o 
fAsioF L> (rag.)- o'i' 'ti 2. Al I 

tit Si roil amo^irtal S' l7<(r Z; tit r»h 
>jco^. drnr L, B, VUlZ. 8. SitoKtr Al } 

aiSi (ft »4rw L, vulg. 

works could not releue Demosthenes 
from tSOvmt when he had obvinoslf had 
public money in hU bands; and the 
responsibility foi tiii was the real obstacle 
to his receiving a crown before his tS- 

I. Air fimt, -f: yt emphauic* Ibe 
whole relative clause- We should gene- 
rallj have iJr yt, bnt liirrtt has naturally 
the second place (see Bl.}. — hrayyaXd- 
(MMt EAmca, Aaoe offertd and pvm, i.e. 
Amv given by my frtt aet, openly de- 
clared. See C I. Att. ll. No. 334, a 
ifr^^mriM calling for voluntary contribu- 
tions (It eamfia* r^ riXiwt and ordering 
a publication of the donors' names (which 

3. run bM' ifxivmif: the Archons, 
as the chief magisl rales and as candidates 
for the Areopagus, would naturally be 
(ubject to special scrutiny at iheir tS- 

J. )U(rav4p<>T{ai, miiattihrtpy, op- 
posed to tptKirBpoTor (6). 

7. f L« To^ o-uKo^vTM : ironical al- 
lusion to (It Tsvt 'Koytetit, as if the 
sycophants wete a board of ofGcers (hence 
Tii6t).^Ti>inm...ti^i.rri.v9i., te stt thtm 
la audit the ate^iatU tte. 

ax v6k Imv («c. ftiiat 

I lis. 


1. IrA T^ BtapM^ A>, Ireaturer of thi 
Tktoric Fund: for the importance of this 
office see Aeach. ill. ij, tfi, ending with 
KTt)ff<4^ U Atiitofetnir rir vuXX^^iitr 
iriaat rii 'A8^ir-/fiir dpxi^t ipxofra oDx 

3. MSaiHi, properly govt in adtHliett 
(to the public fund in lus charge). Gifts 
to the state were often called ^iSivtu; 
cf. S 171^.— trJMffw avrdv (sc Knrrn- 
^ur) = typa'4'tr inuwiirat^ All MSS. ex- 
cept S insert 4 j3*v\4 Its subject of fri- 
v«r<r. The true subject appears in I. to, 
roOr' lypa<fitt hH wtpl iiioO. irairtb, 
complinitnt by a tioti of Ifuoiks, and ari- 
^arou* are both used of the vote con- 
ferring the crown, which included also a 
vote of thanks: see SSS7*. jS*, Bs', ii;".*. 
See Maximus (in Wall, Rhet. Gr. IV. 
p. 587) ; of iupi/itrot Tip amn^Hu rpii 
ri fri oix iTtitwor Srra Knin^ur on)- 
yiptmrer, Srtp irrupvt col SttpfiiHiir i 
iriiiot axoTojwfn, drd^UTOt luroBiftt tV 
fiiSatot waptaxrra, drrl tdC dr )r7Aj><vr(i' 
iw^Tttttt tlfuir, — which must refer to 
this pasuge. 



<f)7)a-lv, virfv$vvov ovra. ov tttpi Tovraiv y ovSevof aw 
S vvevd%>voi ■^v, dXX' i<f>' ots en^SotKo, at <rvKO<ftayTa. aWa. 
Kal T€ij(oiroios T^trda. koX SmC ye towt' ip6S>^ hrgvovftifv, 
OTt TovrjXiifi^' eSotxa Kal ovk i\(yyi.l^6fi,'T}v, 6 fiev yo-p 
XoyMT/ws evBwStv Kal rSiv i^eraa-ovriuv vpo<r8eiTat, r) Se 
8(ttpea ^dpiTOi Kal iiraivov htKoia itrrX Tvyxavctv outwtp 
114TaOT' eyparjiev oSi -n-epl ifxov- ort S' ovra ravr ov ^lovov iv 
Tois vo/MJW oKka Kal iv rots vpAripoi% ■fjOetrw ^purrat, eyai 
p<f^ia^ iroWaypBo' S&^ot. wparov phr yap NawriKX'^s 

I lia. 4. ^iprlr. 4^i>XJrL, Z*. vnlg.: 4^X1) 001. Z', ^if<Tl* om. AiMsmBI.). 
abihr &r V, O. 6. t/n^l (sfter ^ff^a) vuIe-; om. Z, «. Sid 7< rovro Z, L, 

B, F, ♦; iC a*Ti -ye toDto L' (mg.). Ai. Q, vuTg. 7. riraXufUwa Ai. 1, B (i| 

over *nd o). fSuxa Z, L, Ai, ♦; friSuna B, vulg. (cf. gg m', 114', iij*). 

8. 4«-a{«fiA'w Ai. 9, irol om. Z. iirTlr rvyx'^""' 2; rvyx^" ^'^ 

Ai. 1, Y. 10. D81(uovero)Bi iV6. 

g tl«. t. oVrul Z, Li oOtu Tulg. raCra (bef. of ) £, L, F, *, V6i roCra 

fx**! ■ol vute. s. iiuTiptit £, L, <t; liurripoH vutg. Wtru' Sopalei, Dind. 

3. Idfw TsAX^mf. A«. T^p om. \'6. 

4- ci wfX v*^n>*..,MtaMnL: this 
argument usumes th«l m ordinary lirri- 
01'rDt could be crowned, before pissing 
his iKunu, for k. gift to the state which 
was not connected with hii office. It is 
conceivable, and even probable, that a 
crown might be voted for such a gift to 
an officer of state, even during his term 
of ofGce, by genera! consent, without 
being thought illegal, though the letter of 
the law made no exception for such a 
case. And the cases cited as precedents 
in g 114, so far as we know, may have 
been of this nature (see 3 117'. "). But 
this was not the case with the gifts of 
Demosthenes. These were both closely 
connected with the funds which he held 
as an officer of state, and the ot^ment of 
Aeschines (13) applies to them in its (nil 
force. Demosthenes says nothing which 
shows that Ctesiphon did not violate the 
letter and even the spirit of the law ToAt 
CwtitffitMi iiii vrt^otaCr. And yet it is 
more than likely that the friends of 
Demosthenes, in their eagerness to crown 
him for bis noble services, overlooked 
the technical obstacle to their action; 
and the court appeajv to have decided to 
overlook their oversight. 

6. m](e*oiit, one of a board of com- 
missioneis appointed to lupennlend the 
repairs of the city walls. The ai;gulllent 
seems to have been the same about both 
of the offices which Demosthenes held in 
337—336 B-C- The orator attempts no 
such distinction as Aesch. predicts {j8 — 
30), by excluding the ofhce of t«xc**^ 
from the ipx'l which require lOSvwiu. 

8. Tvv l^ t iwi irimr ( ::^ «! iiirirtviri), 
mtn h invesHgaie '. the present would be 
simply imiesHgatBri, with no temporal or 
linal force. 

S 114. t. ^I«nv, ^wir moral fal- 
itigs, which impel you to act thus. Some 
read tBtair with some rhetoricians here, 
and by conjecture in J 175'. Aristotle 
(Eth. II. I, Othos explains *«n:iS,HaTO/: 
i^ f^ovt ircpt>(rFrcu, SStr Koi Totra/ia 
ta^ti lurpir rappeKtSttr iri td£ Want. 
Cf. ilSuii, mores, marait. .See note on 
% »75'- 

3. wohXax^fci' SdEa: Aeschines an- 
ticipates or rather answers this argument 
in 193: XiytiStt ^t6-iur...iiixi>t (ir¥9iia 
yiypa^r, oXA' in ^ rari mil rpirtpar 
trtpm TOMi&ra ypd\(iat iri^vya: — Hwtw 
kMji : the general who commaitded the 
well-known expedition which stopped 




oTpaTTfyov &j>' ots airo twv iSiatv irpoftro iroXXaKK iaT€<j>d- 
vwrai w^' vfiMv eW ore ras a<7JriSas Aloti/xo; ISukc koI s 
ndkiv Xaf^Srjfio^, i<rT€<f>avovvTO' elff ovrotrX NconroXe^s 
TToKkSiv ipytav ivurraT^^ ^v, i^' ot? eircSoiKc Tcri/UTTai. 
(r)(er\u>v yap Slv ett) tovt6 yc, el t^ tic* dp^v dp)(omi ■^ 
OMovai rjj iroXei rd eavrov Sia r^v ^PX^" f'V ef^orai, 
265 ■^ tZv Bodetn-atv dvrl tov KofiitratrBai X"'^^" ^^vva^ vtf>€$fi.. 10 
oTi Toiwv TovT dky)0^ keyat, Xeye rd ^(f>i<r[LaTd p>oi ro, 116 
TovTots yeyevTffUva airrd \afiav. keye. 


\^Ap')(Wv AfinopiKoi; 4>Xiw?, ff<»}Spottiai»K Snrp /ter eUoBa, 
fva>ii.r) /SouX^s >caX S^fiov, KaWia^ 0pedppio<! el-yrep on SoKti -rp 5 
^ov\^ KaX TJ) h^fitfi <rT(^av£aat fiavtrucXia rov eVi Twi' 27r\aii', 
on 'AOijpaiwv ottXituv £«r^(X/a>K Svrav iv "Ip-^p^ KaX ^or)$ovi/- 
Ttov Tois KaTOtKovfftv 'ABijvatav rtjv t^aov, ov SvvafUvov ^iKtovo^ 
TOV ^^l T^! Siotic^<reM<! Key^eiporoj/rifiivov Sid roii^ j^tiftava^ 
TrXevo-ot xal ftur0oSoT^<riu roiv ovXirat, ix -riji ISlai ovtriai SSaxe 10 

jj. trt Z, L, B, vulg.; In Ai, O. 6. iortipartOTo At, O. oAmrt 2 

(corr.)i L, Ai. 1; otmt B, vnlg. 8. cf rw V6; d ry MarkUnd, Cobet. 

0. Ti.,.iauTaO £, Ll ri JovroC ry riXn vulg. lo- ii^fs Z, L, At. t, vulg.; 

S^ftf B, F (y over «). 

gI16. I. hfye om. V. 3. afri Xn^iir om. Ai. Xfyt. £, L' (mg.), 

Philip at Thennopylae in. 1J4 B.C. Diod. 
XVI. 37; Groie XI. 414; Schufer i. 509. 
See note on | 31'. NauticlM i* men- 
tioned hj Aeschines (159) as the one in 
whole name Demostbenes proposed his 
decrees after ibe battle of Giaeronea. 

5. Anlnffat: mentioned in xxi. 108 
as a rich trierarch, included by Arrian 
(t> to> 4) among the generals whom Alex- 
ander demanded after the destruction of 

6. Xap(Si|i«t: of Oreus, an adopted 
Athenian, the object of I 

the 01 


i« first a guerilla leader 
vice of Athens, later one of the patriotic 
party, and was demanded by Alexander in 
33s, — ovT««i implies that Neoptolemns 
mil well known in Athens. 

7. iraXXin> IpYac lnmin|t: pro- 
bably one of those called Stiitorlwr tpywr 
trt^Tinu by Aesch. (!"■ 19)1 specially 
appointed to direct special works. In an 
inscription (partly relating to 338 B.C.), 
C. I. Att. II. J, Add. No. 741, crowns 
are recorded as given by the people to 
Neoptolemus, Chaiidemus, and Nausi- 
cles and as afterwards dedicated by them 
to Athena {see Aesch. III. 46). 

8. axMjmt £v flit...44i|{fi: for the 
peculiar form of conditional sentence see 
M. T. 503, 407. 

10. KO|i[irair4cu implies thai the te- 
caver has a claim on the giver: cf. a*o> 
SoSrai, § iie^, and Plat. Rep. 507 A, i/J 
r« XmuBiu nbrfyi droilailviu ml t)/(2t n/ii- 



Kol ovK elffhrpa^ roir Sfjfutp, koI apofopevirat TOf irri^avov 
AiopvffioK Tpay^&ot<! watvot;.] 


116 [Elire Ka\Xui« ^peappioi, irpvravemv Xtrfovrav ffovKij^ yvtifu/, 
evetSii XapiSi}HOi 6 ^wi t(Sv 6-3r\iriSv, diroirrdKeh €K XaXafUva, 
K{u AtOTtfUK ivl T&v iirtretov, €v T^ ewl toO Troratioti najfji rav 
OTpaTieiTwv Tti'mc twd Ttuv iraKe/iitm' uKuTLevOevrtiav, ex tcuv tSieev 

5 avoXwfMiTwi' KadtairXioav tovv veavitTKovv dtnrCtrtv oKraKOffiaii, 
SeS6j(6ai ry ^ovh^ Koi rp ^fi*p (rre^awfuo-ot X.aplSr]fMP km AeoTi^i* 
XP*><r^ trre^dvtp, Kal dvarfopevaat TlavaOiivaioK tok /teyoXot; 
cV T^ yvfwtKi^ dtywvt koI AiovvtrioK Tp<vf(ptoi<i xatfoif* r^f 5e 
avarjopevaeaK ivt^Xtjdijvai Offffioff^at, irpurdiieii, arfwifofferai.^ s 

117 Tovraic eitaoTos, Aitrxi*^, r^s ii-hf apx^}^ ^s ^PX^ 
vireidwo^ jjv, i<f>* 6U 8* ^(rTe<^ow>UTO ou;^ ujrev^wjs. owkow 
ouS* ^(o- Taura yap SUnt ifrri fjLot irepl rS>v avTS}v tow 
aXXoi; Siffl-ou. hri&WKa' eaaM>Qvp.a.t, 8ia Tauro, ovk <av o>v 

si&oiKo. viTfvdvvo^. '^pxov Koi SeSbiKa y' culWcos iKeivav, 
ou)f <uf iireSutKa. vr) Ai, dXX' dSifriuf ^p^o.- etra iraptav, 
ore p. eurijyov oi Xoyurrcu., ov Karrfyopct^; 

% XI7. 2. eiaiBr S. j. TaCra yip O, 4. ml AroiroC^uu O. j. Hw- 
wS', *; irffluKoZ". Uvulg. 7* om. As, V. 6. «r <i^i««a H) Afa- 

aXX'Z, L. 7. SuiKn-iilAi. ai X,L, Ai; iiirtti B,va\g. 

I 117. 1. 1^' sit fart^avofira: we ^(teot roit urnMrou Xoyifj;urM, jkoI rit 

do not know nhether there wu any dil- iM^mt (tt ri Biirairr^pur itedTwrci. Be- 

(inclion between these deciees and that fore this board of auditors every magis- 

of Clesiphon like that mentioned in 1 1 13*. trate had (o appear for bis «Mwu at the 

As Demoitbenes identifies his own case end of his term of office; and they (g«ne- 

abiolntely with these, the qnestion is of rally as a matter of fonn) brought him 

little moment. before a Heliastic court of 501 judges, in 

4. trai x Bitai ; cL irfrtirtr, g 113'. which an/one might appear and accuse 

6. n) AC, <IXX': a more emphatic him of any offence connected with his 
form in stating an objection than the office. His accounts of money expended 
common dXXd, H) Ma: cf. xix. vjt, xx. were audited at the sane time. See 
jS. — nfiv: Le. iiitig pretmt (as yon Aesch. lit. l^~•^■^^ The question Wi 
were). ^oiiXcTai minn'Speir; (Aesch. 13) was 

7. ii'ttni-rovalXoYwralisee Arislol. probably asked in presence of the court 
Pol. Ath. j4, Kol (icX<i/KiiVt si 'A0.) \o- at the tBBvtai. of Demosthenes ; and to 
TWrdj Una Koi soriffb^xn TotfrHt Itttx, ihijAeschinesdidnotrespond. Butthese 
Tpit (Ml BTUTat iri-yKTi roilt t>u i^K^t (fWwoi must have come several months 
fiplojTat Xo7» drcrcyiKU' ■ wnw -jAp tlm after Cle^phon's bill lutd passed the 




"iva ToCvuv t&Tfff oTi avros oStos fu>i fiMprvpel iift' ots 118 
ovx vvfvdwoi ^v €4jT€^vwiT0ai, Xa/So)^ avdyvuBi rh tjnj- 
tfuxTfi-a o^Of ro ypaxf>ev fuji. oX^ yap ovk ^paAJiaro tov 
irpojSovXev/taros, rovroi; a Simkcl (rvKo^avrav ^avqtreTai. 
Xeye. 5 


irpvravevovtn]^ OivT/tSov, KtijO'i^^v Aeea<T0h>otn 'At>a^\v<rrtov 
elvev, iireitT) At]fu><T0iv^v Ai}/ioiT0ivov<! Tlaiapiev<i yevofievot ivi- 
ftekijTi]^ Tt}^ tS>v Tct^eSv eTTMTKei/^V KaX nrpotravaKaxTa^ eU Ta ipya 10 
dtro Trjs iBla<! oviriai rpta TaKavra iweBaxe ravra t^ ^f^, Ka^ 
evl TOV OtaptKov xaTairraSeh iireSo>Kt tow ix ircur^v rtSv <^v\<Sv 
Bttopol'i exaTOP /ivat tit Ovaiwi, SeSo^^ot t^ fiovK^ xal TfS Bvm* '''V 
'A.6r}vaimp iwatviaat Atj/iotrdeyriv At}fiOffdivow TlatayUa dperrj^ 
Svetea Kal KaKoKorfaBitK ^¥ ixtav SuxreXe! iv vavTl natp^ eiV Tof I5 
&fjfMv t6v 'ABiivaLtov, ictu OTt^avwirai j(pva^ aTe<fia.v^, koI dva- 
367 yopeverat rhv trre^vov ev Tf> Qearp^ AiowaioK Tpay^Sol^ Katvols' 
T^9 a avwyopevaeta^ iTrifiekifOfjvat top dy»vo6eTi}P.^ 

S tlB. I. I» iitvi rw At. av £'; la^Tt £>, L, w%. t. i6k 

im69. £. ^. ^iurfiami rmco^. Y. 

For anolher bond of len, chosen by (he 
Senate by lot from their own number, 
also called \ir/urral, and for the ten (0- 
ivTM with iheir twenty iriptSpM, see 
Aristot. Pol. Ath. 48. 

S Its. J. lirn^vArfu (sc. i^), 
Le. that the propoMl to crown me has 
passed the Senate : cf. iwiKvrr in 
I "3*- 

3. ypa^fc (Ml, prppostdin myhoittur; 
tee note on % 56*. — toO TpoPouX«J|iaTM : 
panilive after dEi. The meaning is, that 
he will use the omissions from the decree 
in the indictment to show the malice of 
Aeschines b prosecuting the clauses which 
he includes. 

4. 4 SuiMk j T iKe^WTJy ; see XXIIl. 
61, «VMfhimiC/Mi' rh x/Ayiut. 

The ORitor dow calls for the reading of 

the lull of Clesiphon, ostensibly to prove 

the point just made, but perhaps chiefly 
to recall to the minds of the judges Ctesi- 
phon's enumeration of hin public services 
which the Senate has approved. In the 
following spurious decree the Archon's 
name is wrong and different from that in 
the indictment (which is also wrong) ; 
and the references to the words of the 
decree made by the two oralora do not 
agree with this document. 

9 119. Here the proof of the malice 
of Aeschines, promised in g 118, is given 
on the authority of the decree just read- 
It i) argued that Aeschines admits the 
gifts ami their legality by his silence 
Gonceming them, while he brands as 
ill^^l the proposal to return public 
thanks for these gifts. As if the thanks 
for a legal gift might not be given in an 
illegal manner. 



119 OuKovf a fiev iireBtitKa tout iativ, £v ovSht <rv yeypa- 
x/>ai* a Se <fyr)a-Lv -^ /SouX-^ Seiv avri tovtihv yfvetrBeu /aoi, 
ravr' ea-ff a. SioiKec;. to Xa^eii' oSf ra SiSd^Cfa ofwkoyi^v 
evvofiov ctvai, ro yo.ptv Tovrtnv diroSowai irttpavofiMv ypd<f>€i. 
5 6 Se -rrap-vovrfpoq dvOpomos Koi 6eoK e^^/ws *c(u fid<rKavo% 
ovT<i>% irolos Tis iv ew7 iryws 6tatv; ov\ 6 tou)0to5; 

180 Kai /t^v jr€pi tow y* ev t^ Bedrptf K7}pvTT€<rdcu, to /ikv 
fi,vpMKi% fiMpCovs K€itripv)(0ai TrapaXeiirot koX to ttoXXcucis 

g 119. 3. fioi 7a>Ar9u Al. 4. (rrofiov ctru i^Xoy^l* V. Yp4^ Z, L; 

Tpii^ wig., Bk., Bl.; 7pd^i( Dind., Vom., Wett., Ups. See B ■>■*• ■i>'3 note below. 
g ISO. 1. Tjv /i^> (foi ri lUt) Z>. 

+^; ef- note o" 

I 13'. See critical oote. Here, and in 
nine other places in this oration, all mss. 
have the ending -g (or -ij) in che second 
person sii^lar of the preient or future 
middle. See §g iii>, [31', 140", 198', 
198*, 138", 139', 183', 313' (three of 
these having raXiniji). In eight places 
Z has -«, while most or all other mss. 
have -D (or -ij). See gS 81', 161', 145', 
ajfi*. »83», 184' 190*, 310*. In both 
classes 1 have, not without hesitation, 
given the form -« in the text. In the 
whole of Demosthenes, according to 
Vomel, there are 38 cases of -<t and 30 
of -p. The Greek giammariani are birong 
In thdr slatemenls, that " the Attic " or 
" the ancient Attic " used the fonn in -n, 
except in tragedy, which had -d ( and that 
in ^odXn, o(h, and Si/vi there were no 
Ibrou in -g. See the quotations and the 
statistics in Vomel, Demosth. Contiones, 
pp. 84—87. The writeis of the fifth 
century wrote EI for both ifi nnd u of 
the Ionic alphabet. The confusion in 
Athens in the fourth century between -171 
and '«, to which Blass calls attention, 
probably prevented the establishment of 
fixed usage in spelling the syllable in 
question in the Ionic alphabet, and both 
■in and -<i were perhaps used indifferently. 
Blass, after calling the introduction of -tt 
into the tragedians, Aristophanes, or Thu' 
cydides " widersionig," thus proceeds: 
" Bei Demosthenes isl es gleichgiiltig, 
ob man so Oder so schrdbt, da der 

Schriftsteller selbst beliebig bald g, bald 
« geschrieben haben wiid." The mss. 
of Demosthenes certainty show great 
confusion in the spelling, which may be 
traditional. Thus in Cor. g 138* all uss. 
have SuM-rB, while in xxxiv. 33 S has 
9(aX^( and others SioX^d. See Blass- 
Kiihner, gg 43, 5, and 111, 3; Meister- 
bans, Grumm. d. Gr. Inschr. gg 10, 14, 
and rf. 1 and 3. We con hardly believe 
that Demosthenes himself wrote t^yin 
and X^« indifferently ; but it is perhaps 
impossible now to decide which he did 

g ISO, 

(not I 


10.000 men). This was justified rhetori- 
cally by the great frequency of decrees 
conferring crowns to be proclaimed in 
the theatre : the number of these on 
record shows that any law which may 
have forbidden the procUnation of 
crowns in the theatre was a dead letter. 
Blass (Einl. p. 13) cites the followiikg 
decrees from the C. t. Atl.: I. No. 59 
(410 B.C.); II. 10^ (393 B.C.), iji (307 
—300 B.C.). 300 (*9S B.C.), 311, 3H 
(186 B.C.), 33[, 34'. 383, 401, 444, 445. 
In all these we find essentially the same 
Ui^uage; e.g. in No. 300, [nl irttTt]lt 
t4f vritarer luan/^tlaii ™» it iar}u 
Tpayifiar rif iySni}]. — ri voXUKif... 
«p<Cnpov : in the notes on g 83* (Sturipoii 
...Ti-yro/i^rau) 1 have given reasons for 
thinking thu the crown voted on the 




avT09 €(rTt<f>av&irdat, irportpov. dXXa tt/m? dtlav ovrw 
o-Kotof ct Kal ovaUrdTjTtyi, AitjyjvTf, oiot' ov Svifatrtu \oyi- 
a-aa-Qtu ori t^ fikv ort^avov^Uvip to*' avrov ej^ei f^Xoi' o s 
orei^twos, ottou Ai/ avapptjO^, tov &k riav aTftffttvovvTav 
EtifCKa <rvfi.^4povTO'i iv t^* Bearpf^ yiyyerai to ic^pvyfia ; 01 
yap aKovcaiTe; aircwTE? ei9 to iroicii' c3 t^k iroXii' npOTpe- 
TTOiTai, Kai TOWS airoStSoi'Tas T^f X'^P^" /^SXXoc eTrotwjvtri 
ToS trreijiafovp.ei'OV' Stoircp toc vofiov tovtov ij woXt? yeypa- 10 
^t*". Aeye 8'' airrov p^i top vopov Xa^mv. 


fOtrout iTTt<f>avava-i rtvet t&v i^fiav, TOf afa^opevtret; nvv 
o-TC^fotv iroteltydat iv avroK knaarovt roif t&tot<i S^fMK, idv ^^ 
Ttvai 6 £17/10; o Tmi/ '\0TiPalwv fj ^ ^ovXij trrtt^voi' tovtov? S' 15 
i^ftvat iv Tip Bearpqt Aiovva-ioK avayopevevOai.] 

'AKovfK, Aitr)(CvT), tow ra/xov Xeyovros iraiftw^, irXijflSl 

3. Jrrt^aroSffftuO; vrc^oroInTSiKSpengel. 4. Arrival Z, L,Ai. 1, B*, *,Y; 
tirovBui F (001 over «ftu1. B', vulg. 6. ftrou £, L, A; Stm B, vulg. Ac om. 
Z', V6. 7. (&(ra Z, L. S«e note below. rb rfipvyita •fi-Ynrai Al. 

g. ^ovoMTi ^iSXXor V6. 10. rw* m^amvitira* (corrected to roO otc^oi-mi/iAwv) 

motion of Aristonicus in 340 B^., and 
proclaimed Id the theatre, had been 
preceded by another, also proclaimed in 
the theatre, of which we have no other 
accoDiit than the allusion in g Sj. These 
two, with the one voted on the motion of 
Demomeles and Hypetides in 336 B.C. 
(§S HI, J33), if the latter was nclually 
proclaimed, justify the use of toWAkii, 
especially after luipiina tuipleui, 

4. wtt' ail Svitwui: see M.T. doi 
and JS4. The meaning is art yeu le 
tlupid that yott an rut ablt f while with 
(drrc nil Uraadat it would be are yffu 
stupid eaaiigk nol to bi aile I 

5. Tie Kiiiir YffL [ijXov, i.e. the 
rueiver ofthi crmvti feih tht same pride \ 
f^Xot is emulation, pride in urcelling, 
hence ^<»7t»f (see gS n?'- 573')- 

7. ifmKa: this Ionic and poetic form 
is often found b the best mss. of Demo- 

sthenes. I have admitted it here and in 
i 175' on the authority of Z and L, and 
in 9 I44< on that of £ and B. Wesl. 
and BI. adopt (Evcio or (fMic' often with- 
out MS. authoHty. See Sandyi's note on 
Lept. ,'. 

8. <ti Tj vouty (S: this motive is 
strongly urged in many decrees conferring 
crowns. See C. I. Att. II. No. iji: 5»»t 
ftr (ttuiri Stwamtt Sn i Stjiuh i 'iStiraiur 
nilirTTTai mtl X^P" irttliiiiea i^i' ur in 
(B riBei [w&B-^) sal ri/i^ ir narl KOipif 
iitai Twr tte/iytfftvr. So C. I. All. !I. 
No. in,A, .3. 

g ISl. This short but impassioned 
outburst cannot be a reply to the long 
and conHised argument of Aeschines 
(31— 4S). For an attempt to expUin 
the real state of the case, see Essay 
I , Remarks on gg no, 111. 



avayopev^Tw ; rC otv, ^ roXaiirto/K, <ruKo<^ai/T«w ; ri 
Xoyous irXaTTeis ; n a-avrov ovk iW€$opC(€ii eirl tovtow ; 
5 oW* ovS* ala^vvei <f>66vov Sifnjf eurdyciv, ovk oBucqfiaToi 
ovoevo'i, KoX fo/iovs /leraTroimv, toiv S' a^aipatv ji^py), o&9 
oXovf StKaiov ^i* ayayiyi>a<TKetr6an ToTs 7' 6p.<iipoK6<rL Kara 
133 Tov? fo^v; ^<fneto'0ai. eitei/ra TOtavra irotMv Xeyets ttoo-o 

I lai. 1. <yv*l'VTM £, 1^ Ar. 1, B, F, *, Oi iTTt0utintr<u £ (yp). B (ms.). 
F (mg.), 4 <iiig.), vulf. f. ai^wii Z; airx^rtl (or **<)l «I1 other MSS. Se« 

1 1 1 g*. ttviytv X,h,t; iladyvi vulg. 6. iMtrii Xo^tir nfiuplsr A 1 . 1, 

O. rd/mit Z'; Fj^vi Toit /ijr Z*, L, vn^. (^tpur (si over t) Z. 8. V^ 

^UffSi (lo- ch. to (iir) Z. 

S taa. I. IrtTo (ich. to n) 2; (rttra «* Ai, O; tha ri Ai. X*7« (IWer 

.1., _ .. ., ........ ... .^ . ^ ,p jj L' (w. 

(hequoted passage rXV ii''...ii'a.yofitu4Tu 
appears to be sn addition to the law 
quDted by Aeschines id 31, iir iiit n>a 

JidXiTirE^, dUafii S^ if^aiicB. This would 
mean that Aeschiaei read a mutilated 
law to the court, which in liill would 
have told against him, and that Demo- 
sthenes simply supplied the omitted words 
and so ended the ailment. This is 
more than we can believe either of 
Aeschinet or of the court. Our trouble 
is, that we do not know wbal law the 
clerk read to the court at the end of 
% 110, and therefore do not know in 
what connection the words now quoted 
by Demosthenes stood. 

4. IXX^«pi;«(: see Ar. Vesp. 1489, 
rtS' iXXifinprn; i.e. ym art mad; Hot. 
Sat. II. 3, 166, naviget Anticyram ; 
A. Poet. 300, trlbus Anticjiris caput in- 

J. uii' ai^yiiiiti...Atri<inv: for at- 
vx6"% (mSS. a.Laxiril) see note on 9 119*. 
For the diBerence between o/o-jpifo^uu 
<lai.yur and aiexi'if'-^ ttaAyaii, which 
in the negative form is not very important, 
see M.T. Hgi, 903'. This appears clearly 
in Xen. Cyr. v, i, 11: t-oD™ iiir aix 

\iynf. — ^Wvov8(Kip>, a sutl bai/d mtrefy 

on ^ini, opposed to Uuni/utrai Hinir, 
a tui't (to gel redress) for an offmit 

(cf. I »r9")- 

6. tA) S' A^oif t ' ^kfit^ as if ro^ ^w 

fiemroiwv had preceded, which is the 
reading of all MSS. except 2. The use 
of Ti>i>i H alone givei the clause the 
appearance of a sudden afler-thoughl ; 
and, so fat from showing carelessness, 
it may be a rhetorical device to give 
emphasis. The same occurs in xix. 180: 
Jirot &d TaDr' Air^Hkajji wap iif^, oi Si 
j(jHiftaTa rifiro^ ti^'^affv, and XXVII. 
9: iiaTf\iwi.,.iuix'upi>raiol>t iiir Tptinatra 
kal iito 1) rpttl, iri rtrT4 )irSj tat f{, tdAi 
i' oit i\irtV01 1] Tpiwr iifur dffoui. See 
West., and Krllger's Gr. Spr. 9 50, 1, 11. 

7. EXavt fiUiuov '^V AvayiYMfo^wtM, 
cugil lo it read tatire, — toCi ift A^mfa- 
K&n...i|n|^ubrS(u : see Aesch. ui. 6, 
i rt/wSirtjt toCto rpuror tra^v i* t^ tQt 
SumOTur iptiii, ^q^iaiiftat card rodt 
rifLBut. See Dem. xix. 179, inu/iitaTt 
i/rrifitiaBai unrd to^ rd/ieiil mi ri •fni^- 
rr/ittTa Ti ToC WjUou lal r^ ^ouX^t Tur 
TtrToroffiup, which agrees essentially 
with the first sentence of the document 
purporting to be the Heliaitic oath in 
XXIV. 149, whiqh is probably not genuine 
as a whole (see Meier and Sch&mann, 
pp. IS»-I5!)- 



Set TrpofTelvan t^ SijftortK^, w<T-np wBpidvra ixBeSoiKO)^ 
Kara ovyypa^v, etr ovk i)(ovTa a wpotrfJKfv iK ttJ? <rvy- 
ypoffnj^ Kois.t.^6^vo^, i^ Xoy^ tow? hr}p.onKOV%, oXX.' 0x1 tois 
wpdyfuuri koX tok ffoXtTCV^uto't yi,yvfa<TKopdv<tv%. kiu /So^s 5 
^TO. Kol appTfra ovofjACav, wnrep «f d/i,a^9, a <rol wai 
Tft) <T^ -y^ci iTp6a-€cmv, ovk ipjoi. KtUTOi. Kot toCto, w 1S3 
dj^/ies 'A^i-olot. ^fi» XotSo/Kaf (caTT/yo^as roury Sia- 
if>4p€tv TfyovfLai, T^ T^i* ft^v Kartjyopioo' a&iic^iJMT ^eif. 
(Sv iv TOts vd^is curli' at Ti.p.o}piai, rf/v Sc XoiSo^iai' 
p\a(r<f>7)fj*tiq, as xara t^v avrwi' <f>v<ri.v rot? i)(0poi^ wtpl 5 
aXK-^\(itv <rvp,^alv€i Xeycic, oiKoSo/i^o-ai Sc rows irpoyovov^ 
TcvrX TO. SiKooTijpta vTTfi\rfifM ovx ""* oi/XXefavres u/ia; cis 
TavTa diro twc iS^aif KaK&>; raaopprfTO. \eyiop.€v oXXt^Xous, 

3. /« T^ ypa^ V6. 

S laa. I. talToi (ol L, 1 
rodry in 3). w nm. Ai 

6. r/>«y^oit dfifir Aj, O; rpe 

H IM— ISA ue a peroration 10 the 
divitionMjs— 1»5. 

8 !•>• I. wjm : no Blass for cfiMrJ 

1. v^ Siuwnicf : referring to Anch. 
168 — 170. — tvmf. ..nyypu^v: we find 
it coQTcDient to tninslsle, ai '/you had 
pnt mi a jialui to bf made by ctmtrati; 
but the participle with umrtp (without ir 
or Ar (/) is not conditional, ss appears by 
its having <A (not /ii)) for it; n^alive 
(M.T. 867). •Hvwtp is aimply at, or ai it 
were, but we can seldom irantlate it with 
a participle without an if. 

J. Tvymoit^iUi'mii (with 4avt/i): ac- 
cus. abs. (M.T. 833); cf. at...fjiwn, 

6. Aiptt Kol iffitfrp,, diceiida, taemda 
(sc. 6l'6lMTa), with innApirr,- 

and buid. under rft iit ruii> iiiafar 
rxiift/AdTa' trl rar AmLpaKakOrrui 
ffKiarTinTur ' 'A9^fr7jfft yip iv r^ run Xowf 
iofrri <r! (uM^writ irl ru> d(Ui{wi> ro^ 

dirarrumit fricwrrji tc (ol Aoiiipgiv 

5ri <xi r^ d/ulfiji ixou^i'iii aX yvmuin 
ol Tw* 'Klhpialur, trir tit Ti 'B\cuvlnn 

ipJJkioi' til ri. ntyiXat ^uwr^put. An- 
SipiMi dXXifXaT fr tJ Mv' tdDtd 7^^ ^ 
Mot o^nbT, 

g IBB. I. koIth ml tvDro: ct. iv. 

5. KBTil ■rifr aMn ^4ffw, opposed 
to it TBit i<6fi«i (4) ; the accident of 
personal nature is expressed also in (tuh- 
^iiir«(6). SeeBl. 

7. rami rd Sucovnjpui: most of 
these were in the iyopd, as Is implied by 
Lysias, xix. 55. 

8. Awi -riv \»lmv, i.e. out of (oar 
stock of) firivalt tnmity. For the use 
of dri, cf. Thuc. I. 141, Awb tub abrar 

Jaravuirn. — KaKBt &XXi]Xavi, abust 

one anoihrr ■with laailtis epithets : cf. . 
Ar. Ach. J03, rljr ri\i* tOKUt \iya, 
and Dem. XIX. no, roXXA iral ^iXdv- 
ffpftwa (friiTei *(X<itd>'. irippifra were 
epithets which it was unlawful to apply 
to a citiien : cf, Lys. x. 6, ipt! iit i>6k 
brn TOr ixoppifrur <ir nt rfiqi rir 
waripa. i-rtcrnriraf rir Tip wi/ior ofi 
railT' dTaTOpf^w dXX' dvSpo^Aror 



aXk' Iva i^e^eyxftf^v foiv tw TjSimjicals ti Tvy)(avig t^v 

134 irokiv. ravra roiwv f.ihat% Alaytv^^ ovSei' ■^ttov ifiov, 
irofiwevav diTi row Karrjyopav eiXero. oi /x^i' ou8' hnavS^ 
iKaTTov €)(<av 8iKau>¥ eoTW' aireXfeu'. i^Sr/ 8* ctt* Tavra 
TTopewrofuxi., toktovtov avrhv iptorrjiTa^. itorepov ere Tis, 

5 A'ur)(iivT}, T^? n-oXetxs i)($pov ^ €yAOi' etfcu ^ ; iphv S^Xo** 
an. cTto o5 /mv ■71' »rap' e/toS SiKT)!* icara tow? vo/ious wrc/> 169 
TovTtav Xa^eu', erirep ^SiKovf, ^^'Xei.Tres, iv rats evdi^ais, 

135 eV Tats ypa<j>aXs, iv tow aXXai? Kpiiretrw oS 8' ^w /io/ 
dd^os awauri, rots fo/xois, t^ ;^dcy, t^ iTpo0f(rp^, t^ 

9, rf((X#vf«;iw B. Sr {for «») V6. n om. 0', F. 

g ia4. ]. XMJgpcu- {for iriv«r.) O. j. JUiraJMt (e over w) L*. j- ^V (for 
0d) Ai. 7. ii<X«r« S; «A.irf. L. vulg. 

g las. 1. irStfi Ai, Y. Toit >>V«T Ai (mg. only). 

e^ iSf Xi-ftir, This speech shows that 
drlpD^^mi. jU^oa-Tii, rarpnXoiat, and fir- 
TpaXafaf were dr^p^^iTrai but the number 
musi have been much la^er. See Meier 
and Schomann, 618 — 631. The penalty 


iing ( 

I fine of 5 

drachmas, which could be recovered by a 
Jl«:|<raj(i779piai (Lys. X. 11; Isocr.xx.3). 

9. Mv...TVVx4r]|. i/ it ihidl happen 
that anysni has wrongtd: the perfect 
participle Ls the common form for ex- 
pressing paal time with rvfTfaiiiii etc. ; Hr 
i.iiKfy!<a Tvxt would mean if ht ihail 
/(rrAafFff H-«ny(M.T. 144, 147"). 

S 19«. 1. 4|U)0: withsfii^r i^rrw. 

1, ire|iirn<iv (cf. rojirtiai, g 11'): 

referring to ik 4*i^Vi I i"'. "-nd Xoi- 

3. IXaTTOv (x*** ^■•XSflv, te gil eff 

tailh any lea (than he has given) : this 
latal principle of paying off vituperation 
in llie same base coin is (he weak jusdli- 
calion of the scurrility which follows 
(^ tiS — 131) and elsewhere. Such pas- 
that we are dealing with 

the ( 

> years ago. The 

vituperation of Demosthenes has at least 
one advantage over that of Aeschinea, 
in being free from much of the lowest 
vulgarity and indecency of his opponent. 

4. ir^npov,.,^ ; here ^ t«; hardly 
differs from ^u^v ; the third person 

without T(i in these questions is nr« 
(M. T. 189). 

6. oi, wktrt, explained by i<i,..Kpl- 
sta». — iwlp Totfnt* : the Athenians 
present, as representing the whole. 

7- 4{Anvf( (impf. only £) expresses 
habitual neglect. — nI0(*aM : i.e. by bring- 
ing a suit in connection with my (Ctfwoi 
(see note on % 117'), like the 7pa^ 
iropas-pea'^laT against Aeschines (XIX.). 

8. YP*t"ft- here ordinary /u^if tnils, 
not including tfrayitUa, dWivot, etc., 
which come under ypa^al in its wider 
sense. See note on | 149'. 

S ISO. I. ^ i'...MfM,iutwierr/ 
am scot/ret, opposed to ei iitr qr, § 114*. 

1. Toi( vdpAii...Tp<fTipov: these four 
grounds of immunity (explaining iwaaif) 
do not all exclude each other, li^wii in 
fact including all (he rest, and XP^V 
being in great port identical with v^ 
ete/df. See Weil's note; and Arist. 
Rhet. 111. II, 3 and 4, where he discusses 
irirSTTa, which "make tut thing many" 
{ri hi ToXXi), whereas a conjunction H 
wowt tA ToXXi. — TQ *|Mi6tr|iff , the limi- 
lations of time set by law to bringing 
certain actions. Debts were outlawed in 
five years, and this limitation applied to 
many other cases. The mover of a law 
was personally liable to the Ypo^l) Topa- 
tiliur only one year. See Meier and 



K€Kpi<rdai vepi tTamav iroXXaicif wporepov, t^ /ii;8«r<ojroTe 

fkarrov ovdyKy) tS>v ye Sij/ioo-tp iren-payfievtiiy /iereirai r^ 5 
8dfij9, ivrav^ airqvnjKiK; ; opa fir) rovrotv fih> e)(0po^ ps. 

'EttciS^ Toiin;!' 1] /tci' eiMTe^i; Kai BiKcua iprjijio^ anourL 136 

3. rdrTMi irciXXiijEit rpSrtptr Z, L, B ; Ta6TUr raXXdnt A i ; rdrr. roXX. to^im' 
rpAr. vulg. 4. 9i)*XA»ZMc<>rT. IO««irU»|; SJrXA* L,*; I' ij TX^orvulg;. 

7. ^^S, B, F (corr. to^Mi), *; ^AiAtL, Ai. 1, O. 

{ 19«. I. <t /U* £' (ij abore line). 

Schdmann, 838 — 840. Of course in Ihii 
suit nolhing could make DemosLhenes 
peisonally amenabte to any taw, as he 
wag only Ciesiphon's advocate: bat th« 
meaning of i^^ot is that no suit could 
now legally be brought against him per- 
sonally fbt any of the offences with which 
he is charged before the couct. He 
bitteily complains of the power given to 
Acschines b^ the form of this suit to 
accuse him af crimes for which he could 
not indict him: see Si 9 — '^- — ^ Ktxpi- 
<r4a« ToXX^if vprfnpoir (ic iiii): pro- 
bably referring to the cases meolioned in 
Si Bi, 111—^14, which covered import- 
ant parts o( the present cose. He may also 
ider toactoal indictments against himself: 
for the time since Chaeronea we have his 
1 9§ »49. «S». e-g- *"'il >> 

ijlUfaf tt&ant^ ixpa-iiiiip'. See note on 
% 314'. For (he law fortndding new 
trials of cases already decided, see xxiv. 
5J, eix if Ttpt ur at drof yr^ Jufsirnt- 

4. i|ial dSucav: i/iii shows that the 
orator could address the audience in the 
midst of a question addressed to Aeschines 

6. IcruHui fAerr, referring bacli em- 
phatically to oi (1). — ^«i^vrT|Kai; cf. 
d-Tp^.<i,, I 15'.— Ip» f^fl-it. '» lo it 
that you do not prove la be their enemy ; /j^ 
with the subjunctive always implies the 
fiiture; ^o^G^iw ft^ 0X17^1 iarir is I fear 
thai U is true (M. T. 369]. 

7. l|utl: the HSS. are divided between 
ifioi and in6t : we might have ^^v, cor- 
responding to To&nir. 

SS ia«— BBS. The next main divi- 
sion of the argument is devoted chiefly to 
the account of the means by which Aes- 
chines gained for Philip an entrance into 
Greece with bis aimy, by gettii^ up the 
Amphiisian war (gS 139 — <59)i and of 
the measures I7 which Demosthenes 
opposed this joint plot of Aeschines 
and Philip (as he represents il). espe- 
cially his negotiations with Thebes in 
339 — 338 "'C-' whith led 10 the alliance 
of that city with Athens (^ 160—136). 
The orator introduces these accounts by 
a general sketch of Aeschines' life and 
that of his parents, full of offensive scur- 
rility (IS 116 — 131), followed by a brief 
account of some of the lesser political 
offeDcea of Aeschines (gj 131— 138). 

The orator's account of his own politi- 
cal acts in the eventful year before the 
battle of Chaeronea, connected with his 
vigorous defence of the policy of Athens 
under his guidance in her last resistance 
to the power of Philip, is the most elo- 
quent passage in the oration- This is a 
direct continuation of the slory of his 
political life which was interrupted by 
sltilftil design in g 1 10- 

glSS. r. hraS^ Tobnw K.r.X. Thisis 
one of the few undoubted cases of ana- 
coluthon in Demosthenes. The causal 
sentence introduced by iwrtSfi goes on 
regularly through § 116, when the sudden 
turn given by the question rit o6t Sr... 
^BiyfurSai! causes the Orator to burst 
forth into the lierce invective which fol- 




SeSeiKrai, Set Se jm, ok ioixe, Kolwep ov <fn.\o\oiSopov ovrtt, 
Sia ro; VTTO TovTov /SXoo-^^ua; €lpT}ii€va^ avri iroKKav Kol 
tjiev&^v avTo. TavayKaiorar' eltretv irepl ovrov, koX 8€i$ai 
5 Ti? wv Koi Tiviav p^Stca^ ovToi^ °-PX^'' '^'' f*"<ws Xeytw, koI 
Xoyous Tiyas SMurv/)«, airo? cipijKu; a Tis ouk Av aKVT)<re 
137 Toif fterpifav avffpwTroti' <j>0ey$au-dai, ; — el yap AtOKo; ij 
'PaZdiiayBv^ ^ Mtfot; ^v o Karrfyop&v, aXKa fj.^ <rTTf.pp.o- 
Xoyo$, irepCTpifip^a ayopas, okedpo^ ypap-p-arevi, ovk av 

1. trra ^ci L, Ai, vulg.; ^fi om. Z' (added above line), B, ¥>, V, V. 
6. nmii 2 ; ririi L, B, vutg., West., Bl.; rlrat Ai (4, V6. see V&mel), Dind., Bk. 
Siaaiptir At, 1. jrli S, vulg.; sth L. or om. V6. 7. irtpiinii om. Ai. 

J 1ST. 1. Mirut IT PafdM. Ai. 

lows, forgelting his leading sentence, the 
apodoiis to trtiSit ... t^hC"^- Thi* 
exclamatory diversion carries him lo the 
end of I I iB, where we Rnd in a changed 
form (in | iig) what would be a natural 
■podosia lo g 116. Hermogenes, ti/iItuhi 
Ittvr (ill. p. 34], W.), thus explains the 
Eliuctuie of the postage: Irrt Si..,iTifa 
Til iUBoSm ^rSiaSirw ^fryou not /uiXiara 
reu JwoCftoi «ir dpyj rpoiirai, ri ^ijW 
Tit OKO^orflai iriffi' tOt roi Xiyou o-xT)- 
lUTWi', iXV dEew ^fbro^u Satiir irri 
TOO -rdeovi, etii' iffn tttlTb in, iii Tolrvr>i\o\alt»porirTa{S ll6),<adTiliii 
rdrra ttixf* "^^^ "^'^ aitopvr B* S Tt 
Xptl--.ToB Tpiiroi' iit^aSu (g 119)^ 
DlilafuiG 7&fi amUJonu Ti axUKauBar r^ 

jii Kol (laXXat Ifii^uxM (ni oAir^ i 
Xbyat (Iku iHti. Thii shows ihe rutililjr 
of attempts to restore grammatical se- 
quence to the passage. The power and 
pasaion of the invective in gf 117, 118 is 
certainly augmented by the sudden break 
in the rather formal construction of | iiG, 
and we may well dnubt whether the 
orator ever thought of the beginning of 
g 119 as a resumption of this broken 
sentence.^ rfff«Pijt...ifti^B<, i.e. tit 
veil which jvur oalh and Jus/ice bolh 
riquin a/ ym. 

4. ainl TilittTmuiTwra, what 11 iare- 
ly ludiiary (to satisfy the promise in 
g 1*+^'). Cf. d»iiVJtii(i7-a7-a g r68". See 
Thuc. I. 90 (MTi iwofiA-jfttSoi Ik t«0 

iraytatBTiroii Sif-an. i.e. lo have the wall 
just high enoogh to be defensible. 

6. XAymf nvdi Siarip*, ridicules 
certaiH layingi ef mint. It it hard to de- 
cide between rtrdt and rlrm. With rimi 
it aiuAaliayitigsti/ptimMtritticiila,\.e, 
haw ht ridieuUi my sayings. The refer- 
ence is to Aesch. III. 167, toB™ t-I iara, 
w rlnuJot; (bii^ara 4 i^u.Kta.: also to 
71 and 109. — 1 ■ri«...4ll|(iuitKi; this 
interrng. rel. sentence breaks the con- 
slniction. For luriiiin «ee g lo'. 

S197. I. AlM&(...H[>wt:theihree 
judges of the dead in Plat. Gotg. J13 %. 

1. h Kannwp»> is subject: Vomel 
says, "Non dicit si Ataeus ainuartl, sed 
ji aeaualar tssit Aeatus." — vrtpfuXiyoi : 
originally a little bird which pitked up 
sad from newly sown fields (Ar. Av. iji, 
579) i then a man who lives by fiickitig 
up what he can in the market and other 
places of trade, a vagaivtiii, and generally 
a worthless fellow; sometimes one who 
picks up and retails small scraps of 
gossip, a baibltr or prater, as applied to 
St ?aul in Acts xvii. iB. Either of the 
last two meanings, or perhaps a combi- 
nation of both, suits the present passage. 
See Harpocr. s.v.,aTid Eustath. in Odyss. 
P- 'S47- 

3. T<p(Tp4i|ta dYOpAt, a hack of tXt 
markit plart : see Arist. Nub. 447, r^- 
r/niifa. iitUr, with the explanation in 
Bekk. Anecd. p. 59, otor rtrftimirar toa- 



avTov ol^ai ravr' eliritp ovh' &v owrtos ^aj^tfeis \6yov^ 
TTopia-atrdai, a<r7rep iv rpayt^if. ^o^vra <o yq Koi ■^Xi.t i 
KoX aptrri koX to. TOtavra, Kal iraXw awetriv koX iroiSetai' 
iviKoXovfifvov, y ra KoXa Kai rd atirj^pa. SiaytyvtutrKerat* 
TaOra yap SijwovBcy ■^Kover avroG Xeyotro;. irol 8c 138 
dperijs, <S KoBapfia, -r) row o-ols Tts /«TOv<ria; ^ KoA.oii' 
^ /iTj TQiovToyv Tts SwiyvaKri? ; irodev ij wws a^uaBevrt; 
irov &€ iratBeia^ (roi. 0€fui p,vr)tr0^voii, ij? t£v fiep «is dXrj^w? 
a7oT€TU5(TjKOTt(»i' owS' av cts ciiroi T</>i avTOV TOiovTOf ovSef, 5 
dXAd KOf erepov Xeyovro^ epv6pidtrne, roii 8' diroXci^dcKri 
p^kv, iofrmp (TV, ■rrpoa'irotovfUvot'i 8' vtt' a,vaKr0y]<riai to tows 
aKovovras aXyeu' iroieic orai' Xeytotrtc, oi to SoKcti' Toi- 
oiJtois elvai nepUa-nv- 

Oi/K airopSiv 8' o ti j(^ ttc/ji (toS koX twi* o-wi' eiirelj*, 130 
airopa TOW TTpWTov fijnjtrduf trortp o)? o nar^p trov Tpop.Tj^ 

4. obfiot L. Tavr' S, L, B, F, 4; touOt' Ai, vutg. 6. rotjfai' Al 

{d. § iiS*)i Ktd wtuldar om. B. 7. ^TuroXoA/io'gi Ai. 8. 4'">^>''' A.i- 

g laa. 3. T««> 2', Ai, 1, B, vulg.; irWtr \afi6m ff, L, B (rp). ♦ {yp). 
4. riuJdai At (cf. g ts;*), vulg.; irai3faf Ai. fijr in om. O- £- lu^P 

L. 8. T««>roit Ai, Y; twJtwi V6. 

rut «y<iTW<tfw. — flM0pOt irP^fLiiamiit, d 
nm# ^ a iiriAe: see IX. 31, i\iSpov 
HueUnr (of Philip), and xxiii. 101, 

•JK dC*,..(IvA' (rept. ilwtr ir): for ihe 
common posilioa oC Jv beroce worda like 
dI/ku, see M. T. no'. 

4. hra}iM«, pondenut, offeiuivdy 
pompous: cf. ira.-xfih, effenavt, % lO^. 
See Ar. Kan. 940, aJJourof i>Ti icofira- 
tf/idrur ml f/Ttiiarar hrtx^^'i of tl>e style 
of Aescbylm. 

5. weflrvia^\,prwidten^s sil/wUh, 
bring ml: cf. xix. ig6, xxxv. 41.— 
intpkttpvi,^: see note on 51 3«.— 
A Y^...^f«ri): thtu Aesch. begins his 
peroralion (160), adding ml aincit KaX 

3 128. I. rol((p«Tiil...*fc lUTavrfa; 

1. K«WttptL», properlj' /AA, offscaw- 

3. «4hi'...4ttu*lfrn; KC note oD 
f !■'■ 

4- ^I belongs to j-eriQ[)jrir<«, ira^ti- 
^6tin, and r/xwrumvi^ixt : it has aputi- 
tive force with vparwouniitimi (7), ss in 
At. Ecd. 871, rpoa-TH^ rwr ;f/n)fiilr(()'. 

6. Kdv,..ipii|ipiAnw: M. T. 114.— 
dvaXf4e(Ivi: cf. g 157*. 

7. tb-ttu i tii n t m : see note on irtiaSii- 
™,8 43'- 

9. vtp(«mv, if rxmaiiu y^ /A^oi ; cf. 
Tcfxcwiu xf4f<"'', of a fa/ante f/ meney 
due, i 117*. See It. 19, rwplivn 4m^ 

glSS. 7. TD«(=Tb>a(]TpiiTOv|iM|irt*: 

indirect qiiestiun(M.T. 677). — (■wari^p... 
IBoaXnM: it is a hard problem for histori- 
cal criticism to evolve the real father of 
Aeschines from this slave of a school- 
master, seen with his feet in the stocks 
or wearing a wooden collar for punish- 
ment, and the patriotic citizen described 
by his ton (Aescb. Ii. 147, 111. 191), who 



iBovkeve nap' 'EX.iri^ r^ irpo^ T<a Otjtret'tfj 8iSao"KovTt ypdft- 
fiara, ^oiviKa^ waj^cias ^<av koI ^vKov; ■^ (&s 17 p/iJTrjp, 

KaXafi,irg "tjp^ ^tttfieirr), rov Kokov avSpidvTa koX rpira- 

i 1S». 3, 'EXtI? vulg.; tkrlim (S dolt«<l w. above) £; 'EXirffa (S erased), 
Ai, O'. e?iff(v Ai. 4. ffx""""' (»*!« above) L. icai (i\ot om. V6. 

fi'/rmp Z, L, B, F, 4>; liirvp ■"•' vulg. 5. iXturV L, Ai, O'; irXfurciui {w. 

■narks of correction) Z; rXq^f^i Ai, O'; K\tatlif*; tXurlif B. vu^. 6. ^Jp'^ 

vulg; om. Ai; ^pojt (ci above p) £ (lipiiv'); cf. wpit ry rwl KaXa^Tou j^ptiy Apoll. 
Vit. Aesch. a. dvapiiiiraT L; iriptiitra Ai. 

had died abuul twelve years before at the 
age of niaety-five, who lived through the 
PelopODnesiaa war, in which he lost his 
properly, was banished by the Thirty 
Tyrants, served his country bravely in 
A^a, was one of the restorers of the 
democracy under Thrasjibulus, and in 
his old age discounted learnedly and 
wisely to his son on the early history of 
the ypai^ wnpariiiair I Fortunately De- 
mosth. speaks of the same man thirteen 
years before this, when he was still living 
at the age of ninety-four, in xix. 381, 
where he calls Aeschines ror 'ATpoHi^tiv 
Tw 7pa^i^TiirT0l>, sun of Atrometta the 
schoelmasttr. From this respectable sta- 
tion he has now descended to be the son 
of Tromes, a schoolmaster's slave (see 
I 'JO'). 

3. vpst -np eii«t^>: in xix. 149, 
AlTometus is said to have kept school 
x-pAf rf ToG 'Rpu TtS larpeB, ntar tki 
shrine ef the Here Physician. We have 
no means of knowing whether these refer 
to the same locality. Archaeoloffists 
are generally agreed that the temple now 
called the Theseum is not the famous 
building under which the bones of 
Theseus were buried; and the position 
of the real temple is unknown. Theplace 
of the shrine of the Hero Physician is 
likewise unknown. For this hero, the 
Scythian Toxaris, a friend of Anocharsis 
andSoloD,seeEssayvi. Cf. note on laXa- 
idrnt (line s). — BtSdoTWrri fpomiara; the 
ypamian^t was a teacher of ypiM^atra, 
rtiulingatid mriting, the earlier yfo-tiiM- 

4. xofi'UtM «ax«C«> cruMi compedii 

(Plaut. Capt. 111. f„6*), tlKii or shaciles 
for the feet: see Ar. Plut. 17s, ol »8/«u 
Si aov Po&gir lot loi, rdi xf^"^' ""^ ^^t 
iriSat weSoStoi. — {iXav, a xiieodat collar, 
worn on the neck for punishment : see 
Ar. Nub. 593, iif <p4fiuinfTt tu^tbu V r^ 
ftiXy Tir adx'm, and Lys. 6S1. It meant 
also t/ixis for the feet, and the rmnrH- 
ptyyitr fdXov was an instrument with five 
holes, for neck, arms, and l^s. See 
Lexicon, (i\w. 

5. Tott |»*Jt"pi»''<« yi^»<'. a eu- 
phemism for daylight prestitutien : the 
stories of the mother of Aeschines are as 
trustworthy as those of his father (see 
flS »58, IS9)-— "*''''¥i " ^"'i opposed 
to a house, as in Lys. XIi. 18, rpuir iuu^ 
olmuv D^faif,...rXf^(Dr in^tatrAiuwnt' In 
Od. XXIV. 108 icXIffii* (Tit) refers to slaves' 
dwellings built around the master's house: 
Ir^s oI olmt hjr, irifii H cXlirta' e4t w6rr^, 
on which see Eustathius. Here i:\turlif 
may be euphemistic, like yd/ioit. ■ wpi % 
TY >coXB|iiTi| Ifpif, near the shrine (or 
statue) ef the hero (aXa/Jrifi. The mean- 
ing of this name is very uncertain. Many 
identify this hero with the it/wt larpbt of 
XIX. 949, notwithstanding strong objec- 
tions ; among Others, Weitennann does 
this " ohne Zweifel," If they are iden- 
tical, we may explain «aXa;ijTjft as anker 
(benmaa. 01 rather arram-mtut), deriving 
it from cdXa/ior, arrow, like irXlr^i froai 
SirXor. The Hero Physician, Toiraris, 
was represented as a Scythian bowman 
(Lucian, Scyth. i). 

6. riv KoX^ AvftptdtrrtL, the pretty 
doll; lee Bekk. Anecd. 394, 19 (quoted 
by Dissen), in It ri aunfitl^ \iyvuav si 




yoyvKFT^v aKpov i$c.dp€^4 <r€ ; dXX' w9 o rpiijpavkr)^ 
^opfilfi>v, 6 ^uiivo^ Tov ^peappiov SoiiXos, d,vi<m)f7ev avrrfv 

OTTO TOUTT^S TT]^ KoX'^'i ipyOtrioS ; oXXa VT) TOV Aia *C£U 

&(.ov% OKvSt fjLT} Trepl <tov to. irpo<n]KOVTa Xeyotj' auros oi lo 
TTpotr^Kovra^ €fi.avT^ So^tt) Trpo^jprja-Oai Xoyovs. tolvto. fi.ev 130 
oSf ida-m, ott' avrStv S' <uf avro? 0e^ioiKev ap^ofiai.- ovSc 
yix/j iSii f,TV)(€v ^v, dXX' ots 6 8^^9 Karaparax. ot/ie yap 
TTore — , o«^e Xeyto; x^^^ 1^** "^ '''^^ trp^v Ofi 'ABrfvaio^ 
Koi p^rmp yiyovfV Kal hvo <TvKKa,^% irpo<T0ei^ TOf fikv $ 
jrarepa avrl Tp6p,7)Tot iwoCrftra' 'Arpoft-TfTov, rifv 8e p/ijnpa 
(r€^ vaw r\avKo6eav, rjv Efivovtrctv airame^ ia-a<ri 

7- o-i om. Y. After ir< Ai, O add dXXi timt taaai raCra, tir fyilt ;(j) U7U: 
om. £, L', Ai, B, vulg. ijittl. {yp), B*. 10. Stain 2, L; ro(>t «coi>> vulg. 

1 1. »-/»ti/^ff(u (« over d) B. 

I ISO. 1. elV £ (mg.). om. Z'. dv' a^rur L, vulg.; dlrain-ur (in i lines) 

Z (not BircWTur); iItA f a^wr S (7^); dXX' dr' oh-v Ai. ah-it om. Y'. Z (Tp) 

has: rpaiifjjirSai \irfout. o6Si yiii> ur (ruxrv ^t, dXX' oli i Sij/ioi tuTa/iaTcu. raOra 

7e>-v £; om, Ai. 6. 'irpift. iroi. 0. 7< lAr^offn- (after rXauiE.) vulg.; 

om. S, L'. 4* arnvT. 'BfiT. L. 

Iirrriptt Wfpt Tut ulwr, "1 loXit drJpidt 
fiau." — Tfvtuymnrrtfr Jxpov, o tip-tep 
tkird-part-aitnr : see 33 ^^i, ifij, and 
XIX. 146. J47, 337. 

7- iXX'«tr suppi; /utiotf £ from line 1, 
as & ^>«c/ interrogative. — 'TpM|paAi|t| 
galltjr-piprr, who gave the stroke to the 

8. Afaroi : we find iiar AuUrou 
4>rKdppuit (?) as trieraich in C. I. Alt. u. 
tio. S04A, 1 S4: Me also Index 10 Vol. 

proslart in lupanari Graece dici naB^ 
tSui" (DisBen); there is alio the idea of 
Tailing ber from a li)w occupation. Cf. 

I ISO. 1. Jv aMt PtptMCtv, /.tf 
lift JU has kimsilf led. = tut ottri^ Piffiu- 
lUrar: d. i 365', XXII. 13, rd Toinf 
ptfiut/Ura, and xix. 199, ioo.~-oj6) dv 

partHis, i.e. not of any of whom he 
\y ihtuutd to be. ur trvxa U nearly 
equivalent to the common riw rux^n-ur, 
Brdinary peepU (ot (ti/jcot), such as might 
iduDce to fall in one's way ; cf. Isocr. x. 

11, <f St fy TM» Tuxiriw dXXi /iij Twr 
■■oAi im>[7i:4»T«r. See West, for various 
interpretations of this much disputed 
passage. He quotes Ruttlius Lupus, de 
Fig. I. iG: paientes appellat quos Bcitis 
□on Ignotos fuisae, sed buiusmodi ul 
omnes hos exsecnucnlnr. After such a 
statement we should nstarally expect to 
hear that be was of hig/ur than ordinary 
parentage; but here (iropd r^ilairliir) 
we have dXX* «Ii d j^fui (aropSrai added. 
In the religious ceremony before each 
meeting of the Senate and Assembly, 
a curse (dpd) was invoked against certain 
classes of offensive people: see xxill. 97, 

,.,rl Tii ifararf ^dyut 1) PovMir ij (wujc 
TJ rijr JiXialar, with XIX. 70. Aescbines 
himselfii elsewhere included among these 
"deceivert": see j i8i*""', Kotroi rit... 
KsraiMrai luroJwt; 

5. SvB rvXXapds wpovfiW: on the 
contrary, Deniosth. probably made Tpi- 
laji {trembler) by cutting off two syllables 
from ' ArpfiiatToi {daunt las). 

, kaigobliH. 




KoXovfUvTjv, iK Tov vdvTa voiiw KoX vaayiiv koX yiyv^trdai 

131 StjXovoti Tavn/s t^s ^towfiias TV)(Ovtrav • irodev yap 

oKKodo' ; oX\* o/jlok ovtws axa/Jwrros ft koL wovrjpoi iftwrei 

amtt' iX.ev$cpos ix SovXov Kai irXoutrios ^k nrtu^^ov Sta i;i 

TovTov<rl yeyovMs ow;^ oir*!*? Xo.ptv avroX^ ^^*S' o^a 

5 p.urdaira.'i <TavTOv Kara rotrrtoi'i iroXtrTeuet. Kai TrtpX tov 

fikv €<TTi Tis d/x^ur/3tjr»j(TW ciJs a/3a wir^/3 r^s wdXews 

elpTjKev, idiTta- a S' V7rc/> rwi' lyBpav tftavepa^ aTrehel)(9T] 

irpdrrmv, raur' avaft.viQ<T(ii. 

133 Tis yaya v/xajf ovK oISci' tov dno^^urBtvr' *AvTu)>civTa, 

8. col yItt*'^*'' ^> ^'i °'"- ^'E- 

9 lai. 4. To^on Y. fxnt Ai, B; fxMt O. <UXi juiv At, *. 

5. a^ir Ai. TovTut (f over ut) £ ; tm^uc Ai. iriAirntii S; -tiy or -c^ 

in &]] HSS. 7. mSb^ (for ^oHpui) Ai, *. iwtSdxBti Ai ; 'Mx^ Ai. 

glSS. I. A^r om. Ai. 

8. Kol ^^nvtot; almost ail editors 
omit tliese words, which have the best 
MS. authority and arc especially appro- 
priate to the description of Enipusa. 
See At. Ran. 189—193: Xan. iiiriw 
TOrfoBarbr yoGr yiywtTat' wort /ifr ye 
fioGi, riiwl B' 6ptiiif rori S' oS yvrij 
(JpaiOTdTTT Tti. Dion. 'Bjt»ouaa Ttlrvy 

§ 1*1. 4. TovTowl: i.e. the Athe- 
nians, as represented hf the coort. — tAy^ 
l'rHt...UU: 0^ SrtM and oAx ^( came 
originally from ti W(u Ji-ut (or in), 
I viill net ifeai of, Iwillnet taylkat,K\Q.., 
while the nearly equivalent fA) jrvt (rare) 
or /ti) Iti came from /t^ ^jkyt 5rut (or Ari), 
dt tat metttUm that, etc Usually not le 
spenk ^ is a good English equivaJcDt ; 
but what is not to it ipoien ef may be 
either affirmed or denied. Thus here tirx 
Srui x<ip<r tx'"< "^ ^' ttitnluin yenr being 
grateful, meala net enfy arc you uat graU- 
fid; but ID Lyi. XiX. 31, odx "tn ri 
ffidh) drU«r0(, lu/ to iptai of your 
selling the fumiturt, means net only did 
yfu nil the furniture. These examples 
show the at»urdity of connecting this 
construction with thai of mm mado for 
n«it made nan, with which of course it is 
not related in form. (See M.T. 707, 708.) 
Like most elliptical idioms, this is very 

often used where the ellipsis could not be 
supplied grammatically, and even where 
(as here) no delinite ellipsis was in the 
speaker's mind. For the occasional use 
of Arut like iliiin eraiiaeilit/ua,aee M.T. 

•,. ■wtkurrin (HSS. ToXirf^): see note 
on g 119*. 

6. &|i^Mf^n|ri« At ripipMv : dfi^itf- 
fi^nfnt, tike lift^UT^iTnS and Latin dis- 
fule, refen to maintaining in a dispute. 
See Piato Rep. 476 d, ihr iiufurpiri fat 
B^i dXir04 X^«Mi-, and Ter. Andr. Prol. 
I J, in eo disputant contaminari non decere 

7. 4dn>: " Hier ist die ro/irtla aus, 
und der Redncr wird cmst." (Bl.) 

HlB3-~iea. Here the orator alludes 
briefly to some lesser offences of Aeschioes, 
which preceded the outbreak of the war 
with Philip. In 3 139 these are called 
slight matters compared with his conduct 
alter the war began. 

g 1B9. [. otSto, iaim af. 4«a^i | - 
iftB^rr, rejected from the list of citizens. 
In 346— j B.C. (#»■■ 'ApxUv, Harpocr. 
under iiai/'^^u) a general revision of 
the lists of citizens was ordered at Athens ; 
and the membcts of each deme went 
thro^h its own list (the - 




Ss eirayyti\dftevo^ 4»i\iinry ra vetapi ijnrprqo'av «Is t^»' 
iro^Lf ^X^cv; Sf Xa/3ovTo; c^v KeKpvfi,fievov iv UetpaUt 
Koi KaTaa"rij<ravTQ<i eis t^i" iKKkr/aiav, fiomv 6 fid<rKavo^ 
o5to« (cai KCKpayoi; ais A* SrjfuyKpantf, Seifd. TTOiw tovs 5 
^Tujfi^Koras Toiv iroXiTwc v^pt(fi>v koX iv oiKiac /SoSiiwi' 
afcv \ln)il>Ca-fiaTOi, a(f>edT}vai. ivoLTfaev. Kal el fi,jf yj ^v\^ 183 

». ri i>fi^tfn (after //ivpiio-iirlvalg.; 

Xqfiapxi'M voting on each name which 
was quesiioncd. This process was called 
Su^ij^cit iSiaiti^ititai), and the lejec- 
lion of an; person on the list was called 
dro^^iffii (iwoi'Ti^ioiiai). Demosthenes 
wrote his oration against Eubulides (lvii.) 
for a client who had been thua rejected 
and had appealed (as ever; such pcraon , 
might) ID a Heliastic court. (SeeWester- 
mann's introduction to that oration.) 
Antiphon was undoubtedly rejected at 
the same duV^urit (see Dcm. Lvli. i, 
raWur ^{eXqXo/i/iiuv iiiolui ix rivrur 
ruF HfH'), and afierwarda offered his 
services to Philip {iraYYti\diuwo% *(- 

4. KttTttgTi^g' tti To t lU TJ|v boAifriiHi: 
it is hardly probable that Demosthenes 
brought Antiphon before the Assembly 
without some official authority. At the 
time of the passage of his tricrarchic law 
(340 B.C.) he held the ofiice of twtrrinit 
TOO ravTuaS (Aoch. III. iii). Schaefer 
(11. p, 370} thinks that he whs ra^lai ili 
Td Hiipa, an oRicer mentioned in C. I. 
Alt. fl. Nos. 803 rf, 5 and 14; 811 J, 34. 
See Boeckh, Urkunden iib. d. Att. 
Seewesen, pp. sg, fii, and 535'*'. It is 
doubtful by what process Antiphon was 
thus lummBiily arrested : It was probably 
by /lijtwit, dimincialieti to the people, 
the process by which those charged with 
mutilating the Hennae in 4r5 B.C. were 
dealt with. (See Meier and Schdmann. 
pp. 330 — 33J-) Except in the rare cases 
in which the Assembly itself undertook 
the trial (as in the it-tirvatt i^nst Phidiasi 
Pint. Perid. 31), (he people either sent 
the accused to ■ Heliastic court for trial 

or discharged him. In the case of Anti- 
phon, the appeals of men like Aeschines 
moved the Assembly to discharge him; 
but the Areopagus interposed, and ordered 
{through the Assembly) that Antiphon be 
tried before a conrt, which condemned 
him to the rack and to death. See Hist, 
g S3- Dinarchos (l. 63) says: iarpi- 

(the Heliasti) rf r^ ^oiA^i Awo^h 
rttaBirm. See note on 8 133*. Aeschines 
nalmally does not mention this a&ir. 

^' '^TvxiiKJTuf : refeniDg to Anti- 
phon'i " bad luck " (as Aesch. called il> 
in losing his citiienship. 

7. dMV 4'i)^'oi»Tot, i.e. vnlhimt a 
voli of the Assembly or Senate. An 
Athenian citizen, like an Englishman, 
looked upon his house as his castle. See 
XXII. 55, Tim tbUvt (under the Thirty 
Tyrants) oiSiit Iftui Jotii dir<ffTep*iTo 
tdD irafS^fBi oortt iavrir ohot np^tur, 

Sn TOtJt fx Tijt iyopSi iZlilut arijyv. 
This is not strictly true of the Thirty, 
according to Lys. Xil. 8, AiaXu^Tit N 
rill ninlai 0iSilor • xal i/ii itir Uravt 
iertuvTO. naT^Xo^M. In extraordinary 
CBSes officers of the state with proper 
authority could search private houses and 
arrest persons concealed therein. See 
[XLVII.] 38, S3- for houses entered by the 
authority of the Senate. Pollux (viii. so) 
implies that an officer called in to effect 
i^'^rtv'" could enter a house to make 
the arrest. (See Meier and Schomann, 
pp. 784, 78s. with note 99.)— A+«eiJi™ii 
Antiphon was at first discharged by the 
Assembly without a IriaL 



7 f$ 'Apeiov irdyov, to irpay/ia aXtrdofUvrj Kal ttjv Vfiereftav 
ayvotav iv ov Sdovri irvfifie^Kvtav iBowra, eirc^ijnjo'e tov 
andpomov k<u <jv\k.afiov<ra inavr^yayev <U5 w/ias, i^ijfyiraoT 
S&v 6 TOiflVTOs Kal TO BiKv/v Sowai Suthvi efeircircfurr' av 
viro TOV treiivoXoyov tovtovC' vvv 8' v^is oT/je/SXwCTawcs 
184 avTOV amKT^tvaTt, ops ^S» ye koI tovtov. Toiyapovv ciSvui 
Tttu^ 7) fiovX^ ^ i$ 'ApeCov wdyov t6t€ tovt^ veapaypAva, 
^fipoTovr}(rdvTotv avrov ipJav (tvvSikov xmip tov lepov tov 

gl««. 1. 4;.fT^p» Z< (4 ch. lo <V). y i(iriM'tT'afKSS.,BV.;i(tw4- 

Ttiarr' 3r Cobet (conj.), Dind., Vom., W«tt., Lips., Bl. (om. &). 6. etiiro- 
'Keyaviiiveo Y, F [yp). roirav Ai.ii Y. 

t 1»4. 1, Tim 2, B; ri rirf L, volg. 3. IJ*«S» rire V6. 

I laS. i. ^r oi EfavTi (neul.), vn- 
iiatoTtaily, Jttil tfim it should not : cf. 
i^XiiKoiuw til oilir tint, in. 16.— nfi- 
^pi|Kv!av tBafcrtti seeing that it had 
ccnirred{ar. obi. M.T. 90*). — *«1^tt|ot, 
i;e. ordertd a new (ir-) iHoesligatioH af 
the mint's case. The Areopngus in these 
later times seems occasionally to have 
revived a part of its ancient power of 
directing the genera! welfare of the stale. 
It could act through a rescript (ori^offii) 
addressed to the Assembly, either on its 
own initiative (aWj* rptxKtitiAr^r) or by 
Special anthority of the Assembly; see 
Dinarch. I. 50, oni^jni rjjr fiauMft rjji> ^ 
'Aptiou ■gi.yitv Jtard iiio rpbtnv^ xowiffBai 

aW)» »p«Xo/i^inji', ^ fijnjffoffa* ro5ii)(iou 
TppffTdJa*Tot aiTB. Meier and Schomann 
suggest that in this cose the Areopagus 
acted under ils regular jurisdiction in 
cases of incendiarism (xupraa). 

4. ruXXo^oScra shows tha.1 the Areo- 
pagus itself ordered Amiphon's arrest : 
Plutarch (Dem. 14) says that Deinosth. 
arrested him and brought him before Ihe 
Areopagus.— <li 4|M», i.e. before Ihe 
court, which passed the sentence of death 
(6), But i^orlft'i'itr implies that the 
Areopagus Ma<f*/ him baek to some 
place, and this must be the Assembly. 
See the Scholia: luplut rfx* t4 <ira»^ 
'vuve*', tit rb* aifrhit Tiiro* aSflit Kwri^ 
CTtfotr airi* 4 ^liM) H oi afaaarai 
Tf>*r«/)o». He was probably sent back 

lo the Assembly with an iri^ava, pro- 
viding ihat he should be brought bdbre 
the court for trial. This is the view of 
Meier and Schbmann (p. 4141 note) aod 

5. lUy\v So4vak SutSAt : all notice 
the intentional al lite ration. -lEnrirninV: 
this slight change from i^triiiwrr' gives 
a form symmetrical with ^(nroffr' : if 
would generally be omitted here (M.T. 

[Pivarn] could not l^ally be inflicted mi 
an Athenian citizen; but Antiphon was 
now disfranchised. On the liability of 
others to the ^i-aamn, see Meier and 
Schbmann, pp. 896—898. In Ar. Ran. 
6]8, Dionysus, disguised as a slave, 
claims exemption from examination under 
torture as an immortal God : ayoptiw ru-1 
ifii ;ij) paeiutft^ aSiraTor Srr'. 

7. lit Ifin yt ml ToArair (sc. am- 
KTtJrtu), ai you etight te htaie dealt with 
this man (Aetch.). 

I 184. 3. a-(v8iK«>...A^Xf ; about 
343 B.C. the Delians conlcsled the ancient 
right of Athens to administer the temple 
of Apollo on their island. The case 
came before the Amphictyonic Council, 
probably in the spring of 343, when 
Demosth. was one of the Athenian dele- 
gates to Delphi (XIX. 65). The A«- 
sembly chose Aeschincs as Iheii counsel; 
but the Areopagus, to which the people 



iv S^TJkt^ a.TTo T^s avr^s ayvouvi ■^trvfp jroX,X,a wpot€<r$€ 
tZv KOivZv, m vpoeiXetrOe KOKfivrjv koX toS irpdyfjuiTOs S 
Kvpiav AronJ<TaT£, tovtoj' p.ev €V$v^ airi}ka4Tev ws vpoSonjv, 
'Tirtpsi&rg Sc Xeyeiv npoa-era^e' xal Tavr o/jto tov /Scu/iov 
■jiijxpova-a T^v }(rfj<t>ov ejrpafe, Kttl ovSe^ia i/«^^$ Tfv^di} 
T^ p,t.ap<o TovT<i>. KoX 071 TavT (IXtj^ X^oi, fcaXei Tovrftii" 135 
Toii? fiAXpTvpai. 

[Mo/jTv/)oi«rt A7i/to<r&evei virep airavratv o^e, KaXXt'a; Sovi'tef';, 
Z^p<av 4>\veit, KXiiDi' 4>a\>;peiy;, ATjfioviKov MapaOaviot, tri tov 5 
i^fiou TTore ;te(poT<H'7crai^os A.ia')(^ivt}v avvhiKov irtrep tov lepov 
TOV iv A)}X^ ei's ToO? ' A/i<j>iKTvovav avveZpevaavT€<i fifieh iKpivafiev 
'TvepeiS^p a^tov ehat fiaWov vtrep Ttji TroXew? Xejew, leal 
dire<TTa\*i 'TvepeiSi}'}.] 

OvKOvv ore. tovtov fieWovros Xeyctv air^Xcurev ij jSovXi/ 10 

4. iynlat V^'P 2, I,, F, ♦; iyv. ijinr. ^I'eita Ai; iyr. aifi' vrrtp B, vale- 
rpdiaSi vulg. ; rpotiaSt (over T^tefffft) L (yp) ; rpotladt A i ; npUttBt A j ; ipoSm Z 
(n over I). 4' £- rpoilXarBe MSS.,'West.i rpocefXciref H.Wolf, Dind., 6k., Lips., Bl. 
■bJ {before ToD) om. Y. 7. -TriptiiT, Z, F, Ai ; 'TwiplSv U Ai, B' ; TwipiV 
nilg.; ■Txeptia^ B (so Lips.). S. ifiji^ftj *. 

SIBS. I. icdX«Z, L, Aj. B, Y, 4,0; «iX«./H«valg. t«!t». Toi™»2. 

to. ^XXamn Uvfir L, vulg.; fi^XXorrn (corr. from X^orrat?) w. Xj^tir added, Z; 
X^ycTTM B, F, <t, Dind. airir {atltt diM)Xiuf(r) valg.; om. Z, L. 

had given aulhorily to revise the etecllon, in power: inH. Wolf's emendation, rpixr- 

rejected him and sent Hypeiides in his tlkirSt, upoa- would have the same force 

place. This showed that the tide had as xat. The arj^oirii of the Areopagus 

tamed against Macedon. Hyperides then here was of the second kind mentioned 

delivered his eloquent \6yiit Ai^AuuJi at by Dinarchus (quoted in note on % 133'), 

Delphi, and gained the case for Athens. tov Siffiov rpoimifarrDE a&r^. See dri- 

See Hist. Si4- M"". § 13S"- 

4. d*4...ifo'*ip (see G. loij) : cf. 7. Xfyti* vporfroft: i.e. as the irMt- 

XXI. 15J, Srt lari rair^r TJ]v ^Xulnr ^r (M of Athens. — iri Ta0p«)jw>9: the most 

^v (for laS' iJf) iyu run, and xxil. 30, solenin form of voting, heie onareligioua 

repl Teu rpdytxaros ofrau oJ (sc. rtpl) question. See XLiil. 14, Xo^ii^ct rlpi 

nStlti tin tbiHv. (West.) \(^^' iTiuWrwi> Tw* liptltjr, art roC ^u- 

j. lit vpoAwfi icdKt(vi|v, i.e. a>>im ;iwv ^pamt raO Aiii roC ^^rptox. Cf. 

yeu And prfviously assKiaiid it Ciix Axe- Hdl. VIII, nj; Pint. Them. 17; Cic. 

opagus) with jrouritivts in the east, i.e. pro Balbo v. n. 

^ving it the right to revise yoar choice 8. iJWx.Bti: like ipfpauoa, (above), 

(lit. vihat jtau had previouify chosen it 9. roirf : cf, J#ul 7-i;r 'j/^^r ifnyiiia, 

also, and gititn it fiimier, etc), xoi in Isae. xt. iS. 

educing, which seems awkward, roust j 11 

refer to the attcdatitit of the two bodies when 



KOI rrpoa-eTa$ev irep^, rare Kai npohorrfv elvai. Kal ica- 
KOvovv vfikiv aw€<fyr)V€V, 

186 Ef fUv roivw rovro towvto ffoXtTcu/ta rov veaviov 

TOvTOv, ofiotov ye — ov yap; — oh ifuiv Konjyopel- erepov 
oe avainiip^cKetTde. ore yap IIv^cDfa 4>i\t»nros eiTefi\(i€ tov 
BvCdvTiov Kal trapa rav avrov (rvfxpM-j^aiv ttavrtitv <rvve- 
S vep.ij>e irp€cr0eii, ws 4v aurxvvy wot^aoiv rtjv ttoXip Kai 
ZeC^otv aZiKova-av, tot eyio p-ev t^ Ilv6<ovt ffpaawop/vf^ 
Kal iro\\£ piovTt, Kaff vpMv owj^ vwe^copr}(ra, aXk' avacrraq 
avTfltrov Kal ra r^s iroXeo*? SiKat* o^x* T/wuStoKa, aXX' 
ahi,KovvTa ^Cktimov e^^Xey^a <f>avepiu% 0V7&)$ cSoT€ Tovs 
lofKiU'Ov KTvp-p-ayovi avTOVi avio-Tap4vov% opoXoytiv ovtos 
§€ (TvvTfyaivi^fTO koX Tai'aiTia ifLaprvpei Tp warptSi, Koi 
Tovra ^evS^. 

137 Kai ovK aiTfXPV ''''''■^'^■i oKka irdXiv fiera ravff vtrrepov 

. al„x>'v £' (. ch. 10 v). O'. ;. = 

I loi", liS'); o6k ilia oiS' inrexiiiniira valg. 
S IBT. I. dXXd S, L, Ai.i, B, F; i\U loJ vulg. 

•aiuiui^KmBiu (u 
rdrrbii' Z. L'. Ai; iwiprar L^ B, vdJe. 
i/nita L, B, F; «*< ^«x. S (<5. 

his election: toeItou X^»TOf would be 
icAfli *<■ wai the sptaker {fkcl\ hut ihis 
use of X^w may well be questioned. 

It. itn^^MV, dalarid him to be 
SO by its dir&^offii. 

S !••. I. navfou: Ihis sometimes 
las here) expresses wantonness or inso- 
lence, like rtatmhi. See Eur. Ale. 679, 
I^or ippl[iit, Kai nwiai \iyavi ^Im-ur 

1. OS yif; this sarcsisiic question 
(after ye) implies a self^evideDt ab- 
surdity, which is heightened by calling 
this affair with Aniiphon a wofilrtviM of 
Aesch. and so comparing il with the ro- 
\iTi6iiaTii of Demosth. (see next note). 
West, quotes xxi. 109, xxii. 75, xxiii. 
161, 186. — oh l|u>6 NaTi)Yap(t: probably 
= TOW 4iuiC ■■oXiTfii^uwo- oit Kanryopti, 

3. IIMitn: this eloquent orator waa 
tent to Atbeni by Philip 343 B.C., to 

quiet apprehension and to repeat as- 
surances of the king's friendly spirit. 
Fylhon was > scholar of Isocrates and an 
accomplished writer : see Anon. Life of 
Isocrates, p. ij;* (West.) and Aesch. tt. 
iij, f»J T# ypifta iiiya ^powaf. Sec 
Hist, as S5— S7- 

6. tfoirmfiiKt, fiil/i Ail intaknt 

7. roXX^ ^fovn mfl' i|iav, rusking 
upon you with a ftoed (of eloquence). 
See Thuc. ic. j, h 'Affwii Torauit tpfAri 
lUyaj, and Ar. Eq. 516 (of Cratimis), 
if *«\X^ iticat wt' hrainf SiA rwV 
iipASr wtilUF Ippti, All quote tlor. Sat 
I. 7, iS, sal&o multoque fluenti, with (he 
preceding ruebat flumen ut hiberaum. 
See i 199', w6\it tfHiiTOK—oix A*<x<*' 
pi|ira, did nal relreai (before the flood). 

10. e-iift|u[x'*l: '■<• ^^ '''"' ifvffi- 
XW rpivpta of I. 5. 


'Ava^Cv^ T^ KaTCLtrKOTT^ (TvvLoiv €15 Tf}V ^pacravo^ < 

T^ fj>va■€^ Karao-KOTTos ical ffoXe/^io; t^ irarpi&i. koI on s 
ravr a\'>^^ \.4yti), KoXei /ioi tovtoiv tov$ iiaprvpas- 


Atot^avTov fiapTvpovffi ArjfUKrOevti xal ivtofiotravro evi riSii trrpa- 
■njymv eiBevai Aiff^^t'i^j' ^Arpofi^TOv KodwKiS'^v ffVvep-)(6nevov lo 
vvKTov els Ttfi/ ^pdiTtevo9 ouciap koI KOivoXoyovfifvov 'Avaft'i'^, Sf 
ixpCOi} elvai KardirKoiros trapa ^iXltrrrov. alnat a7reS66ri<rav at 
fiapTvpuu eVt Nixiou, iKarofi^amvo^ Tpir^ t<rTap,evov.^ 

Mvpia TtMwv erep' ciireu' exav vepl aurow irapakeCwM. 138 
Kal yap owrw jrats cj^ci. iroX\' &v iyot en toutwi' €)(otp,t 
Sci^ot, ^i* o5tos Kar' (keiVoi<; tow? xpopov^ Tois ^wc ix^poU 
vTTtjperStv e/iol S' i7rr}p€a.^<av eipe&i). iXk' ov Tiderm. touto 
Trap' vpXv €ts aKpi^ p,v^p,r)v ovS' t)v trpoa^Kev opyrfv, oXXa 5 
SeSwifttT e^«i TIM ^avX^ jroXX.^v i^ovuiav t<^ ^ov'kop,iv<^ 
TOf XdyovTo. Ti TcSf v^ic (rv/nft^ovTmP wroo'iccXtieii' «ai 
(TVKo^avTtiv, T^% itrl rais XotSopuus ijSoi^^ fcal ^aysiTo; 

1. ara{(i>v Z. L; 'Aftlry Y; 'Affffi F and « (yp)-, 'Arofivy all edd. 

4. iri>nt« 1. 6. iXifiH L. 

g ISB. I. Tolrur om. L. frtp'—niroC om. ♦■. 1. lyii 'Or vulg.; 

rSr om. Z, L. 4. rtiSmu (rt over rn) L. 7. n rtpl rwv $. 

g IBT. 1. 'Avoflvf : Aeschines (ill. § 18B. 1. ovra WMi, somelBhal as 

113, 114] chaiges Dcoioslbenea with feUmat, where earlier writers would uie 

causing the airesl and death of Aiuucinua, lUe. 

and even with twice torturing him with 3. dv: usimilated to TMirw from a, 

his own hand, though he had once been c<^ale object of fhrtipcruv and i*i)pii- 

the man's guest at Oreus. Aesch. reports fa* : for the latter see ir^ptiar, S 1 1*. 

the oft'quoted reply of Demosth. to the 5. \> vporiiKa' ipTijv (with (it); 

chargeof violation of hospitality: f^rftBa rlSmu tit ifrf^ naturally follow* the 

-fif Toit -nit t6A(UI oXaf xcpt vXiIoi'iH familiar rlBirat ill iir^iaiii. 

vBi'fyrasSai rrp ^eraip Tpani^i. Anaxi- 7. frroirx<Utav, Irip up (cf. axtKii). 

ma is said to have come to Athens (pro- 8- TT[t...'^8ov^t Kal x^'"*= abusive 

bably in 341— 540) to make purchases language (Xotjopla) not only /ZniW the 

for Olympias, Philip's queen. populace, but also gratified their wbims 

4. aMt tiHipx<-.''<*i^'*<*<r«t, he and low tattes. A good example of 

v/ai lo he assumed la Aavt lie nature ef a both ^iopf and xipa is the scene in the 

spy kimsetf. See note on % 95*. Assembly when the second embassy re- 



TO rrjt; iroX^ois avfuftdpov avraXKaTTOfievof Sioirc^ p^v iari 

lo Kai aa<ftaKeaT€pov ael Tois i)($poK vmjperovvra fua'dapvew 

■^ T^v virep vfuav fKop-evov rd^iv TroXtrevctr^ai. 

139 K(u TO fi.ev S^ vpo Tov iroXc^cu' <f>avepcai (Twayavi- 

^eo'Bai, ^iXiTTiry 8€ivov p.h>, £ yr) koi Beol, — wat^ yap ov; — 

Kara t^s jrarpiBos- Sore S', ei ^ov\ea-6e. Sot* avr^ towto. 274 

oXX* eireiS^ iftav^><ai yjSvj to irXoi' effecuXi^TO, Xeppovrja-oi 

S iiTopffflro, iwl r^v 'Airticrfv eiropeveff" a,v6pmiio%, ouxer' o* 

afif^nT^Trjiri/i^ to. irpdyfuer ijf, aXX' cWicrr^Kct iroXe^o^, 

o Ti fL€v vaTTOT oTpa^fv vTTip iifiMv 6 ^a.<rKavo% otTO% 

9' EEFniTaraXXaTT6/i<Pi 

:Ai,V,«{tp). 10. itlcJZ, L, 

6. 5. iroftitf' SrSp. F, 4; Jirs^viri SrSp. 2; 

jf om. V. iittrfyiu (i.e. i.fiffr.) V6. ;. t^ 

Ai, B; o^rmrt vulg. 

ported in July 346 B.C., described in Xix. 
44 — 46. Demosthenes was insulted and 
JMied at by Aeschines and Fhilocrates, 
10 the delight of the people: notice the 
single sarcastic remark of Demosthenes 
(4<S), KoX imt iy*XlTt. 

II. rip . . . ToXtTfl W fl tt t U le ttrvitlu 
slali as a fairiel, opposed to rolt ix^ptif 
iriI/KToCrTii invSapttir. 

31 ia9— 1S». Next follows the ac- 
count of the conduct of Aeschines in 
Klirring up the Amphissian war in 339 
B.C. (Seenoteon8§ 116-516.) §S '39- 
I44 are introduclory, and gg 158, IJ9 are 

S 18B, The first sentence depreciates 
the acts already mentioned, done in lime 
of nominal peace, to heighten the enor- 
mity of helping Philip in time of war: 
cf. tin atr^ teuro (3). 

I. vpi ToO voXtp^Iv ^ottpHt; this 
implies that the preceding peace was 
really a stale of war. See IX. 19, li^' ft 
iltU/itti i*ti\t ^tiiniat, iri raOnis fy^' 
airiw mXc/ifiv bplfoiiBi. Cf. ^natpQi in 

3. Karri rJit irarpCSot: not connected 
in construction with itirbt, but an inde- 
pendent exclamation, justifying the asser- 
tion in Sevrir /lir. 

4. iwiBH...iKoftfi-r«,a/ttrymrsiifi 

Ami ieeii optnly sdttd (§ 73) and Iht 
rava^ng q/ the Chers&ntst was going Ortl 
for fa((rtXi|TO see note on \ 41'. The 
ravaging of the Chersonese was the out- 
rage of marching an army through the 
Athenian territory there lo enable his 
fleet to pass the Hellespont for the siege 
of Perinthus without mo1e<itation from 
the Athenians on the shore. See Schae- 
fer [1. 499, joo, and Hist, g 66 (end). 
The passage may refer also to the attack 
on the Chersonese after the siege of 
Byuntium : Hist. S 6? {end). 

5. Jv\T^v'ATTun)*4Wopfd<t': Philip's 
action at the Hellespont, if it had not 
been checked, would have opened the 
way for him into Attica and the whole of 
Greece. Demosth. had repeatedly warned 
the people of this peril : even in the First 
Philippic (35r B.i:.) he had said (50), sir 
lii] vSr I8e\uitt* i<tfi ToXf^itir aiVrij;, 
ifSiV tfftat im-fKOffBTjai/Ar&a raiho TOc- 
(iF. See especially VI. 3s {34* B-C-). 
ni\at...ur Kararrii ixfifoi Kvpiot Ttp M 
Hir 'ATTiirrii' ifcti cat rf/t tit IlfKowimi- 
ffof Kipioi yiyav€, and further tov rp6r 
■Hfr 'Atti«V »oW;m>ii, 8t Xvr^ti liir tit,- 
ffT0P irtiS^v rap^j yfyawt B' iw iKetr^ T'jJ 
illiipf- See 8 143'. 

6. ivnvTiJicii T^jiot: cf. & irrrij 
ir6\tiu>i, S 89*. These words end tbe 
clause with {rtit^. 



iafi^etoypdifto^ ovk av i)(Oi Sei^at., ovS* €a~rtv owre /lei^oc 
ovt' €\aTTov ^Tf^uj-fL ovScii hlfT^ivQ imp t&v trvfuftepovrav 
TQ iroXci. el Sc ifxTfo-i, vw Sei^artu iv t^ ifi^ vSart. aXX' tc 
OVK coTtc oiSev. Kairoi Svoiv awTOf aydyKY) Bdrepov, ^ 

8. /o^HOTpil^i S, O (con.}, vulg., Vom., West- Lips. ; iii(i(Sioypd^j ♦, V6; 
laiifioypiipo' Ai; la/ifftia^yet Z {yp), L (Ypd^t over ^701), Djnd., Bk., Bl. For 
lafifia^6ftoi see Hertnog. (in. pp. 141, 14}, 344 W.), E-tyai. Magn. p. 463, Bekk. 
Anec. p. 165 ; laufiiut^yoi and la)i^noiiAxoi B (yp). See Vomers noie. aiS' 

drlxci Ai. g. ^«p£, L; rtfii vulg. 10. JvAi, Dind., Bk., West., Bl.; 

irll, L, B, F, Ai, «, O, Void, (see his note). Lips. 11. vdysq bvtAi A[, Y. 

8. taftfaoffHtit, orriltr of lampcens 
(iBfi^a), probably refere to verses wiillen 
b; Aeschines in bis youth, to which he 
perhaps alludes in 1. 136, ttfA ti rur 
vot^M&rai* ur ^aair ofirol /it wtrouitiiai. 
Thfa reading was restored by Vijoiel (see 
his elaborate note), on the best MS. au- 
ihorily, in place of Jo^cw^-yot, eater (or 
mmifAer) efiambia, which waa and is the 
common reading. If we read loM^eio^Toi, 
we must refer it to the career of Aeschi- 
nes as an actor, not to hit XoiJo/iJa, lo 
vhich the ancient interpreters generally 
referred it. Sec Etym. Magn. 'Ia»i^<^ 

iffti "Kotiopia, 6 0a7Civ oGr, tv rcfi arbian 
i IziJr Toit litifiout, reurimr i Ix'"' !ii 
ffri/iaroi Tiirftko}Liniopiav'...TAx^ '"^ 'a. 
paTalfwr tit tAt Aiffx^"^* ^^ ^^ IttfLptia. 
rijt rpafifilat IXryir IrrotpiTiit lir. Cf. 
Bekk. Anecd. p. 16$". Weil quotes the 
Patmos Schol. : X^towi roit iaa^St 
OMEYiTriirfDrTU rpiiyiii' ri XctA^ch 
{noallmi/ Ihtir jvirrdi). Bekk. Anecd. 
p. igo*, lau^afiiyar Tor rralai-Ta \4- 
ymmr, probably refers to bad delivery: 
c£ 9 a6j'. Hrta S. iXuiudroii. West 
denies that any of these interpretations 
of taiifint^ytt suits the present passage. 
•nd finds support for la/iSmrypJ^m in the 
following oti' lmi...fvii^fp6rTur tq rij- 
X« (8). Much may be said for both read- 
ings. The forms trilh taiiffno- and those 
with taiifio- are e<iual]y good. 

9. AUr]((i>1]> dat. of possession: it 
has itpne lo limo. 

to. kiT^iyi^KAa.'niinmyliine: this 
general formula and Arl rw iiiai uSarst 
■re often used when a tpeaker olTers part 

of his own time to his opponent to prove 

sometliing which he believes cannot be 
proved. It is a mere challenge, made 
with no idea of its being accepted. For 
the genitive with iwl see LVii. 61 (end). 
The best Mss. have here ^rl...uJaTi, 
which Vfimel adopts. Shillelo (note on 
XIX. 57, p. 3S9*1 oys of this passage, 
"readii'-" "Inl genitivum postularet," 
says Dindoif. The time allotted to each 
speaker in most cases was measured by 
the clepsydra or water-clock (Diet- Aniiq. 
under Horologium), a fixed number of 
ip^^optit of water being poured in accord- 
ing to the importance of the case. Thus 
Aeschines (II. 116J says, rpbt trStta yip 
ili4op4»* ir iiapxiterprmtti rp iipipi Kpi- 
rojUH, eleven dfi^spciT (about 100 gallons), 
allowed each speaker in cases of rapa- 
Tptir^ia, being the lai^est amount men- 
tioned. In some cases, as the ypa^Ji or 
iiini unrwrtwi, called Slriu Uriv USarm, 
no limit was set (see Harpocr. under 
Katvattat), The term Stafuiurpfip^ni 
i)tiipa is explained in Aesch. iii. igj. 
In important public suits, like the ypa^ 
WBpuibpuir, the day was divided into three 
parts, and the clepsydra was tilled three 
times, the first measure of water being 
given to the accuser, the second (of equal 
amount) to the accused, and the third (in 
i,-fU¥tt ri^irrnf, if the accused was con- 
victed), a smaller measure, to the Tl^ir"*> 
or consideration of the amount of the 
penally, t ti xp4 'oS'v 17 dx-oTliRu. 

II. SvB[v.,.BiLT<pav: there is no infini- 
tive or other verb to be supplied. See 
Gerth-Kuhner, Autf. Gram. § 406, Amn- 
io. Jvwr Sdripor (or 0dr(pa), afi^irtpar 




/iTfSev Tol; trpaTTO{Uvoi^ inr' ifiov tot' expvr iyKoktw fi-^ 
ypa^eiv irapa ravff erepa, ^ to rav ^6p^v avjA^poy 
^TfTovvra prf (fyep^w eis fieaov ra rovratv apeivm. 
140 'Ap' o^ ovB' i\eyev, mnrtp ovS' eypatftcv, T^viK ip- 
yatrtKfdfix Ti Seot xaKov; oi pky ovv ilireiv r^v erepa. Ktu 
ra piv aXXa koX i)>€peiv "^Bvvaff, cu? eoifcei', Tf TroXt? koI iroiav 
o5to5 hw0avet,v tv S' cirefei/jyao-aro, cu^pcs 'A^vauH, 
5 ToujvTOj' & vao-i TOis iTpoTepoLs eireSriKe reXos' Jrc/jt o5 tous 
iroXXous eu^Xftto-e Xoyovs, ra Tflv 'Ap^ta-treoiv [rav AoKpmi'] 

14. ri ^or Al, V. 

f 140. 1. (an^ 2, L, B. F', 
2', L; Hr dttb S'. vulg.; (irri. 
4. ii<il...Xu«dr«rZ>; d...Ad>'«iwei 
Z, L. Ai. F, O; w i^Sfi. valg. 
Aocpuv] so West., Lipi., Bl. ; om 

$'; Kurir i^i v^lg. (4/iai A]}. ttrtir ijr 

im. B. 3. ^Kraat' 2- ■>>• om. £'. 

2", L, vulg, tittpyiffaTo Aj. S^Spn 

i. 'Ad^ta^ur 2 (but 'Aw^irnt S 150*). [nir 

Y; (Oi Aotp^ Al. 

or a^4^^</», aitfripor, and similar expres- 
sioDS. may stand emphalically, as ad- 
verbial phrases, berore ij-..^, ■at...iEal, 
Tt.,,Tc, and in olher cases where we 
simply say Hthtr...or, both... and, elc 
See Plat. Theaet. 1S7 B, ikr avrw ipij- 
fitw, Suoir ffirtpa, ^ rbpifvoiini itp' A ipx^ 
into, Jj ^mr oJifirdM'f a tlSiroi t /iqja^g 
taiat. So II. III. tjg, iii^^rtpor, fin- 
mXtit t' ayaSbs Kparep6t t' atxMW^^ Cf- 
II. IV. 14J, Od. XV. 78 ; Aesch. iii. 
134: and below % [;i'. In English 
these expressions aie usually included in 

tHAer c 

bolh. In s 

must not ascribe to the un/fm/dni/ Greek 
infinitives (here yfi^ia and ^par) the 
definite time which we are obliged to give 
them when we translate them by finite 
verbs. With inyicti supply ^r, Ae loat 

II — 14. |iTi8i»,..lj^»rr' and|- 
ToWra are causal. — mpd raW expretses 
opposition, not mere addition. Fox (p. 
149) thus states the dilemma: "Aeichines 
konnte oder woUle mit Iteinem Eintrag 
einkommen. " 

g 140. ip* ^..,hifn^\ e6t'...t6S' 
correspond to tal..,iial in potitive expres- 
sions of thU kind (West.). We cannot 
express such negatives: the meaning is, 
ai At prapited no mtaiarcs, so did hi aito 
t^Ham frem talking {re ntiihtr did h* 

lam? The si 

set these of commission i: 


1. vi i/hi...Mfif, vAy, nahedy dtt 
ceuld gtl a chance to talk I 

4. tv^if^iraTa : the idea of addi- 
tion, which tui (like Tpii) expresses, is 
farther extended by iriS^m tAoi, caffied 
Iht climax. 

5. ttAt «oXX«ii Xd^imri, iii many 
leerds, referring to the long and brilliant 
passage (lit. 107 — 119} in which Aeschines 
describes his doings at Delphi when he 
stirred up the fatal Amphissisn war. Cf. 
Aeschyl. Ag. 1456. fda rii roUif, rit 
wirv rtXXitt ^i^4i i^itat. 

6. id TM> 'Aft^tvWNi' SiYi^aTa, tkt 
dtcnet (of the Amphictyons) aboitt Uu 
Ampkiisiaiu, like ti HryapitiT iff^furia, 
tAt Megarian decret, Thuc. I. 140, called 
in 1. 139 rt r(pl VLtyapiur ir^^/ia. So 
nxtrtfr ifrii^tttt, XX.T15. — [rin/ Abk^mt] ; 
the forms bI AoKpoi oi 'A/i^io-ntt (Aesch. 
III. 113), ai 'AfilKffna Aaxpoi (like ai 
'OfiXoi o(toi AiKpoi, Thuc. ill. 9;), 
and AnKfiU «1 'A^i^urnii (like AotpOr 
Tur 'OftoXii', ibid.) are all justified (see 
Vomci'i note). V. retains the MS. text 
here, but explains it as the genitive of ol 
'Afi^iffaiii al AoKpC^. Two uss. Omit 
rUr Aoipuii, which West, brackets. 



Stcfuuf Soyfiara, a»s SiaoT/>ci/«oc Takr)$€<!. rh 8' oil Toi- 
miT6v ioTi. noffev; ovSewoT iKVi^n trv raKei vfvpayjxeva 
<ravT^- ov)( ovTa mjXX' ipet^. 

KoXbt 8' evavTiov VfjMv, ofS/ief 'A$i)vaLOi, tov5 5eous 1*1 
airovra; koi iratras 5croi r^i* ■)(^pai' €XOV<ri rrfv 'Amicfjv, 
Kal Tov 'AttoXXw toi* nvdioi/, os warp^o^ i<m tjJ irdXet, wal 
hr€vxop.{u vacrt tov7oi?, eJ liw dXi}^ ir/w u^as etiroifii xal 
5 ewrov (coi tot evBv^ iv t^ 8i}^^, ore tipwrov ctSoe tovtocI 5 
Tov fi.t,apov TovTov ToC irpdyfiaTO^ awTOfJLevov {iyvtov yo.p, 
evuiwi eyvtuv), evrvyiav fioi Sovvai Koi <Torrqpla.v, cl Sc iipo% 
e)(8pav ^ ^(Xoi/ciKia; i8cas iveic alriav hrayo} Tovrto i/fevS^, 
TTOvrtav Totv ayoBStv avovrfTOv px Troi^crai. 

Ti oJi/ tout' err^papai koX Siereivdprjv ovroMri <r^o8p£s ; 1*2 

7. imarpi^iiia O'. 8. tdXXou Y( col <<t (after vMcr;) £ (yp), valg.; om. 

Z, L', A[, B, F. ixri^ (or -17) MSS. 

g 141. itSpa Z; u (C^ip. vulg. J. wirrat V. 5. irol rir' Z, L, ♦; 

jtaJ vulg. ToiiTor Ai; Towrffcorr. tOTOWwlJ S. 7. (Miit O. 8. (&(« 

L. g. itbtrtot Ai, O'. ^ ytriaeat V6. 

7, t4 8', *«/ IB /ac/: Ibis t4 3^, wiih 
no correlative tA /lir, is common in 
Plalo, introducing an adversative slale- 
ment. See Apol. 13 a, atarrai iu...ibai 
fo^ir' ri ti Kiftvfiiti. So Rep. 340 D 
(eiidj, 357 A — ai nievTiv tm, i.e. tiii 
caitnel bt doni {thi lase ii net of suck a 
nature, /An/ etc.), referring to iis Smirrpi- 

8. va4tv 1 cf. I 47*.~JitW4iu : cf. Act. 
Apoct. XKiL iG, diriXadaiu rii itiaprias 
ami, vrask away thy litu. For tbe fomi 
of irrl^ii, see note on § 11 9*. 

I 141. The solemn invocation in this 
cliapter, resembling those which begin 
and end th« exordium (Jg t, 8], colb 
atlcDtioD again to the gravity of the 
charge about to be made, and to the 
supreme importance of the events which 
led to the fatal issue on the lield of 
Chaeroneft, He defends his invocation 
and his general earnestness in U 141 — 

3. gaTpyB t : Apollo was the pattmtd 
God of Athens, not only as the great 
Ionic divinity, but as the Aahei of I<m 

(according to Athenian belieO- See 
Harpocr. under 'ArAXXur, and Schol. on 

At. Av. 1517, lOTp^Ol- W TI/MBffW 'Ar6X- 

^ura 'KiTfOMH, i-Ktl 'lur, A roU^fixof 
'AAT^afbrr, i^ 'AirAXXuror jcal Kptodcip 
rip Soiitfou iyinTt. So in the Ion of 

4. il &Xt|9>j riiroifu Kal tlvov, lit. t'o 
COM I shsuid sprak thi truth to yen nom 
and did tpeak it that en iht spet: a 
double condition combining a liiture and 
a past supposition (M.T. jog). We 
should rather invert the order and saj, 
ij I then speit iJu truth and (ihail) speak 

J. vpAi Ix^fMi*, tenth a vine te inmity : 
cf. Sii...fx0liw in g I43». 

8. ^(XomlhIm, {enttnlieusness (against 
an enemy). 

9. dvdcTirav: cf. XIX. 31J, iSari d»i- 
niTOt htirar ^.tirriat ctroi Twv iyaSiir. 

g 143. I. hr^pa|uu: referring to the 
whole invocation of % ni, but especially 
to the imprtcation in the last clause, rf 
rair' ir^pafuu; is vi&y have I made this 
imprieatieHl while rl Atreu-dfi^ tArvai 



on ypafntar ey^cav h> t<^ 8T)fiocrC<fi Keifieva, €^ tav ravr* 

eiriBei^a a-a<f>S><;, koX vfiaq etSu; ra ireirpayfi^a ftvr)fiovcv- 

tTovTa^, iK€tvo tftofiov/iai, fx.7) Tuv elpyaa-fifv^v avrw KaK^v 

5 viTo\t]<f>0j} oJtos ^XaTTftiv ovep irpoTepov <Tvvi^, ore Tovt 

TaXaiir^povi <I>QtK£a; iiroCT}iT€v a,jro\e<r0ai to, }ji€v&rj 8ev/>* 

143 airayyeCka^. toj/ yap iv 'Afj-tftia-irj) v6\efiov, 8i tv ew 

'EXaTCiaf -^XBe OtXtTTTroy, koI Si hv igpfSy) ratv 'Afi<fnKTv6paiv 

•ffyepatv &9 aircarr avirpe^e to tSiv 'EXXtji'iui', oStos ioTw 

6 (TvyifaTCMriccvacras icai Travrwc ef? di^/3 peyioTOtv aw-ios 

5 KOK^v, Koi. TOT €v&v'i ipjov StafiapTvpofiei/ov koX ^oS>vto% 

if rg iKK\r}(rui. ir6ktp,ov ei? Trfv 'Attikviv ettroyci?, 

Ala')(Cvij, •jToXspov 'Afii^iKTvoviKov, ol p£v eK iTopa- 

ffXijcreius <rvyKaB^p/Ei/oi, qvk Etaif p.f. XeytLv, oi S' iBavfia^ov 

i l«a. 1. Sri Z, LI, Jti (ol vulg. J. /ivirfiwdKrarrai Z, *; -cOorrat L. 

4. iam-iji (for airi}) A 1. s- ixoXt^^j ovroi Adrrwr Z, L', airoi iXirrar 

firoX)|^S5 vulg. ; ii-oXfi^flH V6. 

§14S. 1. 'EXarcor (i ch. to «) 3:. A 44\. Al. 3i' w O. 3. T&'EXX^rur 

•■pd'y/io™ Ai; t4 Tif'BlXX. drirfii^'t L. Vffn* (after ouret) OCT. L. 4- hoto- 

T(J» >n7(ffTarr vulg.; T* _.-— . 

after ir4Xe/uw Al. 

SiauaprupoVfiirov O- 

6, Vn 

, F, *, O; ttiriytit 

a^iSput ; (aor.) is aky did Iixpriss mystlf 
wilA all this vihemmt tarnaltuss I (telal- 
ing to the whole passage from g 140). 

1. krt^ &i]|UKrCf, in Ihe public record- 
offiei : this was in the Hiir^Kpor (see Aesch. 
III. 187. Pans. I. 3. 5). 

4. |ii4...1U'mfy, i.e. liit Aesch. may 
bt Ihaugkl lao small a man lo work so 
gnat mischief. 

5- Snp irpinpav o-vW^ : this allusion 
to a former lime when Aesch. cauicd Ihe 
ruin of the Phodans by bringing home 
false reports, can refer only 10 the return 
of the second embassy in 346 s.c. (see 
§S It—ldY This distinct statement that 
Aesch. was then thought "too insignili- 
cant to do so much harm," with the 
apprehension that the court may make 
the same mistake again in (he present 
case, is one of the strongest contirniations 
of the opinion that the case against 
Aeschines really came to trial, thai the 
speeches de Falsa Legatione were actually 
tpoken, and that Ae$chines was acquitted 

by a small majority. (See Essay iv.) 
% I4*. \. Tin ki 'A|i4(v«l| vlXi- 

YOr: for this and the seizure of Elatea, 

see { 15a' and note. The words rir... 

'EXdrruiv form a dactylic hexameter, 

followed by part of another; but see 

Blass's note. 

1. jpMq ^fip^ Et, a man was chesen 

leader, ivha etc. (i.e. Philip) : 10 West. 

Bt. brackets lai Jt' ir ^pi$v- 

6. Jv T^ lKKXi|irtf, i.e. in the meeting 
in which Aesch. made his report of his 
doings in the Amphictyonic Council 
(Hist. §74). — •ttT^i-'A'mK^i': Deroosth. 
saw at once the liiU meaning of the Am- 
phictyonic war, and knew that it must 
end in bringing Philip into Greece as 
the Amphictyonic general (see note on 

I •an- 

7. al . . . <nr|fKaAi)|uviH, liese nie tat 

together by his sumnanr, i.e. his rapi- 
iiXi;toi, with whom he had packed the 

8. «4« 4iv )M My*!', l.e- vvh/i^ tut 


nEPI TOY 2TE*AN0Y 107 

K€u K€in)v alriav Sid T^f ^ap eydpav iirdyav fi vire- 
Xcifi^avov ain^. ijri? 8" j} <f>v(Ti^, avSpes 'A0r)va.ioi, yeyovev 144 
TovToiv T^v irpayfiATtov, Kol rivo^ etfeica Tawra <T\n/t<TKa}- 
do-Or) Kal ffw? iirpdxSf}, vvv imaKovvare, iirci&Y} tot exia- 
XvBjfT^' Ktu yap eS wpayfia cwredh^ otjiecOe, koI fieyaX' 
QM^tXTja-etrBe Trpos laropuiv tUv KOivStv, koX o<n} SeivoTT/s S 
■^v h/ T(u OiXtTTTT^ d€da-e<rde. 

OvK ■^v Tov irpo'i u/ia; woXefiov irc/)as ovB' awaKXayi) 146 
276 *tX,i7jTr^, el fKT) Syj^aiovi koX SerraXov^ €xBpov<; woti^creie 

9. Ktur^r L. li' om. Z'. 

!1«4. 1. ivIpdZ, L,Ai, O; <Jd>Ip. vulg. 1. f&(«iZ, B(cf. g§I30^ 

'75')' 3- ivonx^arc 2, L, B, 4; dKottiran Ai. i, vulg. 4. 7d|> om. Y. 

6. 4(ror {*) LI. Btitttadt L, O; 0cii<ra(reE 2, vulg. Vom. 

g 14S. I. iiiias A 1. \ 

/f/ mt ga on sftaiing (after my warning). 
— at S' ISaipatDv: Ibe oidinaiy citizens 
were amazed at anyone ivho dared to 
object to the pious and (apparently) 
patriotic speech of Aeschines. The de- 
cree of Demosthenes forbidding Athens 
lo lake any part in the future action of the 
Amphictyonic Council against Amphissa 
(Aesch. lis — 117) w^ passed at a later 
meeting, afier the people had opened 


8 1«4. 

3. JrvoKaJwraTt : most edd. reject this 
reading of the best mss. for the vulg. 
oxniaaTt or Rauchensteir's ^aroArarc, 
on the ground that iwaiioia means listen, 
not iear ailinlivify. But see Plat. Theaet. 
161 A, rdrruH cii ruF jj) niX ifiiuXSl ir« 
i^alre7o iraKoinr. and [6j d, rait eip 
S>iiiiiyoplati6i/as6rai:cira. (SeeVbmet.) 
The general meaning is, now /at/ your 
opporiunily la listen to Iht story, sinct 
you wfrt kept from hearing it at Ike right 

4. (£ vfS.ff.a wvTtSli', that the plan 
mas will caneaeled. 

5. irpdi Inoptav, fur gaining a inim/- 
Udge. The real history of ihete events 
must be disentangled from the long story 
of Aeschinn (106 — 131), supplemented 

and often corrected by the briefer account 
of Demosthenes (145 — 159I. See Hist, 
gg 70 — ;<;. Fox analyzes the argument 
of I^emosthenes skilfully in pp. 151 — ij6, 
pointing out that it has all the merits 
which the ancient rules demand of a good 
narration (811J71J011) : it is brief {aiimiim^, 
perspicuous (tra^i|F?jt), vivid (fropyijt), 
ethical (ifiacli), i.e. showing the moral pur- 
pose (ir|WEifp«rit) of the actors (Aristol. 
Rhet. 111. 16, 8), and credible (Tiea»iJ). 

9 l«a. I. iAk ^t...A |») TW^o^: 
see M.T. 6g6 and the examples. The 
protasis depends on an apodosia implied 
in ofijt ^('...♦iM »»■((, the real meaning 
being Philip felt Ikal he could net end or 
tseape Ihe war unless he should maie Iht 
Tk. kostili to our eily. This involves 
indirect discourse; and we might there- 
fore have had tin 11.% chVb here for tl 
(tit roiiiotLt. See Thuc. Vil. 59, rdXXa, 
Ijw ?Ti vavfiaxe'' ol 'ABtihuih ToX/i'^ufft, 
Tapfomviltu'ro, where the condition really 
depends on the idea to ie rAu/yimplIed in 
rtLpeoKfuifovTii, and (/...ToXf«|»aiw might 
have been used. Compare Thuc. vi. too, 
rpit rijf ri\ir, tl iriffotiSoitr, ixiipoar, 
they marched tmiardi Ihe city, in case they 
(the citizens) should rush out, i.e. lo mat 
them in that case; the thought being ^v 



TQ iroX.€i- aXKa Koiv^p o^Xico? koL Ka.KS><i rlitv arpaTTfymv 

Tav vfierepav iro\€(iovvr<av avr^, Ofi/a^ vtr' avrov tow 

S voK4p.ov Km, tSc \'q<ttS>v fivpi' «ra<rjf€ koko,. ovre yap 

i^ijyero rStv tK Trj% -^tapa^ ytyvoftevoiv ouScv ovt' eur^yero 

146^1' eSeiT* aur^- ^v S' ovt' iv tjJ BaKdrry Tore KpeCrraiv 

vfMov, out' ew TTfv 'hTTiKJiv ikOccv SuvaTos fiiJTf Serrakav 

aKO^ovGovvrtov fiT^re Sij^aCotv Swotcdv avvi^tuvf. B' avT^ 

T^ wo\€n<j> KpaTovvTi TOU9 oiroioxxrS^iroff' vfici; i^eTrefiirere 

5 arparrjyov^ {ia yap tovto ye) avrg rg ^vtrei tow toitou fcai 

J. xfVrii' (for XiwriSi') V6. 6. tirfftTt) 2. 

3 1««. 1. Tir< tptlTTwr £, L, Ai; irfL t^i vulg.; T&rc om. Al. 1. AAfW 

om. V. 3. re(for«)Al. 

3. UX(«t...v«XqwivT(**: Chares and 
Phocion were (be Athenian commanders 
at the beginning of the war, while Vhilip 
was besieging Byzantium. Chares waa 
much censured for inefficiency; for the 
conflicting opnions concerning his mili- 
tary operations, see Hist- % 67, note 6. 
For Phocion'fl generalship there is only 
praise. But the operations here men- 
tioned are probably those of the Uler 
part of 34°— 339- '"'1™ Philip was in 
Scythia (Hist. S 70), of which we have 
lit lie information. 

4. W airafi ToS «x>Xi|u», i.e. iy tht 
nurt stab ef mar, as explained in lines 
S— 7- 

5. X))aTM' : a state of war naturally 
encouraged pirates and plunderers. 

6. rmv Ik Tqt x<"P<i* 'Y^'YVO^var : the 
common rpiXrt^t for rue it rf X'^P9 
■fiyf; caused by ii^ero. See §J 44*, 

7- atr^, with ilir-iym. 

Philip depended on Thessalian troops 10 
fill his army, but he would have been 
salisiied with Thebes (under the circum- 
stances) if she had merely made noobjection 
to his marching through Boeotia to attack 
Athens. There was probably a coolness 
already between Thebes and Philip, 
which appears later when Thebes refused 
to attend the Amphiclyonic meeting in 

the autumn of 339 B.C. (See Aesch. ill. 
118.) See Hist. | jo, for the relations of 
Philip to Thessaly and Thebes. 

4- dwnMrSijwoS' : here relative, while 
generally relative forms with oSt and S^- 
rnirf are indefinite. Sec rni^ irotout- 
ToraaoOr la VJII. 10, and Srtv Utrart 
ftiKa in 3 ai' (above). See Kruger, 
S JO, 8, 16, for the article prefixed to 
"relative clauses used adjectively," as 
here; cf. XIX. 154, tdui oHh oho% irSpii- 

6. TW iTaf%6rTiiv jKar^pota, e/ tki 

rclaiivi raourcts of eat*, I.e. of his own 
inferiority in resources, especially in naval 
power. For a similar use of this vague 
expression in a definite sense, see Thuc. 
I, 141', where Pericles spealts of the 
comparative resources of Athens and her 
enemies; ri ii rou -rohiiuiv koX tQ^ 
itvipBit impxi"'"" «i W't iir$ir4intpa 

9 147- This is closely connected in 
thought with the beginning of § 14J. 
How, thought Philip, can I induce the 
Thessalians and Thcbans to join me? 
He remembered their zeal in the Pbocian 
war: see xix. jo, t«i 'XiupucrHoai-... 
roiwt; oO yip ijaar aOrABi rKijn Qij^dtoi 
(cd OmaXol. A new Sacred war, or any 
war for the rights of the Amphiclyonic 
Council, would be sure to roose their 


nEPI TOY rrE*ANOY 109 

tUv iwap)(6vT<i>v fKarepoK KaKowa&etv. ft ficv o5v r^s 147 
iSia; €veK €)(0pai ^ tows ©erraXou? tj roiti ©TjjSai'ous 
trvfiireidoi ^oBLtfitv i<f>' vfiSx, ovSev' TfyeiTO irpotre^eiv airr^ 
rof vovv iav Se rii; eKeLvav Koiva<; vpo^atrei^ \a0av 
■fiy^iLmv aip€0jj, p^ov ijKiTiCev to, p.€v vapaKpov(re<T0aL ra 5 
Bf ira<rew. n oSv; hrv)(€ip€i, dtaa-atrff m eS, irdXe/ioi' 
iTOi.T)iTax TOi? 'Afj,i{ttKTvo(rt KoX ire/31 rrjv HvXaiav rapayy^v 
eis yap Toxn' eiiOvi avrow? vir€\a.fi0avev avTov 8er}(Tecr$(u. 

g 147. 3. e<iii.rtlBti Ai. tiMra. (without Sr) L, Ai; oititir S; oiij/va iw 

B, Aj; oiMr' Sr V6; oC«» oi- vulg. ^Iro om. Ai. »p«r^«* Ai. 

avTtiK £ ; a^T^ L. vulg. ; almp Bk. 4. iiv S. L; v vule. 5. tifxC^ (ai 

over 4) 2; alprfn (over pjrfen) B. ^Xrifcr 2, V6m., Wesl., BL ra/ntpoitraiiSai 

V6. S. ntiTo^oin. Al. airod Bk.; auraii Z; oOtoO L, vulg. 

I. it fkr...WfirM9i, i.e. 1/ Jf uvrx 
lejeiH in an ttlttmpt Is ptrtuade Ihem tf.^.: 
aviii- implies that he would depend greatly 
on the itiflnence of hb friends in Thebes 
and Thessaly. 

3. oJBfr' ^yitra vpov^W: T omit Ar 
before ^iVo, with L, Ai, and most 
recent editors, because its ioseitioD is 
accounted for by the v. 1. ■wftaixti.f, 
with which it would be required, 
while Tpoaiinr Sr would be a rare ex- 
pression, (Sec M.T, 197, 108.) The 
simple TTpofiiiir is also supported by the 
following rapoKpoicfvBai and irtCvia- and 
by the infinitives in g 148. For the con- 
ditional forms in Ibis section and the 
following, see note on i 148*. 

4. tia'...alp^, i.e. if hi ikeuld adept 
(as his own) somi greunds CBmmiin to beth 
7%tiar:s and TAessaliam, en wAich he 
might be eheien general. See rii Itlas 
rpo^doYif, opposed to r&t 'A^t^unforurdf 
(the real mrili), in g ijS'. The actual 
reault of the scheme is teen in §§151,151. 

J. tA (itr . . . irfftrBiV, i.e. to ruceeid 
tamttimes by deeiplum, semetimes by fitr- 
nuition. Far the lease of the infinitive 
with Arffu, see M.T. .36. 

6. Wvwrt' i% iS, set how (raflily: 
cf. % 144'. — nSk^av vniitpu (not x«4- 
rurSot), le get up a viar, i.e. to get the 
AmphicCyons into a war. 

7. n)v IIiAata* : the meeting of the 
Anpbic^oaic Council was to called. 

because twice in each year (in the spring 

and the autamo) the Council met first at 
ThennopyUe in the sanctuary of Demeter 
Amphictyonis at Anthela, and afterward* 
proceeded to Delphi, where the t^ulai 
sessions were held. See Hyper. Epitaph. 
§ 18, iiJHKroiiitrin yi.p Sit toS ^viauTou 
ih 7-*|i- HuKslar, Btupol ytr/irorrai rwr 
Ipytm' K.T.\., with Hdt, Vll. loo, and 
Harpocr. under IIuXiu: Aesch. HI. 116, 
iro^u«r0iu th nuXat iial elt AfX^i h 
Tolt Ttrayii^roit xfi^rou, and Strab. p. 419 
(of Thermopylae), A-fitATrrpot lepbr, iv ^ 
tari. T&aair IliiXaiiu Svaiat ^rAaiw ol 
' Aiu^tKTvarti. Records of meetings at 
Delphi in the spring as well as the 
autumn are found in inscriptions : see 
C. I. Att. II. No. 551, it AcX^ri, rvXoiai 
iapaat, and Dittent>erger, Syll. Inscr. Gr., 
No. 185', At) SrpdrwiK, ii AeX^af, ru- 
Xoiai iirupaiijt. See Essay V. 

8. alt ■mGT',..6c^(na'Baii, viQuld need 
him for these, especially for the war, as 
the only available commander. 

§ 148. Having made up his mind 
([) that he must have the support of 
Thebes and Thessaly (§§ 145, 146), and 
(i) that he can secure this only by an 
Amphictyonic war (3 147), he now (j) 
determines to find some Athenian to in- 
stigate the war, to disarm all suspicion 
in advance. For this important work he 
hires Aesdunes (§ 14B). 



148 ei fiev toiwv tovto fi T<av wap eavTov trefitTOfixviov ifpofiyrj- 
fiovoiV ^ rZv CKcivov a-vfifjui^av eun^yotro tl%, viroi^o'dai to 
irpayfjL ivofii^e xal Toy? SrjfiaCovi koX tous ©cttoXovs koI 
Trarra? if>v\d^ca-Oai, av o 'A^valos p kcu Trap vfiav riov 

5 inrevavTuav 6 tovto troiSiv, cviropiat k-^<rav • oirep trvvefit), 

149 irw; oiv ravr iwoii}<TO'; fiurOovrat tovtovl, ouSevo; Se 
irpoctSoTos, o^ai, to trpayii ovSe ^vkarrovro^, aa-wtp 
tltaSt TO. TOtavTa tto/)' w/ito' yiyyecr^oi, wpo^hjdeK irvXa. 277 

i 1«S. I. ToGro Z, L, Ai, O; roirrw B, vulg. javroii Z, vnlg.; airaC B; 
ifrrot L. t. tlinrt«Ti> Ai, F (corr.). Y. most ed. ; tlfvyiro X. L, vulg., Vom. 

4. OTwro* Ai, B, Y. 0uXiif(irfai2, L, Aa, F, O; ^«x4"<f*<" Ai, Y. 5. «!>- 
■d\ut A], 

*• g 14». I. ;nfi«c4t (om, «) A*. 3. wap' 6»wr O, F, Tpo/SXi|*«ii « Ai. 

iruXoToppi Z" ; ruXoTopoi Z (corr.), L, vulg. (see Vomel's prolegomena, p. ivi.). 

I. Itpaiiytteinn : these were Ihe 
regular members of the Amphicl;onic 
Council, two from each of the twelve 
tribes. Other del^ates, called TuXdyopoi, 
who had the right to speak in the Council 
but had DO votes, were chosen by the 
several stales belonging to these tribes. 
Thus Athens in Ihe spring of sjg B.C. 
sent her one Hieromnemon and three 
FylajTori. See Hist. S 7 '• ">'! Essay v. 

3. birivtni. Ail, (iom the orator's point 
of view, jast after iavroS, hii own, from 
Philip's! cT. Xen. Mem, IV. 7, i, r4>> 
^afToC yvilinipi dtt^aivrro rpit TDi)r ifU' 

3. Toit . . . OnmXoit : subj. of iiri- 

4. d* S' 'AtnMLtDt i: we have [be 
same antithesis here between ir-..^ and 
the preceding rl,.,ilat)y<"ri> which we bad 
in I 1+7 between iar...alpreS (4) and tl 

that idr with the subjun 

; expresses 

greater probability or likelihood that the 
supposition may prove true than tl with 
the optative; and this double antithesis 
is often cited as a strong confirmation of 
this view. It seems to be overlooked 
that all four suppositioru are in aratto 
Dbliqua after past tenses, and (if we read 
rpotiitui without dv in g 147*) would all 
be expressed in the oratio rtcia (i.e^ as 
Philip conceived them) by subjunctives, 
tin «vitwA9u, atptS^, tiinfy^nu, 'A^TfrnJOt 

i, which would all be retained if the 
leading verb were present or future. If 
then these forms now show any inherent 
distinction between subj. and opt. as 
regards probability, this has been intro- 
duced by the vratio oNiqua after a past 
tense. 1 have long maintained that in 
such antitheses the subjunctive is a more 
distinct and vivid fonn than the optative, 
and is therefore chosen to express the 
supposition which was uppermost in the 
mind of the one who made it. Here 
Ihe two subjunctives express the plana 
which Philip had most at heart, and the 
two optatives express the opposite alter- 
natives. If hia plans had failed, we 
cannot suppose thai the moods would 
have been interchanged. We have a 
somewhat similar case below in § I76'-', 
where Ihe more vivid ti rpoatp^6/u9' 
expresses the supposition against which 
the speaker is especially eager to warn 
his hearera, but which proved to be false. 
while the weaker fiir wtuB^' i/tai is 
made less emphatic, thoagh it refers to 
what is desired and what actually oc- 
curred. See M.T. 447, 690; and note 
on g 176' (below). I have nothing to 
change in the views of these passages 
expressed in Ihe Trans, of the Am. 
Philol. Assoc, for 1873, pp- 71, 71, and 
the Engl. Joum. of Philol. vol. v. No. lo, 
p. 198. 
f 14». 3. «popki)lil% nomiMoUd: 



yopoi OV7-OS Kal Tpiav ^ Ttrrapotv \&.poTovi)(ravT<iiv avrov 
ofepfyijdT). ws 8e to t^s ffoXews a^otiia ka^otv aiJKKer' 5 
€is TOW 'Afi<f>tKTvova';, iravra Ta\)C a<f>el<; Kal trapi^itv 
€fji€paw€V ifj>' of? ip,iiT0{o0ri, koI Xoyovs cvTrpocr^ous ical 
liv$ov%, oOev T) Ktppaia X<opo. Kadiep<o6T}, truv0w koI 
BL€^eX0o}V a.vdp(IyjTOV% aweipov^ \6yoiv Kal ro ^eXXoc ov 
irpoopmfievov^, roir; UpOfivijiJLova^, irtCdii. jirq^la-axrdai irepL- 150 
eXdelv rrfv )(copav 7}v 01 fikv 'Ayx^wj-trtis (nftav airrav ava-av 
yetapyeiv etftaa'av, oSros S^ t^S Upas ^^apai j^tiSt' eTi^at, 
ovSepIav SiKT]v ruf AoKp&v eira.y6v7<av rjfiiv, ouS' a kvi' 

the TvXdYVfKH were chosen by hand vote 

IXt'poTWTfif-^), while the Ie|xyir4fudr, 
the higher officer, was chosen annually 
by lot {Xaxtio. Ar. Nub. 633). 

4. Tpimv ^ Trrrdptn': this small vote 
shows bow little the Assembly understood 
the importance of the election. 

5. 6iUifM, pratigt, t/ignily {of a dele- 
gate of Athens). 

6. *U Toil 'Afi^urrverat : this was 
the meeting in the spring of 339 B.C., 
described by Aescbines (ili. iij — H4)- 

7. rivpoovTovi, flausiiU (fmrfxfd; 
cf. bartfaeed). 

8. piMovi, talis, referring to the elo- 
quent account of the first Sacred war in 
the time of Solon (Aesch. III. 107 — iilj. 
— tfcv...i«a> n piWi|. frem Ike lime when 
the plain of Cirrka wot conseerated : cf. 
Aesch- 111. 6if X^fu Jder ^Xuttq tapa.^ 
KoKoud'iarTf. We see by this passage 
that Aeschines repeated to the Ampbic- 
tyons his story of the consecration of 
the plain of Cirrlia, with all the terrible 
curses which were imprecated against those 
who EhoDid cultivate the devoted land. 
The consecration was made at the end 
of the first Sacred war, about j86 B.C. 

9. in^fwt \iymY : "to the com- 
paratively rude men at Delphi, the 
speech of a tirst-rate Athenian orator 
was 2 rarity." (Grole.) The Amphic- 
tyonic Council wu composed chiefly 

of representatives of obscure and un- 
cultivated states- It was, in fact, a mere 
relic of anliquity, which had outlived its 
right to exist ; and in the time of Philip 
it was merely galvanized into an ua- 
nalursl vitality, which proved fatal to 
Greece and helpful only to the invader. 
See Grote's remarks at the b^inning of 
Chap, 87, 

For the account of this Amphictyonic 
meeting see Hist. 9§ T^r 73- 

i ISO. I. npuXBrff T^ X"P"*' '" 
mate an intpeitim (rtplojoi) ef tht bold. 
An inscription of 380 B.C. records an 
order of the Amphictyoni for official 
n/iloJai of the consecrated land, and a 
line was to be imposed on any who 
should be found encroaching on it ; 
failure to pay the fine was to be punished 
by exclusion from the temple and even 
by war. See Blass, and C. I. Alt. 11. 
No. s+5. '5— '8. 

3. i(ra.t', alUgid (in his accusation). 

4. a£8«|iIav...tva'ydvnH': Aesch. (116) 
says the Amphissians intended to pro^u 
a decree in the Council {thl4iepor SAy/ia) 
fining Athens fifty talents for hanging 
up on the temple walls some old shields, 
relics of Plataea. with the restored inscrip- 
tion, 'Atfirfo^ i'ri Ui^iur xai GijjSalwr 
Srt rifarrla Tati'&yA.ijaw iiidxoyra. Re- 
newing this taunting inscription (which 
was naturftl and proper in 471) B.C.) after 



5 oBtos irpotftatri^eToL keytav ovk aXr]0^. •yinacrt<T0€ S' 
tKeWev. OVK ^i^v tu^u row Trpo<TK(i)i€<r<urdai Biqirov toIs 
AoKpot; BiK7]v Kara t^s ttoXccos TeX^o-oo-^ai. tis oJi* ^kXt}- 
Tcvcrei' ^^a$; diro noia'i opj^^s; «iire toc eiSora, Sci^oi". 
dXX' OVK av €3(01?, dWd ic«^ irpoiftdtrei Tovrg itaT€X/Jw 

ISl >cai l/fCvSci. W€plMVT<OV ToCwV T^V \0>pfW TftJC ' h.lJ.^LKTv6v<tiV 

Kara njv {nft-^yTftrw n)v toiItou, TrpotrTretroKre? ot AoKjaot 

fUKpov KaTTiKOtTUTav OTTOi^as, Tivas Se >cal o-vi/7j/37ratray 

Twi- Ifpofivrffiovoiv, (is o' aira^ €k tovtwv eyK\ijfj,aTa koI 

5 irdXepis w^os tow? 'A^icrcrcrs erapd^Bi}, to pAv vpSirov 

5. ofnx rfio^. U^wr Z, L, Ai ; irpo^ our. X/7. Ai ; b6t. \ty. wpo^. B, vnlg. ; 
oftn om. Y. ypiHrtaeai S. 6. irpoeoXArajflai Ai, F, O, B (»fwff over rpo). 

7. TtXAraaeiu 2, L, At: >rvn\. B, vulg. 8. ^;«i Z, L, A[. 1, B, O; ^abi vulg. 
dr&S, L, B, vulg.: iri Ai. 1, O (mg.]- 9- (cuvs irf»#. £, Ai. 

9 ISl. 2._ fu0i7i|ff.» ((ucorr. to u) 2._ j. /m^iee S, L ; fuitjwS ^fr vulg. 

carqitirTia'ai' arvriu L, Ai, Z (cotT.); Mrorr. mnjii. vulg. j. 'Aji^urff^i 

V6. irixe^ Ai. 

the lapse of 140 jreais was, to say the 
least, not a friendly act, and it shows the 
bitter enmity against Thebes which wat 
still felt by Athetts. Demosthenes does 
not seem to andetstand by SixT)T i-ra- 
ydrrn* what Aeschines means by iliri- 
•ptpor Slrfiia. An inlention to introduce 
a decree would not need a previouG 
summons, which Unit ivAyiir, and still 
more Aicijv TtKitroffdtu, to mafu a sui/ 
rtady for Iriai, would require. It is 
most likely that (he cautious lai^age 
of Aeschines which now stands in his 
speech (116) is not what he actually used 
in court. And the further remark of 
Demosthenes, oM' a »w auroi rpo^aal- 
itTot, seems to imply that Aeschines had 
told a diETerent story about the inteolions 
of the Amphissians when he made his 
report of the meeting at Delphi (115) 
from that which he told in court It is 
therefore difhcult to judge the ailment 
of Demosthenes about the want of a legal 
summons. Certainly no summons was 
thought necessary when the Council a 
few hours later voted to make a raid 
upon the new buildings of the Amphis- 
siana at Cirrha; but here there was no 
preieDCC of any judicial proceeding, but 

only a nploSoi of the sacred land (|3 ijo^, 
151'), which became a mob. 

8. dwd «o{at Apxiji; from what 
au/Amf)' did the summons come? West. 
quotes with approval Weil's interpreta- 
tion of iri rolat incif, "devanl quelle 
autoritf ath^nienne la citation fiit-elle 
nolifife?" Witnesses to a summons were 
required at Athens when the defendant 
Allica. These were called i 

which SI 


officers of the law who served a sunuaons 
on persons outside of Attica : see Ar. Av. 
147, 1491. tK\frT<vetT (7) refers to the 
act of such an Amphictyonlc KKirrfip. — 
SfCEwi cf. 3«ifw, XXIX. 41. The comma 
must follow eltbra. 

9. &XX' aiK Ac IxMt : so g 76*. 

gial. I. wtpuimttv: ci.rtpw\Be'ir, 

g ijo'. See Aesch. in, 113. 

3. (UKpoO (M.T. 779''), almost, be- 
longs to ntrqcifTuror : cf. Aesch. itj, 


4. (Y>'Mr"'">"-*">f''x^= '"' ^"c 

riX((«i» Topiffoeui, Wktfiroflia miscere or 
eonfundert. Plat. Rep. 567 A, and ^icXif- 
Itara rapiitiF, Plut. Them, j (61.). 



6 KoTTvtftoq avTWi' t^v 'X/j^iktvovoii' ijyaye <TTpaTiav ois 

04 fLO' ovK rfXOov, 01 S' i\66vTei ov&hr hroLavv, ei5 rifv 
iTrtovcow Tlvkaiav orl toc ^tXimrov evBxi^ TfyefjAv ^ov 

01 Kareo'Kevaa-tia'oi, koI iraXai troirqpol rStv ©cTToXoii' koX 
Tciv iv Tais aXXai9 iroXta-L. Koi npotfxia'it^ eiXoyous ISS 
€ik-^ff}e<rav t] yap avToiis etir^cpcw' kol ^voxk Tpi^iv 

278 i^Hurof Seiv Kai (,r)fi,u}vv tov5 /a^ ravra iroioiWas, ^ 'kcZi^i' 
ou^ro-^tu. Ti Set Ttt JToXXa Xeyet*'; ypeBi) yap ck tovtoiv 
rjyefiwv. koX fifra raw' ev^eos Suyojiiti' truXXefas ifou s 
■nap^kdatv ois «ri T^f KippaCav, ippSxrOai <}>pda-a<; TroXXa 
KippaloLS Kal AoKpoii;, r^i' 'Ekdreiav KaTaKafi,fiajf€L. el 153 
7. oi S' ^\S6mi om. Z' (add. tag.). L' (add. mg.). 9. nariumuiunlfHrM V6. 

6. K i nui^ at: ihe president of the 
Council, a Thessalian of Pharsalus 
(Aesch. 118). 

7. oJK ^Xfov : e.g. Thebeng and 
Athenians, and doubtless others. — oWy 
kwolmm: see Aesch. 119.— «(» t^» hn- 
dCirav . . . ^Tov (sc. rd rpdY/UTB), /w^ 
measures al ence, againil Iht coming 
meeling (autumn of 339), to put lAing! 
(i.e. the wnr) in/a lie hamli of PhUip as 
commander. See IX. 57, ol iiir i^i i^pm 
Jiyor t4 rpi-inaTa, ol i' iwi *IXi]nror, 

g. ot Ka-mntwaaoyMm (pass.), Ihoit 
■aiilh whtm arrattgrmmls had bten made. 
—vdXoi irevi]pal ; cf. § ijS', firi xoXXflf 

Demosthenes distinctly implies that 
Cot typhus was made general al the 
spring meeting, but that, after a mere 
pretence of war, intrigues at once began 
for superseding him by Philip at the 
autumnal meeting (d» r%r iTkovaar IIif- 
Xa/o»). Aeschines, on the contrary, 
whose whole object is to show that a 
real Amphictyonic war was intended, 
with no help or thought of help from 
Philip, and to represent Philip's finaJ 
appointment as commander as a remote 
>lterthought, states that no action srai 
taken against the Amphissions in the 
spring, but that a special meeting was 
C. D. 

called before the regular autumnal IIu- 
Xaia, (o take such action (114). At 
this special meeting, which Athens and 
Thebes refused to attend (Aesdi. 116 
— iiS), Cottyphus was chosen general 
(according to Aesch.). whiie Philip was 
"away ofT in Scythia"; and after a 
successful campaign the Amphissians 
were fineil and their offending citizens 
were banished. But they refused to 
submit; and finally, "a long time after- 
wards " (»oXX^ ll^v BoTtparj, a secoivd 
expedition became necessary " after 
Philip's return from his Scythian expe- 
dition": — be does not even then say 
that Philip was actually made general I 
See Hist. 33 74-76. 

3 IBS. 2. BLiroit ■lo^^i.v...S4t*, 
/Aty must Ihtmsdves (ipsos) pay taxes, 

3. ^ 'iMtvav a(p<trOaii this atter- 
nalive was one of the ■rpinpiirfn rfXBym 
(S 151") for choosing Philip. 

6. nftXMv (sc. ttaw HuXwr) ; cf. 
S 3j'.— Ippi»*ai ^p6jnt *o\Xit, iidJing 
many fiiriwells (a long adieu): so XIX. 
J48. Cf. fppaffe, vale. 

7. 'EXaTtuLv : when Philip had passed 
Therniopylae, he hardly made a pretence 
of entering into the war with Amphissa, 
for which he was chosen commander; 



fiev oZv fi^ ixer^yvOMrav evBdto^, is tovt' et&ov, ot ^/Saibi 
Kol fieff" TifXMv iyivovTo, mo-trtp ytiitappovi av avow tovto 
TO iTpayiia eU t^v iroKitf CMreirecrc' vvv 8c to y' e^at^t^ 
S arc'ffxoc avTOV iK^lvoi, fidXia-ra fiev, to avSpes 'A&T)vau>i, 
dew TH^s evvouf tt/ws v/xa$, etra fievroi, Koi oa-ov Kad' €V 
avhpa, Koi 8t' e^^. 80s Se fioi ra SoypiTa raOra koi tov5 
■)^6vovq iv ofs cKaoTa ire'JTpaKTai, Iv^ eiS^e ifXiKa itparfpxiff 
164^ fiiapa KE<^aX^ rapd^aa-' avrr) Siktjv ovk iSwKetf. Xe)% 
^i ra 8oy/AaTa, 

S isa. 1. <£Mwi £, L, A I ; c£Pi)( 6, vulg. 
(YP); om. B, vulg. 3. KOI (before iitS') om. > 
to T*r')! t6ti Aj, B, V; tAti 7' vulg. ; Tofrri y' j 
7. ralirri ri JUyjuara Ai. 9. rpiifaffa L. 

Sift*- 1- laJftetX^t Ai. 

-oinr' fISv, aI2, L, Ai. 1,* 
+. t6 t' S, U, ♦, F (coiT. 
5. aM* on,. Ai, Bi. ♦'. 

and soon appeared at the Phocian town 
of Elatea, which commanded the pass 
into Boeolia and "the road to Athens." 
This move left no further doubt as tu his 
real intentions. In 3+4 B.C. there had 
been a report Ihal Philip was aboat lo 
seize and fortify Etatea, and thus threaten 
Thebes : *ee vi. 14. Aeschines says (140) 
of Philip's sudden movement, ri* rSKfiuir 
3r T^cpOH iiijKairiw it r^f x'^/xa ^^ 
BoiuTwi' (i.e. the Phocian war], Totn-or 
w-dXu' Tin airir riXriiov (i.e. a similar 
sacied war) irjjyt iii rijt 4>uilJ(it ir' 
a/nil rit Bi)|3at. As the spurious de- 
cree of Demosthenes (S$ 181 — 1B7) no 
longer disturbs the chronology, we see 
that Philip must have been made general 
in the early autumn of 339 B.C., and 
probably seized Elatea in the tate autumn 
or early winter ; so that the campaign 
lasted about eight or nine months until 
the battle of Chaeronea in August or 
September 338. A "winter battle" is 
naturally mentioned in g )i6'. The 
startling effect of the news from Etatea 
at Athens is described in 99 169 If. 

9 !**• 3. |irf' v|U(v iyhovTQ. joitiid 
you. — ur*«p x'^i^Ppo^' ^il" 1 iiiititer 
tomnl : most of the rivers of Greece are 
nearly ot quite dry the greater part of 
the year, and in the winter and spring 
are often filled by rushing torrents. 
Many of these, when dry, still serve b« 

paths over the mountain passes. Similar 
simple comparisons are ijowtp ri^tft, 
i 188' (cf. pvxtL ioixiii. II. 1. 47); lintp 
rrtSlia, % 308' : vrrfp 4» rl iiaTaji\uanir, 
i »i4*; i ffv/ifiit ffioixTii, 9 194'. (See 
BI.)— dvo* toOto ri np&yfa : we might 
say tih aiAi>ic Iking, but with far less 

4. i4v. at it vats, in fatt, opposed lo 
ft iLlj ,uT*TrtKrivi (3): cf. 9 133*.— ri y' 
iea[^VT|(, /or tki mominl. 

6. tlTa...Si' J|ii, lit. ivi btiidis, and 
so far at depended on any one man, alio 
through me: the former jiai connects 
Siriir...irSpa to tira. Dindorf, Vomel, 
and Westermann understand /lAroi lol, 
fcriw I.T.X., making the liisl iial = aln, 
which the second (ol merely repeals. 

7. Sot : see note on 9 *8*. — UTjiora 
TaOra are Amphiclyonic decrees abont 
the Amphissian affair. — roit xpavovt : 
we see from 9 iss" '^^^ t'''* **s an 
ufticial statement from the records, show- 
ing that these decrees were passed when 
Aeschines was ivMyiiiiot, 

9. ij luofxt Ki^MA^: cf. XXI. [17, ml 
TaDr' Aevtr i luapi lal dnudifi sOrir 
trifia\ii i(i\ii\ti6u,t c.r.X., and XiX. 313. 
— Tiif>a£iur' : we should naturally express 
Tapdfnrn by the leading verb, and SUr^r 
DiliE liumr by a/itioul being punished. 
With irpd'V/ioT-a mpi^n cf. 9 IJl'and 




f EttI iepitai KXetvayopov, iapiv^s trvKatat, eSo^e tok wXa- 
■yopoi'! Ktu TOK ffvviSpoi^ twv ' XfK^iiervSvaJv koX tw Kotv^ rwv 5 
AfufuKTVoviot', i-JreiSi} 'AfufitatTeK itri^aivovo'tv iirX r^v lepAp 
J(mpav KoX airelpowTi Kol ffoaic^fiatri, Karavkfiovtriv, hrekdelv rovf 
trvXafopotK xal roii^ trwiSpow, Kal in^Xai^ SioKaffelv tov<{ Zpov^, 
xai aTretveiv roic A/i^tfftrevat tov \oiirov fiii i'lrt^aiveiv.^ 


pEirt Upea'i KXeivafyopov, dapiptjv wXaut;, ¥So^e rot; wXa- 166 
'Tiy6poi<t Kat TOW avveSpon rwe ^ Ap^iKTvoviav Kal ry KOiv^ twv 
Kft^iKTvovoiv, ttreiBi) ol i^ 'A/j^(<r<ri}t t^v Upiv yatpav Koravti- 
ftdfitvoi yetopyovo-t koX ^oaKT^fiara vifioviri, Koi xoXvo/mvoc tovto 
irouii', ev TOK orrXoK irapa^/evofuvoi, ri Koivov t£v 'EXXiji'umi 5 
trvvi&piov iceKtiKuKoat fieri ^la^, nva^ Se ko* Terpav/tariieaat, rov 
trrpartjyov roe '^pi^pAvov rwv 'AfVptKrvovoiv K-OTTvpoir tov ApxdBa 
vpeaffsva'at irpo"; ^iKtmrov tov MaiceSova, jcal d^ioiiv Xva ^i^O^irtj 
T^ re ' A-jToWaPi icai tok AfU^iKTVoaiv, oiraii; p,T) -rrepitZ^ v-to t£v 
afftffwv ' Afiiptaaemv tov Beov irKTjfJttt.eKovfievov' km Stort <ifT^i> 10 
arpaTifyov airoKpaTopa aipovvrat, oi "EXXtji'f? oi fterfj^ovTe^ tov 
tTwehpiov Tmv ' Aft^iKTVOVUV.j 

Aeyc &i) koX tows j^povovs «' oU Tawr' tyiyvtro- eltrl 
yap Koff ous eTTuXayoprja-ev oSros. X^e, 

['Ap^wc M vijtrtflei&j!, fiTfvos dv$tiTT7)piaivo'i SicTp drrl Sixa.] 
Aos St) rifv iirt<rTo\r)v tjv, ws ov^ virqKovov oi BTjjSeuot, 166 
iT€fiV€i. irpoi Tous hf TleKoiTovir/jfru) <<i 6 ^CXiirvo^, 

^ lae. I. H /iM vulg. ) >uH om. S, L', Al. Ainiicau gv (-w for -ffa»?) Z. 

g ISS. 1. o^ JwiiKowm: this must i. irv|i|i^x°"* • ''^- '^^ Arcadians, 

refer to a refusal of the Tliebans, before Eleans, and Arrives. See Isocr. v. 74, 

the seizure of Elalea., 10 join Philip in 'Apyaai Si lal Xttv^un col HfYoXo- 

an expedition against the Amphibians. iroUrat ml rur AXXw tiXAdI vutiroXtfittr 

When he entered Greece, he professed (sc. iripxoiirl s-m h-oijioi), and Dem. IX. 

to be marchiDg against ihem: see § ij7*, 37. See Hisl. ^ 51, £i. 
wt irt Tip- V.tppaiiv, 



Iv €t&rfT€ Kal ix ravnjs tra^ak ori t^v fiev aXrjdrj irp6<fta<riv 
rS>v ttpafy^Q-Ttav, to Taur' «ri t^v 'EXXoSa koI tous ©»j/3(uous 
SKol v/xa? Tipa.TTUV, aireKpywreTO, Koiva Se koi tois 'Aft- 
fjnKTvo<ri Ba^avra 7rot£tv irpotrenoi^lTo- 6 oc ras axftopfiav 
Tauras Kal Tas ffpo^ao-ets avrw wapairxcov oSros ^v. Xcye. 

EniSTOAH. 2, 

167 [BatTtXew MonceSocdv ^iA,(7r7ro? TleKowovfrjaimv TWf ev t^ 

a-Vfi.fiti-)^ia roK hrffiiovfffal^ koX tok avveSpoti xai row aXXots 

47vii.f)Mxoi^ "Toa-t \aiptiv. iirt^i} Aaiepoi oi KaXovfxevoi 'O^oXat, 

Ka-TotKOVtnvt iv 'Afu^itTtrji, irkijfi/ieKovffiv et? to lepov tow 'AitoX- 

S Xwi-OT TOW ip ^eXipoZv Kat ri}v Itpitv ^^pav ip^o/tevoi fttB" Sw-Xmn 

Xn^Xarotio-t, ffovXoftat r<^ de^ ftxO' vfiav $oi]6eur Kal ap,uvaadat 

ToiK trapafiaivovrd'! ri twv ev au0pdiiroK €v<Te$wv iMrre trui/avrdre 

finera tcdc itfKav et; r^v ^toKiBa, e-)(ovre<; ewiainirftov ^tifp£v 

TtTTopaKOva, Tov fvearuroi /4.-r)v6i! Xfiow, <u; ^^i; arfontv, m^ Si 

10 'AftjvOMit, fiatjSpom£vo<!, »¥ 5e Ko/^^x^tot, vav^fiov. rot? Se ^^ 

avpavT^aavi wavS^fiei ypi^ffOfuBa [tok Se trw/iySowXui; ij/uf 

158 'Opaff oTi t^cwyci ra$ i3ias wpo<f>aa'fL^, €l^ Se ra^ 

*A/j,^tKTwoi'uca; icara^evyei. tis oSj' 6 rawra a~vp,jrapa.- 

tTKCvacras avr^; tis 6 Tcis irpo<f»d<reK ravras 6'Sous,- Tts 

o Twc KaKoiv Tfiii' yeyevrj/jicvav /miXiot curios ; owj^ oSros; 

5 ^'^ Toiwv XeycTE, a! ai^/>c? 'Adi^f au>i, wepuovre^ a*; vt^* 

g ISS. I. (i>t after ^c07« vulg. ; om. £, U, Ai. 

mriumvilfat Ai. j, Xfyrrc am. £' (add. n^.). 

5. Koi*d:cf. Koirikt Tpo^eii, 9g 147^ 3. »yB^f«ii Moif: cf. Thuc. 11. 
tjS''*.— Tott'A|i4urriovi 8i{ai-ra. Am- S7**, »£■ h-Stitiintr Trpi^ara oMcrl nuy 
phielyenic Janet, i twi 'Afi^. flofcr. TtifaAii. 

Cf. III. i+, tS irm(ik' iSiXtir rd Ti 5. pi^ tiym vfpu^i-m, ob ««< {» 

atforro. The oldci Athenian decrees aim/ ami Ull.—^' ivA% drtp^vov, i.«. 

b^an with (Boff rf pavKi kbJ tv *^*i^i. by Philip; cf. tfi lUif^ {of Philip), xix, 

6. i...«apaffx^: cf. f 158". 64. Philip (he says) could never have 
glSS. a. 'A|i^ucTvinFut(tt: seeSS J4;, accomplished his purpose, had he not 

!•,&. — itaTtt^«gY'S '»*" rtfugt, opposed had such accomplices as Aeschines. No- 
lo #(i7«t (1). ihuHt: "spielende Parono- tice the effective collocalion in J| 'BXUi 

(Bl.) ir9i»!nnv. (Bl.) 



ei^s Touivra Trenovdev 17 '£\Xa$ avBptinrov. oi\ v^' O'o;, 
aXX WTTO iroXXtav xai irovrfpiav rav irap' SKaorois, <w y^ 
Ktti ^coi" mv ets owTocri, ov, el fj.TjSh' euXajQij^ewa ToXi^^es 1^ 
cZveii' S^ot, ovK av 6Kvi^<raifi iyoyye koivov dXin^ptoi' twv 
fiera raGr' airo\<a\6r<i>v airavnav eiveiv, a.v$p<Mro>v, roirwv, 
iroXcoif- 6 yap to (nrtpfia wapacrx^V' oStos Tai»' (fivvran' 
I KOK^f atTto5, &c oiroi; wot' OVK ev0v^ iSoi^c? dve<rrpd- S 
^frjp"* davfidl^to. irX-rjv iroXv Tt o-kotos, a>s eoiKtv, icrrlv wop' 
vfiXv irpo T^s aX7)$awi. 

^Vp,fif^7}K€ ToCvW fJ.01 TOIV KaTO. T^S ITaTpiBo^ TOVT<p 160 

■jr€irpa.yfUvfav oA^apiutf cis a tovtoi^ ivavrtovpxvo% avTo; 
mirokiTeufiai. aifnxdat ■ a iroW^f fiAv €v€k &v cIkotok 

I. r {add. mg.). 

3 t4 naldXXw 9itl virrtj (??) Ule mg. Z) 

I IS*. I. oinwl Z, L' (^JTi. add. L'l ; offrit ^ffT.i vulg. d om. V6. 

1. dXiritpiv (1 corr. from ij?) 2; dXijT%iH» O' [•peepla rag.); iXtiHipm West., Bl. 
4. ovTM V A.1, O (mg.). ^dvTuii (uur Z, vulg., Vbm., Wtst.; nuiSr om. L*. 

B, V, O, bk., Dind., Lips., Bl. 6. itTlr before lin Y. 

1100. I. TiTt [lor To6r,f) V^. 3. ii^x#a< £ (con.). frcic'ibZ, L; 


|H|Sh «(Xa^i|Mrra, nvCJ- 

and t/tslTOyer. An a\i-Hjfnoi is a man 
-who has sinned againei Ibe Gods and is 
thereby under a cune, which curse he 
transniila to others with whom he has to 
do; also an avenging divinity: cf. Aen. 



Rrinnys (of Helen). See Andocides 1. 
130, 131: i!Xlliilii'...Dri 'Ii-rifuot i» 1% 
obii^ dXiTibutw Tpt^i, h\ alrrm r^r tfAnt- 
^OM ApaTpixtt — oi6ntroi yap ulAif rpf^w 
iAiT^/HBr airrf frpr^iir, Sr A'arirpaftt 
iKfirou rhr rXavrnr, Hjr ga^poadrrir, rir 
dXXor pitr ararra. Demosthenes has 
the word also in XIX. 136, roit dAiDjpIwt 
tviVhi (of Aeschines and his party), and 
197, Ti3r fftotJ tj(Bp^Vj tQw i.\tTijptiar 
'OXtvSlwt. 'AXdffTup is similarly used in 
both senses: see below § 396*, xix. 305 ; 
see also Aeschyl. Eum. 136, Six'"' fi 
xptuitaiut (kXcttfTopa lone who has already 
been purified); Pers. 354, ^ordi iWiaruip 
17 (luii Joljiuiv rutin. Aeschines twice 

(>3'. I57)calls Demosthenes T^'BXUiot 
dX(Ti)^i (see Btass). 

4. tw ^ J rron- Kamtv, e/ the hatvitt 
bJ iBots: without «*■£», which mAny 
omit, we should have the common saying 
about the harvest. Cic. Phil. II. ti. 55 
perhaps supports (uwr : ut igilur in 
seminibus est caosa arborum et stirpium, 
sic huius luctuosissimi belli semen tu 

5- tc : object of both Wttra and dr- 
eaTfi.^nCt\ the latter liecomes tranutive 
in the passive, like ^^u, iiiT\itiiaa, etc. 

7. vp4 Ti)t &Xi)6>(at: i.e. so as to 
conceal the Inilh from you. 

gSieo— aa«. The orator now passes 
to his own agency in opposing the joint 
plot of Aeschines and Philip. See intro- 
duElory note on ig m6— 116. After 
speaking of the enmity between Athens 
and Thebes, which men like Aeschines 
had encouraged (^ 160 — 163), he gives a 
graphic account of the panic excited at 
Athens by Philip's seiiare of EUtea, and 



oKovtrain fxov, nd^urra S* ort aurj^pov ianv, w avBpe^ 

S 'KdrfvaXoi, €1 iyia fiiv ra epya rav virep vfiSiv tt6vq>v 

161 virifu^wa., vfiel^ Sc fi7)Se rot); koyov^ atrr^v ave^eirBe. bpav 

yap eya ^rj^aCov^ o^cSoi' Se koI vpa^ vito tZv ra ^i\Cinrov 

tftpovovi^on' KoX Sieif)6apiJi€vo}v nap' eKarepoi.^, h iifv ^v 

ap^oripoi^ tftoficpov Kal <f>vXaKT}^ ttoXX^; 8e6p.€Vov, ro rof 

S ^tXiimov eav av$dveiT0ai, irapop^vra^ Kai ovBk k<i0 ht 

iftvKarrop.a'ovi, «s ^dpav 8e koX to wpoaKpoveiv a\Xi^Xoi,5 

4- inoigatTt Y, 4 (corr.)i imiiaeTi S, L, B> rulg.; iiMhrare Ai. li djcodtTc O. 
(See note below, ) j. ■iiuir O. 

of the manner in which he took advantage 
of this emergency to biing Athens and 
Thebes to a better understanding and 

n alliai 

il the c 

enemy (g§ 166- 
he introduces (9| 189—110) a moil elo- 
quent and eamcat defence of the whole 
line of policy in opposition to Philip 
which Athens had followed chiefly by 
his advice. He pleads that Athens, with 
her glorious traditions, could have taken 
no other course, even if she had seen the 
filial defeat at Chaeronea in advance. 
This is the most eloquent and impassioned 
passage in the oration ; and it is addressed 
not merely to the court, but to the whole 
people and to future ages. 

§ ISO. 4. ditawratTt: this reading, 
though ii has slight MS. Bulhorilf, is 
necessary here, with hn' Ir in £ and L, 
unless we admit itoutrrrt in. S often 
has t for (u or w for e, from their identity 
in Ul«r pronunciation: see gj jS", 69', 

3, 6. TdIpYa...TO^ Xd^fowt: thtarlual 
labours, contrasted with merely listening 
to the ataunt of Ikim. Cf. X^yv and rk 
fpya, lliuc. I. 11. 

The orator introduces this continuation 
of his political hisloty in an apologetic 
way, as in g no he had left it doubtful 
whether he should speak at all of these 
later acts, t& ittyurra rirpayiUruir. 

This is a part of the skilful device by 
which he divides the long account of his 
public life, while at the same time he 
reminds the court that the brilliant pas- 
sage which follows is over and above 
what is needed to defend Ctesiphon (see 
i tid*), and asks their attention to it as a 
personal fevour to himself. 

S 1«1. The orator recurs Co the criti- 
cal moment in the relations of Athens 
and Thebes, when both were astounded 
by the sudden seicure of Elatea, and the 
great question was whether Thebes should 
join Philip against Athens or Athens 
against the invader. 

t. ipav; with TapDpwrr-ai (5), ^a- 
Xarraiiiroiit, and Ixorrai (M. T, 904). 

1. ihrd T<av...8L«^hf|iii>w; express- 
ing the agency by which the condition 
described in Tapopurrai etc. was eHecled, 
as if the participles wert passive. 

J. rof' JKaWpoK, i.e. in Inlh Thebes 
and Athens. F'oi Athens the great danger 
was thai her uld enmity against Thebes 
might prevent her from taking t)ie only 
safe course, union with Thebes. For 
Philip's way of n-orking, in such cases, 
see % 61. Dissen contrasts a-np' JKaWpoii, 
apud ulrosqne seorsim, ia inch city, with 

il^^^poif (4), uirisque simul, both. 

4. TO..,a^di>tv4<u: appositive to the 
omitted antecedent of 8 (3), which is the 
object of irapepiHrraj etc. 



€Toifiatt cjfoi/ras, ovoti tovto (it) ydvoiTO vapanjpStv Bwrc- 
Kow, ovK airo rrjt ifiavrov yytu^ijs fiovov ravra (rviL<^peiv 
vwokofi^avtuv, oW* clSci»9 'ApuTTo<t)wiTa koX irdXiv KvfiovXov 163 
iravra tov jqjoi^v fiov\ofj.ei'ov<; irpa^ai Tavrrfv ttjv if>t\iav, 
Kai TTfpl riav aWatv TroXXaxt; avrtXeyovTWi iavroiii rovff 
op.oyytti/xovovvra'i aeC. ovs <rv folwa? liku, u kCvoSos, 
Kokaxevwy TraprfKoXovSei,^, ref i-cwrwc 8' ovk at( Korrf- S 
yopStv a yap wipt Srf^ioty eiriTifi^i ifioi, iKeCvotv woXii 
fiaXkoy T) iftov KoryfyopeK, twc trpoTtpov 7) iyat rauTT^v ttjv 
(TV/i/ia^uu' 8oKifia<ra.vToiv. aW iKeia-' eTrdveifii, ori Toi' 168 
€V 'AfiAftCa-trg vok^fiov tovtov fikv woiija-aan-o^, (rvp.irtpava- 
fL€po>v 8e raiv aXKtov tS>v a-uv^pyStv avr^ ly^v vpo'i ^t^fiaiov^ 
i i^Bpav, iTwe^ roc ^(Xittttov IKOeiv i<f>' rjfio.'s, ovwep eccKa 

7. fill toOtu O. yirtna 2, L' ; ytr-fia^at L* ; ytr'^ffmu vulg, g. /iin' om. Ai. 
9 ISS. 3, Kti (before refi) om. Ai. ToXXdni om. V6. iavrda om. £■ ; 

" ' ' ifu/KaytHrrat Aj. it (for w) Al. ulroiSot Ai. 

I la*. J. ToiiToul (con. to TmSToi-) 2, 

Oij^ow 2, L, Ai ; roi>i Oi). vulg. 

7. find toirro (ri irpoccixHliv) \f.i\ 
•ftravn: most Mss. have the mote com- 
mon ytrlfKroi (M. T. 339, 340).— iraf-- 
fi|pav IkfrAavr, /^i^ cenlinual walth. 

g. rafrra: Ihc policy of rriendship 
with Thebes (rainf T^lF ^Xlor, g ifii'l, 
implied in fliri« Tofro »i<J 7^011(1. 

3 ISS. 1. 'AfMTO^avTV (sef 9 70'), 
a leading itatesmiui of the earliei period 
and a strong friend of Thebes. Aesch. 
says rif him (ill. J39). xVurrw XP*"" 
T-ftv Tou fioiutrii^eir irropuhra aJrlav--— 
BEp<ni)ui*(S 7o«): see Hisl. g ij ; Grote 
XI. 387; Schaefen. iSG. 

1. povXaiiiFOVt and I [io ywi jMyoBi T B* 
(4) are impcrfecti past to ttSin and iu- 
TAiur; but di7iX^>a*nii (3). though Ikty 
appssed one another, is present to himyr., 
to which it is subordinate. — T«frn|v 
n^v ^iXtav : the friendship for 1'hebes 
during the oppressive Sparlan supremacy, 
which appeared in the aid privately sent 
by Athens to Thebes when she expelled 
the Spartan garrison from the Cadmea in 

379 B.C. This friendship was broken after 
Leuctrainsri. See g 98' and note. 

4. o)h: object of roXoJieithH'. 

;. 'avpiKoXoMtit is more than yatt 
■axn am 0/ thtir follototrs; it means yim 
follcraitd Iktm round or hung on to Ihtm 
in a servile way. Eubulus was one of 
the o-wii7o/»i who supported Aesch. at 
his trial for rapnxpfff/Sda (see Aesch. lU 
184). The anonymous Life of Aeschineg 
makes him a clerk to both Eubulus and 
An stop ban. 

6. &...^'n)i^s; the charge of favour- 
ing Thebes in the temis of the alliance in 
339— 33B B.C. (Aesch. 141—143). 

g 188. I. jKibr', i.e. le tht main 

implles that, while Aesch. got up the 
Amphissian war by himself, he had active 
helpers in stirring up enmity at Athens 
against Thebes. When all was ready, 
Philip appeared at Elatea {iKSttr ip' 
il^t, 4) I cf. S t6». 



S TOLi; TToXci; oSroi (rvvfKpovov, koX ei firf irpoe^avdimjfifv 
fUKpov, ov8' ofoka^eiv &.v '^Svvi)di}iiep- ovrat P^XP*- ^ppo* 
iTpfy^ayov otrot. 6* ot^ 8* ■^r ^Srj to npoi oXXijXouy, 
TovTwvl rStv ^iftttrfuiTatv aKovtravrei xal t^v atroKpKretav 
tUTio-Bt. Koi not, Xeye rawa kafiav. 


Tos, 0u\^! -TTpvTavfvai/ti'rj'i Epej(0ritSo^, ffovXfji Kat inpaTrifwv 
ytmixt), eireihr) ^lXnnro<! a? fiiv xaTciXf^t^ iroKet^ Twif aa-rvyeiToratv, 
Tiva'i Se TTOpfftl, Ke^aKaitp Si ewi r^v 'ATTtur^ii •rrapaa'Ktvd^eTtu 
5 wapayiyveadai. Trap' ovBev ^yovfiepoi to? ^/ierepa? avvd^xa^. Kai 
Tovv opicotK \veiv etn^aSXtTai, Kai Ttfv eip^tnjv, irapaffaivtiiv Ta^ 
noiva^ iricTTEi;, BeS6)^dai rif 0ov\ij Kal t^ S^Mf ^^Mtteii' irpo; 
avTOf trpifft^eK, orrtfc? aur^ ^'aX^focrai iral TrapaKokiaoviriv 
avTov fioKuTTa niv Trjv trpot rip,ai; ofxovotav Starrfpeiv icat ra? 
10 trvvOijKat, ei Si fi.ii, '"poi to ^ovKevaatrOai Bowai -xfiopov ttj v6\fi 
KoX Tas dvoj(a<i TTOi^aaaffat fiiypi fov 0apyt}XiS>vo^ /itfvo<i. Tiptffif- 
<Tav ix ■jij'i jSovX^; Xifto<t AvayvptMrio^, EvOvSriftof 4>v\dcn>v, 
BovXayopa^ 'AXawreirij^ei'.] 

5- Tpoat^arirr^iifr {rpot- corr, to rpo-} Z. 6. aii' Av F. &r om. V6. 

draXd^crr £, L', At i ira\a^T<i alrraln |or airoij) vulg. 7. butdi. i: (yp), Al ; 

dBtoi Hjf fx^par 2. A], * |7p), B (-yp) ; o9r« t4 rp&yiia L', Bk ; rJr ♦OiTirei' i^ 
(X over SJj) L', w. dStoi in mg. In mg. Z: " >(! aiTw nixpi 'ippw rpa-^yayor 
oBtot' oi rpotrypA^porrtj r^Jr tx^P^'i <^t elru tA t&iifia, Tpoirfnyoi' obrot r6r 
MXiTTOi', d\X' ffi^ H}»' txBpiv cjjf ^ ypatpij alhTj ^rt/' S. ro/^rvr V6. 9. JfCli.,. 

Xaflii.' om. Al ; X^e (alone) V6. 

For litlcs here and before § ifij, Z has 4'H<I>12;MATA and 4'H4<I2HAi and before 
gg l<S6 and 11S7 AHOKPISEIS twice |for AnOK?lZlZ). 

J. A f)l{...fuiipiv,i/tiK had not tvus^ these documents were quoted to show 

ouri/Jrt! a liiiU too toon (for the success the enmity betu'e«i Thebes and Athens 

of the plot) : luxp^ chiefly affects rpo-. at the time of Philip's invxsion, Ihe ^- 

6. (baXapdii, la rciovir (intrane.) : cf. ^/lara uere probably Athenian decreet 
Plat. Rep. +6; u, iw^iu ««! nj» dXXijF enacting measures hostile la Thebes, and 
rAXir iiitaTor drakafitir. — otrm with the replies were remonstrances or retali- 
lUxt* 'l>PP^' J" far. alary measures on the part of Thebes. 

7. vprnj^ayoy, tanitd il, i.e. the Nothing could be more absurd than the 
quatrel with Thebes. I follow £ (yp) in two decrees against Philip and the two 
omitting t^ txSpaw, though for a difleretit letters of Philip which appear in the leit. 
reason (see critical note): tA TpS.yiia See % 168', where Philip is said to have 
would give the right sense, but no object been elated (jrajidtlf) by the decrees and 

the replies, i.e. by the evidence of hobtilily 

which they showed. 


nEPI TOY 2TE*AN0Y 121 


[*Eljri apxoiTtK 'Hpo-rrvdov, fi.f)vo<t /Mivfv^twfo; fin; icaX via, 16S 

TToXt/iiipxov ypiofit), ev(iS)) 4>iX(7nro? ew aWorptoniTa ^^aiow 

irpoii ^nas iTTtfiaXKerai tcaTaffrijaai, wapeff/cevairrai Se Koi Trairrl 

T^ ffTparevfiaTt irpo^ tows eyyiffra t^9 'Attwc^S Trapar/iyveaffat 

283 riwou?, vapa^aiifDv tA? wpo! ^/ta? iirapj^oi'o-a? airr^ avv9-^Kas, 5 
SeSo^dai. T^ ^avkri koX t^ Stf^q; wefii^at Trpo^ airrov K^puxa koI 
7rpea0fK, ovrtvei d^uixrovo'i. koI vapaKetKeaovaiv avrov woi^travOai 
TO? a,voj(a^, oTTws eVSe;^o^€i'<us o hr)fLO<t ^ovXeutr^at- xai yip vvv 
ov xexptKe QajjOelv iv oCievi tSiv fierpitov. ypeBtivav ix t^5 /SovX^S 
Neitp^of '^aaivQfiov, YloKuKpaTt)^ 'ETri^povo^, xal idipv^ Evvoiiik 10 
' AtiaifiXvtrTio'i ix rov S^^ou.] 

Aeye 8^ koX ras airoK/>to-«s. IM 

[Boo'iXei'; MeuceSofO))' 'I'lXiTm'o? AOijvaitiiv Tp ^ovXfj xal TfS 
^fi<p X'^P^*"- V" t*^" f^'"'' ^PX"}^ f^X^'''^ irpoi Tffiav atpeviv, ovk 
ar/voS>, xaX rlva <rKovhr}v iroielaBe TrpotTKaXetratrBai fiovXofievoi 5 
^TToXovs «ai Qr}0aiovi, en Si Kal BotfUToiic' fftXriov S atrriop 
tPpovovvrav Kai fit) QuvXopivtDv etpi' vp-lv wotTjaatrffai rifv eavr&p 
atpetriv, aXXa xaT't to avp^epop iarapivav, vvv ef vTroaTpo<fi^t 
airotrretKavrev vfieK irpot fit vpea^ei^ xal x^pvxa avvBifKmv 
ftvttfioveveri xai T<h avoj(^a<! airfUrOe, xar ovhiv vtf> ^fiav TrtvXtjp.- 10 
fieXtiftivoi,. eya fiivroi aicovixci'i rav Trp^ffffevrav avyKaraTiSefuii 
Toii •jrapeucaXovfiivoK xaX eroifio^ eifu woietadai raf d»oj(a^, av 
irep Toifi ovk opOSit avpffovXevovrav VfjZv wapairefiifravre^ t^? 
wpotn)Kovirri<i driftia^ af«i><rijTe. eppoitrtfe.} 

[Ba<T(X«u? M(uceSofi0f <i>tKiviro^ ^if&almv tj? ^ouXji xal t^ 167 
B^fi^ j^alpeiv. iKOfiitrdfj.J}v r^f irap vft&v iiricToXrfv, St' ?/? fiot 

284 rijii 6p.6voiav avavtovaBe xaX Trjv eip7)p7)v ovra>% 4ftol irouiTe. 
irvvOdvoficLt fieiToi Stort Tracrai' iifuv 'ASrivalot irpoa^ipovrat 
ijuXoTifUav 0ovX6fi£voi vfia^ avyKaraivow! yeveaBai toi; iiv avT&p S 
wapuicaXovfUvoii. irportpov fikv oiv vfiSm KaTeyiyvwaxov evl ry 
fiiXXeiv weiffeirOai rot? iKfivatv iXiriat xal rrraKoXouOeiv airrSv rfj 
■npoatpitrfi. vvv 8" ewvyvoii<; vfiat to, vpos rffiStt ^tj'ijTijKora? «^eti' 
eipi^vTiv fiSXKov f) raU ijipav iwoKoXovBtZv yvti>f*ai<t, ^aBr/v xoi 



10 ftaWov vfiat ivatveii xard troXKa, fidKiara S tTrl T^ ^ovXevaaaOat 
irepi Touriau dirtpaketnepov Kal rd irpi^ -^fidi ^sc ^f eCvola' Swep 
ov fUKpav iinlv oiaeiv «Xni?w potrijv, edp trep en-t raim}^ i^evqre 
T^9 TTpoBeaea^. ippoiirBil] 

168 0v7fii SiadcU 6 <bi\v7mo% ras iroXei; itpo-i aXkqKoi Sta 
TovT(av, KoX TOVTOK iirap0ei<i rots *}n)<i>i<Tfuit7i xal rcu; aim- 
Kpia-€<riv, -^Kev ej(tav rf)v Svcofiii' koX rifv 'EXdreiav Kori- 
\afi€V, is ovS' &v e* Ti •y€w>iT' eri ffv/iTri'euo'ai^tui' &v -^fiav 

5 Kal tSi* ^ficuoiv. aXKa firfv rov rdre avfi^avr Iv rg 
iroXei Oopvfiop tirre fiev diram-f^' fLiKpa S' a.Kov<raff ofita^ 
[avTo, Ttt] ofayKamrara. 

169 'E<m€pa fiev yap ^v, rfKi S' ayyehXoiv Tts ws tous 

{ laS. I. dXX^vi Y. 4- ffv/iTHivteTur all MSS.; witmuairrar Eluul., 

Dind., Vom., West., Lips., Bl. (See note below.) i/iw (w. i, over i) F, V6. 

J. (V om. Al. 7. uVri ri ira^ic. lulg. ; airk tK am. 2*, L' ; ri om. L*. 

t 1«». I. drrAwr O; dTarHWui* B. 

g 10s. I. oIiTo: i.e. as the docu- 
ment! showed. 

4. ^ouG'dv...n|tTirnr((vnn'<(v,i.e. 
ftftwg (ill) that undtr iw pettibte circum- 
stances vmt/ii lltt Thebani and nurselt/ej 
btcamt harmemovs: av^trrtvairrur or 
represents tvntr^isiuiia <r. The MSs. 
all have auiirrtuaitTun it, which Bekker 
relains. There would Ije no more ob- 
jection to the future participle with ir, 
representing the fut. indie, with ir, 
than to ihe latter, ot to the liil. in fin. 
with dr. It 15 generally allowed to siand 
in Plat. Apol. 30 E; Dem. ix. 70, and 
XIX. 341. But here it would represent 
ihe future optative wilh 4f, for which 
there is no recognized authoritj. More- 
over, the future of wrtu is not wrtisu, 
but rniaoiiM or miwwfui, and this 
should be decisive (see Veitch). See 
M.T.1161 and for the repetition oi ir, 

6. picpd iyvftuuirajo.; see E tiS* 
and note. Mofil uss. give aini, rd iira7. 
KuiiraTa here, perbapjt correctly. 

H 1«8 — ISO. Here follows the 
famous description of the panic in Athens 
when Ihe Dews of the seizure of Elatea 

arrived, and of the meeting of the As- 
sembly which was suddenly called to con- 
sider the alanning situation. This is a 
celebrated example of jiantruait, vivid 

% IBS. I. The succession of tenses, 
^, ^Kt [had cotnt), and JtarriXifmu (the 
direct form for Ihe indirect), makes the 
narrative lively and picturesque at the 
outset. Much would have been lost 
if he had said ifKBt 6' iy-jiXkuw rif 
tin taTit\itiiiiJn) till. — ill Toil wpvtrf- 
vOil: the message came to the Prytanes, 
the fifty senators of one of the ten lri1>es, 
who for their term of one-tenth of the 
year represented the authority of the 
Suie. Their office was the MXm or 
inidT, a round building with a cupola in 
the iriopi, adjoining the Senale house and 
the li'^Tpfot wilh its record-ofRce. There 
(he iriardnit of the Prylanes was «• 
peeled to spend his wh»1e day and night 
of office, with a third of Ihe Prytanes whom 
he had selected (Arisi. Pol. Aih. 44*1, so 
as to be accessible in emergencies like 
the present; and there the State provided 
meals for all the Prytanes. The 8i)un is 
distinct trom the ancient Prytaneum 01 




vpvTOveK a>s 'EAarcia KaT&kTjTrrai. koX fitra raOra ol ftxv 

Totv Kara rr/v ayopav efci/jyof koi ra yeppa iventfLKpaa-av, 
oi S^ TOU5 arparriyov^ /AcreircpjroiTO itai toi' troXTTiKT^i' 5 
^KoXovf (tai Bopv^ov TT\-qprq% ^v -f) ttoXi;. rp 8' virrepaCif, 
apa rQ "^peptf, ol ph> vpvravftt; r^f ySovX^f ewaXovv eis to 

S. Toil om. O. eakrtKtifi Z, L', F, V, *; iroXTiTitrJ^ vulg. 

Ciiy Hall, where certain privileged per- 
sons (dcioiTH) had their meals al a public 
table, to which ambassadors and other 
' guests of the Slate were aomeiimes in- 

3. -nAt-.-vKiprnv. cf. § 44'. 

4- Tcl fiffiK probably the wicker-work 
-with which the hoolhs (oi^oi) in the 
market-place were covered. The word 
can mean abo anything made of twigs, 
and is used of a wicker fence which en- 
closed the iKK\ii9la (see Harpocr. under 
yippa-, and lix. 90). But the close con- 
nection of the two clauses, drove out Ihosi 
in lie boeths and burnt Ike yippa, shows 
that the -yippa which were burnt were 
taken from Ihe booths. Otherwise there 
Iriving the poor hucksters 

It all. If it 

done lo prepare for (he "d 
ing" the next morning, we must re- 
member, Ural, thai the Assembly was 
held in the Pnyx, not in the A-yopd; and, 
secondly, that there was to be a meeting 
of the Senate before that of the A->senibly. 
which would give lime enough to make 
all necessary preparalions after daybreak. 
To suppose, fuither, that ihe booths were 
torn 10 pieces and burnt on the spot after 
dark, merely lo clear the iyopi, when 
there was no pressure of time, even if 
the place needed clearing at all, is to 
impute to the Prylanes conduct little 
short of madmen. Such a panic as this 
senseless proceeding would have caused 
was surely the last object which these 
guardians of the State could have had, 
when they left iheir supper unfinished and 
hastened into ihe maiicet-place. Their 

first object certainty was 10 secure a full 
meeting of the Assembly the next morn- 
ing. Ii will be noticed that while some 
(ol ^r) of Ihe Piylanes were engaged in 
clearing the booths, others (ol H) were 
summoning the ten Generals. The Gene- 
rals and Ihe Prylanes had the duly of 
calling special meetings of the Assembly 
[imAijofai (riryjtXj^Tow) ; see Thuc. IV, 
iiS", {Kit\-it<iiar Hi ■HK-ZjeaiTai Toin arpa- 
nffodt roi toi;! Tpirrdms, and 11. jg" (of 
Pericles), <r6\\oytir Toi^iraT (fn iS' iirrpa- 
dJtii}. There can, Ihercfore, be hardly a 
doubl thai the two acts were connected 
with summoning Ihe Assembly. To do 
this effeclually it was necessary to alarm 
the whole of Attica immediately; and the 
natural method for this was to light bon- 
lires on some of Ihe hills near Athens, 
which would be a signal 10 distant demes 
to light fires on their own hills. A fire on 
Lycabettus could thus give signals directly 
and indirectly to the whole of Attica, and 
probably this was understood as a call of 
the citizens to a special Assembly. As 
material for lighting signal fires might not 
always be on hand, it is likely ihat the 
dry covering of the booths struck Ihe 
eyes ol the Prytanes as they came out of 
their office, and that they took Ihem in 
their haste for this purpose. Their high au- 
thority was needed lo prevent resistance 
on the part of the owners of the booths. 

J. raXTucTi)v: lo give signals with 
his irumpet. 

7. T^» pouX'^v IkiCXovv: see Arisl. 
Pol, Alh. 44', iTtiiir lurayiyuait ol 
Tpvrirat riir ^ouX^* ^ rir S^iar. 



^ovXevr^piov, vfieX^ S* «s t^v iKK\T}criay iiropevecrOe, kcu, 285 
irplv iKeivrfv xprffLaria-ai koX vpo^vX^crai »ros 6 hijpoi 

170 avoi KoBfJTo. KoX ptra. ravra a>9 ^Xdcv 17 jSovXi^ koI 
ain^yytCKav ol irpvraveK xa irpo<rt)yy€\pAv ka-vrot^ kcli ritv 
•^KOvra waprqyayov KOKeTvoi flwfv, -^ptora p^v 6 K^pv^ rit 
ayopevfiv fiovXerai ; wapgei S' ovSef;. vok\a.Kii 8e tow 

S K^pvKOi ipbirSivTo^ ovZev pahXov<rTar ov&eh, a/travrotv 
fiep riov irrpaTrjyiap wapovratv, ava.VTa>v Sc tIov prqropav, 
Kakova^-i 8e Tp koiv^ t^s ffar/JtSo? ^a»^ toc ipovp0' virep 
<r<i)Tr)pCas- tji* ya/> 6 icrjpv^ Kara tous t^^v; ^j^v a<f>ir)iTi, 

171 TavTTji' KOH^v r^s waTpiBoi SiKaiov iarif lyyetcr^ai. Kolrot 
et pxv Tou; {TOiBrjvtu TTfi' it6\w /3ovXo;iivov; trapcXBeiv eSei, 
irai^e? iv v/iels Kot 01 aXXoi 'A^Tjvaioi avooTcii^es <Vl to 
/S^^' ^/SaSi^erf Travres ya^ oIS' ort a-oiB^vai, avrrfv i^ov- 

8. <rop«il«rS« (ai ovf r final <) Z ; iropn/tirtfeu O'. 9. wfir 4 >fl«i« om. V6. 

S 170. 1. )|XSct r, L, *, A:. »; tiu^XSw vulg. 1. aftroTj At. 

4. ■■oXXfUt V. 6. ivirrar om. I'. tu* oin. O, 7. taXatmii.,, 

#wi-D Al. j; itoX. ** T^ icou'TI Tarpllei ^i-j Z[ njt reir^ ttji TOTpJiM *uj»^ L, 
vuig, ; rljt rarptSm tj toiri ^i^ £ (•»)), * {yfi), Bk., Bl. with tj i. ^owf in [ ] ; rf 
Kou^ TarpiAw ^ur§ Vom, 8. irori T«*i »i*«iut oro. V6. 9. iiTui om. 

F, O. 

g 171. 4. »»' iri £ ; cI olf »ri L, vulg. 4/jBi1X«r0t Ai, V6. 

9. xm"^'*^'*^ "III vpoPouXfOnu, 
precad le businis! and pan a veti (rpg- 

ro. £h> ■bMjto, i.e. the people in 
their impatience were already «eated in 
the Hnyx : few shows ths.t (he Assembly 
sat on a hill, probably in the place 
now known as the Pnyx. See xxv. 9 
and 10, rir ^luw tit Hfr tmrXiTtfla* <Ua- 
^Intvcw. For Ihe identity of this famous 
place, see Crow in Papers of the Ameri- 
can School at Athens, iv. pp. loj — 360. 

I 170. I. ^dtr 14 pMX^, i.e. when, 
after the adjoummenl of the Senate, 
the senators entered the Assembl;. The 
common reading tia^Btr wants ihe best 
MS, authority. 

Piytancs were still the chief men in both 
Senate end Assembly, though at (his time 
(certainly since 377 B.c ) the duty of 
presiding in both bodies was given to nine 

r^i^, who were chosen by lot each 
day from the ^nators uf the o(her nine 
(ribes by the AriffrdTW of the Prytanes 
(Arisl. Pol. Alh. 44'-^. The Tpieipo. 
had an ^nirrdTiji of (heir own, called 
6 intrri.'nn t& rpodSpiiir (Aesch. III. 39). 
This is ihe office held by Demosthenes in 
the last meeting of the Assembly Itefore 
the departure of the second embassy {n 
346; Bee Aesch. 111. 74; Hist. § 38. — 
fiv JjiCDVTa, the messenger who had 
brought the news: cf. § »8'. 

5. fit iyoftitM PoifXfnu: the regu- 
lar formula for opening a debate : cf. § 
191*. Aeschines (ill. 1 and 4) laments 
the omission of the additional words, ruv 
itip rtrrfyroTTa Ir^ ytyvrinar tal rdXi* 
ir lUpti Tur SUwr 'A^qmlur, the Solonic 

7. tJi< lp<iSvV = ti Ipii, lit man ta 
j^l^(M.T. 56j)!cf.Ji85». 


nEPt TOY rTE<l>ANOY 125 

\e<r$e- el S^ toik irXovfTKorarovs, 01 rpiaKoo-iot* ft 8i tov$ 5 
afufmrepa Taura, koX cuvows t^ w6\ei xaX irXovorwus, ot /lera 
TavTa ras fieyoXa? eiriSo<r€ts eViSdrres' xal yap evvMij. koX 
n)iOVT^ TOUT iiroiTja'av. oXX <u; coijtev, ixetvos 6 xaipo^ 179 
Kat 7) -^ixepa 'KeCvrj ov pAvov evvovv koI irkovtriov avZp 
ixoKfi, oXXa koX waprfKoXov&rfKora rots irpdypatTw ef a/>x^^> 
K(u o'vXXcXoyKTftci'oi' QpdS><; rtvos ccexa rat/r' eirparrev o 
0i\iwTTo^ Kol Tt jSovXo/ieKo; ■ o ytt^ /ii^ Taur' elSoi; pr)8' s 
^fijTOKa*? vopptadtv hriptkS>^, ovt* et ewous ^i* ovr* ei 
irXoiKTio;, ovSei' /ioXXof 17/ieXXcv o ri ;i(/}^ ttokZi' eio'ea'dai 
ovS* vpXv €^eiv (rvpfiov\€V€tv. e^xivrfv Toiwv oSrot iv eKfCvig 17S 
386 T^ ■ffpxpa. eyit, koX wapf^Botv ehrov et; u/ias, a p^v Bvotv 
htK ojcova-are vpofrtrxovn^ tov vow, eros /xo*, Tv' eiS^e 
OTi ^t^s Tftic XeydtTO)!' koX iro\iTevop^vatv iyot t^v ttj^ 

7. <».J.WmiAl. 8. rn57-'V6. 

I 178. 3. ^ d/ix^ (repeated before ^l^f, 1. 4) £. L ; er&'ed in I. 4 in Z, ip 1^ 

L, vulg. tt (before cdrovi) om. B. 7. ero-RrSi [« above) Z ; tvtatii O. 

g 17a. I. Dh'u<L:om. O. 1. rpit (above cl<) B. 4^t O. £f<a 

(for a uau) B. 3. -wpoaaxirrft 4, Bk., Dind., Lips., Bl. ; trpoaxirrtt 2, L, 
Vom., West. ; J'pofffit''"'" ''ulg' 

§ 171. 5. ot TpioK^noh iMc Thrtt t (aif>ii...J«tX« (g I7I>| : cf. g 181*. o<»- 
Sundrtd: M« note on g loj*. 

6. d|i^JT(pa TaSni: see note 1 


tmiribuiioHi, made after the battle of 
Chaeronea (Hist, g 80) : /«t4 Tnih-a refere 
to the events which ended in that battle. 

§ 172. 3. »gpnKeXo u 9i)M<Ttt, (me 
■uhe had followed tht track of etienis. 
See XIX. J57 ("d), and Ev. Luc. i. _3 
xtLinltoXovStiiciri lrw0M> w&rir u/H^ut 
(with iiniiBa here cf. wtppvStr in 1. 6, 

7. oM)v,.,Arw4iu, i.e. tbui none tie 
man lUtdji lo knme. f retain tjucUio' 
here and in g 191*, and tiuYXar in g 101*, 
with the best MSS. and most editors. 
Cf. XIX. 159, ti tMarpoTtiata' IfuWw 
(so the best Hss.), lit. /iijr were not getHg 
tajoin Aim (in Ibat case): so hoc facliiri 
erant, nisi venisset (M. T. 418). 

g 17S. t. oiT«t, Mo/ man, whom 

peril. For this 

e as obj. of 
e sa; which da at few 
in dlaS' 6 ipaawfj and 
ns, see M. T. 153, and 

Postgate in Tians. of Cambr. PhiliiJ. Soc. 

III. I, pp. so— SS- 

3. icfaavx&rrtt fAv VoOr, allmlivtly, 

4. T^v...IXmy, / did not deterl my 
poll of devotion to tht slate, i. e. I was 
never guilty of ^iToro^a here. Thii 
military figure was a favourite of De- 
mostbenes. See [II. j6. fil) ■mpn.yitfiir 
i-^t r<l{«#f 17P i/fu>al rpirjoim tip oprr^... 
nrAmr (see Westcrmann's note); XV. 
3'i 33 ("''li 'he figure oflen repeated); 
XIX. 9. 19; XXI. 110. XcXmrfrot r^c toC 
Sinilov Tii{iF. The same figure is seen in 
l^tr^tbm* (1- 6). in ^{^™«u (8 tgj"). 
<E7nlf»T0 (g 117'), iiera^iUintr irip vfiur 
(I in")- "id in <f/Ta«», a rtaalerin^ (as 


126 iHMOieENOYS 

S ewota9 Ta^iv if roZs Setvoi^ ovk eXtirov, oXXa kcu Xeytav koI 
ypa^mv i^rp-a^ofirfv to hiovB" virep vfiStv ec ovrotf rots 
if>o0€pot^, Iripov oi, on fUKpitv avaXatravrei; )(p6vov iroXX^ 
wpos Ta Xoiva t^s wdcrr}^ ttoXitcios ea-eird' ip/miporfpOL. 

174 EtTTOI* Toiwv OTl 

"Toil? fihf ws vwapxovToiv ©tj/Sotdiv <&iX.iir7r^ Xtw Oopv- 
povp4vov% ayvoav tA ira/>oi^a vpaypMB' ifyovfiaf €? yo/) 
oI8' OTl, ft Tov6^ ovT(o^ ervy)(a.v€V ^ov, ovk Slv airov 
5 -^Kovofiev iv 'EXarei^ ovra, oXX' enl rots '^fier^poi^ ofMot^. 
OTl, fidvToi. IV eroifia iroi'^tnp'at xa iv Brj/Sai; !?««, (ra^ws 
17a ijrC<rTafiai. lus 8' <X€t" ei^v "ravra, a-Kowrari p^v. ckHvo^ 
oo-ov? ■^ ireicrai •xpripao'i ^rf^atoiv ^ efajroT^<rat S^tf, 
S/iravra.'! evrpeinaTai' tous S' aTr' a/>x^s dv^eoTTjKoras avr^ 

J. ^{/Xiirar V6. 6. ^/lur O. B. r^i rivin JXXirt roXtr. Ai; r<tri;t t^ 

roX. ♦; T^f i-oX. V6. 

B 174. 4. ru> e>r^a(uv Ai, B (corr.). ^<w Sn^wr L ; *Mmf fAur Ai j 
#Aur 4iM«-ry vulg.) ^Xur om. £. 3. A' (for T^) V6. 5. ru* Jrrn Ai. 

6. Tw^mirc Z (at over <), L (re erased), O. ri h Qrh^t 2, Ai. B (mg.) ; rk ir 

Oiipaioit vulg. i «4KCUt (for B^wi) L>. 7. t^i^ ra&ra S ; raCra f^n* vD^., Bl. 

g 17*. 3. tiTpiTiHTOi S, L>; v,^piiri<nO (mg.). 

oftroops),a«///ffr(SS3'o'.3K)"). Here 
there is always en idea of bnng amntid 
in on one side or the other of some con- 
See Jackson's note on (frow in Trans. 
of Cambr. Philol. Soc. II. p. iij, where 
be explains the word in Arist. Pol. I. d 
("SS". "7} "s "loyahy, i.e. the willing 
obedience which an inferior renders lo a 
kind and considerate superior." He re- 
fers to Xen. Oec. vil. 37, IX. 5, 11, xil. 
5—8, XV. s, Hdt. V. 34, Polus Pythag. in 
Slob. Flor. IX. 54 (Mein.), oiro-S* li -wm^i 
itsrhrai tiroia, itrwoTwt it rorl 6tp&- 
■nifrrws laSiiuHia, and other passages, 
especially Arist. Eth. ix. s. SS 3- i. f^™ 
I' fSroia 8l' ipmj* icol iruUctdr Tira 
yiftTiu, Bra* -rif 0<u^ JtaXit t« 1) iriptTot 
^ Ti rotnSTo*. These examples show that 
ttroM may mean divolian hosed on any 
superiority or merit, including loyalty of 


r (even of a. dog ti 

in the games (felt even by a stranger). 
Above it means a good citizen's loyal 
devotion lo the state- 

5. XiY»i'...lfiF<4i|''1* (see last note). 
/ was found ready (at my post), when 
sptaking ami propoHug 



(p. 161) thinks that Llie military figure 
may refer to the chat^e of Xmroflu 
at Chaeronea, which Aeschincs repeat- 
edly makes against Demosthenes : see 
Aesch. iji, 159, ijs, ijfi, 344, "S3- ' 

7. iroXXf ...Ifiimpdrtpoi, far mart 
acperietiiid for Ikt fuluri in the lehek 
administralioH of ike slate (iroXiTffat). 

8 174. I. &Km 8n: introducing a 
direct quotation (M.T. 711). 

1, <&i...«iX(ir>r<p. in the betUf (in) 
that Philip can depend on the ThtbaHS: 
cf. S§ 9S'. 5iB'.--eopvpow(ifaoiit, dU- 
lurbed: cf. Bopipau, g 169'. 

6. l»a...iroiijoTjT«a, i.e. to prepare 
Thebes for his appearance there as a 
friend: cf. tirp^i^rat (i.e. lirptwttt 
TtwabiTiu), g 17s*. 


nEP) TOY iTE*ANOY 127 

KoX vvv htavnoviiGrnvs ovSofiM'; ireUrai Bwarai. rt oSf 
/SovXercu, Kot tCvo^ eivcxa r^f 'Ekdretav KaTeiKr)<f>€V ; ir\r)(riov s 
Sufa/t(f ScL^a; KoX wapaurr^tras to, oirka tovs ft^ iavrov 
tftiXov^ inapat kol ffpaceis woirjcrai,, tov; &' h'avrutvpJvov^ 
fcarairX.^^cu, Xv ^ (rvy)(0}pij(ra(ri <f>ofir)0evTK a. vvv ovk 
i0€Xov(Tti>, ^ ^utLtrdaa-iv. el pev toCwv jrpoaipijcrop^^ ^79 
^/wis" etfyrjv "iv t<^ vapovn., ft ti SviTKokov triirpaKTat 

^Tf^aioK TfpO^ "ffpai, TOVTOV pepV7J(T9cU, KOI aTTUTTitV ailTOt^ 

&)$ iv rg T<ov €^0pav oZtrt pxpi8i, -apwrov pev av cv^airo 
^iXwnros ■JTOiiJo-o/wf, etra ^o^ovpai pi) irpoarSe^apepatv t^v 5 
287 vvv avO&rrqKOTiav avT^ koX pi^ yvbtp-g TTOvrtav ^iXtinri- 
cravTaif, eU t^v hrriKTiv iXOaitriv dpiJMTepoi. &v pAvroi 
W€UT0j}t' ipol KoX irpit^ t^ crKOirtiv dXXa prj i^LkovfLKetv 
wept Sv i,v XSyat y4v7)(rBf, otpaL koI to, Seoi^a keyetv So^eiU 

J. rfMKB S, L(cf, SS IM.', 144*). fr«xXi,ff(BrS, L>. ♦, Vom.j [« om. Tulg. 

6. a{'ToOV6. 7. iwapmi £; iripai (as opt. VI. tra) I. ; irap<uyit\g. VM^rcu 

£, L, vulg.; jr. rol Opoir. rn. Z, L, Ai. i ; ^pur. ith. col 4r. vulg. 8. laTv- 

rX^fai om. S' (added betow Ihe line). 

I 17fl. I, Tolfui S; hSf L, vulg. v/xiiufni^irl^c^s G, V6. 3. A/ui( V6. 

4. a V Mss.; ir VoRi., West., Bl. tiiin (cu ovei () £. 6. a^ 

(•«•> over -ff)) B. »-iirra» om. Ai. 8. reurf^''' '*«>* L; T«itfS5T<jii»i I ; 

Ttia^4 liK vulg. ^iXanHir O. g. yiriistvei Y, 4. tA (before iiorra) om. L. 

I 17«. £. iTviKd: seenoteong mo'. 
— wXilo^ov G£ya|u* 8<f(M, by mating a 
eUsflay Bf force in their neigkbmrkaed, 
Elatea being near enough to Thebes to 
make Philip's presence there alarming. 

7. tnfMU (cf. i»opfldi. f 168'), with 
VM^u and laTarX^ai, depends on 
^cxiXem andersiood, (his answering rl 
P^SKtroii as the following ir'...ptatOuair 

9 176. I. *l pJc-.TpoufiirdiMS'-. 
this most vivid form of future supposition 
here eipiesscs what the orator wishes 
to aialte especially prominent by way 
of warning and admonition, though il 
happens thai this is not what he wishes 
or what actually occurs. Il is an ex- 
cellent case of Gildersleeve's "minatory 
and monitory conditions" (sec Trans, of 
Amer. PhUol. Assoc, tor 1876, p. ij, and 

M.T. 447, with footnote). On Ihe other 
hand, ftr fiAroi nurd^' i/iti (;) happens 
to express what he most desires and what 
actually occurs. This example shows the 
mistake of supposing that the indicative 
in protasis expresses more "reality" than 
the subjunctive. Compare the antithesis 
of subjunctive and optative in §§ I47, 1+8, 
with notes. 

t , SivKoXov, unflnuartl, euphemistic : 
cf. 8 i89». 

4. At b.-.tupfSi, hokingal Iheia (wr) 
in the light ef enemies (M.T. 864): cf. 
% 191' and III. 31, it uTripfTou...ii4pii. 

6. |u4 Y>^11> """ ennrensu. 

7. ikfijiiripoi, Thebans and Philip. 

8. «pif T^ uyiartlv... ybnfgtt, devote 
younetvei to eonsiiigring'. cf. VIII. 11, rfAt 
Toil rpiy/iaffi 7J')»«rflai. 

9. Si{«v...StaXW«*: scini. 




177 KoX TOf eiftetmfKOTa kCvSwov r^ ir6\ei SiaXva-ew. rt oSc 
<fn}fj.l Seiv; vpotTOV fifv tov vapovr ivai^Zvai jto^ov, ttra. 
fi.(,Ta0eiT0cu koI (ftofieitrOai irdvra^ virep ^jf^aiotv • iroKv yap 
Toil' Sewav eUrtv r/fLotv eyyvTepoj, Kot irporepot^ avrot; iariv 
5 6 KLvSwo^' eveiT c'^eX^dtras 'EXeuaiwiSc tous iv TjkiKC^ 
Kal Toils i'mria'; Scifat waa-iv vfidt aurov^ iv rots ottXois 
ovra^, Iva toIs eV ©TjjSots ijtpovovtri to. vjur^p e'f Ivov 
ydvrjTOA. to vappr)(ruj^e(rSaLi wept rav SikoImv, ISoww &n, 
w<rwep TOK TToiXoviri ^i\iww<fi r^f waTpCSa iraptfrff y] j8oi}- 
10 ^^(Tovtra Svva/tt; cv 'EXareif., ovroi TOis we/j r^s eXeu^eptos 
ayavi^^a-Bai ^ovkofUvots vvap\€ff vfitt^ erotfiot koX jSotj^iJ- 

17S iT€T idv TK iir avrou; ly. fju^a, ravra )(€ipoTov^<rcu, xeXcvo* 
Sexa wpetrfieK, koj. noiTJa-at tovtovs KVptovi fiera rav 

g 177. I. TioBip iiriiu! Sttr xpuror Tulg. i. Sein om. V6. 4. V^ 2, 

♦ M, A I ; 4«uSr V6 ; 001. L, vnlg. i*rir I, * (yp) ; ic9' A i ; om. L, *ulg. 

5. 'SXcuolnic £; 'EX(tv^3( L'. 6. 4>iai Ai. 7. inthtpa \i,\ 

(corr. from fi/i-?). 8. xHf^njo-nifM-ftu £, -ai by corr. (tata «(?), as in ^rwciVai (1) 
and M(Ta«^00at (3). llowir 2, L, V6: (IM0.. vulg.; Mniaa, At, V, *. 

9. npittntiiXi. II. jSo^V^r" Z; Om. L. 11. i6t2., Ll Ar vulg. 

g 17a. I. ict\t6<a O {nnlj' in mg.). 1. xarA rur V6. 

lo. wdXa; kt this order of 
words see 9| 190*, 197', no"; Vlll. ii, 
XXI. 63, XXV. 40: and for the common 
order gg 179', i88<. See West., who 

notices "die so passend gewiihllen Com- 
poiila," i^tmjKlm and tiA.-\6aiir, 

g 177. 3. p«Ta01ff4a^ /a turn aioul, 
explained bj ipiiP(ui9iu trip OiiPalur. 

4. iip«v and tvT\v are omitted by 
West, and B1., though they are found 
in I. They aie not needed. 

5. 'EXnvtKCSt, to the plain of 
Eleusis, " but no further, les[ a friendly 
demonstration sliould pass for a menace 
at Thebes" (Simcox). See note on 
g 178'. This was a convenient place 
ftir the army 10 encamp, and they would 
be within an easy march of Thebes. The 
mountain road to Thebes by Phyte was 
more direct, but rougher and with no 
good camping place. — roit Jv i)XtK(f ; 
this term properly included all ciliiens 
between 18 and 60: see Arist. Pol. Ath, 

41, 4 — 6 and 34— J7. But those between 
18 and 10 always remained at home as 
^pavpoJ; while those between 50 and 60 
were not regularly called into service 
at>d served as Siwnrrai, or fiuNK artiters 
(Arist. Pol. Ath. J3, 10—37). Here the 
1000 Irreit are excluded TTOm dI ir ^XinJf . 
See also Lycurg. 39: al S' ArMit t^ 
etmiplai t^ iniif (' ToTt inrip rerHiKiirni 
fri) ytyotbei taSfunrliKeaar , i.e. when the 
news of the defeat at Chaeronea came, 
showing that those above fifty were not 
in the battle. 

7. if CroD, nn on <7Hii/i?y with Philip's 

9. Tdt nXoOm, le lieu mkt loetild 
jrf/(conatiye): M.T. Jj. 

II. iwopx^ (mfUK, jwx are natfy 
al hand. 

% 178. 1. ww^ga*. . .grpuTippv, i.e. 
to give the envoys (by decree) concurrent 
authority with the Ixrard of generals. 


nEPI TOY rrE4>AN0Y 129 

iTTpaTr^Siv K«u TOW iroT€ Sei fioBCletv ixelcre koX rrji efoSou. 

Tftt TTpa.yfi.a.Ti, TrapaivSt ; toi/t^ irai^ /loi irpotrexfe tov vovv. 5 
/i^ Seicrdai ^•q^altav p.-qhiv (aur^os -ya^ 6 Kai^o;), aXX* 
iirayyeWftrOai ^or)Bqa-ftv Av iceXtvtucrti', ws ^Ketvtov ovrtav 
ev Tots icrxdroL^, T)fi,Siv S' afitivov ^ 'xcii'oi irpoopotfLCftov 
Iv' iav pxv 8e$ii}vTai ravra Kai iracr^aicru' ij/tw, kcu a 
8 povk6p.c9' 3,p.fv St<^ia}ii€POt Kcu fiera vpotr^funo^ a^iov 10 
7^5 TToXetu? ravra irpd^tofio', hv 8' o/>a ^^ ('g KaTaTV)(€lv, 

3. Jfi fSaSffcu' JKrilre Z, L, A i ; li. S«t fiat. O ; Iti ec. fiai. vulg. 4, x/r^murffu 
£, L, Ai ^ Xirfiata9iu F, O; x/^irta'^c vulg. 5. rapaau- ro^ivZ. L, 8, V6 ; to^ 
TB^Hvu ■ xdrir vulg. wpwriirxtTc (r erased) S. 6. )>ii7^<u Z (w. + over at), 

L, F, *, O ; itu/Sf vulg. 7. ^ayyAAtuPoi 2, L, F, ♦ j trayyiXKitSt Ai ; 

iTayytl\<ia8t vulg. w Z, L ; Mr valg. jiccfrw /lir Al ; ecnr jn-ur L. 

8. iaxi-rif £. L; ^>rx- iwiiiroii vulg. kwu 2, V,*; hrJroi Ai, B*; (drw L*; 

tKclrur F, B'. Ti ^lAXor before Tp<»pi*;tAw» L, valg.; om. 2; after rpwip. Z {yp). 

. L£,LiHLr Tulg. icarA 

;8ai'X<i»irfa Z. 

cr>^iuaTof Ai. 

3. «4Tf.,.lKibr4; ihis queslion is made 
a genitive with tov. The subject of 
^Bl{tir i% iuai, I he Athenian army 
[West, malies it rpieptts). The embassy 
probably departed for Thebes at once, so 
as to lose no timein securing the confidence 
of the Thebans; but the anny could not 
march further than Eleusis until it was 
invited by Thebes lo cross her frontier. 
This was done in due lime (3 aij'), after 
negotiations at Thebes (§§ 111—114). 
To facilitate this movement when the 
saromons should come, the people were 
asked lo empower the embassy at Thebes, 
in concurrence with the geneials at 
Eleuus, 10 order a march to Thebes at 
any moment, and to decide alt questions 
about lAt march ilte!/ (rSt /JAJoi), 

4. y;p^na^ai.T^'w^-iYiKn,ti> manage 
the (diplomatic) buiintss. 

5. titvnf...vtAv: this special call for 
dose attention was made to excite the 
audience with the expectation of hearing 
just what the embassy was to ask of the 
Thebans, and to impress them the more 
by the imeipecled answer, pii tiis9iu 
BilPtUur iiTiiiii. It was indeed an un- 
heard of thing for an embassy to be 
sent to a semi-hostile state in such an 
emergency, with no demands or even 

requests, but with an unconditional ofier 
of military help whenever it might be 
asked for. Acschinesdoesnot fail to mis- 
represent this noble act of Demosthenet, 
and to criticise the course of the embassy: 
see HI. 14S, t4 pouXtvTTipuir ri t^ riXtwi 
lal tV S-JiiHiitpaTUKr dCpiqv IXaStr lntii\6- 
/urot, (ai ner^ryKiw ih B^^t tti Hgv 

B. i^|H*y...'rp<Mp*|Uvin'(alsowith J>t), 
en the grimnd that iiit forisee (the course 
of events) betttr than they {ri nAXor is 
omitted wilb Z) 1 cf. rd nil tiraaVat 
rpoopSr, Plat. Theaet. [66 A. 

9. Iv'...ijMV 8L^>in||iiA«i, that jve may 
(in that case) have aicampiiihtd viAal toe 
wish : the perfect subjunctive here and in 
1- '3 (S rfpayiiiwn') expresses future- 
perfect lime, in contrast to the simple 
future lime of rpdiui/itr and iymMivai 
(M.T. 103). 

10. wporX'^r'^*^ gnund of action : 
rp6axil"' is what appears on the outside. 
which may be either mere show or (as 
here) an honest exhibition of the truth. 
Cf. the double meaning of rpifkiwit, 
ground of action or frelixt ; and see 
vpbSvpa, and irx^**" in Flat. Rep. 365 C. 

1 1 ■ KaraTu^tlv, to succeed ( = ^iruxiir, 
Hesych.), ace. lo Bl., is not elsewhere 




8c /i.i/Sei' ai<r)(pov fiijSk ratre^wv ■§ wewpayfievov." 

179 Taura koi fl-apairXiJeria tovtoi^ eliraur Kardfirjv. <tw€- 

TraivetravTtop S^ wdvToii^ Koi ouSei^s eiirdiTos h/awiov ovhev, 

OVK etirov /icv raSra ouk eyprnjia Be, ouS' eypa^a fih/ ovk 

CTrpeff/Sevora Se, ouS' eirpca/Seucra /*«' ouk eir^ura 8e ^fioiovt, 

S ak\' avo T^% ^PXV^ ^'XP'- "^^^ TtKevri)^ &i,e^\6ov, koi eSoHc' 

ifiavTOV vfLiv airXttis eis tows vepiecmjKOTas rg irokft kwSv- 

vovs- Kal HOL <f>€p€ TO ^(n}ifn<rft.a to tot« ■yewi/ici^i'. 

ISO KcuToi riva /SovXet (7C, Aierx"^. toi Tiva ifiavrov iKeivrfv 

ryxV Aa, F; tal xararvxi'i' B (7/1); naTOnJjpjr L' (w. 7,) (tnixHc above). B* ; 
laTarvxtir L*. It, aCrgri £, L ; ^aiiroit vulg;. cir V6. i^a/iapriyuvirXjl,; 

iitliAfiTucii' vulg. J/itf Al. 13. H'^Si rattirin 000. V6. 

3 17». S. dpx^ 3ii rirru* L, vulg.; itd idrriW oin. 2>. 5. ijuV 

I ISO. I. vi'L; <r«Tulg. wAiox- Al. 

found in classic wrileis; bul (■rttrvyx''' 
,t» occurs in Arist. Pol, iv. (vu.) 11, I, 
in a similar sense. 

It. a,^inXn tfimiiSiwt, may havi lAem- 
ithia to ilaiHt. 

13. fl vrrpaYHA>«v ; «ce note on 1. 9. 

f 179. I. Kal vopaiAiiffw; we 
have here only a single passage of what 
most have been one of the most eloquent 
speeches of Demosthenes. 

3. o£k *Iiro* |ilt'.,.Oi|Pal»vt: a most 
famous eiBinpU of climax (irXTfuif, ladder), 
in which the anlithcses of lUt and H give 
a wonderful effect. Each of the three 
leading negatives (oiK, a6!f, aii') intro- 
duces a pair of clauses of which the 
second is negative, and which as a wkeie 
it negatives. Thus the first oili negatives 
the compound idea, / sfeke, but profesed 
Rd mtasurts ; then the positive conclusion 
thas attained, / did propesi meaiurcs, is 
taken as an assumption in the next slep. 
Without ihe help of ^v and H the mixlure 
of n^alives would have made hopeless 
confusion. Quintilian (tx. 3, 55} thus 
translates the passage, skilfully using 
qtaden for pit and sid for H : non enim 
dixi quidtm ltd mm serifiii, nee scripsi 
quidtm scd nert ebii Itgatianim, nee oiii 
guidim ltd n^K persaasi Thtianis. 

6. MyAt, withaut reiervt. aisttuiefy. 
— Ta^...MvStMnt: for ihe order see Dote 
00 g i-](f*. 

7. TJi|n(4i«Tw-"'Y*i'4r>*>w: cf.Aesdt. 

III. 15, (-plntTir'HrliftWAf iri^lW YEt/o'SfU, 

and II. 160, THw {rbiuir)-ftriii8atKm\6aat, 
§ ISO. While the clerk is prepaiii^ 
to read the decree, the orator interrupt* 
his aigument and (as frequently happens 
in such cases) amuses Ibe audience by ■ 
few jokes at his opponent's expense. 

I. -r{KiPo<X«...U;(M.T.]S7),u'jliMM 
will pan that I shall suppose you, aitd 
■wham myself, to have hein on thai day t 
tTroi is imperfect infinitive { — ^Sa.) with 
6ia, which in this sense takes Ihe infinitive 
of indirect discourse: cf. Aesch. iii. 163, 
Poi\tt <Sf 6a ipopjfiiiwai! We see from 
Plat. Rep. 371 E, il ^Xeset loi 4>\fmal- 
POV^ay tAXiv Btoip^v/Atu, thkil ^oi^Arf or 
poi\w9t was the principal verb in tbis 
construction, and nol parenthetical (like 
Kt\t6fT( in itrui Ke\i6eri cai ouic ipyidtSi; 
Dem. IX. 46), though il may have been 
the reverse when such expressions were 
lirst used. We have, in fad, a paralaxis 
of two independent sentences, not yet 
quite developed into- a leading and a 
dependent sentence, like exve fatiat, 
viate hoc vidtamus ? etc. So soon as Ihe 


nEPI TOY 2TE*AN0Y 131 

Trfv ■^fjxpav cleat $&; j8ovXet ifiavTov fihf, hy Av <rv \oiSo- 
povfjLevo% KoX oiacvptav KaXda'aK, BarroXoi', a-e Se firjS' i)po> 
Tov TvxpvTa, akka tovtwv riva, rdv airo t^s o-ktji^s, K/)e- 
(rifMVTT)!' ■^ Kpeovra ij ov iv KoXXvr^ nor Olvofiaoi^ KaKwi s 
eirerpi^ai; ; rdre toCwv kot iKflvoif roe Kcupov 6 naiaciEVS 
4ya BarraXos Owo/Mtow Tou KodwKiSov (roO itXmiovo^ a^toi 
^v i^airqv rg waTptBi. aii fUv ye ovhkv ovStifiov ^^pifo-i/io? 

1. \uS9poiiitr«t (m over u) £. 3. Bdrro^or Z (but BitraXot 1. 7) ; BaraXor (tt 

bj con.) and Birakot L; lUr. vulg. lipua {a erased) Z; i^pw (a over u) L: 

iipMt O; qpu At. $. JTuAi jTUi^ Ai; lol nuui V; iraitpiri^itrot (after KOxSt) 

vulg,, om. 2'. 7. iyii om. Ai. BdrroXot, see 1. 3. 8. bw (for ffi) Ar. 

je allowed a coDJunction to connect 
the subjunctive to peiXit (or fl^Xtii). we 
find, for example, ffAtrc «t*w; developed 
into fSirrt bs rfru; as in the New 
Testament : Trom this comes the modem 
SiKtTi ri tin); and perbaps the common 
future 6L ( = 0An-e cd?) efru, / j>ia// 

1. poiXn iiiawrdc: sc. 6a (boi;— Iv 
...RoXitnut, i.e. lu ysu ■WBidd call mt, 

3. BdrroXov: this nickname of De- 
inostlienEs, which the orator said was 
^ven him by hi» nuRC (Aesch. 1. itti), 
probably referred to hii lean and sickly 
look in childhood and youth ; and the 
attempts of Aeschines to give it an 
oppiobrious or even obscene meaning 
{as in I. 131) are probably mete jibes. 
See Pint. Dem. 4, which gives the most 
tjtplicit account, — pit|8' ^fm rht Tux^VTa, 
net tvfti a hiro of Ifu common kind : see 
note on Hr trvxf*. § 130*- 

4. AXXd . . . oin|viit, btU om of thost 
<gTeat) htrots of tkt stagt. — Kp«cr^dvrqv, 
in Ihe Cresphontes of Euripides, in which 
Merope has the chief part : cf. Anst. Eth. 
111. I, 17- 

5. KfilorTa : Aeschines played Creon 
in the Antigone of Sophocles as Tpira-yu- 
rurr^: see XIX. 147, jȣiraai rett Spdfuuri 
Tdff T^'yucotr i^aJprrtr itrra wrrtp 7'pal 
ToTt rpiTo7U»i»T(Ui ri TOiJt TVfiiftovt ml 
Toit rh iric^trpa IxxTat tlrUnu. — OM- 

|iaav: i.e. this pari in the Oenomans of 

Sophocles, which represented the chariot- 
race of Pelops and penomaus, by which 
Pelops won the hand of Hippodamna. 
This was the subject of one of ihe pedi- 
ment-groups of the temple of Zeus at 
Olympia.—KOKM Mrpitlnu, you v/rtlch- 
edly murdtrtd (as we say of a bed actor) : 
the object 3v may lie understood of either 
Oenomaus himself or the part. The 
anonymous life of Aeschines {7) gives a 
story, told by Demochares, a nephew of 
Demosthenes, thai Aeschines fell on the 
stage in acting this part : iroic^AMoar 
OJvi/uulv lu^orT-a IIAara aiff^fui ireottr. 
As Oenomaus was finally killed, there 
is probably a double meaning in ta-nSn 
inirix-^at. See Hor. Sat. I. 10, 36: 
lurgidus Alpinus iugvlal dum Memnona, 
with Dissen's note, " cuius caedem ille 
miseris versiculis narravit." In the deme 
of CoUytus dramas were performed at the 
Lesser (or country) Dionysia : Ik KoXXiry 
is an additional slur on the tragic perform- 
ance of Aeschines. See Aesch. t. 157, 
wpi!!tir ir ToEr KO-r' iypirij AuwiwIhi nit- 
/i^juf StTuv if EoXXury. See 'Apoupaat 
Oltiifaot, 3 141'- 

6. rfrn refers generally to time; ■bt' 
Jiutvov TJv KBipitv to a critical moment. 

7. Otvo^idovToO KdOaictSvii ; Aeschi- 
nes was of the deme Kot'dHclSat. The 
order is chiastic with Tlaiaruii IMrroXot. 

9— a 



■^a-da' eyiw 8^ TrdvS^ otra wpofrrJKf Tov ayaBov woXittjv 
lo eirparrov. Xeye to ^ij>i.(Tfid fioi. 


181 ['Eyiri &pj(ovT<K ^avtrticKiaw, ^v\i}s •jrpvravevovaijv AtavrSSw, 

elirw, eireiSi] 1>iXfmro^ 6 MaxeSovaiv jSacrtXev; hf re t(3 irapeKt)- 389 

\vBoTt ypovtp irapa^aivwv ^alverai, rits yeyetnjfiivas ain^ avvd'^^Kaf 

5 irpo? TOV 'Kdr)vaia>v h^p.ov -n-epl t^ elp^vrit, inrtpiBajv tovv opKov<; 

teal ra irapa iraffi Toi^'EWTjo't vofti^ofieva elvai Sixaia, xal TroXet? 

irapaipeiToi oir&h' aurp wpocTjKOvtras, tivA? Se xal 'A87}vaitov 

oGiTa<; SopiaXofTov^ imroiTjicev oiiSiv wpoaBiKi}8€U inro tov Si^/u>v 

TOV ' Adijvaimv, Iv re tw wapovTt ctti -ttoXv wpodyet Ttj re ^La koI 

183 T§ aifiOTt]Tt' KoX yhp 'KWt/vISik troXti^ S^ jlev ip.^povpovs Troiel 

Kol ra; iroXiTeiat icaTdkvet, rivd^ S« xal i^avSpavoBi^'o^ 

KarcurKairrei, elv ivia<; Bi Kal uvtI 'E-WijvtDv ^ap^dpov; icaroucl^ft 

fwl rd Upd Koi Toiiq Td<f>ov^ itrdrfav, ovSev dXkorpiov ttoioii/ o&re 

5 T^? iavTov iraTplSo^ ofire tov rpoirov, Kal ri) vvv avT^ irapovaij 

Tvy(ij icaTaKopw^ j^pwpicvo^, iTTiXeXifafievot eax^rov Sti ix fiixpov 

183 Koi TOV tvxovtos yeyopev aveXwioTws fUyat. koI Iok ftev iroXet? 
eeopa irapaipovfievov avTov ffapffdpovi ical tSlw, tnrtXdfi^apev 
iKarrov elvat 6 8^/40? o ' KBrfvaUav to et's avrov irKrififisXeiffBai' 
vvv Se ttpwv 'EWijii/Sas iroKeii tA? f^v v^pi^Qftivat, tAs Si ava- 

S <TTa.Tov<i yiyvop^vai, S€tvoii rffetrai, tlvat Koi dvd^iov t^; t&v 
trpoyovtiiv So^i Td treputpav tov; "EXXi^im? xaToSouXou/iei/oi/f. 

184 hio Bt&oyBai t^ /9ovX^ xai t^ BriijUp t^ ' A.6r}V€dtov, ev^ap-ivovs Kal 
Bviravrai tok Oeovi koX ijpatri to« (coTtj^ouo-t ^71* ttoXh" ical Ttjv 

9. S' orcuTS Al. <t (for &ra) Ai. lo. frparror om. Y. iMi Z, L, Ai ; 

99 lai— 1B7 contain the Epurious"de- Demosthenes (see g iSi), and Us I«ifth 
cree of Demosthenes." Its date, the 16th was perhaps suggested bj the remark of 
of Scirophoiion (June or July), brought Aeschines (ill. 100) oti another dectec of 
hopeless confusion into the chionology of Demosthenes, ^4^0^ iiatpdnpor r^t 
the campaign hefore Chaeronea. See IXuiBoi. Lord Brougham's remarks on 
Clinton, Fast. Hellen. II. under 338 B.C., this document, written of course in full 
and his attempt to reconcile impossible faith in its genuineness, are now interest- 
dates in Appendix xvi. The teal decree ing. He says (p. 181): "The style of 
was passed in the autumn or eart^ winter this piece is full of dignity, and the diction 
or 33(1 — 338 B.C., the year of the Archon perfectly simple as well as chaste, with 
Lysimachides. The style of the docu- the solemnity of a State paper, but with- 
ment is a ridiculous parody of that of out the wordiness or technicality." 



yaipav rifV ' A0r}vaitai>, teal ivdv/itjOevTa^ t^9 t&v wpoyovtav o/jcT^f, 
290 fiioTt irepX irketovoi hrotovvTo t^c rS>v EXX^cwc iKevBepiav hta-rt)- 
pelv ff Trjv tSiav trarpiSa, SiaKotriav caOs KaBiXitetv et? Trjv ffaKarrav 5 
Kal Tov vavap')(ov avatrKelv ivTo'; Tlv\&v, Kal tov <rrpaT7iyov ical 
rhv 'Cirirapxov ri? -Trefiis Kal tA? ItrTTiK^i Buvd/tet-i 'EXevaivdSe 
d^dffeiv, TTfii.^cu Se xal Trpivffus w/w? tout aWovi "EXXijca?, 
irperrov Be wavriap wpo? %ijffaiov^ Bii to iyyvrdra etvat tov 
^tKiirwov T^ eiceiviav ■)(ti>pa';, "TrapaKoXetv Se avrovf ftTjBev KaTa- 18S 
irXo^aTac rov ^iXtirtrav avTt-yeaBai t^^ iavrStv koX t^5 t&v 
aXXcdu 'EXX^uwc ^evffepiat, koI 3ri o 'AOijvaiotv Bijfi.0^, avBhi 
fLrniatKMcSiv ei Tt wpoTepov yeyovev dXXdr/iwi' rat? TroXetrt vpbi 
aK\ijXa^, ^Qi)B-qati koX Bvvdfieat nal ^(ptjp^urt Kal ^e\e<ri Kal 5 
forXo(?, elSw^ OTi avroh piv Trpo<! aX\ri\ov<t Biafi<purffr)T£iv -jrepl 
rfji ■^efiovia^ otiaiv "EXX^iri fcaXoiJ, inro Be oKKo^vKov avdpmTrou 
ap)(ea&at xal T^f rffepmiia,^ dirairTepei<r6aL dvd^toy etvat koI 1-^9 
T&v 'GXXi7i'Q)i' Bo^t Kal 7^9 T&v irpoyovav dperr}^, ert Se ovBi 186 
dWorpiov ^7eiT<M elvai 6 'A0i}vaia>v S^/io? tov ^^aiav B^fiov 
ovTe Tp trvrfjeveia oure t^ op.o'pvX^. dvafu/iv^a-KCTai B^ xal tA? 
TUf Trpoyovtav t&v eaurov ei; tov^ ^r)fialo>v irpoyovov^ eiepyeo'la^' 
Koi ffhp Toin 'H/)o«Xeoi»s TrM&a<! diroaTepovp.evov'i vtto Ile\oTrov- S 
vijvUov T^ waTpt^v op^t Kar^yayov, toi? ottKok KpaTijeravTe^ 
Toii^ dvTt^aivetv •jreipa>fiivov^ roii 'HpaKXeout ixyovoK, koI tov 
OtSitrovv Kal Toii^ /ler iKeivov eKvea-ovTai iweSe^dfieda, koI Srepa 
391 ToXX^ VH"^^ vtrdpxet <piXdi/0pava Kal ^vBo^a wphv %rf0aiov^- 

SioTrep ovBe vvv dirotmjtreTai 6 'h.6^vaio>v B^fto^ t&v %7]0aiQi^ re 187 
KaX TOtv aXXoK'EAXijtri a-vfuftepovrav, truvBioQat Be irpm airrovt 
avfifiaj(^iav Kal hn/yap-Lav ircn-^iraadai Kal opKov^ SoOvai Kal Xaffetv. 
wpio'^eK dt'qi*oir8iv^^ ^rffiotrOivov^ Uatavievt, 't-7repeiBrf<i KXcov- 
Bpov X^TTto!, MvyjaiBelBtji 'AvTtiftdvow ^pedppuK, ^tipoKpanfi ; 
%<o^\ov 4>Xue^, Kf£XXat<r^o; AtoTi/MV Ko^eaxtSi}?.] 

AvTTj tS>v wept ©if^as iyCyvero trpaypAxtav ap)(7i k<u 188 
KaTOOTOurts irpwrt), to. irpo tovtoiv eU ^Bpav kox fua-o^ Koi 

lias. 1. ^lY*cro Y, 4-; iylrtrt £, L, Al; iyirtro vulg. 

g isa. I. ASn|.,.«p<in|, thii wai [be basineas in coming to a settlement. 
tkt firil step taken and llu first attltment Sec Weil's note: '^ Kariinaaa est id le 

^tilid in 9W rdatunu with TJuUs: contraiie de t«)K)£i[," 

iyly*tTii, if we take this rathei Ihao the 8'^ ■wiyMtUtwtjKOtKal-ri.-Kpi.yiMr' UAa 

Vulg. cT^cni, refers to the progress of tariimi (aftet Che rule of [he Thirt;), 



dfftOTiai' rSiV TToktltiV VTTTfyfJXvaiV WtQ TOVTHIV. TOV70 TO 

i/n}i^i(r/ia Tov Tore r^ iroXei irepiaravTa kivSvvop TrapeKBw 
5 inoCtja-ci' aa-irtp vc'^os. ^v fiev toCwv toS SlkoCov woXirov 
TOTt Setfai iTa4TLV, et ti roiirtui' eljfo' afifivov, fii) vvy 
189 ivLTLfjMf. 6 yap <rvfifiovkoi Koi 6 (rvKo<f>dvrr)^, ovSc tSiv 
aXKoiv owSev ioiKora, ev tovt^ irkeloTOv akk-qkiau 8mk^- 
pov<Tiv 6 fieif y€ vpo tS>v irpayfiaTav yfwfi.r)v aTro^tufcrai, 
Koi SiStuo-tf iavTOv inrevOvvov roiq ir«wr^ei(rt, tq rvxTl' ^V 

4. t4f t4t( ifpiffToiTO Tj irdXn B. 6. /iJj to(i-w Ai. 

i !••. I . oJ«« £, L (7p) ; oiSttt 2 (yp), Al ; i' ciSiri L, vnlg. i. odSjr 

(before te«4m) vulg., om. O ; ei^lwi or wjw Z' (now nearly obliterated). j, ;i^ 
>t Si ''^ T<l/> L, vulg. 4. JovrAr Z, L, Al ; afirAr vulg. ri^ catpy Z, L ; 

rati xufwii vulg. 

and Ar. Ran. 1003, iiutt' iw ri rnOiia 
\««> ml (a0«rn)ici( Xd^gt. Hermogenes, 
npt IJtf&' I. 9 (ill. p. 147 W. ), quotes 
this passage and % 199*, 06 M0«f ^<I>^iira 
c.T.X., a$ instances of driffToiriT and irat- 
p«tfii, with the remark, BXiut 8* t4 d»-»W' 
run (I^ttVv'n'a, eJ /uupi tr?) ri cwXa, vou? 
XaHrpic tAv Uyw, Toif ^ofoii itdr Jc- 

4. ««ifA(tIv Amp W^, /b fass fy 
liki a cloud, or le ■Banish liki a falsing 
clmd. The simplicity of this simile was 
much admired by the Greek rhetoricians, 
who quote it nine times (see Spengel's 
iodei). Sec Longinus on (he Sublime, 39, 
4 1 fi^Xic yt toSto loKti *4ij/ui, itol ftrri 
T^ Bm tfai'/idv'iot, t t^ if^^itan i Aq- 
fuwfi^ijl ^i^f)ti...ilXX' a^f T-^t Acuojai 
oCk iXarret tjj i^^iori^ rr^cArirnu. He 
then discourses on the fatal eRect which 
would result from a change in the order 
of the words, or from the omission or 
addition of a single syllable (as wt r^^i 
or wdTtp ti fl^t), though the sense 
would not be changed: rh aMi is-fi/iairti, 
06 ri oAtA ti Cn a^iialrti. Hermogenes 
Ttpl (fcfi» (ill. p. 367 W.) censures the 
introduction of ri Tpi>i' 
between this clause and the preceding 
al^n|...wp^iT^, which, he says, SiiKO]/-! tal 
^rrer ifaiiiaBi atrir (i.e. rir \iyor) ^orij- 
nu \aiiwpir. 

6. T<rfn>v, i.e. fMan my mtaturts. 
In the last sentence of § t88, the orator 

suddenly breaks off his narrative of the 
negotialion with Thebes, and digresses 
into a moat eloquent defence of the policy 
of Athens in resisting Philip, and of his 
own conduct as het responsible leader. 
See note on §§ 160— a»6. 

§ ISQ. I. 9-J)j,povXo«, slatttmaH. — 
rwto^imit : no modem word, least of 
alt the English lycofihaai, gives the foil 
meaning of this expresuve term, though 
the same combination of malicious in- 
fonner, dirty pettifogger, common shut- 
dercr and backbiter, is unhappily still to 
be seen. Plularch (Dem. 14) quotes a 
reply of Demosthenes to the people when 
they urged him to undertake a certain 
prosecution: viUit liuA-.tvii^iXif lUr 

aW tiy BiXijTt. The word must have 
referred originally to the petty form of 
prosecution for violation of the revenue 
laws known as ^dirit, in which half of 
the penalty went to the informer. See 
Ar. Eq. 300: tal ve t^alrw rois Tpuri- 
TtaiT aJHaTcr>TDn rCir Bfwr 1^1 Ix""- 
KotWat. The relation of the word to 
aitot is very doubtful. Perhaps the in- 
signllicance of a lig as the basis of A 
process at law may have suggested stin- 
^ArTtiias = aGite.^iidnitt: see ^y/pnu turltar 
StfHiplar, Ar. Ach. 54I. 

4. A««Mvvov, rtifiaiuitle in the full 
Attic sense, e.g. liable to the tUdwu and 
to the vp 


nEPI TOY rrE*ANOY 135 

Kcup^, T^ fiovkofUv(p' 6 Se (Ttyijo-as rfviK eSei keyetv, dv S 
Ti SuiTKoXoi' o"v/A(8p, toGto 0a<TKatveL, tJv fikv ovv, oirep 190 
etirov, CKEiro; o Kaipo^ toO yc ^povritflvro^ dvZph^ ttJ? 
irdXco); icat TcSf StKotcui' A.oyaji'- eyw Se roa-avrrjv \rmppo\i)v 
iToiovpMi 0M7T€, &.V vvv ^j} TK Seifoi Ti jSeXrioc, ^ oXot; 
ei Tt dXX* ei^i' irX^i* wv iyoi irpoeiXop/tjv, oBtKetv ofioXoyci. 5 
ft yap etr$' o ti tk vvv eopaKev, h a~w^veyK€v tv t6t€ 
trpa^Bh', TovT ey<o ^p,t Seu* ipi p-rj Xa^eu', et Se /ii/r' 
eoTi /iTfr* tJv fi'^T* Ac eiircu' ^01 ^i^Sei; pTfSeirca Koi rqfiepov, 
292 Ti Tor (Tvp.fiovXov ^XP^^ iroiew; ov twv ^taivopxvfov kou 
ei^iTwi' Ttt xpaTtora eXnr^ot ; tovto toCwv iirot7j<ra, tov 191 
K^pvKoi; epwTwiTos. A«rj(tiTj, tis dyopevetv /SovXcTat; 
ov Ti; airiacrdai ircpi twv irapeXi^Xv^drciJi',' ovSc 
Ti? iyyvdtrdat rd pekXovr' e<rea'6at ; irov 8* dtftavov 
Kar cKfCvov^ tows •)(p6vov^ iv toT? ckkXi/ctiiu; Kodrfp^ov, 5 
iya wapiitv eXeyov, «reiS^ 8* ov Tore, aXXa vw Setfov 

g I90. 1. ToS re Ai ; mu rAn V6 ; tdD O. 4. Jr^ai rf L ; ri tc^ * ; 

nom. Ai. fl (con.) W<rt 2. 5. 11 om. Ai. 6, ^(ttu- Ai. (tit<i2, 
vulg. ; S Ti rii L; 8 rti O. iiifaitr all MSS., Bk. ; fioattr later «<ld. (see note on 

»64'). 8. lx«T»At. 

% 191. I. Irol^a tyii Al. 3. alTuurtfw Z, L, Ai; o/ndroffdu vulg. 

ti. wofiiir At ; (-(fMuit L; '(pw* (r above) 2; Tapt\8^ vulg. ^d At. 

6. SioicoXn'; cf. g 176'. — poinislMi: 
Harpocr. drrt roC oiTi^Tcu tal iUii^hto-i 
aal in[o0a»«r' Aij^uwO. it Tif irip Knj- 

g ISO. I. '^ |4v o«v Tenimcs the 
tboi^bt oriheloMMtitenceofl 18S. 

1. To4...dvGpit: cr. LVii. 49. For 
tLe order lee note on § 176". 

3. 'nS«8M(.UY-i':'^thi«uf>ii(We>t., 
Bl.), or with ^porrlfarroi. — TB m Jrrp' 
t«fpPoXi{v vourfiuu, i.e. I go so far 
bcTond what could be asked of me. 

J. tvijv : used personally wilh nlXXo: 
cf. Sea ir^, g 193*, and XXI. 41. So 
fr4rro» (10): such participlesare very often 
personal (M. T. j6t).—i¥ hfi irpo*X^ 
fP': cf. I I9l*> 7-j)r wpoalpttlr /iob t^ 
T^Tfiai.— <t8uc«Iv, in its so-CflUed per- 
fect sense (M. T. 97). 

6. t6ti ■wpa,x9iti=il t6t' irpix^tf. 

7. 'n>»T'...S<tv fyi p^ Xalstv, / lay 
this aagkt net le have ticafied itu (at tbe 
lime) : *™...Xaff»i> repitsents tta i/tt 
m4 \iiBtJr. 

7,8. (lS)...T^|upoi': foilhiscomponnd 
protasis with a present, a past, and a 
potential opiBlive united in one sappo- 
silion, see M. T. foq; noiice the three 
negatives and the emphatic lol in /ittr' 
Sf—Hinrpar. See g 141*.— (n|l*r» R«l 
nfiupov, net )>it, even al this day. 

9. iwv if9»amifJaiin Kal Mnw, ^A* 
^iZofti KiAiVJ tffireii ti^mse/oa ie ui attd 
wre feasible. 

g I»I. 3. Tl(...vapAi|XvWT<n>; a 
qaesiion to be addressed to a irvio^iirr^, 
not to a trinflovKot (g 189). 

6. o« Tin: so. IJnfii.— «tXXit v»r 
(M. T. 513)- 




ciiT€ m i) Xoyos, ovriv ixpTJv einropeiv, i) Kaipo^ crvfiijidpav 
uir' ifiov irapeXeitfidy} ry irdXei ; Tts 8^ <TVfifia)(ia, ns vpa^ts, 
i<f) rjv fiaXXov eSct p.' ayayeiv TovTova'i! 
193 'AXXa firjv To fi€f trapeh^Xvdo^ iel vapa vatrw aif>eiTa*, 
Koi ov8eLs irepl tovtov irpoTi$T]<riv oihap^v jSouXtji** rit Sk 

p£\koV 7} TO TTOLpOV TT^X* TOU (TVp^OvkoV Ta^LV O/TTaiTfi. TOTC 

Toivvv Ttt p,kv ■^p^Wev, <us eSoKct, tS>v Scifoif, to 8* tJSt^ 

5 napTjv, h> ofs r^i* trpoaipt.a'iv /toy tricoiret t^s 7roXir«as, 

p,ri TO <rvp,0dvTa o-VKo<f>a.VTei, to /^ev yap irepai ws iv 

o Sou/ioti' povXtj&Q irdpTiiiv yCyverof rj 8« irpoalpetrii avrri 

103 r^i/ roS <rvp-fiovKov Sidvoiav St/Xoi. /t^ S^ rov^ ois dZiKiifi 

ifiov 6^%, ei Kpar^craj. awe^ri <l>tXLirirfi ry pd^jj- iv yap 

t^ $€^ to tovtov tcXo? 'qv, ovK ipoi. aXX' <is ow^ dvavra 

o<ra ivijv kot avOpdwivov \oyi,<rp.ov eikopTjv, koX SiKcuan 

5 Taura Kal einpeKa's eirpa^a Kal ifuXoirova^ inrkp 8vvap4.v, 

■J. lircptir Z; tiptb 'ni\g. 8. f nt rjiafit At. 9. /latAar om. V. 

gI»S. I. rap'iwaairAf, r,pl*in*L. a. 4Wp twJtdi, V6. Tpttrrt. 

Srjair V6. ri, n fiAXw [S* over t>] Z. 3. rpofv Ai. 4. it/wWo' USS. 

& ffir/i/Jura S, L, B*, Ai; aii)ifialritrTit nUg. 7. aOrq Z; aiiri^ vulg. 

119*. 1. rB,«ixii2,L,F,B(corT.),Ai.i; rV*.ixvvulg. 3. «S« 

S. rg vAa: often taken with <nrH^- 
pur (see Bl.); better with rapi\d^$t), " 
io I 107", iriiXtTv -ri r6\n, 

9. paXXsv, rather than lo my own. 

g I9S. I. d^rimii (gnomic), u ^- 
missid frum conudention. 

3. T^{iv, Le. tht ila/esmaH ai 
its foit: Tifyf keeps up (he mililaty 
figare of § 173*"*.— JroTf...wBpij»; appli- 
cation of the general principle to the case 
in hand ; ri, iiiw ifuKKa leFerring to 
Chaeronea and its resalts, Ti, J' /ftij 
nf^ to Philip's prescDce bI Elato. 
Though these are now past, they were 
then future and present. 

j. T^v...'raX(TiCat : see note on § 190°. 
wpoalfirii implies the deliberate choice of 
a policy which a statesman should make : 
h«re and in ri avit^irra iri»a^irTtt we 
have again the aififfauXot and the (run. 
^<[vT^ contrasted. For the precise mean- 

ing of *piialptirti, see ArisC. Etb. 111. t 
(especially § 17): ilXX' Sfd yt ri rpcfit- 
^ii\tvitiTOr (sc. Ti rpaaiptrir); i^ yif 
rpnalptvu wri Xiysu ml Staroiat. ira- 
a^/mlrtir t' fci« jial Tttro/M tiiT or wpi 
Mpou alptrir, Dissen quotes Diod. 
XI. II on the heroes of Thermopylae: 
Xplr 7*P »*« '« '■"' •iraTt\tiriuiTuw tpl- 
rat rail iyaSoit Srtpat iiX in t% 
Tpoaipiatut' toB liir yiif TOxn Kopla, toO 
t' ii rpoaJptau ianiiaftriu. 

7. h BtUpav: cf. nf 8n} g 193'. 

9 !•■. 1. TJ fhlV- Chaeronea- — 
h T^ 9*f...T0imt cf. ripai and SailitO' 
in § i9»*''. See II, vii. ioi,Bi}r&p Ortp- 
Btt rlKTit Ttlpar' Ix"^" i' oBariniai 

3. sine fyal: many HSS. have ir i)tal. 

{. ^tXMTOVHf £*)p 8iii«|uv, i.e. laiti 
grcaler labeur than my strength nmr- 
nmt^: cf. gg l6o>, 118*. 



t} ais ov KoXa xal t^s TToXcft*? afta wpdyfiaTa h'f<mi<ra,p,-qv 
KoX avayKiua, tovto fioi Sel^ov, koX tot' ^St/ Ko/nfyope*, fiov. 
el 8' o <rv/x^ac o-mjuros [■^ ■xeifiatv] /i^ fiovov 17/iaif aXXa 184 
293 Kai iravrtov tmv aXXoti' 'EXXifi'Ciii' fieC^div ydyove, ti ;^/>^ 
iroteZi'; wTTTtp Ar ct Tts vauicXijpoi' iraw* «iri <T<>yrr)pi<f. 
vpa^avra, Kal KaTacrKEucurat^a to TrXoIbi' a^' oif v7reKdp,fiape 

avT^ Twv (TKEvui' T^ (cai (TvvTptfiivToiv oXcus, rij? i/aiNxyias 
aLTi^o. dXX' oiJr' iKvpepvtav Tr)v vavv, (jnQO'etev ac (<o(rire/3 

§ 19«. 1 

a&r F. 1 

19 X(>M«» MSS.. Vom., Bl. ; om. Uk., Dind., Lips., WesL ti4rwt O. 
ni7W om. Ai. ^nfor Y. 4. «i( m-urt vulg. ; nurt om. 2, L'. 
ical ^ap»r O. 6. ml (after 4) om. V6. 

cf. S *«'. 

7. Kol 4tMiVK*ta' ""^ nicisiary fat, 
added aA«T ihe verb foi emphasis. Blass 
remark! that the orator has not yet at- 
tuned the height from which be speaks 
in Si 19911. 

! IB4. f. PTCipTTii [jx"*^]' most 
recent editors omit ^ Xt'f"' 01 the ground 
that the orator, after comparing the sud- 
den raid of Philip 10 a thunderbolt, would 
not neakca his figure by adding a com- 
moo storm. This holds good even when 
we idinit that x<*/^ oni^ vrrprr'n are 
not the same thing; and this is plain from 
Voemel's note. Aristotle {de Mundo, 4, 
19), after describing it(/>ow6», x^imi/), 
and Tu^uif, adds (jciurTot H TDiVrwr nKn.- 
triiHiar tit rj)r 7^ irittirTdi dro^iafcr-ai. 
irnrTTit, therefore, is not only a rtreii of 
Ugkltiing, but also a furiaui Ihuader- 
ilffrm ; while X">"^ is viinltr, a winler- 
itarm, or a ittrm in general. Perhaps 
4 X"**^ ^^''E *^ originally a mai^nal 
reference to x"/*"" xfl'''''"''"' (5)- 

1. T^XP^ """^ (sc. ^M^»)i lu^a' ought 
VII la det Blass and Westermann under- 
stand, as the suppressed reply, "Nothing 
at all: least of all blame our leaders." 
But I think a much more precise answer 
is given in the two following sentences. 
The sense is: "What are we to do? 
V/t are to do just what a mixX'^ptii 
would do if any one were 10 blame him. 

etc. He would say 'I was not Kv§tpr^- 
nit,' just as I can say 'No more wa» 
I irrparirvii.'" The apodosis to rf ru... 
ohiifTO beii^ suppteised (except Ac), 
its subject raiiiKTiiiet appears in the pro- 
tasis as raiiiXiffiiw, and the implied tlartp 
Sr iiainXripa Twi^no' appeals in ^f^titf 
Sr [7) with its quotation, dM' oar' invfi^p- 
mr...Tur nlrrur. ^^twr ([) and /yui (8) 
show that the orator identifies the people 
with himself in the comparison with tad- 

3. vd^KXiipai', property a ihifowner, 

who sails in his own ship (as liitopoi), 
hut generally employs a tvptpr^ni or 
lailing-majltr to navigate the ship. In 
Plato's famous figure of the ship of State 
(Rep. VI. p. 488), the r^Miiipot is the 
honest old man ^Sjiuit nvtrtnti, who 
knows little of navigation, and is not 
skilful enough to keep a professional 
sailing-master in authority, and soon lets 
the command of the ship fall into the 
hands of the most artful and unscnipulout 
landsmen on board- 

pot IS 

a have 

Ktam, leAen his taiiUng 
laieurtd (as we speak of a ship as labor- 
ing in a heavy sea). But Blass quotes 
ipiiXai TET»t|irAru(i) from a Delian 
inscription (Diltenberger, Syll. No. 367, 
107), in support of the meaning mij 




ouS' ia-Tparqyovv iyi>), ovre r^s ti^t/s Kvpioq ^v, dXX' 
196 EKeCvT} tS)v TTavrtav. oXX.' cxctro \oyifou xal opa- ci /lera 
%r}^ai(av -rffitv aycovL^ofievoL'; ourois elfiapTo irpa^ai, Ti XP^" 
irpotrSoKav ei /iijSc tovtoi;; l<r)(Ofiei' <rvfi,fui)(ov's aXKa 4>t- 
\tinr^ iTpo<re$evTO, vrrep o5 tot' ^kcu^s iracas atjtrJKe 
5 iJHovdi; Kal €1 vvv TpiStv Tjixepwv airo r^s 'Attik^s oSo»' t^s 
fid)(r]i yevop^vTfi toctoOtos kii'Suvo? Kai <f>6^o<i irtpieo'TT) t^i^ 
jToXt*-, Ti &V, ci irou T^s xiipai rairo tovto iro^os cnwejS^, 
ir/)0(rSoK^(rat x/"?** •' ^p' o ^""^ ori f Sf /tec a-rfjvai, a-vveXBetv, 

8. oUJ (for o0Tt) V. 

S »•. 1. TUT eit/SoJu Y. X/^/< Markland (conj.); xp4 2. L. vu<f- 

J. drft t9i 'Att. iM» S, A] ; Mi» dri rfli Att. vulg. rflt fioxiW om. V6, 

6. ytrotUnp Z, L, Al. *; yeyi'iiiiriit vu!g. Toaoihri L'. Ttpiiirxt 

(irnt over 'X') B. 7- '«i rX^iTlor r^ X*^^' Ai. nidoui Ai. S. otaS' 

L, V6 ; ihSa Ai ; i>I<r«( V ; tttfB- S.O.*; alt^ei vulg. 

% M. t. t{ xP^i* irptMrSoKav ; ihU 

apodosis (like the siiDikr one in lines 7, 
8) has two protases, one simply past, the 
other past with the condition unfulfilled. 
The apodosis in each case conforms to the 
latter condition. But we have in line 1 
i( xi^ rpoataKoi- (without d»|, but in 
7 and 8 t( 3r...rpiiffSoiiTi<iai XP^' <he 
two sentences being in other respects 
similar. We certainly should not notice 
the difference in sence if the same form 
(either with or without i>) were used 
in both. And yet the distinction be- 
tween the two is one of principle, and 
is generally obvioUB and important. In 
the form without ir the infinitive is 
the word on which the chief force falls, 
while in the form with b the chief 
Ibrce &lls on (Su, m"^ f-^". etc., to 
which the ir belongs. Thus i^^ aoi 
i>Snr (in this sense) is you might Aave 
gone (but did not go], while iiijr i' roi 
iXStv is iV VKuid Aaoe ban possiblt for 


\ 6ict it 

WU Dot possible), 
here) it makes little difference to the 
general sense whether the chief emphasis 
falls on the infinitive or on the leading 
verb ; and in these the effect of adding or 
omitting dr is slight. In the present case 

we may translate -ri ■xptf rpoaiim&f ; 
■aikat eughl we to ham ixpalid (which we 
did not find ourselves expecting)? and t1 
in vpoaSoKTfsai x^'i ™^a' should wt 
that haZK had la ixptct (which in fact we 
did not have to expect)? I have dis- 
cussed this construction at some length in 
M. T. App. v., and these two examples 
in p. 409. La Roche denies the exist- 
ence of x/>S' or 'XPS' *'th ir, proposing to 
emend i-xs^^t ir in Lys. XII. 48, but over- 
looking the present case. 

4. vdirai li^ict ^mxlt, i.e. tistd ail 
his tloquince: cf Eur, Hec. 337, liffat 
♦80771*1 U'taa., and Plat. Rep. 475 A, niaKi 
ipuri.t iifiliTt. See 9 ii8<. 

5. TfHtiv iJfi^Mv 6tiv, thru dayi' 
journey, i.e. from Chaeronea (via Thebes) 

to the Altic froniier at Eleutherae, about 
450 stadia. It was about 150 stadia from 
Eleulheiae to Athens; and the whole 
distance from Chaeronea to Athens is 
given (g 130*) as 70a stadia, about 80 
miles. (See Bl.) 

8. vO» here and rirt in !. 10 refer 
only to opposite alternatives (« it «nt. 
and 11 Ihat case), but to the same lime. 
See 9 5oo'. The d»oouiinj<nt after rirt W 
is fer more eloquent than any desctip- 


nEPI TOY 1TE*AN0Y 139 

avaiTvevtrai, woWa fiia -^fiepa Kal &vo Kal Tp€i^ cSocrai' t&v 
CIS a-toTfjpiav ry iroXei; rore 8i — ovk afioi' elwtty a ye 10 
fj,Tj8e irelpav cScokc deay rivoi ewoCi^ Kat r^ iTpofiaKkeiT0a.i, 
rrjv irdXtf ravrrfv rffv trvfifiaj^tav ^? <rv Karrjyoptl'i. 

"fkrrt Se tovtI iravra fioi ra woWa Trpo^ u/ja9, avSpa 100 
SLKooTal, Kal TOU5 ire/>i«erT7jKOTas i^otOev kol aKpootfUvov^, 
iiret irp6% ye rovrov rov KaraTTrvtrTov ^pa)(y<i koX a-a^q 
i^pK€i Xoyos. el fiey yap ■Ifv trol vp6&T)\a ra fUXkot^a, 
AUr)(iv7], p,6v(f r^v aXXtof, or' i^ovXev^ff" t) ttoXis wepl 5 
Tovrtiiv, tot' eSct wpoXeyeiv el 8e /i^ irpo^Sei?, t^s aur^s 
ayfoia; vjrevdwo'i eZ toi$ aXXots, ci>crTe n /ioXXoi' c/iov (rv 
2g4TavTa Karr}yop€i^ ^ hyoi (row; 70<tovtov yap aiitiv<i>v eyaHOT 

10. ^» [for 4) O (mg.). II. rfwJff A:, F, ♦K*Foia L(?), 0; rtlr«« Z. B, 
vnlg. Ttf 2, valg. ; ri L. Tp«Pak\<ae<u L. *! wfefiaWtaaai I. 

g X»a. 3. TWTor £, 4 (7/1) ; rsi>rw a^Ar vulg. 4. ^fw<« M« Ai. 3. 

6. Met « B (corr.). rpr> XcYtir (kHer erased) £. S. ^ ffotr £. 

f 197. I. T-(iff«>rip Ai ; Tixroi>rbJ> Y. fyui itok 2 ; ^li irov vulg. 

> n«Ki, 


(«i«r fBM HI ™m o f"a/ (of their hor 
rois): hmSr is omitted, leaving wilpar 
fSuit absolute. See note on | 107'. 
The Dilative is n'qSi because the ante- 
cedent of i is indeliiiite (M. T. ji8j. 

II. Tf vpo^iIXXwrftu . , . ni|i|i«x^*i 
(Sy tit itatt having liis allianct lo shield 
her (lit. hffUing it Ufen herself). The 
present intin. emphasizes the continued 
prolectioD ; itpoii§aiJa9v would mean 
pulling it befgre herself: cf, § 300", 

g !••. I. "EvTi |wi vpi( i|taf. i.e. 
/ intend it far ym. — ravrl niirm tJi 
•nUd, a// Mu lang argununt (so Weit.) : 
Til ToXXd may, however, be adverWal, 
/or the moil part, ehiifly, the sense being 
ail this I intend chiefly for yoa. 

1. Toil -rUfvu I i|KiTa(, the speelatars, 
of nhom great crowds were present ; see 
Aesch. III. 16, iiarrla<i...TSit IXXu* ro- 
XiTkw Ihrot W) l^uiStr TtpuirtSay, lol rSr 
'BUf'Mr BffWI ^ri(«Wi T^TOVcr ;»iwwl«» 
T^Se TtH Kplfftuf ipa ti ait dXfvoui 

TopitTat, iX\' iaoai odStlt riSiwme iiinrif 
Tnt wpit irfurn ^ti6eiow TapaytwOftit'on- 

3. Ppax^ ital cra+^» XdYo*: ihii he 
now puts into a dilemma, of which Her- 
mogcnes, de Invent, iv. 6 (p. 168 W.), 
thus speaks : r6 Si iiXiifi/""'^ iari tmoD- 
Tor clBr...fSiit ri ii,i\\arTa Iftaexi 
ij oit ^itii; fdr ti yip ttrj} ittir, 
ArarTf tI aSr 06 TpaiXty 

(r-B oil. iit< 

• Bk VB. 


I iiir yip fSti 


t lAi) iIHt- 


I irffpiirovi/ 
^■ 1(t(pk<i, was enough for him; i.e. 
this vieutd be a sufficient reply fer him. 
iHlptti sometimes has a force somewhat 
like that of Ukoiw ifr, taw T\r, nnXAr yp, 
etc. when they are classed with tin, xpfjr, 
etc. (M. T. +i6|. So ja/ii mi/ in Latin : 
see Cic. Lael. xxvi. 96, satis erat re- 
spondere JIfagnai: />ywi/« inquit. See 
line's L&lin Grammar, 1496, 1497. CT. 
eaviatfri, ^, g 148'. 

8. Taftra; the chu^e of ignorance 
which you bring agninst me. 




trov iroXtTTjs yiyov ew avra toB^ a Xeyiu (koI outtiw ttc/h 

Tail' aXXo)!/ SuxXeyojucu), o<roy eym ^i* cScok' ^/tavrof cU 

Ta ircuri Sokouwo o'vfi>f)€p€i,v, ov&eva kCvSvvov oKir^a-a^ 

5 wov oiS' uffoXoyicra/tevo5, <ru 8' ov6^ ercp' ct^es ^eknta 

TOvTiav {ov yap h,v rovrot.% i)(p5>vTo), ovt ets ravra yj^qirifiov 

ov&cv (ravrov vapca^e^, ovep S' av 6 ^auXoraros koX 

CvfTpxvicrraTO'i a.vSpayiro'i rg irokti, tovto iren"otij»cii)S inl 

T0« <rvp.^a(j-iv eurocrat, *cai d/i' ' Kpltrrparo^ ev Nafy >cai 

lo 'A/)KrToX«(i>5 ei* %d<r<fi, ol KaBaira^ ex^pol ttj% iroXems, tovs 

'K$y)vaiav Kpivovcn, tf>i\ovs koX 'A6iQvr)(rtv Ai(rj(tvijs Atj/ao- 

198 a'$€vov<; KaTTjyopei. KaiTot orw ra tuv 'EXXiji'^jc aTW^^/iar' 

CfEvSoKi^ELi' aireKeiTo, airo^-toXevat, ^aXXor oSrds coti Slkcuo? 

7) Karrffopeiv eripov Kat ot^ trvvevTjvo^aa'LV ol avrol Kaipoi 

Koi TOK TYJ^ TToXeoiq i)(0pOK, OVK €Vl TOVTOV CWOUf ctvOt TQ 

ToOra (without a) Z' (co 

.. .-v.- ,-.u...u. -, » i^^.r. to Toir'i); raOra Aj. 5. oj (corr. Co «>S') £- 

<n> t' oMfr«(» Ai. 6. 06S' til Y. 7. ffmirir O. - - - 

'AptrrSKaai vulg. 

drSpurof S, L', At, 
^, Ai ; 'Apurri\tot £; 

f 1»7. 1. n«e' A XfyM, i.e. the 
events which preceded Chaeronea. 

3. iwt> SUav, doubtless later matters. 

4. rd voo-L SaKoOvTa = a rwa iSirci, 
with reference to votes of the people: 

rf. ,„•■ 

j. tSuv, ftrsoHoi, e.g. the danger uf 
a 7po^ «(M»6^iw»: cf. f§ ijs", a+g, 

6. ot..,ixf>M'T«= sc. cf It(p' (Tr«t 
fiArlia. <li -nertt, i.e. in support of my 

7. Sv^ S' Av: sc. rMi^tMt or <n>f- 

a. rjwiX»: for the order see 61761°. 
— rnn>ii)K^. . .JEiJTaotu, j'na art ihmtin to 
havi dont a/to- Iht events: cf. Hdl. 1. 170. 
^t1 tM^apfi/rouTi'Iiixri, and ; 184'. 

g. 'AfiCirTpaTot, 'ApMrnJXwt : the^ie 
men and the condition of Naxos and 
Thasos at this time are Itnown Lo us only 
from this passage. It appears that these 
islands were in the power of Alexander, 
and that the great success of hb arms in 
Asia was having the same cflecl in them 
as in Athens, encouraging the Mace- 

donian parly lo vex their opponents by 

10. RoSdwof 'x'P'^' outright inentiB. 

[I. Kol 'A9ifi'i)(rvv...KaTT|Y>pfI: this 

brings out clearly the meaning of tdOtq 

9198. I. Sty...^'R^«to, wAn/wn^ 
mailer far glorijicalien in Ike calamitiet 
af tht Greeks : d»^itnTO, were laid up 
(as material). 

1. lMiiS(Mi|utv occurs only here in 
classic Greek, ace. to Blass, who remarks 
on the ease wiih which such compounds 
wilh ir arc made, lo be used ibus in the 
infinitive: see Thuc. n. ^\, inuSaiiai- 
rjiaai and im\ivT%iraii II. 10, irrrpa- 
TartStSfu; Hdl. 11. 178, erwitV"; VI. 
lOJ, inTvevaiu: Plat. Phaedr. «8 B, 

ii»u\tTSj. — 'E\X^'HK(iTa is a 
dactylic hexameter. 

J. ot a£Tal...Jx^^*' i-^- '^ latne 
in ipAjVA also the enemies of the 
have found their advantage. 
■Snvf. l^al: see note on % 173*. 




varpCSt.. S>jXoZs Se »cai cf ^i* {ps xal woiei^ Koi iroKtrevei s 
Koi traXiv ov iroXirevei, irpa-TTerai ti tS>v vpXv SoKOvvrtov 
(TVfi^ipeiv a<f>o)t'os Akt^iitjs. avreKpovo'e ri Kai yeyovev 
oloc ovK iSei' wdpeaTtv Awrx^i^s. mtrnep to. prf^p-ara. koX 
ra cnraa-fiaTa, orav rt Kaxov rh (rStpM. XajSg, t6t€ KivMai. 

Ti Kat irapd^o^ov etTreiv. koI p,ov irpm Ato; Kal d€<i!i' 
|1»S. 5. MicalS, L, Ai.i, B; Mvn^. j. 6. roJuroiir (bb) Mss., Bk., Bl. 

J. *J J* tn*- *>" W< ;»> jwB /nw! cf. 
di' air-flF <S^ ^(^i«.w, § ISO*- W» is 
the regular pieseni lo ^^iwcfriu, ^tu not 
being in common nsc. (See Bl.)--«aXi- 
rtiti (mss. -dill) : see note on § 1 19'. 

6. vpdrT»nu...AUrx'i^ and dvrj- 
■tpsiin...AEffx(vi)f (;, 8); two paraUctic 
conditional enpressions, — suppesr loiHe- 
thmg it dene, etc. See S ^74- Dissen 
qnotes Cicero's imilation (Phil. 11. 11, 5j): 
Doletis Ires ekcrcitus populi Komani 
interiectoe : intetfecil Antonius. Deside- 
ratis claiissimos cives: eos qiuxjuc nobis 
eripuit Anlomus. Aucloritashuiusordinis 
affiicia est: ifflixit Amontus. 

8. ^ijifiiara Kal a'rcfar|>a'r«, ruftuns 
find itTtttHi : tnhl"'- is * ruflure, either 
of the flesh or of a vein ; irriaita is 
pioperl; the stale of tatsion which may 
lead to a rupture, though the two terms 
seem sometimes to be used in nearly or 
quite the same sense. Hippocrates, de 
Flat. II (Little vi. p. 109), says of 
ruptures of Ihe flesh : t& M jli^^uira 
■tUra ^frcroi Jut rdit ' hulmr InrA /Jfi)! 
Sta^riiJirir al aipiitt dr' dXX^Xua', h ii 
■riir SidOToair iiwoipiii-Q rreiifia, toDti) ri* 
«4irw Topfx"- ^^^ <1^ Morb. I. ao 
(Lilt. VI. p. 176), of the veins: Uirar n 
rur p\<0Lai araffSiti ^ay^, yj trra^O^ 
fiir, fiarfi a fcJ) ruTiXwt, AX\ik irraRwr 
ir tirif ylniTat (ffTaiiiv being the result 
of ffrioi, apparently what Demoslh. calls 
ariaia,): further, b'hisiii,bKirrary4rrr'Vt 

^c^lr, ...7Em-at i\yiiitaTa ToKyrxfdrui, 
i nai naWoiwi (iriyiiaTa. Again in g 11 
(p. iB+) he speaks of ^^iotb iroXAd t( 

ml rorreTa rur fiXefiaf ml Tut aapKur' 
col T(ii>ru)' T& ^fr rapaurua fiSifXa ^frc- 
TOi, 7-4 W forefw* XP*** i'u^a'wTiu, 

Galcn, de Meth. Medendi III. 1 (x. p. 
160, K.uhn), distinguishes icdTay/io, /rae- 
turtefa bam, fivyita- n/fiturt of Iktfiah, 
and (Tvdd'fia, rupture of sinews. Sec also 
de Morb. Differ. 11 (vi. p. 8;j, Kubn): 
TO a ^TllUi «oI rh miefia toC iiit atriiO 
yiravi iarl. avtlarnTtu 6i ri ^h> tr 
ffopniifci, t4 I' it rtvpMa laplif, T&r ir 
a^«i (rur lairrafBirTUr ^ri ^lolat TU-it 

S IBS. I. voXilt (y''*''™S ^ -lovrr 
{prates hard) upon: cf, Thuc. iv. ^t, 
Hdl. Vll. 158, and note on loXXtf ^orri 
on§ 13? (above). 

1. T\ Kal nopilSofov : the orator now 
rises to a new height. Heretofore he ha* 
maintained vigorously (as in g 194} that 
the policy of Athens in opposing Philip 
under his lead was sound and hopeful, 
and that he cannot justly be censured 
now, even if events have shown the 
"mistake" of waging war against the 
Macedonian power. He now suddenly 
changes his ground, and declares thai 
there has been no "mistake," that no 
other policy whs possible for Athens 
with her glorious antecedents, even if the 
whole future, with Chaeronea and its 
baneiiil consequences, had been foreseen 
from the bc^nning. This is the final 
answer to the petty criticisms of Acschines 
"after the events" ((»J r«it aviifi&aar, 
§ 197'). Fox (Kranzrede, p. 171) says: 
" Niemand soil ihm irgend welche Ver- 
l^enbeil anmerken, deshalb gesteht er 


fi.tjSit'i Tr)v inrfp^oXifi' BaviJuHtrg, aXka fier' evvoiai S Xcyw 
BetapijciiTtiy. et yap ^p awtuTi irpoSi^Xo to fMeXkovra yci^- 
S <Tf.(r6ax, K(u wpoySea-av irdvre'i, koI <rv 7r/)ot!X,ey«s, Aurxtyr), 
KaX hif-iLtLpTupov fioZv Koi K€Kpayo>^, 05 ow8' i»ft0€y^ot, aim' 
ovrtDS airooToreoi' r§ iroXci tovtoic ijv, etwep ^ oo|t/5 t) z95 

aoo iTpoyovoiv ^ TOW pi\\ovTo% aiSiVO% cT^e \6yov. vvv fUv y 
airoTV)(e'a> ■ Sojcei twi* irpayfiaTOtv, h ttSlo'i koivov eariv 
avOp^oK oTOf T<p de^ TaGra BoKy ■ totc 8' a^iowra 
irpotfrravai tmv akkatv, eXr dfl-o<TTaera tovtov, *iX,i7«r(^ 
S irooScSwK^ai iravTas ic lo^ei' alriav. «t yap Tavra vpoeir 
oLKovirl, TTtpi &v ovhiva kCv&vvov ovtiv oiry^ vTrdpeivav 01 
irpoyovoi, ns ov)^\. KaTe7rTv<rev Stv trov ; p-rf yap r^? iroXem 

301 ye, pT)S' €fiov. ritTi S' oiftddKpoK irpo% Atos f<op<ap,€v iv 

g 1»». 3. »^X#yuA3. 4. ^(W. tstvioi Ai. 5. »Ti>T«2,L,*; 

antrtf vulg. lila%ir<i £, L, ♦'; om. vulg. 6. J«;uiprip» Ai. 7. rfrtp 


g SOa I. »i^» V S. L', Al : M'r W ""Ig- *■ '■'>' 'EXX^mw Z {>pl. 

O (mg.), ♦, Dion. 6. ixattm S; drwtrti Bl. oAx *™ Al. fcrw' 

oitx 2, L', Ai ; itnwOi' mix L', vulg. 7- rit v Al (w. to ireu). to aav MSS, 

(dv ^u Z) ; Sr <ro£ Bk. 7V <4 Ai. 

nicht nur das Paradoxe seiner Behsuptung 
selbsl m, sondem macht auch die in der 
Hypothesis il T-dp ^11 awam TyjiJijXa. . . 
liegende Conceslion duTch Hsufung der 
Aasdriicke so grossmiithig und riickhalls- 
los, dass jedeimann die Zuversicht und 
Siege^;ewissheit des Sprecheis von vom- 
hereln niitcn]ptindel."^Ra( )j.oij...6av- 
|u(^ 1 an instance of irpoSibpSueii, of 
which another case is § jji', tTiwtiiiitTpi 
ir.T.X., both quoted as examples by Ti- 
berius ittpl irxnt^Twr 8 (Vlll. p. 535, 

J. Kol ir4 'TpoGXtTd: the ligure of 
Aeschines himself joining in the general 
warning adds greatly to the picture. 

6. St 0^' 4^Sf^, you viAe did not 
even open your nKuM.— ovS' eCtiit, not 
even then: offrui sums up in one word 
the whole of the preceding condition 

7. ivwrrmWoi' . . . '{v = jj(i tV tSKw 

6. ToS (lAXovTot aUivM, fuhirt agts. 

gaoa I. i'«f)ih'...T6TtS' (3); see 
note on g 19s'. 

1. d«ttTVX*ti', iD hoBcfailtd (in secur- 
ing). — rii" vfu'yiuinn, mere material 
objects, opposed to the high principles 
which would have t)een sactiliced in Ihe 
olhei case (riirc). 

3. dfioera (imperf.), Tahilt she had 
claimed, followed by the aorisl J»iwT2«a, 
and then vntkdrrai, both past to ttx'^ to. 
We might have had ffHau and dW«nr: 
cf. XV. »7, (If ixtsrt). 

t. AkovitI, wilheul a slrugglt, lint 
pulvere; cf, xix. 77. — ovUva 8vnv' otxj 
emphatic equivalent of rdrra : the natural 
nominative oiifcii tarn uu ( = ^21) is il- 
logically declined. 

J. o-ofl faccented), with special em- 
phasis.— (ii) ydfi (sc. tM). don't say Ihe 
TJXiwt and linS continue 


§ aoi. 1. rCiriG'.. 

hmv should av nmv (da. 
fate, etc.? 


nEPi TOY rrE*ANOY 143 

TOWS C19 T^v TtoKiv ayBpcaiTOVi dtf>iKvovft.€t'ovs, el to. fikv 
Trpa/yfiaT els owep inful irepieoTr} rfyeiiitv &e koI Kvput^ 
■Qpedi} *iXnnros airavrtav, rof 8* im€p toC p.7j yevia-dai ravr 
ayiuva erepoi )(tapls rfpoii/ ■tjo'av ireiTOi.T)fi€voi, Kai raSra 5 
fnjSerranoTe t^s jro\co>5 ev TOis epirpoo'de j(p6vois a,<r<f>aketai' 
aZo^ov fLoXkov 7\ Tov vnep rav KoKav kCv8vvov T^prjfx^evijs. 
Tis yap oiiK oTSev 'EXkrjvtov, ris Se fiap^dpav, ort koX vapd 303 
©Tj^aiQtv jcal irapd r<av eri rovrtov nporcpov i(r)(ypb>v y^vo~ 
pxviav AaKf&aifiovCtav teal irapa. rov Hepiroiv fioATikews /xera 
iroXX'^5 -j^dpiTos TovT &v dtTfUvtoi iS60T) r^ irokei, o Tt 
jSouXerai Xa/Sotio^ *ca( ra eauTiJs ^oiJot; to Kekevofievov 5 
iroiew Kat iaj/ trepov rwv EXXiji/oif irpotoTavai. oXX' ouk 303 

g sot. 1. fi^om. O*. 3. TCfxArrqmr Ai. 5. 4fi£ir vnlg., Bk., 

Dind., Bl.; i/ui-Z, L, Vom.. West. 7. ^p^j^r.^ Z'; oJpo/ifri^?? (cf.g 108') Z" 

(/) fup^ alone legible). 

g SOS. 1. KoI Tapi TiSr {tc...A«ii. om. Al. >«)'•>')»''>'<••' Ai. 3. rap' 

atreS toB Ai. 6. iiif i3» V6 (•cp mg.)' 

t — 7. •lT(l|i)i'...gpi||Un)t: thiseUbo- 
rate protasis has three divisions; (1) tl ri 

liir...kfir-mt, (l) tit ii..,irrwonitiim, 
(3) kbI raira. ..ipiiii^n]i. The clause 
ir/ffur N.-irirrtir belongs closely with 
the preceding li nir wtpUmi, and rhr i' 
(not iiytpur it) corresponds to rd iiir. 
The first diTision, tl. ..irAwrur, contains 
no unreal condition, except in combina- 
tion with the second; but the protasis as 
a ■akult does express an unreal condition: 

secM.T. jii. 

3. «tt 8««p Yin\ to tit prtsent llatl, 
explained by the following clause. 

4. Tiv...&-yvva, tht fight lo prevent 


;. Inpoi x*P^ '^)uSv: this pathetic 
picture of Athens sitting still aihI seeing 
others fight the battle for Grecian liberty 
becomes more effective when we re- 
member (what Demosthenes never forgot) 
that Greece at this crisis had no state 
except Athens able or willing to take the 
lead, or any important part, in such a 
atn^gJe. See gj 304, 30;, where the 
orator speaks freely and openly on this 

5. ml tahn. and tkU lav, inlrodadng 
the participial clause which completes the 

gaoa. I. Wf...p(4ipc[pM': cf. xtx. 

311. — irapd. 9t]PcUw: in the time of 

1. 'nf»4...AAK(Bu|u>*lav: after the 
Peloponnesian war, and before Leuctta. 

3. irafiil...paa'iUHt, from Xerxes: see 
the order given to Mardonius before the 
battle of Plalaea. reported to Athens by 
Alexander, king of Macedonia (Hdl. vill. 
r^o) ! toCto iiir t))» >^> ff^i ixMoi, T«On> 
Si AXXijr rpbi TO&TTJ t\ivdvr auroi, ^w- 
™fl &r Wftuiri, «IT« aiJrisoM"- Cf. 
Hdl. IX. 4, s; Dcni. VI. 11. 

4. 5 ix PovX«Tai.,.irpoflirn£Hu: i.e. 
to kap Air tneti ami rtceivt anyiking sht 
■atanled, on condition of being subject to 
Persia. Logically the participles and in- 
finitives would be interchanged, as toCto, 
the subject of ^Ai^, is not roKir and ti», 
but Xo^oi^ii and txpf'^'B- But the present 
form gives greater emphasis lo the dis- 
graceful part of the proposition, which is 
in the inhnitives. 




^v ToC^, COS eoiKf, Tots 'A0r)vtuoi^ wdrpLa oyS* ofeKra ovS* 

e/jufmra, owS* iovy^Br/ vfatrore r^i* ir6\iv ov8el^ « irai^o? 

ToC "^ovov ireitrat Toi? to^iJouo-i /io' /i^ Stxaia 8« wpaTTOutri 

S '!TpO(rdcfixvr]p aa-(^aX.ais SouXevcii', oXX' ayatvi^ofia^ vfpi 

irporreititv koi Ti/tijs icat Sofijs (cii'Swcwoi'iTa iravra rov 

S04 attiui'a SiaTETeXcKc. Kat ravff ovrat irefiva Koi -jipofrrfKOVTa 296 

TOic vfierepoK rjBeaiv v/xeZ? tnTokafi^dver cTvcu &iot£ khi 

Twi" irpoyoctoi' tows raura wpd^avra^ /wiXwrT* eiraii'€iT«. 

ei»C0T<i)S' Tis ya/) owk Af dyacaiTo Twi' di^ptuf cKcifoii/ rfji 

5 d/ier^;, 01 kcu rT}v jftapav koi r^r irdXti' iKkiir^Lv virefifivav 

CIS Tos Tpi-^ptvi ifi^dvre^ vwkp rov ft-^ to Ke\€v6fi.evov 

iroi^crai, toc /t^ ravra (rufifiovXevcravTa SefiurroKXia, 

a-Tparrfyov kkoiitvot,, tov 8*' viTaKov€iv dwoifyrfvdfj.ei'ov Tois 

trirt 'A«. Ai; t4t( ™i L' ; 

E, in ta.K, Ai. 

6. aA(T|i nal A I 

II Z' (ef. S i05») ; raC™ 



§ 804. 1. iiMTipou 2, L, Ai. 11 4/i(T. vulg. f^nrcr O. iVnXa^i^dn 

£. L, B*; ureXao^dverc Ai, B>, vulg. 4. il7iw0ci)) Cob. (conj.). t 

dpertt (laie corr. of t% ii^i^>) I. 6- itpdrrtt V6. 7. ^ yip Aa. 

rufi^DuXnlorTa Al. 8. dr<i#. to& JairoTT. £, 1^ Ai; mit ^tr. dro^. vulg. 

rati Art. om. Harpocr. (under Kv^wIXar), B1. 

S SOS, 1. vt bud, spoken with 
saroum: cf. 9 iii> (B1.].^rdTpia, i.e. 
inAtriied fretn lAiir aiutitors. — aJS" Avi- 
KTd implies Ihal they revolted morally 
aga.liis[ the idea ; odS' ffi^vra Chat it was 
against their nature as Athenians. 

3. be nariit toB xp'vtni, from ihe 
brginningef liitu, a rhetorical virtfi§ii\fi, 
aa in g 66'; in S 36^ it means from the 
beginning of the transaction in question. 

4. )ii) SIkoui ; nil, not oij, as we should 
say ol M ifiaui wpirrenett (G. 1611). 

5. vpcNr6)|Uvip>, taking Ihe Hde ef, 
oltaihiHg herself to: cf. g 117*- — iv^aXai 
SovX(v«vi the same idea of steurily in 
slavery is found in (he speech of Pericles, 
Thac. 11. S3 (end).— 47iwito(JiT|, as 
partic. of manner, modifies KuSvniiovga 

6. 'rpvTttvv, Ttiii)!, BJEip : cf. g 66^. 
§ 904. 1. jjtfnv, moral feeling! : 

4. Ay*''''"'''^ ' Bl^ss accounts for this 
epic aorist by the rbythms of i\\' dfunfo- 

m'^ (S '°3')i ^f^f (ol Ti3* ■'(MTii'wv, and 

Til 74(1 m) ytll» d7i»ai(To), 1—— . 

Cobet emends it to dTiwJrii). 

5. vdXiv JKXMTttv refers to the time 
before the battle of Salamis when, by 
the advice of Tliemistodes. Athens was 
abandoned to Xentes, and all was slaked 
on a sea-fight: so VI. 11. See Cicero, 
OfRc. III. II, 48: Cyrsilum quendam, 
susdenttm ut in uibe manetent Xerxem- 
que reciperent, lapidibna obtuenmt. 
Herodotus, IX. 5, tells a similar story of 
the stoning of a senator named Lycidas, 
wilh his wife and children, before the 
battle of Ftataea, when Mardonius sent 
his second message lo Athens (for Ihe 
earlier message see note on % loi*). 

6. iirlp tdO pii].,.'nH'i}cniL: vr^p with 
Ihe gen. of the infin. for a final clause, as 
in S 305', and in Aesch. III. i, lirtp toC... 
nil ylywiaeat. 

8. riv inraxoitw ^.■KO^iifei^itiimr, Kiha 
didared himself far obidieHce: generally 
fiiiiai* i,n^aXttt8»x, see g 189*. 


nEpr TOY rrE*ANOY 14s 

etrtTaTTOfjJvois Kvptrikov KaraXidfiKraiiTK, ov ftovov avTOV, 
aXka KOI ai yvvaZKCi al vfiirepai rifv yvvatK avrov. ov 306 
yap i^-^ovv ol tot 'ABrjyaloi owre piJTOpa oure arpartjyov 
oi oTov Sov\€V(rov<ra' euTu^w?, aW* ovSc l^rjv ri^tovv (I firf 
licT iXevBepCai i^itrrat tovto woiw. rfy^iTQ yap avT^v 
eicooTos ov)(i. t<^ waTpi koI rg /iiJTpi p6vov yeyevrja-Bai, 5 
akka Kal rg vwrpthi,. 8iaif>€pti Sc rC; ort. 6 /liv rots 
yovevvi, fuivov y€yev^<r6aL vopXI^ai' tov t^s t.lp.a.pfUvT)% koX 
Tov airrop-aTOP BavaTov ■n-epifUvei, 6 Sk koX rg irarpCSi vwkp 
TOV fir) TavrrfV iiriBelv 8ov\evov<Tav airodv^trKciv c^eX'^treii 
Kal <f>o0epioT€pa'i riYQtrerai ras v0p€t% koX tAs aripia^, a? 10 
iv SouXcuovo-p TjJ TToXei tftepeiv dvdyKr}, tov dava.TOv. 

a. Kupafter L, vulg.; KiJpirtXo* 2. 

I SO*. 3. tmi^ieuHiv V6 ; SotXeiJaHrv O. 
Dind., West., Bl-! am. 2, L', Bk., Vom., Lips. 
om. 2, L. aln-Qv 2, i. ytriv9ai V6'. 

tfontrw 2, L, F (>(i), ♦ (7^1), vulg, ; om. O. 

9. KOToXiSiiramt : ace. lo B1.. the 
only Attic example of KarakiSiu for 

10. ol YviiatK«i...(iiAt«0; the vividness 

of the picture in the easy flowing narrative 
is heightened by the insertion of 
a new subject, al yvraim, as if without 
pcemeditalion. Arislides (46, p. 1B7) 
tells the stury more grammatically, bat 
far less forcibly : suXXry/rrci Tdvrci tuTi- 
Xataf ajVrol [ibi aOrbf, ai Si ywaStts rip' 
■ywoiita airou. 

With this and g 105 compare the speech 
of the Athenian envoy at Sparta more 
than a century earlier, Thuc. i. 73 — 7 j. 

I SOS. 3. St' Snni ZoiiKtinwiv : 
datl relative. With dovXtisevaa iihvx.''^ 
(larcaslic) cf. dv^oXAt Sov\t6tir, g 303'. 
— it )»j ifArroii, 1/ (Aey imtld kk/ (were 
not to be able): (' itii iiinvm might be 

nsed (M.T. 69+, 695). 

joD — 51 B; and Arisi. Elh. i. 7, 6, tA i' 
tAroftLa Myo/itr tit airif /lirif t<} {Upti 
fiUt iioiiln-w. i\U (sc. TV fSiffi) Kal 
ytMOai (al rVooti it.t.X., where a^^ 
/ijry and 7orn/0i both depend on {Cirrt 
(titling Jor hitasdf aletu, and living also 
f»r farents etc.), a* ^arpX, lofrpl, and 

G. D. 

Ycr^Siu. The passage of Aristotle is 
sometimes called ungrammaCical t 

;. TOf riit ilfuifjiii^ Mvatov. M/ 
aS!tiC.4 of Fate, i.e. death at an appointed 
time, opposed to voluntary death, as 
when one gives his life tor his country 
(cf, iroewianat <9<X-^<i, 9): -m avrtf- 
liATDv Mt. is nalarai (opposed to vie/en/) 
diatk. The two are realljr the .'^ame, 
from different points of view (see West.). 
Aulus Uellius (Xlll. i) discusses the say- 
ing of Cicero (Phil. I. 4. 10), multa autem 
impendere iXA^W.'^^ prtuter naluram iHam 
prailerqui fatum, and decides that Cicero 
means the same by naluram and /alum, 
both being opposed to violtnlam tl inapi- 
nalam tiiortrm. After quoting the present 
passage of Demosthenes, Gellius thus 
concludes: Quod Cicero fatutn atque 
naiuram videtur dixisse, id multo ante 
Demosthenes tV rerpu/iirifi et rir ofrri- 
M«To» 0iraret appellavil, Aflri^caToi ernrn 
SdraTm, quasi ilaturalis et falalis, nulla 
eitrinsecus vicoactusvenit. (SeeDissen's 

S. Kol T^ mrplii: sc. yeytttirBai 
rsjuffuv. — tnrlp ■roQ.,.hnSftv: cf % 304*. ' 

9. SoiAwowrav: seeM.T.SSj. With 
the pres. partic. cf. /iii /j.' Itra Oarirf, 
nsltBsiinu kUltd, Eur. Orest. 746. 




206 El fikv roivw toIIt' direj^eCpovv \.€Y€i>v, ois ^ot irptrjyayov 
vfiB,^ a^ia rmv vpoyovtav tj>povfa', ovk itrff ooTis ovk Av 
ciKOToiii intrtfiTqtrtte fioi. pvu S' ^iJi fiev vftenpa^ ras 
TOiavTai npoaipeirei'i a'jro<f>iuviit, koI SeiKWfii on koX wpo 
5 ifiov tout' €l;^e to tj>p6vr)p.' ij iroXis, r^s fUvToi Staxovia^ 
T^s i<f>' €Ka.<rTot,% tS>v ireirpayp.€v(i}v koi. ifiavr^ p-ereivai 

307 ^fit< o^o<i Se tSsv ok<av Karr/yopav, koX KeKeviov vfiaK ip-ol n 
iriKpM^ ex^t'V tt"? <f>6^(ov koI KivSvvtuv amt^ Tp ttoXci, t^s 
p.ev €is TO 7ra/>6i' Tt^'^s «/*' OTrofrrep'^O'ai yXi^^erai, tci S" eis 
airai^a toj* Xoittov ■)(p6vov iyKtofii vnStv diftaipeiraL. et 

3 S09- !■ l^tef«Al.). rpixriyyaTor O'. 1. f?d 

Srrit ufii! b eJi&rui £ {yp), vulg. ; STKrAidu jcivFUDTut (w. erasure 
ir i)i>if Av I. ; SiTT. it ait rUirtn O ; S.rnt oin it tit tU. F, Y, 4>. 
Ai, Y, B (over innn^iu), Dion., Bl.; (xiri*Hfff«( 2, vulg- 
rfompiaat L. wpii Juoir O'. 

g 90T. 1. -vtTwjj/i^r^i (after T*X(0 vulg. ; om. 2, L', A'. 
Xporur (o over each ai) B. 

r iJu). 2 ; font 
4. dro^oij^ 

g§ aO»~aiO conclude the digres- 
sion which begins in § 1S8. The orator 
here appeals to [he judges nol to convict 
Ctesiphon, as this will be a condemnation 
of the people of Athens for miintaining 
the ancient glories of the state, the glories 
of Marathon and ^alamis. 

§ a<M. 1. «l,.,(rix>Cpo«v...tin'np^- 
<nii (mh: this combination of a present 
unreal condition, i/ / -aert underlating, 
with a future conclusion, evtrybedy ■amuld 
Justly lensurt nu, is rare, and perhaps 
strictly illogical. Several good Mss. and 
Dionysius (p. 1054) have itiTltaiat, which 
Blass adopts. But this past apodosis 
would compel us to make tl iwrxiipoi" 
past also, if I had 6een tindtrtaking, 
which would greatly weaken the whole 
sentence. We should expect an imperfect 
with it in the apodosis : and this is im- 
plied, though not expressed, in the some- 
what condensed form which we have. 
The real meaning is, if I were (now) 
tatdtrlaiing to Idl you this, the result 
would be that all taould justly censure rm. 
This coiUd have been rather pedantically 
expressed by o6t or jj» Arm, but not laS' 
Irrtt is much imootheT ftnd more natural. 

Our ambiguous would only conceals the 
difficulty. (M.T. 504.) 

J. SMUcovtoi, i.e. what he terms the 
metiiai senriet is all that he claims for 
himself. 1'his is ia striking contrast with 
his claim for full recognition of his public 
services elsewhere: cf. §§597—300- Bui 
in this grand glorlficalion of Athens and 
her noble services to freedom, the more 

he dep 

self 1 

s the 

slate. Ihe stronger does he make his argu- 
Rienl that the condemnation of Ctesiphon 
now would be a condemnation of Athens 
heiself and of all her glorious history. 

Notice the antitheses in this passage : — 
first, the main one, cI itiv and rvt ii: 
then, within the latter, if!^ fiir and olS-oi 
Si (§ 107'), iiin/pai and koI i/uiVTif, 
rpotupiiriu and iiaKwlai. 

S S07. I- rav S\«v: opposed to r^t 
^0^ itcdoToa {Btaxofiat), g 106'. 

1. Tiji lit ri vBfdii Ti^TJt; i.e. the 

3. Td...fYicii|u.': i.e. your glories of 
the past will be lost for all future time 
if they are condemned by your vote to- 



yap ws ov TO. jSeXriora «/toS ffoXirei/o-a^Vov TouSt Kara- s 
ijn)<f>ieta'd€, "fffiapnjKevat So^ere, ov r§ rij^ Tvyj}% ayviiifioirvvj} 
TO (rvfji^avra iradeiv. oXX' ovk Iotlv, ovk eartv owtaq 208 
■^fjidpTere, a,v8pes 'A6r)valoi, tov inrkp t^s awdvTcov cXevdc/>tas 
Koi (rom/pCa'i kCvSvvov apcipa^i, /iA tovs Mapadatvi trpOKiv- 
Strt'cutroi^as Twi/ npoyovoiv xal Tovs «< nXaraiaZf irapara- 

5. ad om. O'. it«™^Ti0(f-wee Ai. 

before 47»iii/u>»^[| (-Kpfor -nil) £■ 

S SOS. ]■ ^^upr^ian Ai. 1. 

fwrm £ (cf. I loi'j. MS; o^MI-i vulg. Mapaffur 

4. nXsTiuui (oil cotr., and mover «) 2; II?uiraiSi Ai. 

Two letters erased 

5. TovEl, Clesiphon, like Touroff in 

6. d y iKHnhT), harthnu] (want of 
feeling): cf. S ijj'. dTrw/uwiS may mean 
/'ri j^ Iheughlltis or ineensideraie : cf, S§ 94*, 

7. Td m|ipiwn, ■what be/ill yoa, 
includii^ Chaeronea. 

g SOS. The famous oath by the 
heroes of Marathon, Plataea, Salamis, 
and Artemis um here follows. The 
grandeujr of this solemn invocation of ihe 
shades of the mighty dead, to support 
the orator in his last and noblest assertion 
of the true spirit of Athenian liberty, will 
strike the most indiderent reader. We 
do not envy one who is strong enough to 
read this passage without emotion. Lord 
Brougham says: "The whole passage, 
which ends here, and begins (( ykp raSta 
rpHiTo (Uwirf (g 300), is deserving of 
close study, being one of the greatest 
jneccs oF declamation on record in any 
tongue." See Longinus on the Sublime 
16 ; (tirifcifi* i Ai\)uia6irr)i brtp rwr 
rtuBKiTtviittair tle<l>ipa-..,"avx iuiipTrre, 
ta T&r vwip r^r BXX^ur i\ivSiplat dyOra 
AfidfUfOi ' tx*7t Si D^jCFUi to6tov rapa- 
Mytittra " oMt y^p ol it t&apaSufit ^fiaprot 
OeS' al it SaXa/iin t.r.X." dXX' triiHi, 
KaSi-rtp iitirivaiflt i^<t»<irs lith StoH 
taX ulaitl ^>at^b\itWTOt ytriiutat. rir tot 
Apvrrtiiiii rijt 'BXXdior Bptv ife^«inj«i', 
"bu« fan* jrut ^i/idpTiri, /li Toiit if 
iiapaSSri rpiiitu-lBi'tiirainat," ^vftcu it' 
irbi ToD A^coriiDV ffx^t^^'^^j Srtp irffdSt 
iwvcTpe^if ^Tuf niXu, roitt itit rpcrylfavt 

lilt Sloil d/irltKU TOptDTcirhW, ToTl Si tpi- 

nSiLi 4sp6n)iia, Hgr it Tm iwoSelirut 
ipinrir luBroTHKiij ill iripfiiWai P^ot (ol 
pdSnt. Hermogenes rifii iStCli I. g 
(ill. pp. 14G, 147 W.): fT( luffMao Xa/i- 
rpai rnj rd rt frdofa irSo^oripui Xfytiv 
(glarioia eliam glcriosius cxtulit, Dissen), 
linTip ittita ri^nirai to au ni rail it 
'UapaSuri it,T,\. Among the noted 
expressions of admiration in aitcient 
writers cited by Reiske and other older 
editors are Aristid. Art. Rhet. I. 1, 7 
(ix. pp. 344, 345 W.), Clem. Alex. Strom. 

10. Quii 

[. 3, 168. 

r. mite loni>...i^|uIpTtTi, it ranntU ^ 
tAa/ yt frrtd', ouk ttmv Sruf = auSa/iQt^ 
See critical notes on S§ +7' and 51'. 

3. ifHi|uvM ; cf. r6\t/un- SparrSat, 
V. J. — ^ ToJt; most MSS. prefix otl, 
which Z omils. ^d generally implying a 
negation. — Toi%...-wpcyiimv (lAejt of) our 
an^nlors wha bore Iki brunt of baStU at 
Marathon : rpoKu/iuriia is here stand 
foroKini (as rjji/iaxMJ to face the foe ; 
from its idea of contending it may take 
a dative like v.i.xopa.1, as in Thuc. I. 73, 
^tapLtv yip Hapadbin tidj/oi TpOKifSvp^krat 
Tip pappipif, a passage which may have 
suggested rpMo-So'iiirarTiti Co Demo- 
sthenes here. Further, TpotirSutTuiii, like 
rpciidxof" and rponaxi'ii, may mean 
incur danger (or contend) for (»)!«•) any. 
one, as Xen. Hier. x. 8, -wpinnnvin inil 
■■(WnrJuKiioiwi TiJ* reXiTi*; [Andoc.} 
IV. I , itpixuiivttita Tov TX))tfsi>t ; Simon, 

10 — a 




5 ^afUvov% Kttl TOWS o* XakafiXvi, i/av/ia^^travra? (cai tovs eir' 
' AfyrefticrC^ kol ^oXXov; erepov^ tov9 cf to is &7)fio(rtOK 
fi-v-qftturi. KfifUvovi, ayadous dcSpa?, ovs aira^-as onoita^ 
ij iro\t? r^ auT^S a^ia<ratra Ti/i^s iOatJiev, Altr^CvT], ov^ 
Tous Karopduaavra^ avrtiiv ovSe tovs KpaTrja-avra'i fiovov;. 
10 oiKcutus" o /MV yci/) i^*" oLvSpav ayadwv epyov, avaa-t irdirpa- 
KTai- r§ TVXO 8* ^1* o BtUfioiv eveifJiO' €*caoTois, ravng 
S09 K€)(pi)VTai. eireiT, oi xaTaparc icai ypafjLfiaTOKVtJMiv, <rv 
fitp T^s irapa Tovrtavt Tifi^i; xal (ftiXavdptoma'i €fL airotm- 
pTjtrai 0ovk6fjLei>o^ Tpowaia koX /taj^as koX waXaC €py 
«Xey«s, ftJi' Tivos irpoa-f&eW^ 6 wapoiv ayiav ovTO<ri; ifik 8c, 

5 ft> T^iTaywyioTo., Tov irc^l Tto*' vporrtioiv ovfjL^ovXov rg iroXei 

B. i) ri\tt bimii-" Al 
L'. Lips. 10. i-im 

I». ir/xpij"" V6. 

ri/i^t iSeinaetf F (711). 

91 (Bergk), 'fiXX^rw* r^fiaxoCn-it ; Ar. 
Vesp. 987, ffov tpanix''"*' Bui the fre- 
quentuseofOWpwilhiuch genitives makes 
plain the olher force of r^; as Isoc. 
IV- 75, TOi^t 7-i>ir d'<^/iaiTLr ^J^ r^ 'EXXdflot 
■wptno'SyirtiaarTtki, and Lys. xviii. 17, 
T&r iwip T^i Atv^c^T TpcKMiriui' (11116- 
Tttw, where the meaning is the same as 
in [he present passage. See also IL XI. 
117, tSiXit 5i iroXi* Tpo/uixwflai irdrrur, 
to fight far in tkt front if all, and kvu. 

(cf. vss. 357—359)' w'''i 'he same force 
of Tft-. In our passage irpoiarivnlm is 
used absolutely. — Mopalavii : as the Dame 
of an Attic deme, this is usually a locative 
dative; but hece all Mss. except 2, and 
most quotations, prefix it. 

J. ki SiiXii|Ltn : this battle was fought 
ai Salamis; the other sea-fight was off 
{ir') Artemisium. The two land-battles 
are mentioned first, and then the two sea- 
fights in the order of importance- 

6- Si||ui0-(aii |u^|uurt 1 the fublic 
temis were in the outer Ceramicus, on 
the road leading to the Academy : see 
Paus. I. 19, Tbuc< 11. 34. These who 

fell at Marathon were buried on the 
battlefield, as a special honour. 

7. &Yatavt fivGpat, in apposition with 
the preceding accusatives: this was by 
no means a weak term of praise with 
Demosthenes : cf. 1. 10. — ijiwUx and 
Tijt aOrijt mutually strengthen each 

9. aArSir: I adopt this partitive gen. 
rather than aimitit (found 10 S, L'), as I 
am not convinced that aureiit can have 
the force of esptcially {liistinguiihtd from 
o/Aers), ipsos solos (Kauchenslein) : see 
Vomel's note. In defence of English, 
we may note that this renowned passage, 
perhaps the most effective ever spoken by 
an orator, has no less ^han fifty ligtaai in 
sixty-seven words. 

g aO». The descent from the im- 
passioned patriotic eloquence of the 
preceding passage to the personal vitu- 
peration of this is depressing. 

T. •ffa^LfomKi^ii : irrl reu ypaii- 
fiar/ui, iri ol ypamiariU rpoiHv^^t 
•fpA^usur (Etjm. Magn.). Cf. g j6l*. 

3. Tpimua... 1X17*1: see Aescb. iSi. 

5. TptTsyMcivri: eflet^ivdy chosen 




iraptovra, to rivoi tf>p6v7ffj,a Xa/SotT* avafialv€iv iwl to ^ft,' 
tSei; TO ToO TouTttii' avd^i ipovv70<s; SiKcutu; fUvrio' dW- 310 
298 dai/ov. «rei ouS' vfiaq, avS/x; 'Aft^wawt., diro r^s auT^s 
Siofoia; Set rds t* iSias SiKa; /cat to? S7)fio<rCa^ Kptvuv, 
aXXa rd ^^ rou Koff Jift-ipav fiiov (TV/jL^oXaia iirl rStv l^otv 
vofjuav Kai Hpytov <TKOTiovvTa%, tos 8i Koiva^ •irpoaifii<rtL<i eis s 
TO. Toic vpoyoviav a^iafiar dwofikeTrovra?. koI irapaKap.' 
0dv€iv y d.p.0. rg fiaicnjptti, kcu. t^ a-vfL^oKi^ to ^p6vr}/jLa to 
T^s iroXetus fo/u^eif eKaarov vp.av Sei, orai' Td hfr)p,6<ri 

6. ira^pStra Ai. 7. n 
i*\0. 1. ciril£, L'; frni 
tpy. nil vAfUiw O. S. t 

m. L», F, Y, ♦. 
. (log-). »olg- 

Ti to6\tou Tuf [in 1 lines) Z. 

with rereience lo iportUaii, which refers 
to Athens as cumpetitor for the first 
prize in the politicaJ iyilw, in which 
Demosthenes is her adTiser. 

6. Td Tfvot ^pdtniiut Xo^ivr', I'n- 
j/i>W *y viJiaie spiriit Our language 
generally refuses to translate s 



with 1 

e may say with whoie spiiHt 
iheuid I kavr been inspired when etc.? 

jaiO. I. Siicata* |iiA>t£v ^irAavov, 
£11/ (in that case) 1 sheuld home deserved to 
die. nirrSr by crasii fur lUrm Sr: tw 
if becomes rif», but whether iiif- should 
retain its accent is doubtful. 

3. SLOMiCat, spiril (way of thinking). 
— tS(a«. h]|iav^t: this his no reference 
to the ordinary distinclion of ypa^nl and 
iljttti. fiublie and private suits, which 
correspond generally to our criminal and 
fTi^Y processes. Here iiicri has its widest 
legal sense of lamstiil in general, in- 
cluding both 7(«i^ and !lini (in ils 
narrower sense). tJuu fJ«u are those 
nhtch concern individuals and their ordi- 
nary buwness relations (ffiTt^Xoia), which 
of course must be judged vHtk refrrtnee to 
spteial statutes (M liiwi riiiur, el. Ir 
iXifitlai, % ii'), which may change from 
year to year, and to special facts (Wl«» 
IpyiM), without regard to the general 
policy or the traditions o( the state: even 
criminal suits [ipa^l) which involve 
nothing more than the rights or acts of 

individuals would be included here. But 

iraibiuu tlnat are suits lilie the present 
one, which involve a judgment on the 
general policy of statesmen (rwdr r^HHu- 
piaii%), whose acts are not prescribed by 
special statutes, but must be governed to 
a great exlent by general principles and 
traditions of state: these, the orator says, 
must be judged by reference to the glorious 
deeds of the past. Demosthenes insists 
here, as elsewhere, that the only real 
question involved in this case is Ihflt of 
his own statesmanship and his fidelity 
to the best traditions of Athens, while 
Aeschines constantly urges the court to 
treat it as a common iHa Blm) and settle 
it by reference to ordinary facts and petty 
details. (See Aesch. 199, loo.) Aeschi- 
nes saw that here lay his only chance of 

7. Tj PaK-rqplf 1 ... 

Ais staff and his tieket : each judge, 
was appointed to sil in any coun for the 
day, received in the morning a staff painted 
with the same colour as the lintel (t^- 
rfuKoi) of the court house in which he 


g the c 

ft, be 

gave up his staff lo an officer, wlic 
him a ticket (in^fi^aXov), which enlVlled 
him to receive his fee of three obols (9i- 
muTiii^] after his day's service. See 
Arist. Pol- Alh. 6,?' and col. 31'-", with 
Sandys's notes; Meier and Schomann, 
pp. 160— i6i. ^poiijua: see 1 109'. 



curii^e Kptvowre^, eiirep afi* iKeivtav irpdmiv oi€(r0£ 

Sll *AXXa yap ifnr€(r^v el% to, irewpayfitva tow irptyyovoK 
Vfiav eiTTiv a rwv ^<l>i<TfxdTwv trapi^-qv koX rStv irpa^ivTiav. 
ewaveXdfiv otv oirodtv hrravff i$€fii}v ^ovXo/iai. 

A; yap ai^LKOfLtff €i; ra; ^^^ai, KaTeXaft.^dvofiti' $i- 

5 Xt'inrou koL ScttoXcui' xal rav aKktov <Tvppa.^(<ov vapovras 

irpea-^ei^, xal tovi fiiv fjperepovq if>i\ovt €v ^o^to, tov9 8* 

iKavov dpaa-eis. on S' ov vvv ra&ra Xeyw To5 (rvfuf>ipovToi 

€V€K ifjuLVT^, keye pot r^v iirL<rro\qv rjv tot' iirip^afiev 

SIS eu^us ot ir/Mo-^ets. k(Utoi rofravTQ y vvep^okg (rvKOtftavriai 
oSros Keyjyrfrai ^<tt, tl fiiv ti twi/ Scot^oii/ iTTpd\$T], tov 
Kaipbv, ovK 4pe i^rqvtv alriov yeytvrj<rOai, Twv S' Of; ertpeo^ 
<rvp^ad^<iiv airdvroiv ifX€ xal ttjv ifirfv rvxtv airiav etvaf 
5 Ka.1, OK ioiKcv, 6 <rupfiov\o'i xal pijrap iyo) tS>v pkv €k koyov 
KoX tov fiovXewTatrBai wpa^Bet^iov oi/Siv avr^ crvvaiTtos 
ftvai BoKm, TWi' 8' iv T0« oirXoi? Kai Kara Trjv OTpanjyiav 

o. tlffiSrc Ai. 


S'SII. 1. i'KtIttil, 


). JrA^cr^ 

;. i(>ri, L; 

sen' vulg. 


. L; 

tl, TopTtt 2 lyp). vulg. 

2, L. A. ; . 





om. V6. i^. V6. 


i«lF«r Al 


.:. 0. 

S 9ia. 1. «>rMl 

i om.V6. 

3- 7<T 

[F7aAu(w. l«te+)S. 




6. ^<*\tii(*#a. Y. 

«}»* Z; 

<>«3<r«i L, 1 

'uig- ; 

r. iriii (befon: Hiri) om 

. L. 

f 311. He now relunis to the ac- Ait/urS^, roiirDii aaiiitaxilr iirfi^afn. 

count of the embassy to Thebes, rioin S, ^^v rW Mfi^M^uv! opposed to 

which he dressed in § t88. rBr \iyu (7). 

4. 4^ucj|ul': i.e. the ambassadors. — g Sia. These words were spoken 
4iX£nav...vp4rp(Li: see Plul. Etem. 18, wliile the clerk was preparing to read the 
twtufi a (sc. til e4|9<it) Kol *l\irrot, letter: cf. § iSa. 

in jiapaiai •pvrlr, 'Aiiirrar uir cal r ric Mufiiv: see Aesch. 137—141 

EUopXB'' HwrcSdvait, Aiaxw ^ 6n-raX^ and IJ7 — 93(1 ; esp. i 3' (^o-dvuii i)* iim 

Kti QpaaaSoMr, irTtpm)rTat (sc. Ai)>ie- tli rii e^^ot riwpit jkcU #A|9<x. koI ;i^a 

5. irvwi^x"* ■■ see Philocth. frag. 13s, 3. it tWpM: see note on g 85', 
iAirrau 8i KaTaXaSirrai 'EXartiar tal 4. T^i|*: see Aescb. 157. 
Kurlwor. nl'p^ir^fii Wftfarrm (Iidi^^t 6. wiiaiTU>t,f<irtner,opposedta /lirot 
etrra\ut, Utuuiit, AlruXuv. AoMwm, alrui {S). 

♦fliuTuii'- 'Ahr»cJB* W ««Td Tof ai)™ 7, rar ... drvxi|Nt>Twi>=(I ^rvx^n- 

Xpifw rfi^P'ti ds-HmiXiirrwr tdui rtpi fur. 




a.Tvx>)0fi^f^v fiovoi ainot ehiai. ffws &v ii/40T€pos <tvko- 
(f>a.vT7)<; yevoiT ■^ KarapaTOTepos ; Xeye rrjv iwurrokiQV. 

9 EniSTOAH. 

*E7r«S^ Toivw iiroiTf^amo rr}v iKK\T)<ri<if, wpocnjyov 313 
iKeCvov^ iTpoTepov$ Swi to tt)v twv a-vfifid^atv rd^iv cjceifou; 
^eic. KoX irap€K$6vT€'i thr^pfr^opovv jroXXa piv ^iKtirirav 
iyKOipidCovre^, TroXXa S' vpMv KaTrjyopovvTfs, tTdvff o<ra 
wawoT evavrC iirpd^are ©ij^oiot? avapipv^<rKOvT€<;. to s 
8' oZv (cei^aXaiOf, -^^iow &v pev eS TTeir6v6i(rav xmo 4>iXi7nrou 
xdpiv avTov% dirohovvat., &v S' u^' v/ioii' ^Siktjwo Si*nj>' 
\afieiv, iyiroT€p<a<i ^ovKovriu, ■fj Sicvray avrous c^' v^a^ ^ 
trvvep^aXovTai ei5 t^v ' Amfcrjv • /cat eSciKi^o-ai', ai? ^t^o, 
CK pev &v avroX <rvv€^ov\€vov raK ttj? 'Attik^s ^o<r>cjpaTa lo 

9. ylmro Z, L ; 'Y^mr' b vulg. 
volg,; otn-2, L, Al. 

9 31«. J. Tiom. Y. 3. 

S»aiiC' vule- J. wpi^nrrit V. 

tirtw6r9. L. 7. a£T«I Al, F. 

- . .- --. ri 

^oJXmu Ai. 
Tulg.; aiireit 2; nirovt Bk. 
Xjrrat O; ru/ijSoXirriii Al. 

(arofwri^pM A i , O. 

Si {for ,tii.) Al. 

6- '£ wtr6v6affw j 

iWrov (after jiaTii|i.) 

ii *, Al. 

bove line, nearly obliterated, £■ 
1 Silent vulg. ofravi L, 

oAtwi F, (corr. to aftmi) B. 

S SI*. 1. Tijir faicXi)o-hii' : i.c. al 
Thebcfi. The Qarrative is cantinued from 

1. Tmr rvfiifulx'**' '■*■ ofTliebea. 

J. ri Ki^tDiai^v, adverbial, in lAort. 

6- iSv ^v ■{ TwAvSi u av. /pr M^ 
ttnifili thiy had ratived, eu rdiTXR' 
being the passive of <B rowiV: iliis cor- 
responds to ijr 3' :jSljn;m (7). 

7. airvit: the Thebsns, while almiii 
in 8 refers 10 the Macedonians. 

8. iwaTipm povXovToi, in inhuhaier 
way they fliastd, in the mood and tense 
of the direct form, the exhortation being 
takt vmgiattei in niAicheDer viay ynt 
fiiau. &r»Tifm fioiXoitTO might have 
been used : but this might stand for Aro- 
riput 3r pti\riir6t (future). — StArru ai- 
rvit, i.e. iy Ulting Ihtm pais through 
Boeotia into Attica. The aorists ittfrax 
and v-onH^XAn-ot have the belter au- 
thority here : when an aor. partic. denotes 

that in which the action of a verb (usually 
aoriit) consists, so that they really de- 
signate one act, the two may coincide in 
time, as in Plat. Fhaed. 60 c, (0 7' 
^TofifiraT drofui^VBi px, yen did well 
to remind me, (See M.T. ijo, with 
the examples.] One of the arguments 
used to persuade the Thebans is given 
by Aristotle (Rhet. n. 13»): *ai ■dXir 
rpii roiJt Bij^loui iuirai ^fXiTsvr ill 
TJ;* 'Arrt*^, ilri "«( rpl* ^(n|9^<u tb 
tuiiti -fflou, InricxiTO or' drmrar aiV «f 
St&Ti rpoeiTO Kol iirtm-tivt ^if Bi^rowrir*^ 1 
i.e. If Philip had asked for a passage 
through Boeotia before he helped the 
Thebans against the Phocians (in 346 
u.c), they would have granted it; it 
would be absurd now for them to refuse 
it because he had thrown away that 
opportunity, trusting in their good faith 
(for the future). (See Cope's note.) 
10. Ik ^...rm^oi^mov, at a tan- 




KoX avBpawo&a Koi toXX' ayaBa €« rrfv Boiwriav ij^wa, « 
8* <itv rjiia^ ip€iv etftaa-av top r§ Boiom^ SiapTraa-drja-oftfv' 
viro Tov troktfixtv. k<m oXXa iroXXa irpos towtois, cw tovto. 
SI* S^ TTovra cwfrTeti/ow', i\eyov. a 8' riixeU ffpos raura, ra 
/iev Ko^ fKcuTTa eyoi ^iCf di^t jtoi/to? Ai* Tip-rffTaifirfv tlir^v 
TOV ^Lov, vpa<; 8i 8eSoiKa, /x-^ irap€\r)\vd6T<ov rav Kaipav, 
oxnrep &.V el kox Karcuckva-iMV yeyan}crdai. t£v irpaypAriav 
S TTyov/icvot, iidraiov o;^Xoi' tous jr€/3i towtcui' Xo)^ws vopi<rrfr€ ■ 

13. »XX1 iroXXa 2. rain-B S; tqCto L, vulg.; mfri Ai, V6, Bk. 

I S14< I. roBra Z', (IrofKr (above line) £*; ToCrra (frafui' Ai ; toStb dn 
rulg., T. drrtfTOfur F, Y, O ; imfirofur f/As raSro L. }■ ir Tttafsaiiitrr S, L, 

nilg. ; nuiiitidiiT^ B*, rt^i. w B'. 4. tl tax's. \ tt L, vulg. 

). ^yaiiurat before ytyir^Sai At. 

(ariuXctirfMv O. 

iiqurtut of flawing thtir advUt, opposed 
to ^t S ur 4fiat i(m,* l^aear. The argu- 
ments here given are of the gross tnalerial 
liind which were gencnUy supposed to 
have weight at Thebes. Demosthenes 
(9 114) seems to imply that his own ail- 
ments were of a higher character. 

§3t«. I. i. S' '^luti: sc. i^iTumr 
(see crit, note).— rd jU» itaS' tHorro, 
Iht dtlaili, with the subordinate iya uir 
and in&t it, is in aniilhesis to 8 n S' our 
irtlrafir [i.e. the sum of what we ac- 
complished) in 1. 6. 

2. dvTl...To6 fUot, as we might say, / 
would give my life: cf. ti^w and Ti^iaadai 
osed of estimating ihe penalty in a law- 
suit; and I, I, drrj xoXXuc it ^P^^uItui' 
k\is69t. It is not hard to see why Demos- 
thenes should be unwilling to repeat any 
part of this brilliant speech. The hope 
of brilliant successes of the allies against 
Fhilipi which he prol>ably held out, had 
been disappointed by the crushing defeat 
at Chaeronea; and the destruction of 
Thebes three years later must have made 
the whole lone of [his speech now sadly 
untimely. Plutarch (Deni. 18) gives a 
graphic account of the Theban assembly 
and of the address, which was probably 
one of the orator's greatest efforts : to itir 
oil avii^por 06 3i4<linryt rsiH Tur dir^ur 

ToC raWfieu iiiri, In Tuit tutiK^r Tpau- 
liarwr rtapUr wapaiilrdrTW ' ^ ii ToO 

ri^ovffit rbi Bvfi^ airuf Kal iuiKolovea 
tV ^XoTtiday i-wtonbrtief toit SKXoit 
ivumr, aOTt lat ipbfiow xaX Xirytsiiit tei 
jiipir ^(^oXcir abroin irSoveiwrrat Irri 
Tm \6yoii wpdi ri Ka.\6r. olhw H ^i^ya 
■at \anirpir i^dvif tA rop ^Topw fpyor 
iSarc ri» )iir ♦fXinre* ri96t iwtK^pmti- 
trScH Sfiiuroi (ffi^fitt. (The last sentence 
refers to the proposals for peace of which 
Aeschines speaks in III. 148 — f ji.) 

4. aMinp dr •t...'^Ya«|HVOL, as {yu 
Tvauld Ihini, iwoidifrf aw) tf you Mieved 
{tHrit'i'Bt), etc, (M,T. 117, 868). Strictly 
we should have either weirtp 3t tl i^yciffSi 
(impf.) or MTTtf it irfoi^nn ( = rf ^- 
turBt), since a conditional participle is not 
regularly preceded by (f (M.T. 471). 
But it would se«m that the colloquial use 
of iSrwtp or ri (or iivwtpartH, qvaii, some- 
times caused the true ellipsis to be over- 
looked and the ti to be irr^ularly added. 
Somewhat analogous is the use of ourcirn 
(of irtxa) as a preposition for Ikkh. — sol 
■aTOvXiwiidv ; i.e. aba a deliigf, as well 
as the lapse of opportunity (ra^XifXMf Aruw 
Ttt» taipUr) : see West. — tA» vp«tffH(T«n>, 
objective genitive after tOkiaiiKvaiiir. 



o Ti 8* oiv iTTeio'a.fia' -^/xeK koX -rffiiv aireKpivavTo, oKovtrare. 


Mera ravra Toiyw iKoXovv vfw.s Kal /jLereirefj-irovTO. Slfi 

cfpre, ifioTfOetTe, Iva tov fi.€<r^ wapakeCtrot, ourws oikcioi; 

300 Vfios iSfxovTo, uxTT eiw rav ottXitwc koX t^v iTrweQiv ovrtav 

eis Ttts oiKLa; kol to atrrv Se^eo-tfai rrfv (TTpaTiav eirl iraiSa? 

Kol yvifoufas KoX to. rifuuraTO. KaCroi TpC h> iKcitrg r§ 5 

6. frt Z, L (yp mg.) ; i L, vulg. kuI a ^fur L, vulg. (V6 i)/urj ; a om. £. 

7. ravTl Z, L, *. V6 ; ™&i-a Ai ; towI vulg. 

% aia. 1. i^t V6. J. «pT( S, L. F, ♦. V6, O' ; «B«ie Ai. i. rd- 2, 
vuig. ; rd* F, BI. ; t4 Y. rapMrti L, F, *, Y. 3, ijiii. V6. 

6. tTi...dirMp(vavT<> (omitlingd with 
£): J ri iirtiiFaittr aad J n irtiplvuTo 
are the same ihing. 

i aiB. I. iKiUwvr i|i£i : ihls K vhat 
Dtmoslhenes provided for in 9 178'"* (see 
notes), when he proposed to give Ihe 
emlEusy concurrent power with the 
generals over the movemcnis of the army. 
This march lo Thebes, after the answer 
of the Thebans had been sent to Athens 
(lirri Tsiira), is cummonl)' thought to 
be illTeclly opposed 10 the account of 
Aeschines in lit, 14.0; Dissen exclaims in- 
dignantly, " Haecdne manifesla mendacia 
potuisse coram judicibus dici!" But 
Aeschines saya only thai ihe march 10 
Tliebes took place rplr jripl ttv/tiiaxint 
pia* libripr ffuXXo^V Tpd^^al AijjiwirS^i^». 
Now that Ihe decree of Demosthenes 
(l8r — tSj), which provided for evfLiiaxlar 
(>1 iinyaiiiar (!), ts known to be a forgery. 
we have no reason for thinking that any 
rormsl treaty of alliance preceded the 
invitationoftheAthenian army to Thebes. 
Certainly the reply (drAicptini) just men- 
tioned implied no such treaty, which 
Demosthenes could have proposed oaly 
after his return lo Athens. It appears 
(rom the criticisms of Aeschines on the 
terms of the trealy (141 — 144) thai it was 
an elaborate document 1 atid it U pro- 
bable that it was not made and ratified 
unlil some time after riie march 10 Thebes, 
which required no further legislation than 

the deeree appointing the ambassadors 
ts :88). It must be remembered that 
Demosthenes (§ 178) proposed that the 
embassy should simply ofler the Athenian 
army to Thebes without insisting on any 
formal terms. IrayyiWtaBat fimfi-liatai br 

J. IE«..,SvTia*: this is commonly re- 
ferred to the Athenian army, who are 
supposed to have first encamped outside 
the city and afterwards to have been 
invited to enter Thebes and occupy the 
houses. It is surely far more natural and 
agrees belter with the context Co under- 
stand that, while the Theban infantry 
and cavalry (i.e. the whole army) were 
encamped outside the walls, ready for a 
march, the Athenian army was quartered 
in the town. The lack of a pronoun to 
designate which army is meant is felt in 
both interpretations ; but as the subject is 
Ihe Thebans, it is more natural lo refer 
the absolute clause lo them. Again, the 
emphasis giver twice to raijat JtaJ yvnu- 
■Bt (4. and 11) implies that the men were 
absent! and i^' viur v«i}a'a>T(i |ii), as 
a testimony to the ffu^jwo-iVi) of the 
Athenians, implies this still more strongly. 
And yet the words in dispute are the only 
possible reference lo this absence in the 
whole passage. Indeed, rather than refer 
({u...frrur lo the Athenians, we should 
almost feel justihed in supplying some 
word like iiKTrH, or Bii/Salw (in i). 



Tjfij^PI- Trao-ic avBpamoi'i cScl^oi/ eyKiofiia Srj^aioi Kaff Vfi^v 

TO, KaXX«rro, Iv ft.kv avSpela^, erepov 8* BiKaioiTVV7)s, rpirov 

Be <T<o^po(Tvvj^%. KoX yap tov a,y£va p.e.ff vp-av fiSX\.ov ^ 

irpos u/tas eXo/xei'oi irovrftTatrdai, koX a^fivov^ etvax Koi 

lo hiKaioTep a^iovv vp.aft (Kpivcw ^OdtriTov ■ koI to, nap' 

avTois Koi irapa iravi S' iv irkfitrTQ <f>v\aK'Q, vcuBa^ xai 

ywaiKai, i<f>' vp.Lv wotijo-oi^es, iTouj>po<rvvT)^ wtoTLV trepl 

316 vpciv ^oi^cs tBei^av. iv ols wa<ri,v, av8pe<; 'Adijvaloi, Kara. 

y vp^^ op6w i.^dv7)a-av eyv(u«0T€9. oure yap eis t^i* tioKiv 

eitriKBovTo^ tov oTparonihov ovSeW ovSiv ov8' dSitcw; vpiv 

eveKoKea-cv ovrat <r<o^pova% irap4<T)(eff vpMi aurous- Sis 

5 T€ <TvpirapaTa^dp€voi ras irptiyras, rrfv T hrX tov irorapov 

6. rtpl iiiur Ai. 1 ; rtpl ii/iiSf V6. S. juXXor fittf' i/iur (i.e. fiaXXor to follow 

*«#' **u3r) 2. lo. ♦iXliTTOuS, L, Al. 1, B; il "HXiirxo^ vulg. Ii. avrtttZ; 

virTDit L, vulg-: iurait ; alrrott Bk. ai>nHt H ml t& ropii vaffv it Ai (see X>tp$.) ; 
n^wt lal Ti irapd ram Stir Oi avrat cat iropii nn Si ir Z. 

% SIS. I. rSau' Z, L, Ai. i; oiw* vulg. 3. roB oTpar. L, valg., 

Bk. Anecd. 160, Bk., Dind.. West., Lips. ; tou onu Z, Vom., Bl. 4. iti\taty O. 
rap^(rx<T( £, L, At ; vop^irxeDSe vulg. fi^i iirrivt £, V6 (also in line 6). 

5. rdf K-piiral fii-X'' vulg.; Iiix" ""*• ^- "i' ''' ^1 ^< ^'i ''' °''°- '''u'E- 

6. KoS' iyjn, upon you, as 
R10' hit&p iyiiiituer, not in its 
hostile sense. See Arisl. Pol. 11 
Kari Si rovt&run oix fffn p6nQt, a&Tol ya^ 
tiai iiftfioi, in ruptct te (?) suck mm Ihtre 
is no law, for they art a law unto 
Ihemielves. In the patallel passage of 
St Paul, Gal. v. 13, k«t^ tHw T-Koirrwy is 
translated against suti, adversus (Vul- 
gate}, aiidtr soUhe (Luther), perhaps 
wrongly. See Rorn. ii. 14, jain-«t eJirt 
vA^iM, where we have the rest of the 
passage of Aristotle. 

10. GiKai^np' &{ioOv, thai you madt 
jusitr claims en liem. 

11. Kdl vofxl noi &', ami indeed 
(koJ) vrilA all mankind, parent helically 
after vap' airrmt. 

13. Ixorrtt (representing ^o^ti-) : or. 
obi. with Hitifln. 

% ai«. 1. opWi j^njow tY>«- 
K^nt, iV appearid (later) r^iU f^^ Am^ 
judgtd rightly (^HiMoi^L cf. S ,.5".— 
oftr(...oMfli oWr «M': a ranarkabte 

accumulation of eolphatic negatives : oSrr 
correspunds to tt (5). 

eaS' d£Ci[Vi (not) a«h unjustly. 


rr w/M Mfw in tht larlitst 
some cognate object is im- 
i-TO^Tof d^woi ; cf. g| loS*, 
riss. eicept £ add MX**', as 
1! »mxf>'<t/«»»' had preceded. The natural 
accua. would be -wapariiat, following the 
meaning of fff/4rapaTc{d,iu^«< and so signL< 
fying ballU array or bailies. See Aesch. 
111. iji, iri 7-Jj» lopdrafir u/i>.i(irar. 
West, and Bl. follow Rehdamz, and take 
xapa.Tiitis (implied) in the sense of 
military manaiovrei or arrangements of 
troops, by which Philip's advance into 
Boeotia was checked without pitched 
bailies. But it is unlikely thai thanks- 
givings would follow such mancBuvres, 
unless some victory resulted. (See $j 117, 

J. nfv t' hrl ToO nroiurt, the river 
bailie, probably fought on the upper 




KoX OavfiatTTOVS cSeifare t^j Koa-fi^, rais wapaiTK€X>aK, rg 
irpoBvfutf. e<^* ots irapa p-hf rStv aXK.<av vpTv iyiyvovr 
iwaivot, wapa S' ipiav Ovtriai xai iropwal Tots 0eois. ical 317 
eyojy rjSeitts Ac ipoifirjv At<rxivT}v, ore raDr' iirpdrTcTo koi 
(.■^ov KOL )^apa.s Kai iiratviav 17 iroXis '^v pxcrrrf, worepov 
tTvv€0v€ Kal <rvi>£v<j>paiveTo rots jtoXXok, ^ Xvwovfifvos Kol 
OTevtav KoX Sva-fievalvtov tois koivoi's ayaOots oikoi Ka07JTO. $ 
el p.ev yap iia.p^v koX /tera rSiv aXKiav i^rjTd^eTo, iroi? ov 
Scifa TTotei, fioKkov S* ouS' o<Tta, ei Sv b>s dpLtrrbtv avros 
rov<; 0tov<i ciroiTjtraTo fidprvpas, ravff a)s ovk apitrra vvv 
I vpa.<; d^un ^rr)(f>i<rair6ai, tovs oftapoKora^ rows ^eous ; €i S^ 
pi] iraprjv, irZ^ oiiK dvoXtiikevai ^oXXaKi; ia~rl SiKaio;, el 10 

K Y. 


9 317. 

rdXii vulg. 4. Kol «-! 

per col arirur) ij6'' alio i 

£. ^1 Twi vuEg. ; iwl om. Z, U, Ai 

aMi Z, L> Ai, B; a^ToAi vulg. 

3. rt^^'Ve. 

iirttii;»2, L, Ai; V'li 
" Liur S folium hoc (incipiens 
manu scriptum est." Vomcl- 
i. O'. dpiffTur trrai Ai. 

LI. 9- WfM>|IUMJTai V6. 

Cephisus, which flows ihrough Phods 
beiore it enteii Boeolia. near Chaeionot. 

^- *V X*t»^"i»i '••c " wiDtei battle," 
probably (ought on some wintiy day in 
the hiliy parts of Phocis. Many editors 
still find chronological difliculties in this 
winter campaign, forgetting that the only 
trouble arose from the spurioiu decree 
inSgi8i~iS;,dBtediDmid$unimer. See 
Hisl. i jS. This leference to two definite 
encounters seems to make the common 
interpretation of r&i wfidrat (g) certain. 

8. nf^ piv T»v laXw iftir is in 
strong (double) antilhesis 10 wapi I' i/uif 

I 917. 3. t^i^ovi fridt, glory: kc 
noli on I i,.-. 

6. |i*Td . , . lffri[«ro, TuaJ caunltd in 
leith llu rut, the same mililaiy figure 
which is common in this speech : see 
mil on ! ,7j' 

7. ovS* dirta, ajtn impious. 

7, S. lit Aftnw...^ otic Sfttm.: 
with reference to the words of Ctesi- 
phon's decree, Sri luiriXc? cal \i-fui xol 
rpama ri ipurra rf S^iuf (Aesch. 49). 

If Aeschines joined in the thanksgivings, 

he declared before the Gods that the 
policy of Demosthenes was good 1 but he 
now asks the court to declare this not 
good by condemning Ctesiphon. 

g. iyM^anitwg: of the Heliastic oath. 

10. iiroitoKtrm riAXdiHt: cf. XIX. 
[ 10, Tpls O^x ^vof drokaMriu SiKoxot. 

See Lord Brougham's note on this 
aigument {p. ijj). After speaking of 
"the beauty of the passage,'' and "the 
exquisite diction — the majesty of the 
rhythm — the skilful collocation— the pic- 
turesque description of Aeschines' dismaj 
and skulking from the public lejoiciogs," 
be says of the ailment i " It is not 
a complete dilemma : a retort is obvious. 
Aeschines has only to embrace the second 
alternative — the second horn — and it 
could never have transfixed him. '1 did 
remain at home, not mourning over the 
success of your measures, but their wicked- 
ness, etc' Nevertheless, there are but 
very few complete dilemmas, and the one 
under consideration is quite good enough 
to pass with an audience in a speech. 




i<f>' oh iExaip°^ "^ aXXot, raSr* A-wrei^ opwv; keye St/ koI 
ravra ra iln^^c^ara /xoi. 

Ni'H^iSMATA ersmN. 

218 OvKovv rifieii fthi iv 0v(rifu^ -iffifv tot«, ^vj^atoi S' A* 
r^ Si' ■fffia'; <re<r(^(r6at vofu^av, fcai wepuiOT^Kei rots 
0O7}6eias Betja-€<rOai SoKOva-iv a(f>' tSv iirparrov oSrot, avrouf 
^orf$elv €T€poi^ i^ &v €wela-6i}T t/ioi. dXXa /i^i' oias tot* 
S ■^^t€t <f>wvas 6 OiXiTTWos *cal cv oiaiy '^c rapaxdi^ iirt 
TOVTOW, eit Toll' iiTiOToXSiv T<av iKitvov ftaOija-eQ-Oe lou €W 
Ilckow6wT)a-ov €wep.W€v. Kai flat Xeye rawras ka^atv, Iv 
eiS^e ij e^^ on;i'^cLa Kal irXcu^i koX TaXanrtitplai. koX to, 
wokka ^r^^tfTjULra., a vvv oSto$ Sieavpe, tI atrtipy otraTo. 

218 KotTOi ffoXXol va.p' vpXv, a.vhpe% 'Adrjvaloi, yeyovaa-t 
pTjTope'i evho^oi koi fLeydkoi wpo ifwv, KoXXiorpaTos iKelvoi, 

§ Sia. 1. -rSt ffovSrUt \'6, B (roTf over t^i). 3. »OfJ{liviri» (for SonnOair 

vulg.l 2, L(iv. awtoPort above). afrro^ 2, L, Ai. 1; afiruri vulg. 4. inlaB-^' 

i^L; hrelreiriil^^; irrUre^f noi vjilg. 5. wi (?) for aTaii LM«»^ V6m.). 

7. !T(fiT(» (otcorr. lotr) £; !n/iT» (before Fhn.jL,; frift^cL'.vulg. 8. fJJ^c 
flri vulg.; Sti om. 2', L, Ai. aurixaa Jtoi om. Ai. iXdroi 2, L, Ai, B*; 

rXdfir vulg. 9. di-cipTdtraro (<i corr. from II ?) £■ 

§S1B. :. 4/ur Y (i over 4) F. u ArA. 'A0. A); t! 'A0. Al. 

The whole passage would be of cerlain 
success in our Parliament." (This quota- 
tion is much abridged.) 

g aia. I. Iv T^.-.vo^i*, in Iht 
Mitf, corresponding to it tfiwfait, both 
denoting what occupied their minds. 

1. Toh...So«oOo-ii' (impf,), te tkost 
■mko had stemid likely le ntrd help, i.e. 

3. 4+' 4v l»p«TT«v, in antithesis to 
ii Cir iriiirevr' ifat: cf. S irj"-".— 
aAro^, i/isas, i.e. eurselves: for the accus. 
see Xcn. Oec. 11, 13, ff«M*'p<' «*™"' 
^IXdu! (Zvoi, where ^(Xmi would be more 
common (G. jU"). 

4. Pi»]9Av Mpoit: subj. of ittpui- 
(TTTJtci. If hiui come aiout. — otol i[^(n 
^in^t; cf. I igc^ 

6. iinmAiv : for an enrliei letter of 
Philip to Peloponnesus asking for help, 

seel 156. 

8. vUvM refers especially to his 
frequent journeys to Thebes while the 
negotiations were going on, and B.lso to 
his other embassies (cf. 9 144). 

g. SUrvpi: see the general ridicule 
of his decrees in Aesch. iii. ioo'~*. This 
remark may perhaps refer to the fierce 
criticism of the terms nf the alliance with 
Thebes ([ll. 141— [43). -~t{ &t»py<(- 
otLfo: the position of t( is emphatic: 
cf. <rt*i^er tSi. § 135«. We should 
expect viirix'"^ etc. to be in the accus. 
by the usual attraction; but they are far 
more expressive as they stand. 

89 ai»— »1 were spoken while the 
clerk was preparing to read the letters of 

9 SIS. 1. EaXXCarparof : the famous 
orator whose eloquence is said to have 




'Apia-TO(t><ov, Ke<j>a\{K, 8/aacnJj8ouXos, enpoi. fivpCoi • d\X' 
ofiat's ovSeU wcaiTore Tovratv Sta wotTOS iSotxev tauroc eis 
oiSev rfj iroXet, aXX' 6 fiev ypa^atv qvk Lv iwp€<r^fv<rev, 5 
6 8e irpf<r^€VO}v ovk &v eyparjiev. inrcKeiire yap avrav 
eitatrros eavr^ apM, pthf ptf.(rTavT}v, dfia 8' el Tt yevoiT 
avaifiopdv. tC oSv ; eiiroi tis £v, crv TocoGTOf vw€prjpa^ 3&0 
^oi/i,]; KOI ToX./ip <S<rT€ vdpTa woi&v outos; ou ravra keya, 
dW ouTtus i7r€ir€C<rfji,T}v pteyav e^ai roi* KaT€iXi]<l>6Ta kCvSvvov 
T^f' iroXti' &!<7t' ovtc ^SoKci /tot -)(i^ptxv ovSe Trpovoiav ovBefiCav 
302 T^s iSias oir<^aXeia5 SiSofai, aXX' ayainfTov elvai el fLTjSev s 
■tTapaXeiTTfiiv Ti? a Set wpd^eiev. iirerretCTfirjv S' vwep ifiavrov, 321 

4. TuirBTtToirui' Z.I., Ai;ToiT.r<lnr.v\i\g. Sitmir O. 6. iri\tiwt 

1. L" ; iwt\clxeTo L' (nig.), vulg. 7, >fr«r' S, L, Ai ; 7i7i'DiTo vulg. 

S aaa i. rotli aUovi after Ti>\iij L'l vulg., before ^ci/iD Ai ; oni. 2, L'. 
raih-a Uyw £, L; X^u T-auTa vulg. 3. Jllr«. Tir MrciX. O- 4- rg vdXn B. 

•Spat IfoT X'^f") Ai, t; ipa* (for iipari)'Z {yp). oiStrlSr t {yp). 6. xapa. 

XiTiif Ai, Y. 

gaai. I, t. ^n'fl0^7r...!/iui3'om. 01, ». 

3. 'Apurro^Fi see note on I 70*.— 
Ki^uXoti see % 151.— ep<uripoiA«f, of 

Colljius, who served under his distin- 
guished namesake in Ihe Restoration of 
403 B.C. (xxiv. 134). He was afterwards 
■ warm friend of Thebes: see Aesch. 
III. ijS, irlip Ir Oiipati TuiTiv8iii in 
o6aels trepot. CC. also L)fS. XXVI. 11— 
14 ; Xen. Hell. v. 1, a6. (West.) 

4. hiiiraVTit,titvuffiaut: likeirXwf, 
SS88', 179: 

5. SUN &v hrp^ptum'...fypai|in': 
both iterative (M.T. 161) : we often use 
TMuld in such iterative expressions, with 
no potential force ; as hi would often ItU 
me stories (see M.T. 149). 

J. ^yr n tyi | V, tnjoynieni of lase. — ■( 
n ifbiavf iiraifa^ai, i.e. same retreat 
in cast of accidtni ; tt t< yimro depends 
on an B.podosis implied in iwa^pir, 
something to which Ae cauld retreat; 
cf. Aeschyl. Sept. 1015, in trr' im- 
VTa.T^ ^4 StuF T-ii iiinoSait l<mt 
Sopl (M.T. 480). The direct foim. Or n 
y4rtfT»i, might have been used : xe« 
Aesch. II. 104, ah-eii naTAtirar n^ ili 

Tb d^atti djia^topa* Ar pij reiSuifitv^ The 
meaning comes from Ihe middle ifo^i- 
ptirBai, to carry otuself back. But see 
Hirpocr. i.¥iL^tipi.y, with lefetence to 
this passage : tA ixa^iptir r)j» airioji rdr 
i/iafsnjB^rruw iv' AXXoir- 

3 aao. I. 1iinpT[pa%; did you excel f 
absolutely, or possibly sc. roitroM. 

1. ^|ig : i.e. so as to need no d»o- 

3. airmihnrttefXfif.IAadsolAorougA- 
ly cenvinted myself. If oSrtat is taken 
with itiyar (Bl.), u«t' oiji UiKti (4) seems 

4. fUiciii is first personal (sc. i kui- 
Sotin); then (without ofe) understood as 
impersonal with iLyanrrAi' (but. 

5. dYa'vi|Tiv...irpd{<uv: in the direct 
foToi. iyunrri* iir^" iir Ta...iitirpA(is, 
are must be content (impers.) if at {shait) 
da our duly, omitting nothing, edv rit 
rpdfn might have been retained (see note 
on 8 ».9'). 

6. d Bi(=ri iWoira, onr duty, d is 
here felt as a definite relative; but 
with a. alight change in the view it might 
have been i tj- itg or a Si» (Dobree's 
conjecture), with conditional force. A 
present indicative is seldom changed to 


1 58 


TV)(ov fi,ev avaurdTjTciv, ofia}^ S* iwewfCa-fjiTfv, ft-yfre ypd<f>ovT 
hv ifiov ypd^oA, 04kTiov firj&eva fi^re irpaTTOvra vpa^ai, 
p-i]Te irpeafievovra wpea-^aia-ai wpodvp^repov /tijSc SiKaio- 
S T€pov. 8ta ravT ev waa-iv ifiavrov erarroi'. Xeyc tos 
hrifnoka.^ ras rov OtXiinrou, 

3Sa E« TavTo. Kari<m)<Tf. ^tXiirirov tj ip.ri wokiT^ia, Aio^it^- 
Tavnjv T^v <fMavr)v cVeii^s a^fce, ttoXXous »cat dpaa-fli; to. 
iTpo TovTtov rp TToXet iwa.ip6fi€vo<; Xoyous. ai/^ iSi/ SiKaitu^ 
ia^fiJKWOVfirjv vtto Tovrtovl, koI <rv wapatv ovk avreKeyes, 
5 o Se ypw^apxvo^ ^iwvZa^ to pJpo? rotv yfrjj<f>tov ovk tkafiev. 
Koi ^i Xaj6c TaOra to i/n^^itr/iaTo Ta tot* /iic diroirei^evyoTa, 
viro TOUTOu 8' owSc ypa^ivra.. 

1. irvatTrrtir (-or over 
Mag., most edd.i iraiaStrrt 
iiu>5 M*l Y. O. rfArrmn 

iut.) I, L; /iiirtvulg. 
6. rAtroEZ, L, 4, Ai 

wt) L ; drourtfirrur u, some other MSS. (see Vom.), Thom. 
■ (adv.) S, vulg., Bl. 3- Urtv i^S *, B (or in mg.) ; 

1 7-1 O, F, 4- Tp(ffjS(i!»Ta QUI. O. /iijSi (before 

«. Tiov £, L. V6 ; fii-uv vulg. U>v SJ) «. 

" -' t4jO. 

dfft^e ii' ^^ vulg. ; tt' ijii om. £, L'. 3. r^ r6X. ^oip. \dy. 

1, L, vulg. ; rg xiX. Xiy, iinip. Ai ; )iiy. tJ t4\. ^aip. Ai. 5. AtiiSai Ai. 

r* u*ixn 2, L ; ri irinwriv »<(Xii vu%. (Sec g 103'.) 6. Xofle 2 ; \dfit U j 

Wt« L', vulg. r4 t47« ^ I {ty corr.), L, vulg., ora. 2'. 7. oil Ai. 

the optative in such delinile lelaiive 
clauses, as a tint would nBlurally suggest 
S it S4g here as the direct form ; but 
when no ambiguity can arise, the nptB.tive 
is sometimes found, as in Xen. Hell. v. 
4, 8, tlrm Sti ArSpa Afn tw fjf^t Hot, 
where the antecedent of li is definite. 

g»l. 1,1, iv(n(rjiT|ir (repeated): 
see note on g i99'(end|. 

]. TV%ii, perhaps, accua. absol. (M.T. 
851). — i»aiff*ifT"v: I follow Vomel, 
Bekk.. and West, in this reading, though 
itvLiaBiiTir (adv.) has better MS. authority. 
— I|uit, ntvertkrtesi., with reference to 
iwauiiifTwr. — |iiiT«...'ypc(i)m: the direct 
form would be oltr' 1* ijua ypdif'tu 
p4XTiar oiStli: for ni Ihus used with the 
infin, in or. obi., see M.T. 685. See Plat. 
Ap. 37 A, and Ltddcll and Scott, art. ^^, 
B. 5, c. S» belongs to TpdV"", vpaffu, 
and rpiafltvaat, and fifknor lo both 
ypijfvi *nd wpSfai. 

Ir Tif irip Kr^O'i^firrot. Cf. XtX. 153, 
odSit it iiuf tlxir AraTtlnaaBat ^fiipir 
(of threats of Philip); and Eur. Jph. T. 
14S4, jraiau Bi Xi^xl' 1^ iwaipoiuu 
Urm (of a spear uplifted lo strike). (Bl.) 
irtupiiumt is imperfect, as is sbovn by 

4. nf^, thaugh prion:: see §g 8j* 

5. AuivSa*: mentioned with contempt 
in I 149'. He is said (Vil. X. Oral., 
Dem. 71) to have indicted alio the decree 
of Aristonicua (g| 83, llj).— ri (Upot ; 
see notes on % 103', i66* 

6. ift]<^<r(iaTa : for the plural see note 
on \ 113*. — Airoirt^tvYiTa, acquiiied (on 
the ypa^ raparhfuiiii) : rb ^vyov 'frff^tff/xa, 
xxiil. 58, is Me JeiTte m Inai. 

7. ypa^frm, indieUd: cf. ypa^trTo^ 
pn^ntd, J 86*. See note on % s**- 


nEPI TOY rrE0ANOY 159 

TauTi Ta ^<f>C<rfi,aT, avSpe^ 'A0T)valoi, Tas avras tn/X- 323 
\a^ai Koi TavTct pijfi,ar ^ei airep wporepov p-hf 'ApiirroviKO^ 
vvv 8e l^Tqa-i^Siv yiypa^ev ovTotrt. KoX ravT Aio^ti^y 
out' eStoi^ev auros ovre T<a ypay^apAvt^ <rvyKarr}y6prf<rQ'. 
KoiTOi Tore Toi' AifpopeKij tov ravra ypatftovra kol tov 5 
'TtrepeCS-rjv, eiwep aktjdrj pxiv vvv Kan)yop€i, ^aXXoi' &v 
eiKOTfus -^ TovS' eSiatftei'. Sia rC; ort TftJSe /i,€i' ear aj-ercy- 384 
Kcti' cw* iK(tvov% KoX ros TWv hiKa<rrqpi<av yv<i><rfis koX to 
303 Tovrov airrov eKeivtuv pr/ KanjyoptjKevai Taina ypayjnivrtitv 
antp oStos vvv, koi to tovs I'o/aows prjKer iav irepl rav 
ovTOi iTpa\d€vTQ}v KaTTjyopeti', Koi iroXX' erepa- rare 8' 5 
aiiTo TO TTpayp fii/ iKpCver i<}>' avTOV, vpLv Ti tovtcov 

% ass. I. u iiSp. volg.; u om. £, L. 5. An/uifiA)! £. F, V, *, O, B^ 

iilHouAT,- L, vulg. _ 6. ■TrtplSw L. »i» cm. L. 

I S94. I. Bn TtfiSr Z,I^; Jrciyvulg.; TOih-^ /iJv Tdp/orv (without Aut tI;) Ai. 
wryjtfu-faj-mmg.) Ai. 3. uir' (for «') O. 3. rairi S, L ; touto vulg. 

4. »C»L,L. Ai; Fwl vule- 6. ar i»(J*f™ S, L, ViS; il»«p(»n-o Al, vnlg. 

I !«•. 1—3. For ihe qnestions 
Concemti^ the decree or Aristonicus and 
Sevripov in)p6yiiaT0i in g 83', see notes on 
that passage and on % no'. 

4. w^aTiffip7\vtr, aided in iHi accu- 
salitn (as avr-fiyop")- 

J. Ai||U|UXi| , . ,'Yvip4fSi|ir : the Iwo 
names probably indicate a decree moved 
by Demomeles (cousin of Demosthenes) 
and amended or enlarged by Hyperides. 
Such double 01 treble bills were common 
(see C. I. Alt. II. Nos. ^<m) and [ i*) ; 
whence tA ^^lojuero in 3 in*. 

6. Av*f...viv Karq^optt: the simple 
present condition is correct here, and 
more effective than G. H. Schnefer's 
KarijySpti. The following fmWo¥ A» 
iHaitir implies its own unreal condition, 
li iSliiMini, within itself. The meaning is, 
if ht ii novi accusing mi honestly, he 
would have had more reason for firosecut- 
iitg D, and S. then lAan he has for 
prosecuting Ctes. nrui. The distinction 
of (nnryopu and 9iii*u) here and in 1. 4 is 
the same as in S 9" : cf. notes on SSh*. "S*- 
I SS«. I. T^ like TJrfc in g 113', 

is Ctesiphon, who is called oJrot in 4; 
while Aeschines is toOtoi' airrhr in 3. 

4. |itiKfr'lai',..naTipfOp«tv: the prin- 
ciple that "no man can he twice put in 
jeopardy for the same olTence" is distinctly 
stated in the Atlic law: see xx. 147, «J 
tbpai A' oi^K cuJtri dlv vpAi rhv avrof wtpl 
rur a^wr ottrc Jliai oBt' eieiras oBrt 
SiaSif aalaw oSt' dXXo ruaOrov oiSh itrai, 
and also xxiv. .<;5. This could here be 
utged by Clesiphon as a moral, not as a 
legal, argument. Aeschines is prosecuting 
him now on the ground of charges against 
Demosthenes which were declared &lse 
by the acquittal of Hyperides eight years 
before,— charges for which he did not 
similarly prosecute H. then and for which 
be could not l^plly prosecute Dera. now. 
This is all an answer to S.& tI; (which 
refers to 1 113 (end)) — tmr aim ■wfa.xVv- 
T«*, i.e. Bia//en i^d JC^fiin/ (as these charges 
i^inst Dem.) ; see xxxvi. 60, fcicifwSa* 
Tul» offrai TpaxffirTttr. 

before any judgment of the court had been 
passed upon (he c«m. 



ass TrpoXafieiv. aXX' ovk tJv, ot/icu, tot€ h vwX irot€ic, iK 

vaXaiSiv ^(povtiiv Kai ^<f>urfia.Tti}v voWStv CKXc^avra a jxi/rc 

irpogSei firfSci^ jjliJt' iv ^Ot) Tqfxepov prj&ijvai,, SiafidWeiv, 

Kal fiereveyKovra rovs xpovov^ kol irpot^ocei'S diTi Twi/ 

5 oX.Tj^ali' ^evSeif fieradevra rots »r€irpayjno*ots Soxeic n 

sae Xeyeiv. ovk -^v totc ravra, dXX' eirl r^s oXi/^etas, eyyw 

Twi' tpytov, en fieiiyrjfievdtv v/xatv k^I fiovov ovk ec Taw 

Xepalv €Ka(rr' i)(6vTti>v, irawes eytyvovT &v oi koyoi, 

Sioirep Tous irap' avra to irpdyiJiaT ikey)(ovi <f>vyav vvv 

5 i7K€i, ^Topatv dytova, vofu^wv, (S9 y ifiol SoKei, teal ov^t Toiv 

• Tr€Tro\i,T€vfjLdvti}V i^eratriv iroiijtreiv vp-ai, Kal \6yov Kpivw 

ov;i(i Tov rg iroXei <rvp/^povTO<; Itretr^ai. 

a^aii S, L ; JavroS vulg. rplv n T«iTOv irpn^Xa^ciV £', roOnir >nd TpoXa^& by 

COIT.; »-*KXr\o^(i» L', Ai ; rpn\a^ilr L", *TiIg. (Sec Vomel.) 

§2BS. I. «£. L. Ai; li vulg. riKfw £ ; rM« L, vnlg. i. i-ohXwr 

om. Ai. J. a««T,{,overT<)2;. 

g sae. I. ttl r^ 2, Ai, * (tp); ix' 11*1-71 vulg. ^ryui Z, Ai ; ^Y>ii 

oDoiri L. Tulg. 1. Bwofeux' L'. 3._ irib'Ttt om. V6. 4. j'Ci' 2, L'. Ai ; 

»w StTipw vulg. 5. u> y ifui £, I' 1 vf y' /wi vulg. ; in ffui Ai. 6. £iro- 

Xa»i3drur after ^Wii vulg. ; om. £, L', Ai. 7. e^xl ^, L; of vulg. 

% aas. r. fi W¥\ woMtc: all mss. 

encept Z have tok! for i-o«i». Either 
cnn well be understood : bui here the 
■ppositive$ iiafidXXttr and leircii' favour 

1. miXauiv -xpiyft*'- i-e. the time of 
the peace of Philocrales, in raganl w 
which Aeschines introduced many decrees 
which had no real bearing on the argu- 
mint (It. IIJ. s8-;8). 

3. ^^t' i>'.,,^9iivai,iirlAeugAtTamId 
it vitnlianed to-day '{^BTpiu ix — pifiAif 
&•) : see M.T. no'. The negatives *iitT( 
etc. show thai the antecedent of a is 
indefinite. — StaPdXXnr, la mtsrefirtstnt 
{iost reproach upon) Ihe owe, 

4. vpo^oiriM, grounds for attion, 
whether true 01 false. See note on g 178'°. 

Demosthenes still clings to his plea 
that the slorjF of the peace is ancient 
history. See Essay 1. 1 4. 

; aae. i. f*i ^\ &Xi|fa[»i: cf. 

8 "7'- 

if Tat( jltprlv : for the figure West. 
ares trnmi-fislui. 

vdvTtt at X^TQi, i.e. the leheli 

4. To4t...^trvili>.- cf. g 15'. 

J- ^T(riftn irfim: cf. Thuc. III. 67", 
irsii^arc li roii 'EXhifirt Tapiitt-Yita oi 
\i7t1w ToiJt d^fflj'at TpodjiowTM iW Ipyur. 
Weil quotes xtx. tij: oiSi yi^ jniTbpmi 
oifii \6yw¥ Kplirtw if/Mt T^titpor...rpo^ai 
roitof, dXX' vrtp rpayftiTV oifTxp*^* 'e<^ 
^FLrwr &v6Ku\6Tur Tifr iiripxoviraj' ajffj^- 
»7|» (ft Toit oItIoui irdivaaSai. 

6- \A'iov.,,inif,^ipovrot: \6you tpiao' 
is a iriai of eteqitence. Cf. the verbal 
forms \lr(0* Kpiraw and ri rg rtXet 
ffvfi^pai KpirtLr. 

With 1 116 the orator ends his grand 
comparison (b^un in g 139) between the 
part played by Aeschines in rotisitig the 
Amphissian war and his own part in 
uniting Athens and Thebes against 


nEPI TOY rrE*ANOY i6i 

Etra tro(f>ilerai, xaX <fyt}(rl irpoa^KfLV ^s /io' oiKodeu 887 
■^Ker ej^ow« Sd^s irepi ^^i* d^X^o-ai, ua-irep S*, oral' 
oto/iefoi ircptetvai ^/Mj^ra t^ Xoyifijo-^e, ii* xadaipmrip 
<d ^^ot, KoX fiTjSkv wepvg, (rvyxo»peiT€, 0VT<a icai low toIs ^f 
TOW koyov ifxiivofiefoi^ wpo(r6tcrdaL. diofraxrB^ toIvvp a»s s 
<ra0pov, ws eoiKcv, ioTi ^u<r« irav o tl fif /ii^ 8iK<u<d9 p 
iTfiTpa.yp.4vov. iK yap airrov rou tro<f)ov tovtov irapa- 388 

• 5- 

Koffiupuitir £* (< 

fl«ffS« A I ; rpoeiaeat O', ' 

.. - , . ._ — „., ac S, Ai J itir L (or in^), vulg. 

m^apol iMTur L, vulg. .^. vpo^ir. V6. wpiv- 

6. Jri/iJlIuolutdf SV6. 

SS aa7— ass. At g ]]6 the proper 
defence ends, with the account of the 
alliance with Thebes. The remainder of 
the speech, before the epilt^e, is de- 
voted to replies to three ailments of 
Aeschines, one comparing the trial of the 
case to an investigation of an account 
(I 117 — 351). a second chai^ng Demo- 
sthenes with being ill-slajTred (^ ^St— 
175), and a third cha^ng him with being 
a craRy rhetorician (§g 176—196). 

In SS 3J7— iji the orator refers to the 
exhortation of Aeschincs to the judges 
(59 — 61) to cast aside any prejudices in 
&vour of Demosthenes which they may 
3 proceed as they would if 

they 1 

long 1 

prepared to accept any result which the 
reckoning may bring out. Aescbines 
refers here only to the facts concerning the 
peace of Philocrates ; but Demosthenes 
chooses 10 apply the remarks 10 his whole 
political life. While Aeschines referred 
only to the debit side of the account, 
Demosthenes speaks of both sides, and 
especially of what stands on the credit 
side of his own account with the state, 
including credit for preventing calamities 
by his judicious policy. He ends ffi ^S') 
by turning against Aeschines the case of 
CephaluE, which had been brought up 
against himself. 

I 297. I. itnL ro^lt*''ai, lAtn At 
pub OH airs of wisdom, or becomes very 
sui/ie, with the same sarcasm as in ffo^oG 
wapaSeiyiiaroi, % *j8'. 

Aeschines (ill. Ao) says, 

3. vfpMlvtu xp^jjATcC Tf, lAat imi has 
a baiance in hit favnur. — X4>^i|v4('. cf. 
Aesch. 111. 59, jtaSffcifcteo ^1 Toiit Xo- 
fxaimtn.^Av ■a8oip4o\i<...i«pi^, if the 
counters art dtcisiiie and Ihtrt ii no 
balance remaining. With most recent 
editors, I follow 2' and read KaBaifoair, 
the common text having iiagapal ilww, 
which was referred to the counters being 
cleared off from the abacus (djSof or 
i^ixvyr) : cf. % 131*. This was a reckon- 
ing-board, on which counters (originally 
1^^, fieii/es) represented units, tens, etc. 
according to their position. See the 
article /Idacui in Smith's Diet, of Ant. 
Aeschines says (jg], iTin6aa.t i\^ii cboi 
6 Tt &r a^Ai 6 \oyurfiii al/?p, rehaiever 
the account proves (cf. nlptir raa. <t\i- 
rriwra], and there is a strong presumption 
that Demosthenes uses a similar expres- 
sion in his reply. Blass adopts lolhujiu- 
iri» in the sense of aifwiai {trweisen) but 
knows no other example. Kochly quotes 
Dion. Hal. AnL Rom. vii. 36, S ri S' b 
of rXcfour f^^ KoSmpQei, toutb irouw 
(and again, slightly changed, in 39) : here 
the meaning determine is beyond ques- 

5. vpoffMrVoi, acquiesce in : cf. t/kkt- 
diliivrir, § 103'. 

6. { irnrpa'YiiJroi': see S I7SI', and 

note on |. 78". 



oeiyfxaTo<i &fLoK6yrfK€ vvv y ij/ias {nrdp^fiv eyvbya-fievovs 
ifie ftev Xeycw vwep t^s irarpiSo?, aurov S' inrkp ^iXtimov 
oil .yap &.V perawfiOeiv vfias iC'^et fii} TOiavrijs oiJoTjs rij? 304 

239 virap^ova7}<; vvokT^ifiew^ wepi (Karipov. koX p.j)v on y ov 
SiKata keycL peTa0€<r6at ravrrfv t^v ho^av a^iStv, eya 
oiod^ui pq^iwi, ov TiOels t/r>f^us {ov yap iariv 6 twv 
TTpayp,a.T<av oCros Xoyicr/tos), a\\' avapA,p.v^(rK(av tKoar 
5 €v ySpa^eVi, Xoyitrrais o/ia xai paprwri toIs aitovouo'ii' 
u^tc ■)(p<op.€vo%. 17 ya^ e/i,':^ iroXiT€ux, -i^s ovros Karrjyopet, 
avrl p-ev ToO ^/3aiot<; /xera 4>iXijrjrov (rwepfiakeu' eU ttjv 
)(copai', t iravTe$ ^ovto, peS" rfp^v wapara^ap^ov^ iKCivov 

330 Ktakveiv ivoiTjirev avrl 8e tou A* rp 'Amifp tov iroXe/ioi' 
cu'ai enTaKocria (rraSia diro r^s TTokeati inl TOiS BoLfuruK 
o/>ioi; yeveaBai ■ avrl Se tov tous Xj^aras ^/tas <f>€peit' koX 

B aaS. t. vSr y Z, Li rCr O; >i>rl vulg.; om. Ai. ii/jit 2, L: rtu/m 
V6; iuar vulg. 4, o0nri T-^t om. Oxyrh. pap. 

S SS9. I. y' <"'■' "]"''>■ P^P- 1' H)r OKI. £', over TOilr^ 2'. 6fut 

(after dfiffli') vulg,; om. S, L', Ai. 5. rirfi (Uotfoiwi* om. Ai, 7. iriwiw 

fia^tTt Al. t. S. firortfu (after vorrotvulg.; om.Z, L'.Ai. if><J* Ai. 

rv/iTaparafa^tAvtii A 1 . 

I Sao. 1. rir om. L>, O. 3. » above line £. ^/i^r (it above] O. 

S Sas. ,. .),», (so 2)...*y««tJ- 
vovt> /Jo/ it t'j assumed that tec (Aesch. 
and myself) jotv ietn Mur/Hi^fif (have 
this reputation) ; in the direct form iirip- 
XOiiro iynaaiiirDi. See note on § 95'- II 
appears (hat (yrutiiat \s always passive 
(see Veitch); cf. Eur, H. F. 1187, ira- 
pKtriiiue' m i-yrue/iiKH, and Thoc. Itl. 


For the aclivi 

Dem. IV. 19, aiK ipBA lyriiiKa. Baiter 
(see Dis&en) translates thus : confitelur 
nunc nos esse ct^ilos (h. e. de nobis 
constare) me quidem verba facere pro 
palria, ipsum vero pro Philippo. The 
personal constr\iclion is like that of Ac- 
Nub. 918, yrMtB^a toI tot' 'ASrifo/wt 
tHa Ji&uririi tdi>i inr/rroin, you shall bt 
skoivn {for it shall bt shown). 

4. )1t| ■TVLaiiTv/t oilirrn — tl nil Totain) 

mere arithmetic or book-keeping — ni 
Y(^...XoYi'l'^i./^ 1^ i' *>*l ll" Txty I' 
recten affairs sf slate. 

4. dvnpiiniiriun' IkutV : he renders 
his account, not b; setting his services 
against bis sins, tnit by setting the posi- 
tive gain from his public policy against 
the calamities which would havt resuUtd 
from the opposite policy. 

5. XpYMTTatt: in the double sense of 
cotufuttTS and comptroUtrs of oicounts : 
see note on § 117' — toI* &icoicni<ni>: 
addressed equally lo the court and the 

7. p4Td and wn- emphasize one 

9. iH*Xv<iv: present, of the whole 
business of checking Philip ; the aor, 
(ti*(/i^XelB (7) of an incursion. 

% aso. I. imuc6iria mLSia, about 
80 miles ; see note on § 195'. 

3. -ytWo-du: sc. ittitist. By h^ioa 
he means '(ht further confints of Boeotia. 
— X^ITTdt: see note on g 145', and for 




ftvai vavra tov woXefjuov (uri S^ tov toi- 'EXKtjctitovtop 5 
e)(eii' ^iXimrov, Xa^ovra Bw^awiof, trv/iiroXe^eu' tovs Bu- 
^a,vTiov% fieff" 7)fiMv irpos iKtlvov. Spa troi i/nj^oL? o/xoios 331 
o Twc epyav Xoyia-fM^ <fHUvtTai; ■^ Seiv o.n-ai'e^etv raCra, 
dXX ouj( oTTois TOV dirotra "xpovov fivrjiiovevd-^a-erai (tkc- 
^iKLirdat. ; Kal avKert vpo<rri&r}iJ.i ori t^s fiei/ w/ujttjtos, ^v 
ec OiS Kadana^ Twav Kvpioi *care'tm/ ^iXtinros e<rTa> iScu', 5 
«Te/>ot9 irei/Ki^fai <rwe^, t^s Sc ^iXafd/i&nria;, tJi/ ra 
Xoiira Tw vpayfiarav ^Kcicos irepijSaXXo^ei'O? ^irXoTrero, 
vftci; KaXal? iroiowres tovs Kapjrou? xeKOfucrOe. aXX' ^w 

Kai /i.^c ovS^ Tavr' eiTreiv 6ian}<r<a, on 6 tov p^Topa 333 
Pov\6yt.€vo% SiKaio); i^€Ta(,€iv Koi fi^ nvKO^avr^v ovK Siv 

4. iytit (i by corr. ?) X. dri t^i B^. Ai. 5. rib'Ta above the tine Y. 

6, t4» ftX. ^(op Ai. TwJt Oin. Ai. 7. c/aror iiTotijo-w Al. 

I SBl. J. j j^t V6. 7. ;x^(lTT«^o S, L> ; rpit ipSs ixMrrero vulg. 

S >«a. I. ToCr' £, L, «; tovt' vulg. 

pirates in general [vii.J 3, 4, 14, 15. 
The rescue of Oreus and Eretria from 
Pbilip (U 79, 87) prevented Euboea from 
being a nest for plunderers. — ^^h> kvX 
d-^v : the common term far general 

4. Ik faUTTiit, im tht side of the sia, 
with reference to Ik i-qi Ef^ar 

5. Tiv'EXX^irvavror: for the Helles- 
pont and Byzantium in 34a B.C. see 
H So, 87, 8S, 93, 94, and Hist, gg 66—68. 

% 9C1, 1. i)nj^<M S)MHOi : cf. Kbiioi 
XopfTcffrrv 6^<u, II. XVII. 51. 

1. ImMXitv toSto, /o slrikt Ihis off 
(the services of g 13a) in balancing the 
account, as ^^ would be removed from 
the d^dnor. 

4. eiicfn vporKOi^pi, / da not go en 
(Iti) Io add, i.e. 10 the credit side of the 

5. Iv att...»aTfaTi]: as in the cases of 
Olynthus, Thessaly, and Phocis. 

6. ^iXavCpowfas : especially Philip's 
easy terms with Athens afier Chaeronca, 
ivhicb were the indirect result of the firm 

and dignified attitude of Demosthenes 

and his fHcnds. See Hist. S Si. 

7. wipiPoXUfuvot : the common figure 
of imieiling emsdf with anything (like a 
garment), hence acquiring, 

8. koXmi iTDuiSvTtt, by the blejsing of 
Heaven : cf. I. 18, li* icaXuii iwoiwrn 
Ixoixri, and noXuV ruoun, xxl. ill. 
This phrase Miinelimes meaasfertunalefy 
(as here), approaching in sense the more 
common li tpAaitur, to be presfmna : 
sometimes doing as one should, as In 
XXI. 1, kokSts tot rd Jlfoia roiuir h I^/ioi 
oC^uT tiipyiffBit, and LVll. 6, jra\wf r«- 
oBiTtl roil ^diinjfi/roiii ottriisBTt. To 
show the distinction between jcoXut thwv 
and fv rpiaauir, Dissen quotes XX. IIO, 
Jin i' i/uTl laXuJt WMOurTtt . . . Attturw 
tKiltar Tpdmrc. The active expressions 
tS roittn and rajtut r«(ii> are entirely 
distinct from icaXiSi roicTi. 

g; 9sa— 941. We have here an 
account of the power of Athens under 
the leadership of Demosthenes, Compared 
with ber earlier re 




ota <rv vvv ekeye^ roiavra Karrjyopfi, TrapaSeiyftaTa wXaTTatv 305 
KoX prjfxara koX <r)0fia,Ta fii/xovfteuo^ {irdw yap irapa tovto 
5 — oix 6p^% ■.-—y^ovi TO tS>v EXXtji'wi', ei Towi to prjp-o. 
dXXa firi tovtI Siekex^V" ^^* ^ ^vpl t^i/ x^V** o^^^ P-V 

333 Sevfjl Trapi^j/cyxa), dXX' ^' aurcili' t£»' «/>yftic iv io-KOvei 
Tifa; ^^X^ o^pp-o^ T} iroXt9 kcu rii/a; Svfa/x€i9, ot* ei; tix 
wpdypaT €lcrg€w, koI rCva^ <rw^ayov avrg /lera ram 
imara^ iyoi, koI ww ctxe to tZv ivavruov. etr' ft pxv 

S i\a.TTov^ iiroi.T)aa Tcis Zvvap^K, trap' ipol To^itajp,' Sof 
iBtiKwev 6v, et Sc iroXX^ p^i^^ov^, ovk £v io-vKo<f>a,vTtu 
EirciS^ Se (TV TOVTO TTCi^etryo?, ^ai Troiijo-cu' Kai o-KOTreiTe 
ei S(KaUD$ ■)0rq<ropat t^ Xoyw. 

334 ^vvaptv ph/ toIwv el)(ev 7) iroX,is tous i^cuiras, oux 

5. ovxApat 2 (li over pa). wpdynara after 'EXX^rwr vulg. ; om. Z, L', Ai. 

6, 7. fcupi (i changed to «) ...Stvpl %. riir xeipa...B(U(ii om. F (text), add. mg. 

t a«». I. at VKirti At. 3. tiir^ity X, viilg. ; ritfgo B' (ut videlur, Ups.); 

tl^a F, Y. ffweiw Ai. S- TdJur^fiarn V6. Sr om. V6 ; or (for a*) Ai. 

6. iSiUrutt Y, O', F (corr.). ttra (for ic) V6. ivuneipittBi O, V, ♦, F (corr.). 

7. TofiTo<rflA,. 

ga««. I. 4TiXii(ix»Y. 

g Saa. 3. ruafrra : ci^nale (sc. 
KOTTT^DpiJfMTci),— Tm(mS«t'y[iaTa, like the 
illustralion just discussed : cf. wapaStly- 
luiTin in S iiS*. 

4. ^ifpara. . . p^LOvfUVOt : besides the 
exfTtssims (M*ioTa) repealed by Acschines 
(probably with no linle exaggeration) in 
in. 166, of which he asks (167), raijro 

we have in 109, tw ^i^'w. Arl^i 'AAj- 
»ai»i; wifnypdifaTi »«■ irfic firni' Bt»i 
draTn}oo;«H, quoted from Demosthenes. 
See other quotations in 71 and 7], 
especially dxiyp^ai t^ ri/j^^t Tijr irt/i- 
paxlar. Imitations ofgesturts (tf^'?*'"'''') 
are, of course, harder to detect ; but there 
is a plain one in 167, K(ni\if rtp^rwr 
ttavrit Oktytt. — Tap<l toOto fbfoin, de- 
fend on this. Dissen quotes Cic. Oral. 
8, 17 : itaque se putgans iocalur Demo- 
sthenes : negat in eo positas esse forUinas 
Graeciae, hoc an illo verbo usus sit, et hue 
an iiluc manum porrererit. 

J. o^if^f ; cf. 3 i66*. 

6. hH '''"tI 1 in the second member 

of an altemalive indirect question, ^if can 
be used as welt as ai. 

S »a. I. «r'...^>Y«*; cf. <!irl t^ 
i\riBclat. 3 116'. 

a. d^opfuLt, meaiti (for war) : d^p^tq 
is properly a ilarting-peinl, or somtlhiiig 
I Dot from \aip' C ' ' 


(^affo* Xkwi^ (Inii aMX'^CJ*'*' ■■ 
a^opft^B.— Suvijiai ; here in the same 
general sense as i<„a.^i, in g 334' (see 
note).— ^...tUnJtir: before the renewal 
of the war in 340 B.C. Cf. g 6o». 

8. A..^Jrf^: cf. g sji', and xxiii. 
»4, m dwXSi col juofui -jfjiifitiax ri 

g ai4. I. Bilvoiiiv here refers to 
sources of miUlary ftraier, like allies, even 
when no actual troops are included; see 
h-w\ln,v »', Irtia oiSira (j). Both Svrd- 
titit and Siraiui, however, may denote 
troops: cf g 137*, rur roXinicQt 9mi- 
luur, and 347*; so Xcn. An. I. 3, ij, 
Ixei iitaiu* isl xfftp tot inrur^ jtol 
ravrunf*. Cf. ivri-iua g 133'. 




awavra^, akka row dcrtfevcoraTOus • oure yap Xtos ovt€ 
'PdSos ovre Kepxvpa fie(^ TfftMv ^v ■)(jyqfiA.T(ov Zk trvvra^tv 
eis irevT€ kol TerrapaKovTa ToXavra, Koi tomt ^v trpoe^ei- 
\eyiJ,eva' owXirrjv 8", lirnea wXrfv rStv olKftotv ovSivti. o Sk s 
iravratv kox if>o^epaTarov Kal p.aKurd' vtrkp tS>v ix0pwv, 
otroL wapcvKevojcea'av tovs vepi^dpov^ iravra'S c)(0pa'i ^ 
tf>i\ta^ eyyvrepKo, Meyapeas, ^jSotovs, Evfio^s. ra p.ev SSS 
rfj^ iroXciu; ovru; virfjpX'^ ^ovra, Kal owSet? &v expi wapa 

3. J^ul* O. 4. TpttSv^fy/Un O. 5. S" 1} Ixw/a vulg.; rj am. £, 

L, O. F, *, Viim., West., Lips. Cf. § 94*. 6. no) (after wiyTm) ota. Ai, 1. 

7- rofnirKtvixtaar Ai ; -duciirar S, L, vuig., 6k., Dind.j rapurttiaffor Ai, V6. 
irurai Ai. 8. M(TV« "U Mss., Bk. (see § 137'). EiS^o^oi 2, L, vulg. ; 

^i>^i O'. 

gaa». I. (al ri iiif Ai. 1. 

1. aCn...^r: ihis refers to the eaily 
part of 340 B.C., when Chios and Rhodes 
weie independent of Athens as the re»ilt 
of the Social War (3.^7—355 b.c.)> but 
Byzantium, which theii (olloired Chios 
and Rhodes, had alteady renewed her 
friendship (§ 130*) : see Hist, gg 1, 63, 
Corey ra, the old friend and ally of 
Athens, had become hostile to her be- 
fore 3S3 B.C. (see xxiv. aoa; Diod. XV. 

3. iifi'i\fii,Ttn/ u-bvn\w. Harpocr. 
says, fXryo* ii noI ndt ^jpoui irvrrdffif, 
Jnifi^ XQ^^^T '^P<i^ DJ'EAX)}i'n r6 tut 
^ipair icD^Hi, KaXXuTTfiirDB offTM iiaXi- 
(TBI-T9J, i0t ^)jiri 9(iirofi»oi. (See Thuc. 
I. 96; Arisl. Pol. Ath. aj"; Aesch. ill. 
15S.) The payment of the original assess- 
ment made on the Delian confederacy by 
Aristides in 470 — 477 B.C. was first called 
^dfWt from ^pu, as Thucydides explains 
it, otfru -yip uvoiiatrff^ tot xptiiArur i) 
^pd. The First Athenian Empire made 
the name odious, so that, when the new 
federation was formed in 378, the tcim 
ffiii'Tafii, agrecmati, was adopted for the 
annual payment. 

4. vJvT< KoI T<TT«p<iKin>Ta TtLXaiTa : 
this sorry amount of 45 talents shows the 
decline of the power of Athens after the 
Social War. The tribute of 460 talents 
of the time of Aristides was raised to 600 
under Pericles (Thoc. 11. 13**), and (if we 

may trust Aesch. 11. 175 and Plut. Arist. 
14) to 1100 or 1300 after the Peace of 
Nicias, in large part by the allies com- 
muting personal service for payments of 
money (Thuc. I. 99). The 45 talents 
mentioned here must be the minimum. 
We have uncertain accounts of the later 
increase. In [Dem.] x. 37, 38. the in- 
come of Athens is stated at 130 talents, 
which was afterwards increased to 400: 
Boeckh thinks that this tnay have referred 
to the annual tribute. Demosthenes is 
said (Vit. x. Orat. 851 B, decree) to have 
petsuaded the allies to give a mirTafw 
X/niMdrus' of more than joo talents. (See 
Bueckh, Staatsh. d. Ath. [. Bk 3, SS i?' 
IQ.) For the Second Athenian Con- 
federacy see Grote X. ch. 77. — irpo^K- 
Xryi^va, cellnled in advanct, probably 
by generals to pay their mercenaries. 
Aeschines (11. 7[} speaks of Toin rtpi ri 
fiijfia Kal H)r iKKXiftrUw luaBo^bpom, ot 
TDi)r fiif ToXatrupovt ntjauirai Ka6' tta- 
inai irixerhr itfymm, niXorra tlviwpar- 
Tw aivTaiir. See Isoc. IV. 131. 

5. AirX(n]i> G', Umia: for the ai>'nnl(- 
ioa cf. S 94' : most mss. have ij irria. 

7. ofrn: Aeschines and his party. — 
'rapxTKiucUKVi' ... trfvtipu : cf. rait 
8tolH IXiut dir^ wapavKtviltu; Plat. 
Leg. 803 E. 

i.e. till is what vie Mad tt dtpatd an. 



TOMT elwetf dW* ovBev to, 8c row 4>iXiinrov, wpo$ ov -^v 

■f\fiXv 6 aybtv, (rK€^a(rOe irws. irpwrov pkv Tjpx^ "^^v aKokov- 

5 dovvTdtv civTO? avTOKparoip, o rav eis Tov iroXepov fLeyuTTOv 

ioTiv airdvTcnv eXff ovToi ra owk' eX)(Ov iv rat? •)(£p<r\v dn- 

hreiTft. y^ffp.a.Ttiiv evnoptt,, koX iirpanev a odfeiei' aur^, ov 3' 

trpoXeyoiV ev tois i/ojt^iV^atrii', ovS' iv tw <f>avep<^ ^ov\£v6- 

pevoi, ov8' vwo rStv <rvKO^<wrovvTa>v Kpwopevos, ov&e ypo^a« 

to <f>€vy<itv trapavoptov, ot>S' VTrevOvvm &v ovSevi, aW dirXus 

336 avTOS Seo-jTonjs, Tiyepatv, Kvpu>% wavrtov. iyoi S" o n-pos 

rovTov a.vTLT€Taypevo<; (icat ya^ rovr' i^traa'ai SiVatov) 

TiVos Kvpio^ ^v; ovSci'os" auTo yap to BfjpTfyopiU' irpSiTov, 

o5 povov peTei)(ov eyot, i$ urov irpovnffeS^ vpel^ TOis 'trap' 

5 ixtipov pi(TdapvQV<Ti Koi ipol, Kal oa oSroi irepiyevoLvr' 

ipov (ttoXXci 8' eyCyvero ravra, 8t' -^i* cKaoTOv Tu;(Oi wpd- 

237 ^aiTtf), Tttu^ ujTcp Toil' exOpwv airyre ^e^ovXevpefot. dXX* 

■ o/toi; cK TotouTwi' cXaTTw/taTwr ^o» <TVppa.)(ov^ p^v vpiv 

tiroCrjO'a Ev0o^a^, 'A^atovi, KopivdCov^, Bi}/3atov;, Meyapea^ 

3. ^ om. Ai. 4- aici^aei O. Ar%«t V6. icsXeil^ut V6. 

5. a*n«pdTup w vulg. ; (3» om. 2, L, F, *, B, V. S ™r...»-iiX.;wF 2. L. F, ♦; 

r(J»...T4X((Hir, A Y. 6. it nut X'P^'* '^X" Ai ; rfx" '' '""' X'f"* Aj. 

g. ofr i>irA...icpiri^(r<>t2 (7(1), vulg., Vom., West., Lips., 61.; am. Z'. il. drdv- 

§ ae«. +. ^9v 2, L, Ai, B; iiitov vulg. T^oSriStfl' L, V6; wpoiriBtvr 

Z, ♦; rpoOrlSert vols. 6. to5to Z, ♦; TomCro L, vi " 

or) A^. " J-^-^ ^- j-.-...» /....• ..i^ T n ,i„i.T 

7. ftj irpiiMY^...p«vXn>£rMri>t: two 5, Br'...rtfiiiirtiun' t^.i.e. as e/fen 

important advantages of a despotism in ai they gat thi btlter ef me. The omined 

war. Athens is not the last Tree stale antecedent ofSir' is seen in tiiv0' (7). 

which has suSeted from the opposite 6. Tix"' (M.T. 531) : sc. >»'**""•'■ 

evils. .See Isoc. ni. iB. 19. 7- Tai>6'...pipiiuX«ii|UvM, i.e. just to 

9- alS'...Kpii>4fUv<it was wanting in eftat had yoa lakin counsel in tht tnimy' t 

the original text of Z, and possibly is a intmst -whttt you left the Assembly : tkS9' 

reading which Demosthenes himself re- (cognate with ptflaiiKeviiinH) ate the ^v- 

placed bylhe followingoi5iM...ira(ja»4^[iw, \eiiiiaTa in which ntpiitrnirr' ifiai, and 

With the whole passage compare $ 149 these counsels you always took in the 

and I. 4. enemy's interest. Cf- Andoc. III. ig, 

% aS4. 3. «p<*TOV, la begin vrilh: tt povXtv/ta TcuHh-ar 4poir\tiiaiiitta; and 

cf. XJ£. 54, 4 Mtoi rpuror aiirxpit- Thuc. II. 44", frror ri ij Sltator {SC. ^ou- 

4. |itr-a{x<ir : jiUT- implies the i^n')^ Xeufu) ^avXiiiirffiu. 

of the right which the preceding clause 9 387. i. Ik roioimv IXarraiutTin', 

slates wpoiMM' : cf. iv. i, tl rpoM- i.e. with such disadvantages at the out- 

StTe\hrtir, let.— «ni|i^](ovt...)«o(i|v«: this refen 




Xioi g€voi, our)(i)uoi S* iniTeZ<! avev rmv TroXirtKUf hvvifitwv s 
(TWTJx^Tjcraf ■ •^pi)fi.aTQiv B' otrotv ehvvrjBriv iyia ttXcictttji' 
crutTcA^iov iwoLirjcra. el 8e \eyevi ^ ra irpos 07j^atous 338 
Sifcata, Ato-;^t(Tj, ^ to. wpos Bv^iavrCovt ^ to. Trpos Eu(So«t9, 
V) TT€pl Tttif ccoii' vui"! SiaXeyci, npStTov pkv aycoct? ort k<xI 
wporepov rwv virep rStv EXXiji'wi' emvotv aytovKra/jievav 
7pvrip(ov, TpitLKOuiatv ova-Qiv T<av TTa<Taiv, Ttts SiaKOO'tas ij 5 
TToXis Trap£(rj(€TO, Kat oiiK iXaTTOvtrdcu PopX^ovtra ovSk xpi- 
vovtra Tous ravra trvp^ovXeva-avra^ oiiB' a.yava.KTov<T cVl 
TOVToi'; €0}paTo (al<r)(pov yap), aXXa rots ffeol^ €)(ov<Ta 
)(apiv, el KOivov KivBvvov TOis "EWtjo'i Trepwrovros awi^ 
oin'Xao'ia rtSi* oXXtDu eis T^f airavrotp (rotrrjplau TTap€<r)(€TO. 10 
307 ttra Ko-a; ^(apC^ei -^^apvra^ rovrourX trvKo^avrtav cpi. rt 339 
yap vvu Xeyei^ oV ^XPV" I'paTTcu', dXX' ov tot av iv rg 

gaSB. I. iJTiiitO'. 
II Mss., Bk., Bl.; cf. xxii 
0. »iyj<£<rxo(T<i V6. 

g Sttft. I. tatriit; nntt ye Ai; 
isfi., Bk., Bl. 1. obi (fot ol') O. 

to the grajiil leagae agamsl Philip, formed 
early in 340 B.C. by Demosthenes and 
CalliasofChakis. See Hist, g 63 (end), 
with notes. For the Eul>oeans see g 79 
(above); for ihe Euboeans, Peloponoe- 
siani, End Acacnanians see Aesch. iii. 

4. |»Ipioi Kal TtvTaKwrx^wiL : this 
iocludes the Theban forces, which were 
added a year after the league was formed. 

7. rvvrAtiAv: this term was applied 
to the contributions of the new league, 
rather than ffwrafit (g 134') ; Aeseh. (97) 
calls them irirrayiuL. 

g aoa. The orator here exposes with 
great effect one of the most unlucky 
btuoders of Aeschines (143), that of 
charging him with imposing twa-lhirJs 
of the expense of the war on Athens, and 
only one-third on Thebes. Aeschines 
bad forgotten the fleet at Salamis, of 
which Athens furnished twa-thirdt t 

3. Kal wpirtpa*, onci alto in former 

5. TpiaK07^in'.,,SLaKoa-(at: the num- 
bers of the ships at Salamls are variously 
given ; but nearly all agree in making the 
Athenian fleet about two-Ihiids of the 
whole. Aeschylus, who was in the battle, 
is our best authority when(Per3. 339) he 
gives the total as 310, and Demosthenes 
nearly agrees with him. Herodolu.s(V[II. 
I, 44, 48, 61) gives the toul as 378 (the 
items giving 366), the Athenians having 
100, of which they lent 30 to the Chal- 
cidians. The Athenian orator in Thu- 
cydides (1. 74*) gives the total as 400 
and the Athenian ships as tuarly tvie- 
Ihirds. The text of XIV. 99, which 
makes the total 100 and the Athenum 

it beet 


olvxp^*'- ^- ^ ^- — Ix*""* S**^ 

with eupoTo like the preceding ve/ttibwra, 
Kpfvetwo, and difOraiirouff'. 



iroket Koi irapatv raSr' eypa<f>e$, etwp o^ejf*'"** wo/ja tows 
irapovra^ Kaipov^, iv ols ouj( o<r' -^^ovXafuBa a\X' o(7a 
5 Soil} Ttt wpdyfiar ISei Sej^etr^at- 6 ya/j di^otfov/iet^s koI 
Taj(u Tovs irap' rjp,oiv ajrekavvoii^ov! irpo(rBt^6fievoi jcai 
j^pr^fiara ■7rpo<r$^(r<op virfjp-}(€v eroifioi;. 

2*** AW* ei vvv iiri Tois ireTrpayfiei/oi? Karrjyopia^ ^^> '''* 
At* OKO'^C, €1 TOT e/iow vepl TovToiv ajcpifio\oyovfidi>ov 
ainjiiSov at iroXeis koI irpotriBevro ^iXimr^, koX ap.' Evfiota^ 
Kttt ST)0aiv Kot Sv^atnCov Kvpto^ KareoTr), ri iroi€iv Slp ^ ri 

241 Xeyetc tovs atrc^eis avffpwwov^ tovtowC; ovx «s i$€B6$T}- 
trav; ow^ <w9 aTTTjAaft^o-ac ^ovXopevoi, fieff vpiuv itvai,; elTa 
ToS ph/ 'EWi^o'TroiTou Sia Bu^ai/Ticuc eyxpar^s Ka.6i<TTi)Kt, 
KoX T^s (TLTOTTOpiria^ T^s Twi' 'EXXiji'tDV Kvpto;, 7rdXefM>s S' 
S opopoi KoX ^apiti 615 T^f 'Att(.(ci71' Suit Stj^ouhp KCKop-itrTai, 
an-Xows S' Tj ^oXarra vtto tww ^k ttJ? EvjSoias opptaphtav 

4- rapirra (r above) S. 9ira 4S<iuXVf''<t £, ^>> iPouUfuBa Al. t, t; Sra (ir 

fieiiliii/iiSa L, vulg. 6. jifwr V6. Tpi>aStxii^'*oi O. 

i 940. I. cfTir'^^uS, Al. 1, B (mg.); ef r^' i^oS L; cT for' <>u>S vulg. 
«oi rmfTou I, L, F' ; Ttpl To^oii> vulg., edd. 4. BufetfTiow V6. s- >>hf"' 

dUs9f Ai; roirrovirl oltaei B (^p), Y, O (mg.)l >>hv«c (here) om. Z, L, Qi, 4>, F. 

g 341. I. D^ ilii drirXdfiririu vulg.; ai>;( u>t am. S* (added above the line), Bl. 
inSir 2, L; 4,ui* vulg. 3. EvtitTmo Aa, Reiske. KiTivrri Ai. Y, ♦ (7p), 

B(yp); ica0j(m7«c Z, L, vulg.; I^Xinrot add. L,«(¥p), B (vp), om. £' (added atend of 
line), vulg. 4. nipiai 7^111'c L (above line), vulg.; T^ywc om. £, At. 6. ^ir 

on. £, L' (added by ii>( hand). 

I SS*. 3. wapAv, i.e. in Ihe As- following supposition (i> Ihat I did 

sembly, as Aesch. regularly was; see nothing. — t{ ^v olwrtt: irouiy would 

S173'. — ttvipJMS^tTO'.sc.rBDraypii^nr. naturally follow here, ir hiving its com- 

— rafd..,KatfHOt. in Iht crisa through Dion place before etwfic (M.T. aao'): cf. 

which lilt ■aiere Ihtn living. § "S'- Bui the long protasis A -rhr'... 

4. o^ {«'... TpdY^Mkr', nel alt that tatte-rt) causes ri. and w to be repeated 
vu leanltd (continuously), but ail that with rottir (4) ; cf. IX. jj, W otcr^t, 
drcumstania (on each occasion) atiimitd iT!ttlhif...ibnfni, tI ron^rnr; 
•^(M.T. J31). oilpf &ra ^uW^uSa would 3. nxpiPoXoTOVfjivov, ^iWi'a/, i/i!£(- 
have meant not all that we tuanttd in /in^^if'rj', pari of the unreal condition. 
taih can. 4. rl TMft* £v i) t( X^ic represents 

5, Amntatftint (conalive), biilding t( irolavr or ij tktyor; cf. j ^41'. 
againii ui {trying to buy). 3 a41. i_. o»x: sc- fi-no' *'■ 

6- wporGi£i(i4V(>t,..vpo<rOTJ<riBv, raoi/f 3^7< to* ^)i'...Xi|ffTin> f^Yaif* ; this 

to rtteive them and to pay thmi too (rpov-) seems to be a continuation of the indirect 

for (Bming. quotation, with ode iir Aryor 1^ under- 

§ B40. I. vw : opposed to fi rir'... Stood. But there may be a change to a 

o/w^Bor. — hrl rolt mrpa'yp'voii, i.e. direct quotation af^er (Its, without in, as 

for vihat I adfolly did, opposed to the Vom. and West, take it. 




X^OTiui' ytyovev; ou« Kv Tavr iXeyov, koX iroXXa ye npo^ 
TOuToi? ercpa ; irot^pov, av8pe^ 'A0r)vato>„ vovTjpov 6 trvKo- 242 
if>avn)^ aei xal Trai^a^o^ev fidtrxavov kcu ^iXturtof- tovto 
Be Kal iftvcrei kii'oSos rav0p(owi6v i<mv, ovSef ef 'V'X^^ 
vyi*? TTeiTo\,-t)Ko% owS' i\.€v6epov, avroTpayiKo^ irC0r)KO^, 
apovpalo^ OlvofKKK, trapda^fioi p^ratp.- n yap r) irrf 5 
SewoTT/s eis ovrfo-iv ijicei t^ varpiZi; vvv -^plv Xcyeis ire/al 243 
Twi* ira^eX^yivOoTav ; Zcrwep &,v et Tis laTpot dtrdevowri p.ev 
308 ToT; Kdp,vov(Tiv el<rLoiv /i^ Xe^i /I'tjSc S«ki^oi Si' ^f diTO<f>€v- 

Al'. vulg. 4. ayUi i( ilpX' *■"■- Ai ; <{ ifix- ' 

Yfmg.), vuIg.jotnS'. 

g S^B. I. Wip 4. 3. (Iiriil^T om. t. 

Seucriig Ai ; Mytt ft. icinrilci V6 ; two Opt. vulg. 

S MS. 1. wavTaxtn>i 'i nvr^ nur 
{from rvery side). — ^iXadtav: cf. Lvii. 
34 (end). 

3. Kol ^m. KtvoEof, a jm// by kis 
very nature: ulraiot naicilur, mito^r- 
Tifi fit.— Tdi>0pitinov, hemutituUii, refeni 
to fH<nta; not to bedity stature. 

4. AnSipor, i.e. worthy of a free-born 
Athenian- cf. iitihir iXtuStpim ippai^t. 
Soph. Phil. 1oo6. — aArBTpB-yui^vU^ot, 
a natural tragic ape: Schol. tlKodir nal 
i^' iavToO Ixti ri Tr#ij«(f*jS(u. auro- 

s to have the ss 

3 (West.). Harpocr. 

cJtfqiraj hRs: fwH Uvti* TaE>rD i j/^Tup 

in (ot T«pi rifii intiKptair orux"'"''" ™S 

i| Tpa-rv'tii' Swa/i^roif. Paroeni. Gr, I. 
p. 375: ivlTor iBp' «f lo* atunweiUriaf. 
These describe both the imitative and the 
boastful ape. Cf. 1313', rpayiitJi Bfw/iinjt. 
J. dfovpBtot OMiiaoi: see S 180^* 
and note. Aeschines is called ruilie, pro- 
bably because he "murdered Oenomaus" 
at the country Dionysia (roTi tar' iypait), 
nbich were somelimes celebrated by 
performances in the theatre of Collytus 
(Aesch. I. ii7)i though this was a citf 
deme. (See Blus.) See H«sych. under 
ipoupaiet Olrdfiaai: &iniav$tnit At- 

VJC^'V •ffTW I4"f, irtl jTori rijii x^pt' 
rCfMresTwr oriKpirtTa T^o^tMovs rit 01- 
w^aor. Westermann sees in apoiipdlai 
an allusion to Aeschines us sCmi ..vuXX/- 
yur (g j6i'), OS the mother of Euripides 
was called dpou/nla Seit (Ar- Ran. 840) 
as a vender of vegetables. But the mean- 
ing of i 16] is too doubtful to buitd upon. 

ilt ima^opil ftprrrei iri run ro/AurpiTur, 
K.r.X. See xxiv. irj, and Ar. Ach. {18. 

S a4B. I. v«v i^iitv ktfUf. rdt bas 
great emphasis, and is repeated in 7 : 
ii this the time yvit take to talk to us ef 
the past f 

1. Swip £v (ic. v«uiji]] A: i.e. in 
talking to us of the past now yen ael as 
a physician {weuld act) if he etc. If 
rmoJi) had been expressed with a.r, Ixrfin 
would be its subject. 

3. Tolt Kdiivemrkv: the general term 
for patients, not merely while they are 
ill (dffSrrwiri) but also after they are dead 
(^rcitj; rcXfiTi^H^ rii). — ■brulv, i.e. in Am 
visits. — Si' it A« B^ t i ( e»mt! Anal. 

4. iv«&i)...^4paiiTo, but la/len tne ef 
them had died and hit relatives mere 
carrying off/rings te kis lamt (all part of 
the supposition), depending on (J...Ji<t(Bi 
(M.T. 177, 558, jfio): cf. Plat. Phaed. 




5 vofj.ilpfiej' aiiT^ <j>€potTo, aKo\ov6atr eirl to fLvrjfia Sit^ioi 
el TO Kal TO iiTOLy)<rev avBpctiroi ourotrt, ovk ii* 
awedavev. ifi^povnjTe, etra vvv Xeyeis; 
t4 Oil Toiwv ouSe rijc ^ttoc, ei raurj; yavpi^% c^' ^ 
oTc'vctj' (re, c3 Karopor*, TrpooTjicec, ^v ovScfi twi' irap' ejiioi 
■yeyoM^idi' ev/Mjcrere rg irdXeL ovratcrl 8c Xoyt^^ff^c. ovSo/^oC 
iraTToff, otroi vpeir^tvTf)^ ewdfjuft^rfv v<f>' vjicov iy<o, TjTnj^els 

ifiriwl O'. if om. Y. 

gS44. 1-3. roi,„»...oiT- 
Vi, Reiske. i. ^;uG Ai. i 

6' drffpiiiToi M 

I.; ore. Bk. 


71 C, iwaSli Si iwoOiroi, lUroi. ri to/u- 
^fiira tre the mslomary offerings to the 
dead {iraylaiiaTa), brought on the third 
and ninth days after death: t& rard 
»4(iout ^tpiiitra TtXt tapiXt (Schol.). For 
views of such oflerings see Smith's Diet. 
Antiq. I. p.BSS, and Gardner and Jevons's 
Greek Antiq. p. 367. Aeschines (115) 
predicts that Demosthenes will use this 
illustration, and (1S9) that he will allude 
to rhilammon the boxer (which he does 
in g 319) ; both predictions were of course 
inserted after the trial. Aeschines says, 
TeXevr^oiToi H iXSiiir tit T* *i>OT-a 
iu^lm, and Demosthenes probably refen 
to these ninlhMlay offeiings. tA toiu- 
^ifitra (WfKHTo is often referred to the 
funeral itself; but it is diHicult to eipliin 
44p<nTit in this sense, even if we suppose 
an allusion to the it^opi. 

5. t4 )i*^)ia, tA/ tomb, built above 
ground, which may at the same time be 
a monumcnl ; cf- fu'ij^uwi, g ]o8'. In 
the same double sense we must take 
rd^oi in the famous passage, Thuc. 11. 
43", itSpUr y&fi iri^tdr roira 1^ 


6. ri Kal ri, His and that, one of the 
few colloquial relics of the pronominal 
article : see IX. 68, H« 74^ rh kbI to 
TH^ircu cal th lAi rw^ai. — £v4fMMr»i 
otroai: so all the mss., while lecem 
editors adopt Bekker's arBpunrm. But 
the article may be omitted with demon- 
jtratives when the pronoun emphatically 

points out a present person or thing; as 
Flat. Goi^. 489 B, OBToal iriip 06 raiiriTiu 
ipXuapur, and 50J C, o&roi iri/p o^x "'B- 

n lifxXi 

e Thuc. 

fri-rXioir^t^ yonder are ikips sail- 
ing up. See Gerth's Kiihner, 11. t, 
p. <5i9d. 

7. h^^itrt^,thundertlruik,stiip^ied 
by ppurHf. cf. ip^tppatr^Sti, MX. 131. 
For (he relation of these words to rtri- 
^imt see note on §11*. — iItu r8» Uy>«; 
see note on 1. Many editors take ipfipbr- 
riTTc.X^ii; as addressed to the physician 
by one of the relatives. It. seems to me 
that it is addressed directly to Aeschines, 
as a question which would apply also to 
the physician with whom he is compared: 

g S4«. r. Tiiv ^TTav: still having 
in mind the figure of the reckoning 
(g S17), he now argues that the chief 
item which his enemies place on the 
debit side, the defeal of Chaeronea, can- 
not justly be charged to him (cf. \oyl- 
itaOt in 3). 

t. tw* nap' l|Mil, ef viAat I was 
responnhtt for. 

4. SiroL lWp^li|t : for the difference 
in construction between this and Svoi 
Tti>4Atl-^* in g 4j (referring to the same 
thing), and for i* olt Kparrfititr (8), see 
note on g 45'. Little is known of any 
of these embassies of Demosthenes except 
those to Byzantium (gg 87—89) and 
Thebes (g tii ff.}. In ix. 71 there is ■ 


nEPI TOY 1TE*AN0Y 171 

a.iT7J\$ov T(av -rrapcL <I>tXiinnju 'iTp^(r^e.tav, ovk iK BerraXui; s 
owS' ef 'Afi^paftCa^, ovk di 'DiXvpiaiv ovSe irapa rav ^poK^v 
0a<Ti)^<ov, OVK CK 'Rv^o.vri.ov, ovk 3.Wo6€v ov8afi60ev, ov ra 
rekevral' in %7]0av, dXX' ev ots Kparrfdeiev ol wp^a-^ei^ 
airrov rS Xoy^, raura TOis orrXow eirtif KarearpdifteTo. Tavr 245 
ovu airaiT€L^ Trap' ifiov, koX ovk alirxyvfi to*- airrov eU re 
paXaKCof (rK<owT<av xal Trjs <I>iXiinroi; Svvdp.e<it^ o^ia)*' iv 
ovra KpeiTTO} yeveaffm; koI ravra to« Xdyois; Tivos ya/) 
oXXou Kvpio-i tJc eyw ; ou yap t^s y€ eraorou i/'VX'V'' ovBe 5 
T-^s Tti;^s Tw*- vapaTa^ap-evbiv, ov&e Trj^ o-TpaTT/yiai, ■^•i ep.' 
diracT€i9 €v0vvai' ovrot (Tfcato; et dXXa ^^f £v y av 6 346 
prffTiup vTrevdvvo's €tTj, iTa<rav i^erofrtv Xafi^dvere- ov irapai- 
Tovfiai. Ti»'a oSv etTTi raGra ; tSeii* Tix wpdyiiaTa apyopeva 
Kal TTpoatfrdia-Bixi KaX irpoei/ireiv Tois aXXois- raura irnrpa- 
KTat /ioi, »cai ert Tiis eKaora^ov ^paSvnjra^, okvov^, s 

5, 6. oOi cii:...[i£J' ^{,..«!ic ){...BiSi rapa S. L, ist three vulg. (for Isl ouj', air 
Ai; for last oiiSj, vulg. oij). 6. vajii om. S' (aiided in mg.). 7. ri TtXtirraJa 

Z, L; t4 T(\(uTaIa ipiiijr L', B (corr.), vulg-; ri tA. »vr Ai. a, 

ga«S. 3. aiffxi5«; S; aJffX'J'TI (■"■ -rif) L, viil^. 3. rijj toD Y. 

4. yryri^!''**' Ai. ^d/j over Sij V6. 5. oirSl t^^i Vb. 

i S4«. I, y om. Y. 1. \art8dF<T< S, L; Xi/i-^ari vulg. 4- '(W- 

ala0t<reiu Z, V6. 5. v»aivV6. 

reference to his recent embassies into 
Peloponnesus, which kept Philip from 
conquering Ambracia (cf. IX. 17, 34); 
and in [xii.] 8—10 (Philip's leiter) to 
one to the " kings of Thrace," Teres and 
Cersobleples, which was probably con- 
temporary with that to Byzantium. See 
Hist, as 59. 63. 

9. SvXoit xwrtrrpHnu, i.e. he de- 
cided these cases by throwing his sword 
into the scale. Of course this has no 
reference lo the embassies to Byianlium, 
Thebes, and Peloponnesus above men- 

g S4a. 1. raftr' dmiriCi, ynu eaJI 
m, lo acCBunlfcr Ihtir (g i44*)- 

1. <lt fioXaitfav : We^t. cites Aesch. 
III. 148, 151, IS5, and 17s. In these 
Demosthenes is ridiculed for having run 
away at Chaeronea, when the whole 
allied army was put to flight. Aeschincs 

is never chained with this; hut he was 
probably nut in the battle at all. being 
over fifty years old. Probably Demo- 
sthenes refers also to the nickname 
BdrroXoi: see note on | 180*. 

5. Tip ir^vf, the lift. 

6. TV* ffo^amffuftiim, the cambatants : 
§g J08*. I US'. 

J. tiHivat •■ used metaphorically. — 
<nKLi4t, ara,(Tcai-i/(menIal1y) : cf. % 110*. 

g 948. 1. Xa^Pavm: plural, as he 
turns suddenly from Aeschines to the 
whole assembly. 

j. \mvf...ifyifif/Pf^K.T.\. \ no one can 
read the caTlier orations of Demosthenes 
in the light of later events without feeling 
the justice of this claim to sagacity which 
he puts forward. He, indeed, of all 
the statesmen of Athens, saw lAingi in 
ikeir htgiHaingz, and steadily warned 
the people of the coming danger. 




ayvotas, ^iXoveiKuxs, a iroXiTiKo, rals noketri 'irp6<r€cmv 309 

andaai? Kai ovayKaia afiapn^fiaTa, ravff att cU eXa^^iora 

<rv<rrcrXai, KOt rovvavriov ei; ofioi/oiav Koi <fnXiav Koi tov 

ra SA)i'Ta iroteu' opfi.'rjv trporpt^ai. koX Tavra /xot iravra 

10 ireiToiifTat, xai ov&eli; p/rfnoff ^^PU f*'"' ^f^ owSii/ eXXct- 

247 <l>0ev, ft Toiwv tis epot-d" ovtlvow Twjt ra TrXeZora *i\iirJros 

wi' Kareirpa^e SvyKijo-aro, irai/res Ai* etiroiec t^ oTparoweB^ 

Koi r^ StSofai koi SuKftBeipfiv rov; cttI rati' wpaypdrotv. 

ovKovv rSiv fiev Swdpewv out€ Kvpio^ ovff' -qyepav -^f eyw, 

5 fiJore ov8' 6 Xoyo? r^f Kara raOra irpajfOevratv wpo^ ip^. 

Koi pifv T<fi 8ut<f>ffap^uai yjyrffut<Tiv ^ pj) KeKpdrrjKa ^i- 

6. TT)M«a (for roXiTijca) Al. col (for rui) O. 7. ut (I O; til om. L, V6. 

iXix^ara £, L; i\ix^<"<" vulg. 8. irworiiXu (r with .) S; <ri«T^(u V6. 

^xiar iyaytir Al. j. Hjr over tad Z; rJj* roD L, Lips. 9. Tp/^ai ♦. 

TiirTB >u>t V. 10. ^4iror( dtSpJiruv vulg.i dr0f>. otn. Z, L*, Ai, 1. <Opp Z, 

L, vulg. ; eO/KH F. ri near' ^^j vulg. ; -ri om. £, L'. iWnipeiv (one \ above) 2. 

3347. t. l/».ro4iTi»oC» 2, L, Ai; ;«■. *p. vulg. 4. awa/i^tiBr Ai. 

5. tit i/U F, ♦. 6. TV a.o^. X*'- i f* 2, L', Y, ♦ {yp), Ai : t^ ^ij !"»*«. w>. 

L (corr.), B, O'; nji «0ap^i xp- V >^>l Al; r^ Aia^. Xl^. 4; ri Aa^. xp- 4 M 
West.; roC >( a.ii(i«. XP' Bl. fipdnj.a Aj. ♦Rmrw 2; *iMirrou L, vulg. 

6. iroXiTUCil Tott -wiXMVi, initrml in 

(Jta) govtrnmttits : a striking case of a 
favourite Greek form of emphasis, which 
repeats the idea of a noun in an adjective- 
Here (he whole idea could have been 
expressed either by xoXiTiirii or by oIntiB 
roil TdXffft; but it is made doubly strong 
by iroXiTud toIi TiXwi. The Greek 
constantly emphasizes by what we should 
call tautology, as in the repetition of 
negatives. In Aeschyl. Ag. 56, o/u*i- 
Cfioor yhar iivpiof, u'e have a remarkable 
case of emphatic repelilion, where the 
whole idea could have been expressed by 
oiiiruw yior ijil», lAriil cry of birds, but 
the idea of cry is added in both adjectives. 
riXeiri here has the same reference to free 
governmenla which is usually implied in 
loXiTtlo (see note on g 6;")! cf. Soph. 
Anl. 737, rAXit yi,p aiK taS' ijtii irSpbt 
iff irii. With the whole passage cf. 

7. ih belongs to tit i\ixi«ra, into the 
stnatltit postible compass: see § 188*. 

S. vwnOuu, to contract: vimtAXh 

ms to shorliH saU, as ii 
Ar. Ran. 999 ; cf. £q. ^31, onvrdXat Toi 

I o. irfin>Ii|T(Lt : 


onS 4 

^T^iroC' . . .o^v : it may be noticed that 
oiiir (not latUr) is the object of mJ iii) 
(Dpji; cf. IV. 44, oiSfrvr' oiiir iiiLtr ai 
li^ yinfrai ruv Htbrruw- This seems to 
show that 06 was felt as the leading 
n^ative in these enpressions. — iciit' Jp4: 
most MSS. have ri iot' iiU, as in § 347'. 

i S4T. 3. ly SlGAvi, by maiiHg 

4. SvrdfUMti-, referring 10 rtparo- 
ri6<f [i]: see note on g 134'. jtai mV 
ry jio^ofi^iu c.r.X. (6) Corresponds to 
Tw* iiiii iiiii/iiiiir, in place of a clause 
with ti. 

J. Tuftni (i.e. Swd)itis) : cf. Kara Hjr 
rTpanniar (3 in^. 

6. TV 8iA^(apqv«u t[ |i,'^, in the mailer 
0/ iiiiig cffmifltd ar nol, for more expres- 
sive than T^ yu4 iia,^8a,fi^at. Cf. xix, 4, 
7, iMp Y* ">'' *'/><><'«> 4 F"). 



Xiwirov m<nrep yap 6 atvovfievoi; VfvtKjfKC rov Xa/Sdvra ^ai* 
vpiTfTai, ovTws o fi'fl Xa^ftiv koI 8ui<}>$apeli vevticrjKc ror 
mvovfXfvov. oxrre diJmjTOs 17 woXt? to kot ifj.4. 

*A fifv Totvw eyi} irap€(r)(6fir)v eis to Sikcucos TOiaura 24 
ypd<j>€iv TOVTOV irtpi ip-ov, irpo^ ttoXXoZs er^poi^ Tavra wai 
TrapaTrXijcrta TOiirois iarlv a S' oi iraPT€S v/xcZs, TavT' 178); 
Xe^tt*. fiXTo, yap r^v P-o-X')^ €v6vs o Sijpos, etSw? xal 
eopaKoti TTovS' o<t' enpaTTov ^it, eu avTot? tow Seli'oZs koX 5 
ifto^epoi^ c/x^£^7}Ku;, rfviK ov&' ayvoipovrj<rai ti $avpaarhv 
rjv Toin TToXXou? Trpo'i ipk, irpStrov /x«c vepl a-aynjpia^ t^s 
7rdXcw5 Tas c/ia? yveapa^ exeipOTOvti, koI ■no.vff o<ra 7^5 
^uXcKc^s ereic' ivparrfTo, ri SiaTaft? twi' ^Xaicati', at 

8. KOi ditupSaptit Z, V ; /iq» iuupS. £ (-yp). L*. vulg. 

% 948. 3. TOiyrurt Ai. F. 3. si om. B', A[. iiuh £, U; ifitU 

tcrt vulg' 5- JupaKiin Uss.; iap. Dind., l>t«r edd. (cf. § 64)*. 6. ^opipalt tal 

Btiralt Y. 8. |3au\(i^rof (after riXtus) Z> (above line). g. ^vXdcw Z. 

7. i ilvoi|M*ot : conative, A« n^Jri 
vieuld buy. 

5. i |ii] Xa^ Kol Gu4ea^l* ( = St 

M f>^f '"t ditipeipTi), better than /ivSt 
Sm^opelt, as it more closely unites the 
corruption with taking the bribd it win 
rtfuscd lo lake the bribe and be corrupttd. 

g a4B. 1. lit Td.,.Tovn»', i.e. to 
justify Ctesiphon's language in his decree : 

3. fit Biimi jpti : sc. rapiirxftft. 

6. Jfip<pi|K^, ilanding amiii, sur- 
routtdtd by: pd^^rni, slaiid, is related to 
toTo/iai as yiyiiira to tliii and xticniniu to 
'X'"-"^*'"' oW...wpi» l|it, iu;i«t mo// 
men might have shmvn lomt leant of 

feeling towards me ujilhout surfirijing 
anyone; this rather awkward transtalion 
shows the force of the construction of 
Baniioinhf ^r (without ir) and the intini- 
live, where the chief potential force falls 
on the infinitive. (See M.T. 415, 416, 
and Appendix v. p. 406.) We naturally 
{but incorrectly) translate when U wntld 
hoM bien ne -wonder, throwing the chief 
force on 0avfusrir ^, so that de seems 
necessary : Blass reads aii' it. The 
principle is the same as in the mote 
(bit Jfr at ravTo roi^ai, you 

■would properly have done this, which by 
a slight change of emphasis might be 
tltht it i]» ai roPro rmfiffoi, it would 
have been proper for you lo do this. The 
same is seen in Eur. Med. 490, tl yi.p 
^1(1$' droii, ttttyyruaTbr ^t not TOuf 
ipaoS^ai \ixouf, I.e. in that ease you 
might pardonably have been enamoured i 
see M.T. 4«i (last examplel, while with 
ir it would mean it leouM have been 
pardonable in you lo be enamoured (with 
a slight change in the emphasis). 

8. Tdt l|tdt YW>)iat, my proposals of 
public measures: this and the following 
xirB' t(ra,...iwpirTtTo do not include such 
general measures for the public safety as 
the famous decree of Hyperides for the 
enfranchisement of slaves, the recall of 
exiles, and similar extreme provisions 
(see Hist, g 80). An earlier decree passed 
after Chaeranea, which may have been 
proposed by Demosthenes, provided for 
the removal of women and children from 
the country into fortified places, and 
directed the generals to garrison all the 
forts on the frontier with Athenians or 
melics: see Lycurg. Leocr. 16. 

9. ■ijB«(Ta£wRJy+wWK«v:seeThnc. 
11. 14, ^uXanit KaTtrriaarTQ mrd yifr 

;, Co Ogle 



lord^poi, Ta «Is Ttt Tiiyri y^p^futra, 8ta rStv i/x^v ^jnjifna'ficiTCtP 3k 
eyiyveTo • entiff alpovfievo^ triTwn^c sk ndvratv efi i^eipo- 
240 Tovtjirev 6 S^/u)s. Koi fiera ravra a^verrdvTwv ots ■Ijv 
eirifiekk^ KOKais ^^e woietv, koX •ypatftat, €vdvva^, eicrayyeXtas, 
irdvra ravr' inayovTav fioi, ov 8i' cairrtui' to ye wpwrov, 
aXXa St' ^K fi.aXta-ff' vw€\d/j,fiavov a.yvor^<r€<T8ai {l<m yap 
S o>jTrou KoX fiifiv^frff on tov« jt/motous j(p6vov<; Kara t^w 
■f)p.€pav eKd<m}v (.Kpivop-qv iyot, koX ovt an-ovoia tota-iKXeot;^ 
ovre a-vKO<f>atrrLa <t>i\oKpdTov<i ovre Ai^vBov Koi MeXorrov 
fiavla out' aXk' ovSh> direipaTOv ^v T0V7oi5 jcaT* epov), hf 

II. i«TArT<^ota.V6;iKW&rT«>y'l\.i. 

% 949. f. ijc om. Aj. 4. iyrofyrtsBai Z, L (Pij over ifff); iTro^fl^ffwflai 

vulg. J. foT-d Ti7» iiitlpar luirnpi 2. A[ (tfj[«J4» before noTi); tari iiii4pai> 

iniintr L; jtoff' U. ax- V- Aj; to*' it. iin.. vulg. 6. oW (for <*r') Y. 

7. ouU (for ist offTt) V. MtXdrrov £, U, Al. I ; HfXirw vnlg. 6. Ti>(t 

( for roiiroii) ♦. 

mil (aril BiXa/^eat, iSarip Si) liuWor iii 
Torrit ToS rM/mv ^vXdffii'. 

10. TiE^p«<i,,.Ttf](i|: this sudden re- 
pairing of the fori ifi cations in the panic 
after Ihe battle has nothing 10 do with 
the more elaborate work on the walls 
undertaken in the following year, when 
Demosthenes was T(ij(avM6f (S 1 13'). 
Lycurgus (44) thus descnbes the general 
enthusiasm : o6k larir ^rii ^Xiicia b6 
TUfiirX"''' i^u^' ''' ''V '■^' xiXiut 
irurjtplar, Srt ii iiiv X'^C" '■4 W'^/w avrt- 
fiiWrra, ol Si rtTeXtirniJrArn Tat f-^tat, 
ei Si rf<f ri SrXa. The same excitement 
prevailed when the walls of Athens were 
hastily rebuilt after the battle of Plataea, 
while Themislodes kepi the Spattans 
quiet by diplomacy : see Thuc. I. 90 — 93. 
On both occasions lombstones were used 
in building the walls, and some of these 
may now be seen in a piece of Ihe 
wall of Themistocles near the Dipylon 
gate. Demoslhenes gave a talent to the 
SUte after the battle of Chaeronea (Vit. x. 
Oral. p. 851 A). 

1 1. a^,rxiirr\y, an extraordinary official 
appointed in special times of distresi to 
regulate the trade Id grain and to guard 
against scarcity. The grain trade was 
ordinarily in the charge of 3 j aiTop6\iuitt 
(ao in the city, rj in the Piraeus): see 

Arist. PoL Ath. 51*. See Dinarch. I. 

§ a*9. I. |i«tU -rafirs, i.e. after the 

first excitement, when Philip's paity 
gained courage al Athens. — ntrrivrmw: 
gen. absol. with the implied antecedent 

1. YP'4''^ ' !>cre in the must restricted 
sense of ardiitary Jmiiic suits, excluding 
(fffBTTtXin, (Wuroi, etc. The chief form 
of ypa^ here would be the ypa^ii *<tpa,- 
ri/uif (§ ijo*). 

3. vtCvTaTaOr'; emphatic appositioD. 
all Ihtsf, I say. — tA hi! iavriv, not in 
their mm names: at first the leading 
philippizers kept in the background, and 
put forward such obscure men as those 

6 — 8. ir6yom, |i«v(a : " the Rrst Is the 
deliberate desperation of a man with 
nothing to lose, the last the desperation 
of blind passion " (Simcox). — ZixriKUowf 
.,.M<U>TOv: Sosicles and Melantus are 
otherwise unknown ; for Diondas see 
i i3i'; Pbilocrates is not the notorious 
Hagnusian who gave his name to the 
peace of 346 B.C. (he disappears after he 
was condemned on the cJirayyfUa brought 
by Hyperides, XIX. 116), but an Eleu- 
sinian (XXV. 44). The imitation of this 
passage by Cicero (Cat. 111. 7)ufBmiliu: 



Toivvv TovroLf ira(n fiaXurra fiht Sui tov^ deovs, Ztvnpov 
Se St* v/ia; KoX Toin oXXov? 'A^fatov^ co-^^dfxiyf. Sikouu;- to 
rovTo ya^ koX oXi^^c; ^cm Kal vvc^ rStv o^otfLOKortav koX 
yvavTOiv to, cvopxa BiKoarat'. ovkovv iv fiev ot; eliryiyyek- 250 
XofJ/rjv, OT aTTe\j>Tq^i^£a'$d fiov koX to fj^po<i twv ^<ftQtv rott 
SiuKotxTtv oi /MTeSiSoTC, TOT* i\ln)<ftCleiT0€ rapurrd /*< 
wpa,7T€tP- €V oU Sc Tas ypaifia^ airf<f>€vyov, €Vvofia koi 
ypd^tw KoX Xfytiv atreSeiKviifirfv 4v ols Se TCty ev^f a$ 5 
iTTe(rr)iiaive<r0e, Sikouo; koi dSai/K>SoKi^<u9 Trcu^a wewpaj^BaX 
fioi wpo<T(Ofio\oyeiTe. rovrtav oiv ovrots €)(^6i>t(ov, rt irpo<r^KOv 
ij tC J^CKaiov -^v Tois vw' ifiov ircwpay p.ePOL^ d€<r6ai. rhv 

to. oXXavi Z, L', Al ; fXXotiairarTiti vnlg. iti^fifi-tir iyji V 6. ii. 6iut- 

Utttbrur O ; i&fw^UK. V6 (so § iSO*')- "■ ^ip f^' ''^ (Kopiiii yidrrur vulg. i 

TVDi^ur Td fllDfUra S, L, Ai (^uiirw V6). 

g aaO. i. tJ riiiitTar iiipm vulg. ; ■winrrm odl, 2, L' ; cf. $ loj'. 3. /« t4 

A^. Y. 4. Iia7pdt {!) for 7fia^> Ai- dW^vyor £, L, F, At ; dr^^vyor 

viilg. J. \iy. naX ypiifi- B. W ««! O. 6. /i« TfTpix*"' Aa. 

7. TfHKTafuXirir''''' O. Tfuxr^iier S, L, vulg. ; Tpoff^"' A 1 . 

hoc pcovidebam uunu>,...Dec mihi P. 
L«D(uli Kiinnum, nee L. Caisii adipes, nee 
Cethc^ furiosam (emeriutein penime- 

10. Sv' i|tai, i.e. thiough Ihe courts. 

1 1 . dXi|Ht, in acterdaatt with truth. 
— *T)p..,fiucavTiaF, to the crtdit efjudgts, 

II. ^fi'^rriti' rd fCopKa, ic^fnotonly 
had sworn, bat] gave judgnunl in aieord- 
ante ttiith their oaths. 

g SaO. I. tr at« itirrpfViXXifLiiv: cf. 
ftp olf ijiidpTCuior, % 19*. 

J. t4 i^Mt TW <H4m': cf- 91 'OJ'. 

366*- Here, as in S 103. aeirly all uss. 
(e»cept 2) add Hiirrai. The mention of 
thii here is interesting, as it implies that 
at this time some penaltj, either partial 
AniUa or the fine of 1000 drachmas, was 
inflicled an the prosecutor who failed to 
get one-lifth of the votes in an <I,ra-yy(Ua. 
As this was partly a state prosecution, 
it was right that the individual prosecutor 
should be betlei protected t^ainst personal 
risk than the ordinary ffm^iitret. A 
comparison of Hyperides (Lycoph. 8), 
iiA Ti ixirSurar oAroIt tirat rir iy&ra. 

with Lycui^;us (Leocr. 3), rir ISlf arSir- 
CflWra, and Pollux (vitl. jl, 53), shows 
that in earlier times no penalty was in- 
flicted on the ilaaYY^W'f who &iled to 
get one-fiflh of the votes, but that after- 
wards he was subject to the line without 
the oTi/iJo. See Essay iv.* 

3. fipurti f4 vpchrMci i.e. the 
judgment of the court justified this clause 
of Ctesiphon's decree (g 57'). 

4. Iwofia •yptt ^ y; opposed to irn^ 
n^ ypijitir: see notes on ypa^, 

;• T<)i <M(rai hr*(n]|ii«fn<rti, fut 
your !tal on my accounts ; this probably 
refers to the official seal of the iuoirnipiw 
before which Demosth. appeared to ren- 
der his accounts (cMurniJ at the end of 
each teim of office. We now know from 
Aristotle (Pol. Alh. 48", i4') that this 
reference to the court as taking an im- 
portant part in the lOBvrai was not a mere 
form of words. See Dem. xix. tii, 
rpocrtXBiir Toii \orftirTaij.,,iiiniyipiiM tiil 
Ka\ar i^ ilt rb itiaffT^piDV in ItSu- 




KTTfo-uftavra ovofia ; ovx S tov S^/iof edpa rtOdfitvov, ov^ 
lo t TOWS OfiMfWKOTa^ hiKaoTa^, oifx^ b r^v akTjdeiay vapa 

351 Nai, ifyria-lv, oXXa to TOW Ke^oXou KoXbv, to fir^efuav 

ypa<jy^i' tficvytiv. (cat v^ AC evBaifi^p ye, oXXa tC fioXkov 

6 TToXXaKt; (lev <}>vymv fiijBewaiTOTe 8' i^ekeyxBeU oSikwc 3 

€v hyKK-fjiiari yiyvovr &v S«i tovto Sucai&i; ; iccurot ir/xJs ye 

5 TOVTOV, M>Spei 'Xdrfpouti., xal to tow Ke^oXov KaXof eiireu* 

9- Sro/ia rir Kr. Y, Al. lo. rapi om. Ai. 

laftl. I. 1. ^(liini-Z, *, Ai; ^i^tili B; ^iryeu' S(7/>), 

Vulg. 3- ^ii^bir 2, L, vnlg.; ^riytr Ai, 

9. riv 8ij|tai> TiMjMrav: this repeated 
approval of the people refers to the votes 
mentioned in g 148- 

10- SiKOO-rat : SC- TiScft^ron. The 
present juiiges are addressed above as if 
they had themselves judged the previous 
cases. — nil' dXi|S<Miv : with special em- 
phasis. ahcT tAv J^udv and Toi>t luoirdi. 

This passage is a dignified' and fittiog 
conclusion to the line of argument lie- 
ginning with % 1J7 concerning the orator's 
acaiant |Xo-riir^ii) with the stale. His 
eloquent reply to the appeal of Aeschines 
to the judges to act as accountants 
naturally led to a statement of the items 
which stood 10 his credit, giving him a 
[lew opporluuitjF to enlarge on his services 
to Athens ; and the allusion to eMuvu at 
thecloM gives a unity to the whole. Now, 
after a brief allusion (3 351) to the cose 
of Cephalus, lo which Aeschines had 
appealed, he passes to ut>other matter. 

% asi. I. rd -reO Kt^oXsv koXov 
may be exclaniatory, Iktrt is tkt glory of 
Ctfhalas ; cf. 1. 5. But laUr is generally 
taken here as predicate lo rh reu Kc^Xou 
(sc. tint). (See Aesch. in. 194.) This 
Cephalus is mentioned above, § 119*, with 
Callistralus, Aristophon, and Thrasybulus 
of Collytus, as if he were their con- 
temporary. He therefore cannot be the 
father of Lysias, Polemarchus, and Eu- 
thjdemus, who opens the dialogue of 
Plato's Republic with Socrates, and was 

M'v^iwaiafijvin the lifetime of Socrates; 
butalater statesman, whowith Thiasybului 
of Collytus was a leader of the Theban 
party in Athens, atid highly respected. 
Dinarchus (l. 76) speaks of the people of 
Athens as arpan^y^ t^tr roioi^uv rfru^i^ 
riit oTajii elxor iprlan, (Fu/iffoiXiyvi 3' fx"**" 
'Apx^» «l Ki'paKor Tir KoXXuWa. Tlie 
generals mentioned were Conon, Iphi- 
crates, Chabrias, and Timotheus ; and 
Archinos was one of the restorers of the 
democracy with the great Thrasybulus 
in 403 (Aesch. II. r;(>, in. 187, 195). 
For Cephalus see Schaefer t. 143, 144. — 
rd...i^^Lv, /Ae (glory of) nfvir being 
under indidmeiU : ^(rftcr has the best 
MS. authority, and the continuity of a 
legal process justifies the tense ; rA..,0ti- 
ytir would mean simply never being 
brought to jyiri/ (equally good). Aeschines 
(194), after mentioning the boast of AK- 
stophon that he had been acquitted (duV- 
^\rftr\ seventy-live times on the ypiml) 
Trafmrhpui*, compares this with the higher 
boast of Cephalus. that he had proposed 
mote decrees than any other man, and yet 
had never once been indicted by the 
7fB^i) nparjfuir. Demosthenes doei 
not mention this special suit, but he evi- 
dently has it in mind here, as in g 149'. 

4. irp6f Y* vnftmr, so far as this nun 
I! coH(ertted% i.e. Aeschines has done 
nothing to ptevent me from making the 
boast of Cephalus. 



fOTi /toi. oiSefiiav yap vdnor iypa^a-TO fie ov8' iSlta^e 
ypa^riv, totrre vtio a-ov y d/fio\.6yr)( fiiySev ftvat tov 

Ilai^a^o^O' /icw tolwv av ns tSoi Trfv ayvtafUMTVvjjv 253 
awToS Kai ttjv ^aa-Kaviav, ovx ^Kiara. 8* a.<^' £v wepl rijs 

avdpama n/jfiji* irpoijxpet, avorp'ov -^yovfiMi- rfv yap 6 
fiiXTtfrra irpdiTfiv voftCl^tov Kal apitmjv ^eiv oiofievoi ovk S 
otSci' « ^o/eZ TOiavnj p-^xpi 1^5 k<rir4pa%, tiZq -^^prj irepl 
Ttttmjs XcycM' ^ irois oveSCCfiv fjipt^ ; eiretS^ S' oSt^s w/jo? 
iroXXoIv aXXo(.9 <cat vepl rovnav virtpq^ava^ •)(prfrat raJ Xoy^, 
<rK€i^a<Tff, (^ ai'Sjses 'A^i^fatoi, Kai ffeotpija-aff o<r(^ koi 
aK7f6i<rT£pov Koi. avBpaiwtvatTepov iyat irtpl tt}^ ti/;^s towtow 'o 
8wiXe;^^T;(ro/iat. eyw t^i* t^5 TrdXcuf TV)(y)v ayaBiiv 353 

6, fffTO- i/uJ V. 

g asa. 1. TWTaxMw Z, L; ToXXoxW" ™lf- 3- *<iA'K*fl *. B' (e 

over «). L' (?) ; S«X, xtpi t. rilxijt Y ; JitX^x*^ (f erased) Z. +. to*t«?iOj 

i/rlnjTiHi vutg. ; mrr. om. Z, L, F, B'. ^YO"*'''' loi inlJd/rDv, Ai. i. 5. r& 

|3Ar. L, vulg.; riom. Z<, «. f^'" <""- V6. 6. jxA'x Z (accent by con.); 

fi^Mt L (accent on t eiaxed). rototrnt iitrti Ai. i. f^X^ <">' Ai. 

8. inrtp^ipariit Z, L. * (7(>). Ai. 1; iatp^^if vulg. X?S«" 2, L, ♦ {yp); 

KixPt^T^ vulg. T^ onL Y. 10- BiKatiTepor (for Kai dXi^^.) Ai. 11. 3(a- 

Wfowu y. ♦ iyp). B*. 

§9SB. I. T^t T^ Z, L, F, h', Ai ; Tiif itir TTfi vulg. 

6. 4W«t« Tpo^v, freiecuitd an in- t. «pl rijt rtx*!* = see Aesch. iii. 

dkCmaU, cognale accusative, as in typi,- 1141 1571 158, with 135, 136 ; cf. § iit 

\l«ri> ypaip'ir. Our translation obscures (above). 

the construction. 3. SXo* fiv is opposed (o the special 

7- )Li)Blv <tKU: see M. T. 685. exception, irtiSii I' aSrot (7). 

4- ^c, after suggesting the object of 

Hasa— 275. Here Demosthenes re- fx"*' >s the object of oKEr. 

plies at great length to scattered remarks 5. pftTurTB wpdrnif: superlative of 

of Aeschines about his " bad fortune." tt rpirriir. See Soph. O. C. 567 : f{«f* 

which involved in calamity every person, orV <"' X'^* ^ '' <Upta* aiSir s-Mor net 

«tate,or thingwhich hetouched. Though irnO pJrtanF ii/iipaj (WeH). 

Aeschines refers only lo his general /or- 8. vnpi|^iivaM : opposed to ifffpti- 

twu. IJemoslhenes chooses 10 speak rvaniper, men iminattly, i.e. more as one 

chiefly of his fartutus in life, which he man should speak of another; cf. Jcmi... 

compares with those of his opponent. •wpa^piL (3).— xPT™'' "^ ''*W cf- <f 

He concludes (SS 170 — 175) with some Jtnaiui -xph^^in^ ''i X^TV, § 133"- 

forcible remarks on his fortttm in the S aS8. i. r^v...Ti)^i]i'; the general 

other sense- good fortune of Athens, as it is here 

\ asa. 1. i.ftwfntr^'nf (cf. iS 94', understood, is not mere chance or luck 

Vff\, want af felling. (as in §| »7' and 306^, but the rewUt of 

CD. 12 




"^yovfjMt, KoX Tav6^ 6pZ kol roi' Aia tov AnSotvaiov vfuv 
(lavrevofLevov, r^v jliotoi twc vdvrtov avdpairtav, t} vvv 
iire)(ei, \aX€ir^v xai Seo^c- ris yap 'EKKiqviov ^ ris fiap^dptav 
854 ou iroXX^f ko-kSiv ev t^ Trapovrt ncTr^LpaTai ; to ^i* toivwi* 
TTpocXeadai ra KaXXtcrra, xal to r^f oti}$€VTO)v EXX.i^fcm' 
€1 irpootvff' "fifiaq iv fviaifiovLq. Sid^eLV avr^v aficivov 
TTpdrretv, t^s aya^? tv^tjs t^s wdXcws etccu ridrnii- to Sc 
S iTpoirKpov<rai kol p,T) ita.vff at^ -^^ovkofieff TfpXv avix^ijvcu 3^' 

1. 47DU/U1 om. 4. Tau8' £, L, F, ^, Ai; tovS' vulg. iV;iIr Z, L. vulg.; 4^ 

B (corr.), P, *, Ai, V6. no! rbr 'Ato'Uw ('A»8XX«ff Ai) t4» Ucew after u/ur Z 

(ing.)< L (corr.), Ai (mg.). B iyp) without ml. 3. diramin> Y. 5. rtfim 

Kcupv vulg. ; (oip^ om. £, L', F. 4, Ai. 

9 a»4. 3, irpooOTO 2; it^mito L. Al, B', vulg.; rpoiirra O, B'. iftaj F. 

sr {for ir} At, Srir*. airvr Z, « ; svrout £ (7)>) ; avTU* (<>«t Over wt) P ; 

TtiTUr airniw At. t ; airZr iatrur vulg. 5. &)a (for <:») Ai. 1, V, F {yp), 

♦ {yp). i^wUiuff Al. 6^ F: 

divine prolcction and the care of the 
Gods. See the poem of Solon, quoted in 
XIX. »5S, which begins 
'Siitripa. ii TiXii itaTi iiir Aiit ouTOr' 

ariar jiat pani^r 9tS>r ipplrat aSatirur • 
rabj yap litydBvitm trUrtioirot i^piu^varp^ 

IlaXXii 'AffqcaJi) X''P" OrtpSiy ^11' 
with the orator's comment (156), iyii i' 
atl tUr aXifflfl rii \i7i» Toi?ror ir)''>''f«u 

rj)r iriXii. (See notes of Dissen and 
Bhtts.) So IV. 11 : H( T<xDi) ^Tip dtl 
piXnar ^ 4/«ii ^M""' afrrui' ^ri/uXofi^t0B. 

1, Tiv...A«(anuI(n': cf. li. Xvi. ^33, 
ZtC ira Auduvait, IltXav'YuJ rqXiA 
rofur, in the prayer of Achilles. Oracles 
sent from Dodoni 10 Athens are quoted 
by Demoslhenes, XXi. 53 ; cf. XIX. 399, 
i Ztln, i) Auinf (the Queen of Zeus al 
Dodona), rirrti dI Siot. At this time 
Dodona was probably more revered at 
Athens because of the Macedonian in- 
fluence at Delphi : cf. Aesch. III. 130, 
Aif^iw^iji U arriXryt, fbiXimrlfciv t^ 
nuBlar ipiaiaiif, avaJJcvTOt uw k.tX. 

3. rail wiyritv A y ^frnwan, mttnkitui 
in general, as opposed to Athens alone. 

5. voUmr Moiwir: witness the de- 
struction of Thebes by Alexander; and 
the overtbroir of the Penian Empire, 
which was then going on. See Aesch. 

itl. 131, 133; in 134 he includes Athens 
in the general bad fortune which she 
owes to the baneful influence of Demoa- 

|as4. 1. rdvpo«Mr4aiTd.M[XXtffTa, 

imr chaiteof the most gUirieus cowst: the 
whole sentence through cT^inv Tpdrr-Kv is 
the subject of e&oi (4), i.e. he includes all 
this in the special good fortune of Athens. 
1. oli|NvT>n' introduces ti ■wfJxntS' ... 
iwfeir in or. oil. -. rpiwi'TO has the best 
MS. authority here, and in v. ij and xxl. 
111; but £' has Tf>lna#( in vi. & 

3. aMi^: intensive with tu* 'BXX^ 
vur, than these very Greets ; almost 
reiterative.— dCfULCM wpimo': of. fii\- 
Ttora )r/>iiTTti», g 151'. He compares the 
fate of Athens under the Macedonian 
supremacy with that of the Peloponne- 
sians who remained neutral in the late 
war and the Thessalians who sided with 
Philip : see §| 64, 6$. 

4. Tij* rixT* with tlrai rlSTiiu : see 
1-10, ri/iip yipwotJiA aroAuXfv6'ai-..T^ 
iliwripat o/uXclst (Er rtt Sflr/ Sitalwt (with 
the following -ri ii...Siliir), where elroi ia 
omitted. TlSriia in this sense takes the 
inlinitive regularly in or. oil.; see Aesch. 
Itt. 163, 0o6\n TI em ^D^flrai Ml xpi- 
raaScu rif iraureS rp&rif; — t4 81 ■poo-. 
■poSirai aal >iif . . . (rvfj^viu, i.e. our 
ditaittr (euphemiitJcaJly called tollmtm) 



T^5 Twv aXKiav ovBptaTrav Tuj^rfs to inifidXkoi/ i<t> '^/xas 
ItAptK iJ,€ret\7}<ftevat vofLi^tit rffv irokiv. rrfv S' l&Cav TV)(y]v 255 
TffV ifi^v Kal TTfv evos -fffi^v CKaoTOV cv tois tSioi; i^f.Ta.^ta> 

6p6St% KoX SiKaio}<i, C(>; ifiavT^ Sokco, vofiC^at Se Kal vftiv 
6 S« T^i* iSiar Tuj^T^v T^r ifii)v r^s koiv^; t^s iroXcAis KvpiM- 5 
repav etvai <fyr)(ri, Trfv fiiKpav xal <f>av\7)v rij^ ayaOrj^ koX 
/ieyoK-rji. koi ttoIs wi toGto yeviirBai; 

Kal fujv ct y« Trfv ip/qv Tv\r)v TravTim; i^erd^eiv, Al<r\iVT), 266 
irpoaipci, 7rpo5 t^c o-avroi) o-fcoTrei, xi*- evp^s vrfv eprfv 
fiekria r^s crfj^, TraGo'at XolSo/sov^ei'o? avrg. tj-Koirei. tolpvv 
evffifs i$ dpx'^s. icai pov Tipit% Aio; pr)Bfpia.v ijivxpoTrfrct 
Karayvtu prfheti. eyw yap ovt' et Tt? jrcviai' wpomjXaKi^ct, 5 
vovv ^eif riyovpai, ovt €i ns iv axf>$6pOK rpa<f>eU iirl tout^ 
(repvuperaf aW viro r§s tovtovI toS X"'^*"""? ^)^atrif>r}pXa'i 
Kal o-vKOiftavTia^ ei? toioutoi/s Xoyous ipniTneiv dvayKaCopai, 
ois ^K Tftif evotrwi' w5 A** Svvtopat ptTpiwrara ■)(prqa-opa\,. 

6. iiiat V6. 7. *i^poi om. Ai. 

gass. 1. ufi«.Ai,Y, ♦. 3. »o^f« (fria V6. /liroD^vulg.; eiV 

oin.2, L'. Ai. dfiiJi;, Ai; /£mir(.»<*u;L, vulp. +. i>i»2,L. Ai; 

£fur irutiufrr vulg. j. r4|> IJIaf ...r^ vij (i.e. one line) om. Ai (-Xcut lemaming 

>I beginning of next line), added in mg. 

I SB 4. 1. irjxKupd 2; T(}oai/ij L, vu[g. ff-iawoD E, L, Vfi, West., Lips. ; 

ffoin-oD vulg., Bk., Vom., Bl. 4. OiAi £, L' ; Aiit ibJ 9(wr vulg. ;. t^- 

in;Xa((^(i,r «v (Xt'> C over a, and r added above ov) Z, making vparqXaifJ'ti, rdJV. 
7. n>lVr0tf V6. 9. /itrpttiTTara (nff/ 'i7Ta) £. 

am/ Mir dd^ having a/eryliing dtnc ai wt Aesch. quotes Hesiod (World and Days 

viU/ud: this is the object of (urtAinMiwu, J^ofT.) against Demosthenes, 
with Ti...>i^^ IS apposilive, <Ai//^/v[v 3. mti, judgi: "eine selteneBedeut- 

t/iat (mr city has tamed as the share of ung (Hdt. Vt. 87, ifyoiirm aJK^tirSai)," 

the general [bad) forlunt of the rest of Bl. But here afySi is not equivalent to 

manHnd whieh fills to but lot. roiiifa, but obniKrl afi£=r(>(>ro Sftor <&iu 

6. TO hnpdXXov (Upot: cf. rb yi-yti- »ojilfai. 
Iixriir, the guata, % 104'. West, quotes 4. caputs i\/Xv: sc. S«Kt!r. 

Hdt. IV. 115, iwiiXnxiTtt T&r ietiim^- g S99, 4. i(nixpdTt)Ta, Cr^Uhnj, man/ 

rut Tc ^ri^oAXor, and Diod. I. i, ri of feeling; c(.Ti ^vxpir TvGriiSriiiia.XlX. 

jn/SaAXof lriarv.i ix rqi rts-fw^rijt 187, with ShUklo's note. 
/upI^DuffH. Cf. ^iriS((X\«, S t-ji'. 7. x<^^"''i A""'*, unfeeling, stronger 

g 3BB. 1. fr Totf IStoH ; Aescb. had than ^uxpau. 
aought for the form ce of Demosth. it 9. Ik Ti»v.,.|ii*TpMt»mTa, as moderately 

Tcis Srmeflwt, as in III. 114, aviifii^Ka as the state of the ease {ri. inlim) wiil 

oArtfiSrw af Tpoffd.^rjTat...TQifr<iHitKdaTot/t permit. The 0i}ri>uu which is commonly 

dcwroit avfi^ropult rtpi^Xtm. In 135 omitted with an and the superUiive is 

12 — 3 

, Cookie 



357 'E^i fiev t<hvvv vTnjp^€V, Attrxii^, iriuSl ra wpo<r^KovTa 
SiSarTKaXcid, koI ^€lv oa-a \pri tov fi/qhev ai<r}(pov iroirfsrovra. 
8C EvSciaf , i^tkdovTi S' €K Tiaihtiiv a-KoKovda. rovTOt? irpa/miv, 
Xofnjyelv, Tpi-qpap)(v.v, ela-<j>dpeLV, firjSefiiS.^ <f>i.X.OTip,ia<; p.r(T 
S iSta9 fwjre Sr/fiocria^ d.Tro\aTrecr6at, atiXa. koi rp jroXet (cat 
T015 ^\oi.^ \prqa-i.pov flvai' iirt.iZjj hk irphs to Kowa irpoc- 
eX^eiK eSo^e yxoi, TOiavra ii6kn€up,aff iXetrdai woTe Kal3i3 
vwo r^s iraTpiSos koX vit oXXtiui/ 'EXXtji'wi' jtoXXoIj' iroXXaicis 
i<TT€tf>avaKr$ai, koI fiTiBk tous €j(0povs u/ias ws ou icaXa y' 

2(^ fvittav am. Ai. 3. riuJfen' Ai. 

rr.), 4>, O, S. Air' AXXub'EXX. nWHr "Z. L; 

fnri r^ SXXwv'EXX. vulg. o. itrt^nmStiBiii O. ral^^Al. duioX- 

(mg.), y, 6. wpeaiiKew L (co 

ihrA r<at dXXwr'EXX. vulg. 

oftener expressed in the subjunctive (as 
here) or the optative thin \d the indica- 
tive. Its frequent insertiun shows that 
it was always felt. See eapeciaJly such 
complicated expressions as Plal. Rep. 
385 C, ™fl' iam irSpiiirif ttl xXwcrTo* oiir 
Te, lo Iki grealat extent fassible far man, 
which witliout dirSpiirif «'ouId be about 
equivalent to ut rtri w\furTo» : arSpJiirif is 
added, limiting Mr rt ( =ivra,T6r), as it 
Tor irbrrwr here limits iiitv^t. We have 
a£ain an apology, perhaps an honest one, 
for the personal vituperatbn which fol- 



ga<T. I. Wijp{n<: the subjects are 
IktaaiaiKtia and the infinitives (x^i" and 
rpdmu, with i\iiiBai {^). Most MSS. 
insert iiiv Srii ipoiTwr fit after raiSl. — 
Tpo7i{Kain«, i.e. such as children of 
the better classes attended : one of the 
charges against his guardian Apbobus 
(XXVII, 46) is roiJi SiSanKaKoiii ioi>I m- 
rSoAs irrirripi)Kr. 

I. rdv ..iroiifo-ovTa = Si Tocian, he 
■who is to do etc. (M.T. J17, J30).— 
olirxpjv, i.e. inkeABepai : this idea of the 
ignobilily of toil is a commonplace with 
the Greeks, as a slavc'holding people. 
Cf. At. Av. 1+31, t( yip TiBui; ffixTriw 
yip o6k irim-at^ai. 

3. aniXtn^ «pdTT«v is explained by 
the rest of the clause, xfTr^'-lU'^^l^^ 

4. x^PtY*^! ^(>"IP"fX*^' teKtimony 

about all his Xjpvapylai is given in S t6';. 
He was xopTV^ 'n 350 B.C., when he 
was assaulted by Midias (xxi. I3tf.) ; for 
his numerous trierarchies see XXI. 78. 
154, Aesch. [II. 51, 51, and cf. 8 99* 
(above) — ■Iv^jpfii', to pay the rla^pd, 
or property-tax : this was assessed " pro- 
gressively," the richer being taxed on a 
larger proportion (Tlfiijjia) of their actual 
properly than (he poorer. (See Eispkera 
in Smith's Diet. Antiq.) The guardians 
of Demosthenes, to conceal their pecu- 
lations, continued to enroll their ward in 
the highest class, so that he paid taxes on 
arliHTM of one-fifth of his property (o^la), 
whereas he should have been placed in a 
much lower class after the inroads upon 
the estate. See xxvii. 7, dt yip rV 
3Vliluipio.i> lirtp 4/uiu ■rurn-ifapro caril 
Tif T^rrt Koi itKOm iw&t Kwaioiriai SpaX' 
flit tia^pfif, iom r( ri /i^iora 
taKTT^tAbfoi Tiwi\ttaTa, ttoitptpov, i.e. they 
had me so enrolled that I should be 
assessed on a tIhyhui of 500 drachmas 
(i.e. 6 minae) for every 15 minae of my 
estate: in xxvin. 4 this is said lo have 
made him a leader of the Bymmory 
{■iiyitt^r 1-^ avutuiptia) : see also XXIX. 59, 
and Boeckh, Staitsh. 1. p. i;99. See note 
on 8 103'. 

7, AirTt, with perfect and present in- 
finitive: M.T. 590, 109. 

'. »»3- 




•ijv a Trpo€tX6iJ,T]v iwixeipelv \eyeiv. iy^ f^ ^ roiavrg 268 
trvfi^ifiUoKa Tv\f], KoX iroXX' &v f)((i>v erep' eiireiv irepi 
auT^S ?ra/>a\eijrw, ^vXarrd/iei'o? to Wvirfjtrai tiv' ev ots 
cefMvvvofiai. ai) 8' o o-e^cos di^p Kal SwiTmJwf tovs oXXous 
(TKOirei vpos ravrriv woCa rwl Kexprfrrai nSj^p, Si' ijc Trats ; 
^v wv /^lera ttoXX^s ttj^ ecScia? cV/aa^Tjs, a/xa tw narpl irpo^ 
T^ SiSao-KoXet^ fl'/JotrcS/Mwaii', to /icXav rpt^av icai to. 0d$pa 
<rvoyytl,<av KoX to TraiSayotyetoi' Kopmv, otKerov rd^iv ovk 
€kev64pov iraiSof e)(iuc, d>^/) Se y€v6p.a>o^ rp p.i)Tpl r^\.ov<rQ 2S9 

S S5S. I. S^ om. O. 1. Tepl aiVr^ om. V6. 3. nrat (for nr') Al. 

4. oe/uiit vulg., mosl rec. edd. ; et/irvriiitrot I, L, Vom. J. toiJttj Y, F (7p), 

* {-y/i). B'; afirV O; tbwI O (7^). rotf 2 ; 4»<i((i ♦, Ai ; toI? JJj O. titI 

1 J ri»( vulg. ; roJn* eorr. to tim L' ; Tii'a O- 6. t^ om. valg. ; H,i htiUu S ; 

T^ ititlatX,: see Viimet. 

9BSB. 1. KdlrpAl. 

10- d «po«iXifU|*, i.e. tV ^frifr irpoaJ- 
^•f^i*: cf. g 190". 

g a«a. ]. vv|iPi^Ka...itvrtv; an 
accidenlal Jaclylic hexameter. — wMi dy 
IX«r=TAXX' ir txintu, Ihtugk I might 
ttc: cf. S 138'-'. 

5. ^uXuTrdfumf tA Xmijirsb (M.T. 
374) : the ohjecl infiniiive lakes the place 
of nil \vritaa, which in use had become 
in object clause (M.T. 303 c). 

6. *p4( Tf SkSiuritaXtlf : see notes on 
9 139*-*. 

7. -wfovAp^itv.ailtndingiasasKnaM). 
— tA |iilXav Tftf^v: the ink was probably 
rubied from a cake (like India ink) and 
mixed with water. 

S. iRuSoi'ywYiCot', probably a room in 
which the roiJoTwyof, slave* who brought 
the boys to and from school, waited for 
these to be ready to go home; later it 
was used like JiioinaXniB' for a school- 
room. — i>lirfTini...lx*n> ■ the mention of 
these menial duties implies the same 
condition of fattier and son na appears in 
g 119: but see Blass. 

g as8. In this section and % 16a we 
have a lively comic description, highly 
caricatured, of some Asiatic ceremonies 
of initiation, in which the mother of 
Aeschines is said to have taken part. 
This was some form of Bacchic worship. 

with perhaps a mixture of Orphic mys- 
teries. It seems there was a written 

service (nb pi^\avt) which Aeschines 
read like a clerk while his mother 
officiated as priestess. The initiation of 
Strepsiades into the Socralic mysteries 
<Ar. Nub. 15 J — jfij) probably carica- 
tures some similar worship. Plato, Kep. 
364 B, says of books of Musaeus and 
Orpheus, piffKar ti o^wSo* rafttx^rTiu 
Kauaaiou (al 'Op<piut.,.,.Ka.e' Si Binpn- 
XoDcri, rtWorrtt 01} fLAfOP ISu^at AXKA. rol 
wUktiti [lit Spa Xticen Tt xal gaSapfiol 
dJiojwiriiw JiA flumior tal waiSi&l ^Jofuw 
tiirl ittr *ri iuistr, ilal Si Koi TiktuHiaaai,r, Tur ixfi iruwv iroKiavait iiiiai. 

See J. H. Wright in Harvard Studies 
in Qass. Philol. VI. pp. 67, 68. He 
makes Glaucothea represent a female 
litp-paydpnit, or priestess of Cybele, the 
Great Mother (fiirnip Beuf), and Aeschines 
a niirayipTi)!, or priest of M£n (Sabazius). 
Simbo, p. 471, says that the scene in De- 
mosthenes contains Zo^ofia cot Higrp^. 

I. TQ piT]Tpl TtXoHro: see xtx. 981, 
T\avin>8iiis T^ Toi>t #(daoii> fvrayaiaiis, 
iip' oil Mpa TiStT)Ktr Ufwia, and cf. 949. 
In XIX. 199 we have rit ^ipXoui ara- 
yiyriiaKarra at tj /iijrpl TeXmJsT), loJ ToTA' 
Irr' it SiiUoH (Hi /itffivBait wffpwroii 



Tti? ^ij3A.ov9 aveyCyvoxTKes koI roXXa (rvvea-Kevtapov, rtfv 
[lev vvKTa ye^pC^biV koX Kparrfpi^otv koX Kadalptov ram 
Tekovfj-evoVi xal anofidrTotv t^ m^X^ koi rots niTvpoK, koi 
5 dvicrra? etTTo toO KaOapfiov KfXevav keyeiv €<f>vyoy KaKOv, 
eipov a.p,ii.vov, iirX t^ p/ri&eva vanrore djXikoGt' 6\o\vgai 

•V 2, L', 
\i. ], B; 
ngXiioCr' S, L; n^XuaDrDr vutg. 

■a! KiAiriHr L, Vulg. 

candiitl llu nsl of Ike itremimy : sxtim- 
poS/uu is properly Icci after ntin) (of any 
kind), and generally maTiage, direct, 
deviie, concacl (ofien in a bad sense); 
cf. IX- 17, rd k* nrXDTDiv^ir^ tjKtwapW' 
fM*a* (of Philip). See cxmapia and 

3. Mppt[<n- luid Kpa-niplts* are pro- 
bably tninsilive and govern to^ nXov- 
liifoin, like naStdpiiir, i.-ro/iiTrui', and 
dnnTOi, i.e. dresiing them in fawnskins 
and drtnthing ihtm with wine. See Eur. 
Bacch. 14, rtppIS' 'fafat xpoit, and 
Sandys' note. They are sometinies taken 
as neuter, meaning dressing yoursdf in 
a faiansiiH and pouring out v/ine. Har- 
pocTStion hag, ol iii> in tou rtKadirm 
uPpUa tniiiiiintv ." (oi toOj TtXovninvt 
Sia^wvwTot rtPpirir ■ ol Si trl rsD K^poi>t 
(uKTirir irant riiia apprroi' \iya> (i.e. as 
symbolic of the sufTciingi of DionysU!'). 
Photius explains KpBTijpffiiw by titrtr.., 
dri Kpariipiini ir roii (iwrn|()ioii arirSiar. 
Diisen quotes the paisive iKpantpioSii- 
iur=iiueuadri)itr from Hesychius. 

4. dvojMliTTin': Harpocralion says: 
ol t*iv AwXMKJtTtpaf dcoiiowrcj' dfri rov 
dvo^t^ fal Xv/ioisiifitms' JAAoc M ftpttp^ 
yhrtfw. oFw ircpirXdrrur rov inrXAr kcU 
t4 Tlrvpa toIi rrtouM^wj, lii \iyiintr 
Aro/idrrtfdti rir ijiiftijna. rrfk^' ifXei^oi' 

^K^M<3>^M<>'(K rd Mi'^oX<n'°^J^'^ rttp' ^^^it, 

yOipiii KararXaai/Ltfoi iri rc^ /l^ -lyitpipjii 
yeriirBcu. Dissen quotes Wyllenbach's 
note on Pint. Mor. p. 166 a: " Lustra- 
tionis pars erat ut corpus lustrandum 
circumlineretur el quasi circumpinxeretut 

imprimis lulo, w^\ip, turn absleit^ielur, 
quormn illud est wipifiAmir, hoc dro- 
ftima, sed utnimquc promiscue de lota 
lustmiione dicitut." The whole expres- 
sion then seems 10 mean fiJasferii^ tktm 
over witA the clay and then rubiing than 
cUan iiiilk the bran. 

5. Jvurrdt: the victim is supposed 
to be sitting during the operation, like 
Strepsiades (Nub. 156).— «aBap|ieO : for 
the full force of this word see the 
passages above quoted under 1. 4 ; the 
process was a purification and also a 
charm. — aiXtvav, subordinate to dmrrdi; 
i.e. making him git up as he bids him 
say, ^C^.—t^VYOV ■oKiv, lAfwr S,ipnnv: 
this formula was borrowed from initia- 
tions and other ceremonies of a higher 
character, meoning that a new life had 
opened as the result of the ceiemony jast 
ended. Suidas gives (under t^aiyvt... 
dud'or): TiTTfrat ^'l run drA (scau (It 
xpttrrot iXSinTur. IVat yiip 'AatHn" i' 
Td/uui uTlfeaSai <l;i^0aX^ ruJa i,tirSa,t 
fitrit Jprffrow tapw^v xal ^iporra. I'dia^ 
ir\qi»i ipTur \iyiir ri rpoKtliitrer, tU- 
mroiium- rV ^iri ri tpiiTTar /urapoXi^. 
TO lip tK Twr J|>iwT tai itarSur arktiiia 
Kaic6r IXtyor, See Euslath. p. 1736, and 
[Plut.] Prov. Alei. XVI. The saying 
(Euststhius calls it a rapaipda) originally 
referred to the change from the acoms 
and thistles of primitive life to the more 
ilized bread, but was used at weddings 


The V 

form a paroemiac, and probably belonged 
I some metrical fonoula. 
6. dX«Xv|iu, used especially of crier 
r jAnuts in ret^ious worship or prayers : 
« Od. IV. 767, m tlmOff' ikSKi^t (after 




(reiMtwo/i^voi («al ^tiyye vofjUlof fii} yap oU<rff avroi' 
^Ovfyta-da-t, yxcc ovrm fi^a, oXoXv^ew 8" ov)( vTripKa-ii/rrpov), 
iv 8e rais ■f^fiipa.t^ tou5 koXov; Btda-ov; S.y<av Sia twv ohmv, 360 
TOWS CCTTe^avot/icwjvs T^ fiapa$<p Koi rfj \evKj], tovs 01^19 
rous irapeta^ BXt^aiv kol inrep r^s K€<j>a\TJ^ aXoipStv, koX /^oav 
eioZ a-a0oi, koX inopxovp-€vo^ u^s cEttt^s citttjs w^s, 
i^ap)(o<i Koi iTpfyqyip^y *cai Ktrro^ptK Kfu Xi.Kvo<f>6po<; (ecu S 

^i Ai, B>. 

ci at irdSM L; 
. I; 49iBl.i lA 
•cirro^bpn all USS. 

a prayer); Aesdiyl. Eum. 1043, JXaXi!- 
{art rCr ^1 nohnit: Ear. Baccb. 689, 

8. 4WYY*ff4aL |i^ : the sliong voice 
of Aeschines is often mentioned by 
Demosthenes > see below, §9 180, i8.s'. 
'91*1 J'3'' "f"* especially Xix. 306— ao8, 
»i6> 337 — 340; in XIX. 116 he iays, uifii 
y tl ibXw Kol /i#T« oBtoi ^fl^yf mu, laji' 
(( ^GXor iyii, alluding to his own weak- 
ness of voice. See Dissen's notes on the 
whole of this section. 

% aaOk I . h> 81 rait i||<ifKui implies 
that the ceremonies just described weie 
perfonned by night. — Mirovf, used espe- 
cially of Bacchanals ; see Eur. Bacch. 680, 
ipv ti Sidffow rprit yiirairiliiiw ^op^- 

1. T^ pAfdtf Kol rg Xniqi : see 
Pholius, TaErra i^vtA fiiVTuid i<rrf K(d 
I1 /iin fiAfndoi ir/uybt iffrir S^ur^ ical 
At' o^rftt ri yfjpat (their old hidti) iItd- 
SitarTOf it it \iiri) 6n "Bpa*\tit irtkBiir 
lart^aro Tuirrif. Harpocr. (under \c£«q|, 
after quoting this passage, says, A rd 
Bojtxu'i TcKoliitaM TD \tiiK-^ BT^wrai 

N laJ rir r^t 'Rtptf^lanfl Atirwrai'. rj)' 

pom, teir ral d^fpulSa coXeureiu rap' 
'O/f/ipif ' lipiri S' in 6ti Tif IpCi Ifpirir 
il ixfp<«i'' III' tl"- 389)' (For Dionysus, 
Persephone's son, the Orphic Zaj^us, 
see Uerhard, Myihol. $§419, 4191 438.) 
From fiApaSv, ftnntl, Marathon is saiiit 
lo have been Ofuned (cT. Sirab. p. 160): 
for the fondneu of serpents for it, see 

Aei. HisL Animal, ix. 16. For serpents 
in ihe Bacchic warship, see Ear. Bacch. 
1 01, 697. The white poplar, Xetoj, 
poptdtis alba, is mentioned in Ar. Nob. 
1007. See Bekk. Anecd. p. 179: 4 M 

trrpor /idXat, liitfioKir ti tou ^fov ml 
Tou eariTOtt. 

3. ToAt*>fd<U: see Harpocr., rapcuu 
iroiiiiorTai nni S^Ka rapi rA vopdat 
lalfoui Ix'i*, and Ael. Hist. An. Vlll. 11, 
i rapilat ^ rapaiai ruf^t t^ Xpi"'-> 
tturbi Ti Spjia, tXbti>i ri trri/io, Saiitir 
oi r^Xfpii dXXi i-p^oi, trStr rot ™1 rv 
Slur t^wSpawmiTif [ipir irijiiar ofrrii", 
(bI Iri^purar 'AitjkXi^ioO S^roira eboi 
ol rpirroi roDra iriX'ttrvTa, These 
hannless snakes were thus sacred to 
Aesculapius, and were named waptiM 
from their fat tkttis. 

4. ti6t nkPot: as titS, rvoe, was 
the cry osed in the regular Bacchic 
worship, so ira^n was used in invoking 
Safii^t, the Phrygian Bacchus, All 
points to some Asiatic worship, more or 
less caricatured. — iMjt Am)t dlTnit viji : 
these mystic words stand as a cerate ac- 
cusative with i-*opxoiiiiros i this is wliat 
he danced. See Lobeck, Aglaophamus, 
pp. 651, 1041 — 46, who quotes Bekk. 
Anecd. p. 107: drqt Dt|I- tA lUr l^t 
\iiit,ri ii inp Stii Sa^iDi. ifXXot H 
On* Tir iiinwM. 

5- Vi'VK''* ""^ «painiiMl)> designates 
Aescbines as leaAr of ihe song or dance 
or both : cf. Eur. Baccb. 141, i )' Ifapx" 


1 84 


TOULvff viTo TCiv ypi^htoiv IT poiTafopevofkfviyi, fii<r$ov Xafi- 314 
^avQtv TovToiv evQpvTTTa. Kol (rrpeiTToiis Koi i^Xara, i<f> of? 
Ti's ovK av ais oXtj^ws avTo*- evSaifiovia-eie koI ttiv avTOv 
361 TV)(7)v ; €7r«i8^ 8' €15 tou5 Sij^oras eveypaujn}^ oTTOMrSijiroTe 
(ea yap tovto) — ^eiSif y' cveypaxfyr)^, cv^e'ws to koXXwjto*' 
i^eXe^ot tS>v Ipyoiv, ypap-pareveiv koI virrfpereiv rots a/)X*" 

6. rs(aC>Ta Z, L; tA TOtavra vulg. ffiaiSlur Z; ypifSUiir L. 3. rli £. 

aorir (w. bolh ' «nd') 2; airir L; atrir vulg.; "(4iiu*io>'i>ir«e>' airrirl pr. L«Ur. S, 
nunc imw " (Vbmel). airoC (w. ' and ' ) £ i ai>ro5 L, vuIr. 

Sa«l. 1. TovTiytKi. /Tnai)7'I, L', vulg.; <»-(iM *' O; <«i«i J' o(r 

Aj; ir. y'trryfitp^i am. Ai. j. ffKituiartiii' 2, L, Ai,*; iiTrtpaiifi. 

L*.vulg. <lpx.««j 2, L, valg.; dpx'fw S {7P). ♦ {>/>). V, Ai, B (yp); 

I, ivy-itarrr, Ihe 
iV7 being lacred to Bacchas. For the 
TcadiT^ nirra^lfwi (■gsinil all HSS.) see 
Vomel's note. See Harpocr. under mr- 
TO^i/ioi; tnj» firri roC ■■ ypA^wri 
KiffTo^6par' Tit yiip Xtyap^ar niffrat 
Upit cT^si iktytr tqD Aioriifov Kol rgiT 
tfeoir— Xun>«^pM, iearer of tki toin- 
mnoing-fan, \Un», the myilita iiBRfnu' 
leuthi. See Verg. Geoi^. [. i66, and 
Varro quoted by Secrius on the passage : 
ideo ait quod Liberi patiis sacra ad 
purgBlionem animse pertinebantj et sic 
homines eius mytieriis purgabantur sicnl 
vannls fnimeDIa purgantur. — Kal TOi>A- 
To, i.e. Iktsi ((fo^H jc.r.X.) and liiniiar 

e the Schol., ^nj^ elrif 
fiiPpeyiUrw ; VTfittroSt, ir^aievrriu tlln 
(Harpocr.), evidently from arptipa.— 
VtijXaTa : car' fKktvfiir irri raS trtiKara 

draSntomi, Arra^Uat ri cal xKuimin 
ipeglreoia i^tupdWarTtt, nts ri lip^ 
TtXaCrui tnfiar (Harpocr.), i.e. iarley 
buns, made of ncwly.gronnd (roasted) 
barle]', soaked in honey and covered 
with plums and chick. peas. But Bias; 
is ri^l in connecting r(-4Xara not with 
dXVw but with i\aifv: cf. i\iniip, a flat 
caJu (Ar. Ach. 146, Eq. iiSi); ace, to 
Suidas, ropi ri roil X'P"'' 'XoiircffAu tit 
tXiItos. See Bl.andWest. on this section. 
gset. I. <ttn4t><||iiTaili>rfpd^: 

each deme was responsible for the correct- 
ness of its ytiiiapxtM^r ypofitiaTiiar, or list 
of citiuns. Aristotle's Conslitnlion of 

Athens now gives ue clear infonxiatioQ 
on (he whole subject of the enrolment 
of new citiieiu. See 41': lurtxiiiam 
nif rflf voXitcfat el i( iii^oT4pvr )«7e- 
rlmt AarS/r. iyypi^iorTai i' ill rout 
thuiirai irrutalitra Ir^ yeyanirtf Brur 
i' iyypA^iiii'Tcu, iia^-tr^farrot wtpi a&riiw 
dfiSaarrfi nl SiiitiTat, wpdrtr /lir tl £»- 
KoCai ytyorirai Hfr ^fXt/claii ripi it toO 
rA^ii,...S<i}npcw 3' (/ i\tt8ffiit ivri icaJ 
Y^Twe Kori tbi>i r6iUHit....iirra ii TSEra 
iomtidlii Tiii>i iyypa^tTat i) pw>4.,,. 
^poapoMt St tA Hie fn) (previously de- 
scribed), xXa^ai txitrrtt, no! driXrii 
flat wiirrair....Siiit\8iiiTa- H rw* iut^ 
/rur, Ifti} /mtA ruir dXXai* (iff('. (See 
the whole chapter.) — hrao-S^irvra, SQiHf- 
iaja, with irtit^ y' ftrypi^nit, lefen to 
the atory that his father was a slave, in 
which case it would have lieen impossible 
for the son to be legally enrolled as a 
citizen without an alSrmative vote of 
6000 in the Assembly; while the safe- 
guards a^nst illegal enrolment (see 
Aristotle, above) would have made this 
almost impossible. 

3. Tpoiifwriin* : see U '6i\ togf. 
The occupation of a paid private clerk 
(not that of a clerk of the Senate or 
Assembly) was despised at Athens: see 
g ti7*, I\t0poi ypaii/iaTtit, — (tpxtSfow, 
fitliy e0«rt: d^iSuv is here diminndM 




Sioi;. ms S' ajnjXXayij? jtotc icai tovtov, •aa.vff a raiv oXXcoi' 
KaTTfyopiiq avro? iro«jo"as, ou xar^o^uvos fJ-a A" ovSef rti)»' 5 
vpovTTTjpyfUvdiV Tftl /Acra Taura j8i^, oXXa /iio-^totras o-ai/roi' 362 
Tot; ^apvarovois iiriKakovf/Jvoii; ixeivoi^ vvoKpLTaiSt XifivKK^ 
Kol SatKpdni, €Tpi.Tayti>vi(rrei^, cvKa kol ^6rpv<i koX eXoa? 
<ruXX^yttif ma"irf.p oirotpamj^ iK rSiv aXkorpltuv -)(tapi<av, 
irXeiai Xafi^dvtov airh tovto>v ^ rail' ay^vtov, ou; vfiets irepl 5 
T^s V'^'XI^ TjyfiU'ifco-^e ■ ^v yap atrwovSo^ koi airqpvKTOi 
vpLLv ff/jos TOvs ^earas iroXe/io$, w^' £v iroXXci. rpavp-ar 

4. rdvTa (for T<ir0' d) Ai. 5. lanrvAput Ai. nan^x""" '^■ 

6. fi»)i(>>/i/>'uw Y; rpmrrtrrP^''^ O; rpoirniiriiiJrur £. 

S S4S. 1. (wrViioai dvrAr £, V6. i. Jnlvoii VirwoX. A i ; JMlvdif ■oXoi'- 

/tirtaV6; ixixaX. intr. vulg. Si^jmiu S, *; Zim^inK {a nbnve] L; ^itUmaO', T' 
(2i^/uJ«(w j-to irMpiTiJi'. Aihen. VIII. p. 348 A); 2(>u}Xv 2 (7p), Ai. i, vulg. . 
Si/iujy Y. 3. rXdaiZ.Ai; ^Xalat vulg. 4. irapiir^ irtint A3. 

j. railTW T/xut^uTS L, vulg.i rpali/ULTa om. £■ 7. rf>it Z, L; i (pit vulg. 

ifurB (mg.). ra TsXAd O. 

of ifxi in (he sense of ipxi"' See 
Aesch. III. 11, (ipxV ^OiAn'B' /i^ it*>- 

6. ■riJi' «fM9«i|pY|UvM', a/ your ante- 

% tai. 1. Tott popuorJivLc, lk$ 
Meavy gtvaneri. — SiiiiMKf (so 1\: Theo- 
{^raslus (Athen. Vlll. 348 a) mentions 

Zift^mir Thr ^a(/KT))r (perhaps the same 
man), to whom SmtonJcus the harper 
applied the proverb fityat gMtli tatpii 
ix^6t, dividing the words iiiyai, sflfifi 

3. frpiTaTHvloTMi : a company of 
strolling aclora, such as performed at the 
counlry feslirals, was probably composed 
of two men. who played the lirsl and 
■econd parts and hired another to play the 
third parts. The description which follows 
(cBia (.T. X.) C3.0 hardly apply to the 
fuxpi iitriiria, tA Iw iyptSt, which came 
In winter (see Bl.).— rfK<i..,x«"pt"«': the 
meaning of these much disputed words 
seems to 1>e, that the band of players sub- 
^led chiefly on the fruit which Aeschines, 
as their hired scrvaot, collected from the 
neighbouring fiirms by b^gii^, stealing, 
or buying, as he found most convenient. 
He is compared to s. small fruiterer 
(drii)pi6n|i), who each morning collects 

his load of fruii from farms which he 
has hired, or wherever else he can get 
it cheapest. Pollux (VI. ri8) includes 
drvpiiwiu (with ropvo^offirbt and iiXXa*TO< 
riUigi) in his long list of plat i4>' sit dr 
rtt ij>ei>>ff0(fi). See [Dem.] LIU. ti. 

J. w'KA»...l.yinttv,geUii^mvn{-pXQfA) 
/rem Ihest than frmiyimr plays (centtslt). 
— ott (cogn. BCC.1,,.^yavlt<o4<,i(iAfirijWM 
playtii at tht risk of your lives (or in -uiiich 
yim feugJa for your liva), with a pun on 
the two meanings of iryiir and iyutlSaiiat, 
fight and play : see IV, 47 tu» BTpanryiSr 
ficao-nn iU lai t/Wj tftferai. Tltfi lilur wtpl 
garinv. rpit Bi TQi>t ixepoit oUtli oHi 
arai aiT&r iyurlaaoBai rtpl darirou 
ToKfvft where there la a similar pun on 
Seiitg triti for their lives in court and in 

iS- Strmn^ koI Aic^pMCTot, mthout 
iruit or heraldt Le. implacable, without 
even the common decencies of civilized 
warfare. See Thuc. 1. 146, la/j' JXXjJXou! 
i^Anaw dinjpiirTBi iiir diinrirrwi 8J off 
(before the actual war), and 11, i, offre 
trtplyrvm Iri ijii)puicTtt (after the war 
began): here lieni/i^ arc a sign of actual 

7. Tpaiitor'ttXi)^))! : xeexix-ajtlrt 

liir ro Qvirniv xal rOr trl Tfitif xaxi 4y^ 


1 86 


eiXri<f>ii}'; elKoTw; tovs OTreipovs rStv roiovrtoc KivBvvatv ais 

363 8ciA.ous a-Kwwreis- aX\a yap Travel; Sv r^v irevtav aiTiatraiT* 

av Tts. TTpot airra to. tow rponov aov ^aSiovfJMi KaTqyop^- 

fiara. TOMvrr}v yap eIXov TroXtrciac, eireiSij irore icai tovt' 

iiri)\$€ crot Trotija-ai,, 8i' tJi* cvruj(ou(n^s fih' rfj^ irarpiSoi 

5 Xayoi /Siof ^C^; SeSuI); Kal TpefJMV Kal ael wXrfyqa-eo'Bai, 

irpoaSoKMv i<j>* ots <ravT^ awgZei^ oZlkovvti, h> ots S* 

3M ^TV){~ij(rai' ol oXXot, Bpaovi £v vif>' airovraii' a^at. kcutoi 

ooTis x*^**"" woXiTWW diro6av6vT<t)v i9dpp7)<re, n oSros 

3. tirSirur am. At. 

§a«a. 1. ifl'S, L,0'. Al, F', ♦>; if tSrvulg. H,» om. O. *. T/mr- 

liioH (for rpiwBv gov) Ai. 3. twJtow (for to&t') Ai. 4. iJX« rm V6. 

I. Xayu Z, viilg.; \aya L; XuTur At (r erased). (f«t V6. 6. dJins' 

fri above, w ch. to ou| L. 7. ixb rdrrur Ai . 

rifiro, ^^dXXerc o^rAr val iitevpiTTtn 

oOrut aJffTt TjXtirt-uWiL roDT(jira-^m>T(i> 
Inxrrfiriu. This account of the rSKeiua 
makes T/mil/iflT' here perfectly intelligible; 
but the reading tXtIw,..T|)airfMra in 5. 
(which all MSS. except Z have] makes 
endless difHculty and confusion. If T)Hi5- 
IMTa in 5 is referred to wounds received 
in stealing fruit, compared ivith those 
received oo the stage or after the play, 
there is a stmnge repetition of the la.Iter ; 
if there is a reference (as Westermann 
suggests) to fruit used in pelting the actors, 
it is hard to see how Rgs^ grapes, and 
olives could endanger the lives of the 
" heavy groaners." 

8. m% S«Xd^ oicihrTHt: see g i^j' 

Demosthenes (xix. 146, 147) sa;>s that 
Aeschines was a Tpiro-yiiit'KiT^ also to 
actors of high repute, as Theodorus and 
Arislodemus; and he reminds him of the 
time when he used to play the part of 
Creon in the Antigone with these actors. 
He adils the following: ir a-raai roTi 
tpiliaat TWI rpayttoii iiaiptrir iarui atttp 
yipai TuTf TpiTayiiii'irTtui t4 toAi Tupdrroui 
tal TO*t t4 tfitftxTp' Ixorrns tlciiroi. This 
is mentioned to explain why so important 
a pari was given to Aeschines. 

I aas. 3. KaV emptiasizei the test of 
the clause, Ti>Dr'«^ai, i.e. when at 
last you took it into jour head to try 

i. \a.yi ptof fti|t: cf. Dion. Chrys. 
Lxvi. p. 357 R. Weil quotes Trag. frag, 
inccrt. 373 (N.), Xayit /Slw fffi, i rpi» 
STpo/iM XAvr. "Dicunlur teparii tiitam 
vivere qui semper aniii Irepidique vivunl ; 
nam ut est apud Herod, ill. 108, h U7M 
bri irovrAf ^ptiimi fiijptov Koi ApftSoj Kol 
itffpiirwou, ac ne somnum quidem capit 
nisi oculis apertis " [Dissen). 

7. Bpoo^ dv...Jifai, (M. T. 884): 
personal passive construction. Cf. 33 183, 
1S4, 386. 

i a»*. I. x'^^" Avoeavdvnn' : see 
Diod. XVI. 86, T&f S' 'ASijrolur trtmo' 
lAiir 4p t% ttdxu rXrfoi/r tuv ;)fiXi Wt ^Xunrar 
it nix iXirroirt tiS» iiffx'^'""- See Ly- 
cui^. Leocr. I4I, x^>Mi tAf ifttripur 

S'tiwalf aSroii ^ tAAie fBai/M*. Diod. 
XVI. 88 quotes an eloquent passage of the 
speech of Lycurpis al the trial of Lysicles, 
one of the Athenian cotnmanders at 
Chaeronea, who was condemned to death: 
iiTTpar/iytu, i5 AifttXn, lal x'^'""" M^' 
xoXiTuw T«T(X*lTi|«4riin' BitrxiXdur S' olj;- 
fiBXiiruif ytyor6TVWt TportU^V Si Kordk T^ 
rSKtm ivTtitltToi, r?! ff 'EXXdAw drdmii 




•aad&v ujTO Twv t,^vT(ov Ziko-w^ itrrw ; iroXXa toCwv erep' 
3^5 eivelv ^oif wepl airrov napdK^iipaf ov yap o<t h.v hti^aip.i, 
wpotrovT altrxpa rovT^t xal ovei&T}, iravr oXpAi Setv evjfcpSs S 
Xeyeti', aXk' ocra p/r]8ev al<T)(p6v itrriv etiretf ifioi. 

'E^erao-op toCwv wap' aXKtjXa to <rot kA/jloI fie^i<>a, 3S5 
vp<uiis, p-yj TTiKpas, A.l*r)(CvT]- etr ipwi}<TOv rovTOVO'i t^i" 
itoripov TVX'}P Sar ikoiff" tKaaro^ airraiv. iBiSap-xe^ ypap- 
para, eyat S' iiftoirotv. ere'Xei;, ^w 8' iTeXovpT:)v. ^pap- 
pdvve^, eyo) S' ■^KKXijtriaCov. h-piTayatvCirreK, eyot S' S 
idecopovv i^irLirre'S, iya 8' iavpiTTOv. virep Totv €)(0pwv 
iT€iro\CTev(rat irdvra, iyo} S' vnep Ttj^ irarpiho^. iSt ToXKa, 266 
dXXa wvX T^p^pov iya> pev virkp rov (rTe<f>avai0i}vai SoKipti- 

4. rapaXilru Ai. ta' draSil(<uiu t. 

t SU> I . (Oifiel X i mt/cal or K^iiot L, A I ■ 
T,»tf ■«)««! 2', L, vulg. 3. lOT^wS", L. Ai; 

4. ^^Ki. *yili )' ^^^'''h'O'"'- (after triXoitajr) vulg. , c 

1. rpdui Z'; irpdwi (or 
irortpeu S (corr.l, vulg, 
,. 2, L'. 

Sov\tiic6rtit, (ol Torrun' ivdirur Trymr- 
;t6'ur tfoC ^TOU^tAwu en! m-paTTiytOi'Tilt, 

— rix^Bt kiY«iv, fn ii rendy to ttU : cf. 

g aes. In H 165, tM ihe orator sums 

up vigorously Ihe substance of ^ JJ?— 
364. Weslennann points out thai eaj:h 
of the five stages of the life of Aeschines 
is menlioned in ordei, when he was 
(l) a. schoolmasier's auislant {% ijS), 
(1) initiator [§S i^^.i^), (j) scribe (g .61), 
(4tactor(§i6»),(5)politidaii (88163,164). 
The words commonly leail in 1. 4, ixbptvn, 
iyi) i' txop&Y""! correspond fo nothing 
llul precedes, and are righl}y omitted on 
MS. authority. Many ancient rhetoriciana 
quote these famous aniilhcses with ap- 
proval and admiration ; but Demetrius 
{rtpl ipim'- 150, p- 105 W.) disapproves of 
them on rhetorical grounds, saying nurirre- 
XfoiVTl 74fi loiKI icA T^ (b-rariAwir, 
fuXXw St voJfom, ti* irfaratraHtTt. 
We are again shocked by the opea avowal 
ofthedisgmce of earning an honest living; 
the andents were certainly more honest 
than awny o( our generation in tjifreaing 

passive of it,..j3(- 
ftiinafK»(cf. i 130'). 

1. «pdMf: Spengel quotes Rhet. ad 
Alex. jS, itiii witp^ Ti} ijeti nil iftriitir 
dUi xpaii' roSrur ydp rir rfiwor el 
X4t« yiyrtiiaK* riSainirrepoi ^uiiJinwTtu 
roll ixoOoaatr, ol ti WyiwTfi oilroit ^wro 
Biafia\ouirtf, as referring to this passage, 
and uiges on this ground the omission of 
*$/i<iTo. tY<^ a- hripiTTQ,. (See Spengel, 
Preface to Khel. Gr. 11. p.xviii.) Blasa, 
however, doubts the rtference, and ex- 
plains rpiun Bs a sarcastic allusion to the 
bitterness of Aeschines. We could wish 
for some sufficient reason for discrediting 
the words in question, chiefly out of regard 
for Demosthenes. 

4. i^rai>, uitnt te school: ct. Ar. 
Nub. 916. i-i at It ^HTov odMf iOiSti 
T&r iMpaxiur. — MKo<if,r^, probably into 
(he Eleusinian mysteries. 

6. IffvMrm : iKwlrttur, exigi, is used 
as a passive to lufliWar; cf. XtX. 337, 
iitpiX\tTi airiv lal ^iruplrrrri in T&v 
etdrpuy. See Arist. Poet. it". 18". 

g 984. 1. W)fi..,5oK4i^to|UHi: la- 
Ki/iaala is any investigation to test the 
fitness 01 competency of a person for any- 
thtt^;, as for office (its ordinaiy meaning) 



^Ofiai, TO S^ fiTjS' oTtovv aSiKcii/ a.v(afio\6Y/)ftaL, iroi 8c 
crvKo<f>dtrr[) fiev ftvai SoKCtf viTOLpj(ei, KwSvveveis Sc etrc Set 
S (T* eri. TOVTo TroMty, en-' tJSt^ irejrauo-^ai /f^ fieraXa^ovra to 
w€[iiTTov fkepos Ttav })f^tf)Q}v. aya6^ y — ovx o/5^s ; — ^Xff 
trvft^e^iotKot^ rfjs efirj^ Karrfyopci<i. 
267 ^'p< 8^ Koi Ta5 ™»' XgrovpytSi' fiafyrvput^ Sv XeXyrovp- 
yijKa vfiXv a.vayvS>. wap' as trapavayvwdi koX <rv fioi Ttts 
pyjtreLi as eXu/Aaicou, 

^Kw veKpSiv KevBfjiSsva koX vkotov irvXa;, ■ 

KaKorffeXetv fifv Xa6i fij) Sikovrd fit, 

gaaa. 3. rC (for rol) V6. 4. ^T'tr,i,X<rtT«eroV,Ai. s- ^i 

rinwTor lUpbt MSS. ; winrror om. DJnd. (cf. § 103')' <>. dTatfp 7' 2, Ai. •; 

d7. !■ L, vule- 7. ffu/iflf^iHii Z (^ ch'gd 10 u or .«), Ai; fo^t^utiriit O". 

J/ifit I. L'i ?^iji lilt ^aiifii *ulg. 

§9«7. I. \tiT<ivi>yiiy (1 uvcr >») £. 1. dtn-yvu, rdp' « £, L>, *; 

irayrCi riaat vulg. rapari-fruSi Z, L, F ; irsf)avd7. <!JI O (4^r in nig.)< Al. t, 

B; TU/jnriy. J' i^fuip vulg. /ioi om. vulg. 3. Au/ijjuir Al, -d»(ii Al. 

4. vttpiit (Am over f*^) 2 : ^ta \iruir L, vulg. ; XoixJi- V6. 6. xanayytXtU 

B. Y; Km' i-fyiWit* -L. Ai (corr.) ; Kaiarr^XXtir L, 4>, Ai', V6; ndc' dyye:^!' vulg. 

or for citizenship; and •Suifuij'ivuu here 
implies that thji trial is to test his tilims 
for the crown. 

3. T4....lt8uHlV di'HiMUYni'*^ - <='■ 
9 86*, irbiiuiMrf'iiuu tA ApioTa irjxirmi-. 
The articular infinitive in or. 06I. is rare 
(M. T, 794, 743) — vA *w«lj>x». '"' " '" 

4. KicSwtAo* corresponds to 8oi:iM{o- 
fui (1) : ihe meaning is, tkt gutilion wilh 

■0 on btmg a 

., ,.- _, -J bi stopped 

{once for all}, i.e. by i-npia (c(. g %t\— 
li «^|Mrro* (iJpM : Dindorf omits r^/nrrw 
because il is omitled in §j 103, iia, 150, 
whereas it appears in other speeches fre- 
quently (e.g. XXII. 3). What modem 
orator 01 writer would submit to such 
rules of consistency as critics im)>05e on 

6. irixdp^; cf- '3*°- 'Bi*. 

g a«9. 1. ^^...ciiWYM* (M. T. 
157); the orator does not read the tes- 
timony hinkself ; cf. \t^ (g). So ^jx. . . 

(Iru, XIX. 169, followed by Xfyt. — Xlj- 
TowpTuh' : this includes the public services 
mentioned in xapfTV*'* '"<! ''fXflxVX"' '^ 
S iS7*( but not tbripfyar, as ihe property 
tax waa not ■ Xjjroupya. 

3. IX-intxdvBv, uifd toBulrage : cf. ^r^ 
rpifat, § iSo>. 

4. tJkii...«wXm: the fftcuia o! Euri- 

^Ku nKpSv ftuS/tara xal axirov ruXoi 

iliAiSupBi, 'Eicipj]t rats. 
All MSS. except 2 have \atiir for nKp(^, 
making the sense of (he quotation com- 
plete. But such a change is unlikely in 
so familiar a verse. 

6. «a>aYYi^^.--|u: thisverseisother- 
wise unknown: (uary^"' must be pres. 
inlin. of nraYrfX^ufotherwise unknown), 
depending on 0/Xwra. The readings of 
the best US5., KtuiayytXXtv or tit' iyyiX- 
\fir (S), are plainly impossible. W«l 
refera to Eur. Tro. 703, oOx iniir yip 
iyyt\u (.r.X. 


nePI TOY 2:TE<t>AN0Y 189 

Koi KaKov KaKwi <re fjbdkioTa fi€V oi 6eoi eireiff oSrot 
wavres diroXea-nav, irovtjpov ovra xal iroiUnjv koi rpira- 
ytiipicrr^v. X^yc ras ii.apTvpia.%. 

Ev fi€v Toivvv Tois TTpoi; T^i" tt6\lv TOiovTOS' hf Se TOIS 868 
316 (Su>i,$ il fiTf Travres wttc oti koivo^ koI tfukat/dpioiroi Kol T015 
oco/xo'oi; eirapKav, trtamm Koi ovSec if clttoi^i ovSe irttpa- 
<rxpifjL7)v vfpl TOVTwc ovSc/uou' papTvplav, ovt €t rtfa? ck 
Tftic iTokepiotv iKva-dp-rfv, ovt' ei tuti 6vyaT€pa<i crwe^StuKa, s 
ovT€ Toii' Totorraiv ovSeV, Kat yap ovrto Trtus vweOvrjifta. 288 
eyd) vop,i^(t> rov p.kv e5 vadovra. Seii/ pepv^crdai iravra rof 
-)(fi6vov, Tov hi TroiTjtraw' «v6v% ^■jriXeK7J<rOa,i„ el Set to** /lei* 

7. fnirs « viilg.; M om. £, L, Ai. 8. rdiTci drDX^aeiv o»r«t At. ml 

roXin;!' S\ L, F, 4> ; jral onj, vulg. Eoi rpod^npf (atifr roXiTifr) vulg-; om- 

2, L, *. B', Ai. 

I aas. 3. iriipafrx<i'>"r 'i' rulg.; Ar om. Z, L, B, F, 1>. 4. nrat 

om. O'. 

I S«S. 1. lUr om. V6. Tdvra rir xpiov £, L, «, B. Al. 3; rtv irvra XP- 

Tulg. 3- T^ t' tS TM^ffarra Ai ; eC om. £, L, vulg. ; eS above lice B. 

ttMr (after rift>i) Y, B (yp). (mg.) ; oilrfflf * [yp). F (yp), Ai (after frA.). 

7. The words Kajci* ic<M*f r<,«o- 
Xiraa* are probably aa adaptation of a 
verse quoted from I-ynccus by Athenaens, 
IV. I JO C< kokAt KcMidi irj ■<-f^ iwaXiaaar 
ai Seal, or both may go back to the source 
of Ai. Eq. i. 3, xar&t na^Xiyom ■ ■ ,iro- 
Macior oi Stol. See Blass. 

S. nvi]piv: with both ra\tnir and 


S !••. 1. Koivdt, in pahtic relations, 
/dWii: spirited, in private matters (ax here), 
devoted, at the scrvict of all: cf. Isoe. 1. 

It <tA\oit 


3. aW* £v <(r<H(u, / ^if ro/il/r not 
mentiim anylAing. 

4. <t TLvot 4Xi)ri{tM|v: these were 
Athenians captured by Philip al Olynihus 
in 348 B.C., whom Demosthenes ransomed 
in 346, when he was in Pella on the 
seconti embassy (Hist. §40). See xix. 
166 — 17a. Dem. lentvarioussumElothesc 
prisoners, which they paid for their ran- 
soms; when afterwards Philip set all the 
other prisoners free without ransom, he 
forgave the first their debts lo him (Wuna 

Suptir tA. \(iTpa), which otherwise Ihey 
would have been strictly required by law 
to pay (XIX. 170). See[l.[l!.] ii, nl f6^« 
nXntoMTi ToS \vaaitlrou in tut iroKtiiiuii 
tbiru tAh "KudivTa Hv ^^ drofiJ^rd Xirpa: 
but this is hardly sufficient authorityfor the 
severity of the penalty, pemonal slaveiy. 

5. s-ur^^SHica, i.e. A(^^ poor citiiens 
le endow thiir daughters : giving a dowry 
was an important part ofyivinga daughter 
in marriage: see Meier and Schomann, 
PP- SI3 ff- 

6. oftTi.,.o«6fr, nor anything tlsi ef 
the kind. These words are rather loosely 
connected with the preceding clauses with 
sfrc: in all lhreeaffT« repealsthenegative 
of oJUv Ar (Cirai^ r.r.X., so that the con- 
struction here is otfi-f i.r elTUfu rSa rwoii- 

g !••. I. imtXi)^: cf. i/rdAqM^i 

1. fY4...8itv: an iambic trimeter. 

3. Toufwin': sc. ei.- — fnXtXijrSai: 
cf. xmSaioi, g idd*. 



^(prjOTov Toi* 8« fii) fttKpofjfv^ov wouiv epyov avOpamov. 

S TO Se Tov tSias eiiepyea-Ca^ viiOfu.fLvg<TKti.v KaX Xey^i-v fUKpov 

hflv ofjLoiov icrrt t^ oi'ciSi^eu'. oil S17 iroi/^a-to toiovtov 

ov8h>, ovSe irpooj^drftropat,, dXX' ottws iro^ v7r€tXij/*/«it ire/ii 

Tourotf , apKei fioi. 

370 BovXo^ai Se ruf iSi<i»' airaWayeU ert fiiKpa irpo% Vfia^ 

elireiv jrepl rotv KOivStv. d fieu yap ^X^^^' Aio^ii^j, rav vtto 

Tovrov Tov ijXlov elireiv avdpiarrtav ooris 6,6^0% Tr)<; ^lKIttitov 

irpOTipov KOii vvv t^s ' kke^dvZpov Suvaoreuis yeyoviv, ^ 

5 TtSi' '^W-qvatv ^ tSv ^apfidpwv, etrrta, <rvy)(apM t^v cft^f — 

ciTe TvxV^ ^""^ SwoTVX^"'*' oi^J/ta^eii/ ^ovkei — wavrmv yeyevij- 

4. (UKpo^t^xp*" if erased) Z. 
S 270. 1. ^^ Ai. 

vulg.; < S.L'. Ai. 

TOI'TOI' 2, L; TouiwJ vulg. 5. ffuyx"/*^ ' 

mirTU* alrlar L, vulg. ; aJriar om. Z', Viini., B 

4. |uit|>a'|r^aii; see note on $ 179°. 

5. wmiuiivilirKiiv, le. /0 it aliiiays 
catling I" miad. — (uKpofi Etfv, the full 
foim of fUKfwG. almost (M. T. 77<)): cf. 
g 151'. West, quoles Cic. Lael. xx. 71, 
odiosum sane genus hotninum officia ex- 
probrantium ; quae meminisse debet is in 
quem collata suni, non cDinniemorate qui 
conlulit; snd Sen. Betivf. 11. \o, hacc 
enim benelicii inter duos lex rsX: alier 
stalim oblivisd debet dali, alter accept! 
nunquam; lacerat animum el premit fre- 
quensnerilorum commemoratio. Pericles 
(Thuc. II. 40) looks 11 the matler from a 
different point of view: a£ 7ap Ti.txarrn 
(3 dXXct ipvfTti KTiiiiuea Tait ^out' 
K.T.\. See ihe opposite view of Aris- 
totle's strange /«7<tX4^^rxoI (Eth. iv. j, 
95) ; iojietHrt Si (ol iiyrnwniitai dIi it 
im^"""' <^> iw J' If raduKTur 00. There 
is a New England saying, "If a man 
does you a favour, he follows you with a 
tomahawk all jour lifetime." 

7- wfKMxhftropai : cf. vpo^rx^' (sc. 
rcifu), VIIl. 71. — tm% vwtCXi||ifLai, aj I 
have betn tatderiloed, i.e. the general 
opinion which has been formed of me. 

8. AfMnCjMi: sc. dOtui ^(iX^dni. 

Sf a70— fl75. We have here a sort 
of peroration to (he discourte on Fortune 

(SS 151— '76). in ""hich the orator comes 
at last to the precise point of his oppo- 
nent's remark, thai Demosthenes has 
brought ilMuck upon every person or 
state with which he had to do (Aesch. 
III. 114). Hitherto Demosthenes has 
spoken far more of his "fortunes" than 
of his " fortune." Sec remarks before 
notes on 9 155. 

I 270. 1. IW toOtov Ti» iiXuii<, as 
we say, under tht Suit ; " klingt fast 
poetisch " (Bl.). See II. v. 167, Jffir« 
lairai lir' 4w r' i/iXiir rt: Od. XV. 349, 
^tbovtiw inr* a^y^f IftXlaw. In prose 
irwo with the accus. generally implies tx- 
tttuim iffwartb something, an idea which 

3- <iS^*>*i UHkarmtd: cf. g ii;^ where 
ve have the original meaning, fra from 
*wi}, penally, as in xKlii. 78, rainit iiir 
{iltitt) iB^oi d^Icrai, hi it aeqttilted. 
4. tnrmmlaa : see g§ 67', 31J^ 
6. irdi-TW 'ycyivi)T6cu, has /alien te 
the lol of us all: the subject is Hj* jfij)r 
...iurTTuxfo*, and itirrut refers to alt Iht 
AiheniaHi (cf. % 171*1 opposed to tut 
/H,B«i4iroi' M&TW i^ in § 371". He 
would admit (he implies) that his own 
fortune had extended to Athens, were it 
not that foreign states had suficred ibe 
same ill fortune. 



<r$aL. ei Sc koX t^v ^^jSeirwrror' iSoiTtnc e/ie /tt^Se <f>oivr}v 871 
dicrjKOOTtiH' ifiov iroWoi iroKKa Koi Seiva TreirovBaa-i, fj,r) 
fiovov KaT avhpa, oXXa koi iroXeif oXat kol tBvrf, irotr^ 
SiKaiorepov koX akrfBdoTepov Tr/v ava-vriav, it^ ioiKev, avOpd- 
■trotv TUXT* KQiV7)v KOI <ftopav TWO. npaypATtav xa^«r^»' f «i S 
ow^ o"*** fSet TOVTtitv alriap Tfy€l<r$ai. trit toLwv ravr 373 
d^el; ^jn^ TO*' irapa tovtouti veirokiTevfjLS/ov airi^, koi txivt' 
7 eiSa>; ort, Kat ct p,7j to oXoi', pipos y eirt^oXXet t^s jSXao"^- 
/ua5 aTTatrt, Kat /taXitrra irot. ci /lei' yap eyai KaT e/iavroi' 
avTOKpdrtap Trepl rS>v irpaypdrotv i^ovkevoprfv, tJi* &.v toi? 5 
aXXoi; p'qroptriv vpXv ep' airtatr^oi- ei Se vaprjre ph> ef 373 
Tais ^KKA.'tjo-iats airaouis, aei 8' ei/ Koti'&J to <Tvptf>epov tj 
woXis iTpovTiBei, a-KOviiv, Tratrt S^ raur' cSokci tot' apioT 
etvai, KOI jooXwTTO troi (ov yo/j ^tt* fvvoi(f, y ipoi ■jrap€)(apeti 
fkwiBtov Kai ^ij\ov KoX npStv, a wavra wpoir^v Tots totc 5 
TipaTTopivovi VTT ipov, oXXa t^? dXi^dcia; ^ttw/ici'os StjXok- 
OTt Kot Tcl p-qhiv €)(iiv civiiv jSeXTtov), ttw? ovk oSikeis koi 

gS7I. I. il^uir (> above line) Z. ^^ om. Ai, 3. ^w om. Ai. 

drjpat V6. 4.. Kol iXijS. oni. Ai. 5. MoHJi' F. 

9 272. I. sialrKi. 1. TovTOiriri L. w6>iiTtttbitfri>f O. 3. (t 

/li^ col Ai. J, 5. atTO'paTup i3r vulg.; iir om, S, L', Ai. 6. l/ii OBi. O'. 

S 37S> 1- dTdrui, del S' 6- ivu^ £, L; d'amiH d<l, 4r xoirif Si vule- 

3. TBirri Y. T*r'«4i.« Toifr' V6. 4. 7Jyiw Ai. 7. t4 (for Tijj)*; tS* O". 

^971. 3. kot' fivEpA, i.e. i'nA'fu/uai&, Kar' ^ukvriv aAroiiptl'nip, an oj- 

as opposed to TiXtit and Wrij. id/h/^ aulotral : cf. mtrAt aimrpirwp, 

5. +Bp^ Ti»a vpa^Tw, .1 ««A of % 135'. 

CTYB(f; ^(xt in this sense \impelui) g 978. 1. iv lto^yf...lrpo«WB«n^«- 
belongs to ^tipoitai, used as in j9I(t ^p«- vftv, put forward for puhlic ctmsiJtraiiaH ; 
TW, Flal. Phaedr. 354 a, and ^ipb/uftt, cf. IV. t, el rcpl ccuraD ruot vpdYfuroi 
toi/A a rutA (M.T. 837) ; ipopir, crvfi, in rpairiatTo Mytir. See S [91', rpariBTiin 
S6i', belongs ro^^pa, 4«ir,/rBrf»«. ;9ov\ii», and g 136*, ;f Imu upoirietrt. 

6. oijx lAiv ISt^ nut w4b/ >y should be yiliiMt xporiBirai often means to open 
(present in time, M.T. 417}; K« here adtbaie: cf. Thuc. I. 139", and III. 38', 
U BU^t to be {but is nol), whereas it'i ran upoeirrur nMit iUytw, where Xty"" 
would be simply ougAt to it (implying is like iKoirilr here. 

nothing). 4. ir' «iivo(qi, ou/ of devotion, cor- 

g S72. 3. ^ipdXXai: see note on responds to dXXA i^rTLi^ui'M (6). — 4|w( is 

rt iriPitXXM- tt^^ot, g JS4*. dative of advantage with *optxi4(K"> but 

4. &mvt : sc. rati 'Amnion (cf. is also felt with ^t' tiicA^. 

■wirrar, % 170*).— il |ih>...lpo«X(vJ|up> ,3. IiiXott, pridt: see §3 ijo" (vrith 

is past, while ^v Ar, its apodosii, is note), 117*. 




dEiva iTOuti TouTOis vvv eyxaXav &v tot ovk et^es X^yetw 

274 /ScXtui) ; ircLpa fjxv roiwv roi? aXXoif eyory bpm irairiv 
avSp^vots Stbtpia-fieva koX TerayfUva ma^ ra Toutura. oSi- 
K«t Tis iKtav opyrfv Kal rifi-atpiav Kara tovtov. i^fiaprd 
Tis iXKtuf ' <Tvyyvwfi.7iv avrX Tr\% Tifuupta'i TOVTifi. OVT aZiKOtV 

S Tis OVT i^fi/xpTdvotv, eis ra ttoo-i SoKOVvra (rvp^pew eovrov 
dou9 ov KaTap6(i}(r€ fteS" airavriov ovk 6v€iZC^€tv ov&e XotSo- 

275 pti<rdai tw tolovt^ Sixaiov, aWa (rvvax^^o-ffoi,. (ftavijcreTCU 

8. d«Ir{forX^«»)Ai. 

jui-l*i4|i"i vulg.i 

3 874. 

i/rA", n/iupiar. rrirj-yjiijHf L. 
oftroC vuig, ^ii""y»ai L. 

TOirry) Ai. j. ^fo^pnin' A 

6. utri rayrur Ai, F, V. oji 

2' (ri^inrng.). 

§ S7S. I. 0<u-i)aTai (t above) £ ; ^■u^ffcoi L ; ^or^vfriu 

(4) S, Ai i tpifii. TULUipia, 
rollTou 2, L, Y. *, Al ; hb™ 70u V6; . 
dirwii (corr. from ^jciir) L. airif (for 

^pttr (ffvn- in mg.) S. airi* Vfi. 

)■ 7. ry T«iH>rv L, vulg. ; T«o(^ 

Wesr«nnann thinks ihe irgument of 
this section not quile fair (" nichl gam 
ehrlich "), as it ic not to be assumed that 
Aeschines assented to all which he did 
not oppose. But, apart rrom the obvicius 
irony of paitt of the argument {as in e6 
Tip ir' tinlf t.T.X.), it was surely not 
too much to expect of the acknowledged 
"leader of the opposition" in such a 
desperate crisis, thai he should at least 
protest strongly against measures of such 
vital importance as those which he cen- 
sures afterwards, even if he could not 
propose any positive measures himself. 
Now it is an important pari of the ail- 
ment of Demosthenes, that Acschincs 
laiJ netiiHg nihata/tr on such occasions 
as the sudden seizure of Elatea hy Philip. 
See % 191*, iraD S' dipiitov...Kei6^iiirou: 
■ee Ihe whole passage, S9 1S8—T91. The 

be excused is the one here assumed, that 
Ihe opposition had no belter plan to 
propose. Even this inability is not made 
a direct charge against Aeschines ; it is 
merely used as a defence against his 
unqualified condemnation of the course 
Uken by the state. The plain truth is, 
of course, thai Aeschines really wished 
lo lei Philip have his own way at Ibis 

S 874. 1. m 

similar cases of wapd in % jg'}'-*. — rot* 
AXow raa-iv, i.e. all except Aescb. : cf. 
SretTai irBpiiwavi, g 175*- 

1. Tit reiatrra, i.e. sucA (principles) 
as the following, explained by the state- 
ments in J— 7. — ((Sutit Tn 4k«v, a man 
(let us suppose) « guilty af voluntary 
wjustiee. We have three such supposi- 
tions in independent sentences, with 
paratactic replies 01 apodoset. For a 
simitar arrangement see 3 117, iriiama, 
T)(iXP*, dj£(ui jfifa, with tbe replies. See 
also g 198. 

3- 'pri* ""1^ "(uipdiv: sc. Mt-<, or 

i.e. ene who neither it guilty ef injuitiei 
ncr errs (sc. d.^). 

6. |ufl' dvdvno', i.«. IB comntan irilk 

On tbe distinction of Uin^/ura, iiiap- 
■HiimTa. and iruxfiliAra here recognized, 
Dissen quotes Arist. Rhel. I. 13, ifi : i^' 
oli Tt yip Bel fftrfywiitxyfn tx^ir^ twttlKii 
raDra, ical tA t& A^mprrjiuira jrai rdt d^- 
ic/liia,Ti liY) ToB Imu a(LD£l» (sc. iriiuH 
iiTTi), ct!* Si ilu^prliiiaTa jtoJ ri aTux*!- 
)taTa ■ CoTi i' a7-uxii«aTa fiir &ra rap&oyti 
Kal fiij airb /ia'x^ijpiai, ^fiapril/jjiTa H fitfa 
/til rapiXtya tal M <i*i Tiin)/>fai, dJic^- 
fiBTo ii Sra niiTi Topi^oyn <>*i mwiipfaf 
r' iarlr- rit yip li' iwiffaitiv drt to- 




Tawra ■jrd.vff ovrnt^ ov fiovop tois vofiofi, aXXa Koi i) >f>va-i,^ 
avri} TOis aypa^oi^ fo/ii^is koX tois avOpomivoi.^ r)6e(rt 
Bu^piKtv. AlfTxivi)^ Toivvv TOtrovTOV vv€p^€^\i}Kev diroi^a? 
avSptairov^ wfiOTTfTi Koi (rvKo^tavritf, (otrre koi o>v auro? W 5 
aTV\T)iJ.dT<ov 4(i€p,v7)TO, Kol TavT* E/Kov KaTJ]yopet. 

Kai irpos Tois aXXots, oxrirep auros OTrXais tal /iCT 376 

2. ^1- roil Lh vulg. ; if om- S, Al. yofi^ 
2.¥ulg.; yi/Hut L, Ofcotr.). Dind. ijitvi L, 1 
(for ravovTor) V6, iiiipPipi,Ktr O. 6 

S37«. I. oilriiom. Ai. 


^ofdllO^^ Dind. 3. rofUiuHi 

m. S ; ?P<Bi Dind. 4. oftran 
ra. V. HiTiryop*' Ai. 

% STS. 1. Tott v6|MM (without ir), 
by the laws: cf. g iiS*. and XX. j;, roCra 

3. Toit ctTptL^oLt v<i|if|ULt, by iht prin- 
ciple! ef tatwritteft law, further explained 
hy Toit irBi>uxl*ot% iiei«t: d. % m^. The 
unwritten [aw is known as Ibe law of 
Nature, the moral law. the divine law, 
or the higher law, the law which is not 
alia lex Romae, alia Athenis. See Plat. 
Leg. 793 A. -ravr' Itm virra t4 taXadufva 
inth tQv TflXXhnr Ayptiipa ybfufia- Kol oOf 
rarpiovs r6fimn iTroyottd^ovatyt **bK dXXa 
fori* fi ri Tdavra fi5/iira*Ta....J)«rjuiJ ^ip 
ouToi wAarit eitl ToXirclat, lurniii -wirTwr 
drTct rur in yp^mMat TtdlvTwr re fral icei- 
lUrw Koi ™r fn TtBi)ii<iiiirar, Arislolle 
distinguishes two kinds of u 

e the * 

nrln riiiat, 1 

i ^ifir, Ihe 

Nature, the other 
branch of the special law of particular 
Slalefi, by which the defects of Ihe written 
law may be remedied, that is, tA intiKit, 
equity. See Rhet. 1. 13, gg r, i: \iyia 
Si rbiiw rir uir tSiat tot Si tardr, (Sisr 

mi TouTOr rir iiir typai^ rbt Si ytypa/i- 
pJmr, KOirbr Si rAr nari, ^6my. lim yip, 
9 ItafTtiovTol ri TriwTii, ^iiaii. rrnuiir 
tUcuor (at tSiKoe, n&t fiiiStuia nu'wrfa 
rpii aXMjXov! j uijSf <ri*fli)jitij, oloi- tal 
il Zd^dkX^om 'Arriyir'Tj <pttiyiT{u Myainra, 
Sn iltaiar awtifnuitror SA^/at rtr UoXv- 
rilx-n, in 4t6i!ti or toGtd SiKamr. He then 
quotes Antig. +56, 457, o^ yipTi...i( Srmi 
'iiiyit, and the verses of Empedocles : 
dXXi ri /iir rdrrur tiiulnor Sti r' 

Biaipos 4f((i 

■' iw\iTOV 

In I. 13, gg II, 19 Aristotle moredistinctly 
states the distinction of this "universal 
law" and ri iritisii, iquily. tuh S' iypi- 
^at itio isrU rfSij - tovtb, S' tirrl t4 iiit 
fa$' irtpfftXiif aptr^ rai naiilat (abuvt Iht 
legal slandar, /,Cope),...rd3< riw ISioo r6/ico 
Kai yr/pafifiirov tXXii/ifui. tA yip Irttutit 
S«» SlKator ilroi, taji H irttifti t4 *ap4 
{btyond) Tin ytypaiuiinn- rilit' J/noier. 

S- 4finfn: cC. iiitirtpot, g Jii». — At 
i,nrfy\\¥: see Aesch. III. j?, vfflr 8* 


M a7a— aa«. Here Demosthenes 
begins by alluding to the attempt of 
Aescbines to represent him as a skilliil 
sophist and rhetorician, who wilt impose 
on the judges hy his wily arts. He retorts 
by showing that his own oratorical power 
has always been exerted in behalf of 
Athens, while thai of Aeschines has been 
used to help her enemies or lo giatily 
personal malice. He refers to the testi- 
mony of the citiiens in choosing him lo 
deliver the eulogy on those who fell at 
Chaeronea, as a proof of his patriotism. 
Finally, he declares that the present 
calamities of Greece have been caused 
by men of the stamp of Aeschines in 
various Greek Stales ; and hegives a black 
list of these traitors who have betrayed 

their ( 



g a7a. 1. ■•irir<p...ttpi)Kt^, i.e. /fji'if/ 
as one who had alvjays spoken his own 
thoughts honestly and loyally \ we gene- 
rally translate (for convenience) at if ht 




evvoCai; TrdtTas eipTjKoi^ tovs A.oyous, <^vXa.TTew ifx€ Koi 
TT)p€tv eKcXevev, oirws fj-i) ircLpaKpova-ofiai fj.r}S^ e^aTrar^a-Qt, 3 
Seipoy Kol yo7)Ta Kal a-otfturTfjv xal to. Toiavr' ovo^ciCftii', ai? 

S cof TTporepo? Tts ciutj tci wpoa-ovff ravroj Trepl aXXov, koI 8^ 
Tav6' OVTOK expvra, koX ovKeri tovs oKOVOi^a? (rif€»/»o/A«i'ovs 
Tis iror' auTo? A<mv 6 ravra Xeytof . eyoi 8' 0I8' ori yi/yvw- 
CTKCTe toCtoi' awaiTes, fat ttoXu tout^ ^aXXoi/ ^ c/Aot ro^ferc 
277 Taura irpoiTtivai.. ko-k^v cS otS' ori T^f €ff^v SeivonjTa — • 
KFTw ytt/s- KaiToi eyayY' opw 7^5 twi' Xeydvrwc Swdp-can 
Toirs aKowoi^a? to TrXcitTTOi' KvpCov^- ais yap Ai" v^i; 
aTToSd^a-Se xal irpo? iKacrrov ^(ijt' ewvotas, ovrtos o A.eyiui' 

S ^Sofe iftpovtiv. tl 8' oJc iori (cai wa/j' e^ot Tts ip.w€i,pLa 
TOiavrr}, ravnjv pev evp-qatre irai^es iv toIs Kou'oig i^era^o- 
p^vTjv vwkp vpSiv del Kttl ovZapov Kad' vpStv ou8* iSi^, r^f 
Se TOVTOU TOvvavTiov ov ii6vov T^ X^eiv w^p tcui' C)(6pav, 

3. juAtcfftv At. ra/Mu/KHNTD/iiu £; Tap(upoii0u/iai L, vulg. 4. ii>i om. 

Ai. j. «•■ M Ai. ((»«■ Y. 6. «*« (9-n (for ofin^O V6. 7. n (for 

tI.) V6. 9. TaaBra V6. 

g a77. I. Kol ^ii«i>D S' vulg.; i' om. Z. L, Ai. 3. tA rXeMrav fi/fwt vi 

/i^^ 01 ~ " 

(for b) Y. 

had tfeken {guaii vtro dixiisel. West.), 
though there is nothing conditiona] in 
the participle with wrrep (without it), 
which merely expresses comparison (M.T. 
86;) : havitig, as il wert, ipottn, would be 
more correct, though less dear. See (Jtf- 
"9 <"5k, 9 333*. and note ou in (4). 

3. jKAtm; sc. C'tiat — 3««t |i'4 wopo- 
Kpoiiro(Ku: an object clause after ^uXdr- 
rtir and rtiftai, though its subject appears 
by illnction (ifij) in the leading clause 
(M.T. 304*). This is a reply 10 Aesch. 
16, 174, 106, 107, and other passages. 

4 — 6. A%...tArm% ty^mrn, (accus. al)s.), 
i.e. assuming thai this must nteds bi so. 
ui has no more Conditional force than 
ulffTCf] (1), though we lind il convenient 
to use di i/in translation (M.T. S64); 
notice aiKkn with tKf^ii^n\a, showing 
that there is nothing conditional in the 
expression. — oMrv <rK<i(io|Uvou«, ■willnot 
further cmtsider: cf. koJ JJj (5), implyii^ 
without /iirlhtr thought, alibald (Bl.) ; so 
XX. 65. naX 34 \f\iiiilm. 

§ 277. 1. Wr» -yip, welll grant 
that I havt il. Having broken his sen- 
tence, he proceeds to say that Che hearers 
have il in their powei lo neutralize the 
highest gifts of eloquence by refusing to 
listen. See xix. 340, oJ /ijv Toirvv dXXoi 
iwiiiut ^TMiJtwi Clair atiripntn, ^ it -nS 

-T-H, SiojidwT 

3- <*«tt 

your good-will lowardi 
ing partitive with liit, as 

5. l|iir<tp(a, sul)sti(uted modestly for 
the stronger italmrTaod. I, (he original 
construction being resumed by rairv (6)- 

6. iJtTa(ojiivT|V iw^ ufuv, mnrshalUd 
onyour side, the familiar military figure: 
see note on § 173', and ^JijrafS^ij* in 

8. To4»arT£o» (adv.); ta. ^tra^iUrifi 




aXXa Koi el rts i\vm)cri Ti tovtov ^ irpo(T€Kpov<ri vov, Kara 
Towrtoi'. Qv yap avrg SutaCiaq, ovS' €<f>' a <n)p.^4pci t§ 10 
TToket, ^(firjrat. ovre yap t^v opyrfv ovrc riyc ^6pav ovr S'S" 
oXX' ovSer Twi' ToiovTtav tou koXov Kayadhv ttqKIt^v Sei 
TOWS wrkp tS>v KOivSiv eio-eX-T^Xw^oras Sucaoras d^tovv avr^ 
^ejSaiovf, ouS" ujre/a towtgh' eis u/ia? elo-Uvai, aXXa /xoXurra 
jaei* /A^ fX***' '■'^^'t' ^ '^ (pva-ei, et 8* a/a' avayicq, TTpato<; koI 5 
lierpiQtq BiaKeCfjiev e)(eiv. iv rCcrtv oZv tr<fMSfKtv elvai. rof 
iroXiTevofifvov Kai rov p^ropa Sei; ci* ots twi' oXtui' ti 
KtvSweverai r§ voKei, Koi h> 0X1 irpo^ tovs iuavriov^ iarl 
T^ S^p.^, hf TOvToif ravra yap yeyvatov KtH ayadov woKCtov. 
3^9 /tT^Sei'OS 8' oSiK^/Aaros irtowore Stz/uktiov — npo(r&^(To> 8« /i'vS' 379 
iStov — SiKi^i' a^taa-avTo. Xa^eti' Trap' e/iov, /ii)^ VTrip t^s 
iroXeius /x^^ UTrep avrov, (rre<f>d»ov Kal ^<uvov Karrjyopiav 

$978. 3. Jmo^t&i (InX. Ai. diTip £ 1 Bi>n^ L, vnlg. 5. if over 

i»iyini 2. €. SiaHV*i>' £, L, Ai; Siattiittraii vulg. 7. rl L. B. /#t1 ti 

vulg. 1 Tt om. Z, L, Ai. 1. 9. -ydp /m Ai. 

I a7». I. i' om. O'. a. Sjnit Y; Win)*' 2. dtiiiwra L'. 

3- avrsvriTTC^dcw Z', ou over Kcond r £*; a^G roi; L; ToC am. vulg.; 6«tp ruC 
(rre^drou (ai>rw om.) V6. ror taniy. A i ; 1107177. '>'' ">%' ! ■'■'' Oia. Z, L. 

9. Kanl TcreTinF (sc. Tf W7111P), op- 
posed to irlp Tur ^);0pui'. ToArur refers 
to Tii, by B carelessness or indifference not 
uncommon: see ggg'andll. [S.trTit... 
Toi^Tim. We are >11 familiar with anybody 
becoming lAem in conversation. The 
whole expression ef rii IMirnsi Ti...(ari 
■nOrut is opposed to cAi' Hij (7), as Inrip 
Tail ix^P"' is opposed 10 brip 6/u3f (7). 
West, thinks that there is an allusion to 
Timarchns here and in % 307'. 

§ aVS. 3. iirlp T«r koivbv, with 
ttff(\7i\ii6liTat, \.K. to give judgTfuntfor Iht 
g>od of the Stale, opposed to ipyi]r...pi- 
/JouEr.— dCwOv a^ ptPoioftv, to ai:t 
(them) to <iinfirm far him, i.e. by cod- 
demning his opponent. 

4. frnip ■iavrviY,for thtse mds, i.e. to 
gratiry his ipy^ or ft£#/ja.— jioXirrtt, 
*«/ .j/a//. 

g. d 6' dp' (tv^YKn, i.e. hut if after all 
ht must Aavt thtse feelings. 

6. It- Hoxv.-Sft; Le. when should aa 
orator use all his powers ? 

7. ritv EXwv Ti. any of Ike supreme 
{entire) interests of the State : cf. SS iB', 

8. lorl T^ 6i||kf , M^ feafle have to do 

9. hr TMrrmt: with strongest emphasis, 
in reply to h tWoi; (6). 

I 97*. Still answering the question ir 
Tlaa...Sit: {% 178'), he describes the 
present suit as one which does not justify 

1. |Li|S' tSlov(sc.riiI»:4/uirn) continues 
the constniclion of Sii/ioirloo: d. vilt. 39, 
40, ix^pit SXb ri ri\n.. .TpoffO-Zirui Si icot 
rui ir ri ri\ii Toatr itdpilnrmi, 

3. o-n^vin,.,iuiTi|Y(>p(av, an accu- 
lalion agaitulaerownandaiM>leoflhanit 
(i.e. against a proportion to confer these) : 
nearly all decrees conferring a crown had 
the words iwairfaoi jral ffrt^oFt^rot. 


, L^.oot^lc 



ijKeu/ owetTKevaa-fjUvov fcat TO<TOVTOva-i \.6yovii avr^kaiKivai 

5 iSia9 exPpa.'i KoX <f>06vov koI /iiK/soi/rv^iaf iari crij/ietoi', 

ouSet^s xpTjOTov, TO Se 8^ xaX Toii^ irpo^ €fi avrov aymv<K 

280 idvavra vvv iwl toi/8' -^kciv koX wairav ^€i KaKtav. xai 

yXOl SoKClS CK TOVTOli/, Alo^Ciri}, Xoytov iirlS€t{Cv Tiva. K<U, 

<j>tiiva<TKias ^ovXofiivoi iroi'^a-atrdai tovtov irpoi\€a'$ai, rof 

dy^fo, ovK dStKtj/iaros ovhevini Xa^eiv nyMpiav. lari S* 

S ovj( o Xoyos ToiJ pijropo^, AttrxCvr), rCfitov, ouS' d tocos i^s 

ifxaVTJ'i, dXXa to raura irpoaipettrBai toii ttoXXois <«it to tows 

381 avrov; p-KT^lv koI (fnXeiv ov<nr€p Ac ^ varpC^. 6 yap ovru; 

fjfoji' T^c »/fV)(^c, oStos ^ff' ewi«)t^ irdvr ipti- o 8' a^' Zv 17 

ffoXis irpooparai ko/Bwov tip* cavrjj, tovtovs Sepaifewav ovk 

ivi Trjs auT^s opfieZ tois iroXXoi;, ovkovi" ouSe -njs dtr^aXctas 

5 T^f auT^c <^ei npotrhoKiav. dXX* — op^t; — eyaJ" Tavra 

4. Taat&rovi Ai. 6. (ol oitf<r6< V6. j/ij otiriv Z, L, vulg.; i/iavror Al. 

7. rSr S' ^l F. nil Ai ; um. L, vulg. ; Ixf* L 1 nal riaai' ^(i saKlar om. £. 

§ aOO. I. Jtal /UM 2, L, O, B, Ar; kAM Vara., West.; Koi ffunyc Y. 
1. \6yur iwiO. nw tci ^vraffiUat £, L. F, -tj rUr U>wv, ^M, nva ^<i>r(vilat vulg.; 
it run \6yuir rn^Tur, Alirx. V6. J. Tpi>ire>i<rPa( Y. 5. rl^uor Z, L ; rijaoi 

vulg. 6. rauTU Al. rotli ofiroui jtai Ai ; roiJi ^Spo^ V6. 

g SBl. 4. ofrut L. 3. (fritvAv nra £', L; nra KlrSivor S (corr.), vulg. 

4. ^J TOiittii-oH B. V6i ^il T^ airoli O', atlrTi O (mg.), ip/iA V6. dtfrnvr 

Z, L; ovKoiw Al. 5. Tiura Al, O. 

I, having trumped 

J. pw(poi|ra)(fM, lUtletttss af seal, op- 
posed to fif>aXi>^i/>:(a, $ 68*: cf. % 169*. 

6. oliStvit XP^*'""'^' neuter, cF. xit- 

jovxtvra with irl rirB' ijitnr recurs 10 the 
idea of % 16. 

7. ml strengthens rSvar, M<' ivry 
t]!r/WA ^ bastnesi: raear Ixa nulov, 

g aao. 3. ^inonlat, declamalUiH 
(practice of voice) ; cf. § 308", and ^»o- 
iTjr^at and Tt^rairniKwt in XIX. IJ5, 

6. Ta^Td «poaip<tff4ai Tntt ireXXoti: 
cf. SS a8.', 193'. 

S SBl. 3. Tourmii renews emphati- 
cally Ihe antecedent implied in d^' ur. — 
o<lK...4f)|ut (sc. i-inipas), dots not ride at 
tkt same anchor, an oft-quoled saying. 
See Harpocr. under eit kwl r^c (.r.X., 

and ApoEtolius xui. 55 (Paroein. Gr. II. 
p. sgi): bolh note Ihe etlipsisofdyjdlpat. 
Aoolhei expres^on was ^1 ivalr ipua 
(sc. iyfipair), irl rwr doTE^^wi ^drrur 
{Apostol. Vll. 6[), to which Solon refers 
in his comparison of Athens with her two 
senates lo a ship with two anchors: Plut. 
Sol. 19, oi6titivt irl Svffi fiovXali u^rep 
dyK^pait bpfAoGvaF i^ttpv iw ^dXcft r^t* wA\ltr 
lafaSai. See the singular turn given to 
the proverb in Lvi. 44. Cf. Soph. Ant, 
188 — 190, quoted in xix. 147. 

4. oEkovv oiti : the two negalives 
unite their force, and that of oSr, tAtre- 
fi/rt, remains r ofiitoCip i«ii would give es- 
sentially the same sense. 

S- 4w«: see oi)j: ip?i,- Sg ■i3i«, 166*. 
and ai yip; | 136".— *Y"; ihe ellipsis 
may be supplied from oPrwt f^ur rj)r 
V'^XV (■]■ ^^ 'lie preceding rd roitri... 


nEPI TOY rrE<l>ANOY 197 

ya/} avfnf>dpoi'6^ eiXofi/rfV Tovroiai, koI ovSh/ i^aip^rov ovS* 
l^iov irefTOtTffiai. ap' oZv ovSc crv ; fcal -aSts ; ini €v0€(o^ 383 
/Mra T^i' fiaX'}^ irp€a-0€vr^^ eiropevov irpo^ ^CKiimop, Ss 
■^v tZv eKeivoi^ roiq ■^(povoti trvpA^opStv atrios tq irarpiSh 
KoX ravT apyovfj-evoi iravra. tov ip-irpotrde ^^mvov ravrrjv 
rtjv 'ffjKtav, ais travrtf; tsratriv. koXtoi. tis 6 ttjv TrdXir 5 
i^awar^v; ouj( 6 ftr) \.eyiov a <f>pov€t; tw 8' 6 tcrjpv^ 
KarapaTOLL SiKcuots; ov r^ toiovt^; tC 8i fiet^ov e^oi tl; 
310 &v elirelv aZiKyjpa kot avhph^ /Jifro/jos ri d p-q Taura <ftpov€i 
KOL Xcyet; av toLvw oStos evpeBt)^. etra trv {ftOfyyeL Kal383 

g aaa. 1. ^XV (i;8Am V6. wp«rp. am 

1. Al. 3. fr JHfrni L, vulg. ; 

fr oin. I, 0, 4. xp**" TiutT^ B. 5. 

rtt ^ Ai. 7. «aS' /jciimj^ 

laXi^Ua- (after ^aropara.) S lyp). F (7?), ♦ (yp)- 

8. 15.12, L, 0, B; ijom. F, 

Ai. T«i™ «i».^ .<u )U7«< 2' (?) ; roi^r- & 4^« 


»1 W7« L (tbIU S a I ) i T^VTi. xal ^por.; F. 

9. «Jto, S, L. O', B', Ai i ™». 

TOT Vulg. 

gass. ,. ^*mMss. ■ 

6. *[X^i)v, in the sense of •-poiupcu'fiai 
(8 '8o»). 

g asa. t. ap' off sHt oii; fan /,tf 
jflw? *f mid alio of you i i.e. oM*!-... 

*pi« «CXt«wov: Ae- 

137) Miys of this, r^i /uixiri 

iirpfirPfiouf- Aeschines, Demades (from 
whom ihe peace was named, S 1S5'], and 
probably Phocion, went to Philip 10 ne- 
gotiate a peace after Chaeronea. A» 
Blass remarks, it was very impoitant thai 
firsBnai gralat should be sent on this 
critical mission; and Aeschines was well 
qualified. See Hist, g 81. 

4. ta(Ti)v n)v xp*(<iv . this, taken with 
Tor tiixpeoSt -xpiriiv, refers to earlier per- 
sonal intercourse with Philip. Aeschines 
is now less anxious to repudiate this 
charge, in the day of Alexander's great 
success in Asia: see UT. 66, i yip luea- 
Xf^artpn rwl ^Artar tbat TccI T&rt ;uro- 
^Ourrat &<itiiaoStin)t, i rlir (eriar i/iot 
rpo^pur 7> 'AKtiirtpou, and cf. ^ 51, 
5J (abovej. 

7. KaropoTu: 1 most comprehensive 
curse iipi) was a pirt of the religious 

ceremony at the opening of each meeting 
of the Senate and Assembly. See xxill. 
97 : ii&wifi KaTof&TOt Koff' itianfr inxXi)- 
aiar 6 ic^pa^ rii iiararf ^iytf if 
ffovXIp, ^ miur ^ H)r i^Xxolu. Add to 
this XIX. 70; roW li-rtpiiiQi' xaS' iKimir 
T^r ^KcXwrfor 6 n^pv^ tCx^^" fixfAip TpWT' 
TtTnyiUm., tal Stof if pouXJj hbB^cu, rap" 
ixtlrTj Td^uf. (It is added that Aeschines, 
as WoyfiatiiiaTituF iiur kbX /rrTiperShi rg 
^uX^, had the duly of dictating this curse 
to Ihe herald.) Blass quotes Dinarch. I. 47 
(of Dcmosth.), Kardpa-Tot Si naB' ixianir 
itaX-'Iflar ytr6titm, i^kii^tyiifroi Sutps 
Kari rqf riXcwt ilXiiipin, ifiirar^tin Si 


, ^i, \iy,^, 

I Si 

which shows that i iiti \tyiaw & 
^paret (0) was included in the same curse. 
See also Dinarch. 11. 16, ipi.i tokmS^wik 
<f rtt twin \ttitfiirur lari ruDra (Blass 
/ij) ratiTifi Ivhftv lol ytyrwOKti npi rflr 
rpayMn-", ifiiXij Tmhor Urai. See note 
on g 130*. 

9. oKoa: cf. iipiniw oStdi iyii, g 173'. 

g aas. .. <^fYY<' (Mss. ♦fl*m): 
see note on g I iq', and cf. ^t (l). 




/SXeireif els ret Tovratv vpoiTfOva roKfiq.^; irortp oux lyyc' 

ytyvaxTKiiv avrows ooris €l; ^ TOtrovroc vuto*' «cu Xtj^^v 

airatras ^e"' fwor' ov fiefiinja-Bai tovs Xoyows ots eSrj/i'Jj- 

5 yapit% iv T^ iToKefx^, KaTapafievos Koi Sio/^i/v/xcfos ^ijSei' 

elirai (Toi xal 4>tXi7rir^ wpayfia, aXX' e/x^ r^f curuu' troi 

ravjT/i' OTttyctv t^s tSia? «■€«' e)^dpas, ovk oZtrav oKtjBt). 

284 ais o' a.trqyyi\d7) ra;^i(r^ ^ H^X')' ouSct' toutcov <^povTt(TtL^ 

cvde'&i; oi/xoXoycLv Kal TrpotrcTroiou <f>L\Cav Koi ^eviau etvat 

<roi. TTpQs ai/Tov, tq fii(T0apvtt^ raura p.(Tari,d4p,tvo^ ra. 

ivofjuiTa- CK iroios yap Toi^s ^ Sixatas ir/wi^o-eius Ato^ii^ 

5 T^ rXavito^ea? r^? Tviiiraviarpia? ^€vo% ■^ ^iXos '^ yvtopifio^ 

^v 4>tXi,Tr7ros ; eyw fiep ou;^ opo), oXX' ip,i(rdd>dri% etrX r^ ra 

TOVTtavX (rvfi^epovra Btatftdeipeiv. oXX' ofutif, ovrw ^a.vtpS>^ 

avTos €ik7]ii.fUvo^ irpoSonjs Kai Kara o-avrov juT/n/r^s eirl 

5. s-oM/uf £ (Aif over tdX), L (h^/'V o^^ 'o^t^vli -^i > '^MV vulg. 

g 9B4. 1. rfWut 2' (.Mil con.); tiSi L, vulg. 4. Afffx''D £. L. O, Y, *; 
Abrxlr^ va\g. 5. TXiiiE««tai£. 8. oMt 2, L, O, Ai. 1, B; ah^ vulg. 


6ms tl, ai4o.»w« ore: "nichl fuii 
sondem gm its" (Weslennann). 
. JloV oi p4|Lrtjir4ai, (so) tluit Ihty do 
remembtr, not (so) ai nol le rtmemier : 
egular case of utrt oi wilh the 

e the 

direct form would have been riwoSrot 
tii*ia'...t)(fiV(iv iSvt' ai iii)ir7)rr<u (M. T. 
594). See Shillelo, Append. B. to Dem. 
de Falsa Leg., pp. ijg — 184, who dis- 
cusses this passage; Madvig, Synt. g 905, 
Anra. 3; Gildersleeve, Am. Jour, of 
PhiloU VII. p. 174 (whose whole article 
deserves careful study) . Afeweiceptional 
cases of wirrc oi with the infinitive, no- 
ticed by Shillelo, p. 1B3, have never been 
salisfaclorily eiplaiced (M, T. 598). 

5. h" T^ raiifuf : opposed to jurrd 7-)j» 
/tiXV (S «8i') when Aeschines went on 
biE embassy to Philip. — KaTafM>|Mi>ot Kal 
tu^Wip»of, tuning (i.e. protesting, with 
curses on himself if he was false) am/ 
nutaring; like Matlh. Evang. xxvi. 74, 
rbrt i5p(aTo (Ilfrpn) tara-StiuiTlitir lol 
iiaitui, lAtH ttgan he to curse and It 

6- Ti[v olTlav Tovnp': i.e. tie eiar^ 

of intimate relations with Philip. 

§ SB«. 1. ^)i«Uy<it ; i.e. youi friend- 
ship wiih Philip. — ^iXfav koI (tWav: see 
§9 S', f- 

3. imunNiUMK, subsUluliHg [apply- 
ing by ixihange). 

J. TVfmvurTplot, limirel-beater: the 
rifiitajior, ietlle-drum, was a favourile 
instTumenl in the Asiatic ceremonies 
described in g§ 359, 360. See Eur. 
Bacch. £8 (Dionysus spealts), aXfittSt 

Tt fiijTpii i/id d' tifrA/uxTa, with tij — 
115; Hel. 1346 fT., xo^ioii f <"^^^ 
X^wloi' Tiiriwi t' IXafii ^vpaateir^ x.T.X. ; 
and Ar. Lys. 388, x"* Tunrarutiua x** 
Tuad rapdiUH. (See Bl.)— ^ YviW"* 
(after ffroi ij ^ot), ar even an ac(/HaiM- 

8. mri awrra9...r«|ip£a^ an in- 
former' against yourself after tie facts, 
whereas wdpi -ri auii^inTa (cf. S 185') he 
had denied everything which told agunst 
him (§ 183'). See g 197' and note. 


Mii,€i,s ravTo, 


Sif irdvra^ fmkXoy atriov^ evpija-ei^. lo 

IloXXa Kal KaXa xal fieyaXa r) iroXis, Alcr\CvTj, Kol 386 
TrpociXero Kal KaTtipBaiire St* ifiov, <Sc oiiK ■qii.wjfiovrjo'ev. 
crrj/ieiov Se- •)(^ip<yTOVwv yap o S^p)s rhv ipovvr evl tois 
TCTcXevn;«oo"i ira^ avra ri a-vp.0dvTa oi ce i)(et.poT6vr}a'ev 
irpoPKf)64v7a, Koiirep €v^xavov oiTa, ovSe ^'qpA.hjfV, dpri 5 
weiroM/Kora t^i* etp^vTjv, ov&' 'Hy^fiova, ovS" dXXov vjiStv 
oihdva, aXX' ^p-e. koi wa/MX^oiTos <rov koI TIvdoKXcous 

9- Xoi^^i £ '. \otdopfit V ; Xuflo/i^ ^IfE- 'O^ /laXKor oiHai O ; atTiovf ^XXov 
Y. Ai. tip^M 1} ;^ vulg.; ^ IM ora. S, L>. 

§ SSft. I. tdXU miU O- ]. KCiT6p6iiKrt, 4iirriii,6rtair O. 4. TiXiimitiai 
O. at vulg., Bk., Uind., West., Lips.; rr' ^»poririiiT» Z, V5m., Bl. (sm Schaef. 
App.). 6. 'Rye/iin L. Ai. 

to. vcCvTof poXXov, i.e. nrif ralher 
than mysilf: most MSS. add the implied 

g aSft. I. iroXU Kol KoU K.r.\.: 
these accusatives are direct objects of 
rpMlAcTD, but probably ci^nate wilh 

TilfBaat. Demosth. invariably 

TopOS i 


and Cot. S 174'. oi naniipewrt. If an 
object is added, as in xxt, 106. il yipt* 
if i-rtPt6\tvirt KarJipeuan, It is cognate; 
(eexxiv. 7, XXXVII. 1. So in Cor. § 190", 
ToO KarepSa^ nit iywnj^aiUiroin is not 
causing the combatants to succeed (as L. 
and S. give it), but the merits 0/ the 
ceHibaianlr, as in ravra KaTop0ov¥, to 
succeed in alt things, just preceding. The 
active use of KaropSu elsewhere is well 
known, as in Soph. El. 416, tariipai^aa, 

3. ri* IpoOrr', i.e. the orator for the 
public funeral. The Iun«ra1 eulogy on 
those who fell in battle was first intro- 
duced (ace. lo Diod. xi. 33) in ihe 
Persian wars. We have one genuine 
triTi^HM \iyM, that oF Hypeiides in 
honour of those who fell in the Lamion 
war (311 B.C.); the famous eulogy of 
Pericles in 430 B.C., given in the words 
of Thacydides (11. 35 — 46), with one 
in Plat. Menex. (136 — 149)1 sportively 
ascribed to Aapasia by Socrates. The 

one ascribed to Lysias {11.) is of doubtful 
authenticity, and that found among the 
speeches of DemosthenesfLX.) is certainly 

4. WLf' oAri n rvjLPa.vrt. : i.e. when 
there might have t«en a strong public 
prejudice against him, as a leader who 
had failed (cf. S 348'). 

5. vpopXifMKTo, Heminaledx cf. % 149*. 
Demosth. here agrees wilh Thuc. II. 34", 
Xmuhm (rwb T^ rJXiwi, in making the 
people elect the orator ; but Plat. Menex. 
134 B reprcBcnts the Senate as the elect- 
ing body, which perhaps refers only to a 
nomination by the Senate of several 
candidates from whom the Assembly 
chose one. — At|p.d8i)v: see note on § 181' 
and Hist, j 81. 

6. 'Hyriiiava. mentiouedby Aeschines 
(ill- 15) : he belonged to the Macedonian 
party at Athens with Demades and Py- 
thocles. Phocion, Hegemon, Fythocles, 
and others were put to death by vote of 
the Athenian Assembly in 317 B.C. (Plut. 
Phoc. 33 — 35I. See Grote xii. Ch. 96, 
p. 479. For the partizanship of Pythocles 
wilh Philip in 343 B.C. see xix. ijj, 314 
(dra /Solrow ni«<wX(r) ; see Schaefer 11. 

7. ««pfXWrTot before atB (oI IIuAi- 
kWovi, but KanryoptOi'Ttir after these 



aftm^ KCU dvai^Mt, <a Zcv koX dtoi, koX Kartfyopovvrfav ifiov 32: 
TtLvS" a xal (TV wvi koI \oi8opovfiev<af, er afieivov i)^eipo- 

386 r6vT)(rdv fj^e. to 8' airioi' ovk dycoets f«c, o/xa»9 8« <l>pd<rQi 
(TOi (cdyw. dfufiOTep' ■gSe<rai' avrol, rqv t i/xrfv ewoiav Kal 
vpo6vft.iav fji^ff' ^s TO, irpdyfiar cirpaTrov, (tat t^c vfieTepav 
aSiKiav a yap evBevovvTotv rStv wpayfiaTOiv '^pveXa-Ot Sio- 

5 fivvpcvoL, ravT iv oU cTTTaio-cc r) ttoXis otpAj^oyTja-are. rows 
ouj/ eVi Tois Koivoi'; d.Tvxi^p.aa'ii' tov eiftpovovv Xa^dt^a; 
dSecaf i^Bpovt yxR* iraXat, ifuwepov^ Sc rd^ ijy^o"a(^o aurols 

387 ■yeyci^o-^ai • elra Kai irpoa-JKiw [vjroXa/ijSdcoiTesJ tov 
«/x»u(t' tTTi Tots T€TeX€vn7((d(rt wal r^v iKavotv aper^v kou- 
pij<TOVTa p.rjB' 6fiu>p6(f)toi' p.-qff OfioavovSov yeyevqfUvov 
ftvai, Tots TT/Jos CKeivov^ napara^ap^voK, ptfS' iKei p-ev 

S. ifiMi V6. 9. ravra £, L, vulf;. ; raurA B* (see Schaef. App.). Bk., Dind., 
Lips.; ToSe' West., Bl. col (before ti) om. VA. to. itt 2, L; ^ vulg. 

gase. 9. niJ^>i2,L. sCreiAf.i. 4. (v'SwJrrwv O; (ufK^'>T<^ ^'<!- 

7. ovroit 2; aiimi'i L. vulg. 

Sa87. I. iViraXiui^il»n-ii Z. L. F. *, in t ] Bl ; CrfXd^oi'W vulg.; iHXaffaf 
V, Al. 3. (pewTa S, L, At. j ; fpoJjTO rir' vulg. 3. ptiS' (for ist (Hjff") 

At. d/iupifxar L'. 4. rofnTifau (otPi above) L'. 

9. d Ksl ar^mvl, i.e. ■aihi:hyea again 
(xal) fhTwi'Jar^ miviitk. — It' d(Mivov, a// 
tAtmarttagtrly: acc. to Bl. not elsewhere 
found in Itiis sense. 

S ass. 1. ai^Tol, of tktmsikia (with- 
out being Told). 

4. it -v^p.-.^tta^oy^v^Ti repeats Tor 
the whole Macedonian party what was 
said of Aeschines in gj iSi. 183. For 
Skotifiiurot see % 183'. 

5. ■nn}t..,\a^vTat SUnau, i.e. thou 
who gained Hcenst to speak Ihiir minds 
with imfmnily, etc. See SS 198. i6j'. 
Aieta is now used in Athens Tor an 
ordinaty permit, e.g. to visit the Acro- 
polis by moonlight. 

% aB7. I. <tra Kol «|MMn)Ntiv: sc. 
irfipio*Tti (from § iSP). I bracket uiro- 
Xa/^^^wret with Blass : a mere careless- 
ness in style, aiming at no rhetorical 
effect, seems inadmissible in this oration : 
see note on % 317'. See critical note 

3 be under the same 

roof with anyone had a peculiar signifi- 
cance to the Greeks. Trials for homicide 
were held in the open air that neither 
the judges nor the prosecutor (usually 
a relative) might be under the same roof 
with (he accused. See AnI. v. 11 ; and 
cf. nem. XX. 158, and Plat- Rep, 417 a, 
where the ruling class are forbidden to 
go under the same roof with gold or 

pleonasm for yeyeriiaSai, but expressing 
more forcibly the combination of past and 
fiiture which is often seen in ■YtyiYTfaSiu 
(M. 1'. 101, 109), i.e. they thought he 
should net be one who had been under the 
same roof, iti. 

4. voparafaiiiivLt : see % loS*, and 
note on ovpi*a,fiKTii^»tt», % ]i6'. — Jk<I 
Kig|ul[<iiV: The revellini; in Philip's camp 
after The victory at Chaeronea was no- 
torious. See Plut. Dem. 10. where the 
story is told of the drunken Philip rushing 
out among the E^lain and chanting the 
introductory words of the decieei of 


nEPI TOY rrE*ANOY 201 

Ktafia,(,eiv Koi iraiMvi^^iv ivl rais ratv 'EWijv<av ovfultopai^ S 
fiera. rav airro^eiptitv tov iftovov, Sevpo S* ikSovra nfiatrOai,, 
/iijSc rg tfnitvy SaKpvew vwoKpivofitvof rifv iKfCvtov rvjfrjv, 
oXXa r§ 'f'VXB awaXyeiv. tovto S' ktitptav trap' eavrois (cat 
vap efiot, wapa 8' u/iic ov. 8io raSr' efi ixi^ipOTovr^irav 
Kol oi^ vfm^. Koi ov^ o J"^ S'^ju.os oiVw?, ol 8i rav 388 
TCT'tXcunjKOTWi' vanpe^ koX dSekifiol oi virh toC S^/u>v roff 
atptOeprei eirl to; ra^s oXXtuf ircus' aXXa Seoi' irotcif 
avrovc TO TnpiSfiirvov on irap otKeu>rar^ twi' TeTeXeifn7K(>T<i«', 

5- irxm-fTttrS, L, F, V, Al; xaMU'I(*i*vulB. 6. ^apo i' L. S*. vulg,, !' 

om. V6j ttip' 2', Vera. APirro S, L'(?). Ai. i; rtfliWai vulg. |see 7]. 

7. /idU Z, L', Al. 1, B; ilat >»|U *u1g. InroK^rbiiKiot X\ ; iwatpiroiUrovi ^. L, 

Vom. (cf, 6), 8. irol rap' iairrolt O. 9. rap' l,^ S' oB Ai. 

§ SU. 1. rcXei/nicfrrwr O. ol {before irri'j 2, L ; om. vulg. TJ0' om. V6. 
• o*et t) S; o(it«(B-ilrirt Y'. tw» om. O, V. rmXtiiKimt O. 

Demosthenes, which make an iambic 
tetrameter: rapaaTlini...irt rj rlx-j <Iid 


rdi' cIti 


pompus, frag. 161, relates that Philip 
invited the Athenian envoys to supper, 
and after they had withdrawn spent 
the nijfht in a diunltcn revel wilh com. 
panions of both sexes until daybreak, 
when he dismissed these and rushed in 
upon the Athenians in their lodgings 
(inifiaJHr in Tei>t rpia^tit). Schaefei, 
III. tS. quotes an anonymous address to 
Uemades in Herodian, inciiJ.. |vill. 601 
W-h dl^if^pfka^tf, Afju^q* iupa vopd 
♦tWirroi;, cyi Si o6k fkapor- tat ai niw 
vvririrtt ttvrif «ar4 T^t ri\iiin fiuxou- 
Ittrip, iyii Si 06 avrirvar' ml ti iiit avri)- 
rtxBrit ToTj intirov rpitfite^ mro/tirtimtt 
(Sauppe vinmirintiiin], iytt Si 01! ffuHTj- 
fiX^h'- S'c ^1"' I tS. where Aeschines 
is chaiged with joining familiarly in the 
festivities held by Philip after the destruc- 
tion of the Phocians (see Hist, | 48). It 
is fair 10 give Plutarch's addition to his 
account in Dem. 30 (quoted above) : 
ixr'/irl/at Si noi ri /UytSat toE ripiirr^ot 
abrbf dTuroi ir rif Xoflwr, l^ipirTt rijip 
ttirSnjTa Kol tV Siraiur rev f^opot, ir 

Itiptt fUKpv fuai iiiUpat ™ iirip rft 
ifjfliorlai Kol rou viLpn,Tt)i i^tLppi^oi tiv- 
Svrar irayKoeBtU irr' outoD. 

6. nv a^TOxtfpw: airrbx'^P i' Pfo- 
perly une who commits any deed 6y liii 
mm hands or by his owd act, as in kXi. 
60, TTp iatXytiai nUfTijr o^A^fip, and 
Soph. Ant. 306, rill airiX'V^ roCit r«6 
Ti^v. It also, when ipbrm is easily 
understood, means a murdtrtr, as in 
XXI. 116, Tht airbx'^f- ^oTft, like 
aiBtmfl, ci. Eur, H. K. ij.^g. miStDf 
oABitrrfi ituir. 

7. -TQ ^ov^ BoKpinv : a strong meta- 
phor, opposed to T^ i^uXD oui-aXT'" (8)- 
— viraMpivJ|UvDV, /i'^ a play-aclor : cf. 
ftro«(iinroi, he plays his fart, % is*.— 
njv T>>x^ ■ object of StKpiitir. Bl. lakes 
it with irsEpivAiKrar, as in XIX. 346, 
'hr7tyirr)t liroKiKlnTlu. 

10. i^t, i.e. any 
i^a^, g 185'- 

j SSB, [. oix. negaliving the two 
clauses with itiii and Si; cf. % i j'°, and 
the grand climax in g 179, with notes. 

1. itvriftt Kal dStXi^l: the public 
funeral was in charge of ■ committee of 
relatives of those who hod fallen, chosen 
by the people. 

^. -ri v)p(S«iwav, thtfutteral haitqiui : 
see Hermann (Bltlmner), Gr. Priv. Ant. 
S 39 (P- 37O) Smith, Diet. AnI. under 



5 MTtrep rdW euaSe yLyvi<r0a.i, tovt iiTOvrf<Tav irap ifioi. 
€i*C0Tw5* yepei fiev yap eKaa-ro^ eKatrrtp fiaXkov oiKeioi ^v 
ifiov, KOiv^ hk vaiTiv ouSeU eyyvT€p<a- ^ yap €Ketvovi 
ciDSjjvai Kal KaropOaa-ai fid^icrra Bie<f>ip€Vi o^o? Kal32: 
iraBoVToiv a fn^Tror ^tfxekov r^s vw€p airavrtav Xvit7)% irXeioroi' 
lo p.eTv.xfv. 
289 Aeye S' avr^ tovtX to ivlypafifia, o hrqjio<Ti<f. vpoeOi.eff' 
ri TToXts awrots hnypa^ai, Iv eiS^s, Aitrxij^, Kal iv atV^ 
Tovr^ <rauroi' ayvwfxova Kal (rvKO(j>a.vrr}v oi/ra Kat fiiapov. 

J. cI<M<iV. 7. Tdpri vulg,; rt om. 2, L. B. 9. riir raBirrur \6. 

9 as*. I. atri {for airif] Ai. raurl £, L, B, Ai. ]; toCto vulg. a. 4 

cAXtt TpatiXn-o V6 [mg.]- I^in V6 (me'). 3' a^Ar (foe <raLTir| V. frra 

KaJ ffno*. &ra Y. iira /uopir O. It STiiiafif,...\i-it, lines [ — 4, omilted 

in V6, added in mg.) 

The Epigiam is omitted in 2, Ai, V6; also in text of L, added in margin. 

/uHBi; Cic. Leg. It. »j. — ilf waf'otxao- 
Tdry , of lAf kcmst af him vihe stood in tht 
clonst possible rilation lo the deceased, as 
Bt private funerils the ntartst rilative. 
(In belongs to otctun-iir^, in the usual in- 
tensive sense : cf. % J46', Sn tU Ai^"'". 
5. Ant^...'^f\na^\^ i.e. as is the 
custom at private funerals, referring to wt 
xap' oJucnoT-ilry (West.)— IvoCiirav: like 
«■(£» in 3. 

7. f ...8U4*P*i'' '-^- ^'^'' ^^ """^ "' 
i/<iif^, i.e. in their success. 

8. K(U (end) , Uiewiie, with iratforTur 

9. d |i^«or' d^aXm- (sc. raBiir), lit. 
ufiriri VKuld they had nevir suffirid: this 
rather poetic form of an unattained wish 
is used here for animation, and again in 
gjjo'. See M.T. 734, 736. 

I aas. 1. &Ti|iMrif , with ^rrrfxi^cu. 
— vpotOMt' ^ tjXm, more formal than 
the usual Hsfc t% ■kUKh, perhaps implying 
{as H • Jackson suggests) a choice from a 
number of epigiwns sent in by competing 

1. Iv' «l6of...|uaf>Jv: explained In 

Epigram. This cannot be the genuine 
epitaph insciilwd on the public monu- 
ment of the heroes of Chaeronea. This 

standing on the road lo 

the Academy in the time uf Pausanias 
(l. ag, 13), and it is to be hoped that 
excavations may bring the real inscription 
to li(;ht. 'I^e present epigram, as most 
scholars have seen, baa loo little poetic 
merit and 100 slovenly a style lo be ac- 
cepted as genuine. The spurious decrees 
and other documents in this oration, more- 
over, establish a presumption against any 
document which professes lo have been 
read by the cleik and not bjr the orator. 
This epigram is not in the older MSS., 
and it appears in the Anthol. Graeca, III. 
p. 3r+ (de Bosch), IV. p. 149 (Jacobs). 
We can be sure of one genuine verse (9), 
which is quoted by Demosthenes in % igo* 
(see note on this verse). A small frag- 
ment of an inscription has been found 
near the Olympieum at Athens, cut (ace. 
to Kohler) between 350 and 30a B.C., 
which contains parts of six words of an 
epigram in the Anthol. Pal. vii. 145: thia 
epigram was evidently inscribed to the 
heroes of Chaeronea. See C. I. Alt. 11. 
3, No. 168a. The liill epigram is as 
follows, the letters found in the inscription 
being primed in heavy type: — 
*(1 Xl>i*>i '■WTftfav h-iiralt Torcxio-Kon 


[OtBe varpav Sv^Ka at^erepai fli Sijptv !^8evr> 

StrXa, Kal avritrakav vffpiv 
fiapvaftefot S' aptr^^ xal Stiftarov ovk iffdmtrav 

■^VX'^'i 'i^' 'f^iS-rjv KOivov e$€VTO BpaQfj, 
o^tKtv 'EXXiJwdJw, (o? fi.T] ^vyop air)(em Bhne<; (s) 

SouXooTJj^? lyrv^ephv afupiv e-)(to<Ti.v H^pip. 
yaia Se TTorpls ex^ei leoKvoi^ ratv TrXewrra KafiovTOiv 

/iijSev ifiapTtiP cfTTt OeSiv Kal vdvra KaropBovv 
if 0ioTfj' fioTpav B' ov ri <f>vyetv ftropev.] (lo) 

ss., Bk.; j9pad4 Schneider. 9. BtSw hss. (see 

. <t>tiytar L, F, ♦, Y. firope* L, vulg.; Hopor O. 

'Qt Iipir 0^^ir rcipi^cKK '£\Uia X'^P" 
BwuTuir (Xivoit frptf-tefiw cr iaT/Jnit. 
This, though genuine, cannot, of course, 
be Ihe inscription quoted by Demosthenes, 
■s it does not have the verse /itiSir... 
KaTopBirur ; but there were undoubtedl]' 
many epigrams cammcra orating the men 
of Choeronea (cf. note on S iSg'). 

V. I . H tvTB SvXa, arrayid tiiiiitlvi! 
(lit. flacid tkeir arms) : cf. Plat. Rep. 
440 E, tl6it6a\. t4 DxXa Tpij reu X071- 
BTKov (of the eiijiii), arrays ilstlf an Ihe 
sidt of tht rtaiim; and Aiist. Pol. Ath. 
8", fll S* ffraffiofofiffiT! t^ iriXiioi uJj tf^rai 
T& ArXs foi^ tits' Mpur, i.e. wAa /aits 
tides loJIA milker forty. These eiamples 
«re enough to show, if proof were still 
needed, that the old interpretation of 
rietaSai 5r\a {as in Thuc. [1. 1, twice). 



is untenable, though it still lingers (see 
Lidd. and Scott). 

V. 1. imovAimv, siatlertd, brought 
te nought: a patriotic exaggeration as ap- 
plied to Chaeronea, perhaps referring to 
some ipecial exploits of the Athenians. 
Diod. (XVI. 86) says, lUxpi fi* rtms i 

fiinji. Cf. Lycurgus (Leoc. 49), «( J* 
It! tal wapaSo^iraTOr nir ilrttr iXijP^i 61, 
ixttriii riKwrTti i-wtVam)-. 

V. 3. df«riii Kal G«[)iaTat must depend 

on Ppafifj, by an hyferiaian which would 

be incredible in the genuine epitaph; ofi 
(vivmt ^icfir iW being Introduced in 
place of a participial clause like oiaiivarm 
i^vxit. The meaning evidently is, in the 
battle, uihile they sacrijited their lives, tkiy 
left to the God of Death to judgt whether 
Ihiy shruitj courage or fear. There is a 
similar hypertalan in Xen. Hell. Vli. 3, 
7: hjuit Toh xtpl 'Apx'"' Kol 'Tvdn^, , . . 
ti ^0or driiKirarf, dU' Jtr&re K^irTar 
iSvriiretrt iniui^atrBt (West.). 

■p. 5. lAnKtf 'EX>]|v<n> belongs to 
w. 3, 4.— tvY^ adxAii Sfvrfi, a strange 
expression for classical times, but com- 
mon in later poetry, as in the Anthology 

V. 6. (I|i4lt lyiifirw (with liii), have 
atotit them, like a yoke: cf. Od. 111. 486, 
(Trior fvyii' dji^t txtmn. 

V. ;. Twv vXito-ra ta/fAiiTwi, of men 
tvia most grievously lahoured. letening to 
the defeat; to these words iiril (v. 8) 
refers back, 

ini. 9, 10. pi|Sh'...iv Pwrg, it is Ihe 
gift of Ihe Cqds (for men) never to faU 
and altvays la succeed in life, '\.t. this is a 
miraculous exception in mortal life; op- 
posed to which is the flxed rule that death 
is appointed for all, iuStar...hniHf (sc. 
Ztin fipoToit). The (wo verses contain 
Ihe in &t6t itpioit; but the change of con- 
struction in<rptr is awkward, 
and ir fiurry is always felt to be an un- 
natural addition 10 v. 9. It is now knowD 




30O*AKOVcif, AtcrxCvT), koI iv avT^ tovt^ /xijSec afxapreiv 

ia-Ti deStv Koi iravra Karopdovv ; oil r^ avix^ovkt^ Tr^v 

Tov Kwropdovv T0V9 d'ywviilofwi'ovs dvedrjKe Svvafuv, dXka 

rois (Jcois- Ti oSv, w KardpaT, ifiol w€pl rovrtay \oiZopei, 

S Kat Xeyei? a troi Kal rot; coZs ol 0cql rpe^^fiav eX^ k ct^aXijf ; 

391 IloXXa TOiiojc, ^ avSpeq 'Affrfvaioi, koI aXXa KarTfyopr)- 
KOTOS awroS Kal Kare^eva-fievov, /aoXiot' cdav/iatra irarrwc 

ore tSv ITVp.^^^TjKOTQH' TOT€ 7~p JToXci p.VTftrd^L'i OUJf W? Av 

f 9*0. I. Jn ri Inner rodry) L, vulg. ; nro. £ (e 
i^t/utprnw B. 1. 0<or (not ftou), chan|^ to ViSiv, 

KonpSS* Ai. oil T^ <rv;43. r^ nw (sr. £ |mg.), om. ^'. 4. u om. T. 

\ot<ap<i £ ; XeiSnfii L. vutg, 5. «1 9«)l om. L. tli ri)* n^ B. 

S S9I, I. ■[anrToyMitvTn V6. 1. jcara^fiwa^au O, V6. /hIXmt' S, 

Al ; h ixaKurn L, vulg. ritrut S, Ai ; 4»d*rt* L. vulg. ,). Srt 2, Ai ; in 

vulg.i 4n (coven) L. fiviifftfcit £, L, Ai, B; iraianiaetit vulg. 

that the worrjs n^iir aimprtir iari OtoD 

of the epigrain of Simonides on the heroes 
of Marathon, of which two other lines arc 
preserved : 

'EW^ruir rpo^utxoCrrtl 'ASjinoToi Mojja- 

See Kirchhoff (Hermes vr. 487—489) 
who quotes a MS. scholium on Gregory 
Nikniianz. Or. in Julian. 11. p. 169 o: ri 
draiidpTJiTor, <fi>tvtr, {nrip if/Mt roilt itSpii- 
»eirf ■ ri 3*>u«()i» ti TTaiiram! iratiytirBal 
Tf xai iiep9iiS«9at drBpuiwuv itrrlr xaXuv ti 
Kiy»$wr, \i-fti Si SifUiiyMi)! {ils i' o^oi 
Tfi^ #■ XvpixSr) in itt-ipiiinart ^eim 
airrv till roil MaBtSQ-, wiaowru 'ABr,- 


Bergk, Poet. Lyr., Simon, fr. 81, with 
the note. .See Themist. Or. XXii, p. 176 B, 

Ktiriu T-^f ir6pwrlnjt^...T6irl-ypajx/iJi6\Tj~ 
O/tTtpar i 'At'Vlo'"' ^FiT^poirroi iw T(? 
ri^ Tifi Si}tu>vUfi ' not yip Toit ffeoii fiinut 
ri raira KUTapBoBr irovtiitt. These 
two quotations refer beyond doulit to a 
verte in which " never to fail and always 
to succeed" is CHlIed a divine preroga- 

tive ; while il is also certain that in the 
same words in the inscription quoted by 

Demosthenes these are called a privilege 
sometimes granted by the Gods to favour- 
ed mortals (see §190). The original verse 
of Simontdes, iaiHr...ita-rop8a6r (with- 
out Jf^iotp), was probably used 155 years 
after the battle of Marathon, as a well- 
known verse, in the genuine epigram 
on those who fell at Chaeronea. still 
without ir pari, '"'t with a different 
meaning; and in this new sense it was 
quoted by Demosthenes in g 190. The 
writer of the spurious epigram in g 189 
borrowed the genuine line (perhaps from 
the text of Demosthenes), and added the 
whole of D. 10. In t/. 9. as in § sgo", 
StQi' has the best authority (see critical 
note). In the scholium on Greg. Nanz. 
we have StoO, which fiergk thintis may 
be a Christian subslilution for Btaw. See 
notes of West, and Bl. 

g 990. 1. |M|S)v...KaT0fik4v: see 
note on S t>^, t 

: the 


poser, or perhaps v 'i^t, is the subject. 

£. & ..(tt Kti^Xijv: cT. XIX. 130, a rir 
ett itc^Mir iim aiT<f in rpiifn. 

S 901. 3. ^ JLci sc. fiFxc or (r);»fir: 
cf. i 197'- 



evi/ov9 KoX oiKaio^ irokLrrji €ir\e r^v yixofirfv, ovB' iSaKpvirev, 
ovo hradi toiovtoc avhev tq "/wxP* <*^' «Tra/>as tt)v ^fnovrjv s 
323 KOI yeyi}6ai^ koI kapvyyi^oiv ^ero fiev efiov KaTrfyopetv 
BrjXovoTL, Sety/xa S' f^€(f>epe Kdff lavrov ort rot? yeyevqiidvoi.^ 
avuipols ovZkv ofioi(ii<i ^tr\e rois aXKois- Kotroi toi' tZv 393 
vop-tnv Kai TJjs TToXtretas ^tavKovra. <f>povTL^€iv, ottrTrep oBtos 
wvl, KOI ei priBev akko, toSto y' «X***' ^"' ''<*^^ \vn€L(r0ai 
KoX rawra ■)(aipav Tot? iroXXois, Kai fi'^ rg irpoaipeo-ei twc 
KoivStv iv T^ tSk cvai^Kof /ae/hi T6ra;^^ai* o cru wvl S 
ireiroiTjKOt^ eT tftaitphi, ifik iravrtiiv atn.ov koX Si' c/ic ei5 
■iTpa.yp.aTa fftda-Kav c^Trccreu' r^f TroXif, ovk airo t^s c/x'^y 
TToXiTcta? ouSc vpoaipeireia^ dp$apev<av vfiwv roZs *EXX»;iti 
^orqBiiv iirti, ip.oiy' ci tovto hod^ii) Trap vpJov, Si ifie vfmq 303 
^fan'iaia'dat tq Kara ratv 'EXk^vatf ap)(^ irparropetrQ, 

4. icalS, L, Ar. ]( (hI« vulg. 

6. ^c«()iSi I.', O. 

re Tfy-) o 
4 /i^/m Aj. 

toioOtw oJ«. S. L. At; 

. o. 7. i«')'^ (1 o 

»ulfi.! rtom. S, Ai. 
3ir (for 3 iru)Y'. 

ToffBVTO il ifli VUlg. ; TOfftU 

4. (Gvovi: see note on § 173*.— loT[i 
Ti)v yviajLTpt, was disposed. 

6. XafWYYCt^v : see Harpocr.. ri 

ipdi-^yasdiu, dXA' trirqiciinr rcpitpydTtpor 
ti} XapirjTi xi'V''*"' aftriiit A^tro. Cf. 
Ar. Eq. 358, \iip\ryytSi Toin ^apai, I 
■will icriKh down the orators. 

7. Sat'Yiui J(J4*P*) ^ '"^ making an 
athibilian, giving a sfrcimin : cf. XIX. Ij. 
— Sn...ToIi £XXms: dependii^ on the 
verbal force of itxypB,. A bazaar in the 
Piraeus, where samples of goods {itiy- 
HflTu) were exhibited, was called the 
titiypa.: see Harpocr. — roti ft^n. Ana- 
poit : causal dative with l<rx<, vai afftcUd: 
cf. Uxf T^l' T"**"?* {•,)■ 

g, ToEt IXXow: with i/iolut. 

g SS2. I. TBv vdfUM 1 Aeschines 
began his speech (1 — 8) wilh a grand 
glorifi cation of the laws, and of the ypo^ 
rapat6pMr as the great bulwark of the 


3. TaMl...Tatt mXXalt: cf § iSo*, 
ri Ttt^A rpoaipttafat k.t.X. 

4- TQ Tpoaipfam niv Keiviiv: cf. 
S 191' and I. S (below) I see 9S 93', 

5- Ttni\tai. m befasind [pvslrd). 

7. wpdfiura, troubles: ef. At. Ach. 
310, ixirraw a/riow Ton- »pa7>iOTWii. 
See Aesch. ill. •,-,. rOir tk i7tixnl>Briar 
inrrwr iiTj/iorSifiir olnw •/tytrifuitior. 
— oJk . . . Poi)fl)Cv : this su^ests forcibly 
that the policy of Demosthenes of helping 
friendly stales against Philip has followed 
the traditional policy of Athens ; See SS 95 
— 100. Dcmosth. here only denies that 
he began this policy {oix ip^apJniir). 

§ S9fl. 1. TQ..,wpaTTOfiii>t|, tie do- 
minion ivhich wai groviing up: cf.JCa'-*, 
and XXin. II, 6 Kipoe^iJrrji irpaTTW^ 
■riir ifixi'i ^^^ active form of ^ rparra- 



Hei^aiv &.v 8o9eLT) Stapea crv^irao-wi' av roli oXXots SeB^Kare. 
oXX' ovT hv iyoi ravra <fnj<raiiii (oSifcoiiji' yap fir vfi.a.^), 
S OVT ijf iixel^ et otS* OTi a-vyxo>pi^<raiT€- oSros r el BiKaia 
eiroUi, ovK &.V cfcxa t-^s irpos €fie ^0pai to. /teyiora ™c 
vfierepotv KoXSiV ipkaim KtCi Stc/SaXXef. 

29* 'AXXo Ti raur' iniTifia, iroXX^ <r)(€T\uoTep' aXKa Karq- 
yoprjKOTOi avTOV koX KaTOJtfviTfxevov ; $s yap ifiov <f>tXtir- 
•jna-phv, a yr] koX ^€ol, Ko/rqyopet, Ti oSros ou« ic etwot; 
KaiTOL vrj Toi^ 'HpaK^c'a xai irai^a; Stoii^, €i y in dXijdeia; 
S 8^01 (TKoweia'Oai, to KaTayliev&€(rdai Kai Si' €)(6pav Tt X-eyetf 
di^Xovra; ck jxAktov, Ttve^ at; oXv^doi; eurii' o7; Af eiKora>$ 
Kai SLKauiis 7171' Ttttf yeyeyt}iiev<av alnav iwl rfiv Ke(f)aX7)v 
avadelev anavTEs, tovs ofiolovi tovt^ irap €Ka,<rrg tS>v jj^ 

395 iToK^atv evpotr Siv, oil tous ifwi' 01, or »jc dir^ci^ ra 
^iXtTTTrow TTpdyfxaTa Kal KOfii^y ft.i,Kpa„ iroXXaxi; TrpoXeyo*'- 
raic rfp^v xal wapaKaXowroiv KOt oiZacKOVToiP to ^ScXrioTa, 
r^s iSia; O'ck' altrxpoKepSta'; to. koiv^ <rvfuf>€povTa wpoUvro, 

3. fuifv L. //ul over Ar B. diriuur Ai. rort om. Ai. 4. Tovrn 

om. A*. tr (sfter Tip) oro. O. 5. rvrx''p^"t Al ; ffiT>x"p^»Tf' «! oW Bri 

Al. Ttk Jlnua Ai. 1. 6. rpit /tf Al. 

I SO*. I. ^irif(U Z', ^(inuu Z*. i. nrai^two/i^u V6. _ 4. nol 

(for iroi T«) *. ToiTof 2, L, V, Ai ; nirrot toi)i vulg. 5. jaTt^Ee-Sai A*. 

6. irt\6rTtiV6. 9. (DfHHTb £, V. F(fp), All e^ntAr L, B, vulg. oi' 

£, V, Ai. t ; oi!x' L< vulg- ''^■t '*">' 4- 

$ BQS. 4. (r«» L. aiirxpoKtpStat 2, L; -elai vulg. 

5- *i M' Sri, us usual, parenlhetic : ing i 

«H' 5ti can be ihos used e»en with a 6- 

participle. as in ix. i, xix. g. cf. ? 

■}. ipXnwra Kal SUpoXXn- (with fr): S. AroSiibv: cf. § 190*. 

conalive. 9. ^povr' ltllpoiTf)iv,}vuiBeui/jinii, 

In g§ SV« — SVS Demosthenes gives appealing suddenly to the court or the 

a " black lisl " of the traitors who have audience ; we must understand u/ia! with 

helped Philip or Alexander in subjugating ireXirrai (6). The other leading, (DpM 

Greek states, and declares that Aeschines '" <I'i would involve a change from the 

is the representative of this pestilent class plural irtklrTat (sc. rwi) to the more 

in Athens. Saving his own country from explicit singular with ret. 

the disgrace of joining or abelting (his 3 Sftft. i. Sr' ^v iirflivTJ, i.e. in the 

foul plot against liberty is the great service slate described in 11. 14 — 11 — rit 4. 

for which he claims the name of patriot. rpdinMvra, i.e. Ait cenditiim. 

% S94. %. IpiO ^XMrwuTiiif : the 9. irpaX(Y^rTav...T(t pArum, as in 

pronoun is emphatic, tat, of all mm. The the Olynthiaca and the First Philippic. 
word Philippic in all Ullages is a itand- 



Tous vTrap^ovTCKi tKaoToi ttoXitos efairarui^es xal Sta^ffeC- s 
povTE^, «i>s SouXou? cirotijcaf, — QeTraX.ous AcEo^os, KtWas, 
SpatrvSao^' 'ApKaSas KepKi^a.'s, 'le/jwcu^s, EuKa^iriSa^' 
'Apyeiovi MvpTin, TcX^Sa/io;, Mcacrcay- 'HXeiov? Evfi^eos, 
KXeoTifios, ' ApiaraLjQio^- Meo-oTjwtous 01 4>cXiaS<}v row 
dcot; f\6pQv iraiSe; tJiotv xal @/}a<rvXo^of - SiKU'i'i'cov; 10 
'ApttrrpaTO^ 'Eirtx"/"??' KopivBCovq ^fivap)(iK, ^rfiiapero^- 
Meyap^aiiTlrot6Sii>piK,'E\i.^ot, IlcptXXos' ^jSawv? Ti/toXa;, 
SeoyeiToyp, ' Ave/jtoirai- Ev^oeas 'Iffjrapxo^i KXet7U/3)(os. 
XotcrtoT/jaros. iiriXelyltei p.€ \4.yovff r) rfp-fpa to. t(uv trpo- 396 
ooTwi' ovofiara. oStol irdvT€% ettrlv, avSpf^ 'AdTjvaioi, rStv 

7. SpufftfJooi £, L, Ai'i OfKur^JoMi vulg.; OpoffiiXBat Y, F (tp), Ai (con.). 
Kt/wital Talg., Polyb. ; K(p«3ai £ ; Ktptttai L\ *, Al ; KtpiiSil L'. EfiB/iirflai 

2, L, Ai, V; om. V6; BteaXrfJalvulg. ii. Alvapxoi S'- ii' nc^taXof 

I. irMrpti (1 changed lo «) S ; ^nXd^ai Ai. 

own felhw-cititttu, those wilh whom 
each was concerned or had Co deal: see 
note on % i*. Most of Ihe irailors in Che 
following list have been rewBrded by de- 
served obscurity ; (hose who would rescue 
them from this may consult Dis-en's, 
Westeimann's, and Blass's collections of 
the scanty knowledge of them foand else- 
where, I give a few references. Daochus 
and Thrasydaus were the Thessalian 
ambassadors s«nt by Philip lo Thebes 
in 339 B.C. (see note on % i..'). See 
Plut. Dem. 18. Theopompus (Athen. Vl. 
p. 149 c) calls Thrasydaus luxi^r iiir 
1^ iviilitlt, tJiKaxv. Hi ittyuTim. HietO' 
nymus is menlioned in XIX. 1 1 ; and in 
the Scholia as a pupil of Isocrates. The 
sons of Philiades are mentioned in [xvil.] 
4 — 7, as restored lo power in Messene by 
Alexander after Ihey had been expelled 
by a popular revolution. Perillus and 
Ptoeodottis are mentioned in xix. 195; 
and Perillus, Tiinolaus, and AKstrstus in 
g 48 tabovej. Hipparchus and Clitarchus 
were set up as tyrants in Eretria by Philip 
about 343 B.C.! Beeix..i7, s8, and SS 71, 

So, and St (above). Many of the names 
are found in Harpocralion and Suidas. 
With this whole passage compare $§4; — 
49, and Poiyb. Xvll. 14. Polybius censures 
Demosthenes for calling tome of these 
men traitors, especially the Arcadians 
and Messenians, maintaining that they 
did what they believed to be for the best 
iDleresc of their own states. He says: 
ij H njpoSmt Ti rpAt rii rarplSa^ SUaia 
Kpitrtt rpay/iaTur Sit^porro, vofii^ofTti 06 
Toirri) tTvfi^ftor 'A^i'afut ilfUL Kai rati 
iaitrar iriXdn*. oi Bi) roti ilii touio laXei- 
rr^cu xpo66Tat ixf"l' u'A ^TiitoaStroui. See 
the whole essay on traitors, Polyb. XVlI. 
13 — c5. DemostheueSi looking back On 
his long struggle with Philip, felt that 
this selfish regard for the temporary 
interests of special cities, which always 
proved fatal to Hellenic unity, and this 
utter disregard of the good of Greece as 
a whole, really amounted to treachery. 

9 a»«. I. inUifai....dvtf)uiTa: em- 
phatic asyndeten. Cf. the Epistle to the 
Hebrews, xi. 31, iit,\il^t< »< 4 xpi"»> 
and Cic. Nnt. Deor. III. 3a (81), dies 
deliciat si vi " 




avT&v ^ovKfvfjMTOiV €V Tats avTtov ira.Tpttrt.v Svwep o^ot 
Trap' vpXv, avOptoTToi p.ia.poi. koX KokaKt'i ko-i aX.d<TTOp€^, 
5 ■qKpoiTffpiaa-fiei'Oi ra? iavrSiv exaoToi irarpiSas, rrfv ikev 
BfpCav wpoTre-rrtoKOTe^ wporepov p-ev ^iXt7rira> iniv 8' 'AX.ef- 
duBp^, rg yaarpl fierpovvre^ Kal tow attrxitrrois t^v 
evSaipxiviaf, T^f 8* ikevdcpiav Koi to /xi^SeV tx^*'' Sto-Tron/i' 
avTwc, a Tois irpoT^pOK "EKkiftriv Spot rStv ayaOiov ^crav 
lo fcal Katroi/cc, dfarCTpo^orc;. 

3. -niv airvv pouX«v|iiTav, (men) ^ 
/At same purposes '. this genitive of quality 

Latin. Sec Aesch. In. i6S, P<w^ar' 

rtpou Toii f*;oii ;<rrl», and Thuc. III. 45", 

Kriiger (Spr. 4;, 6, 10) and West, call 
these possessive genitives ; and Weil 

quotes IX. 56, TlWt /!*» ♦l\/Tr<Ml...TlWt 

<j rsC ^tXrlffTov, which, however, is not 
the same thing. 

4. AXtia-TOfXt, accursed vrrttchts (ap- 
plied lo Philip in xrx. 305); properly 
victims of divine vengeance, as in Soph. 
Aj. 374, ittBriKH TO^ dX<£irTofiat, the 
primal J meaning (probably) being a 
divine avenger, as in Aeschyl. Pers. 354, 
^Breli dXdariup 4 «uii iaiiuini. 

5. iJKpvnifiukffiiiroi, 10^0 4inv cx/- 
ra^n/ (lit. tnutilaled) : see Harpocr., drrt 
rov \tki/tt,affikivQi' cl y^ "KvfiOAvifixvoi 
Tii/tr tlJ}0tLOL vrpig&Tmtv a^Tut rd &jcpa^ 
In Aeschyl. Cho. 439 and Soph. El. 445 
there is the same idea in ^^tarrxoXlff^ir, 
^twrxoiMftii being to mulLJatc a dead body 
by cutting off the extremities (ra aipe.] 
and putting them under the armpits 
(fuuFxdXoi) : see Kittredge on Armpitting 
asamg the Greeks, Am. Joum. of Philol. 
Vt. pp. ijl — 169. Perhaps such strong 
metaphors as this suggested to Aeschines 
the absurd expressions which he pretends 
to quote from Demosthenes in ill. 166, 
d/HTcXnvfrynvaf ricet rV TiXu>, drarcr/i^- 

nurl rum t4 nX^/iara ri toC Utiav, 
and others. See Dem. iii. 31, ii^n 
iKtertupifffUnx tai reptinwj^*'" XP^/^ra 
K.r.X. — n)i' iX<v6(p(av irpomirKHirn : for 
the succesiive steps by which wporltu 

Lidd. and Scotl : cf. lit, it. An inter- 
mediate meaning, present a cup (or other 
gift) a/ler drinking one's htallJl, is seen 
in XIX. ijg. sfvaiy lol ifitKarSpwrevliiitna 
irpAi ai>r»^ b H\vwros iXXa n 5i) roXXd, 
ofor atx)iakii>Ta vat rd Totaura, lal rfX(v- 

a^ii, i.e. in drinking their health, he 
gave them these various gifts. See also 
Pind. 01. VII. I— fi, lndXar ws (I rii 
d^ctiSt d»i X"P*' '^'i" ''iw BBTiXou 
naxXdftoufo* S(>4ffv J«(ii)(reTai reori^ 
•fo/ifipip rporlruir almiBa nlnaSi, t.r.X., 
and the Schol, on v. 5, rporhiir imi 
laifUn rb aua rif xpdfiari t6 iyytisy X"/^- 
ftoSai — tat ^TjiioMfiit TBin rpoHiitariu 
7-dl rarpiSai t«t <x^f><< rporirtu li^, 

J. Tj YS^TTpl |UTpsflirr*i ; see note on 
I 48' (on TiHiXai). .See Cic. Nat. Deor. 
1. 40 (iij), quod dubilel omnia quae ad 
beatam vilam pertineant venire metiri. 

9. Spoil Kol Kav£vtt, bounds and 
rules, i.e. they applied these as tests to 
whatever was presented lo them as a 
publicgood. — ^rav: plural, agreeing with 
tpoi and Kojfhtti, 

10. AvoTfTpo^dm. having ootrtumtd 
(i.e. reversed) these tests. 

Lai^nas on the Sublime, 31, refers to 




3^5 creais koX KaxCaq, fiSWov S*, a avSpe^ 'AOrjvatot, irpoBo(ria^, 
el Sei 117) Xripeiv, t^s tw** 'EXXiJctuv eXev^cputs, rj re ttoXis 
irapa iravw a.v0p<uiToi^ avairto-i yeyovtv ix rav ifiMV ffoXi- 
T€V/MiTart' wai iyo> irap vfuv. ctra //.' ip<tyr^^ awl iroia$ j 
aper^s dfioi nfiatrdai; iya> Se <roi Xeyo) ort, Toii' itoXitcuo- 
fidpav irapa rots 'EXXi/o't SLaiftOapfiTotv airavratv, ap^afidvotv 
ttTTo iTov, irponpov pev vvo ^iKiwov vvv 8' vtt' 'AXefacS/wu, 
^^e ovre Kaipo; ovrc tptXafOpoywia Xoyatv ovr ewayyeXiStv 398 
peyedoi ovr iknh otrre ^6^0% ovr' aW* ovSev ifrrjp€v owSc 
irporfydyeTo aiv ixpiva StKaCotv koX avp^povrtov tq irarpi^i, 
ovBev irpoSovvai, ou8', o<ra <rvp^e^ov\€VKa jrtujrorc TOOToto"!, 
opoicit^ vpiv atnrcp Slv Tpvrdvrj pfirtav e/rl to Xfjppa irv/x/Sc- 5 

SaB7. 1. Jom. Ai. 3. J), (for *(f) O. 4. xi^' £tiwi» VC 

6. 8^2. L-; Jiivulg. 

9 998. 1. oSt» 0*;9o» oflr-f x"**"" L. ™1B' I «''■' X-lp" on>. 2" (added above), O. 
4. Tothvtj Ai 1 TOvTivait Ai, B. 5. uiricp Ar rpirrdrTj F, Y; iSmrcp i> rfHn-anfi 

(later rl ir ova av Tp, i in ji now erased) £; uawtplLrtl ir T/n/Tdrn h, B, OV vnlg.; 
iSrwip ir Tpiirirn Ar. ». 

this passage (4 — 10) as a proper exception 
to tbe rule (of which Demoslhenes was a 
Spot) allowing only two or at most three 
metaphors on one point (fwl rairoB). He 
says : i T!n XP*^"' i" <">V^< Ma ri wiff>i 
Xf^ippoi Six^ (XairtTOi, (ai r^ roXv- 

rX^tia* avTur in Jrayialar imS$a 
run^Xterai. Then, after a quoCatJoa 
of this passage, he adds, ^rraMa r^ 
xXT^n Tuv Tporutur 6 ufara TUf rpoior^ 
hrirpoaSti toO iripa^ Bvitbu 

The Epilogde, SS 197—3*3- H=™ 
we have the four characteristics of the 
itrO'jrpnt as Aristotle gives them (Rhet. 
HI. 19, 1): ailments which will dispose 
the hearers favourably to tbe speaker and 
unfavourably to his opponent, amplilicB- 
tion and depreciation, excitement of emo- 
tions, and recapitulation. He b^ins by 
duming for himself the credit of keeping 
Athens free from the notorious conspiracy 
■gunst Grecian liberty which he has 
just mentioned ; and he charges Acschines 
with bilihg in all the characteristics of 
a patriotic citizen which his own course 
exemplifies (gH 997 — 300). He recapitu- 
lates some of his chief services in pro- 
viding Athens with means of defence, and 
asks what amilar claims Aeschines has to 
G. D. 

the public gratitude {g| 301 — 313). He 
objects to being compared with the great 
men of former limes, though he declares 
that he can bear such a comparison for 
better than his opponent (§§ 314—313). 
% SQT. I. mpiPoitTov, tmlorioui, 

3. <l M |i,i| MifHtv, i.e. to call things 
by their right names, referring to rpeSo- 

4. trapii ninv ivCpairoit, i.e. in tit 
minds of all vun ; but m^ T<Si "BXXi^n 
(7), among Ihl Gritts; in % 174' both 
ideas are combined. 

J. IpoTft; see Aesch. 136. 
7. Awiytm : exa^etation ; but see 
i 304. — Affa|iivav i/wi ffoS, yaandf first 


eJ^...i|MtM %!)•... «i|jk- 



fiovX€VKa, aXX* air 6p6iji teal SiKota; Jcal a£uu}>06pov r^9 
V'^'XT** '^'** fi-€ryiaTit>v S^ irpayfia/Tav tS>v ko-t ifiavrov 
avdptairaiv Tipotrra.^ iravra ravff vyia-i koX Sifcautif iretroki.- 
389 Tevfxai. Sia ravr' d^uit npAo-dai. toc S^ Teix'O"/*^*' ToOroi', 
&!/ (TV /tou Sieo-upe;, (cat t^v ro^/aeiaf d^io ^ev \d/>tTos Kai 
^aivov KpCvot, 7r£s ydp ou ; voppo) p.€V7o\. irov rav ifiavr^ 
ireTTo\LT€Vfi€vo>p ridcfi^t.. oil ki0oi$ irti^ia-a ttjv ttoKiv ovZk 
5 v\Lvdoi.^ ey^i ov8' eiri toutois fteyicrroi' rail' i/iavTOv iftpovw' 

7. rdrra *u>i riwpatTiu (after fl'tiXTi) L' (mg.), vulg. ; om. Z, L', Ai ; fUH Om. 4. 
Tur (before car') am. Z' (uidcti above, now Dearly erased). 8. rpocr wilh <kt 

added Z. raSB' om. Ai. Jmafut lal iiXii A:. 1. 

Sa»8. 1. To^f^or Ai; ^T'plar(l) V6. 3. rouom.At. 4. of XU«| 

2, L', F, ♦, Ai ; at -/ip \ie. B, vulg. 

I, nirr havt I givm my 
advke, like yim, inclining tin-ardi gain 
lite a balance, i.e. as a balance wuuld 
incline if a weight were put into one of 
the scales : uartp Sr (sc. ^r«). This is 
illustrated by a striking passage in v. 14 : 

not oiih k^ii)i' Sr efiteli fxi" 'P^' ^' 'V^ 
irtroXiTtvptu Kol Xtyu iel^at rpoaitpr^jfU- 
war. ipBir our, S ti 3t ror' ir' BArwr 
irrdpxv Tui- xpa^fiiTu*. ri auiupipor ^- 
>ttai lUH, 5ra» *' irl (irtpa tSurfp t(i 
Tpirrdr^r afrjipmr wpectrtyKiit. o^erai ^- 

ral oiit 0* ft-' Jpflili oM' StiSi 4 toCt-o 
Twifira* Tepi oW<r4i XoYltfoiTo. (See notes 
of Weslermami and Dindorf on this pas- 
sage.) See also Ludan, Amot. 4, iyii> 
pit y^p 6 rXjfyitj ixaripip naBiwtp <upi- 
^?^ Tpvrdnj roTr iw^ afx^&rtpa TXurri^fil' 
Iffopp&Toit TaXturrriofnLt. 

7. ^.r/iirrmv ... AvfipiiirM', lil. lAe 
vieigktiiil (oncenu of (alt) Iht men of my 
time (partitive). 

g 99S. I. mx^'l^''' 1^^ repairing 
of the walls of Athena in 337 — 336 B.C., 
for which Demosthenes was rtixmroiit. 
For the decree providing for the appoint- 
ment of rcixoriHot by the tribes in 337 B.C. 
and its exact date, see Aesch. in. 17. 
Demosthenes was then appointed roxo- 
Toiit \>y his tribe, the {Icuiuirb, and 
received from tbe treasur]' (according to 

Aesch. 31) neail)' ten talents (or the ex- 
penses (see § 113' and note). 

3. &¥ rit |iov 8Uo-uptc ; cf. Todrb pav 
iui^Wd i i8>. 

3. vippM, i.e./ar below. 

4. ei UBoit irafxw^ Tijv viXiv : a 
bmous passage, often quoted hj the 
rhetoricians. See the beginning of the 
bwidtiru of Libanius. Plutarch (Lycurg. 
191 Lac. Apopbth., Lye. 1%) quotes a 
saying of Lycurgus the law-giver, ix/i or 
((i; i.T(Lxurm riXii am aripiai cut tt 
irXlrSnt ^im^iirwnu. I^rd Brougham is 
eloquent on this passage (see p. too). 
Whiston refers lo Sir Wm Jones's ode, 
'■ What constitutes a State?'' However 
familiar the idea may have been, the pas- 
sage is a most effective answer to the 
taunts of Aeschires (136) about the walls 
and ditches. 

j. vXlvtoLt : not " tiled-roofs " (as 
Lord Brougham strangely translates), but 
sun-drieJ brids, of which no small part 
of the walls of Athens and of the Long 
Walls to the Piraeus were built. The 
brick wall was built on a solid foundation 
of stone, the height and thickness of 
which differed according to tbe import- 
ance of the position. Dbrpfeld (in Schuch- 
liaidt, Schliemonn's Excavations, p. 343, 
Engl. Tr.), in describing the walls of the 
Second City on the hill of Troy, says : 
" Such walls of defence, built of brick 



aXX' iav rbv ifiop Tet\t(riii>v fiovXj) SiKaCio^ trKoveiv, cuprjereis 
oirXa KoX ttoXcis koI t6wov$ koi Xifiewa^ Kai fous koX 


wpov0ak6fi7fy cyto ir/)o r^s 'Attik^s, oarov -tju avdp<iy7Tiv<f 
\oyi,(rfJM Swaroc, Kai tovtok ereij^io-a r^c ^wpav, ov)(i tov 

irya> tois Xoytcr/ioZs 4»iXiffjrou, iroXXov ye koi Sei, owSe Tais 5 
irapafTK^val^, aXX o£ rtov (rvfifid^otu (rrparrjyot koi at 

6. ^(ii)\ir (« over 1)) Y. ShoJui om. V6. 7. cai ri\<it am. Ai. 

S. ToUo^ Hss., Vom., BK; ia [ ] Reiske, Bk.; om. West., Lips. iiivn- 
liAtmt 1, L, vutg. ; a^tvrmiUnm B. 

S aOO. t. wpoipatAin'n' V, V6. 'Ani^i (r above) 2. &ra Y. 

3. riW (ror X'^V"') Ai (with Xiiipar in mg.). rjr om. O. 4. r^iXm- fiJMV 

vulg.; ^0* oro. Z, L', Ai. ArriutS: Avnit L, vule. 5- rwi TOu ^X. 
Xoy. V6. 

with a low subsimciure of stone, were in 
use at every period of antiquity, as we 
see in the brick walls of Eleasis, which 
are still well preserved, and in the town 
walls or Athens, of which some fragments 
are still (o be seen." See Viiniviiis. 11. 
8, 9 : nonnullis civitalibus et pubiica 
opera et privata, domos etiam regias e 
latere structas licet videre, et primutn 
Alhenis muruni qui spectat Hymettum 
IDontem el Pcnlelensem ; d. Plin. N. H. ' 
XKXV. 14, 17], See C. I. Alt. «., No. 
''•7 (33*— 3»fi "-C"). lines ih- S". 7.^- See 
HiUC. I. 93, ol Btni\mi nmiur MSur 
vriKtiiTiu (of Ihe walls of Athens). The 
Slone walU of Mantinea, which are still 
standing almost complete, have at moil 
only four courses of stone, which were once 
lunnounlcd by a wall of brick: Pausanias 
describes this wall as iiu4> ifro/iBiaiiitror 
T^ rXirffou, built of raw (i.e. unbattd) 
hritki (viii. 8, 7). See Curlius, Pelo- 
poDneaos, I. p. 136. The common >ise of 
onbaked bricks explains the mystery of 
the disappearance of so many miles of 
wall between Athens and the Piraeos, 
and around these towns themselves. 

7. tJ« wh . ietintria, Euboea, Boeotia, 
Ibe Chersonese, as opposed to cities. 

g. I have bracketed ToXXoi*, to avoid 
the difficulty of taking it with both (in 
and ™J« aiixro^tovt o ' 

lion toanolberunsfltisfactoiyone. Viimel, 
who retains it, refers to 1 137", (wxIXioi 
Iz-rcif. — revf Avlp ttArrmn d|LvvofUrov(, 
Iki drfntdm Bfthist (our fellow-citizens) ; 
Toitrat for Tourtni, "w^en dea Hiatus" 
(Bl.). The present i^ivrafiiram is amply 
justified by Isoc. vili. 139, to\Xoi>i #Ja- 
iUY Totn irolfuas teal wpo66fitiit ffut/aytiiin^Q^ 
tUrovt i)iitr, and Lycurg. Leocr. 54. 
iXaXlffrovi H"t raiit ixip iti<ir a^rur 
tirSvrr6orTat. (West.) 

g BOO. 1. rpoificJiif.Tp: cf. g§ 97' 
and 301'. — Mpitwlr^ Ketirf^ : cf. 
I "93*- 

3. -rtr kvkXov roO IlnpaiJM : Iht 
circuit of the Piraeus was assigned to the 
Iribe Pandionis, to which Demosthenes 
belonged. See the decree in Plut. Mor. 
p. S51 A, 01^ ro^poiT Trpl rdp Itn/nu 
TO^^iaat (of Demosthenes). 

5. XoYUTiKitt may refer to the en- 
counter with Python (g 136) and also to 
the embassies mentioned in % 144. — 
4iXfivirDt> ! with ijmjftjii. 

6. at ™» iru|i|id]ictr <rTp<in]Tfol : the 
only generals of the allies of whom we 
hear are the I wo Thebans, Proxenus, who 
commanded the mercenary force which 
was beaten and destroyed by Philip at 
Amphissa (see Hist, § 78), and Theagenes, 
who led a phalanx at Chaeronea : of 
these Dinarchus (i. 74) says, irl W rob 




Sfva/Mic T^ TVXO- rivfi al tovtoiv avoSfi^K; ivapyw 
KoX ^avtpai. tncofrelre Sc. 

301 Ti x/*^*' ''°*' ^vovv iroXinji' iroww', n roe ^cra 7ra<nj« 

iToki.Tev6fi€VOv ; ovK €K fiiv 0aka.m)^ tt)v Bu;8oiai' irpo^- 

Xetrdat irpo r^5 'Attik^s, ^k Se t^s introy^ta^ rijv Bouuruu', 

5 « Sc Til' irpo^ IleXoirocvi^o'of rdiTttiv tows o/to^vs ravrji ; 

ov T^v tTiToirofi.iriav, ottqis irapa ird^<Tav <^i\Uiv o,j(pi rov 

302 Tleipaiio'i KOfinrdr^ireTai, iipo'&€<TBai,; koX to, p^ tricrai tS>v 
v'<av iKtrdpirovra 0oT}6cia^ Kai kdyovra Kal ypd^ovra 
TOiavra, t^v TlpoKowrjirov, t^v Xeppovrjcrov, Trfv'TeveSov, 
TO 8' oirtus olKela koi mifipax wrdp^ei. irpa^ai, to Bv{oc- 

5 Tioi', TT^v "AfivSov, r^v Wa^owxv; koX rSiv pev Tois i)(0poK 

1. ^XoTififat (for wpt 
■ia* 2, L, vulg. (see 3 8;^. 
I L. wtpaSiieiu Y. 

6riii(ei S, L, Al, 4; Anpfg vulg. 5. ■fSvIoi' S (' later). 

I SOI. I. XP^A: 
in mK. S. 6. ffiroir 
Itop/wi); n(vai/i 

ftfOf 4 ipoWnji iy^rro, iiyt/iiir Si rji 
^dXa-yTOi «aW*Ti) 6(a>^nri, lEfffwrot aru. 
X^li 'ol tepoUnii livrrp ot^at (Demo- 
sthenes). Plulaich(Mor. 1J9 d) describes 
Theagenes as having the same public 
spirit Si Epaminondas and Pelnpidas. 
See notes on g| 164 and 303'. 

In g| 801— 818 the oralor recapitu- 
lates his own chief services, with which he 
compares the public career of Ae^ichines. 

S 801. I. rl Xf")!' k-tA., viAaJ was 
his dutj/ f—^nUbf, of a coutm: of action, 
to 1m explained hy several aorisis, each of 
a special act. In the following series of 
questions, all introduced by xp^> the 
oialor states the various problems which 
fiiced the Athenian siolesman of Ihat da^ 
and Ihe obvious solutions of Ihem. 

^. (k fci>4-rTi|i : cf. g 130*- — wpopo- 
XJo-ftu: cf. wpoufiaMiai', % 300'. With 
Ibis Rgure of Ihitnaing up Euboca as a 
luall 0/ dtfinct to Attica, compare Ihat in 
% 7i> (see note). .See Aesch. IH. 84, »oI, 

airij ^ivfli, rV Xi'C"* ^/"Sr irAxat. rj 
rUr BipaiuT nl Bv^SaJur av/iftaxlf, per- 

hapi added later, as a sarcastic allusion 
to this passage. 

5. Toit ifipout Tafirg, mr nagh- 
beurs on tiii side, as Megara and Corinth 

(cf- 8 137) ■ 

6. npd mwav ^iXfav (sc. lifi) : i.e. 
thai tki csrH-lradt should pats aioHg an 
mlirely friemUy coait (cf. % 87*). For 
the subject of S$ 301, 301, see M 71, 79— 
8», 87— S9, 140, 141, and Hist.SS j8, 6j, 
64, 67, 68. 

% aoa. r. The measures mentioned 
in -rd )i)v oww and rd 8'..,«pa(ai (4) 
were (leBigned to secure a friendly coast 
for the corn-trade (J 301*). — rin in^ 
xJt-TNV belongs scricliy only to t4 iiit, 
potentially also (o t4 ik, i.e. places which 
we dependid on securing (cf. irpafm iwwt 

I. vpd^i>m TMaftra, by proposing 
mtaiurti aciordat^y. 

J. -Ap*!.: see Hist, g 63.— KS- 
Phov: Weil proposes Z^Xvu^pfov, as 
Euboea has been just mentioned ; tnit 
Euboea, with its long coasts, was always 
essential to the safety of Che com tnde. 



virap\ov(rav Swdfieotv ras /ieyttmxs wfteXetv, (Sf S' eveKetirt 
VQ voKii, TOVTO. irpovd^von; ravTO roiwv airavra. wenpaKTai 
Tots tfioi^ ^^itTfUKTi Kai Tols ifixm woXtTeifUKriv, a Kal 303 
fiefiovkevfUva, & dvSp€i 'A^iwtiot, &v dv€v ifydovov tw 
fiov\r)Tat a-KOTTtiv, 6p$w^ eip^<r£i Koi weTrpayfi^a irdtrg 
SiKouKTvi^, Koi Tov CKaoTou Kaip^v oil irape0€PTa ovS* 
dyifOTjdevTa ovSe wpocGevra vw ifiov, koi o<r eis ^1*65 s 
dv&poii Svfa/iii' KoX XxyyKTfi^v ^Ktv, ovScf ik\et<ft0€v. el 
oe ^ oalp.op6^ Ttvoi tj tt^i^? toyyt ^ arpaTTjyMv <f>av\6rrii 
^ Twc wpoSiSovTtiiv Tiis woXcK ip-Siv KaKta ■^ irdfra to-vt 
3»7 ikvpxx.tvt.To Tois oXois ews aveTpexjiev, rt Aijpoa-ff^njs dBiKei; 

el 8' olos eya) irap' ii/xif Kara r^i/ e/tavroi) rd^iv, el? ^ 304 
eKdoTQ TWf 'EWi^i'iSo*!' iroXewi' (U^/> iyevero, pakXoy S* ei 
&' at^/ja fiovop Serrakia Kal ev dvSp' 'ApxaSta ravrd 

6. frA«»( 2, L, Ai, Y ; ;»Aii«TUlg. 7. TolttFofr^L, vulg.; i^^ om, 2, Ai. 

g aoa. 3. ^Xi]Ta( Ttf Ai. 4, 5. oil" ayro^irra oiit rpaStMrra vulg., om. 
V, add. mg. 5. wfKjtSirra (for rpoSotf.) 2, Y, Ai ) waptBirTa F. ^rAi irSpif 

X, L, Y, V6 ; ittpit irit vulg. 6. rirmr (for iilKvu*) Ai. _VU..^6' 

L, vulg., (late H over (1) 2. 7, tiwm after t^oti Aa. tibt (frjwn)- 

ywr 4>. S. ^ (before irdrT-B) om. Ai ; if koI X (7|>), 4 {yp). aiirrs 

ToErra £^L, vulg. ; TaOra rirra A i . 040. (after roPro) S J7p), vu^. ; om. Z, L, V6, 

% L. V, *-, or^/M^i (a over final t) B; iiriaTpf/.i V6. 

i •04. I, tl S' ofoi L; e( «r Z' (corr. lo d S' <!«) ; (I S' oloi ^i' vulg.; j» om. 
£, L. Y, Ai. i. iri)p om. A], 3. trSpa fitfot Z, L, vu^. ; iiirtr StS, Ai. 

6. T^i f^fy/irrat : especially Thebes in 
339 B.C. — jv Mkovt rj w6Xm, iMii^ M« 
city latktd: AAcfm i» xotnetimes itn. 
personal, like irSti, as here ; so Plai. 
\jc%- 844 B, tt TI« t<1t«i,..^X\(1t« Tur 
aiWYiialbn' vwfMlrM*, and 740 c. 

m(i>r.aj/.) refers chiefly l< 

4^ »4 -raptWita . . . TpaiW ith, epperiu- 
nitattm luiutqtu ra nan pir ntgligtntiam 
pratttriHistam luc igtieralam nee pradi- 
AmfDisaen). raptSirra implies farW»j- 
nas (cf, VIII. 34), rpatBirra ■ml/ulrias 
(Cf. VIII. 56). 

5. ir' implies rtaaOrwr, depending 
on oiitr. 

; . Saffun'oi ^ t^i|1 : cf. rit ScU/iofa 
KOl riir rixiir, Aesch. III. 115, 1571 The 
strength (Urxii) of the superhuman powers 

is opposed lo the weakness and itKapaeity 
(^vUnri) or the treachery of men. One 
of the Athenian generals at Chaeronea, 
Lysicles, was accused of treachery by Ly- 
curgus and condemned to dcalh (Diod. 
XVI. 88); see note on fg 164' and 30o". 

•srt, the familiar figure of 
the ship of state: the better Mss. have 
irfrpiifar, which West, defends on the 
ground that ol ifioSiMmt is the logical 
subject; but this should alTect fXv/iairtro 
also.— (I6u(«[, not is doing ■Birmg, bat is 
te blaait for a past wrong (M. T. 37). 

g a04. 3. 6«TraX(a...'A(iKatte: see 
gg 63. 64- "Philip's party in the one 
opened Northern Greece to him, and in 
the other neulralued the Peloponnesus" 





^povovvT i<r)(€V i/ioi, ov3eW ovt€ tup cfm TIvKatv 'EXkijvav 
306 ovT€ rav euro> tok irapoviri KaxoK i.K€yjnfT &v, oXXa 
irdvTf^ &f oi^c; ikcvdcpoi Koi avrovo/ioi fitra ird(rr)^ aZetas 
atrtf>a)t.a><! iv €v&a,\,fiovu^ ras eavrwc ^kovv vaTpiZa%, tovtwv 
TOKTovTfov Kol TOiovTitiv aya.6S>v Vfuv KoX TOis oXXois 'A^- 
5 va.ioi.% i)(ovTe<j xd-pw Si' ipA. Iva S' etSrJTf ori iroXK^ Tois 
Xoyots eXd.TToa-1 ;^a>/iat rwi* epytav, €v\afiovfi€vo^Tov ^66vov, 
Xeye /toi rairrl xal dvayvaOt XajSuv Tof apifffunf rav fior)0€iSiv 
Kara ra ^/ia *}rr}<fit<rfiCLTa. 

API«M02 BOHeEinN. 
306 Taura Kot rotavra Trpdrrtiv, A-la^urq, tov KoXof KOiyaBov 
iro\irT}v Sei, Sv KaTopBovfifvtov pev /xeyioTot; dvap^uT^T}- 

4. (rxf Z.L, Ai i l^tr va]g. <rfS^«t (for oMrit) Cobet. Vom. j- i'^XPnr' 
i" vulg. ; ^ii^xp'I'''' 'b' 2, L, Cob., Vom. 

i soft. 3. T«>rur Z, L> 1 tuw vulg. 7. \api (for X^t) Ai. 

2 and L end the text with iriyKJ«i Xa^tte' rollowed (in 2) bj' APieMOZ 
BOHeEIRN I KATA TA EmA 'i'H«fZHATA (in two lines). (See Vomel's 

jha Kol Ti 

ouiDra vutg. ; ri am. S, O, F, t, V6; ovrA ml t 
Biol (after ^r) I,*, vulg.; oia. S, L', V. tr utyl^m 

4. oMAi...4Wxpip' <v: Cobel reads 
by conjecture oiSirtt (as T has ^c/xpirrr' 
or), referring to V. 5 and xtx. 66. Sec 
I 13', 'pif oiMr', where Cobet and 
Dindorf read ciSiriu with several MSS. 

i SOS. 3. A- is repeated with ifKour, 
Contrary to general usage, l>ecausc of the 
change of time from vfould have falltn 
into (Mxp^' i") to vxiuiii nmo be ihotll- 
ing in. Thii mention of Thessaly and 
Arcadia has ipecial reference 10 the final 
itniggte with Philip (Bl.). 

7. Ithft KsV (ImIyvwSi: cf. XIX. 70, 
and note on g 18*. — pai|lnav: forces 
sent out for special purposes, like those 
mentioned in { 301* : see IV. 31. /i^ ^oij- 
(e(a» ToKtluin [iiBrtpioGiier yifi irdiinav] 
dXXi npaantui aaex'' ■■' Jiw^'i and 
cf. IV. 41. The famous expedition which 
checked Philip at Thermopylae in 35 J H.c. 
(IV. 17) is called a j3gi)««ia in xix. S4. 
Often ^vlfitut means a mere raid. 

I aOS. I. TaOm...«pa[TT«iv...Sttsums 
up the reply to the question t1 xjnjir... 
wottai ; in | 301'. but with a change in 
tense. He asked mAal mas lie riuly etc., 
with special reference to the case in hand ; 
and he replies in general terms tAis it tie 
duty. 'wiKtai and rpdrrtv have here the 
same sense, as have xM (ii TW^A and JtT. 
.Spengel and West, changed Bri here to 
ftiti to complete the correspondence with 
% 301'. But if we read fAci here, we 
must supply itl with the infinilivea in 
I 307; see4*...Xim>Biil§ 307')- 

1. icaroplo in UvH' = tl turapdwro, if 
they had ban tutcetsful (as they were not), 
to which the apodosis is tny^x^* cEvoi, it 
belonged In us lobe. \.e. toi jhould pmperly 
have been : Itr^irxfr may be used with 
the infinitive like Ihi and x?5*- — V^ 
mt» (sc 4fi&),..K«l ri SutodM wpogy. 
i.e. iiiditputably, and {/ might add) 
•ititly, greatett: inralwi stand* as a mere 




nfrtiK vin}p)(ep cTvai, koX to BtKaCtav irpotrfjv, ws eT€/)a»s Se 
trvfifiavTOiv to yovv evBoKifieh' ir€pie<m koX to fiTjSeva 
fidiJAfte<r6at r^v ■jroXtv injhi t^v trpoaipttrw ovr^?, dXXa rtfv s 
Tvyy^v KaxCCeiv rffv ovrat to. irpdyfiant Kpivatrav, ov fia A" 307 
oiiK ajTOtrravra twv trvfuftcpovrtav rg ir6\.ei fLurduKTavTo. S' 
avTOv Toii atavnoii, tov? virep Tav €)(6p!i>v xaipovs oiTi 
Tav 1-^5 warpCSo^ Bepairevew, ovSk Toi' fikv irpdyfiaT d^io 
r^s ir6\€<a^ viro<rrdvTa )Jyti,v koI ypa^iv koX (leveiy eirl 5 
Tovratv fia<TKaiveiv, Av Se tis iSi^ rt Xtrtn/tTfl, toOto fie/tv^' 
tr$ai Kol TTjpeo', ovSe y* ijcrvxiav aytw aSiKov koX vtrovkov, 
328 o (ri iro4.eZ; n-oXXan^. «m yap, i<mv riavxia htKoXa Koi 308 
avp^povtra Tp iroXei, ■^v oi iroXXol twi' jtoXi.tSi' v/ut; 
aTT)iM^ ayere. aXX* ou Taun;i' o5ros dyei t^v i70T^uu', 
iroXXov ye koX Set, aXX* airooras orav avT^ So^ r^s 

3. tripx"' ♦' B, con. to iw^fxtr F. 5. riXi* ml V6. 6. TOitrw 

changed to oBtu Z. KpfMiwiU' Ai. l. 

SS07. t. aiirtm.P. 4. rur ^jp T^ 4, Ai. .•;. ninir tal O {cart.). 

6- rnCruf TpctKiitt*^ A^ ; T<H>rair rpofX. L ; roOroF rp«X. Ai ; itpM\bii€row om^ £, 
vote. I* 2, L, V6i ii* Tulg. n om. Al. Xwnjiffifi 2. 7. obSi"/ 

Z. L, Y, V6 ; y om. vulg. 8. * 2. L. Ai ; lii vulg. 

i COS. 1. ^Mcrt drXM £, L, vulg. ; uXw i^U Ai. 4. Snc^ (of over a>) F. 

word with Ihe article; and Tpoe^ is bt- 
leitgtd llun, i.e. might proptrly bt eddtd. 

3. lii Mpm. ethtrmiie: see note on 

4. ni|tp(tinm. not conditional (like 
iiniropA>uH^tiii'),but simply I emporal, Hinu, 
»A«« thty (have) rtndled alkiradit.^ 
tlfttm, thtrc is Ufl Id ui: the subject is 
t4 «08»ih/m& (al t4 tniSira..,Kplrafar (6). 

6. KaKtltir: the subject is rirrm, to 
be supplied from the preceding subject 
/it|JA'a. The same carelessness of ex- 
pression is still common: a famous case 
is the clause of the United States Con- 
ititution concerning fugitive slaves: "No 
person held to service or labor in one 
state, under the laws thereof, escaping 
into atiothcr, shall.. .be discharged from 
said service or labor, hut shall be de- 
livered up etc." 

§ a07. I- o4 |id AC o4ic : emphatic 

repetition, not a dooble negative: S« it 
understood here from g 306", and on 

it depend the infinitives 8tpaTcittr etc. 
through dytxr (7}. 

1. <huu'iil*iu: strongly opposed to 
Bipariifir (4) aiu] iroVTami (5). 

4. T*v riit TttTplSot (sc. jEaifXdr), 
instead of the fuller Toim with irwip (as in 
3).— ^ri* iJvDffrdvm, lAt man wAc /las 
bound himself (undertaitH), object of 

7. liimXav, lit, festering imihin, of 
the quiet of Aesch.. false, hellom : see 
Thuc. viri. 64 (end), nir d«4 j-mf 'Aft(- 
rudit SrevXo* aitrorofilar (Bl.). 

§ aOB. 1. o( *o\Xal, here dmply 
/*( maJorUy. 

3. i«Ut, in henetl timflicity, with- 
out pretetut, opposed to (hrovXot Vuxfa 
{307'). — ni ■n.hrt^-. cf. Aesch. 111. i(j, 



5 iroXireias {itoWolkk 8c Sokci) <}>vka.TTet mfvCK i(T€(r0e /tcorol 

ivavTiwfia. ^ aWo ti SuctkoXoc yeyovi (iroXXo S^ ravffpw- 

iriva)- etr im tovt^ t^ Kaip^ p^<ap i^aufunj^ ex ttjs 

■r)<rv)(iai uunrep irv^fi.' e<fidvi), koI ■jr€<j>wvaa'KT}Kw<i xal avvft- 

lo Xo^uf p^fiara KaX Xoyou; trweipet rovrovs (ra<ftZs Kal 

awvevirrel, ovT}<nv piv ovStplav ^povra^ ouS' ayaBov KTy}ariv 

ouScyos, (Tup^pav 8« T^ Tv^dvTi Tail' irokLT^v koX koiv^v 

309 aitr^ui'Tji'. KaiToi Tauny? T^s p^ken)% Koi r^s «ri/i.eXetas, 

Al(r)(Cvr), €Lvep «k "/"VX^S SiKOta? eyiyvero kol to. t^? varpC- 

Sos avp^ipovra wpo^pTjpevi}^, tow KapvoxK eSei yo^atow 

Kai KoXous kqI watriv mfffkCp^v; cti/ai, crv^/ut^ias irdXcftti', 

5 tropov^ )(p7)pa.T0)v, ip.iTopiov KaTatTKev^v, vofxatv trvptftepovrav 

i. <pv\iTTtiw V6. Tir>l>r' £. L; irTirUia (or (') vulg. ; uinivfx' &/i«i Ai.i. 

lataeai [t over ni, now erased) 2; ^ffri L, vulg. 6. ^ om. 2 (add, me-). 

7- 74p (for Ji) V6. 9. ari^ririj Ai. fft*«XoX"'"^l8-; """•'^•X"" 2> 1^'' *' B'''i 

ffw«iX»lXi;>i Y, B*, F (7p), O*: in )txi. J3, ini«ftoxo 2. [o. nvrtlpti B', Phot,; 

ffur4p«£, R<; vun}i,9n Y. 11. irvcMrtl 2. 

I aCW. 4. Atrxi'V 'fler >i<X^i |i) Ai, om. V6. 3, 4. iraXoOi nil yer- 

raitvit, Ai. ;. rapiur(nrf)i' Ai, 

5. ^uUi-m itiiWk' lo^rfc pwrvf, At 
Watties (lo see) wi«i ytu vnll be tattd, 
an indirect question where we might ex- 
pect a temporal clause : hri^bca is the 

6. Tofi aiivf](«t UlfoVTO*, iw'M jwur 
regular speaker, i.e, the one who is con- 
tinually advuing you: see Plut. Ciin. 5, 
h f4>'<>t...;U(r7-&l Uf 7W etfuffToiiMovt. 

7. Td*ep<tn*(ii: sc. ^nvriitfuaTa. 

S. ^4fruf, as cat orater, predicate to 
i^iirit (gnomic), 

y. Amp 'mO|i', with jfoi^nii. — 
vi^ani<>mii|iuit : ef- g iSo*.— •'uiwiXox"*, 
the only proper perF. act. of rvXUru, 
though here £ has irur(iX(x<'<- ^ has 
ovreAox' >>■ ^ixi. 13, Cf. (ri>>i0O|»)aat, 

10. ^iiaiu ; cf. S 131*— 

rttls 0^ {strings logtthir). 

1 1 . duvcwml, all in nu breath {wilh- 
fiui taking ireati), 

11. T^ rvj^ivn, cuivis, tv any ciiejuAo 
happens IB ktar thim: see note ong 130^'. 

— KBVfift, piMic, opposed to ly Tuxivn. 

'3- al«T[ivip': Bl. refers ihii to the 
speech described in J 35. 

§ SO0. I. |uXiTt]i, fniuXtCaL/nu-- 
fKf, j/«*i/t'i referring lo S joS""". 

1. T(l...*pot|pit|Uvi)t| ont which had 
made the interests ef the falhtrttatd its 
choice (r/waifKirir). connected hy nol to 

J. fSd 4tMU. etigkt to have been, ini- 
plymg that in the case of Aeschines they 
were nol so. — -^ettJMVt-. often used 
literally of fruits, as in Plat. Leg. 844 E, 
t^r ytr^aiar rvr XtyaiUr'^ bto^uX^* ^ t4 
ytnfoin trvKa iToro/ia^ofUfa (Bl.) : see 
also Plat. Rep. 371 b, /iilai ytnaiat koI 

5. J^'VopfoH Karao-Ntv^v: i.e. securing 
new commercial tights for Athens in 
some Foreign seaport: see XX. 33, lara- 
i«uiia'ai^/iT6fiii»'8<iiioo'ta*, withSandys'i 
note. Weil quotes Dinarch. 1. 96, rf 
KaTtfttiajitr oiitoSojiima ^luiaaiinit ir nf 


nEPI TOY rrE*ANOY 217 

0e(rei.s, to^e diroSEt^deurti' i^dpoii ivavri^fua.ra. rovrav 310 
yap dirat^toi' -^v if rois civta ')(p6voi% i^eratri^, kol cSukci' 
o irapeKBiiv ■)(p6vo<j TroXXd; airoSeC^eK av&pt xaX^ te KayaffS, 
ev ots Qv8a.fiov uv (f>arq(ret yeyovws, ov vpSyros, av Stvrepo^, 
oil T/31TOS, oit Teraproi;, oil irifxirroi, ouj^ ckto5, ou^ owoarotr- s 
oSv, ouKovi' ^i y' ols ^ 7raT/)iS rjii^aveTO. ns ya/> ot;/i- 311 
/ia;^(a troO irpd^avrw y€yov€ t§ iroXei; T15 Se fiir^deta ij 
KT^<rt^ evfoCai ^ Sdf»js; ris S« vpta-^eCa, tis StaKoifia 81' 
339 i^t* ^ irdXts evn/iorepa; n Twf outeuof ij rav EXkrjviKav 
KOI (tvtKwv oU ewetrrr)^ einiy<op$taTai ; vomi rpv'jpfis i iroux 5 
0ekr); woioi vtioaroiKOi ; Tis eff«r((€vi7 T«xaii' ; iro tov iirjri.Kdi' ; 
Ti Tail' d^di^otf tru j(/wjo-tfi05 «l ,• Tts ■$ TOis evffd/aow ■$ tow 

g SIO. t. ^ Kol fr Ai. ttatn- twice in Z. 3. t( om. O. 4. ^- , 

Fi^» S ; ^ar^TB vulg. 6. ^I 7' o& £, L, Ai ; nrci -yc nl vulg. ; Jircl oIi Y, F (^p) ; 
^1 oti 7( ful O. 

I Sll. I. 7i/i om. Al. 4' irrtiurripa yiyorc vulg.; yfy. om. Z, L'. 

5. oil vulg.; oTiO; iliS; liL; ^^'aAi; ott irigrift om. F. iw^tru/a. Sii at 

vulg.; &4 oi om. 2, L". 7. 7^7»«« (for .1) Ai. 1. 

Scholia in Ahcens's Bucol. Gr. 11., p. 381 •■ 
see also Menander. frag. IJ4 (Kock). 

6. aticovr M y' oU, al a/i rventl, tutt 
in matltrs in whicJi, He. 

3 811. These questions are argu- 
ments for the judgment just pronounced 
upon Aeschinei. After the third ques- 
tion, the conjunctions are omitted in the 
speaker's vehemence. Wtlh the whole 
passage compare xtx. iSi. 

4. Tair 'lIXXip'UCM', opposed to rur 

aitilair, is the so-called Joreign fnliiy of 

a review. Athens, i.e. her policy with olher Greek 

4. k oU. iV> ^kick class (the raXtl « states : see note on g jg*. Here rflr 
arfaSU), a$ if itSpiai. had preceded. — {iruur is added to include her relations 
atiofot: cf. 3 310'. to other than Greek states, both being 

5. aix i^«»iodo8» (cf. imsiiS*), nat opposed lo riir olndnr, hiT dmi4stit 
in any rani vhatstrver. Dissen thinks ficliey. 

this alludes to a Delphic oiacle given to f~ weCai rpufpaw; sc. -yeyirart rj 

the M^arians, quoted in the Scholia (o vAXei. 

Tbeoc. XIV. 4S, 49, of which the last two 7. t{ ... xH'if** <': ™^' 'h '^ 

verses are: vnrld [rSir ^rirrur) it^zyeti geodfrrt- 

ilttii i' w lityaptU tirt Tptrtt aSrt t4- *<« ^ . ■ .Xfy Ar r ; what fmilie financial 
To/TTix O)'/ Abj rtW fowir ^um _)'D»i m either rich 

atrt ivuSitaTM, our' ti >Jrye f*^' i* er poor? This is commonly referred to 
■n equalization of the puhlJc hardens, by 
which boch rich and poor would be bene- 

g aio. 1. 

a niililaiy in g fttf. 

where it mea 

of hirelings etc. , in which Ihey were called 

forth to shov 

/ themselves. Here, with 

a genitive denoting public services, it 

e mailing out and arraying 

such services to a man's credit. (See note 


1. ».«» 

gave many opportunities for showing such 

services, as il 

: -wtn, arraying them for 

; I, Google 


aiT6pOi<i iroktTtKT} xal Kotvrf ^o^Beta. yprffidriav ; ovSc/xia. 
312 dXX', i3 TOLv, el fitjSkv rovTiav, cvfoia ye Koi wpodvfLia- ttou,- 
wore; ooTis, <3 TTatTtoj' dBiKdrare, ouS* o^ dirawx? oo-ot 
jraMTor' i^diy^avr eirl tov ^ij^tos cts a-iarqptau ewtSiSo<Tav, 
Kai TO Tekevrauiv ' ApiaroviKO^ to trvveiKeyiiCvov €w rrfv 
5 iviTL/tiav, oiSe tot' ovre irapijkOe^ our' eJrc'SctiKas ouS^, ouic 

Iroi; Tor/ Z, L (yd ni irDrt mg.)- 
(Ii vtrr^pla* Ai. 4. cji TJfv ' 

vulg.; a^dyHot om. Z, L. 5. < 

li^Sir ritTur A 

'Old ni iral O. rpotv/ilai' 

■.on. to trt) Z. 3. ^nSia. 
•t/iiar afydfiier A I ; ipyipmr til rj)r ^trt^iiw L*, 
< (after rir') om. F, ♦, Aj. aiSt (for oft-') ♦. 

fitted. But Demosth. has always prided 
himself on (ransferring such burdens 
from the poor to the rich (see SS 'di '^Sl- 
it must be that " to either rich or poor" 
means /o anybody at all. — mXirui^ uaX 
Wii™j is a rhetorical amplificarit 



n the n 

IMnatclius MCtns to have learnt a 
lesson from this passage, when Ln his 
speech against Demosthenes (g6) he says, 
Touu Y^ '^pi'lfM't (Ivi taTitttiiaaiiiriu Sii. 
TouTor, utnttp irl SifioiXov, rg r6\ti; i) 
roiai riiiaoumt TOimv iraXirtiio>i/tov I^Y^- 
ra^L ; wbrt ouTot t} Std 'fnjiplffnaTat ^ 
v6tuiv iTTjtfbipSaifff rfr IrriKbn ; K.r.X. In 
the decree in Plut. Mor., p. 851 c, Jl is 
said of the financier Lycui^us, X'V" 
Ti>vij6ilt 3' iwl r$< ToD mU^ou rapa- 
riiu^i, SrXa itir roWa nai ^(\i3>> luiptASat 
xivTf iii'firriiii* til rfjr iipiiroXir, 7-eTpo- 
(offlai Tp»)p«i x-Xwluauf larfrcFitairf, rif 
fi^ ^riajciudni, Ttkl J' ^f dp^^i vaii- 
nryijinl^o'oi ■ i-()4t <)t TmiTwt ij/iitpfya 
rn/KiXa^un' raiii t( ftawalKout lol rl)F 
iTir(i>otff}nfr «:al tA Biarpov rb ^orvmej^f 
i^pyaaaro tel tTtrikiat, ri Tt ffTiiii* 
tA nara4i)rauii> lal ri ytliuraawr ri tori 
Aimior taTtiritiaai, iral dUaii roXXnt 
jcarntfjTtfHbf imfftiTjat Hir toXip. This 
enumeiation shows the standard of com- 
parison which Demosthenes had in mind, 
though he never professed 10 come up to 

it himself in his public improvements. 

J fllS. I. i r£*, a familiar form of 
address, found in three other passages of 
Demosthenes, 1. 26, III. 19, XXV. 78 ; in 
all introducing an imaginary retort of an 

3. i+ei^«': cf. i 199". Si o6i' 
i^iBi-fiu.^tli rwrifpiiLv twtSOorwi, i.e. 
mo-it amtrHmliims {iniaata, % 171') for 
the sa/ity of tkt stalt. Such were made 
after Chaeronea, and again before the 
deslruclion of Thebes by Alexander: for 
the latter see xxxiv. 38. «t« tU* 'AU(- 
arSpot ill &iPat rafrgii, iirtSiitaiif ill^ 
rdXvror Apyeplou, 

4. ri a^nrnXpffiiifav (sc. dfyipuir), Le. 
money cenl'ribulid to pay some debt to 
the stale which made him 4j-i(ioi, and 
thus lo make him again Mniurt. Every 
defaulting public debtor was ipse fadt 
an^iof. From this allusion lo Aristonicus 
(who is probably the one mentioned in 
§S 83, 113), Schaefer (ill. p. 136) argues 
that Demosthenes refers only to the 
contributions of 3311 B.C., ^nce after 
Chacronea the decree of Hyperides re- 
stored all public debtors to itvttiAa^ The 
Eu^estion of Blass, (hat Aristonicus gave 
the money contributed for his ^iTi/ifa to 
the Elate after his drc^ had been legally 
removed, instead of reluming ii to the 
donors, does not make his generosity so 
extraordinary as to deserve such public 



avopStv, TTw^ y°-P < ^^ y^ K€KK-rfpov6n,-qKa.^ fuv toiv ^ikiuvo^ 
ToS Kj)8e<rrov jffinf/jMTav vXetovinv ■$ ircvTCToXowwi', Sira- 
Xarroi' S' ctj^es epavov Btapeav wapa rav r^tp^voiv rmv 
anfifiopuav ^' of? Au/j.t/i'O* tov Tptr)pap)^iKov vofUtv. oXX' 313 
Xva fir} koyov ix \6yov keymv tow vap6vT0% ifULVTov ix- 
Kpov<ria, ■Trapakei^fna ravra. dXX' ori y oij^i 81* &Seuxf ovk 
eweBrnxa^, ix Tovrav S^Xof, dXXa »f>v\a.TTti>v to ^i^Scv ivavrtov 
ya/4a-6ai vapa trov tovtoi^, oU awavra vokirevei. €v Tia-tv s 
otv <rv veaviat Koi irtfviKa XafLvpos ; ffviK iv Kara Tovrtav 
Ti Sejj, G" TOUT019 Xafiwpoiftan'OTaTO^, fivrjfioviKtuTaroi, wro- 
KptTrf% ipurro^, rpayiKo^ BcOKpivrjn, 

6. ft wnXjipot'iM'F"' Mss.: 7' <i[«Xijpw(vii(«(« A. Schaefer (Dem. III. iis), Bl. 
7. W»T«T«XitrTirfr (as one word, n- uniled) 2; i^Fre raXdrrwr L, vulg. 8. Safnir 
om. Ai {add. mg,). 

g aiS. 4. iriau/at O. J. irw above line Z. roXirc^ MSS., Bk., BI. 

6. 4v(('A*...Md21; a* dnvTi (bef. cnri) vulg.; rMh-ur e{r(u> n Z'. L, Ai ; </*(&' 
om. r>. 7. Mm B", O, Y, F. ♦. 

^.(AW^ ef yoar brather'in'law Phihi, which 
wot (jf. irrijm) more than five laltnts. 

7. StToXurToi' ipavov, a contributiett 
Bfhoo laUni). There is probably a sar- 
CBilic reference to the common meaning 

8. ^YqilMf: see note on § 103'. 

9. ii^' oh IXv]H[va. fm- Ike daaiagt 
y0U did: dk for a cognate a, as in J 18'. 
This attack of Aeschines on the trier- 
archie law was not made when the law 
was enacted in 34.0 R.C, but probably afler 
Chaeronea. Demosthenes says (9 107*) 
that through the tuholi war (i.e. 340 — 
338 B.C.) the naval annamenls were fitted 
out under his law; and the statement of 
Aeschines (ill. 111), iiii^i-fxB't^ i''' ^f^^ 
^f^cih'Tn coi riPTt wtwr raxwatrroucrui' 
tprnpipTiovt i4niF<liUtm, shows (hat evi- 
dence as to the working of the new law 
in details was derived from actual experi- 
ence. See Boeckh, Staatsh. 1. p. IS68, 
note i : Schaefer u. J17. 

I •!•. 1. \i-{OT IK XJYM MtW, 

fy laying one thing after aHBIher.—^nt 
Mf^VTOt (tc. Xfrrou) l|Uivriy kcKpoivm, 

cut myself off from (discussing properly) 
tki subfecl immediately before us. 

J. 8ti y' oiixl' Bl' IvShav ojk kwi- 
8iHiM, that it was not through ptroerly 
thai you did net contribute; each negative 
having its own force, as the second is not 
a compound (G. 1618). 

4. &XU connects ^•KLTraf to &' 
IrJnar, both being causal. — ^^iXth-rmr t4 
...faia^^: see M. T. 374; and note on 

g. Tovroit. all; not simply to those 
for whom (which would hardly be T06- 
Toit), but to these persons (^ ill'), for whom 
[in whole inlereil] etc. 

6. MaWai, often used in the sense of 
nignrous, Ihiily, like the adjeclive nani- 
itit ; it occurs only twice in Demosthenes, 
here and % 136I.— ^v<k' iv ...t\ 6^: 
supply tbrar, which most MSS. insert 
either before or after itBTi roih'wi-. 

5, Tpa^fucdi 0WKp(ri)t : see Harpocr., 
rir yovv ri,\at /tir uronptTiir r/nyuAr 
Bonpor ii avto^imjr cltiriat Jmiiiavt 
rpayitbr Biotplriir. Theocrines is 
the one accused in Or. Lvtil. (Bl.). Cf. 

In gg ai4~8as the orator complains 
of the unfairness of judging him, at 
Aeschines has done (178 — 190), by com- 
parison with the great men of andent 



314 ETto twv vporepov yeytvrnUvotv ayaBSiv a.vtpS>v fU~ 
fivrffToi. KoX Ka\ui^ iroiew. ov fievrot SlKaiov iariv, avSpe^ 

A.$7}valoi, Trjv tt/jos tou5 TersXeiTi/Koras evpotav vwdpxpvtrav 
irpo\a06vTa wap' vfiiav irpo^ cKcifou? i^erdCf-v koI irapa- 330 

315 jSaXXeiv ifie tov vvv ^avra fLeff vfJMv. rU yap ovk oXBe 
T(av irdvTMV OTi TOW fikv C^<ri TratTtv vwftrri tis ^ wXeitov 
^ ekiTTwv ijtBovos, TOWS Te0ve&ra<! 8' ov8e rav i)^p5>v ovoels 
eri fiKrel; ovrta^ otv ^ovrotv rovrtav t§ <f}vcr€i, vpo^ tow 

Snpo ifiavTOV vvp ey^ KpCviapMt koI Oetopoifiai; ittjoafiw^' 
ovT€ yap SiKaioi' our' laop, Aitrxtn/, aXXa irpos <re koI 
akkov ei rii^ jSouXct ratv ravrd trot irptygpTipAvtav Kai 

I •!«. 1. dfoet^ arfp.Gr Z, L, Y, «. V6 
w om. Z, U O, B. 3. rfXeiTijKfrroi O. 
L, vulg. J. Tir rDr fwrro 2, L, O, Y 

I SIS. 1. iiritTur V6, Stob. 3. 

T««Jr(ffl- <x^''- ^'5- S' "■/•* O""' ■*'■ 

StitpuiHu £, O', Y, 4, B ; 0ewpo(!juai L, vulg. 
(A J alKive) fut rpin at. 7. Srnra (for t( rva) 
ffoi om. V6. rpmtiittiiii'iiir ~. 

inl. i-y. v\ilg, 1. iJ IrJfKi vulg.; 
TpoXapitra S, O, Ai ; xpotXafiirm 
rir n^Ta vulg. 

rmlf j« Ttfi'. Ai. 4. «0>> om. O. 

tpiru/iat £, B : Kpirouat L, vulg. 

/rrrlr 4, A). L has rpir 

lO com pan- 

times. But he shrinks from 1 

son with his caatemporaries. 

— 313 he slates two points, which he 

claims for himself, in the character of the 

f SI*. I. ^im nfimpw ytytmifA- 
im¥: in ill. iSi Aeschines calls on the 
court directly to compare Demosthenes 
with Themistocles, Miltiades, ihe heroes 
of Phyle, and Aristidcs ; and he does this 
very effectively. 

]. T^r ...iTifXpmw, tie dtvelien 
■which il is lo bt aiiumai yea fat Imianis 
Ihe dead. 

4. wfAm^ArnL, lecuriiig for himie^ 
in advance, taking advaitlagt of. Bl. 
refers lo six. 177, t4 lurTtuSSroi TpoXo- 
^irra Tap' li^cur (Jt ri fMlfi* SiraffSiu 
raKovpysr taraxp^Bai. 

Dissen quotes [Cic] in Satusl. II. ;: 
Quarc niitii noli anliquos viros obiectare. 
...Nequc me cum iis confenri decet qui 
jam decesseninl omnique odio carent et 
invidia, »«d cum iis qui mecum una in 
tepnblicaverMtisnnt. See Hot. Od. HI. 

14< Ji> Virtutem iocolumem odinos. 
Sublaum ex oculis quaerimus invidi. 

g «1«. 3. TOit filv !■«... ^VOl, 
jr.r.X. : cf. Thuc. li. +5, i^ot yip T»!t 
tMTi rpii TO irriraXot, t6 ti fiJ) i^roBiAi 
irarra-fwrt^Tifi riiniif TfrJ/itirai. — Irrara, 
implying more or less coacealmenl : cf. 
il6'. West, quotes Tac Orat. iS; VetL 
II. 91. 

5. KfivmfM; am I Id UJwIged I With 
Ihe answer, ^qlo/iaii, we must under- 
stand (plvaifiai in the sense, let me not ie 
jM^iM.T. is7l: cf. Plat. Rep. 517 c, 
Ti8Q/ur; with answer n$vfur. If the 
deliberative subjunctive is the interro- 
gative of the hortatory subjunctive, ao 
that fXtfuoev ; sha/i vx gel is the interro- 
gative t^ fXAffur, lit MS go, the irommon 
connection of the two (as here) is naoU 
natural (M.T. 191). 

ti — 8. Here *pit ri and {•(vniv were 
pronounced with special emphasis. Sup- 
ply ifii Kptrirtiu. With rponpiiiiinm 
cf. § 3<^'. 




^aivToH', KOKeiyo (TKOiret. ironpov KoXXiof koX i/ieivov 318 
rp it6\€i Sia TO.? twv vporepov tvepyeo-ia^, owtras wnpfieye- 
Bei^, — ov piv oZv etirot Tis Av -ffXiKa^, — ra? ewi to*' irapovra 
^tov -yiyvofjievai ci? a,^a/)i(rru»' Kal irpoini))<aKi(rfihv ayetp, 
■^ iracrtv oeroi ti /act* ewotas irpa-novtri. t^s towwv Tiyxi^s s 
KOI tfukavBpiamaq fLerfivat; koX /l^v ft koi tout' apa Sti /t* 317 
fhrfiv, V) fiht ip.7) iroXtrcut kox wpoaip€<Ti%, av tis otkoitq, 
Tai5 Toll' tot* Araii'ov/i^vwv dvS/>uv op^oia, koX raitro. ^ovKo- 
fUvTi ifxa^a-erai, ^ Bk trf) rats rau tous toiovtov^ rore 
<rvKo^aVTovvTiov ■ 8ij\ov yap ori xal Kar iKfivov^ ^trdv s 
Ticcy, ot Biaa-vpovTe^ rov^ oiTas tote tov^ [Se] irporepov yc- 
■yevTj^cous iirgvovv, ^aa-Kovov iTpa.yp.a koX tolvto iroioStre? 
<roi. ftra. Xeyeif ois ovScf o/u>id9 elfii iK€ivoit ^u> ; trv 318 
o 6fU>io%, hMTj^ivri ; 6 S' a8e\tf>o<i 6 <rds; aXXo? Se' tis twi' 

■w, Alaxim Vfi. I, wpirtpw 2, L, O, Ai, B; WMripur 

3. o^t jiLJr (i.e. D« fifr) £, V. 3. npl (for ^i) F, Ups. 

5. rjt om. S (7P). xopd rotfrtiw I (>p), L, "nilE. ; rapi 

t ai«. I. 2^ 

4. ixi'V'rior Y. 
om. I, V, 

gS17. I. loJ (ariei (0 om- Ai. 1. 6p9ai nawi L, valg. j ipBA ore. ^i. 

3. (u'JpiS^om, Y. rofra O. (SmrXcwfi^ V6. 4. S (7^) has i) H 

r^ • Wi • ™»...ffuin>#.i Tuip Toilt IXXovi riat. Ai. 6. Toit j^iSnnit afler Ti»<t L', 

vulg.; befoie V" (5)4, Ai (mg.),V6; om. 2, L>. Y, Ai. ei auunSpomi Z, L (ot), 
B. vulg. ; ot iUavpor fiir Ai, at Jt^rupoi' roiti Arrat iii* Al ; fUr om. S, L, O, F, 
V6 ; of !iaffi}(jonei t. BfT. rirt ro^ upoT. yty. ir^ioif (om. Si), Reiske, Weil. 
7. ^»iu«.S«(( Ai. Kol rai>T4» Vfi ; xarairrB ♦, F (-»)), B'; laJ rofo-4 vulg. 

g ai«. 3. o£...i|X(Nat, w man ran 

fell hovi great: <rf fji* otv, as usual, is 
emphalii: and corrective. — firl riv tnf- 
jfTa piov Y''Y*™l''i™t (^- 'A'H'n'lBi), 
(4«e» M (^ ftaetil gtniration. 
4- tU^x<4>''^^>' ^7"*- *^^' 3 "^^■ 

5. itfijl Hal ^iXai4p«ir{ai: cf. % 109*. 
gaiT. I. d..,(lr(tr: he makes this 

slight apol<^ for asserting even the fol- 
lowing claim lo be compared with the 
great men of old. after discla.iming all 
compflrison wilh them. 

1. w»XiTi£aimlwp«i£p«rit:cf. SSw'- 

3. tviuinni|iiiFiH' : imperfect, like au- 
K^amtbrni* (j), as is shown by rim. 

6. 8ta4r6pBrTtt...(v^vom: I keep the 
reading ot H, but omit ii after roit. The 

reading iuwiiporrn with rodt M is loo 
ungrammatical and needlessly awkward 
for this uration : ii/ri/por pir seems an 
obvious attempt to correct thLi corrupt 
combination. ixaaiftit, ridiaiii, is a 
favourite word with Demosthenes r il 
occurs elsewhere in this speech in gj 37", 
116", 180*, ii8'. 199', 313*, always in the 

% SIS. 1. h V ilfiiX^At i, o^r 

Aeschines had twohrolheis, Philochares, 
older than himself, and Aphobetus, the 
youngest of the family. He describes 
Philochares (II, 149) a.s a distinguished 
military man, who was chosen general in 
three successive years; and Aphobetus 
as holding a high position in the revenue 
department, and going as ambassador to 

; I, Google 


vvv pjfTopwy; iya fihi yap ov&€va <}rfffu. oAXa irpo^ tows 

£wt^as, w ■)(pr]<rT€, Iva fxriShr aXX' ttirat, roi' I^Sivra cfera^e 

S Koi TOWS Kaff" avTov, taoTrep roXXa vavra, tous Tronjras, tow5 331 

819 \opovt, TOWS aywcioras- 6 4>tXaf(./Moi' ou^' '""^ r\au*cou tou 
Ka/)voTiow Kai rivav hipiav vponpov yfytvqfUviav dOXijrmy 
a.(r$ev€(rrtpo^ ^v, aareifnivoiTO^ c« -nj^ *OAu/t7ruis oLtrgei, 
dW oTi tZv el<r€\$6vTwv irpos avrov apurr ifiaxero, 
S itrT€<l>avovTo koi vlkoiv avrjyopevero. Kai trv wpo^ tov^ 
vvv opa. /te prqropa'i, irpo^ travrov, tt/jos ovrtva fiovXet twv 

320 airavrtov ■ ouSef ' i^Ccrraiuii. &v, ore p^ ry iroXci rot 

3. ykpara. til. 5. koS" avrht J, ; cor' afrAr 4; ica0'aiMt>U; (BtA ffaiToi' 

the kii^ or Persia. Demosthenes (xix. 
337. 149) has no praise (or them, but 
casta no reproach upon either. It is 
generally thought that Aphobelus is here 
meant: see Schaefei 1. 131. 

4. i \fifrT\, my gaed man, ironical: 
cf. 99 30*, 89'.— (va...d«n: this is gene- 
rally understood to refer to the gentle 
style a( address in 'Xp'V'i-, I' '"^l y" 
nelhing more: see West, and Bl. But 
it may refer to rpii nit {VafTui {3), and 
imply that he will not press the slight 
claim to a comparison with the men of 
old which he makes in % 317: it will 
then mean, lo claim nti mare than this. 

J. To»f KoS" airir: with npit (3).— 
■nrtp T^XXa vivra., i.e. at in ether cases, 
less exact than mitt AUoi;t ■wA.v-rtx. — rowf 
'roiiijTdt.,,il'YBrumit, i.e. as in dramatic 
and other contests or that nature, and in 
the public games. See % 319. 

aiB. [. ^iXttiifuav is chosen as an 
Athenian who had recently returned as 
an Olympic victor. See the veise in 
Arist. Rhet. III. 11, 13, lArxc^ iikd/ifiuw 
tVytftax^ ^ (Uptliy. Glaucus, on the 
contrary, was one of the most iamous 
boxers of the time of the Persian wars, 
who, besides gaining a victory at Olympia, 
gained two Pythian, eight Nemean, and 
eight Isthmian prizes. Pausanias (Vl. 

10, I — 3) saw his statue at Olympia. See 
the fragment of the ode of Simonidex in 
his honour (fr. 8, Bergk) : o6Si lIoXv- 

adrf, oiU nSipmr 'A-Xtfut*"! t^jcoi. Aes- 
chines (lit. 1S9] refers to this compari- 
son as one which he "heard that 
Demosthenes would make." This is evi- 
dently a bold addition which Aeschines 
made to his speech after it was spoken. 
If Demosthenes had heard this anlici- 
pBtioa of his effective allusion, with the 
weak answer of Aeschines, he would 
certainly have replied to both in his own 
speech. The point of the comparison is 
slightly changed by Aeschines, perhaps 
to conceal its origin. 

4- AatMovrm: cf. Soph. El. 70a; 
Xen. An. VI, 1, 9. 

6. !pa fu\ cf. diiiifu^ai; {J 315') and 

J. aiuSfr' IfdrrnfULi, / skrini from no 
one. this readmg of the best MSS. agrees 
with Lobcck's rule (note on Soph. Aj. 
Si), that iiloToiiai, declinare, takes the 
accusative, but in the sense of ctdert, the 
dative. But here Lobeck would read 
aiiiiti ; and Shitlcto agrees with him (note 
on XIX. 115), remarking "obviously the 
sense is / yitM to no orte, as Aj. 671." 
Recent editors are undoubtedly right in 




evvoia^ iv KOtv^ ira.<n KeifUvr)^, eyii Kparurra )iJyo>v itftaivo- 
fiirjv, Kai TOts ifiOK KoX ^^(Tfuuri koX vofum xal irp^a-fieuti^ 
airavTa Si^kcito, vfiay S' ovSel^ r)V oi^afiov, wk'^v ei tovtoi^ j 
^TnjpedtraL ti Scot' eireiS^ 8* a ft^wor lu^Xei' awe fir), koX 
ovKETi. (TvufiovXatv, oXXei ratv tois eiriTarrofievoK VTrqperow- 
Twv Koi tS>v Kara r^s irarpiBo^ fuarOapveo' eroifiav xal rati' 
KoXaxevetv erepov fiovXoftevuv i^eTa<rt$, rrfviKavra ov Kai 
rovroiv eicacrro; iv rafei Koi peyai xal Xafiwph^ imroTpo^o^, tt 
eyii S' a(r0evr)S, 6fu>\oyM, aXX* euf ov9 /uiXXof vfiMV TovroicrC. 

S MO. 1. al/Mur0Bi ro/nfr Ai. 3. ^Tu (pdrurra 2!, L> vulg.; ^Tui rA 

^TiirraAi.i. 4. tat {afur i/aSi) Z, L, O, *; am. vuig. j. jr om. F, 4. 

rs^Bui 4. 6. w^\n Z. 8. /uirBartir if abuve (he line) S. troiiiair 

StTur Aj. 9. Irtpm Z. L, Y ; iripon vulg. Utriura ij» vulg. ; ^r om. 2, L. 

prerening eHira (as above). Foi the 
dative »e iiopb. Phil. 1033, cGr N vol •/ 

g sao. I. <tv, partitive with tpd- 
T^a Xh.".- (3). 

1. t^o[i ft Xcu...wii HJ r m : the figure 

of a public contest is kept up. ihe privi- 
lege of showing devolion to the state 
being a prize open to general compeli- 
tion {i^/iiWoa). There is an active vie 
of i^/uftXoi: see Xen. Mem. i[[. 3, ii, 
oMcll (x"po»} TOVTif J^J/uXXuf ylywtrat, 
tnlering into csmptlition. See also Plal. 
Rep. +33 D, timvt !«iu«ri»'i|j' 7-i y* roiJ- 
r«i friwuXXiB' or dr o/MT-^r rdXtui Stlv; 

6. V o*8<4«»«l: cf. S 310*.— .I...TI 
Un; the opialive implies frequent oc- 
casions for insulting the peoplr. 

6. d,i^tr<«'4+A«(sc.<,u«S^«).i.e. 
Ihe defeat: see j88', and note citiri, op- 
posed to STr.,.rapijf (l). 

9. ircpov ; this is the vague tenn by 
which Demosthenes often alludes to 
Alexander: see § 3^3' '.—^nn^: the 
familiar military figure recurs, i.e. a call 
for these, as for a review; and this is 
carried out in tr rif n : see note on g 1 73'. 

10' EmroTp^^: the keeping of horses 
was a sign of wealth, and the word im- 

plies that Aeschines had become a richer 
and more powerful man at Athens since 
the complete establishioeal o{ Alex- 
ander's supremacy. Cf. Ar. Nub. 15. 
There is also an allusion to ihe military 
review implied in i(iTaati and ir rd{«(, 
in which Aeschines appears in splendour 
as one of the Irrai. 

II. it<r4fviti: Aeschines (159) speaks 
of Dem. at this time as i-rirpaias, ra/niir 
■iuuSri;! iwl ri p^/ia. WesLertuBtin thinks 
this passage alludes to Ihe time when 
Philip was made a ciiiien of Athens and 
his statue was erected in the city (Plul. 
Dem. II ; Paus. I. 9, 4). It more pro- 
bably refers lo the recent honours paid to 
Alexander: see C. 1. At[. 11. no. 741, 
dated by Kohler in 331 B.C., fragm./,f, 
im'piriaf Sodiii, oIi i Sijiits i 'A^rofw 
iiTTi^ifii/at 'AX^fo^vS/Hw]. Kohler thinks 
two crowns were voted to Alexander, to 
elude a law forbiddiog the value of any 
crown voted by Ihe people to exceed 
1000 drachmas. These two gold crowns 
weighed 97 staters and one drachma 
(i{ lbs. avoir.) and were worth about 
19J0 Attic dradimas (silver), ijce Hist- 
9 8, noie 1. 




331 Stio 8*, avBpe^ 'A0r}vaioL, Tov if>v<rei fi^ptov irokirrfv €)(eaf 
Set (ovToi yap fioi trepi ifutvTOv \tyovTi wiTn^dovaraTov 
ciTTeif), ev fiiv rais i^ovtrCai^ r^v tov yeivaiov wai tow 
irptitreiov tq TroXei irpoaipe<nv 8tatf>vkdTTeiv, iv iraiTi Si 
5 KOLipio KoX wpd^ei Tqv evvomv tovtov yap 17 if>v(rti Kvpia, 
TOV SvvairOai Se koI Itrxyetv crepa. Taunji* Toivw trap 

333 Efiol p^fLevrjKviav €vp^(r€0' airX^f. opart Se. ovk i$aiTov- 
fj.evo<i, OVK et; 'Afi^iicrvova^ Sixas inayovrmv, ovk airet- 
XovfTfiii', OVK effoyyeXXo^A'wi', oux* '^vs Kara/WTous rovrous 332 
wnrep ffijpia fioi irpotr^kkovnav, ovSaftSti ^m vpoSeSotKa 

gS>l- ■' ii'Sftt vulg,; w om. £, L. F. V6. raCra rj* vuli;.: rafra 

om. £, L'. J. v>'i>'0'' I' above the line) Z. nU i-fir roO rp. 11*, vulg. ; 

r«)v om. 2, L', Al, O ; toS om, O. V6. 6. roi Si SdraaBiu Ai, O. h-e|» 2, I^ 
THle.; WpaV6: "sc. lilVx-i'MH. Wolf). 

g SaS. 1. g^ th Ofi^uruotat illiat £; «)( 'Ari^(Ti«riifti I'lat L, valir. 
^ayirrUF /uh L, vnlg. ; ;u)i om. £, 0> Ai. ouic artiXoirrur L, vulg. ; om. 2' 

(added above the line). 3. iTa-yyiXo/Urur L. oixl 2, L', volg. ; oil Ai ; 

nix Bn L (corr.). *, B. 4. ■porJ^aXX^ui' (rpmr by corr.) Z. ^ xpoMiiKa 

2, L, O, Ai ; rpoS. tyii vulg. 

g asi. |i^ior : see S lo'. 

t. o(m (with tlrtir) : he Uses lUrpmi 
here modexlly, as he is speaking of him- 
self; but he means the man called xnUi 
tiyaSbt voXJntt in % 17S' and 306' (see 

3. If -rati Ifmio^aw, i.e. Jlrc.A/ffCat 
"^PV't 310', in limt of power. — n^y... 
«p<Mi(p(riT, 'A; policy inkich aims al 
ncbilily and pn-tminenee; and tj tAXh 
8ut^\cCTT«i*. « gjiani this always for 
thi stall. Fur toD rpwrdin; see J 66^. 

5. «pi{<i (sc. t* trie-g) may mean 
in every alt (of the statesman). But 
Blass is probably right in taking 11 in the 
sense cS fortune, like ff and icb«iSi Tpdr- 
rctr: see Aeschyl. Prom. 6g5, -WfSifr 
'IsCi; Hdt. III. 65 (end), dWcXou rfiour 
rj^r JuVToG TpSfir; and Soph. Tr. 194, 
(^ux4 nXiiova Tpa{w Tiii><lt. — tCvstav, 
loyal devotion to the state: so in S 311'. 
See note on % ijj'.— Tofrrov, i.e. rV 
(ErcKor Sia^XiiTT'Cii'. 

6. Inpo, other things, as chance or 
Fortune, which he cannot control. H. 
Wolf read rfr^/ja, anelher pawir (i.e. 
Fortune), which he thus explained : 1^ 

1 Blass : "verdeckter Ausdnick fur 4 

7. da'Xvt, atiolately, mitAoul e. 


; the r 

1. tti 'A|i4ucTvavu, before the Am- 
pkictyonie Council \ cf. iv ' Afi^urOotris'j 
XIX. 181 (also without theartide). When 
Alexander demanded the otaton of 
Athens in 335 B.C., be doubtless intended 
to have them tried by the Amphictyonk 
Council: see Aesch. iii. i6i,]™1t4xiI*tuii 
SuriraTtr, ftfMi* /lir roihor 06 vpouSort, 
«6l' tlAoarr irpitHjrai A- ry rflr 'BXXi}»ur 
rifiSplif. Nolzcethespiritorthis sentence. 
What a trial this would have been for 
Demosthenes, llypeiides, and Lycuigust 
— Stiiat hrayovTuy, bringing luili (against 
me)-. Eeegi49'. 

3. lmi'YYtXXa|iiiv>ii> : cf. iwayyt^iHii 
liiytBai, I ipS*. — nit KaTopdrowi to^ 
rovt, the whole pack of sycophants men- 
tioned in % ]4(), Sosicles, Kondas, Me- 

4. Tpo«^KXM)nW, setling tktm oh 
(as 011^) ; cf. wpaofiHOttaBat, lo attack. 


nEPI TOY 2TE<I>AN0Y 225 

T^v et^ v/ta$ ewotav. to yap i^ a/>X^s evBv^ 6p$rjv koI s 
Sucaiav r^v oSov 7^9 toWcuis etkofiTfv, ra$ rt/Mis, ras 
8vva(TT€ia%, Tos euSofuts ras rijs irarptSos Bepavevtw, ravras 
avfeii', /tera Towrtoi' cWt. ouk «rl fwv tow ereptav evrvxV' 3S3 
/UKTi <f>aiSpi>^ iym koX ytyrfdo)^ Kara r^v ayopav irepiep^ofiai, 
TTjv Septal' vpoTtivbtv kuX €vayyeKi^6fi€vo% rovrow ous Ai* 

7. t4i (before rfl.) oi 

6. rip- om. O, 4, At, V6. r$i roX. t^ Mir L. 

5. if»^...t\>Mf.ti;, : cf. S 3il". r^..- 

7. SvyaofWof: cf. 3g67*,i7o*. <v*a- 

iTTF^a means lordly povar ; and when it 
refers to a luler, it often means aiiolutt 
power or desfatiim. But it can also 
mean (as here), in a good sense, the 
lordly power which Athens once eieicised 
over her dependent states, and which she 
always aspired to exercise. — ttpaTtitiir, 
a^(ll', (tvok explain ipS^i h^w. 

8. prd TO^TNV itnu, te 6t failhfyl It 
iktst (toi Ti^i...r4i T^ totjjHoi), lit- le 
bt on tkiir side : see Ar. Ach. 661, ri yiip 
^ fitr' ifioD jcaZ rA Blmtoii ^6fApax«* fcrai, 

S «aa. I. Mpm, i.e. the Mace- 
donians; as frfpoi (8) and tripw (3 jio*) 
refer to Alexander. — riniy^i^air\: the 
victories of Alexander at the Ctanicus 
(33+ B.C.), at Issus (333 B.C.), and at 
Atbela (331 B.C.), were slill fresh in recol- 
lection, the last not yet a year old. 

3. ■taYY<^^I^I**f°*i properly anneun- 
dng good tidings (cf. rfa-j-yAioF, Cespel, 
bnt here eimgralulating an good news, 
e.g. saying " TIlis is a great victory," It 
cannot mean actually in/onuing. — toi- 
TOW oflt dv...olM|uu: the apparently 
definite antecedent is peculiar txfore the 
conditional relative clause. He means 
airf of those men (a well-known class) 10^0 
(on any occasion) / ikink are likely le re- 
fieri thither (to Macedonia) such an event 
as my congratulating them on a Mace- 
donian victory. Cf. g 313', mlriHt, oli, 
where, however, the relative it not con- 
ditional. It tias, I believe, never been 

asked who these men were. There were, 
of course, many Macedonians in Athens at 
ibis time, and there were many Athenians 
who would welcome news of Macedonian 
victories. But we must remember that 
the greatest Macedonian who ever lived, 
the philosopher Aristotle, was then a 
resident in Athens at the head of the 
Lyceum. His relations with the Court 
of Fella and with Alexander were moat 
intimate. Who would be more likely to 
report to Pella, or even to Alexaiider 
himself, that Demosthenes had congratu- 
lated him on the victory at Artiela, if be 
had any such pleasant fact to report ? It 
would be interesting, though not quite 
pleasant, to find an allusion to the great 
philosopher in this striking passage. 

4. TM' . . . d^aSiiv : these advantage 
gained by Athens may refer to the eaity 
successes of the Spartan king Agis in his 
revolt against Macedonia in the spring 
of 330 B.C. (Diod. XVII. 63). Though 
Diodonis says that Athens did not join 
in this insurrection, yel Aescbines (167) 
quotes Demosthenes as saying, liii dm- 
rpiTTar'AXi^ipiplf, " iiioXoyui ri A.iu!u- 
runk ffuoT^ai' i/toXcnCi OirroXpAi nal 
Tltpptupoit i^tarirat," which shows that 
Demosthenes at least claimed some share 
in this Spartan movement, as well as in 
the Thracian relwllion which occurred 
at the same time (Diod. xvu. 61). See 
Grote Xll., Ch. 95. The words rflr... 
dTsAur might also refer to the interest of 
Athens in the rei'etset of Alexander, 
which were occasionally reported from 





5 v€^ptKo>% OLKowa Kat ariviav Kai Kvvrtav eU t^p yV"' ex'^cp 
0( SuO'O'CjScZ? oStOI, ot TT)V fl€V iToKiv 8ui(Tvpov(riv, MiTirtp 
ov)( avrovs Suurvpovm ora-v tovto iroi&triv, e^ia Sc ^\4irau<Tt., 
Koi if ot% a.T\r)(y)<ra.vT(av tSiv 'EAX^ij^w*' evrvyrftrev enpo^, 
ravT eiraivovtrt koX owio% toi* airaira yj>Qvov /iewl ^aX 
10 Sell' Tf}p€iv. 
334 M'^ 8^', 3i TravTK deol, fir)Sei% ravff vfiuv imvev<r€iev, 
oAXa fiaXurra piv kol tovtoi^ jSeXtko rit^ vovv Kat <f>p€vas 
evdevrfri, tl S* a.p eyovtriv aviaTan, tovtov^ pev aurows Kaff 
eavTOW i^t^Xeis xai irpodXcK iv y^ koX BakdrrQ tTonjtraT^, 

5. i(0lW*.B. •«>wO. 6. JHr*|3«&0. icaJ <ir«p V6. ;. iavroi, O. 

pkir-aair (ov over w) L. 8. (iWxvr" *"(>« 2, L, vulg. ; It. tirOx- O, Al ; 

It. ifin-. V6. g. >»>«( 2 ; /i^m A i ; Siofierei L, vulg. ; SutfUfTt Ai ; Jia/iA-ci 4>. 

g SS*. I. i/iOr tuDt' O, Al. trao'damt A.J. 3. clhwi iniTtitya]g.\ 

olfTBiiom. 2, L, O, V, Al. 3,4. «a*" <iiro4« O. 4- Jtol TpmiXm om. Ai. 

Asia: Aeschines (164) describes Demo- 
sthenes on one such occasion as ^vi- 
Stutriur njl rb i/iif wp&awwar in itrt- 
rXini'^KX' '111 <10ii>uiivTDi, col xpuainiiiaiii 
drojroXuj- Kol Kartari^BaA ^tdanur d Tt 
rralaiia mifiliatTai 'kXr^irifif. This 
was when it was repoited ihal Alexander 
WIS shut up in Cilicia, and airrlKa, niXa. 
tliiiAt aun-rartfiitiieiieai vti TT)t Ilrpffuc^t 
twwav. But it seems less likely (bat Demo- 
sthenes would refer to such tumours in 
Ihe present passage. The story shows, 
however, that the mere report of a. dis- 
aster to Alexander roused the spirit of 
liberty at Athens, even in her deep 

5. Kv«TW «U T^v yfft : cf. Caes. 
B. G. 1. 33, J, irisles capite demisso 

: cf. S 317" — &r<r*p 
o^x "■''' ^^ participle shows that there 
is nothing conditional in the expression : 
see note on g 176'. 

7. !£■ pkhrwTi: cf. Plat. Artit. 15, 
nit iXwlfa «£w pXirm. 

8. *► ol» (cf. g 19') belongs equally 10 
iTvy^imtf and f ^^x^". 

g. taOr', lAis stale of tAiap {h bIi... 
frrpoi), uiklerstood also as subject of 

g aa«. The Peroration is confined to 
this single impressive sentence. As he 
began his oration by beseeching the Gods 
to put it into the hearts of the judges to 
hear him impartially, so now he implores 
them to change the hearts of the traitors 
within the Slate, or, if it is too late for 
this, to annihilate them utterly as the 
only hope of safety to honest men. See 
Lord Brougham's remarks on the perora- 

1. |uiXur-ra |i)y, if posiiUi, bat of 

3. hiMipv, ntay jrou inspire in Ihtm : 
this combines the wish with an exhorta- 
tion, which the optative sometimes ex- 
presses in poetry (M. T. 715). In the 
clause with H we have the imperative! 
xw^BTt and flirt ; see critical note.— <t ff 
dp' , but if, oj mny bt,^—but if after all. — 
■i^oit xiS' iaiiToW : the strongest ex- 
pression for by tlumselvts. 

4. iEaiXnt Kol irpoaiXm awfran, 
ctmse tlum le be distmyed utterly andbefari 
thiir timt : see Shilleto's note on XIX. 
171, ^{uiXt|i diroXdJiii^r col >7»cuXtrt. The 
Scholia have : i},ii\tp i Afiat dirw\<Jai, 
rpwiX^ ti i vpi Tov Knifiei rm Sartir 
airir ^aptlu Westermann quotes an 
inscription of Halicamassus from Keil, 


nEPI TOY rrE*ANOY 227 

fidvatv tftofitnv Sore Ka.1 crayrqpiav afr<f>ak7f. 

6. sin vulg. ; Urn {t) oi 

See Essay vtii. g 1. 

' <) £ ; A6tc over floii^rr L. 

Sched. EpI|rT., p. 36 : ^lAift koI roruXift 
(ffTu ml 7^»i ig 7frpw, ical fi^( -j-ij jSar^ 

BoUtth, i.e. eveiTwhere, in all their 

5. hn]pn|p4vM', impending: for the 
paisivc of iraprQ see xxni. 140, toow- 
TM /nipip-a" ♦i^. Cf. Aesch. I. I7j, 
f^ifSsm tn-^fr-ifiia TOit djipow>ifr«t, i.e. / 
edited terrars te lumg evir them (im- 
pendere). (See Blass.) 

6. irwrvfiiav Av^oMj, s^ity whuA, 

cannel ie shaitH. 

With these solemn but hopeful words 
of good cheer, Demosthenes leaves his 
case and his reputation with perfect con- 
fidence in the hands of the judges. Since 
the success of his barst of eloquence in 
gS 51, 51, he has felt no anxiety abont 
the judgment, and his courage has in- 
creased steadily in every stage of his 

15— a 





I. From the Accession of Philip in 359 to 352 b.c. 

1. The battle of Mantinea and the death of Epaminondas in 
362 B.C niarlE the beginning of a new era in Greek history. The 
brilliant statesmanship and military genius of Epaminondas had raised 
Thebes to the highest position as a military power, and had reduced 
Sparta from her leadership of Greece to a condition of extreme danger. 
Sparta was held in check by the new hostile towns of Megalopolis and 
Messene, and she had suffered for the first time the humiliation of 
seeing an invading army within her streets. Athens, alarmed by the 
aggressive power of Thebes, thought it expedient to forget her ancient 
enmity and even her recent wrongs, and to make common cause 
with her old rival : at Mantinea Athens and Sparta fought side by 
side against Thebes. The death of Epaminondas at the moment of 
victory broke the spirit and the power of Thebes; Athens was suddenly 
relieved of her great alarm, and now no longer feared the removal 
of her Propylaea to the Cadmea of Thebes. Greece was left without 
a head, and Athens was encouraged to hope for a recovery of the 
leadership which she had lost by the Peloponnesian War. 

2, During the five succeeding years Athens devoted herself to 
establishing her power in the North, especially in her old dominion, the 
Thracian Chersonese, which, after a long struggle and many reverses, 
came anew into her possession in 357 b.c. F-arlier in the same year she 
had made her famous expedition for the liberation of Euboea, of which 
Demosthenes often speaks with pride', when she cleared the whole 
island of Thebans in thirty days and wrested it permanently from 

' Dem. Cor. 99. 


Thebes, which had held it since the battle of Leuctra in 371 b.c. In 
357 B.C. the new Athenian confederacy reached its greatest power and 
extent. It included a large part of the islands of the Aegean, Byzantium, 
the Chersonese and the south of Thrace, Potidaea, Mcthone, and Pydna, 
with much of the coast of the Theimaic Gulf. But in the autumn of 
that year the hopes of Athens were violently shattered by the outbreak 
of the Social War, in which Chios, Cos, Rhodes, and Byzantium, 
encouraged by Mausolus of Caria, suddenly revolted and weakened 
her power at its most vital points. This disastrous war ended in the 
spring of 355, when Athens was compelled to acknowledge the inde- 
pendence of the four seceding states'. Thus crippled she found herself 
in the face of a new and more dangerous enemy. 

3- I*! 359 B.C. Philip II. succeeded to the throne of Macedonia at 
the age of twenty-three. Macedonia had hitherto filled only a small place 
in Greek politics : there was no quarter which threatened less danger 
to Grecian liberty". Under Philip this was suddenly changed. This 
crafty king lost no time in laying his plans for his great object, the 
extension of his power and influence over the states of Greece. His 
regular policy, which he never deserted and which seldom deserted him, 
was to interfere in a friendly way in the quarrels of Greek states in the 
hope of getting one or both of the parties into his own power. He 
began in the year of his accession by offering help to Athens in her 
dispute about the possession of her old colony Atnphipolis. He pro- 
posed a treaty of peace with Athens, with the understanding that he 
would secure Amphipolis for her and receive Pydna (on his own (x>ast) 
in exchange. These negotiations, though known to the Senate, were 
kept secret from the people of Athens*; but great hopes were based on 
Philip's friendship, and Athens not only neglected to take Amphipolis 
when it was left ungarrisoned by Philip, but refused to help the town 
afterwards when Philip was besieging it and her aid was asked'. But 

' Dem. IV. 4 refers (o this lime : ttxpith raf iiiuU Hiiiiar koX IlordSauw rot 
iirdiiurrfv Kal xdjfra riw Tbww roOrdr aixttar kAk^, 

■ See Grotc XI. Ch. 86, pp. 310, 315; Schaefer, Demostb. u. seine Zeit, 1. pp. 166 

* See Grate xi. p. 179: "Among ihe hopes and fears of most Grecian cities, 
Macedonia then passed wholly unnoticed : in Athens, Olynlhus, Thasus, Thessalj, 
and a few others, it foimed an item not without momenl, yet by no means of lirst- 
rate magnitude." 

* See Theopompus, Irag. 139 (Miiller); Schaefer 11. p. 10. This state secret 
was the 8pii\aiiun)r iripp^w mentioned in Dem. 11. 6 (see the Schoi.). 

* Dem. I. 8. 



when Philip captured the place in 357 he refused to give it to her, though 
he had i^ain promised to do so during the siege'. This soon led to a 
war between Philip and Athens, called the Amphipolitan War, which 
continued about eleven yeais, until it was ended in 346 by the Peace of 
Philocrates. One of Philip's first acts in this war was the seizure of 
Pydna, which was to have been the price of Amphipolis. He soon 
afterwards cap[ured Potidaea, a colony of Corinth, then subject to 
Athens, and gave it to Olynthus, with which he was then forming an 
' alliance. Soon af[er the capture of Potidaea (356) three messages came 
to Philip at the same time, one announcing a victory of Parmenio over 
the lUyrians, another a victory of his horse in the Olympic races, and a 
third the birth of his son Alexander*. In the same year he founded 
Philippi, near Mt Pangaeus in Thrace, on the site of the Thracian town 
Crenides, to enable him to work the gold-mines of that region, from 
which he soon derived a revenue of over a thousand talents yearly*. In 
353 he besieged and captured the Athenian possession Methone*. 

4. He now entered upon a grander scheme of intervention, of 
which perhaps he hardly suspected the issue. This was to end, after 
many years of unremitting exertion, in the bitter humiliation of Athens, 
the annihilation of an ancient Greek race, and his own instalment as 
a member (and the leading member) of the venerable Amphictyonic 
Council. About 356 b.c. the disastrous Phocian War between the 
Amphictyonic Council and Phocis had begun. It resulted from a 
quarrel between Phocis and Thebes about military service, in the 
course of which the Thebans and Thessalians induced the Council to 
fine the Phocians for some act of real or constructive sacrilege*. They 
refused to pay the fine, and the Council voted to treat them as it 
had treated the sacrilegious Cirrhaeans in the time of Solon', by seizing 
their land and consecrating it to the Delphian Apollo, and putting the 
whole Phocian race under a terrible curse. The Phocians, under their 

' Dem. XXIII. 116: ^IXirrot, irt iiir 'A/i^TsXtr traiiiipKti, b' iiiur tb^xiS^ 
ToXuipicFu l^, ^vtiSJi i' fka^t, aU JlorifSiuar Tp«ra^(XrTg. CS. [VII.J 17. 

* Alexander was born (Plut. Alex. 3} on the 6lh al Mec&looibaeon (July 1 1), 3j6 B.C. 
■ Diod. XV]. 8 : see below g 8, n. 1. 

* For Philip's successive aggressions 00 Athens from 357 to 353 B.C. see Grote XI. 
331 — 336; Schaerei U. *l— 31 ; and Dem, I. 11, Cor. 69. 

* See Paus. X. 1, r : naTiXaptr a^e^ (the Fhucians) fir/uw0^ai xMf""' ^*^ 
' Afi^icTvirut • qU' Ixi* raC Uyov ri ii,Ti$tt iftvp'ir, grt iSur^o'vu' irtfMfiii o-^ir, 
e(T( QtstaiJi lari rt i* TBXawi! luaat firittiiu rqr [iiiiiar rctt iaittSair ^ar 0I 
T/ki^mi. Schaefer 1. 4SS— 490. 

' See bclovr, i 7« (end). 



leader Philomelus, decided to resist \ and they revived an old claim to 
the management of the temple of Delphi, which had caused a short 
Sacred War in 448 B.c At that time the Phocians, under the protection 
of Athens, had seized the temple and expelled the Delphians ; the 
Spartans sent an army which restored the temple to the Delphians, soon 
after which the Athenians sent another army which placed the Phocians 
again in piossession '. Athens was thus committed by her action ninety 
years before to the Phocian side of the question ; Sparta was herself 
already under the Delphic ban by her refusal to pay a tine imposed on 
her for seizing the Cadmea of Thebes in 383 B.C. 

5. Under these circumstances Philomelus with a body of Fhoctans 
seized the temple. The loyal Amphictyons, now chiefly Thebans, 
Thessalians, and Locrians, raised a large army to attack them, and they 
in turn raised a large mercenary force to defend the temple. After 
many promises to respect the sacred treasures, Philomelus was soon 
reduced to the necessity of using these to pay his soldiers; and in a 
few years the costly offerings of gold and silver, with which the religious 
pride of Greece and the munificence of strangers like Croesus had stored 
this venerable temple, had been melted down to supply the needs of 
the Phocian mercenaries. Philomelus was killed in a skirmish in 354^0, 
and was succeeded by Onomarchus, who continued the spoliation of the 
temple with still greater energy. He even used the bronze and iron 
relics to make arms for his troops. He and his successors gave the most 
precious relics, as the necklaces of Helen and of Harmonia (daughter 
of Ares and Aphrodite, and wife of Cadmus), to their wives or mistresses 
to wear ; and Diodorus piously relates the sad fates whicli befel these 
unfortunate women'. This state of things caused a scandal throughout 
Greece, which was easily magnified by the enemies of the Phocians, 
and obliged even their traditional friends, like the Athenians, to be 
cautious in expressing their sympathies by word or deed'. The religious 
excitement also made it easy and attractive for an unscrupulous out- 
sider like Philip to intervene on the side of piety, and thus to pose as 
the champion of the God of Delphi. This Philip did at the earliest 

' Thuc. I. lit. A(\er the decline or the Athenian power the rhociam lost their 
control of the (emple, and the Peace of Nidas (411 B.C.) rec^imed th« I>elphiins iu 

• Alhen. VI. p. »3iE; Diod. xvi. 64. 

' See the cautious words of Demosthenes (Cor. i8) on the feeling and the policy 
of Athens concerning the Phocians. For the earlier account of the Phocian War see 
Grote XI. Ch. 87, .Schaefer 1, 48B— 507. 



6. He had already interfered in the afhirs of Thessaly by aiding 
the Aleuadae of Larlssa in their contest against Lycophron, despot of 
Pherae, In 353 — 35a b.c, soon after his capture of Methone, he 
attacked Lycophron with such vigour that the despot invoked the aid of 
Onomarchus and his Phocian army. The Phocians had now become 
so powerful with their ill-gotten wealth that they had marched forth 
from Delphi and were practically masters of Boeotia and of the whole 
region south of Thermopylae. A force of Phocians under Phayllus, 
the brother and aficiwards the successor of Onomarchus, who marched 
to the aid of Lycophron, was defeated by Philip, and compelled to 
retreat beyond Thermopylae. Onomarchus then entered Thessaiy with 
his whole army, and defeated Philip in two battles. But Philip soon 
returned with a new army, and defeated the Phocians completely. 
Onomarchus, it was said, was slain in the retreat by some of his 
own men. Lycophron was obliged to abandon Pherae, which was 
taken by Philip, who also captured the important seaport of Pagasae, 
which gave him control of the whole Pagasaean Gulf. The Phocian 
army was annihilated ; but Phayllus took his brother's command, and 
easily raised another mercenary force by offering double pay, which the 
sacred treasures still provided'. 

7. While this new force was collecting, the road through Ther- 
mopylae lay open to Philip ; but he delayed his march southward until 
he could settle the affairs of southern Thessaly. Since his defeat 
of the Phocians he was hailed as a protector by their enemies, and he 
was already recognized as the avenger of Apollo, who was to restore the 
holy temple to its rightful lord ; and it was confidently expected that 
he would pass Thermopylae with his army and become a power in 
Central Greece. But at this momentous crisis Athens became fully 
alive to the danger which threatened Greece and especially herself. 
With an energy which was unusual at this period and recalled the most 
glorious of her older days, she sent a force by sea to Thermopylae, which 
was sufficient to prevent Philip from even attempting to force the pass, 
and which (strange to say) arrived in time. Demosthenes often alludes 
with pride to this exploit of Athens, and compares it with her many 
expeditions which were sent too late'. This took place shortly before 
midsummer, 35* B.C.* Though Philip received a temporary check at 
this time, he was now recognized as a power to be reckoned with in the 

> SeeGiolexi. 408— 41S; Schaefer 1. 505—510, II- 31—31. 
» See Dem. Cor. J3, IV. 17, 35, xix. 8+ {c(. 3*1), 
* See Grote xi. 415 ; Schaerer 1. 510. 



setclement of the Sacred War ; and he used this position with great skill, 
until six years later he was enabled to end the war on his own terms, 
to humiliate Athens, and by a single blow to make himself a recognized 
partner in Greek affeirs. 

II. Early Life of Demosthenes. — Events from 352 to 

348 B.C. 

8. In 354 fi-c, two years before Philip was repulsed at Ther- 
mopylae by Athens, a statesman appeared in the Athenian Assembly 
who was to be his most able and persistent opponent, and to whom 
it was chiefly due that his plans for the subjugation of Greece were 
delayed more than fifteen years. Demosthenes, son of Demosthenes, 
was born at Athens, according to the date now generally accepted, 
in 384 — 383 B.C, the year in which probably Aristotle was bom at 
Stageiros'. The father of Demosthenes died in 376 — 375, leaving his 
son in his eighth year and a daughter in her fif^h. He left an estate of 
about fifteen talents (^£'3000 or $15000)*, to be managed during the 

' We have the most conflicLing statements of the jrear in which the orator was 
bom. The date 384 — 383 agrees with what Demosthenes says in xxx. 15, that 
Aphobus was iDanied in the last month of' the archonship of Polyielus (i.e. mid- 
summer 366 B.C.), and thai immediately afterH-ards he himself became of age (iS) and 
passed his Jtwri/iavfa. It also agrees generally with his statements in xxvii. 4, 17, 
and jg, that he was seven years old (Iwt* (tHii Brra), i.e. in his eighth year, at his 
father's death, and that he was under guardianship ten years (before 366). It is 
conlinned by Hypeiides (in Dem., Col. xxil. j). who refers to Demosthenes (in 314 
— 313 B.C.) as "over sixty years old." It is directly opposed to Dem. XXI. 154, 
where the orator says that he is thirty-two years old (in 349 — 348) : there is probably 
an error in the text here: and this is repeated by Dion. Hal. (Amm. p. 714), who 
gives 3S1 — 380 for the birth of Demosthenes. See Schaefer I. i6g, with Beilage II. 
(ist ed.); Bliss, Chron. Dem. (in Teubner ed.), p. 5. 

The lives of Demosthenes and Aristotle coincide almost exactly, as Aristotle died 
at Chalcis in the autumn of 331 B.C., a few weeks before the death of Demosthenes at 

For another opinion on these dates, by which Demosthenes was bom in 383 and 
the Midiana is dated in 350, when be was 31 years and 11 months old, see Unger in 
the Beiichte of the Munich Academy, 1879, 11. p. 173. 

* I give the modem value of the weight of pure silver which made the Solonk 
talent (57! lbs. avoir.) at £*t» or $1000, this being the average value for many years 
before the recent decline in the value of silver (see Lidd. and Scott under TdXarrov). 
This assumes a value of J7 pence per ounce Troy of pure silver, and fflft pence per 
ounce of Ei^lish standard ulver (-915 fine). If standard silver were to fall to 
16A pence per ounce (Oct. 6, 1899, it was i6t), the actual value of a talent weight of 
silver would be jfioo. 



sod's minority by three guardians, Aphobus, Demophon, and Therip- 
pides. These faithless trustees mismanaged the property ten years in 
the most dishonest manner, so that the estate had nearly vanished when 
their ward attained his majority in 366 at the age of eig;hteen. Demo- 
sthenes immediately began iegal proceedings against his guardians, from 
each of whom he claimed ten talents; but he brought only one suit to 
trial, that against Aphobus, the chief guardian and the chief offender. 
During two years he attempted to bring his guardians to terms by private 
negotiations ; and the young man hesitxted long and anxiously tiefore 
appearing in the courts against men of wealth and influence, with whom 
he must contend at a great disadvantage with his inexperience and his 
broken fortunes. All this time and even earlier he was preparing for 
the great contest. He secured the services of Isaeus, a jurist of great 
experience in the courts, who was deeply learned in the .\ttic law, 
especially in that relating to inheritance and the management of estates. 
According to one account Isaeus lived in the house of Demosthenes 
four years as his adviser'. 

9. At length, in 364 B.C., the suit against Aphobus was ready for 
trial in the .^rchon's court. But four or five days before the day of trial 
Aphobus tried a last desperate trick to compel Demosthenes to abandon 
his suit. Thrasylochus, a friend of Aphobus, on whom the duty of 
the trierarchy had regularly been imposed, came with his brother, 
the rich and powerful Midias^ to Demosthenes, and demanded that 
he should either take the trierarchy or accept oitlSoo'k. This meant 
that Demosthenes must either assume the trierarchy without further 
question, as if it were legally imposed on him, or else submit to a 
StoSwoo'iiL before the board of Generals to decide whether he was bound 
to bear the expense rather than Thrasylochus, regard being had to their 
respective wealth and to the lime since either had borne the burden. 
If this decision went against him, he must either assume the trierarchy 
or exchange property with Thrasylochus. The first step in the process 
called cfi^iWit was an official sealing of both estates to prevent dimi- 
nution, and the aispensum of all lawsuits the issue of which might 
impair the value of either property. This last was the real object of the 
whole trick, as it was assumed that Demosthenes in his poverty could 
not take the trierarchy, and that the time was too short for a haSiKoina. 
Demosthenes at first accepted the ntTiSoo-w, i.e. he refused to take the 
trierarchy thus fraudulently tendered, and decided to submit his case to 

■ See Pint. Dem. 5; Vit. x. Orat. p. 844 C. 
' See J 15, below. 



the regular SuxSununo, in which be felt sure of obtaining justice. Bat 
the time proved to be too short for this; and he therefore was com- 
pelled to take the trierarchy, as the only means of bringing his suit 
to trial'. He paid twenty minae (one-third of a talent^ the sum for 
which ThrasylochuE had already hired a contractor to perform the duties 
of the trierarchy, which was a trwTptijpapxf'^'. 

Though the estate of Demosthenes had been so grossly squandered, 
the crafty guardians had allowed their ward to be assessed for the 
property tax in the highest class, as one of the "leaders of Symmories.". 
This obliged him to bear all the special burdens of the richest citizens, 
including the trierarchy*. 

10. As was the rule in private suits', the case came first before a 
public arbiter (Biainrriji), who condemned Aphobus. In the Heliasnc 
court, to which he appealed, the result was the same, and Demosthenes 
was awarded his full damages, ten talents. In this trial he delivered his 
two orations against Aphobus {xxvii. and xxviii.). But he found it im- 
possible to obtain either his estate or his damages from his wily opponent 
In attempting to seize a piece of land belonging to Aphobus he was 
met by Onetor, brother-in-law of Aphobus, who asserted that the land 
was his own, having been taken by him as security for the dowry of his 
sister, whom Aphobus had married and divorced. Demosthenes now 
brought a 8tKi) iiovXrp, or suit of ejectment, against Onetor, chai^ng 
him with "ejecting" him illegally from land to which he had a l^al 
claim'. In this case he delivered his two orations against Onetor (xxx. 

' See Dem. XXViii- 17: jUrfJom* ir i/ii raprattdavar, tr', tt pit irt^alr/r, ftif 
i(iitl HOI Tpii atroit drriSun^ liit ml T&r Aiui' roin/t reu imStS6rroi yt-yrtiuhu*, d 
Si (UjWl" toStut »«oli7r, b' ii fipaxtlai oiirlat XBrtupyCit xn^rdiaffir d*a(p(Wi|»..,. 
irrilnica iiir, ir4K\tira 3i an Siaiixartat Teu(iitttof 06 ruxi" H Tair^i, ruv x^irur 
broyiur Smtf, Ira (iJJ artpifSSi rur Jikuf, iwinaa r^i Xj/rovpyUw tireStlt T^ tiKltw 
ml Til^irroE' rdvra. Dem. accepted the drrDovtt {irriSiina /tit), bul with the 
common proviso (dWicXrura Si) ibat a SiaStfaaia should finally settle the case ; but 
ThiBsylocbus had skilfully left no lime for (bis. See also xxi. 7S. For Arrilarit, as 
applicable to all forms of Xirmvpyla, see Boeckh, Staatsh. d. Ath. 1. pp. G73 IT. (eip. 
677), with Friintier! note 883 (11. p. 130*). 

* Dem. x\]. 80, 1J4. The wbolc trierarcby, of which llinuylochuE had one half 
imposed on him, cost forty minae. See Boeckh, Slaatsh. d. Ath. 1. 641, 67r. 

' Dem. Cor. 103' and note, xxvil. 7, 91 Boeckh, ibid. pp. 599— Got, 613. 

* Arist. Pol. Ath. 53, a passage which linally settles a disputed question. 

* The Shu i^oi^v' ^"^ many points in common with the old action of ejectmcDt, 
on which see Encyclop. Britann. under EjectmenL See hypothesis to Dem. XXX.: 
Siiutp 4(06X11% a^^ Auilitnu i Aij^iovD^igt, uif it tS>¥ 'Aipd^ov rpirtiiei, rOt ti 
iairr^ yrymifUni)*, i(i\ii\ati4r9i..,.Ti Si r^ /(oiX^ troiia 'krraclf iiiWur y^ 



and XXXI.), probably in 36a — 361. The issue of this second suit b not 
known. It is certain that Isaeus advised and supported the young 
orator in all these suits, and he probably composed many passages in 
the speeches themselves'. 

II. The training in law and rhetoric which Demosthenes gained in 
preparing i<x this early contest, and his long experience in (he various 
processes of the courts, were by no means lost. He found himself, at 
the age of twenty-three, mainly dependent on himself for support; and 
he adopted the profession of Xoyoypai^ or legal adviser, the duties of 
which included writing speeches for clients to deliver in court (whence 
the name). In the period from 360 to 356B.C. he composed for clients 
the private orations numbered xli., li., and LV,' It is very plain, 
however, [hat Demosthenes soon aimed at something much higher than 
writing speeches and giving advice in private lawsuits. Before he was 
thirty years old be had distinguished himself as an advocate in cases 
df important public interest, in which the constitutionality of laws or 
decrees was judicially tested*. His arguments in such cases of ypoi^ 
Topavofuav (of which more will be said elsewhere) are those against 
Androtion (xxii., 355 — 354 B.C.), against Leptines (xx., same year), 
against Timocrates (xxiv., 353 — 353), and against Anstocrates (xxiii., 
351 — 351). But he had already twice appeared as a speaker in the 
Athenian Assembly, once in 354 — 353, when he delivered his speech on 
the Symmories (xiv.), proposing a reform in the system of assessing taxes 
EUid equipping the navy, and once again in 353—351, when he defended 
the rights of Megalopolis (xvi.) against Spaitan aggression. In neither 
of these public speeches is there anything which shows that the orator 
was seriously anxious about the dangers which already threatened 
Athens from the north. It is impossible that less than a year before the 
First Philippic none of the forebodings which there appear should have 
been felt ; but probably Demosthenes thought that the moment for open 
and energetic speech and action on his part against Philip had not yet 

fXrrw ri k^iaitit KtX J«^dX\((v fSlf. ^(o^X^f is therefore the act of gtctnunt, which it 
chaq-ed ai ■□ offence, used like (Xmr^ in Zlitri t\ori^. See Hupocr. s.v. ^e6\v. 
Smith. Diet. Aot. ExmtUi Diki; Meier and Schomann 66j— 668. 

' For example, a long passage in xxx 37, which apprOTei the examinaCioit of 
siftves under torture and has often been quoted u a reproach againM Demoithenes, if 
found almost verbatim in Isaem Vlll. \%. 

* For the dates of these and other early speeches see Bla*s, Chron. Dem. 
pp. 18 fT. 

* For the 7pa^ «iipavi;««i> see Essay II- 



12. Probably the sudden panic about midsummer 351, which 
roused Athens to her energetic movemcDt to Thermopylae (j 7), gave 
the question of checking Philip's aggressions a new and serious import- 
ance'. A few months later (Nov, 352) the alarming news came that 
Philip was besieging Heraion Teichos, a fortified post near the Thracian 
Chersonese'. Again Athens acted with energy, and voted to equip 
forty triremes, to be manned by Athenians, and to levy a tax of sixty 
talents. But a report that Philip was ili, followed by another that he 
was dead', stopped these preparations, and nothing was done. Philip's 
cruisers commiiied some daring aggressions on the coasts of Euboea 
and even of Attica. In the spring of 351 the Athenian Assembly met 
to consider his hostile behaviour, which was now a familiar subject 
Demosthenes was the first to speak, and he spoke with no uncertain 
sound. This earliest of his speeches against Philip, the First Philippic*, 
is an earnest and solemn appeal to the people to take decisive steps 
against an enemy who is every day becoming more dangerous. De- 
mosthenes is now thoroughly aroused, and henceforth the single object 
of his political life is to excite the Athenians to effective action against 
Philip. He now proposes a new plan for a permanent military and 
naval force, to supersede the spasmodic efforts of the past, which 
had generally failed of their purpose. In this speech he established 
his claim to statesmanship, on the ground of "seeing things in their 
banning and proclaiming them to others " ; and in his final review of 
his political life twenty-one years later he appeals to this with honest 
pride'. So far as we know, this great speech produced no effect'. The 
dull honest conservatism of Eubulus, who held the attention and con- 
trolled the votes of the Assembly, lulled the people into a dream of false 
security and prevented immediate action on each emergency. The 
policy of Eubulus was that of " peace at any price," at this critical lime 
a most disastrous one, of which he failed to see the danger. 

13. A few months after the First Philippic, probably in the autumn 
of 351, Demosthenes made his speech in the Assembly for the Freedom 

' The opening of ilie Fint Philippic shows Ihat, though Philip's encroachments 
had been oHen discussed, no serious action had ever been proposed. 

» See III. 4; ^iumfiBt St' irTrryfXSv ♦(>(*»« i/ut it Bp^ rfktor ^ ftrofrrar 
frof rovrl ' Hpoux "riixtt TpXiofucuir. rirt Tolraw |i.J)r fitr jr Miu/wiirig^dr. This was 
in Nov. 351, more than three jears l>efore the Third Olynlhiac (349 — 348). 

' See IV. II : r^^niKr 4>IXin-ei,- ou M ^'. >t^^' ivBo'tt; tI S' iiu* Sia^ipti; 

* See Schaefer li. 73; Grolc XI. 431. 

> litui -A -wfLfimv. ipxiM" K.r.X. Cor. g J46. S« Grote xi. 441, 

* Bui see Schaefer 11. 76. 



of the Rhodians (xv.)'. The now penitent RhodUn democracy, four 
years after the Social War, sought help from Athens against the oligarchy 
which had been supported by Mausolus, who had recently died. The 
Athenians, however, could not so soon forget their grievances, and 
refused their help. 

14. Philip's intrigues in Euboea soon made new troubles. Since 
the victorious expedition in 357 z) Euboea had been nominally in 
friendship with Athens. But after Philip gained control of southern 
Thessaly in 353 — 352 (§ 6), he constantly used his influence to alienate 
the island from Athens. In the First Philippic letters were read from 
Philip to Euboeans, showing hostility to Athens ; and we hear of his 
cruisers ofif Geraestus*. Early in 350 the Athenians were asked for help 
by Plutarchus, a sort of despot in Eretria, who was hard pressed by his 
enemies and professed to be a friend of Athens. Against the strong 
opposition of Demosthenes, it was voted to send an army to Euboea to 
help him, under the command of Phocion. This expedition had various 
fortunes in a few weeks. Plutarchus proved treacherous, and the 
Athenians were for a time in great danger; but Phocion gained a 
decisive victory at Tamynae, the news of which was brought to Athens 
by Aeschines just before the Great Dionysia (end of March)'. Later 
Phocion returned to Athens with most of his army, leaving a garrison in 
Euboea to be captured by the enemy and ransomed. Affairs remained 
in this position two years, until a peace was made in 348, in which the 
independence of Euboea was recognized. Athens and Euboea remained 
unfriendly, until the intrigues of Philip in 343 — 343 (§ 58, below) again 
brought them into amicable relations'. 

15. The Great Dionysiac festival of 350 was important for the 
fortunes of Demosthenes. His tribe, the Pandionis, chose no choregus 
for this year, and he volunteered to take the duties and bear the 
expense of the x°PTt^<^- While he was sitting in the orchestra of the 
theatre at the festival, amid all the pomp and state of the ceremony, being 
a sacred as well as a public official, wearing his crown of office, his old 
enemy, the wealthy Midias (§ 9), came forward and struck him several 

• Schaefer 1, 473—487. 

> Dem. IV. j4, 37. 

' Aesch. II. 169^171; Dem. xxi. 163. The ehronology of ihU period is vei] 
: I follow Dion. Htl., and Schaefer 11. 79. 

' In XIX. 75 (orliei in 343 B.C.) Demosthenes speaks of reik mTapiram Ed^a^at 
cf. Cor. § 134'. For the judgment of Demosthenei on the Eubocan War of 350 — 34I 
see V. 5. For the campaign see Grote xi. 473 — 481 ; Schaefer 11. 78—86. 



times in the face with his clenched fist'. This was not merely a personal 
outrage, but an insult to the state and to a great religious festival ; and 
it could be dealt with only by the most public legal process. Iliis was 
the vpojSoAi), in which the case first came before the Assembly for its 
preliminary judgment, and afterward, if the decision was adverse to 
the accused, could be tried before an ordinary popular court. The 
Assembly, at a special meeting in the Dionysiac Theatre, unanimously 
condemned Midias. This adverse vote (Karax«p<>rov(a) of the people 
was not a judicial condemnation ; it merely sent the case to the court, 
if the accuser saw fit to bring it there, with a praejudidum against the 
defendant, which would stand for what it was worth with the judges. A 
man of influence and wealth, like Midias, might easily, after the lapse of 
many months, put obstacles in the way of a judgment by the Heliastic 
Court, which would not be available in the public Assembly, held 
immediately after the outrage. It is not surprising, therefore, that the 
young orator, after his decisive victory over Midias in the unanimous 
popular vote, yielded to the advice of judicious fHends and avoided a 
further contest with a powerful man, who could always give him trouble 
in his public career. He compromised the case, and received a sum of 
money as damages'. The existing oration against Midias (xxi.), which 
appears to have been carefully composed for delivery in court, was of 
course never spoken : its professed date (according to the chronology 
here followed) is 349 — 348 b.c.' 

if>. A year later (in 349) Philip took a most important step in his 
grand plan by attacking the Olynthlac confederacy of thirty-two free 
Greek towns in the Chalcidic peninsula. In less than a year he had 
captured and destroyed all these, including Stageiros, the birth-place of 
Aristotle, and sold the inhabitants into slavery*. Olynthus, the head of 
this confederacy, had long been an important and flourishing city, 
generally hostile to Athens, and before 353 friendly to Philip. He 

I For the tSaxt of Midias uid its consequences, see Dem. xxt., the speech igaii^ 
Midias; SchacCer 11. 94 — loi \ Giote xi. 478, 479. 

* Aeschines (ill. 51) speaks of this compiomise as a disgraceful proceeding: 
dv/IoTO rpiAtwra, iitur (half a lalenl) Aim Tijr r* ttt airir CPpir cbI t^ rev J^/isv 
icaTax*'p"'>riaii. He is of course no authority fur the price. 

' See XXI. 13, where he mentions midsummer 351 as rfrfrav Irot tovtI, >« if he 
were ipeaking in 349—348. 

* Dem. IX. 16 : 'OXivfo* /tit S^ Ked HtSiiniw Kal 'A*«XXurfar miJ Mo (ol T^nxm 
r6\at irl Qp^rtii id, di Awdrat offrui li/tSi iri/iriKtr arrt /Hii' tl ribrar' ifi^iieaf 
rptviXSifT' tUai ^lar ilrtir. Cf. XIX. a66: T/ilt ^iSBar inavrir -nS roX^'M' ^1 
wAXfit iriffoi iwoKiMttm tIi ir rp XoXiniurs ol TpatiliifTti, 


348 B.c] OLYNTHIAN WAR. 241 

encouraged her in her enmity to Athens by giving hei Potidaea, which 
he took from Athens in 356, having already given her the Macedonian 
Anthemus. But the rapid advance of Philip's power in 353 — 351, 
which brought him to Thermopylae and almost carried him further, 
alarmed the enterprising city, and in the autumn of 353 she was in friend- 
ship, if not in alliance, with Athens'. In the autumn of 349 an embassy 
from Olynthus came to Athens, aslcing help against an attack from 
Philip, and proposing a. formal alliance*. Athens accepted the alliance; 
but nothing was done with sufficient energy to save Olynthus or any 
of her confederate towns. Thiee embassies came from Olynthus to 
Athens, and three fleets were sent by Athens to Olynthus ; the last fleet 
was still at sea when Olynthus fell. The city was captured, after a brave 
defence, by the help of traitors within the walls, probably in the early 
autumn of 348'. Many Athenian citizens were captured with the city*. 
With or before Olynthus fell the other Oialcidic towns, and the 
destruction was complete and terrible. Seldom had anything shocked 
the feelings of the Grecian world like this. Travellers in Peloponnesus 
(Aeschines among others) saw on the roads troops of Olynthian captives 
driven off to slavery*. 

17. During the Olynthian war Demosthenes delivered his three 
Olynthiacs, masterpieces of eloquence, full of earnest appeals to the 
patriotism and public spirit of the Athenians and to their sense of duty 
and honour". The wise prediction of the First Philippic, "if we do not 
now fight Phitip there (in the north), we shall perhaps be compelled to 
fight him here'," is now repeated in fresh words and with redoubled 
force. No more powerful arguments were ever addressed to any people ; 

' Dem. XXlii. 109, (Xt 'OXiWkk i>it Xseai. t4 uttXan rpoopSr, it.T.X. Liban. frro*. 
to Dem. I. (§ 1), iratjifLtOrra Si ngfninimi auTor (^IXirrot 'OXdrffcM) Wfi^(«mt 
wpir^tit *pit 'A^roJaut i(aTc\i)(rarr<> r6r rp6t avrtiit r6\eni>r. ScbMfer II. Ill lefera 
to these negotutioos with Athensi also to C. I. Alt. u. do. 105, of jji B.C., which is 
too mntitated to count as historioU authority for an alliance. 

' Diod. XVI. 5.1, ^Ipat xM*""'— ^"'"P"'"'' ■" "'' AaffWHj*, it.r.X. See Dem. 
VIII. 40, IX. 56, 66, XIX. 165. For the deluls of the Olynthian war, sec Schaefer 11. 
114 ff., for the dates 156 — 159; Grotexi, 454 ff. 

* Sees M). 

' See the account given by Aeschines o! his meeting the Arodian Atrestidas 
returning home with thirty Olynthian. women and children, Dem. xix. 305. 306. See 
Grotexi. 505, Jio. 

• The traditional order of the Olynthiacs is defended by Schaefer 11. 159 — 165; 
for other opinions see Grote XI. 499 — 504. 

' IV. 50. 

G. D. t6 



and yet the quieting influence of Eubulus aad his party prevented all 
efficient and timely action. The Third Olynthiac has a forcible appeal 
to the Athenians to use the Theoric (or festival) fund for military pur- 
poses', a measure which was never passed until shortly before the battle 
of Chaeronea. At the end of the Olynthiac war (348) Demosthenes was 
probably in his thirty-sixth year. All the public speeches made by him 
before the events of 346 have already been mentioned. 

III. The Peace of Phjlocrates. 

347—346 B.C. 

18. When Philip had destroyed Olynthus and the thirty-two Greek 
towns of Chalcidice, he naturally turned his eyes southward and be- 
thought himself of the land of his hopes beyond Thermopylae. Ex- 
perience had shown him that while he was at open war with Athens he 
could hardly hope to pass Thermopylae without a desperate struggle ; 
and for this he hardly felt prepared. Whether he had already planned 
the artful scheme by which two years later he entered Greece, hailed 
with acclamation as the champion of Apollo and the protector of 
Delphi, or whether he had some less pretentious plan in view, he now 
saw that at least a temporary peace with Athens was absolutely necessary. 
Even before the capture of Olynthus, envoys from Euboea hi^d brought 
to Athens a pleasant message from Philip that he wished for peace. 
Soon after this, Phrynon of Rhamnus was captured by one of Philip's 
cruisers, as he claimed, during the Olympic truce (i.e. about mid- 
summer 348). He was released on payment of a ransom; and he 
persuaded the Athenians to send a public envoy with him to ask Philip 
to restore his ransom money. Ctesiphon (not the defendant in the suit 
on the Crown) was sent on this mission*. Phihp received both 
Ctesiphon and Phrynon with great kindness and granted their request. 
Ctesiphon reported that Philip wished to make peace as soon as 
possible*. The Athenians were delighted; and it was unanimously 
voted, on the motion of Philocrates, that Philip might send a herald 
and envoys to Athens to treat for peace. A certain Lycinus brought 
a ypa^^ ira/Kivd^uv against this decree, with a penalty of a hundred 
talents, on what ground we are not directly informed. Demosthenes 

' III. 18 — 10. See Giote XI. 41)1 — 499. 

* For this ukI tfae following events of gg 18 and ip.seeAesch. 11. 19 — 19. 



appeared as the advocate of Philocrates, and Lycinus failed to get a 
fifth of the votes of the court", 

19. At about this time Olynthus was captured^ The consternation 
caused by this event did much to cause the almost universal desire for 
peace at Athens. Among the Athenians captured at Olynthus were 
latrocles and Eueratus, whose relatives appeared in the Assembly with 
suppliant olive branches and besought the people to rescue their kins- 
men. Their entreaty was supported by Demosthenes and Philocrates, 
but not by Aeschines'. The people were deeply moved by this solemn 
supplication, and voted to send the actor Aristodemus, who was pro- 
fessionally intimate at the Macedonian court, to intercede with Philip 
for the two prisoners*. This mission also was perfectly successful. 
latrocles soon returned to Athens, released by Philip without ransom. 
Afterwards Aristodemus, who was probably detained by professional 
engagements, appeared after a summons from the Senate, and reported 
that Philip was full of kindness and wished both peace and alliance 
with Athens. Aristodemus was complimented by a crown, on the 
motion of Demosthenes'. The return of Aristodemus to Athens took 
place after the beginning of the year 347 — 346, the archonship of 
Themistocles, in which Demosthenes was for the second time a 
senator, the year of the peace of Philocrates'. 

* Aesch. II. 14. Inn I. 61 Aeschines usesthissupport of Philocrates by Dcmosth«n«$ 
as evidence of an early colluuon between ihe two. But Demosthenes might con- 
sistently help to remove a. mere technical obstruction to this preliminar; step towards 
peace. Even a vote forbidding negotiations for peace with Philip, such as Aeschines 
obscuiely hints at (il. 13), could not have been a ri^ot, which alone cuuld justify the 
■ypB^ »ii/iB»6ftii»'. The whole process of Lydnus looks like a mere political trick. 
Moreover, PhilocraLes was not yet discredited as a minion of Philip. 

' Ibid, c'lwirr^px'f ^ loi ^yipstadh-rfi, tXK nim Aiaxl'V*' This is said 
after the condemnation of Philocrates. 

* See Grote XI. 5[6, •;i7 : he compares this with the memorable scene in the 
Assembly in 406 B.C., when the relatives of the men who had been left on the wrecks 
to perish after the victory at Ar^inusae came before the people, dressed in black and 
with shaven heads to excile sympathy. 

' Aesch. II. ij — 17. Demosthenes twice (xix. 11, 315) spealcs of the actor 
Neoptolemus, in connection with Aristodemus and Cicsiphon, as bringing deceilfiil 
messages from Philip. Grote (Xi. 517) thinks that he was one of the envoys to Philip. 
Bnt his may hav« been private messages, sent informally at about the same time with 
the others. 

' Though Aeschines (11. 14, 15) puts the first proposal of PhQocrates for p«Bce and 
his indictment (§ 18, above) at about the time of the capture of Olynthus (autumn 
of 348), be distinctly puts the return of Aristodemus from Macedonia in the next 

16 — a 



30. In the previous year, after the fall of Olynthus, a significant 
movement against Philip was made by Eubulus, with the active aid of 
Aeschines, of whom we then hear for the first time in political life. 
The famous rival of Demosthenes was the son of respectable parents, 
who had been reduced to poverty in the Peloponnesian War. We 
cannot accept as historical either of the two accounts of his parentage 
and his youth which are given by Demosthenes'. Neither orator is 
authority for the life or personal character of the other. IJke De- 
mosthenes, he was left to his own resources to earn his living ; but he 
was less favoured by genius and by fortune than his rival. As a young 
man he was a play-actor and took many important parts, as that of 
Creon in the Antigone and that of Oenomaus in (he tragedy of 
Sophocles of that name'. He also did service as a cleric, publicly 
in the Senate and Assembly, and privately in the employ of Arislophon 
and Eubulus'. His friendly relations with Eubulus were often of great 
service to him in his public life. He was strong and vigorous, had a 
powerful voice, and was a ready speaker. In all these respects Nature 
had given him a great advantage over Demosthenes ; but he lacked the 
steady rhetorical training by which his rival, even as a young man, made 
himself an accomplished orator*. Though he was about six years older 
than Demosthenes, he appeared in public life much later. He served 
in various campaigns, in Euboea in 357 and 350, and at Mantinea in 

21. On the occasion referred to (§ so), probably in the winter or 
spring of 348 — 347, Eubulus addressed the Assembly against Philip, 
calling him the common enemy of the Greeks and swearing by his 
children that he wished chat Philip were dead*. He proposed a decree 
for sending embassies to the Peloponnesus and all other parts of Greece 
— Demosthenes says, "all but to the Red Sea" — to summon an 
Hellenic synod at Athens and inaugurate a general Greek war against 

Allic year. 347 — 346 (11. 16. 17). Arislodemus must have gone lo Macedonia early 
in 3+7; and ir^i y^ot (Aesch. in. 61) covers nearly a year after the acquillat of 
Pbilocnles. The new movement of Eubulus and Aeschines (g 11, below) probably 
diveiled the minds of the people from peace at this time (see Dem. xix. ii). 

' Cf. XIX. 149, IJOl Cor. 119, IjO. 

' Dem. XIX. 14G, 147 1 Cor. 180. 

' Dem. XIX. 70; cf. Cor. 161 ; Anon, Vil. Aesch. % 3, irm ik Xaiiwpi^KiTor yfMH' 
luirtOaai ' kpttra^SaiTt ital /«t4 toBtoii Bi^wtX^p, «.T.X. 

* See Cic. de Oral. in. tSi suavitatem Isocrales, sublilitaiem Lysias, acumen 
Hjpeiides, sonitum Aeschines, vim Demoslhenes habuit. 



Philip. This measure was eloquently supported by Aeschines and was 
adopted with enthusiasm. Aeschines brought before the Senate and 
Assembly an actor, Ischander, with whom he had once played, and who 
professed to bring reports from friends of Athens in Arcadia. De- 
mosthenes says that Aeschines then professed to be the first Athenian 
who had discovered that Philip was plotting against the Greeks and 
corrupting leading men in Arcadia'. Aeschines was one of the envoys 
sent out ; and on his return from Arcadia he repeated the many line 
Speeches which he had made in behalf of Athens before the great 
Arcadian assembly called the Ten Thousand (w fiupioi) at Megalopolis', 
where he attacked Hieronyrous, a partisan of Philip, a reputed scholar 
of Isocrates, who opposed him'. Demosthenes appears to have taken 
no interest in these embassies, of which he speaks in a disparaging tone. 
He probably distrusted any movement in which men like Eubulus were 
the leaders, and experience had shown him that the grand plan of 
uniting all Greece in a war against Philip would end in failure and 
give Philip fresh encouragement for conquest The event proved 
Demosthenes right. No Hellenic synod met in Athens, and within a 
year Eubulus and Aeschines were both playing into Philip's hands. It 
must be remembered that the " still absent envoys," who play so im- 
portant a part in the story of the peace (as told by .\eschines in 330 B.a), 
for whose return Demosthenes is said to have refused to delay the 
negotiations /or /auTf, are these very messengers of war*. 

21. But whatever the Athenians may have thought of the jingoism 
of Aeschines and Eubulus at this time, there can be no doubt that a year 
later (347 — 346) the prospect of an honourable peace with Philip was 
extremely welcome to all sober-minded men at Athens. Her recent 
losses and disasters secured a favourable hearing for the friendly 
messages from Pella. There can be no doubt that Demosthenes then 
felt strongly inclined to peace, as a matter of policy ; and it is hardly 

' Dem. XIX. 10, 303, 304. For Ischandei see Harpocr., aod Schaefer I. 346 — 14S. 

' Doubtless in the ThersilioD, the great hall in which the Arcadian Assembly met, 
adjoining the theatre of MegKlopnlii, excavated by Che British School at Athens in 
1890—91 . See Supplem. Papers of the Hellenic Society I., with plates. 

* Mem. xrx. 11, with Schol. (p. 344, 8); Aesch. 11. 157. See Schaefer 11. 169— 
171; Grote XI. 508 — 511. It was on this mission to Arcadia that Aeschines met 
Attestidas with his Olympian captives (S 16, above). 

* See i 31 (below) ; Aesch. 11. 57, fro koui% cat toKtiuSa, tt JMk, 9Mmf imi' 
'AAirniur, koI r^ cIp^nTt, tt Toora that lotnlri aviupifet, iirrixom. Cf. Aesch. lit. 
j8, 64. 6B : though he now always includes eventoal peace as one of the objects, yet 
rapoKoXwirrEf irl *Oi,irwm (68) sllU empbasites the hostile character of the m 



possible that he had yet b^un to suspect the crafty scheme by which 
peace with Philip would be turned to the di^jiace of Athens and the 
triumph of her bitterest foes'. And yet it seems hardly possible that 
the terrible spectre of the Sacred War, just beyond their borders, 
should not have filled all sober Athenians with alarm, especially when 
they remembered Philip's march to Thermopylae five years before. 
Philip, himself, we may be sure, never lost sight of the prize which 
had once seemed within his grasp. 

aj. Since Philip's repulse from Thermopylae in 353, the Sacred 
War had been waged with increasing bitterness, but with no prospect of 
a conclusion. In 351 the death of Phayllus left the leadership to 
Fhalaecus, son of Onomarchus (g 6), a mere boy, who at first had a 
guardian and military adviser, appointed by his uncle Phaytlus. The 
Thebans were now the chief opponents of the Phocians, and Boeotia 
became the chief seat of war. Neither side gained any decisive 
advantage. At one time the Phocians held three fortresses in Boeotia, 
Orchomenus (the ancient Minyan stronghold), Coronea, and Corsiae. 
But the resources of both parties were now exhausted. The Thebans 
called on Philip for help; but he sent only a few soldiers, wishing to 
check their " Leuctric pride*." The Great King sent them 300 talents 
of silver. The Phocians had come to the end of the Delphic treasures, 
after robbing the temple of gold and silver of the value of about 
10,000 talents. They received help froni various Greek states, including 
1000 men from Sparta and aooo from Achaca. It is probable that their 
army never fell below 10,000*. 

24. The Phocians were now anxious lest a new invasion from 
Thessaly with help from Philip might suddenly end their power. Their 
army was mutinous from lack of pay, and the authority over it which re- 
mained was divided. Envoys were sent to Athens asking help, and offering 
the Athenians the towns commanding the pass of Thermopylae, — Alponus, 
Thronium, and Nicaea. This offer pleased the .Athenians greatly ; and 
they ordered Proxenus to take possession of the three towns, and voted 

' A few years later Derooslh. admits that the Athenians (doubtless including 
himself) were deceived by Philip's friendly messa|reE; cf. xrx. 11, ru* laXBct 
6.ta.-fytWtanur eit' ArteOr liyUi. There is no inconsistency belween this judgment 
after the facts and hia proposing 1 crown for Aristodemus when he brought back one 
of these very messages (Aesch. II. 17). 

■ Diod. XVI. j8. 

' The Phocian force which surrendered to Philip in 346 numbered over 
see Uem. xix. 130. For the events of the Phocian war above briefly mentioned, see 
Schaefer ii> iSo — 191 ; Grote xi. 519 — 53r, with the authorities died. ., 



to call out the citizen soldiers up to tbe age of thirty and to man fifty 
triremes. But Proxenus now found men in authority at Thermopylae who 
repudiated the message sent to Athens, and the envoys themselves were 
in prison for making the offer. Proxenus was dismissed with insult, and 
the fleet and array were never sent. The Phocians remained in pos- 
session of Thermopylae, confident of their ability to hold it. A Mendly 
offer of Sparta to garrison the pass was also rejected with insult'. In 
spite of her discouraging repulse, Athens felt that the fate of Greece 
depended on having Thermopylae held secure against any invasion 
from the North. Notwithstanding the sacrilegious plundering of Delphi, 
which no one ventured lo approve openly, Athens had the strongest 
pohtical reasons, which were easily reinforced by moral motives, for 
protecting the Phocians, especially against Philip*. A formal alliance 
had existed for many years between Athens and Phocis', and it was 
naturally assumed at Athens (except by Philip's friends) that peace with 
Philip would protect the Phocians against all danger from him. Prox- 
enus was all this time with his fleet north of Euboea. It was probably 
in this spirit that Athens received the friendly propositions which 
Aristodemus brought from Philip*. 

»5. Soon after the cordial reception of Aristodemus (§ 1 9), Philocrates, 
supported by Eubulus and-Cephtsophon, proposed a decree for sending 
ten ambassadors to Philip, to discuss terms of peace and to ask him 
to send ambassadors to Athens with full powers to negotiate'. The 
following were sent : Philocrates (the mover), Demosthenes, Aeschines, 
Ctesiphon (the former envoy to Philip), Phrynon, latrocles, Aristo- 
demus, Nausicles, Cimon, Dercylus'. To these Aglaocreon of Tenedos 
was afterwards added by the Assembly as a representative of the allies. 
The embassy was appointed and sent in February, 346 ac' It is 
difficult and often impossible to give a trustworthy account of the events 
from the sending of the first embassy to the return of the second in 

' ^eeAesch. ii. 131— 134. 

' The mixed feelings of Athens are well described by Demosrhenes, Cor. i8*~*. 

» Dem. XIX. 61,61: cf. Aesch. In. 118. 

' See § 19 (end). 

* Dem. Cor. XIX. 95. 

• The len names are given in the second bwiStm to Dem. XIX. p. 336'. All 
except Naasicles are mentioned, in Aesch. 11. 8, 19, to. ti, fi. 47 ; for Nansicles see 
11. iS, fbi Aglaocreon II. 10. 

' This date is fixed hy the retum of (he embassy about Ihe first uf ElapheboUon 
(March iS) : we may allow from 50 to 50 days for the time of absence. The second 
embassy, which Demosthenes charges wilh criminal waste of lime, was absent less 
than 70 days. See Schaefer II, 194, n. 3. 



July. We generally have to depend od the testimony of either Demos- 
thenes or Acschines, or on the contradictory statements of both ; and 
these aie given in the ai^uments of the lawsuits of 343 and 330 B.C., in 
which the two witnesses are the opposing speakers. Demosthenes is, 
however, fairly entitled to greater credence ; for there is no fact stated 
by him which can be proved to be positively and intentionally false by 
other evidence, while several of the strongest statements of Aeschines 
are proved to be absolutely &lse by his own previous or later accounts 
of the same transactions. 

26. We depend chiefly on Aeschines for the account of the first 
embassy* ; and there is little doubt that, due allowance being made for 
exaggerations and prejudiced views of the behaviour of Demosthenes, 
this is in general substantially correct. According to this, on the 
journey to Pella Demosthenes made himself disagreeable to his col- 
leagues, and boasted loudly of the way in which he meant to stop 
Philip's mouth'. The envoys went by land to Oreus, in the north of 
Euboea, and thence by sea to Hatus, on the south side of the Gulf of 
Pagasae, a town claimed by Athens as an ally'. Parmenio. Philip's 
general, was then besieging Halus, which Philip wanted to give to his 
friends the Pharsalians. The embassy passed through the Macedonian 
camp to Pagasae, Larissa, and Pella*. On arriving at Pella, the envoys 
were courteously received by Philip at a formal interview, in which they 
addressed the king in the order of their ages, Demosthenes speaking 
last, directly after Aeschines. Aeschines says nothing of the speeches 
which preceded his ; but he devotes the greater part of his story to his 
own eloquent argument, in which (as he says) he made a powerful 
appeal to Philip in defence of the right of Athens to Amphipolis, 
reminding him of the early history of the town, and going iiack to the 
children of Theseus. He spoke of the appointment of Iphicraces as 
the Athenian commander there, and reminded Philip of the occasion 

' See Aeseh. 11. %a — 43. The ucoont of the two embassies to Philip and of the 
negolialions for peace is given in Grote XI. Ch. gg, uid Scbaefer II. Buch 3, Ch. 5, 
Buch 4. Ch. 1 ; and no further general references [0 these will be necessary. As the 
first embassy had no power to negotiate, the details of its conduct are less importanL 

* Aesch. 11. II : arn i.rtppi'^a rd ^Mwwbv ariim i^aaxo^ ifipixV' ^ vovld 
itw up hit mctUk viith an unsoatid rmk, i.e. with no^great trouble. 

* Philip thought it necessaiy to specify in his proposed tenns of peace that Halus 
should be excluded from the allies of Athens: see Dem. xix. 159, 174, and | 33 

* Sirabo, p. 433; Dem. xix. 163: dir%ar Sid rml roXtfiJav rrpare^^utrot. This 
si^e of Halus. after negotiations for peace weie begun, illustiaCes Dem. Cor. 16. 



when his mother, Eurydice, placed him with his brother Perdiccas (both 
children) on the knees of Iphicrates, and begged the general to treat her 
two boys with brotherly affection, as their father Amyntas had adopted 
him as a son. This harangue about a matter which had been settled 
more than ten years shows how Aeschines failed to see the real questions 
at issue, or possibly bow he carefully avoided all questions which it 
would be unpleasant to Philip to discuss, i.e. all real questions. He 
could hardly have imagined that Philip would allow his title to Amphipolis 
to be called in question at this time. 

27, Aeschines then describes the appearance of Demosthenes before 
Philip. He was (we are told) so embarrassed that he could hardly utter 
a word; and after a few vain attempts to speak, he became silent. 
Philip encouraged him and tried to relieve his embarra-ssment, but all in 
vain. He remained speechless, and the herald conducted the embassy 
from the royal presence. This account is probably much eicaggerated ; 
but it is hardly possible that the whole story is an invention. Grote is 
probably right in thinking that Demosthenes was taken with a kind of 
"stage fright" when he suddenly found himself formally addressing the 
king whom he had so often denounced, and when he was probably 
insulted by the officers of Philip who were in attendance at the palace 
on this ceremonious occasion, so that he may well have been physically 
unable to speak'. It is significant that Demosthenes does not mention 
his own speech or that of Aeschines. Philip soon recalled the embassy, 
and replied to their arguments, especially those of Aeschines, but made 
no allusion to Demosthenes'. He ended his address with the usual 
assurances of friendship. Most of the envoys were struck by the dignity, 
wit, and gracious manners of Philip, and by his skill in replying to what 
had just been said to him'. 

28. The reluming envoys arrived in Athens about the first of 
Elaphebolion (March 38) 346 B.a* They made their regular reports 

■ Grote XI. S30. Schaefer (ii. loi— loj) has liltle faith in the whole tale of 
Aeschines about the interview with Philip. Strangely enough Demosthenes (xix. ijj) 
teports Acsthines as telling the Assemblj (apparently on his return from the lint 
embassy) Ibat he said nothing to Philip about Amphipolis, but left the subject to 
Demosthenes. It seems incredible that Aeschines could have lepudiated a, speech 
just made, whicli a (cw yeais later he reports at length, partly vtrbatim ; and equally 
incredible that Demosthenes could foi^et or overlook such an occasion as his fiist 
interview with Philip. The evidence here is conflicting, but unimportant. 

* Plutarch (Dem. i6) says that Philip replied to Demosthenes ii*ri, •wtvAarrn 

> Aeseh. 11.+1-43: cf. ji. 51. 

* See S 15 (above), n. 7, and g 19 (below). 



to the Setiate and the Assembly; and they received the regular com- 
plimentary votes and the invitation to dinner in the Prytaneum, on the 
motion of Demosthenes as senator. They brought home a letter from 
Philip, expressing great friendship and his hope of both peace and 
alliance'. There can be no doubt that Demosthenes returned fully 
persuaded that some peace should be made as soon as piossible, to settle 
the important questions which the war kept open*. Down to this time 
— in fact, until the nineteenth of Elaphebolion — he had no suspicion of 
the loyalty and poli[ical honesty of Aeschines*. There can be little 
doubt that Philocrates was already secured for Philip's interest ; and it 
was not long before Aeschines (perhaps honestly at first) was acting 
with him to gain Philip's ends. 

29. Immediately after the return of the embassy, Demosthenes 
proposed two decrees in the Senate to secure peace at the earliest 
moment. The Great Dtonysiac festival was approaching, during which 
alt public business would be suspended. These decrees enacted that 
safe-conduct should be granted to Philip's envoys and herald, who were 
now on their way to Athens, and that the Prytanes should call a special 
meeting of the Assembly, to be held on the eighth of Elaphebolion 
(April 5) if Philip's embassy should then have arrived, to discuss terms 
of peace The envoys came too late for this day ; but after their arrival 
Demosthenes proposed another decree appointing the eighteenth and 
nineteenth of Elaphebolion (April 15 and 16) for two meetings, in which 
both peace and alliance with Philip should be considered. It was further 
voted that the first meeting should be given to debate, and that in the 
second the votes should be taken without discussion'. The usual result 
followed, and speeches were made in both meetings. 

30, The two meetings were held on the appointed days, after the 
Dionysia. The Macedonian envoys, Antipater, Parmenio, and probably 
Eurytochus, were present during a part of the sessions'. Demosthenes, 

t Aesch. If, 4j, 46, 50; Dein. xix. 40. 41. 

* Aesch. III. 6j : Kix(\9a ironiiiuir itaairifl qr r^f tlf/lfnifi, ir.r.X. 

' Dein. XIX. 13: taX lUxpi raB ttO/f irarf\6tir dri r$t wpiiTiit wpmfftlat i/ii... 
Sti^ofiitirot lol rnrpamiit iavrir i\&r8arar. The reiiiiinJer of XIX. 11 — 16 shows bis 
opinion after his tjes were opened. 

* Aesch. m. 63, 66—68: cf. 11. 54, 65, ioq. Sec § 36, below. 

' Dem. XIX. 69 gives Antipater and Parmenio ; the md Argument to XlX. 
(p. 336'°) adds Eurylochus. Il is hardly possible that Ihe foreign envoys were 
present during the discussion o! the teims of peace: this is shown by naUo-ai mui 
wpicpM. XIX. 144. 



as senator, showed the distinguished envoys all proper courtesies, in- 
viting them to a grand private entertainment and proposing decrees to 
admit them to the Assembly and to make them guests of honour at the 
Dionysia. He personally escorted them to the tlieatre, where cunains 
had been provided to shield them from the early morning air and 
cushions to cover the stone seats. And when they departed for 
home, he hired three yokes of mules for them and escorted them on 
horseback to Thebes'. 

31. One of the strangest charges made by Aescbines against 
Demosthenes is that of corrupt collusion with Philocrates in making 
the peace. Philocrates went into exile as a convicted criminal early in 
343 B.C., fleeing from Athens to escape the sentence of death which was 
soon passed upon him for treachery and bribery in making the peace 
which is a reproach to his name*. Aeschines can henceforth think of no 
graver charge than this, with which he introduces his accusation of 
Demosthenes with regard to the peace: "Now I return to the peace 
which you and Philocrates proposed'." Can it be believed that this is 
the same Aeschines who fifteen years before had described this same 
peace as "the peace made by me and Philocrates*"! His chief 
argument for the collusion is that Demosthenes caused the peace to be 
made in such unseemly haste that the Greek states which had been 
invited by Athens to an Hellenic council for mutual defence could not 
be represented in the negotiations. He constantly alludes to " the still 
absent embassies, which you sent to the Greeks." 

32. These are the "roving envoys," which were sent out on the 
motion of Eubulus, more than a year before, to unite the Greeks in a 
common cause against Philip. Aeschines himself says that, when 
Philip's envoys came to Athens, the Athenian envoys were still absent, 
"summoning the Greeks against Philip'." All these Greeks, it must 
be remembered, were already at peace with him". On what possible 

' Don. XIX. 13s; Aesch, 11. 55, 110, iii, in. 76. See the reply of Dem. (Ccw. »8) 
aboat the invitation to ihe Ihealie. 

< See Eisay IV. % 4. 

' Aesch. in. J7 : no! BJj hrari-fu iiAavrir irl tV efpii"?* 4* "^ "•' ^\oiipinp 
iypiinrrt. Cf. II. 56. See ihe reply lo this in Dem. Cor. 11. 

* Aesch. I. 174! tJ|» ri/H)»i|r rV )(' iiteG koJ ^tkeKpitavi ftytrrniiriir. 

* Seeg 11, note 4, with references. See Aesch. III. 6s, ipuwrn inat airaii pif 
TOfMHaXiiDtTat irl rbr irdXcfw)', and 68, dnihjyiBw irapiuaXDiirTCi rodt 'EXXi^rai iwi 

* Dem. Cot. 14'. 



ground now could Aeschines, who had been one of the embassy which 
invited Philip's envoys to Athens to negotiate a peace, demand after 
their arrival that all negotiations should be suspended until the return of 
envoys who had been absent more than a year stirring up hostility against 
Philip, and had shown no signs of returning or reporting ? These "absent 
envoys " were pure inventions. Aeschines declares positively that not 
one of them had returned when the peace was made, and Demosthenes 
that there was no embassy then out'. This contradiction can be 
reconciled only by the explanation given by Demosthenes, that all the 
Greeks had long ago been tried and found wanting.^in Tact, that Athens 
could find no states ready to join her in resisting Philip'. Aeschines 
expressed the same opinion in 343 b.c' It is evident that Aeschines 
uses the word rpitr^tn in a very wide sense : his envoys were probably 
in great part not ambassadors with regular commissions, who were 
expected to report formally to the Senate and Assembly, but informal 
messengers, who were asked to sound public opinion in various states, 
to which many of them may have been going on business of their own, 
with the understanding that no reports were expected unless they had 
some message of importance to give. It is most probable that no 
reports had been made simply because there were no favourable re- 
sponses to report, and that no delay of the peace would have changed 
this result. At the same time, it is not surprising that the assembled 
allies, who knew little of the facts, were made to believe (as their vote 
shows) that delay might bring some new states to join in the peace'. 
33. We have the most contradictory accounts horn the two orators 

' Aesch. II. 58, J9; Dem. Cor. tj*-'. See note on the ta»t passage, and the 
whole of Cot. 10 and 14. It U said in Dem. xix. 16. to which Aesch. 11. 58. 59 
is s reply, that Aeichines spoke on the iglh of Elapbebolion in the pre«enc« of 

eovoya [rpiir^iur) oSi iwi rOn "EXXi)»air lumiii-^avBt iri ruinv vmrBirm. This 
seems to show thnt some states bad sent envop in response to the invitations of the 
previous year, who wcce actuallf present when the peace tvas made. Bui it is hardly 
credible that any state could have been so far influenced by the Athenian emtiassics, 
which Demosthenes (Cor. jj) says were all failures, as actually to send envoys to the 
proposed Hellenic synod at Athens, which never had even a prospect of meeting. 
Schaefer (il, 115) suggests with great probability thai these "envoys" were Stupal 
sent by certain states to the Dionysiac festival, who remained in Athens to watch the 
negotiations for peace. Such visitors might have brought informal messages from 
home in response to the Athenian proposals of the previous year. In this case 
Demosthenes uses wflsflta in as misleading a sense as Aeschines. 
' Dem. Cor, 13. 

* Iliid. II, 60. 



of the proceedings in the two meetings of the Assembly. In the first, 
on the eighteenth of Elaphebolion (April 15), the Macedonian envoys 
appeared before the people and stated plainly and firmly the terms on 
which Philip would make peace. These were, in general, JmrcpotK & 
txavii\.v tyitiy, uti possidetis ; that is, no questions were to be raised as to 
Phili])'5 right to any of the places which he had taken from Athens and 
still held, of course including Amphipoiis'. It was also stated that 
Philip would not recognize as allies of Athens either the Halians 
(whom he was besieging) or the Phocians*. In conformity with these 
announcements, probably after Philip's ambassadors bad withdrawn, 
Philocrates, who was now acting in harmony with them, proposed a 
formal decree, establishing peace and alliance between Philip and his 
allies and Athens and her allies, excepting the Halians and Phocians*. 
It is evident that the clause excluding the Halians and Phocians wag 
heard by most of the Athenians with surprise and alarm. It signified 
plainly that Philip would do, in spite of the peace, the very thing which 
it was supposed the peace would prevent, that is, pass Thermopylae and 
overwhelm the Phocians with the help of the Thebans, while Athens 
would have her hands tied by the peace. Demosthenes now bad his 
eyes thoroughly opened. Though he had favoured and even urged 
peace, as preferable to disastrous war, he was no advocate of " peace at 
any price," and he now saw that the price was to be too high'. He 
strongly opposed the motion of Philocrates, and advocated " the reso- 
lution of the allies," which was, according to Aeschines, favoured by 
himself and all the other speakers in the first assembly*. From 
Aeschines, who appears to be not yet in the complete confidence of 
Philocrates and the Macedonian envoys, we have a final burst of exalted 
patriotism. As Demosthenes reports him, he declared that, though he 
thought a peace should be made, he would never advise Athens to 
make the peace proposed by Philoaates so long as a single Athenian 

' [Dem.] vii. j6: #t(ffl S' (M. «Xt»-Tef) 'A^tdXw kamoo *&«■ ipal yip 
^ni«Uaa0at imlrov ttrai St' iijniipliraaei txitw airbr Sl tlx"- See Schol. OD Vil. 18 
(p. 81') : i i^XotpdTin i* Tif tjnj^ir/iaTi ytypu^r inaripoin a fx^iwir fx<'>'> X'^i^l"''" 
^\lmfi' iro)AA yip AX\6Tpta ijpwiinL 

" Schaefer 11. 115. Cf. Jusi. vni. 4. 

' Dem. XIX. 159 and 311 (quoted i 35, note 1). with 178. The motion of 
Philocrates in the Asiembly presupposes some previout authority granted by the Senate 1 
see Schaefer 11. iij, n. 1. 

' Dem. XIX. 96: ptv\tii»^iniir iit&r ai wtpl tbO cl toofriar ilp^rrir ij p.^ {iiiSttTt 
yip IfSti ToCri 7«), iW irip toO tolar nri. 



was left alive'. Finally, on the motion of Demosthenes, the Assembly 
rejected the proposition of Philocrates and adopted what was called the 
resolution of the allies, whose regular synod (trvft'Sriiof) was then in 
session at Athens. The Macedonian envoys were then recalled and 
informed of this action*. 

34. It is somewhat uncertain what is here meant by "the resolution 
of the allies" (to tuc tropL/tax'if So'yjui). We have two accounts of this 
from Aeschines*. In one he mentions only a clause recommending a 
postponement of the discussion about peace until the return of the 
"absent envoys"; but the fact that the discussion was going on by 
general consent makes it impossible that this clause was advocated by 
"all the speakers in the former Assembly." In the other he mentions a 
recommendation that only peace, and not alliance, should be discussed ; 
but this he deduces from the entire omission of the word "alliance" in 
the resolution, and it is obvious that neither Demosthenes nor all the 
other speakers could have opposed alliance*. He there mentions also 
the proposed provision that three months should be allowed, after the 
making of the peace, in which any Greek state might claim the ad- 
vantages of the peace and be recorded on the same column with Athens 
and her allies'. This is the only part of the resolution which had any 
significance whatever on that day; and it must be this, and this alone, 
which was adopted by the Assembly. This provision, if it were granted 
by Philip, would ensure the safety of the Fhocians ; for they could then 
have claimed the protection of the peace as Greeks, without being 
recognized by Philip as allies of Athens. This important provision, 
supported, as it appears, by the authority of the synod of allies, was 
advocated by Demosthenes, as the only substitute for the fatal pro- 
position of Philocrates which was at all likely to be accepted by the 
Assembly'. Aeschines says (hat the general opinion, when the first 

' Dem. XIX, 13-— 16. 

' Ibid. 144: jcparoviTM iitui r'lfi wporipar iiiiipaii, real vfriuAref £/i8t tb rw> 
w/iiuixuir SiiyiM tup&mi "cai JtoWffai Toil rpfafitit roif toQ 'Mdrwai. 

* Aesch. II. 60 and iii. 69, 70. 

• Aesch. 111.68, 71. 

* Aesch. III. ;o: ^evu r^ ffov\oii4i'v tup 'EXXiina* in Tpuri ^iffflv tit rj)i- sh-^r 
«D}Xiir ifaytypi^tu fifr' 'kSifraliar jtai utrtxtir rSr opiiur ral r&r awOqiiur. A 
decree of 378 — 377 B.C. in C. I. Alt. II. no. 17 provides for a. similar inscription upon 
a iTT^Xtr fll- 6g — 71): tit li -rijii a-n}X^i' radnfr iraypi^tr ruv re aif[S)y w6\tur 

• See Dem. xix. 144 (quoted above, note 1). The skil! of Demosthenes in 
persuading the Asscnihljr 10 adopt this proposition, which completely nullified the 
proposition of Philocrates, even if this passed with the excluding cltiue, is hardly 



Assembly adjourned, was that there would be peace, but that alliance 
would be made (if at all) later, in conjunction with all the Greeks. 

35. The following night brought about a great and sudden change 
in the whole situation. Pbilocrates had been too bold in pressing on 
the Assembly the plan of the Macedonian envoys. The sudden dis- 
closure of Philip's designs against the Phoclans and of his determination 
to use the peace for their destruction had caused so great excitement 
and roused so much opposition, that it was hopeless to attempt to pass 
the original excluding clause. At the same time it was seen to be fatal 
to all Philip's plans to allow the proposition of the allies to be linally 
adopted. Philocrates was therefore compelled to amend his decree 
during the night, probably in consultation with Antipater and Farmenlo. 
He brought it before the Assembly the next day without the excluding 
clause, reading simply "the Athenians and their allies'." This change, 
which after the statements of the previous day meant nothing, appears 
to have allayed the excitement in great measure, and the decree In this 
form was finally passed without much opposition. This could not have 
been effected until the public apprehensions about the Phoclans had 
beeu quieted by diplomatic promises, like those which were so effectual 
after the return of the second embassy a few months later. Antipater 
and Parmenio simply maintained their ground, that Philip could not 
admit the Fhocians as parties to the peace; but their friends in the 
Assembly (Philocrates and perhaps Aeschines) assured the people "on 
authority" that, though Philip could not offend the Thebans and 

3ppreciate<l by Grole, who condemnB Demosthenes for not opposing PhUociates with 
greater energy. He was doubtless taken by surprise by the excluding clause, and it 
was a. triumph to cause its rejection and the adoption of an effective subslilule. That 
Philip's envoys were able lo cajole the Assembly the neit day by plausible ptomises 
into udopting the amended form of the decree of Philocrates, which then seemed 
innocent lo the majority, is not suqirising, nor a reproach to Demosthenes. 

' Dem. XIX. 159; i-fyi rt yip tlpfyii)/ oixl ivnfStrrar iit iwtxilfrtsar outxk, r\iir 
'k\iar tal tufiur, ■ypii/'ai, dXX' irayxiiire/iiTDt i>^' i/uDp roD *iXiMpd7-Dui toC™ lUr 
irakeifat, ypii/rai S' irrmput 'Affijraiovf tal rolli 'Aaij^aiuc av/iiLixivi. See 
also 311: trTrOSir ol ^v rap' inlwm Tpia^tu rpoBtieyar vfur an imxiat 06 rpoa- 
WxtTol *fXiinroI ouwuixout' ourui !' rKSex.6iitnA roiour' rSr)ui!yipti*, u't ^rartp&t /itr 
oix^ (oXdlt tx<t r^ ^)dwr<fi wpmrUiavSm roil 4>u<Aii aviitiaxovt Bii ro^ OTiPnlovt 
col TUvt eiTTCiXoi>«, ftv N T^ijjTcu Tur rpaypuLTur xipm nal t^ (i/J^njjt TixjJ- """'P *•' 
twBiaBai rCr iiuic-tuiiir aiiriv, ravra rot^irti tAte. See further 110 : inlftva S 
ur' 'A/i^/iroKir eu roi-/i<r<if viiat Or t&xV ^' 'Ip^Vi BB^ar 'flpurdv iroSiifiw, i.t.\. 
Demosthenes says (xix. ij, 16) that he still opposed Philocrates, and advocated 
the resolution of the allies, adopted the day before, while Aeschines made the abomin- 
able speech which he quotes (see below, gj 36, 37). It would be interesting lo know 
how Aeschines spent the night before the second meeting. 



Tbessalians by publicly recognizing the Phocians, he would still, when 
the peace gave him greater freedom of action, do all that Athens could 
ask of him'. 

36. It is impossible to determine precisely what was said or done 
by Aeschines and Demosthenes in the second meeting of the Assembly, 
in which the peace was actually voted. Nowhere are our two witnesses 
more hopelessly at odds. Demosthenes says that Aeschines, after his 
eloquent speech the day before, protesting vehemently against the 
motion of Philocrates, now told the people not to remember their 
ancestors nor to listen to stories of ancient sea-fights and trophies, but 
to enact that they would not help any one who had not previously 
helped Athens (meaning the Phocians}'. Instead of simply denying 
that he made such a speech and proving his denial by witnesses, 
Aeschines undertakes to show that he could not have spoken at all on 
the second day because by the decree of Demosthenes no speeches 
were to be made on that day!* But this argument (in 343 b.c) is 
answered by his own account thirteen years later of a speech made by 
Demosthenes in that very meeting. He repeats what be calls a "dis- 
agreeable metaphor" then used by Demosthenes, that we must not 
wrench off {&iroppriio*) alliance from peace, Demosthenes (he says) then 
called on Antipater formally to answer a question, doubtless concerning 
Philip's unwillingness to make peace without alliance, which Antipat^ 
answered, probably reaffirming Philip's refusal*. Aeschines calls this 
" collusion with Philocrates." 

37. Though Aeschines denies so stoutly that no one could have 
spoken in the second meeting, he further recounts a speech of his own, 
which must have been the one to which Demosthenes alludes, in which 
he says he advised the people to remember the glorious deeds of their 
ancestors, but to forget their mistakes, like the Sicilian expedition and 
the delay in ending the Peloponnesian war". But he maintains that 
this speech was made in the first meeting, and that he made but one 
speech in the discussion, which Demosthenes has divided. When we 
consider that our testimony comes from the two opposing orators at the 
trial of Aeschines, and make all possible allowance for exa^eration and 

' ^ee quoiacions in Ihe preceding note. 

' Dem. JtiK. 16. 

' Aesch. II. 63 — 66; see end of § 19 (above), 

* See Aesch. 11, 74 — 77, where the substance of the speech is given. An historic*! 
mitulie is made in 76, where he says that the Sidlian expedition was sent aftei the 
fortification of Deceiea by Ihe Spartans 1 



misrepresentation, we must admit that Aeschines reports his speech 
rnore fairly than Demosthenes. But when we wei){h the testimony as to 
the date of the speech which Aeschines reports, we must decide that it 
was delivered on the second day, as Demosthenes declares. Eubulus 
finally threw the weight of his dignity and influence into the scale, and 
told the people plainly that they must either accept the terms proposed 
by Philocratcs and advocated by Aeschines or man their fleet, levy a 
war tax, and use their festival fund to pay soldiers'. We have no state- 
ment of the final position of Demosthenes except his assurance that at 
the second meeting he opposed Philocrates (whom the people at first 
refused to hear) and tried to amend his proposition for the peace', still 
advocating the resolution of the allies adopted the day before. He put 
no trust in the flattering assurances of .Athenians like Philocrates, who 
professed to speak for the absent Philip while his own ambassadors were 
silent But he was probably made more hopeful by the refusal of the 
people to exclude the Phocians by name, which left Athens free to act ; 
and he perhaps trusted in the power of Athens to stop Philip again at 
Thermopylae if he should attempt to force the pass after the ratification 
of the peace'. There is no reason to doubt that he did his best, fighting 
almost single handed in a desperate strait. 

38. The peace of Philocrates, thus voted by the Athenian Assembly 
on the nineteenth of Elaphebolion (April 16), 346 B.C., ended the 
Amphipolitan War, which was begun in 357. A few weeks later, the 
aged Isocrates sent to Philip his address called 4>L\(inroi, in which he 
expressed his joy at the peace and his hopes of much good to result 
from Philip's leadership. 

A few days after the peace was voted, the same ten ambassadors, 
with Aglaocrcon as representative of the allies*, were appointed to 
return to Macedonia and receive the oaths of Philip and his allies to 
the peace and alliance. In an Assembly held on the twenty-fiflh of 
Elaphebolion, in which Demosthenes presided', it was voted that the 

* Ibid. 1 5 : (Mau TV ''^' irvmiix'" svmfftfiatirTOJ tbyiiaTt k«X Hi' tlp^rTi* £*'»> 
foij KoJ St'tUa yirtiToi rpaTTarret. Cf. igj : alaxfitai itr' tar/t auripi) yataBai Hy 

' The rather mixed feelings of Demosthenes at Ihis (irac appear in XiX. 150: 
lUjcf ft^OB "Y' (the departure of Philip's envoys) ovSir d^Tfmffrw ^r tut rrrpayiJrwr, 
dX\' aJ«T(pi iilr tj tlff^^i (ol ira(la rtp rSKtaj, dfrl Si -roiriiit J<) rit BaviiAaie, t.-faSt 
iuur f^XAcF tetviiu. 

* Dem, xrx. 163—165; Aescli. ir. 97, 116. See Schaefer 11. 140. 

■ Demosthenes was still senator ; and he was the one of the nbe rpitSpoi {chosen 

each morning by the irvrT&nii of Ihe Prjianes from the senators of the nine other 

G. D. 17 

, Google 


representatives of the allies of Athens then present in tlie synod should 
take the oath on that day before the Macedonian envoys in the name of 
their respective states'. 'I'he Phocians were probably not represented 
in the synod : otherwise the whole question of their admission to the 
oaths would have bt;en raised and finally decided at this time. Whether 
Cersoblepies, the Thracian king, whose friendship Athens valued, was 
represented in the oath-taking or not, cannot be determined. In either 
case, he was excluded from the treaty by Philip, and his country in 
Thrace had been occupied by Philip's troops on the day before the 
oaths were taken at Athens'. 

39. As Aeschines gives us our chief account of the first embassy, so 
Demosthenes tells the story of the second*. When the oaths had been 
taken, Demosthenes urged his colleagues on the embassy to set out with 
all speed to administer the oaths to Philip, knowing well that every day 
might be of the greatest importance 10 Athens. Philip was all this time 
vigorously pressing his conquests in Thrace, after Athens had tied her 
hands by making the peace. As his entreaties availed nothing, he 
procured (3rd of Munychion, April 29) a decree of the Senate (which the 
people had empowered to act until the next Assembly), directing the 
embassy to depart at once, and ordering Proxenus, who still kept his 
fleet north of Euboea, to convey them to Philip, wherever he might be'. 
In defiance of this vote, the embassy first waited a long time at Oreus 
in Euboea'; and then, instead of sailing with Proxenus, travelled by a 

tribes) to whom it came by lot to preside in the Senate or the Assembly, as ifi^-rityft 
Toi' Tpotifuir. See Aesch. 11. 81, 111. jj. 74. 
> Aesch. II. 81— Bj. 

* See Dem. xix. 174; Aesch. 11. 90. Aeschines tells us (in ill. 73, 74 and 
II. 83, 8+) two directly opposite stories of the exclusion of Cersoblepies from the 
oalhs: one, that he had no delegate in the synod and Ihercfoie was excluded; the 
other that a person claiming to be his lepiesentative was admitted on a motion put to 
vote by [he other Tpbtipm after Demosthenes had refused (as iruiTanit) to take the vole. 
The spelling Ei/xripXirT^i occurs in a newly found Delphic inscriplion of about 350 B.C. 
See Bull, de Corresp. Helifn. 1896, pp. 466—496. See aUo C. I. Alt. iv. 1, no. 65, *. 

* We have in Dem. xix. a clear and full account of the second embassy and 
its disastrous results, generally in the following order: i£o — 173, 17—66; and in 
Cor. 15—17, 30 — 36, a brief but graphic r^ume of the same events, somewhat 
modified by the chaoges of the past thirteen years. Though Aeschines denies some 
of the details, he says nntbing which breaks ihe force of the clear and straightforward 
statements of Demosthenes. 

* Dem. XIX. 154. 

' Demosthenes is said by Aeschines (ll. 89) to have charged him with wailing in 
Oreus to secure appointments as rpi^tuBi for himself and some of his colleagues, 
Tpeftffat KaraaKtvaiiiutBt {yiri/itrei wpi(enii, Scbol.). This is confirmed by Dem. 



circuitous land route to Pella, where they arrived twenty-three days 
after leaving Athens. There they waited twenty-seven days for Phihp's 
recum from his conquests in Thrace'. In the time thus gained he had 
captured several i'hracian towns, (among others) Doiiscus, Senhium, 
and 'Xtfiov opos, in which Cersobleptes was taken prisoner. Demos- 
thenes constantly protested against this delay in the most vigorous 

40. The Athenians found at Pclia envoys from Thebes, Thessaly, 
Sparta, and other Greek states, awaiting Philip's return*. There were 
also envoys fr&m Phocis, anxiously waiting to learn their fate*. Philip 
received the Athenians in the presence of the other envoys, and sur- 
rounded by his army, which was ready for his march to Thermopylae'. 
Demosthenes says nothing of the speeches at this interview ; but 
Aeschines says that Demosthenes abused his colleagues and flattered 
Philip, recounting his services in supporting Philocrates and hastening 
the peace. Aeschines then made his own speech, in which he exhorted 
Philip to enter Greece as the friend of the Phocians and the enemy of 
the Thebans, intimating to him quite plainly that, though the Phocians 
by the fortunes of war succeeded in seizing the temple of Delphi, the 
Thebans intended to seize it and were therefore no less guilty than the 
Phocians'. The result of this speech, when it was repeated in much 
plainer language at Athens after the return of the embassy (see §§ 44, 
45), in preventing the Athenians from doing anything to protect the 
Phocians, shows that Philip had as yet given no public indication of his 
real intentions to either side. 

While the envoys were at Pella, Phihp sent them large presents of 
gold, of which Demosthenes refused to accept his share'. He devoted 

Cor. 81' {see note), where Aeschines is said (o have entertained the envoys of the 
tyrants of Oreus and Eretria in 343—341 as their xpifwof. Sec Schaefer 11. 149, n. 1. 
' Dem. xtx. 154, 155; Cor. 15 — 17. In Cor. 30 Demosthenes says that (he 
embasiiy "sat three whole months in Macedonia" before Philip returned. Of 
course there is no attempt to deceive in this rhetorical exaggeration, as it is from 
Demoslhenes himself (XIX. 155) that we know the exact time (.so days), including the 
journey from Athens. In XIX. 158, just after ei^ing this exact lime, he says the 
embassy was absent " three whole months," 

* Dem. vul. 64, ix. 15, Cor. 17, xix. is6: ct Aesch. ill. 81. 
' Aesch. n. 108, iii, 136; Dem. xix. 139. 

* Justin viit. 4; Dem. ix. 11, 
» Aesch. II. 103, 13a. 

' For the two speeches s^e Aesck II. 108 — in, 113 — 117; and Dem. xix. 10, 
II, for the report made by Aeschines in Athens of his address to Philip. 
' Dem. xix. 166—168. 



a6o HISTORICAL SKETCH. [June, July, 

much of his time to procuring the release of the Atiienian captives who 
were still in Philip's hands. He lent several of these the money needed 
for their ransom, which he later refuseil to receive back when Philip 
released the other prisoners without ransom'. 

41. When the time came for Philip 10 swear to the peace, the 
majority of the embassy supported Philocrates and Aeschines in allowing 
him formally to exclude the Phocians, the Halians, and Cersobleptes 
from the recognized allies of Athens. In the same way the Cardians 
were later accepted as allies of Philip'. In fact, Demosthenes was 
generally outvoted in the deliberations of the embassy'. 'The embassy 
refused by vote to send to Athens a letter written by Demosthenes, and 
sent one of their own with a dilTerent account of their doings*. Demos- 
thenes hired a vessel to take him home alone ; but Philip forbade him 
to depart*. In this state of things we can easily believe what Aeschines 
says, that no one would willingly mess with Demosthenes or lodge at 
the same inn with him'. 

42. After Philip had sworn to the peace, the embassy had no 
further pretext for wasting time at Pella. They had been instructed also 
to administer the oaths to Philip's allies in their respective cities; but 
nothing like this had yet been done'. Here Demosthenes makes a 
downright charge of corruption against Phihp, that of bribing the 
embassy to wait until his army was ready to march to Thermopylae'. 
All was now ready. Then followed a most disgraceful and humiliating 
spectacle. Philip marched forth from his capital with his army for the 
invasion of Greece, the result of which — whether he favoured the Thebans 
or the Phocians — must be the humiliation of a proud people ; and in his 
train followed meekly (with one exception) an Athenian embassy which 
had basely betrayed the interests of Athens. There followed also a 
band of Phocian suppliants, who must now have known that the down- 
fall of their race was impending. When they arrived at Pherae, the 

' Dem. XIX. itig, 170. 

* Ibid. 44: ^v rnr, orr roj>t SpKovt ^^rXAtf ^iXtinroi dtxyivat toOt rtpi r^r tlpfpfnt, 
itrwirSovt diro^at^ai ts^ tiiw^i irb nirw. C(. 178 : au ri iiir \IHi^aiia 
'A0i)raio(i Kal ro>i 'A^Tiviiiiiii' avunixmt, oStxh Si ^Kiwt iKarirSovi tutip^mr; 
and t74. For the Cardians see v. 35, viii. 66; and g 61 (below). For the ilriiiMiM 
we S 3S (above), and Dem. xix. 159. 

' Dem. XIX. 173. * Ibid. 17+. 

• Ibid. 51, 313. • Aesch. 11. 97. 

' Dem. XIX. i;8: flu t4 iiiw ^^aaiia Tain Sflxoima ipxeSr roil iv tuTi rSKtair, 
oBtoi Si oSt tlXirwai aur-aTt rpov/rf^^r, To&rtm ilpKiaar; 
' Dem. COt. 31 ; ii»(?rot rap' oilrfii- trot M iwiiur. 



long-neglected duty of administenng the oath to Philip's allies — or 
rather to those whom Philip saw lit to summon as their representatives — 
was performed in a tavern, " in a manner which was disgraceful and 
unworthy of Athens," as Demosthenes adds'. 

43. After this ceremony the embassy returned to Athens without 
more delay, arriving on the thirteenth of Scirophorion (July 7), after 
an absence of about ten weeks. When they arrived, Philip was already 
at Thermopylae, negotiating with the Phocians for a peaceable surrender 
of the pass*. This was just what Philip had planned: the Athenians 
had now little time to consider whether they should send a fleet to 
defend Thermopylae, and he trusted to the quieting reports of his friends 
on the embassy to prevent any hostile action. The scheme worked 
perfectly. A temporary obstruction was caused by the report of Demos- 
thenes to the Senate. There he told the plain truth, that Philip was at 
the gates of Hellas, ready to attack the Phocians; and he urged that 
an expedition should even then be sent to Thermopylae with the fifty 
triremes which were kept ready for such an emergency. The Senate 
believed Demosthenes, and passed a vote expressing their approval 
of his conduct. They insulted the embassy in an unprecedented manner, 
by omitting the customary vote of thanks and the invitation to dine in 
the Prytaneum*. 

44. But Philocrates and Aeschines had planned their scheme loo 
artfully to be thus thwarted ; and in the Assembly of the sixteenth of Sci- 
rophorion, probably held the day after the meeting of the Senate, all was 
changed. Here Demosthenes found a body of his enemies, who would 
not permit him to be heard or the vote of the Senate to be read*. 
Aeschines at once took the platform, and easily carried the meeting 
with him by disclosing the private information about Philip's real plans 
which {he said) Philip had confided to him at Pella. He admitted that 
Philip was at Thermopylae with his army ; but he assured the people 
that, if they would stay ai home quietly two or three days, they would 
hear that Philip was besieging Thebes, restoring the smaller Boeotian 
towns to independence, and compelling the Thebans (not the Phocians) 
to pay for the treasure stolen from Delphi. He repeated the advice 

' Dem. X[X. 158. 

' Ibid. jS. From Ibe jrd of Muny chion. when the Senate directed the embassy 
to depart (see g 39), id the 1 .ith of Scirophorion is 6g days. We do not know bow 
soon the order of the Senate was obeyed. 

' Ibid. ig. 31, 31 ; and 311, ri,t ti pnffitiot lla tv\Sfriu Tijr tti rAj lliiXat, i-fi' ^ 
al TwniirarTa Tpi^pta i)un i^Jipiaur. See Cor. Ji^"*. 

* Dem. .XIX. 13, 35- 



which (he said) he had given to Philip, for which a price had been set 
on his head at Thebes, He also implied that Eiiboea was to be given 
to Athens as a recompense for Amphipolis, and hinted obscurely at a 
restitution of Oropus to Athens'. Then Philip's letter was read, full 
of general friendliness, but containing absolutely nothing about the 
Phocians and no promises of any kind, Demosthenes charges Aeschines 
with being the writer of this letter". After the astounding disclosures 
made by Aeschines, it is not strange that Demosthenes could gain no 
hearing, and that the people felt hopeful and happy, proud of the 
diplomatic triumph of Aeschines and convinced that Demosthenes was 
a hopeless grumbler*. 

45. In this temper the Assembly was ready to vote almost any- 
thing which would make it easy for Philip to carry out his beneficent 
plan. A decree was passed, on the motion of Philocrates, publicly 
thanking Philip for his friendly promises, extending the peace and 
alliance to posterity, and (what was more important) enacting that, if 
the Phocians still refused to surrender the temple "to the Amphictyons," 
the Athenians would compel them to do so by force*. They then 
appointed ten ambassadors, chiefly members of the previous embassies, 
to report these proceedings to Philip at Thermopylae, Demosthenes at 
once refused to go on this embassy. Aeschines made no objection at 
the time; but afterwards, when it was thought that his presence in 
Athens would be important at the coming crisis, he excused himself on 
the ground of illness, and his brother, probably Apbobetus, went in his 

Soon afterwards came two letters from Philip, inviting the Athenians 
to send a force to join him at Thermopylae*. As Demosthenes shows, 

' Dem. XIX. 19— ji, 35, 74, i». 314— 317; Cor. 35; v. 9, 10; vi. 30; cf. Aesch. 
I[. 136. The obscure languagr of Aeschines (11. 111) aic iv r^ tf-ri^uaTi iiiror ^M^i 
irgrei is righlly explained by Schaeler [tl. 169 n.) as meaning that il was Hel by a 
mtrc diirte |as after the liisl embassy) that Demosthenis exprased his i^preval of ui. 
This "approval" consisted in a sarcastic remark, oiiK tpii )u, ucrtp ^tt! ciror, offrut 
ir Ti|i Taf>ipTi Xiyur, a\X' /nt 3ir\airlus tutirtr (in), i.e. Demosthenes implied that 
Aeschines's address to Philip far auldid (in enormity) his account of it to the 

' Dem. XIX. 36 — +1. 

' Ibid. 13, 14. 

* Ibid. 48— JO : here it is said of the so-called Amphictyons, vofiHi,' >v ftp ^m» 

* Ibid. 111 — 114 (s^ S *7' below). 

* Ibid, ji, ;i: nrivTaUiSuo iia\»6ntt i/iis, oix &' i(i\$ei.T<. See Aesch. 11. 137: 

SmaloiM to kelp the caiae of patiet! 


346B.C.] THIRD EMBASSY. 265 

these were really sent to prevent them from marching out, as Philip 
thought this cordial invitation would quiet their alarm, and so he the 
surest means of keeping them at home. We hear of no appeals from 
Aeschines or his friends urging the acceptance of the invitation. Indeed, 
public opinion at Athens was changing, so that perhaps there was danger 
of the invitation being accepted in a different spirit'. Aeschines even 
says that some of the party of Demosthenes prevented its acceptance, 
professing to fear that tlie Athenian force might be held as hostages by 

46. There were Phocian envoys at Athens on the return of the. 
embassy from Pella, and they remained until after the assembly of, the 
sixteenth of Scirophotion. The action then taken showed them that 
they had nothing to hope from Athens, and they returned home wittt 
this unwelcome news. With the help of Athens by land and sea, 
Phalaecus and his army of 10,000 infantry and 1000 cavalry might 
still have held Thermopylae against Philip. But without help this was 
impossible'. The Lacedaemonians had already deserted them', and 
now nothing was left but to surrender on the best terms which could 
be made. Demosthenes declares that the action of the Assembly on 
the 16th was the direct cause of the surrender of the Photians on 
the 23rd*. 

47. The tiiird Athenian embassy set out for Thermopylae about 
the 2ist of Scirophorion {July 15). When they came to Chalcis, they 
heard that the Phocians had surrendered, while Philip had openly 
declared himself for the Thebans, and all the hopes in which Athens 
had indulged were at an end. As the envoys had no instructions to 
meet this emergency, they returned to Athens at once. One of them, 
Dercylus, who was in advance of the rest, came directly into a meeting 
of the Assembly in the Piraeus (on the 37th) and reported his alarming 
news from Thermopylae'. The people were struck with panic at the 

' Dem- XIX. in (end). 

* Aesch. Ji. 137. 

* Dem. Xi)£. 58, 113. 

* Ibid. 73, 76, 77. 

' Siee the calculation in Dem. xix. 5R, 59. Allowing four days for the news of 
the i6th to leach the Phocians and three days more for making terms, he puis the 
sariender on the 13rd (July 17). Four days later (on the rcrpdi ^IrorTOi, the I7lh) 
the news came to the Assembly in the Piraeus. Usener (Rhein. Mils. XXXtV. 440), 
who omits the cra-n) fiBlmtTin (though it is expressly mentioned in the text of 
Demoathenes) , places the surrender a day earlier. See Schaefer ti. iSi, note 1. If 
we assume that Scirophorion this year had 30 days, there is no day to he omitted. 

* Dem. XIX. 60, H5 : ef. Aesch. 11. 94, 95. 



tidings, and voted, on the motion of Caltisthenes, to remove the women 
and children from the countfy into protected towns or fortresses, to put 
the Piraeus and the forts in a state of defence, and to hold the coming 
festival of the Heraclea, usually held in the country, within the city 
walls'. Such a panic had not been known in Athens since the last days 
of the Peloponnesian War. They also voted to send to Phihp the same 
embassy which had returned from Chalcis, with instructions to watch 
the proceedings of the Amphictyonic Council, which Philip was ex- 
pected to summon at once'. The Athenians were not only in great 
alarm, but in absolute uncertainty about Philip's next step. He might 
even join the Thebans in a march upon Athens; and the road was 
open. Even Aeschines admits the bitter disappointment at Athens and 
the bitter feeling against the ambassadors'. 

Soon after the surrender of the Phocians, Phihp addressed a diplo- 
matic letter to the Athenians, evidently in an apologetic tone, deprecating 
their indignation at his unexpected course, and trying to conciliate them 
by assurances of his continued friendship. As Demosthenes says, it was 
written really to inform the Thebans and Thessalians that he was acting 
directly against the wishes and the hopes of Athens'. 

48. 'I he embassy soon departed on its new mission by way of 
Thebes. Aeschines had now no fear of the Thebans or of the price 
they bad set upon his head'. They arrived at Philip's camp just in lime 
to be present at the festivities with which he and the Thebans were 
celebrating the joyous conclusion of the war and their triumph over the 
sacrilegious Phocians ; and they appear to have had no scruples against 

' Dem. XIX. 86, Cot. 36; Aesch. iii. 80. Aesch. 11. 139 says keKtvatirfTitu* ix 
Tur iypur, xpta^tierrat i/ioO Hpi Tpir^t (ft) wpiafftiar, from which Sclwefer (II. 193, 
n. 3) infers that the decree was not paswd unlil after the neKt departure of the 
embassy (3 48]. But Dem. xix. ijj implies clearly thai the decree was passed either 
at the meeting in the Piraeus or immediately afterwords; and the words of Aesch. 
slate Otily that the ixccution (not llie passage) of the decree followed his departure. 

^ Aesch. Jl. 95 : rpoiru'a^Kaj'in'TtiT Tau 0i)fX4iu ^tjZiv ^rrov rprff^fCttr ^fiat. This 
seems to imply a reappointment of the embassy, and this agrees with Dem. Xlx. 17], 
irl rqr Tplr^ wptaptbir fit /it x"f><'"»'))0d>TU>' it*"' ^^ ((uimadltit*. Ill XIX. 116 
Demosthenes charges Aeschines with going on this embassy without any authority 

* Dem. XIX. 318: '/(yort ri rpiiyiiaTa mtS' uawtp aSnyiia r^ ro\«. Aesch. 
III. 80. 

* See Dem. dr. 39, 40, with notes. 

' Dem. XIX. 11, 117, We have only the repeated authority of Demosthenes 
(see { 44, above) for (he reported statement of Aeschines on this pdnL 



joining in the celebration'. Philip had himself accepted the surrender 
of the Phocians on condition that Phalaecus with his 8000 mercenaries 
should be allowed to depart whithersoever they pleased ; and ihey with- 
drew to Peloponnesus'. But the Phocian people were handed over to a 
far less merciful power, Philip had entered Phocis as the champion of 
Apollo, whose violated temple he was to restore to its rightful guardians, 
the Amphictyonic Council. He therefore lost no time in calling a 
meeting of this venerable body, or rather what he chose to call by this 
distinguished name*. The Council voted to expel the Phocians, and to 
give their two votes to Philip, thus putting a foreign king in the place of 
one of [he original Amphictyonic tribes. The Phocian towns, except 
Abae with its ancient temple of Apollo, twenty in number, were to be 
destroyed, and the people to be divided into villages of not more than 
fifty houses ; their horses were to be sold for the benefit of the temple, 
and their arms thrown down precipices; and they were to pay sixty 
talents yearly to the temple until the stolen treasure should be made 
good'. We have records of payments made by the Phocians on this 
account from 344 to 337 B.C.' Any Phocian who was personally guilty 
of plundering the temple was declared accursed and outlawed*. This 

' Dem. xtx. 1 iS, 130, Cor. 187. See ihe lame defence of Aeschines, who does not 
deny that he (00k part in these festivities, 11. 161, 163: igMfiipi cri f^na luni. tu* 
avuxpic^Knr, ir.r.X. He teems to Ihink thai the number of guests, about 100, and 
the fact that he only joined in the chorus as a common singer, eiicused him. See 
Essay IV. % 6. 

' See 9 5»' below. 

* Demosthenes (v, r4) calls ihis assembly rout (rwAijAuOiniT tih^tdui mil ^di-nwrBf 
'An^ucritrat »w itroi. See XIX. joi aiSerit S' tWov ira/jifrot ri3» 'jL/ufiixrvdnur w\^ 
BtTTitkur ml BifPalur. C(. XIX. 317. Athens had no part in the Ionian representa- 
tion, nor Sparta in the Dorian ; the Phocians were gone ; Boeolia was only Thebes ; 
the Locrians were present; six of Ihe other Amphiclyonic tribes (Aesch. II. 116I were 

' Diod. XVI, 60; Paoa. X. 3, 3; Dem. Xix. 81, r4i. Cor. 36. 4J, ix. 19, »6- Cf. 
Aesch. II. 9, III. 80. 

' The French explorers at Delphi have found an interesting inscription recording 
several paymcDts made by the Phocians, published by £ini]e Bourguet in the BulL de 
Corresp. Helljn. 1897, pp. 311 — 344. By comparison of this with another inscription 
eonlaining tempie records (ibid pp. 477 — 496), Bourguet shows with great probability 
that the Phocians made eight semi.annuil payments of thirty talents each in 344 — 
340 B.C., two annual payments of thirty talents in 339 and 338, one of ten talents in 
337, and an "eighteenth" of ten talents in a lalei year, which assumes six intermediate 
payments. The reduction to ten talents followed the battle of Chaeronea. These 
talents were probably of the Aeginetan standard, about f^ heavier than the Altic 
(see above, g S, note 1). See American Journal of Archaeology, 1899, p. 306. 

< Diod. XVI. 60- 



terrible sentence was executed with more than strict exactness, with the 
Thebans for executioners'. When Demosthenes went to Delphi more 
than two years later, he witnessed the pitiable condition of Fhocis and 
its wretched people, with walls and houses destroyed, and nobody to 
be seen except old women and little children and miserable old men*. 
A harder fate still befell Orchomenus, Coronea, and probably Corsiae in 
Boeotia, for their adherence to the Phocians. Their walls were razed 
and the inhabitants sold into slavery. Boeotia, with a substantial piece 
of Phocis', was then brought under the dominion of Thebes. Sparta, 
for assisting the Phocians, was excluded from the Delphic temple. The 
*poiLaiirtia, precedence in consulting the oracle, which the Phocians had 
granted to Athens in the time of Pericles for her help in the short 
Sacred War of 448 B.C., was taken from her and given to Philip*. Still, 
it was the decided policy of Philip to have no open breach with Athens 
al this rime*. 

* Ibid. 6« — 66. Demosihenes saw good reason for eiclaiming To/rruai Stirbrtpn 
eu y4yortr aiSi lul^ rpaynat' i^' ijii^ cr roii 'BXXiio-ir, otfuu 9' oit' It Tif rpiaBtr 
XP^V- For > graphic nccounl of the state of Phocis al this time, see Juslin, vin. j. 

* Dem. XIX. in, 117,315; vm. 6i, out ijr ir e-^ait ia^Mt {\fyfir ri iiUrrou), 
rp>r T^ Botdn-iu daVJunrt lal ro^ ^ux^n irtiXtr. xix. 14T, 'Opxorurit, Xopurna, 
Ktfiaud, Td TiX^tHVoigi, r^i rwi Station ^i^pal iridiyr ^Xoftdi. 

* Plul. Per. 11 ; Dem. IX. 31 (one of ihe doubtful passagei), xix. 317 (end). 
For Sparta see Paus. x. It, 1. 

* Among the most interesting inscriptions recenllj found at Delphi are Iwo of lh« 
fourth century B.C. containing business accounts of the Amphictyonic Council and 
especially of the board of rooroiof, Tern pie -builders, who probably had charge of build- 
ing the still unfinished temple (see g 71, p. 187, note 3). See Bull, de Corresp. Helifn. 
1896, pp. 197— 1^1, 1898, pp. .^03—338. During the lime from 353 to 3+6 B.C. only 
two of the semi-annual meetings of this board are menlioned, one with four membere 
present, and one in the spring of 348 with ten (a Delphian, an Athenian, two Locrians, 
a Mt^rian, an Epidaurian, a Lacedaemonian, two Corinthians, and a Pbocian). 
Four limes Ihe omission of the meeting is noted, oi avtil\6<r. This was during the 
hardest stress of the Fhocian War. But in the archonship of Damoxenus, which 
Bourguet identities with great certainty as 346 — 34J B.C., we find this entry: 'Bvt 
^afiaiimu ifixo'TiK, drwfKvSi rahaUa, intl a tlp-iita iylrtra, nuvHst lur^XAw. 
Now there were present 36 members, including nine Thessalians and three Thebans 
(long stningers to Delphi), two Athenians, three Spartans, and one Delphian. No 
Phocians are present ; but in their place is the ominous entry, ^Xirrot TtaxtSdv, 
TuiavaplSaf Moniiiv (Philip's name standing thus, the tenth in the list). This was at 
the meeting of the Council called by Philip In the autumn of 346, after the surrender 
of the Phocians (see above, S 48). The Kutrituii, being a permanent board, had not yet 
been reconstituted, except that Philip and another Macedonian had quietif stepped 
into the places of the absent Phocians. 



49. The Pythian games were celebrated at Delphi at their regular 
time, in September 346 b.c' Philip was empowered by the Am- 
phictyonic Council to hold the festival with the Boeotians (i.e. the 
Thebans) and the Thessalians'. The games were celebrated by Philip 
with unusual splendour, but with no delegates present from either 
Athens or Sparta. For 340 years Athens had sent her deputation to 
these games with great pomp and ceremony over the Sacred Way, which 
Apolio had once trodden on his progress from Delos to Delphi ; and her 
absence now was an historic event'. Thus was Philip formally installed 
in his long-coveted position as a power in Greece, representing in his 
own person one of the orif;inal Greek peoples which had in immemorial 
antiquity established the Ampbictyonic union. 

. Thus ended the disastrous Sacred War, after a duration of more than 
ten years, with the exaltation of Philip and the humiliation of Athens, 
though neither was a party to the war or was even interested in it when 
it began. 

50, Before returning home after the Pythian games, Philip deter- 
mined to secure from Athens at least a formal recognition of his new 
position as an Ampbictyonic power. He therefore sent thither a 
deputation of his own with Tbessalian envoys (probably Amphictyons), 
to ask for a confirmation of his election to the Council*. The con- 
spicuous absence of Athens from both Council and games embarrassed 
and annoyed Philip greatly. Athens also was in a delicate position. 
Philip still had bis powerful army with him, and he could summon 
Thebans, Locrians, and Thessalians to support him in an Ampbictyonic 
war, if Athens should refuse his rec|uest. It would have been simple 
madness for Athens, in her isolation and humiliation, to defy him hy a 
downright refusal. But the people were in no mood to assent to what 
they deemed a disgrace to Greece and an insult to themselves. When 

' The Pythian garoes were celebrated in the third year of each Olympiad, near the 
end of the Detphic month Bouidrioi, which corfetponds generally to the second Attic 
month, Metageitnion. The year 346 — J45 B.C. began July 15. See Essay III. % 3, 
p. .119, n. ■>. Pausanias x. 7, 8 refers to this Pythian festival as rjubr-Q RvBtiii irl 
roTt ^(^lorro, inl 'loXoMai irlta. dij^oibt. I.e. the 6ist. counting from 586 B.C, 

' Diod. XVI. 60. 

' Dem. xtx. Ij8, iLr-rt nirri ro^ it t$i ^ouX^ 8tupoi» lairt ^o^^ StaiuBirat lit t4 
tliitfca uliKfiat. See Aeschyl. Eumen. 9 — 16. 

* Dcm. XIX. II I — 1 13 : Ibis describes the exciting scene in the Assembly, ending 
with the sarcastic remark of Aeschines befDre Philip's envoys (113). voXXaiti tovi 
Bapu^tSmait tbai, 6\l-feu% it rtin ar/MTcvotidrmn Star Si^. Demosthenes owkes no 
allusion to his own speech. 



Aeschines came forward atone to urge compliance, he was hooted and 
could get no hearing. Demosthenes was perhaps the only man in 
Athens who could persuade the Assembly to take the humiliating course 
which prudence now made necessary. This he did in his speech 
On the Peace (v.), in which, while he makes no attempt to conceal 
the false position in which Athens had ignoranily allowed herself to be 
placed, he yet advises her not to court further calamity by a vain 
resistance to an accomplished fact*. We do not know what reply he 
proposed to the Amphictyonie message; but we may be sure that it 
conceded nothing in principle, while it formally declined to oppose the 
will of [he Amphiclyons in electing Philip to their Council. 

IV. Six Years of nominal Peace. 
346—340 B.C. 

51. The peace of Philocrates lasted, at least in name, until the 
formal renewal of the war with Philip in 340 b.c. But all this time 
Philip was busy in extending his power, especially to the detriment of 
Athens. In 344 we find him subjugating Illyrians and Triballi', and 
soon afterwards breaking up free governments in Thessaly, putting 
garrisons into the citadels, seizing the revenues of the ports, and estab- 
lishing a decadarchy'. He interfered in the disputes of Sparta with 
Argos, Messene, and Megalopolis, sending help to the- latter. Athens, 
on the motion of Demosthenes, voted to send envoys to Peloponnesus 
to counteract this dangerous influence, and of these Demosthenes was 
chieC In the Second Philippic he repeats parts of his speech to the 
Messenians, in which he warned them of the fate of Olynthus and 
exhorted them to repel Philip's friendly advances*. But Philip's 
promises were more powerful than the eloquence of Demosthenes, 
and we soon find Argos and Messene (instigated by Philip) sending 
envoys to Athens, complaining that she supported Sparta in preventing 

' See the whole speech On the Peace. For remarks on thb speech, the genuineness 
of which has often been doubted, see Schtcfer li. 195—303. The striking contiast 
between this and the Second and Third Philippics is to be explained by the diSerence 
io circumstances, which made the former a political necessity. 

' Dem. Coi, 44' (see note). 

■ Dem. VI. ». IX. 11, [vit.] 31; cf. Cor. 64. 65. For the later letnjchies in 
Thessaly, see ix. iG. 

* See VI. 9, 13, ij, ao— »5. 



them from gaining their freedom. With these came envoys from Philip, 
complaining that Athens had charged their master with breaking his 

52. In the assembly which discussed the reply to be given to these 
embassies (late in 344 B.C.), Demosthenes delivered his Second Phi- 
lippic*. This gives a statesmanlike review of Philip's conduct towards 
Athens since the peace, showing that he had been constantly aggressive 
and deceitful, while Athens had been kept quiet by his partisans in the 
Assembly, who assured her of his goodwill and friendly intentions. He 
proposed a definite answer to the embassies, of which we can judge 
only by the firm character of the speech itself. We hear of no posidve 
results of this mission, but we hear no more of the disputes in Pelo- 
ponnesus which caused it. Still, Philip continued (o acquire influence 
there, and the governments leaned on him for support and became more 
and more subservient to his wishes. Many Arcadian towns erected 
statues to him, and offered to open their gates to him if he would visit 
them: the Argives were of the same mind*. The Eleans were also 
under his spell ; and the party in power, supported by Philip, murdered 
in cold blood the last remnant of the Phocian mercenaries, who were 
captured in the service of the opposite party*. At about the same time 
(344 — 343) Philip made an unsuccessful attempt to get possession of 
Megara by the help of his friends Perillus and Ptoeodorus ; but the 
scheme failed, and Megara remained independent, probably by the help 
of Athens'. 

53. In the same year there occurred the summary arrest and 
condemnation of Antiphon, a disfranchised citizen, who offered his 
services to Philip to burn the dockyards at the Piraeus. He was arrested 
by the authority of Demosthenes, who was probably hrurTanyi roC 

' Libimius, Hypolh. 10 Dem. VI. 

■ Grot« (xi. 6i<;) doubis the presence of envoys from Philip on this occasion, and 
Dion. Hal. (od Amm. p. 737) spealts only of those from Peloponnesus. Schaefer 
(11. 3j>;) points out thai the statement of Libsnius is supported by the lone of VI. 18 
—37. which seems 10 be a reply to some complaints on the pan of Philip. 

' Dem. XIX. 161. 

* Diod. XVI. 63 ; Dem. xix. j6o. For this relic of the Hiocian army see g 48 
(above). It is probable that the three Elean traitors named in Dem. Cor. 39,4 belong 
to this time. For Aristralus, tyrant of Sicyon in Philip's time (Cor. 46, 19s), see 
Flat. Aral. rj. 

' Dem. Cor. 71', xix. 194, 195; cf. 87, J04. .ii6, 334, ix. 17, »;, [x.Jg. Schaefer 
(jl. j66) refers the expedition of Phocion to the aid of Megara (Ptul. Phoc. 15) 
to this lime. Mc^ra appears to be in friendly relation with Athens in 341 — 340: 
sec Dem. IX. 74. 



vavrutov or invested with some other magisterial power, and brought 
before the Assembly; but was released on the protest of Aeschines. 
He was again arrested by the interventioi^ of the Areopagus, brought to 
trial and condemned to the rack and to death'. 

54. Not much later" occurred an important trial before the 
Amphictyonic Council, in which the ancient right of Athens to control 
the temple of Delos was contested by the Delians. The Athenians 
chose Aeschines as their counsel in tliis case; but the Areopagus, to 
which the people had l)y special vote given the right to revise the 
election, rejected him and chose Hyperides in his place. The election 
was made in the most formal and solemn manner, each senator taking 
his ballot from the altar". At the trial Hyperides delivered his famous 
Delian oration, in which he defended the cause of Athens so eloquently 
that her rights in (he Delian temple remained undisturbed*. The cause 
of Delos was argued by Euthycrates, the traitor who betrayed Olynthus 
to Philip*. Demosthenes attributes the rejection of Aeschines as counsel 
to the effect on the .Areopagus of the recent affair of Antiphon : but this 
probably had only iniensitied the increasing indignation against the 
partisans of Philip, which had recently expressed itself in the con- 
demnation of Philocrates*. 

55. A little later in 343 B.C. (probably before midsummer) Philip 
sent Python of Byzantium to Athens, to tell the old story of his un- 
alterable friendship and of his grief on hearing the calumnies which his 
enemies reported in the Assembly and the Athenians believed. He 
assured the people that he was ready to revise the peace if there was 
anything amiss in it, and begged them not to believe the orators who 
misrepresented him and his intentions'. Python was an eloquent orator, 

' See Dem. Cor. ijt, 133, wiih notes. 

' Schaefer (ii. 371 — 374) with great probability places the Delian contest in the 
spring of 343 e.c, when Demosthenes went to the Amphictyonjc Council as ruXiiYafim 
of Alhens. See Dem. xtx. 65: St* v^ iropevoiuBa iti iuX^t^ (said iater in 343), 
and Aesch. ni. 113, 114. 

* Dem. Cot. 134, 135. 

* Some passages of Ihis oration are (o be found in the fragments of Hjrperides, 
67-75 (Bl.). 

° See fnlfi. 76 of Hyperides; Sn irrirpait rj riXii rtpi t«0 ItpaS ToC iijXiur. It 
appears Irom Apsines (ix. p. J47 W.) that this refers to Euthycrates. 

* See Essay IV. % 4. 

' Dem. Cor. 136. For the date of Python's visit, see Scbaerei 11. 377, 378. He 
identities (his Python with great probability with one of Ifae brothers, Pylhon and 
Meraclides, oT Aenos, who murdered Cotys and were afterwards received with honour 
at Athens ; see Dem. xxill. 1 18, 1 19. 



a pupil of Isocrates, and his statement of Philip's grievances moved 
the Assembly greatly'. He was accompanied by envoys from all 
Philip's allies, and he was supported by Acschines', But his "tide of 
eloquence" was stemmed by Demosthenes, who replied to Philip's 
complaints so effectively that the feeling of the Assembly was soon 
turned against Python. He was followed by Hegesippus, another 
patriotic Athenian, who professed to accept Philip's offer to revise the 
peace and made two propositions to this end'. He proposed (i) that 
the clause which provided that each should keep what they had, tKartpoti^ 
ix(iy a exo'wv, uti possidetis, should be changed to each should have their 
mvn {Ixaripovi i^tiv Toi lavTiay) ; (2) that the freedom of all Greek states 
not included in the treaty should be recognized by both parties to the 
peace, wlio should agree to defend them if they were attacked. A 
decree was passed with these two provisions ; and Hegesippus was sent 
with other envoys to Philip to ask his approval of these terms, and 
further to ask for the return to Athens of the island Halonnesus, 
which Philip then held, and for the surrender of the towns in Thrace 
(Serrhium, Doriscus, etc.) which he had taken after the peace was made*. 
This embassy was rudely received by Philip, who ignored all his promises 
about a revision of the peace, and it returned to Athens with nothing 
accomplished. Philip even banished an Athenian poet, Xenoclldes, for 
the offence of entertaining the embassy in Macedonia'. 

56. Eight or nine months later (early in 34a B.C.) Phihp sent a 
letter to the Athenians, in which he once more deplored the odium into 
which the misrepresentations of hostile orators had brought him at 
Athens, and gave a tardy reply to some of the demands of Athens'. 
We have the speech of Hegesippus (as we may now safely call it) in the 

' Aesch. 11. i]5, with the Sclml. (p. tif, 15). 
" Dem. Cor. i36i»[ EpisL Phil. [Dem. xii.] 18. 

• H^es, (Dem. vn.) 18, 15, 30,31. For the auihorship of this speech see p. iji, 
note I. Dem. xix. i8i> ixBtopfiiiraatiu rfft tlp^r-gr, refers to this proposed revision 
of the peace. 

* Heges. I, Sti rpit airbr irptir^tieaiitr, with 36, 37. 

' Dem. XIX. 331. If we can trust a story told by Seneca (de Ira, III. 13, 1), 
which is referred to this occasion by Schaeret, of the insolence of Demochares, one of 
the embassy, we can easily pardon Philip for his rude treatment of the whole party. 
According to this, when Philip politely asked the embassy what he could do for them. 
Demochares repiied, " Hang yourself." 

' This letter, which is now lost, was read to both Senate and Assembly. It mtist 
not be confused with the later letter of Philip (written in 34O B.C.) of which document 
No. XII. among the speeches of Demosthenes purports to be a copy. (See % 68.) 



Assembly, in vhich this letter is discussed'. Philip made the following 
answers : — 

(i) As to Halonnesus he repeated his former answer to the embassy, 
that he had taken the island from a nest of pirates, not from Athens. 
Still, he would ;nv it to Athens if she would take it as a gift from him. 
He further offered to submit the whole question to arbitration*. 

(i) He proposed a treaty with Athens (oiJ^^oXa) providing for the 
trial of lawsuits between Macedonians and Athenians, claiming, however, 
that the final ratification of such a treaty should be ieft to himself, 

(3) He claimed the right to cruise about the Aegean at pleasure, 
and to aid Athens in suppressing piracy — a claim which might embarrass 
Athens in many ways*. 

(4) He denied that he had ever agreed to modify the peace so 
as to allow each party "to hold what belonged to them." He held 
Amphipolis, for example, by the terms of the peace ; and he could not 
allow his right to be questioned'. 

(5) He agreed that the freedom and independence of the Greeks 
who were not parties to the peace should be recognized and defended, 
as Athens proposed*. 

(6) He denied absolutely that he had ever broken any of his 
promises to Athens : indeed, he declared that he had never made any. 
He maintained that he had released all Athenian prisoners of war'. 

(7) He offered to submit to arbitration all questions about places 
alleged to have been captured by him after the peace was made, including 
the dispute about Halonnesus and the quarrel with Cardia : indeed, he 
offered to compel the Cardians to submit to arbitration if they refiised*. 

57. Hegesippus in his replies* objects to receiving Halonnesus 
as a gift from Philip while the right of Athens to the island is denied. 
He sees in the offer of irvftfioXa to settle lawsuits only a device of Philip 
to secure himself {by some provision of the treaty) against suits for recom- 

' This (No. ¥11. in editions of Demosthenes) is now universally recogniied as ■ 
speech of Hegesippus ; see Sehsefet 11. 4+0, ^^i vrith n. 1. It professes lo be made by 
Ihe mover of the two proposals sent to Philip, who was also one of the embassy (j). 

» Hegcs. 1—8: see S 66 (below). 

• Ibid. 9—13: see p. »73, n. 1. 

• Ibid. 14-^16. 
' Ibid. 18—19. 

• Ibid. 30— 3>- 

' Ibid. 33— 35. jB. 

• Ibid. 36, 37, 39—44- 

• He gives the replies in connection with the statements of Philip's demands. 



pense for confiscated property brot^ht by Athenians who were settled in 
Potidaea at the time of its capture j these settlers having had a special 
treaty of alliance with Philip, sq that they could not legally be treated as 
enemies'. He also repudiates with indignation Philip's claim to the 
right to ratify (Le. to revise or reject) the treaty after it had been properly 
made and had been ratified by the Heliastic Court at Athens*. He 
ridicules the idea that Athens needs Philip's help in suppressing piracy. 
He calls on the people to remember the offers to revise the peace which 
Python made to them in Philip's name. He repeats the old charge 
of breaking promises, and denies that Philip has liberated all his 
Athenian captives. He spurns the pro{K>sal of arbitration concern- 
ing the towns captured by Philip after the peace was made, saying 
that this is a question of time to be settled by the calendar, not one 
for arbitration. 

Demosthenes also discussed Philip's letter, objecting to receiving 
Halonnesus as a gift from Philip, and to allowing arbitration as to 
certain claims of Athens. It is probably this speech to which Aeschines 
alludes when he ridicules Demosthenes for "quarrelling about syllables'." 
So ^ as we know, no result followed these negotiations with Philip, 
except a stronger conviction at Athens of the insincerity of Philip's 

' Heges. 9, 10 : oft itrrot a^Mi toUw '^< 4fXiirr«> dXXik <rifipixfai, icol ipruv 
ipmiuttiiiimr o*» *(X«t(h toii oiioPffu' ir \\.vrttiaki^ (sc. 'Aftjipoiwi) viuar*. As it was 
general]]' e£tablished thut reslitution should be nuide for property conliscated in time 
of peace, Philip natucalty desired some special secudty on this point. It was 
generallj' provided in viiificXa Ihal suits should be brought in the defendant's court 
(Jorum rti], so that suits of this nalure would be tried in Macedonia, where Philip 
would have ample opportaniljr to take advantage of any ambiguous provisions in the 
treaty, such as he might easily smuggle in at a final revision. 

' By the Attic law, such triii^Xa, after they were made by negotiation, like Other 
treaties, must be ratified by the Heliastic Court under the presidency of the BenitoSirai. 
See Heges. 9: toSto. Si nl/Jio tateSat ait iiraSir ir rif Sitaffnipiif rifi to/>' i/i^ 
*opu6%, ua-rtp i r6iu>i ntXtiti, iXV irtiSir lit iavrir i-wartwrxfii. Aiistotle (Pol. 
Ath. 59") says of the S«riui84Tai, xol ri riiifioXa ri rpis Titi rihtu oh-m ii^Girt, Ktd 
tAi itfiiaf rdt Airi ri3r av/ifiUKiar tlaiyoufft, which may refer to a later law, or may 
(as Meier and Schomnnn explain it, Att. Proc. p. 999) mean the itaitoBlrat preying 
over a. court. Pollux (viii. 88} repeats Aristotle. The passage of Aristotle, interpreted 
in either way, with its distinction of nlH^Xa and Hkiu i*b tut svii^Xat, now makes 
untenable the view of Reiske, which I once followed (Am. Joum. of Philol. I. lo— li), 
tlial tsOtb in the speech on Halonnesus (above quoted) refers to the Sdrcu and not to 
tbe^/i)Sa\a. See Att. Proc. looi. It seems that Philip and Athens both claimed the 
right of final ratification, of course with the option of rejecting the treaty alK^ther. 

* Aesch. III. 83: ' i.'Mur^im iHaw i i' drrrift"t M XaM^d*"" '' SlSuait <t\X(i 
flit iroSiSutrkj rtpl avWafiQn Staiptpifxerot. 

G. D. tS 



professions of friendship and of the necessity of ultimately meeting his 
aggressions by force of arms. 

58, The account of the transactions which followed the mission 
of Python has brought us down to the time before midsummer 
342 B.c, when Hegesippus delivered his oration on Halonnesus'. 
We must now recur to events in Euboea which began in the previous 

The formal peace which Athens made with the towns of Euboea in 
348 B.C. recognized the independence of the island*. Philip saw more 
and more plainly the importance of Euboea as a basis of operations 
against Athens', and he never lost an opportunity of establishing his 
influence there. In 343 — 341 he supported Clitarchus, who had made 
himself tyrant of Eretria, and he sent troops to expel the popular party. 
An embassy sent by Athens on the motion of Demosthenes to counteract 
the intrigues of Philip was refused a hearing at Eretria, and the town fell 
into Philip's power*. The banished democracy took possession of 
Porthmus, a harbour of Eretria, and Philip sent against them 1000 soldiers 
and destroyed the walls of Porthmus'. He also sent troops to Oreus, 
to establish there the tyrant Philistides ; and under the Macedonian 
influence the popular leader, Euphraeus, was sent to prison, where he 
slew himself to escape the vengeance of his enemies*. Athens, by the 
help of Demosthenes, was more fortunate in establishing her influence 
at Chalcis, where two brothers, Callias and Taurosthenes, who had once 
acted in Philip's interest, were now firm friends of the Athenians. 
Callias sent an embassy to Athens, and a treaty of alliance was made, 
providing for mutual defence'. The brothers were intimate with Demos- 
thenes, who caused them to be made citizens of Athens. Aeschtnes 

' In (he late summer or autumn af 343 Aeschines was brought to (rial on the 
charge of n^nrpcir^la, and acquitted by a small vote. See Essay IV. § 7. 
' See g r4, above. 
' As an fTi7-«xi<r/ia in^- H)» 'Ajtuo}*. Cor. 7 1'. 

* Detn. IX. 57, j8, 66, Cor. 71°, 79'j cf. Cor. ^95". 
' Detn. IX. 11, 58; cf. Vlll. 59. 

• Dem. IX. S9— 61. 66, Cor. 81. The eomewhat earlier attempt of Philip to secure 
Megara (g 51) is sometimes connected with his intrigues in Euboea. Both had the 
same object, to weaken Athens. The two are often mentioned together, as in Dem. 
Cor. ji, XIX. 87, 334. For the linal overlhrow of (he despotisms in Euboea by Ibe 
help of Athens in 341 — 340, see g 64, and note on Dem. Cor. 79". 

'' Aesch. III. 91 — 93. We do not know whether the Athenian embassy which was 
rejeaed at Eretria abou( this time (see note s. above) was sent also to negotiate 
with Chalcis ; but this is highly probable. This embassy is the one mentioned in 
Dem. Cor. 79^, ^Jn' Bf|3i>iel Sxrn-o. 



violently attacks Callias as a friend of Demosthenes and an enemy of 

59. In the winter of 343 — 342 Philip with a motley force marched 
over the mountains into Epinis, to place Alexander, brother of his 
queen Olympias, on the throne. Neoptolemus, Alexander's fether, 
had reigned there jointly with his brother Arybbas, in whose house 
Alexander and Olympias had been brought up. After his brother's 
death Atybbas reigned alone, Phihp soon expelled his uncle-in-law 
from his throne, and made Alexander king*. He thus made the settle- 
ment of a family quarrel the means of extending his own influence to the 
Ionian Sea. He captured three Elean towns in Cassopia, in the south 
of Epirus, and gave them to Alexander*. He was now on the borders 
of Ambracia, and he also threatened to attack Leucadia and to cross 
into Peloponnesus. He made a treaty with the Aetolians, in which he 
agreed to restore to them Naupactus, which the Achaeans then held. 
In these later schemes he was foiled by Athens, which sent Demosthenes 
and other envoys to urge Corinth and Achaea to defend their rights'. 
She also sent troops to Acamania'. Athens received the dethroned 
Arybbas with great honour, but nothing appeare to have been done to 
restore him to his dominions'. 

60. On his return from Epirus, Philip entered Thessaly, where he 
had previously established a decadarchy (see § 51). He now appointed 
tetrarchs, one for each of the original districts of Thessaly,— Thessaliotis, 
Fhthiotis, Pelasgiotis, Hesdaeotis'. This completed the subjugation of 
Thessaly, which had been one of his main objects since his attack on 
the despots of Pherae in 353 — 352*. At about this rime (342) Philip 
sent for Aristotle and made him the tutor of his son Alexander, who was 

' Hyper, in Dem., CoL XX.: Totmit fip lypa^ ^.THiotBinji 'kiipialiim tbat xol 
XpSru nx^Twi nikmir ^tdXtirra. So Dinarch. I. 44 ; Aesch. I[[. 85 — 97. Demosthenes 
makes no rormal reply to these <^aag<s, 

" Se« Pmu. I. li*~', givii^ mainy details of the lainily history; Just. vii. 6, 
VIII, 6- I. 

' Heges. 31: see Sduefer II. 4*6 (notes). 

* Dem. IX. 37, 34, 71 : both Leucadia and Ambracia wer« Corinthian colonies- 
For Naupactus see S 78 (below), p. 194, with n. 3. 

' Dem. XLVlll. 14 (343 — 541 B.C. ) see & Hpxi^ llvBiiorot in 3l9). 

" See decree in his honour in C. I. AM. II. no. iij. 

' Dem. IX. iG: BcTToXJa tut 'X">' «^' '^* 'oXtrtftu iraZ rAt rMnt a^r£> 
TOpgpirroi tal rerpapxiai iaTiim]iHF, tra /tj) /lirar KOri nUuit iXKA tai kot' l$nj 
Im^titiMTir ; c[. Cor. 48, 395. 

s See S 6 (above). 



now fourteen years old'. In this year he gave great offence to Greece 
by sending a deputy to hold the Pythian games in his name'. 

6i. Early in 342 B.C. Philip undertook to complete his conquest of 
Thrace, and especially to wrest from Athens her control of the Thracian 
Chersonese. This ancient possession of Athens was equally important 
to her as a protection to her trade with the Euxine, and to Philip as a 
point of departure for invading Asia. Soon after the peace, Athens had 
sent a body of settlers to the Chersonese under Diopithes*, an able and 
enterprising general, who was determined to defend the rights of Athens 
to the last extremity and to brook no interference from Philip. The 
Cardians, who had been admitted to the peace in 346 as Philip's allies 
by the consent of the Athenian embassy, annoyed the Athenian settlers 
in every possible way. Philip sent troops to aid the Cardians, and 
Diopithes raised an army in Thrace to attack them. With this force he 
invaded Philip's territory beyond Cardia*. Against this Philip protested 
vehetnently in a letter to the Athenians', and a meeting of the Assembly 
was held to consider the question. In this Demosthenes delivered his 
eloquent oration on the Affairs of the Chersonese. He admits that the 
action of Diopithes has not been precisely peaceful, but maintains that 
Philip has broken all the terms of the peace and that Athens is really 
at war with him by his own act. He stoutly objects to making any con- 
cessions to Philip at this crisis, and above all he protests against recalling 
Diopithes or passing any vote which might discredit him or his conduct 
in Thrace. 

62. Soon after this speech, certainly before midsummer 341, De- 
mosthenes delivered his Third Philippic. This powerful argument deals 
with the whole history of Philip's aggressions since the peace was made, 
and enforces the ailment of the speech on the Chersonese. He 
declares that Athens has been actually at war with Philip for a long 
time, indeed ever since the destruction of the Phocians'. He earnestly 

' Plut, Alex. 7 ; Di<^. Laert. v. i, 7, ir\ IluaaJirini (343—34*). Alexander was 
bom July a i, 356 (see % 3). 

* To this refers the indigtmni remark ia Dem. ix. 31, join iab\ain iyaraOtrliTiirns 

' Dem. viu. 6, IX. 15 : see Schaefer 11, 451, notes. 

* For a full discussion of Ihese important events, which led directly to the renewal 
of the war with Philip, see the two orations of Demosthenes On the Cheisonew (viii.) 
and the Third Philippic (ix.). See Grote xi. 613 — 6is ; Schaefer 11, 450—455. 

' Dem. VIII. 16, IX. 16, »;; Hypoth. to vni. p. 89'. 

* Dem. IX. 19: dqt' ^t illUpas ii-ttXi tuiiiat, iri rtu^i lyuy' airhr roKi/iiii 
iptiO/uu. See aUo ix. 9, ij — tS, and many similar passages in this speech. 



beseeches the people to recognize this tact and to prepare for active 
warfare'. He makes no attempt to justify the recent proceedings of 
Athens in the Chenonese, except as measures of defensive war, to vhich 
Philip's offensive acts of war have driven her. It would be madness, he 
urges, for the Athenians to allow Philip to wage war on them and not to 
defend themselves by arms. 

The whole tone of the Third Philippic shows that Demosthenes 
had no longer the least expectation of maintaining even a nominal 
peace ; while the increasing boldness of Philip's aggressions shows that 
he merely aimed at securing all possible advantages before the inevitable 
declaration of war*. 

63. We have only meagre and scattered accounts of the events of 
the year 341 — 340, btfore the outbreak of the war. One important 
result of the discussions in the Assembly and the powerfiil arguments 
of Demosthenes was that Athens now universally recognized his leader- 
ship and gave him almost complete control of her foreign affairs. For 
this department, from this time until the battle of Chaeronea, he declaies 
himself responsible in the fullest sense'. One of his wisest strokes of 
policy was his forestalling of Philip's designs on Byzantium by his embassy 
thither, probably in the early summer of 341. He thus secured for 
Athens the friendship and alliance of that important city, the control of 
the Hellespont, and the protection of her trade with Che Euxine. Athens 
and Byzantium had had so many grounds of enmity, especially ^ce 
the Social War, that it now required no ordinary diplomatic skill to 
bring them into friendships About the same time he negotiated an 
alliance with Abydos, an old enemy of Athens, and visited the " kings 

' See IX. 70 — end, 

' There is an inlerestiog decree of 341 — 3+0 B.C. concerning Elneus, a town on the 
i;outbem point of the Chersonese, in C. I. Att. 11. no. 1 16 : ctru xol thi 'EXaw»r{Hi 
ri aSiTo. Ki^tp\ 4 8^*101 i^^irrni roit Xtp/i(o»Ji]irlToit ■ -rbt St m-panr/ir SdOifToJ 
iTiiH\ri0Tlnu o^uv ir Ttf [rpiwyf nf a^^ onn ir fx°"l" 'S\a]iM)iftH ri avrur ipBSt 
t[ai Ju]iiCut etKucw /itrA 'A0iiccci[ui h X]ippi)r'ic<f, xal itaX^cnu r<i[h 'E\a]iotwleit nrt 
Sriwrar rl^! rd xfHi}TB»ri>i' tli aB/uar. In no. 701 Elaeus and olber towns in the 
Cheisonese arc recorded as offering crowns to the people of Athens In 347^546. See 
C. Cuttius in Mermes IV. 407. Cf Dem. xxill. 158. Schaerer (11. 481) refers 
C. I. Alt. nos. 136 Euid 137 to this time. 

' Dem. Cor. 59, 88, fi8, igS [niylfTiDr,..rpovTit): in Cor. 310 he compares his 
power at this period with his humble position after Chaeronea, when Aetchines and 
his party again became powerful and insolent. Aeschines {in. t3o) alludes to 
Demosthenes before Chaeronea as inirtuxXd/ttrej r^ jcflo/iA^ i^' iiiHt ainv 

* Dem. Cor. Stf, 94, 144; Aesch. III. ij6. 



of Thrace," probably Cersobleptes and Teres, who were soon after- 
wards dethroned by Philip'. Later in 341^340 an embassy was sent 
to the King of Persia, perhaps on the suggestion of Demosthenes, asking 
for help against Philip ; but this was not well received by the King, who 
sent back to Athens a very insulting letter, refusing his assistance^ 
Embassies were sent also to Rhodes, under Hyperides, and proLiably to 
Chios, the effects of which were seen in the help sent to Byzantium 
when she was besieged by Philip'. 

Even more important were the embassies to Peloponnesus which 
were undertaken by Demosthenes with Callias of Chalcis. These 
resulted in the formation of a powerAil league against Philip, which, 
according to Aeschines, proposed to raise 100 talents, and to equip 
too ships of war, 10,000 foot soldiers, and looo horsemen, besides 
2000 militia from Peloponnesus and aooo from Acamanla. The leader- 
ship of the league was given to Athens, and a formal meeting of the 
allies at Athens was appointed for the i6th of Anthesterion (March 9) 
340 B.C. * We have no further mention of this synod, and we may fairly 
assume that it was never held- But (he proposed forces appear to have 
been actually raised, as Demosthenes gives the number of the allies in 
the field as 15,000 mercenaries and 2000 cavalry, besides the militia*. 

' Dem. Coc, 301'i XXIII. 158, 'AjSfiJou t^ rir S.ray6' viut xpA"* ^**™»- ^'or 
the Kings of Thrace see Epist. Phil. 8 — 10. 

* See Epist. Phil. 6 : this shows that the result of the Persian mission was not yet 
known. See below, § 67, n. 1. Aeschines (m. 138) prohably refers to the 
King's reply: i~/ui iiur x^iwJw oi Siiaw ^?) lit alrtiTf cu yip Xi^rrff. On the 
contrary, in Vii. x. Orat. 847 f, 84S e, the King is said to have sent 3000 darics to 
Demosthenes, and also a gift to Hyperides. (A duic, or gold staler, by weight of 
gold, would be about £1. u. lod.) Aristotle (Rhet. 11. 8, ti) mentiom money sent 
by the King to Diopithes, which came after his death. See Schaefei it. 483. It is 
hard to see why, on the eve of a wdr with Philip, there was any crime in receiving 
money or other help from Persia, to be used against a common enemy, " Persian 
gold " was still a phrase for demagogues to conjure by, a century and a half after the 
term had any real meaning, as " British gold " still is in certain quarters in the United 

* Dem. IX. 71: tKr4liruiur rpirptit (xoiPTajpN!, cit nr^ortrniaor, til 'PUw, 
WtXJiw, un fiaai>Ja Xiya]. Vit. X. Orat. (Hyper.), p. 850 A; irpit^tvat it Kolrpii 
'Poifovi. A Xfryot 'FoSkuAi and probably a Xiatii of Hyperides are mentioned : see 
frag. 161 and 194 (Bl.), and Bijhnecke, Forscbungen 1. p. 461 (with note, p. 6;;). 
Uiod. XVI. 77 menlions help sent to Byzantium by Chios. Cos, and Rhodes, ibe three 
islands which had joined her in the Social War. See Schaefer 11. 484, n. 9. 

* Aesch. III. 94 — 98: Schaefer 11. 486 — 489. 

' Dem. Cor. 137, where he includes the later Theban allies. He also includes the 
I.eucadians and Corcynieans, and omits the Ambraciots. For the Acamanians see 



64. These vigorous pieparations, which preceded the open outbreak 
of the war, amply justify the boasts of Demosthenes about the allies and 
the revenues which were raised for Athens by his influence'. One of 
the most important results of the close union between Demosthenes and 
Callias was the formal alliance of Athens and the cities of Euboea, 
which grew out of the treaty for mutual defence made two years before*. 
This alliance was made on a new basis. Instead of bringing back the 
Euboeans to the Athenian confederacy as tributaries, the wise policy of 
Demosthenes established a new Euboean confederacy, with Chalcis at 
its head, as an independent ally of Athens. Aeschines represents this 
as a corrupt bargain, by which Demosthenes, for a bribe of three talents, 
cheated Athens out of ten talents of revenue which she ought to have 
received from Eretria and Oreus^. This alliance was closely connected 
with the expulsion of the two tyrants whom Philip had supported at 
Oreus and Eretria. In the summer of 341, on the motion of Demo- 
sthenes, an expedition was sent to Euboea, which with help from Chalcis 
and Megara freed Oreus from the tyrant Philistides, who was put to 

Aesch. HI. 156. The 'ApiS/iit poifitiuw (Dem. Cor. joj) probably conwined all the 
forces raised directly ot indireclly by DemostheDes. See Cor. joi, 3OJ ; nnd Vil. x. 
Oral. pp. 8+5 A, 8ji A (decree). 

' Dem. Cor. 134— "37- 

> See I 58. 

' Aesch. III. 94, 100. The nature of the alliance is shown by the criticisms 
of Aeschines. He sarcastically speaks of the embassy lo Eretria, proposed by 
Demosthenes in his decree "longer ihan the Iliad," as sect to \xf, the Eietrians 
to pay their assessment {aiirraiin) not to Athens, but to Callias. This signifies that 
Clitarchus was making a last eFTort to maintain himself by contributing to the new 
Euboean confederation. Aeschines offers, as proof of a bribe of a talent promised (but 
not paid) by Oreus to Demosthenes, a decree of that city pledging him the public 
revenues for the payment of that sum with twelve per cent, interest (104). That the 
payment of a bribe should be secured in this public manner is loo absurd a iitory 10 
be seriously discussed. Schoefer ([I. 491, 499) finds a most probable explanation of 
the decree of Oreus in two Altic inscriptions. In C. I. Att. 11. 00. 804 Ba (334— 
333 B.C.), twenty-three Athenians, among them Demosthenes, are named as i-yyvtroi- 
Keller says of the mutilated introduction, (1<i>...77U77TU t, " suspiceris scriplum fuisse 
Arl BiB^piaTaB ipxarrof iyyimral Toiriav K.r.\." This is made almost certain by 
no. So9>:, 4] (31J — 314 B.C.), where payments are recorded from 15 of the same men, 
including Demosthenes, xapi twh tyVV^' Tuji" Tpujpw* uv el XaKxiirit Ra(3i» 
i,-wt\ifianBi. These men evidently had given security for money advanced by Athens 
to Chalcis, in 340 — 339 B.C., to enable her to suppjy her quota of ships to the new 
confederacy) and it is probable that Demosthenes was likewise security for a talent 
lent to Oreus for the same purpose, and that the town gave him security for the 
principal and interest. We may well say, with Aeschines (ill. 75), iiaW», jcaXi* ^ rvr 



death'. Several monihs later a more decisive expedition was sent 
under Phocion. On a report that Philip was about to invade Euboea 
with his fleet, Hyperides raised a fleet of forty ships for Athens by 
voluntary contributions. He gave two triremes, one for himself and 
one for his son'. Though Philip made no attack on Euboea, this fleet 
was sent under Phocion, on the motion of Demosthenes, to liberate 
Eretria from Philip's tyrant Clitarchus. This wa^ soon effected, and 
Clitarchus was put to death'. This completed the liberation of Euboea 
from despotism and from Philip's influence, and made the island a 
firm friend and supporter of Athens. The Athenians expressed their 
gratitude to Demosthenes for these successful labours by the gift of 
a crown of gold, which was conferred in the theatre, at the Great 
Dionysia of 340, in the very terms which were subsequently used by 
Ctesiphon in his own decree*. 

65. About this time, a man from Oteus, Anaxinus, who came to 
Athens ostensibly to make purchases for Queen Otympias, was arrested 
as a spy and examined under torture through the action of Demosthenes, 
who also moved his condemnation to death. Aeschines mentions this 
proceeding as an outrage upon an innocent visitor, whose hospitality 
Demosthenes had once enjoyed at Oreus ; and he implies that the af^ 

' Dem. Cor, 75^, -r^y hr' ttptit #£o!o»: cf. 87. Charax fr. 31 (Mull. ill. 643): 

'Afltjiiawt a/ia XaXm3t(!*-i...ical Xtya/nDvi erpoTfiiffoiTJi ili 'Qpiov •bAurrll^ rif 
TifKOYW i,ittKTtmii va! 'IJ^lTai 'i]Kit>8ifaaar . Schacfcr il. 491. □. i, quotes the new 
scholia on Aesch. in. 85 (Jahrb. fUr Philol. itt66. p. iS), assigning Jun« 341 as the 
date of this event. In Dem. ix. 66 (before midsummer 341) we find Philistides in full 
power at Oreus. 

* Vi(. X. Orat. 850 A (H^ki. 34) : «cX(r*au U rXcir Ar' Eii/Solac Tn^tetiuaaiiiKiu, 
lal Torn ' kSifraivii tiiXo^ult kittmiM, navapdita^tt r/H^pta Ifipttan ii irtiiatut, xol 
TpuTot I/Tip alrrtS koI thO nuSot trtSvxt Sin Tpeifprii. In ihe next year (340 — 339) 
we tind HypeHdes an apfemted trieiarch in command of on tt\ii>eiiiot rpinpiji, named 
'ktZptia: sec C. I. Att. 11. no. 8091/, 136 (also 8o8f, 98), tut iixri. ^uxWot (oi 
ILtf^a^rTm x'Kfutasaii iTtibaiiun Tpufpii 'ArSptta- tpijipapxot 'tri/ulS^, with 
Vit. X. Orat. 848 E (Hyperides, 5), rpiripanti ri alptBilt Srt Buitirruw ixa\ibptti 
^0>arr<H, poifi^ Baiarnou iFTtn^iSilt k.t,\, Hyperides probably commanded at 
Byiantium one of the triremes which he had given for Euboes the year before. 

* Diod. XVI. 74 (under 341 — 340 B.C.) : iuKlar /lir KortxaMnnat KXiirtpx,'"' "^ 
'Eperplat Tipvrror KaBtsraiiiron iiro ^tUrrov. See new schol. to Aeach. ni. loj 
(note I, above) : ir' ipxirrm Niicotuixou (341 — 340), ^iXfmni ^(urtXcuDiroi frn k', 
'AB-ri*aiot rrpaTtivarrtt tit EHfimay ^dwftgroi crpaTyifoaiTtt rir r( ripatrti' Tur 
'EpfTpUiiir K\elTapxoy dx/irmipaji Ktd H|» xiXi* Ttil 'EptrpifB^i rapiSuKur Jtoi Sij/io- 
Kparlttt KaT4cT/)tar, (See Schacfer 11. 49J, n. 3.) Eretria was probably freed in the 
spring of 340 B.C. 

* See Dem. Cor. 83'-*, with note. 



interfered in some way with an ^taarf^ida. which he was about to bring 
against Demosthenes. Demosthenes alludes to the case chiefly to 
mention that Aeschines was detected in a private interview with Anaxinus 
in the house of one Thrason : and the suspicion thus cast on the 
patriotism of Aeschines may have caused him prudently to abandon 
his ptosecution of Demosthenes. Schaefer is probably right in con- 
necting this aflair with the efforts of Philip to maintain his ascendency 
in Euboea'. 

66. The dispute between Athens and Philip about Halonnesus in 
343 — 342 left the island in Philip's hands, as Athens refused to take it 
as a gift from him, while he refused to "restore" it. At last, probably 
in 34E — 340, the people of Peparethus seized Halonnesus and made 
the Macedonian garrison prisoners. Philip soon avenged this act by 
sending a fleet to rav^e Peparethus. Athens then directed her com- 
manders to make reprisals upon Philip. This shortly preceded the 
outbreak of the war'. 

Before midsummer 340 it was generally recognized throughout 
Greece that war was inevitable. At the Olympic games of this year, 
it is said, the name of Philip was received with hisses and other insults'. 
Philip was then engaged in the conquest of Thrace, and had come to 
the point where the possession of Byzantium was indispensable to him 
if he was to invade Persia and secure a safe passage for his army into 
Asia Minor and a safe return. It was also of the utmost importance 
for him to become master of the grain traffic of the Euxine. He now 
called on the Byzantines, as his friends and former allies, to promise 
him their aid in his pending war with Athens. But here his way was 
blocked by the alliance already made by Demosthenes with Byzantium, 
and she refused to join him'. Upon this he resolved to secure her by 
force ; and he began by attacking the neighbouring city of Perinthus on 
the Propontis. To this end he sent his fleet through the Hellespont, 
and he guarded it against attack during its passage by marching an 

* Aesch. [II. 113, 114; Dem. Cor. 137. Demosthenes must have acted here in 
some official capacity, as in the case of Antiphon in 344. (3ee§ 53, above). Demosthenes 
was piobably a (^est of Anaxinus on some official visit to Oreus, perhaps on one of 
the embassies of 346 [see Dem. xix. 155, 163), when Anaxinus may have been the 
Tpifim of Athens. The reply of Demosthenes to Aeschines with regard to the 
violation of hospitality is thus given (Aesch. III. 114): f^aBa toAi r^i riXtui 
oXut x(pi rXciwDT i«^a»#(u t% fwuc^i Tpari[t}s. 

' Dem. Cor. jo' : see the Schol. (p. 148*) ; Epist. Phil. [Dem. xil.] 11, 13. 
> Plut. Moral, p. 4J7 f, Phil. Apophth. (16}, p. 179 a. 

* See { 63 (above) ; I>em. Cor. 87. 



anny through the Chersonese to keep the Athenians well employed on 

67. Perinthus was attacked vigorously (probably late in the summer 
of 340) by land and by sea, but it was also vigorously defended. 
Though Philip brought to the siege an army of 30,000 men, besides 
his large fleet, and employed the most improved engines of war and 
towers two hundred feet high, the defendera were finally successful 
They were constantly aided by their neighbours of Byzantium, and ^ 
last by a force sent by the King of Persia' ; though no help came from 
Athens or any other Greek city. Philip at length decided to abandon 
the siege- But he still hoped to surprise Byzantium, which was his real 
object, by a sudden attack. The better and larger part of the Byzantine 
army was at Perinthus, and the people who were !ef\ at home were 
little to be feared. He therefore left about half his army at Perinthus, 
under his best commander, to make a show of continuing the siege, 
while he hastened with the rest to Byzantium and began to besiege it 
(in the autumn of 340) with all ins skill. The Byzantines were at first 
greatly alarmed ; but timely help came to them from a powerful friend. 
Athens was now openly at war with Philip, and her naval power soon 
came to the help of her new ally. A fleet under Chares, which uas 
previously cruising in the northern Aegean, was sent to Byzantium, and 
was followed by another under Phocion, which was more powerful and 
more efficient. Chios, Cos, and Rhodes also sent their help. Byzantium 
was rescued, and Philip wisely abandoned this second siege'. By some 

' Cor. 139'. See Eptsl. Phil, ifi; ^niniatiit amin raparipi^licu JhI Xtppcn^ov 

' Whether this efficienl help to Perinthus was the result of the Athenian embassy 
which Ochua tepoUed > year earlier (see S 63) is not known. The King now seems to 
take great personal interest tn checking Philip. See Diod. xvi, ■;•,: i ^curiXeft... 
lypaif't wfiAt Toin iirl BaXirr^ aaTpdiraJ pmiBcir ilifHySloit rwrt a6im. Cf. Patis. I. 
ig, 10. In Alexander's letter, Arrian ii. 14, 5; Ochus himself is said to have sent a 
force distinct from that sent by his satraps; U-ipaeliut i^oriB-tiraTt. <•! rir fitir itartpa 
^IkoWj koX th Gp^KijVt 171 ^fuU ^pxptuv, SAt/atioi tnfi^tw Oxot- 

' For the details of the sieges of Perinthus and Byzantium, of which only the 
latter is mentioned by Demosthenes (Cor. 71, 87), and for Philip's improved engines 
of war, see Schaefer lU 501, 503, 507—513' *"'*> 'he authorities cited. The in- 
scriptions in C. I. Att. II. nos. S08 f, Bi, and Sog d, 110 and 136—138 (also in 
Boeckh. Seewesen, pp. 441, 498) show that Chares was in command of a fleet 
in 341 — 340, and Phocion in 340—339. As we know that Chares was present 
at the siege of Byzantium, which began in 340 — 339. it appears that his command 
extended into this year. See Porphyr. Tyr. (Miiller [I1. p. 691): ouji/ioxcti"'*'' 
Si BvftutrtiHt 'AStiraiwr lii Xipvrei ffTponjyoO, irmvxiir i ^Xinrot Arl Xrpp6rriaim 



skilfiil device his fleet eluded the Athenian ships in the Bosporas and 
escaped into the Aegean'. He left the greater part of his army for a 
time before Byzantium, and went with the rest to the Chersonese, partly 
to harass the Athenian settlers there and partly to protect his fleet in its 
passage through the Hellespont*. 

68. The peril of Perinthus and Byzantium had probably hastened 
the formal acknowledgment by Athens of the actual state of war between 
herself and Philip. In the late summer or early autumn of 340, probably 
after the siege of Perinthus was begun, Philip sent to the Athenians a 
long letter, foil of complaints of their aggressions and justifications of his 
own'. To this communication, which ended in a declaration of war', 
Athens replied only by her own declaration of war and a vote to remove 
the column on which the treaty of 346 b.c. was inscribed*. The special 

xw/xl, tai Taiynjip Xa^ibc *irii*5X*<. See note i (Iwlow). See also Hesych, Miles, 
frag. 18 (Miiller IV. p. ijt). PluUrch (I'hoc. 14) i>peaks uf Chares as ineiScient and as 
despiseil by the encmyj but other (later) authorities take a different view. Hesych. 
Miles, (above cited), of the sixth century, represents Chares as holding the headland 
between Chrysopolis and Chalcedon (now Scutari), opposite the Golden Horn, and 
thus commanding the entrance to Byzantiuni. On this headland Damslis, the wife of 
Chares, was buried; and her monument, with a heifer (iSdfiaXii) on an altar, n-as seen 
by Hetychius. Chares is said to have driven the Macedonian fleet into the Euxine. 
For the siege of Byzantium, and the help brought by Phocion. see Pint. Phoc. 14. 
Demosthenes always speaks with great pride of this rehef of Byzantium, which he had 
effected : Cor. 80, 87, 88, 93, 30a. He himself gave a Iriretne to the fleet sent 
to Byzantium: see Vit. x. Oral. 8ji a (decreet. 

' See Schnefer ti. 514, with explanation of Polyaenus (iv. 1, 11). 

' See Porph. Tyr., quoted in n. 3, p. aSi, and Justin ix. i : profeetns cum fortii- 
tunis mnltas Cheiionensi urbes expugnat. 

' A document purporting to be this letter appears as no. xii. among the oralKMH 
of Demosthenes. Iliis is accepted m genuine, at least in sutistance, by Grote, Weil, 
and Ulass, though not by Schaefer, who thinks it is the work of a rhetorician, 
though based on good materials. Of course the document found in Cor. 77, 78 is 

* See the last sentence, (^i dfnwoi/fuu larh. toO lutalav x.r.X. (this declaration 
is without qualification). 

' See Fhilochorus in Dion. Hal. ad Amm. t. pp. 740, 741 {(ttg. 135, MUller 1. 
p. 406) : BfA^povrot 'AXXcuetii ' ^j nirtu (i.e. 340^334 B.C.) ^iXinrot ri /liw rpHror 
imr\e6mii nipltSif wpovipdKir, iTOTVX'^ '' imSSir BvfdrTiar i-wa\tipKii, xal 
Ix^X^rilnara rpar^tr. Dion. Hal. proceeds : "EirriTa SiffcXtii^ ISaa rail 'A^rajoii 
i tOuxrot (vtirdXtt !(& r^i irurToX^, ini i^/toaSitovi rapaiiiMirarroi d^dAt rpit ria 

rfjt wpii ♦iXixTDf flp^ttii Jtttl ffu/yuijflBi fraStiraii, raOi Si wXiifioOr koI ri iXKa 
inpytai rA rou i-oU^u. In this valuable fragment it is obvious that there is 
some corruptioti or omission in the words A,yiiitvSi*o«t...fx'^P'i''^V- 'f^^ltara is 
commonly changed to ^^4^10^, thus making the passage confirm the statement 



occasion alleged by Demosthenes for the declaration of war was the 
capture of some Athenian merchant ships by Philip's cruisers in the 
Hellespont'; but war bad been an avowed fact on both sides many 
weeks before it was declared. 

When the Byzantine war was ended by the help of Athens and the 
wise counsels of Demosthenes, the gratitude of Perinthus, Byzantium, 
and the towns in the Chersonese was expressed to Athens as their 
deliverer by votes of thanks and crowns'. 

69. When Philip returned from his expedition to the Chersonese 
to his camp before Byzantium, he withdrew his army from that neigh- 
bourhood. We have very scanty accounts of his movements £rom this 
time (probably early in 339 b.c.) until we find him the next summer 
lighting with the Scythians and the Triballi. We can only conjecture 
why, just at the beginning of a war with Athens on the success of which 
everything was staked, and after suffering two mortifying repulses, Philip 

of Aeschines (ill. jj) that Demosthenes proposed the declaration of war (t^pai^t rim 
TiXffiw). But Demosthenes (Cor. ;6) most emphatically denies this, ihoDgh he 
cUima the authorship of the chief measure; which really ted to the war. This is 
consistent with ^l-if^lo^ra Ypd^'orrai, referring generally to war measurei; but it is 
incredible that war was actually declared on hli motion, as this would be a notoiious 
matter of record which he could not detiy and had no motive for denying. Further, 
<X"I''t4>'W (sc. i S^iiot) may be the beginning of a new quotation from Philochorus, 
SO that no emendations are needed, though the preceding sentence is incomplete. 
The ffTjJXi) on which the treaty of 346 was inscribed is mentioned in Dem. vlll, 
5 (end) and Epist. Phil. 8. 

' Dem. Cor. 73 ; Diod. XVl. 77 1 itl ti raOrut (34O — 339 b.c.) ^MsKmi Bvjllmar 
TaXupKoOrTiH 'Aftjmiw itir lipi*a' rbw tlXirwor \i\viiirai riir rpii airoin fomStlan* 
ttp^r, ri9it 3t Ktd Ufafut ravTi.Kvr ifitXirym' i^irtfi^ar mil Bv{tiwTUu. Diodorus 
thus puts the declaration of war while the siege of Byzantium whs going un. This 
agrees with the facts that Athens sent no help to Perinthus, but when Byiantium was 
attacked she immediately sent her fleet under Chares to defend it. It is true that 
Philip's letter does not mention the siege of Perinthus ; but it does mention (r6) the 
passage of Philip's army through the Chersonese " to escort his fleet," which was on 
its vray to attack Perinthus. This shows (so far as the document is authority) that the 
letter was probably written during the siege of Perinthus, so that the response of 
Athens, the most important part of which was the immediale sending (Diod.) of her 
fleet to Byiantium, was probably made when the news of its siege flrst come to Athens 
(in the autumn of 340). Again, (he allusion in the letter (6, 7) to the appeal of Athent 
to the King of Persia for help, without mentioning the efficient aid sent by him to 
Perinthus (see 67), shows that the letter was written before the si^e was raised. We 
can thus reduce the date of the letter and of the dcclantion of war which followed it 
to vety narrow limits. Although the quotations from Philochorus (in note 5, p. 183) 
mtntitM the letter and the declaration of war after balh si^es, there is nothing la 
show that he placed the events themselves in this order. 

- Dem. Cor. 89 — 93. The voles were read lo the court. 



should have undertaken an expedition against these outside barbarians, 
leaving Athens and Demosthenes to enjoy the fniits of their diplomatic 
successes. He may have felt the necessity of protecting his possessions 
in Thrace, or even Macedonia itself, against a possible invasion from 
the north ; or he may have merely wished to give his defeated troops a 
taste of easy victory and rich booty. An unimportant quartet with Ateas, 
a Scythian king, gave him a ground for invading his dominions ; and 
the king himself — according to one account, nearly ninety years old — 
was defeated on the Danube and killed. Philip carried off as booty 
20,000 boys and women, much cattle, and 20,000 breeding mares. On 
his return from Scythia, he passed through the country of the Tribalti, 
with whom he had previously been in conflict'. These warlike moun- 
taineers attacked him furiously; and in the battle he was severely 
wounded, his horse was killed under him, and he was thought to be 
dead. In the panic which followed, the Triballi took possession of the 
precious booty from Scythia. Thus again humiliated, Philip returned 
to Macedonia in the coarse of the summer of 339*. 

About the time of the renewal of war with Philip, Demosthenes 
proposed and carried his important trierarchic reform, by which the 
navy of Athens was put on a new footing and many old abuses were 
corrected. It was under this new system of Irierarchy that all the fleets 
were fitted out during the war, and its success in removing grievances 
is described by Demosthenes with glowing pride and satisfaction'. 

V. The War with Phiup, from 340 b.c to the Baitle 
OF Chaeronea in 338. 

70, When Philip returned from Scythia in the summer of 339 b.c, 
he found that the war had been waged on both sides for nearly a year 
without decisive results. Though the Athenians had generally been 

' See Dem. Cor. 44' with note, and % 51 (^bove). 

* Our only account of this Scythian expedition, except a few incidental altujiona, 
is found in Justin ix. t and proline lo IX. See alio Ludan, MocTob. 1 1 : 'AtAii ii 
ZKvS&r j9a<riX«uj iiaxiiurat ipii *iXixroip rtpi ri* 'ivTpm- TorBfiif Iwtatr, inrip t4 
(nrifKorTa fni yiytriit. The brief story is confinned by Aeschines (til. 118), when 
he says of Ptiilip in (he summer of 339, tix hni^iioBrTot ir Montfotf; ^lUrrgu, dXV 
dAS" it tS 'EWiSi mpitrot, iX\' ir Znl^ott oCrw iioKftji irirTDt. Not much later, 
at the time of the rqpilar meeting of the Amphictyonic Council (Aug. or Sept.), he 
had already returned, and he was ihen made general of the Amphictyons (Deni. Cor. 
15* i Aesch. 111. 119). 

' Cor. 10) — io8 r see note oq 103'. 


a86 HISTORICAL SKETCH. [Spring of 

defeated in such land battles as had occurred, yet the Macedonians felt 
severely their naval weakness, by which they suffered a constant blockade 
of their coast without being able to retaliate by attacking Athens by 
sea'. It was obviously impossible for Philip to invade Attica by land 
without the cooperation of both Thessaly and Thebes, and his relations 
with them did not warrant even a proposal to this end Thessaly had 
been alienated by the abolition of her free governments and the establish- 
ment of a decadarchy and tetrarchies ' ; and Thebes, though she had 
gained the lion's share of the spoils at the end of the Sacred VVar, was 
deeply offended by the loss of Nicaea in the pass of Thermopylae, which 
Philip gave to Thessaly, and of her own colony Echinus, which Philip 
had taken for himseir. Without the consent of Thessaly he could not 
command the pass of Thermopylae ; and without Thebes he could not 
use the fertile plain of Boeotia for military operations and for the support 
of his army on his way to or from Attica. He needed therefore some 
device for securing the active aid of both. Some undertaking which 
would unite the two in a common interest with himself seemed indis- 
pensable*. Such was Philip's perplexity when he found himself again at 
war with Athens after six years of nominal peace. When he departed 
for Scythia (§ 69) this problem was still unsolved, though possibly he 
may already have confided to Aeschines directly or indirectly some 
practical hints for its solution. However this may have been, it so 
happened that before Philip's return Aeschines had suddenly stirred up 
an Amphictyonic war, which delivered him from all his difficulties and 
opened the way for himself and his army into the very heart of Greece'. 
He had passed Thermopylae in triumph in 346 as the champion of the 
God of Delphi ; he was now to enter Greece a second time clothed with 
the same sacred authority, to aid the Amphictyonic Council in punishing 
new offenders who were openly defying their commands. 

71. We are here reduced to the alternative of believing either 
that Aeschines deliberately devised this Amphictyonic war in order to 
give Philip a free passage into Greece, or at least took advantage of 
a slight incident at Delphi to excite a general conflict, or else that he 
ignorantly and recklessly roused a war which could have no other end 
than bringing Philip into Greece at the head of an army. The latter 
alternative is generally rejected ; and indeed it attributes to Aeschines 

' See Cor. 145, 146. 

* See above g| 51, 60. 

' See IX. 34 (w. Scbol.); Aesch. in. 14a; Schaefer Ii. fjS, 539. 

' Cor. 147. 

' Cor. 149. 


339 fl-cj AESCHINES AT DELPHI. 287 

a reckless ignorance of Greek politics with which we have no right to 
charge him. We are almost wholly dependent on his own graphic 
narrative for the facts as to the origin of this baneful war, and he must 
be condemned, if at all, on his own testimony', And this evidence, in my 
opinion, strongly confirms the view of Demosthenes, that Philip saw that 
his appointment as commander in an Amphictyonic war was the surest 
way in which he could march an army into Greece without the opposition 
of Thessaly or Thebes ; that such a war would be useless Co him if it 
were stirred up by any of his own delegates or friends ; and that he must 
employ an Athenian to devise a scheme which should secure this end 
without exciting suspicion in the Amphictyonic Council. At all events, 
Aeschines was ready at Delphi to do him this very service. 

72. In the archonship of Theophrastus (340 — 339), the Athenian 
delegation to the spring meeting of the Amphictyonic Council donsisted 
of Diognetus, the Hieromnemon of the year, and three Pylagori, Midias, 
the old enemy of Demosthenes, Thrasycles, and Aeschines". These 
four were present at the meeting in Delphi, when Diognetus and Midias 
were attacked by fever and Aeschines suddenly found himself in a 
position of great importance. The Athenian delegates had been 
privately informed that the Locrians of Amphissa intended to propose a 
vote in the Council to iine Athens fifty talents because she had re-gilded 
and afiixed to the newly-built temple of Delphi' some shields, probably 

' Aeschbes tells how he stirred up Ihe Amphictyons Co wir in ill. 10; — 134; and 
he sluis over the highly important nmiter of the appointment of Philip as commander 
in 118, iig, without expressly mentioning the appointment. Demosthenes, Cor. 
149—151, alludes briefly to the Amphictyonic meeting at Delphi, being in essential 
agreement with Aeschines as 10 the main facts, and to Philip's appointment ; in i6j — 
179 a.nd III — 1\% he gives the EubsequenC events which led to the alliance of Athens 
and Thebes and those which followed thai alliance. 

" For the constitution of the Amphictyonic Council and the distinction of the 
two classes of delegates, Hietomnemons and Pylagori, see Essay V. Athens was 
represented as the most important member of the Ionic race. Among the inscriptions 
recently found at Delphi is a fragment, assigned lo 341 — 340 B.C., containing the 
letters IllNnXAI0rN...NAIOT, obviously 'Ii^tw, Aiio^^av 'A9irWov. Can this 
be the same Dii^etus who was the Hieromnemon of Athens at Delphi in the spring 
of 339 B.C.? Bourguet, the editor, hesitates about the Delphic dale. See Bull, de 
Corresp. Hell&i. 1896, p. ajB. 

^ See Aesch. m. 116. l/n XCWO' dfrwHai ijiiBum wpbi rir tairiii rtiit wpi* 
iittp4ir<tff0ai. This "new temple" was not the temple buill by the Alcmaeonidae 
two centuries before, nor any addition to that building made after the Phocian War. 
The temple built by the Alcmaeonidae was destroyed early in the fourth centuty B.C. 
In J71 B.C., just before the battle of Leuctra, the Spartans were advised to ask for 
contributions for rebuilding the temple, TfptayydXotTai roTi TJXnn trv/i^oX^^at tit 


a88 HISTORICAL SKETCH. [Spring of 

relics of the battle of Plataea, and had renewed the old inscription. 

This renewal of the ancient disgrace of Thebes in fighting on the side 
of the Persians at Plataea was, it must be confessed, neither a friendly 
nor a politic act of Athens ; it shows the exasperation between 1'hebes 
and Athens which followed the victory of Leuctra. But this was of 
little consequence now. The Hieromnemon sent for Aeschines, and 
asked him to attend the Amphictyonic meeting on that day in his place, 
as if he were a delegate with full powers, and defend Athens against the 
Locrian accusation. Aeschines was therefore present at the meeting by 
special authority. As he began to speak, apparently referring in some 
excitement to the threatened charge against Athens, he was rudely 
interrupted by an Amphissian, who protested against the very mention 
of the Afhenians, declaring that they should be shut out of the temple as 
accursed because of their alliance with the Phocians. Aeschines replied 
in great anger ; and among other retorts " it occurred to him " to 
mention the impiety of the Amphissians in encroaching on the sacied 

TAr vsir tdC 'AviWuvpt hrhaw ^X«td itiimt rSkit. See Xen. Hell. VI. 4, 1. 
In >n Altic dectee of 369 — 368 (C. I. Alt. 11, no. 51), relating to ihe tyrant Dionyaitu, 
it was voted, repi iitt Ttit ypanniTui ur Irtnijicr Aioriiirm, rQi olKoSoiilaj to5 rtit 
xol T^r tlp^njj TOUT ffvfifiix^^ S6y/ia tlvturyKtip els rif ff^^ur. See Kohler, Hermes 
XXVI. p. 45 {note), who refers lo a Delphic inscripllon in Ihe Mitlheil. d. deut&ch. 
Instit. (Athen), iSSo, p. 103, relating to the restoration of the temple : Kohler ihinki 
this inscription cannot be much later than tbe beginninf; of the 4th cent. B.C. In the 
Bulletin de Coiresp. HelWn. for 1896, Homolle gives a history of the variooa temples 
of Delphi, based on the latest discoveries of the French: see pp. 677 — ;oi, Le Katttt 
»(iit (built in the fourth century B.C.). He publishes the inscription above mentiotied 
and discusses it at length. His conclusions are generally confinnatoiy of what -was 
already known; (i) the old temple was destroyed about 373 — -371 b.c. by an earth- 
quake (not by fire, as had been assumed); (j) a general subscription was opened in 
371 for rebuilding the temple ; (3) in 351 — 347 the building was erected as far as the 
epistyles (see below) ; {4) in 339 the new temple, not yet dedicated, was in a condition 
to receive the shields which the Athenians affixed to its architraves; (s) the temple 
was finished in 330 — 319. Two inscriptions are published in the same volume of the 
Bulletin; see I. 38, 19, r/xyki^r SiHiSexa and iwifrvXlur If, on which Bourguet 
(p. 117) remarks. On sait que I'fdilice auquel etaient destines ces pieces d'archi- 
teclure est le temple lui-m£me. Onze de ces triglyphes et cinq de ces Epistyles 
etaient ceux de fronton Quest ; le douzieme triglyphe et le aixieme epistyle, ceux du 
retour d'angle 5. O. 

The disputed expression {Aesch. iii. 116], iriSt/itr rpii rir KOtrir rciiw rplr 
i(apiaaa$ai (tbe reading now generally adopted), is referred by Kohler to some 
religious ceremony of dedication: see ffDo-ai ti rif Btip ipinTTipior in C. I. Att. 11. 
no. 403, 4S, also Add. 40J A, 16. For (W^tpor JAy^ia (Aesch. III. 116) and Hiciir 
iraydmar (Dem. Cor. 150*) see note on the latter passage. 


339 fl-c] AMPHISStAN WAR. ag? 

and accursed plains of Ciirha, which had been solemnly devoted to 
everlasting sterility and desolation by the Amphictyonic Council about 
250 years before, on the motion of Solon', at the end of the first 
Sacred War. 

73. Cirrha was the ancient seaport of Delphi on the Gulf of Corinth, 
while Crissa (often confounded with it) was a town on the height above 
the river Pleistus, on the road to Delphi (near the modem Xpwrd)'. 
The broad plain of Cirrha, one of the most fertile in Greece, lay between 
the foot of Parnassus and the coast, and was called by both names 
Cirrhaean and Crissaean. In obedience to the Amphictyonic curse, 
Cirrha with its harbour was destroyed, and the plain had remained un- 
cultivated until recently, when the Amphissians had re-established the 
ancient port as a convenient landing-place for visitors to Delphi, and 
levied tolls on those who used it. They had also cultivated a part of 
the accursed plain and erected buildings upon it. The Amphictyons 
seem to have quietly acquiesced in this violation of the sacred edict, 
doubtless seeing the advantage of the newly opened port to themselves 
and others, and thinking little of the almost forgotten curse. But they 
were not proof against the arts and eloquence of an accomplished 
Athenian orator, who ingeniously presented the case in impassioned 
lai^age and with powerful appeals to the prejudices and the bigotry 
of an antiquated religious assembly, with which a venerable curse had 
greater weight than the strongest political motives or the abstract idea 
of Hellenic unity. From the hill near Delphi where the Amphictyonic 
Council sat under the open sky, there is a magnificent view of the sacred 
plain, extending to the gulf of Corinth. Here Aeschines stood in the 
excited assembly, and showed them the plantations and buildings of the 
Amphissians on the forbidden land ; and he caused the terrific impre- 
cations of the ancient curse to be repeated, which declared any man, 
city, or state, which should cultivate or occupy the plain of Cirrha, 
accursed of Apollo, Artemis, Leto, and Athena, and devoted to utter 
destruction with their houses and their race. He reminded them that 

' Aesch. III. T15 — 118. The destniction of Cirrht and Che consecnitioD of its 
plain took place in jg6 B.C., at the end of ihe ten •jtAn' Sacred War. (See Clinton, 
Fasti Hellen.) 

* The walls of Cnssa, enclosing a lai^ space on the brink of the cliff, are still lo 
be seen, though buried and overgrown so as often Co escape obsetvatioD. They are 
an excellent example of the wall-building with which Thucjdides (I. 93) contrasts the 
walls of Themislocles, consisting of two thin. shells of stone, with rabble and clay 
between ihem. Apparent remaitis of the moles of the accuned harboni of Cirrha are 
also to be seen on Ihe shore of the gulf. 

O. D. 19 



the same curse was invoked on all who should permit others to violate 
the sacred edict. We cannot wonder that the whole assemblage was 
fired with fierce enthusiasm to avenge the wrongs of Apollo upon the 
sacrilegious Amphissians. When Aeschines had finished his speech, as 
he tells the court, the question of the Athenian shields was wholly 
foi^otten, and the only thought was of the punishment of the Amphis- 
sians. The (lame had now been kindled, which was to end in the 
conflagration that Philip was eager to see. An Amphictyonic war was 
begun, which could be ended only by the intervention of Philip and his 
aimy. Thebes and Thessaly could now be united in a common cause 
with Philip*. 

74. Late in the day the meeting adjoumedj and a herald was ordered 
to proclaim that all Delphians, freemen and slaves, above the age of 
e^hteen, should meet the next rooming at daybreak with spades and 
picks, ready for serious work ; that all the Amphictyonic det^ates (of 
both classes) should convene at the same place, " to aid the God and 
the sacred land"; and that any state which failed to obey should be 
accursed and excluded from the temple. This Amphictyonic mob 
assembled and descended to the plain, where they burned the houses 
and destroyed the moles which enclosed the harbour. On their way 
back to Delphi, they were attacked by a crowd from Amphissa, which 
lay about seven mites west of Delphi, and barely escaped with their 
lives ; some of the Council were captured. The next day an Amphicty- 
onic Assembly {kKKkt^u^ was summoned, consisting of the delegates 
and all other citizens of Amphictyonic states who happened to be at 
Delphi. This body voted that the Hieromnemons, after consulting 
their respective states, should meet at Thermopylae at some time before 
the regular autumnal meeting of the Council, prepared to take some 
definite action concerning the Amphissians*. When this vote was first 
reported at Athens by her delegates, the people " took the pious side " 
(as Aeschines calls it) ; but a few days later, after a little consideration 
and when the influence of Demosthenes had prevailed, it was voted that 
the Athenian delegates " should proceed to Thermopylae and Delphi at 
the times appointed by our ancestors," and further that no Athenian 
delegates should take any part in the irregular meeting at Thermopylae, 
"either in speech or in action." This wise step precluded Athens in the 
most public manner from taking any part in the mad Sacred War which 

' A«sch. III. 119—111. 

' This seems to be the mesnmg of the obscure words (Aesch. 114), ^errat 



Aeschines had stirred up : in his own words, " it forbids you to remember 
the oaths which your ancestors swore, or the curse, or the oracle of the 

75. The appointed meeting was held at Thermopylae, with no 
representatives from Athens, and (what was more ominous for Philip's 
designs) with none from Thebes. It was voted to make war upon the 
Amphissians, and Cottyphus, the president of the Council, was made 
commander. The Amphissians at first yielded, and were fined and 
ordered to banish the leading rebels. But they paid no fine, and soon 
restored their exiles, and banished again "the pious" whom the Am- 
phictyons had restored- The re^lar autumnal meeting of the Council 
found things in this condition; and it is hard to believe that the leaders 
in this miserable business expected any other issue. As Grote says of 
Cottyphus, he "could not do anything — probably did not wish to do 
anything — without the intervention of Philip." The Council was told 
plainly and with truth, that they must either raise a mercenary army and 
levy a tax on their states to pay for it, fining all who refused to do their 
part, or else make Philip the Amphictyonic general It is not surprising 
that Philip was at once elected*. We are now just beyond the point at 
which Aeschines thought it wise to stop in his exciting narrative. When 
he told of the first expedition against Amphissa under the command of 
Cottyphus, he added that Philip was then " away off in Scy thia," so that 
of course he was in nobody's mind. After this, he could not talk of 
Philip's election a few weeks later without an absurd anti-climax, which 
would be all the more ridiculous when he was compelled to add that the 
first act of the new Amphictyonic general in this pious war was one of 
open hostility to Athens and Thebes. Accordingly he does not mention 
in this narrative either the appointment of Philip or the seizure of 
Elatea which immediately followed his appointment. Instead of stating 
these important facts, the direct results of his own deliberate action, he 
bursts forth with a new flood of eloquence and dilates on the terrible 
omens and the more tenible calamities which followed the refusal of 
Athens to take the leadership in the holy war against Amphissa, to which 
she was divinely called by the voice of Heaven ; and he once alludes to 
Elatea in the vaguest manner, without hintii^ that its seizure by Philip 
was an event for which he was himself even in the slightest degree 

" Dem. Cor. 151: se« the whole descriplion 149 — ijj. 

' See the end of 119, with Va mysterious and otncure Ixmguage, and tbe preceding 
For the Allnsion to Elatea see 140. 




76. Demosthenes, as we have seen, describes the action of Aeschines 
in stirring up the new Sacred War very briefly, representing it as a 
deliberate plot, devised by Philip and executed by Aeschines, for securing 
Philip and his army free admission into Greece to attack Athens. He 
mentions the choice of Philip as general after the failure of the first 
campaign against Amphissa, and adds that Philip immediately collected 
an army and entered Greece, professedly bound for the plain of Cirrha ; 
but that he suddenly bade the Cirrhaeans and Locrians a long farewell, 
and seized and fortified Elatea. This old Fhocian town, which had 
been dismantled in 346 b.g, held a military position of the greatest 
importance for Philip's plans. It stood at the outlet of one of the chief 
passes leading from Thermopylae, and it commanded the broad plain 
through which the Cephisus flows on its way to Boeotia. It was also 
the key to the rough roads leading westward to Doris and Amphissa. 
From this point Philip threatened both Athens and Thebes so directly 
as to leave no doubt of bis purpose in entering Greece. He hoped that 
the traditional feud between Athens and Thebes would bring Thebes 
into his alliance; but he trusted to his commanding position on the 
frontier of Boeotia to convince her that her only hope of safety lay in 
his friendship. The prospect of Boeotia being the seat of war was an 
alarming one, from which a united invasion of Attica by Thebes and 
Philip was the only sure escape'. Demosthenes states that the Mace- 
donian party in both Athens and Thebes had long been fomenting 
discord between the two cities, which were now so estranged that Philip 
felt that there was no possibility of their uniting against him. The 
public documents quoted as proof of this enmity are unfortunately 

At the same time with his seizure of Elatea (in the late autumn 
of 339) Philip took possession of Cytinium, one of the towns of the 
ancient Dorian Tetrapolis near Parnassus'. 

77. We are almost wholly dependent on Demosthenes for what we 
know of the skilful diplomacy by which Thebes was secured as an ally 
of Athens against Philip*. This was the crowning achievement of the 
political life of Demosthenes, and he always alludes to it with honest 
pride. We have his own graphic story of the wild excitement at Athens 

' Dem- Cor. 113. 
» Ibid. 163—168. 

' See Pbiloch. frag. 135, under KvanMy^^t (>rchan 331) — 33S) : it\ Tobrov... 
fiAfmH' mroXo^iin'at 'EXdriuu' vol Kin-frw* col vp^JJcii Wfi^otm elf O^ot. For 

the Doiiui Tetrapolis see Grote it. 387, 388. 
* See Dem. Cor. 169— 18S, an— 116. 



when a messenger at evening brought the news from Elateai and of the 
solemn meeting of the people the next momii^ when he made his 
speech, full of dignified eloquence, by which he laid the foundation for 
a right understanding with Thebes and secured the appointment of a 
friendly embassy, of which he was himself the leader. He then de- 
scribes briefly but clearly the critical negotiations with Thebes, which 
ended in a treaty of alliance. We are not informed of the details of 
this treaty ; but the carping criticisms of Aeschines indicate that the 
liberal spirit towards I'hebes which inspired Demosthenes in his first 
proposals was felt in all the negotiations. Aeschines gives one important 
item, designed to protect the alliance against the defection of any 
Boeotian cities to Philip. This provided that in case of any such defec- 
tion "Athens would stand by the Boeotians at Thebes'." Demosthenes 
brings forward a letter addressed by Philip to his former friends in Pelo- 
ponnesus when the Thebans deserted hira, in which he solicits their help 
on the ground that he is waging an Amphictyonic war in a holy cause*. 
During the campaign which followed, Demosthenes appears to have 
had equal influence at Athens and at Thebes. Theopompus says that 
the generals at Athens and the Boeotarchs at Thebes were equally 
obedient to his commands, and that the public assembly of Thebes was 
ruled by him as absolutely as that of Athens'. 

78. Of the campaign itself very little is known. We hear of one 
"winter battle" and one "battle by the river," in which the allies were 
victorious*. These victories were celebrated by festivals and thanks- 
givings; and they caused Philip to renew his solicitations for help in 
letters to the Peloponnesians'. The alliance with Thebes was so 
popular in Athens, that Demosthenes, as its author, was publicly crowned 
at the Great Dionysia in the spring of 338*. The alUes suffered one 
serious defeat near Amphissa, which Philip — perhaps for the sake of 

' Aesch. 111. 1 41. 

* Dem. Cor. ij6, ij8. 

' Theopomp. fr. 139: see Plut. Dem. tS: iiniptTilf ti »i^ /liiar td^ irrpanr/a^ 
T^ Ai)>ii]ffWrri rwoCri-Bt ri rpoaraTTi/ttmr iWi, tal T(>i>i ^OHiirifixat, SiouMurSat Si 
Tit ^(Jt\iffflat i.witat cHit ^rrtr irw' inbmii t6ti r&t OqjSiUwv ij rii 'ASTjraUiir. 
Theopompus adds iSUm and rap' dffiu', which Plutarch corrects to tal vdru rpoa- 
qiifTwt. This is a continuation of the passage quoted in % 78, n. 4, p. 194. 

* Dero. Cor. 116, 117. See inscriptions in which Athenians are honoured for 
bravery in battles In this year, C. I. Alt. II. no. 561, with Kohler's remarks. See 
Schaeter II. 556- 

' Uem. CoF. 318, IM, 
" Ibid. Ill, 111. 


294 HISTORICAL SKETCH. [Aug. or Sept. 

appearances — finally attacked. By a cutming stratagem, Philip caused 
the Greeks to vrithdraw from the passes leading to Arophissa, while he 
marched through them and destroyed the allied army which met him on 
the other side. This consisted of a Theban force under Proxenus, and 
10,000 mercenaries under Chares whom Athens had sent to protect 
Amphissa. Philip atucked these two forces separatdy and destroyed 
them easily'. He then took Amphissa and destroyed it'. He also 
captured Naupactus, put to death the Achaean garrison with its com- 
mander Pausanias, and gave the town to the Aetolians, thus fulfilling 
a promise which he had made four years before*. At some time during 
this campaign, perhaps after his victory at Amphissa, he sent a herald 
with proposals of peace to Thebes and Athens, which, it appears, 
the Boeotarchs were at first inclined to entertain. Even at Athens a 
peace-party appeared, with Phocion as its advocate*. Aeschines relates 
that Demosthenes was so disturbed by the peace- movement at Thebes, 
that he threatened to propose a bill to send an embassy to Thebes to 
ask for the Athenian army a free passage through Boeotia to attack 
Philip'. We hear no more of this movement, and a visit of Demosthenes 
to Thebes probably brought it to an end. 

79. Our accounts of the battle of Chaeronea are as meagre as 
those of the preceding campaign. We depend chiefly on Diodorus, 
who devotes the greater part of his short account to the exploits of the 
young Alexander, then eighteen years old, to whom his father gave the 
command of one wing, "supported by his most distinguished generals'." 
This decisive battle was fought on the seventh of Metageitnion, the 

' Polyaen. iv. i, 8. 

' IlMd. (end); Strab. 417, carAr*im* Jl' airr^ ol 'A/i0iirn}<v<i. See Aesch. 

* !jee Schaefer it. 559, with n. %. He ihus restores (from Suid., ^pavffiisca ir 
'SavriicTif, and Zenobius, Paroem. Gr. VI. 33) Theopomp. fiag. 46: ^fXirroi Aur 
Nai!ra«TOV 'Axotut retu ^ptvpeht irir^a^ nol navvarlw tAc ipxarra r^ ^pouf&s 
iTiKTtmr. (See Jahrb. d. Philol. 1B59, p. 483.) Strab. 417, *»ri Si rSr AlmWr 
[TfaAraenn) tMirTQti wpeanpiramn. Dem. IX. 34, afti 'Axcuwr NafraiCTW tiiiiiuixn 
AiruXoft Trafiaiiiatur ; See § S9> p- a7S' »• 4 (above). 

* Plut. Phoc. 16 ; Schaefei II. jsg, 56a. Phocion u probably ihe genersl against 
whom Demosthenes made bis famous threat (Aesch. 146), <> ti ra a-lmi na rrpo.nrt"' 
imlTin,...SuiitKaslai' t^ ypiiiiir rf fi^iimri rpbi to vrpar/,yuir. See Plut. Dem. iS 
(Theopotnp.) i oh-u Si lUya col fiaHTpdt i^trtf rd rsC ji^npet fyyv ware rte> ^v 
4>{Xmur cfi0ut Aru(i)pvjicd«r0(u Stiiittm tlf^jr^, ipffJir Si rj)r 'EX\<Ua ytrifdan (ol 
ffUMfajaoTflfoi wpii rb fiAXw. See | 77, n. 3, p. J93. 

' Aesch. III. 148 — iji. 

* Diod. XVI. 86. 



second month of the Attic year'. By a stratagem Philip had drawn the 
Greek army from its advantageous position in the hills into the plain 
of Chaeronea, where he could uee his cavalry with the best effect. At 
first the battle was rather favourable to the allies ; but soon the superior 
discipline of the Macedonians prevailed, and the Greeks were driven 
back on both wings. A general flight ensued, after which the Greeks 
were scattered, so that there was no longer any military force between 
Philip's camp and Thebes or Athens. These cities lay at his mercy; their 
armies were disbanded, and neither could help the other. A thousand 
Athenians were killed, and about two thousand were taken prisoners. 
The Boeotian loss was also great, and the famous Sacred Band of three 
hundred Thebans perished to a man*. Diodorus states that Philip's 
army consisted of 30,000 foot and not less than 1,000 hoise, adding 
that Philip had the advantage in numbers and straC^y, but that the 
two armies were equally matched in courage and spirit, Justin, on the 
contrary, states that the Greeks far exceeded the enemy in numbers'. 
The general results, the utter annihilation of the Greek army, the 
breaking-up of the Hellenic confederation which Demosthenes had 
brought together against Philip, and the decisive establishment of Mace- 
donian supremacy over the whole of Greece, are beyond question. 

8d. The panic and despair in Athens when the first tidings of 
the defeat arrived were most pitiable. No one knew how soon the 
victorious army might follow in the steps of the messengers who brought 
the terrible news'. But the leaders of the people who were at home, 
especially Lycurgus and Hyperides, and Demosthenes after his return 
from the battlefield, did all that was possible to restore courage, and the 
panic soon gave way to a resolute determination to save the city from 
destruction or capture. Hyperides, who was one of the Senate of Five 
Hundred (regularly exempt from military service), immediately proposed 
a bill ordering the Senate to go to the Piraeus under arms and there 
to hold a meeting to provide for the safety of the port ; and further pro- 

' AccoT(l[ng lo Boeckh, Mondcyclen, p. 19, the Altic yew 338— jj7 (01. 110, j) 
'bepa July 17, the precedii^ ye>i being a leap year of 3B4 diyi. This would make 
the leventh of Metageitnion our first of Seplember. Boeckb afterwaidi expretsed 
doubts as to the banning of 338 — J37> thinking it powible that 339 — 338 had only 
354 days ; this would make'lhe tiattle fall on oui second of August. See Schaefer II. 
j6i, j6i (note); uid CuTlius, Gricdi. Getch., Book vti. note 96. 

' For the Iipii XAx<» and their fate see Flut. Pelop. iB. 

^ Justin IX. J : cum Athcnieotes longe maiore miUtum nnmero praestarent, assiduis 
bellis induiata vjrtute Macedonum vl 

* See Lycurg. Leoc. 39, 40. 



viding that all slaves in the mines ajid the country districts who would 
enlist should be free, and that exiles should be recalled, public debtors 
and other aripx should be restored to their rights, and luetics should 
be made citizens, on the same condition. It was hoped that these last 
measures might furnish a force of 150,000 men for immediate defence'. 
It was also voted to bring the women and children and such sacred 
property as was movable from unprotected places into the Piraeus'. 
Lycurgus, who had charge of the finances, did wonders in replenishing 
the empty treasury, and in providing arms and ships for the emergency'. 
Large sums of money were raised by private contributions, the /iiyaXot 
jn-tSoo-fis of Cor. §171, Demosthenes giving one talent. Demosthenes 
devoted himself especiaUy to preparing the city for immediate defence, 
especially by repairing the dilapidated walls and other defences and by 
raising money for this object*. In adopting all these energetic measures 
the people showed that the spirit of Marathon and Salamis was not 
wholly extinct at Athens'. 

81. ^Vhen Philip heard of these preparations for receiving him, he 
naturally thought seriously of his next steps. He seems to have felt no 
doubt about the treatment of Thebes. As a former ally, who had 
deliberately turned against him at a critical moment, she could expect 
only severe punishment. Accordingly, he compelled her to ransom her 
prisoners and even to pay for the right to bury her dead at Chaeronea'; 
he broke up the Boeotian confederacy and made all the other towns 
independent of Thebes ; he placed a Macedonian garrison in the 
Cadmea ; and he recalled the exiles who were opposed to the Athe- 
nian alliance, and established from these a judicial council of three 
hundred. Some of the old leaders were exiled, and others put to death ; 
and their estates were confiscated'. Philip's knowledge of the position 

' Lycurg. Leoc. 37, 4I ; Hyper, fr. 39 (B!.). When Hyperides was indicted by 
V/ia4^ xo/mrifiur for the illegalily of some of these meaaores, he replied ; (xonfiro 

' See Vic. X. Oi2t. S49 A for this, and for the quotation id the preceding note. 

' Ibid. 8jic; Pius. I. 19, 16. 

* See Cor. 148" and note; Lycurg. Leoc. 44. Aeacbines, III. 136, casts a slnr 
upon the patriotic fervoar with which this work was done: oii y^ Ttpix'fmciiaamt 
X/4 tA "'XI '^ii Td^oui iTfiioaUui drcXivi-a ri* ipBOt rrroKiTtuiUtar Stuptis 

' On thebehaviour of Athens after Chaeronei see, in geneial, Schaefei in. 4—16, 
with the reTerences. 

' Justin IX. 4*: Thebanorum poiro non modo captivos verum etiam interfectonim 
Eepulturam vendidit. 

' Diod. xvi. 87; Paus. IX. i, 8; Justin ix. 4. 


337 B.c] PEACE OF DEMADES. ag? 

of Athens in Greece probably convinced him that it would be the worst 
possible policy for him to treat her in this way. After the active 
measures taken by the Athenians their city could not be taken without 
a siege, which might be protracted into the winter ; and such treatment 
would unite Athens against him in hopeless enmity. He fortunately 
had a good, though unprincipled, adviser at hand, the Athenian 
Demades. He was taken prisoner at Chaeronea, but had ingratiated 
himself with Philip by his manners and his good advice, so that he was 
released and remained as a friend in the king's camp. He had doubtless 
confirmed Philip's opinion about the best policy to be pursued with 
Athens, by reminding him of the large and influential Macedonian party 
there, which was then out of favour but might be restored to influence 
by gentle treatment and friendly words at the present crisis. Philip 
accordingly sent him as a messenger to Athens'. He roust have sent 
assurances of his friendly disposition and of his willingness to grant 
her any reasonable requests; and the Athenians replied by sending 
Demades, Aeschines, and probably Phocion as envoys to Philip, to ask 
for a release of ihc Athenian captives'. Philip received this embassy 
with great cordiality and immediately invited them to his table". He 
released all the prisoners without ransom, and promised to return the 
ashes of those who had fallen. He sent these remains to Athens in 
chaige of no less a person than Antipater, with whom Alexander him- 
self went as a special messenger with offers of peace and friendship*. 
The result was the treaty of peace, known as the Peace of Demades, by 
which both peace and alliance were again established between Philip 
and Athens The Athenians were to remain free and independent, and 
Philip probably forced never to send ships of war into the Piraeus'. 

' Diod. XVI. 87, where ihe reproach of Demades to the drunken Philip im- 
mediately aflei the battle is given; (SmriXcG, r^i nl^irt #w rt/nStl*^ rpiruror 
'XyaiUiuaiai, oiMt eiK tdrxirii rpirmr Ipya QtpalToo; 

* Sold, under dirfuUtif (3)1 Aesch. Ill, 117; Dem. Cor. 181, 184. Foe Phocion 
see Sclmefer III. 15, n. 1. 

* See note on Cor. 187*, with the references. 

* See Poljb. v. to: x^P^' X6Tpur dToarriXat roui a/xf>^(^«>t tal KqitArat 
'Adttraiur nit TeTtXtvrvctrat, In ii mtStU 'kvTfwiTpif r^ toOtw ivri (ol Tui draX- 
Xarrcvi^rur Tnit r\*iaTcvi iit^rat, k.t.X. Justin IX. 4*: super haec Alexandnim filium 
com amico AnEipalro, qui pacem cum hii amicitiamque iungeret. Diod. xvi. 87. 

' Paus- VII. 10, 5: ^AdTfcaTpf yip /ari r& i/rirjc^fja t6 ir Bihwr«i ttix iyivom 
*M.-rtov KaHiKooi. That Philip must have bound himself neither to enter Attica with 
an army nor the Piraeus with warships, Schaefer, III. 17, iS> argues from [Dem.] XVll. 
16, 18, TO Si ippaTuniTa,Tmr,,,Twii Uaic(I6i'Hr...Ti ToKitijffcu tlfrXtOvu tit rAr Ilttpaia 
rapi rdf (wrtki 4^ *pit ahoii avrS-^at. But this has no reference to the land. 



Oropus, which hat! been taken from Thebes, was now at length restored 
to Athens'. This settlement of an ancient dispute, though it was in 
£iivour of Athens, must have been an unwelcome concession at this 
moment, especiatly to those who had recently welcomed Thebes as a 
friend and ally. Athens was to hold certain islands, among which were 
Salamis, Samos, and Delos'; but all trace of her recent alliance and 
all thought of maritime empire had disappeared for evei*. Philip 
left it open to her to join the general Greek League which he 
proposed to form, and of which he was to be the head. This step 
would sacrifice the independence of Athens in many points, and we 
do not know what arguments were used to induce her to become a 
member. But in the absence of Demosthenes, and in spite of 
scruples of Phocion, who asked for more time to consider tbe 
question, the Assembly adopted the proposals of Demades in full, 
and these made Athens a member of the League*. By this step, 
which was probably a necessary one under the circumstances, Athena 
ceased to have any independent political existence; and the peace 
of Demades ends her history as a free state and as a power in the 
Hellenic worid. 

82. The feeling of Demosthenes about this peace after eight years' 
experience is seen in Cor. § 89. While he doubtless acquiesced quietly 
in it at the beginning', he never forgot the bitter humiliation. Undar 
the influence of this quiet submission to Philip's authority, cloaked 
under tbe name of independence, the Macedonian party, with Aeschines 

' See Schol. to Dem. Coi. 99 (p. 159, 10). Demades frag. 1. 9 (Didol)j lypof^a, 
KoI ^XJrrfi nfii.'i- ain ipmiiiai. liaxAlaul yap aix^'oXiirnvt iriv Xiit/md- ml x^'^ 
ToXiTuw a-ii/wTa x<*f'> 'Vpvai laL rtt '(Ipwirdv Srtv irptvfitiat XofSwi' 6f^ raOr' 
lypa-^ This seems lo imply thai Philip included the transfer of Oiopus in his 
original message sent by Demades (see Schaefer iii. 37). 

■ For the islands left lu Athens see SchaeCei iii. tS, a. i. 

' Paus. I. 15, 5: ri yip inixil'^ Ti ir Xajfurilf iwan riA "EXXifrir i^t nuuG*... 
'Atfitro/Mi St \iyif twSiiarn (sc. 4>lXirrDt} tfrpf ir^f /idXurra itAtavt, r^vin rt 
AiptKiittm not tQi ^i rft ravrixt vaisai ipx^^- Of course Athens now lost her control 
of the HelJespont, with the Chersonese and Byzantium. 

* Plut. Phoc. 16: 4 8* (»C. ♦uiclw») tV ^r IWipi ToC ♦tM»rou ro^inUa mU 
^Xar0purtlcu' ^htp Stir wpeatixfitie* ' &.itiiiSov SI ypiifiarm Stmi 4 ri^t fuWxot 
Tift jTMi^ itp^TTii jrot ToO nuvtSpiov TcHt "B^t)vir, oiK da T^ roD yrSvu tIm 4(Xirr«l 
airif -ywArfloi rapi rile'EXXiJ^u* i(u!iafi.. See [Dem.] XVii. 30: ipsffT^ypaaroi to« 
nptffjcnt, Mv ^ovKii/irSa rqi iwr^ tlfiptii nfrix'"'! which Schaefer [ill. 19, n. 3) 
refers to Uiis question : cf. Suidai, Demades (5) fyjia^ Si ml ft^«|iui ry MUvry 
Toit 'EftAqvat ixamitii'. 

' Demosthenes, Cor. 331. refers to the good foitnne of Athens in escaping tbe 
late of Thebes. 



at its head, again became powerful at Athens*. It was then that it was 
safe for the whole herd of the enemies of Demosthenes to persecute him 
with every form of process which was known to the Attic law, when 
(as he says) he was " brought to trial every day." But he mentions 
this only to testify to the affection of his fellow citizens, who always 
acquitted him in the popular courts, and thus justified his conduct in the 
most effective manner*. Indeed, though the party of Aeschines then 
had the courage to speak its sentiments more freely than ever before', 
and in so doing gained the &vour of Philip and his partizans, the sober 
sense of the people always recc^ized the services of men like Demos- 
thenes in better times and expressed itself whenever an occasion offered. 
There was no testimony of the public esteem and affection which De- 
mosthenes valued more highly than the choice of the people in makii^ 
him their orator to deliver the eulogy on the heroes of Chaeronea^ Here 
the genuine feeling of patriotic gratitude to the man who had fought the 
battle of Grecian liberty almost single-handed impelled the citizens to 
reject all candidates who were in sympathy with Philip or his cause, 
including Aeschines and even Demades, and to choose the man who was 
most heartily identified with the lost cause for which these heroes had 
died And the same public respect for Demosthenes and for his honest 
and unswerving devotion to what was now seen more clearly than ever 
to have been the cause of Grecian Uberty, the cause which had made 
their ancestors glorious, was shown in the overwhelming vote by which 
the popular court acquitted Ctesiphon and condemned Aeschines, at the 
very moment when such a judgment might have been deemed a public 
defiance of Alexander's authority, when the whole Greek world was 
ringing with the news of the victory of Arbela. 

' Dem. Cor. jto. * Ibid. 148—150. 




384 — 3S3. ffirth of Demosthenes and (probably) Aristotle (§ 8)'. 
381—381. Birth of Philip of Macedon (g 3). 
379 — 378- Spartan garrison expelled from Theban Cadmea. 
378 — 377. Fonnation of new maritime confederacy of Athens. 

Financial reforms of Nausinicus. Introduction of sym- 

morics for the property tax. 
376 — 375. Death of Demosthenes, father of the orator. Guardians 

^pointed for the son. (§ 8.) 
Battle of Naxos (Sept 376). 
37' — 370- Battle of Leuctra. (July 371). 
366 — 365, Demosthenes comes of age at 18: devotes two years to 

preparation for the lawsuit against his guardians, under 

legal advice of Isaeus (g 8). 
364 — 363. Trial of suit against Aphobus (^ 9, 10). 
363 — 361. Battle of Mantinea and death of Epaminondas (§ i). 

Suit of Demosthenes against Onetor (§ 10). 
359 — 358. Accession of Philip of Macedon (g 3). 

Artaxerxes III. (Ochus) becomes king of Persia. 
358 — 357. Establishment of symmories for the trierarchy by law <A 

357 — 356. Athenian expedition to Euboea and freedom of the island 

from the Thebans (§ 2). Outbreak of Social War 

(autumn of 357) (§ 2}. Philip captures Amphipolis, 

which leads to war with Athens (§ 3). He takes Pydna 

and Potidaea from Athens, gives Potidaea to Olynthus, 

and founds Philippi (§ 3). 
356—355 — Birth of Alexander the Great, July 21, 356 (g 3). 

Beginning of Sacred (Phocian) War : seizure of temple of 

Delphi by Philomelus (§§ 4, 5). 
End of Social War, spring of 355 (§ a). 
355 — 354- Speeches of Demosthenes against Androtion and against 

LepUnes(§ n). 

' The references in ( J are nude to secliotu of the Hiitorieal Sketch. 



354 — 353. Enbulus takes direction of finances of Athens. 

Speech of Demosthenes on the Symmories (§ 11). 
Fhilomelus killed. Sacred War continued by Onomarchus. 

Spoliation of temple of Delphi. (§ 5.) 
353 — 35*- Philip takes Methone ftom Athens (g 3). 

He attacks and defeats Lycophron of Pherae ; has battles 

with Phayllus and Onomarchus, and finally defeats 

Onomarchus, who is slain. Philip secures control of 

Gulf of Pagasae. {§ 6.) 
Speeches of Demosthenes against Timocrates and for the 

Megalopolitans (g 11). 
Athens sends force to Thermopylae and closes the pass 

to Philip, before midsummer 353 (g 7). 
35a — 351. Philip besieges Heraion Teichos in Thrace, Nov. 352 (g 12). 

First Philippic of Demosthenes, spring of 351 (§ 12). 
331 — 350. Speech of Demosthenes for the Rhodians (g t3). 

Athens sends Phodon with an army to help PluUrchus 

in Euboea (Feb. 350). Battle of Tamynae (March). 

(S ■4.) 
Midias assaults Demosthenes at the Great Dionysia (March 

350), and is condemned by vote of the Assembly (§ 15). 
349 — 348. Demosthenes Senator (Schaefer II. 116). He writes speech 

against Midias, not delivered (g 15). 
Philip attacks the Olynthian confederation and besieges 

Olynthus. Alliance of Olynthus with Athens (g 16). 

Demosthenes delivers his three Olynthiacs (§ 17). Philip 

sends peaceful messages to Athens and releases Phrynon 

(8 -S)- 

348 — 347. Philocrates proposes negotiations for peace with Philip, is 
indicted therefor and acquitted (§ iS). 
Olynthus captured by Philip, with all its confederate towns 
(early autumn of 348): consternation throughout Greece 
(S16, 19)- 
Mission of Aristodemus to Philip (g ig). 
Movement of Enbulus and Aeschines against Philip, and 
embassies to Greek states (§§ 30, 21). 
347 — 346'. Themistocles Archon at Athens. Demosthenes again 
Senator (§g 19, 38). 
' For the division of moiiths in 347 — 34G B.c, and the dales according to oui 
Calendar, see pp. 306, 307. 



347 — 346. Aristodemus returns with friendly messages from Philip, 
and is crovned on motion of Demosthenes (g 19)- 

Thebans and Phocians both exhausted by Sacied War. 
Phocians ask aid from Athens (early in 346), but reject 
it when sent. (^ 33, 24.) 

On motion of Philocrates {Fell. 346). ten envoys are sent 
to Philip to propose negotiations for peace (First 
Embassy). Envoys return end of March. (^ 35 — 38.) 

Two meetings of Assembly, to discuss terms of peace with 
Philip's envoys, iSth and [9th of Elaphebolion (April 
i5i '6). 346 : peace formally voted on second day. 
(§§ »9-37-) 

Same envoys sent again to Philip, to ratify the peace 
(Second Embassy) (§ 3S). 

Meeting of Assembly on sgth of Elaphebolion (April 32), 
Demosthenes presiding (g 38). 

Address of Isocrates to Philip (^Annrot). 

Decree of Senate ordering the departure of the Embassy, 
3rd of Munychion (April 29) (§ 39). 

Return of Embassy to Athens, 1 3th of Scirophorion (July 7). 
ReporU to Senate and Assembly. Philip already at 
Thermopylae. Assembly votes (16th of Sdr., July 10) 
to compel the Phocians to deliver the temple of Delphi 
to "the Amphictyons." (Sg 43 — ^45.) 

Ten envoys (Third Embassy) sent by Athens to Thermo- 
pylae, to report the action of the Assembly to Philip : 
they depart about the aist of Scirophorion (July 15). 
(^ 4S. 47-) 

Phalaecus surrenders Thermopylae to Philip 33rd of Sciroph. 
(July 17). The Athenian envoys hear this news at 
Chalcis and return. Meeting of Assembly in Piraeus 
(a7th of Scir,, July »i). Embassy ordered to proceed 
to Thermopylae, and departs at once, (gg 46 — 48.) 

End of Sacred War. 

Demosthenes and Timarchus begin proceedings against 

Aeschines for rapawp€vPna. 

34ti — 345. Archias Archon. Philip summons Amphictyonic Council, 

which expels the Phocians and gives their two votes to 

Philip. Terrible punishment of the Phocians. (§ 48.) 

Philip celebrates the Pj-thian games (Sept 346). Am- 



phictyonic deputation sent to Athens to demand 
recc^nition of Philip's position in the Council Speech 
of Demosthenes on the Peace. (^ 49, 50.) 
346 — 345. Prosecution (by hrayyiiJa SoKifuuruit) of Timarchus by 

Aeschines (winter). See Essay IV. § 2. 
345 — 344- Philip establishes a dccadarchy in Thessaly. He inter- 
feres in disputes in Peloponnesus : Demosthenes sent as 
envoy to counteract his influence. (§ 51.) 
344 — 343. Second Philippic of Demosthenes (late in 344). Con- 
tinued influence of Philip in Peloponnesus : attack on 
Megara. (§52.) 

Trial and condemnation of Antiphon (g 53). 

Prosecution of Philocrates on thrayytKia by Hyperides and 
his eitile (before midsummer 343). See Essay IV. § 4. 

Case of temple of Detos before Amphictyonic Council : 
Hyperides advocate of Athens (g 54). 

Misdon of Python to Athens (before midsummer 343). 
Discussion of the peace and of the claim of Athens to 
Halonnesus. (§ 55.) 
343 — 343. Philip's intrigues in Euboea : he supports tyrants at 
Eretria and Oreus. Chalcis, under lead of Callias and 
Taurosthenes, friendly to Athens. (§ 58.) 

Trial and acquittal of Aeschines on charge of irapa'Tptir^tia 
(late summer of 343). See Essay IV, 

Philip invades Epinis (winter), and threatens Ambracia 
and Acamania. On his return he establishes tetrarchs 
in Thessaly. (^ 59, 60.) 

Philip's letter to Athens about Halonnesus and modi- 
fications of the peace. Speech of Hegesippus on Halon- 
nesus (Dem. vii.). (^ 56, 57.) 

Aristotle made tutor of Alexander (§ 60). 
34a^34t. Philip extends his power in the Thradan Chersonese, and 
comes into conflict with the Athenian general, Diopithes. 
Speech on the Chersonese and Third Philippic of Demos- 
thenes (before midsummer 341). (^ 61, 63.) 
341 — 340. Mission of Demosthenes to Byzantium (summer): alliance 
of Athens and Byzantium. Embassies to Persia, Rhodes, 
and Peloponnesus. (§ 63.) 

Expeditions of Athens to Euboea, which overthrow tyrants 
in Oreus and (later) in Eretria (§ 64). 



341 — 340. Anaxinus of Oreus executed as a spy at Athens (§ 65). 

League against Philip formed by Demosthenes and 
Callias of Chalcis (^ 63, 64). 

Demosthenes crowned at the Great Dionysia for his 
success in hberating Euboea (g 64). 

The people of Peparetbus seize Halonnesus and make the 
Macedonian garrison prisoners. Phihp in return ravages 
Peparethus. {§ 66.) (Date ?) 
340 — 339. Theophrastus Archon. Philip besieges Perinthus by land 
and sea (late summer of 340) : in the autumn he raises 
this siege and attacks Byzantium. (§67,) He writes to 
the Athenians (before the attack on Byzantium), and 
makes an open declaration of war, which Athens at 
once accepts (§ 68). Two fleets sent by Athens to 
relieve Byzantium: si^e raised by Philip ^ 67). Athe- 
nian merchant ships captured by Philip (g 68): nominal 
ground for declaring war. 

Philip attacks the Thracian Chersonese, and then (winter) 
invades Scythia. Returning with large booty, he is 
attacked by the Triballi and wounded. (§| 67, 69.) 

Speech of Aeschines at Delphi (sprit^ of 339), which stirs 
up the Amphissian War (§ 71). 
339 — 33^- Amphictyonic Council (early autumn of 339) chooses 
Philip general for the Amphissian War (§ 75). Shortly 
afterwards PhiUp passes Thermopylae and seizes Elatea 
(§ 76). 

Negotiations between Athens and Thebes, ending in 
alliance against Philip (g 77). 

Campaign (winter and spring): allies victorious in "winter 
battle" and "river battle." Capture of mercenaries and 
destruction of Amphissa by Philip. (§ 78.) 
338 — 337. Battle of Chacronea, 7th Metageitnion 338 (August z or 
September i): utter defeat of the allies (gg 79, 80). 

Peace of Demades (§81), 

Demosthenes deUvers the eulogy on those who fell in the 
battle (§ 8z). 
337 — 33^- Demosthenes director of the Theoric Fund and t«xo- 

Ctesiphon proposes to crown Demosthenes at the Great 
Dionysia (spring of 336). Aeschines brings a fpa^ 



V against Ctesiphon. (The case came to trial 
six years later.) 
337 — 336' Philip assassinated, summer of 336. Alexander succeeds 

335 — 334- Rebellion of Thebes, Alexander captures and destroys 
the city (autumn of 335). 
Alexander demands the delivery of Demosthenes, Lycurgus, 

Hyperides, and other Athenian orators. 
Aristotle returns to Athens and teaches in the Lyceum. 
331 — 330. Alexander's victory at Arbela (Oct i, 331). 

Rebellion of Spartan King Agis (early in 330), crushed 
by Antipater. 
330 — 329- Aristophon Archon. Trial of suit of Aeschines against 
Ctesiphon (August 330). Ctesiphon acquitted by more 
than four-fifths of the votes. 
334 — 323. Demosthenes condemned to a fine of 50 talents for com- 
plicity in the affair of Harpalus. Unable to pay the 
fine, he went to prison, and afterwards into exile. 
Death of Alexander the Great (May, 323) at Babylon. 
333 — 331. Triumphant recall of Demosthenes from exile. 
332. Death of Aristode at Chalcis, autumn of 332. 

Death of Hyperides October g, and of Demosthenes 
October la, 322. 

The Attic Year. 

During the period with which we are here concerned, the Athenians 
generally had a lunar year of 354 days, consisting of twelve months, 
alternately of 30 and 29 days, equivalent to I3 lunar months of 
29^ days each. The longer months were called vXi|f)«f ^^vct, the 
shorter icotXoi ^^vn. This fell short of the solar year by iij days, the 
difference in eight years amounting to 90 days. This was regulated by 
the cumbrous device of making the third, fifth, and eighth year in each 
cycle of eight years (oKracn^pK) a leap year with 384 days, thus making 
the number of days in each cycle correct. (Thus (354 " 5) + (384 x 3) 
- 292 2 - 365^ X 8.) The slight errors which remained were equated in 
various ways. The natural beginning of the Attic year was the summer 
solstice ; but the great difference in the length of the years allowed the 
beginning to vary from about June 16 to August 7. 

The twelve months in the ordinary year were as follows: i Heca- 
tombaeon, 3 Metageitnion, 3Boedromion, 4Pyanepsion, 5 Maemacterion, 



6 Posideon, 7 Gamdion, 8 Anthesterion, 9 Elaphebolion, 10 Munychion, 
II Thai^elion, 13 Scirophorion. In the leap years & month of thirty 
days, Posideon II., was intercalated after Posideon. The same 
months appear to have been a-^vp^is and koIXoi in different years. The 
first day of every month was generally called vau^ip/ia^ and the bst day 
\vr( KOI viiL, old and new \ the latter name, which probably was first 
applied to the full months, showing that the thirtieth day In these 
months belonged equally to the old and the new month. The days 
from the and to the 9th were called Scvr^oo, rpiTij, etc, sometimes with 
'taya^imm or &pyfi^av (sc. ^ipo%) added ; the loth was the Sfxat ; those 
from the nth to the 19th were called rpwrij, 8cur^ etc, with hri Sera 
or fMo-owTot added, though this could be omitted when it was obvious 
that the middle of the month was meant. The 20th was the ^Uia; and 
the days from the zist to the ^9th in the full months were generally 
counted backwards, hnart^ ^ivovroi (sist), bir^, ^78017, etc to Stvripa 
^StrovTiK (29nd, 33rd, etc. to 39th). It is generally thoi^ht that the 
Scvrcpa •^voiTCK was omitted in the "hollow" months j but Usener 
thinks that the harrt ^ivovroi dropped out'. 

The following is a possible statement of the arrangement of the 
thirteen months in 347 — 346 B.C., in which the peace of Fhilocrates was 
made. This was a leap year of 384 days, beginning July 6 and ending 
July 34. Other arrangements are possible and perhaps equally probable; 
but these would not affect any of the dates by more than a single day*. 

347—346 B.C. 
(384 days.) 

1. Hecatombaeon (30 days) begins July fi, 347 B.C. 

2. Melageitnion (39 „ ) „ August 5 „ 

3. Boedromion (30 „ ) „ Sept. 3 „ 

■ See Rhein. Mas. xxxiv. 419 -. see Hiit. J 46, note 5. The above outline U based 
on Boedih't elaborate inve«ligalion, Zur Geschichu dec Mondcyden der Hdlenen, 
in the Jahtbikber fur Clus. Fhilol. (N. F.), SuppL Bd i., Heft 1 (itljj). Though 
many of the details of IhU system, as Boeckb staled it, have been disputed or cor- 
rected, its general principle sliii remains the basis of our knowledge of this diUFIcult 
and complicated subject. 

' In this airaogement the system of equivalent days adopted by Schaefer ha& been 
reg;arded, except in the dates after the 10th of Sdrophorion, where he assumeii that 
this month has only 19 days, and follows Usener in omitting the Mrt) ^Blmnat. But 
Scbaefei. who rightly makes Ihc itith of Sdroph. =July 10, should by hii system 
make the 19th of Sciioph. (which would be the last daj of 347 — 346)=July 13, so 
that the new year would begin July 14 ; whereas it begun July 15, according to Boeckh, 
p. iS, and also according to Schaefer, tl. p. 995, note 1. 


II.] THE 7pa^ vopofOlMav. 317 

stages: (i) after its acceptance by the Seoate, (3) after passing the 
Assembly, (3) after the lapse of a year from its proposal'. 

a. The distinction between a voy,iK and a ^i^ta^ at Athens was 
roost important'. A <^^ia^ was an enactment of the Senate and 
Assembly (or of the Assembly alone when the Senate had given it autho- 
rity to act by itself), which, if it was not in conflict with any higher 
authority, had the full force of a law. A fd/MC could be changed only by 
an elaborate process, which was chiefly under the control of a body of 
Heliastic judges, who acted as a court rather than as a legislative body. 
In the first meeting of the Assembly in each year a general question was 
put to the people, whether they would permit propositions to be made 
for changes in the laws, those who had such propositions to make 
having doubtless infonned the Assembly whw changes were to be 
proposed- The people might refuse to allow such propositions to be 
made, which ended the matter for that year. If they voted to permit 
them, all who had such proposals to make were required to post written 
notices of them before the statues of the Eponymi (the heroes from whom 
the ten tribes were named) in the market-place, and also to give copies 
of these to the clerk of the Assembly, who read the proposals to the 
people in each of the two following meetings of the Assembly. In 
the last of these meetings (the third one of the year), the people, if after 
consideration they saw fit, voted to refer the proposed changes in the 
laws to a special commission, called vo/ioOiriu, chosen like an ordinary 
court (Suaurr^punt) from those who were qualified to sit as judges for 
that year and had taken the Heliastic oath. The whole proceeding 
before this board was conducted according to the fonns of law. The 
proposer of the new law appeared as plaintiff and argued his case 
against the old law and for his own proposal, while advocates appointed 
by the state defended the existing law. The question of enacting the 
new law or retaining the existing one was decided by a vote of the 
vonoOiriu, which, if favourable to the new law, made that one of the 
fixed code of vo/iot. It was strictly commanded by the Solonic law, 
that no new law should be enacted unless all laws opposed to it were 
expressly repealed ; and, further, that no law should be repealed unless 
a new law were proposed, and accepted by the vo/iotfcrat as suitable and 
fitting (tinnj8*ios) to take its place'. 

' For further details of the ypa^ rapa*&iiut see Meier and Schomaiin, Alt. Proc. 
pp. *i8— 437. 

* See Tarbell in Am. Journal of Philol. X. pp. 79 — 83. 

' See Schonuuin, Giiech. Alterth. 1. pp. 411 — 414, English Itansl. 387 — 39a; 
Thnnuer- Hermann, Staatsalt. g 91, pp. 515— 530. See 3 (o (below). 


3i8 SSSAVS. [ii. 

3. It was only natural, as the democracy increased in power, that 
the distinction between decrees and laws should be neglected, and that 
the sovereign people should pass decrees which usurped the functions of 
laws and violated the spirit, if not the letter, of existing laws. We find 
in the orators many intimations that this was a growing evil. Against 
this dangerous tendency the ypo^^ mipavofuov was the only legal 
security. We cannot wonder, therefore, that this is extolled as the great 
stronghold of constitutional liberty, the chief protection of free govern- 
ment against lawless demagogues. Even Aeschines, who had done as 
much as any man to degrade the process, speaks of it aS we speak of 
the habeas <orpus*. It is a most significant fact that one of the first 
steps taken by the oligarchs who were establishing the government of 
Four Hundred in 411 B.C. was the suspension of the fpa^ Trapayi^mv*. 

4. The principle upon which the fpa,^ mipavdfiwv is based mus: 
always be recognized wherever the legislative power is limited by a 
superior code of laws or 3 written constitution to which all its enact- 
ments must conform. In such a case the all^iance of every citizen is 
due, first and foremost, to the superior law, as the supreme law of the 
land, and he cannot legally be compelled to obey tlie lower enactment. 
But as each citizen cannot be allowed to decide for himself whether an 
act of the legislature is or is not in harmony with the superior law, the 
decision must be entrusted to some tribunal which has authority to 
prevent a citizen from suffering unjustly if he disobeys an Olegal enact- 
ment, and also to prevent the law from being disobeyed at the cajtrice 
of individuals. 

5. This principle was first recognized, so far as we know, in the 
Athenian ypo^ inipara^uuv. Precisely the same principle is at the basis 
of what is now known as " the American doctrine of Constitutional 
Law," under which the Supreme Court of the United States has the 
power to declare acts of Congress or of the state legislatures unconstitu- 
rional and to treat them as without authority'. The Constitution of the 

' See Aesch. in. 3 — 8: it twoXrii-frai pifm t^i xoXij-tfot, ol rw wnpathpiar 
ypa^ai. el ii TatVrat KaTa\6irFrt....rp6>tiy<ii iitir Sn \fttm nard itapif r^ nXircfaf 
Turt wapaxfp^i"'"" if)- See ihe whole passage. 

• Thuc. Vin. 67: iiriteirKW 4XXo fiir oiiir, otW-J U roOro, jfcwoi uir itiiuw 
tlirttr ytii/tip' 17V ir rii ^wlXirrat' TJr Si Tii ri* ttrim ^ Ypd^ijrsi rapariftwi' 
1; iWif Tif Tf>6wif p\ii^, ^MTdXat i>)fiiat t-rtetsiw. So Aristot. Pol. Ath. 19". 

' The Supieme Courti o( the several states have the aame right of declaring 
unconstitutional and null acts of their own slate legislatures, as canSicting with 
either the state constitution or the V.S. constitution. There is an appeal 10 the 
U.S. Supreme Court in the lauer case, but only when the state court upholds the 
state law. 


II.] THE Ypa^ wapaa^iJMV. 319 

United States, the solemn compact by which thirteen originally in- 
dependent states were united in a single nation, is declared in one of 
its own articles to be "the gupreroe law of the land," to which all 
legislation of Congress or of the several states must confonn'. An 
amendment, ratified in 1791, provides that "the powers not delegated 
to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the 
states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people." In the 
working of this dual system of legislation and responsibility, questions 
soon arose which called for the exercise of judicial authority to determine 
whether an act of Congress or of a state legislature was in conflict with 
the Federal Constitution, or whether an act of Congress usurped powers 
which the Constitution reserved to the states. This authority was 
plainly vested in the Federal courts, especially in the Supreme Court as 
the highest court of appeal in the land. The power came by direct 
descent from the colonial period, when royal charters, to which the 
colonial legislation must conform, stood in the position of written 
constitutions. The colonial courts could declare laws null which were 
opposed to the superior auUioiity, and in certain cases the King in 
Council by decree exercised the same rights After the revolution, 
before the Constitution was ratified, several states adopted the old 
chartets as temporary constitutions, and the state courts sometimes 
declared laws null which did not conform to these i this, however, was 
not allowed without grave opposition *. 

6. It is a mistake to suppose that the Supreme Court can declare 
an act of Congress unconstitutional and void on its own morion. Not 
only can it not do this, but it cannot declare an act unconstitutional 
simply because it is asked to do so by petition. To enable it to act on 
a constitutional question, a case must come before it in the ordinary 
course of litigation, generally when a person who feels aggrieved by the 
operation of a law which he belie^'es to be unconstitutional appeals from 
the decision of a lower court on this point and thus brings the constitu- 

' Const, of U.S. Art. 6: "This conslitulioD, and the laws of the United Stales 
nude in pursuance thereof,... shall he (he supreme law of the l&nd; and the judges in 
every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the constitution or laws of Buy slate (o 
the contiaiy notwithstanding." 

* A deciee of the King in Council, annulling a provincial act of nearly thirty years' 
standing, issued Feb. 15, 1717-18, is given in the Massachusetts Hist. Collections, 
Series VI. vol. 5, pp. 496 — 509. 

' For (he whole subject of American Constitutional Law, see Bryce, Am. Common- 
wealth t. Chap. 13; and J. B. Thayer, Am. Doctrine of Constitutional La«-, Boston, 


320 ESSAYS. [ii. 

tional question directly before the Supreme Court in such a way that it 
must be decided. The decision, though nominally affecting only the 
legality of the appellant's action in disobeying the law, really settles the 
whole question of the validity of the law itself; and it stands as a valid 
precedent, which all courts must lecogoize, unless it is reversed by a 
different decision on another case'. It is, moreover, a recognized 
principle in such cases, that a law is not to be declared unconstitutional 
unless the judges are convinced that it is so beyond all reasonable 
doubt. A Federal judge might with perfect consistency refuse to set 
aside a law as unconstitutional when as a legislator he had voted against 
it on this very ground*. 

7. In the comparison which we are making, the decrees of the 
Athenian Senate and Assembly correspond to the laws of the U.S. 
Congress, and the Solonic laws of Athens to the U.S. Constitution. 
The dangers of a democracy which is not kept in balance by the 
constant pressure of a higher law, keeping the ordinary legislation in 
check, were never stated more clearly than by Aristotle in his discussion 
of constitutional and unconstitutional democracy*. His third and fourth 
forms of democracy are those in which alt citizens, or all who are 
itttnmif^nw, can hold ofRce, while law rules (Spxtw Si roc vo/iov). The 
fifth and lowest form is that in which, other conditions being the same, 
" the multitude and not the law is supreme ; and this is when decrees 
and not the law are supreme." " There," he says, " the people has 
become a monarch, one composed of many; and it seeks to exercise 
monarchical power because it is not ruled by law, and so becomes 
despotic." "Such a democracy," he adds, "is related to other demo- 
cracies as tyranny to other monarchies, both having the same character, 
and both wielding a despotic power over the better part of the state ; 
its decrees are like the tyrant's edicts*." The former is a constitu- 

' A bwer Federal Court can declare a law unconstitutional, and Ihe deddon 
naturally stands as a precedent In the court which made it, and Tor other courts of 
the same grade, as legards the case in question, unless it is reversed on appeal to the 
Supreme Court. 

' See Thayer, ibid. pp. 13 — i6. 

' Aristot. Pol. VI. (IV.) +, Si «— 18. 

* Aristot. ibid. 39 14 — 18: ripmr 3' eJnu nt rX^^ot ncJ ^i) ri» rj^iw reirre St 
■ylytTOi tray rd ^nf^itr/iaTa nipia i iWi fii) i r6iioi..,.iiirafx.i» yip i i^iBt yirtriu, 

fij} if^ttrBai {jvb wt^iov^ ical ytrtrtu StffraTiKif....Kal fffrw 6 Tmouroi S^fAot drdXoyoir ruir 
li/mp)!!^ rg rvpanrHt. Jti jcoi ri jl9at ri airri xaX i/t^ ScffTarind Tur ptKnbmar, 
hbX Tit ^0fv^ra ^tnp iKii ri iwiTiyfiaTO. AristotJe derives the government which 
he calls SirroruH) ifoci from the slaveholder's power over his slave: see PoL III. S, 1.. 


II.] THE YP"^ »af>a»no/i4ii'. 331 

tional democracy, with the power of the people to pass decrees limited 
by a -fixed code of laws ; the latter is an unconstitutional democracy, 
which gives the people full power to enact whatever they please, subject 
to no restrainf from any superior law which can enforce its authority 
through the courts. The supremacy of constitutional law, as Aristotle 
clearly saw, is the one great security which distinguishes a safe demo- 
cracy from a dangerous one ; and the United States have constant reason 
to bless the foresight which provided them with this protection in their 
original compact'. 

8. Though France, Germany, Switzerland, and other countries have 
written constitutions, they make no use of the principle which we are 
considering, except that in Germany and (under some limitations) 
in Switzerland the Federal courts may declare a state or cantonal law 
invahd if it conflicts with the Federal constitution. In England no 
such constitutional questions can arise for the courts to consider, 
because Parliament, the only legislative power, is absolute, and recc^- 
nizes no law superior to its own'. As Bryce says, "what are called in 
England constitutional statutes, such as Magna Charta, the Bill of 
Rights, the Act of Settlement,.. .are merely ordinary laws which could 
be repealed by Parliament at any moment in exactly the same way as it 
can repeal a h^hway act or lower the duty on tobacco." Parliament, 
he adds, " can abolish when it pleases any institution of the country, the 
Crown, the House of Lords, the Established Church, the House of 
Commons, Parliament itself." The ypa^ mipavopue, therefore, has no 
analogy in the English Constitution. It is obvious that England, with 
her more conservative form of government, yet lacks one check upon 
possible radical legislation, which has proved so effective, and yet so 
simple, under a pure democracy in the United States. Congress could 
not, except by an act of revolution, deprive the President of any of his 

firrt a Tvpari'ls fi^i tAariipj(tii ieffiroTuci] rQi voXtnjr^i jrotvuffaT, and I. }r, ], 01^ Tti^bf 
ten itrroTtia lai roXiTUn}....!^ nir ytLfi iXtuS4puiir ^ittt, 4 ii SaCiKar iarlr. 

' There is do reason for ihinkiog (hal the example of the ypa^j) ■n.parbnar even 
remotely suggested the U.S. system; and the analogy between the two is not 
mentioned, so iar as I am aware, by any writer on the U.S. Constitution. The 
earliest reference to the subject which I have seen in print is in an excellent article in 
the Yale Review for May, 1893, on "An Athenian Parallel to a Function of our 
Supreme Court," by Professor T. D. Goodell of New Haven. The striking parallel 
can, however, hardly have escaped the notice of American classical scholais ; and I 
cannot have been alone in using it, as I have done for the past twenty years or more, 
in explaining the YP<>M rapavAjiug* to collie classes. 

^ See Biyce, Am. Commonwealth r. 137, ]j8, 154, 171, 430; and Thayer, Am. 
Doctr. of Const. Law, 4. 

G. D, 


3*3 SSSAVS. [n. 

prerogatives, or impair in the least the rights of its two houses, or 
interfere with the power of the Supreme Court to annul unconstitutional 
legislation when a case comes before it in the course of litigation. 

9- The ypa^V 'TopavD^iwv legally turaed on the simple question of 
the agreement or disagreement of a given law or decree with the existing 
laws, and the court had strictly no legal right to consider the general 
quesdOD of the expediency or even the justice of the enactment which 
was on trial. Nevertheless, the arguments in such cases abound in 
appeals to the court to reject a law because it is inexpedient or unjust ; 
and there can be no doubt that such questions were an important part 
of the case which the judges considered. But such a natural extension 
of a counsel's privilege cannot weigh against definite statements on the 
other side made by the orators'. It could not be expected that a 
litigant or advocate in Athens, addressing a large body of judges, of 
whom few could even understand a strictly legal argument, should not 
try to impress them with a conviction that he had justice and expediency, 
as well as law, on his side. We can easily pardon an Athenian orator 
for availing himself of this aid, when such arguments are frequently 
addressed to the U.S. Supreme Court by eager counsel on questions of 
pure constitutional law, and when even the judges in giving their 
decisions sometimes enforce their legal judgments by considerations (d 

lo. It has sometimes been thought that a decree or a law could 
be indicted by the ypa^ wapavoiuuv as inexpedient (ofcrtTiiSnoi')*. 
But we now know from Aristotle's Constitution of Athens that the 
ypa^^ idv rn f£^ tmr^uov $^ vofMw was a distinct process from the 
ypaiftri vapavofuav, and it is probably the one to which the doubtful law 
quoted in Demosth. xxiv, 33 refers, by which any one who procured the 
repeal of a law and neglected to substitute for it a new law which was 
fitting fia-iTiJSfiov) could be indicted by a special process ". 

' See Aesch. 111. 199, aoo: iartf ytp it rj TtJCTWocp, Jr-a* tlSirai ^Aii^Sa rt 
dpMi' KOi ri liii, -rir Korira rpof^pontf..., olh-u mii ir TUi Y|>af<ui roft rvr rapariiiur 
rapdKHTai inuur tbC Suiafau twrl rb earltioi', Kol ib '^ifpiaiia col ol mparftyfopitihoi 
rhiuji. TaOra avinfiairw/m dXX^Xoii inStliat tarifiaar, Cf. 191, tQi; Dem. XXIII. 
100. lor ; and see Meier and Schomann 431 and notes; Gilbert, Gr. Slaatsalu 1, 
p. 184, n. I : Thnmser-Hennann, Scaatsalt. | 91. n. 1. 

* 'I'his view has been defended by such passages as Pol[. viii. j6, frrufMvJa U 
IvTi* tra* Tii ^ ^-^^uFfui ^ vj^uv ypa^iyTa. ypiifninu in irfiiifiaaii, with VIII. 44, 
and Lycui^. Leoc. 7. Meier and Schomann lefer all these lo the custom of inlrodncing 
extraneous mattei inio ai^menu on the 7|h^ rafarbiunf. 

> Aristot. Pol. Ath. 59' (see Sandys's note) ; Dem. xxiv, jj (law), tir U rti Xiirat 
nri TOP riiii^y Tur utiii^ur, trtpar dmB^fii] Irir/fiiuiw Ti} tifuf Tif 'ABipiaiuf iirarrlcr 


II.] THE ypo^ mpo»oiM»v. 333 

11. It may seem strange to compare the solemn action of the 
U.S. Supreme Court in deciding a question of constitutional law with 
the trial of a citizen at Athens, before a court consisting of 501, 1001, 
or 1501 ordinary men, chosen by lot from the great body of citizens, 
for proposing an unconstitutional decree or law. Both courts, however, 
have the same solemn duty to perform, that of deciding whether a 
given enactment is or is not in conflict with a superior code. Athens, 
like the United States, assigned this duty to the highest court in her 
judicial system (to which the Areopagus hardly belonged). When we 
leave the fundamental principle and come to the details, the differences 
are more sCriliing. The most serious &ult in the Athenian process was 
its personal character as a crimioal suit, which any citizen could bring 
directly before the court, and the liability of the defendant to be 
punished at the discretion of the court by a line (sometimes set as high 
as 100 talents) or even by death. This of course embittered the whole 
process, which sometimes degenerated into a vituperative quarrel of 
rival litigants. This evil was to a great extent removed after the expi- 
ration of a year, when the process became a sober and dignified trial of 
a legal question, the nominal defendant being now exposed to no 
personal risk. We may fairly compare the arguments addressed to the 
judges in such cases (as in that of Leptines), after making due allowance 
for the composition of the court, with those addressed to modem judges 
in similar cases. 

12. Another important distinction came from the great mimber 
and variety of the matters dealt with in the Solonic law, compared with 
the few general principles laid down in the U.S. Constitution. This 
multiplied the cases of conflict (real or supposed) of decrees with 
laws, and made it more difficult to avoid conflicts in proposing decrees. 
And many of these conflicts related far less to serious questions of law 
than to petty details of legislation. The wide range of questions with 
which the ypa<t^ m^Mvofvov might be concerned, and the facility thus 
afforded for finding legal flaws in almost any decree, tempted un- 
principled men to use the process to vent their spite against personal 
enemies, and to stop or retard legislation which they could not otherwise 
check. We see, indeed, a decided degeneration in the conduct of this 
process from the earlier to the later cases. A brief comparison of the 
argument in these cases will illustrate this. In the years 355, 353, and 

T&p Kei/iir<ar rif, t4i ypa^i etrai mr" oiroC xari ror ri/ior fc iteiTai iiv TH iiij 
inriiifiat 9% rbiuni. This law, like oChen in the Timocratea, is often quoted as 
authentic, and UprobaUy so in substance; seeThnmser-Hennann, Staatsall. S91*. 


3^4 SSSAYS. [II. 

351 B.C. Demosthenes, as counsel, composed four elaborate arguments 
against the constitutionality of two laws and two decrees. 

(1) In 356 — 355 B.C. Leptincs carried a law providing that hereafter 
no exemption {ariXtia) from any of the ordinary' public burdens {lyKvKXtot 
Kjrnmftyiaif should be allowed, e.xcept to the descendants of Harmodius 
and Aristogiton. This law was indicted by the ypaift^ itapavofuav as 
soon as it was enacted, and its operation was suspended. The chief 
accuser fiathippus died, and the case went over into the following 
year (355 — 354), when Leptincs was free from personal responsibility'. 
There were now two prosecutors, Apsephion, son of Bathippus, and 
Ctesippus, son of the general Chabrias. Demosthenes made his argu- 
ment against the law as the representative {tnnnfYopot) of Ctesippus*. 
His speech is a i*vTtpo3^oyia, Phomiio, the advocate of Apsephion, as 
the elder man (or the advocate of the elder prosecutor) having spoken 
first : this accounts for the brevity with which Demosthenes speaks on 
some l^al points which Phormio had probably dwelt upon. Demos- 
thenes urges the following legal points*: — 

(a) The formalities for enacting a law required by the Solonic law 
(g 3 above) were not observed by Leptines. 

{b) The Solonic law requires that all gifts made by the people shall 
remain valid (ras Su/xuii o<rat 6 S^/mc j&uih Kvpiav ilvxt)- 

{c) The decree of Diophantus (passed in 411), which was solemnly 
ratified by the oath of the people and inscribed on a column, provided 
that all who should fall in defending the democratic government 
against tyrants should receive, for themselves and their descendants, the 
same honours which were given to Harmodius and Aristogiton. 

(1^ Many foreign benefactors of the state wilt be defrauded of their 
promised rewards. 

{e) While the law allows only one penalty to be imposed by a court 
for a single offence, Leptines imposes two, and even three'. 

(2) In 355 B.C., before the case of Leptines was tried, Demos- 
thenes composed his speech against Androtion for a client, Diodorus, to 

' This ftppean in lh< title of the speech of Demouhenes, rpit Atrrlmir, not norA 
.Vrrrlrov. See Meiei and Schonuuin, p. 103. 

* For a discussion of this point see Sandys's Leptines, pp. xiciv., xxviii. Cf. Dion. 
Hal. ad Amm. I. 4, p. 714, i rtpi rSr dnXnw*, if oArvi SUBtre. 

* I confine myself to the chief l^at a^uments. 

' On the last argmnenl see Sandys's note on S ij6, with the quotations from 
Westennann and Darette. Ailments (c) and (if) probably relate to the same law 
with («). 


II.] THE ypa^ wapayofUM'. 315 

deliver. Eucteinon and Diodorus indicted as illegal a decree of the 
people proposed by Androtion, by which the usual complimentary crown 
was given to the Senate of the previous year. This speech also is a 
SwrytoKirfM. The l^al arguments are these : — 

(a) The law allows the people to give the crown to the Senate only 
when the Senate has voted to build a certain number of triremes during 
the year ; this has not been done by the Senate of the previous year. 

(^) The decree of Androtion is mrpo^ovXcvrov, Le. it has not passed 
the Senate- To the natural reply, that the law permits the crown to be 
given directly by the people without an express vote of the Senate, it is 
rejoined, that the law in question permits the people to confer the crown 
only on one condition, which has not been complied with; therefore the 
decree of the people is doubly illegal. 

(e) Androtion is declared to be one of the class known to the kw 
as oi aUr)(pA fit^uoKom, who are forbidden to speak in the Assembly; 
therefore his decree is illegal. 

(d) The father of Androtion is said to have died in debt to the 
state, and therefore to hare been a-n/tat. This annia descends to his son, 
who, as the debt is not yet paid, has no right to speak in the Assembly. 

(3) In the first Assembly of 353 — 352 b.c, when the regular 
Jirix«paTovui iw vdfuav took place, it was voted that a special board of 
va/taOiTai should meet the next day to devise means for celebrating 
the coming Panathenaic festival. Timocrates appeared before this 
board and proposed a new law, enacting that if any public debtor Aas 
been or shall hereafler be condemned to imprisonment as an additional 
punishment {irpoirriiaiiia), he shall be released on giving security satis- 
factory to the people for the payment of his debt, (The object of this 
was to release Androtion and other friends from arrest.) The vo/wtfcrot 
approved this law, which was soon indicted by Diodorus, the former 
opponent of Androtion, who delivered the speech written for him by 
Demosthenes (xxiv,, gainst Timocrates). The law was charged with 
illegality, chiefly on the following grounds : — 

(a) It was passed in defiance of all the prescribed forms. 

{b) It was an ex postfado law, including persons akeady condemned 
by the courts. 

{c) It violated a law which forbade any one even to propose to 
relieve a pubUc debtor or other artfios from his disabilities unless he 
had permission granted him by at least 6000 affirmative votes in the 


3i6 ESSAYS. [II. 

(rf) The law forbids any one to perition the Senate or the Assembly 
to take action on any case which a court has decided ; but Timocrates 
proposes to require the Assembly to act in such cases even without 
a petition. 

(*) The law of Timocrates creates a frivilegium, as it giants 
privileges to some but excludes others, which the Solonic law forbids. 

(4) In 353 B.C. Demosthenes wrote a speech for Euthycles, who 
indicted a decree of Aristocrates, providing that any one who killed the 
general of mercenaries and freebooter, Charidemus, should be outlawed 
(ayayifun) in all the dominions of Athens. The legal argument here 
(18 — 94) is especially important. The orator quotes the greater part 
of the Draconic law of homicide, expounding it carefully, and showing 
how the bill of Aristocrates violates it in almost every particular. 
We team from this argument that the Draconic law dealt chiefly with 
provisions for protecting the homicide from the earlier outlawry, which 
Aristocrates now proposed to re-establish l^ally, and for bringing him 
under the jurisdiction of courts and the protection of the law. 

When we come from these legal arguments to the speech of 
Aeschines against Ctesiphon, we are struck at once, in the greater part 
of it, by the almost total absence of all that makes the yfx*^ raparofuov 
worthy of its name. Aeschines devotes less than a tenth of his speech 
to a strictly legal ai^umeat, that on the responsibility of Demosthenes 
as a magistrate; this is the strongest (though also the smallest) point in 
his argument, and he elaborates it with great skill and cogent reasoning. 
He also speaks more briefly of another legal point, the question of the 
place of proclamation ; but this concerns a law of which we have little 
knowledge. The greater part of the speech is Uken up with a most 
absurd attempt to connect his general account of the public life and the 
character of Demosthenes with his l^al argument. He charges the 
references to Demosthenes in Ctesiphon's decree, in which he is said 
to seek the best interests of Athens in all that he says and does, with 
violaring the law Jorbidding ike fais^aiion of the pui/ic records ! This 
is his most elaborate argument, the one on which he most depends. 
It is absurd to suppose that the law in question had any reference to a 
case like this: this would have exposed every personal compliment in 
a laudatory decree to public prosecution at any one's will. It clearly 
related to malicious and fraudulent falsification of the public records in 
the Metroum by adding, erasing, or changing. And yet this is brought 
forward soberly and earnestly by Aeschines as a legal argument in 
support of his indictment Of course Demosthenes, as the defendant's 



advocate, was bound to reply to the plaintiff's argument, so that we 
cannot fairly compare his later with his earlier treatment of the yp<«H 
mpatvi/tw. But the case against Ctesiphon, as Aeschines presents it, is 
in striking contrast to the cases against Leptines and others as Demos- 
thenes presents them. 

13. Finally, there was a law providing that any one who was 
thrice condemned in the ypaitnj napayo/unv should forfeit the right to 
propose measures in the Senate or Assembly. 

T/u Suit against Ctetipkon. 

I. Late in the month Thargelion of the year of Chaerondas (June, 
337 B.C) Demosthenes proposed and carried a measure for permanent 
repairs of the walls of Athens. The hasty work done under the excite- 
ment of the defeat at Chaeronea earlier in the year had been only 
temporary '. A commission of ten tiixoitouh!, one to be appointed by 
each tribe, was now established, to hold office during the following year, 
that of Phrynichus, 337 — 336 B.C. Demosthenes was chosen by his 
own tribe, the Pandionis, to be one of this commission. The fortifications 
of the Piraeus were assigned him as his special charge, and he is said to 
have received ten talents from the state to be used in the work. He 
added to this sum a substantial amount on his own account, usually 
stated as a hundred minas {i\ talents)'. He also held the important 
office of superintendent of the Theoric Fund, which Aeschines says 
at that time included "nearly the whole administration of the state*." 

' A«8ch. til. 17 : thii shows that the ten in%owaUL were 10 be chosen in the last 
month of ChacTondu (338 — 337), to serve during the following jwar. As Ctesiphon's 
bill proposed to crown Demosthenes dnrinK his year of ofGce, >nd as the IhU wu 
indicted shortly aftei it poaed the Senate, the bill and ibe indictment belong to the 
fE«r of PhiTnichus (337 — 336). ThU agrees with the statement of Aeschines (119) 
that he brought the indictment before Philip's death (summer of 336), and with other 
data. Sec note 1, p, 359. The spurious indictment and decree (Dcra. Cor. 54, 1 18) 
give two wrong names for the archon. 

* Aesch. III. 1;, 13, 31; Dem. Cor. 113, 300 (rw t&tKBn ri& Ilnpwut); Vit. x. 
Oral. 84SF; and S51 A (decree), Wa ti-^pam rt/i rir Ilcipau re^ptitFat, but stating 
ihe amount given as three talents. See a decree for repairing the walls, passed a few 
years L«er, in C. I. Att. II, no. 167. 

• Aench. III. ij, 16. 


328 ESSAYS. [m. 

It was gratitude for his great public services in these offices and for his 
generous gift, together with the increasing confidence in his statesmanship 
and patriotism, which had recently been expressed in his appointment 
to deliver the funeral oration on those who fell at Chaeronea ', that caused 
his political firiends to propose to crown him in the theatre at the Great 
Dionysia in the spring of 336, as a mark of the public approbation of 
his whole political life*. 

3. Ctesiphon accordingly pnqKised a bill in the Senate to crown 
Demosthenes with a golden crown for his services and generosity as 
commissioner on the walls and for his life devoted to the interests of 
Athens in speech and action. The bill passed the Senate at once, and 
there can be little doubt that it would have passed the Assembly with 
equal alacrity if it could have been brought to a vote there. Before it 
couid be presented to the people, Aeschines brought a ypa^ vapavofuav 
against Ctesiphon, charging his bill with ill^ality. This made it 
impossible to cariy the measure further until the lawsuit was settled*. 
For reasons of which we are not directly informed, but in which 
both Aeschines and Ctesiphon as well as Demosthenes must have 
acquiesced the trial was postponed more than six years, until August 
330. We can easily conjecture reasons for this long delay. Soon after 
the suit was brought, Philip was assassinated, and Alexander came to 
the throne. Uncertainty as to the effect of this sudden change, and 
unwillingness to discuss publicly the relations between Philip and 
Athens, probably made both parties not averse to remaining quiet. 
The destruction of Thebes in the following year and the subsequent 
harsh action of Alexander, especially his demand for the Athenian 
orators, while they emboldened the Macedonian parly at Athens, yet 
made Demosthenes safer against an adverse judgment of his fellow 
citizens than ever before. Aeschines doubtless felt that he had gained 
a great point in preventing Demosthenes from being publicly crowned 
before the assembled Greeks, and was willing to wait. 

3. A year later Alexander began his invasion of the Persian 
Empire. The absence hrom Greece of the man whom one party feared 
and the other was eager to conciliate might seem favourable to a 

' Dem. Cor. 185. 

* As the ImU of Ctesiphon was proposed in 337—336, we may assume that 
Demosthenes was to be crowned ai the Great Dionysia of that year. 

' Dem. [xxvi.] 8 : Srar t« ^T|0iff/uiTiK 5 rifiw ypa^if iiwviyK^ rpAj nn>i Beaiia- 
Bh-ui, i fjr tifiai ij t6 ^i)^/ia Axupir tarir. See Poll. viu. 56. This applies ei-en 
more strongly to a rpo^oiXiviiji. 



renewal of the contest ; but a case already postponed two years oeeded 
some special occasion to revive it. Such an occasion came, as 
Aeschines probably thot^ht, with the destruction of the Persian Empire 
after the battle of Arbela (Oct. i, 331 b.c)', when Darius was a fugitive 
and Alexander was at the summit of his glory. He must have felt that 
no time could be more favourable for a judgment against Demosthenes; 
while Demosthenes naturally felt that shrinking from the trial would 
imply want of confidence in the good-will of his fellow citizens, of which 
he was constantly receiving most flattering tokens. For these or other 
reasons, this famous case came before the Heliastic court, under the 
presidency of the six Thesmothetae, in the late summer, probably in 
August, 330 B.C.' We do not know the number of the judges. A 
Sucuirn^uw commonly consisted of 501 ; but we hear of 1001, 1501, 
and 2001, and in so important a case one of the larger courts would be 
likely to be impanelled. 

4. The vpa^auKtufut. of the Senate concerning the crown had legally 
expired at the end of the year 337 — 336'. This was probably not 
renewed until after the trial. The offence for which Ctesiphon was 
indicted was committed when he proposed his bill in 336, and this 
offence was in no way mitigated by the subsequent expiration of the act 
of the Senate. A renewal of the same decree would probably have 
been illegal white it was suspended under indictment ; the proposal of 
a new decree in a different form would have required a new indictment 

' Plutarch (Alex. 31) >>ys 'h>' the battle of Arbela was fought eleven days after 
an eclipse of the moon: this occurred Sept. v>, jjr B.C. See Bocckh, MondcycBen, 
pp. 41, 45. 

■ We have several independent data which lix thb time. (1) See Dion. Hal. ad 
Amm. I. 11 (p. 746): ouTDt (the speech on the Ctown) TAp pibiat tit Sii[aim}puv 
tXtOdiKvBa lurri. Ti* t(i)t)i» (the caropajgii of Chaeronea), it' 'kfum^SKnn Ifixorrtt 
(330 — ,1*9)1 iySdif (iJf iriavT^ /uri Tijr ir Xaipurtlf u^xf (338), lirrif U jirri rlir 
4tUrrsu rcXiur^r (336). taS' Sr 'xpitror 'AU{wSpiit -H)* tr 'Aj^Xmi tnUm nixf- 
This plncei the dale after midsummer 330 B.C. (See Schaefer ill. p. 114, note.) 
(1) The year 33i>— 319 began June 18 (Boeckh. Mondcyclen, p. 41). The death of 
Dariua occurred in Hecatombaeou (i.e. July) of this year ; Arrian III. 11'. The news 
oi this had not come to Athens before the trial, as Aeschines (131) speaks of him 
as a fugitive. This would not allow the trial to be later than August, (j) Again, 
Aeschines (sf*) says, iuupAi liir 6\lyur ^XXn t4 IliWto ylyrtatcu. The Pythian 
games came in the third year of each Olympiad near the end of the Delphic 
month Boacintt, which corresponds to the second month of the Attic year (Meta- 
geitnion). This would place the trial near the middle of August. See Unger, 
Silzui^berichte of the Munich Academy, 1879, ii- p. 177; Kohler's remarks on 
C I. Alt. It. aoi J4S. S5I- 

^ Dem. xxill. 91 : 6 r6iiat 3' irirua Kt\t6ti ri r^ ^irX^i drat ifnf^aium. 


330 ESSAVS [ill. 

to prevent it from being carried to the Assembly and passed like any 
other vpofiovXxv/ia. The long-delayed trial brought to Athens gre&t 
numbers of visitors from all parts of Greece, who were eager to witness 
this final contest between the rival orators'. The audience of citizens 
and strangers which surrounded the court probably differed little from 
that which would have greeted IJemosthenes in the Dionysiac theatre if 
his crown had then been proclaimed. It can hardly be doubted that 
the crowd of listeners were as deeply moved by the earnest eloquence 
of Demosthenes as the judges, and that they would gladly have followed 
the court in giving him more than four-fifths of their votes. 

5. The day was divided into three parts, as was usual on the trial 
of a ypa^ trapavd^uof, an equal amount of water being poured into the 
clepsydra for the plaintiff and the defendant, and a third (a smaller 
amount) in case of the conviction of the defendant, for the assessment 
of the penalty (rijui^nc)'. The largest amount of water which is men- 
tioned is that assigned to each plea in the ypa^i; irapavpvr^tiai (11 
afi^opfif, about 100 gallons), and this is probably the maximum'. The 
Speech of Demosthenes against Aeschines in this suit (xix.) is the longest 
that we have. That on the Crown is much shorter, but longer than any 
of the others delivered in a ^po^i? vapayofuar : we may presume that the 
orator here used all of his time. Aeschines, as plaintiff, spoke fiist ; 
after his argument, the court called on Ctesiphon, as defendant, to reply. 
He probably repeated a short speech composed for him by Demos- 
thenes, and then asked leave of the court to call on Demosthenes, as 
his advocate, to finish his defence'. Strictly, each party to the suit was 
required to plead his own cause; or, if he called in advocates, as 
Aeschines summoned Eubulus, Phocion, and others to support him in 
the suit for false legation, to do this at the end of an elaborate argument 
of his own'. But here, as Demosthenes was the real defendant, it would 
have been absurd to object to his arguing the case in full. That the 
procedure was unusual is shown by the audacious attempt of Aeschines 
to induce the court to refiise Demosthenes a hearing'; and his argument 

' Aesch. III. 56; inajTUr TW Juoirrur koI tut JiXXirW rvXirur, jcal rur 'EXXtjnw. 
...ipS Si oiK 6}dyoin TOpdrrai, dXX' Smut oMtlt wuirtrt lUia/yirai wpit iySra iitiJmaf 

' Id. 1971 Harpocration umter iiaiuiurpiifl^r^ Wpo. 

' Id. II. 1 16 : ffibt trStxA y^ ipjpQpiat tr StafitixrrprnUrig r^ ^f^P^ uptrafiai, 

* Id. III. 301 : (T«j&* wiiat\Siiw inTavSat Knriri^i> SirfAd]) rpit 6^Sf Toirrii 14 ri 
nnTtrayiiinir ovr^ rpoal/im'. 

' Id. II. 184. 

' Id. III. 101— K.5. 



on this point shows that the court had a l^al right to refiise to hear any 
except the parties to the suit. But the great audience had not come to 
hear Cteaiphon, and we hear of no further attempt to interfere with the 
argument of Demosthenes. The orator probably delivered his famous 
speech substantially in the form in which it has come down to us'. 

6, When the arguments were finished, the judges voted on the 
question of convicting Ctesiphon ; and the result was a triumphant 
acquittal by more than four-fifths of the votes'. This subjected 
Aeschines to the two penalties of malicious prosecution, a fine of a 
thousand drachmas, and partial dnfua, which deprived him of the right 
to bring a similar suit hereaft^*. This result mortified him so deeply 
that he withdrew from Athens and spent the rest of his Ufe chiefly in 

' The speech of Demotlhenei b universally pniaed as a connunmate work of art. 
When we ihink of the tremendous stake which he had at risk in the case, and 
remember that he had six years' warning of the crisiR which was sure to come >ooneT 
or later, it seems incredible that he should have left (he elaboration of his speech to 
any extent to future revision. In the speech of Aeschines there are such definite 
allnsions to passages in the reply of Demosthenes, that we cannot escape the con- 
cIluioD that they are later additions. There is nothing in the speecti of Demosthenes 
which is impossible or even strange in a reply. I have tried to show that what has 
sometimes been mistaken for confusion in the naimtive part of his speech is really the 
result of the highest art in the arrangement of his ajgnment (see Essay 1. 1 4, p. 310). 

* Plul. Dem. I4: dRtu Ka^x-pwi irAitfar urrt to vJ/irTW Itifm run ifrf/^r 
Max^nti fiii taTaSafiiir. Cf. Dem. Cor. gi, 166. 

' Ilarpocr. under iir tu: ^i* rti ypa^/iiunti /lij iieraXifiji ri -ritiwrov nipet ruf 
yjnifut, ^Wxiivd x*^!*! xol rfirnmr irifila -fit. Theophrastus (in Schol. to Dem. 
P- 593i 14 R-) adds to this (explaining irtiila) olw ri ^(ciVai n^t ypifarSai rtfia- 
ti/iur n^i ^mSreir iifrt i^ntyturSai. Cf. Poll. VIII. 53. Philostr. Vit, Soph. i. 18, 3: 
'KBtjiuhi t' irt(^Sf* (4i»x'"l'l "'x' •pifr/tw wptffrax^^f' i'^' infil^ iiiariiittM, 
^ Ar^fytTo irrb Atjfitvfiirn iral Knftri^um inTrtaini rOr ^Tf^wr, The precise nature 
of the partial dri^a here mentioned is uncertain. The above quotation from 
Theophrastas would seem to imply that it consisted in the loss of the right to bring 
the special form of ypa^ in which he was defeated, as y/m^ nLpar6iiur, ypa^ 
rapaTptcpttai, or any of the peculiar forms {like ^iim, dirayytXIa, (vleifii, etc.) 
which are classed with ypa^ (see Poll. Vlll. 40, 41). But see Andoc. I. 76, iripoii 
oAr ^r ypii/it^ai, rait H MtdfOi, where yfid^rSai would seem to mclude all ypa^oL 
The same view is supported by [Dem.] xxvi. 9, irar nt tirtfii* *Jj /ttraKipu rl 
Wfirrw liipn tut i/i^ipiai, i^' oft ol fi/tot ttXtiovtt ri X«r^ /i^ ypi^aSai lafi' 
iriyui la^ t^tfyiiBBiu, On the whole, I am inclined to think that Theophrastus 
is more exact in his expresuon yfiiiaaSai rapaw6ii.uw. and that a similar qualification 
is implied in the other passages, so that the irtitot would forfeit his right to bring the 
same form of ypo^ in which he was defeated. Otherwise a plaintiff who fitilcd to 
receive a fifth of the votes in the smallest kind of ypa^ri would lose the right to bring 
all ypa^td, while one who lost an frSfittt or an ilaayyMa would lose only the right 
to bring this unusual form of public suit. 


332 £SSArS [IV. 

Rhodes, where he is said to have been a teacher of rhetoric in his later 
years'. After such a decisive vindication of Demosthenes, there can be 
no doubt that his friends renewed in the Senate the bill for crowning 
him. and that this was promptly passed in both Senate and Assembly 
in time for the orator to receive his golden crown with enthusiastic 
applause at the Great Dionysia of 329. 

T/k trials of Aeschines and Phitocrates for misconduct in 
making the Peace of 346 B.C. 

1 . The trial of Aeschines in 343 B.c* for his conduct on the Second 
Embassy, which n^otiated the peace with Philip in 346, and the speech 
of Demosthenes as his accuser, have an important bearing on the dis- 
cussions of the peace in the orations of Aeschines and Demosthenes 
thirteen years later. The suit against Aeschines was technically called 
(utfivcu, i.e. a process arising from the ci>An«i or scrutiny which 
Aeschines, like every other officer of state, was required to pass before 
he could be relieved of his responsibility as an ambassador*. Within 

^ Plul. Dem, 14 ! rfflit U r^i »i\(wi ix"' iri^, col T(pt 'PiSw xol 'luvior 
tte^iertiiai xarffSlw^t. Vit. X. Oral. B40D; drdpai dt rifr 'Pitw, irrauSa ax"^^ 
xarovnia'd^Ht HAtaaKn. While teaching ar Rhodes, Aeschines is laid to have read 
his speech against Ctedphon to a Rhodian audience; and when all were astonished 
that be was ddealed after so eloquent a plea, he replied, b£k u Mau/utfiTf, 'PMmi, d 
wpit raSra &iiiiav9hwi \tyat-ria tiKtinri. Vit. X. Oial. ibid. Other versions of the 
Story give his answer, el ifioirart raS Bifplov ittlrov, oix tr iiur tvOtc ^ip^ro. 
See Phot. Bibi. No. 61. Roman writers, as Ciceio (de Oral. III. j6), relate that 
the Khodians, after hearing the speech of Aeschines, asked to hear the reply of 
Demosthenes : quam cum suavissima el maxima voce tegissct, odminntibus omnibus, 
" Quanto," inquit, " magis miraremini si audissetis ipsum 1 " 

3 Dionys. ad Amm. i. lo (p. 737), under the aichonshfp of Pythodotus (343—349): 
ml rip ptor' Haxlroti ffwerdfaTe Xiyor, Sre rit tiffSrat iSUev Tfjt Stirripai TptvfitUa 
riji irl Todi Spiam. Hypoth. 1, § 11, to Hem. XIX.: naSirrit oJ 'Atf^rouH rJ)* tuf 
iiMiur iTiiXiutr, . . ./uri Tpla (rti tbf^^Ser i Aij/iorffiPip xanfytp^ar A.l^lrov. See 
Schaefer II. 383. It has often been doubled whether the case ever came to trial, 
chiefly because of a doubt of Plulaich (Dem. 15), 4 W ibt' Abxtravr^ ropaTpHT^flBt 
ihiXor (! WXerreu- Kolrw ^u/alr 'ISoittrcut rapi Tpiittrra /tirat rir Ktvx^'f ^•^■ 
^oytSr. For Plutarch's objection, that neither oialor mentions the trial in the 
speeches on the Crown, see note on Cor. 141'. See also note 6, 8 7, p. 337. 

' For fttfuKu, OS a form of legal process, see Meier and Schomann, pp. 15; — 169. 



thirty days afler the return of the second embassy to Athens (13 
Scirophorion, 7 July, 346). Aeschines must have presented himself for 
his cv^inxu'. Before this, when Demosthenes offered himself for his 
«vi9wa(, Aeschines had objected to the process, on the ground that the 
second embassy was merely a continuation of the first, for which all the 
envoys had already passed the scrutiny. Of course this was a mere trick 
to escape passing his own tv^uvai for the second embassy, which he had 
good reason to dread. This objection was overruled by the presiding 
Logistae ; and as Demosthenes was admitted to his cv^wai, Aeschines 
also was compelled to appear for his own'. 

2. Demosthenes and Timarchus, with perhaps others, appeared 
against Aeschines at his cv^innu with a ypia^ mxpawfmr^tia% an indict- 
mtntfor misconduct on an embassy'. This was received by the presiding 
Logistae, who had the presidency also in this suit ; and the case would 
naturally have been brought by them before a Heliastic court. But 
before this could be done, Aeschines met the accusation by a most 
effective in-iypm^, in which he challenged the right of Timarchus to 
appear as an accuser in the courts, on the ground that he had once ted 
a shameless life (aurxpoK ^(^uwccvat). When next he saw Timarchus in 
the Assembly, he served upon him publicly an IrayytMa SoKi^ao-ta;, i.e. 
a summons to appear at a SoKi/uwrta ptiroptov, an investigation of his 
right to appear as a jy^wp*. He charged him with jroiyn^t and also 
with squandering his paternal estate, both of which disqualified a man 
from appearing as a speaker in either the Assembly or the courts of law. 
This case came to trial early in 345 b.c.', and the evidence against 

Any suit which arose from cha^n made at the t68aHu was called iSBvriu : see Dem. 
XIX. 17, (k rffi rpirpiiai roi^t, ^rip tivlf al rSw tSButai, and 81, 131, 156. -See 
note on Cor. n^. 

' Harpocr. under XotuttoJ. 

■ Dem. XIX. 311, 111. 

' Hypoth. J, § 10, to Dem. XtX.: ir/mi Ttjiafix"' '"^ iti/tevSinii Ka-njyair/iiroyTtt 
niTao. For the ypa^ rapawpevfitlat, which was regularly brought only at ihe 
rfflui'Oi, see Meier and Schomann, pp. 459—461, 

* Aesch. 1- 19, 10, ]8— 3] : rlyat S' «>« ^tro ittf >Jyta> ; nit alfXP^t ;9«^i«»r4TM ' 
Te&raut oit i^ iJ!/aiyoprir..,,Soi!i/iaala /i^6pur, iif Ttt \fy^ it Tif S'^l'ifi rir waripa 
rirmuar rj Hj» fiijr^/w...^ vt-rtprtBuHat fl ^ai/ji)«ilii,.,.-J rft rarpvo lOTtBijSiwiit. 
Cf. 154. For the inarfytXla Soaiiavlat see Meier and SchomaDn, pp. 149 — iji. 
There were two kinds of inKiyaaia which might lead to a judicial process, which was 
itself called Soti/iavla (cf. the parallel case of tOSiirat io note 3, p. 331} : these were 
the Sui^uurfa ipjcirTur (M. and S. pp. 136 — 146], and (he ton/utfla fniripur, to which 
Tinuux:hu5 was subjected. 

• See Schaefer 11. 336, n. s- 


334 ESSAYS. [IV. 

Timarchus was ample for his conviction. Aeschuies then delivered the 
first of his three orations, and it is doubtful whether any serious defence 
was made. This had the result desired by him. It suspended the 
case against himself for a time ; and by disgracefully disqualifying one 
of his accusers, discredited the case in the eyes of the people, who 
would finally decide it in the popular court. It is hard to see why such 
a roan as Timarchus was allowed to be associated with Demosthenes in 
so important a political case, and it soon appeared that this was a most 
fatal mistake'. 

3. This mortifying rebuff put off the trial more than two years. It 
is easy to see why Demosthenes hesitated to renew the prosecution, and 
Aeschines probably felt that time would be on his side. In the mean- 
time Demosthenes lost no opportunity of discrediting the peace in the 
Assembly and of declaring that Philip had deceived Athens by bribing 
certain men who were well known in the city. The etiquette oi the 
Assembly forbade the mention of names; but no names could have 
designated more clearly both Aeschines and Philocrates*. Such con- 
stant reminders, confirmed by the later acts of Philip, must have 
gradually brought the Athenians to a correct understanding of the 
conduct of Aeschines. The friends of Demosthenes prepared the way 
for a renewal of his suit against Aeschines, by a state prosecution of 
Philocrates for treason^Ie conduct in negotiating the peace which bore 
his name. 

4. Early in 343 B.C. Hyperides brought before the Senate of Five 

' The insignilicance of Timarchus will hardly account for his appeanmce as 
prosecutor in thin case ; foi Demosthenei would represent the suit publicly, whoever 
were his associates. Timarchus had been a strong and active opponent of Philip. 
As Senator in 347 — 34.6, he proposed a. decree that any one who should be convicted 
of cuiying arms or naval implements to Philip should be punished by death (Dem. 
XIX. sS6}. It must also be remembered that the charges against Timarchus related 
to his youth and were probably forgotten by most people. He was a Senator in 361, 
and therefore at least thirty years old then, so that in 345 he was at least fbrty-<dx. 
It is lo be noticed that Aeschines makes the venality of the offence his sole ground for 
Me acctisation of Timarchus: he even confesses that apart from this he has no 
objection to the relation in question. See i. 137, t4 ittw Uuiipebpat ipaaBal ^tyu 
KoXit tboi, TO J' iTtpSifTa fuaS^ wtrtf^cuffSai cUexfii' (cf. 136)- The whole passage 
I. 131 — ifij gives a striking view of what it was safe for an orator to say in public, 
even in attacking a man like Timarchus. See Schaefer il. 338 — 340, and Dem. 
XIX. 586. 

* See Dem. vi. 18 — 37, ix. 36 — 40; even in his speech on the Peace, v. 5, io> 
he shows plainly who are responsible for the present necessity of submitting to Riilip's 
demands. Sec also xix. 134 — 136, 107. 



Hundred an (trnxyycXwi against Philocrates, charging him with serving 
Philip for bribes to the detriment of Athens. The Senate accepted the 
(urayyeXia, thus making the suit a public one. It went for trial to 
fi Heliastic court, and the state appointed advocates, among them 
Demosthenes, to assist Hyperides in managintf the case*. In his 
indictment (called ifo-ayyeXii) Hyperides quoted verbatim five or six 
decrees of Philocrates in support of his charge*. There was no lack of 
decisive evidence. Philocrates had made an open show of his newly 
acquired wealth after the peace, by building houses, selling wheat, 
transporting timber, changing foreign gold openly at the bankers' 
counters in Athens \ and (according to Demosthenes) he had even con- 
fessed that he received money from Philip'. He gave up his defence, and 
left the court and Athens before the judgment was declared ; and in his 
absence he was condemned to death, the penalty which Hyperides 
proposed in his (urayycXta. He passed the rest of his Ufe in exile*. 
This result shows how public opinion about the peace had changed in 
three years, so that Philocrates, whose word was law when the peace 
was made, was now left to his fate, friendless and helpless. No man of 
influence, like Eubulus, attempted to save him ; and we hear of no 

' For the slite process called dttarffi>iA, lee Meier and Schomann. pp. 311 — 331, 
and for the rJ^toi elmtYyiXruit, p- 316. Thiii process was provided for the special 
trial of (i) (hose chafed with conspiracy against the democracy of Athens, (1) those 
charged with betraying lowns or military or naval forces to public enemies, or with 
holding treasonable communication with these, (3) oniors (^ijropai) chaiged with 
being bribed by public enemies to give evil advice to the people. See Hyper. Eux. 
S§ 7, 8 (coll. la, 13). It will be seen that tWarntMiL, so far from being applicable 
chiefly (or only) to crimes which were not provided for in the laws (as was once 
believed), is definitely restricted to certain high offences, all of which, moreover, might 
be dealt with by other processes, as is seen in the similar cases of PhilociaCes and 

' Hyper. Eux. §S 19, 30 (coll. 39, 40) : rof>rav (^iXoicpdn)) (frayytiXat ifti inrip ur 
aUrrif ^miptrti Kari r^ riXcwt, (tXo* tr rif iuamiplif, ml rifr tbrnrfyMar fypa^ 

'A^^foiur j(oi]tiiLTa Xa^fiivorra Kal Staptikt a'a/iA ruw rArawrla rpaTTtrruf 
TJ i'iliif (quoting the law), not aiS' oDrwi iwfxp^i ft t^ tlvaffyiUar SnDru, 
dXX' irmciTu TOpiypatl^, riii' rlrer ai ri tpivra rifi S^iiif, Xfi'tMOTa Xafiiir- 
lira t6 ifr/iiputiia airoO liriypa^- kbI TdXir tAS" ftrir 06 ti ipiara r^ iifiif, 
XPTtfara XaffAr, (ol ri if^^fia xaptypa^ai. ml fori ywi Ttrrinit ^ ^fdiit riitJro 
yeypaii/Ura'. This will give some idea of the formalities observed in the etrayrtXfn. 

' Dem. XIX. 114: ti p.^ liSnof iSituAtyti rap', ifljr fr rip Sit/up x-dXXuii, dXU tot 
itclKrim iiur, TVfKvuXur, t^KBtop^,...ia\if^r, ri xpixrior naTaXXaTTA^Mret ^ariput 
nri ™» Tparit^i. Gold cwns in Athens were generally foreign. 

* Aesch. II. 6, III. 79, 81; Dinarch. i. tS. 


336 SSSAVS. [iv. 

anxiety lest his condemnation should cause enmity with Philip. Demos- 
thenes, as prosecuting attorney for the state, complained that Philocrates 
alone was selected for prosecution while others equally guilty were left 
untouched. He then formally called on "any of the other ambassadors," 
who would declare before the court that he was not implicated in the 
acts of Philocrates, to come forward and do so ; and he promised to 
absolve him from accusation. No one responded'. This was of course 
an offer to Aeschines to abandon t