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Full text of "Documentary history of education in Upper Canada, from the passing of the Constitutional Act of 1791 to the close of the Rev. Dr. Ryerson's administration of the Education Department in 1876"





Presented to the 

LffiRARY of the 

U^fIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

by 

ROBIN S. HARRIS 



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Digitized by tine Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

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http://www.archive.org/details/documentaryhisto01ontauoft 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY 



OF 



EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA 



FROM THE PASSING OF THE 



CONSTITUTIONAL ACT OF 1791. 



TO THE 



CLOSE OF REV. DR. RYERSON'S ADMINISTRATION 

OF THE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT 

IN 1876. 



VOL. J: 1790-1830. 



Mdited, uifiAer the direetion of the Honourable the Minister of Bd%*catUm, with Explanatory Xotes^ 

BY 

J. GEOROE HODQINS, IvI.A., LL.D., 

Babristkb-at-Law, 
librarian and historioobaphkb to the eduoation defabtment of ontario. 




TORONTO 
WARWICK BROS. & RUTTER, PRINTERS, &c., 68 & 70 FRONT STREET WEST. 

1894. 



AUes 02000 

fes;iYono?S 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY 



OF 



EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA 



PREFATORY REMARKS. 

The desire to place upon permanent record the original docu- 
ments and papers relating to the early history of a country is all but 
universal. 

Such a collection, when made, is invaluable to the historian, as 
furnishing him with satisfactory materials for authentic history. 

This being the Jubilee Year of my official connection with Educa- 
tion in this Province,"^ I have been enabled, in the interval, to gather 
up and preserve a number of documents and papers relating to the 
'* evolution," if it may be so called, of our three-fold scheme of 
education — primary, intermediate and superior. Many of these papers 
are official and Parliamentary. Some are fugitive, taken from 
pamphlets, while others are desultory, copied from the local press of 
the times. All, however, converge on the one point; and each 
illustrates, in various ways, the growth and development of the 
" Educational Idea " in Upper Canada. 

It may appear singular to those of the present day, when they 
are informed of the large space, out of all reasonable proportion, which 
the Educational Centres, (as they really were,) of by-gone days filled in 
the estimation of the then public of Upper Canada. Such centres were 
few and far between, but they were noted of their kind. Even in our 
own times we frequently hear of the excellence and widespread influ- 
ence of the late Bishop Strachan's Schools — first at Kingston, then at 
Cornwall, and lastly in "The Old Blue School" at York. The celebrity 
of the Ernestown, or Bath, Academy, may have been increased from 
the fact that, at it, was chiefly educated by his Father — its Master — 

* I entered the Education Department on the Reverend Doctor Ryerson's appointment as its Head, 
in September, 1844— nearly fifty years ago. 



IV. DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 

a man so eminent in his profession, and so distinguished in the history 
of Upper Canada as was Marshall Spring Bidwell, — a gifted Member 
of the House of Assembly in its early days, and its Speaker for some 
time. 

Then, the success of the Newburgh Academy was noted in 
our own times ; and in it, as one of its latest Principals, the Reverend 
Doctor Nelles, first learned those lessons in the art of teaching and 
government, which he afterwards turned to such excellent account as. 
the gifted President, for so many years, of Victoria University. 

Again, in the London District School, in the early twenties, the 
Founder of our educational system tried his " 'prentice hand " as an 
instructor of youth, first as Usher, under his able brother George, and 
afterwards as a Teach er-in-charge. He acted in both capacities with 
that success which was characteristic of the distinguished Man which 
he became in after years. 

No less noted and important, as an educational centre, was the 
Grantham Academy, founded in St. Catharines, in 1 827, on a lot given 
for that purpose by one, to whom Canada owes so much, — the Honour- 
able William Hamilton Merritt, — the last President of the Academy 
Board ; a gentleman who, in 1850, introduced into our House of 
Assembly and had passed into a law. an Act endowing forever the 
Public Schools of the then Province of Canada with the rich dowry of 
One Million Acres of the Crown Lands. 

The educational history of Upper Canada, as narrated in this 
Volume, divides itself into several distinct epochs : 

The first might be considered, in the expressive words of 
Governor-General Lord Elgin, when speaking of an educational feature 
of the work in his time, as the " seed-plot " of those educational 
institutions which sprung up as the years progressed. At all events, 
the munificent Royal Grant in 1797, of over half a million of acres of 
land, has formed the financial basis of the Toronto University, of the 
Royal Grammar School and Upper Canada College, and of the (Church 
of England National) Central School of Upper Canada. 

The second period in our educational history was noted for the 
establishment of District (Grammar) Schools in 1807, 1808 ; and of 
the Township Common Schools in 181^-1820. 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. V 

The record of the third period of educational progress includes 
the Establishment and Endowment of Upper Canada College in 1829, 
1 830, and of other local schools of note. The documents and papers 
relating to the establishment of these institutions, given as fully as the 
records would permit, are inserted in this the First Volume of the 
Educational History of Upper Canada. 

The question naturally arises : what first awakened the desire to 

establish schools and promote education in this Province ? In his 

Address, at the opening of King's College, (now the University of 

Toronto,) in 1843, the Right Keverend Doctor Strachan — himself a 

prominent and noted educationist in Upper Canada— answers the 

question. He says : 

" When the Independence of the United States of America was 
recognized by Great Britain in the peace of 1783, this Province became 
the asylum of those faithful subjects of the Crown, who had, during 
the Revolutionary War, adhered to their King and the * Unity of the 
Empire.' And it is pleasing to remark, that in 1789, — a little more 
than five years after their first settlement, — they presented a Memorial 
to His Excellency Lord Dorchester, (Sir Guy Carleton,) then Governor- 
General of British North America, on the subject of Education ; in 
which, after lamenting the state of their children growing up without 
any instruction, religious or secular, — they requested His Lordship to 
establish a respectable Seminary at Kingston, which was, at that early 
period, the principal Town in this division of the Colony. To this 
representation Lord Dorchester paid immediate attention, and gave 
directions to the Surveyor-General to set apart eligible portions of 
land for the future support of Schools in all the new settlements." 

Animated by the same spirit as possessed these early Colonists, 
the United Empire Loyalists established Schools of a superior class 
early in the century in the chief centres of their Settlements, — such as 
Kingston, Cornwall, Bath, York, St. Catharines, and afterwards 
at Newburgh. Soon a Grammar School was established in every 
District, and ultimately the Common School, fashioned by the Loyalists 
on the New England pattern, was put into operation in every 
settled Township of the Province."* 

It is gratifying to know that the United Empire Colonists from 
New England to Canada in 1783-1788, were true to their early British 

* In "the Colonial Chapter in the History of American Education," in Bedford's Magazine for May 
1877, (transferred to the Rycrson Memorial Volume of 18S9), I have traced the origin and growth of the 
early Puritan movement in New England in favour of education, and have pointed out the influence of that 
movement on the United Empire Loyalists, in their efforts to establish schools in Upper Canada. 



vi. DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 

Colonial convictions and instincts, as to the necessity of schools for 
their children. They carried with them that English love for learning, 
for its own sake, which characterized the founders of Massachusetts. 
President Walker of Harvard University, in his Inaugural Address of 
1853, said : 

" What most distinguishes the early settlers of Massachusetts, is 
the interest and care they took in education, and especially in the 
institution of a system of Common Schools, to be sustained at the 
public charge. Here they were first. In other things they thought 
wisely and acted nobly ; but in this and perhaps in this alone, they 
were original. . . . But the founders and early settlers of Massa- 
chusetts did not limit their views of Education to Common Schools. 
Many of their leading men had studied at the English Universities and 
were imbued with, or at least could appreciate, the highest scholarship 
of that day. They also knew, on general grounds, and, as practical 
men, that the public good requires the advancement, as well as the 
diffusion, of knowledge ; in short, that both must go together ; that 
the streams will soon cease, if the fountains fail." 

As to the British origin and character of these New England 
Schools, Professor Charles Sprague Smith, M.A., of Columbia 
College, in an essay on Colonial Colleges, says : 

"In New England the higher system of general education, 
brought over from Old England, was divided here, as there, into the 
two studies : of the College and the Grammar School ; the latter being 
superseded in quite recent times by the so-called Academy. The 
curriculum of the American, (or Colonial,) College was, in the main, 
modelled upon that of the Parent Country." 

General Eaton, for so many years the distinguished United States 
Commissioner of Education, at Washington, in his comprehensive 
Keport of 1875, says': 

" History, with hardly a dissenting voice, accords to the English 
Colonists of New England, the credit of having developed those forms 
of action, in reference to the education of children, which contained 
more than any other the distinct features of the systems adopted in 
this country." 

Thus it will be seen that, through the United Empire Loyalists 
and their English Forefathers, we, as a Province, have come 
honestly and honourably by our zeal for education in " This Canada 
of Ours." 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. Vli 

It is but due to these early Pioneers of Education in Upper Canada, 
not only as teachers, but also as legislators, that we of the present day 
should, therefore, learn something of their joint efforts to secure to the 
youth of their day the benefits of that education which is now the rich 
heritage of this Province. 

I have spoken of the success of the Pioneer Teachers of Upper 
Canada, but the efforts of the early Educationists — of the chief of 
them — Governor Simcoe, of Charles Buncombe, Mahlon Burwell, 
William Warren Baldwin, John Rolph, William Morris and 
others, were no less valuable, as they each, in the position which they 
occupied, exerted themselves to promote the Educational Interests of 
this Province | and they hiave left their mark on the educational 
Legislation which followed their patriotic and persistent efforts in this 
direction for the good of the country. 

J. GEORGE HODGINS, 

Librarian and Historiographer of the 

Education Department for Ontario* 

Toronto, 4th June, 1894. 



CONTENTS. 



Pagb. 

Prefatory Remarks by the Editob i 

I. Some Preliminary Correspondence : 

1. The Honourable Wm. T. Harris, LL D,, Washington 3 

2. Charles Lindsay, Esquire, Toronto 3 

3. John M. McMuUen, Esquire, Brockville 4 

4. William Kingsford, Esquire, C.E., Ottawa 4 

5. James Bain, Jr. , Esquire, Toronto 4 

6. The Reverend Canon Scadding, D.D,, Toronto 5 

II. Sketch of Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe 6 

1 . Lieutenant-Colonel Simcoe as a Governor 7 

III. Governor Simcoe and Bishop Strachan , 9 

IV. Character of the " Simcoe Papers " 10 

Remarks of George Coventry, Esquire, Historiographer on these and other 

Historical Papers in 1863 10 

Extracts from the Simcoe Correspondence r 11 

1. Governor Simcoe to Sir Joseph Banks, 1791 11 

2. The same to the Right Honourable Henry Dundas, 1792 11 

3. Secretary Dundas to Governor Simcoe, 1792 11 

4. Governor Simcoe to Secretary Dundas, 1792 12 

5. The same to the first Church of England Bishop of Quebec, 1795 12 

6. The same to the same, 1795 13 

7. Governor Simcoe to the Duke of Portland, 1795 13 

8. The same to the Bishop of Quebec, 1796 14 

9. The Duke of Portland to Governor Simcoe, 1796 14 

10. Governor Simcoe to the Duke of Portland, 1796 14 

Note. — No Journal? of the Upper Canada Legislatvire are available for the years, 
1794, 1795, 1796, or 1797. 

V. Change of Governors, and Sketches of them 14 

Personal sketches of these Governors 16 

(1) Sir Guy Carleton (Lord Dorchester), 1725-1808 15 

(2) General Sir Robert Prescott, 1725-1815 15 

(3) Sir Robert Shore Milnes, 1746-1836 16 

(4) Major-General Peter Hunter, 1746-1805 15 

(5) The Honourable Peter RusseU, 17 — 1808 16 

VI. The President Russell Correspondence 16 

1. President Russell to the Duke of Portland, enclosing Address from the 

Upper Canada Legislature to the King, 1797 16 

2. President Russell to the Anglican Bishop of Quebec 16 

3. The Duke of Portland to President Russell, 1797 17 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 
VII. Proceedings of the Upper Canada House of Assembly in regard to the 

Royal Grant of Lands for a University, etc., in 1797 17 

1. Message from President Russell to the Upper Canada Legislature, 1798. . . 17 

2. President Russell to the Duke of Portland, 1798 19 

3. The same to the Honourable Chief Justice Elmsley, 1798 19 

4. Chief Justice Elmsley to President Russell, 1798 19^ 

6. President Russell to Chief Justice Elmsley, 1798 19 

VIII. Report, in 1798, of the Executive Council and its Committee on the Original 

Royal Grant of Lands 20 

1. Individual opinions of Members of the Committee, 1798 23 

(1) The Honourable JEneas Shaw, 1798 24 

(2) The Honourable John McGill, 1798 24 

(3) The Honourable D. W. Smith, 1798 24 

IX. Further Correspondence with the Colonial Office 25 

1. President Russell to the Duke of Portland, 1799 25 

2. The same to the same, 1799 26 

3. The Duke of Portland to Lieutenant-Governor Peter Hunter, 1800 26 

4. Lieutenant-Governor Peter Hunter to the Duke of Portland, 1800 27 

X. Educational Proceedings of the Legislature of Upper Canada in 1799 ... 28 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1799 28 

2. Educational Proceedings of the Legislative Council in 1799 28 

3. An Act to Provide for the Education, etc., of Orphan Children, 1799 .... 2& 

XI. Schools in Existence in Upper Canada during the Early Part of 1800 30 

1. Particulars of some of these schools : 

(1) Mr. R, Cockrel's Evening School at Newark (Niagara), 1796 32 

(2) The Reverend Mr. Arthur's Boarding School at Newark, 1796 32 

(3) Mr. James Blayney's School at Newark, 1797 32 

(4) Mr. William Cooper's School at York (Toronto), 1798 32 

(5) The qualifications of School Teachers in 1799 33 

(6) Mr. and Mrs. Tyler's Boarding School at Niagara, 1802 33 

(7) Dr. W. W. BaMwin's proposed School at York (Toronto), 1802 33 

(8) Examination of Reverend Doctor Strachan's School at Cornwall, 

1805 34 

(9) The Due de la Rochfocauld on the State of Education in Upper 

Canada in 1795-1799 84 

(10) Essay on the Necessity of Education, 1799 34 

XII. Settlement and Education of the Six Nation Indians, 1784-1800 35 

1. Correspondence relating to these Schools : 

(1) The Reverend G. O. Stuart to Mr. William Bell, Master, 1796-1802. 37 

(2) The New England Company, or School Society, lfi49-1661 39 



CONTENTS. xi. 



k 



f 



¥ 



Page. 

XIII. Sketches of Noted Teachers in 1800-1807 40 

1. The Reverend Doctor Strachan, 1803-1823 41 

(1) The Reverend Doctor Strachan's first Experience as a Teacher, 1803. 41 

(2) His system of School Management 43 

(3) His Method of Teaching 44 

(4) His Order and Mode of Teaching, as stated by Himself 44 

2. The Reverend Doctor George Okill Stuart 46 

3. Doctor William Warren Baldwin 47 

XIV. Eddcational Proceedings of the Upper Canada Legislature in 1804 47 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly, 1804 48 

XV. Educational Proceedings op the Upper Canada Legislature in 1805 49 

1. Members of the House of Assembly who took part in the School Legislation 

of 1805 50 

2. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1805 50 

Note. — No Journals of the Legislative Council proceedings of 1804 and 1806 are 
available. 

XVI. Educational Proceedings of the Legislature of Upper Canada in 1806 ... 51 

1. Members of the House of Assembly who took part in the School Legislation 

of 1806 52 

2. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1806 52 

3. Educational Proceedings of the Legislative Council in 1806 54 

4. An Act to Procure Certain Apparatus for the Promotion of Science 66 

6. Members of the Legislative Council who took part in the Educational 

Legislation of 1806 56 

XVII. Educational Proceedings of the Legislature of Upper Canada in 1807 57 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1807 57 

2. Members of the House of Assembly who took part in the School Legislation 

of 1807 68 

3. An Act to establish Public (Grammar) Schools in each and every District of 

this Province 60 

4. First appointed Trustees of the District (Grammar) Schools in Upper 

Canada, 1807 61 

Note. — No Journals of Legislative Council proceedings of 1807 are available. 

XVIII. Educational Proceedings of the Upper Canada Legislature in 1808 62 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1808 62 

2. Educational Proceedings of the Legislative Council in 1808 65 

3. An Act to amend the District (Grammar) Schools Act of 1807 - . 66 

Note. — No Journals of the Upper Canada Legislature of 1809 are available. 

XIX. Educational Procehdings of the Upper Canada Legislature in 1810 66 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1810 66 

2. Legislative Council Proceedings on the Grammar School Repeal Bill of 

1810 70 

XX. Educational Proceedings of the Legislature of Upper Canada in 1811 71 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1811 .... 71 

2. Proceedings of the Legislative Council on the District (Grammar) School 

Repeal Bill of 1811 73 



XU. CONTENTS. 



Page. 

XXI. Educational Proceedings of the Upper Canada Legislature in 1812 75 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1812 76 

2, Proceedings of the Legislative Council on the District (Grammar) School 

Rep. al Bill of 1812 78 

XXII. Miscellaneous Educational Papers, 1811-1814 79 

1. The Ernestown Academy at Bath 79 

2. Members of the Legislative Council from 1792 to 1812 80 

3. Attorney -General Firth's books for sale by Dr. William Warren Baldwin . . 81 

4. Penmanship taught by a Practical Lecturer 81 

5. Education of Militia Men in Kingston in 1812 81 

6. Library presented to Ernestown by the Reverend John Langhom in 1813. 82 

7. Reverend W. D. Baldwyn, B.A., appointed to succeed the Reverend John 

Bethune as Head Master of the Kingston District (Grammar) School in 

1814 83 

8. The Kingston District (Grammar) School in 1814 83 

9. Mr. and Mrs. Pringle's Young Ladies' School at Kingston in 1814 83 

10. Circulating Library in Kingston in 1814 84 

11. State of Learning in Upper Canada in 1814, by M . Smith 84 

12. Opening of the Kingston District (Grammar) School in 1815 84 

Note. — No Journals of the Upper Canada Legislature for 1813 are available. 

XXIII. Educational Proceedings of the Upper Canada Legislature in 1814 84 

1. Members of the House of Assembly who took part in the Educational 

Legislation of 1814 85 

2. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1814 85 

3. Proceedings of the Legislative Council on the District (Grammar) School 

Repeal Bill of 1814 86 

4. Personal sketches of the Presidents of Upper Canada, 1812-1815 87 

(1) Major-General Sir Isaac Brock 87 

(2) Sir Roger Hall Sheaflfe 88 

(3) Count Francis de Rottenburg 88 

(4) Sir George Gordon Drummond 88 

(5) Sir George Murray 88 

(6) Sir Charles Fredrick Phillipse Robinson 88 

XXIV. The Midland District School Society, 1815 89 

1. Prospectus of the Midland District School Society 90 

2. An Act to Incorporate the Midland District School Society, 1815 92 

Note. — No Journals of the Upper Canada Legislature for 1815 are available. 

XXV. Educational Proceedings of the Upper Canada Legislature in 1816 94 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1816 94 

2. Members of the House of Assembly who took part in the School Legislation 

of 1816 100 

3. An Act establishing Common Schools throughout the Province in 1816. . . . 102 

4. Character of this School Legislation 104 

Note. — No Journal of the Proceedings of the Legislative Council for 1816 are 

available. 

XXVI. The District (Grammar), or " The Old Blue School," at York 106 

1. Examination of the Home District (Grammar) School in 1816. 106 



CONTENTS, , XIU 



(Miscellaneous Items). 

Page. 

2. Course of Study suggested by the Reverend Doctor Strachan as suitable for 

District (Grammar) Schools 109 

3. Midland District Board of Education, 1816 HI 

4. Opening of the Kingston Library in 1816 Ill 

XXVII. Educational Proceedings of the Upper Canada Rouse of Assembly in 1817. . HI 

1. Members of the House of Assembly who took part in its Educational 

Legislation Ill 

2. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1817 Ill 

Note. — No Journal of the Legislative Council Proceedings for 1817 is available. 

XXVIII. Educational Proceedings of the Upper Canada House of Assembly in 1818 . 114 

1. The First Session of 1818 115 

2. The Second Session of 1818 118 

3. Disturbing Influences on School Legislation in Upper Canada, 1809-1817. . 120 

Note. — No Journal of the Legislative Council Proceedings for 1818 are available. 

XXIX. Mr. Robert Gourlby's Educational Statistics of Upper Canada in 1817 123 

1. Report of Schools in Townships of Upper Canada 124 

2. Township Reports Relating to Schools in the London District 125 

3. Township Reports Relating to Schools in the Gore District 126 

4. Township Reports Relating to Schools in the Niagara District 127 

5. Township Reports of Schools in the Newcastle, Midland, Johnstown and 

Eastern Districts 128 

6. Township Report of Schools in the Eastern District 128 

XXX. Miscellaneous Papers and Documents Relating to Education and Schools, 

in 1817-1818 129 

1. Midland District (Grammar) School, Kingston, 1817 129 

2. A School of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Kingston, 1817 129 

3. Sunday Schools in Kingston, 1817 129 

4. Mr. Baker's School for Classical Education, Kingston, 1817 180 

5. Mr. Latham's English and French Academy, Kingston, 1817 190 

6. Mr. John Whitelaw's Lectures on Chemistry and Geology, Kingston, 1817. 130 

7. Mr. Tolkien's Private School in Kingston, 1817 180 

8. Mr. and Mrs. Woolf's Boarding and Day School, Kingston, 1817 131 

9. Mrs. Hill's School for Young Ladies, Kingston, 1818 131 

10. Mr. Harris' Private School for Young Ladies, Kingston, 1818 131 

11. Midland District Lancastrian School in Kingston, 1818 131 

12. Midland District School Society, Kingston, 1818 132 

13. Emestown Academy at Bath, Reopened, 1818 132 

14. Reverend Doctor Strachan's Lectures on Natural Philosophy, 1818 132 

15. Mr. J. M. Flindall's Essay on Education in Upper Canada in 1818 138 

XXXI. Educational Proceedings of the Upper Canada Legislature in 1819 136 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1819 136 

2. Proposed University E epresentation in the House of Assembly 188 

3. Educational Proceedings of the Legislative Council in 1819 142 

4. Characteristics of the Grammar School Amendment Act of 1819 147 



XIV. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

5. Act to Repeal part of, and to Amend, the District (Grammar) School Acts 

of 1807 and 1808 148 

6. Forms for Trustees under the Common School Acts of 1816 150 

XXXII. Pboceedings in Regard to the Upper Canada University in 1819 150 

1. Historical Resume of University and Grammar School Proceedings, by the 

Reverend Doctor Strachan, 1807-1820 152 

XXXIII. Essay on the History and Present State op Education in Upper Canada, . 

1789-1819 153 

1. Suggested Rules for Schools and Teachers 157 

2. The Reverend Doctor Strachan's Remarks on the foregoing History of 

Education in Upper Canada 158 

XXXIV. Miscellaneous Papers Relating to Education in Upper Canada, 1819 160 

1. Examination of the Home District (Grammar) School in 1819 160 

2. Address from the Presbytery of the Canadas to Sir Peregrine Maitland, 

Lieutenant-Governor, 1^*19 161 

3. Early School Days in Aldborough, Talbot Settlement, County of Kent, 

by Mr. Archibald McColl 162 

4. Schools in Kingston in 1819 167 

5. The Public Library at Niagara by Miss Carnochan, 1800-1820 167 

6. The School House at Thorold in 1820 168 

XXXV. Educational Proceedings of the Upper Canada House op Assembly in 1820. . 169 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1820 169 

2. An Act to Amend, Continue, under certain Modifications, etc., the Common 

School Act of 1816 172 

3. Provision for University Representation in the House of Assembly, 1820 . 174 

Note. — No Journals of the Legislative Council proceedings for 1820 are available. 

XXXVI. The Central (National Church of England) School at York, 1820 ]74 

1. First Report of the Central School at York, 1820, 1821 177 

2. Proceedings of the Executive Government in establishing the (National 

Church of England) Central School at York in 1820 and 1823 179 

XXXVII. Miscellaneous Educational Matters during 1820-1824 180 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1821, 18'22 180 

2. Mr. William Weekes' Legacy for an Academy at York, 1821 181 

3. Course of Study at the Common School at York in 1820-1821 182 

4. List of Teachers in the Home District in 1820-1822 183 

5. Payments on behalf of Schools during 1820-1824 183 

6. Aggregate payments for Grammar and Common Schools in 1825-1828 .... 183 

XXXVIII. Educational Proceedings of the Upper Canada Legislature in 1823 184 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1823 184 

2. Members who took part in the School Legislation of 1823 184 

3. Educational Proceedings of the Legislative Council in 1823 189 

4. An Act granting a Sum of Money for a Public (Grammar) School in the 

Bathurst District, 1823. ]92 

o. An Act to provide for the Establishment of a Public (Grammar) School in 

the Ottawa District, 1823 192 



CONTENTS. XV. 



Page . 
6. An Act for the Relief of the Teachers of Common Schools in the Niagara 

District, 1823 193 

XXXIX. Miscellaneous Papers Relating to Education in Upper Canada, 1823-1826. 194 

1. Mr. Edward Allen Talbot on the State of Education in Upper Canada in 

1823-1826 194 

2. Schools in the Town of Niagara in 1820-1823 196 

3. General Board of Education for Upper Canada, 1824 196 

4. An Act to make permanent and to extend the Provisions of the Common 

School Act of 1816 and 1820 197 

5. Trustees of the District (Grammar) Schools in Upper Canada, 1824 198 

6. District Boards of Education in Upper Canada in 1824 199 

Note. — No Journals of proceedings of the Upper Canada Legislature for 1824 are 
available. 

XL. Educational Proceedings of the Upper Canada Legislature in 1825 200 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly, and its most noted 

Members 200 

2. Private Schools in Kingston in 1825-1826 202 

3. The First Schools in Brantford 1826 202 

4. Schools in West Gwillimbury, 1824-1826 202 

Note. — The Journals of the Legislative Council for 1826 are not available. 

XLT. Exchange op the Original University Lands for Crown Reserves, 1822- 

1827 203 

XLII. Educational Proceedings of the Upper Canada Leoislatxtrk in 1826-1827. . . . 206 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1826-1827 206 

2. Educational Proceedings of the Legislative Council in 1827 210 

XLIII. Granting of the First Charter of King's College in 1827 211 

1. The Reverend Doctor Strachan's Statement of the Reasons why a Charter 

should be granted 211 

2. Appeal to the Friends of Religion and Literature in behalf of the University 

of Upper Canada. By the Reverend Doctor Strachan, 1827 215 

3. Statistical Table of the Church of England in Upper Canada in 1827 218 , 

4. King's College Charter of 1827, with Emendations in the handwriting of 

the Reverend Doctor Strachan 221 

5. Reverend Doctor Strachan's exj^enses to England in obtaining the Original 

Charter of King's College, 1827 226 

XLIV. Grammar and Common School Returns for 1827 227 

1. The Eastern District Grammar School, 1827 227 

2. The Ottawa District Grammar School, 1827 227 

3. The Midland District Grammar School, 1827 22? 

4. The Newcastle District Grammar School, 1827 227 

6. The Home District Grammar School, 1827 228 

6. The Niagara District Grammar School, 1827 228 

7. The Upper Canada Common School Returns for the year 1827, of the 

Eastern, Ottawa, Bathurst and Newcastle Districts 228 

8. Miscellaneous Educational Information about Schools in 1826, 1827 229 

(1) Niagara, (2) St. Catharines, (8) Montague, (4) Perth, (5) Cornwall, 

(6) Peterborough, (7) St. Thomas 229 



xvi. CONTENTS. 



Page. 
XLV. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1828 232 

1. Members who took part in the School Legislation of 1828 232 

2. Report of the House of Assembly on the King's College Charter of 1827. . . 23& 

3. Petition to the King on the Charter 242 

4. Case of Mr. Thomas Appleton, Common School Teacher at York, 1820- 

1828 244 

5. Report of the House of Assembly on Mr. Thomas Appleton's case 246. 

6. The Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Peregrine Maitland's reply to Mr. Appleton's 

Memorial to him 247" 

7. Minutes of Evidence for the Appleton case, given by Messieurs Thomas 

Appleton, John Fenton, Jesse Ketchum, William Poyntz Patrick, 
Joseph Spragg, the Reverend Alexander Stewart and Doctor Thomas 
David Morrison 248. 

Note. — No Journals of the Legislative Council proceedings for 1828 are available.^ 

XLVI. Imperial Parliament Committee's Report on the King's College 

Charter, etc 253 

1. Appendix. — Extracts from the Evidence of the Reverend George Ryerson 

and the Right Honourable R. J. Wilmot Horton, Under Secretary of 
State 255 

2. The Report practically embodied in the Colonial Secretary Despatch of 

September 29th, 1828, to Sir John Colborne 257 

XL VII. Educational Proceedings of the Legislature of Upper Canada in 1829 25^ 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1829 

2. Members of the House of Assembly who took part in its School Legislation. 25&> 

3. Statement of the Funds and Sources of Income of King's College, 1828- 

1829 264 

4. Report of the Reverend Doctor Strachan, President of the General Board 

of Education for Upper Canada, for the year 1828 265 

5. Bepcrt of School Payments by the House of Assembly's Select Committee 

on Finance 269- 

6. First Report of the House of Assembly's Select Committee on Education . . 269 

7. Series of Resolutions reported from the House of Assembly's Select Com- 

mittee on Education 274 

8. Educational Proceedings of the Legislative Council in 1829 276 

9. Members of the Legislative Council in 1829 276 

XL VIII. The Founding of Upper Canada College in 1829 284 

1. Sir John Colborne's Letter to the Vice-Chancellor of the University of 

Oxford, authorizing him and others to Select Masters for Upper 
Canada College , 286 

2. Russell Square, the Site of Upper Canada College 287 

3. Elizabeth College, Guernsey, the Model of Upper Canada College 288 

4. Endowment of Upper Canada College, 1829-1838 289 

5. Sir George Arthur on the Founding of Upper Canada College by Sir John 

Colborne 289 

6 Opening of Upper Canada College — its First Masters 290 



CONTENTS. XVll. 



Page . 
XLIX. Educational Proceedings of the Upper Canada Legislature in 1830 291 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1830, and Members 

who took part in them . 292 

2. Petition to the Legislature of the United Presbytery of Upper Canada, 1830. 298 

3. Report of a Select Committee on the Western District (Grammar) School . . 300 

4. Bill : An Act to Establish Upper Canada College 301 

5. Educational Proceedings of the Legislative Council in 1830 805 

6. Report on the Petition of the United Presbytery of Upper Canada 307 

7. The Reverend Doctor Strachan's Resolutions on Education and the Founding 

of Upper Canada College 310 

8. An Act to incorporate thd Trustees of the Grantham Academy, St. 

Catharines, 1830 313 

L. Various Matters Relating to the Upper Canada Legislation of 1830, etc 315 

1. Proceedings of the United Presbytery of Upper Canada in regard to its 

Petition to the Legislature of Upper Canada 315 

2. Reply of the Presbytery to the Report of the Legislative Council on its 

Petition 315 

3. The King's College Council and the Upper Canada Legislature, 1830 31ft 

4. British House of Commons' Request for information in regard to King's 

College 317 

6. Report of the Upper Canada Executive Council f n a Memorandum of t\ie 

Lieutenant-Governor of May, 1830 318 

6. Public Meeting at York in December, 1830, in regard to King's College 

Charter, etc 81& 

7. Early Establishment of Schools in Upper Canada, 18 13- 1831, contributed 

by various persons, viz.- (1) Port Hope; (2) Aurora; (3) London; 
(4) St. Catharines ; (5) Niagara Grammar School ; ^6) Miss Black's 
School, Niagara ; (7) Cornwall Grammar School 31& 



APPENDIX. 



Circular to Boards of School Trustees by the Editor of this Documentary 

History 321 



Index to this First Volume 322 



2* (D.E.) 



Chap. I. PRELIMINARY CORRESPONDENCE. 3 

CHAPTER I. 

SOME PRELIMINARY CORRESPONDENCE. 

After the Honorable the Minister of Education had decided to publish thig 

)reliminary volume, and had entrusted to me the duty of preparing it, I 

iddressed a note on the subject to the Honorable William T. Harris, LL.D., 

Fnited States Commissioner of Education at Washington, to Rev. Canon Scadding, 

.D., and Charles Lindsay, Esq., Toronto, to William Kingsford, Esq., C.E., 

>ttawa. and to John M. McMuilen, Esq., Brockville, also to James Bain, jr., Esq., 

lof the Public Library, Toronto, asking them for suggestions on the preparation 

)f this history, and as to details, etc. The note which I addressed to these 

P^entlemen was in substance as follows : — 

It is proposed to prepare for publication, by the Education Department of Ontario, " The 
[Documentary History of Education in Upper Canada" from the time of its settlement to a 
iperiod which may hereafter be determined. 

If you will kindly make any suggestion which may occur to you, as to the style and treatment 
\k>{ the subject, the size of the volumes, the type most suitable to be used, etc., I shall be greatly 
'•obliged to you. 

It is intended to include in this first volume of the proceedings of the early Legislatures of 
Upper Canada on the subject of primarj' and secondary education. The second volume will 
contain like information in regard to higher education, etc. 

I have already collec ei a good deal of material for the proposed publication — having com- 
menced the collection in 1863. I am anxious to make that publication as complete and satisfac- 
tory as possible I. therefore, write to you on the subject, so as to avail myself of your extended 
and varied experience in educational literature. 

Reply of the Honorable W. T. Harris, LL.D., Washington. 

I look with great interest to the volume that you are to prepare r,n the " History of 
Education " in the Province of Ontario from the earliest times. There is not anything, however, 
that I can suggest, which would help you in your great work, for your experience is so full that 
very few persons indeed, will be ^ble to think of lines that you have not already covered. 

1 send yon herewith our " Henry Barnard Index," also an " Index to the Publications" of 
this Bureau, and, in case the library'of this Bureau has anything in it that can aid you,* it shall 
be at your service. 

Reply of Charles Lindsay, Esq., Toronto, 
Himself a veteran in the Canadian literary field. It is highly suggestive, 
and is as follows : — 

My opinion is that it would be most convenient if the Documentary History, which is 
contemplated by the Department of Education, did not take a form larger than octavo. The 
quartos published in Quebec, for this kind of literature, are extremely inconvenient to handle, 
and they necessitate the use of a kind of type much larger than is necessary or desirable. I was 
recently surprised to see in an American publication, intended for the instruction of journalists, 
the statement that nonpariel solid is of all type the most easy to read. I have been experiment- 
ing with it, and I believe that for the majority of readers the statement is true I cannot say 
that, at over seventy years of age, I found any inconvenience in reading this small print. It 
would not however prove generally acceptable to the public for your purpose. If I were going 
to print documents of the kind you mention I should use a type not larger than bourgeois with- 
out leads. 

The first (juality requisite in paper is that it should be of an enduring kind, and it is at 
least doubtful whether this be true of paper that has been treatrd by the soda process. The 
soda does the work required of it, but it does not stop there ; it continue-* to eat away the sub- 
stance, and will probably not stop short of final destruction by what is called ' burning out.' A 
paper maker assured me, some time ago, that he expects that in a comparatively short time all 
the newspaper files and all the public documents printed on paper treated by the soda process 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 



will entirely disappear. That process has ceased to be generally used within a short time, two 
or three years perhaps, and other paper is easily procurable. I think that a highly calendered 
pa})er, besides the harsh glare so trying to the eyes, is objectionable as being open to suspicion, 
generiiUy correct, that it contains more than the ordinary proportion of clay, and more than is 
desirable, if indeed any be. There is no objection to a paper lightly calendered, but I would 
never use one that is highly calendered. 

The best binding for your purpose, if something better than cloth is desired, would, T 
should think, be half calf or half morocco. The price of both is the same. It is desirable that 
the binding should not be subjected to a highly heated room. I should think the latter the 
more enduring. 

I am very glad to see that a beginning is to be made in printing the public documents of 
Upper Canada. There will, I imagine, be some difficulty in completing the materials, on any 
subject. You will scarcely find a full copy of the Upper Cmuida Gazette in Toronto. The 
I^ublic documents of the early his'ory of this Province has been sadly neglected. Of the few 
copies of the Journals of the House that were printed in the early years of our history, scarcely 
any are now to be found. Of some years not more than a single copy is known to exist Of 
others, I have never seen or heard of a copy. There is much relative to our early history that 
ought to be printed, and for tbat reason it is desirable that an inex]>ensive scale should at the 
outset be selected for this purpose. 

Reply of John M. McMullen, Esq., Brockville, 

Author of a valuable History of Canada. It is also suggestive, and is as 

follows : — 

I do not think that I have anything in my library that would be of much use to you. I 
had some correspondence with the late Dr. Ryerson relative to educational matters, but unfor- 
tunately did not preserve it. . . . 

A full set of the Statutes from Governor Sitncoe's time will be available to you. . . . 

The demy octavo form would be the only suitable one for your work. The type to be 
used should be long primer solid, and brevier solid for extracts, and nonpariel for notes. The 
paper should be a good white 52 lb double demy 

A judicious use of the material at your disposal would make the work very valuable 
to the future historian of this country. It should however, be something more than a mere 
' Documentary History.' The documents should be connected by short historical, or explana- 
tory narratives. So that their character and environments should be better understood, and the 
necessary dryiiess relieved. This was the course pursued in Gurwood's Wellington's Despatches 
— the most valuable and interesting work of the kind ever published. The ' Documentary 
History ' thus prepared would partake of the character of a connected narrative and be doubly 
interesting and valuable to the reader. 

Reply of William. Kingsford, Esq., C.E., Ottawa, 

A recent historian of Canada of rare merit. It is as follows : — 

In your letter of yesterday you kindly inform me of your intention to publish "The 
Documentary History of Education in Upper Canada.' 

I am certain the work will be of value ; and I am sure the attention you have given to the 
subject would make any suggestion on my part superfluous. Should, however, in my examin- 
ation, any thing attract my attention, I will have i)leasure in connnunicating it to you. 

The only suggestion I can make is that you should engage some com])etent person to obtain 
you copies from the ' Archives ' of such documents as may be useful to you, . . . 

I can only add my good wishes for the success of the work. It will undoubtedly be of 
use in every form, especially for the historic information it must contain, to assist in the con- 
sideration of the problems which, in our own time, are constantly attracting attention. 

One of the first problems of the day is the establishment of a sound system of public edu- 
cation. 

Reply of James Bain, Jr , Esq., Toronto. 

The reply of the Chief Officer of the Public Library, Toronto, is as follows : — 
I am much pleased to hear that you have undertaken a history of education in this 

Province. No one is better fitted for the task than yourself. 

We have not very much bearing on -the early education of the Province, but I will gladly 

do what I can in gathering together for you any documents which bear upon the point. 



Chap. I. PRELIMINARY CORRESPONDENCE. 5 

Reply of the Reverend Canon Henry Scadding, D. D., 
Who is so well versed in Caaadian pioneer lore. His reply is all the more 
interesting as it is largely autobiographical, and, from the fact that it refers to 
events in which the writer was personally concerned and an actor. It also con- 
tains a deserved tribute to those who, on personal grounds and out of respect to 
his father's memory and services, were the means of securing to him the great 
advantages of residence at the University of Cambridge, and a participation in 
its educational advantages. 

In reply to my letter. Dr. Scadding said : — 

The sheets enclosed are in reality my letter in reply to you. I have headed them "An 
Extract," leaving out the formal address, etc. 

The extract proceeds as follows : — 

In the phraseology of our public schools the expression "King's Scholars" is not now in 
u.se, but it was in vogue amongst us some years ago, and had a peculiarly old country ring about 
it. The exi)ression occurs at the close of an account given of the annual public examination of 
the old Royal Grammar school at York, to be seen in the Upper Canada Gazette and U.E. Loyalist 
newspaper for March 1st, 1828, where it is stated that the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Peregrine 
Maitland, then i)resent, announced that certain lads belonging to the school were to be " King's 
Scholars," implying thei-eby that they should enjoy the privilege of a fi'ee education in the 
school, for which, I believe provision was made in the School Act of the period. I quote the 
names of the scholars thus distinguished in 1828. My own name you will observe occurrs in the 
list, which reads thus: — "Samuel Smith, Henry Scadding, Leslie Caldwell, Charles Thomas 
Fitzgibbon " Samuel Smith was the son of the Hon. Col. Smith, some time deceased, formerly 
Administrator of the Government in the interim between Governor Gore and Sir Peregrine 
Maitland. Leslie Caldwell was the son of a well-known army surgeon at Penetanguishene. 
also deceased, whose widcjw was theti resident in York. Charles Thomas Fitzgibbon was the son 
of Col. Fitzgibbon, Clerk of the House <f A.ssembly, and father of a large family of sons. As 
to myself, 1 was placed on the list through the interest and influence of the Rev. Dr. Strachan, 
Archdeacon of York, who ever befriended me, remembering, as he did, so well the sad accident 
which had deprived my father of his life, soon after his settlement here and before he was able 
fully to acquire the provision which he was aiming to make for the welfare of his family. The 
King's scholarship at the Grammar School was thus a most welcome boon, and had the happy 
effect of keei)ing me much longer at my books than might otherwise, probably have been 
possible. I realize now more thoroughly th-^n 1 did at the passing moment the «reatness of the 
benefit thus conferred ujjon me. Looking back, I see that I have been, on a very humble scale 
in the community where my lot has been cast, a pioneer in its educational, literary, and ecclesi- 
astical concerns. I have often desired to place on record how it was that 1 came to be sent as a 
student to the University of Cambridge, an incident in my case most unlikely to have been 
anticipated by me, and which helped forward, in so important a manner, the fulfilment of my 
mission but I had never before seen an opening for doing so with propriety. Ytiur letter, as 
Librarian and Historiographer of the Education Department suggested to me that, at length, 
perhaps, tlie fitting occjision had arrived. In your account of the first movements towards the 
establishment of educational institutions in Upper Canada, you will I doubt not. do justice to 
the statesmanlike forecasts of our first Lieutenant-Governor in this I'egard, as I have myself 
endeavored to do in my two brochures entitled, " Merton College and Canada," and " A Letter 
to Sir Joseph Banks. " 

You remember the appreciative terms in which the French Duke de Liancourt speaks of 
Governor Simcoe's enlightened design for the future well-being of the new province, in his 
*' Travels through the United States of North America" (vol. 1, p. 241, London edition) as 
gathered by him while a guest at Navy Hall, Niagara. You may also recall, perhaps, what the 
Duke says on the same page, of the Gove-nor's talented wife, and the nuterial assistance which 
she rendered to her husband, by pen and jiencil in the accomplishment of his projects. His 
exact words are these (vol. II. page 61, Paris edition) : 

'' Madame Simcoe, femme de trente six ans, eat timide, a de I6aprit, est obligeante et 
bonne, parle peu, est occupee de sea devoirs de mere et de femme qre 'ell pousse jusque a etre 
le secretaire de confiance de son marl ; son talent pour le dessein qu 'elle applique au trace des 
cartes lin donne aussi le moyen de sui etre trea-utile." Translated thus in the English edition 
{vol. 1, page 241), it reads : — 

Mrs. Simcoe is a lady of thirty-six years of age. She is timid and speaks little ; but she 
is a woman of sense, handsome and amiable, and fulfils all the duties of mother and wife with 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1791 



scrupulous exactness. The performance of the latter she carries so far as to be of great assist- 
ance to her husband by her talents for drawing, the jiractice of which confined to maps and 
plans enables her to be extremely useful to the GovernDr." 

Now it was, strange to say, as I desire on this occasion to relate to you, abeneficient deter- 
mination on the part of this remarkable lady, at a later period of her life, that led to my being 
sent to Cambridge, and receiving there so considerable a portion of mv early training. It came 
to pass in this wise : — For many years prior to his emigration in 1821, my father had acted as 
factor, or chief general agent, for the extensive landed estates of ex-Governor Simcoe, in Devon- 
shire, and when the sad accident occurred, to which reference has been already made, depriving 
him suddenly of his life, Mrs. Simcoe, now a widow, out of sincere respect for the integrity of 
his character and his skill, as shown in the management of her family affairs, volunteered at 
once to do something towards the maintenance and bringing up of his youngest son ; having 
already heard of the lad's good disposition towar's learning from several sources. Thes-e 
reports continued to be favorable during ensuing years, and the final outcome was, a generous 
proposal to defray the expense of the youth's removal to Cambridge, and his continuance there 
for the requisite number of terms which might qualify him for a degree. 

Again a happy issue was mainly due to the timely intervention of the ever-friendly Dr. 
Strachan. The benevolent scheme was acted upon, and in 1833 I found myself transferred as a 
student in Arts, sufficiently crude and inexperienced as I was, from amidst primitive and back- 
woods surroundings (on lot number 15, first concession from 'he bay, broken frmt, in the Town- 
ship of York, Upper Canada), to the venerable cloistered courts of the " ancient and religioiis 
foundation" of the saintly Marjj;aret of Lancaster, mother of Henry VII., known as the Cdlege 
of St. John the Evangelist, in Cambridge. The excellent lady to whom this transfer was due. 
while fully intending thereby to do honor to the integrity and capacity of my father, entertained 
also a hope, I have reason to know, that her procedure might possibly in the long run confer 
some benefit on the Province which her husband had been instrumental in organizing many 
years ago, and in all the affairs of which, to her latest hour, she ever manifested the warmes'^^ 
interest. It was understood that, after the prescribed course in mHthematics, classics and 
divinity was completed, I was to return to Canada and make myself useful there. The plan was 
cordially acquiesced in, .and its conditions laboriously fulfilled, or at least attempted to be ful- 
filled by me. 

As to the long summer vacations and Christmas holidays which so agreeably diversify a 
Cambridge man's career, these were all of them, with the exception of the Christmas recess of 
1836, delightfully and profitably passed by me partly at Wolford in Devon, the beautiful home 
or my benefactress and the residence formerly of our first Lieutenant Governor, and partly at 
Penheale in Cornwall, the picturesque grey granite home of the Rev. Henr) Addington Simcoe, 
their only surviving son and heir. To these fair typical English homes and households, where 
surviving membeis of the Simcoe family are still to be found, visits of greater or less length 
have been made by me with great enjoyment in the years 1840, 1852, and 185G. 



CHAPTER II. 

SKETCH OF LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR JOHiV GRA.VES SIMCOE. 

Governor Simcoe was born at Cotterstock, in the County of Northampton, on 
the 22nd of February, 1752. He was educated at Eton College, and partly at 
Merton College, Oxford. He entered the army in 1770, and before taking his degree 
at Oxford. His father, Captain John Simcoe, of H. M. S. Pembroke, served with 
distinction under Wolfe at Quebec, where he lost his life at the early age of 45 
Governor Simcoe was successively an officer of the 85th and 40th Regiments, and 
subsequently commanded the Queen's Rangers (Hussars) during the American 
Revolutionary War. In 1790 he was elected a member of the British Parliament 
for a borough in Cornwall. In Parliament he took part on the Quebec Bill, which 
on its passage became the " Constitutional Act " of 1791. In 1792 he was appointed 
the first Lieutenant-Governor of the Province, which had by that Act been sepa- 
rated from Lower Canada. He induced many of the United Empire Loyalists to 



Chap. II. SKETCH OF GOVERNOR SIMCOE. 7" 

settle in Upper Canada, and sought in every way to promote the prosperity of the 
Province. He had Yonge Street constructed as a military road from York 
(Toronto) on Lake Ontario to the lake at the north which now bears his name. He 
named this road after his personal friend and neighbour in Devonshire, Sir 
George Yonge, who was a member of the Imperial Cabinet. The road traversed 
the "portage" as it was called between the two lakes, Ontario and Simcoe. 
Major General Simcoe was appointed Governor of St. Domingo in 1796, and a 
Lieutenant-General in 1798. He died on his return to England in 1806, aged 54.* 
Governor Simcoe was removed from Upper Canada sooner than was antici- 
pated. Rev. Dr. Ryerson, in his History oj the U. E. Loyalists, thus speaks of 
the cause of his early removal from the Governorship of Upper Canada : 

The American Gorernmenb represented Governor Simcoe as exciting the Iroquois 
(Mohawks) both in Canada and in Western New York against it — representations in which there 
was not a shadow of truth. . . But by these representations, and those of disappointed local 
land speculators, the Home Government recalled Governor Simcoe, the father of constitutional, 
pure and progressive government in Upper Canada. (Page 312.) 

Dr. Goldwin Smith, in his recent book on the "United States . . . 1492'.^ 
1871," thus refers to this matter : 

That the British Government, or anybody by its authority, was intriguing with the Indians 
against the Americans, an assertion of which there appears to be no proof. Simcoe, the 
Governor of Upper Canada, having fallen under suspicion, though an excellent oflicer, was. 
recalled. i^Pages 140-41.) 

Lieutenant-Colonel Simcoe as a Governor. 

Lieutenant-Governor J. Graves Simcoe arrived in Quebec on the 11th of 
November, 1791, and remained there for some time, there being no Council con- 
stituted in Upper Canada by whom he could be sworn into office. His plans for 
opening up and developing the resources of Upper Canada were on a scale of 
some importance ; but it seems only necessary to direct attention to the corre- 
spondence, which is of great importance to those interested in tracing the early 
history of Upper Canada, with its first settlement, and the means taken to open 
up communication between all parts of the country. In the summer of 1792. 
Simcoe reached Upper Canada, and, on the 16th of July, issued a proclamation' 
dated at Kingston, that the old Province of Quebec had been divided into the 
two Provinces of pper and Lower Canada, and fixing the division of the Pro- 
vince into " districts, counties, circles or towns and townships," to carry out the 



* That Governor Simcoe was a man of deep religious convictions may be gathered from a letter which 
he addressed to the clergyman of his parish in Wolford, on his fiftieth birthday (1801), and five years before 
his death. Wishing to have Divine service on his birthday, he said : " I would eiteem it as a favour if you 
would take for your text, ' Remember your Creator in the days of your youth.' etc. — the advantage of being 
a Christian, of having been educated by a most pious and excillent mother (my father dying whilst I was 
yet an infant in the service of his country) at Quebec, assisted by the companions of my father's youth, and 
the protectors of my own. ... I wish them to be recommended to my children. There is a text in 
Leviticus, I believe, that particularly enforces purity of heart to those who aspii^ to military command. 
As mine in all views is a military family, it may not be amiss, in a more esfiecial manner, to inculcate the 
remembrance of the Creator to those who engage in the solemn duties of protecting their country at these 
times from foreign usurpation." See note * on page 11 referring to Simcoe 's letter to Sir J. Banks. 

Note. —Governor Simcoe 's eldest pon, Lieutenant Francis G. Simcoe, was killed at the seige of Badajoz 
in 1812, aged 21. Castle " Frank," overlooking the Don River, was named after this son, the lot on which 
it was erected having been patented by Governor Simcoe in this son's name. (Rev. Dr. Scadding.) 



•B DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1791 

Act, " and to declare and appoint the number of representatives to be chosen by- 
each to serve in the Assembly of the said Province." The first meeting of the 
Legislature of Upper Canada was held at Newark, (Niagara), on 17th September* 
1792. It sat till the 15th of October.* 

Before leaving England for Canada, Governor Siracoe addressed a letter to 
Sir Joseph Banks, President of the Royal Society. In this letter he stated what 
he thought would be desirable to be done so as to introduce the spirit of the 
British Constitution into Upper Caniada, and to promote British habits of 
thought among the people. In doing so his purpose was to show the excellence 
of the monarchical over the republican system of government, so lately adopted 
by the revolted colonies. The success of their revolutionary aims was keenly 
felt by him. His purpose was, therefore, to try and win back the more moderate 
of the disaffected colonists, and to provide a congenial home, under the old flag, 
for the expatriated American loyalists. The motto adopted for this new British 
home across the sea, expressed in strong, prophetic language, the heartfelt wish 
and purpose of the able and clear-sighted statesman who was sent out as its first 
"Governor. It ran thus : — 

Imperii Porrecta Majestas Custode Rerum C^sare. 

Ihe Greatness of the Empire Extended, under the Guardianship of Coesar. 
His strong desire in this matter was thus expressed to Sir Joseph Banks : 

The method I propose is by establishing a free, honorable British Government, and a pure 
administration of its laws ... to hold out to the solitary emigrant, and to the several 
States, advantages that the present form of Government doth not, and cannot, permit them to 
enjoy. 

On Simcoe's nomination to his office as Governor, he evidently revolved in 
his mind how best he could secure a solid foundation for the government and 
institutions of the youthful colony entrusted to his care. Religion and education 
were his two watchwords. The form in which he wished them introduced into 
the new Province was — the first, in the person of a chief ecclesiastic, and the 
other as an endowed university. The former was to " inculcate* in all ranks and 
descriptions of people a sober and an industrious, religious and conscientious 
spirit, which shall b°, the best security that a government can have for its own 
internal preservation. The latter, with the liberal education which it would 
afford, " would be most useful to inculcate just principles, habits and manners 
into the rising generation." 

The former of these views Simcoe strongly impressed upon the Archbishop 
•of Canterbury, (Dr. Moore,) in a letter addressed to him, dated the 30th Decem- 
ber, 1790, and also upon the Colonial Secretary of State, (Right Honorable 
Henry Dundas,) in a letter to him of the 2nd of June, 1791. The latter subject 
'was also referred to in the letter to the Colonial Secretary, and, (in regard to the 
University,) in the one, (previously quoted,) to the President of the Royal Society. 

* Report of the Dominion Archivist for 1891, pages xxi, xxii. 



Chap. III. GOVERNOR SIMCOE AND BISHOP STRACHAN. 9 

CHAPTER III. 

GOVERNOR SIMCOE AND BISHOP STRACHA.N. 

At the ceremony of laying the corner stone of King's College in the Queen's 
Park, on the 23rd April, 1842, Dr. Strachan, in a speech delivered on that occa- 
sion, thus referred to Governor Simcoe's administration during his brief stay in 
Upper Canada. He said : — 

Soon after the passing of the Constitutional Act of 1791, General Simcoe — a gentleman of 
great piety, literature and science, and most devoted to the welfare of the Province, was 
appointed Governor. After exploring its resources and making himself well acquainted with its 
wants, he applied himself earnestly to the religious and secular education of the people. Unfor- 
tunately for Upper Canada, his administration was of short continuance ; and before he was 
able to complete the establishment of a seminary of learning adequate to the requirements of 
the colony at that time, he was removed to a higher government, and after his departure it was 
dropped and forgotten. 

In an autobiographical sketch of his early career, Dr. Strachan (in 1860) again 

referred to Governor Simcoe, and the cause which led to his own removal to 

Canada : — 

Among the many schemes contemplated by General Simcoe for the benefit of the Province, 
was that of establishing grammar 8ch(jols in every district, and a university at their head at the 
sta". of government. Anxious to complete, as soon as possible, so beneficial an object, the 
Governor gave authority to the late Honorable Richard Cartwright and the Honorable 
Robert Hamilton to procure a gentlemen from Scotland to organize and take charge of such 
College or university. These gentlemen, whose memories are stUl dear to the Province, applied 
to their friends in St. Andrews, who offered the appointment first to Mr. Duncan, then to Mr. 
Chalmers, neither of whom was yet much known, but both declined. Overtures were then 
made to me, and, suffering under my recent disappointment [caused by the resignation of the 
Professor whose assistant he was to have been] I was induced, after some hesitation, to accept 
the appointment. 

T sailed from Greenock towards the end of August, 1799, under convoy ; but such was then 
the wretched state of navigation that I did not reach Kingston, by the way of New York and 
Montreal, till the last day of the year, much fatigued in body, and not a little disappointed at 
the desolate appearance ot the country, being throughout, one sheet of snow. But a new and 
still more severe trial awaited me. i was informed that Governor Simcoe had some time before 
returned to Eng and, but of which I had received no information, and that the intention of 
establishing the projected university had been postponed. I was deeply moved and cast-down, 
and had I possessed the means, I would have instantly returned to Scotland A more lonely or 
destitute condition can scarcely be conceived. My reasonable expectations were cruelly 
blighted — a lonely st ranger in a foreign land, without any resources or a single acquaintance. 
But my return was next to impossible, and it was more wisely ordered. Mr. Cartwright, to 
whom I had been specially recommended, came to my assistance, and sympathized deeply and 
sincerely in this, to me unexpected, calamity; and, after a short space of time, proposed a tem- 
porary remedy. My case, he acknowledged, was most trying, but not altogether hopeless, and 
he submitted an arrangement which might be deemed only temporary or lasting, as future 
events should direct. 'I'ake charge, said he, of my four sons and a select number of pupils 
during three years ; this will provide you with honourable employment and a fair remuneration ; 
and if, at the expiration of that period the country does not present a reasonable prospect of 
advancement, you might return to Scotland with credit. He further added that he did not think 
the plan of grammar schools and university altogether desperate, although it might take longer 
time to establish them than might be convenient or agreeable. In my position there was no 
alternative but to acquiesce, and I was soon enabled c > return to a healthy cheerfulness, and to 
meet my difficulties with fortitude and resignation. In the meantime, a strong attachment 
grew up between me and Mr. Cartwright, whom I found to be a man of great capacity and 
intelligence, of the strictest honour and integrity, and, moreover, a sincere churchman from 
conviction, after deep enquiry and research. A similarity of feelings and tastes tended to 
strengthen and confirm our mutual regard, which at length ripened into a warm friendship, 
which continued without the slightest change or abatement till we were separated by death. 
1 was left the guardian (»f his children, the highest and most precious pr )of of confidence that 
he could have conferred upon me, and I feel happy in saying that, under my guardianship, they 
became worthy of their excellent father. 



10 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1791 



CHAPTER IV. 

CHARACTER OF THE " SIMCOE PAPERS." 

A correspondence took place in 1791 between Lieutenant-Colonel J. Graves 
Simcoe, the tirst Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, and Sir Joseph Banks, 
President of the Royal Society, and the Colonial Secretary, Right Honourable 
Henry Dundas; and, in 1795, with the first Anglican Bishop of Quebec, on the 
desirability of establishing schools and seminaries of education in Tipper Canada. 
This correspondence naturally forms the ground Work, as well as the starting 
point of our educational history. 

My attention was first called to the value of this correspondence by Mr. 

George Coventry, of Cobourg, who was an enthusiast in the matter of collecting 

early historical records. He was employed by the Government of United Canada 

in the later fifties to copy and arrange historical papers of value, including the 

" Simcoe Papers." With Dr. Ryerson's approval I engaged him in 1862 and 1863 

to copy various papers on early educational topics in this Province. These papers,^ 

with others, will now be included in this " Documentary History." In letters 

addressed to me in February and March of that year he said in substance : 

Governor Simcoe was the first of the Governors that paid attention to education in Upper 
Canada. Among his Papers I found his correspondence with Mr. Henry Dundas, Colonial Sec- 
retary of State. (Dundas Street is named after him). He suggests that the British Government 
should erect a university for the sons of the better class who may come out from the old country. 
Those Papers are all in the Parliamentary Library at Quebec. A notice of this and a copy of 
these letters should commence your essay [i.e., " Documentary History "]. Again he said : 

" I am glad to find that you approved of the information I forwarded on the subject of 
education. ... As early as April 28th, 1792, Governor Simcoe, in a long despatch to 
Mr. Henry Dundas, touches upon education, and says that it should he a national afi'dir — that 
lands should be granted for schools to defray the expenses, and education for the higher classes 
should be provided for in colleges, otherwise children and youths sent to the States would imbibe 
revolutionary ideas and habits. (This is from my rough notes preserved from a very long letter 
on the subject, now in Quebec, with other documents I have sent there ) Again : By a letter I 
have just received from Quebec, I am pleased to find that Mr. William Ryerson. M.P.P., is 
interesting himself about our historical research. He has been deputed by the Library Com- 
mittee of the House to examine Governor Simcoe's Papers and other documents, which f have 
sent down to Quebec for the information of the Committee. This will introduce the subject to 
more general notice, and be the means of opening the way when he brings forward the subject 
in the House. His ancestor [father] Col. Joseph Ryerson, was greatly in favour of collecting 
and publishing statistics of the Province in 1«17, and presided at a meeting for that purpose in 
Vittoria, London District. It is gratifying to find that the present Mr. Ryerson is alive to the 
subject, so as to rescue by- gone events from oblivion. 

Having now written very fully on this subject, I hope that Dr. Ryerson will stir up his 
relative [brother] to bring forward the subject in the House that we were discussing, relative to 
collecting and preserving the materials for a good "Documentary History of Up er Canada," 
similar to the liberxl plan adopted in the States. The State of New York has furnished us with 
ten large volunes of most interesting matter. . . 

The subject you are engaged in — i.e., collecting educational items — is a very la'dable and 
useful one. Your book could be made very interesting and instructive by showing the difficul- 
ties the early se tiers had to encounter in obscure districts to obtain any education f >r their 
children. Colonel Clark* told me that at first the chaplains of regiments gave instruction in 

* Colonel John Clark was bora at Kinsr^ton, Upper (Janada, in 1783, and rea'ded at Port Oalhousie. 
The family came to the Province in 1768. He wis educatei at a garrisoa school, F.)rt Niagara, and after- 
wards at Mr. Cockrel's school, Niagara. He was placed on duty in 1812 by General Brock as lieutenant 
and adjutant of the 4th Lincoln flank companies. He was promoted by General Sir Roger H. Sheaffe to 
the rank of Captain- Assistant- Adjutant-General of Militia in the same year. He served during th& 
Rebellion of 1837 38 as colonel of the First Frontier Light Infantry. He died in 1862, aged 79 years. 



Chap. IV. CHARACTER OF THE " SIMCOE PAPERS." 11 



their various vicinities In the tirafc Gazeftes published at Niagara, in 1793, under the auspices 
of Governor Simcoe, you can trace the first establishment of schools in the country. In them 
are some good documents on education. . . . The Hon. W. H. Merritt, when a boy of five 
or six years old went to a small day school at the Ten Mile Creek, about two and a half miles 
from St. Catharine's. In 1797 Mr. Cockrel opened a school at Newark (Niagara). In 1799 he 
removed it to Ancaster, an \ lo his school there Mr Merritt went as boarder. . . . 

Extracts from the Simcoe Correspondence. 

Apart from the isolated and desultory efforts to establish private schools 
amonf? the United Empire Loyalists, or to take advantage of the garrison schools 
at the few military posts, nothing was attempted in the way of official action in 
the matter of education until the appointment of Governor Simcoe in 1791. 

As the Simcoe correspondence forms the starting point in the " Documentary 
History of Education in Upper Canada," I select such portions of it as relate to 
the subject of education. 

1. Governor Simcoe to Sir Joseph Banks, 

Dated London, the 8th of January, 1791. 
That part of this letter, from which I have already quoted (page 8), relates 
to the form of government. That part which I now quote, relates to education 
as follows : — 

In a literary way, I should be alad to lay the foundation stone of some society that I trust 
might hereafter conduce to the extension of science Schools have been shamefully neglected - 
a college of a higher cla^s w >uld be eminently useful, and would give a tone of principle and 
manners that would be ot infinite support to government* 



2. Governor Simcoe to The Right Honorable Henry Dundas, 

Secretary of State, 

Dated Quebec, April 28th, 1792; 

After referring to several matters of importance which required attention, 
Simcoe proceeded : — 

But the question of hi;^her education is of still more importance; lower education, being 
less expensive, may, in the m-i-iutime, be provided by relatione, and more remote'y by school 
lands. The higher must ba indebted to the liberality of the British (Government, as, owing to 
the cheapness of education in the United States, the gentlemen of Upper Canada will send their 
children there, which would tend to pervert their British principles. Simcoe then proposed two 
school-masters at Kingston and Niagara at £100 per annum : a university with ahead and pro- 
fessors in the Cipital, all of whom should be of the Church of England, and, the medical 
professor, perhaps, excepted, clergymen. 

3. Secretary Dundas to Governor Simcoe, 

Daed London, July 12th, 1792:— 

In reply to Simcoe's letter of the 28th of April, Secretary Dundas says : — 

" Your letter has been received and laid before the King. As to Schools and a University, 
I think that the Schools will be sufficient for some time. Such Schools, or at least, 
one of them, should be of the first order, and whenever stej^s are taken by the Province to 

*Letter to Sir Joseph Banks, President of the Royal Society . . . written by Lieutenant-Governor 
Simcoe in 1791 (page 9). Printed for private circulation. (Rev. Canon Scadding, D.D., Toronto, 1890.) 



12 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1792-5 



establish a higher seminary as may meet the approbation of His Majesty, he (Dundas) shall with 
great satisfaction receive His Majesty's pleasure as to the extension of the royal bounty 
towards its supjiort." 

4. Governor Simcoe to Secretary Dundas, 

Dated Navy Hall, (Niagara), 23rd of November, 1792. 

In this letter Governor Simcoe refers to his April letter to Secretary Dundas 

on the subject of religion and education. He said : 

In respect to a just attention to the interests of religion, and a provision for the education 
of the rising generation, who must take their due lead in society under the present constitution, 
and principally till up the offices of Government, I only beg leave, Sir, to refer you to my late dis- 
patches upon these subjects — I have therein stated strongly what I have felt sincerely, and 
these momentous concerns will not only involve in themselves the comfort and hap])ines3 of the 
settlers in this country, and be the surest means of rendering it populous, but will chiefly con- 
tribute to that intimate union with Great Britain, which if duly improved and properly supported, 
as necessity requires, at the present season, I see no reason why that union should not become 
permanent for ages. 

Note. —From this date until April, 1795, the corfespondence between Governor Simcoe, the Colonial 
Secret iry Dundai, GrOverQor-*ieneral Dorchester and other* related to various matters conaected with the 
well-being of the Province, such as the marriaare laws, abolition of slavery, Indiin affairs, fortifying posts, 
war with France, and its effect on the colony, local appointm^ents, settlement of the country, etc. 

6. Governor Simcoe to the first Church of England Bishop of Quebec, 

Dated Kingston, Upper Canada, April 30th, 1795. 

Perhaps the Constitution given to Upper Canada, however late, forms the singular 

exception to that want of preventive wisdom which has characterized the present times. The 

people of this Province enjoy the forms, as well as the privileges, of the British Constitution 

given to Upper C mada however late. They have the means of governing themselves, and 

having nothing to ask, must ever remain a part of the British Empire, provided they shall 

become sufficiently capable and en ightened to understand their relative position and to manage 

their own power to the public interest. Liberal Education seems to me, therefore, to be 

indispensibly necessary ; and the comi)letion of it in the establishment of a University in the 

capital of the country— the residence of the Governor and the Council, the Bishop, the heads of 

the Law, and of the general quality of the inhabitants, consequent to the seat of Government, 

in my apprehension would be most useful to inculcate just principles, habits and manners, into 

the rising generaton ; to coalesce the different customs of the various descriptions of settlers, 

emigrants from the old Provinces of Europe into one form. In short, from these distinct parts 

would there establish one nation — and thereby strengthen the union with Great Britain and 

preserve a lasting obedience to His Majesty's authority. The income contemplated for such 

an establishment is certainly, of itself, too contemptible to be withheld from the prosecuting of 

so great an object on any view of expense. I naturally should wish that the Clergy requisite for 

offices in the University, in the first instance, should be Englishmen, if possible, — conforming 

therein to Secretary — Mr. Dundas' opinion, and indeed, in this resjiect, to my own — but, as in 

an object of sach magnitude, no explanation can be too minute, which fairly and clearly 

elucidates these points which ought not to be misunderstood. I only refer to your Lordship's 

slight experience of the habits and manners of the American settlers, to say Ikjw very different 

they are from those of Great Britain, and how unlikely it is for clergymen educated in England 

with English families and prcipensities, — habituated in eveiy situation to a greater degree of 

refinement and comfort than can be found in a new country, or i)ossibly anywhere without the 

precints of Great Britain — how unlikely it is that such jiersons should obtain that influence 

w th their parishioners which may essentially promote the objects of their mission. In the 

infancy of such a government as that of Upper Canada, and in the general indisposition of these 

times to all restraint, it seems to be of peculiar importance to prevent the public interest, both 

in Church and State, from suffering through any ill-will or disregard which the King's subjects 

may bear to those persons w ho are in any manner concerned in its administration. On the 

other hand, I am jiersuaded of at the outset, a few pious, learned men, of just Zealand primitive 

manners, shall be sent to this country, with sufficient inducement to make them support this 

honorable banishment with cheerfulness — and that in the first Instance, your Lordship shall not 

too strenuously insist upon learning, as a qualification for ordination, where there are evident 

marks of religious disposition and proofs of morality — I am confident the rising generation will 



Chap. IV. CHARACTER OF THE " SIMCOE PAPERS." 13 



I 



be brought up competently learned and properly enbued with religion and loyalty ; and it is 
probable that they may, at least, be equal to those of Connecticut, in this Continent, whose 
clergy are in general, inferior to none in those poinds of learning and of acquisition in the dead 
languages, which may be generally considered as the necessary materials and instruments of 
their sacred profession. 

In short, my Lord, if the maintainence of religion and morality be merely considered in a 
commercial light, as so much merchandise, the bounty which I have proposed, and most 
earnestly implore may be for a while extended to it, will augment that produce in which the 
union of the country with Great Britain, and the preservation of His Majesty's Sovereignty may 
ultimately depend. I am almost ashamed of using this metaphorical language, but it is that of 
the age. There is nothing, in my late progress, that has given me equal uneasiness with the 
general application of all rauks of the most loyal inhabitants of the Province, that I should 
obtain for the n Churches and Ministers. They say that the rising generation is rapidly 
returning to barbarism. They stat'i that the Sabbath so wisely set apart 'or devotion, is literally 
unknown to their children, who are bu ily employed in searching for amusements in which they 
may consume tliat day. 

»**•****♦* 

These objects would be materially promoted by a University in Upper Canada, which might 
in due progress, acquire such a character as to become the place of education to many persons 
beyond the extent of the King's dominions. 

If 1 reco lect. my Lord, Parliament voted £20,000 for the erection of the University 
jjroposed by Bishop Berkely in Bermuda. The object of such an institution, not to speak 
disrespectfully of any place or so truly respectable a prelate, was certainly of trivial importance 
to what I now propose. The 1 .bors of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, are 
visionary, as applicable to the conversion of the American Indians in th<:-ir present state ; but 
would be of most essential benefit by promoting a University, which, if placed in the .part I 
meditate, would, in its turn, have great influence in civilizing the Indians, and, what is of more 
importance, those who corrupt them. The Episcopal Clergy in Great Britain rom pious 
motives, as well as policy, are materially interested that the Church should i.icrease in this 
Province. 1 will venture to pro^jhesy its preservation depends upon a L^niveraity being 
erected therein. 

The Universities of Ena^land, I make no doubt, would contribute tolheplantinsr of a scion from 
their respectable stock, in this distant Colony. In short, my Lord, I have not the smallest 
hesitation in saying that I believe if a Protestant Ep scopil University should be p oposed to be 
erected even in the United States, the British natioa wjuld nuit liberally subscribe t) the 
undertaking. 

I am, therefore, the more authorized to make thi statement to your Lordshij) and most 
earnestly do I hope that you may be ab e by God's help to complete this desirable work in this 
province which my various avocations do not permit me to undert:ike with due vigor and 
perseverance.- 

6. Governor Simcoe to the Bishop of Quebec,* 

Dated Navy Hall, (Niagara), October 16th, 1795 : — 

My views in respect to a University are totally unchanged, they are on a solid basis, and 
may or may not be complied with, as my superiors shall think proper, but shall certainly appear 
as my system to the judgment of posterity. 

7. Govern.or Simcoe to the Duke of Portland. Secretary of State, 

Dated Navy Hall, 8th November, 1795, 

The state of the country calling loudly for a public pchool of the first class, and the late 
Lieutenant-G(}vernor Hope baving built a house for that purpose at Kingston ; on consultation 
with the Bishop, Mr. Stuart, the respectable missionary at that place has undertaken to super- 
intend it until His L-n-dship shall provide a proper person. From the various communications 
I have had with His Majesty's Ministers on this subject, I have felt myself authorized to promise 
one hundred pounds per annum, the salary allowed at Montreal and Quebec ; an^l which I 
understand from the principal people of the district, was promised by Lieutenant-Governor Hope 

At Niagara the want of a school is most visible ; the Reverend Mr. Addison is willing to 
undertake the office on the same terms as Mr. Stuart, and I hope for your Grace's approbation 
of a measure most necessary for the welfare of the Province. 



* I have not been able to obtain the replies of the Bishop of Queb3c to Governor Simcoe's letters to him. 



14 documentary history of education in upper canada. 1796 

8. Governor Simcoe to the Bishop of Quebec, 

Dated York, 2:)th February, 1796 :— 

I have scarcely the smallest hope of this Government being supported in the manner 
which I cannot but think proper for the national interests and commensurate with its established 
Constitution. In particular I have no idea that a University will be established, though I am 
daily confirmed in its necessity. I lament these events from the duty I owe to my King and 
country, and have only to guard that no opinions of mine be interpreted to promise beneficial 
effects, when the adequate causes from which they must originate, are suffered lo perish, or are 
withheld. 

9. Duke of Portland to Governor Simcoe, 

Dated Whitehall, London, June 22nd, 1796 : — 

As the want of schoolmasters is particularly noticed in your letter to the Bishop, I should 
be far from unwilling to recommend tha* some provision should be made here towards their 
maintenance ; but in doing this I must observe that my ideas of schoolmasters best suited to 
the present state of Upper Canada are such as are thoroughly competent to teach reading, writ- 
ing, accounts and mensuration. 

T he stipend to persons of this description, exclusive of what they would receive from at 
least some of their scholars, ought to be very moderate. With respect to a public school of a 
higher order, where the Greek and Latin languages, and some other branches of learning may be 
taught, I should think that Quebec or Montreal would naturally offer themselves, as most proper 
for an establishment of such a nature, during the infancy of Upper Canada. There is a very 
good Seminary of this kind in Nova Scotia, which from the progress it has already made, will 
probably be extended to the general cultixation of the arts and sciences. 

Having thus given you my sentiments, I shall await to hear from you in return before any 
final measures are adopted on a subject which requires due consideration, in order that the 
establishment proposed may either be above or below what the present exigency of the trovince 
requires — for in either of these cases, but more especially in the former, they would be totally 
useless, and thereby operate as a positive ntardnicnt to establishments of a higher nature, and 
which would otherwise itaturally take place in the Province. 

As this despatch relates only to the church establishment of your Province, you will of 
course, communicate it to the Bishop of Quebec, and will concert with him the best means of 
•carrying into effect the objects to which I have directed your attention. 

10. Governor Simcoe to the Duke of Portland, 

Dated York, July 20th, 179G. 
In this letter — the last which Governor Simcoe wrote on the subject — he 
strongly recommended the erection of a university in Upper Canada. He said •" 

In the meantime the sevenths of the Crown will become gradually productive as lands 
which have been granted shall be cultivated, or withdrawn from the market, and appropriations 
may be made agreeably to the opinion of the Council, to be sold hereafter for public purposes, 
the first and chief of which I beg to offer with all respect and deference, to Your Grace, must 
be the erection and endowment of a University, from which more than any other source or 
circumstance whatever, a grateful attachment to His Majesty, morality and religion will be 
fostered and take root throughout the whole Province. 



CHAPTER V. 

CHANGE OF GOVERNORS, AND SKETCHES OF THEM. 

Governor Simcoe applied in December, 1795 to the Duke of Portland, for 
leave of absence on account of ill-health, and recommended that the Honorable 
Peter Russell, senior Councillor, be appointed to administer the Government. 
Delays occurred ; and it was not until August, 179G, that Simcoe left Canada, 
destined, as was afterwards the case, never again to return to that country. 



Chap. V. CHANGE OF GOVERNORS, AND SKETCHES OF THEM. 15 

On the 18th of June, 1796, Sir Robert Prescott arrived in Quebec, as successor 
to Lord Dorchester, the Governor-General. He was, however, recalled, on account 
of his constant disputes with his Council, in April, 1799, and was succeeded by 
Lieutenant-General Sir Robert Shore Milnes. In the same year, Major-General 
Hunter was appointed as the second Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada. 

Personal Sketches of these Governors. 

Sir Guy Carleton (Lord Dorchester) was among the most eminent men 
who have governed Canada. He was born in England in 1725, entered the army 
a,nd took a prominent part in the siege and capture of Quebec, under Wolfe, in 
1759. He was, for his services, promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General, and 
•during the Governor-General (Murray's) absancd from Canadain 1767, he adminis- 
tered the government. Being in England in 1770, he aided in the passage of the 
Quebec Act of 177L In 1774, he returned as Governor-General, and successfully 
resisted the attack of the Americans upon Quebec in 1776. In 1778, he returned 
to England, and was knighted by the King. In 1782, he succeeded Sir Henry 
Clinton as Commander-in-Chief of the royal forces in America. In 1786, he was 
created Lord Dorchester for his distinguished services ; and from that time until 
1796, (with the exception of two years,) he remained in Canada as Governor- 
General. He recommended Sir John Johnson as Lieutenant-Governor of Upper 
Canada instead of Lieut.-Col. J. G. Simcoe. He was thus connected with 
Canada for the period of thirty -six years. During that time he acquired great 
distinction as a colonial governor by his prudence, firmness, and sagacity. His 
conciliatory manner towards all parties, won for him their love and respect ; and 
when he retired from the government of Canada, it was amid the heartfelt regret 
of all classes of the people. He died in 1808, aged 83. 

General Sik Robert Prescott was born in England in 1725. He served in 
Anr^erica during the revolutionary war, afterwards in the West Indies, where he 
served as Governor of Martinique, and also of Guadaloupe. He was very highly 
esteemed for his wise and judicious treatment of the natives in both places. He 
was Governor-General of Canada from 1796 until 1799. He died in 1815, aged 
89 years. Prescott, the capital of the county of Grenville, was named after him. 

Sir Robert Shore Milnes was born in England in 1746. He bec^an life as 
an officer in the Royal Horse Guards, Blue. In 1795, he was appointed Governor 
of Martinique, and in 1799, Lieutenant-Governor of Lower Canada, and acting 
Governor-General in the absence of General Prescott. He died in 1836. 

Major-General Hunter was born in the same year as Sir R. S. Milnes, 
{1746). Early in life he entered the army, and rose gradually to the rank of 
Major-General. He succeeded Lieutenant-General J. G. Simcoe as the second 
Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada in 1799, He died in Quebec on the 21st 
of August, 1805, aged 59 years. A monument to his memory has been erected by 
his brother in the Anglican cathedral of that city. 



16 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1797 

Hon. Peter Russell came to Canada with Governor Simcoe in 1792, as 
Inspector-General. He afterwards became a member of the Legislative Council. 
On Simcoe's retirement, in 1796, he become the acting Governor, (being the 
Senior Councillor). He died in this Province, and his name is inscribed on a 
monument in the Spadina Baldwin plot, St. James' Cemetery, Toronto. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE PRESIDENT RUSSELL CORRESPONDENCE. 

1. President Peter Russell to the Duke of Portland, 

The Legislative Council and House of Assembly having adopted a joint 
Address to the King praying that lands be set apart for the establishment of 
Schools and a University in the Province, President Russell transmitted it to the 
Duke of Portland. The letter and Address, under date, at York, of July 21st, 1797, 

were as follows : — 

The members of the Legislative Council, and the House of Assembly of this Province, having 
in the late Sessions of the Provincial Parliament requested me to cause a petition from them to 
be laid before His Majesty " humbly imploring His Majesty that he would be graciously pleased 
" to direct His Government in this Province to appropriate a certain portion of the waste lands 
" of the Crown as a fund for the establishment and support of a respectable Grammar school in 
•' each District thereof, and also of a College or University, for th<j instruc ion of youth in the diffe- 
" rent branches of liberal knowledge." I beg leave, in compliance with their desire to transmit 
their Petition to your Grace, that it may be submitted to His Majesty's most gracious consideration. 

Address from the Upper Canada Legislature to the King's Most 
Excellent Majesty. {Enclosure.) 

Most Gracious Sovereign : — We your most dutiful and loyal subjects, the members of the 
Legislature Council, and the Commons House of Assembly, of Upper Canada, in Parliament 
assembled, being deeply persuaded of the great benefits that the Province must necessarily 
derive from the establishment of a respectable grammar school in each district thereof, and also 
of a Colle2;e or University, where the youth of the country may be enabled to perfect themselves 
in the different branches of liberal knowledtje, and being truly sensible of the paternal Regard 
your Majesty entertains for every description of your subjects, do most humbly implore your 
Majesty that you would be graciously pleased to direct Your ;Vlajesty's Government in this Pro- 
vince, to appropriate a certain portion of the waste lands of the Crown as a Fund for the estab- 
lishment and support of such useful institutions. 

(Signed) JOHN ELMSLEY, 

Speaker of the Legislative Council. 

(Signed) D. W. SMITH, 

Speaker of the House of Assembly. 
York, July 3rd, 1797. 

2. President Russell to the Anglican Bishop of Quebec,* 

Dated Upper Canada, July 31st 1797. 

Governor Simcoe having carried off the correspondence, the President does not know what 
provision was made for school masters On his way to Quebec last year, Governor Simcoe had 
given a warrant to a son of the Rev. Dr. Stuart, of Kingston, for £100, as school master there ; 
but, the President not knowing the authority for this payment, or the fund from which it 
was drawn, had declined to issue a warrant this year, until'informed of the Bishop's sentiment! 
on the subject. 

* The Right Reverend Jacob Mountain, D.D., was appointed in 1793 as the Anglican bishop of Quebec, 
He had been rector of Buckden, Huntingdonshire, and of Holbeach in Lincolnshire. His jurisdiction a» 
Bishop extended over Upper Canada, which he visited for the first time in 1820. He died in 1825. 



chap, vii. the president russell correspondence. it 

3. The Duke of Portland to President Russell. 

In this letter, dated Whitehall, London, November 4th, 1797, the Colonial 
Minister said that : 

" His Majesty had taken into His Royal consideration the Petition of the Legislative 
Council and House of Assembly humbly imploring that His Majesty would be graciously pleased 
to direct his Government in this Province to appropriate a certain portion of the waste lands of 
the Crown as a fund tor the establishment and support of a respectable grammar school in each 
district thereof, and also of a college, or university, for the instruction of the youth in the 
different branches of liberal knowledge." 

And in conveying the gracious answer of the King to the Legislature of Upper 

Canada, the Duke of Portland used the following language : 

[His Majesty] being always ready to shew his parental regard for the welfare of his subjects. 
in ti e furtherance of so important an o*'ject as the instruction of youth, and to assist and 
encourage the exertions ot his Province in laying the foundation for promoting sound learning 
and a religious education, has condescended to express his most gracious intention to comply 
with the wishes of the Legislature of his Province of Upper Canada in such a manner as shall be 
judged to be most effectual — 

First by the establishment of free grammar [classical] schools in those districts in which 
they are called for ; and 

Secoiidly, in due course of time by establishing other seminaries of a larger and more com- 
prehensive nature, for the promotion of religious and moral learning, and the study of the Aiti 
and Sciences. 

He desired President Russell to consult with the Executive Council, Judges 
and Law officers of the Crown in Upper Canada, and to report in what manner 
and to what extent a portion of the Crown lands might be appropriated and 
rendered productive towards the formation of a Fund for these purposes, out of 
which shall be allotted salaries for the school masters, to be selected by the Gov- 
ernor, and sanctioned by His Majesty, 



CHAPTER VII. 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE UPPER CANADA LEGISLATURE IN REGARD 
TO THIS ROYAL GRANT OF 1797. 

1. President Russell to the Upper Canada Legislature. 

On the assembling of the Parliament of Upper Canada in 1798, President 
Russell, through the Law Officers of the Crown, communicated the despatch of 
the Duke of Portland of the 4th of November, 1797, to the Legislature. The 
proceedings of the House of Assembly on this subject are as follows : 

On Monday, the 18th June, 1798, the Solicitor-General, in his place informed the House that 
His Honor the President, Peter Russell, had given to him in charge a written message com- 
municating to the House, His Majesty's Most Gracious pleasure respecting the Address of the 
two Houses of the Parliament of this Province, during the last Session relative to the establish- 
ment of Grammar Schools and a University in this Province, which being delivered to Mr. 
Speaker, and he and the House standing up uncovered, the same was read by Mr. Speaker in 
the following words to wit : — 

A Message from the President to the Honourable the Legislative Council and the 

House of Assembly ; 

Peter Russell, President. 
The President has great satisfaction in being authorized to communicate to the Legislative 
Council and House of Assembly that His Majesty has been most graciously pleased to take into 
His Royal consideration, their petition humbly imploring His Majesty that he would be graci- 
2 (D.E.) 



18 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1798 



ously pleased to direct his Government in this Province to appropriate a certain portion of 
the waste lands of the Crown as a fund for the establishment and support of a respectable Gram- 
mar School in each District thereof, and also of a College or University tor the instruction of 
youth in the different branches of liberal knowledge ; and being always ready to show his 
parental regard for the welfare of his subjects in the furtherance of so important an object as 
the instruction of youth, and to assist and encourage the exertions ot" his Province in laying the 
foundation for promoting sound learning and a religious education, he has condescended to 
express His Most Gracious intention to comply with the Legislature of his Province of Upper 
Canada, in such manner as shall be judged most effectual, first, by the establishment of free 
Grammar Schools in those Districts in which they are called for. and in process of time, by 
establishing other Seminaries of a larger and more comprehensive nature for the promotion of 
religious and moral learning, and the study of the Arts and Sciences. With this view the 
President is directed to consult the members of His Majesty's Executive Council, and the 
Judges and Law Officers of the Crown in Upper Canada, and to report to the Secretary of State 
in which manner, and to what extent a portion of the Crown Lands may be appropriated and 
rendered productive towards the formation of a fund for the above purpose, out of which His 
Majesty may, according to his pleasure allot such salaries as he may judge proper for school- 
masters of such free schools, who are to be appointed by His Majesty's Governors or the person 
administering the Government within the Province for the time being, subject to His Majesty's 
approbation, signified through one of his principal Secretaries of State. 

On motion of Mr. Solici' or-General Gray, seconded by Mr. Christopher Robinson, 

Resolved, That an Address be presented to His Majesty for having been graciously pleased 
to take into His Royal consideration their petition for the esrablishment of Grammar Schools 
in this Province. 

On the motion of Mr. Solicitor-General, seconded by Mr. Robinson, 

Resolved, That this House do request the concurrence of the Legislative Council in a joint 
Address of thanks to Hi^ Majesty for having beea graciously pleased to take into His Royal 
•consideration this petition for the establishment of Gi-ammar Schools in this Province. 

On the motion of Mr. Solicitor-General, seconded by Capt. Fraser, 

Ordered, That Mr. David M. Rogers and Mr. Richard Beasley be a committee to communi- 
cate the preceding Resolution to the Legislative Council accordingly. 

The Committee reported on 19th of June, that they had done so. 

On the 20th of June a Message from the Legislative Council informing the House, That 
they concurred in the proposal of a joint Address of thanks to His Majesty for having been 
graciously p'eased to take into His Ro3'al consideration the Petition of the two Houses of 
Parliament of this Province, praying for the establishment of Grammar Schools. 

On 29th of June, 1798, on motion of Mr. Rogers, seconded by Mr. Solomon Jones, 

Ordered, That Mr. Solicitor-General and Mr. S. Street bea Tommittee to report the draught 
of an Address of thanks to the King's Most Excellent Majesty, for having been graciously pleased 
to take into His Royal consideration the humble Petition of the Parliament of this Province for 
the establishment of Grammar Schools, etc., in this Province. 

On the 2nd of July, 1798, the Committee reported that they had drafted an Address accord- 
ingly which would be sent down by a Message from the Legislative Council this day. 

A Message from the Legislative Council with the said Address engrossed and signed by the 
Honorable the Speaker of the Legislative Council. 

Mr. Speaker read the said Address. On motion of Mr. Solicitor-General Gray, seconded 
by Mr. Famuel Street, 

Ordered, That the House do concur in the said Address, and the same was signed by the 
Speaker accordingly. 

On 3rd of Jul [i, 1708, on the motion of Mr. Rogers, seconded by Mr. Edward Jessup, 

Ordered, That Mr. Solicitor-General and Mr. Beasley be a Committee to inform the Legis- 
tive Council that this House has concurred in the Address of thanks to His Majesty for his 
gracious intenticms respecting Grammar Schools, and to return the said Address to the Legis- 
lative Council, and further, to inform the Legislative Council that this House requests that they 
Would appoint a Committee of their House to accompany one from this House to wait upon His 
Honor the President to know when His Honour will receive the two Houses with the said 
Address. 

On the same day a Message was received from the Legislative Council with an Address to 
His Honour President Russell. 



Chap. VII. PROCEEDINGS OF THE UPPER CANADA LEGISLATURE, ETC. 19 



Mr. Speaker read the said Address. On the motion of Mr. Solicitor-General, seconded by 
Mr. Rogers, 

Ordered, That the House do concur in the raid Address, and the same was accordingly 
signed by the Speaker, and then the two Houses of Parliament waited upon His Honour the 
President with their joint Addresses to His Majesty, and to His Honour, and therefore His 
Honour was pleased to address the two Houses of Parliament as follows, to wit ; — 

Honorable Gantlemen of the Legidative CmiiicU aiid Gentlemen of tlie House of Assembly : 

I shall take the earliest opportunity of transmitting your very loyal Address to His 

Majesty. 

2. President Russell to the Duke of Portland. 

In this letter, under date of York, November 3rd, 1798, President Russell 
stated to the Secretary of State that he was as yet unable to send a report of the 
Judges and Law Officers as to the manner and extent to which Crown Lands 
might be appropriated for the establi-shment of " Free Grammar Schools and other 
Seminaries of a larger and more comprehensive nature." 

3. President Russell to the Honorable John Elmsley, Chief Justice 

of Upper Canada. 

Dated York, the 6th of November, 1798, 

Having I'eceived directions from the Duke of Portland, one of His Majesty's principal 
Secretaries of State, to consult the members of His Majesty's Executive Council, and the Judges 
and Law Officers of the Crown in Upper Canada, and report to His Grace in what manner, and 
to what extent a portion of the waste lands of the Crown may be appropriated, and rendered 
productive towards the formation of a fund for the establishment of free Grammar Schools in 
those districts in which they are called for, and in due process of time by establishing other 
Seminaries of a larger and more comprehensive nature for the promotion of religious and 
moral learning, and the stufJy of the Arts and Sciences, out of which His Majesty may according 
to his pleasure, allot such salaries as he shall judge proper for the schoolmasters of such free 
schools, who are to be appointed by His Majesty's Governor or the person administering His 
Majesty's Government, tubject to His Majesty's approbation. 

President- Russell also issued a circular as follows : — 

I am to request you will be ' pleased .to meet the Chief Justice and the members of the 
Executive Council at the Council Chambers, on Friday the 9th instant, for the purpose of 
taking the above subject hito your consideration, and reporting to me your opinions thereon, 
that I may transmit ihem to the Duke of Portland for His Majesty's information. 

4. The Chief Justice of Upper Canada to President Russell. 

On the 10th November 1798, Chief Justice Elmsley, in reply, addressed 
President Russell as follows : — 

The Committee, on his Grace the Duke of Portland's letter on the subject of schools, direct 
me to inquire of Your Honour, whether it is your pleasure that we should each of us report his 
opinion separately, or whether the Chairman is to report to you, a plan agreed upon by us alL 

5. President Russell to Chief Justice Elmsley. 

On the 12th of November, 1798, President Russell replied to the Chiet 

Justice as follows : — 

I have had the honour to receive your letter of Saturday, desiring to know whether the 
members of the Committee on his Grace the Duke of Portland's letter on the subject of schools 
are to report their opinion separately, or whether the Chairman is to report the plan agreed 
upon by them all. In answer to which I can only have the honour to say, that in my opinion a 
report from the Chairman of a plan unanimously agreed upon would be less troublesome both to 
the Committee and His Grace, and would probably throw equal if not more light upon the sub- 
ject than the opinions of the members stated separately. 1 shall therefore only request a gen- 
eral report signed by the Chairman ; however, 1 do not mean by this to preclude any of the 
gentlemen from favoring me with their own sentiments, in addition to the general advice, as I 
believe it is the desire of his Majesty's ministers to obtain all the information possible on a sub- 
ject of such importance to the future welfare of this province. 



20 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1798^ 



CHAPTER VIII. 

REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL AND ITS COMMITTEE ON 
THE ORIGINAL ROYAL GRANT OF 1797. 

Council Chamber, 

York, 1st December, 1798. 

Present : His Honour Peter Russell, Esquire, President ; The Honourables 
Messieurs John Elmsley, Chief J ustice of Upper Canada ; ^neas Shaw ; and 
David William Smith, Speaker of the House of Assembly of Upper Canada. 

The Report of the Board formed of the members of His Majesty's Execu- 
tive Council and the Judges and Law Officers of the Crown in Upper Canada> 
who were directed to take into their consideration the letter from his Grace the 
Duke of Portland, dated the 4th of November, 1797, on the establishment of 
grammar schools and other places of education in this Province, was read, and 
the same having received the approbation of the President-in-Council, it was 
ordered, that the Report be fairly copied, that it may be transmitted without 
delay to His Grace the Duke of Portland, for the information of His Majesty. 

The Report of the Board, addressed to President Russell, was as follows : — 

I have the honour to inform you that in obedience to your order of the 6th ultimo, the mem- 
bers of Hi8 Majesty's Executive Council, the Judges and the Law Officers of the Crown, met 
together in this place on the nineteenth ultimo, and on several occasions since, and took into 
their consideration the letter of His Grace the Duke of Portland on the establishment of gram- 
mar schools and other places of education in the Province. 

It is not to be expecbad that oa a subject of such extent the opinions of s» many per- 
sons as were assembled to consider of it should exactly coincide. 

I have, however, the satisfaction to say that in our general views of the system to be 
adopted we are nearly agreed, and that the difference with respect to the mode in which it is to 
be carried into effect is not very considerable. 

As it was Your Honour's pleasure that the Chairman should collect the opinions of the 
several members of the Boird and digest them into one report, I took the liberty of distin- 
guishing the subject into the five following heads, and of requesting their thoughts on each, viz. : 

1st. The sum to be raised. 2. The number of acres to be appropriated. 3. The purposes 
to which the fund is to be applied. 4. The number of schools, and the places where they are to 
be erected. 5. The number now necessary. 

It is now my duty to state to Your Honour the general result of the whole, and should I 
either misrepresent the sentiments of the Board, or fail to give the efifect they deserve, I trust 
that Your Honour will impute the blame to me only, and do justice to the several members by 
referring to the opinion of each, which I have subjoined by way of schedule. 

When the subject was first opened, it seemed to be the unanimous opinion that the inten- 
tion of the Royal Founder of the free Grammar Schools and University of Upper Canada could 
not be effectuated but by a liberal provision for their establishment and maintenance ; and each 
member of the Board seemed deeply impressed with a conviction that in making his estimate of 
the extent of that provision, it would be much safer to allow too much than too little ; for as 
the application of the funds will always be directed by the beneficent wisdom which has created 
it, the excess may at any time be applied to other purposes, equally worthy of the original 
intention, and equally conducive to the happiness of the Province ; but it will be difficult and 
perhaps impossible if the present moment be neglected to find, at a future period, the means of 
effecting the object before us without much expense, and a delay almost subversive of the 
purpose. 



Chap. VIII. REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL, ETC. 21 



Under this impression the Board proceeded to consider in detail the purposes to which the 
proposed fund should, when i-aised, be applied, and it seemed to be unanimous in thinking that 
they may be reduced to three, 

1st. The erection of the necessary building. 

2nd. The payment of the salaries of the masters. 

3rd. The keeping of the buildings in repair, the purchase of boaks and philosophical 
apparatus, and other purposes essential to places of education, but in general too costly to be 
provided by indivi luals. 

1st. With respect to the sum to be expended on the erection of the necessary buildings, 
the Boai'd conceived that taking the average price of labour in the four districts of the Province, 
the sum £3,000, provincial currency, will be sufficient to erect a plain but solid and substantial 
building, containing a school-room sufficient to hold an hundred boj's without danger to their 
Jiealth from too maay being crowded together ; and also a set of apartments for the master, 
large enough, not only for the accouxmodation of his family, but also for the very desirable pur- 
pose of enabling him to take a few of his pupils as boarders ; some few out-buildings may also 
be necessary for the use of the master, which, if they will not come within the estimate, will 
not much excesd it, and may easily be provided for hereafter 

2nd. As the extent of the salaries of the masters is expressly reserved for the Royal con- 
sideration, we do not presume to mention any particular sum as sufficient for that purpose ; but 
as it is necessary for us in making our estimate to calculate upon some given sum, and as His 
Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor thought the sum of £100, provincial currency, a sufficient 
allowance for the m ister of the school erecte i under his auspices at Kingston, we beg leave to 
take that sum as an average for the salary of the master of each school, and half of it for the 
salary of a second master, in case it should be thought expedient to have one. 

3rd. The sum of £'^0 per annum seems to be a sufficient sura for keeping the building in 
repair. The provision for the purchase of books, philosophical apparatus, etc., relates to the 
endowment of the University rather than to that of the Grammar School, and is only men- 
tioned that it may not appear to have been forgotten in our calculation. 

It appeared, therefore, to be the general opinion of the Board that a sum not exceeding 
£3,000, provincial currency, and au annual income of £'80 will be amply sufficient for the 
establishment and supporc of a free grammai; school in each district. 

The next object was to consider the mode by which that sum and that income are to be 
raised 

With respect to the former, the Board had but one opinion, viz. : That it can only be raised 
by the sale of jmrt of the waste lands of the Crown . 

If the institutions in question are to be deferred until thoy can be provided for from the 
annual income of any quantity of land that can be appropriated for them, they will be deferred 
either until they have been superceded by other institutions, or until four or live generations of 
ignorance and vice have rendered them useless. 

The annual income must equally be divided from the waste lands of the Crown, and may, in 
the apprehension of the Board, be raised by one or other of the four following modes. 

1st. By the sale of so much of those lands as will raise a sum which, if invested in the Bri- 
tish funds, will produce the sum of A'180 as interest. 

2nd. By reserving such a portion of those lands as, when leased, will produce that sum as 
rent. 

3rd. By appropriating to the same purpose such parts of the present Crown reserves as are 
capable of yielding a present rent ; or 

4th. By selling a portion of the waste lands of the Crown (always distinguishing between 
"waste lands of the Crown and Crown Reserves), and laying out the produce in the purchase of 
lands which from their quality, local situation or state of cultivation, either yield or may be 
made to yield a present rent. 

On each of these modes, the Board begs leave to submit the following considerations : — 

With respect to the first, it observes that, besides the disadvantages of the daily decreasing 
value of an income which is to be applied to a permanent purpose, and which arises from 
money, or is reserved in money ; it will require the sale of a quantity of land considerably 
beyond any that the Board would venture to mention to raise a sum which at the rate of five 
per cent, per annum would yield the sum of £180 as interest. 



22 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 179^ 



For we conceive it to be, generally, though perhaps not universally, true, that whenever 
lands in this country are capable, from quality, situation, or any other c rcumstance. of yielding^ 
a rent, a capital laid out in the jjurchase of those lands i'j much more productive than one lent 
at interest on either private or public security, and there is this additional advantage on the 
side of the former, that both the reil and nominil value of rent will increase with the increasing 
prosjjerty of the country, while the real value of interest decreases with the decreasing value of 
money in a proportion to which the increase of our prosperity is not a counterbalance. 

The Board, therefore, considers this mode of raising the income required as wholly out of 
the question. 

Of the remaining three modes the Board considers that which proposes to provide the 
necessary income, by reserving for the use of those institutions a certain portion of the waste 
lands of the Crown, and leasing them at a ra^k-rent as incomj^arably the best, both because it is 
the cheapest and because it leaves the fund of Crown Reserves from which the other public pur- 
poses of the Province may hereafter be supplied untouched, but it is certain that the present 
circumstances of the Province do not authorize us to expect much income from such a source 
for some years at least. 

It may, therefore, be necessary to break in upon the Crown Reserves, and to appropriate 
such of them as are now capable of yielding rent to the present purpose ; and should the fund, 
even after this aasista ice, be still inadequate, nothing will remain but to recur to the fourth of the 
proposed modes, and to lay out a part of the sum arising from the sales, in the purchase of 
lands capable of producing the income required. 

The object which next engaged the attention of the Board was to consider in what pat-ts of 
of the several districts of the Province the proposed schools and seminary should be erected. 

On this point we were unanimous in thinking that the towns of Cornwall, Kingston, 
Newark and Sandwich, are the most jiroper places for the sites of the four schools. 

We were equally unanimous in considering the town of York as entitled to the University^ 
both as being the seat of the Exei-utive Government, the Legislative and the Courts of Justice^ 
and as being by far the most convenient spjt in the Province for all general purposes, its situa- 
tion being nearly central, and besides its accessibility by water, the proposed high road from the 
one end of the Province to the other, being necesiarily to pass near it or through it. 

There was not the same coincidence of opinion with respect to the number of schools which 
the several members of the Board consider as necessary. Each part of the Province seemed to 
have its claims, and might consider i'self as injured if it were postponed to any other. Some of 
the gentlemen were of opinion that four schools were now necessary, and that the whole number 
should be begun at the same time : others thought that, besides the necessity of managing the 
fund in the most frugal manner possible, the present circumstances of the Province do not call 
for the erection of more than two schools ; and that if the situations of those two are obviously 
selected, not with a \ iew to any particular district, but to the Pr vince at large, t here will be no 
room for jealousy among the several parts of it. After some discussion, this opinion was 
acceded to, and ihe towns of Kingston and Newark were selected, the former for the eastern 
and the latter for the western half of the Province ; but it was at the same time stipulated and 
agreed, that as soon as the fund should be sufficiently productive, the towns of Cornwall and 
Sandwich shall each receive a similar mark of the royal munificence. 

Nothing now remains, but that I could state to Your Majesty the extent of the appropria- 
tion of waste lands which in the conceptions of the members of the Board is necessary for the 
purpose in question ; and, on the subject, I am happy to say that our calculations approach as 
nearly to each other as could reasonably be expected. 

I believe I may state it as our unanimous opinion that the appropriation should cover such 
a portion of the waste lands of the Crown as if now sold, would produce the sum of £18,000, pro- 
vincial currency ; estimat'iig the present average price of land at about nine pence per acre, the 
quantity required will be nearly 600,000 acres, or ten townships, after the deduction of the 
Crown and clergy sevenths. 

It is obvious that if the four schools are all erected inamediately, and the allowance which 
our estimate proposes for them is not extravagant, a much larger sum than that which I have 
mentioned will be necessary, and consequently a much larger appropriation must be made. 

But in the manner in which we propose that the fund should be managed, we conceive that 
the quantity above mentioned will not only be amply sufficient for the establishment and sup- 
port of the four schools, but will be nearly, if not adequate, to the erection and endowment of 
the University, which the Hoyal Bounty has promised to provide for us whenever the advance- 
ment of the Province calls for such an institution. 



Chap. VIII. REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL, ETC, 2^ 



Havina: trespassed so long upon Your Honour's time and attention, I shall not trouble you 
with the detail of the manner in which we conceive that the proposed fund should be managed, 
because I hope that it will be sufficiently apparent from the following resolutions, into which 
the Board has condensed all that it has to offer on the interesting and important subject which 
has engaged it ; I have, therefore, the honor to inform you that the members of His Majesty's 
Executive Council, the Judges and the Law Officers of the Crown, after much reflection and 
deliberatittn on the matter referred to them, are of opinion : 

1. That an appropriation of 500,000 acres or ten townships, after deducting the Crown arid 
Clergy sevenths, will form a sufficient fund for the establishment and maintenance of the royal 
foundation of four grammar schools and an university in the Province of Upper Canada. 

2. That the present circumstances of the Province call for the erection of two of those 
schools, one at the town of Kingston, the other at the town of Newark. 

3. That for the purpose of building a plain but solid and substantial house, containing a 
school room sufficient to contain 100 boys, and apartments for the Master large enough for the 
accommodation of a moderate family and the reception of from 10 to 20 boys as boarders, the 
sum of £3,000 provincial currency for each will be a sufficient allowance. 

4. That for the purpose of raising that sum, a portion of the appropriated tract be sold in 
the manner directed by His Grace the Duke of Portland with respect to the other waste landa 
of the Crown. 

5. That for the purpose of defraying the salaries of a master and under master, in case an 
under master should be thought necessax-y, and also for the purpose of keeping the buildings in 
repair, and making such additions thereto as circumstances shall re({uire, the annual sum of 
£180 provincial currency for each school is a sufficient allowance. 

6. That in order to raise this annual sum, such parts of the waste lands of the Crown in the 
different parts of the Province be selected, as from the quality of the soil or from their local 
situation are most likely to yield an annual rent, and that they be leased in the manner hereto- 
fore recommended by His Majesty's Executive Council with respect to the Crown and Clergy 
Reserve*. 

7. That if the income arising from the lands so reserved and leased, be insufficient for the 
purposes above mentioned, a similar selection be made from the Crown Reserves. 

8. That if, after this addition, the fund be still insufficient, a further portion of the appro- 
priated land be sold, and the money arising from the sale invested in the purchase of other lands 
so situated as to yield a present rent. 

9. That, whenever the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or person administering the 
Government in Council, shall be of opinion that the circumstances of the Province call for the 
erection of two other schools, and also that the appropriated fund is sufficient, not only to bear 
the expenses of the erection and endowment of those two schools, but also to leave a residue 
sufficient for the establishment and future maintenance of a seminary of a larger and more com- 
prehensive nature, the same steps be pursued with respect to such two schools as have been 
already recommended with respect to the two schools at Kingston and Newark. 

10. That the provision for the establishment and maintenance of the University be at least 
equal to that for the four schools taken together. 

I perfectly accord with this Report in all its parts. 

(Signed) Peter Rcs.se ll, 

President. 



Individual Opinions of Members of the Committee. 

In his letter to the Hon. Chief Justice Ehn^ley, dated the 12th of November 
1798, President Russell intimated that while he only requested from the Com- 
mittee a " general report on the Duke of Portland's despatch of the 4th of Novem- 
ber, 1797, signed by the Chairman, yet he did not thereby wish to ' preclude any 
' of the gentlemen of the Committee from favouring him with their own senti-* 



24 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1798 

'" ments on the subject, in addition to their general advice." The members of the 

Committee, therefore, submitted to President Russell their individual opinions on 

the mode to be adopted for the establishment of grammar schools and a university, 

% follows : — 

1. The Hon. ^Eneas Shaw's Opinion. 

lat. For the necessary buildings and improvements in each district — Provincial 

currency £2,000 

For a Teacher, books, repairs, etc., in each distinct annually, £125, which at 

five per cent, requires a principal of 2,500 

^4,500 

2nd. To raise this sum it appears to me that at the present low value of land, not less than 
two townships in each district will be necessary, but much must depend on the local situation 
of such land. 

3rd. Answered above. 

4th. One in each of the four original district^. 

5th. 1 am not sufficiently acquainted with the state of population in the Province to answer 
this question, and beg leave to refer it to the decision of the Board. 

-^NEAS Shaw. 

York, 12th November, 1798. 



2. The Hon. John Gill's Opinion. 

1st. I think the sum to be raised for the establishment and support of free grammar 
Bchoola and other semin%rie3 of learning throughout this Province should be from eighteen to 
twenty thousand pounds. 

2nd. The quantity of waste lands to be appropriated in order to raise this sum gradually, I 
thall estimate at 500,000 acres, which at 9d. per acre will amount to £18,750. 

3rd. The sums arising from the sale of such portion of the land as it may be found expedient 
to dispose of, to be applied towards the building, or purchase of suitable houses for the masters 
and scholars — for the payment of the master's salary — purchase of books and instruments, and 
for repairing the buildings — leaving so much of the remainiug land as an increasing fund for 
•contingencies for the establishment, and for the support of a college or other seminary of learn- 
ing. 

4th. The number of schools, and the places where they are to be erected, it does not appear 
to me that more than one free grammar school in each of the four districts, viz., eastern, mid- 
land, home and western can at present be recommended, reserving the university for the town 
of York, as being the capital of the Province. 

5th. How many are now necessary — "Four, one in each district." 

John McGih. 



3. The Hon. D. W. Smith's Opinion. 

Thoughts and scheme on the institution of the grammar schools. 

In order to carry into effect His Majesty's most gracious intentions in regard to the institut- 
ing of free grammar schools in this Province, it is proposed in the first instance to appropriate a 
township or part of two townships, cs near as circumstances will admit, as a foundation for the 
purpose of each district respectively. 

Secondly-— to sell five-sevenths of each of the said townships to the highest bidder, and the 
money arising from the sales to be applied to the erection or purchase of a proper building in 
the principal town of each district, for the school-house and residence of the master, etc., and 
the overplus if any, to be put ont at inierest in the British funds, to be a general stock for 
repairs, future buildings or additions — the purchase of mathematical instruments, books, etc. 

By this means suitable places are procured for the commencement of this good work, with- 
out any expense to Government and from two branches o the same root are expected resources 
-Buffiiient to defray the stipends of the te ichers without seeking for other pecu li+ry aid from 
the Crown to discha-ge their salaries, namely, from the two reserved sevenths — each lot of 
Which (of 200 acres) it is proposed to let for twenty-one years, reservable as in the general 
system, at three pounds par annum, giving a right to the lessee of sending one boy to its 
respective school to be instructed in what is there generally taught, at no other or further 
•expense except for his diet, should he be sent as a boarder. 



Chap. IX. CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE COLONIAL OFFICK 25 



The price of common grammar schooling now for farmer's children is about a dollar per 
month, or £3 Halifax currency per annum. The inducements anticipated by the acquisitions of 
proper masters, and the obtaining of a beneficial lease in regard to time, and at little or no 
expense considering that the rent is liquidated by the right of schooling at the current price, 
are so great that it is apprehended a great proportion of the reserved lota would be immediately 
taken, and eventually all of them. 

I need not dwell on the necessity of inducement when the effect of it is to ease the Govern- 
ment of expense, without injuring the subject — in new countries it is necessary. It is then 
contemplated to apply the profits arising from these leases as a salary for the master, and as 
they ificrease, for his assistants — for as assistants may be required by the increase of the num- 
ber of scholars, it is to be observed that the emoluments given in proportion — ?a3ual scholars 
will also be an aid, and as the masters in general will probably be clergymen, the assistance 
given generally by the Society for propagating the Gospel, will render the situation such as to 
be worthy of being sought after by persons of character and information. 

If the scheme is adopted and succeeds, the Crown will be exempted from every expense, 
and an inexhaustible fund created for the good purpcjses intended by our Royal Father and 
benefactor ; but this success no puisne mortal can anticipate, until a college or other superior 
seminary of learning should be established ; the interior economy and regulation of the schools 
to be in all respects under th'a direction of the Executive Government, and that a fund may be 
growing for such college or seminary, it is proposed to appropr ate two townships in the County 
of York (in the vicinity of Lake Simcoe) for that purpose, and that so often as the person of a 
lessee changes, the right of sending a boy to the district grammar school should be renewed, 
upon his paying a fine to be applied towards the college fund of ^3 H. Cy., equal to one year's 
schooling. The regulations for the school I should recommend to be on a broad basis and as 
liberal as it may be thought prudent to permit — may loyalty be professed and taught as a 
necdssary combination with good manners, and the progress of the arts and sciences — may the 
influeuje of religion spread itself among the rising generation, to the credit of the pastors, and 
to the honour of the Lord — and may the youth with hilarity, and their parents with gratitude 
never cease to pray— 

" God save the King ! " 

« D. W. Smith. 

Fork, 14th August, 1793. 



CHAPTER IX. 
FURTHER CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE COLONIAL OFFICE. 

1. President Russell to the Duke of Portland, 

In a letter dated York, February 12, 1799, he informs the Colonial Secretary that 
the Council had recommended that the house at Newark, owned by Mr. D. W 
Smith, Surveyor- General, should be purchased for a school house. He said : 

By the unanimous advice of the Council, I have the honour of transmitting herewith for 
Your Grace's information, a copy of the Report, (dated the 26th November, 1798,) of the Board I 
had directed U) survey and estimate the value of the house and grQund near Newark, which I 
had noticed to Your Grace in my letter No. 50, Mr. Smith had oflfared to Government (and the 
Council had recommended to be purchased) for a school-house, and part of the endowment of a 
free grammar school for the home district, together with the plans explanatory thereof. 

I beg leave at the same time to mention to Your Grace that these buildings had been 
erected by Mr. Smith at a very considerable expense, under an expectation of Newark's remaining 
the seat of Government for some years, and with a view of their being applied afterwards to the 
uses for which they are now recommmded. To which I humbly take the liberty of adding that 
Mr. Smith is a most useful and deserving officer, and inde'atigible in his attention to the Depart- 
ment of Surveyor-Genera,!, over which he has for some years presided with no other salary than 
that of a Provincial Surveyor. 



26 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1799-180O 

The proceedings of the Executive Council on the Report, etc., the President 
stated were as follows : — 

At a <^ouncil meeting held on the first of December, 1798, President Russell in the Cliair, 
the Rdport was read of the B >ard recommending the purchase of a house and four acres of land 
belonging to the Honourable David William Smith, in the Town of Newark, and a farm of 160 
acres adjoining to the town — the former as a school house, the latter as a part of the endowment 
of the free grammar school of the Home District, and that some competent person or persons be 
employed to value them. 

The report was approved in Council, and it was 

1. Ordered, That the Engineer be requested to select 'proper judges, and favour the Board 
with a just valuation of the premises that the same may be submitted by the President for His 
Majesty's pleasure. 

2. Ordered, That the Surveyor-General be instructed to select ten townships in proper 
situations, that they may be appropriated for the purposes mentioned in the preceding report of 
this date, relating to a university and grammar schools for Upper Canada. 

2. President Russell to the Duke of Portland. 

In this letter, dated York, May 18, 1799, he enclosed a Report from the Acting 
Surveyor-General respecting the waste lands in Upper Canada remaining to be 
disposed of, after deducting the Crown and Clergy Reserves ; and a statement of 
the appropriation for schools, roads, French royalists, etc. ; also a list of appropri- 
ations recommended by the Acting Surveyor-General for establishing a fund for 
the building and the support of free Grammar Schools in Upper Canada. 

3. The Duke of Portland to Lieutenant-Goveknor Hunter. 

In this letter, dated Whitehall, 13th of March, 1800, the Colonial Secretary 
refers Governor Hunter to his letter of the 4th November, 1797, addressed to 
President Russell on the subject of the Royal Grant of Lands for a University 
and Grammar Schools in Upper Canada. He also refers the Governor to his letter 
to President Russell relating to the purchase of Hon. D. W. Smith's house at 
Newark for a school, etc. ILe said : — 

In consequence of my having signified in my letter to Mf. President Russell of the 4th 
November, 1797, that His Majesty was graciously disposed to comply with the wishes of the 
Legislature of His Province of [Jpper Canada, in such manner as shall be judged to be most 
eftectual for the establishment of free grammar schools in those districts in which they are called 
for, and in due process of time by establishing other seminaries of a larger and more compre- 
hensive nature, for the promotion of religious and moral learning, and the study of the arts and 
sciences. 

Mr. Russell has transmitted winh his letter to me, No. 55 of the 12th February, 1799. the 
estimate and plans of a house and some grounds near Newark, belonging to Mr. Smith, the 
Speaker of the House of Assembly of Upper Canada, which the Council had recommended to be 
purchased for a school for the home district of that Province. I am therefore to authorize you 
to complete this purchase forthwith, in order that no time may be lost in forwarding the very 
useful establishment, for whicji those premises are intended. 

Although I have not received the General Report of the Executive Council, which sat on 
this subject, dated the 1st December, 1793, and which is referred to in Mr. Russell's dispatch, 
yet there does not appear to be any objection whatever to the purchase money being taken from 
the school and college fund, as recommended by the general report, and the minute of Council 
transmitted by Mr. Russell. It is His Majesty's pleasure that thefre should be seven trustees or 
governors of the said school, four of whom are always to be : 'I he Governor. Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor, or person administering the Government of Upper Canada, The Lord Bishop of Quebec, 
The Chief .Justice of Upper Canada, and the Speaker of the Assembly for the time being. The 
other three are to be selected by you from the most respectable of the inhabitants of the 
Province. 



chap. ix. correspondence with the colonial office. 27 

4. Lieutenant-Governor Hunter to the Duke of Portland. 

In a letter to the Duke, dated 1st September, 1800, Governor Hunter points out 
many objections to the purchase of Hon. D. W. Smith's house at Newark for a 
school house, as recommended by President Russell and his Council. He never- 
theless, encloses a memorial on the subject from Mr. Smith. 

This correspondence throws a good deal of light on the value of the public 
lands in that day, as pointed out by the Governor. He said : — 

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of Your Grace's letter No. 6, dated the 13th 
of March last. 

Before I enter upon the purchase of the house and grounds belonging to Mr. Smith, the 
late Speaker of the House of Assembly, which Your Grace has given me authority to complete 
for the establishment of a school, I beg leave to submit the following observations for Your 
Grace's consideration and decision : 

The situation of Mr. Smith's house being immediately opposite the American Fort at 
Niagara, and complete'y within the reach of their guns, appears to me an objection of some 
magnitude to estiblishing a public school in such a situation. 

The mode recommended for the payment of this jjurchase, namely from the school and 
college fund, is another material objection, as no such fund exists at present. They are indeed 
twelve townships containing ab )ut 550,000 acres of land set apart for the endowment of schools, 
but not an acre '>f these Und.s have yet been sold, and the price of land from the great quantity 
to be disposed of by individuals, being exceedingly low at present, I do not think it advisable to 
attemot the disposal of any part of them until I receive Your Grace's further orders. 

To enable Your Grace to form an idea of the present low price of lands in this Province, I 
have the honor of stating, that when the townships of Ddreham and Norwich (sanctioned by 
Your Grace to be sold for defraying the expense of the road now making between York and the 
eastern parts of the Province) were brought to sale this spring, only 81,000 acvds could be sold 
of the 96,000 acres these tt^wnships consisted of, a list of the names of the purchasers 1 beg 
leave to enclose ; and these 81,000 acres produced only four hundred and eleven pounds, six- 
teen shillings more than the same quantity of land would have brought, had they been granted 
to applicants under the new regulations. 

In consequence of several conversations I have had with Mr. Smith on this subject, since 
his arrival here ; he has delivered me a memorial proposing two modes for the tinal adjustment, 
of this purchase, which I have the hon mk of transmitting herewith for Your Grace's inform ition 
If lands in the western part of the Province should be given to Mr. Smith for his house and 
premises at Niagara, at the rate of one shilling Halifax currency per acre, as stated in his 
memorial, he will have to receive 75, SOU acrei. 1 have informed Mr. Smith that L can take no 
steps with regard to the purchase of his house until I have an opportunity of receiving Your 
Grace's further orders on that subject. 

The memorial of the Hon. D. W. Smith, enclosed by Lieutenant-Governor 
Hunter to the Duke of Portland, was as follows : — 

To His Excellency Peter Hunter. Esquire, Lieutenant-Governor of His Majesty's Province of 

Upper Canada, and Lieutenant-General Commanding His M.ijesty's forces in Upper and 

Lower Canada, etc., etc., etc. 

The memorial of D. W. Smith. Esq., respectfully represents to Your Excellency. 

That on the 20th of November, 1798, it was unanimously recommended by a Board, con- 
sisting of the Council of the Law (Officers, that my house and lands at Niagara should be 
purchased ; the former for a free gram nar school, and the latter as pirt of the eudowment for 
it — and that competent persons should value them. This was unanimously approved in Council, 
the Honourable Peter Russell thea in the administration of the Government. The valuation 
was made and the whole proceedings transmitte I home for confirmation. Previous to my leav- 
ing England, I was informed by Mr. King, Under Secretai-y of State, that His Grace the Duke 
of Portland had written to Your Excellency to authorize the purchase. 

Finding, however, upon my arrival here, that no part of the lands set aj)art for the school 
fund has yet baen sold, I pr^iy that Your Excellency may be graciously pleased to take such 
steps for carrying His Grace's intentions into execution, as to yi>u. Sir, m i/ seeui 'neet ; and as 
delay will be injurious to me, I have considered it bette • to sacrifice a part of my expectations if 
I can obtain a ready receipt of the remunder. I uDst humbly offer two proposals to Your 
Excellency, either of which, but particularly the latter, is, 1 conceive, so bjueficial to Govern- 
ment that I hops it will meet Your E'ccellency's approbation. The first is an offer to be a pur- 



28 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IK UPPER CANADA. 1799 



chaser of lands in the western part of the Province, at one shilling per acre (to the amount of 
the estimate), which will be one-third more than the land has been estimated at by the Board 
as necessary to create the fund, and half as much again as the average at which the lands lately 
sold for in Dereham and Norwich. Or, secondly, as my private affairs would be very much 
advanced by an immediate payment, I consent to make a deduction of four thousand dollars, if 
Government will pay me the remainder in cash. 

All which is submitted to Your Excellency's wisdom. 

(Signed) D. ^V. Smith. 

York, 1st September, 1800. 

CHAPTER X. 

EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE LEGISLATURE OF 
UPPER CANADA, 1799. 

(There is no record of any proceeding.s of an educational character in either 
Hou.se of the Legislature of Upper Canada during the years 1791-1793.) The 
Journals of both Houses for the years 1794 to 1797 are not in the Parliamentary 
Libraries of either Ottawa or Toronto. 

His Honour, President Russell, opened the third session of the second Par- 
liament of Upper Canada on the 12th of June, 1799. 

The following is an extract from the President's Speech on the occasion : — 

I have it in command to inform you. Gentlemen, that your very loyal and dutiful joint 
Address to His Majesty towards the close of your last Session, was received by the King in the 
most gracious manner, and that His Majesty was pleased to express his peculiar satisfaction at 
the attention piid by the Legislature to the future happiness of his faithful subjects in Upper 
Canada, by the means they are taking to lay the foundation of sound learning and religious 
education for the benefit of the rising generation. 

1. Proceedings of the House of Assembly, 1799. 

15th June, 1799. Mr. D.M. Rogers, seconded by Mr. Hardison, moved for leave to bring in a 
Bill for the putting of apprentices, or binding to trades, orphans and the children of parents 
departing this Province, and leave was given accordingly. 

17th June, 1799. A Bill for the putting of apprentices or binding to trades, orphans 
and the children of parents departing the Province was read the first time. On motion of Mr. 
Rogers, seconded by Mr. Richard Beasley, ordered that the said Bill be read a second time 
tomorrow. 

19th June, 1799. The Bill which had been introduced on the 15th June, intituled " A Bill 
for the putting apprentices or bindina; to trades orphans and the children of parents departing the 
Province," was passed under the title a<» amended in Committee, "An Act to provide for the 
Education and Support of Orphan Children." It was then carried up to the Legislative Council 
for its concurrence. 

S2iid June, 1799. A message was received from the Legislative Council informing the 
House that it has concurred in passing a Bill to provide for the education and support of orphan 
children, with an amendment to which the concurrence of this House, after going into Committee 
on the amendment, it was agreed, and the Bill was passed as so amended. 

24th Jwie. Mr. Speaker signed the Bill to provide for the education and support of Orphan 
Children. Concurred in as amended and engrossed accordingly. 

A committee was appointed to carry back to the Legislative Council the Bill to provide for 
the education and support of Orphan Children, and to inform them that this House has con- 
curred in their amendment therein. 

2. Proceedings of the Legislative Council on this Bill, 1799. 

19th June, 1799. A deputation from the House of Assembly was announced, and having 
been admitted brought up for the concurrence of this House a Bill intituled " An Act to pro- 
vide for the education and support of Orphan Children," which Bill was read a first time. The 
Hon. Mr. Richard Cartwright. jr., seconded by the Hon. Mr. ^neas Shaw, moved that the said 
Bill be read a second time tomorrow. Ordered accordingly. 



Chap. X. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE LEGISLATURE. 29 



Slst June, 1799. The Order of the day being read : A Bill for the education and support 
of orphan children was read a second time, and on mo* ion of Hon. R. Cartwright, duly seconded, 
it was ordered that the House do resolve itself into a Committee of the Whole House for the pur- 
pose of taking the said Bill into consideration ; whereupon, the House having resolved itself 
into the said Committee, Hon. R. Hamilton in the Chair, took the same into consideration. 

The Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Hamilton reported that the Committee had 
made progress in the consideration of the said Bill, and request«jd leave to sit again. Ordered, 
That the said report be accepted, and that leave be given to sit again tomorrow. 

S2nd June, 1799. The Order of the day being read, the House conformably thereto resolved 
itself into a Committee upon the further consideration of a Bill '' To provide for the education 
and support of Orphan Children." 

The Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Hamilton reported that the Committee had 
gone through the consideration of the said Bill, and. had amended and agreed to the same, which 
report was accepted. And the amendment being engrossed, the said Bill was read a third time 
as amended and signed by the Speaker. 

Mr. David Burns, the Master-in-Chancery carried down to the House of Assembly for 
concurrence in the amendment thereto, the Bill relating to Orphan Children. 

24th June, 1799. A deputation from the House of Assembly brought up the Bill relating 
to orphan children, informing this House that they had concurred in the amendment made 
thereto. 

S9th June. The Bill was passed as follows : — 

An Act to provide for the Education aht> Support of Orphan Orphan chiid- 

Children. 1799. °*' 

39th George 3rd, Chapter 3. 
The Honourable Peter Russell, President. Passed 29lh June, 1799. 

Whereas it is expedient to provide for the education and support of orphan Preamble, 
children, or children who may be deserted by their parents ; 

Be it enacted by the King's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice Enacting 
and consent of the Legislative Council and Assembly of the Province of Upper section. 
Canada, constituted and assembled by virtue of and under the authority of an Act 
passed in the Parliament of Great Britain, intituled " An Act to repeal certain parts 
of an Act passed in the fourteenth year of His Majesty's reign, intituled * An Act 
for making more effectual provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec 
in North America, and to make further provision for the Government of the said 
Province,' " and by the authority of the same. 

That when the father and mother of any infant child shall die, or shall abandon Town War- 

their infant child or children, it shall and may be lawful for the Town Wardens of dens, with ap- 

any township where such child or children shall be, by and with the approbation probation of 

and consent of two of His Majesty's Justices of the Peace, to bind the said child or ^y bind *"' 

children as apprentices until he, she or they, shall have obtained the age of twenty- orphan and 

one years in the case of males, and eighteen in the case of females ; and an inden- abandoned in- 

ture to this effect, under their hands and se ils, and countersigned by two Justices fant children. 

of the Peace, shall be good and valid in law. ^f^' \ Creorge 

° 4th, chapter 6. 

2. And tie it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That when the father The like power 
of any infant child or children shall abandon and leave such infant child or child- given to the 
ren with the mother, it shall and may be lawful for the mother in such case, by and mother when 
with the approbation of two of His Majesty's Justices of the Peace, to bind such ^^andons^his 
child or children as apprentices until he, she or they, shall have attained the age of infant child- 
twenty-one years in the case of males, and eighteen in the case of females ; and an yen. 
indenture to that effect, under her hand and seal, and countersigned by two J ustices, 

shall be good and valid in law. 

3. Provided always, and be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That Exception, 
when the relations of any orphan or abandoned infant child or children are able 

and willing to support and bring them up, then and in such case it shall not be in 
the power of the Town Wardens to apprentice such child or children. 

4. Provided always, and be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That Further 
no infant child or children having attained the age of fourteen years shall be liable exception, 
to be apprenticed as aforesaid unless he, she or they consent thereto. 



30 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY- OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1786-98 

Note. — This was the tirst Act passed by the Lesfislature of Upper Canada, 
in which provision was made for the care and oversight of children. Its preamble 
speaks of their " education "; but no provision is made in the Act itself for such 
education. It may have been provided for in some previous law or ordinance 
governing the apprenticeship of children and minors. 

Brief sketches of the members who took part in educational legislation will 
be found in connection with the recorded proceedings of each year. 



CEiAPTER XL 

SCHOOLS IN EXISTENCE IN UPPER CANADA DURING THE EARLi" 

PART OF 1800. 

The only private schools which I find were in operation in Upper Canada down 
to 1810 were those enumerated in the following list : — 

In the year 1786, Rev. Dr. Stuart* opened a select classical school at Cata- 
raqui (Kingston) ; and a Mr. Donovan taught the Garrison school there. In 1786, 
Mr. Jonathan Clarke taught a school in Frederickburg, and, in 1788, one at 
Matilda, and Mr. Smith one in Ernestown. In the same year, or in 1789, Mr. 
Lyons kept school at Hay Bay in Adolphustown. About the same time, Deacon 
Trayes, a Baptist, opened one at Port Rowan. In 1791, Mr. D. A. Atkins kept 
school at Napanee. In 1792, Rev. Robert Addison, an Episcopalian, opened a 
school at Newark, (Niagara), then the seat of Government. In 1794 the Rev. Mr. 
Burns, a Presbyterian (father of the late Judge Burns), opened a school at the 
same place ; and in 1797, Mr. Richard Cockrel opened an evening school in 
Newark, (Niagara) ; Mr. Cockrel shortly afterwards transferred his school to the 
Rev. Mr. Arthur, and removed to Ancaster, where he opened another school. A 
notice in the York Gazette in 1796 stated that " as schools were now opened, 
ignorance would be no longer tolerated." In 1797^ Mr. James Blayney opened a 
school at Niagara. 

In 1798, Mr. Wm. Cooper opened a school in George street. Little York, 

(Toronto). In regard to him, Mrs. Edgar, wife of J. D. Edgar, Esq., M. P., in a 

letter dated November 19, 1893, thus refers to payments made to him for 

" schooling " :— 

I have an old account book of my grandfather's, Mr. Thomas Ridout, with a record of 
expenses from November, 1797, to November, 1804 From it I copy the following entries : 
" York, March 24th, 1798. To W. Cooper, for children's schooling to this day, £2 16s. Od. 
($10). In December, 1798, paid Mr. Cooper, schoolmaster, for the children's schooling to the 
19th instant, £2 IGs. Od. ($10). February 2nd, 1799, paid Mr. Cooper, schoolmaster, one 
month's schooling, 16s. ($2) ; two copy-books for George and Tom. 48. (50c.) March 16, 1799, 
paid Mr. Cooper one month's schooling for George and Tom, 168. 



*Rev. John Stuart, D.D., was born in Virginia in 1736. In 1769 he went to England to be ordained, 
and retvxrned to Philadelphia in 1770. For seven years he labored as a missionary among the Iroquois 
Indians at Fort Hunter, He was then aided by the famous Brant in translating the New Testament into 
Mohawk. In 1781 he came to Upper Canada, and labored in this Province as a missionary among the 
refugee loyalists and Iroquois. He subsequently became rector of Cataraqui (Kingston), and chaplain to 
the Legislative Council. He died in 1811, aged 75 years. One of his sons was the late Archdeacon 
Stuart, of Kingston ; another was the late Chief Justice, Sir James Stuart, of Quebec. 



\ 



Chap. XI. SCHOOLS in existence in upper Canada. 31 



This Mr. Cooper evidently acted as parson as well as schoolmaster, for in a letter of my 
father's he recalls going to the jail on New Year's day, 1800, and hearing old Mr. Cooper preach 
a sermon.* 

The last entry referrinsr to Mr. Cooper is a record of the Notorial Office, and is March 7th, 
1801 : Count de C 'halus to Notorial Office, Dr. , for drawing a bill of sale from him to Mr. W. 
Cooper for the sale of a negro woman, 12s. (31.50). t 

Mr. John J. Purcell also kept school at York in 1798. Mr. Bain of the Pub- 
lic Library gave me one of his school receipts of that year. It is dated Septem- 
ber 26th, 1798, and is written in a clear, beautiful hand, as follows : Received 
from Wm. Jarvis, Esq., the sum of eight shillings currency of the State of New 
York (SI), being pa^^ment for one month's schooling for his son. — John J. Purcell. 
Mrs. Edgar also states in her letter that the following entries are in her grand- 
father's book : — 

August 2nd, 1798, paid Mr. Purcell, schoolmaster, entrance money for George and Thomas, 
168. ($2) ; also for Nancy, 8s. (31). These children were 7, 6 and 5 years old. September 25th, 
1798, paid Mr. Purcell one month's schooling for three children, £\. 4s. Od. (84.50). 

In 1799, an Orphan school was opened in St. Catharines, and earlier, Mrs. 
iJ'ranahan kept the " Sylvan Seminary " in Adolphustown, at which Sheriff Rat- 
tan, of Cobourg, was a pupil. The other persons mentioned by various writers, or 
in local records, as having acted as school teachers prior to 1800 were : Messrs. 
Myers, Thomas. Morden, Michael, William, Faulkiner, Irish, McCormack and 
two sons of Mr. Edward O'Reilly. In 1800, the late Bishop Strachan opened a 
private school at Kingston. In 1802, Mr. and Mrs. Tyler opened a school near 
Niagara ; and in the same year Dr. Baldwin (father of the late Hon. Robert 
Baldwin), gave notice that he would open a classical school at York ; and in 1803 
Dr. Strachan opened a school in Cornwall ; in the same year the first school in 
Prince Edward district was opened at " High Shore " by Mr. Salisbury, Sophias- 
"burg ; another at " Grassy Point " was taught by Mr. John James, and one at 
^ Hay Bay," by Mr. McDougall. Rev. Wm. Wright, (Presbyterian), kept the firat 
school at Myers' Creek, (Belleville), in 1805. He was followed by Mr. Leslie. 
In that year Rev. Dr. Strachan held the first public examination of his school at 
Cornwall, (see page 34). In 1806, Mr. Smith taught a school in Ernesto wn. Mr. 
Gibson then, or later, taught school in Thurlow. In 1807-8, Mr. James Potter 
taught school at the mouth of Myers' Creek, as a successor to Mr Leslie, who 
liad previously taught school there. In 1810, Mr. John Walkins taught school in 

Belleville. 

Particulars as to Some of These Schools, etc. 

It may be interesting, in connection with this list, to give copies of the 
■" cards," or announcements, of a few of these schools, as issued by the Principals 

* Rev Dr. Scadding, in his " Toronto of Old," refers to a Mr. William Cooper as followB : " Up t> 
1803 the Anfrlican congiesration had assembled for Divine worship in the Parliament buildings ; and prior 
to the appointment of the Rev. John Stuart, or in his absence, a layman, Mr. Cooper, afterwards the well- 
known wharfinger, used to read the service." (Page 118.) 

t Dr Scadding also refers to Count de Chaias as one of the many French military refugees who settled up 
Yonee St during the French revolution. He says that (on the Vaughan side) lot No. 58 was owned by 
Renl^ Aug. Oomte de Chalfts, Quetton St. George and Ambroise de Farcy. The Count also was part owner 
of lotNorei, King; No. 63 and 54, Markham. He derived his title from the castle of Chalils in Nor- 
mandy. (Page 469.; 



32 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1796, S 

Preceptors or Teachers, as they may have been designated in these early days. 
Some of them are quaint, and some are stilted, in their style. Most of these 
announcements are, however, more minute in the particulars given than would be 
considered dignified, or professionally correct, in these later times. 

1. Gockrel's Evening School at Newark (Niagara), in 1796. 

Under date of November 28th, 1796, Mr. Cockrel advertised his school as 
follows : — 

An Evening School will be opened in this town on Monday next. Terms : Writing, Arith- 
metic and Bookkeeping taught at four shillings per week. Fur teaching any partcular branch, 
either in practical or speculative Mathematics, eight dollars. The hours of attendance are from 
6 to 8 o'clock in the evening. 

On the 28th of December of the same year he issued a Card, as follows : — 

Mr. Cockrel takes this method of returning his sincere thanks to the inhabitants of Newark 
and its vicinity for their polite attention and patronage during the time he acted as schoolmaster. 

But having resigned, he is happy in announcing to the public that the Rev. Mr. Arthur has 
been prevailed on to be his successor ; and from a knowledge of his abilities and conduct, there 
is not the least doubt of his rendering the greatest satisfaction to those who may think proper 
to place their ch Idren under his care. 

. 2. The Reverend Mr. Arthur's Boarding School, Newark {Niagara). 

On the 28th December, 1796, Mr. Arthur issued the following announce- 
ment : — 

The School lately taught by Mr. Richard Cockrel will be opened on Tuesday next, under 
the direction of the Rev. Mr. Arthur. 

The pupils will be instructed in Reading according to the most approved method, and 
English Grammar, Writing and Arithmetic, the Latin and Greek languages, Geography and the 
Mathematics, to which will be added, if required, an introduction to the other sciences. 

If any number of boys offer, and books can be procured, a Latin class will be commenced 
immediately. 

In March (8th) of the following year, Rev. Mr. Arthur's announcement was 

as follows : — 

Rev. Mr. Arthur takes this mode of announcing to the public that he intends, if encourage- 
ment offers, to be in readiness on the first of May, now ensuing, to receive a few young gentle- 
men for boarding and education. 

Besides that attention which Mr. Arthur wishes ever to pay to the behaviour, religious- 
instruction and literary improvement of all his pupils, his boarders will have the benefit of 
private tuition in Geography, and other parts of a useful and ornamental education. 

Those who wish to know the terms may apply, either in person or by letter, at the School- 
house in Newark. 

3. Mr. James Blayney's School at Newark (Niagara), in 1797. 

On the 24th of May, 1797, Mr. Blayney stated that he intended opening a School in thia 
town (Niagara) on the first day of June next, for the purpose of teaching Reading, Writing, 
Arithmetic, Bookkeping and the various branches of the practical Mathematics. 

4. Mr. William Coopers School at Toronto in 1798. 

Under date of November 3rd, 1798, Mr. William Cooper informed his friends and the Public 
that he intended opening a School at his house in George Street, York, on the 10th instant, for 
the instruction of Youth in Reading, Writing, Arithmetic and English Grammar. 

Those who choose to favour him with their Pupils may rely on the greatest attention being, 
paid to their virtue and morals. 



Chap. XI. SCHOOLS IN EXISTENCE IN UPPER CANADA. 33l 

In the following year, under date of York, July 6th, 1799, the following notice 
appeared : — 

Mr. William Cooper, teacher of Mathematics in this town, has, not long since, passed an, 
examination before the Rev. John Stuart, and received a license to teach School in this town, 
and it is to be hoped that all ranks of people will patronize so laudable an institution. 

The Qualijlcationa of School Teachers in 1799. 

In the Upper Canada Gazette of July, 1799, the following appeared : — 

We are happy in being informed that no person will be countenanced, or permitted, by tie- 
Government to teach school in any part of this Province unless he shall have passed an examina- 
tion before one of our commissioners, and receive a certi6cate from under his hand specifying 
that he is adequate to the important task of a tutor. 

We conceive this piece of intelligence highly worthy of remark, as it will, in a grea 
measure, prevent the imposition which the inhabitants of this country have hitherto experienced 
from itinerant characters, who preferred that to a more laborious way of getting through life. 

And on the other hand, the rising generation will reap infinite benefit from it, as it will 
tend to stimulate and encourage men of literary characters to make permanent residence among 
us. 

6. Mr. and Mrs. Tyler's Boarding School, Niagara, 1802. 

Under date of 2.5th of January, 1802, Mr. and Mrs. Tyler stated that they 
had opened a school for the instruction of youth at a place situated on the river 
Niagara, between Niagara and Queenston. Their " Card " was as follows : — 

Mr. and Mrs. Tyler take the liberty of informing the public that on Monday, the Ist of 
February they will open their School for young people — Men and Ladies. 

They will keep a regular day School and night School. Children of each sex, above the age 
of four years will be received, and the price will be in proportion to the kind of instruction the 
parents may wish their children to receive. 

They will teach in Rtading, Writing and Arithmetic ; the young ladies will be instructed in 
all that is necessary for persons of their sex to appear decently and be useful in the world, and 
of all that concerns housekeeping, either for those who wish to live in town or country. 

The situation is healthy and agreeable, and the house suitable for a number of boarders. 
People who during the heat of summer may be advised to move for change of air will meet with 
proper lodgings, healthy and cheap boarding. 

Finally, nothing shall be neglected for health, instruction, religion and good morals, and 
they hope their endeavors to satisfy the public will more and more merit protection and 
encouragement. 

Mrs. Tyler having been bred in the line of mantua maker, will receive and do her endeavori 
to execute her work in the neatest manner, to the satisfaction of those who may honor her with 
their custom. 

She embraces this opportunity to render her sincere thanks for the protection she has 
received to this day. 

6. Br. W. W. Baldwin's proposed School at Toronto in 1802. 

On the 17th of December, 1802, Dr. Baldwin issued the following notice : — 

Understanding that some of the Gentlemen of this Town have expressed much anxiety for 
the Establishment of a Classical School. Dr. Baldwin begs leave to inform them and the Public 
that he intends, on Monday, the third day of January next, to open a School, in which he will 
instruct twelve Boys in Reading, Writtng, the Classics and Arithmetic. 

The terms are for each Boy eight Guineas per annum, to be paid quarterly. One guinea 
entrance, and one cord of Wood to be supplied by each Boy on opening the School. 

3 (D.E.) 



54 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1795-1805 

7. Examination of Dr. Strachan's Schoof at Gormvall, 1805. 

The Upper Canada Gazette and American Oracle of Saturday, August 24th, 
1805, gives the following account of the examination of the Rev. John Strachan's 
school at Cornwall : — 

On the 31st of July last a general examination took place of the young gentlemen under the 
tuition of the Rev. John Strachan. at Cornwall, Upper Canada. The invitation to the country 
«t large, and the parents in particular, produced a most respectable meeting, among whom were 
the Rev. James S. Rudd, the Rev. Mr. Bethune, the Rev. Mr. McDonell, Mr. Justice Powell, 
the Solicitor-General, Colonel McDonell, Glengarry House, etc. 

The students underwent in their different classes a rigid examination as well at the instance 
of the gentlemen of learning who attended, as of the Rev. Preceptor, in the following order : — 
The Latin Classics, Arithmetic, Book-keeping, Elements of Mathematics, Elements of Geogra- 
phy, of Natural and Civil History. The boys acquitted themselves with great credit ; neither is 
it easy to declare in which branch of learning they succeeded best. The whole was interspersed 
with different pieces of poetry and prose, many of the most humorous cast composed for the 
occasion. Among the rest the annexed lines were introduced by way of prologue. The flour- 
ishing state of this infant seminary cannot fail of exciting the most lively satisfaction to this 
rising country, more especially as it holds out to our view a prospect of education on the most 
liberal scale for the succeeding race, independent of foreign aid. 

State of Education in Upper Canada, 1795-1799. 

As to the actual state of education in Upper Canada at this time, we get a 

brief glimpse from the book of travels of the Due de la Rochefocauld, who visited 

Kingston in July, 1795. He says : — 

In this district there are some schools, but they are few in number. The children are 
instructed in reading and writing, and pay each a dollar a month. One of the masters taught 
Latin, but he has left, without being succeeded by another instructor in the same language. 

As to the character of the private schools thus established, and the facilities 
of education which they afforded, we learn incidentally from letters and early 
books of travel what they were. In a " Tour Through Upper Cauda, by a Citizen 
of the United States," published in 1799, we learn that the policy of the Govern- 
ment of that day was to exclude " schoolmasters from the States, lest they should 
instil republicanism into the tender minds of the youth of the Province." 

Essay on the Necessity of Education, written in 1799. 

The following Essay on Education appeared in the Upper Canada Gazette of 
the 13th July, 1799. It is inserted in this collection for the purpose of illustrat- 
ing what were the prevailing thoughts and feelings on this important subject in 
these early days, and to show how such a subject was treated by the writer 
in those times. Incidentally the essay gives rather a gloomy picture of 
the youthful character of the day, and of the tendency to evil, which parental 
restraint and careful and judicious training in school the writer thinks would 
help to correct. He said : — 

By giving publicity to the following essay, through the medium of your useful paper, you 
\vill oblige one who feels for the promotion of literature in this country : — 
'Tis education forms the common mind ; 
" Just as the twig is bent, the tree's inclined." 

— POPK. 

However ignorant we are of the materials of which the common mind is composed, this 
truth is clear, that in its infant and tender state impressions are made with the greatest ease ; 
and those impressions which are then made are generally of a very durable nature. 



Chap. XII. EDUCATION OF THE SIX NATION INDIANS. 35 



It is with the greatest difficulty they are ever eradicated in any future period. 
They are often the leading traits in a person's character through life. 

The certainty of a person's imbibing principles in yo'ith by which his future conduct and 
character will be shaped is much greater than that of any other period. 

" Train up a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not depart from it." 
This being the case, the importance of an early formation of the young and tender minds of 
youth cannot be too often nor too forcibly inculcated. It is a matter of the greatest moment, 
and he who has the superintendence of the education of a family of children should consider it 
an employment of the greatest importance that could devolve upon him. 

He is not only acting for himself, but for the community at large, and possibly for many 
generations yet to come. 

He is forming them for the action on the great theatre of the world, where they will 
undoubtedly act in conformity to the precepts and examples received in their infancy. 

If a parent, then, would wish to see his children possessing respect, honour and esteem of 
their fellow creatures, he must in their early infancy instil into their mind principles of virtue, 
for virtue is the foundation of every action which renders a man a valuable member of society ; 
but if these principles are not implanted while the mind is yet young and tender, it is with diffi- 
culty their beauty can afterwards be discovered. 

When the mind has become inured to vice, the practice of it becomes pleasing and agreeable, 
and the beauties of virtue have not a captivating power. 

And I am bold to assert that it is chiefiy owing to the neglect and misconduct of parents, 
and those whose duty it is to fonn and fashion the tender minds of youth, that prisons are so 
crowded with criminals, and courts of justice have the culprit so often arraigned before them. 

Whenever I see a person receiving a punishment, inflicted upon him for a crime committed 
against the community, I consider him less guilty than those who had the superintending of his 
education ; tor had they, when the plants of vice were yet young and tender, suppressed their 
growth — had thev represented vice with all its horrors and fatal consequences —it is impossible 
but it must have taken eflfect, and made it ever after appear in its true and odious light ; who 
might otherwise have made characters of the first respectability are dragged in chains to a dun- 
geon, there to spend a miserable and infamous life I 

What, then, must be the feelings of a parent, seeing his child in this situation, when he con- 
siders himself the primary cause of the infamy and disgrace '. 

And what better prospect than this can those parents have with whose children our streets 
are thronged, who, no sooner than they are able to lisp a sentence, have their mouths filled with 
the bitterest curses, the profanest oaths and execrations ? 

It is truly a subject which requires their most serious attention. 

Most of our children now, as soon as their age will admit of their passing the threshold of 
the doors, and they are able to articulate a word, learn the most impious language, and to prac- 
tise every impiety which we should expect to find in the most abandoned character of mature age. 
Whatever the parent may think of this, with however little attention he may regard it, how- 
ever trifling it may appear to him, he may rest assured it is a bold beginning towards destruction. 
It is the sure prelude of the child's rapid progress to infamy. 

Wherefore, parents, if you wish to save your children, if you wish to make them respectable 
members of society, it" you wish in your old age to receive consolation in their honor, stop their 
vicious projects and teach them virtue. 



CHAPTEK XII. 



SETTLEMENT AND EDUCATION OF THK SIX NATION INDIANS, 

1784-1800. 

In the Toronto Telegram of the 1st of April, 1893, appeared copies of corres- 
pondence which took place in 1796-1800, between the Teacher of the Mohawk 
School, on the Bay of Quinte, and the Rev. Dr. Stuart — to whom reference has 
been already made, (page 30), and who travelled as a Missionary of the Church 
of England between the York and Cataraqui of those early days. The corres- 
pondence is the more interesting from the fact that, while the white loyalist 
settlers had to depend upon chance, and the few private, or garrison, schools 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. l784-9(> 



which existed here and there, for the education of their children, yet, even then,, 
efforts were made to provide schools for the Six Nation Indians, who had stood 
firmly by the British cause during the American Revolution. 

After the war was over, the leading tribes of the Six Nations refused to remain 
in the United States, but under Brant, their leader, removed — part of them to- 
the Grand River, and a Mohawk tribe of that Nation to the Bay of Quinte. 

On the application of Brant and other Chiefs and Warriors of the Six Nation 
Indians, General Sir Frederick Haldimand, then Governor- General, granted "to 
them, in 1784, and to their posterity for ever, the Grand River, or Ouse, from its 
source to its entry into Lake Erie, extending six miles on each side of the River, 
and forming a space of land about one hundred miles in length by twelve in 
breadth," and including 694,910 acres of land. The area included ir- this grant 
was purchased from the Messesagnes, or Mississagua Indians — a seventh nation. 

Of the Mohawk Nation — one of the six — a tribe settled on the Bay of Quint6^ 
in 1784. They received a grant, in that year, under Letters Pat-^nt from th& 
Crown, of 92,700 acres. 

As Rev. Dr. Stuart ha'l been a devoted Missionary for seven years among 
the Six Nations in the Mohawk Valley in New York, he naturally felt a warm 
and tender regard for them. They, like himself, had been expatriated to Canada 
from the beautiful Valley of the Mohawk River. He had translated the New 
Testament into the soft, yet sonorous language of the Iroquois, and had become 
endeared to them by many an heroic deed, and many touching associations — and 
that too in a struggle, in which he, with ardent sympathies for the Royal cause,, 
was forced to be a man of peace and a non-combatant in the struggle.* 

Mr. Stuart took no part in the contest, but, being a loyalist, he incurred 
the hostility of the insurgents. His house was attacked and plundered. Hia 
church was turned into a tavern and afterwards used as a stable. He was made 
a prisoner, but was exchanged for an officer, who was captured by the royal 
forces and detained in Canada. On the 9th October, 1781, he reached St. John's,. 
Province of Quebec, accompanied by his wife and three small children. In a 
letter he says, " I am the only refugee clergyman in this Province." It was not 
till June, 1784, that Mr. Stuart made his first visit to Upper Canada, when he 
visited the new settlements on the St. Lawrence and Niagara, and the Mohawks on 
the Bay of Quinte and Grand Kiver. He officiated at several places on his journey,, 
one of which was ac Tyendinaga, the Mohawk Settlement, on the Bay of Quinte,. 
where the Indians were laying the foundations of a village, which is now the 
town of Deseronto. 

* Sir John B. Robinson, Chief Justice of Upper Canada, in a letter dated August 5th, 1847, says : — 
" There was something in the Rev. Dr. Stuart's appearance that could not fail to make a most favorable 
impression. He viras about six feet, two inches in height, with fine muscular features, expanded chest, 
erect figure, straight well-formed limbs, and a free, manly carriage, improved by a fondness in his youth for 
athletic exercise. . . From my recollection of him, I should say that I have seen no one who came so 
fully up to the idea one is led to form of a fine old Roman— a man who capable of enduring and defying 
anything in a good cause ; incapable of stooping to any thing in the least degree mean or unworthy. * 
(Mr. H. J. Morgan's Celebrated Canadians, page 126.) 



■Chap. XII. EDUCATION OF THE SIX NATION INDIANS. 37 

In regard to the school for the Mohawks of the Bay of Quinte, the following 
-correspondence took place between the Rev. Dr. Stuart and Mr. William Bell, 
schoolmaster to the Mohawks on the Bay of Qumte, afterwards Colonel of the 
First Regiment of Hastings Militia. This correspondence extends over the period 
from September 26th, 1796, to August 26th, 1802. 

Col. Bell had served in the ranks as a British soldier, and had an honourable 
■discharge. He was intimately associated with, if not related to, Col. John Fergu- 
43on, at the time a well-known and influential person at Kingston. He finally 
settled a few miles east of Belleville, and became a Coronor, Justice of the Peace, 
-and Colonel of the First Regiment of Hastings Militia. 

Before the appointment of Mr. Bell as teacher of the Mohawk children on 
the Bay of Quints, the Rev. Mr. Stuart had received £30 as a yearly grant from 
the English " Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts," so as 
to enable him to appoint such a teacher. Mr. John Bininger, the son of a Morav- 
ian missionary, who had accompanied Rev. John Wesley to Virginia, applied for 
the position, and the Rev. Mr. Stuart appointed him in 1792. He was a man of 
«, kindly missionary spirit, and was very acceptable to the Indians. He con- 
tinued to teach the school for about three years and then resigned. 

The first letter in this correspondence is from Dr. Stuart to Mr. Bell, in answer 
to one from him. It is dated 

Kingston, September 26, 1796. 

Sir, — I received your letter respecting tlie Mohawk school. I can give you no positive 
answer at present, beciuse I have agreed, conditionally, with a schoolmaster at Montreal ; that 
is, if he comes up, he is t > h ive the school ; but three or four weeks are elapsed since he 
promised to give me a positive answer. I expect daily to hear from him, although I do not 
think it very likely that he will accept of the employment. 

Some time ago Mr. Ferguson mentitmed you to me as a person who would probably under- 
take that charge. I told Captain John that if the person from Montreal disappointed me I 
would talk with you on the subject. Therefore, if you come to Kingston about the time you 
mention, 1 will be able to give you a positive answer. 

The salary is £30 sterling, with a house to live in and some other advantages which depend 
wholly on the pleasure of the Mohawks. But the teacher must be a man, and not a woman, 
however well qualitied . 

The Society for the Propogation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts was the cus- 
todian of the Fund for Indian Education, and on that Society the following draft 
was drawn : — 

Mohawk Village, Bay of Quintb, July 5th, 1797. 

Sir, — At thirty days' sight of this my first of exchange, (second and third of same tenor 
and date unpaid), please to pay Mr. Robert Macaulay or order the sum of fifteen pounds sterling, 
being my half yt'ar's salary from the 15th day of November, 1796, to the I5th day of May, 1797, 
■due from the society, without further advice from, sir. 

Your humble servant, William Bell, Schoolmaster to the Mohawks. 

To Calvert Clapham, Esq., Treasurer to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
in Foreign Parts, Duke Street, Westminster, London. 

The Mohawks evidently did not take a deep interest in the education of their 
off^spring, for the school was not over crowded ; indeed the number in attendance 



38 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPEll CANADA. 1801 

was SO few that the teacher stood a fair chance of losing his position. Such being 
the case, Dr. Stuart addressed the following letter to Mr. Bell, dated 

KiNG.sTON, August 18, 1799. 

Unless the Mohawks will send such a number of their children to school as will justify me 
in continuing a schoolmaster, in duty to myself, as acting for the society, I shall be under the 
disagreeable necessity of discontinuing the payment of your salary after the expiration of the 
present year, which I believe will be next month. This inform ition I think proper to give you,, 
that you may govern yourself accordingly. 

The letter had a good effect, for in March of 1800 the school was " furnished 
with a dozen or more scholars." The instructions as regarded discipline were 
that it must be strict, and that the teacher must see " that prayers are read night 
and morning," and that in case the parents were delinquent in not sending fire 
wood, so that the youthful aborigines need not be frozen, " that the children may 
not be sent home," and further, " that cattle may not be allowed to get into the 
school." The cattle were evidently visitors after regular school hours. A further 
injunction was that the wood be used only " in school hours," no doubt to prevent 
the room being made a place of public resort. This improved state of things 
having been communicated to the Rev. Dr. Stuart, he wrote the following letter 
to Mr Bell, dated 

Kingston, March 16, 1800. 

By a letter lately received from your plaoe, I am happy to hear that the school is now furn- 
ished with a dozen or more scholars ; and it is expected that you will be very strict in your 
discipline and see thit the prayers are read, night and morning — that the children are taught 
the Lord's Prayer. Cr-ed, and the Ten Commandments — thai, children may not be sent home, 
"even if their parents do :iot sead wood at the stated times — that cattle may not be allowed to go 
into the school, but that it be kept clean, and the wood belonging to it may not be used unless in 
school hours. The opportunity of writing being unexpected, I can only give you those short 
hints at presen". However, your own discretion will point out to you that every reasonable 
method of giving satisfaction and being uteful should be adopted. 

The attendance at the school having again fallen off. Dr. Stuart's patience 

was exhausted. Not a scholar had been for months inside the school, and he 

therefore insisted that the pedagogue's vocation would be gone if " six constant 

scholars " were not furnished. The following letter was, therefore, sent to Mr. 

Bell, dated 

Kingston,. September 11th, 1801. 

I have waited with patience to see whether the Mohawks would send their children more 
regularly to school. But, if the accounts I receive are true, the money is expended to no pur- 
pose. I am told that there has not been a scholar in school since last spring ; and, as I have 
never found that the fault was on your side, I cannot in conscience allow the salary to be paid 
for nothing. 

Therefore, unless Captain John and the chief men of the village will promise that the school 
shall be furnished with at leist six constant scholars I must dismiss you from their service ; 
that is, if you now have, or are promised immediately, six scholari, the school may continue ; 
if not it must cease as soon as you receive this notification. 

I hope you will see the reasonableness of this determination of mine. And you may show 
this letter to Captain John and the other Mohawks, by which they will see that the continuance^ 
or discontinuance of the school depends wholly on themselves. 



Chap. XII. EDUCATION OF THE SIX NATION INDIANS. 3ft 

Mr. Bell seemed to have but little success in inducing the Mohawks to send 

their children to his school. Still it was continued for nearly a year after this 

letter was written. However, in the next year, Mr. Stuart finally wrote to Mr^ 

Bell as follows, dated : 

Kingston, 26th August, 1802. 

I have not yet received any letter from the Society in Eugland, but for the reasons I men- 
tioned to you I think it expedient to let the Mohawk school cease, at least for some time. I 
therefere notify you that after your present quarter is ended you will not expect a continuance 
of the salary. 

Some time after this things changed for the better ; and the Schools for the 
children of these Mohawk Indians are now supported by the Indian Fund at the 
disposal of the Department at Ottawa, and by the long established New England. 
Company. 

The New England Company, or School Society, 1649-1661. 

The Six Nation Indians which were transferred from the State of New York 
to the Grand River, fared somewhat better than the Mohawk tribal branch of 
them that settled on the Bay of Quints. They were provided with Schools by 
the New England Company — a company formed as far back as 1649, by the Long 
Parliament. An interesting sketch of this Company, prepared by Dr. M. J. Kelly, 
Inspector of Public Schools in the County of Brant in 1883, is inserted as 
follows : — 

" As the New England Company has done so much here and elsewhere for the moral and 
intellectual elevation of the Indian tribes of North America, a brief sketch of its history may 
not be amiss in this prelim nary report. The company was first established by the Long f arlia- 
ment, in 1649. The first Pilgrim Fathers reached America in the " Mayflower " in 1620. The 
celebrated John Eliot followed in 1631. Through the work of Eliot and the publication of hia 
eleven tracts, the wants of the North American Indians l)ecame known in Enjjland. The result, 
was the original establishment of the Company now known as the " New England Conapany.'*^ 
Long distinguished as the " Apostle of the North American Red Men." this zealous missionary 
Eliot was a graduate of the University "f Cambridge, and commenced life as a schoolmaster. On 
the flight of Hooker, the head master of the school in which he was assistant, Eliot, who was also 
of the Puritan way of thinking, sailed with Governor Winthrop's family and other emigrants for 
Boston, where he at once entered upon the work to which he devoted his life. 

The royal charter for establishing the colony had declared that : ''To win over and incite 
the natives of thac country to the knowledge and obedience of the only true God and Saviour 
of mankind, and the Christian faith, is oar royal intention, and the adventurers' free profession, 
is the principal end of the Plantation." Tlin colonial seal, too, represented an Indian with a 
label in his mouth, inscribed, " Come over and help us." Havinsj acquired a knowledge of their 
language, Eliot procured the es'^ablishment of schools, to which he induced the Indians to send 
their children. To aid him in his work ho wrote his eleven tracts, in which he appealed with 
much force to the liberality of Christian people in England, and which led to the formation of 
the New England Company. The quaint wording of these tracts, as shown in their headings, is 
characteristic of the period. I transcribe some of the shorter headings. Tract II. — " The Day 
breaking, if not the Sun rising of the Gospel with the Iidiansin New England. London, 1647." 
Tract III. — " I he clear Sunshine of the Gospel breaking forth upon the Indian? of New Eng- 
land. Thos. Shepard. London, 1648" Tract IV. — "The glorious prayers of the Gospel 
amongst the Indians in New England. Edward Winslow, London, 1649." Nearly £12,000 stg. 
were forthwith collected by voluntary subscriptions throughout England and Wales, and out of 
this .£11,430 were expende I in the purchase of landed property at Eviswell, in Suffolk, a farm 
at Plumstead, in Kent, as well as several houses in London. 

The corporation at home at once appointed commissioners and a treasurer in New England, 
who, with the income transmitted them by the authorities in England, paid itinerant mission-<. 
aries and school teachers amongst the natives. 



40 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1800 



At the Restoration (1660), the corporation created by the Long Parliament became defunct ; 
for a while the income ceased ; but by the influence of " the excellent Robert Boyle," son of the 
Earl of Cork, and one of the founders of the Royal Society, an order of Charles II in Council 
■was obtained 10th April, 1661, for a new chatter of incorporation, vestinst in the company then 
created (and now subsisting), the property which had been given or bought for the purposes of 
the late corporation. The Honorable Robert Boyle was the first governor of the company, 
which included, among other noblemen, the famous Lord Chancellor Clarendon. In 1822, the 
company transferred its operations from New Biunswick to other parts of British America, and 
has since established stations at various times and places, one of the most important being among 
the Mohawks and other Six Nation Indians settled on the banks of the Grand River, between 
Brantford and Lake Erie. In the year 1823, after a preliminary investigation on their behalf 
by the Rev. John West, and with the concun-ence of Capt. Joseph Brant, the New England 
Company adopted resolutions i-espectinsr the placing fit peisons, either individually or in mission 
families, at eligible stations in those parts of America in which the trusts of the company could 
be carried on. According y, the company in concurrence with Captain Josef h Brant, and with 
his assistance as a sort of lay agent, before 1827 commenced opei-ations under the Rev. William 
Hough, as its first missionary, on the Grand River, and built two school houses near the Mohawk 
Village (about one and a half miles from Brantford), as well as a parsonage for the church there. 
This church possesses the communion plate and Bible presented by Queen Anne to the Indian 
church in the Mohiwk Valley, which the Indians had been obliged to abandon. The Rev. 
Robert Lugger succeeded the Rev. Wm. Hough, as missionary, in 1827, and was in turn him- 
self succeeded, ten j'ears afterwards, by Archdeacon Nelles, who still ofliciates at the Mohawk 
church every Sunday, having as the principal part of his congregation, the boys and girls of the 
Mohawk Institute. The first grant of the New England Company for Indian sclu-ol purposes, 
was made to Captain John Brant, son of the great chief, in 1822 ; this was for the erection of 
the two school-houses before referred to. In 1832, at the time of Captain John Brant's death, 
the New England Company supported seven schools on the Reserve. In 1830 the ** Mohawk 
Institute" was established for teaching handicraft trades ; in 1833 it became a boarding school 
for ten boys and ten girls ; rebuilt in 1859, it was subsequently enlarged, and it has for many 
years accommodated f3rty-five boys and forty-five giils, who are all boarded, lodged, clothed and 
■educated, free of charge. The institution is entirely supported by ihe funds of the company, 
the net cost of each pupil annua ly being about $60. Attached to the Institute is a farm of 260 
stores, and adjoining it the glebe balonging to the Mohawk church, all of which is Indian land 
held under a conditionil tenure. There are in the Institute two teichera with the Superin- 
tendent, all of whom reside in the building. The biys and girls in relays receive instruction in 
•the literary classes for two days, and work the third. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

^ SKETCHES OF NOTED TEACHEES IN 1800-1807. 

The riecordof proceedings of the Legislature of Ui)per Canada in 1800, 1801 
1802 and 1803 contain no reference to the subject of education. This silence for 
tour years may be fairly taken as an evidence of the want of interest in schools 
on the part of the Legislature, and of the listless state of public feeling on the 
subject. It even evinced what was worse, a latent hostility to education per se, 
for when, in 1804, the matter was specially brought before the House of Assem- 
bly, in the form of a respectful petition from the County of Glengarry, praying 
for the establishment of schools " in the most central places," the proposal to do 
so was thrice rejected. During that session, when Mr. Sherifi McDonell brought 
in a Bill to give effect to the prayer of the petition, it was rejected by a vote of 
seven to five. Mr. McDonell's namesake from York afterwards moved to bring in 
«i more restricted Bill on the same subject ; it, too, was rejected by a like vote. A 
third effort by another member was likewise defeated by the casting vote of the 



Chap. XIII. SKETCHES OF NOTED TEACHERS IN 1800-1807. 41 

Speaker. The efforts made in the same direction during the Session of 1805 were 
alike abortive, showing how, as yet, the popular branch of the Legislature had no 
sympathy with Governor Simcoe in his large-hearted zeal for the promotion of 
education in the Province. He was quite before his time in his desire to have 
schools and a university established in this country. His persistent letters on 
this subject to the Colonial Secretary, and to the first Anglican Bishop of Quebec, 
(whose jurisdiction extended to Upper Canada), attest this. 

In the meantime the settlers had to depend upon private or remote garrison 
schools for the education of their children. Such schools were at that time few 
and far between. A brief statement in regard to these schools with the names of 
the pioneer teachers (all honor to them !) who taught in them at workmen's wages 
will be found on page 30. And while these less prominent men did their part 
with more or less ability, to keep aJive a taste, if not a love for knowledge, the 
real vital spark of intelligence and sound learning was only kept aflame in the 
chief centres of the Province by such men as Rev. Dr. Stuart, his son, the Rev- 
G. Okill Stuart, and notably by Rev. Dr. Strachan, aided by libraries established 
here and there. A sketch of these pioneer educators, (as they were in the best 
sense,) will be most appropriate here, in the interval of four years in this docu- 
mentary narrative, caused by the interregnum which took place in educational 
parliamentary proceedings during the years 1800-1803. 

The Rev. Dr. Strachan, Teacher at Kingston, Cornwall' and Toronto. 

In a charge which Dr. Strachan, as Bishop of Toronto, delivered to his clergy 
in 1860, he gave the following particulars of his early life, and of his first experi- 
ence as a school teacher : 

It is generally known that, in emigrat ng to this country, I had a different object in view 
than that of entering the Church of England, but a wise and kind Providence ordered otherwise. 

In 179(5, having finished my terms at King's College, Aberdeen, and proceeded to the 
Master's degree, 1 removed to the vicinity of St. Andrew's and, while there, I contracted several 
important and lasting friendships, amongst others, with Thomas Duncan, afterwards Professor 
of Mathematics, and also with Dr. Chalmers, since then so deservedly renowned. We were all 
three nearly of the same age and our friendship only terminated with death, being kept alive by 
a constant correspondence during more than sixty years. 

After leaving S . Andrew's I was for a time employed in private tuition but, having a mother 
and two sisters in a great degree dependent on my exertion, I applied for the parochial school 
of Kettle, in the County of Fife, and obtained it by public competition, and here, at the age of 
nineteen, I made my hrst e3 ay in the great field of educational labor, commencing my career 
with deeply rooted love for the cause, and with something of a fore-knowledge of that success 
which has since crowntd my efforts. 

It was my practice to study and note the character and capacity of my pupils as they entered 
the school, and to this discrimination, which gave correctness to my judgment, many owe the 
success which they ultimately achieved. Among my pupils at that time was Sir David Wilkie, 
since so well known as one of the first painters of the age. I very soon perceived Wilkie's great 
genius, and, with much difficulty prevailed with his uncle to send him, still very young, to the 
celebrated Raebum. then enjoying the highest reputation [as a painter] in Scotland. It is 
pleasing to remark that after an interval of perhaps thirty years the preceptor and scholar met 
in London, and renewed an intimacy so profitable to one and honorable to both. We attended 
the meeting of the British Association together, and saw much of one anr)ther during my short 
stay in England. Often did Sir David Wilkie, at the height of his fame, declare that he owed 



42 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN. UPPER CANADA. 1803 



everything to his reverend teacher and that but for his interference he must have remained in 
obscurity. Commodore Robert Barclay, afterwards so unfortunate on Lake Erie, from causes 
over which he had no control, was another of my jjupils. He was a youth of the brightest 
promise, and often have I said in my heirt that he possessed qualities which fitted him to be 
another Nelson, had the way opened for such a consummation. While at St. Andrew's, the Rev- 
erend James Brown, one of the acting professors of the University, a gentleman of vast scientific 
attainments, became so exceedingly attached to me as to take me under his kind protection. 
After some time he was advanced to the Chair of Natural Philosophy in the University of Glas- 
gow, to which place he removed. Still interested in my welfare, he proposed to me to become 
his attending assistant, to prepare and make the experiments necessarj' for the illustration of 
his lectures and, in his absence from infirm health, which was not unfrequent, to read his pre- 
lections and discharge such of his duties in the lecture room as I was qualified to undertake. 
But difficulties intervened to prevent this arrangement from being carried out when almost com- 
pleted, and Dr. Brown was, as he intimated to me, reluctantly induced to retire on a pension. 
But our mutual attachment continued through life. This to me was a very bitter disappoint- 
ment. A career of honorable usefulness had been opened in a way after my own heart, and it 
was in a moment destroyed. But I was not overwhelmed, for Ood had in His goodness given me 
a cheerful spirit of endurance and a sanguine disposition as to the future, which it was not easy 
to depress ; and a kind Providence, even before I had altogether recovered the shock, presented 
to me an opportunity of removing to another sphere of activity and, in the frame of mind in 
which I found myself, I was the more disposed to accept employment in Canada. 

Dr. Strachan's account of his removal to Canada and of his arrangement with 
the Honorable Richard Cartwright, are narrated in his own words on page 9. 
The agreement with Mr. Cartwright to instruct his sons included also the right 
to receive other pupils. Thus the school at Kingston began and was continued 
there for three years. After his ordination in 1803, Dr. Strachan removed to 
Cornwall. In Bishop Bethune's Memoir of the Right Reverend John Strachan,. 
he says : 

Mr. Strachan's clerical duties at Cornwall were not such as to occupy his whole time, so he 
soon commenced taking pupils and gradually formed that school which afterwards obtained so 
much celebrity. Amongst his earliest pupils was the late Chief Justice of Upper Canada, Sir 
John B. Robinson, who went to him in the autumn of 1803, having been previously under hi& 
charge at Kingston. . . . One after another of those distinguished men followed Dr. 
Strachan to Cornwall as pupils — men whose names adorn our Canadian history. 
In a letter received by Dr. Strachan from the first Bishop of Quebec in 1809, the Bishop said : 
" I am glad that your school — a much more acceptable term in these days than academy — goes 
on well. I congratulate you both upon your success and your usefulness." 

In regard to Dr. Strachan's removal to Cornwall, the late Bishop Fuller, in a. 
funeral sermon on his demise in 1867, stated that he was : 

Induced to resume his school at the solicitation of the parents of those boys who had been 
in his school at Kingston and of others both in Lower and Upper Canada, who were desirous of 
placing their sons under a master so practical, wise and successful as he had proved himself to 
be. Thus he commenced the school at Cornwall, which afterwards became so celebrated, and 
at which were educated the first men that Canada has produced, and of whom she may well be 
proud — such men as the late Sir J. B. Robinson, Judge Maclean, Sir J. B. Macaulay, Sir Allan 
MacNab, Judge .Jones, Mr. Stanton, the Bethunes, (Alexander, John and Donald), Sir .James 
Stuart and his brother Andrew Stuart, besides many others who have reflected credit on our 
country. 

The Bishop had a great faculty for not only attaching his scholars to him, but also for 
inducing them to apply themselves most assiduously to their studies. He told me that he made it 
a rule during the time he kept school to watch closely every new boy, and, at the end of a fort- 
night, to note down in a book his estimate of the boys who had passed through his hands. 

He was never afraid of having his dignity lowered by liberties taken with him ; and he 
always felt every confidence in his position and entered warmly and personally into many of the 
boys' amusements and thus gained an immense influence over them. This influence over his 
pupils has been shown in the fact that almost all of them embraced his principles ; and the love and 



Chap. XIII. SKETCHES OF NOTED TEACHERS IN 1800-1807. 43 



affection for him and of his celebrated Cornwall School was shown many years aao when the sur- 
viving members thereof presented him with an address* and a most beautiful and costly cande- 
labra. Nor did his more recent scholars entertain less affectioa for him, though they never 
proved it so substantially as did those of his Cornwall School. ... He was an excel- 
lent teacher. His scholars were well grounded in their work. The grammar was well mastered 
and every rule thereof deeply impressed on the memory. Eveiy lesson was thoroughly dissected 
and everj thing connected with it thoroughly understood before we passed on to another lesson. 

Rev. Dr. Strachan's System of School Management. 

The Rev. Dr. Scadding, in his sketch of Dr. Strachan: The First Bishop of Tor- 
onto — A Review and a Study, says : 

The system pursued in Dr. Strachan's school at Cornwall and afterwards at York exhibited 
features that would have gratified the advanced educationists of the present age. In that . sys- 
tem the practical and the useful were by no means sacrificed to the ornamental and theoretical, 
or the merely conventional. Things were regarded as well as words. ... In regard 
to things — the science of common objects — we doubt if in the most complete of our modem 
schools there was ever awakened a greater interest or intelligence in relation to such matters. 
Who, that had once participated in the excitement of its natural history class, ever forgot it ? 
Or in that of the historical or geographical exercises ? We venture to think that, in many an 
instance, the fullest experience of after life, in trave or otheiwise, had often their associations 
with ideas awakened then ; and often compared satisfactorily and pleasurably with the pictures 
of plices, animals and peisons given, rudely it may be, in text books ransacked and conned in a 
fervor of emulation then. The manner of study in these subjects was this : each lad was required 
to prepare a set of questions to be put by himself to his fellows in the class. If a reply was not 
forthcoming, and the inf<.)rii aion furnished by the questioner was judged correct, the latter 
" went up " and took the place of the other. 'I his process, besides being instructive and stimu- 
lating to the pupils, possessed the advantage of being, as it often proved, highly diverting to the 
teacher. 

The late Bishop Fuller, who was one of Dr. Strachan's pupils, also states 
that: 

He had a remarkable talent for interesting boys in their work; and, by taking a deep 
interest in it himself, he led them tf) do the same. He was very original in many of his plans 
for promoring the good of his school. Amongst others, which I never met with elsewhere, was 
one of making the boys ((uestion one another on certain of the lessons. This made tlie boys 
()uick at seizing on the leadin</ points in the lessons, ready at shaping questions, and deeply 
interested in the (juestions and answers. The Bishop took as deep an interest in the question- 
ing and answering of the boys as they did themselves ; and thus this plan, whilst it was of great 
service to the boys in various ways, tended strongly to bind master and sclio'ars together, f 

■ On this system Dr. Strachan himself remarks: 

The method of instruction by question and answer possesses many advantages over any 
other, and is not only the very best and shortest but the nu)st satisfactory. In this system the 
deficiencies of each scholar soon becomes manifest, and the teacher knows to what jmrticular 
points he must direct his explanations. There is no lime for inattention or wandering; the 
(luestion and necessity for reply compel attention and recollection. The children, if the teacher 
proceed with a conciliatory firnniess, ac(iuire a lively interest in the lesson, for each is particu- 
larly addressed and brought forward with action. J 



\ 



* The principal signers of the address were Sir J. B. Robinson, Sir J. B. Macaulay. Very Rev. Dean 
Bethune Kipht Rev. Bishop Bethnne. Hon. Chief Justice McLean, Hon. Justice Jones, Hon. W. B. 
Robinson, Hon. G. S. Boulton, Rev. W. Macaulay, Judge (George) Ridout, Surveyor-General Chewett, 
Colonel Gresg, Captain Macaulav, R. A., Inspector-General Markland, Sheriff Mc-ean, Messrs. T. G. 
Ridout, P. Vankoughnet, S. P. Jarvis, J. Radenhurst, K. G. Anderson, R. Stenton and others. 

t Sermon on the Death of Bishop Strachan, Journal of Education for IT. C, vol. xx. (1867), page 183. 

JThe Christian Recorder, edited by Rev. Dr. Strachan, Kingston and York, 1819, vol. 1, page 182. 



44 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1809 



The Rev. Dr. Strachan's Method of Teaching. 

The following extracts are taken from the preface of a rare book on arithmetic, 
by the late Bishop Strachan, published at Montreal in 1809. These extracts are 
highly characteristic of the man, and contain in a few words the rationale, as well 
as the secret of the Bishop's wonderful success as a teacher. The}'^ are, there- 
fore, inserted here for the information of those who would like to know and 
to study the methods of one of the most noted Canadian teachers of his day. 
They are the more valuable from the fact that they are not the opinions, or 
impressions, of those who had personal knowledge and experience of Dr. Strachan's 
method, but they are the very words of this remarkably successful teacher him- 
self, written after several years' experience of the art of teaching, — now, nearly' 
ninety years ago. He said : 

On my arrival at Kingston, about ten years ago, to superintend the education of a select 
number of pupils, 1 experienced much inconvenience from the want of school books. To 
supply this defect, I was under the necessity of compiling several treatises on different subjects, 
and among the rest one on Arithmetic, which I am now induced to publish for the greater con- 
venience of my school. 

The great advantages of well digested text books, both to master and scholar, are too 
evident to require proofs. In revising this little work for the pre«s, I have eodeavored to make 
the rules and definitions as simple as p ssible, consistent with perspicuity, a quality which must 
never be lost sight of in any work, particularly those of an elementary kind, i am sufficiently 
aware that little reputation can be acquired by the publication of a school book on a subject 
already more perfect than any of the other sciences, and which has been so well treated by 
abler hands. But my desire to be useful to my pupils induced me to undertake the work, 
which, I thought, might, without any great exertion of intellect, though not without much 
labor, be made more useful for this country than any other publication on the subject. 

Order and Mode of Teaching Stated. 

There is a difference of opinion among teachers as to the order of teaching the primarj' 
rules, some giving the simple and then returning to the compound, others teaching both at 
once. I have been in the habit of giving all the simple rules to the young pupils before they 
proceeded to the compound, but to young men of discernment I have seldom found it necessary, 
as they commonly understood the compound with as much facility as the simple. But if the 
pupils are carried through all the primary rules before they begin to write them down in their 
books, it becomes a matter of indifference which arrangement be chosen. It should, however, 
be laid down as a principle that no boy can do an\ thing right the first time, but that he must 
learn by the help of his teachers, so as to be able to do it himself ever after. The strict obser- 
vance of this rule will render any arrangement easy, and facilitate the study, not only of arith 
metic, but of any other subject. Multiplication is applied to the measuring of timber in all 
the varieties, beciuse many who require this knowledge are not able to remain long enough at 
school to reach duodecimals, which are generally taught at the end of arithmetic. Of this I 
have had frequent experience. For the same reason an account of household expense is intro 
duced in subtraction ; and in division, book debts, forms of bills and receipts. In proportion 
the common distinction of diiect and inverse has been rejected, and a rule given that compre- 
hends both. The same rule, extended in its operation, serves for double proportion and is very 
easily understood by boys who are too young to comprehend any explanation of antecedents and 
consequents. In i)ractice a case of feet and inches is introduced, which will frequently be 
found more convenient than cross-multiplication. Care has been taken in vulgar fractions to 
make the rules easy of comprehension and to take away that seeming abstruseness so frequently 
complained of In the arrangement of decitral fractions, as well as in the simplicity of the 
rules, something, it is hoped, will be found worthy of approbation. Simple interest compre- 
hends several rules, which differ in name rather than in principle. Some tables are introduced 
of great use in practice, and several things entirely new. In compound interest and annuities 
the several cases ai*e rendered ea^y, and although it was necessary to contract this part of the 
treatise as much as possible, everything of real use is retained. 



Chap. Xlir. SKETCHES OF NOTED TEACHERS IN 1800-1807. 45 

Some thing8 introduced in other books have been rejected in this. For example, though 
multiplying by the component pnrts of a composite number be recommended, yet dividing by 
component jiarts is rejected, because it is difficult to ascertain the value of the remainder, if 
there be any, until the pupil has learned fractions. It did not see u necessary to give reduction 
as a separate rule, as it is only the application of multiplication and division. Several rules 
are not separately tr eated, because they are comprehended in propor ion. 

Never forgetting that it was my duty to make a useful book rather than an ingenious one. 
. . . I have transcribed several questions that convey useful knowledge, at the same time 
that they improve the pupils in arithmetic. The reader, however, will discover that the questions 
are chiefly neAv, and such as will frequently occur in business. Not that 1 attach any merit to 
the composition of such questions, tor I frequently write them out as they are wanted, and this 
every person ought to be able to do who teaches arithmetic, or, at least, he should have a great 
collection that he may give his pupils a sufficient variety to prevent copying. . . . The 
problems concerning the Gregorian Calendar belong to a very short system of chronology used 
in the scho J, and they are added here for ccmvenience. They may, perhaps, be found useful 
to others, for although the calculations in the nautical almanac are much more correct, these 
problems will be found sufficiently so for common use. . . . Upon the whole, it is hoped 
that this treatise will answer the purpose of a text book in this country better than any publi- 
cation on the subject. 

As to his method of teaching arithmetic, Dr. Strachan thus explained it : 

In a new country like this a variety of branches must be taught in every respectable school. 
Young men . . are anxious to get forward as fast as possible, and even those destined 

for the learned professions are seldom allowed the time requisite for acquiring the knowledge 
previously necessary. These considerations i' duced me to turn my thoughts to the discovery of 
some sure and at the same time expeditious method of teaching arithmetic. This object I have 
accomplished Avith a much greater degree of success than I dared to promise myself. 

I divided my pupils into separate c'asses according to their progress. Each class has one or 
more sums to produce every day, neatly wrought upon their slates. The work is carefully 
examined, after which I command every figure to be blotted out, and the sums to be wrought 
under my eye. The one whom I happen to pitch upon first gives with an audible voice the rules 
and reasons for every ttep, and as he proceeds the rest silently work along with him figure for 
figure, but ready to correct him if he blunder that they may get his place. As soon as this one 
is finished, the work is again blotted out and another called upon to work the question aloud as 
before, while the rest proceed along with him in silence, and so on round the whole class. 

This method of teaching; arithmetic possesses this important advantage, that it may be 
pursued without interruj)ting the pupil's progress in any other useful study. The same method 
of teaching Algebra has been used with equal success. Such a plan is certainly very laborious, 
but it will be found successful, and he that is anxious to spare labor ought not to be a public 
teacher.* 

Among the exercises in his book, Dr. Strachan gave several examples from 
Canadian subjects. Thus a question in addition reads : 

From Quebec to Montreal is 1 80 miles— from thence to Kingston 200— from thence to York 
]49_from thence to Niagara 78 miles— from thence to Detroit 210. Required the distance from 
Quebec to Detroit. Answer — 317 miles. 



Again a question in multiplication reads 

rhe distance from Quebec to Montreal is 180 niih 
f square yards does it contain ? Answer — 5,385,G 

As to his diligence as a student, while yet a teacher, Dr. Fuller remarks : 



The distance from Quebec to Montreal is 180 miles, supposing the road 17 yards broad, how 
many square yards does it contain ? Ausii'er — 5,385,600 yards. 



* Preface to " A Concise Introduction to Practical Arithmetic, for the use of Schoola ; By the Rev. 
_ ai. !.._ T>.;nfo/l Kit Mahnm MnwRr. Montreal. 1809." 



John Strachan. Printed by Nahum Mower, Montreal, 1809 



46 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1807 



The late Bishop said to me on one occasion : "I had to study every night quite as hard as 
the boys ; for I was not much in advance of the highest class in school. These and parochial 
duties demanded sixteen hours every day, — and yet these nine years were the happiest years 
of my life."* 

The Rev. Dr. George Okill Stuart, Teacher at York. 

Knowing, from conversation with Mr. J. Ross Robertson, of the Toronto 
lelegram, that he had collected a good deal of information in regard the School 
which was established in Toronto, by the Rev. George Okill Stuart, in 1807, I 
asked him to allow me to see what he had collected. He kindly placed at my 
disposal a chapter of the proposed " Memorial Volume of Upper Canada College," 
relating to the Rev. G. Okill Stuart's School. From it I make the following 
extracts : 

In the summer of 1803, the residents of York first saw the benevolent-looking face and 
stately figure of the Rev. Dr. George Okill Stuart, the first Rector of the Anglican congrega- 
tion which worshipped in the Cathedral of St. James, and who, at the same time was the 
founder of the first Public School in York so well-known to the succeeding generations as the 
" Home District School. " The plot of ground on the south-east corner of King and George 
streets, the rector held in fee simple, and, with a view of living near his charge, he erected a 
substantial frame house, with bowed windows looking out on King street, the entrance being 
on George street. The external part of this structure was painted a light brown color, with 
green Venetian blinds, as a protection to the smaller windows. This was the home of the 
Rector. At the eastern side or end of the house, and attached to it, he erected a small one- 
storey stone building. . . . When this structure was first reared the stone was visibly 
rough as when first extracted from its native quarry, but. ... a sheeting of half-inch 
boards covered the quarried boulders which composed the walls. 

In this primitive school-house the first public school of York was established, and on the 
roll of pupils one may read the names of boys who became rich and celebrated men, and of girls 
who blossomed into belles of the growing capital. The school-room was about fifty feet in 
length and fully twenty-five in width. The classes opened on the 1st June, 1807. Here we 
find that the townspeople of York sent their children, indeed a reading of the names gives us 
almost a directory of the inhabitants of the first settlement. A score or two of those entered 
on the first rolls should be mentioned : William Pilkington, Thomas Playter, James Givins, 
Benjamin Anderson, Robert Anderson, Harvey Woodruff, William Smith, William Cawthra, 
Robert Gray, John Gray, Henry Ernst, Gilbert Hamilton, William Robinson, Charles Reade, 
Daniel Brooke, Richard Brooke, Bernard Marshall' and Henry Glennon, James Mcintosh, 
Philemon Squires, Peter McDonnell, William Bowkett, George and William Jarvis, John 
Hayes, Charles Small, James Edward Small, Dona'd McDonnell, Alexander Chewett, Charles 
Boulton, Edwp,rd Hartney, Charles Ru orgies, John Moore, Allan McNab, Robert Ross, Wilson 
Hamilton, Alexander Hamilton, Angus McDonnell, William Stanton; Robert Stanton, George 
S. Boulton, George H. Detlor, Thomas G. Hamilton, WUliam A. Hamilton, John Ridout ; 
also Young Belcour, Hammeil and Marian. ... 

The labors of the Rev. Dr. George Okill Stuart were continued for many years with 
great success, until, in 1812-13, he resigned his charge, sold his property to Col. George Duggan, 
and became Rector of Kingston, and Archdeacon, f He was succeeded by Dr. Strachan, both as 
Rector of York, and Master of the School. Having presided with energy over the Cornwall 
Grammar Schools, Dr. Strachan gave renewed life to educational matters in York, by a re-or- 
ganizatiun, on a broader basis, of the system of training which had been so happily introduced 
by the Rev. Dr. G. Okill Stuart. (Pages 178-9.) 

*The Rev. Dr. Scaddiog, in the Toronto of Old, gives a number of additional most interesting particu- 
lars of Dr. Strachan, and of his Schools at Cornwall and Toronto, to which the reader is referred. In the 
chancel of St. James' Cathedral, Toronto, is a bust in marble of the Venerable Prelate. Underneath it is 
the following tribute to his memory : 

" Near this spot rest the mortal of John Strachan, first Bishop of Toronto, who departed this life, 
November the first, 1867, in the ninetieth year of his age, and the twenty-ninth of his episcopate. His 
conspicuous labors, foresight and constancy in the service of the Church, and commonwealth, as an Edu- 
cator, as a Minister of Religion, as a Statesman, form an important portion of the history of Western 
Canada. During thirty-five years he was Rector of this Church and Parish. In remembrance of him, 
the congregation have beautified the Chancal and erected this Memorial, Easter, 1870." 

fA portrait of Rev. Dr. G. Okill Stuart, as Rector of York, hangs up in the Vestry of St, James' 
Cathedral, Toronto. 



Chap. XIII. SKETCHES OF NOTED TEACHERS IN 1800-1807. 47 

Speaking of this School and its situation, the Rev. Dr. Scadding, in his 
Toronto of Old, says : 

At the intersection of King and George streets, our eye lights on an object connected with 
the early History of Education in York. 

Attached to the east side of the house . , . is a low building, wholly of stone. 

Its structure is concealed from view now by a coating of clapboards. This was 

the first school-house possessing a public character in York. It was where Dr. Stuart taught 

and it was the Home District School. From a contemporary record 
we learned that it opened on June the first, 1807. . . . From the same record it 
appears that female pupils were not excluded from the primitive Home District School. On the 
roll are names which surviving contemporaries would recognize as belonging to the hean monde 
•of Upper Canada, distinguished and admired in later years. (Page 184.) 

Dr. William Warren Baldwin, of Spadina. 

The record of the pioneer teachers of Upper Canada would scarcely be com- 
plete without a reference to Dr. W. W. Baldwin, of Spadina, who was more noted 
as a successful lawyer and a physician than as a volunteer instructor of youth. 
The Rev. Dr. Scadding, in his Toronto of Old, says of him : 

On the arrival at York, from the first Canadian home of his father, on Baldwin's Creek, in 
. the Township of Clarke, Dn Baldwin's purjwse was to turn to account for a time his own educa- 
tional acquirements, by undertaking the office of a teacher of youth. In several successive 
numbers of the York Gazette and American Oracle of 1802-3, we read the following advertisement. 
[This advertisement will be found on page 33 of this volume ] Of the results of 
this enterprise, we have not on hand any record. (Page 348.) ... In 1806, Dr. 
Baldwin was appointed Master-in-Chancery. At the time of the capture of York in 1813. . . 
the magazine at the garrison blew up ... at which time Dr. Baldwin was 
dressing a soldier's wounds, and he found a shower of stones falling all around him, but he was 
quite unhurt. . . . All now returned to their homes and occupation, except Dr. Bald- 
win, who continued dressing wounds and acting as Surgeon, until the arrival of Dr. Hackett, 
the Surgeon of the 8th Regiment. . . . ' Jeneral Sheafie had gone to the front 

taking every surgeon with him. On this account Dr. Baldwin was forced out of 
humanity, to work at his old profession again, and take care of the wounded. (^Page 433-435.) 

Dr. W. W. Baldwin, who was appointed Master-in-Chancery in 1806, and 
to the Legislative Council in 1843, was the son of Mr. Robert Baldwin, of Knock- 
mole, in the County of Cork, who came to Canada in 1798, and settled in the 
Township of Clarke, County of Durham. He died on the 8th of January, 1844. 
The Hon. Robert Baldwin, C.B., his distinguished son, died on the 9th of Decem- 
ber, 1858, at the comparatively early age of 54 years. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE UPPER CANADA LEGIS- 
LATURE, 1804. 

The fourth Session of the third Parliament of Upper Canada commenced at 
York on the first day of February, 1804. His Excellency Peter Hunter, Lieu- 
tenant-Governor. No reference to Education or to Schools was made in the 
Speech from the Throne. 



48 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1804> 



Members who took part in the School Legislation of 1804. 

Mr. Alexander McDonell, served with Simcoe in the Revolutionary War. 
He was elected member for the Counties of Glengarry and Prescottin 1801, 1809, 
1813, and for the County of Glengarry in 1820, 1825 and 1836. He was the first 
Sheriff of the Home District, and was afterwards, ('1805,) Speaker of the House of 
Assembly. In 1831 he was called to the Legislative Council. He died in 1842. 

Mr. John Ferguson was elected member for the County of Frontenac in 
1801. He served eleven years as Barrack-Master and nine years as Commissary, 
as well as six years in the Commissary- General's office in Montreal. 

Mr. Angus McDonell was elected to represent the Counties of East York, 
Durham and Simcoe in 1801 and 1804. He, with Judge Cochrane, Solicitor- 
General Gray and thirty-six other persons, perished in the schooner Speedy in 
1805, while on their way to the Assizes at Presqu Isle, near Brighton. 

Mr. Jacob Weager was elected to represent the County of Dundas in 180L 

Mr. Ebenezer Washburn was also elected member for the County of Prince 
Edward in 1801 and 1805. His relative, Mr. Simon Washburn, was a noted 
lawyer, who lived at York in these early days. 

1. Proceedings of the House of Assembly, 1804. 

On the 14th February, I8O4, agreeable to leave given, Mr. Sheriff McDonell brought up 
the petition of the sundry inhabitants of the County of Glengarry, which was ordered to lie on 
the table. 

16th February, 1804- — Then was read the petition of divers Magistrates and others, inhabi- 
tants of the County of Glengarry, which is as follows : — 

To His Excellency Peter Hunter, Esquire, Lieutenant-Governor of His Majesty's Province 
of Upper Canada, and Lieutenant-Geiieral Commanding His Majesty's Forces in Upper and 
Lower Canada, etc. 

To the Honourable the Legislative Council and the Honourable the Members of the Com- 
mon House of Assembly of the said Province, in Parliament assembled, 

The petition of the undersigned Magistrates and others of the County of Glengarry, Eastern 
District, Humbly Sheweth : — 

That amidst the many blessings your petitioners enjoy under the Constitution and Govern- 
ment of this Province, and notwithstanding the wise exertions oi the Leaislature to promote 
public prosperity, they still contemplate anxiety, the ill consequences that may result from the 
want of schools, both to the present generation and to posterity. 

That, though the scarcity of these useful institutions may be ascribed, in some degree, to 
the infant sate of the Province in general, and to the want of adequate means to give them 
weight and perpetuity, yet peculiar circumstances aggravate these unavoidable misfortunes, in 
this part of the Province in particular. 

The Highlanders, who form the great majority of inhabitants in this County, and who are, 
in general, a moral and religious jieople, are yet extremely backward in promoting any public 
institutions of learning. 

In their native country they were accustomed to hear the beauties of Christianity inculcated 
in their mother tongue, whence many of them supposed that an English education was unneces- 
sary, and what each individual was made to contribute by public authority towards the support 
of a school, was so very light and fo imperceptibly collected with the annual rents, that the 
mass of the people actually forgot that they bore any part of the burden. 

These circumstances, together with the numerous charity schools established in different 
parts of the Highlands of Scotland, which cost nothing to the inhabitants, have impressed the 
natives of the country with habits of thinking unfavorable to public institutions ; and the few 



Chap. XV, EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE. 4^ 



schools found among them here, (by the painful exertions of certain individuals), are so dis- 
couraging and unprofitable to public instructors that, consequently, they are fluctuating and of 
little value. 

Your petitioners, therefore, submit it to your consideration, whether the erection of Schools- 
by public authority, in the most central places in the country, under such regulations as may, 
to your wisdom, seem meet, and with such provisions as circumstances may afford, would not 
be a measure of great utility, both in a political and moral view, to the rising generation, and 
would not speedily counterbalance the effect of an improper bias, contracted by the people, 
who in other respects are a reasonable and valuable description of men. 

And, as in duty bound, your petitioners shall ever pray, etc. (Signed) J. McDonell, J. P., 
Alex. McMillan, J. P., Alex. McDonell, J.P., Allan McDonell, J. P., Walter Sutherland, J.P.; 
John Bethune, Minister ; Hugh McDonell, John Mclntyre, Duncan McKenzie, Duncan 
Mclntyre, Duncan Murchison, Elders. 

Mr. Sheriff McDonell, seconded by Mr. John Ferguson, moved for leave to bring in a Bil 
on Monday next to make provision for the establishment of Grammar Schools in each and every 
District within this Province. 

A division took place, the names were taken down, and were as follows : 

Yeas. — Messrs. John Ferguson, (County of Frontenac), Angus McDonell, (County of 
York, etc. ), Ebenezer Washburn, (County of Prince Edward^, Thomas MoCrae, (County of 
Kent), Sheriff McDonell, County of Glengarry, etc.j — 5 

Nays. — Messrs. Mathew Elliott, (County of Essex), Samuel Sherwood, (County of 
Grenville), Ra'ph Clench, (County of Lincrdn, etc.), Issac Swayze, (County of Lincoln, etc.)^ 
David M. Rogers, (County of ^'orthumberland, etc.), Jacob Weager, (County of Dundas), 
Robert Nelles, (County of Lincoln, etc.) — 7. 

The same passed in the negative by a Inajority of two. 

Mr. Angus McDonell, of York, then moved, seconded by Mr. John Ferguson, for leave ta 
bring in a Bill to provide for Public Grammar Schools in certain parts of this Province. 

A division having taken place, the names were taken down, and were as follows : 

Yeas. — Messrs. Ferguson, McDonell, (York). Sheriff McDonell, Washburn, McRae. — 5. 

Na'xs. — Messrs. Elliott, Sherwood, Clench,, Swayze, Rogers, Weager, Nelles. — 7. 

And the same was also negatived by a majority of two. 

16th February 1804 . — Mr. Ebenezer Washburn moved, seconded by Mr. John Ferguson, 
for leave to bring in a Bill to provide for District Schools within this Piovince out of any fund 
remaining unappropriated in the Provincial Treasury. The House being divided, the Honour- 
able Samuel Street, Speaker, gave his vote for not bringing in the Bill, so it also passed in 
the negative. 

17th Febmary, I8O4. — Mr. Ebenezer Washburn, seconded by Mr. Jacob Weager, moved 
for leave to bring in, on Monday next, a Bill to establish a Fund for the support ^of Public 
Grammar Schools in this Province. Leave was granted him to bring in the same. 

SOth Febrtiary, 1804. — Mr. Washburn moved, seconded by Mr. Ferguson, that so much of 
the Order of the Day as relates to leave given him to bring in a Bill to establish a Fund for the 
support of District Schools within this Province, be discharged, and that he may be allowed to 
substitute an address in lieu thereof. Leave was accordingly granted . 

The address, proposed in the foregoing resolution, to be substituted for the 

School Fund Bill by Mr. Ebenezer Washburn, was not brought before the Hous 3 

of Assembly by him during the Session — he shortly afterwards having obtained 

leave to return home. In the following Session, however, and in that of 1807, he 

introduced a Bill to establish a School Fund. But he did not proceed by address. 



as he had proposed to do in 1804. 



No educational legislation took place in the Legislative Council during 1804. 

CHAPTER XV. 

EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE UPPER CANADA LEGIS- 
LATURE IN 1805. 

The first Session of the fourth Parliament of Upper Canada commenced on 
the first day of February, 1805. His Excellency, Peter Hunter, Esquire, Lieu- 
4 (D.E.) 



so DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1805 

ienant-Goveraor opened the proceedings with the usual Speech from the Throne. 
In it he made no reference to either Education or Schools. 

Members who Took Part in School Legislation in 1805. 

Mr. Allan McLean was first elected to the Legislature of Upper Canada 
for the County of Frontenac, in 1804 ; again in 1809, 1813, 1817 and 1820. He 
was chosen Speaker of the House of Assembly after his electiou in 1813. 

Mr. Samuel Sherwood was elected member for the County of Grenville in 
1801 and 1805. In 1818, when the trials took place at York, of those concerned 
in the Red River trouble and murder of Governor Robert Semple on June 18th, 
1816, Mr. Samuel Sherwood was one of the counsel for the prisoners. 

Mr. Peter Howard was elected for the County ef Leeds in 1805, 1809 and 
1817. 

Mr. Ralph Clench was one of the members of the County of Lincoln and 
was elected in 1801, 1805 and 1813. He and his colleagues from the County of 
Lincoln (Messrs. Isaac Swayze and Robert Nelles) attended as pall-bearers, on 
behalf of the House of Assembly, the funeral of Mr. William Weekes, who was 
killed in a duel with the Hon. William Dickson, of Niagara, in 1806. While a 
member of the House Mr. Clench was taken prisoner by the Americans in the 
War of 1812-1815. 

Mr. Benajah Mallory represented the Counties of Norfolk, Oxford, and 
Middlesex and was elected in 1805 and 1809. Sir Gordon Drummond, President 
of Upper Canada in 1814, in his speech to the Legislature in that year, refers to 
him and Mr. Joseph Willcocks as follows : 

It has been more a subject of regret than surprise to have found two members of the 
Legislative Body in the ranlis of the enemy. 

Mrs. Edgar, in her Ten Years of Upper Canada . . . 1805-1815, thus 
explains this reference to these Members in the President's speech : 

The two members of the Legislature named in the last paragraph [of the speech] as traitors 
were Joseph Willcocks and Benj. Mallory, and American by birth and sympathy. These 
men raised what they were pleased to call a Canadian Regiment, which fought on the Yankee 
side, but it is certain that no native Canadians were within its ranks. (Page 267-268.) 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1805. 

The only two subjects'of an educational nature which were brought before 
the House of Assembly during this session of 1805, were in regard to the formation 
of a fund for Grammar Schools, and the purchase of philosophical apparatus ; 
— the former by Mr. Ebenezer Washburn and Mr. Peter Howard, and the latter 
by Mr. Allan McLean and Mr. Samuel Sherwood. Neither Bills were passed. 
The adoption of the report of the Committee on the School Fund Bill having been 
refused by the House, it failed to pass. The latter Bill was not pressed to a 
second reading by its promoters. 



Chap. XVI. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1805. 51 



On the 18th February, 1805, there was read for the first time a Bill for appropriating a 
certain sum of money for the purchase of a Philosophical Apparatus for the use of this Province 

Mr. Allan McLean then moved, seconded by Mr. Samuel Sherwood, that this Bill be read 
a second tinae on Wednesday next, which was ordered accordingly. 

19th Febriuiry, 1805. — Mr. Ebenezer Washburn, seconded by Mr. Peter Howard, moved 
for leave to bring in a Bill on Friday next to establish a fund for the support of one or more 
Public Schools in each and every District within the Province. Leave was accordingly given. 

SOth February, 1805. — Mr. Allan McLean moved, seconded by Mr. Washburn, that so much 
of the Order of the Day be discharged as relates to the second reading of the Bill entitled "An 
Act to Purchase Philosophical Aj^paratus," and that the same be read on Monday next. 
Ordered accordingly. 

S5th Fehriutry, 1805. — Read for the first time, a Bill for establishing schools in the different 
Districts in this Province. Mr. Ebenezer Washburn then moved, seconded by Mr. Ralph Clench, 
that the said Bill be read a second time to-morrow. Ordered accordingly. 

S6th Febrimry, 1805. — On motion of Mr. Ebenezer Washburn, seconded by Mr. Ralph 
Olench, the House resolved itself into Committee to go into the consideration of the Bill for 
establishing schools in the different Districts throughout this Province. 

The Honourable Alexander McDonell, Speaker, having left the Chair, Mr. Washburn was 
called to the chair of the Committee. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, and Mr. Washburn reported that the Committee 
had made a progress and directed him to ask leave to sit again to-morrow, leave was accordingly 
granted. 

27th February, 1805. — Mr. Washburn moved, seconded by Mr. Benajah Mallory, that the 
House do now resolve itself into Committee to go into the consideration of the Bill for estab- 
lishing schools in the different Districts. The House accordingly resolved itself into Committee 
to go into the further consideration of the said Bill. 

Mr. Speaker having left the Chair, Mr. W. B. Wilkinson was called to the chair of the Com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Wilkinson reported that the Committee had 
made some progress in the Bill, and desired him to ask for leave to sit again. On the question 
being put for leave to sit again, it passed in the negative. 

Thus the House of Assembly, by their vote, decided not to entertain the 
subject again that Session. 

The Bill also which provided for the purchase of philosophical apparatus was 
not again brought up during the Session by its promoters, Messrs. Allan McLean 
and Samuel Sherwood. 

There is no record of any educational proceedings on the part of the Legis- 
lative Council in its Journals of 1805. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE UPPER CANADA LEGIS- 
LATURE IN 1806. 

The second Session of the fourth Parliament of Upper Canada commenced 
on the 4th day of February, 1806. His Honour Alexander Grant, Esquire, Presi- 
dent and Administrator of the Government, delivered the usual Speech from the 
Throne on the occasion. He made no reference in it to either education or 
schools.* 



* On the death of His Excellency, Lieutenant-Governor Hunter, in September, 1805, the Honourable 
Alexander Grant as senior Legislative Councillor, became President of Upper Canada and Administrator 
of the Government. Mr. Grant was from the County of Essex. 



52 documentary history of education in upper canada. 1806 

Members Who Took Part in School Lkgislation in 1806. 

In addition to the members named in connection with the legislation of 
1805, the following may be mentioned : — 

Mr. William Weekes was elected Member for Simcoe, Durham and the 

Second Riding of York, in 1805, as successor of Mr. Angus McDonell, Sheriff of 

York, and one of his opponents at the election of 1804, who was drowned on his 

way to attend a trial at Presqu Isle, in October, 1805, The Lieutenant-Governor 

(Hunter) had required Mr. Justice Cochran, Solicitor-General Gray, Mr. A. 

McDonell (the Sheriff), Mr. Fisher (High Bailiff), and others, to proceed there in 

the Government schooner Speedy, to hold the trial. The schooner foundered on 

its way down the lake, and all on board (29) perished. Mr. Weekes escaped, 

having gone to Presqu Isle on horseback. In the following year (1806) Mr. 

Weekes unfortunately lost his life in a duel fought with the Honourable William 

Dickson, of Niagara, near Fort Niagara, on the United States side of the river, 

on the 10th of October, 1806. Dr. Scadding says of him : — 

His death was greatly regretted by his constituents. The Upper Canada Gazette and 
American Urade, a local newspaper, spoke of him as follows : — " In him the orphan has lost a 
father, the widow a friend, the in j ured a protector, society a pleasing and safe companion and 
the Bar one of its ablest advocates." (Rev. Dr. Scadding's Toronto of Old, pages 254-5.) 

Captain David Cowan was elected to represent the County of Essex in 
1805. 

Mr. David McGrkgor Rogers was one of the oldest members of the House 
of Assembly. He was first elected in 1796, for the County of Prince Edward, 
during his absence, and again in 1801, for the same county, and in 1805, 1809, 
1813 and 1820, for the Counties of Northumberland and Hastings. In 1816 he 
declined election, as his war claims on the Government were then unsettled. In 
Mrs. Edgar's Ten Years of Upper Canada, 1805-1815, he is thus spoken of : — 

Mr. D. Mc^xregor Rogers . . . was on the people's side, as opposed to the Govern- 
ment ; but being more moderate in expressing his views, he did not get into such trouble as 
his friends. Judge Thorpe and Joseph Willcocks. (Page 32.) 

Mr. Robert Nelles was elected as joint representative of the Counties of 
York, Lincoln and Haldimand, in 1801, 1805 and 1813. In 1817 he represented 
the First Riding of Lincoln. He was one of the Parliamentary pall bearers at 
the funeral of Mr. Weekes. 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1806. 

Mr. William Weekes, at an early period of the Session, moved the House 
into a Committee of the Whole on the state of the Province, with a view to bring 
the subject of education before the Assembly. The proceedings are as follows : — 

On 12th of February, 1806, the House resolved itself into Committee to go into the further 
consideration of the state of the Province. Among other resolutions proposed by Mr. Weekes 
was the following : — 

Resolved, that it is the opinion of this Committee that seminaries for ihe education of 
youth are highly necessary in this Province. The resolutions were adopted. 



Ohap. XVr. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1806. 53 



18th Februarif, 180G.—M.V. Samuel Sherwood moved, seconded by Capt. David Cowan, 
for leave to bring in a Bill to approfiriate a sum of money for the purchase of certain apparatus 
for the promotion of science. Leave was accordingly granted. 

19th February, 2506.— Read for the first time, a Bill to appropriate a certain sum of money 
for the purchase of an apparatus to promote science. Mr. Samuel Sherwood then moved, 
seconded by Capt. Mathew Elliott, for the second reading of the Bill for tho purchase of 
apparatus for promoting science on Friday next. Ordered accordingly. 

21st February, i506.— Agreeable to the Order of the Day, was read for the second time a Bill 
to appropriate a certain sum for the purchase of apparatus to promote science. Mr. Sherwood 
moved, seconded by Captain Cowan, that the House do now resolve itself into Comm ttee to 
take the said Bill into consideration. 

The House accordingly'resolved itself into Committee to go into consideration of the said 
Bill. 

The Hon. Alexander McDonell, Speaker, having left the Chair, Mr. Clench was called to 
the chair of the Committee. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, and Mr. Ralph Clench reported that the Commit- 
tee had gone through the consideration of the said Bill, to which they had nude some amend- 
ments, which he was directed to report to the House whenever it shall be pleased to receive the 
«ame. The House then resolved that the said Report be now received and accepted. On 
motion of Mr. Clench seconded by Capt. Cowan, it was Ordered, That the said Bill be engrossed 
^nd read a third time to-morrow. 

22nd February, 1806. —There was read for the third time the engrossed Act for the piir" 
•chase of apparatus for promoting Science. 

Mr. Sherwood then moved, seconded by Mr. Clench, that the Bill do pass and that the title 
be " An Act to Purchase certain Apparatus for promoting Science." A division thereupon took 
place ; the namei being called for, they were taken down, and are as follows : 

Yeas. — The Solicitor-General and Messieurs Allan McLean, David Cowan, William Weekes, 
Mathew Elliott, Ebenezer Washburn, John Crysler, and Ralph Clench. 

Nays. — Messieurs Peter Howard, David McG. Rogers, Solomon Hill, Thomas Dorland, 
and Robert Nelles. 

Carried in the aflBrmative by a m<<.jority of three ; the Bill then passed and was signed by 
Mr. Speaker. 

Mr. Ebenezer Washburn moved, seconded by Mr. John Crysler, that Mr. Ralpk Clench 
and Captain David Cowan be a Committee to carry up to the Legislative Council the said Bill, 
and to request their concurrence thereto. Ordered accordingly. 

24th February, 1806. — Mr. David McG. Rogers moved, seconded by Mr. Robert Nelles, 
that the Order of the House which gives Mr. William Weekes leave to bring in a Bill, on 
to-morrow, to provide for Schools in this Province, be discharged, and that leave be given to 
him to bring the said Bill this day. Ordered accordingly. 

And the said Bill was read by the Clerk at the Table for the first time. 

Mr. Rogers then moved, seconded by Mr. Nelles, that the Bill to provide for Schools in 
this Province be read a second time to-morrow. It was accordingly ordered. 

25th February, 1806. — Read for the second time the Bill for providing Public Schools in the 
■different Districts in this Province. On motion of Mr. Weekes, seconded by Mr. Sherwood, 
the House resolved itself into Committee to go into consideration of the said Bill. 

Mr. Speaker having left the Chair, and Mr. McLean was called to the chair of the Com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. McLean reported that the Committee had made 
a progress, and that he was directed to ask leave for it to sit again to-morrow. Leave was 
accordingly granted. 

26th February, 1806. — Agreeable to the Order of the Day, the House resolved itself into 
Committee to go into the consideration of the Bill for establishing Schools in the different Dis- 
tricts of thi» Province. 

Mr. Speaker having left the Chair, Mr. McLean was called to the chair of the Committee. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, and Mr. McLean reported that the Committee had 
made a progress and directed him to ask for leave to sit again to-morrow. Leave was accord- 
ingly granted. 

27th February, 1806. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the House "resolved itself into a 
Oommittee of the Whole to go into the consideration of the Bill for establishing Public Schools 
in the different Districts in this Province. 

Mr. Speaker having left the Chair, Mr. McLean was called to the chair of the Committee. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. McLean reported progress and asked for leave 
to sit again this day. Leave was accordingly granted. 



54' DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPi-ER CANADA. 180& 



The House again resolved itself into a Committee of the Whole to go into the further con- 
sideration of the Bill for establishing Public Schools in the different Districts in this Province. 

Mr. Speaker having left the Chair, Mr. McLean again took the chair of the Committee. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. McLean reported that the Committee had gone 
through the consideration of the said Bill, to which they had made several amendments, whick 
he was directed to report to the House, whenever it shall be pleased to receive the same. Mr. 
Clench then moved, seconded by Captain Elliott, that the Report be not received. A division 
thereupon took place, the names being called for, they were taken duwn, and are as follows : 

Yeas — Messieurs Clench and Elliott. — 2. 

Nays. — The Solicitor-General and Messieurs Nelles, CoAvan, Sherwood, Mallory, Weekes, 
Rogers, Dorland, Washburn, Hill, Howard and McLean. — 12. 

The same was carried in the negative by a majority of ten. The Report was then received 
and accepted. 

Mr. Weekes then moved, seconded by Mr. Howard, that the said Bill be engroaaed and 
read a third time tomorrow. Which was ordered accordingly. 

Mr. Sherwood moved, sec >nded by the Solicitor-General, for leave to bring in a Bill, this 
day, to Procure certain Apparatus for Promoting Science. Leave was accordingly granted. The 
said Bill was then read for the first time. On motion of Mr. Clench, seconded by Mr. Rogers, 
the said Bill was read for the second time. On motion of Mr. Sherwood, seconded by the 
Soli. itor- General, the House resolved itself into Committee to go into the consideration of the 
said Bill. 

Mr. Speaker having left the Chair, Mr. Mallory was called to the chair of the Committee. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Mallory reported that the Committee had gone 
through the consideration of the said Bill without any atuendmen^. On motion of Mr. Clench, 
seconded hy Captain Cowan, the said Bill was ordered to be engrossed and read a third time this 
day. The said Bill, as engrossed, was then read for the third time. Mr Sherwood then 
moved, seconded by the Solicitor-General, that the said Bill do pass, and that the title be, "An 
Act to Procure certain Apparatus for the Promotion of Science." The Bill then passed, and 
was signed by the Speaker. 

Mr. Rogers then moved, seconded by Mr. Mallory, that Mr. Sherwood and Captain Cowan 
do carry up to the Honourable Legislative Council the Bill for purchasing certain apparatus for 
promoting science, and to request their concurrence in passing the same. 

28th February, 1806. — Read for the third time as engrossed, the Bill for establishing Schools 
in the different Districts throughout this Province. Mr. Washburn then moved, seconded by Mr. 
Clench, that the said Bill be now recommitted, which passed in the negative. Mr. Weekes 
moved, seconded by Mr. Sherwood, that the Bill do pass, and that the title be "An Act for the 
more General Dissemination of Learning throughout the Province." The Bill then passed^ 
and was signed by the Speaker. 

A Message was received from the Legislative Council, by Mr. W. W. Baldwin, Master-in- 
Chancery, was read as ioUows : — 

Mr. Speaker : 

The Honourable the Legislative Council have passed, without any amendments, the Bill 
entitled "An Act to Procure certain Apparatus for the Promotion of Science," sent up from 
Your Honourable House. 

RICHARD CART WRIGHT, 
Legislative Council Chamber, Speaker. 

February 26th, 180(>. 

Then Mr. Sherwood, one of the Messengers named to carry up to the Honourable the Legis- 
lative Council the Bill entitled "An Act for the more General Disseminati-n of Learning 
throughout the Province,'' reported that they had carried up the said Bill to the Council, and 
did request their concurrence thereto. 

2. Proceedings of the Legislative Council on this Bill. 

February S2nd, 1806. — A deputation from the House of Assembly brought up to this House 
for its concurrence, a Bill intituled "An Act to Procure certain Apparatus for the Promotion 
of Science ; " *which Bill, having been read to the House for the first time, on motion, made and 
seconded, was ordered to be read a second time on Monday next. 

February 2J!ftli, 1806.— The Order of the Day being read, the Bill intituled "An Act to. 
Procure certain Apparatus," etc., was read the second time. The Hon. John McGill moved,, 



Chap. XVI. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1806. 55 



seconded by the Hon. ^Eneas Shaw, that the House do now resolve itself into a Committee of the 
Whole, to take the said Bill into consideration. Thereupon it was ordered accordingly. The 
House went into Committee, the Hon. Mr. Hamilton in the chair. After consideration of the 
Bill, the Speaker resumed the Chair. The Chairman of Committee reported that some progress 
had been made in the consideration of the Bill, and requested leave to sit again to-morrow. 
Thereupon it was ordered accordingly. 

Febriuiry 25th, 1806. — The Bill intituled "An Act to Procure certain Apparatus," etc., 
having been ordered for farther commitment this day, the House went into Committee there- 
upon, Hon. ^neas Shaw in the chair. The Speaker having resumed the Chair, the Chairman 
of Committee reported that the Committee had gone into the further consideration of the Bill,, 
to which they had made some amendments, which report was accepted. On motion, made and 
seconded, it was ordered that the said amendments be engrossed and read again to-morrow. 

February S6th, 1806. — The amendments to the Bill intituled "An Act to Procure certain 
Apparatus," etc., having been read, were approved of, and on motion, made and seconded, 
were adopted. The question being then put, that this Bill do now pass, as amended, it was 
resolved in the affirmative. And having thus passed, and been signed by the Speaker, it was 
taken by the Master-in-Chancery, Mr. W. W. Baldwin, to the House of Assembly. 

February 27ih, 1806. — A deputation from the House of Assembly brought up for the con- 
currence of this House a Bill intituled "An Act to Procure certain Apparatus," etc., which 
Bill was read a first time, and ordered to be read a second time to-morrow. 

February 2Sth, 1806. — The Order d the Day having been read, the [apparatus] Bill was 
read a second time, and considered in Committee. The Speaker having ret-umed the Chair, th©- 
Chairman reported that the Bill which had been before the Committee was literally what had 
passed the House on the 26th instant, with the title amended by this House, as it now appears, 
and which amendment had been adopted by the House of Assembly ; which report was accepted. 
And this Bill, being no further a new Bill than merely the change of title, passed through all 
the different stages pro forma only, and was returnert, as approved of, to the House of Assembly. 

Another deputation from the House of Assembly brought up, for the concurrence of thia 
House, a Bill intituled "An Act for the more General Dissemination of Learning throughout 
this Province." It was read a first time. 

March 1st, 1806. — The Bill intituled, "An Act for the more General Dissemination of 
Learning," etc., having been read the second time, on motion, made and seconded, it was 
ordered that the House do now resolve itself into a Committee of the Whole House to go into 
the consideration thereof. The House went into Committee, Hon. Mr. McGill in the chair. 
The Speaker having resumed the Chair, the Chairman reported progress, and requested leave to 
sit again on Monday next. And leave was granted. But on 

Monday, 3rd March, 1806, His Honour the President came into the Council 
Chamber and having had the Members of the House of Assembly summoned by 
Black Rod, assented in the King's name to several Bills, am.ongst which was 
the "Act to Procure Certain Apparatus for the Promotion of Science," but not that 
for the more General Dissemination of Learning throughout the Province, as it 
had failed to pass the Legislative Council. 

After closing the Session with a Speech from the Throne, His Honour Presi- 
dent Grant prorogued the Legislature. In his speech he said : — 

The encouragement which you have given for the procuring of the means necessary for com- 
municating of useful and ornamental knowledge to the rising generation meets with my appro- 
bation, and I have no doubt will produce the most salutary effects. 

As to the result of this effort to communicate " useful and ornamental know- 
ledge to the rising generation," the Rev. Dr. Scadding, in his Toronto of Old, 
sarys : — 

The Parliament that sat during President Grant's brief administration appropriated [£400]' 
to the purchase of instruments for illustrating the principles of natural philosophy, "to be 
deposited in the hands of a person employed in the education of youth ; " from the debris of 
which collection, preserved in a mutilated condition in one of the rooms of the Home District 
School building, we ourselves, like others, probably, of our contemporaries, obtained our very- 
earliest inkling of the existence and significance of scientific apparatus. (Page 351.) 



56 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1807 



The following is a copy of this Act : — 

46 George III., chapter III. 

An Act to Procure Certain Apparatus for the Pfomotion of Science. 

The Honourable Alexander Grant, Esquire, President. Passed 3rd March, 1806. 

Section 1. £400 appropriated for the purchase of instruments for illustrating the principles 
■of natural philosophy, etc. (Temporary.) 

2, And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid : That the Governor, Such instru- 
Lieutenant Governor, or persons administerins; the government of this I'rovince, is ments to b*? 
hereby authorized and empowered to deposit the said instruments (under such ^u^vf'*^ ^^ 
<3onditions as he shall deem proper and expedient) in the hands of some persons person em- 
employed in the education of youth in this Province, in order that they may be as ployed in the 
useful as the state of the Province will permit. education of 

youth. 

3. Receiver-General to account for the said sum of £400, etc. (Temporary) Grant. 

Members of the Legislative Council who Took Part in the Educational 

LEGISLATION of 1806. 

The Hon. John McGill was with Lieutenant-Colonel Simcoe during the 
American Revolutionary War. Rev. Dr. Scadding says of him : — Captain McGill 
and his Commander were taken prisoners in 1779. They formed a plan of escape, 
but it was frustrated by the breaking of a key. He became Quartermaster of 
C!avalry, and afterwards had charge of the army stores at Queenston. Sub- 
sequently he became Receiver-General, and also Auditor-General of Land Patents. 
He was made a member of the Legislative Council in 1798. Simcoe's testi- 
mony of Mr. McGill was: — "No man ever executed the office of Quartermaster 
"with greater integrity, courage and conduct." He died in 1834, aged 83. 

The Hon. .(Eneas Shaw, as stated by Governor Simcoe, in a letter to Sir 
George Yonge, Secretary at .War, dated 17th of January, 1792, " success- 
fully marched with his division of the Queen's Rangers all the way from New^ 
Brunswick to Montreal in the depth of winter on snow shoes."* Rev. Dr. Scad- 
ding, in his Toronto of Old, thus speaks of him : — 

Captain iEneas Shaw was . . . well known in Upper Canada as Major-General Shaw. 
Like so many of the early men of note, he was a Scotchman . . . Possessed of great vigour 
and decision, his adopted country avaded itself of his services in a civil, as well as a military 
capacity, making him a member of the Legislative and Executive Councils, (page 358). 

The Hon. Robert Hamilton was appointed a Member of the Legislative 
Council in 1792. He resided at Queenston. 

* This same feat was accomplished by the British troops which came overland through New Bruns- 
wick at the time of the famous " Trent Affair " in I8G1. The hardships encountered ia that long and 
arduous march, although severe, were much less so than those endured in the early part of the century, 
^vhen Captain Shaw and hia division performed the same march in 1791-92, 



C!hap. XVII. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1807. 57 

CHAPTER XVII. 

EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE LEGISLATURE OF UPPER 

CANADA IN 1807. 

The third Session of the fourth Parliament of Upper Canada was opened by 
His Excellency, Francis Gore, Esquire, Lieutenant-Governor, on the second day 
of February, 1807. No reference to education or schools was made in the Speech 
from the Throne. But the Session was, nevertheless, one of the most memorable 
in the history of the legislation of those times. During that Session, the Legis- 
lature laid down the principle for the first time, that it was the duty of the 
country to provide for the elementary education of its youth. It not only did 
so, but it recognized that duty, and gave proof of such recognition, by passing, 
with comparative unanimity, an Act for the establishment of a Public School — 
adopting the English nomenclature of such schools — in each of the eight Districts 
into which Upper Canada was then divided. 

It is true that in passing this Act the Legislature committed itself to an 
educational anachronism; for, by it, the Legislature established High, or Grammar, 
Schools in each District, but made no provision whatever for the elementary 
feeders of these higher institutions, such as Primary Schools would have been 
This want was not supplied for several years, nor until 1816, when a systematic 
effort was made to temporarily provide for the support of Common Schools to the 
extent of $24,000 per annum — but which support was reduced in 1820, at the 
expiration of the tentative Act of 1816, to $10,000 per annum. 

As an evidence of the conservative character of the school legislation of those 
days, it may be remarked that this first Grammar School Act of 1807, although 
frequently sought to be repealed, remained in force, with some additions and 
amendments, until 1853, when it was superseded by a more comprehensive 
measure, prepared by Rev. Dr. Ryerson in that year. 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1807. 

On the 9th of February, 1807, Mr. Ebenezer Washburn, seconded by Mr. Bonajah Mallory, 
moved for leave to bring in a Bill on Wednesday next to provide a fund for the support of one 
Public School in ^ach and every District within this Province. Leave was accordingly given. 

11th Febriutry, 1807. — Mr. Ebenezer Washburn then moved that so much of the Order of 
the Day as relates to his bringing in a Bill this day to provide a fund for the support of District 
Schools in this Province be discharged, and that he have leave to bring in the same to-morrow. 
Ordered accordingly. 

IMh February, 1807. — Read for the first time the District School Bill introduced by Mr. 
Washburn. He then moved, seconded by Mr. D. M. Rogers, that the Public (Grammar) School 
Bill be read a second time to-morrow. Ordered accordingly. 

13th February, 1807. — Read for the second time, the Bill for establishing Public (Grammar) 
Schools throughout this Province. Mr. Washburn moved, seconded by Mr. Thomjvs Dorland, 
that the House do now resolve itself into a Co.nmittee of the Whole, to take into consideration 
the Public (Grammar) School Bill. The House accordingly resolved itself into Committee. 

Mr. Speaker having left the Chair, Mr. Benajah Mallory was called^tojthe Chair of the Com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Mallory reported that the Committee had 
made a progress, and that he was directed to ask for leave to sit again on Monday next. 
Ordered that the Committee have leave to sit again on Monday. 



58 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1807 



16th Febmary, 1807. — Agreeable to the Order, of the Day, the House resolved itself into 
Committee, to go into the further consideration of the Bill for establishing Public (Grammar) 
Schools throughout this Province. Mr. Speaker having left the Chair, Mr. John Crysler was- 
called to the chair of the Committee. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Crysler reported that the Committee had 
made a progress, and had directed him to ask for leave to sit again. Leave was accordingly given. 

19th, February, 1807. — Mr. Washburn moved, seconded by Mr. Dorland, that the House do 
now resolve itself into Committee to take into consideration the Public (Grammar) School Bill. 
The House accordingly resolved itself into Committee. 

Mr. Speaker having left the Chair, Mr. Crysler was called to the chair of the Committee. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Crysler reported that the Committee had made a 
progress, and that he was directed to ask for leave to sit again to-morrow. Leave was given 
accordingly. 

20th FebrvAiry, 1807. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the House resolved itself into 
a Committee to go into the further consideration of the Bill for establishing Public (Grammar) 
Schools in the several Districts throughout this Province. 

Mr. Speaker having left the Chair, Mr. Crysler was called to the chair of the Committee. 

A- r. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Crysler reported that the Committee had made a 
progress, and had directed him to ask for leave to sit again on Monday next. Leave was- 
accordingly granted. 

25th February, 1807. — The House then resolved itself into a Committee on the Public (Gram- 
mar) School Bill. Mr. Speaker having left the Chair, Mr. Crysler was called to the chair of the 
Committee. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Crysler reported that the Committee had 
gone through the consideration of the said Bill, to which they had made several amendments, 
which he was directed to report whenever the House should be pleased to receive the same. 
The report was then received and accepted. Mr. Washburn then moved, seconded by Mr. 
Crysler, that the Public School Bill be engrossed and read a third time on Friday next,^ 
Ordered accordingly. 

28th February, 1807. — Read for the third time, as engrossed, the Bill for establishing a 
Public (Grammar) School in each district in this Province. Mr. Justice Thorpe moved, seconded 
by Mr. Peter Howard, that the Public District School Bill be re-committed on Monday next. 
Ordered accordingly. 

2nd March, 1807. — Then was read for the third time, as engrossed, the Bill for establishing 
District Schools in this Province. Mr. Allan McLean moved, seconded by Mr. Sherwood, that th& 
Bill do pass, and that the title be " An Act to Establish Public Schools in each and every District 
of this Province." The Speaker then put the question — ^ hall the Bill pass? A division took 
place ; the names being called for, they were taken down, and are as follows : — 

Yeas. — The Solicitor-General and Messieurs Sherwood, Elliott, Cowan, McGregor, McLean^ 
Clench, Swayze, Nelles, Washburn, Mallory — 11. 

Nays. — Messieurs Crysler, Hill, Rogers and Mr. Justice Thorpe — 4, 

Carried in the affirmative by a majority of seven. The Bill then passed, and was signe 1 by 
the Speaker. 

Mr. McLean then moved, seconded by Captain Elliott, that Messieurs Ebenezer Washburn 
and Isaac Swayze be a Committee to carry the Public School Bill up to the Legislative Council 
and request their concurrence thereto, which was ordered accordingly. 

5th March, 1807. — A Message from the Legislative Council was brought down by Mr. 
W. W. Baldwin, Master-in-Chancerj' : — 

Mr. Speaker : 

I am commanded by the Legislative Council to inform Your Honourable House that they 
have passed a Bill entitled "An Act to Establish Public Schools in each and every District 
of this Province," without any amendment. 

THOMAS SCOTr, 
Legislative Council Chamber, Speaker. 

5th March, 1807. 

Members of the House of Assembly who Took Part in the School 

Legislation of 1807. 

Messieurs Ebenezer Washburn, Benajah Mallory, David M. Rogers, Thomas 
Dorland, Samuel Sherwood, Allan McLean, and the following : — 

Mr. Thomas Dorland was elected to represent the Counties of Lennox and 
Addington in 1805 and 1809, and Mr, John Crysler was elected to represent 
the County of Dundas in 1805, 1813, 1817 and 1825. 



Chap. XVII. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1807. 59 



The Hon. Mr. Justice (R.) Thorpe was elected in 1806 for the Second Riding 

of York, Simcoe and Durham, to succeed Mr. William Weekes, who lost his life 

. in a duel with Hon. William Dickson, of Niagara. At that time judges could sit in 

either House of the Legislature of Upper Canada. Mrs. Edgar, in her Ten Years 

of Ufper Canada., 1805—1815, thus speaks of him : — 

By becoming a champion of the public he, ( ^udge Thorpe), fell under the displeasure of 
Lieutenant-Governor Gore and the Government party. . . . The complaints of the people 
found expression in memorials from the grand juries to Judge Thorpe, . . . to be by him 
laid before the Governor. . . . With his elect on came the dawn of party politics in Upper 
Canada, and an organized Opposition. . . . Soon after his election the Governor procured 
his recall to Great Britain, where he sued Mr. Gore for libel and obtained a verdict. . . . 
He, however, never returned to Canada. . . . As a sort of recompense for his unjust recall, 
he was appointed Chief Justice of «ierra Leone. In that unhealthy climate his health broke 
down, and he returned to England, bearing with him a petition from the people to the Ministry 
for the redress of certain grievances in that colony. For this second championship of the 
oppressed, his appointment of Chief Justice was cancelled, and he was left to pass the remainder 
of his days in poverty and obscurity. (Pages 20, 9.\.) 

Mr. McMullen, in his History of Canada (181)1), points out that Judge 
Thorpe's " difficulties mainly had their origin in his own imprudence, . . . and 
had he not placed himself in a false position, as a Judge, by becoming a Member 
of the House of Assembly — a political body ? " (Vol. 1, page 318.) 
2. Proceedings of the Legislative Council on the District School Bill. 

3rd March, 1807. — A deputation from the House of Assembly having been announced, the 
Speaker resumed the Chair. The deputation being admitted, brought up for the concurrence of 
this House a Bill intituled "An Act to Establish Public Schools in each and every District of 
this Province." The Bill was read a first time, and ordered to be read a second time to-morrow. 

Jfth March, 1807. — The Order of the Day being read, on motion of the Hon. Richard Cart- 
wright, ordered that so much as relates to the second reading of the Bill intituled " An Act for 
Establishing District Schools," etc., be discharged, and that the House do now resolve itself into 
a Committee to . take into further consideration the Bill relating to [rates and assessments, as 
well as] the District (Grammar) School Bill. The motion was carried. 

The Speaker having resumed the Chair, the Hon. John McGill, chairman of the Committee, 
reported that the Committee had taken into consideration the Bill intituled "An Act for Estab- 
lishing Public (Grammar) Schools," etc., and had agreed thereto without any amendment. Ord- 
ered that the said report be accepted, and that the said Bill be read a third time on to-mon-ow. 

5th March, 1807.— The Order of the Day being read, the Bill intituled "An Act for Esttib- 
lishing Public Schools," etc., was read a third time. And the question bemg put, if the said 
Bill do now pass, it was resolved in the affirmative. And the Speaker having signed the same 
it was, by Mr. VV. W. Baldwin, the Master-in-Chancery, carried down and returned to the 
House of Assembly. 

10th o/ March, 1807. — The House being formed at twelve o'clock. His 

Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor, Francis Gore, Esquire, had the Members of 

the House of Assembly summoned, and then gave assent in the King's name 

among other Bills, to the one intituled " An Act, to establish Public Schools in 

each and every District in this Province." In his Speech, on proroguing the 

Legislature, Lieutenant-Governor Gore, said : — 

I have , with particular approbation assented, in His Majesty's name, to the Act whereb 
Public Schools will now be established in the different Districts of this Province, fully sensible, 
as I am, of the importance of such institutions to the education and morals of the rising gener- 
ation in this infant colony. In the prosecution of this laudable object, you may rely upon my 
attention and care.* 

* Lieutenant-Governor Gore arrived in Upper Canada in 1806. He was rather arbitrary in his pro- 
ceedings towards the House of Assembly, especially when it proposed, in 1817, to eiK)uire into " the state 
of the Province," as the result of a political agitation then rife. He summarily dismissed the Legislature 
on the 7th April, 18L7, became a majority of the House of Assembly had decided to proceed with the 
enquiry. He obtained leave of absence in 1811, and did not return to Upper Canada until 1815, but only 
remained until the summer of 1817. The old Gore District was named after hiui, and he named Belleville 
after his wife An'abella, or "Bell." 



60 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA 1807 



The following is a copy of this Act, as assented by His Excellency Francis 
Gore, Esquire, Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada : — 

47th George III, Chapter VI. 

An Act to Establish Public Schools ik each axd every District of this Province. 

Francis Gore, Esquire, Lieutenant-Governor. Passed 10th March, 1807. 

Most Gracious Sovereign : — 

Whereas it is considered expedient that some means be devised for the educa- Preamble, 
tion of youth, may it therefore please Your Majesty, that it be enacted ; and it is (See 48 Geo. 
hereby enacted by the King's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and ^^I' jj,' 
consent of the Legislative Council and Assembly of the Province of Upper Canada, g^^^ 2 Ch *4 • 
constituted and assembled by virtue of and under the authority of an Act passed 2 Vic. Ch. 10.) 
in the Parliament of Great Britain, intituled, " An Act to repeal certain parts of an 
Act passed in the fourteenth year of His Majesty's reign, intituled, * An Act for 
making more effectual provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec, in 
North America,' and to make further provision for the Government of the said o^^^°u2 
Province," and by the authoiity of the same, that for the establishment of Public annually paid 
Schools in this Province, the sum of eight hundred pounds shall be annually paid, fortheeatab- 
in manner hereinafter mentioned, out of any monies, which are now raised or levied, lisbment of 
or which hereafter may be raised or levied, by authority of Parliament, to or for Public 
the uses of this Province. Schools. 

2. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that there shall be one One Public 
Public School in each and every District of this Province, and that out of the said School in evei^ 
sum of eight hundred pounds, annually so approjjriated as aforesaid, the annual District. ~ 100 
sum of one hundred pounds shall be paid to each and every Teacher, who shall be nuallvtoevery 
nominated and appointed to any of the said Public Schools in this Province, for the teacher of 
education of youth, in manner hereinafter mentioned. such Public 

3. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that the Public School ^ ° 59 q^q 
for the Western District shall be opened and kept in the Town of Sandwich, and jjj gess. 2. 
the Public School for the District of London shall be opened andkept in the Town- ch.4, Sec. 11.) 
ship of TowTishend, at such place as the Trustees, or the majority of them, shall pieces where 
think proper to appoint, and that the Public School for the District of Niagara ^^le said Pub- 
shall be opened and kept in the Town of Niagara, and that the I'ublic School for ijc Schools are 
the Home District shall be opened and kept in the Town of York, and that the to b« kept in 
Public School for the District of Newcastle shall be opened and kept in the Town- each respec- 
ship '^)f Hamilton, at such place as the Trustees, or the majority of them, shall **^® JJistric . 
think proper to appoint, and that the Public School for the Midland District (See 48 Geo. 
shall be opened and kept in the Town of Kingston, and that the Public School for ^^ ^: ^ ' 
District ©f J ohnstown, shall be opened and kept in the Township of Augusta, at \. p 
such place as the Trustees, or the majority of them, shall think proper to appoint, Vy^^s? ?' 
and that the Public School for the Eastern District shall be opened and kept i'^ ch 4 ) ' 
the Town of Cornwall. 

4. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that it shall and may TheGovernor 
be lawful for the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or person administering the Lieutenant- 
Government of this Province, to appoint from time to time, not less than five fit Governor, or 
and discreet persons in each and every District of this Province , Trustees to the Pl^f^ng t^e 
said Public Schools, which said Trustees, or the majority of them, shall have full Government, 
power and authority to nominate a fit and discreet person as Teacher thereof, and to appoint 
to examine into the moral character, learning and capacity of such person so nomi- Trustees in 
nated, and being satisfied with the moral character, learnmg and capacity of such every District 
person, it shall and may be lawful for the said Trustees, or the majority of them, L°\,''Q|g 
to report such, their nomination, to the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or person 
administering the Government of this Province, either to affirm or disaffirm such Irustees o ^^ 
nomination as aforesaid ; provided always, that the said Trustees, or the majority pg^gon as 
of them, shall have full power and authority, in their discretion, to remove such Teacher, and 
Teacher from his Public School for any misdemeanor or impropriety of conduct, to report their 
and that it shall and ma" be lawful for the said Trustees, or the majority of them, nomination to 
in each and every District of this Province, in case of the demise, dismissal or t""® ^^^'^'^av 
removal of any 1'eacher of the said Public Schools, to nominate and appoint, as gj^ijgj. affirm 
often as the case may require, one other fit and discreet person, as a Teacher to the q^ reject such 
said Public School, which Trustees, or the majority of them, previous to such nomi- nomination. 



Chap. XVII. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1S07. 



61 



nation and appointment as aforesaid, shall examine into the moral character, learn- Trustees may 
ing and capacity of such teacher, and being satisfied therewith, such appointment remove any 
shall be immediately transmitted to the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or person Teacher and 
administering the Government of this Province, either to approve or disapprove of °tk^*°**®j*°' 
the same. portLt^io^'- 

5. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that the Trustees said, 
appointed under and by virtue of this Act, in each and every District of this Governor, 
Province, or the majority of them, shall have full power and authority to make etc., may 
such rules and regulations for the good government and management of the said **^^?''*PP''°^® 
Public Schools, with respect to the Teacher, for the time being, and to the Scholars, ^ guch^last^^ 
as in their discretion shall seem meet. mentioned 

6. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that it shall and may nomination, 
be lawful for the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or person administering the Trustees auth- 
Govemment of this Province, from time to time, to issue his warrant to the orized to make 
Receiver-General of this Province, for the payment of such yearly salary or salaries, rules and 
half-yearly, as shall or may from time to time be due to any Teacher or Teachers regulations 
appointed under this Act, upon such Teacher or Teachers producing a certificate '^^^F^o'j"^, 
signed by the Trustees, or the majority of them, of the District in which he shall **' ' cnools. 
have so taught or educated youth, of his having faithfully demeaned himself in his Mcde of pay- 
oflice as a Teacher as aforesaid, for and during such time as he shall so require pay- ment of the 
ment for his service. salaries of the 

7. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that this Act shall con- Continuance ' 
tinue in force for four years from the date of its passing and until the end of the ^f ^jjjg ^^^ 
next ensuing session of the Parliament of this Province. Repealed by 48th Geo. 

IlL Chap. XVI. 

In order to give effect to the provisions of this Act, the Lieutenant-Governor 
appointed the following gentlemen to be the first Trustees of the Public (Grammar) 
Schools in their respective Districts, viz.: — 



1. Eastern District. 

Samuel Sherwood, 

Niel McLean, 

Samuel Anderson, 

Joseph Anderson, 

John Crysler, I 

Alexander McMillan, J 

2. District of Joh'tistowii. 

Thomas Sherwood, 
Ephraim Jones, 
Solomon Jones, 
James Campbell, 
Elijah Bottom, 

3. Midland District. 

Hon. Richard Cartwright, 

Rev. Dr. Stuart, 

Allan McLean, 

Joseph Forsyth, 

Thomas Markland, 

Peter Smith, 

Alexander Fisher, \ A pp'ted 

Philip Dorland, J 2nd May. ^ 

4. District of Newcastle. 

Asa Burnham, 
Leonard Sooper, 
Elias Smith, Senior, 
Elias Jones, 
John Peters, 
John Bleeker, 



t?d 






■JP 






OB 

>-l 

a 



5. Home District. 
Rev. G. O. Stuart, 
D'Arcy Boulton, 
John Small, 
Duncan Cameron, 
Samuel Smith, 
William Gi*aham, 
Thomas Ridout, 

6. District of Niagara. 

Hon. Robert Hamilton, 
Colonel Clark, 
William Dickson, 
Robert Kerr, 
Thomas Cummings, 
James Muirhead, 
John Symington, 

7. District of London. 
Thomas Talbot, 
Samuel Ryerse, 

Joseph Ryerson, 
William Hutchinson, 
Thomas Walsh, 
John Coltman, 
Daniel Springer, 

8. Western District. 
Hon. James Baby, 
Rev. R. Pollard, 
Matthew Elliott, 
Angus Mcintosh, 
John Askin, Senior, 
Gregor McGregor, 
Alexander Duff, 



H 









J . 






62 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1808 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE UPPER CANADA LEGIS- 
LATURE IN 1808. 

The fourth session of the fourth Parliament of Upper Canada was opened 
on the iiOth January, 1808, by His Excellency Francis Gore, Esquire, Lieutenant- 
Governor, in his Speech from the Throne he said : — 

Since the last Session of this Legislature the necessary means have been taken on my part 
and on that of the Trustees api^ointed by me, for the establishing of Public Schools, institutions 
which, I trust, will be the means not only of communicating useful knowledge to the youth of 
this Province, but also of instilling into their minds principles of Religion and Loyalty. 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1808. 

27th January, 1808. — Extract from the Address of the House of Assembly 
in reply to the Lieutenant-Governor's Speech : — 

We highly applaud the prompt and efficacious measures adopted by Your Excellency to 
carry into effect the provision of an Act passed in the last Session of Parliament for the estab- 
lishment of Public Schools, and we pleasingly anticipate from these institutions the most sub- 
stantial benefit to the rising generation in this Province. 

1st Fbhruary, 1808. — A Petition was read from the London District, praying for a division 
of the Public School grant, which was as follows : — 

To the Honourable the Member's of the House of Parliament of Upper Canada, now convened. 
The humble Petition of us, His Majesty's most loyal subjects : 

Most humbly sheweth, That in your wisdom, in your last session of Parliament, you were 
pleased to vote a certain sum of money for the use of a Public School in this District, said school 
to be under the direction of certain trustees appointed by His Majesty's Representative for that 

purpose. 

That your humble petitioners see with regret, from what has taken place, that your laudable 
intentions are frustrated, and the money — in our present situation — is totally lost to the public. 

That your petitioners having nominated a teacher, oq being paid double the sum for his 
labours as those we have had before, (of equal service to us), which measures have put it out of 
the power of the public to reap that advantage which was designed them. 

That your humble petitioners referring this to wise and better judgments hope your 
Honourable House will take this infant district into your consideration, and, if in your wisdom 
should think it expedient, the money appropriated to one school be divided into four equal parts, 
to four different schools. 

And yoar petitioners, as in duty bound, will ever pray. 

John Backhose, Silas Secord, Titus Finch, Abram Smith, James McColl, and sixty others. 

17th February, 1808. — A petition was read from the trustees, appointed by His Excellency 
the Lieutenant-Governpr, in the District of London, by virtue of an Act passed in the last 
session of the Legislature, intituled " An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every 
District of this Province," praying that the site of the London District School be changed from 
the Township of Townseud to the Village of Dover, which petition is as follows : 

To the Honourable the Commons, of Upper Canada, in Parliament assembled. 

The memorial of the Trustees appointed and acting under the District School' Bill for the 
District of London, most respectfully representeth, 

That soon after they received their appointment, they proceeded to discharge the trust 
reposed in them, by recommending to His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor, a person whom 
they considered properly qualified to fill the situation of District School Master, who, in conse- 
quence of such recommendation, was duly appointed. 

That the person so nominated, on receiving notice of his appointment, attended for the 
purpose of performing the duties attached to the situation, but neither school house nor scholars 
could be procured in Townsend, the place pointed out by the Statute. 

Your memorialists, therefore, trust that your Honourable House, taking into consideration 
the important object contemplated by the Statute, and the impossibility of carrying it into effect 
under existing circumstances, will deem it expedient to amend the Act, so that the school may 



■Chap. X. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1808. 63 



be opened and kept in the village of Dover, in the township of Woodhouse, where a school 
house would be built, as appears by the accompanying subscription lately set on foot, ^nd suffi- 
<5ient accommodation procured for those coming from distant parts of the district. 

And your memorialists, as in duty bound, will ever pray. 

Samuel Ryerse, John Cottman, Joseph Ryerson, Thomas Walsh, Trustees. 

Mr. Benajah Mallory then moved, seconded by Mr. Peter Howard, for leave to bring in a 
Bill, on Saturday next, to change the place of holding the public (grammar) school in the District 
of London. Leave was accordingly granted. 

19th February, 1808. — Mr. Joseph Willcocks moved, seconded by Mr. Mallory, for leave to 
bring in a Bill, on Thursday next, to amend an Act passed in the forty-seventh year of His 
Majesty's reign (1807), entitled " An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District 
in this Province." Leave was accordingly granted. 

20th February, 1808. — Mr. Mallory moved, seconded by Mr. Thomas Dorland, that so 
much of the Order of the Day as relates to the binnging a Bill respecting the Public School in 
the District of London be discharged, and that leave be given him to bring in the same on 
Tuesday next. Accordingly so much of the Order of the Day was discharged, and leave was 
given him to bring in the same on Tuesday next. 

26th February, 1808. — Mr. David McG. Rogers moved, seconded by Mr. Sherwood, that so 
much of the Order of the Day as relates to going into Committee on the District School 
Bill be discharged, and that the same be committed to-morrow. Accordingly the said Bill was 
discharged and ordered to stand as a part of the Order of the Day, to-morrow. 

27th Febriuiry. 1808. — Mr. Mallory moved, seconded by the Solicitor-General, that so 
much of the Order of the Day as relates to the London District School Bill be discharged and 
that he have leave to bring in the same on Monday next. The said Order was discharged and 
leave given to bring in the said Bill on Monday next. 

1st March, 1808. — Read for the first time the Bill for establishing a public (grammar) 
school in the District of London. 

Mr. Mallory then moved, seconded by Mr. Howard, that the London District School Bill 
be read a second time to-morrow. 

The Hon. Alexander McDonell, Speaker, having put the question, a division thereupon 
took place. The names being called for, they were taken down, as follows : 

Yeas — Messieurs. Mallory, Rogers and Howard. — 3. 

Nays — The Solicitor-General, and Messieurs Cowan, McLean, Sherwood, McGregor, 
Clench, Swayze, Nelles, Washburn and Crysler. — 10. 

The same was carried in the negative by a majority of seven. 

The Solicitor-General moved, seconded by Mr. Allan McLean, for leave to bring in a Bill, 
to-morrow, to alter and amend an Act passed in the last session of the Legislature (1807), for the 
establishment of Public Schools in each and every District of this Province. Leave was accord- 
ingly granted. 

3rd March 1808.— Read for the second time, the Bill for authorizing the Trustees of the 
Public school in the District of London, or the majority of them, to establish the said school in 
such part of the said District as they may deem proper for the same. 

The Solicitor-General moved, seconded by Captain Da\ud Cowan, that the House do now 
resolve itself into a Committee to go into the consideration of the London District School Bill. 
The House accordingly resolved itself into a Committee to go into the consideration of the said 
Bill. 

Mr. Speaker having lef c the Chair, Mr. Dorland was called to the chair of the Committee. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Dorland reported that the Committee had gone 
through the consideration of the said Bill, to which they had made several amendments, which 
he was directed to report to the House, whenever it shall be pleased to receive the same. 

(Note.— The chief amendment made in this Bill by the Committee was the 

incorporation in it of the London District (Grammar) School Bill, as part of the 

first and second sections.) 

On Mr. Speaker having put the question, shall the report be now received, a division 
thereupon took place. The names being called, they were taken down and are as follows : 

Yeas— The Solicitor-General, and Messieurs Cowan, Sherwood, McLean, McGrejor, Clench, 
Washburn and Crysler. — 8. 

Nays— Messieurs. Mallory, Howard Rogers and Dorland. — 4. 

The same was carriei in the affirmative by a majority of four. The report was accordingly 

received and accepted. „„, 3 ^, ^ ^x. t^.. ■ ^ /r^ \ 

The Solicitor-General then moved, seconded by Mr. Sherwood, that the District ((rrammar) 
School Bill be engrossed and read a third time to-morrow. Which was ordered accordingly. 



64 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1808 



5th March. 1808. — Mr. Samuel Sherwood moved, seconded by the Solicitor-General, that 
the District School Bill be the first thing on the Order of the Day. to be read the third time. 

On Mr. Speaker having put the question, Messrs. Rogers, Dorland and Howard retired 
from their seats.* 

The names of the members present were taken down and are as follows : 

The Speaker, The Solicitor-General, and Messieurs Washburn, McLean, Cowan, Sher- 
wood, McGregor, Crysler, Clench and Mallory. 

The Speaker then adjourned the House, for want of a quorum, until Monday next. 

8th March, 1808. — Mr. Speaker, on his having taken the Chair, informed the House that 
on the division of a question relative to the third reading of a Bill, last Saturday, three members 
thought proper to quit their seats, and thus left the House without a quorum. Thus situated, 
he conceived it his duty to dispatch an express, requiring the attendance of two of the members 
from the District of Niagara. To the activity of the gentleman who was dispatched with the 
summons, and the persevering zeal of one of the members so summoned, the colony is indebted 
for being able once more to proceed on the business now before it. 

Mr. Ebenezer Washburn, seconded by Mr. Samuel Sherwood, then moved that the follow- 
ing Order be inserted on the Journals of the House. 

Ordered, That it be inserted upon the journals of this House that on Saturday last, when a 
question relating to the passage of a School Bill was about to be put by the Speaker, David 
McGregor Rogers, Thomas Dorland and Peter Howard, Esquires, members of the House then 
present in their places, departed the House without leave, whereby the House was left without 
a quorum. 

Ordered, That it be further inserted upon the Journals, that the House do approve of the 
conduct of the Speaker in sending an express for Messieurs Nelles and Swayze, absent by con- 
sent, and that the expense incident to such express shall form a part of the contingent expenses of 
this House. The House unanimously resolved the same. 

Mr. Samuel Sherwood, seconded by Mr. Ralph Clench, moved that the District (Grammar) 
School Bill be now read for the third time. The said School Bill, as engrossed, was accordingly 
read for the third time. 

Mr. Sherwood then moved, seconded by Mr. Washburn, that the Bill do pass, and that the 
title be "An Act to amend An Act passed in the foi ty-seventh year of His Majesty's reign 
(x807), entitled ' An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District of this Province.' " 
A division thereupon took place. The names being called for, they were taken down, and are 
as follows : 

Yeas — The Solicitor-General, and Messieurs McLean, Cowan, Sherwood, McGregor, Clench» 
Washburn, Nelles anel Crysler. — 9. 

Nays— Mr. Mallory. 

The same was carried in the affirmative by a majority of eight. The Bill then passed and 
was signed by the Speaker. - ' 

Mr. Stierwood then moved, seconded by Mr. Nelles, that the Solicitor-General and Mr. 
Washburn do carry up to the Honourable the Legislative Council the Act entitled "An Act to 
amend an Act passed in the forty-seventh year of His Majesty's reign (1807), entitled 'An Act to 
establish Public Schools in each and every district of this Province,' " and request their 
concurrence thereto, which was ordered accordingly. 

The Solicitor-General and Mr. Washburn reported that they had carried up to the Honour- 
able the Legislative Council the Act entitled "An Act to amend an Act passed in the forty- 
seventh year of His Majesty's reign (1807), entitled 'An Act to establish Public Schools in each 
and every district of this Province,' " and did request their concurrence thereto. 

11th March, 1808. —A message was received from the Honourable the Legislative Council, 
by Mr. W. VV. Baldwin, Master-in-Chanceiy : 

Mr. Speaker : — 

1 am commanded by the Honourable the Legislative Council to inform Your House that 
they have concurred in passing an Act sent up from Your Honourable House intituled "An 
Act to amend an Act passed in the forty-seventh year of His Majesty's reign (1807), intituled 
' An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District of this Province.' " 

Legislative Coukcil Chamber, THOMAS SCOTT, 

11th of March, 1808. Speaker. 

*Mr, Frank Veigh, in his work on "Ontario's Parliament Buildings; or a Century of Legislation, 
1792-1892," thus refers to this incident *• " The pession of 1808 witnessed a peculiar scene, when three or 
four of the members abruptly left for their distant home, with a determination to put a stop to the busi- 
of the session, rather than submit to the intention of the majority to carry a Bill regarding the establish- 
ment of schools." (Page 29.) ^_ 



Chap, XVIII. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1808. 65 



2. Proceedings of the Legislative Council on this Bill, 1808. 

The only member of the Legislative Council who is reported to have taken 
part in its proceedings on this Bill, was the Honourable ^neas Shaw, referred 
to on page 56, and he only as Chairman of the Committee of the Whole House. 
The Speaker was the Honourable Thomas Scott, Chief Justice of Upper Canada, 

As nearly all of the early Speakers of the Legislative Council were also Chief 
Justices, it is not necessary for me to refer to them in this work. It is the less 
necessary as a record of their lives and services is given in a volume published 
in 1888, by Mr. David B, Read, QC, entitled The Lives oj the Judges of Upper 
Canada and Ontario, from 1791 to the Present Time. 

The proceedings of the Legislative Council on the Public (Grammar) School 
Amendment Bill of 1808 were as follows : — 

8th March, 1808. — A deputation from the House of Assembly brought up for the concur- 
rence of this House a Bill, intituled "An Act to amend an Act passed in the forty -seventh year 
of His Majesty's reign (1807), intituled 'An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every 
District of this Province.' " The Bill was read a first time. 

9th March, 1808. — In pursuance of the Order of the Day was read a second time " The 
Bill intituled 'An Act to amend an Act passed in the forty-seventh year of His Majesty's reign 
(1807), intituled 'An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District of this Province.' " 
Ordered that the Bill be committed for to-morrow. 

10th March 1808. — Pursuant to the Order of the Day, the House went into Committee to 
take into further consideration the Bill, intituled "An Act to amend an Act passed in the forty- 
seventh year of His Majesty's reign (1807), intituled 'An Act to establish Public Schools in 
each and every District of this Province,' " the Hon. ^neas Shaw in the Chair. 

The Hon. Thomas Scott, Speaker, having resumed the Chair, Mr. Shaw reported that the 
Oommittee had taken the said Bill into consideration, and had agreed thereto without any 
amendment. And the question being put : Whether the said Bill do now pass, it was carried 
in the affirmative, whereupon it was signed by the Speaker. 

11th March, 1808. — The House having met, it was ordered that a message be sent to the 
House of Assembly, signed by the Speaker, and with it the Bill intituled "An Act to amend an 
Act passed in the forty-sevsnth year of His Majesty's reign (1807), intituled 'An Act to estab- 
lish Public Schools in each and every District of this Province,' " to which this House has made 
no amendment. The message and Bill were carried down to the House of Assembly by Mr. W. 
W. Baldwin, Master-in-Chancery. 

16th March, 1808. — The House having met, the Members of the House of 
Assembly were summoned by Black Rod to the Legislative Council Chamber by 
command of His Excellency, Francis Gore, Esquire, Lieutenant-Governor, who 
was pleased to assent to the following among other Bills : — 

"An Act to amend an Act passed in the forty-seventh year of His Majesty's reign, intituled 
*An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District of this Province.' " 

In his closing speech, the Lieutenant-Governor made no reference to the sub- 
ject of education or schools. 

This Bill indicated a desire on the part of both Houses of the Legislature to 
perpetuate the Public (Grammar) School Act of 1806, for it was provided in the 



5 (D.E.) 



66 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1810 

third section of this Bill that the clause restricting the operation of the Act of 
1807 to four years, or until the end of the next ensuing session of Parliament* 
be repealed. A copy of this Bill is as follows : — 

An Act to amend an Act passed in the forty-seventh year op His Majesty's reign, intituleiv 
"An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District of this Province." 

48th George III. , Chapter XVI. 

Francis Gore, Esquire, Lieutenant-Governor. Assented to, 16th March, 1808. 

WHEREAS, an Act passed in the forty-seventh year of His Majesty's reign. Preamble, 
intituled "An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District of this 
Province " requires to be amended : 

Be it, therefore, enacted by the King's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with Such parts of 
the advice and consent of the Legislative Council and Assembly of the Province of the 47th Geo. 
Upper Canada, constituted and assembled by virtue of and under the authority of •' ch. 6, as 
an Act passed in the Parliament of Great Britain, intituled "An Act to repeal cer- don* District" 
tain parts of an Act passed in the fourteenth year of His Majesty's reign, intituled repealed. * 
'An Act for making more effectual provision for the government of the Province of 
Quebec, in North America, and to make further provision for the government of 
the said Province,' " and by the authority of the same, that so much of the said 
Act as en«cts that the Public Schools for the District of London shall be opened 
and kept in the Township of Townsend, shall be, and the same is hereby repealed. 

2. (Which provided that the Public School of the London District be kept in Place where 
the town of London, and not at Vittoria, as heretofore. Superseded by 7th *{*® ^^.'^^M*"' 
William IV., Chapter 106.) ^t^fl^tepJ. 

3. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that so much of the Such part of 
said Act as limits its duration to four years and from thence to the end of the the said 47th' 
then next ensuing session of Parliament, shall be and the same is hereby Hm'itsits'dm'a- 
repealed. tion to 4 years 

repealed. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE LEGISLATURE OF UPPER 

CANADA IN 1810. 

[Note. — There are no records of the proceedings of the Legislative Council 
or of the House of Assembly, for 1809, in either of the Parliamentary Libraries at 
Ottawa or Toronto.] 

The second Session of the fifth Parliament of Upper Canada was opened by 
His Excellency, Francis Gore, Esquire, Lieutenant-Governor, on the first day of 
February, 1810, by a speech from the Throne. In it he made no reference to 
education or schools. 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1810. 

The members who took part in these proceedings of the House of Assembly 
in the session of 1810 were : Messieurs Joseph Willcocks, David M. Rogers, Crowell 



Chap. XIX. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U, C. LEGISLATURE, 1810. 67 

Wilson, David Secord, Philip Sovereign, Levi Lewis, Thomas B. Gough, Jame» 

Wilson and Benajah Mallory. There are no personal records of most of these 

members available. Sketches of some of them have already been given. Th& 
most noted of the others was 

Mr. Joseph Willcocks, Sheriff of the Home District in the early part of 
Governor Gore's administration. At the election of Mr. Justice Thorpe, (who 
succeeded Mr. William Weekes, (who had been killed in a duel with Hon, William 
Dickson, of Niagara, page 52), Willcocks took an active part, and voted for 
Judge Thorpe. Governor Gore resented this conduct, and dismissed Sheriff 
Willcocks from his office. As a rejoinder, Willcocks started the Upper Canada 
Cruardian, a newspaper in opposition to the policy and proceedings of the 
Governor, and espoused the cause of Judge Thorpe, who, at the instance of the 
Governor, had been recalled to England. Mr. Willcocks succeeded Judge Thorpe 
in the representation of the Second Riding of the County of York, etc. For a 
libel on members of the House of Assembly, in regard to an alleged grant of lands 
to them, Willcocks was imprisoned. Being imbittered by his treatment, and the 
decline of his paper, he finally joined the American cause in the war of 1812, 
after having served on the British side in that war. He was killed at the siege 
of Fort Erie, in 1813. Mr. Benajah Mallory (see page 50) and Mr. Abraham 
Marcle, two other members of the Legislature, also joined the Americans at the 
same time. 

Snd Fehniarrj, 1810. — Mr. Joseph Willcocks, seconded by Mr. D. M. Rogers, moved for 
leave to bring in a Bill on Thursday next, to repeal certain parts of an Act passed in the forty- 
eighth year of His Majesty's reign (1808), intituled "An Act to amend an Act passed in the 
forty-seventh year of His Majesty's reign (1807), intituled 'An Act to establish Public Schools 
in each and every District of this Province.' " Leave was granted accordingly. 

3rd February, 1810. — Mr. Crowell Wilson moved, seconded by Major David Secord, for 
leave to bring in a Bill 'on Saturday next, for appropriating a certain sum of money for the 
purpose of establishing Common Schools in each and every District, and to alter and amend 
an Act passed in the forty-seventh year of His Majesty's reign (1807), intituled "An Act to 
establish Public Schools in each and every District in this Province." 

The Hon. Samuel Street, Speaker, having put the question, a division thereupon took place. 
The names being called for, they were taken down, and are as follows : — 

Yeas — Messieurs Fraser, Marcle, Burritt, Gough, Secord, James Wilson, Lewis and Crowell 
Wilson— 8. 

Nays — Messieurs Roblin, Willcocks, Rogers, John Willson, Sovereign, Mallory — 6. 

The motion was carried in the affirmative by a majority of two. Leave was accordingly 
granted to bring in the said Bill. 

7ih February, 1810. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day a Bill to repeal the Act establish- 
iiMf Public (Grammar) Schools in this Province (1807) was read for the first time. Mr. Willcocks 
moved, seconded by Mr. Rogers, that the Bill for repealing the Public (Grammar) School Act of 
1807 be read a second time on Saturday next. Which was ordered accordingly. 

ISth February, 1810. — A Bill to repeal part of an Act passed in the forty eighth year of 
His Majesty's reign (1808), intituled "An Act to amend an Act parsed in the forty-seventh year 
of His Majesty's reign (1807), intituled 'An Act to to establish Schools in each and every 
District of this Province,' " was read a second time. Mr. Willcocks, seconded by Mr. Philip 
Sovereign, moved that the House do now resolve itself into a Committee to take into considera- 
tion the said School Bill. The House, accordingly, resolved itself into a Committee. 

Mr. Levi Lewis was called to the Chair of the Committee. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Lewis reported that the Committee had come 
to a resolution that the said Bill be not adopted. 



€8 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1810 



On Mr. Speaker having put the question, a division thereupon took place. The names being 
called for, they were taken down and are as follows : 

Yeas — Messieurs McNabb, Burritt, Fraser, Marcle, Elliott, Baby, McLean, McGregor, 
Crowell Wilson and Lewis — 10. 

Nays — Messieurs Gough, John Willson, Howard, Mallory, Willcocks, Dorland, James 
Wilson, Roblin, Sovereign and Secord — 10. 

The House being divided, Mr. Speaker gave hi^ vote for the Report being received. The 
Report was then accordingly received and adopted. 

[Note. — So the Bill to repeal the Public (Grammar) School Act of 1807, 
introduced by Mr. Joseph Willcocks, on the 2nd day of February, failed to pass 
the House of Assembly. See Proceedings of the House of Assembly of the 23rd 
of February, 1810.] 

ISth February, 1810. — The Bill introduced by Mr. Crowell WUson, on the 3rd of February, 
for establishing Common Schools in the several Districts of this Province, was read a second 
time. Mr. Crowell Wilson, seconded by Mr. Lewis, moved that the House do now resolve 
itself into a Committee to go into the consideration of the Common School Bill. The House 
accordingly resolved itself into a Committee to go into the consideration of the said Bill. 

Mr. Speaker having left the Chair, Mr. Sovereign was called to the chair of the Com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Sovereign reported that the Committee had 
made a progress in the Bill, and had directed him to ask for leave to sit again this day. Leave 
was accordingly granted to sit again this day. 

Agreeably to leave given, the House again resolved itself into a Committee to go into the 
further consideration of the Bill for establishing Common Schools in this Province. 

Mr. Speaker having left the Chair, Mr. Sovereign was called to the chair of the Com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Sovereign reported that the Committee had 
made further progress in the Bill, and had directed him to ask for leave to sit again on Friday 
next. Leave was accordingly given to sit again on Friday next. 

16th February, 1810. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the House resolved itself into a 
Committee to go into the consideration of the Bill for establishing Common Schools in this 
Province. 

Mr. Speaker having left the Chair, Mr. Sovereign was called to the chair of the Com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Sovereign reported that the Committee had 
again made further progress with the Bill, and had directed him to ask for leave to sit again on 
Monday next. Leave was granted to sit again on Monday next. 

19th February, 1810. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the House resolved itself into a 
Committee to go into the consideration of the Common School Bill. 

Mr. Speaker having left the Chair, Mr. Sovereign took the chair of the Committee. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Sovereign reported that the Committee had 
again made further progress in the Bill, and had directed him to ask for leave to sit again to- 
morrow. Leave was granted to sit again to-morrow. 

21st February, 1810. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the House resolved itself into a 
Committee to go into the consideration of the Common School Bill. 

Mr. Speaker having left the Chair, Mr. Sovereign took the chair of the Committee. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Sovereign reported that the Committee had 
gone through the consideration of the said Bill, to which they had made several amendments, 
which he was directed to report to the House whenever it should be pleased to receive the 
same. 

On Mr. Speaker having put the question for the report being received, a division thereupon 
took place. The name^ being called for, they were taken down and are as follows : 

Yeas — Messieurs McNabb, Burritt, .John Willson, Howard, Sovereign, Rogers, Mallory, 
Willcocks, James Wilson, Dorland, Gough, Roblin and Secord. — 13. 

Nays —Messieurs Marcle, Fraser, Baby, Crowell Wilson Lewis and McLean. — 6. 

The motion was carried in the affirmative by a majority of seven. The report was accord- 
ingly received and accepted. 

Mr. Thomas B. Gough then moved, seconded by Mr. D. M. Rogers, that the Common 
School Bill be engrossed and read a th'.rd time to-morrow, which was ordered accordingly. 

(Note. — From the motion made by Mr. Joseph Willcocks on the 23rd of 

JFebruary, it is clear that the Bill to repeal part of the District School Act of 1807 



Chap. XIX. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1810. 6^ 



was again brought by him before the House of Assembly with that intention, 
and the Bill for promoting Common Schools was dropped. The report of the 
Committee on the Bill introduced by Mr. Willcocks on the 2nd of February, and 
made to the House on the 12th of February, recommended that the Bill itself "be 
not adopted." This report was concurred in by the House on that day, and the 
Bill, consequently, failed to pass. 

There is no record in the further proceedings of the House that its " third 
reading " was ordered, as stated in the following resolution, (and so recorded in 
the Journal). As a matter of procedure, the motion, as recorded, is incorrect, and 
part of it may have been accidentally left out. I have, therefore, inserted in 
brackets the part which was evidently omitted, or misplaced, in the original 
resolution. However that may be, the House of Assembly consented to allow 
Mr. Willcocks to bring his Bill again before it, and the following proceedings took 
place in regard to it : — ) 

2Srd February, 1810. — Mr. Joseph Willcocks moved, seconded by Mr. Thomas B. Gough, 
that so much of the order of the day [of the 2l8t of February] as directs the third reading of 
the [Bill for establishing Common Schools be discharged, and that the] Bill for limiting the 
duration of the Act establishing [District] Schools. . . * be now recommitted. The said 
order was discharged accordingly, and the House resolved itself into a Committee to go into the 
further consideration of the said Bill. 

Mr. Speaker having left the Chair, Mr. Gough was called to the chair of the Committee. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, 

Mr. Gough reported that the Committee had gone through the consideration of the said 
Bill, to which they had made several amendments, which amendments he was directed to report 
to the House, whenever the House shall be pleased to receive the same. Ordered, that the 
Reports be noAv received and accepted. 

Mr. vv illcocks moved, seconded by Mr. James Wilson, that the Public (Grammar) School 
Bill be engrossed and read a third time to-morrow. Ordered accordingly. 

24th February, 1810. — Read for the third time, as engrossed, the Bill for limiting the dura- 
tion of the Act establishing Public (Grammar) Schools in this Province (1807). On motion of Mr. 
Willcocks, seconded by Mr. Sovereign, 

Resolved, That the Bill do pass and that the title be, " An Act to repeal certain parts of an 
Act passed in the forty eighth Year of His Majesty's Reign (1808) intituled 'An Act to estab- 
lish Public Schools in each and every District of this Province (1807).' " The Bill accordingly 
passed and was signed by the Speaker. 

Mr. Mallory, seconded by Mr. Secord, moved that Messieurs Borland and Howard carry up 
to the Legislative Council the Act intituled, *' An Act to Repeal certain parts of an Act passed 
in the forty-eighth Year of His Majesty's Reign, (1808), intituled, ' An Act to Amend An 
Act passed in the forty-seventh Year of His Majesty's Reign, (I8o7), ' An Act to establish 
Public Schools in each and every District of this Province," and request their concurrence 
thereto. Ordered accordingly. 

Messieurs Howard and Dorland, the members ordered to carry up to the Honourable the 
Legislative Council, the message of this House, reported that they had, in obedience to the 
command of this House, carried up to the Legislative Council the Act entitled " An Act ta 
repeal certain parts of an Act passed in the forty-eighth Year of His Majesty's Reign, (IBO8), 
intituled, ' An Act to amend an Act passed in the forty-seventh Year of His Majesty's Reign, 
(1807), intituled, ' An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District of this Pro- 
vince,' " to which they did request their concurrence in passing the same. 

(Note. — In adopting Mr. Willcocks' resolution of the 23rd of February, by 
which the Bill limiting the duration of the Act (of 1807) which established District 
Schools was substituted for that introduced by Mr. Crowell Wilson on the 3rd 

*The omitted words were evidently the ones which were misplaced, and which I have inserted in 
brackets iu the bodv of the resolution. They were : " be discharged, and that the," etc. 



70 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1810 

•of February, providing for Common Schools, the House of Assembly again rejected 
the proposal made to the House in 1804 and 1805, and now again in 1810, to 
establish elementary, or common schools, as they were designated. By adopting 
the Bill of Mr. Willcocks, the House further decided to repeal the Act of 1807, 
■(by which Public (Grammar) Schools were established " in each and every District 
-of the Province,") at the end of four years from its passing in 1807, or at the end 
of the then next ensuing session of the Legislature. 

From the following proceedings of the Legislative Council, it will be seen 
that the Council did not second Mr. Willcocks' proposal, as it took no action on 
his Bill. In the following session, however, Mr. Willcocks renewed his efforts to 
have this Act repealed. He was successful in the House of Assembly, but the 
Legislative Council, by a vote, (and not by silence, as before,) rejected his Bill. 
(See the proceedings of both Houses on the subject, and on the efforts in the 
Legislative Council of the Honourable Richard Cartwright to perpetuate the 
Grammar School Act of 1807, which Mr. Willcocks sought to have repealed.) 

2. Legislative Council Proceedings in 1810 on the Grammar School 

Repeal Bill. 

The members of the Council in 1810 were the Honourables Thomas Scott, 
■(Chief Justice), Speaker ; Richard Cartwright, James Baby, ^neas Shaw, and 
John McGill. 

34th February, 1810. — A deputation from the House of Assembly being announced, it was 
admitted, and brought up and delivered at the Bar of this House the following message : — 

Mr. Speaker : 

We are commanded by the Commons House of Assembly to acquaint this Honourable House 
that they have passed the following Bill, intituled. " An Act to repeal certain parts of an Act 
passed in the forty-eighth Year of His Majesty's Reign (1808), intituled, ' An Act to amend an 
Act passed [in 1807] to establish Public Schools in each and every District of this Province,' " 
and request the concurrence of your Honourable House thereto. 

(Signed) Sam'l Street, 
Commons House of Assembly, Speaker. 

24th February, 1810. 

The deputation having withdrawn, on motion made and seconded, the said Bill was read a 
first time. 

Note. — The Legislative Council took no further action on this Bill, and con- 
sequently it failed to become law. This was no doubt due to the influence in the 
Council of the Honourable Richard Cartwright, who was opposed to the repeal 
of this Act which had provided in 1807 at the instance of the Rev. Dr. Stiachan, 
for the establishment of Grammar Schools in each of the Districts of the Province.* 

* Sir John B. Robinson, in his speech at the ceremony of laying the corner stone at Kings's College, 
Toronto, on the 23rd of April, 1842, thus speaks of the influence of the Rev. Dr. Strachan in promoting the 
passage of the Grammar School Act of 1807 : — " As I well remember, it was at your suggesrion, and upon 
-the earnest instance of your Lordship, that the Statute was procured, to which we are indebted for the 
X)istrict Grammar Schools throughout Upper Canada." (Page 67 of Proceedings.) 



Chap. XX. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1811. 71 



CHAPTEK XX. 

EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE LEGISLATURE OF UPPER 

CANADA IN 1811. 

The third session of the fifth Parliament of Upper Canada was opened on 
the first day of February, 1811, by His Excellency, Francis Gore, Esquire, Lieu- 
tenant-Governor. In his speech from the Throne he made no reference to educa- 
tion or schools. 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of A.ssembly in 1811. 

The members of the House of Assembly who took part in its proceedings 
rielating to education were, Messieurs Joseph Willcocks, Thomas B. Gough, Benajah 
Mallory, David M. Rogers, Philip Sovereign, Thomas Dorland and Mathew 
Elliott. 

On the 7th February, JSii.— Mr., Willcocks, seconded by Mr. Gough, moved for leave to 
bring in a Bill on Monday next to repeal an Act passed in the forty-seventh Year of His 
Majesty's reign (1807) entitled, " An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District of 
this Province." Leave was accordingly given. 

9th February, 1811. — Mr. Mallory moved, seconded by Mr. Rogers, that the petition of 
Henry Bostwick and others, (in regard to the removal of the Londnn District School from 
Woodhouse to Charlotteville), be now read. Accordingly, the said petition was then read by 
the Clerk at the Table, and is as follows : — 

To the Honourable Members of the House of Commons, in Provincial Parliament assembled. 

The memorial of the undersigned most respectfully sheweth, 

That, during the Fourth Session of the Fourth Provincial Parliament, a petition was pre- 
sented to that Honourable Body, signed by a number of the Trustees of the Public Schools for 
the District of London, praying the removal of the said school from Townaend to the Village of 
Dover, in the Township of Woodhouse. 

That in consequence of that petition, the Trustees were authorized by an Act passed in that 
session, to establish it where they mit^ht think proper, intending, it is presumed, to meet the 
•object of the petition. 

That, immediately after the promulgation of the Act, your memorialists called npon the 
Trustees with a large subscription, (exceeding one hundred pounds. Provincial currency), sub- 
scribed by the inhabitants in and near the Village of Dover, for the purpose of erecting a house 
for the use of the public school, and, at the same time, requested an order for the establishment 
of it in the said village. 

The order which accompanies this was given. Your memorialists were then authorized by 
the subscribers to collect the subscriptions and superintend the building of the house, in conse- 
quence of which your Diemorialists immediately contracted for the necessary materials, and with 
carpenters, etc., to build the house. 

That after your memorialists had gone to a very great expense, and had contracted for 
every material to finish the house, they were suddenly told by the Trustees, without any pre- 
vious communication or intimation of their design, that they had changed their minds and deter- 
mined to establish the school in Charlotteville, not oflFering any rational motive for their con- 
duct, excepting that, as we had not completed the house at the time limited in their order, they 
did not consider themselves any longer bound to us, at which time it was utterly impossible for 
your memorialists to have finished the house owing to the late opening of the water communica- 
tion. The nails which were purchased the fall before were at Fort Erie and could not be pro- 
cured until late in the month of May. This circumstance was well-known to the Trustees. 

That, at the time your memorialists received the order for the school, they oflFered to the 
Trustees a house for the teacher, in the neighborhood of Dover, where ho would immediately 
have had a very respectable school until the public school house would be finished, but this 
ofi"er was rejected. 

That your memorialists have been at a very great expense (relying upon the faith of the 
Trustees), toerect the house, which could now be finished in a short time, and that they have 



72 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1811 



no means of idemnifying themselves should the school be permanently established in Charlotte- 
ville, the subscription being for the express purpose of building a house for the use of the 
public school, and the dee i for the land whereon the house is erected, is given to the Trustees 
in trust for the same purpose. 

Wherefore, your memorialists most respectfully pray that your Honourable House, taking 
into consideration the allegations herein contained, will direct by law, that the public school for 
the District of London shall be permanently established in the Township of Woodhouse, at the 
place where the house erecte i for that purpose is situated. And your memorialists, as in duty 
bound, will ever pray. 

Henry Van Allen, Abraham Rapelge and Henry Bostwick. 

Woodhouse, District of London. 

11th February, 1811. — Mr. Willcocks moved, seconded by Mr. Sovereign, that so much of 
the Order of the Day as relates to the District (Grammar) School Bill be dispensed with, and 
that the same be on the Order of the Day for to-morrow. Which was ordered accordingly. 

13th February, 1811. — Read for the second time the Bill to repeal the District (Grammar) 
School Act. 

Mr. Willcocks then moved, seconded by Mr. Dorland, that the Bill for the repealing 
the District (Grammar) School Law be read a second time to-morrow. Which was ordered 
accordingly. 

14th February, 1811. — Read for the second time the Bill to repeal the District School Act. 

Mr. Willcocks then moved, seconded by Mr. Rogers, that this House do, on to-morrow, 
resolve itself into a Committee to take into consideration the District School Bill. Which was 
ordered accordingly. 

15th February, 1811. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the House resolved itself into a 
Committee to go into the consideration of the Bill to repeal the District School Act. 

Mr, Speaker having left the Chair, Mr. Sovereign was called to the chair of the Com- 
mittee. 

Mr, Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Sovereign reported that the Committee had 
gone through the consideration of the said Bill, without any amendment, which he was directed 
to report whenever the House should be pleased to receive the same. 

On Mr. Speaker having put the question : Shall the report be now received ? A division 
thereupon took place. The names being called for they were taken down as follows : 

Yeas. — Messieurs Marsh, Dorland^ Gough, Casey, John Willson, Howard, Mallory, Will- 
cocks, Rogers, Stinson, Secord, Lewis, Sovereign, and Crowell Wilson — 14. 

Nays. — Messieurs Burritt, Fraser, McLean, Baby and Elliott— 5. 

The motion was carried in the aflBrmative by a majority of nine. And the report wa* 
received accordingly. 

Mr. Willcocks then moved, seconded by Mr. Rogers, that the District School Repeal Bill 
be engrossed and read a third time to-morrow. Ordered accordingly. 

18th February, 1811. — Read for the third time, as engrossed, the Bill to repeal the District 
School Act of 1807. 

Mr. Willcocks then moved, seconded by Mr. Sovereign, that the said School Bill do now 
pass, and that the title be " An Act to repeal part of an Act passed in the forty-eighth year of 
His Majesty's reign (1808, intituled, ' An Act to amend an Act passed in the forty-seventh year 
of His Majesty's reign (1807), intituled, An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every 
District of this Province.' " 

The House divided upon the question and the names were taken down as follows : 

Yeas. — Messieurs Dorland, Gough, Marsh, Stinson, Casey, John Willson, Howard, Mallory, 
Crowell Wilson, Willcocks, Rogers, Secord, Lewis and Sovereign — 14. 

Nays. — Messieurs McNabb, Burritt, Fraser, McLean, McGregor, Baby and Elliott — 7. 

Carried in the affirmative by a majority of seven. The Bill then passed and was signed by 
the Speaker. 

Mr. Rogers moved, seconded by Mr. Mallory, that Messieurs Thomas Dorland and John 
Stinson do carry up to the Honourable the Legislative Council the Act intituled, " An Act to 
repeal part of an Act passed in the forty-eighth year of His Majesty's reign (1808), intituled, 
'An Act to amend an Act passed in the forty seventh year of His Majesty's reign (1807), 
intituled, An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District of this Province,' " and 
request their concurrence thereto. Ordered accordingly. 

20th February, 1811. — Mr. Dorland, one of the Messengers named to carry up to the 
Honourable the Legislative Council the Act intituled "An Act to repeal part of an Act passed in 
the forty-eighth year of His Majesty's reign, intituled, ' An Act to amend an Act passed in 



Cliap. XX. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 181 I. 73 



the forty-seventh year of Hia Majesty's regin, intituled, An Act to establish Public Schools in 
each and every District of this Province,' " reported that they had carried up the said Act, and 
did request their concurrence in passing the same. 

(Note. — It will be seen, by a reference to the title of the District School 

Repeal Bill introduced by Mr. Joseph Willcocks on the 7th day of February, 1811, 

that he proposed to repeal the whole of the School Bill passed in March, 1808, 

(48th George III., Chapter 16). On the final passage of the Bill, on the 18th of 

February, the title was changed so as to read : "An Act to repeal part of an Act," 

etc. This Bill, as will be seen by reference to the proceedings of the Legislative 

Council of the 25th February, was rejected, and one, by the Honourable Richard 

Cartwright, substituted for it — the title of which was "An Act further to amend '' 

the original Public (Grammar) School Act of 1807, (47th George III., Chapter 6). 

This title was also changed in Committee to read : " An Act to establish Public 

Schools in each and every District in this Province." This Act was rejected by 

the House of Assembly. See Note under proceedings of the Legislative Council, 

26th February, 1811). 

26th February, 1811. — A message from the Honourable the Legislative Council by Mr. W. 
W. Baldwin, Master-in-Chancery, was received, as follows: — 
Mr. Speaker : 

I am commanded by the Honourable the Legislative Council to acquaint your House that 
they have passed an Act intituled, " An Act further to amend an Act passed in forty seventh year 
of His Majesty's reign, intituled, ' An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District 
of this Province,' " to which they request the concurrence of your House in passing the same. 

Legislative Council Chamber, (Signed) Thomas Scott, 

26th February, 1811. Speaker. 

Read for the first time the Act sent down from the Honourable the Legislative Council, 
intituled, " An Act further to amend the Act establishing Public Schools in this Province." 

Mr. Gough thf n moved, seconded by Mr. Dorland, that the said District School Amendment 
Bill be read a second time this day three months. Which was ordered accordingly. 

1st March, 1811. — Mr. Mallory moved, seconded by Captain Elliott, for leave to bring in a 
Bill, to-morrow, to repeal the third clause of an Act passed in the forty-eighth year of His 
Majesty's reign (1808), intituled, " An Act to amend an Act passed in the forty-seventh year of 
His Majesty's reign (1807), to establish Public Schools in each and every District of this Pro- 
vince*" 

Mr. Rogers, in amendment, seconded by Mr. Gougb, moved that the word " to-morrow " 
in Mr. Mallory's motion bo struck out, and, in lieu thereof, the words "this day three 
months " be inserted. The question, as amended, was carried in the aflBrmative. And ordered 
accordingly. 

Note. — Thus the proposed repeal of the third section of the Public (Grammar) 
School Amendment Act of 1808 was not assented to by the House of Assembly ; 
nor was the District School Amendment Bill of the Legislative Council agreed to 
by it. The third section of the Act of 1808 extended the operation of the 
Grammar School Act of 1807 beyond the four years to which its duration had 
been limited by the Act itself on its passing. 

2. Proceedings of the Legislative Council on the District School 

Repeal Bill. 

20th Februiry, 1811. — The Legislative Council met pursusint to adjournment on this day. 
A deputation from the House of Assembly being announced, they were admitted, and brought up 
for concurrence of this House a Bill intituled, " An Act to repeal part of an Act passed in the 
forty-eighth year of His Majesty's reign, intituled, ' An Act to amend an Act passed in the forty- 



74 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1812 



seventh year of His Majesty's reign, intituled, An Act to establish Public Schools in each and 
every District of this Province.'" The deputation having withdrawn, on motion made and 
seconded, the said Bill was read a lirst time. 

SSrd Febriuxry, 1811. — Pursuant to notice given the Hon. Richard Cartwright brought in a 
Bill intituled, "An Act further to amend an Act intituled, ' An Act to establish Public Schools 

i n each and every District of this Province ' " (1807) On motion made and seconded, 

the said Bill was read a first time, and ordered to be read a second time on Monday next. 

25th February, 1811. — On motion made and seconded, it was ordered that a Bill, intituled, 
" An Act to repeal part of an Act passed in the forty-eighth year of His Majesty's reign, (1808), 
intituled, * An Act to amend an Act passed in the forty-seventh year of His Majesty's reign, 
(1807), intituled, An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District of this Pro- 
vince,' " [from the House of Assembly] be read a second time this day three months. 

(Note. — This motion having passed the Legislative Council, the Council, by 

it, rejected the District School Repeal Bill brought up from the House of Assembly. 

By adopting the following motion, the Council substituted for this Repeal Bill 

passed by the Assembly, the District (Grammar) School Amendment Bill introduced 

by the Honourable Richard Cartwright on the 23rd February, 1811.) 

Pursuant to the Order of the Day, was read a second time, a Bill intituled, " An Act further 
to amend an Act intituled, ' An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District of 
this Province,' " and on motion made and seconded, the House resolved itself into a Committee 
of the whole H<)use, to take the same into consideration, the Hon. John McGill in the chair. 

The Speaker having resumed the Chair, 'Mr. McGill reported that the Committee had taken 
the said Bill into consideration, and had made some amendments thereto which they recom- 
mended to the adoption of the House. It was ordered that the said report be accepted, and the 
Bill, as amended, be engrossed and read a third time to-morrow. 

S6th February, 1811. — Pursuant to the Order of the Day was read a third time a Bill intituled 
"An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District in this Province." And the quest on 
being put, that the Bill do now pass, it was carried in the affirmative ; whereupon the Speaker 
signed the same, and a message to this effect was sent with the Bill to the House of Assembly, 
by Mr. W. VV. Baldwin, the Master-in-Chancery. 

Note. — By reference to the proceedings of the House of Assembly of this 
date, (26th of February, 1811), it will be seen that the Assembly rejected the sub- 
stituted District (Grammar) School Extension Bill of the Honourable Richard 
Cartwright, sent to it by the Legislative Council on that day. 

On the 1st of March, Mr. Benajah Mallory sought to reintroduce the District 
School Repeal Bill, which had been rejected by the Legislative Council, in which, 
by giving a more definite title to it than that of the rejected Bill, he no doubt 
hoped that the House of Assembly would pass it, but it declined to do so. The 
title of his Bill was " An Act to repeal the third clause of the School Act of 
1808," etc., (48th George III, Chapter VI.) This third clause provided that 
the duration of the Act of 1807 should not be limited to four years from its 
passing, or until the end of this Session of 1811, but should continue to be in force- 
It will thus be seen that both Bills were rejected — one by each House. 
As the Honourable Richard Cartwright's District (Grammar) School Bill did 
not pass the Legislature, its nature can only be surmised from its title, which was 
altered on its passage by the Legislative Council, so as to provide still further, (as in 
the Act of 1807), for the establishment *' of Public (Grammar) Schools in each and 
every District of this Province." The Act passed and was sent up to the Legis- 
lative Council by the House of Assembly, on the 20th of February, 1811, was 
designed to repeal the District (Grammar) School Act of 1807, in whole or in part 



I 



Chap. XXT. EDUCATIONAL PROCEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1812. 75 

No doubt the Honourable Mr. Cartwright perceived that this was the design 
of the Bill sent up by the Assembly, and hence he moved that it be rejected* 
which was done. He then proposed, as his Bill indicated, that henceforth there 
should be no uncertainty in the grammar school legislation of the Province, but 
that, without limitation as to time, Grammar Schools should be permanently 
•established " in each and every District of this Province." This intention on his 
part may be gathered from the fact that he had during the preceding sessions 
of the Council invariably advocated this course. (See " note " on page 70.) 

The majority of the House of Assembly were clearly of the other opinion, 
and were, by their projected Bill, opposed to the continuance of the Public 
(Grammar) School Act of 1807. The Bill introduced into the House of Assem- 
bly by Mr Joseph Willcocks, on the 7th of February, 1811, provided for the 
repeal of this Act, and when that Bill was rejected by the Legislative Council* 
Mr. Benajah Mallory proposed on the 1st of March that the third clause of the 
Act of 1808, (which provided for the continuance of the Act of 1807) should be 
repealed. His proposal was not assented to, as it was practically the same as that 
of Mr. Willcocks, which had already been rejected by the Legislative Council* 
The repeal of the Grammar School Act was pressed upon the House of Assem- 
bly by petition from the Midland and Newcastle district. (See pages 62, 76 and 
77.) Nevertheless the Act of 1807 remained substantially in force for nearly 
fifty years, and until 1853, when it was superseded by a more comprehensive 
Grammar School Act. 



CHAPTER XXL 

EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE LEGISLATURE OF UPPER 

CANADA IN 1812. 

His Excellency, Francis Gore, Esquire, Lieutenant-Governor, having obtained 
leave of absence, left for England in 1811, and did not return to Upper Canada 
until September, 1815. In the meantime the interim Governors, or Presidents, of 
Upper Canada were successively Major-General Isaac Brock, Major-General Roger 
Hale SheafFe and Lieutenant-General Sir George Gordon Drummond. When the 
fourth session of the fifth Parliament met on the 3rd of February, 1812, war with 
the United States was impending. Sir Isaac Brock opened the session of 
the Legislature with the usual speech from the throne, in which he mainly dwelt 
on the question of the war, and the necessity of adopting " such measures as will 
best secure the internal peace of the country and defeat every hostile aggression." 
]^o reference in the speech was made to the subject of schools or education. 



76 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1812 



1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1812. 

The members of the House of Assembly who took part in the educational 
matters which came before it were : — Messieurs. Joseph Willcocks, Hiilip Sove- 
reign, Thomas B. Gough, Benajah Mallory, David M. Rogers and James MeNabb, 

Lieutenant- Colonel John McDonell, Member for the County of Glengarry,, 
was Attorney-General at this time, in succession to Mr. Firth, who had left for 
England in 1811. He was appointed Aide-de-camp to General Brock and was 
present with him at the Battle of Queenston, where both lost their lives. From 
Mrs. Edgar's " Ten Years of Upper Canada, 1805-1815" I gather the following 
particulars of his death : — " Lieutenant-Colonel McDonell was mounted and ani- 
mating his men to charge. . . . McDonell, who was on the left of our party, 
most heroically calling on us to advance, received a shot in his body and fell." 

. . . This heroic young man, the constant attendant of the General after 
his fall, strove to support to the last a cause never to be dispaired of. . . . 
Lieutenant Archibald McLean, who was wounded in this battle, and to whom 
McDonell's last pathetic cry of ' Archie, help me ! ' had been addressed, was after- 
wards taken prisoner at Lundy's Lane, but lived to become Chief Justice of 
Upper Canada." (Pages 153, 156.) 

On the 7th of February, 1812, Mr. Joseph Willcocks, seconded by Mr. Philip 
Sovereign, moved for leave to bring in a Bill, on Monday next, to repeal an Act passed in the 
forty-eighth year of His Majesty's reign (1808), intituled "An Act to amend an Act passed 
in the forty-seventh year of His Majesty's reign (1807), intituled ' An Act to establish Public 
(Grammar) Schools in each and every District of this Province.' " Leave was accordingly given. 

10th February, 1812. — Read for the first time the Bill to repeal the District School Act. 

Mr. Willcocks moved, seconded by Mr. Sovereign, that the Bill to repeal the District School 
Act be read a second time on to-morrow. Ordered accordingly. 

11th February, 1812. — The Petition of the Inhabitants of the District of Newcastle, praying 
that the grant for Grammar Schools in the District be applied to Common Schools therein, was 
then read, and is as follows, to wit : — 

To the Honourable Legislative Council and House of Assembly of the Province of Upper 
Canada, in their Legislative capacity assembled. 

The Petition of the undersigned inhabitants of the District of Newcastle — 

Respectfully sheweth : 

That by an Act passed in the forty-seventh year of His Majesty's reign (1807) the sum of One 
Hundred Pounds was granted to establish a Public School, to be opened in the Township of 
Hamilton. 

That your Petitioners find the said appropriation to be entirely useless to the inhabitants of 
this District in general. 

Wherefore, your Petitioners pray that the said Acts of the forty-seventh and forty-eighth 
years of His Majesty's reign may be repealed, and that such other provision may be made to 
encourage Common Schools throughout this District as to you in your wisdom may seem meet. 
And, as in duty bound, they will ever pray. 

(Signed), • Richard Lovekin, Asa Bumham, Leonard Soper, Alexander Fletcher, and forty- 
eight others. 

Township of Hamilton, 11th August, 1811. 

An address per contra was presented, about the same time, to the Lieutenant- 
Governor, from the inhabitants of the Eastern District, of which the following 
part relates to Education : — 

" We have seen provision made for giving tHe youth of the Province such a liberal educa- 
tion, as may not only qualify them for the learned professions, but also establish firmly in their 



Chap. XXI. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1812. 77 



minds, the purest moral and religious principles, which shall enable them to give the most salu- 
t iry direction to the general manners of the Province, and revive that ardent patriotism, for 
which their fathers have ben so honourably distinguished. 

The fruits of this noble measure, patronized and sanctioned by your Excellency, we begin 
already to enjoy ; as many of the young men have left the schools crowned with literacy honours 
and with the fairest promise of future worth. 

Dated at Cornwall, this 9th day of October, 1811. 

Another petition, from the Midland District, dated the 6th day of January, 
1812, and similar in character to that from the Newcastle District, was presented 
to the Legislature in February, 1812, These petitions showed that there was a 
desire in these two districts, as well as in the House of Assembly for the repeal 
of the Public (Grammar) School Act of 1 807. 

The Petition of the inhabitants of the Midland District, praying that the Act by which provi- 
sion for Grammar Schools has been made, but which fails to provide for the educational wants of 
*' the middling, or poorer class of His Majesty's subjects " in the District, be repealed, and that 
"provision be made in the premises, as may be conducive to public utility," was then read, as 
follows : — 

To the Honourable Legislative Council and House of Assembly of the Province of Upper 
Canada, in Provincial Parliament assembled. 

The Petition of the Subscribers, inhabitants of the Midland District — 

Humbly sheweth : 

That your Petitioners, without presuming to dictate to your Honourable Body feel them- 
selves in duty bound to state that the Act passed in the forty-seventh year of His Majesty's reifi;n 
(1807), intituled, " An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District of this Pro- 
vince," which, by the repeal of its limitation, was rendered perpetual by the Act passed in the 
forty- eighth year of His Majesty's reign (1808), intituled, " An Act to amend an Act passed in the 
forty-seventh year of His Majesty's reign (1807), intituled, 'An Act to establish Public Schools 
in each and every District of this Province,' " is found by experience not to answer the end for 
which it was designed. 

Its object, it is presumed, was to promote the education of our youth in general, but a little 
acquaintance with the facts must convince every unbiased mind that it has contributed litt'e or 
nothing to the promotion of so laudable a design. By reason of the place of instruction being 
established at one end of the District, and the sum demanded for tuition, in addition to the 
annual compensation received from the public, most of the people are unable to avail themselves 
of the advantages contemplated by the institution. A few wealthy inhabitants, and those of 
the Town of Kingston, reap exclusively the benefit of it in this District. The institution, 
instead of aiding the middling and poorer class of His Majesty's subjects, casts money into the 
lap of the rich, who are sufficiently able, without public assistance, to support a school in 
every respect equal to the one established by law. Your Petitioners forbear adducing any more 
facts to verify their representations. They cannot be persuaded that you will continue in force 
an Act proved by a fair experiment to be so partial in its operation, and so little calculated to 
effect the contemplated objects. Wherefore they pray, that so much of the Act first above 
mentioned may be repealed, and such provisions made in the premises as may be conducive to 
public utility. Your Petitioners, as in duty bound, will ever pray. 

(Signed), Jacob Hess, Daniel Wright, Stephen Hess, John Trumpour, and sixty others. 

Midland District, January 6th, 1812. 

Read the District School Repeal Bill for the second time. Mr. Willcocks, seconded by Mr. 
Rogers, moved that the House resolve itself into Committee of the Whole, on Friday next, to 
take the same into consideration. Which was ordered accordingly. 

21st February, 1812. — On this day was read a Petition from the inhabitants of the Midland 
District, which is almost a literal copy of the one presented and read on the 11th instant, the 
■igners being Messrs. James Young, Gilbert Harris, Robert Young, Senior, Robert Young, 
Junior, and forty-one others. 

SJfth February, 181M. — Agreeable to the Order of the Day, the House then went into Com- 
mittee on the District School Repeal Bill. 

Mr. Speaker having left the Chair, Mr. James McNabb was called to the chair of the Com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Speaker havin? resumed the Chair, Mr. McNabb reported that the Committee had made 
some progress in the Bill, and had directed him to ask for leave to sit again to-morrow. Leave 
was accordingly granted for the Committee to sit again to-morrow. 



78 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1812 



S5th February, 1812. — The House, agreeably to the Order of the Day, resolved itself into a^ 
Committee to take the District School Repeal Bill into consideration. 

Mr. Speaker having left the Chair, Mr. McNabb was called to the chair of the Committee. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. McNabb reported that the Committee had gone 
through the consideration of the said Bill to which they had made several amendments, which he 
was directed to report to the House whenever it should be pleased to receive the same. Ordered, 
That the said Report be now received. The said Report was accordingly received. On motion 
of Mr. Joseph Willcocks, seconded by Mr. Willett Casey, Ordered, 'J hat the said Bill be en- 
grossed and read a third time to-morrow. 

26th, February, 1812. — Read for the third time, as engrossed, the District School Repeal Bill. 

On motion of Mr. Willcocks. seconded by Mr. Gough, Ordered, That the Bill do now 
pass, and that the title be " An Act to alter and amend an Act passed in the forty -seventh year 
of His Majesty's reign (1807), intituled ' An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every 
District of this Province.' " The Bill then passed and was signed by the Speaker. 

On motion of Mr. Willcocks, seconded by Mr. Mallory, Ordered, That Messieurs Rogers 
and Dorland do carry up to the Legislative Council the said Bill, and request their concurrence 
in passing the same, and also do carry up bo the Legislative Council all Petitions now before this 
House relative to the said Bill. 

Mr. Rogers, one of the Messengers named to carry up to the Honourable Legislative Council 
the Bill intituled, " An Act to alter and amend an Act passed in the forty-seventh year of His 
Majesty's reign (1807), intituled, 'An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District 
of this Province,' " reported that they had carried up the said Bill and the Petitions relating 
thereto to the Honourable the Legislative Council and did request their concurrence in passing 
the Bill. 

2. Proceedings of the Legislative Council on this Bill. 

26ih February, 1812. — The Legislative Council met on this day, pursuant to adjournment. A 
deputation from the House of Assembly being announced, they were admitted, and brought up 
and delivered at the Bar of this House, and asked for its concurrence a Bill, intituled, "An 
Act to amend and alter an Act passed in the forty-seventh year of His Majesty's reign (1807), 
intituled. 'An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District of this Province.' " 
The Bill was accordingly read a first time, and ordered to be read a second time to-morrow. 

3rd March, 1812. — The House met pursuant to adjournment on this day. On motion made 
and seconded, the following (among other Bills) was ordered to be read a second time this day 
three months : — "An Act to alter and amend an Act passed in the forty-seventh year of His 
Majesty's reign (1807), intituled, ' An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District 
of this Province.' " 

Note. — Thus the District (Grammar) School Repeal Bill, sent up from the 
House of Assembly, was again rejected by the Legislative Council. No further 
educational proceedings by the Council are reported in its Journal of 1812. 
On the 6th of March, His Honour ^President Sir Isaac Brock prorogued the 
Legislature with the usual Speech from the Throne. It was brief, and the im- 
pending war with the United States was the only topic to which reference was 
made by the President and Commander-in-Chief. 



Chap. XXI r. MISCELLANEOUS EDUCATIONAL PAPERS, 1811-1814. 79 



CHAPTER XXII. 

MISCELLANEOUS EDUCATIONAL PAPERS, 1811-1814. 

There is a break in the continuity of the records of the proceedings of the 
Legislature of Upper Canada for 1813. No copy of these proceedings has been 
preserved, so far as I know, or is to be found in the Parliamentary Libraries at 
either Ottawa or Toronto. 

I insert, therefore, in this place, a few miscellaneous papers, relating to 
libraries, education and schools in Upper Canada, which may prove interesting, 
as throwing some light on the social and intellectual state of the country at the 
time, and during the years mentioned. 

The Ernestown Academy at Bath, 1811. 

It may be that the feeling of dissatisfaction with the Grammar School Act 
of 1807, to which expression is given in the Petition from the Midland District, 
presented to the House of Assembly on the 11th day of February, 1812, which 
influenced the inhabitants of Ernestown to establish an independent Academy 
at Bath, in the same district, in the preceding year. 

The Petition from the Midland District was dated the 6th of January, 1812, 
while the appeal of those who established the Bath Academy is dated the 11th of 
March in the previous year. A petition, somewhat similar, was presented to the 
House of Assembly from the adjoining County of Newcastle, dated the 11th of 
August, 1811. The Petitioners of the Midland District, in addressing the House 
of Assembly, said that they felt — 

Themselves in duty bound to state that the [Grammar School Act of 1807] . . . was 
rendered peri^etual by the Act passed in [1808], ... Its object, it is presumed, was to 
promote the education of our youth in general, but ... by reason of the place of instruc- 
tion being established at one end of the District, and the sum demanded for tuition . . . 
[was such] that most of the people are unable to avail themselves of the advantages contemplated 
by the institution. ... A few wealthy inhabitants [in the District], and those of the Town 
of Kingston, reap exclusively the benefit of it [the Grammar School] in this District. . . . 

These were, no doubt, the reasons which induced the promoters of Bath; 
Academy to provide means of education for their children nearer home than was 
Kingston. Hence the following prospectus of the Academy was issued by them 

The subscribers hereby inform the friends of learning that an Academical School, under the 
superintendence of an experienced preceptor, is opened in Ernestown, near the Church, for the 
instruction of youth in English Reading, Speaking, Grammar and Composition ; The Learned 
Languages — Greek and Latin ; Penmanship, Arithmetic, Geography and other brandies of Lib- 
eral Education. Scholars attending from a distance may be boarded in good families on reason- 
able terms, and for fifteen shillings a year (S3), can have the use of a valuable Library. 

Robert McDowel, William Fairfield, Benjamin Fairfield, Solomon Johns, William Wil- 
cox, Samuel Neilson, George Baker, Thomas Lees. 

Ernestown, the 11th of March, 1811. 



80 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1811-14 

The " experienced preceptor/' referred to in this address, was Mr. Barnabas 
Bidwell, a native of Massachusetts, who had held high office in that State, and had 
been a College tutor there. He had removed to Upper Canada in 1803 or 4. The 
Academy became noted for its excellence, and held a high place as an educational 
institution. Amongst its most noted pupils was a son of the Preceptor, Marshall 
Spring Bidwell. As the war at the time with the United States progressed, all 
public interest centred in its successful prosecution. As a consequence, schools 
were deserte4 and languished. As, with others, so did the Bath Academy. The 
building was used as a barrack, but was afterwards restored to its original purpose. 

Mr. Bidwell, the Master, removed to Kingston, and, in 1821, was returned to 
the House of Assembly for the Counties of Lennox and Addington. Under the 
alien law then in force, the House of Assembly refused to let Mr. Bidwell take 
his seat. At the subsequent election in 1824, Marshall, his noted son, was elected 
for the same counties. He, too, under the same law was refused his seat, but in 
that year the law was repealed, and Marshall was again returned in 1825, as he 
was also in 1829 and 1831. He was twice elected Speaker of the House of 
Assembly. In 1836, he was defeated, and then retired from public life. He 
removed to New York in 1837, and became there an eminent Counsellor-at-Law. 
He died in 1872. His father died in 1834. 

Members of the Legislative Council from 1792 to 1812. 

1792. — The Legislative Council^ as constituted this year, consisted of the fol- 
lowing Members : — 

The Honourables William Osgoode, Chief Justice, Speaker, Peter Russell, 
Alexander Grant, Robert Hamilton, Richard Cartwright, Junior, James Baby, 
^neas Shaw, and John Munro. Major-General John Graves Simcoe, Lieutenant- 
Governor. 

1793. — The Honourable Richard Duncan added to the Council. 

1794 to 1797. — There are no Parliamentary records preserved. Lieutenant- 
Governor Simcoe left Canada in 1796. and the Honourable Peter Russell became 
President. 

1798. — The Honourable John Elmsley, Chief Justice, Speaker. Members 
Remained the same. 

1799 to 1802. — Members remained the same. Major-General Hunter, Lieu- 
tenant-Governor. 

1803. — The Honourable Henry Alcock, Chief Justice, Speaker. Members 
remained the same. 

1804. — Members remained the same. 

1805 to 1806. — The Honourable Richard Cartwright, Junior, Speaker. Mem- 
bers remained the same. The Honourable Alexander Grant. President. 



Chap. XXII. MISCELLANEOUS EDUCATIONAL PAPERS, 1811-14. 81 

1807 to 1811. — The Honourable Thomas Scott, Chief Justice, Speaker. Mem- 
bers remained the same. Francis Gore, Esquire, Lieutenant-Governor. 

1812. — The Honourable William Claus added to the Council. Sir Isaac 
Brock, President. 

Books for Sale by W. W. Baldwin. 

The following was issued by Dr. William Warren Baldwin, as agent for the 
then Attorney-General, who had left for England. It was in the shape of an 
advertisement, or " notice," as follows ; — 

The subscriber begs leave to inform the public that attendance will bo given every Saturday 
during the approaching session of the Provincial Legislature, from eleven o'clock till three, at 
the library of William Firth, Esq., at the house in which he resided at York, when his elegant 
and extensive collection of books will be exposed to sale by private contract, on the most reason- 
able terms. 

It is needless to remark that this very extensive library offers ample gratification to the 
historian, the politician, the divine, the poet, the lawyer, the naturalist and novelist. Theie is 
also a rich collection of all the most celebrated Greek and Latin classics. 

It is the intention of the subscriber to send all the books remaining unsold in the spring to 
Lower Canada. 

YoEK, 14th January, 1812. W. W. Baldwin, Agent for W. Firth. 

Penmanship Taught by Practical Lecturer. 

In the " Story " of the Life of the Rev. Dr. Ryerson, published in 1883,^ 
mention is made of the fact that some of the branches of education were under- 
taken by itinerant teachers or lecturers. From such a person he was instructed 
in the mysteries of English grammar, etc. Among the advertisements issued by 
one of these peripathetic teachers is the following, copied from a local paper pub- 
lished in Kingston in 1812. It was as follows : — 

Penmanship taught by the subscriber, upon a new, improved and systematic plan, being a 
short and easy way to acquire a fair and plain handwriting in a short and simple manner. 

There being many who are destitute of writing who have grown to the state of manhood, 
an opportunity is now presented to them to improve themselves in penmanship, in a course of 
fifteen exercises, only one hour and a half at each. 

Specimens showing the improvement of those who have been instructed to their perfect 
satisfaction may be seen at the subscriber's school room, where gentlemen are invited to call 
and satisfy their curiosity. 

The subscriber has opened his writing school this day, at the house of Mr. Henry Baker 

KiNOSTOX, February 18th, 1812. 

N.B. — The subscriber wiU attend ladies and gentlemen desirous of improving theii* hand 
writing at their apartments, for a reasonable compensation. 

Charles MacDonell, Instructor of Writing. 

Education of Militia Men in Kingston, 1812. 

During the war of 1812, many of the young men of Upper Canada had left 

school and were enrolled for active service. As winter approached, and military 

operations were suspended, the various military companies or battalions were 

placed in winter quarters. A number were, therefore, sent to Fort Henry, at 
6 (D.E.) 



•82 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1811-14 

Kingston, and were there subjected to the usual military drill and discipline. 
This being the case, the following notice was inserted in the Kingston Gazette : — 

It has been lately suggested that, as many of those young men from the country who are 
here attending military duty, have still a considerable portion of their time unemployed, some 
plan ought to be devised which would enable them to devote a part of it to the improvement of 
their minds. 

The following proposal is, therefore, submitted to their consideration, and to the consideration 
of those who have any influence with them, or any interest in their improvement, viz. : — 

One of the rooms in the public school house will be exclusively appropriated to the use of 
the young militiamen from the country. 

This will be furnished with desks, benches, a stove and fuel, free of all expense. Here 
they shall be instructed— according as the state of the progress which they have made may 
admit — in English reading, English grammar, writing, book-keeping, geography and in practical 
mathematics, with their most useful applications lo the mensuration of surfaces and solids, 
heights and distances, land surveying, etc. 

Conditions of Admittance. — Such regular attend mce as circumstances will possibly allow, 
a.nd vigorous, ardent application. 

Should it so happen that any of those who are disposed to accept of this offer may not, 
from the calamities of the times, be in a situation to provide themselves with books and other 
necessaries for school, let not this discourage them. All of this description will, with pleasure, 
be furnished with pens, ink, writing paper, slates, school books, etc., void of charge. 

As not more than fifty persons can be admitted at once, the preference will consequently be 
given to those who first apply. 

The persons making this proposal beg leave further to add, if health and other circum- 
stances permi , no care, nor labour, nor reasonable expense will be spared on their part to carry 
the plan into complete effect. 

The advantages to be derived from such a course, if ably conducted, are believed to be 
neither few nor inconsiderable. 

It will afford to those who engage in it with ardour a constant source of rational amuse- 
ment, which will in some degree alleviate the toil, and remove the irksomeness of a laborious 
service. It will, by directing the attention in a proper channel, prevent them from contracting 
habits of idleness and dissipation, which, when once confirmed, are with such difiiculty eradi- 
cated. It will, by improving their understandings, and enlarging the sphere of their active 
powers, enable them to act their part in after life with more honour and advantage, both to 
themselves and to their friends. 

Above all, it will tend to lay such a foundation of useful knowledge, and excite such a taste 
for rational enquiry as can scarcely fail to render them both more happy in themselves and more 
useful members of society. — Public School, Kingston, 30th November, 1812. 

Library Presented to Ernestown in 1813. 

The following is from the Kingston Gazette of June the first, 1813 : — 

The Rev. John Langhorn,* of Frnestown, who is about returning to England, his native 
country, has presented a valuable collection of books to the Social Library established in the 
Village of hSath. 

The Directors have expressed to him the thanks of the Proprietors for his liberal donation. 
Many of the volumes are very elegant, and, it is to be hoped, will for many years remain a 
memorial of his liberality and disposition to promote the diffusion of useful knowledge among a 
people with whom he has lived as an episcopal missionary for more than twenty years. 

*Rev. Ernest Hawkins, in his '^Annals of the Colonial Church, Diocese of Toronto," thus refers to Mr. 
Langhorn : — Among the early missionaries in Canada was the Rev. John Langhorn. He was educated at 
St. Bee's College, Cumberland. The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel appointed him to a district 
of the Rev. Dr. John Stuart's Mission. He arrived at Cataraqui late in September, 1787. The total 
number of souls of all denominations committed to his charge was 1,500. He preached the first sermon on 
Amherst Island in 1793. After 25 years service as a missionary, he returned to England ii> 1813. During 
his ministry he procured the erection of a church at Bath, on the Bay of Quinte, 18 miles from Kingston, 
and a log chapel at Eredricksburg. (Page 27-45.) 



Chap. XXII. MISCELLANEOUS EDUCATIONAL PAPERS, 1811-14. 83 



During that period his acts of charity have been frequent and numerous, and not confined 
to members of his own church, but extended to indigent and meritorious persons of other 
religious denominations. 

Many who have shared his bounty will have reason to recollect hira with gratitude and to 
regret his removal from the country. 

Eastern District Schoolmaster in 1814. 

President's Office, Upper Canada, 

Kingston, 31st May, 1814. 

His Honour, the President of Upper Canada, George Gordon Drunimond, Esquire, has been 
pleased to appoint the Reverend W. D. Baldwyn B. A., to be teacher of the public school in the 
Eastern District, from the 6th instant, vice Rev. John Bethune, resigned. 

Kingston Public (Grammar) School, 1814. 

The anticipated closing of the Kingston Public School, taught by Mr. John 
Whitelaw, is thus regretfully commented upon in a letter signed " Junius " : — 

Kingston, 20th June, 1814. 

To the Editor of the Kingston Gazette : — 

Mr. Editor, — We are now, I understand, in danger of los'ng one of the grea'est bless'ngs 
we have for some time enjoyed, the advantages of a public school, advantages we are not 
sufficiently sensible of possessing till we are, as at prestnt. on the point of being deprived of 
them. 

The innumerable miseries ftnd distresses which necessarily attend such a war as this we 
are now in have been severely experienced in most ])arts of this Province. Still the situation of 
the inhabit'ints of Kingston has been somewhat ameliorated by the steady, persevering ardour 
with which the public school has been conducted. 

It must be peculiarly gratifying to the public in general to see how completely the plan of 
government has been carried into effect in the institution of public schools throughout the 
Province. 

The success which this school, in particular, has met with, has exceeded the most sanguine 
exp'ctation. Youths not yet sixteen have gone as far as equations in algebra— by no means 
imperfect'y — and are well versed in the principles of geonnrtry, and the theory and prac ice of 
plain trigonometry. Their progress in Greek and Latin is not less surprising. 

I am not intimately acquainted with Mr. John Whitelaw, but I am no stranger to his abili- 
ties and the many advantages the public enjoy from his being ctmtinued in the highly responsible 
station which he now fills. 

I must likewise be allowed to say that I think the school has not received that patronage, 
and has not been countenanced with that warmth it enjoyed before the commencement of hos- 
tilities. Besides this, the situation of the school has for some time past been peculiarly dis- 
agreeable by the neighbourhood of the block houses, and the quarters of the troops. Children 
of both sexes have been obliged to witness scenes the most indecent and have their chaste ears 
every day insulted by the coarsest language. 

'J'here is scarcely anything of more consquence in forming the moral character of children 
than a proper i egard and attention to decency. Decency, quiet, and a public school should be 
synonymous. 

I hf)pe sincerely that Mr. Whitelaw, the teacher, will not think of leaving Kuigston, and 
thereby rendering the horrors of war more severe from the consequent idleness of children, 
and the inability of a great many to send them any distance to seek their education. 

Pringle's Young Ladies' School in Kingston. 

Mr. and Mrs. Pringle propose opening a school for the reception of young ladies, in which 
they will be instructed in the following branches, viz.: — Reading, writing and plain needle work, 
at £1 10s. per quarter. English grammar, arithmetic and fancy needle-work, at £2 10s. per 
quarter. Histoi-y, geography and drawing, at £3 It's, pertjuarter. 

The school will commence on Monday, the 3rd October, and the tuition fees are payable in 
advance — Kijjoston, 30th September, 1814. 



84 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1811-14^ 



Circulating Library in Kingston, 1814. 

The public are informed that a small circulating library is opened in this town and made 
accessible to all classes of the community, on the most reasonable terms. 

Those who wish to take out books will please call either on Monday, Thursday or Saturday, 
between the h urs of one and three o'clock, at which time due attention will be paid to all who 
may be disposed to become subscribers. 

There is also left at the office of the library a large number and a considerable variety of 
children's books, and useful tracts to be exchanged eitlier for clean rags or cash. 

Rags enough might be saved in every family to furnish the family with books, and 
stationery, and it is hoped that no person will be ashamed to engage in saving an article so much 
needed. 

State of Learning in Upper Canada in 1814. 

The greater part of the inhabitants of Canada are not well educated, for as they were poor 
when they came to the Province, and the country being but thinly settled for a number of years, 
they nad but little chance for the benefit of schools. 

But since the country has become more settled and the inhabitants rich or in a good way of 
living, which is almost universally the case, they pay considerable attention to learning. Ten 
dollars a year is the common price given for the tuition of each scholar by good teachers. 

Until lately there was no good Latin or Greek school kept in the Province. Now there 
are three — one in York, taughc t.y 'At. Strachan, the Episcopal Minister of that place; one 
on the Bay of Quints, by a Mr. Barnabas Bidweli, from the United States, and the other 
in Niagara Village, by the Rev. Mr. Bums. 

Good encouragement would be given in many other parts to teachers of such schools, 
particularly in the Niagara and London Districts. 

Notwithstanding I said that the main body of the inhabitants were not well educated, yet 
there are a number of gentlemen in the Province who have the be^t of learning. There is a, 
public free school kept in every district, by order of the King (under the Act of 1807), the 
teachers of which receive annually one hundred pounds sterling from the Crown. — Geographical 
View of the British Possessions in North America, by M. iimith. Published m Baltimore, Mary- 
laiul, I8I4. 

Opening of Kingston Public (Grammar) School, 1815. 

The Public School in this place will commence on Tuesday, the 12th of September, 
instant. 

During several years past much unnecessary labour has been occasioned to the teachers, and 
much time irrecoverably lost to the scholars, from their being often detained at home by their 
parents and guardians. In many instances the excuses assigned have been very unsatisfactory, 
and in others altogether ridiculous and absurd. 

To put an end, therefore, to a practice so inconsistent, both with common sense and the 
interest of all parties concerned, parents and guardians are requested not to detain (without 
positive necessity) any scholar from regularly attending school. 

In future no excuse for absence will be received unless it appears to have been unavoidable. 
None, therefore, need apply for admittance accept they agree to the above request. 

Kingston, September 5th, 1815. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE LEGISLATURE OF UPPER 

CANADA IN 1814. 

Sir Gordon Drummond, as Administrator, opened the third session of the 
Sixth Parliament of Upper Canada on the 15th of February, 1814, with a speech 
of some length, chiefly relating to the war with the United States, then in pro- 
gress. No reference to schools, or education, was made, as the war question and 
that of defence was uppermost in everyone's mind. 



ohap. xxiii. educational proceedings of the u. c. legislature, 1814. 85 

Members of Assembly Who Took Part in Educational Legislation, 1814. 

The members of the House of Assembly who took part in the school legisla- 
tion of 1814 were Messieurs Mahlon Burwell, John Crysler, Isaac Swayze, Benja- 
min Fairfield and James Young. 

Mr. Mahlon Burwell represented the Counties of Oxford and Middlesex in 

1813, 1817 and 1820, Middlesex in 1831 and the Town of London in 183G. He 

was born in the State of New Jersey, but came to Upper Canada in 1796, with 

bis father, Mr. James Burwell. They settled first at Fort Erie, then at Long Point, 

4ind finally removed to the Talbot Settlement in 1810. Mahlon Burwell was 

near neighbor, and for a long time right-hand man, of the noted Colonel Talbot, 

of Port Talbot. He was a survey er by profession, and, in 1810, surveyed the 

Townships of Malahide, Bayham, and part of the then Village of London. Colonel 

Ermatinger, in his life of Colonel Talbot, says of him : — 

Colonel Burwell's industry and perseverance long enabled him to hold a high place in the 
minds of the people of the Talbot Settlement. . . As a politician he was consistent, and for 
many years retained the confidence of the people. . . He was tall in stature, and dignified in 
appearance. He was first elected in 1813 member for the united counties of Middlesex and 
Oxford, in opposition to the well-known Mr. Benajah Mallory. (See page 50 ) . . The con- 
test was keen and sustained with great spirit. . . The e'ection was held at the log house of 
David Secord, and the electors had to encamp in the woods, so few were the habitations in those 
•days. . . To the Town of London [which Colonel Burwell afterwards represented] he gave a 
plot of ground of considerable value for a park or garden, besides making gifts of various kinds 
for educational and other purposes. (Chapter IV., Pages 32-37.) 

Mr. Benjamin Fairfield became a member of the House of Assembly for 
the County of Addington in. 1813. His lather, Mr. Wiliiam Fairfield, represented 
the County of Addington in 1797. The names of both of them are attached, as 
Trustees, to the prospectus of the Ernestown, (Bath), Academy, issued in 1811. 
{See page 79.) 

Of the other Members who are mentioned above, and who took part in the 
proceedings relating to schools and education, little is known. I have not been 
able to obtain any reliable information in regard to them. They, however, did 
good service in their day in promoting the cause of education in the Legislature 
of this Province, and in thus aiding to keep alive public interest in the matter. 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1814. 

25th February, I8I4. — Mr. Mahlon Burwell gave notice that he will, on Wednesday next, 
move for leave to bring in a Bill to repeal the law now in force establishing Public (Grammar) 
Schools in each and everj' District of this Pr vince. 

20th Fehniary, I8I4. — Mr. Burwell, seconded by Mr. John Crysler, moved for leave to 
withdraw his notice of yesterday's date, to bring in a Bill to repeal the law now in force estab- 
lishing Puljlic Schools in each and every District of this Province, on Wednesday next, and 
that the fifth rule of this House, requiring one day's previous notice, be dispensed with so 
far as to enable hini to bring in the said Bill this day, Avhich was carried in the affirmative, and 
the Bill was read a fii"st time. 

Mr. Burwell, seconded by Mr. Swayze, moved that the fifth rule of ihis House with re8i)ect 
to the Bill for repealing the District School Act, be dispensed with, and than the Bill be now 
read a second time, which wa* carried in the aftirmative, and the Bill was read a second time. 

Mr. Burwell, seconded by Mr. Fairfield, moved that the House do, on Monday next, 
resolve itself into a committee to take into consideration the Bill to repeal the District (Gram- 
mar) School Act, which was carried in the affirmative. 



86 ' DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF FDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1814 



Slid March, I8I4. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the FTouse went ino Committee on 
the District (Grammar) School Repeal Bill, Mr. James Young in the chair. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Young reported progress and obtained leave to 
sit again to-morrow. 

3rd March. ISlJf. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the House went into Committee of 
the Whole on the District School Repeal Bill, Mr. Young in the chair. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Young reported the Bill as amended. Ordered, 
That the rej^ort be now received. 

ith March, I8I4. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the District School Repeal Bill was read 
the third time. Mr. Burwell, seconded by Mr. Crysler, moved that the said Bill do now p'ss, 
and that it be intituled, " An Act to repeal an Act passed in the forty-seventh Year of His 
Majesty's Reign (1807), intituled ' An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every Dis- 
trict of this Province,' " which was caried, and the Bill was signed by the Speaker. 

Mr. Burwell, seconded by Mr. Crysler, moved that Messieurs James Young and Alexander 
McMartin be a Committee to carry up to the Honourable the Legislative Council the Bill to 
repeal the Public (Grammar) School Act, and request their concurrence thereto, which was 
carried in the aiiirmative. 

Mr. Young, from the C<im(nittee named to carry up to the Hon. the Legislative Council, a 
Bill for the repeal of the Public (Grammar) School Act, reported that they had done so. 

2. Proceedings of the Legislative Council on This Bill. 

4th March, 1814- — The Legislative Council met pursuant to adjournment. A deputatioa 
from the House of Assembly was announced, and it was ordered to be admitted. The deputa- 
brought up the fol'owing, among other Bills, and asked that it be concurred in by this 
House, viz. : — 

'* An Act to repeal an Act passed in the forty-eight Year of His Majesty's Reign (1808), 
i^ntituled, ' An Act to amend an Act passed in the forty-seventh Year of His Majesty's Reign 
(1807), intituled An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District of this Pro- 
vince,' " which Bill was read a first time and ordered to lie on the table. (Note. — It was not 
taken up afterwards during the Session.) 

The purpose of this legislation was designed by the House of Assembly ta 
limit the duration, by its repeal, of the Public, {i.e., Grammar,) School Act of 1807. 
The House of Assembly had been, during the last few years, persistent in its 
efforts to have this Act repealed, and the Legislative Council was equally per- 
sistent in refusing to assent to this repeal. 

The reason for this persistence on the part of the House of Assembly is- 
fairly and temperately stated in a petition from the Midland District, presented 
to the House of Assembly, with a somewhat similar one from the adjoining Dis- 
trict of Newcastle, during the session of 1812. {See pages 76-77.) 

While the Legislative Council thus refused to assent to the repeal of the 
Grammar School Act of ] 807, it sought, at the instance of the Honourable Richard 
Cartwright, to extend its operations, and thus to give it a wider scope. A 
Bill to this effect passed the Legislative Council in 1811, but the House of 
Assembly refused its concurrence in the measure. The Legislative Council 
was equally decided in refusing its assent to the repeal of the Public (Grammar) 
School Bill of the House of Assembly during the same session. Thus an educa- 
tional deadlock occurred between the two Houses in 1811. 

The consequence of this state of things was that a desire to establish private 
academies and schools arose in several places. The Ernestown (Bath) Academy 
was the first decided movement in that direction. The Midland District School 



Chap, XXIII. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1814. 8T 

Society was also formed in 1814-15. Nevertheless, the Grammar School Act of 
1807 remained on the Statute Book, with some modifications, until 1853. 

The House of Assembly did not, however, relax its efforts to repeal the Act 
of 1807, nor did the Legislative Council cease to promote the passage of a more 
expansive Grammar School Act, so as to meet the growing want of the com- 
munity for more schools. The result was that an understanding was gradually 
arrived at in both Houses to meet the demand for elementary schools, and they 
finally agreed to do in 1816, (what should have been years before), and that 
was to pass an Act designed to supply a want long felt in the establishment of 
primary schools throughout the Province. 

It took time, however, and much discussion arose before so desirable a 
result was brought about. What was done in this direction in the Legislature of 
1815 is not definitely known, as no record of the proceedings of either House has 
been preserved, or is in the Parliamentary Library at Ottawa or in Toronto. 

The subject came up, however, in the House of Assembly, during the session 
of 1816. Governor Gore's speech at the opening of the Legislature of that year 
contained a formal reference to the Act of 1807. This part of his speech was 
referred to a Select Committee of the House, which, in a series of resolutions 
dealt with the whole question of the comparative advantages of grammar and 
common schools. The result was the passage of the first Common School Act of 
Upper Canada, in 1816. 

Personal Sketches of Presidents of Upper Canada, 1812-1815. 

There being no record of the proceedings of the Legislature of Upper Canada 
for 1815 available, I insert in its place the following personal sketchei of the 
Presidents of Upper Canada who acted as such in 1812-1815 : — 

During the years 1805-1815, there had been frequent changes of Governors in 
Upper Canada. Francis Gore, Esquire, held office from 1806 until 1811, when, 
having obtained leave of absence, he returned to England and remained there 
until 1815. He was succeeded as President by Sir Isaac Brock, who fell at 
Queenston Heights in October, 1812, after a brief Presidency. Sir Roger Hale 
Sheaffe held the office as President and Commander-in-Chief. He was succeeded 
by Count de Rottenburg, also as President, in 1813. In that year Sir George 
Gordon Drummond was appointed, first as Presicient, and then as Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor. In 18] 5, Sir George Murray and Sir Frederick Phillipse Robinson succeeded 
each other as Presidents of Upper Canada until the arrival of Governor Gore. 

Major-General Sir Isaac Brock, " the Hero of Upper Canada," was bom in 
the Island of Guernsey, in 1769 — the same year in which Napoleon and Welling- 
ton were born. He entered the army in 1785. In 1799, he served under Sir 
Ralph Abercromby in Holland, and in 1801, under Lord Nelson, at Copenhagen. 
In 1802, he came to Canada, and served at Montreal, York (Toronto), Niagara 
and Quebec. In 1803, he crossed from Toronto to Niagara in an open boat,. 



-88 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1814 

thence around by Hamilton to intercept deserters from Fort George, whom he 
captured. In 1804, he took command at the Fort, and in 1806, to prevent deser- 
tions, he suggested the formation of a service battalion. In 1807, such a battalion 
was sent out. In 1812, he held the office of President of Upper Canada during 
the absence of Governor Gore in England. On the 16th of August, 1812, he 
made an attack on Detroit, and caused the American General, Hull, to surrender, 
with 2,500 men. On the 13th October, 1812, while gallantly leading his men to 
charge the Americans on Queenston Heights, he fell early in the action, aged 
43. Sir Roger Sheaffe then took command. 

Sir Roger Hale Sheaffe was a native of Boston, Massachusetts, and was 
born there in 1763. He was the son of His Majesty's Collector of Customs there. 
He entered the army in 1778. He served in Ireland and in Canada in a civil and 
military capacity during the years from 1778 to 1797. He afterwards served as 
■Colonel and Major-General in Holland, etc., and, in 1812, was again transferred to 
Canada. In 1813 he succeeded General Brock, and became Administrator of the 
Government, until he was relieved by General de Rottenburg. He died in 1851. 

Count Francis de Rottenburg served in the British army about twenty 
years before he was transferred to Canada. He held command in Lower Canada 
from 1810 to 1812, and in Upper Canada in 1813, when he succeeded General 
Sheaffe. He returned to England at the close of the war, and died there in 1832. 

Sir George Gordon Drummond was born at Quebec in 1771, while his 
Father held the post there of Paymaster-General of the Forces in Lower Canada. 
He served on the staff, and had command of the forces in Lower Canada in 1811. 
In 1813, he took command of the forces in Upper Canada, under Sir George 
Provost. After a variety of eminent services in Upper Canada, in 1814, he suc- 
ceeded Sir George Provost, (after his failure at Plattsburgh), as Administrator of 
the Government of Lower Canada, and Lieutenant-General and Commander-in- 
Chief of the Forces. He retired from Canada in 1818. Drummondville, now 
Niagara Falls South, was named after him, he having had command of the vic- 
torious British forces at the notable battle of Lundy's Lane, near by, on the 25th 
of July, 1815. He died in 1854, aged 84 years. 

Sir George Murray succeeded Sir Gordon Drummond for a short time, and 
then returned to join the British army in France, after the escape of Napoleon 
fmm Elba. He died in 1846, aged 74. 

" Sir Charles Frederick Phillipse Robinson was the son of Colonel Beverley 
Robinson, a United Empire Loyalist of New York. He entered the army, and 
served in the American colonies during part of the Revolutionary War. In 1813, he 
became Major-General, and came to Upper Canada as Commander-in-Chief. In 
July, 1815, he became President of Upper Canada, in succession to Sir George 
Murray. He remained in office until the return of Lieutenant-Governor Gore 
in 1815. He died in 1852. 



Chap. XXIV. THE MIDLAND DISTRICT SCHOOL SOCIETY, 1815. 89 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

THE MIDLAND DISTRICT SCHOOL SOCIETY. 1815. 

The House of Assembly having failed in its efforts to substitute a Common 
School Act for the one establishing a Grammar School in each District, a move- 
ment was made in Kingston in 1814-1815 to supply the want of elementary schools 
in that neighborhood. The popularity at the time of the Lancasterian system of 
educating children, so much in use in England, added greatly to the zeal of those 
who joined themselves together to form the Midland District School Society, for 
the promotion of education on that system. The Society were prompted to action 
in this matter by an organization in London, which had been formed there to 
promote " the education of the poor in Upper and Lower Canada." 

A brief sketch of the Lancasterian system may be appropriate in this place : 

Joseph Lancaster, its founder, was born in Southwark, England, in Novem- 
ber, 1778. His father was a Chelsea pensioner, who had served in the British 
army during the American war. At the age of eighteen Joseph was an assistant 
at two schools, one a boarding, the other a day school ; and thus, as he after- 
wards states in a letter to Dr. Bell,* he became acquainted with all the defects 
attendant on the old system of tuition in both kinds of schools. He took up the 
Rev. Dr. Bell's Madras system, and improved one or two of its details. The com- 
bined system of monitorial and systematized teaching was known as the " Bell 
and Lancaster System." As it became popular, an association was formed, in 
England, originally entitled " The Royal Lancasterian Institution for Promoting 
the Education of the Children of the Poor," and subsequently, for the sake of 
greater simplicity and brevity — the British and Foreign School Society, Borough 
Road, London. The chief feature of the system, taken from Dr. Bell's, was its 
monitorial character, and that with Lancaster's judicious mingling of religion, 
amusement and instruction, gave it popularity. In good hands it was a success, 
being new ; but as monitors and managers were not always judicious, it fell into 
disuse after a time, especially after his death in 1838. 

Lancaster lectured on his system in England, under the patronage of George 
III., who, at one interview with him, uttered that memorable saying, so often 
quoted : — " Lancaster, I highly approve of your system, and IT is MY wish that 
EVERY POOR CHILD IN MY DOMINIONS SHOULD RE TAUGHT TO READ THE BiBLE." 

He also visited the United States, the West Indies and Lower Canada. The 
Legislature of that Province voted to him several grants for educational purposes, 
and his scheme was widely popular during most of his life time.f 

*Rev. Dr. Bell is bettor known as the founder of what was known as the " Madras (or Monitorial) 
System," he having in 1787 introduced into the Military Male Orphan Asylum in Madras great improve- 
ments in the educational management of that institution, chiefly in the matter of nelf- education and a 
kindly yet Arm mode of discipline. Out of hia syctem grew the scheme of the Church of England 
*' National Schools. " (Sec Journal of Education for Upper Canada, volume IV., 1851.) Paget 16Z-164, 

f Journal of Education for Upper Canada, volume IV., (1851). Paget 177, 178. 



90 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1815 

Early in the year 1815, the Midland District School Society was organized, 
and soon afterwards a subscription paper was circulated, which resulted in the 
collection of £447.10.0 towards the building of a school house for the Society. 
Among the names of the subscribers for sums varying from $10 to S50 were the 
following : — Sir Gordon Drummond, John Whitelaw, Thomas Markland, fciamuel 
Ayleroyd, Rev. Thaddeus Osgoode and Peter Smith, SoO each ; Rev. Dr. Stuart 
and Charles Stuart, $40 each ; James Richardson, Senior, Francis Carlisle, George 
Douglass, Smith Bartlett, Oliver Thibodo, Patrick Smith, Richard Smith & Son, 
and George H. Markland, $30 each ; Commissary-General Sir James L. Yeo, 
Colonels Joel Stone, Myers and Harvey ; Major Glegg, Town Major Corbett, John 
Kirby, Laurance Herchmer, William (Jouch, Christopher A. Hagerman, vVilliam 
Lard, T. Strickland, Hugh C. Thompson, Allan McPherson, Henry McNally, 
SamuelMerrill,Senior, William Armstrong, Andre wBrandish, Allan McLean, Stephen 
Miles, William Mitchell, J . Abbot, John Size, Benjamin Olcott, James Robinson, 
Thomas Chatt, John McLean, John Baillie, James Geddes, George Harpham, Peter 
Grant, Andrew Denike and Aaron Carnahan, $20 each ; and 50 other subscribers 
at $10 each. 

Prospectus of the Midland District School Society, 1815. 

On the 15th of July, 1815, the Midland District School Society issued the 
following under the head of : — 

' ' Prcposals, for erecting a school house in this town, for the accommodation of all th& 
children of both sexes, unprovided with the means of education," etc. : — 

We, the subscribers, promise to pay the sums annexed to our respective names, for the 
accomplishment of this important object, on consideration that the Legislature will grant to the 
Trustees who may be chosen by us, the privilege of holding property and transacting business 
according to law. 

This establishment shall be held in shares of ten dollars each. The proprietor of each share- 
shall have the liberty of voting in all meetings of the subscribers, and shall have the privilege of 
sending one child, to be instructed at the school ten per cent, cheaper than the children of non- 
subscribers are admitted. And provided that any person take two or more shares iti this estab- 
lishment, the same privileges will be granted for each sh ire. 

The plan of instruction to be adopted, shall be that which has been found most successful 
in Great Britain and Ireland. 

Great attention shall be p-tid to the morals of the children, but no interference shall ever 
take place in th ^ school respecting catechisms and religious creeds. 

All the children shall be requested to attend divine worship, at such times and at such 
places as their parents and guardians shall direct. 

The Trustees shall be chose i annually, by whom school instructors shall be provided, and 
all necessary business with respect to the school transacted. 

The system on which the Midland District Society proposed to manage their 
schools was the Lancasterian, then very popular in England. It was in operation 
in Montreal, and in October, 1814, the Rev. Thaddeus Osgoode, (one of the pro- 
moters and shareholders of the Midland District Society), was sent to England ta 
obtain the services of a teacher of the new Lancasterian system. His return waa 
thus reported in the Kingston Gazette, of October, 1814 : — 

The Rev. Mr. Thaddeus Osgoode, who visited England for the purpose of procuring the 
measure of relieving and instructing the industrious poor of this country, has, we understand, 



Chap. XXIV. THE MIDLAND DISTRICT SCHOOL SOCIETY, 1815. 91 



arrived at Quebec with a school master who is well qualified to conduct a school on the newly 
invented and most improve 1 Lancasterian phm of education, which has been honoured with the 
patronage and support of many of the most distinguished characters in England, Scotland and 
Ireland, and which has proved extensively useful to thousands of poor children.* 

It appears that there is a respectable Board of Trustees formed in London. England, in 
whose hands is depo ited a fund to be appropriated to this benevolent purpose. 

After the money had been subscribed, but not collected, the Society met and 
passed a series of resolutions, as follows, viz. : — 

1. That a school house be built in Kingston sufficiently large to accommodate 400 children. 
It shall be constructed of durable materia s, under the direction and management of the twelve 
trustees, who may be chosen annually by the subscribers. 

Resolved — 2. That we respectfully petition the Legislature of this Province for an Act of 
Incorporation, empowering the Tru.stees to hold prop rty for the benefit of the school, and trans- 
act business according to law. 

Resolved — 3. That this house which is to be erected be completely under the control and 
subject to the management of the Trustees, and the plan of instruction adopted in it be the 
same which is adopted by the British and Foreign School Society in London, which is patron- 
ized by the Prince Kegent and several branches of the Royal Family, 

Resolved — 4. That the Rev. Mr George Okill Stuart, and Messieurs Allan McLean, 1 homas 
Markland, Lawrence Herchmer, Peter Smith, .John Kirby, Thomas Strickland, George Mark- 
and and Colonel Ha^ar.n in, be a C )inmitt3e of Arrangemint for presenthig a petition to Parlia- 
ment, and to take the necessary steps for carrying the design into operation. 

The following is a copy of the petition which was sent by the Committee of Arrangement to 
the Legislature : — 

To the Honotirable, the Speaker, to the Honourable, the Members of the House of Assembly in Pro- 
vincial Parliament assemblei. 

The petition of the Committee in behalf of the subscribers for the establishment of a School 
Society for Upper Canada, humbly sheweth : 

We the subscribers, beg leave to represent to your Honourabl^i House, that a society of 
respectable and benevolent characters in London has been formed, who have raised, by subscrip- 
tion, a sum of money, and thereby have established a fund for the purpose of promoting the 
education and moral improvement of the youth of every religious denomination in the Canadas. 

We further represent to your Honourable House that the subscribers for the above bene- 
ficial a;xd laudable object hvve appointel Trustees in London f>r the management and disposal 
of their fund design ite J " The Gommiftee for Prornuting the Education of the Poor in Upper 
and Lotoer Canada," whose professed object is to seu'l out teachers for the more general 
diflfusiai of instruction throughout this Province. 

We furthermore represent that the teachers sent out to this Province, by introducing a new 
system of education, will be able to embrace a much larger number of pupils within their 
schools than by the present established mode of education they can receive, and also, that the 
expense incurred by thi « plan of instruction is very much le'^sened. 

We furthfr represent to your Honourable House, that from a desire to avail ourselves of the 
services and labours of a teacher, and to co-operate with the London Committee in aiding and 
promoting their benevolent views and designs, we have subscribed the sum of five hundred 
pounds currency, for the purpose of erecting a school house in the Town of Kingston that shall 
contain four hundred childrdn of b(jth sexes. 

We. the subscribers, humbly request and pray that your Honourab'e House would take these 
represetitations into your consideration and extend to us legislative aid. 

We, therefore, pray that your Honourable House would incorporate the Trustees, (to be 
nominated by the subscribers), and invest them with the rights and privileges of a corporation, 
for the r.»ceiving, managing and dispos ng of the contributions of such persons as would be dis- 
posed to extend their benevolence to the general difl'usion of instructif)n in reading, writing and 
arithmetic, etc. ; a'ld that the aforesaid Corporation, with the succession, may be designated and 
known by the name of the " Trustees of the School Society of Upper Canada." 

* The Rev. Thaddeus Osgoode was a venerable Congret^ational Minister, who, when I knew him 
many years ago was greatly iatereated in Sunday Schools. The last time I met him was at a Sunday 
School Conventicn, and I was then greatly impressed with his kind and gentle bearing. He was my ideal of 
Goldsmith's •' Village Preacher." 



92 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1815 



And we further pray your Honourable House that such pecuniary aid may be afforded and 
granted to the incorporation as shall be the means of enabling them to carry into effect the most 
important object of the establishment, which is, the fitting and preparing of School Masters, to 
carry this plaa of instraction to the Townships and Villages of the Province. 

And we further represent to your Honourable House that, by extending the means of 
acquiring a common education, a great proportion of the children so instructed in this school 
will be, by these means, qual tied for admission into the higher, or Public, (Grammar), Schools, 
and thus the general welfare of the connnunity will be i>romoted. 

And your petitioners, as in duty bound, shall ever pray, etc., etc. 

(Note. — The record of the proceedings of the Legislature of Upper Canada 
for the year 1815 has not been preserved. This account which I give ot the 
formation and incorporation of the Midland District School Society was copied 
for me, in 1863, by Mr. George Coventry, of Cobourg, from an old file of the 
Kingston Gazette, published by Mr. Stephen Miles in 1811-1819.) 

The Legislature granted the prayer of the petitioners and passed the follow- 
ing Act incorporating the Society : — 

55 GEORGE III., CHAPTER XVIII. 

An Act to Incorporate the Midland District School Society. 

Sir George Murray, Administrator. 

Passed March IJfth, 1815, 

Whereas, funds have been collected, and a Society lately formed in England, Fund^ col- 
designated the " Committee for Promoting the Education of the Poor in Upper and l®*'*?^ '" Eng- 
Lower Canada,'" the object of which Society is to promote the education and moral *"? '°'' ®""". 
improvement of the poor of every religious denomination in Canada ; Canada ^ ^" 

And whereas, in furtherance of the wishes of that institution, a subscription has Subscription 
been entered into at Kingston, in the Midland District of this Province, to assist entered into 
in carrying into effect their benevolent intentions with reg ird to this Province, in Kingston 
and it is apprehended that, if countenanced and supported by the laws of this ^o"". same 
Province, and established upon a permanent footing, and vested with powers for °°J®°''- 
better enabling the subscribers thereto to carry into execution their charitable and Desirable 
useful designs, such an institution would be of extensive use, and of great benefit P"^®" asked 
and advantage to the public ; 

And irhereas, the purposes aforesaid cannot be effected without the aid of the Expedient to 
Legislature : grant them. 

1. Be, it enacted by the King's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the Mvice 
and consent of the Legislative Council and Assembly of the Province of Upper 
Canada, constituted and assembled hf virtue of, and under the authority of, an 
Act passed in the Parliament of Great Britain, intituled ' An Act to Repeal cer- 
tain parts of an Act passed in the fourteenth year of His Majesty's reign," intituled 
" An Act for making More Effectual Provision for the Government of the Pro- ^^®''?^ °* 
vince of Quebec, in North America, and to make further provision for the Govern- ^^ j^^i^ -^^ 
ment of the said Province," and by the authority of the same, That, on the first May, 1815. 
day of May, next ensuing, there shall be held a meeting of the subscribers for tlie 
purposes aforesaid in the Town of Kingston, in the Midland District aforesaid, at Trustees to be 
which meeting a President, Secretary, Treasurer and six Trustees, (any four of appointed by 
whom, with the President, shall be a quorum for the transacting of business), shall subscribers, 
be chosen from among the subscribers, by a majority t)f the subacribers then there Oyorum. 
present ; and regulations shall be also then and there made respecting the length 
of time the said Officers shall continue in office, and also respecting the election ]^^^],^ ^\'^°^ 
and nomination for the future of such President, Secretary, Treasurer and Trustees. 



to be made. 



2. And he it enaded by the authority aforesaid, That the President, Secretary, 
Treasurer and Trustees, for the time being, and their successors, so to be nominated m . ^ . 
and appointed, shall be, and they are hereby declared to be, one body Corporate Corporate" ^ 
and Politic, in deed and in law, by the name of " The Midland District School 



Chap. XXIV. THE MIDLAND DISTRICT SCHOOL SOCIETY, 1815. 93 



Society ; " and shall have perpetual succession and a common seal, wi h power to 
change, alter, break, or make new, the game ; and they, and their successors, by Po^ers as 
the name aforesaid, may sue, and be sued, implead, and be impleaded, answer, and such, 
be answered unto, in all, or any Court, or Courts, of Record, and places of jurisdic- rp i^ uj 
tion within this Province ; and that they and their successors, by the name afore- ^^ y^^^^ l^ds, 
said, shall be able and capable in Law to have, hold, receive, enjoy, possess, and money, etc., 
retain, for the ends and purposes of this Act, in trust, for the benefit of the said for the benefit 
Society of the Midland District, all such sum and sums of money as have been of the Society. 
l)aid, or given, or shall, at any time, or times, hereafter be paid, given, dev sed, or 
be gathered by any person, <.r persons, to, and for, the benevolent ends and pur- 
poses in this Act mentioned ; and that they and their successors, by the name 
aforesaid, shall and may, at any time hereafter, without any License in Mortmain, 
purchase, take, receive, have, hold, possess and enjoy, any lands, tenements. May sell and 
hereditaments, or any estate, or interest derived, or arising out of any lands, tene- demise the 
ments, or hereditaments, for the purposes of the said Society, and for no other ^™®* 
purpose whatever ; and may also, in the same manner, sell, grant, demise, alien, 
or dispose of the same, and do, and execute, all and singular, other matters and 
things that, to them, shall, or may appertain to do. 

3. And be. it further enacted by the authority afuresa id. That the said Presi- ^f ay lease real 
dent, and Trustees, so to be nominated and appointed, as aforesaid, and their sue- estate and dis- 
cessors, shall have full power and authority to lease such estate and hereditaments, ^jj estate" 
on such terms as they shall judge most/ beneticiai, and also to dispose of all such 
personal estates, at their will and pleasure, as shall appear to them most advan- 
tageous for promoting the benevolent purposes of the said institution. 

Aiid be it eiutcted by the authority aforesaid, That no person who is not a None but 
natural born subject of His Majesty, or a subject naturalized by Act of the British British sob- 
Parliament, or a subject of His Majesty, having become such by the conquest and J^g^^^ 
cession of the Province of Canada, shall be capable of being a Trustee or Teacher teachers, 
of the said School. 

After the passing of this Act, a meeting of the subscribers of the Society 
was called. It was held at the Episcopal Church, in Kingston, on Monday, the 
1st of May, 1815, when the following officers and Trustees were chosen, viz.: — 
The Rev. Mr. George Okill Stuart, President ; Mr. William Merrill, Secretary ; 
Mr. Hugh C. Thompson, Treasurer ; Colonel Myers, and Messieurs Adam McLean, 
Laurence Herchmer, Thomas Markland, William Mitchell and Thomas Strick- 
land, Trustees. 

Some misunderstanding having arisen between the Secretary and Treasurer of 
the Society, in regard to the mode of collecting and the terms of depositing in a 
bank, etc., the promised subscriptions for shares, a protracted delay ensued. The 
Legislature failed also to respond to the request made in the petition of the Society 
for funds. The result was that for years nothing was done, and the practical 
operations of the Society were, in consequence, indefinitely postponed. 

It was not until 1817 and 1818, that any further effort was made to carry out 
the intention of the Act of incorporation. Even then the effort languished. At 
length, in 1837, a movement was made to revive the Society, and to carry out in 
some degree the objects originally aimed at. In that year the Act of incorpora- 
tion was amended, and operations were practically commenced. After that, (as; 
will be seen later on), the history of the Society was a varied one. 



945 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IX UPPER CANADA. 1816 



CHAPTER XXV. 

EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE UPPER CANADA LEGISLA- 
TURE IN 1816. 

On the 6th of February, 1816, His Excellency Francis Gore, Esquire, Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, opened the fifth Session of the sixth Parliament of Upper 
Canada with a Speech from the Throne, in which he thus referred to the sub- 
ject of the value of the Grammar Schools, and to the desirability of establishing 
Elementary Schools in each township. He said : — 

The District Schools instituted by law (in 1807), and admirably fitted as a step between 
Elementary Schools and a Seminary for the higher branches of education, will not, without 
further aid, produce sufficient advantage to the youth of this Province. 

The dissemination of letters is of the first importance to every class ; and. to aid in so desir- 
able an object, 1 wish to call your attention to some provision for the establishment of schools 
in each township, which shall afford the first principles to the children of the inhnbittnts, and 
prepare such of them as may require further instruction to receive i in t!ie District Schools. 
From them, it seems desirable that there s lould be a resort to a Provincial Seminary for the 
youth who may be destined for the Professions, or other distinguished walks in life, where they 
might attain the higher branches of education. The Royal bounty has already been bestowed 
towards that end, in the destination of large tracts of land, and no attention shall be wanting 
on my part to second, and carry into efiect, the result of your deliberations on this important 
subject. 

The Legislative Councillors, in reply to His Excellency's speech, said* : — 

The system detailed by Your Excellency for the education of youth in this Province fully 
•corresponds with our sentiments on this subject ; and, as the dissemination of letters is of the 
first importance to every class in promoting morality and religion in ameliorating the condition 
of mankind, and in ben^-fiting posterity, this subject will claim from us such consideration as 
will carry into eff"ectthe benevo'ent intentions of Your Excellency ; and we notice with gratitude, 
that the royal bounty has already been bestow d in the destination of large tracts of land to be 
applied in such manner as will promote, give effect to. and mature, a system so effectually cal- 
culated to ensure the wealth and happiness of this Province. 

Your Excellency's personal zeal in promoting these laudable institutions, and your readiness 
to carry into effect the result of our deliberations, claim from us, as a public body, our warmest 
acknowledgements. 

On the 7th of January, 1816, the House of Assembly replied to His Excel- 
lency's speech as follows. It will be seen, however, that there was but a slight 
response in this reply to the Governor's remarks in regard to the District or 
Grammar Schools and the higher Seminary : — 

With Your Excellency we are convinced that the dissemination of letters is of the highest 
importance to every class of the community ; and, while we acknowledge with humble gratitude 
the munificent donation of His Majesty to this great object we beg leave to assure Your Excel- 
lency of our earnest wish to contribute, by every mean in our power, to that general difi'usion of 
education, so much to be desired. 

7th February, 1816. — Mr. John AVillson gave notice that he will move on Thursday, the 
15th instant, for leave to bring in a Bill to regulate Common Schools throughout the Province. 

7th Fehrnanj, 1816. — Mr. Robert Nichol, seconded by Mr. Malilon Burwell, moved that so 
much of His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor's speech as relates to education be referred to 
a Select Committee of thre^ members, andthat Messieur-sJameiDurand, Ralph Clench and Thomas 
Dickson be a Committee for that i)urpo3e ; that they have leave to send for persons and papers, 
and to report by Bill otherwise, which motion was carried in the affirmative. 

•There being no record of the proceedings of the Legislative Council for the years 1815, 1816, 1817 or 
1818 preserved in either of the Parliamentary Libraries at Ottawa or Toronto, I had this extract copied by 
Mr. Coventry, in 1862, from a local paper. 



Chap. XXV. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1816. 95 



SSth February, 1816. — Mr. Burwell, seconded by Mr. Durand, moved that Messieurs John 
Willson and John McGregor be added to the Committee on Education, which was ordered. 

26th February, 1816. — Mr. Nichol gave notice that he will, on Tuesday next, move for leave 
to bring in a Bill to provide for the establishment of Common Schools within this Province, and 
for other purposes. 

27th February, 1816. — Mr. Durand, first named of the Committee to consider that part of 
His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor's speech, which recommended attention to the education 
of the youth of the Province, made the following report : — 

Your Committee, nominated to report upon the state of education in this Province, beg 
leave to submit the following as their opinion, in maturing which they have endeavored not to 
lose sight of the great importance of the subject of their deliberation. 

Firstly : — That the education of youth is a subject worthy of the most serious attention of 
the Legislature. 

Secondly : — That the necessity of sending young men out of the Province to finish their 
education, which hath heretofore existed, has been found extremely inconvenient. 

Thirdly : — That sound policy dictates that our youth should be educated within the Pro- 
vince, or in England, if we wish them to imbibe jjredilections friendly to our diflFerent establish- 
ments, and attached to our Parent State. 

Fourthly : — That but few of the inhabitants of this Province can support the expense of 
sending their children to be educated in Great Britain ; and parental authority would reluctantly 
trust them at such an immense distance from its care, observation and control. 

Fifthly : — That there is, at present, no seminary at which they can obtain a liberal and 
finished education. 

Sixthly : — That, in order to diffuse liberal knowledge generally throughout the community, 
it appears expedient that a University should hereafter be established, where the arts and 
sciences may be taught to the youth of all denominations, in and of which establishment may be 
embraced the funds which are anticipated from His Majesty's munificent donation of lands for 
its support. 

Seventhly : — That nothmg has yet been done to pronaote education among the poorer 
inhabitants. 

Eighthly : — That it is expedient to extend the benefits of a common education throughout 
the whole Province. 

Ninthly : — That the people have shown among themselves a laudable zeal in this particular, 
which ought to be fostered and encouraged. 

Tenthly : — That, with respect to the present district institutions and grammar schools, 
your Committee feel it their incumbent duty to state as their opinion, the advantages which 
were expected to be derived from this source, have fallen short of the object. 

Lastly : — Your Committee, for these considerations, request that they may be permitted to 
submit to your Honourable House a Bill which they have framed for the establishment of common 
schools throughout this Province. 

James Dukand, 

Chairman. 
Common House of Assembly, 

27th February, 1816. 

Ordered — That the report be received and it and the Common School Bill be read. This 
was done, and the Bill was read the first time. 

Mr. John Willson then, seconded by Mr. Durand, moved that the Common School Bill be 
read a second time, on Thursday next, which was agreed to and ordered. 

27th Febnutry, 1816. — Mr. Willson, seconded by Mr. Durand, moved that the fifth Rule of 
this House be dispensed with, so far as to enable him to move for leave to bring in a Bill grant- 
ing a sum of money for the benefit of Common Schools throughout this Province, and that he 
have now leave to bring in the same. Which was agreed to and the Bill was read a first time. 

Mr. John Willson, seconded by Mr. Ralph Clench, moved that the Bill for granting a sum 
of money for the establishment of Common Schools, be read a second time on Thursday, 
which was ordered. 



96 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA 1816 



38th February, 1816. — Mr. Alexander McMartin, seconded by Mr. Thomas Dickson, moved 
that the Petition of the inhabitants of Williamstown and its vicinity, asking for aid for their 
school, be now read, which was agreed to, and the Petition was read as follows : 

To the Honourable, the Commons House of Assembly, in Provincial Parliament assembled : — 

The Petition of several inhabitants of the Village of Williamstown, in the Township of 
Charlottenturgh, County of Glengarry, and in the Eastern District of the Province, humbly 
sheweth, 

That your Petitioners, the inhabitants of Williamstown and its vicinity, in the County of 
Glengarry, have, at the expense of three hundred povmds, provincial currency, erected a frame 
school-house of forty feet in length, by thirty feet in breadth and sixteen feet in height of walls, 
and opened the same, for the education of youth, on the 2nd of January, 1815. 

That the expense of erecting this school-house was done by our means, for the sole purpose 
of encouraging education in a new country, and more especially for the benefit of such poorchil- 
dren whose parents or friends have not the means of defraying the expenses attending the same. 

The number of children now in school is about sixty ; but, in order to pay the schoolmaster 
and raise a small sum to keep the school-house in repair, the rate of education for each child is 
so high as to prevent several poor children obtaining the hoped for advantages of education. 
Could the price be lowered, the number of scholars would be much increased. 

We, therefore, humbly pray that a certain sum be granted, payable yearly or half-yearly 
to a committee appointed by the proprietors annually, and their successors in office, as an en- 
couragement for an able teacher, and support of the said school. 

And your Petitioners, as in duty bound, will ever pray. 

Alexander Mackenzie, Donald Fraser, D. McPherson, Peter Ferguson, John Wright, etc. 

Glengarry, February, 5th, 1816. 

S9th February, 1816 — Agreeably to the Order of the Day the Common School Bill was. 
read a second time. Mr. Willson, seconded by Mr. Durand, moved that the House do now 
resolve itself into a Committee, to take into consideration the Common School Bill, which waa 
agreed to, and the House went into Committee, with Mr. Robert Nelles in the chair. 

Mr. Speaker, having resumed the Chair, Mr. Nelles reported progress, and obtained leave 
to sit again to-morrow. 

Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the School Appropriation Bill was read a second 
time. Mr. Willson, seconded by Mr. Durand, moved that the House do now resolve itself into a 
Committee to take into consideration the Common Schoo Appropriation Bill, which was carried, 
and the House went into Committee, Mr. Beikie in the chair. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Beikie reported progress, and obtained leave to 
sit again to-morrow. 

2nd March 1816. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the House went into Committee on 
the Common School Bill, Mr. JNelles in the chair. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Nel'es reported progress and obtained leave to 
sit again on Monday. 

Jfth March, 1816. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the House went into Committee on 
the Common School Bill, Mr. Nelles in the chair. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Nelles reported progress, and obtained leave to 
sit again on Wednesday. 

8th March 1816. — Mr. Durand, seconded by Mr. McMartin, moved that the House do 
resolve itself into a Committee of the Whole to take into consideration the jiropriety of 
addressing His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor, on the subject of appropriating waste lands 
of the Crown for the aid of Common Schools. 

Which was agreed to, and the House went into Committee, Mr. Isaac Swayze in the chair. 
Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Swayze reported progress, and obtained leave to 
sit again on Monday. 

11th March, 1816. — Mr. Durand gave notice that he will, on to-morrow, move that the 
House do resolve itself into a Committee of the Whole upon the subject of an address to His 
Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor, relative to an appropriation of lands for schools. 

13th March, 1816. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the House went into Committee on 
the Common School Bill, Mr. Nelles in the chair. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Nelles reported progress, and obtained leave to 
sit again to-morrow. 



I 



Chap. XXV. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF .U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1816. 9T 



13th March, 181G. — Agreeably to notice Mr. Durand, seconded by Mr. Swayze, moved that 
the House do resolve itself into a Committee of the Whole on a joint address to the Lieutenant- 
Governor upon the subject of land appropriation for schools, which was carried, and the House- 
went into Committee, ivlr. John McGregor in the Chair. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. McGregor reported the address as amended. 

Ordered, That the address be received. 

Mr. Durand, seconded by Mr. Swayze, moved that the address on the subject of school' 
lands to the Lieutenant-Governor, be engrossed and read a third time to-morrow. 

14th March, 1816. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the joint address to His Excellency 
the Lieutenant-Governor, on the subject of school lands, was read the third time. 

Mr. Durand, seconded by Mr, Burwell, moved that the joint address for school lands do- 
now pass, which was carried, and the address was signed by the Speaker. 

Mr. Burwell, seconded by Mr. Durand moved that Messieurs Thomas Dickson and William 
McCormick, be a Committee to inform the Honourable the Legislative Council that this House 
have passed an address to His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor, respecting school lands, and 
request their concurrence thereto, which was ordered. 

Mr. Dickson, first named of the Committee to carry up to the Honourable the Legislative 
Council the joint address, to the Lieutenant-Governor, on the subject of school lands, and to 
pray their concurrence thereto, reported that the Committee had done so. 

15th March, 1816. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the House went into Committee on 
the School Bill, Mr. Nelles in the chair. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Nelles reported progress and obtained leave ta 
git again to-morrow. 

Mr. Dickson gave notice that he will, on to-morrow, move for leave to bring a Bill ta 
amend an Act passed in the forty-seventh year of His Majesty's reign (1807), intituled "An 
Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District of this Province." 

A message was brought down from the Legislative Council by Mr. W. W. Baldwin, Master- 
in-Chancery, as follows : — 

Mr. Speaker, 

The Honourable the Legislative Council request a Conference with the Commons 
House of Assembly respecting an address to His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor, 
relative to the appropriation of a portion of the waste lands of the Crown for the purpose of 
encouraging the establishment of Common Schools within this Province, and for other purposes, 
which was sent up yesterday for the concurrence of this House, for which purpose a Committee 
of two members will be ready to meet a Committee of the Commons House of Assembly, in the 
Legislative Council Chamber, at one o'clock to-morrow. 

Legislative Council Chamber, Thomas Scott, 

York, 15th March, 1816. Speaker. 

Mr. Dickson, seconded by Mr. Nelles, moved that Messieurs Thomas Ridout and Jamea 
Durand be a Committee of Conference to meet the Honourable the Legislative Council to-mor- 
row on the subject of joint address to His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor, on the subject 
of their Message this day. 

16th March, 1816. — Mr. Thomas Ridout, first named of the Committee to confer with the 
Committee of the Legislative Council on the subject of a joint address to His Excellency the 
Lieutenant-Governor, respecting the ai)propriation of Crown Lands for the purpose of Common 
Schools, reported that the Committee had met and prepared a draft of an Address to that effect 
and agreed to recommend it to the adoption of the House. 

Agreeably to notice, Mr. Dickson, seconded by Mr. McGregor, moved for leave to bring in 
a Bill to amend the District School Act, which was agreed to and the Bill read a first time. 

Mr. Dickson, seconded by Mr. Clench, moved that the District School Amendment Bill be 
read a second time on Monday, which was ordered. 

20th March, 1816.— Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the House went into Committee on, 
the Common School Bill, Mr. Nelles in the chair. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Nelles reported the Bill as amended. 

Ordered, That the report be received 

Mr. Willson, seconded by Mr. Dickson, moved that the Fifth Rule of the House be dis- 
pensed with as far as regards the Common School Bill, and that it be engrossed and read a 
third time to-day, which was ordered. 
7 (D.E.) 



■98 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1816 



21st March, 1816. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Common School Bill was read 
the third time. 

Mr. Willson, seconded by Mr. Durand, moved that the Common School Bill do now pass, 
and that it be intituled "An Act granting to His Majesty a sum of money to be applied to the 
oise of Coram m Schools throughout this Province, and to provide for the regulation of said 
Coaimon Sch)ol<," which was agreed to, and the Bill was signed by the Speaker. 

Mr. John Beikie, seconded by Mr. Isaac Swayze, moved that Messieurs Durand and Willson, 
be a Committee to carry up to the Honoui'able, the Legislative Councd, the Common School 
Act, and request their concurrence thereto, which was ordered. 

Mr. Durand, first named of the Committee to carry up to the Honourable the Legislative 
•Council the Bill intituted " An Act f ^r granting to His Majesty, a certain sum of money to be 
.applied to the uses of Common Schools throughout this Province, and to provide for the regu- 
lation of said Common Schools, " and j. ray their concurrence thereto, reported that the Com- 
anittee had done so. 

Agreeable to the order of the day, the District School Amendment Bill was read a second time. 

Mr. Dickson, seconded by Mr. Willson, moved that the House do now resolve itself into a 
Committee on the District School Amendment Bill ; which was agreed to, and the House went 
into Committee, Mr. Thomas Mears in the chair. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Mears reported progi'ess, and obtained leave 
to sit to-morrow. 

22nd March, 1816. — Mr. Robert Nichol, seconded by Mr. John Crysler, moved that Mes- 
sieurs Durand and Burwell be a Committee to inform the Honourable the 1 egislative Council, that 
this House, have appointed a Committee to present, with the Committee of the Honourable the 
Legislative Council, the Joint Address to His Excellency, the Lieutenant-Governor, on the 
.subject, of school lands, which was agreed to. 

Mr. W. W. Baldwin, Master- in-Chancery, brought down from Honourable the Legislative 
•Council a Bill sent up fi-om this House, intituted " An Act granting to His Majesty a sum of 
omoney to be applied to the uses of Common Schools throughout this Province, and to provide 
ior the regulation of the said Common Schools, " which they had passed without any amend- 
ment. Also a written message as follow : — 

Mr. bPEAKEB : 

The Honourable the Legislative Council have appointed one of its members to wait, 
jointly with a Committee of the Commons House of Assembly, upon His Excellency, the 
Lieutenant-Governor, to know when he would be pleased to receive the Address of both Houses 
of the Provincial Legislature respecting the appropriation of a part of the waste lands of the 
Crown, for the purpose of encouraging the establishment of Common Schools, and for other 
purposes. 
liEGisi-ATiVE Council Chamber. Thomas Scott, 

York, 22nd March, 1816. Speaker. 

Mr. Rolph Clench, first named of the Committee to wait on His Excellency, the Lieuten- 
ant-Governor, with a Committee of the Honourable the Legislative Council, to know when he 
would receive the Joint Address of the two Houses on the subject of the school lands, 
reported that they had done so, and that His Excellency had appointed the hour of half jjast 
two to receive the same. 

Mr. Clench, first named of the Committee to wait upon the Lieutenant-Governor, with a 
Committee of the Legislative Council, and present the Address to the two Houses on the sub- 
ject of school lands, reported that they had presented the Addi'ess to His Excellency, who was 
pleased to make an answer thereto, a copy of which he gave to the Speaker who read the same, 
as follows : — 

F. GoBE : 

Gentlemen, I shall have great satisfaction in seconding the endeavours of the Legislature to 
establish Common Schools in the Townships throughout the Province, by a suitable appropri- 
ation of land for the use of each school, in which I assure myself of the ready concurrence of 
His Majesty's Council for the affairs of this Province. 

The application of His Majesty's gracious bounty towards the support of a Provincial 
Seminary must depend upon the Royal instructions, yet to be received, but which, it cannot be 
doubted, will be framed with the same princely liberality that dictated the general measure of a 
reserve of lands for that purpose. 

Government House, ^ • '^• 

York, 22nd March, 1816. 



Chap. XXV. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1816. 99 

'23 rd March, 1816. — Agreeably to the Order of the Da v, the House went into Committee 
on the District School Amendment Bill. Mr. McCormick in the chair. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. McCormick reported progress and obtained 
leave to sit again this day. 

25th March, 1816. — Agreeable to the Order of the Day, the House went into Committee on 
the District School Amendment Bill, Mr. McCormick in the chair. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. McCormick reported progress, and obtained 
leave to sit again this day. 

The House again wetit into Committee on the District School Amendment Bill, Mr. 
McCormick in the chair. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. McCormick reported the Bill, as amended. 

Ordered, That the report be received. 

Mr. Nichol, seconded by Mr. Ridout, moved that the District School Amendment Bill be 
-engrossed and read a third time to-morrow, which was ordered. 

26th March, 1810. — Agreeable to the Order of the Day, the Public School Amendment 
Bill was read a third time. 

Mr. Clench, seconded by Mr. Thompson, moved, that the third clause of the Public (Gram- 
mar) School Amendment Bill be expunged. On which the House divided, and the yeas and 
nays, being taken down, were as follows : — 

Yea.s. — Messieurs Clench, Young, Thompson, 3. 

Nays. — Messieurs Willson, Dickson, McCormick, Beikie, Crysler, Ridout, Nichol, Burwell, 
Mears, Nelles, andSwayze, II. 

The motion was lost, by a majority of eight, 

Mr. Nichol, seconded by Mr. Burwell, moved that the Public School Bill do now pass, and 
that it be intituted " An Act to amend an Act passed in the forty-seventh year of His Majesty's 
Reign, (18)7), intituled 'An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District of this 
Province, to extend the provisions thereof, and for other purposes therein mentioned. " 

On which the House divided, and the yeas and nays were taken down as follows : — 

Yeas. — Messieurs Dickson, McCormick. Willson, McMartin, Nelles, Ridout, Beikie, 
Oryslfer, Meara, Nichol, Burwell, Swayze and Young, 13. 

Nays. — Mr. Clench, 1. 

And it was carried in the affirmative by a majority of twelve, and the Bill was signed by 
the Speaker. 

Mr. Nichol, seconded by Mr. Swayze, moved that Messieurs. Burwell and Crysler br a 
Committee to carry the Public School Amendment Bill up to the Honourable the Ijegislative 
•Council and to request their concurrance thereto, which was ordered. 

27th March 1816. — Mr. Burwell, first named of the Committee to carry up to the Honourable 
the Legislative Council the Bill intituted "An Act to amend an Act passed in the forty-seventh 
yearot His Majesty's reign (1807), intituted 'An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every 
District within this Province, and to extend the provisions thereof, and for other purjioses therein 
mentioned,' " and request their concurrence thereto, reported that the Committee had done so. 

Mr. D'Arcy Boulton jr.. Master in-Chancery, brought down from the Honourable the 
Legislative Council the Bill, intituted "An Act to amend an Act passed in the forty -seventh 
year of His Majesty's Reign (1807), intituted 'An Act ro establish Public Schools in each and 
■every District of this Province ', to extend the provisions thereof, and for other purposes there- 
in mentioned ' " which they had passed without amendment. 

26th March, 1816. — Mr. Thomas Dickson, seconded by Mr. John Willson, moved that the 
fifth rule of this House be dispensed with, so far that he have leave to bring in a Bill to amend 'An 
Act passed in the forty-seventh year of His Majesty reign, (1807,) intitule<l. An Act to establish 
Public Schools in each and every District (jf this Province, and further to extend the benefits of 
the same. ' On which the House divided, the yeas and nays being taken down as follows ; — 

Yeas. — Messieurs Willson, Dickson, Thompson, Mears, and Beikie, 5. 

Nays. — Messieurs McCormick, Young, McMartin, Swayze, Durand, Burwell, Clench, 
■Crysler, and Nelles, 9. 

And the question was decided in the negative by a majority of four. 
(Note. — The title of this Bill differs from the one passed by the House of 
Assembly, on the 26th of March. In that Bill, after quoting the title of the Act 
of 1807, the words added are : — 

To extend the provisions thereof, and for other purposes therein mentioned. 



100 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1816 



This Bill was concurred in by the Legislative Council ; and, of this concur- 
rence, the Council, by message, informed the House of Assembly, on the 27th of 
March. The Bill, however, was not assented to by the Lieutenant-Governor, for 
what reason does not appear, except that the House of Assembly had not form- 
ally acted upon the report of concurrence from the Legislative Council. The 
Bill sought to be introduced into the House of Assembly by Mr. Thomas Dickson, 
on the 29th of March, had, after quoting the title of the Act of 1807, the fol- 
lowing words added : — 

And further to extend the benefits of the same.) 

SOth March, 1816. — Mr. Dickson, first named of the Committee to carry up to the Honour- 
able the Legislative Council the Bill intituled, ' An Act to amend an Act passed in the forty- 
seventh year of His Hajesty's reign, (1807), intituled, An Act to establish Public Schools in 
each and every District of this Province, to extend the provisions thereof, and for their pur 
poses therein mentioned,' and request their concurrence to it, reported that the Committee had 
done so. 

Mr. D'Arcy Boulton, jr. , Master-in-Chancery, brought down the Bill, intituled, 'An Act 
to amend an Act passed in the forty-seventh year of His Majesty's reign, (1807,) intituled, 'An 
Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District of this Province, and to extend the 
provisions thereof, and for other purposes therein mentioned, sent up from this House, which 
the Legislative Council had passed without amendment. 

1st April, 1816. — The Black Rod having, by His Excellency's command, summoned the 
members of the House of Assembly to the Legislative Council Chamber, he was pleased to assent, 
in His Majesty's name, among other Bills, to the one intituled : — 

An Act granting to His Majesty a sum of money to be applied to the uses of Common 
Schools throughout this Province, and to provide for the Regulations of the said Common 
Schools. 

In proroguing the Legislature, His Excellency, Lieutenant-Governor Francis 

Gore, Esquire, closed the session with a speech from the Throne, in which the 

following passage occur : — 

I thank you for the zealous discharge of your legislative functions, in providing so many 
valuable laws, which must be attended with the most salutary effects to this Province. Thati 
particularly, which provides for the dissemination of letters in this infant Colony, must secure 
to you the gratitude and veneration of the rising and future generations. 

Members of the House of Assembly who took part in the Educational 

Legislation of 1816. 

The Members of the House of Assembly who took part in its school legisla- 
tion in 1816, were Messieurs Robert Nichol, Mahlon Burwell, James Durand, John 
Willson, Ralph Clench, Alexander McMartin, Thomas Dickson, Robert Nelles, 
Isaac Swayze, John McGregor, William McCormick, Thomas Ridout, John Beikie 
and John Crysler. 

Mr. James Durand was elected in 1814, for the Niagara District; in 1817 

and 1818 for the County of Wentworth ; and in 1835, and 1841 for the County 

of Halton. The Rev. Dr. Scadding, in his Toronto of Old, speaking of Mr. Durand, 

said that in 1817, the House of Assembly was persuaded, — 

To vote his address to the electors of Halton, a libel, to exclude its author from the House, 
and to commit him to prison. His instant election by the County of Halton, was, of course, 
secured. We observe from the evidence of Mr. James Durand, before the celebrated 
(Mackenzie) Grievance Committee of 1835, that he was an early advocate of a number of the 
charges which have since been carried into efiect. He died in 1872, at Kingston, where 
he was Registrar for the County of Frontenac* 

*For the particulars of this case, see Yei^h's Ontario Parliamentary Buildings, 1792-1892, pages 92-94. 



Chap. XXV. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1816. 101 



Mr. John Willson was elected to represent the west riding of the County of 
York in 1809 and 1813, and the County of Wentworth, in 1820, 1825. 1829 and 
1831. He became Speaker of that House of Assembly in 1825. 

Mr. Thomas Ridout was elected member for the west riding of York, in 
1812. He had been Clerk of the Peace for the Home District, and, in 1810, be- 
came Surveyor General of Upper Canada. In 182 4-, he was appointed a member 
of the Legislative Council. He died in February, 1829, 

Mr. John Beikie became a member of the House of Assembly, in 1813. Before 
that he was Sheriff of the Home District. He was afterwards appointed Clerk 
of the Executive Council. 

Of the other Members not already mentioned, little is recorded, and, therefore, 
I have been unable to refer to them further. Their labours, however, are not 
forgotten ; for to them, and to their leaders in the House of Assembly, are we 
indebted for the first step being taken lo found a systematic and intelligent 
scheme of education for Upper Canada, in providing for the establishment of 
primary schools in the several townships of the Province. It took some years to 
accomplish this purpose, but at length in 1816, (nine years after the grammar 
schools were established,) legislative provision was then first made for the 
establishment and maintenance of common schools in Upper Canada, and the large 
sum, in that day, of £6,000, ($24,000) was annually granted for this purpose and 
the law provided that the people were " to meet together " in any town, village 
or township, " to make arrangements for establishing common schools in such 
town, village or township," at each of which the attendence of pupils should not 
be less than twenty. The law also authorized that three " fit and discreet per- 
sons " should be chosen Trustees, who were to " examine into the moral character 
and capacity of any person willing to become a teacher " and appoint him. The 
trustees were further authorized to make rules and regulations for their own 
schools, and select text-books from a list prescribed by a District Board of Educa- 
tion, to which they were required to report. The provincial allowance to each 
school wa3 in no case to exceed £25, ($100) — the balance of salary and contingent 
expenses had to be made up by subscriptions. No rate-bills or assessments for 
this purpose were, however, authorized. This law was considered as a tentative 
one, and also as an experiment. The operation of the Act of 1 816, was, on its 
pa.ssing, limited to four years.* 

The following is a copy of this, the first Common School Act passed by the 
Legislature of Upper Canada. Its passing marked a distinct epoch in the edu- 
cational history of the Province. 

•Historical Sketch of Education in Upper Canada, by J. George Hodgins, M.A., LL.B , F.R.6.S., in 

Eighty Years Progress o^ British North America, Toronto, 1863, page 384. 



102 DOCUMENTARY BISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPKR CANADA. 1816 



56th GEORGE II f., CHAPTER XXXVI. 

An Act gravtixg to FTis Mvjesty' a sum of money, to be applied to the use of Common 
Schools throughout this Province, and to provide for the Regulations of 
SAID Common Schools. 

Francis Gore, Esquire, Lieutenant-Governor. 

Passed 1st April, 1816. 

Most Gracious Sovereign ; 

Whereas it would be conducive to the happiness of the Inhabitants, and general Preamble, 
prosperity of the Province, to encourage the educatiou of youth in Common 
Schools. 

1. (Annual grant of £1000 to the Midland Tistrict ; £800 to the Eastern Annual grrant 
District £600 each to the Home, Johnstown, London, Gore Niagara and Weston of £6,000. 
District ; ^400 to the Newcastle ; ^200 to the Ottawa District— £6,000 in all— 

for the establishment of common schools in these districts. This section was 
repealed in 1820, and these sums were reduced, by the 1st George IV., chapter 7.) 

2. A nd be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That from and after inhabitants of 
the passing of this Act, it shall and may be lawful, for the Inhabitants of any any town etc. 
Town, Township, Vi lage or jil^ce, to meet together for the purpose of making to make ar- 
arrangements for Conimcm Schools in such Town, Township. Village or place, on ^"^^'^^ntsftr 
or before the first day of June in the present year, and on the first day of June in ^o^^^on 
each and every year, during the continuance of this Act. 

3. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesa'd, That so soon as a Persons may 
competent number of persons as aforesaid, shall unite and build or provide a School unite and 
House, engage to furnish twenty scholars or more, and shall in part provide for the huild a School 
payment of a Teacher, it shall and may be lawful for such persons as aforesaid, or m""^,^» 1^*^ 
the majority of them, giving eight days' previous notice thereof, t) meet at some p^^j^ Trustees- 
convenient place appointed for that purpose, and it shall and may be lawful for and furnish 
each persons as aforesaid, and they are hereby required, to appoint three fit and scholars, 
discreet persons, Trustees to the said Common School, who shall have power and 

authority to examine into the moral character and capacity of any person willing to 
become Teacher of such Common School, and being satisfi-^d of the moral character 
and capacity of such Teacher, to nominate and ajipoint such person as the Teacher 
of said Couimon School. 

4. Provided always nevertheless, and be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, Teachers must 
That no person shall be appointed Teacher t(i such Common School unless such be natural 
person is a Natural Bjrn subject of His Majeity, or a subject of His Majesty born subjects 
naturalized by Act of the British Parliament, or a subject of His Majesty having ^7 "^ve taken 
become such by the conquest and cession of the Province of Quebec, or by having allegiance, 
taken the Oath of Allegiance to His Majesty. 

5. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the said Trustees have 
Trustees or the majority of them shall have power and authority, under the pro- power to re- 
visions hereinafter mentioned for that purpose, in their discretion to remove such f^ra^vf,^ro- 
Teacher, as aforesaid, from his school, for any misdemeanor or impropriety of con- priety of con- 
duct ; and it shall and may be lawful for the said Trus'ee, or tin majority of them, duct and 

in case of demise, dismissal or removal, of any Teacher, as aforesaid, to nominate appoint an- 
and appoint, as ofien as the cas^ may require, one other fit and discreet person as other person, 
aforesaid, to become such Teacher as aforesaid : Provided always, nevertheless, 
that no Teacher of any Common School, under the provisions of this Act, sh 11 be 
removed or dismissed from his said school, unless the Board of Education herein- 
after appointed in each and every District of this Province, sanction the removed 
or dismissal. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That the Trustees Trustees have 
appointed, under and virtue of this Act, to any Common School, as aforesaid, or power to make 
the majority of them, shall have power and authority to make Rules and Regula- Rules for the 
tions for the good government of the said Common Schools, with respect to the f ♦I^'^q"},^ "i 
Teacher, for the time being, and to the scholars, as in their discretion shall seem 
meet, and that it shall and may be lawful for the said Trustees, and they are here- 



Chap. XXV. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1816. 10:^ 



by required, to report to the District Board of Education, hereinafter to be ap- Trustees to 
pointed, the Books used, with the Rules and Ret^ulations used in the said Schools, report to the 
once in every three mouths : Provided always, that it shall and may be lawful for Board of Edu- 
the said District Board of Education, on such report as aforesaid, being received, ^***u°' f • 
to order and direct suoh Books, or any of them, not to be used in the said Schools, (.jjg g^^j^j 
and to rescind the said Rules and Regulations, or any part of them, if it should be Schools once 
deemed expedient, giving suflBcient notice thereof to the sa d Trustees, who shall every three 
warn the subscribers to the said t^chool to provide other Books for the tuition of months, 
the said Scholars, and to make such other alterations, rules or regulations, in the 
said Schools, as they shall deem necessary, in order that there may be a more uni- 
form system of education throughout the Province. 

7. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That all engage- j^\i engage- 
ments, contracts or subscriptions, entered into by the Subsc ibers to any Common ments entered 
Schools, in any District of that Province, with any i)erson or persons, for the into by sub- 
erecting, building or keeping in repair, any School House for the purpose afore- ?f",^5?' ^ ^ 
said, or the payment of the Teacher thereto, such Subscriber, or Subscribers, shall be g^gi^fQ* ^eir 
liable to be sued for their subscription by the said Trustees to such Common subscription. 
Schools, or their successors in office, in any Court of this Province having com- 
petent jurisdiction. 

8. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That it shall and may Trustees once 
be lawful for the Trustees of the Commoa Schools in each and every District of this a year to 
Province, and they are hereby required once in tach and every year, to report to report to the 
the Board of Education, for that purpose hereinafter appointed, in each and every Board of Edu- 
District of this Province, the state of the Common Schools, which such Trustees, gf„!2'!)f the 
aforesaid, shall have the direction of, the number of scho'ars, the state of educa- Schools etc. 
tion, with the different branches taught in the said School, and all other matters in order that 
and thing? that may tend to cherish the prosperity of the said Common Schools, or the Board 
that may in any wise benefit the same, in order that the said Board of Education may report to 
may report the state of the District Common Schools to the Governor, Lieutenant- +u®4.^h^*™°e' 
Governor, or Person administering the Government, that the same may be laid ^^y ^j^ j^j^j 
before the Legislature at its first meeting for their inspection. before the 

Legislature. 

9. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That it shall and may Govern-)r to 
be lawful for the G(jvernor, Lieuten mt-Governor, or Person administering the appoint not 
Government, to appo nt not more than five fit and discreet persons to compose a more than five 
Board of Education in each and every District of this Province, three of whom l>er8on8 to 
shall be a tjuorum ; who shall have full power to superintend such Common Schools ^^^*o£ Edu- 
in the Districts for which they are appointed and shall annually report, to the cation in each 
Governor. Lieuten tnt-Governor, or Person administering the Government, the District, three 
state of the said Common Schools, to be laid before the Legislature at their meeting, to be a quo- 
rum. 

10. And be it fui'ther enacted by the authority aforesdd. That the moneys payment ^ 
granted by this Act shall be apportioned to the Teachers of the several Common Teachers. 
Schools in each and every District of this Province, to be paid to the Teacliers 

yearly or halt-yearly, as may be directed by said Trustees, in proportion to the 
number of scholars educated in such schools as aforesaid. 

11. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That the Teachers of Teachers pro- 
such Common Schools established as aforesaid, in any Town, Township, Village or ducing a certi- 
place, in each and every District of this Province, producing a Certificate, signed by ^'^^^ si^ed 
the Trustees of any such Common Schools stating his having well demeaned himself "^ iruHtees. 
as Teacher of the said School for Six Months, with the number of Scholars Educated 

in the said School, being not loss than twenty in such School, aforesaid, it shall 
and may be lawful for the Treasurer of the District, to pay to such Teacher his ^'"®^""?'"- !i * 
proportion of any sum or sums of money that may be granted by the Legislature of * guclT'^ 
this Province for Common Schoids in the respective Districts thereof, during the Teacher, 
continuance of this Act. 

12. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That it shall and may Books may be 
be lawful for the District Boards to be appointed in each and every District in this purchased— 
Province, to api>ly such part of the money hereby granted to the several Districts, hmit. 

not exceeding one hundred pounds as they shall see fit, for the purchase of proper 
books for the use of the said Common Schools, and. after having purchased such 
books, to cause the same to be distributed for the use of such schools, in such 
manner as to them shall seem meet. 



104 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1816 



13. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the Board of §oard of 
Education, to be appointed by virtue of this Act, in each and every District of this Education 
Province, shall have full power and authority to proportion the sums of money for ^^g,"o p^Q. 
the Common Schools of the said District, and after proportioning the same each of to portion the 
the said Schools, to send to the Treasurer of the said District a copy thereof, in order money for the 
that the Treasurer, aforesaid, may discharge the certificates granted to the Teacher, schools, and to 
as aforesaid ; Provided always, that no allowance to any Common School, in each ^^d Lo the 
and every District of the Province, shall exceed the sum of Twenty-five pounds co^py^^'^reof 
annually ; Provided always nevertheless, that no allowance whatever shall be paid 

to the Teacher of any Common School, in any District of this Province, unless the 
Trustees of the said Common Schools report to the Board of Education, agreeably 
to the provisions of this Act. 

14. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That when two ad- When two ad- 
joining Districts may find it convenient to compose such School as aforesaid, a por- joininf? Dis- 
tion of the Scholars of which may reside in each District, that the Trustees of such tricts compose 
School shall have full power to make the necessary returns as are required by this ?^g Trustees 
Act, and receive an equal proportion of the moneys so granted for the support of ^o make re- 
such Schools, from each of the respective Districts, in proportion to the number of turns, etc. 
Scholars sent to the said School from each District. 

1 5. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the several The several 
«ums hereby granted to the several Districts of this Province shall be | aid by the sums granted. 
Receiver Geneial of this Province to the Treasurer of each District respectively in to be paid by 
•discharsie of such warrant or warrants as shall from time to t'me be issued by the p ® Keceiver 
•Governor, Lieutenant-Governor or Person Administering the Government of this ^■^^ Treasurer 
Province, and shall be accounted for by the Receiver General to His Majesty, His of cash Dis- 
Heirs or Successors, through the Lords Commissioners of His Treasury for the time trict. 
Tjeing, in such manner and form as His Majesty, His Heirs or Successors shall be 
graciously pleased to direct. 

16. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That this Act shall Continuance 
'be, and is hereby declared to be in force for and during the term of four years. of this Act. 



Note. — Since the Union of the two Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, 
in 1840, this Act, and the other Common School Acts passed afterwards, have 
been repealed by Statutes of Canada, 4 and 5 Victoria, Chapter 18, passed in 
1841, and afterwards by 7 Victoria, Chapter 29 passed in 1843. 



In the Kingston Gazette the following letter published in the St. David'i 

'Spectator, (Niagara District,) by a gentleman at York, was copied. It refers to 

the character of the School Legislation of 1816, and is dated, York, 2nd of April 

of that year. 

On the 6th day of February, the Provincial Parliament assembled, and the Lieutenant 
Governor directed their serious attention to the Militia code, but especially to the instruction of 
the people by the establishment of Common Schools in each Township, and promised his cordial 
co-operation in carrying into efi'ect the result of their deliberations on this important subject. 

The Parliament proceeded with alacrity to business, and passed many useful laws both of a 
public and private nature. Of these I shall select two. 

The second is the Common School Bill, which includes a system simple and efficacious, and 
Tvhich will, in a few years, have a moat sensible efi'ect on the character of the Pr <vince. 

To inform the common people is to make them better subjects both to God and man. It 
promotes morality and religion, ameliorates the condition of mankind and benefits posterity. 

The writer of the History of Education in Upper Canada, published in 

the Christian Recorder for April, 1819, and inserted in this work, under that 

•date, discusses fully and clearly the school legislation of 1807 and 1816, and 

points out the popular objection to both Acts at that time. 



Chap. XXVI. DISTRICT (GRA.MMAR), OR OLD BLUE SCHOOL, AT YORK, 1816. 105 

CHAPTER XXVI. 

THE DISTRICT GRAMMAR, OR OLD BLUE SCHOOL, AT YORK. 

From Mr. J. Eoss Robertson's interesting Chapter, in the " History of Upper 
Canada College 1829-1892," on the " Old Blue School at York," I make, with his 
permission, the following extracts : — 

Of the many preceptories for the enlightenment of youth in the ancient town of York, 
none occupied the exceptional position of the far-famed Home District (Grammar) School, better 
knovm as "The Old Blue School."* . . . 

In an old plan of York, dated 1797, the six acres directly north of the square occupied by 
St. James' Cathedral, is marked "School." The plan is ofBcial, and its correctness is certified 
to by "D. W. Smith, Deputy Surveyor-General, 10th June, 1797," with the countersign of "In 
Council at York, June 10th, 1797, Peter Russell, President." At a later date, in 1819, another 
plan was issued by ''Thomas Ridout, Surveyor-General," on which this same square is marked 
"'College Square." Cn this square of six acres was erected, in 1816, the District Grammar 
School, known afterwards as The Old Blue School.* 

Let us, however, wander back to the second decade of the century. We stand at the south- 
east comer of King and Y"t nge streets, and observe on the north-east comer a neatly-built 
two storey white painted frame building, with a neat porch, trimmed with vines and faced 
with a sharp-pointed picket fence that ran around the structure, shaded as it was by huge willow 
trees which shielded the inmate i from the sunrays of summer and the snow whirls of winter. 
This was the house of Mr. Joseph Dennis, whose fons were the first lads on the roll of the 
Distric School, which, at its foundation, was temporarily accommodated in a very ordinary 
frame building, which stood about a hundred feet east of the Dennis House, what was, in later 
days, the Ridout comer. The building had been a bam, and was readily improved by Dr. 
Strachan, when he bade farewell to his Cornwall pupils, and favored York with his energetic 
presence in the early days of 1813. For a time before the erection of the new building on the 
College Square, this obscure frame building on the north side of King street, just east of 
\onge street, was occupied as the District Grammar School house. 

The progress of the King street school was phenomenal. Success had crowned the early 
designs of the Master, and the limited accommodation soon compelled a flight to more commo- 
dious quarters. The six acre field, or College Square, originally laid out by Mr. President 
Russell, was selected as the site of the improved building, and the summer of 1816 saw the 
timbers felled from the forest, north of Lot street, now Queen, for a more stately erection than 
the rude structure which had served the purpose of a school, near King and Yonge streets. 

The "School" or " College Square," north of the "Church Square," had no claims to 
pristine beauty. Jt was bounded on the south by Adelaide street, on the north by Richmond 
street, on the east by Jarvis street, and on the west by Church street. These are the modern 
Dames, Church street being the only one of the four that has retained the original nomenclature. 
Adelaide was formerly Newgate street, because the Jail was to stand on or near it. Richmond 
was Hospital street, and Jarvis was New street. . . . The field was nothing more than a 
green sward, dotted with stumps of the monarchs of the forest and divided by a half sluggish 
rivulet, that finally assumed the proportions of a pond, which, in winter, was haunted by boys, 
who smoothed the soles of their Wellington boots on the half acre of ice. ... In summer 
the field was the arena for games of hockey. . . 

An old pioneer, whose face the writer welcomes, . . . recounts the raising of the 
frame of the Home District School as, in 181G, the timbers, dovetailed into one another, stood 
waiting for the shingled roof and the half-inch clapboard sides. The New District (Grammar) 
School building stood at the south-west comer of the Square, a hundred and four feet north 
of Newgate or Adelaide street, and one hundred and fourteen feet from Church street, directly 
east and north of the line of the present Public Library. The School building was a parallelo- 
gram in form, nearly seventy feet deep, with a frontage of forty feet. The structure was two 
storeys high, its gabies were due east and west, and the sunlight streamed into the structure 

*The District Grammar School received its appellation. "The Blue School," from the fact that it was 
painted blue. This was not done until 1818, for in that year Dr. Strachan advertised a course of papular 
lectures on natural philosophy at two guineas the course, the proceeds to be laid out in painting the Dis- 
trict School. Apropos of this, Gourley, in his "Sketches of Upper Canada," remarks: " Schools and 
Colleges, where are they? Few, yet painted, though lectures on natural philosophy are now abundant."— 
Tke Old Blue School, hy Mr J. Boss Bcbertson. 



106 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1S16 



through ten windows on the north and south sides, five above and five below, while the east 
end was pierced by four, two above and two below, and the west end was honoured by the 
entrance door, with three windows above and two to the south of the doorway, the lintel of 
which was scraped hourly by the juvenile horde that made the welkin ring, ai at close of the 
school day they eagerly sought the unconstrained atmosphere of the six-acre playgr mnd. The 
boards which covered the stout frame timbers had been sniootht-d by a vigorous jack-plane, 
and t'uis yielded more gracefully than when in the rough to the arm of the painter who, brush 
in hand, at a low price per yard, cowered the entire outside with a dull slate blue, that defied 
not only the scorching sun. but the Arctic frost of the old time Canadian winter. To vary the 
monotony of colour, the door and window frames were painted white, a not uncommon mode of 
treatment in early buildings, by the deft artists of York. Surely it has been by right inscribed 
in print as ' The Old Blue School." The designer had not much difficulty in apportioning the 
space at his disposal. Once inside the door, the pupils found themselves in a long lobby that 
extended from the north to the south sides of the building, the only decoration of which was 
a long row of iron pegs and brackets for the hats, caps and coats of the pupils. At the east 
side of the lobby a stairway ran up to the second storey, which was not used f r school purposes, 
but served occasionally as a public hall for concerts and lectures. An ordinary door opened 
from the lobby into the lower schoolroom of 60x40. It was a roomy apartment, with the con- 
ventional plastei'ing of the penod. The right angles made by the walls and ceiling were not 
ornamente I with the moulded projections or curved lines of cornice work ; indeed, the severity 
of treatment was doubtless intended to prevent dust and cobwebs accumulating in the corners,, 
that are special targets for the activity of the broom. The stringers, which grasped the frame 
of the building, and which, in turn, strengthened the roof, had addit onal support in foursquare 
upright pillars of | ine, which rested on a stone foundation, and within a few feet of the angles 
of the room, helped to sui)port not only the main roof but the ceilings of the upper and lower 
schoolroom. The guiding mind in the schoolroom occupied an elevated position behind a 
" longish " desk, that commanded a fu'l view of the pupils. . . . The furniture of the 
room was in harmony with the wood-work. Friendly as had been the painter's brush with 
the exterior of the stru ture, it was a perfect stranger — indeed, had not ever had a bowing 
acquaintance with the interior. The wood-work that was exposed bore evidence that the 
active and regular movements of the carpenter's elbow had made rough places smooth, and 
rendere 1 the pine presentab'e, and it was not many months ere both the wood work of the 
building and the furniture caught that dark sienna look, which is the sombre result of smoke,, 
dirt and age. The benches and desks were ranged on the north and south sides of the room. 
Every boy owned an ink cup of glass which dropped into an augur hole the size of a half- 
penny, was replenished as regularly as the sup2)ly was exhausted. . . . The faces of the 
boys at these side desks were turned towards the wall, while on each side of the centre of the 
room was a set of double, 8loi)ed desks. In the centre stood a long box stove of government 
pattern that swallowed the beech and maple without the aid of the bucksaw. The school was 
as all primitive schools are. The boys were as varied fn character as those of to-day, Studious^ 
lads were commended by the Master. Those who struggled and persevered were strengthened 
by a kindly word, while the perverse youth, who could but would not digest the mental diet, 
was invigcjrated and quickened into activity by the aid of rods, cut from the McGill and Jarvis^ 
property which lay north of Lot street, and at a later day by the assistance of a strap. . . . 
The old piont^er, who relates to the writer so many of the incidents of early York, smiles as he 
recites his efforts to cut, carve and engrave with the aid of a jack-knife, his name in tlie slant 
of one of the pine desks, and he declares that a phoographic view of any of the desks in the 
school wou'd pass for tlie hieroglyphics on some Egyptian monolith, such as are found in the 
excavated cities of Antony and Cleopatra. Other volumes have told the story of the 1 'Ved old 
Schoolmaster, who^e familiar face and careful step are bright in the memory of hundreds of 
to-day. There are still among us those who remember Dr. Strachan, not only when in the ."-ere 
and yellow of old age, but in active and lithe youth, either presiding over the Primal School 
in Cornwall, or as director and cen'^ral figure of the District School at York. 
• 

Examination of the Home District Grammar School in 1816. 

So much discussion and legislation having taken place, chiefly in the House 
of Assembly, during the years 1807-1816, in regard to the District (Grammar) 
Schools, the following account of an annual examination of the Home District, or 
" Old Blue School " at York, (taken from the York Gazette) — will be appropriate 
here. At the time of this examination, the Rev. Dr. Strachan was Head Master 



Chap. XXVI. DISTRICT (GKj^MMAR), or old blue school at YORK, 1816. 107 

The subjects and scope of the examination show what a wide range of sub- 
jects was embraced in the programme, and in addition to the curriculum of the 
school. The Rev. Dr. Scadding, in his Toronto of Old, thus explains why it was 
that the range of studies and of exercises in the school was so wide : — 

It will be seen from the matters embraced in the programme that the object aimed at was a 
speedy and real preparation for actual life. The Master, in this instance, was disembarrassed 
of the traditions which . . . often rendered the education of a lyoung man a cumbersome, 
unintelligent and tedious thing, (Page 160.) 

As to the " parliamentary debates " feature of these annual examinations, Dr. 
Scadding, in his First Bishop of Toronto, a Review and a Study, says : — 

The leading speeches of the great statesmen of England on special occasions were learned 
and delivered memoriter in proper order. Both sides of a discussion of interesting subjects in 
politics became thus to some extent familiar. The speakers on the occasion of '' debates " were 
seated on benches set out for the purpose opposite to each other. It was with scenes such as 
these that the first mentioned of the historic names of Pitt, Fox, I'ultney, Wyndham, Burke, 
Wellington the two Walpoles, (Robert and Horace.) Wilberforce and others, was associated 
in the minds of many of the (after) public men of Upper Canada. These debates too formed a 
part of the grand demouatratiuu outhe annual prize days before the summer vacation, (Page 23.) 

Mr. J. Ross Robertson, in his history of the " Old Blue School " of York, 
says : — 

Parliamentary debates were of frequent occurrence in the school. On ordinary occasions 
these took place in the main school room, but on public days they were held upstairs. These 
debates consisted of the delivery of speeches somewhat abridged which had been made in the 
House of Commons. 

In addition to the influence on these young minds of such historic names in 
modern English history, as Dr. Scadding has noted, the additional influence on 
the thought, style and manner of these young Canadians of familiarity with the 
very language of these famous men, must have been potent factors in their after 
career on the Bench, at the Bar, and in the Army. 

In an elaborate letter from Rev. Dr. Strachan to the Rev. A. N. (Bishop) 
Bethune, written in 1829, on the " Management of Grammar Schools," he thus ex- 
plains his mode of proceeding in conducting the elocution classes, — in which the 
" parliamentary debates " were practiced. He said : — 

This class consisted of such boys as were . . . already tolerable readers. Two of 
these, in rotation, challenged each two boys to read a passage either in* prose or verse. The 
challenge was given one Monday, to be answered the next, and cou'd not be refused. The chal- 
lengers selected different pieces from Walker, Murray, or the English Roadei-s, etc. Thus six 
boys out of the class read every Monday, and the best readers were marked in the Register . 
. . His class never failed to keep up a degree of excitement. 

In addition to this method, debates were formed out of the elocution class . . . 
After one or two trials, the day of decision was appointed, and the debate or debates, were 
heard in the presence of the whole school. It is not easy to describe the excitement which 
generally appeared on such occasions. The greatest attention was paid to the different speakers. 
The Master commonly appointed a committee to mark the smallest error, and he was himself 
careful to note every impropriety in tone, sense, or accuracy. When the debate was over, he 
compared his remarks with those of the Committee, and after weighing carefully both sides, he 
pronounced his decision. So perfect were the debates often that it was extremely difficult to 
determine in favour of either side. . . Perhaps, the warm intersft taken by the Master in 
these exercises gave them more importance with the boys, for, in a long series of years they 
never ceased to be exceedingly popular, although they were attended with much labour. . . 



108 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1816 

Order of the Examixation of the School of the Home District, at York, 

7th August, 1816.* 

Catechism Class. 

John Skeldon : Beggar's Petition ; Henry Mosley : The Man of Ross. 

First and Second English Reading Classes. 

John Doyle : Barber and Dean Swift ; George Skeldon : Sir Balaam. 

Hiird and Fourth Eng'ish Reading Classes. 

The Debate. — Who was the greatest Benefactor of the present age ? 

Charles Heward (Dr. Johnson), James Myers (Mr. Burke), John Ridout (Lord Nelson), 
Charles Ridout (Mr. Wilberforce), John Fitzgerald (Duke of Wellington), John Mosley (Dr. 
Jenner). 

Vla^s in English Grammar and in Latin Rudiments, 

Saltern Givens : The Ross ; James Sheehan : Maria ; Henry Heward : My Name is 
Norval ; Allan McDonell : The Good Child ; William Allan : Do not mock the Old, etc. ; John 
Boulton : Ant and Grasshopper ; William Myers : On Cleanliness ; James Bigelow : On Clean- 
liness ; William Baldwin : The Girl and Looking Glass ; St. George Baldwin : Humanity. 

Cmss in Corderius' Colloquies, and in Cornelius Nepos. 
K. De Koven : The Female Exile ; John Knott : Fox and Pitt. 

Class in Arithmetic atid in Book Keeping. 
James Givens : The Soldier's Dream ; Horace Ridout : The Patriot. 

Class in Eudid. 

William Lancaster : The Contest between Eyes and Nose ; James McGill Strachan : Eulogy 
on Pitt. 

Then follows in classes in Geography, Natural History and Civil History. 

Class in Religion. 

A Parliamentary Debate in 1740, (George 2nd'8 time) on a bill for preventing merchants 
from raising the wages of seamen in time of war, and thereby inducing them to avoid His 
Majesty's service. 

Sir Charles Wagor, William Lancaster ; Mr. Fox, David McNabb ; Sir Robert Walpole's 1st 
Speech, John Harraway ; Sir John Bernard's Ist Speech, James McGill Strachan ; Sir Robert 
Walpole's 2nd and 3rd Speeches. Robert Baldwin ; Mr. Gibbon ; Henry Nelles ; Sir John 
Bernard's 2nd Speech, Horace Ridout; Mr. Pitt's Speeches, John Glaus; Sii John Bernard, 
Warren Claus ; Mr. Horace Walpole, David Shaw ; Mr. Winningtjn, Daniel Murray ; Mr. 
Littleton, James Givins ; Epilogue by Master Robert Baldwin. 

*The prologue by John Claus is inserted at the end of the programme. 



Chap. XXVI. DISTRICT (grammar), or old blue school at YORK, 1816. 109 



Prologue by Master John Glaus. 

The noble fire which palsied Briton's f(;es, 
In kind affection on her children glows, 
Her gen'rous hand their various wants supplies 
Tho' far remov'd to cold or burning skies ; 
Lo ! in the Kast, where Brahma's guilty pov'r 
And Mecca's Lord with thickning darkness low'r, 
Where tyrant custom cloth'd in terror reigns 
And Superstition forges baneful chains 
Where hope itself to Genius is denied. 
And dastard men to slavish cases are tied. 
Great Albion smiles, the beams of science rise 
To cheer the Soul beneath these Orient Skies, 
Her mighty Viceroy s point the glorious sway 
For radiant truth to gain imperial way, 
The Arts and Sciences for ages lost, 
Rous'd at their call revisit Brahma's coast ; 
Peace, liberty and justice from the train 
That wait on knowledge thro' this rich domain, 
Dark Superstition trembles at the sight, 
Mahomet shrinks and damns the hated light ; 
Nor on the East alone does Britain smile, 
Her strong affection warms this Western Soil, 
For Science rising in the gloomy woods 
Begins to dissipate the lowering clouds 
And many proudly in her service glow 
As here we hope by solid proof to glow. 
To-day you find her radiant course begun, 
Yet much remains for some aspiring Son, 
Whose liberal Soul from that desires renown 
Which gains for Wellesley a lasting crown ; 
Some gen'ral structure in these wilds to rear 
When every Art and science may appear. 
O happy Gore ! this proud distiction woos 
Thy quick acceptance, back'd by every Muse, 
Those feelings too when joyful fancy knew 
When learning's gems first opened to my view 
Bid you to thousands smooth the stormy road 
Which leads to gracious Science's sweet abode. 
O think ! what honour pure shall bless thy name 
Beyond the fleeting voice of vulgar fame, 
When Kings and haughty Victors cease to raise 
The secret murmur, or the venal praise 
Perhaps that name, when Europe's glories fade 
Shall often charm this Academic shade, 
And bards exclaim on rough Ontario' shore 
We found a Wellesley and Jones in Gore.* 



^ 



Course of Study Suggested by the Rev. Dr. Strachan as Suitable for 

District Grammar Schools. 

The Rev. Dr. Strachan, in his letter to the Rev. A. N. Bethune, thus sketched 
a course of study for Grammar Schools, based on his own practice and experience. 

First Year — Boys from 7 to 9. 
1st. Latin. — Eton Grammar ; Vocabulary ; CorderiuB ; Selectse e Profanis. 

2nd. English. — Mavor's Spelling Book ; Enfield's Lessons ; Walker's Lessons ; Murray's 
Lessons ; Blair's Class Book ; English Grammar ; Writing ; Arithmetic, chiefly mental. 

*The Lieutenant-Governor at this time — Francis Gore, Esquire, and Sir William Jones. 



110 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1816 



Second Year- Boys from 9 to 11. 

1st. Latin — Grammar ; Valpy's Delectus ; New Testament ; Daley's Exercises ; Exampla 
Minora ; Eutropius ; Pha^drus ; Cornelius Nepos. 

2nd. English — Grammar and Reading, as before ; Writing and Arithmetic (mental and 
mixed) ; Geography ; Civil and Natural History and Elocution. 

3rd. — To commence French. 

Third Year— Boys from 11 to 13. 

Ist. Latin — Grammar; Bailey's Exercises; Cornelius Nepos; Cajsar ; Ovid's Metamor- 
poses ; Nonsense Verses ; Psalms into Latin Verse ; Exampla Moralia ; Versions, or rendering 
English into Latin. 

2nd. Greek. — To commence about the middle of the third year : Eton Grammar, or Nelson's 
edition of Moore's Grammar ; Greek Vocabulary ; New Testament ; Greek Exercises. 

3rd. English. — Grammar ; Writing ; Elocution ; Civil and Natura. History ; Geography 
Ancient and Modern ; English Composition. 

4th. Arithmetic. — And to commence Algebra. 

5th. French. 

Fourth Year — Boys from 12 to I4. 

1st. Latin. — Grammar ; Terence ; Virgil ; Horace ; Sallust ; Cicero ; Livy ; Latin composi- 
tion, verse and prose ; Grotius de Veritate ; Exampla Moralia, 

2nd. Greek. — Eton Grammar ; Grseca Minora ; Greek and Latin Testament ; Xenophon ; 
Homer. 

3rd. English. — Grammar and Composition ; Civil and Natural History ; Geography, Ancient 
and Modern ; use of the globes ; construction of maps. 

4th. Mathematics. — Arithmetic ; Book-keeping ; Algebra ; Euclid. 
5th. French. 

Fifth Year— Boys from I4 to 16. 

lat. Latin. — Virgil ; Horace ; Livy ; Juvenal ; Tacitus ; Composition, in prose and verse. 

2nd. Greek. — Graica Majora ; Homer ; Thucidides ; Composition, in prose and verse. 

3rd. English. — Grammar and Composition ; Elocution ; Civil and Natural History ; Geo- 
graphy, Ancient and Modern ; Use of the globes ; Construction of maps. 

4th. Mathematics. — Algebra ; Euclid ; Trigonometry ; Application to heights and distances; 
Surveying ; Navigation ; Dialling ; Elements of Astronomy, etc. 

5th. French. 

In his practical remarks on this course of study, Dr. Strachan said : 

It will be seen by inspecting this course of study that the boys, during the first years, are 
carefully exercised in reading their own language, and they continue to be so exercised until 
they are fit to be removed into the Elocution class. 

After pointing out what he, by experience, found to be the proper time given 

to classes in Writing, Arithmetic, etc., he added : 

The classes in Civil History, Geography, Natural History, English Grammar and Composi- 
tion, embracing a period of five or six years, cannot fail of producing great intellectual improve- 
ment. Besides, the number of branches of knowledge recommended, in addition to classical 
literature, is not only suitable to the present age, but affords almost a certainty that every pupil 
will find some one at least adapted to his taste and capacity, and in which he may excel. 

As to Dr. Strachan's experience in giving this opinion and advice, he says : 

In presenting a detailed account of the mode of carrying this course of study into effect, I 
do not indulge in any imaginary process, but give the actual practice of a school which flourished 
twenty-five years in this Province. . . . Letter to Rec. A. N. Bethune, 1829. (Pages 5-9, 
and 24, 25.) 



Chap. XXVII. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LLGISLATUKE, 1817. Ill 



Midland District Boakd op Education.* 

His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor has been pleased to appoint the undermentioned 
gentlemen to be Members of the Board of Education for the Midland District, under the 
authority of the [ninth section of the] Act passed at the last Session of the Legislature for the 
establishment of Common Schools, viz. : The Reverend George Okill Stuart, and Messieurs 
Allen McLean, Peter Smith, Alexander Fisher and James McNabb. 

By Order. 

Lieutenant-Governor's Office, Edward McMahon, 

York, 1st of August, 1816. Secretary, 

Opening of the Kingston Library, 1816. 

The Kingston Library will be open every Monday from 11 o'clock a.m. until ten o'clock 
p.m. at the Court House. 

Subscriptions for reading will be received by the treasurer, Mr. William Mitchell, at thirty 
shillings per year, or ten shillings per quarter, payable on subscribing, and a deposit left with 
the treasurer of five pounds as a security against the loss of books. 

Subscribers are to consider themselves subject to the rules of the Library. 

Persons having in their possession books belonging to this Library are requested to return 
them into the Library without delay. 

Charles Anderson, 

Kingston, February 1, 1816. Secretary. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE LEGISLATURE OF UPPER 

CANADA IN 1817. 

On the 4th of February, 1817, Francis Gore, Esquire, Lieutenant-Governor, 
opened the first session of the Seventh Parliament of Upper Canada with the 
usual Speech from the Throne. In it he did not refer to either education or 
schools. 

A good deal of discussion, however, took place on the subject of both, and 
efforts were made to amend the District (Grammar) School Act of 1807, and the 
Common School Act of the year before. These efforts were abortive, as the 
session was abruptly closed by the Lieutenant-Governor. (See note on page 114.) 

Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1817. 

As this was a new Parliament, several new names appear as Members of the 
House of Assembly. Among those who took part in its educational proceedings 
were most of the old members and a few of the new, as follows : Messieurs Jonas 
Jones, Robert Nichol, Philip VauKoughnet, Peter Robinson, George B. Hall, 
Mahlon Burwell, Robert Nelles and Isaac Eraser. 

Mr. Robert Nichol was elected for the County of Norfolk in 1813, 1817, 
and in 1820. He distinguished himself as Quartermaster-General in the war of 
1812, and received a gold medal for his conduct at the capture of Detroit. He 
lost his life in May, 1824, by driving over the cliff between Stamford and Queen- 
ston in a stormy night. 
* Similar appointments were made under the Act of 1816 in the other Dibtriota by the Lieutenant-Governor. 



112 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 181V 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet was elected a Member of the House of Assembly 
in 1817, 1820 and 1825. He was afterwards appointed a member of the Legis- 
lative Council. 

Mr. Peter Robinson represented the East Riding of York in 1817 and 1820. 
" He was instrumental in settling the region in which our Canadian Peterborough 
is situated, and from him that town has its name." (Rev. Dr. Scaddings' Toronto 
of Old, page 483.) 

Mr. Jonas Jones took part in the war of 1812. He was elected for the 
County of Grenville in 1817, 1820, 1825, and for Leeds in 1836. In the follow- 
ing year he was appointed a Puisne Judge of the Court of Queen's Bench. He 
died in 1848. 

21st February, 1817. — Mr. Jonas Jones gave notice that he will, on Monday next, move for 
leave to bring in a Bill to amend an Act passed in the foity-seventh year of His Majesty's reign 
(1807), intituled " An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every District in this Pro- 
vince, to extend the provisions thereof, and for other purposes therein mentioned." 

28th Febmary, 1817. — Agreeably to notice, Mr. Jonas Jones, seconded by Mr. Robert 
Nichol, moved for leave to bring in a Bill to amend and extend the provisions of an Act passed 
in the forty-seventh year of His Majesty's reign (1807), intituled, " An Act to establish Public 
Schools in each and every District in this Province," which was granted, and the Bill was read, 
a first time. 

Mr. Jonas Jones, seconded by Mr. Philip Van Koughnet, moved that the Bill to amend the 
District (Grammar) School Act of 1807 be read a second time to-morrow, which was ordered. 

1st March, 1817. — Mr. Jonas Jones, seconded by Mr. Peter Robinson, moved. That James 
Durand, Esquire, a Member of this House, after being heard in his defence, while the House 
take into consideration an Address of the fourteenth ultimo, published in the St. David's. 
Spectator, of which he is the reputed author. This motion was carried. 

Mr. Robert Nichol, seconded by Mr. Jonas Jones, moved that the address, signed " James 
Durand," to the Independent Electors of the County of Wentworth, as published in the St. 
David's Spectator of the fourteenth of February last, be now read, which was carried, and the 
paper was read [that part relating to schools was] as follows : " 'J he Common School Bill which 
passed into a law last year, was one in which I, likewise, took a very active part. I was one of 
the Committee that introduced it through its various stages, though I believe the merit has been 
once claimed by John Willson (of Saltfleet), and since transferred entirely out of the House of 
Assembly, and is now to rest on the Atlantean shoulders of the Rev. Dr. Strachan, of York. 
You are, however, not to mind what the versatile chameleons of corruption may please to say. 
The truth lies as I have stated, and the Journals of the House will prove it. To these I 
challenge reference." 

" I likewise opposed the old District (Grammar) School Bill (1807), brought 
in, unprecedently, twice in the last Session, first with <ine thousand pounds (£1,000) a 
year additional for supporting a few students in Divinity, and lastly with five hundred pounds 
(£500) a year for the same purpose, leaving it in such a way that the teachers were to have their 
salaries whether they had one school or not. and behold we find that immaculate, reformed, 
refined gentleman, loyal squire. Inspector John Willson ! ! of Saltfleet, the man to second this 
notorious Bill. . . To the honour of the majority of the House, this Bill was rejected 
with contempt."* 

5th March, 1817. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the District (Grammar) School 
Amendment Bill was read a second time. 

Mr. Jonas Jones, seconded by Mr Peter Robinson, moved that the House do now resolve 
itself into a Committee of the Whole, to take into consideration the said District School Bill 
amendment, which was agreed to, and the House went into Committee, Mr. Robinson in the 
chair. 

* This House of Assembly declared that the Address, (of which the above are extracts), was a libel on 
Members of the House, and sentenced Mr. Durand to be imprisoned during the remainder of the Session 
of 1817. He was afterwards expelled from the House, but was re-elected to it in 1818. It is rather a singu- 
lar coincidence that this same Mr. Durand was foremost in his denunciation of Mr. Robert Gourley for his 
alleged "libel " on the House of Assembly in 1819. (See Proceedings of the House under date of July 3, 1819. 



Chap. XXVII. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U, C, LEGISLATURE, 1817. 113 



Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Robinson reported progress, and obtained 
leave to sit again to-morrow. 

Mr. George B. Hall gave notice that he will, on Monday next, move for leave to bring in a 
Bill to alter and amend the Common School Act, now in force within this Province. 

10th March, 1817 .^—AgreeiMy to the Order of the Day, the House went into Committee on 
the District (Grammar) School Amendment Bill, Mr. Robinson in the chair. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Robinson reported progress, and obtained leave 
to sit again to morrow. 

12th March, 1817. — On the Order of the Day for Mr. Robert Nelles' motion for the 
Common School Bill being called, Mr. G. B. Hall, seconded by Mr. Robert Nichol, moved that 
so much of the Order of the Day as relates to bringing in an amendment to the Common School 
Bill be now discharged, which was ordered. 

Agreeably to the Order of the Pay, the House went into Committee on the District School 
Amendment Bill, Mr. Robinson in the chair. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Robinson reported the District School 
Amendment Bill as amended. The report was received nem. con. Present : Messieurs Joshua 
Cornwall, Peter Robinson, Isaac Swayze, Rolph Clench, Jonas Jones, Philip Van Koughnet, 
Mahlon Burwell, George B. Hall, John Cameron, Alexander McMartin, Willet Casey, Peter 
Howard, David Secord, John McDonell, Robert Nelles, William McCormick, Robert Nichol, 
Isaac Fraser, James Cotter and John Crysler. 

Mr. Nichol move!, seconded by Mr. Burwell, that the District School Amendment Bill be 
engrossed and read a third time to-morrow, which was ordered. 

13th March 1817. —On the third reading of the District School Amendment Bill being 
called, Mr. Nichol, seconded by Mr. Hall, moved that the said School Bill be now recommitted, 
which motion was carried, and Mr. James McVabb took the chair of the Committee. 

The Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. McNabb reported the said Bill as amended. 
Ordered, that the Report be received. 

Mr. Nich(jl, seconded by Mr. Hall, moved that the District School Amendment Bill be 
engrossed, and read a third time to-morrow, which was ordered. 

14th March, 1817. — The Order of the Day for third reading of the District School Amend- 
ment Bill being called, 

Mr. Nichol, seconded by Mr. Nelles, moved that the said District School Amendment Bill 
be re-committed, which was carried. Mr. Robinson took the chair. 

Mr. Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Robinson reported the said Bill as amended. 
Ordered, that the Report be received. 

Mr. Nichol, seconded by Mr. Hall, moved that the eaid School Bill be engrossed, and read 
a third time on Monday next, which was ordered. 

Mr. Jones, first named of the Committee to carry up to the Legislative Council the Bill 
intituled " An Act to repeal part of, and amend the laws, now in force for establishing District 
Schools in the several Districts of this Province, and further to extend the provisions of the 
same and also to appropriate certain sums of money for the purposes therein mentioned " and 
pray their concurrence therein, reported that they had done so. 

17th March, 1817. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the School Bill was read the third time 
Mr. Jones, seconded by Mr. Nichol, moved that the School Bill do now pass, and that it be 
intituled " An Act to repeal part of and amend the laws now in force for establishing District 
Schools in the several Districts of this Province, and further to extend the provisions thereof, 
and also to ajjpropriate certain sums of money for the purposes therein mentioned." Which 
was carried and the Bill signed by the Speaker. 

Mr. Burwell, seconded by Mr. Nichol, moved that Messrs. Jones and Hall be a Committee 
to carry up to the Honourable the Legislative Council, the District School Amendment Bill and 
to request their concurrence thereto. Which was ordered. 

20th March, 1817. — The following Message from the Legislative Council was received : — 
Mb.. Speaker : 

The Honourable the Legislative Council request a conference with the Commons 
House of Assembly (jn the subject matter of a Bill, sent up from them, for the con- 
currence of this House, intituled "An Act to repeal part of, and to amend the laws, now in force 
for establishing District Schools in the several Districts of this Province and further to extend 
the provisions of the same, and also to appropriate certain sums of money for the purposes 
therein mentioned." 
8 (D.E.) 



114 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1818 



The Committee of the Honourable the LegislatiA^e Council, consisting of two members, Avill 
be ready to meet the Committee of the Commons' House of Assembly in the Legislative Council 
Chamber at ten o'clock of the forenoon of to-morrow. 

Wm. Dummer Powell, 

Speaker. 
Legislative Council Chamber, 

20th March, 1817. 

Mr. Robert Nichol, seconded by Mr. Isaac Fraser, moved that it be resolved that the Bill 
sent to the Honourable the Legislative Council from this House, intituled "An Act to repeal 
part of, and to amend the laws, now in force for establishing District Schools in the several 
Districts of this Province, and further to extend the provisions of the same, and also to appro- 
priate certain sums of money for the purposes therein mentioned," being a money Bill, this 
House cannot accede to the request of the Honourable the Legislative Council for a conference 
upon the subject matter thereof, and hope that the reason now assigned will be sufficient. Which 
was carried and resolved accordingly. 

Mr. Burwell, seconded by Mr. Nelles, moved that Messieurs Robinson and Crysler be a Com- 
mittee to carry up to the Honourable the Legislative Council the Resolution of this House in 
answer to their Message of this day. Which was ordered. 

S8th March, 1817.— Mr. W. W. Baldwin, Master-in-Chancery, brought down from the 
Honourable the Legislative Council the Bill intituled " An Act to repeal part of, and amend the 
laws, now in force for establishing District Schools in the several Districts of this Province, and 
further to extend the provisions of the same ; and also to appropriate certain sums of money for 
the purposes therein mentioned." Sent up from this House, which they had passed with 
some amendments, which they recommended to the adoption of this House. 

Slst March, 1817. — Mr. Peter Robinson gave notice that he will, on to-morrow, move for 
leave to bring in a School Bill. 

Note. — This Bill was, however, not brought in, as the Legislature was sum- 
marily prorogued on the 7th of April by Lieutenant-Governor Gore. 

The cause of this sudden and unexpected procedure was Lieutenant-Governor 
Gore's objection to an enquiry into " the State of the Province," which had just 
then commenced a few days previously in the House of Assembly.* 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE UPPER CANADA HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY 

IN 1818. 

Note. — There being no record of the proceedings of the Legislative Council 
of 1818 preserved in either of the Parliamentary Libraries at Ottawa or Toronto 
I shall be unable to insert any of its proceedings here, except such messages from 
the Council as may be recorded in the proceedings of the House of Assembly. 

The Lieutenant-Governor, Francis Gore, Esquire, left for England early in 
1817, " not recalled," (Rev. Dr. Scadding says, in his Toronto of Old, page 361), "as 
it would seem, but purposing to give an account of himself in his own person." He 

*Mr. McMullen, \nh\s History of Canada {1891), thus describes the event : "Eleven resolutions had baen 
framed for the consideration of the Assembly ; the first three of which were msrely of a prefatory character, 
and adopted after some discussion. The Assembly then adjoarned until tha following Monday morniasr, 
the 7th of April. It had just met, and the minutes were about to be read, when, without previous notice, 
the members were summoned to the bar of the Legislative Council, where G-ore awaited them and at once 
proceeded to prorogue the House in a brief speech of three paragraphs in length." ( Volume I, page 427. ) 
The members who promoted the enquiry were Messieurs Nichol, Burwell, Robinson, Fraser and Cameron. 
The two resolutions on the subject was carried by a vote of thirteen to six. 



Chap. XVIII. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1818. 115 

never returned." On Governor Gore's leaving Canada, the Honourable Samuel 
Smith, a Member of the Legislative Council, became, not President, but Adminis- 
trator of the Government. On the fifth of February, 1818, he opened the second 
session of the Seventh Parliament with the usual Speech from the Throne. In it 
he made no reference either to schools or to education. 

The members who took part in the educational legislation of 1818 were 
Messieurs Philip VanKoughnet, Peter Robinson, John Cameron, Isaac Fraser, 
James Cotter, Mahlon Burwell, James Durand, David Secord, Jonas Jones, John 
Crysler, Robert Nelles, George B. Hall, Zaccheus Burnham and Peter Howard. 
The best known of these members I have already referred to. 

9th Fetniiary, 1818. —Mr. Philip VanKoughnet gave notice that he will, on to-morrow, 
move for leave to bring in a Bill to alter and amend an Act passed in the forty-seventh year of 
His Majesty's reign (1807), intituled " An Act to establish Public Schools in each and every 
District of this Province," and to extend the provisions of the same. 

10th February, 1818. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded 
by Mr. Peter Robinson, moved for leave to bring in a Bill to alter and amend an Act passed in the 
forty-seventh year of His Majesty's reign (1807), intituled "An Act to establish Public Schools 
in each and every District of this Province." and to extend the provisions of the same. Which 
was agreed to, and the Bill was read the first time. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. John Cameron, moved that the District 
(Grammar) School Amendment Bill be read a second time to morrow. Which was ordered. 

11th Febniary, 1818. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the District (Grammar) School' 
Amendment Bill was read the second time. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. Isaac Fraser, moved that the House do now 
resolve itself into a Committee of the whole to take into consideration the District (Grammar) 
School Amendment Bill. Which was agreed to, and the House went into Committee, Mr. 
James Cotter in the chair. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Cotter reported progress and had leave to sit again to- 
morrow. 

12th Febrxtary, 1818. — The House went into Committee on the second reading of the 
District (Grammar) School Amendment Bill, Mr. James Cotter in the chair. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Cotter reported the Bill as amended. Ordered, That the 
Report be received. Mr. VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. Robinson, moved that tlie District 
(Grammar) School Amendment Bill be engrossed and read a third time to-morrow. Which was 
ordered. 

13th February, 1818. — Mr. Peter Robinson, seconded by Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, moved 
that the Order of the Day as relates to the third reading of the District (Grammar) School 
Amendment Bill be discharged. Which was carried. 

(Note. — For some unexplained reason, this Grammar School Amendment 
Bill, originally introduced by Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, was, with his consent as 
seconder of the motion, dropped. The Bill introduced on the next day by Mr. 
Burwell proposed to entirely repeal the Act of 1807, which Mr. VanKoughnet's 
Bill just dropped, only proposed to amend. After Mr. Burwell had introduced 
his Grammar School Repeal Bill, Mr. VanKoughnet sought to reconsider, or rather 
reintroduce, his Bill. This he did after Mr. Burwell's repeal Bill had been 
rejected. It is possible that an agreement had been entered into between Mr 
VanKoughnet and Mr. Burwell thus to test the views of the House on the sub- 
ject of an amendment to the District (Grammar) School Act of 1807, or its total 
repeal. No reason is, however, assigned for the proceeding.) 



116 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1818 



14.th February, 1818. — Mr. Mahlon Burwell, seconded by Mr. James Durand, moved for 
leave to bring in, on Monday next, a Bill to repeal the laws (of 1807 and 1808) now in force to 
establish Public (Grammar) Schools in each and every District of this Province. On which the 
House divided, and the yeas and nays were as follows : — 

Yeas. — Messieurs Cotter, Casey, Durand, Swazey, McMartin, Burwell, Batt, Secord, Nellea 
:and McDonell, 10. 

Nays. — Messieurs Jones, VanKoughnet, Eraser, Cameron, Crysler, Howard, Clench and 
Burnham, 8. 

'J he motion was carried in the affirmative by a majority of two, and was so ordered. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet gave notice that he will, on Monday next, move that the House 
do resolve itself into a Committee to re-consider the District (Grammar) School Amendment 
Bill which he had introduced. 

16th Fehi-uary, 1818. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, Mr. Mahlon Burwell's District 
(Grammar) School Repeal Bill was brought in and read. 

Mr. Mahlon Burwell, seconded by Mr. iJavid Record, moved that the Bill to repeal the 
District Grammar School Bill be read a second time to-morrow. In amendment to which Mr. 
Jonas Jones, seconded by Mr. John Crysler, mo^ ed that the word " to-morrow" be expunged, 
and that " this day three months " he inserted. Which was carried. 

Agreeable to notice, Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. James McNabb, moved 
that his District (Grammar) School Amendment Bill be now recommitted. Which was carried, 
and Mr. James Cotter took the chair of the Committee. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Cotier reported progress, and had leave to sit again to-morrow. 

18ih February, 1818. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day the House went into Committee 
on the District (Grammar) School Amendment Bill. 

20th February, 1818. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the House went into Committee 
on the District Grammar School Amendment Bill, Mr. Cotter in the chair. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Cotter reported the Bill amended. Ordered, That the 
report be received. Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. Peter Robinson, moved that 
the District (Grammar) School Amendment Bill be engrossed and read a third time on Tuesday 
next. Which was ordered. 

24th February, 1818. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the District (Grammar) School 
Amendment Bill was read the third time. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. Jonas Jones, moved that the said School Bill 
do now pass, and that it be intituled " An Act to repeal part of, and amend, the laws now in 
force for establishing District (Grammar) Schools in the several Districts of this Province, and 
further to extend the provisions of the same." Mr. John Crysler, in amendment, seconded by 
Mr. Peter Robinson, moved that the District (Grammar) School Amendment Bill do not now 
pass, and that the same be re-committed. On which the House divided, and the Yeas and 
Nays were taken, as follows : — 

Yeas. — Messieurs Robin8<jn and Crysler — 2. 

Nays. — Messieurs Swayze, Jones, VanKoughnet, Durand, Cameron, Hatt, McMaitin, 
Burnham, Burwell, Howard, McDonell, Cotter and Nelles — 13. 

it was carried in the negative by a majority of eleven. The original question was then i)ut 
and carried, and the Bill was signed by the Speaker. 

Mr. Mahlon Burwell, seconded by Mr. Robert Nelles, moved that Messieurs VanKoughnet 
and Cameron be a Committee to carry up to the Honourable the Legislative Council the I is- 
trict School Amendment Bill, and to request their concurrence therein. Which was ordered. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, of the Committee to carry up to the Honourable the Legislative 
Council the Bill intituled '■ An Act to repeal part of, ai-d to amend, the laws now in force for 
establishing District Schools in the several Districts of this Province," and to request their con- 
currence thereto, reported having done so. 

3rd March, 1818. — Mr. W. W. Baldwin, Master-in-Chancery, brought down from the 
Honourable the Legislative Council a Message, which was read as follows : — 

Mr. Speaker : 

The Honourable the Legislative Council return to the House of Assembly a Bill, 
intituled "An Act to repeal part of the laws now in force for establishing District (Grammar) 
Schools in the several Districts of this Province," which they have pass* d with some amend- 
ments, which they recommend to the adoption of the House of Assembly. 

Wm. Dummer Powell, 

Speaker. 
Legislative Council Chamber, 

3rd March, 1818. 



Chap. XXVIII. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C, LEGISLATURE, 1818. llT 



Mr. Mahlon Burwell, seconded l)y Mr. Gporge B. Hall, moved that it be resolved that, as 
the amendments made by the Honourable the Legislative Council to the District School Repeal 
Bill do not, in any manner, affect the raising, or disposing, of money, this House will not exer- 
cise its undoubted right to reject all amendments made to money Bills, and that the said 
amendments be now read. Which was carried, and the amendments made by the Legislative 
Council to the Bill intituled. "An Act to repeal part of, and to amend, the laws now in force for 
establishing District Schools in the several Districts of this Province," were then read the firsttime. 

Mr. Jonas Jones, seconded by Mr. Zaccheus Burnham, moved that the amendments to th& 
District (Grammar) School Amendment Bill be read a second time to-morrow. Which was 
ordered. 

4th March, 1818. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the amendments to the Bill 
intituled, " An Act to repeal part of, and to amend, the laws now in force for establishing Dis- 
trict (Grammar) Schools in each and every District of this Province," were read the second time- 
Mr. Jonas Jones, seconded by Mr. Mahlon Burwell, moved that the House do now resolve 
itself into a Committee of the Whole, to take into consideration the amendments made by the 
Honourable the Legislative Council to the said District (Grammar) School Bill. Which wa» 
earried, and Mr. James Durand took the chair of the Committee. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Durand reported the amendments. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. James Fraser, moved that the Report be not 
received. Which was lost. The original motion was then put, and the House divided there- 
upon, when the Yeas and Nays were taken down, as follows : — 

Yeas. — Messieurs Clench, Durand, McDonell, Robinson, Hatt, McMartin, Howard, Jones,. 
Burwell, Burnham, Secord, Nelles, Cotter and Crysler — 14. 

Nays. — Messieurs VanKoughnet, Fraser, Cameron and Casey — 4. 

It was carried in the affirmative by a majority of ten, and the amendments were adopted. 

Mr. Mahlon Burwell, seconded by Mr. Peter Howard, moved that Messieurs Durand and 
Hatt be a Committee to acquaint the Honourable the Legislative Council that this House has- 
adopted the amendments made by their Honourable House to the District (Grammar) School 
Amendment Bill. Which was ordered. 

Mr. Isaac Fraser, seconded by Mr. Peter Robinson, moved that the Petition of the 
Honourable and Reverend John Strachan, praying for aid towards the education of Church of 
England Divinity students, be now read. 

Note. — This Petition had been presented to House of Assembly and laid 

on the Table of the House on the 26th February, 1818. 

Which was agreed to, and the Petition was read as follows and referred. 

To the Honourable the Commotus Souse of Assembly of Upper Canada, in Provhicial Farliatne)U> 
Assembled. 

The Petition of John Strachan, D.D., Humbly t-hetoe'h. 

That your petitioner has been nearly twenty years engaged in the education of the youth of 
this Province, and with a degree of success which your Honourable House can now sufficiently 
appreciate. 

That he has been frequently applied to by the parents of the pupils, not only to advise 
them as to their future destination, but to assist in settling them in the world. 

That next to the Professions of the Law and Commerce, the Church offers a growing pro- 
vision for the young men of this Province, but, from the^nature and length of the preparation, 
almost entirely beyond their reach, as their parents are unable to support them so long 
unemployed, this difficulty operate^ in some instants, so grievously that VTour Petitioner was 
induced to educate several of his scholars for the Church, at his own particular charjj[e. 

That Your Petitioner, convinced from experience that the Church might be supplied with 
respectable clergymen brought up and educated amon-.^ us, and feeling his means inadequate to 
continue, much Icst to multiply the sacrifices he was then making, did, in May 181'i, represent 
to the Lord Bishop at Quebec the great hardships sustained by this Province from the want of 
clergymen, and the still greater hardships to the inhabitants of having this honourable profes- 
sion in a manner shut up from their children and given to strangers ; requesting His Lordship 
to lay the case before "The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign parts," and 
to state the propriety of making a yearly allowance to a limited number of young men from the 
age of eighteen to twenty-three, the period of Ordination, the money to be repaid, if any 
of them changed their minds during their studies ; offering at the same time, to conduct fcheir- 
education and give them the use of his library, without puttingthem to any expense. 



118 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1818 



That the Lord Bishop of Quebec entered warmly into the views of Your Petitioner, and, in 
1815, procured from the Society a grant of two hundred pounds per annum, for four students 
in Divinity, accompanied with an expectation that, as their funds were not large, and depended 
greatly upon annual donations, that the Legislature of Upper Canada would in a short time, 
relieve them from this burden, by extending the provision and supplying the same from the 
Provincial Revenue, the more especially as the Society contributes one hundred pounds sterling, 
per annum, towards the support of every clergyman that settles in the Province. 

That, in England, young men destined for the Church receive aid in the prosecution of 
their studies, from the foundations of their different Colleges, but, in this country, there are no 
such resources, and, while in other prof essions a young man commences at twenty-one, in this 
he must be twenty-three. 

That a small appropriation, sufficient for a number of young men equal to the number of 

Districts, in addition to those who, at present, enjoy the hounty of the Society, would fill the 

Province in a few years, with a respectable clergy, natives of the country, and particularly 

qualified from their knowledge of the manners and cus oms of the people, to be extremely 
useful. 

That Your Petitioner will most willingly pay the same attention to the studies of such 
young men, as he does to those assisted by the Society, being sufficiently rewarded by the con- 
sciousness of doing good to the Province, in thus promoting their views. 

Wherefore Your Petitioner entreats Your Honourable House to fulfil, during the present 
sessiim, the reasonable expectation of the Venerable Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
in Foreign parts, by extending your patronage to such young men as may be desirous of study- 
ing J 'ivinity, in such a way and on such terms and conditions as in your wisdom, it may seem 
meet. 

And Your Petitioner, as in duty bound, will ever pray. 

John Strachan. 
York, 25th February, 1818. 

(Note. — No action was taken by the House 6i Assembly on this Petition 
of Dr. Strachan asking for a grant in aid for theological education.) 

1st April, 1818. — The House met on this day, and having by Black Rod being summoned 
to the Legislature Council Chamber by command of the Honourable Samuel Smith, Esquire, 
Adminstrator of the Government of Upper Canada, His Honour was pleased to give assent, in His 
Majes'y's name, to a number of Bills. The following was reserved for signification of His 
Majesty's pleasure in Council thereon, viz : — 

" An Act to repeal part of, and amend, the laws (of 1807 and 1808) now in force, for estab- 
lishing District Schools in the several Districts of the Province. " 

Second Session of the Legislature in 1818. 

(The new Lieutenant-Governor, Major-General Sir Peregrine Maitland, K.C. 
B., having arrived from England early in 1818, the Honourable Samuel Smith 
was relieved of his office of Administrator of the Government. The Provincial 
Treasury having been found empty after his arrival Sir Peregrine Maitland called 
the Legislature together on the 12th of October, 1818, and delivered the usual 
speech from the Throne. In it he made no reference either to schools, or to 
education. 

The following members of the House of Assembly took part in the educa- 
tional legislation of the session, etc : Messieurs Philip VanKoughnet, Peter 
Robinson, Richard Hatt, Jonas Jones, Peter Howard, Isaac Fraser, Alexander 
McMartin, Robert Nelles, Isaac Swayze, Zaccheus Burnham.) 

IJtih October, 1818. — Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, gave notice that he will, on Saturday next, 
move for leave to bring in a Bill, to repeal part of, and amend, the laws now in force for estab- 
lishing District (Grammar) Schools in the several Districts of this Province, and to extend the 
provisions of the same. 



Chap. XXVIII. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, I8I8. 119 



19th October, 1818. — Aereeably to notice. Mr. Philip VanKoughiiet, seconded by Mr. 
Peter Robinson, moved for leave to bring in a Bill to repeal part of, and amend, the laws now 
in force for establishing District (Grammar) Schools in the several Districts of this Province, 
a,nd to extend the provisions of the same, which was carried and the Bill was read a first time. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. Peter Robinson, moved that the District 
(Grammar) School Repeal Bill be read a second time to-morrow, which was carried and ordered. 

20th October, 1818. — Agreeably to the Order of the Dxy, the District (Grammar) School 
Amendment B 11 was read the second time. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. Richard Hatt, moved that the House do now 
resolve itself into a Committee of the Whole to take into consideration the District (Grammar) 
School Amendment Bill, which was carried, and Mr. Jonas Jones took the chair of the Com- 
mittee. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Jones reported progress, and obtained leave to sit 
again to-morrow. 

S2nd October, 1818. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the House went into Committee 
on the District (Grammar) School Amendment Bill, Mr. Jonas Jones in the chair. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Jones reported the Bill as amended. Ordered that the 
Report be received. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. Jonas Jones, moved, that the District 
(Grammar) School Amendment Bill be engrossed, and read a third time to-morrow, which was 
ordered. 

23rd October, 1818. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the District (Grammar) School 
Amendment Bill was read the third time. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. Peter Howard, moved that the District (Gram- 
mar) School Amendment Bill do now pass and that it be intituled, " An Act to repeal part of, and 
amend, the laws now in force for establishing Public (Grammar) Schools in each and every 
District of this Province, and to extend the provisions of the same," which was carried, and the 
Bill was signed by the Speaker. 

Mr. Peter Robinson, seconded by Mr. Isaac Fraser, moved that Messieurs VanKoughnet and 
McMartin, be a Co amittee to take up to the Honourable the Legis'ative Council the District 
{Grammar) School Bill, and to request their concurrence thereto, which was ordered. 

28th October, 1818 — Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, of the Co umiltee to carry up to the Hon- 
ourable the Legislative Council the Bill intituled, '• Aa Act to repeal part of and amend the 
laws now in force for establishing Public (Grammar) Schools in each and every District of the Pro- 
vince, and to extend the provisions of thj same, " and request their concurrence thereto, 
reported that they had done so. 

9th November, 1818. — Mr. Peter Howard, seconded by Mr. Mahlon Burwell, moved that 
the fifth Rule of this House be dispensed with, so far as relates to a Bill to alter the place of 
keeping the Public (Grammar) Schools in the Johnstown and London Districts, and that it be 
now read a second time, which was carried, and the Bill was read the second time. 

Mr. Peter Howard, seconded by Mr. Jonas Jones, m')ved that the Hoiise do now resolve 
itself into a Committee to take into consideration the Johnstown and London District (Grammar) 
School Bill, which was carried, and Mr Nelles took the chair. The House resumed, Mr, 
Nelles reported the Bill amended. Ordered that the Report be received. 

Mr. Peter Howard, seconded by Mr. Mahlon Burwell, moved that the Johnstown District 
(Grammar) t'chool Bill be engrossed and read a third time this day, which was ordered. 

11th November, i<9it'?.— Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Johnstown District (Gram- 
mar) ^ch^Jol Bill was read the third time. 

Mr. Peter Howard, seconded by Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, moved that the said Bill do 
now pass, and that it be intituled, *' An Act to repeal part of, and amend, the laws now in 
force for establishing the Public (Grammar) School in the District of -'ohnstown and alter the 
place for keeping the same, " which was carried, and the Bill was signed by the Speaker. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. Robert Nelles, moved that Messieurs Howard 
and Crysler be a Committee to carry up to the Honourable the Legislative Council the District 
(Grammar) School Bill, and 10 request their concurrence thereto, which was ordered. 

12th November, 1818. — Mr. Peter Howard, of the Committee to carry up to the Honourable 
tbe Legislative Council the Bill intituled, ' An Act to repeal part of, and amend the laws now 
in force for establishing the Public (Grammar) School in the District of Johnstown, and to 
alter the place for keefiing the same, " and request their concurrence, reported that they had 
■done so. 



120 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1818- 



25th November, 1818. — Mr. W. W. Baldwin, Master-in-Chancery, brought down from the 
Honourable the Legislative Council a Message which he delivered to the Speaker, and having 
withdrawn, it was read as follows : 

Mr. Speaker : 

The Honourable the Legislative Council request a Conference with the Commons House 
of Assembly, on the subject matter of a Bill intituled. " An Act to repeal part of, and amend, 
the laws now in force for establishing Public (Grammer) Schools in each and every District of 
this Pr.vince, and to extend the provisions of the same," and have appointed a Committee of 
two of its members who will be ready to meet a Committee of the Commons House of Assembly 
in the Legislative Council Chamber, at the rising of this House this day. 

Wm. Dummer Powell, 

Speaker. 
Legislative Council Chamber, 

25th November, 1818 

Mr. Peter Robinson, seconded by Mr. Robert Nelles, moved that Messieurs Durand, 
Hatt, Burwell and Fraser, lea Committee to confer with the Committee of the Legislative 
Council on the subject of the Bill intituled, " An Act to repeal part of, and amend, the laws 
now in force for establishing Public (Grammar) Schools in each and every District of this Pro- 
vince, and to extend the provisions of the same," which was carried. 

Mr. Peter Robinson, seconded by Mr. Isaac Swayze, moved that Messieurs Burwell and 
Burnham be a Committee to acquaint the Honourable the Legislative Council that this House 
have agreed to a conference on the subject of the Bill, intituled, " An Act to repeal part of, 
and amend, the laws now in force for establishing Public (Grammar) Schools in each and every 
District of this Province, and to extend the provisions of the stme," and have appointed a 
Committee of four persons for that purpose, which was carried. 

Mr. Mahlon Burwell, of the Committee to carry up to the Honourable the Legislative 
Council a message acquainting them that this House had agreed to a conference on the subject 
of the Bill intituled, •' An Act to repeal part of, and amend, the laws now in force for estab- 
lishing Public (Grammar) Schools in each and every District of this Province, and to extend the 
same," reported they had done so. 

26th November, 1818. — Mr. James Durand of the Committee to confer with a Committee 
of the Honourable the Legislative Council, reported that they had met, and that the conference 
still remained open. 

After the House of Assembly had met on the next day, (27th November)^ 
themembei-s of it were summoned by Black Rod to the Legislative Council Cham- 
ber when His Excellency Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Peregrine Maitland, 
assented in His Majesty's name to a number of Bills, and closed the sittings of 
the Legislation with a speech from the Throne. In that speech he made no re- 
ference to the school legislation of the Session, nor to the subject of education. 
The closing of the sittings of the Legislature prevented the progress of the con- 
ference between the two Houses in regard to the District (Grammar) School 
Repeal Bill, so that it failed to pass either House, 



Disturbing Influences on School Legislation in Upper Canada, 1809-1817. 

During the administration of Lieutenant-Governor Gore, from 1806, to its 
close in 1817, various disturbing influences had been acting upon the political at- 
mosphere in the Legislature of Upper Canada. They culminated, so far as he 
was concerned, in his abrupt dismissal of the Legislature in April, 1817, and bis no 
less abrupt and final departure for England in June of that year. 



Chap. XXVIir. DISTURBING INFLUENCES ON SCHOOL LEGISLATION. 121 

The first of these unpleasant disturbances arose out of Lieutenant-Governor 
Gore's treatment of Mr. Justice Thorpe who had unwisely become a Member of 
the House of Assembly in 1806, while yet a judge. The Governor's proceeding 
aroused much ill-feeling, which found vent in Mr. Joseph Willcock's Upper 
Canada Gtutrdian, published in 1807. This feeling was intensified by the publi- 
cation in England, 1809, of a pamphlet on the Political Situation of the Pro- 
vince by Mr. John Mills Jackson ;* in which he attacked the system of land- 
granting, etc. This pamphlet and Willcocks' newspaper were decltured (not 
unanimously,) to be libellous by the House of Assembly. 

Apart from these cases, conflict had arisen in 1806 between the House of 
Assembly and the Legislative Council, as to the right of the Council to deal with 
Money Bills, or to vote away the public money without the knowledge of, or con- 
sent, of the House of Assembly. On this subject the Assembly memorialized the 
Lieutenant-Governor. This was the first serious dispute between the two 
Houses. 

At length the House of Assembly resolved to enquire into the causes which 
had led to so much discontent with the administration of Lieutenant-Governor 
Gore. It, therefore, appointed a select Committee " to enquire into the State of 
the Province." The Committee prepared a series of resolutions on the subject 
relating to the system of granting lands, to immigration and to the clergy reserv^es. 
It was during the discussion of these resolutions, after two or three had passed 
by a vote of 13 to 7, on Saturday, the fifth of April, 1817, that Lieutenant- 
Governor Gore hastily prorogued the Legislature on the Monday following, 7th 
April, and in the June afterwards left for England. 

There are no records of the proceedings of the Legislative Council preserved 
for the years 1815, 1816, 1817i- ^^^ 1818, so that little is definitely known as to 
its action in these matters. But it was at the Legislative Council, and through it 
at the Executive Council and the Lieutenant-Governor, that the House of 
Assembly aimed these resolutions. 

The subject of education was another specific cause of difference between 
the two Houses of Legislature. At first, and for some years, the House of 
Assembly had been adverse to the passage of any measure for the promotion of 

*Mr. Jackson was a Gentleman Commoner of Balliul College, Oxford, who came to Canada in 1806, 
having while in England bought land in Upper Canada. His appeal to the English public against the 
proce^ings of the Governmeat and Legislature of Upper Canada was the first of a long aeries of such 
appeals, which culminated at length in the appointment of the Earl of Durham in 1839, as Lord High 
Commissioner, to enquire into all of these alleged grievances. Mr. Jackson finally settled at a place on the 
shore of Lake Simcoe, now called after him "Jackson's Point." He died in England in 1836. 

tThe writer on Education in Upper Canada, in the Christian Recorder for April, 1819, says : " A 
modification of the whole system of education, embracing the Common and District Schools, and a College 
at York, was introduced into the Legislative Council by His Honour the Chief Justice in 1817. In this 
scheme there was a judicious gradation. . . . The project failed in the House of Assembly from an un- 
willingness to disturb the Common School Bill, which had only been one year in operation." 



122 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1818 

education. The Lefrislative Council on the other hand, had been the first to 
move in the matter, and, in 1807, had passed an Act to establish Grammar 
Schools in the several Districts of the Province. This was done at the instance 
of Honourable Richard Cartwright, a warm friend of the Reverend Dr. Strachan, 
and one who heartily sympathized with him in his well known desire to see 
such schools established so that they might act as feeders to the projected 
University for Upper Canada, 

One cause of difference between the two Houses on educational matters is 
thus referred to by the Writer in the History of Edwcation in Upper Canada, in 
the Christian Recorder of April, 1819 : < 

In one or two Districts, it must be confessed, that all the good which might have been 
anticipated, has not been produced, and these supply the complainants with their arguments 
against the Bill ; but the fault arose from the jealousy which at that time pervaded the House 
of Assembly. The Members demanded that what was given to one District should be given to 
all alike, whether necessary or not. 

After the Grammar School Act had been in operation a short time, it was 
felt that, under its provisions, only one school could be established in each of 
the eight prescribed Districts, while the mass of the people were left without 
any means for the elementary education of their children. Hence petitions 
were presented to the House of Assembly pointing out how circumscribed was 
the operation of the Act, and, at the same time — how costly it was ; that it 
provided schools for the rich, while the poor was unprovided for, etc. The 
popular branch of the Legislature being thus appealed to, took up that side of 
the question, and, session after session, sought to repeal or modify the Grammar 
School Act. It did but little, however, to provide a really practical remedy. At 
length, however, the two Houses finally agreed to pass an Act in 1816 to provide 
for the establishment of Common Schools throughout the Province, and made 
a grant of $24,000 a year for their maintenance, but limited the duration of 
the Act and the grant to four years. 

• The agitation, however, caused by Mr. Robert Gourley in 1817-18, re-opened 
the questions of differences between the two Houses, and led to a good deal of strife 
in the Legislature. The Honourable Samuel Smith wHo, at the time was the 
Administrator of the Government after the departure of Lieutenant-Governor 
Gore, sought to allay this strife ; and, in his closing speech to the Legislature 
on the first of April, 1818, be thus addressed the Members of the Houses : — 

When I called you together in obedience to the law, it was in the full expectation that 
you would assiduously labour to bring up any arrears of public business. 

The ready pledge oiFered by your cordial Addresses in answer to my suggestions from the 
Chair confirmed me in that hope. 

I regret, the more, to have experienced disappointment, and finding no probability of any 
concert between the Houses, I come reluctantly to close the session with its business unfinished, 

I do most earnestly intreat you to weigh well, during the recess, the important effects of 
such a disunion, and that you may meet resolved to conciliate and be useful. 



Cliap. XXIX, gourley's educational statistics, 1817. 123 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

GOURLEY'S EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS OF UPPER CANADA, 1817. 

Mr. Robert Gourley came to Canada in July, 1817. Being desirous of collect- 
ing information in regard to the country, he drew up a series of thirty-one 
queries, and sent them to the most prominent men in each municipality. Query five 
related to education and schools ] and the information on these subjects obtained 
by Mr. Gourley late in 1817, has been condensed and prepared for this publication. 
They will be found highly interesting, not only as a statistical starting point for 
the educational information, which has followed them, but also as showing 
what was the actual condition of Upper Canada in regard to education, and 
what were the facilities which the inhabitants then enjoyed in regard to schools. 
The District Grammar School Act of 1807 had been in operation ten years 
when these statistics were prepared, while the Common School Act of 1816 
had only been one year in operation. 

The statistics and information collected by Mr. Gourley relating to Upper 
Ganada were published by him in two volumes in London^ in 1822. The 
■descriptive part of Mr. Gourley's book was written for him by Mr. Barnabas Bid- 
well, formerly Master of the Bath Academy, and Father of his noted son — the 
Honourable Marshall Spring Bidwell. In "Sketch " No. 32, Gourley says : 

There is no College in Upper Canada ; but there are said to be several townships of laud 
«et apart for the purpose of endowing such an Institution when the population and circum- 
stances of the Province shall require it. 

No provision is made by law for free schools. The inhabitants of the several townships 
Are left to a ^^oluntary support of schools according to their own discretion. 

An Act of the Provincial Legislature, in 1807, stranted a hundred pounds a year, to the 
teacher of one school in each of the eight Districts, under the direction of Trustees. In 
some Districts, the school thus provided for, is made a free school ; but in the other Districts 
the salary is considered as a public encouragement to a teacher of literary eminence, in addition 
to the compensation received for the tuition of each scholar. 

The Act was at first limited to four years, within which period the limitation was repealed 
80 that it. is now a perpetual law. From the extent of the Districts, the location of the schools 
and other considerations, the (Grammar) School Act has proved not very satisfactory, and a repeal 
of it has been repeatedly attempted. Such dissatisfaction and attempts to procure a repeal, 
may have lessened the utility of these schools. Several of them, however, are flourishing 
and highly respectable. 

Other Seminaries for the education of youth are supported by individual exertions, without 
public aid. 

The first inhabitants were generally poor, in consequence of the Revolution. They had 
also to struijgle with the labours and privations incident to new settlements. As their habi- 
tations were sparse, it was difficult for them to unite in sufficient numbers to form good schools ; 
and they could neither afford much expense for instructors, nor allow their children much 
time for receiving instruction. From such inevitable causes, education was neglected among 
them, until the neglei^t almost became habitual. The want of books at the same time, relaxed 
their taste for reading. 

A sense of these disadvantages excited desires for surmounting them, which have at length 
produced the corresponding exertion. Books are procured in considerable numbers. In 
addition to those with which particular persons and families are supplied, social libraries are 
introduced in various places. . . ; 



124 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1817 



A spirit of improvement is evidently spreading. The value of education, as well as the 
want of it is felt. . . . Among other indications of the progress of literary ambition, I can- 
not forbear referring to the academy lately erected in Ernestown, by the subscription of 
public spirited inhabitants of that and the neighbouring townships, who appear to be convinced 
that the cultivation of liberal arts and sciences is naturally connected with an improvement of 
manners and morals, and a general melioration of the state of society. Such was the prospect 
when the War commenced. The Ernestown Academy was converted into a barrack ; and the 
Academical Institution has not been revived. The students resorted to other places of educa- 
cation, many jf them out of the Province. The building is now occupied as a house of public 
worship and a Common School. It is to be hoped, however, that the taste for literary 
improvement may be revived, and this Seminary be re-established, [which it was]. (Volume I, 
page 244-247). 

In 1816, two new Districts, (Gore and Ottawa), were organized. An Act was also passed 
for the establishment and encouragement of Common Schools. It provides for a Board of 
Education to be appointed in each District, and authorizes the inhabitants of any town, town- 
ship, village or place to associate by subscription for a School and to choose their Trustees of 
such School, who have power to appoint a teacher, designate the books to be used, and direct 
the course of education, subject to the superintendence of the District Board of Education. 
These Trustees are annuallj' to certify the number of scholars instructed in their respective 
Schools, and report the state of the schools to the District Board who are to make a similnr 
report to the Lieutenant-Governor, to be laid before the Legislature. The Act grants six 
thousand pounds (^24,000) a year, from the Provincial funds, and apportions it to the ten Dis- 
tricts of the Province. The District Boards are to apportionate it among the schools in their 
several Districts, according to the number of their scholars, with these limitations that none be 
given to a school of less than twenty scholars, and no school to have less than one hundred 
dollars. The money is to be paid to the teachers upon their producing certificates of qualification, 
and good conduct from their Trustees. This law, however incomplete as a system, indicates & 
favourable progress of public sentiment on the subject of Education. (Pages 258, 259). 

Report of Schools in Townships of Upper Canada, 1817. 

Mr, Gourley issued a circular to prominent parties in each of the Munici- 
palities of Upper Canada in 1817, requesting an answer to a series of queries 
relating to the condition and state»of Agriculture, Industries, Mineral resources, 
etc. The fifth query asked the number of schools in the locality, and the fees paid 
per quarter. The answer to this question is collected from Mr. Gourley 's Statis- 
tical Account of Upper Canada, published in 182?, volume one, pages 275-611. 

Saiidivich.. — There is one School in Sandwich, with one Master, who draws a salary from 
the Provincial fund of £100 per annum besides, tuition fees. There are two inferior Schools, 
the teachers of which receive from the same fund ^25 per annum, besides moderate fees. 

Maiden. — There are three Schools, and the rate per quarter is twenty shillings. 

Raleigh. — There is one Common School, the Teacher of which receives fifteen shillings for 
each scholar and the Legis'ature by a toll Act (1816) grants the teacher of each Common School 
in the Province a further sum of £25 yearly, provided there are taught in the said School at 
least twenty scholars. 

Dover, East and West, Chatham, Camden, Oxford, Howard and Hartoich. — At a meeting 
of the inhabitants of these Townships a reply was sent to the fifth among other queries, stating 
that there were four Schools in the Townships and that the rate was fifteen shillings per quarter. 
In a supplementary statement sent to Mr. Gourley it was stated there was an Indian School in 
Oxford Township kept in Indian and English. 

Windham. — We have two Schools, and we board the Teachers, and give them £12 10s. per 
quarter. 

GharlottevUle. — There are. in this Township, a District Public Grammar School, and four 
Common Schools ; the medium rate of tuition about 12s. 6d. jier quarter. 

Norwich. — There are here three Schools ; common fees per quarter £15 *[Query fifteen 
shillings] — board and lodging found. 

*This must mean the Schoolmaster's salary, R.G. 



Chap. XXIX. 



gourley's educational statistics, 1817. 



125 



Township Reports Relating to Schools in the London District. 



Names of Towusbips. 


When 
settled. 


Number 
of people. 


Number 
of schools. 


Fees per 
quarter. 


Delaware 


1795 
1811 


80 
428 


1 

2 

4 
1 
2 
2 
4 

3 
5 
2 

3 
2 
2 
2 
3 
1 
1 


8. d. 


Westminster 




Dorchester 




Oxford 


1795 
1797 
1793 
1794 
1796 
1793 
1794 
1793 
1791 
1815 
1808 
1813 
1811 
1811 
1811 
1803 


680 
150 
560 
293 
716 
247 
711 
900 
337 


10 




15 


Burf ord and its Gore 


12 6 


Windham j 




Townse»d 


12 6 


Walpole and Rainham 




W oodhouse 


12 6 


Charlotteville 


12 6 




10 














10 




775 
400 
900 
500 
400 


12 6 








12 6 




12 6 




10 






7,917 


40 


142 6 









ne 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 



181T 



Township Reports Relating to the District of Gore. 



Names of Townships. 


When 
settled. 


Number 
of people. 


Number 
of schools. 


Fees per 
quarter. 




1807 
1807 


548 
476 


3 
2 


8. d. 
10 1ft 




12 6 








1802 




1 
2 
4 
1 
3 

5 
6 
5 
5 


15 ft 


East Flamboro' and 






West Flamboro' 


1794 
1800 
1800 
1816 
1783 
1790 
1787 
1787 


360 
369 
850 
163 
480 
1,037 
80O 
700 




Beverly 


12 6 


Waterloo 


15 ft 








12 & 




16 3 


Barton 

Saltfleet 


13 6 






Totals 




5,673 


37 


107 3 







Sumherston. — There is one English, and one Dutch School. 

Grimsby. — The state of education is also at a very low ebb, not only in this Township, but 
generally throughout the District ; although the liberality of the Legislature has been great in 
support of the District Grammar Schools, (giving to the teachers of each £100 per annum), yet 
they have been productive of little or no good hitherto, for this obvious cause, they are looked 
upon as seminaries exclusively instituted for the education of the children of the more wealthy 
classes of society, and to which the poor man's child is considered as unfit to be admitted. 
From such causes, instead of their being a benefit to the Province, they are sunk into obscurity, 
and the heads of most of them are at this moment enjoying their situations as comfortable 
sinecures. Another class of schools has within a short time been likewise founded upon the 
liberality of the Legislative purse, denominated as Common, or Parish, Schools, but like the 
preceding, the anxiety of the teacher employed, seems more alive to his stipend than the 
advancement of the education of those placed under his care ; from the pecuniary advantages 
thus held out, we have been inundated with the worthless scum, under the character of 
schoolmasters, not only of this, but of every other country where the knowledge has been 
promulgated, of the easy means our laws afford of getting a living here, by obtaining a Parish 
School, which is done upon the accommodation of some few freeholders, getting his salary free 
from the public, and making his employers contribute handsomely besides. 

It is true, rules are laid down for their government, and the proper books prescribed for 
their use ; but scarcely in one case in ten are they adhered to, for, in the same class you will 
frequently see one child with Noah Webster's spelling book in his hand, and the next with 
Lindley Murray's. However prone the teachers are to variety in their schools, much blame is 
to be attributed to the trustees, who are in many instances too careless, and I might also add, 
too ignorant to discriminate right from wrong, in the trust they have undertaken for the 
public benefit. It is, therefore, not to be wondered at why the parish school system should 
meet with almost universal reprobation from most discerning men. Of these parish schools we 
are burdened with a liberal share, having no less than three of them. If the establishment of 



Chap. XXIX. 



gourley's educational statistics, 1817. 



127 



this system was meant by the Legislature to abbreviate the present enormous price of educa 
tion, they have been miserably deceived, for I can see no alteration or reduction from the 
charge made before the passing of this Act. The price then was 12s. 6d., and is now the same 
per quarter. 

(Extract of a letter from William Crooks, Esquire, of Grimsby, to Mr, Gourley, dated 
January 12th, 1818.) 

Township Reports Relating to Schools in the District of Niagara. 



Names of Townships. 



Humberstone . 

Bertie 

Willoughby . . 

Stamford 

Grantham 

Lowth 

Grimsby 

Pelham 

Thorold 

Crowland 

Wainfleet .... 
Canboro' and 
Oaister 

Totals 



When 
settled. 


Number 
of people. 


Number 
of schools. 


Fees per 
quarter. 








s. d. 


1787 




2 
6 


13 9 


1784 


1,600 


11 3 


1784 


441 


1 


12 6 


1784 


1,200 


5 


15 


1784 


1,200 


6 


12 6 


1787 


700 


3 


12 6 


1787 


805 


3 


12 


1790 


776 


5 


12 6 


1788 


830 


9 




1788 


600 


2 


10 


1800 




2 


10 


1803 


190 
156 




1782 


2 


12 6 




8,398 


46 


134 6 



Kingston. — There are eight schools, the fees of which are various ; viz. : three at forty 
shillings, four at twenty-two and six pence, and one conducted on the Lancastrian system at 
ten shillings per quarter. 

Ernestown, (including Amherst Island). — There is one parochial Academy in the village, 
and thirteen Common Schools over the Township. The fees may average ten shillings per 
quarter. 

Midland District. — Since the Legislature has appropriated a sum of money for Common 
Schools they have increased very much in the country. In Kingston there are six — two Gram- 
mar Schools, three Common Schools and one School for Young Ladies. 

This country was settled in 1784. 

(Extract of a letter from Thomas Markland, Esquire, dated Kingston, 26th November, 1817- 

Wilford. — There are four Commtm Schools in the Township ; three are paid one hundred 
dollars per annum by the Province ; the other is paid by the inhabitants. The average price 
per quarter to each scholar is fifteen shillings. 

Lansdown. — There is one school assisted by the Government to the extent of £25, and 
by the people to the amount of £45 annually. 

Charlottenburqh.— There are twelve schools in the Township. The average fees per quarter 
to each schoolmaster is £16. (Query, fifteen shillings.) 



128 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 



1817 



Township Reports of Schools in the Newcastle, Midland, Johnstown 

AND Eastern Districts. 



Haldimand 

Thurlow 

Sophiasburg ... . 

Hallowell 

Adolphustown . . . 

Ernestown 

Kingston 

Lansdown 

Wolford 

Charlottenburgh 



Names of Townships. 



Totals. 



When 
settled. 



1797 
1786 
1790 



1784 
1784 
1783 
1788 
1797 
1784 



Number i Number 
of people, of schools. 



1,200 



2.450 

2,850 

205 

320 

2,500 



9,625 



4 

4 
5 
4 
3 

14 
8 
1 
4 

12 



59 



Fees per 
quarter. 



8. d. 

12 6 

10 

12 6 

13 9 



10 
27 6 



15 



101 3 



Township Reports of Schools in the Western District. 



Sandwich . 
Maiden . . . 
Raleigh . . . 
Dover, etc. 



Totals. 



Names of Townships. 



When 
settled. 



1750 
1784 
1792 
1794 



Number 
of people. 



1,000 
675 
273 
798 



2,746 



Number 
of schools. 



11 



Fees per 
quarter. 



s. d. 



20 
15 
15 



50 



Note. — A large number of Townships made no report whatever in regard 
to schools. 



Chap. XXX. MISCELLANEOUS EDUCATIONAL PAPERS, ETC., 1817-1818. 129' 



CHAPTER XXX. 

MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS AND DOCUMENTS RELATING TO 
EDUCATION AND SCHOOLS, 1817-1818. 

As there is a break in the Parliamentary Records of the Legislative Council 
for 1814-1818, I insert in this chapter a number of miscellaneous Papers, Notices 
of Schools, etc., chiefly taken from the Kingston Gazette of 1817-18. They 
illustrate the educational advantages in Kingston at the time, as well as tha 
character of the tuition, and rate of fees then charged, etc. 

Midland District (Grammar) School, Kingston, 1817. 

The Rev. John Wilson, M. A. of Queen's College, Oxford, having been appointed Head 
Master of this establishment, begs to inform his friends and the inhabitants of the District that 
every branch of classical literature, and the elements of mathematics, will be taught according to 
the system adopted in the Public Schools and Universities of England, 

Every attention will be paid to morals of the pupils, and to their instructions in English 
reading, grammar, writing, arithmetic, book-keeping, etc. 

KiKGSTON, June 12th, 1817. 

A School op Liberal Arts and Sciences, 1817. 

The Preceptor of this school begs permission to acquaint his friends and the public that^ 
having removed to the commodious stone house, recently occupied by Mr. Henry Baker, front- 
ing Store street, Kingston, he will have it in his power to aflPord his present pupils, and those 
who may hereafter attend, with a handsome paved playground, and other pleasing juvenile con- 
veniences. 

He returns unfeigned acknowledgments to his friends for their very liberal support. He 
trusts that, from his former attention, his new arrangements and future exertions will secure a 
continuance of jmblic patronage. 

A son of the Rev. J. G. Weagant is shortly expected as Usher in this school. 

Evening and Sunday schools are also continued at this place. 

Scholars residing at a distance may be boarded and instructed on moderate terms. 

Kingston, May Slst, 1817. 

Sunday Schools in Kingston, 1817. 

Mr. William Moon, Schoolmaster, in Kingston, wrote to the Editor of the Kingston Gazette^ 
under date of June the 9th, 1817, as follows : — 

t feel to rejoice that a pious minister has taken so much interest in the welfare of the 
rising genera' ion of Kingston, as to propose a Sunday School ; he has thereby given a full proof 
that he wishes well to our prosperity. 

I hope that numbers will willingly follow his advice and help bo good a work, and as the 
intent of a Sunday School is chiefly to instruct the children of the poor, that have not the 
means or opportunity of getting them instructed, it is to be hoped that many young men and 
women will come forward in so laudable an undertaking to give a small portion of their Sabbaths 
to so good a purpose as to instruct the uninstructed, and it can not be doubted for a moment, 
but that the charitable inhabitants of Kingston, will come forward to help in purchasing books 
and tracts for the school. 

I understand that the Rev. Mr. Cattrick intends to establish one. If it should meet his 
approbation, or any other person or persons, who wish to take the lead of so laudable an under- 
taking, I willingly make an oflFer of my school room and my attendance if wanted. 

9 (D.E.) 



130 DOCUMENTARY HISTORX- OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1817-1818 



Mb. Baker's School for Classical Education, 1817. 

Scholars may be instructed at the Academy, in Mr. Henry Baker's red house, Rear street, 
^Kingston, in the following branches of literature at the annexed prices, viz. : 

£. S. D. 

In Orthography, Reading and Writing per quarter . : 1 2 6 

Or £4 per annum. 

English Grammar, Arithmetic and Book-keeping 1 10 

(Composition, Oratory, the Elements of Natural and Civil History, Prac- 
tical Mathematics, Geography, etc 2 

Xatin, Greek and other classical branches 2 10 

An evening school will also be taught for the benefit of those who are unable to attend the 
day school. 

A young lady is wanted to instruct the Misses in plain sewing. Enquire at the Academy. 
Kingston, April, 1817 . 

Mr. Latham's English and French Academy, 1817. 

Henry Latham, late a clerk in the Naval yard, begs leave to inform his friends and the 
public that, from the encouragement he ha» received from several of the princijial inhabitants of 
the east ward of Kingston, he has been induced to re-open the Academy at Mr. Baker's stone 
house in Store street for the instruction of youth of both sexes in the following useful branches 
• of education, viz., reading, writing, English grammar and a knowledge of the French language. 

In soliciting a share of public patronage, he hopes by assiduity and attention, not only to 
the instruction, but to the morals of the pupils entrusted to his charge, to merit a continuance 
of it. 

Terms may be obtained by application at the school house. 

N. B. — An evening school on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, from 6 till 8 o'clock. 
Kingston, October 6th, 1817. 

Lectdres on Chemistry and Geology, 1817. 

In February, 1817, Mr. John Whitelaw, Master of the Kingston Grammar School issued the 
following notice : — 

The subscriber proposes, during the eniising spring, to deliver a course of lectures, intro- 
ductory to the study of chemistry, mineralogy and geology. 

The lectures will be accompanied (as far as an apparatus for the purpose can be obtained) 
by a number of experiments, establishing general principles and illustrating the peculiar pro- 
perties of particular bodies. Likewise, as great a variety of mineral specimens as can be pro- 
cured, will be shown ; and particular care taken to explain the nature and point out the uses of 
the various mineral and metalic productions of Upper Canada ; from which, were they suffi- 
ciently known and their value duly appreciated, agriculture and many of the useful arts of 
life might derive great advantage, and thus prove a permanent source of wealth to the inhabit- 
ants. 

The course will consist of at least thirty-six lectures. Three of which will be delivered 
every week, viz., on Monday, Wednesday and Friday, commencing at 8 o'clock in the evening. 

Those who may be disposed to attend will be pleased, as early as convenient to signify the 
same by entering their names with Mr. Macaulay at the post office, who will furnish them with 
tickets of admission at three guineas each for the course. 

Mr. Tolkien's Private School in Kingston, 1817. 

The public are respectfully informed, that on Monday, the 3rd instant, a school will be 
opened by Mr. Charles Tolkien, in the new stone building belonging to Mr. Aykroyd, in which 
scholars will be instructed in English Reading, English Grammar, Writing, Arithmetic, Book- 
Keeping and Geography. 

The terms and hours of Tuit'on, etc., will be the same as those formerly settled for the 
branches in the Public School at this place. 

N. B. — Punctual attendance, and unconditional submission to the rules of school will be 
-expected from every scholar. 

Kingston. January, 1817. 



Chap. XXX. MISCELLANEOUS EDUCATIONAL PAPERS, ETC., 1817-1818. 131 



Mr. and Mrs. Woolf's Boarding and Day School. 

Mr. and Mrs. Woolf beg to inform the public that, on the 12th instant, they purpose to 
commence a boarding and day school, (in the house recently occupied by Dr. Macaulay,) 
for the instruction of young Udies in the different branches of female education. 

Cards of terms, and every other requisite information may be had on application. 

Kingston, 3rd of May, 1817. 

Mrs. Hill's Kingston School for Young Ladies, 1818. 

Mrs. Hill, mosc respectfully, informs the inhabitants of Kingston and its vicinity that she 
has taken the house, lately occupied by Messrs. Johns and Finkle, where she intends commencing 
A boarding and day school for young ladies, on Tuesday, the 22nd of October, and hopes, from 
the attention which she will pay to the improvement, morals and comfort of her pupils, to merit 
the approbation of the parents, who will entrust their children to her care. 

She will teach reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar and geography, with plain and fancy 
needle-work. Embroidery will also be at the option of the parents. 

The following are the terms, viz, : — 

Small children, Reading only 15 8. per quai-ter. 

Reading Writing and plain Needle-work 20 do 

Grammar, Arithmetic, Geography and fancy Needlework 30 do 

Embroidery, extra 15 do 

Mrs. H, will take boarders at the most moderate rate. 

Kingston, October 3rd, 1818. 

Mr. Harris' Private School for Youxo Ladies, etc., 1818. 

Mr. Thomas Harris, late teacher in one of the most respectable schools in Quebec, intends 
opening a school on the 14th of September, at the residence of Mr. R. Johnston, teacher of the 
Lancasterian school, in which the following branches will be taught, viz. :— Reading, writing, 
arithmetic, English grammar and geography. 

The young ladies will be superintended in the diflFerent branches of needle-work by Mrs. 
Johnston in a separate apartment. 

A. few young gentlemen may be accommodated as boarders on reasonable terms. 
Kingston, September, 1818. 

Midland District Lancastrian School in Kingston, 1818. 

As the professed object of all schools on the " Pritish and Foreign School Society " system 
is the education of children of poor and indigent parents, and as there are in this town many 
children of emigrants and others who cannot afford even the present small monthly payment 
which the trustees have appointed to the school established here upon th .t system commonly 
called the Lancastrian school ; it is therefore, proposed to the benevolent advocates for the 
■education of the poor, that an annual subscription be raised for the purpose and to be appro- 
priated solely to the benefit of indigent children under the following regulations : — 

Ist. That annual subscriptions and donations be immediately entered into, for the sole 
purpose of affording gratuitous education to the children of poor and indigent parents. 

2nd. That a subsciption of two pounds shall enable the subscriber to nominate annually 
one free scholar. The nominations to be made at the time of subscription, or else to merge, 
with the rights of smaller subscriptions, and all donations, in the President and Trustees of the 
School. 

3rd. That the President and Trustees shall faithfully apply the moneys that may be thus 
put into their hands, to the education of as many poor children as the amount of the subscrip- 
tion will allow, with the exception of five pounds to be appropriated to the purchase of prizes, dis- 
tributable to meritorious scholars, at the quarterly examination. But if a sufficient number of 
such poor children shall not be found, then, at the end of each year, the surplus be disposed 
of in the purchase of a small library for the use of the School. Provided always, that no part 
of such surplus be in any way laid out upon the repairs of the school or premises. 

4th. That Hugh C. Thomson, Esq. , as Treasurer, be forthwith authorised to receive 
subscriptions and do nations. 



132 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. ISlT-lS 



Midland District School Society, 1«18. ' 

The annual meeting of the members of the Midland District School Society was this day 
held at the school house, Kingston the eleventh day of May, 1818. 

The President and Trustees of the Midland District School Society, for the year ending the 
11th of May, 1818, report that the Treasurer has exhibited the following statement of the funds 
of the Society : — 

£ s. d. 

By cash paid in for subscriptions 341 3 11 

^- s. d. 
To cash for building and finishing school house 338 15 6^ 

Balance in the hands of the treasurer 2 8 4^ 

That a number of the original subscriptions are probably lost to the Society, owing to the 
departure of the subscribers from the country, (since the Society was incorporated in 1815,) but 
there still remains of uncollected and valid subscriptions to the amount of above thirty pounds. 

That the school-house erected is sufficient to accommodate from ninety to one hundred 
scholars. 

That Mr. Robert Johnston, having been recommended by the Canadian Committee of the 
Society at Quebec, as an experienced teacher, in the Brit'sh and Foreign Society System of 
Education, was engaged by the President and Trustees for one year, and the School was opened 
on the 24th of November last. 

That for some time past the average number of scholars has been from seventy to eighty, 
taught with peculiar advantages in the different departments of reading, writing, and arith- 
metic . 

The President and Trustees are persuaded that with the continued support of the Society, 
the School now established will be a public benefit to the Town of Kingston, and particuliarly to- 
the poorer classes of its inhabitants, by affording instructions to their children at the moderate 
rate of three shillings and four pence per month. 

In order, however, to render this institution still more generally useful, a fund for the 
education of the children of the destitute poor is yet wanting. This may be accomplished by 
means of annual subscriptions and donations, for that purpose. 

The following gentlemen were then elected as officers and trustees for the ensuing year : — 
Rev. G. O. Stuart, Pieside7it, Rev. John Wilson, the Hon. A. McLean, and Messieurs T» 
Markland, G. Markland. C. A. Hagerman, A. Pringle and W. Mitchell, Trustees. 
Hugh C. Thomson, Treasurer, Robert Johnston, Secretary. 

Ernestown (Bath) Academy, Reopened, 1818. 

The Trustees of the Ernestown (Bath) Academy hereby give notice that they have- 
appointed the Reverend Alexander Fletcher, Preceptor of that academical Institution, which 
will be opened in a few days, after having been closed for some time. 

The Rev. Alexander Fletcher and Mr. Mcintosh have commenced teaching in Ernestown 
Academy, viz., the English language grammatically, writing, arithmetic, book-keeping, geography 
with the use of globes, mathematics, recitation, composition and history with the Latin and 
Greek languages. 

Mr. Fletcher attended a complete course of classical studies at the Colleges of Glasgow and 
Edinburgh ; Mr. Mcintosh received a liberal education at King's College, Aberdeen ; and from 
their combined experience in, and adoption of, the most successful and approved modes of tuition, 
they hope to merit the approbation of their employers. 

Boarders can be accommodated in respectable private families on the most reasonable terms. 

Ernestown, October 6th, 1818. 

LECTuaES ON Natural Philosophy, 1818. 

In the Upper Canada Gazette of the 6th of February, 1818, appeared the following notice : — 

The subscriber intends to deliver a course of Popular Lectures on Natural Philosophy, to 
commence on Tuesday, the seventeenth instant, at seven o'clock, p.m., should a number of 
auditors come forward to form a class. Tickets of admission for the course, (price, two guineas) 
may be had of William Allan, Esquire, Dr. Home, or at the District School House. The 
surplus, if any, after defraying the current expenses, to be laid out in painting the District 
School House. 

[Note. — The proceeds of this lecture were laid out in painting the old school-house blue, hence it wag- 
afterwards known as " The old Blue School."'\ 

York, February 3rd, 1818. John Strachan. 



Ohap. XXX. MISCELLANEOUS EDUCATIONAL PAPERS, ETC., 1817-1818. 133 



Essay on Education in Upper Canada, 1818. 

The following "Essay" contributed to the Kingston Gazette in 1818, by 
Mr. John Morris Flindall is interested as illustrating some of the more prominent 
features of "schools and schooling" in Upper Canada in those days. 

These were mainly the uncertain character of the standard of discipline 
observed in the schools ; the ill-effects of school gossip in the homes of the pupils ; 
the hard bargains made with teachers, and the general illiteracy of the peripathetic 
teacher, who was the ordinary one in Mr. Flindall's day, and as described in 
Mr. Gourley's Report. Besides, the " Essay " throws a vivid side-light on the 
condition and character of the desultory and uncertain kind of education given — 
such as it was, — in Upper Canada during the early part of the present century. 

" He that has found a way how to keep up a child's spirit, easy, active and free, and yet at the same 
time, to restrain him from many things he has a mind to, and to draw him to thingd that are uneasy to 
him ; he, I say, that knows how to reconcile these seeming contradictions, has, in my opinion, got the true 
secret of Education. " — Locke. 

As every man should consider himself bound to contribute his mite towards the public 
benefit, or the improvement of that society of which he is a member, little apology will per- 
haps be required of him, those good intentions are at once recognized, by the liberal minded of 
all persuasions. 

But to the gentlemen composing the different boards of education ;and to the calm consid- 
eration of every parent, or guardian ; these sentiments, on the most important of all subjects 
are earnestly addressed. 

While philanthropists, exult in the hope, that the age of coercion is passing away, why 
should we neglect to aid the arrival of milder manners, and happier times by inculcating their 
superior advantages in the education of youth ? 

And how can this be done, so long as teachers, or parents, believe nothing can be accom- 
plished in education without unbending rigour, or continual chastisement ? 

We may in vain, give lessons on humanity to the child who wantonly kicks a dog, or 
destroys a cat ; if we continue on every gust of passion to exercise cruelty on the scholar, or 
severity on the helpless infant, murder itself may sometimes originate from such an error in 
education, as the robber, under the gallows, traced back his crime to the stolen apple. 

I have, in Canada, heard a good old British officer's observation, on the subject of education, 
that he still recollects, with indignation, the treatment he received at school, and that he 
would as readily have marched into a field of battle, as he would entered his school-room, or as 
soon have met a musket ball, as have faced his school-master, and I have conversed with many 
others who still retain similar feeling! Such pedagogues, I consider, as mischievous, mercenary 
pretenders, and by no means as those who have, "the true secret of education." 

The paths to learning should, if possible, be strewed with flowers, and not with thorns. 
The tutor should be mild and firm, patient and persuasive, rather than be clothed with terrors ; 
his pupils should be one family : himself the father. 

Those parents have very erroneous notions who consider a school-master as the only proper 
dispenser of punishment, or who teaze, and interrupt him, with continual complaints of juvenile 
errors, in which the i)arent3 alone are responsible. 

I am not here to be understood as maintaining that every seminary of learning can be con- 
ducted without that wholesome, or discriminate, discipline, which is found to check the turbu- 
lence of some tempers ; but it is certain, that the frequency of punishment will ever lessen its 
eflfect, and the same rule will hold good with respect to the laws which govern man, as well as 
to the rules which direct the juvenile scholar. 

A severe reproof from a mild master will have more effect than a severe blow from a morose 
one. Studj is the most successful, wnenthe mind is most at ease, but how can that mind beat 
«ase, which is ever tenanted by terror ? 

In the culture of the human mind, there are a thousand little niceties, which an experienced 
tutor alone can know, and he should, therefore, never be tied down by too many restrictions 
•on his conduct. Yet nothing is more common than to see an illiterate man, give ridiculous 
directions, or offer insult, to a worthy teacher. 



134 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1817-18 



On my firat arrival in Upper Canada, I met with a very intelligent Englishman, who con- 
ducted a school in this country ; he told me with a tearful eye, that in cons3quence of this latter 
circumstance his situation became odious to him. 

" Sir" said he, "were it not that I am still encouraged by two or three respectable 
families, I would as soon be found thieving as keeping school here ! " 

In the bitterness of "his feelings, he had not considered that similar miseries might have 
afflicted him in an English, as well as in a Canadian, village. 

" Painful preeminence yourself to view 

" Above life's weakness, and its comforts too." 

As perfection is not attainable, and such as for faults will not be long without finding them, 
so those who listen to the tales of childhood, will always have enough to liear. 

One withdraws his child from school having heard its complaint against the teacher. And 
as nothing is easier propagated than prejudice, he soon gets others to think ill of the same teacher,, 
so that he may not appear whimsical, or singular himself, a practice just as illiberal as tnat of 
a man who, having stolen your purse, robs you of reputation also! 

The broils and bickerings of neighbors and parents will often be mimicked by the children, 
and the whispers of the schoolroom are but the echoes of the domestic fireside. 

From hence arises much of the illiberal censure which even the best and most impartial 
teachers must endure ; the scholar, much happier, has but one master, but here the teacher has 
many : and if the frivolous reports of his own pupils are to influence the parents, a master be- 
comes not only wretched in mind, but altogether destitute of authority : — though he can only 
be useful in proportion as his character is held sacred, or his endeavours seconded by the judi- 
cious aid o^ the present. 

A man of real merit, is ever the more obnoxious to the envious and unprincipled, as it is 
generally observed to be the sweetest fruit, which the little birds pick at ; so the malignant 
spirit of little minds, are ever busy ; and like that painful, but puny annoyer, the musquito,. 
seems only created to murmur and to sting ! 

That " the authority of a Master, for the time supersedes that of a parent, who has no 
right to interfere with the regulations of a school," is a point lately confirmed by a British 
Judge, at the Lancashire Assizes. 

" I have " says the compiler of the American Preceptor, " often heard old and experienced 
instructors declare that the whole business of managing a large school, and training the pupils 
to learning and virtue, was nothing in comparsion with the trouble which was given by whimsi- 
cal, ipnorant and discontented parents." 

Let it then be the business of every friend to education, to awaken more liberal sentiments 
with respect to both teachers and pupils. A glorious field is open to our view ; and our Legisla- 
tures are aiding in its cultivation. In addition to a email annual stipend, they have very judi- 
ciously endeavoured to shield the teacher from the effects of local prejudice or frivolous com- 
plaint, by referring such cases to the decision of the Board of Education. 

While some parents forbid the rigour necessary to remove the vices, or unlearn the errora 
acquired by parental indulgence, others most approve of those passionate pedagogues, who pre- 
fer stripes to precepts, and in higgling with a preceptor about his recompense, think they have 
made a good bargain, when they get one who will whip their children for half a dollar per 
quarter less than another would charge to instruct them ! 

While they hesitate not in giving a labourer a dollar per day for his services, whose 
labours, though severe, are not equal to those of the mind. 

A schoolmaster who receives twenty-five dollars from Government, is expected to teach a 
scholar for a dollar and a half per quarter ; his recompence therefore from the parent is one 
penny per day, and for this he has often to give six lessons ! 

Now, should this man have a family, resident in the neighbourhood, (and which should al- 
ways if possible be the case), he will seldom require cash from his subscribers while they supply 
him with produce ; so that were his recompense greater, it would scarcely be felt by the farmer* 
or merchants. 

But the littleness of conduct in their treaty with teachers, is so very opposite to the dis- 
interested hospitality of Canadians, that it must have originated from a want of due consider- 
ation on the importance and value of education ; for, as the morals and prosperity of every 
country must go hand in hand, so the dispensers of public instruction should be proportionally 
rewarded. 

Nothing is more encouraging to any author, than to find his own opinion supported by 
the best and most disinterested authority ; my quotations will therefore be pardoned. 



Chap. XXX. MISCELLANEOUS EDUCATIONAL PAPERS, ETC., 1817-1818. 135- 



Pinkerton, in his remarks on the Education of America observes that, "as nothing is more 
important in any country than the national education, it would be for interest and honour of 
the people at large, that numerous and competent salaries should be assigned as to the dispensers 
of public instruction. 

"As in the general opinion of mankind, the chief glory of every people arises from its 
authors, a few thousand pounds annually expended on them would confer more true lasting 
fame, than millions wasted in destructive wars." 

"As without lamps there cannot be light, so without oil the lamps must expire." 

Now, as we always find reward ever stimulates to exertion, how can it be better bestowed 
than on those who have the care of our oflFspring, and whose talents must stamp the character of 
a future generation ? 

The Rev. Dr. Strachan, in preface to his Arithmetic, very pro2>erly observes that "he who is 
anxious to spare labour, ought not be a public teacher." And it may be added, that those who 
are anxious to withhold adequate reward, are not worthy of a good one. 

" The usual lazy and short way by chastisement, and the rod, which is," says the immortal 
Locke, " the only instrument of Government that tutors generally know, or ever think of, is the 
most unfit of any to be used in education. 

" But if you can once get into children a love of credit, and an apprehension of shame and 
disgrace, you have put into them the true principle which will constantly work and incline 
them to the right." 

Thus it is easy to conceive that a man may be a good grammarian, an expert arithmetician, 
a fine penman, etc., and yet be found a bad teacher. If the inhabitants of Japan can educate 
their youth without the degradation of personal chastisement, why might not the same thing be 
done, or at least attempted, in other countries ? 

But in Canada, learning requires stable as well as able men, but how can stability be ex- 
pected from young adventurers, or travelling strangers, or who can be responsible for their moral 
character ? 

In many townships, a teacher of twelve months standing is a prodigy ; one of as many 
weeks the most common. 

One might also well suppose, that, from the continual accounts given in the public papers, 
of the most abominable imposters finding employment and encouragement, as school masters, 
that parents would be found more cautious, or vigilant in their choice. God forbid, that by 
this hint, I should be thought to impeach the morals or merit of strangers in general, — many of 
whom have certainly proved themselves worthy of the great confidence reposed in them ; but, 
as a parent, I may be excused the anxiety which I feel, and would wish t<i be felt by others, in 
the choice of those who may either pollute, or elevate, the minds of our offspring. 

Indeed were I to have a choice I should certainly prefer him who was himself a parent, 
for the instructor of my own children, even though his talents might be the less shining. 

How opposite also is this to the impolitic plan of employing unsettled and single men, who- 
as soon as they have obtained the cash for their quarter's hire, move off" and spend it in another 
place. Can such itinerant teachers be expected to leave many traces of instruction behind 
them ? 

It is with much pleasure I perceive that many worthy people in this new world can duly 
value everything connected with a subject so important. 

" Consider," says Walkers, " how much time is lost by master and scholars for want of a 
warm, convenient room. 

" One might suppose from the shattered condition and ill accommodation of many school- 
houses, that they were erected as pounds, to confine unruly boys, and punish them by way of 
freezing them and smoking them, so that the master can do little more than regulate the cere- 
monies of the hearth . 

" Proper books in the several branches of their study, are a great encouragement. 

" A good opinion of their master is another thing parents ought to give them. To slander 
his character is an indirect attack upon your dearest interest." 

But one might well suppose, that could no other virtuous example be found among those 
who have deigned to " teach the young idea how to shoot," that in North America, the name of 
Anthony Benezet, would ever diffuse a lustre on an office so arduous and important. 



136 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1819 



CHAPTER XXXL 

EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE UPPER CANADA LEGISLA- 
TURE IN 1819. 

Lieutenant-Governor Sir Peregrine Maitland, opened the fourth session of 
the Seventh Parliament of Upper Canada on the seventh day of June, 1819, with 
a Speech from the Throne. In it he made no reference to the subject either of 
education or schools. 

Nevertheless, three subjects came up for discussion, in the Legislature itself 
two of them practically the old questions in a new form. The one was the 
repeal, or modification, of the Grammar School law of 1807, and the other was the 
maintenance of the Common Schools already established, by the passing of an 
Act to continue in operation the Act of 1816, under the authority of which a 
grant of $24,000 a year was secured to these schools for four years. 

This Act was limited to expire in 1820, and hence the necessity of early 
provision being made for its continuance in operation. 

The third matter dealt with a remote contingency, and was suggested by the 
Lieutenant-Governor. It was that an Act should be passed, enabling a constitu- 
ency to be named to elect a Member to represent the University of Upper 
Oanada, when in established, in the Commons House of Assembly. 

The Grammar School Amendment Bill was the only one of the three which 
•survived the ordeal of legislation. The continuance of the Common School Act 
was practically prevented by such amendments being made to it in the Legisla- 
tive Council as destroyed its prospective vitality beyond the time when it was 
fixed by law to expire. The University Representation Bill, though prepared 
with evident care, was referred to a Committee of Conference of both Houses, 
from which it never emerged. But during the next Session of the Legislature 
the proposal became law. As a practical question, however, it has never since 
been favouraby considered, and, as a reality, has evidently been postponed 
sine die. The provision for this representation, with the Act itself, was repealed 
by the Imperial Act for the union of the Canadas in 184<0. 

Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1819. 

The Members of the House of Assembly who took part in the educational 
Legislation of 1819 were: Messieurs Philip VanKoughnet, Jouas Jones, Isaac 
Fraser', Richard Hatt, Peter Robinson, Robert Nichols, James Durand, Zaccheus 
Burnham, Robert Nelles and Alexander McMartin. 

lOthJune, 1819. — Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, gives notice that he will, on Monday next, move 
for leave to bring in a Bill to repeal part of and amend the laws now in force for establishing 
District (Grammar) Schools in the several Districts of this Province, and to extend the pro- 
visions of the same. 



Chap. XXXI. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1819. 137 



Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, gives notice that he will, on Monday next, move for leave to 
tring in a Bill to cont'nue an Act passed in the fifty-sixth year of His Majesty's reign (1816) 
intituled " An Act granting to His Majesty a sum of money to be applied to the use of Com- 
mon Schools throughout this Province and to provide for the regulations of said Common 
Schools." 

15th June, 1819. — Agreeably to notice Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. Isaac 
Fraser, moves for leave to bring in a Bill to repeal part of, amend, and extend the provisions 
of an Act passed in the forty-seventh year of His Majesty's reign (1807), intituled " An Act 
to establish Public Schools in each and eveiy District of this Province," which was granted 
and the Bill read a first time. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. Isaac Fraser, moves that the District (Grammar) 
•School Bill be read a second time on to-morrow, which was ordered. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. Jonas Jones, moves for leave to bring in a 
Bill to continue an Act passed in fifty-sixth year of His Majesty's reign (1816) intituled " An 
Act for granting to His Majesty a sum of money to be applied to the use of Common Schools 
throughout th's Province, and to provide for the regulations of said Common Schools, which 
was granted and the Bill read a first time. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by.Mr. Jonaq Jones, moves that the Common School 
Continuation Bill be read a second time on to-morrow, which was ordered. 

16th June, 1819. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the District (Grammar) School 
Amendment Bill was read the second time. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded b^ Mr. Richard Hatt, moves that the House do now 
resolve itself into a Committee to take into consideration the District (Grammar) School Amend- 
ment Bill, which was carried, and Mr. Peter Robinson took the chair of the Committee. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Peter Robinson reported progress, and obtained leave to 
sit again to-morrow. 

Agreeably to the Order of of the Day, the Common School Continuation Bill was read the 
second time. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. Isaac Fraser, moves that the House do now 
resolve itself into a Committee, to take into consideration the Common School Continuation 
Bill, which was carrieJ, and Mr. Ralph Clench took the chair of the Committee. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Clench reported the Bill amended. Ordered that thq 
Report be received . 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. Jonas Jones, moves that the Common School 
Continuation Bill be engrossed and read a third time to-morrow, which was ordered. 

17th June, 1819. — Agree ibly to the Order of the Day, the Common School Continuation 
Bill was called for a third reading, when Mr. Robert Nichol, seconded by Mr. Richard Hatt, 
moved that the Common School Continuation Bill be read a third time on Monday se'nnight, 
which was lost, and the Bill was read the third time. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. Jonas .lones, moves that the Common School 
Continuation Bill do now pass, and that it be intituled "An Act to continue an Act pased in 
the fifty-si.\th year of His Majesty's reign (1816), intituled, "An Act granting to His Majesty a 
sum of money to be applied to the u=e of Common Schools throughout this Province ' and to pro- 
vide for the regulations of the said Common Schools." 

In amandment, Mr. Robert Nichol, seconded by Mr. Richird Hatt, moves that the ques- 
tion be not now put, which motion was lost, the original question was then put and carried, 
and the Bill was signed by the Speaker. 

Mr. Jonas Jonei. seconded by Mr. Isaac Fraser, moves that Messieurs VanKoughnet and 
Cameron be a Comm'ttee to carry up the Honour,ible the Legislative Council the Common 
School Continuation Bill, and request their concurrence thereto, which was ordered. 

17th Jane, i5/9.— Agreeably to the Order of the Day. the House went into Committee on 
the District (Grammir) Sjhool Amendment Bill, Mr. Peter Robinson in the chair. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Robinson reported the Bill as amended. Ordered, that 
the Report be received. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. James Durand, moves that the District (Gram- 
mar) School Amendment Bill be engrossed and read a third tima on to-morrow, which was 
ordered. 

ISth June, 1529.— Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the District (Grammar) School 
Amendment Bill was read the third time. 



138 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 181^ 



Mr. Peter Robinson, seconded by Mr. Zaccheus Burnham, moves that the District (Grammar) 
School Amendment Bill do now pass, and that it be intituled, " An Apt to Repeal part of, and 
to Amend, the laws now in force for establishing District (Grammar) Schools in the several 
Districts in this Province, and to extend the provisions of the same," which was carried and the 
Bill signed by the Speaker. 

Mr. Robert Nelles, seconded by Mr. Zaccheus Burnham, moves that Messieurs Van- 
Koughnet and Robinson be a Committee to carry up to the Honourable the Legislative Council 
the District (Grammar) School Amendment Bill, and request their concurrence thereto, which 
was ordered. 

Mr. VanKoughnet, of the Committee to carry up to the Honourable the Legislative Coiincil 
the Bill intituled. " An Act to continue an Act passed in the fifty-sixth year of His Majesty's 
Reign (1816), intituled, "An Act granting to His Majesty a sum of Money to be applied for the 
use of Common Schools throughout this Province, and to provide for the Regulations of the said 
Common Schools,'' and the Bill intituled, " An Act to repeal part of. and amend, the laws now 
in force for establishing District iGrammar) Schools in the several Districts of this Province^ 
and to extend the provisions of the same," and request their concurrence thereto, reported 
that they had done so. 

University Representation in the House of Assembly. 

S2nd June, 1819. — A message from His Excellency Sir Peregrine Maitland, the Lieutenant- 
Governor, was read, as follows : 

P. Maitland : 

The Lieutenant-Governor transmits the Petition of certain inhabitants of Perth and the 
New Settlement in the County of Leeds [re Representation in the Commons], and at the same 
time submits the propriety of providing for a dis'tinct representation of the contemplated Uni- 
versity, when founded, in conformity to the established practice in the Mother Country. 

Government House, P.M. 

June 22nd, 1819. 

Mr. Robert Nichol, seconded by Mr. Richard Hatt, moved that the House take this Message 
of His Excellency into consideration to-morrow. Which was ordered. 

Mr. W. VV. Baldwin, Master-in-Chancery, brought down from the Honourable the Legisla- 
tive Council a Message, which, having delivered, he withdrew, and the Speaker read the same 
as follows : 

Mr. Speaker : 

The Honourable the Legislative Council request a Conference with the Commons House of 
Assembly on the subject master of a Bill intituled, '' An Act to Repeal part of, and amend, the 
laws now in force for establishing District (Grammar) Schools in the several Districts of this 
Province, and to extend the provisions of the same." 

The Legislative Council have appointed a Committee of two of its Members, who will be 
ready to meet the Committee of the Commons House of Assembly for that purpose in the Legis- 
lative Council Chamber at the rising of this House this day. 

Legislative Council Chamber, Wm. Dummer Powell, 

22nd June, 1819. Speaker. 

Mr. Richard Hatt, seconded by Mr Philip VanKoughnet, moves that Messieurs Van- 
Koughnet, Nichol, Durand and Burnham be a Committee to confer with the Committee of 'he 
Honourable the Legislative Council on the subject of the District (Grammar) School Bill, which 
was ordered. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. Peter Robinson, moves that Messieurs Hatt 
and Fraser be a Committee to acquaint the Honourable the Legislative Council that this House 
has appointed a Committee to confer with the Committee of that Honourable House on the 
subject of the Bill intituled, "An Act to Repeal part of, and amend, an Act passed in the forty- 
seventh year of His Majesty's Eeign (1807) intituled, ' An Act to establish District (Grammar) 
Schools in the several Districts of this Province, and to extend the provisions of the same,' " at 
the rising of that House, which was ordered. 



Chap. XXXI. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1819. 139 



Mr. Richard Hatt, of the roramittee to take up to the Honourable the Legislative Council 
a Message acquainting them that this Hous'J had appointed a Committee to confer with the Com- 
mittee of that House oq the subject of the Bill intituled, " An Act to Repeal part of, and 
amend, the laws now in force for establishing District (Grammar) Schools in the several Districts 
of this Province, and to extend the provisions of the same," reported that they had done so. 

Mr. Peter Robinson, of The Committee on Expiring Laws, reported as follows [re Common 
School Act] : " That 56 George III., cap. 38, intituled, ' An Act granting to His Majesty a Sum 
of Money to be applied to the use of Common Schools throughout this Province, and to provide 
for the Regulations of said Common Schools,' will expire on the 1st of April, 1820." 

23rd June, 1819. — Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, of the Committee to confer with the Com- 
mittee of the Honourable the Legislative Council on the subject of the Bill intituled, ' ' An Act 
to Repeal part of, and amend, the laws now in force for establishing District (Grammar) 
Schools in the several Districts of this Province, and to extend the provisions of the game," 
presented a iieport, which w as received and read as follows : 

Mr. Speaker : 

The Committee appointed to confer with the Committee of the Honourable the Legislative 
Council on the subject of the Bill intituled, " An Act to Repeal part of, and amend, the laws 
now in force, passed in the forty-seventh year of His Majesty's reign (1816\ intituled, " An Act 
to establish Public (Grammar) Schools in each and every District of this Province, and to extt-nd 
the provisions of the same,' having met the Committee of that House in the Legislative Council 
Chamber, the folloAving amendments in, and to, the said Bill were proposed by the Committee 
of the Honourable the Legislative Council, which, as they did not, in the opinion of your Com- 
mittee, apply the money clauses of the Bill, your Committee agreed to recommend the same for 
the adoption of this House." The amendments are as follows : 

At a public meeting of the Trustees of the District School, upon due notice for that pur- 
pose, a majority of the Trustees being present, etc. : 

After the word " kept," in the tenth clause, expunge : "at such place as the Trustees, or 
the majority of them, shall appoint," and insert: "the Town of Hamilton in the District of 
Gore." After the word " that," in the third line, fif h press, expunge the remainder of the 
clause, and insert : "to every teacher, hereafter to be appointed, there shall be only Fifty 
Pounds paid, unless the average number of scholars exceed ten." 

P. VanKoughnet, 

Chairman. 

CoMMOKS House of As.sembly, 

23rd June, 1819. 

Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the House went into Committee on the Message of His 
Excellency on the subject of University Representation in the Commons' House of Assembly, 
Mr. Crysler in the chair. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Crysler reported that the Committee had agreed upon a 
Resolution, as follows : 

That it is the opinion of this Committee that it is expedient and proper to provide for . 
. . the District representation of the contemplated University of this Province, when the 
same shall be organized, in conformity with the established practice in the Mother Country. 
Ordered, that the report be received, and the Resolution adopted by this House. 

24th June, 1810. — Mr. Jonas Jones, seconded by Mr. Alexander McMartin, moves that 
Messieurs VanKoughnet and Cameron be a Committee to acquaint the Honourable the Legisla- 
tive Council that this House has received the Report of their Committee of Conference on the 
subject of the Bill intituled, "An Act to Repeal part of, and amend, the laws now in force for 
establishing IJistrict (Grammar) Schools in the several Districts of this Province, and to extend 
the provisif)ns of the same,'' which was ordered. 

Mr. VanKoughnet, of the Committee to carry up to the Honourable the Legislative 
Counril a Message acquainting them that this House had concurred in the Report of their 
Committee of Conference on the subject of the Bill intituled. "An Act to Repeal part cf, and 
amend, the laws now in force for establishing District (Grammar) Schools in the seveial 
Districts of the Province, and to extend the provisions of ihe same," reported that they had 
done so. 



140 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1819 



36th Jane, 1819. — Mr. Secretary Hillier brought down from His Excellency the Lieutenant- 
Governor a Message, which he delivered to the Speaker, who, after Mr. Secretary Hillier had 
withdrawn, read the same as follows : 

P. Maitland : 

The Lieutenant-Governor transmits to the House of Assembly copies of such reports as 
have been received from the Board of Eiucvtioa in the several Districts on the subject of 
Comm in Schools since the last communication made to the House on that subject. 

Government House, P. M. 

June 26th, 1819. 

Mr. W W. Baldwin, Masler-in-Chancery, brought down from the Honourable the Legis- 
lative Council the Bill, intituled "An Act to Repeal part of, and amend, the laws now in force 
for establishing District (Grammar) Schools in the several Districts of this Province, and to 
extend the provisions of the same," sent up *rom this House, which they had passed with some 
amendments, which they recommended to the adoption of this House. 

The messenger having withdrawn, the amendments were read the first time. 

M"*. Philip VanKou'^hnet, seconded by Mr. Isaac Fraser, moves that the amendments 
made by the Honourable the Legislative Council to the Bill intituled "An Act to Hepeal part 
of, and to amend, the laws now in force for establishing District (Grammar) Schools in the 
several Districts of this Province, and to extend the provisions of the same," be now read a 
second time, which was carried, and the amendments were read the second time. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. Isaac Fraser, moves that the House do now 
resolve itself into a Committee of the Whole to take into consideration the amendments made 
by the Honourable the Legislative Council to the Bill, intituled "An Act to Repeal part of, and 
to amend, the laws now in force for establishing District (Grammar) Schools in the several 
Districts of this Province, and to extend che jirovisions of the same," which was carried and 
Mr. Jonas Jones took the chair of the Committee. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Jones reported the Amendments. Ordered, That the 
Report be received. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. Isa^c Fraser, moves that the anieiximents 
made by the Honourable the Legislative Council to the Bill intituled "An Act to Repeal part 
of, and amend, the laws now in force for establishing District (Grammar) Schools in the 
several Districts of this Province, and to extend the provisions of the same, be now read for the 
third time, which was carried, and the amendments were read for the third time, passed, and 
signed by the Speaker. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. Jonas Jones, moves that Messieurs Fraser and 
C >tter be a Committee to acquaint the Honourable the Legislative Council that this House have 
adopted the a nendments by that House to the Bill, intituled "An Act to Repeal part of, and 
to amend, the laws now in force for establishing District (Grammar) Schools in the several Dis- 
tricts of this Province, and to extend the provisions of the same," which was ordered. 

Mr. Fraser, of the Committee to acquaint the Honourable the Legislative Council that this 
House had adopted the amendments made by them to and in the Bill, intituled "An Act to 
Repeal part of, and to amend, the laws now in force for establishing District Schools 
in the several Districts of this Province, and to extend the 2>i'ovisions of the same," reported 
they had done so. 

SOth June, 1819. — Mr. W. W. Baldwin, Master-in -Chancery, brought down from the 
Honourable, the Legislative Council the Bill intituled "An Act to continue an Act passed in the 
fifiy-sixth year of His Majesty's Reign (181(5), intituled 'An Act granting to His Majesty a sum 
of money, to be apjjlied to the use of Common Schools throughout this Province and to provide 
for the Regulations of the said Con)mon Schools, " which they had passed with some amendments 
which they recommended to the adoption of this House. 

Mr. Robert Nichol, seconded by Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, moves that the amendments of 
the Honourable the Legislative Council in and to the engrossed Bill sent up from this House 
for their concurrence, intituled "An Act to continue an Act passed in the fifty-sixth year of 
His Majesty's reign (181fi), intituled "An Act granting to His Majesty a sum of money to be 
applied to the use of Common Schools throughout this Province, and to provide for the liegula- 
lations of the siid Common Schools," be njw read, which was carried, and the amendments 
read, were as follows : 

In the title, line 1, after " to " expunge " continue " and insert " repeal part of " ; line 3, 
after " schools," insert " and to continue part of the same." 



Chap. XXXI. EDUCATION AI, PROCEEDINGS OF THE IT. C. LEGISLATURE, 1819. 141 



In the Bill, line 10, after " that," expunge the remainder of the B 11, and insert " the 
second and third clauses of the said Act of the fifty-sixth year of His I'resent Majesty be,, 
and the same are hereby repealed." 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that the Trustees of the said Common- 
Schools shall be annually chosen at the Town Meeting, on the first Monday in etch and every 
year in the same manner that other Parish and Town officers by law now are, and that it shall 
and may be lawful for the said Trustees, or the majority of them, upon due notice being given 
to them that there is a fit and convenient lot and house for the purpose of keeping the said- 
Comman School in, conveyed to the Town and Churchwardens for the Township for which they 
may be chosen Trustees, to nominate and appoint a fit and proper person to be Teacher to the 
said Common School. Provided always that no more than one salary be paid to a Teacher of a 
Common School in any one Township. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid that no further payment be made by 
warrant on the Receiver-General to the Treasurer of any District for the purposes of the said 
Act, until he shall have transmitted to the Inspector-General of Public Accounts due accounts, 
vouchers and receipts for the moneys heretofore paid to him in that behalf. 

And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid that this Act, and so much of the said 
Act of the fifty-sixth year of His Present Majesty's reign (1816) as is not hereby repealed shall 
continue and be in force for four years from and after the first day of January next (1820), and 
from thence to the end of the next ensuing session of the Provincial Parliament, and no 
longer. 

(Note. — These amendments seem to have been regarded by the House of 

Assembly as fatal to the Bill — especially the one which says : " In the title, line 

one, after the word " to " expunge " continue," and insert " repeal part of." After 

reading these amendments the House of Assembly apparently took no further 

action in the matter.) 

2nd July. 1819. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the House went into Committee on 
the Representation Bill, Mr. Jonas Jones in the chair. 

The House having resumed, the Chairman reported the Bill as amended. Ordered, That 
the Report be received. 

Mr. James McNabb, seconded by Mr. Zaccheus Burnham, moves that the Representation 
Bill be engrossed, and read a third time to-morrow. Which was ordered. 

3rd July, 1819 — Agreeable to the Order of the Day, the University Representation in the 
House of Assembly Bill was read the third time, and the motion to that effect was carried in 
the affirmative by a vote of seventeen to one, as follows : 

Yeas : — Messieurs Eraser, Durand, McCormick, Clench, Burnham, Secord, McMartin. 
Nichol, Robinson, Hatt, Cameron, Jones, Hall, Swayze, Nelles, Crysler and Cotter — 17. 

Nays : — -Mr. Vankoughnet — 1. 

Mr. Robert Nichol, seconded by Mr. Jonas Jones, moved, as a Ryder to the Bill, the fol- 
lowing clause : — 

" Be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, that, whenever a University shall bo established 
in this Province, it shall and may be lawful for the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or person 
administering the Government of this Province for the time being, to declare by proclamation, 
or otherwise, the tract of land appendant to such University, and whereon tlie same is situated 
to be a T.»wn or Township, by such name as to him shall seem meet ; and that such Town, or 
Township, so constituted, shall be represented by one member. Provided always, nevertheless, 
that no person shall be permitted to Vote at any such Election for a member to represent the 
said Town, or Township, who, besides the qualifications now by law required, shall not also be 
entitled to vote in the convocation of the said University," 

Upon which the House divided and the yeas and nays being taken, it was decided in the 
negative by a majority of ten, and the Bill was sent up to the Legislative Council for its con- 
currence thereto. 

6th July, 1819 — The amen'lments made by the Honourable the Legislative Council to the 
Bill intituled "An Act to increase the Commons of this Province and University in the House 
of Assembly," which the Council had sent down that day were read the first time, as follows . 

Press 2, line 6 : After " Province " insert " and let it be further enacted by the authority 
aforesaid, that, whenever an University shall be established in this Province, it shall and may be 
lawful for the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or person administering the Government of this 



142 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1819 



Province for the time being, to declare by proclamation or otherwise the tract of land append- 
ant to such Universify, and whereupon the same is situated, to be a Town or Township, by such 
name as to him shall seem meet, and that such Toivn or Township shall be rejire^ented by one 
member ; provided always, nevertheless, that no person shall be permitted to vote at such elec- 
tion for a member to represent the said Town or Township who, beside h the qualifications now 
by law required, shall n >t also be entitled to vote in the Convocation of the said University." 

Mr. Jonas Jones, seconded by Mr. Robert Nelles, moves that the amendments made by the 
Honourab'e the Legislative Council to the Bill sent up from this House intituled, " An Act to 
increa-e the Representation of the Commons of this Province a- d University in the House 
of Assembly, be read a second time on to-morrow. Which was ordered. 

7th July, 1819. — The amendments to the Bill intituted, " An Act to increase the Represen- 
tation of the University and Commons of this Province ia the House of Assembly were read the 
second time. 

M ■. Jonas Jones, seconded by Mr. Peter Robinson, moves that the House do now resolve 
itself into a Committee of the whole on the Amendments made by the Honourable the Legis- 
lative Council to the engrossed Bill, intituled, " An Act to increase the representation of the 
Commons and University of this Province in the House of Assembly." Which was carried, and 
Mr. Cotter took the chair of the Committee. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Cotter reported that the Committee had agreed to a 
Resolution, which he was directed to recommend for the adoption of the House. Ordered that 
the Report be received ; the Resolution was adopted as follows : — 

Resolved, that it is the opinion of this Committee that a Conference be requested with the 
Honourable the Legislative Council on the amendments made to a Bill sent up from the House, 
intituled, " An Act to increase the representation of the Commons and University of this Pro- 
vince in the House of Assembly." 

Mr. Jonas Jones, seconded by Mr. Zaccheus Buinham, moves that Messieurs Hall and 
Crysler be a Committee to request a Conference with the Honourable the Legislative Council 
on the subject of their amendments to the Bill intituled, " An Act to increa'^e the representation 
of the Commons and University of th s Province in the House of Assembly." Which was 
ordered. 

8th J'uly, 1819. — Mr. Jonas Jones of the Committee to carry up to the Honourable the 
Legislative Council a message requesting a Conference on the subject of the Amendments made 
by them to the Bill intituled, ' ' An Act to increase the repi'esentation of the Commons and 
University of this Province in the House of Assembly," reported that they had done so. 

Mr. Jonas Jones, seconded by Mr. Alexander McMartin, moves that Messieurs Durand, 
Hatt, Fraser and Nelles be a Committee to confer with the Committee of the Honorouble the 
Legislative Council on the subject of their amendments to the Bill intituled, " An Act to in- 
crease the representation of the Commons and University of this Province in the House of 
Parliament." Which was ordered. 

The two Houses, as will be seen by their proceedings, appointed Committees 
t)f Conference on this University Representation Bill. But there is no record in 
the Journals of either House that they ever met. The Legislature was prorogued 
on the 12th of July, so the Bill did not pass ; but provision was made for such 
representation of a Provincial University in the House of Assembly during the 
next Session of the Legislature. 

2. Educational Proceedings of the Legislative Council in 1819. 

The members of the Legislative Council who took part in its proceedings in 
1819 were the Honourable Messieurs William Dummer Powell, Chief Justice, 
(Speaker), Thomas Scott, James Baby, John McGill, William Claus, William 
Dickson, Thomas Clark and Thomas Fraser. The names of those who took part 
in the educational legislation of the session are not given in the Journals of the 
Council — the usual formula employed being, " On motion made and seconded," 
etc. 



Chap. XXXI. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1819. 143 

The Council did not originate any educational legislation itself, but received 
and discussed the legislation of that kind sent up from the House of Assembly. 

Apparently one of the reasons why the Common School Continuation Bill 
sent up by the House of Assembly, was not passed in the form in which it 
reached the Council was, that the reports of the local trustees, which the Act of 
1816 required to be made annually, were not laid before the House. The Council 
addressed the Lieutenant-Governor on the subject, and he sent them the only 
copies which he had received. None of these reports have been preserved. 

18th Juive, 1819. — The Legislative Council met this day, pursuant to adjournment. A 
deputation from the Commons House of Assembly being announced, it was admitted, and 
brought up for the concurrence of tie House: A Bill intituled "An Act to continue 
an Act passed in the fifty-sixth year of His Majesty's reign (1816), intituled, 'An Act 
granting to His Majesty a sura of money to be applied to the use of Common Schools 
throughout this Province, and to provide for the Regulation of the said Common Schools.' " 
And a Bill intituled, "An Act to repeal part of, and amend, the laws now in force for 
establishing District (Grammar) Schools in the several Districts of the Province, and to extend 
the provisions of the same." The deputation having withdrawn, the said Bills were read a first 
time ; and on motion, made and seconded, the Bill intituled, 'An Act to repeal part of, and 
amend, the laws now in force for establishing District Grammar Schnols in the several Districts 
of this Province, and to extend the provisions of the same," was ordered to be read a second 
time on Monday next. 

21st June. 1819. — The House met, pursuant to adjournment. Pursuant to the Order of 
the Day, the Bill intituled, " An Act to repeal part of, and to amend, the laws now in force for 
establishing District Grammar Schools in the several districts of this Province, and to extend 
the provisions of the same," was read a second time, and on motion, made and seconded, the 
House resolved itself into a Committee of tlie whole to take the same into consideration. The 
Honourable Thomas Clark in the chair. 

The Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Clark reported, That the Committee had taken 
the Bill into consideration, had made some i)rogress therein, and requested leave to sit again 
to-morrow. Ordered, That the said Report be accepted, and leave given accordingly. 

2£nd June, 1819. — The House met pursuant to adjournment. 

Pursuant to the Order of the Day, the House resolved itself into a Committee of the 
Whole, to take the Bill intituled, "An Act to repeal part of, and amend, the laws now in 
force for establishing District (Grammar) Schools in the several Districts of this Province, and 
to extend the provisions of the same," into further consideration. The House went into Com- 
mittee, the Hon. Thomas Clark in the chair. 

The Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Clark reported, tnat the Committee had taken 
the said Bill into further consideration, and recommended that a conference be requested with 
the Commons House of Assembly on the subject matter thereof. Ordered, that the said Report 
be accepted, and the Honourable Messieurs Baby and Dickson be appointed a committee for 
that purpose. 

A Message in the following words, signed by the Speaker, was, by Mr. W. VV. Baldwin, 
the Master-m Chancery, carried down and delivered to the House of Assembly : 

Mr. Speaker : 

The Honourable the Legislative Council requests a conference with the Commons House of 
Assembly on the subject matter of the Bill intituled, " An Act to repeal part of, and to amend, 
the laws now in force for establishing District (Grammar) Schools in the several Districts of this 
Province, and to extend the provisions of the same." The Legislative Council has appointed a 
Committee of two of its members, who will be ready to meet the Committee of the Commons 
House of Assembly for that purpose in the Legislature Council Chamber, at the rising of this 
House this day. 

Wm. Dusmikr Powell, 

Speaker. 
Lfoislative Council Chamber, 

22ud June, 1819. 



144 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATIOiV IN UPPER CANADA. 1819 



On motion, made and seconded, the Bill intituled, "An Act to continue an Act passed in 
the 56th year of His Majesty's reign, (1816). intituled, ' An Act granting to His Majesty a sum 
of Money to be applied to the use of Common Schools throughout this Province, and to provide 
for the Regulations of the said Common Schools,'" was read a second time, and, on motion 
made and seconded, the House resolved itself into a Committee of the Whole to take the same 
into consideration. 

The House went into Committee, the Honourable James Baby in the chair. 

The Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Baby reported that the Committee had taken 
the said Bill into considerati n, and had made some progress therein ; they submitted to the 
consideration of the House an Address to His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor, requesting 
him to order the Reports of the several Boards of Education, appointed by virtue of the said Act, 
to be laid before this House. Ordered, that the said report be accepted ; and the said Address was 
read. On motion, made and seconded, it was ordered to be engrossed and read again this day. 

A deputation from the Commons House of Assembly being announced, it was admitted, 
and brought up and delivered at the Bar of this House a Message in the following words : 

Mr. Speaker : 

The Commons House of Assembly have appointed a Committee to confer with the Com- 
mittee of the Honourable the Legislative Council on the subject of the Bill intituled : 

"An Act to repeal part of, and amend, an Act passed in the forty-seventh year of Hi» 
Majesty's reign (1807), intituled, ' An Act to establish District Schools in the several districts 
of this Province, and to extend the provisions of the same.'" 

Allan McLean, 

Speaker. 
Commons' House of Assembly, 

22nd June, 1819. 

The deputation having withdrawn, the faid Message was read. 

Pursuant to the Order of the Day, the engrossed Address to His Excellency the Lieutenant- 
Governor was read as follows : 

May it please Youb Excellency : 

The Legislative Council respectfully submit to your Excellency that by the Act for the 
Regulation of Common Schools about to expire and now under consideration, provision waa 
made for annual information to the Legislature by the reports of the several Boards of Edu- 
cation of the state of the Common Schools within their respective Districts, which information 
from such reports not having betn received, your Excellency is respectfully solicited to direct 
the reports of the several Boards of Education under the said Act to be laid before the Legis- 
lative Council." 

' Wm. Dummer Powell, 

Speaker. 
Legislative Council Chamber, 

22nd June, 1819. 

The Honourable Messieurs Dickson and Clark were appointed a Committee to wait upon 
His Excellency with the Address. 

23rd June, 1819. — The Committee appointed to wait upon His Excellency with the Address^ 
of this House reported that they had done bo, and that he had been pleased to make the follow- 
ing answer thereto : 

Honourable Gentlemen oj the Legislative Council : 

I will direct that copies of such reports from the Boards of Education as have been received 
shall be laid before you. 

P. M. 
Government House, York, 

23rd June, 1819. 

Which was read by the Speaker. 

The Committee appointed to confer with the Committee of the Commons' House of Assem- 
bly, on the subject matter of the Bill intituled, "An Act to repeal part of, and amend, the laws 
now in force for establishing District Schools in the several Dstricts of this Province, and to 
extend the provisions of the same," reported that they had done so, and had agreed to certain 
amendments, which they recommended to the adoption of the House. Ordered, that the said 
report be accepted. 



■Chap. XXXI. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1819. 145 



24th June, 1819. — The House met pursuant to adjournment. A deputation from the 
■Commons' House of Aesembly being announced, it was admitted, and brought up and delivered 
a Message in the following words : 

Mr. Speaker : 

The Commons' House of Assembly concur in the report of their Committee of Conference 
on the subject of the Bill intituled, '* An Act to repeal part of, and to amend, the laws now in 
force for establishing District (Grammar) Schools in the several Districts of this Province, and to 
oxtend the provisions of the same." 

Allan McLean, 

Speaker. 
•Commons House of Assembly, 

24th June, 1819. 

The dejiutation having withdrawn, the said Message was read. 

On motion, made and seconded, the House resolved itself into a Committee of the Whole 
to take the Bill intituled, "An Act to Repeal part of, and amend, the laws now in force for 
■establishing District (Grammar) Schools in the several districts of this Province, and to extend 
the provisions of the same," into further consideration. 

The House went into Committee, the Hon. M-*. Baby in the chair. 

The Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Baby reported that the Committee had gone 
through the said Bill, to which they had made some amendments, which they submitted to the 
adoption of the House. Ordered, that the sa-d report be accepted, and the amendments, being 
read, were ordered to be engrossed, and the Bill, as amended, read a third time to-morrow. 

S6th June, 1819. — A Message from His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor being 
annoui ced, Mr. Secretary Hillier was admitted, who informed the House that he was directed 
by His Excellency V e Lieutenant-Governor to deliver a Message and certain pajjers to the 
House. Mr. Secretary Hilli r having withdrawn, the said Message was read as follows : 

The Lieu'enant-Governor transmits to the Honourable the Legislative Council, the Petition 
of certain inhabitants of Perth and the new settlements in the county of Leeds for a particular 
representation in the Legislature ; and at the same time submits for consideration the propriety 
of providing for a distinct representation of the contemplated Provincial University when 
organized, in conformity to the established practice in the Mother Country. 

P. M. 
Government House, York, 

22nd June, 1819. 

A further Message from His Excelltncy the Lieutenant-Governor was read as follows : 

The Lieutenant-Governor transmits to the Honourable the Legis'ative Council copies of all 
the reports that have been received from the Boards of Education in the several districts on the 
subject of Common Schools. 

P. M. 
Government House, York, 

June 26th, 1819. 

And the papers were ordered to lie on the table. 

Pursuant to the Order of the Day, the Bill intituled, "An Act to repeal part of, and 
amend, the laws now in force for establishing District Schools in the several Districts of this 
Province, and to extend the provisi<ms of the same," was read a third time as amended ; and 
on the questii n being put, if the Bill do now pass, it was carried in the affirmative, whereupon 
the Speaker sis^ned the amendments, and they were by the Master-in-Chancery carried down, 
with the Bill, to the Commons' House of Assembly. 

A deputation from the Commons' House of Atsembly was admitted, which delivered a 
Message in the following words : 

Mr. Speaker : 

The Commons House of Assembly have adopted the amendments made by the Honourable 
the Legislative Council to the Bill intituled, " An Act to repeal part of, and to amend, the laws 
now in force for establishing District Schools in the several Districts of this Province, and to 
extend the provisions of the same." 

Allan McLean, 

Speaker. 
Commons House of Ass^MBLY, 

26th June, 1819. 
10 (D.E.) 



1415^ DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 181^ 



The deputation having withdrawn, the said Message was read : 

On motion, made and seconded, the House resolved itself into a Committee of the WhoU 
to take into consideration a Bill intituled. " An Act to continue an Act passed in the 56th year 
of His Majesty's reign (1816), intitul'xl, ' An Act granting to His Majesty a sum of Money to 
be applied to the use of Common Schools throughout this Frovince, and to provide for the 
Reaulationa of the said Common Schools.'" The Bouse went into Committee, the Hen. James 
Baby in the chair. 

The Speaker having resumed the Chair; Mr. Baby rejiorted that the Committee had made 
further progress in the said Bill, and requested leave to sit again on Monday next, 

28th June, 1819.— The House met pursuant to adjournment : Pursuant to the Order of 
the I 'ay, the House resolved itself into a Committee of the Whole to take into consideration the- 
Bill intituled, "An Act to continue an Act passed in the tifty-sixth year of His Majesty's 
reign (l'<16), intituled, ' An Act granting to His Majesty a sum of Mont^y to be applied to the 
use of Common Schools throughout this Province, and to provide for the Regulation of the 
said Common Schools,' " into consideration. The House went into Committee, the Hon. James 
Baby in the chair. 

The Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Baby reported that the Committee had taken 
the said Bill into consideration, and had made some further progress therein, and requested 
leave to sit again to-morrow. Ordered that the said report be accepted, leave given accordingly. 

29th June, 1819. — Pursuant to the Order of the Day, the House resolved itself into a.; 
Committee of the Whole to take into consideration a Bill intituled, "An Act to continue an 
Act passed in the fifty sixth year of His Majesty's reign (lyi6), intituled, ' An Act granting to 
His Majesty a sum of Money, to be applied to the use of Common Schools throughout this 
Province, and to provide for the Regulation of the said Common Schools. The House went 
into Committee, Mr. Dickson in the chair. 

The Speaker having resumed the Chair, the Hon. William Dickson reported that the Com- 
mittee had gone through the said Bill, and had made some amendments thereto, which they 
recommended to the adoption of the House. 

Ordered that the said report be accepted, and the said amendments, being read, on motion,^ 
made and seconded, ordered that the said amendments be engrossed, and the Bill, as amended, 
be read a third time to-morrow. 

30th Jiitve, 1819. — The House met pursuant to adjournment. Pursuant to the Order of, 
the Day, the Bill intituled, " An Act to continue an Act passed in the fifty-sixth year of His 
Majesty's reign (1816), intituled, 'An Ace granting to His Majesty a sum of Money, to be 
applied to the use of Common Schools throughout this Province, and to provide for the Regula- 
tion of the said Common Schools,' " was read a third time, aii amended, and the question being 
put, if the said Bill, as amended do now pass, it was carried in the aflirmative, whereupon it 
was, by the Master-in-Chiujery, carried down to the Commons House of Assembly. 

3rd Jvly, 1819. — The House met pursuant to adjournment. A deputation from the Com- 
m(m8 House of Assembly being announced, it was admitted, and brought up for the concurrence 
of this House the following, among other Bills, viz. : 

An Act to increase the representation of the (University and) Commons of this Province in 
the House of Assembly. The deputation having withdrawn, the Bill was read a first time and 
ordered to be read a second time on Monday next. 

6th Jxdy, 1819. — Pursuant to the Order of the Day, the University Representation in the 
Commons' Bill was read a second time and referred to a Committee of the whole House, the 
Hon. James Baby in the chair. 

The Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Baby reported the Bill, with amendments. 
Ordered that the said rep( rt be accepted, and the amendments being read, were ordered to be 
engrossed. 

On motion, made and seconded, the University Representation in the Commons' Bill waa 
read a third time, as amended, and the question being put, if the Bill as amended do now pass, 
it was carried in the affirmative, whereupon the Speaker signed the amendments, and they 
were, with the Bill, carried down by the Master-in-Chancery to the Commons' House of 
Assembly. 



Chap. XXXI. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE ,U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1819. 147; 



Sth July, 1819. — A deputation from the House of Assembly being announced, it was- 
admitted, and brought lip a Message in the following words : 

Mr. Speaker : 

The Commons House of Assembly request a Conference with the H< nourable the Legisla- 
tive Council on the amendments made by that House to the Bill sent up from this House, 
intituled, " An Act to increase the representation of the (University and) Commons of this Pro- 
vince in the House of Assembly. 

Allan McLean, 

Speaker. 
C0MM0N.S House of Assembly, 

Sth July, 1819. 

The Message being read Messieurs Dickson and Clark were appointed a Committee to con- 
fer with the Committee of {he Commons on, the University Representation in the House of 
Assembly Bill, and a message to that eflfect was sent down by the Master-in-Chancery to the 
Commons House of Assembly in the following words : 

Mr. Speaker : 

The Honourable the Legislative Council have appointed a Committee of two of its Members 
to confer with a Committee of the Commt-n"* House of Assembly on the amendments made to 
the Bill intituled : " An Act to increase the representation of the Commons (and University) of 
this Province in the House of Assembly," in the Legisla'ive Council Chamber at the rising of 
the House this day. 

Wm. Dttmmer Powell, 

Speaker. 
Legislative Council Chamber, 

8th July, 1819. 

(Note. — No Conference appears from the Journals of either House to have 
taken place between the two Houses on this subject, so that the matter seems 
to have been allowed to drop.) 

12th Jtdy, 1819. — The Council met pursuant to adjournment. At twelve o'clock Mr. Lee, 
the Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod, requested, by command of His Excellency the 
Lieutenant-Governor, the attendance of the Members of the Commons' House of Assembly in 
the Council Chamber. On being assembled there, the Lieutenant Governor was pleased, in His 
Majesty's name, to assent, among other Bills, to the one intituled, "An Act to repeal part of, and 
to amend, the law now in force for establishing District (Grammar) Schools in the several Dis- 
tricts of this Province, and to extend the provisions of the same " after which His Excellency 
closed the Sessions of the Legislature with a speech, in which he said : 

Your inclination will, I am satisfied, lead you to renew, as early as shall be found possible, 
the assistance which you have been accustomed to aflford the less opulent classes of His 
Majesty's faithful subjects for the education of their children, and 1 have no doubt the wisdom 
of Parliament, on a due consideration of the subject, will find the means of rendering a far 
more frugal grant than has hitherto been applied for that purpose, at least equally beneficial in 
that effect. 



Characteristics of The Grammar School Amendment Act of 1819. 

This Act was practically considered as a sort of compromise between the 
Grammar School Act of 1807 and the Common School Act of 1816, which the 
House of Assembly had sought to have continued in operation after the expira- 
tion of the time (1820) to which its duration was limited. The Legislative 
Council declined to pass it in the form in which it was sent up from the House 
of Assembly, and so altered its purport and intention, that the Assembly, after 
amendments of the Legislative Council were read, dropped the Bill entirely. 



148 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1819 

The more popular features of the following Grammar School Amendment 
Bill were (1) the provision for the free education in every Grammar School of 
ten " promising children of the poorer inhabitants ; " (2) the necessity of holding 
an annual public examination of each Grammar School, at whioh the Trustees, 
" or a majority of them, shall assist ; " (3) the obligation on the Trustees to 
report annually to the Lieutenant-Governor " the state of the said schools, the 
number of scholars, the state of education, with the different branches taught 
in the said schools," etc. The grant to all new teachers was reduced from $400 
a. year to S200. 

59TH GEORGE III., CHAPTER IV. 

An Act to Repeal part of, and to amend, the Laws now in force for establishing Public 
(Grammar) Schools in the several Districts of this Province, and to extend the 
pkovisiONS OF the same. 

Sir Peregrine Maitlatid, K.G.B., lAeutewint-Govemor. 

Passed 12th Jidy 1819. 

Most Gracious Sovereign, — 

Whereas it hath been found expedient to repeal part of and to amend an Act Preamble, 
passed in the forty-seventh year of His Majesty's reign, intituled, "An Act to ,_p ^j.^ 

establish Public Schools in each and every District of this Province," atid tOgjjj^pjg^g *' 
extend the provisions of the same. Be it therefore enacted by the King's Most recited. 
Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council 
and Assembly of the Province of Tpper Canada, constituted and assembled by 
virtue of and under the authority of an Act passed in the Parliament of Great 
Britain, intituled, " An Act to repeal certain parts of an Act passed in the four- 
teenth year of His Majesty's reign, intituled, ' An Act for making more eflfectual 
provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec, in North America, ' ^jr'|V' u 
and to make further provision for the Government of the said Province," and by jj^jjg^j jjj ^^^ 
the authority of the same. That provision be made by Law for the establishing of District of 
a Public School in the District of Gore. Gore. 

2. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and out £100 per 

of the rates and duties raised, levied and collected, or hereafter to be raised, levied '*"."'i™ appro- 
and collected, to and for the public uses of this Province, and unappropriated, Pu' j ^f^ 
there be granted annually to His Majesty, His Heirs and Successors, the sum "f the Teacher, 
One Hundred Pounds, which sura of one hundred pounds shall be appropriated 
and applied and disposed of in paying the salary oi the Teacher of the said School, 
which said sum of one hundred pounds shall be paid by the Receiver-General of 
this Province, in discharge of such warrant or warrants as shall for that purpose be 
issued by the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or Persons administering the 
Government of this Province, and shall be accounted for to His Majesty, His 
Heirs and Successors, through the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Trea- 
sury, for the time baing. in such manner and form as His Majesty, His Heirs and 
Successors, shall be pleased to direct. 

3. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That it shall and Trustees to be 
maybe lawful to and for the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or Person administer- appointed, 
ing the Government of the Province, to appoint Trustees and a Teacher in the said 

District of Gore, under the like provisions as are contained in the said Act of the 
forty-seventh year of His Majesty's reign, intituled, "An Act to establish Public 
Schools in each and every District of this Province." 

4. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That the Trustees of An annual 
each and every District School within this Province shall direct a public examina- publicexamin- 
tion of their respective Schools to be held previous to the usual annual vacation, at held^of e 
which they or a majority of them shall assist ; and it is hereby required that such District 
public examination shall be holden every year at the time aforesaid. ' School. 



Chap. XXXI. GRAMMAR SCHOOL AMENDMENT ACT OF 1819. 149' 



5. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the Trustees Annual re- 
for the respective District Schools, as aforesaid, in each and every District in this Ports to be 
Province, shall, and they are hereby required, once in every year, after the Public ^*~^gi^ *£ 
examination as aforesaid, to report to the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or District 
Person administering the Government of this Province, the state of the said Schools to the 
Schools, the number of scholars, the state of education, with the different branches Lieutenant- 
taught in the said Schools, the number of scholars who have completed their educa- Governor, 
tion, together with all other matters and things that may tend to cherish the 
prosperity of the said Schools, or that may in any wise benefit the same, that the T^f^ 'f|!'^ 
said report may be laid before the Legislature at its first meeting for their inspec- Vl^fgloture 
tion. ^ 

6. And be it furfcher enacted by the authority aforesaid, That in order to '^^•?.^°'^j 
extend the benefit of a liberal education to promising? children of the poorer inhabi- ^ducatSi at 
tants, the Trustees of each and every School have the power of sending scholars, g^g^ school 
not exceeding ten in number, to be taught gratis at the respective District Schools, gratis. 

7. Provided always, and be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, ^holars'^are to 
That the said scholars so to be taught as aforesaid shall, once in every four years, be y^Q selected, 
drawn by lot in manner following, viz., the Trustees for the Common Schools, 

now or hereafter to be established by virtue of an Act of the Parliament of this 
Province, shall and they are hereby authorized to return the name or names of one 
or more, not exceeding four, from each Common School of the most promising 
scholars, as aforesaid, of their respective Schools, to the Trustees of the District 
Schools for the District in which they shall respectively reside, which Trustees 
shall, and they are hereby required, at a special meeting to be openly held for that 
purpose, inscribe each and every name so returned to them on a separate and dis- 
tinct slip of paper, being all as nearly as possible of the same size, which slip of 
paper shall be put into a box or glass, to be provided for that purpose, and at such 
meeting as aforesaid the same shall, in the presence of the said Trustees, be openly 
drawn by some disinterested person, and each and every scholar so chosen as afore- 
said shall be entitled to receive his education gratuitously at the said District 
School, and the Teacher thereof shall and he is hereby required to educate such 
scholar as aforesaid. 

8. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That in case any yf*?°*''^' 
vacancy shall ensue in consequence of the refusal or decease, or from any other ® "P" 
cause whatever, of any scholar or scholars drafted as aforesaid, to be taught in the 
District School, it shall and may be lawful for the Trustees of the Common School 

from which such scholar or scholars shall have been drafted to make a second ballot 
to fill up the vacancy. 

9. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That so much of the Qg^^^g jii'** 
third clause of the said Act, intituled, *' An Act to establish Public Schools for^jj^p^^g *' 
each and every District in this Province." as relates to the Public Schools in the repealed.' 
District of London and Johnston, be and the same' is hereby repealed. 

10. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That the Public Grammar 
School for the District of London shall be opened and kept in the Town of Vit- Schools shall 
toria, in the Township of Charlotteville ; and the Public School for the I)i8trict of be kept in the 
Johnstown shall be opened and kept in the Village of Brockville, in the Township Johnstown, 

of Elizabethtown ; and that the Public School for the District of Gore shall be l^^*° Djg. 
opened and kept at the Town of Hamilton, in the District of Gore. tricts. 

11. Provided always, and be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, receive"nly 
That to every Teacher hereafter to be appoiu-^^ed there shall be only fifty pounds £50 per 
(£50) paid, unless the average number of scholars exceeds ten. annum. 

12. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That the certificates Form of cer- 
required from the Trustees by the twelfth clause of the said Act, passed in the *'.^°*'^® *° J^ 
forty-seventh year of His Majesty's reign (1807), shall declare that : " At a PuWic^'^®^y ^^^ 
meeting of the Trustees of the District >chool8, upon duo notice given for that^vrhen. ' 
purpose, a majority of the Trustees being present, we certify," etc., etc. 



150 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 



1819 



Forms for Trustees Under the Common School Act of 1816. 

1. Form of Town or Towni^hip School Report. 

Form of a Quarterly Report of a Town or Township Common School, to be transmitted by 
the Trustees to the Board of Education for the District once every three months, 

viz., on the first day of September, the first day of December, the first day of March, and the 
first day of June in each and every year : — 



Scholars' 
Names. 



Branch of 




Education 


Books used. 


taught. 





IJouf s of 
School. 



Teacher native born 

subject, or by Act 

Act of Parf lament, 

or by oath of 

obligation. 



Rules and 

Regulations 

of the 

School. 



We, the vmdersigned Trustees of the said School, do hereby certify the above to be a true 
and correct report of the School from us. i 

A. B. :) • i 

Dated at. i. 18 .. CD. A Trustees. , 

' ■ ■■: ,. / ,;• E.r. ) 

2. Form of a Teacher'^ Certificate of Good CorAnct and Service. 

(Form of Teacher's Certificate from the Trustees of a Town or Towtiship Common School, 
to ba sent to the District Board of Education every six months.) 

We, the undersigned Trustee? of the Common School in. the Town [or Township] of , 

do hereby certify that A. B., the Teacher of the said Schtol, hath demeaned himself with pro- 
priety and to our satisfaction [this may be varied] in the said office as Teacher, for the period' of 
six months, from the first day of to the thirty-first day of , 18 , and that 

he is entitled to be paid the sum granted for six months' service to each Teacher by law. And 
•we, as Trustee, further certify that .scholars are. receiving education in our said School. 

Dated at , this day of , 18 . 

C. D. ) Trustees of the Common 

E. P. V School in the Town [or 

G. H. ) Township] of: . 



CHAPTER XXXII. 

PROCEEDINGS IN REGARD TO THE UPPER CANADA UNIVERSITY 

IN 1819; 

From a l^Iemorandum addressed by Lieutenant-Governor SirJohn Oolborne 
to his Executive Council in May, 1830, it appears that, early in 1819, Sir Pere- 
grine ]VIaitland, the Lieutenant-Governor, had brought before the Executive 
Council of that day the subject of a University for Upper Canada. Sir John 
Colborne, in his ]Vlemorandum, said : — ' 

From the documents which the Lieutenant-Governor has examined, he finds that in 1819 
the Executive Council, after reading the Duke of Portland's Despatch [pf the 4th of November, 
1797], in answer tp an Address from the two Houses of the Provincial Parliament [dated the 3rd 
of July, 1797], soliciting an appropriation of Crown Lands for the supp )rt of an University, and 
Schools, stated that the appropriation of the quantity of land referred to by the Committee 
appointed [by President Russell] to take into consideration the Duke of Portland's Despatch [of. 
November, 1796]* was not siiiticiently sanctioned to authorize grants in other portions than* 

* The whole of these proceedings and documents (of 1797 and 1798) will be found on pages 16-26, ante. 



Chap. XXX ri. PROCEEDINGS IN REGARD TO U. C. UNIVERSITY, 1819. 151 



those limited by His Majesty's Commission, and recommended that an authority should be 
obtained to sell and lease, grant and dispose of, five hundred thousand acres, for the purpose of 
establishing an University in this province. 

The Report of the Executive Committee of 1819, to which Sir John Colborne 
referred, is as follows : — 

To His Excellbncy Sir Peregrine Maitland, K.C.B., Lieutenant-Governor of Upper 

Canada. 

MAy it please Your Excellency, 

The Committee of the Executive Council to whom your Excellency was pleased to refer the 
consideration of a plan for estabHshing »■ IJhiVersity in this Province,- assembled this day, and 
l)y Your Excellency's permission requested the atteadance and assistance of His Majesty's 
Attorney General, the Honourable John Beverly Robinson. 

A letter wa& r.'ad from hjs Grace the Duke of Portland to Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe, 
"bearing flate the 22nd June, 1796, acknowledging the receipt of a letter from the Bishop of 
■Quebec upon the subject of a School <1f a- higher class, which His Grace then did not think 
necessary in Upper Canada. . 

A letter was also read from His Grace bearing date, 4th of November, 1797, acknowledging 
an Address from the two Houses of the Legislature, dated 3rd of July, 1797, requesting an 
appropriation of Crown Lands for the establishment of Schools, and communicating His 
Majesty's pleasure to acquiesce in their petition — directing the Governor to consult the Members 
of the Executive Council, Judges and Liw Oflicer^i, on the requisite, means, — to report to His 
Grace, for His Majesty's., inform vtion, what Sch/)ols were then n^essary, the means of erecting 
•^nd endowing them, the amount necessary, and also to erect and endow $■ University. 

On this letter, the Committee named by President Russell reportted' four Schools to be 
Necessary, a sum of three thousand pounds (£3.000) requisite to erect them, and an annual 
*um of one hundred and eighty pounds (£180) to pay a Master and ^ub-master, and keeping the 
4)mldihg in repair, and the sum of three thousand- six hundred and twenty pounds (£3,620) for 
a University. ■ ' 

That a fund to raise, tfa^is sum would require five hundred thousand acres of land, which 
was recomrnended to be set apart tor such purpose, and the report approved by the President 
was directed to be ti*ansmitted for the information of His Majesty's Govehiment. 

No answer to this Report, or farther c<mfirmation of it, can be traced in tlie Office of the 
'Executive Council.* • ' 

The Committee,, therefore, concurring in opinion with Mrl Robinson, His Majesty's 
Attorney-General that the appropriation of that quantity of land is not sufficiently sanctioned 
to aiithorize a grant iii btlier porticms than limited by His Maj'esty's Commisjioner, humbly 
recommend that Your Excellency do call the attention of His Majesty's Government to a formal 
sanction, under the Royal Sign Manual, or the signature of His Majesty's principal Secretary 
of State for th^ Colonies, to sell, lease, grant, and dispose of the said five hundred thousand 
acres of land, for the purpose of establishing a University in this Province. 

In the meantiihe. in conformity to Your Excellency's pleasure, the Committee proceeded 
to consider the detail required by Your Excellency. 

In pursuing this object, the Committee firat observe, that provision for District Schools is 
not now required out of this fund, being made by the Legislature. 

The scale established by the former ' omniittee of 1798 appears at present very inadequate. 

The Committee is of the opinion that a sum not less thaa ten thousand pounds (§10,000) 
will be required to erect a suitable building and provide a library, philosophical apparatus and 
« botanic garden. 

That an annual sum of four thousand pounds (£4,000) may bo deemed necessary to defray 
.the salaries of principal, professors, preceptors, scholarships, librarian, gardener and other 
officers with other contingencies. • ■ 

That to raise these sums it willbe proper to that a sale of land should be male from time 
to time to meet, with security, the exigencies of the establishment^ until the revenue will 
supply the annual expenditure. 

- ' - ■ •The Duke of Portland's reference-to this -Report will be foand oa pagr* 25, ante. 



152 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. ISIO" 



That a Commission should permanently attend, with large powe's, to sell and lease th& 
land, and manage its revenues, under the direction of the Executive Government. 

It is also considered that it would conduce much to the importance and utility of the pro- 
jected University if its constitution should be by a Royal C barter. 

All which is humbly submitted. 

By order, 

Wm. Dummer Powell, C.J., 

Presiding Councillor. 
Executive Council Chamber, 
York, 7th January, 1819. 

Historical Resumi6 of Ujjjiversity and Grammar School Proceedings, by 

Dr. Strachan. 

The Right Reverend Bishop Strachan, ia a speech delivered at the laying 
of the Corner Stone of King's College, on the 23rd of April, 1842, thus referred 
the early proceedings of the Legislature in the matter of University representa- 
tion and the establishment of Grammar Schools. 

This prospect, however [that of founding the projected University of Upper Canada] was 
so distant that the Legislature began to feel it necessary — limited as were the funds at their 
disposal — to do something eflfectual towards the promotion of Education. A law was accordingly 
passed in 1807, establishing a Grammar School in every District, in which the classics and 
mathematics were to be taught ; and thus a commencement of educati m w as made of great 
importance to the country. Had the revenue of the Province permitted, or had the lands 
bee ine sufficiently available, so good a sjiirit prevailed that the University wonid have been 
commenced at the same time. But this not being the case, the Legislature wisely determined 
in favour of I istrict (Grammar) Schools, as more generally useful inthe then state of the Province 
than a higher Seminary, because at these Schools such an education might be obtained as 
would qualify you' g men for the different professions. Moreover, such Schools would become 
excellent nurseries for the University, when it was necessary to establish it. 

The advantages anticipated from the establ shment of the Pistrict Schools have been more 
than realized, and the wisdom of the Legislature fully justified in preferring them to Seminaries 
of higher name ; for during the period I'f thirty-five years [from 1807 to 1842] in which they 
have been in operation, they ha^ e sent forth hundreds of our" youth, many of whom are now 
eminent in their professions, and wtjuld do credit by their talents and acquirements to any 
literary institution. 

Though necessarily delayed, the prospect of establishing a University was not lost sight of, 
for in 1819-20, when a law was projected to increase the represen'ation in the Commons' House of 
Assembly it was among other things provided, that whenever the University was established, it 
should be represented by one member. (Pages 35 and 36 of the Proceedings, 1842). 

This proposal to have the University, when founded, represented in the 
House of Assembly originated in 1819 with the then Lieutenant-Governor, Sir 
Peregrine IVIaitland. He had early in the year called the attention of his Execu- 
tive Council to the desirability of considering " a plan for establishing a University 
in this Province," in terras of the Duke of Portland's despatch of the 4th of Nov- 
ember, 1797, (*See page 17 ante). The Council reported the result of their deliber- 
ations on the scheme on the 7th of January, 1819, {See page 151). On the 22nd of 
June, 1819, Sir Peregrine Maitland sent a message to each of the Houses of the 
Legislature, in which he said : 

The Lieutenant-Governor . . . submits the propriety of providing for a distinct 
representation ot the contemplated University, when founded, in conformity to the established 
practice in the Mother Country. 



Chap. XXXIII. HISTORY OF EDUCATIOX IN UPPER CANADA, 1819. 153 

Both Houses concurred in this suggestion of the Lieutentant-Governor, and 
practically agreed upon a Bill to carry it out. They had agreed upon a Conference 
in 1819 on the subject, but before the Conference could be held, the Legislature 
was prorogued, so that the Bill never reached maturity. However, in 1820, a Bill, 
providing for increased representation of the Commons in the House of Assembly 
was passed, in which provision was made for University representation in the 
Assembly when even one would be established in Upper Canada. This Bill was 
repealed by the Imperial Act ot Union of the Canadas in 1840. 



I 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 

HISTORY AND PRESENT STATE OF EDUCATION IN UPPER 

CANADA, 1819. 

In the Christian Recorder for April, 1819, appeared the following article, or 
essay, on the History and Present State of Education in Upper Canada. This 
periodical was at that time edited by the late Bishop Strachan. The " History " 
was written by a contributor, who was evidently well versed in the subject on 
which he wrote, and is correct in its historical references. In the following 
July number of the Recorder, appeared a review of the article, and of the 
whole subject of University Education, written by Bishop Strachan himself. 
These two articles are, therefore, invested with special interest — the one as 
containing a carefully prepared historical sketch of what had been done in the 
matter of Education in Upper Canada from 1789 to 1819 — a period of thirty 
years ; the other, as containing the views on the subject of higher education by 
Dr. Strachan, himself a graduate of a Scottish University, and a man who had 
had a large experience in school matters from 1800 to 1823.* 

The introductory part of the following History o/ Education in Upper 

Canada is substantially given by the Rev. Dr. Strachan himself, in hia speech at 

the laying of the Corner Stone of King's College in 1842. He said : 

It is pleasing to remark that in 1789 — a little more than five years after the first settlement 
in Upper Canada of those faithful subjects of the Crown who had, during the Revolutionary 
War adhered to their King and to the unity of the Empire, they presented a Memorial in 
accordance with the same noble principles to His Excellency Lord Dorchester, then Governor- 
General of British North America, on the subject of Education ; in which —after lamenting the 
state of their children growing up without any instruction, religious f>r secular — they request 
His Lordship to establish a respectable Seminary at Kingston, which was at that early period, 
the principal Town in this division of the Colony. To this representation Lord Dorchester 
paid immediate attention, and gave directions to the Surveyor-General to set apart eligible 
portions of land for the future support of Schools in all settlements. Those landa, however, 
remained unproductive ; the settlers were few in number and thinly scattered . . . (and 
soon afterwards) the Province of Quebec was divided into Upper and Lower Canada, etc. 
(Page 33 of Proceedings). 

*The review of the History of Education in Upper Canada, which appears in the July number of the 
Recorder \% stated by the Rev. Dr. Scaddinfr, in his First Bishop of Toronto : a Review and Stvdp, to he by it-i 
Editor, the Rey. Dr. Strachan (Pages 10, 50 and 61). ^ 



154 nOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1819 

;:;. The following is the article on the History of Education in Upper Canada, 
•taken from the Christian Recorder of April, 1819: • 

■ • Early in 1789, the late Honourable Richard Cartwright, one of the greatest benefactors of 
(the Province, and an ornament to human niture, addressed a Memorial to Lord Dorchester, 
the Commander-in-Chief, throiigh Mr. John Collins, Deputy Surveyor-General, suggesting the 
■jneans of providing for theestablishment of a decent Seminary of Education for Kingston and 
sejitlement, by api)ropriating some of the Islands iii the neighbourhood for this purpose. The 
memorial states that a futuie, not a present advantage was expected from such an appropri- 
; lotion ; but as the settlements were now formed and getting compact, the education of youth 
became an object of such importance, as to merit the particular attention of His Majesty's 
Government. . . 

Lord Dorchester who seems to have been, at a'l times, anxious for the good of the Colony, 
was not tardy in noticing this representation, and called the attention of the Magistrates and 
respectable inhabitants to the great importance of effecting a competent establishment of 
Clergymen and Schoolmasters in the settlement of Mecklenbur^h, now the Midland District. 
As a preliminary step, he urged the expediency of cultivating the Glebes, and erecting houses 
for the accommodation of the Schools and Teachers ; but soon after this, and before His Lord- 
ship had time to take any further measures towards the religious and moral instruction of the 
people, to which he seemed very -much inclined the 3lst of King George III. was enacted, 
dividing the Province of Quebec into Lower and Upper Qanada. 

On the arrival of General Simcoe, the Lieutenant-Governor of the new Province of Upper 
.Canada, th^re was too much to do for some yeirs in extending the settlefnents, exploring the 
country and organizing the different departments necessary for conducting the affairs of 
; Government to' think of educating the people ; but. on reducing these things to some regu- 
, larity and order, the Lieutenant-Governor turned his attention to religion and education, and 
anxiously revolved in his comprehensive mind the most effectual steps for diffusing useful 
(iDstruOtion among the settlers. >.: . 

.,..-, Kor was the Government at home, which was ever anxious to ptomote the prosperity of 
'this Province, inatt^^ntive to the education of the people. In a letter of His Grace, the Duke 
■.of Portland, in response to one from General Simcoe, in 1796, he called the attention of. the 
Lieutenant-Governor to the establishment of schools. The General, a man of science and .litera- 
ture, and a great friend to religion, was most anxiously iemployed in discovering the means of 
; complying with His Majesty's commands, when the matter was faken up by the Provincial 
Legislature in the Session of 1797. This body presented a memorial to General ^imcoe, most 
'humbly impl>ring His Majesty that he would be graciously pleased to direct his Government 
,of this Province to appropriate a certain portion of the waste lands of the Crown as a fund for 
the establishment and support of a respectable Grammar School in each District thereof, arid 
\ also a College or University for the instruction of youth in the different branches of liberal 
/knowledge. (Seepage \Q, ante.) 

A prompt notice wa? taken of this representation ; for, in November, 1797, His Grace, the 
Duke of Portland, then one of the principal Secretaries of State, mentions His Majesty's readi- 
. ness to show his parental regard for the welfare of his subjects in the furtherance of so impor- 
tant an object as the instruction of youth, and to assist and encourage the exertions of his 
■ Province in promoting sound learning and a religious education. His Grace informs the Legis- 
lature that 

" His Majesty has condescended to express Ris gracious intention to comply with the wishes 
> of the Legislature of Upper Canada b}' the establishment of free Grammar Schools in those 
"Districts in which they are call d for. and; in due process of time, other seminaries of a larger 
•iand more comprehensive nature for the promotion of religious and moral learning." {See 
page 17, ante.) 

In order to carry the Royal intentions most beneficially into effect, a detailed report of the 
"best method of promoting the general education of the youth of the Province was called for 
'from the members of the Execurive Council, the Judges of the King's Bench, and Law Officers 
of the Crown. These gentlemen drew up a most able and elaborate report on this interesting 
subject (see pages 17-25, ante.), summing uj) the whole in ten importont. resolutions, among 
\ which they represent the propriety of erecting four Grammar Schools, at an expense of £3,000 
each, and art annual sum of £180 for the salaries of the master, undermaster and repairs, and 
likewise a University,' t) be established on a most libaral footing at York, the Seat of Govern- 
ment, as soon as the circumstinces of the Province req ire it ; for all which a large appropria- 
.,,<jloi)i .of the waste lauds .of , the Crown was humbly recommended.. 



Ghap. XXXIV. HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA, 1819. 15o 



Owing to the small value of land when this appropriation was made, and the trifling 
sum paid for the Townships of Dereham and Norwich, it was found that the money required 
would far exceed what could be expected from the sale of the whole reservation. (Page 27, 
ante.) The measure was necessarily postponed, and the gratuitous gifts of lauds by the 
Government still continuing to be made, nothing has been yet done, for no person who is sibW 
and industrious can fail of making a good subsistence on his grant and, therefore, is unwilling' 
to lease or purchase ■ But now matters begin to assume a different appearance, for the general 
prosperity of the Province has much increased, and the reservations having been made long ago, 
the growing settlements are getting in their rear; consequently they begin, from the conven- 
iency of their situation, to become desirable. We have, therefore, every reason to believe that 
\yith a little attention they may be made productive, and be able in; a short time to support such 
a. respectable seminary as the Province seems t'> require. . " 

In 1779 the Honourable Richard Cartjwright and the Honourable Robert Hamilton, having 
large families of young children, and having been promised by General Sinicoe that ou procur*- 
ing a person well qualified for that purpose, sent to. Scotland for a gentleman of that descrip- 
ti9n. Doctor Hamilton, the Minister of Gladsmu r, near Haddington, was intrusted with tha 
business, who applied to his friend, Doctor Trotter, of St. Andrews, to procure him such a per- 
son as he wanted, mentioning the great encouragement likely to be given, and the extensive 
field which a new country like Upper Capada opene,d to enterprising yoijng men. There; is 
reason to believe that the situation was first offered by Dr. Trotter to Doctor Chalmers, .now bo 
justly celebrated, such was the conception then had of its importance, and on his declining i.t 
\ya3 offered to his friend, Mr. Strachan. then a student at St. Andrew's. On this latter gentle^ 
man's arrival at Kingston, he discovered that no salary from Government was, to be looked for. 

This grievoiis disappointment would have induced him to return to his native land, as he 
had come ()ut expressly for the purpose of ; superintending an apademy under the special patron- 
afi;e of Government, and not .a private school ; but the. kindness and libeiality of Mr. Cartwright 
prevented him from taking this step, and he remained in that gentleman's family as tutor 
nearly four years. , . ., , . ; 

In 1803 Mr. Strachan received Holy Orders, and removed to Cornwall, to which place he' 
likewise transferred his school, beiiig the only seminary at that time in the Province where the 
classics and mathematics wete regularly taught. This school attaining some celebrity, young 
men came to it from all parts of both Provinces, and nothing was wanting to complete such a 
system of education as the exigencies of the country then required, except a small Philosophical 
apparattis to illustrate lectures on Physical Science. -This appendage was very soon obtained, 
for the Legislature, in 1805, voted £400 to purchase the more necessary instruments, and on 
their arrival the Lieutenant-Governor placed them in the hands of Mr. Strachan, by whom 
lectures on Natural Philosophy have since that period been delivered to his scholars, when- 
ever a class could be assembled sufficienily advanced to render it beneficial. 

Oh Mr Strachan's removal to Cornwall the Honourable Robert Hamilton, anxiotis to keep 
his children near him, sent to Scotland for a tutor that they might finish their education at- 
home. His friends were fortunate in procuring Mr. James Mitchell to undertake this office, a 
gentleman of ability and learning, who continued with Mr. Hamilton till he had completed the 
young gentlemen's education, when he succeeded to the District School of London, where he 
still resides.* 

. About the same period or, perhaps, a little stjoner, an excellent mathematical school was 
opened at Niagara, by Richard Cockrel, Esq., who is said to be well versed in mathematical 
science. This gentleman still remains in the Province, but hap withdrawn himself from the 
education of youth. . . 

In 1807 a law was enacted establishing a school in every District in which classics and prac- 
tical mathematics were expected to be taught. The Lieutenant-Governor is empowered to 
appoint Trustees for each school, who have authority to nominate a fit and discreet person 
teacher thereof, with a salary of £ltX). Halifax currency, per annum. The nomination of the 
Trustees requires the sanction of the Governor to render it valid ; but they have full power to 
remove the teacher for any misdemeanor or impropriety of conduct. They have likewise full 
power and authority to make such rules and regulations for the good government and man- 
agement of the schools, with respect to both teacher ?vnd scholars a-", in their discr-tion shall 
seem meet. The law was at first limited to four yearii, but in the Session of 180S it was ren- 
dered perpetual. On the passing of this law there w,*s some difference of opinion. Many were 
desirous of establishinq Common Schools throughout the Province, and others were for the 
establishment of a University. Had the revenue of the Province admitted, or had the lands 
appropriated for the purposes of education become sufficiently productive, all parties might 

•Afterwards Jiidpe of the Coutity Court. His wife was the Ttev. Dr. Ryerson's sitter. Dr. Pypr^pn 
refers very kindly to Jud(i^e Mitchell ia the " Story "of his Life, pag'e 24. 



156 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 181 & 



have been gratified ; because the University, as well as the Common Schools, might have been 
established when the District Schools ^veTe put in operation ; but, as the sum in the power of 
the Legislature to grant would have been of no use divided among all the townships — scarcely 
five pounds each — and as the low st.ite of education throughout the Province rendered a Dni- 
versity totally useless — for it could have had no students —District Schools were the only alter- 
native. Had circumstances been otherwise, and a choice in the power of the Legislature, the 
situation of the Province would have suggested, at that time. District in preference to Common 
Schools or a University. They were calculated to give such an education as qualified young^ 
men for the difiFerent professions, and to become excellent nurseries for the University, when it 
could be established. 

These advantages have been reaped, and the Legislature justified in its conduct. No 
University has been yet f«iunded, but many of the young gentlemen taught at the different Dis- 
trict Schools are now eminent in their professions, and would do credit, by their talents and 
integrity, to seminaries of greater name. 

On the passing of this law in 1807, Schools were established in each District ; that at King- 
ston, under the direction of Mr. John VVhitelaw, was exceedingly prosperous, and still proceeds 
with increasing reputation under his successors. The School at Cornwall, deprived of all the 
pupils from the westward, who were properly retained at their own District Schools, kept up. 
and even increased its numbers from Lower Canada. At present, the District Schools are as- 
flourishing as any public institutions can be expected to be ; some complaints have, indeed, 
been made, but they are of a partial nature, and do not militate against the principle of the' 
law. In one or two Districts, it must be confessed, that all the good which might have been 
anticipated has not been produced, and these supply the complainants with their argument* 
against the Bill ; but the fault arose from the jealousy which at that time pervaded the House 
ot Assembly. The members demanded that what was given to one District should be given to 
all, whether necessary or not. This appeared unreasonable to the promoters of the District 
School Bill, who were desirous of confining themselves to the four Scho'ls rectmmiended in the 
report of the Committee of the Members of the Executive Council, the Judges and Crown 
Officers, in 1798, already noticed, viz., Cornwall, Kingston, Niagara and Sandwich, to which 
York, now grown into importance, was added. The other Districts were to be indulged with 
the same privilege, whenever the Magistrates in Quarter Sessions declared that a sufficient 
number of scholars might be obtained to make the School beneficial, but; to this the majority 
would not assent, and accordingly the Bill included all the Districts without distinction. 
Should well-founded complaints still exist, the fault must be in those appointed to put the law 
in force. The Trustees have full power to dismiss the Teacher if negligent and careless of hi» 
duty ; and, if a school of this advanced description be as yet unnecessary, they may postpone 
the appointment of another Teacher, till the great increase of population render it useful. 
Though the Legislature acted wisely in establishing Dist ict Schools, as teing most beneficial tO' 
the public, yet that body never lost sight of the propriety of extending the benefits of instiuc- 
tion to the lower orders throughout the Province. Finding the revenue greatly increas d in 
1816, a law was passed, (containing many excellent provisions), for establishing and supporting^ 
Common Schools in every village or township in the Province. This Bill was very much hurt 
by the insertion of a clause that there should be a School in every town, village or place where 
twenty scholars could be collected. These loose words admit of a latitude of interpretation 
which could not have been intended, and multiply Schools to an extent which it would require 
three times the Provincial revenue to support. If we suppose the Province to contain 120,000 
souls, and one-sixth of these, 20,000, children going to school, this number, at the rate of 
.£25 (or 100 dollars) per annum for every school of twenty scholars, would amount to £25,000 
per annum. This evil may be cured by giving one scho 1 to each township, and no more, pro- 
vided there be at least forty inhabitants freemen. Are the townships large, then let the schools 
itinerate. This arrangement will save half the present appropriation, and render £3,000 a year 
more productive of good than the £6,000 has hitherto been. 

In 1815, a law was passed incorporating a Society in the Midland District, to be named the 
School Society of that portion of the Province, iirincijjally for the purpose ot establishing a 
School on the principles of Bell and Lancaster. The Society has built a good School House, 
and taken much pains to bring their object to perfection ; but, owing to causes over which the 
members had no control, the School, though useful, has failed in producing all the good that 
might have been expected. 

A modification of the whole system of education, embracing the Common and District 
Schools, and a Colle;?e at York, the Seat of Government, was introduced by His Honour the 
Chief Justice into the Legislative Council in 1817. In this scheme there was a judicious grada- 
tion. A way was opened for the most promising boys to rise from the Common to the District 
Schoo's and from these to the College, by which the mems of obtiining a liberal education was 
offered to the youth ot the whole Province, and such assistance given to a few distinguished 



Chap. XXXIV. HISTORY of education in upper CANADA, 1819. 157 



young men as would enable them to proceed without becominj;? a burden to their friends. This 
project failed in the House of Assembly from an unwillingness to disturb the Common School 
Bill, which had been only one year in operation ; but, as the law expires next year, some alter- 
ations may be expected to take pla e on reviving it, which may render it more liberal and 
efficient, and, at the same time, be accompanied with a very considerable diminution of 
expense. 

In aid of what the wisdom of the Legislature miy continue to bestjw upon the education 
of youth, something may soon be looked for f.om the reservation of the waste lands of the 
Crown. 

It is indeed, rumoured that a University is going to be immediately established, depending 
upon these lands for its support and future extension. The character of the present Lieutenant- 
Governor, Sir Peregrine Maitland. who has nothing more anxiously at heart than the promotion 
of religion and education throughout the Province, gives currency to this rumoar. 

The plan, said to be in agitation, is to establish, as soon as practicable, a College at the Seat 
('f Government, to consist from the first of a Principal, or President, and three Professors ; 
these gentlemen to give two or three Courdcs of Lectures, if necessary, to different classes 
during the season, from some of which courses they will be relieved as soon as the funds admit 
the establishment of additional Professors. Two Scholarships are to be attached to each Dis- 
trict, by which, at the end of every two years, the best scholar at the District School has an 
opportunity of obtaining a scholarship at College, which will maintain him four years ; the 
number of Scholarships attached to each District to be increased till they amount to four, or 
even more, if the revenues of the University allow it. In this manner would the door to a 
liberal education be opened to the poorer inhabitants, and we miglit live to see the children of 
the farmer and mechanic filling the highest offices in the Colony, to which they had aiisen by 
their superior talents, fostered by the benevolent institutions of their country. 

The liberal Professions now require such an establishment. The Bar employs a very con- 
siderable number of practitioners, many of whom have had the necessary oppdrtunities for 
preparin!< themselves for that important Profession. The Church, likewise, requires a long 
•course of study, which cannot without much difficulty be obtained. 

The necessity for sending young men out of the Province to finish their education ought to 
be removed ; for the specimens that have been tried have disappointed the just expectations of 
their friends. Few can support the great expense of sending their children to Great Britain, 
and parental anxiety reluctantly trusts them at suci a distance from its care, observation and 
control. If they are sent to the United States, there is much reason to fear that they will 
return with sentiments unfriendly to our different establishments, as the whole system of edu- 
cation, even to primary school books, in that country is pervaded with pernicious politics, 
breathing hatred to our parent State. 

There is no subject more important to the true prosperity of the Province than the careful 
education of its youth ; for it is only by a well instructed population that we can expect to pre- 
serve our excellent Constitution and our connection with the British Empire, or give that 
respectability t) the country which arises from an intelligent Magistracy, and from public situa- 
tions filled with men of ability and information. 

The more difficult steps have been already taken, and the inhabitants, getting alive to the 
great aivantage of edu ating their children, have in most places seconded the exertions of the 
Legislature with a laudable zjal. What has been already done is highly creditable to the country, 
and, though much yet remains to be effected, there are no serious impediments in the way which 
a little time and attention will not easily remove ; the most important improvement in c«)ntem- 
plation, the founding of a University at the Seat of Government, may very soon take place, and 
will be of incalculable benefit to the Pr .vince. 

The present state of education consists of eight District Schools, at which upwards of 220 boys 
are now taught the higher branches of education, the classics, mathematics, etc The Common 
Schools, in which upwards of 3,500 children are instructed, besides a great number of schools of 
a similar description, to which the bounty of Government cannot be extended. Sunday Schools 
are likewise getting numerous, and religious instruction appears to be more sought after than 
formerly. J n this respect also, the Common Schools will soon produce a very beneficial alter- 
ation, as may be seen from the rules to teachers published by the Board of Education for 
Niagara, and the Home District, and which we subjoin as a proper ccmclusion to this Article. 

Suggested Rules for Schools and Teachers. 

1. The Master to commence the labours of the day with a phort prayer. 

2. School to commence each day at 9 o'clock of the forenoon, and iive hours at least to be taught during 
the day, except on Saturday. ,.,. ij-^-.^j^ 

3. Diligence and emulation to be cherished and encouraged by rewards judiciously aistributed, to con- 
sist of little pictures and books, according to the age of the scholar. 



198 D0CU4IENTARY HISTORY OP EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1819 



4, Cleanliness and good order to be indispensable, corporal punishment seldom necessary, except for 
bad habits learned at home, lying, disobedence, obstinacy, perverseness ; these sometimes require 
chastisement, but gentleness even in these cases would do better with most children, 

5, All other offences in children, arising chiefly from liveliness and in attention, are better corrected by 
shame, such as gaudy caps, placing the culprits by themselves, not admitting any to play with them for 
a day or days, detaining them after school hours, or during play afternoon and by ridicule, 

6, The Master must keep a regular catalogue of his scholars, and mark every day they are absent. 

7, The forenoon of Wednesday and of Saturday to be set apart for religious instruction to render it 
Agreeable, the school should be furnished with at least ten copies of Barrow's Questions on the New Testa- 
ment, and the teacher to have one copy of the key to these questions for his own use, the teacher should 
likewise have a copy of Murray's ' Power of Religion on the Mind' 'Watkin's Scripture Biography' and 
Blair's Class Book,' the Saturday lessons of which are well calculated to impress religious feeling. 

These books are confined to no religious denomination, and do not prevent the master from teaching 
such CfiCtechism as the parents of the children may adopt. 

8, Every day to close with reading publicly a few verses from the New Testament, proceeding 
regularly through the Gospels. 

The Rev. 1)r, Strachan's Remarks on the Foregoing History of Education. 

Under the worn de plume of " The Confessor," Rev, Dr, Strachan wrote the 
following explanatory criticism, on the foregoing " History of Education in Upper 
Canada " in the Christian Recorder for July, 1819. It is rather a review of the 
whole question, than a criticism, but with explanatory statements and illustration 
as to value of a University to those who desire to study for the learned profes- 
sions. Both papers are valuable, from the fact that they reflect the opinions of 
intelligent men of the day on the then unsolved problem of university education 
in Upper Canada. 

You mention, in your second number, that a University is about to be established in this 
Province. I hope that it will be founded upon a very liberal scale, so that all denominations 
of Christians may be enabled without any sacrifice of conscience or of feeling, to attend the 
prelections of the ditfeient Professors, It has been said that the Province is too young to sup- 
p jrc an establishment of this kind, and, were it in contemjilation to commence on such an exten- 
sive plan at that of the English, or even some of the Scotch Universities, it might, in some measure 
be true. But it is very easy to begin with a President or. Rector, and a few teachers, making 
provision for increasing their number, as the increase of students may require. Kor should it 
be forgotten that th^ rajiid influx of emigrants into the Province, together with the natural 
increase of the inhabitants, will now furnish a good number of young men And although 
many people may choose rather to bring up their children as farmers, because they can, with 
even a little industry, acquire for themselves the comforts of life and in their turn provide an 
excellent inheritance for their chi'dren, yet many will be found anxious to educate their sons 
for the learned professions. Besides, a greater number of gentlemen will, for some time, be 
required for these professions, than is commonly supposed. 

Forty clergymen, for example, may now meet with full employment in this Province^ 
and render themselves of great service to the temporal as well as to the eternal interests of the 
people. If they were of conciliatory disposition, and more disposed to promote vital Christi- 
anity, than to enforce such forms as are, at first, new to the settlers and not accordant with 
their manners and feelings, they would be of an infinite benefit indeed ; one in each of the settled 
Townships, of this description, would give a new appearance to the country, for the appoint- 
ment of clergymen to instruct the people in the doctrines of revelation and duties of morality^ 
is so eminently wise, as to be considered by many a strong proof of the divine origin of that 
blessed religion by which it is adopted. 



*There is no internal evidence in this article itself that it was written by the Rev. Dr. Strachan. The 
Rev. Dr. Scadding however in hia First Bishop of Toronto, a Bcview and a Study, quotes from it two or 
three times, and in each case ascribes it to " the Editor," whom, he states was Dr. Strachan. Speaking 
of the publication itself, Dr. Scadding says, (page 10) : The two volumes of the Christian Recorder 
" possess an interest, as being edited, and, in great part, written by the late Bishop of Toronto, while a^ 
Presbyter doing duty at York." 

The articles written by '* The Confessor " were signed " N, N,," the two last letters of the Bishop's 
name. 



Chap. XXXIV. . HISTORY of education in upper cAnada, 1819. 159 



Now it would take a Uni\ ersity some time, were it already in active operation, to furnish 
the number wanted, and he new settlements aie extending so last in all directions tliat, before 
the old townships can be suppl'ed, as many new ones will be destitute. Were it possible after 
the first four years are elapsed to furnish twelve clergymen, an a>ie must have passtd away 
before each township could bo supplied. It ought bkewise to be remembeied that it is of the 
greatest consequence that the Ministers of the Gosj el should be men of learning and ability, 
and, in order to qualify them for the great work to which they ai e appointed, comj>€tent oppor- 
tunities must be given them. These they do not at present sufficiently possess, for although the 
very few that have been brought forward to the ministry need not fear a comparison with any 
peri«ons of their age in the Mother Country, it has arisen from the circumstance that they were 
rafcher the companions than the pupils of their tutors who was able the progress of their reason 
as well as the strength of their resolutions and lead them, step by step along the path of virtue, 
as well as knowledge. But this method of instructing chiefly by conversation must be confined 
within very narrow limits, and cannot be so extended as to meet the growing wants of this 
extensive Province. In the University the business of instruction is divided, and each Profes- 
sor became better (jua ified for his particular department. The student may have acquired, in 
private, a competent knowledge of English and classical literature. lie may have read the 
best divines, he may have imbodiedin his conduct many <.f the most amiable graces of our holy 
religion, and become a useful, learned and conscientions Pas'or, but then, almost every 
pupil wonld require his own special instructor, and even then he would remain ignorant of 
some branches of knowledge highly useful in enlarging the views and ripening the understand- 
ing. 

At the University the study of the scriptures in the original languai^e and the comparison 
of this original with our English translation would employ a considerable portion of his time, 
collecting parallel passages of scripture, arranging and comparing the Prophecies with the 
history of their accomplishment, examining the proofs which establish our H< ly religi' n, reflect-' 
ing upon the sublime doctrines and beautiful precepts, so as to be able to give a reason for the 
faith that is in us, would engross many houis of \aluable study. In alarg^ seminary these may 
be relieved by turning to the Book of Nature and reading the perfections of the Divinity in the 
beauty and sublimity of His Works. For these purposes the young divine may examine the 
heavenly bodies, their astonishing regularity and order, and admiring the perfection of 
Astronomy, which, in as far as regaidsthe Solar Sys em, may now be said to be complete, as 
there is not a sing e motion that has not been accounted for a id found necessary to preserve 
the wonderful harmony of the whole, he may draw the most comfoitable proofs of the wisdom 
power and goodness of God. H ere likewise the student of Nature might make himself master 
of Chemistry, of Botany and Anatomy, all of which he would afterwards find use ul in his profes- 
sion, not only in confiming his faith, but in the variety of illustration which they aflbrd him in 
preaching to the people. J t is not generally known that there are now thirty Barristers in this 
Province, some of them men of talents and information, others less efficient from the want of 
good opportunities, but, when a Univeisity is established, a greater strictness will be observed 
in admitting young men to the B<r, mora preparation will be deemed necessary and the Law 
Society will, as they do in England, dispense with two out of the five years now demanded,, 
provided that they be spent in at ending certain classes in the College. 

In this county, the practice of Physic, from the badness of the roads and the poverty of the- 
people, has not been attractive, but matters are changing — the settlers are becoming wealthy 
and able to pay for advice and attendance during sickness. Indeed, no person can at present 
study Physic or Surgery in this Province, for there are no regular sources of information. It is 
true a Surgeon or a Physician may take apprentices and reduce their liberal professions to & 
kind of trade, which may be taught by rote in a certain number of years ; but, without Lectures 
on the various branches of the Medical Art, they never can attain to any proficiency. 

The number of Students likely to attend College will not be confined to the three profes- 
sions. Young men intended for Merchants or who have the certainty of inheriting great landed 
estates will be no less desirous of becoming acquainted with the different branches of liberal 
knowledge. Add to this the great benefit arising to the Province from the conviction 
which every one must feel after the est blishment of a University that, in removing to Canada, 
he is not taking his children to a wilderness which affords no opportunities for ameliorating 
their condition, but to a country possessing equal advantages in religion and education with that, 
which he leaves. 

From a variety of considerations I am confident that in a very few years the Students at- 
tending such a seminary would exceed one hundred. I will, with your permission, trouble you 
again on this subject which I consider all impo»tant, in the meantime for the comfort of those 
who do not feel the want of knowledge, but who are engrossed by profit. I have to remark 
that the foundation of a University at York, open to all denominations, will add 20 per cent, to 
all the lands in the Province, by offering an advantage to emigrants which they can nowhere 
else enjoy. N. N. 



160 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1819 



CHAPTEK XXXIV. 

MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS RELATING TO EDUCATION, 1819. 
Examination of the Home District (Grammar) School, 1819. 

The Christian Recorder for August, 1819, states that : — 

By a law passsed during the last Fession of the Provincial Parliament, (1819), it is enacted 
that previous to the annual vacation, a Public Examination of the scholars of each District 
School shall take place under the direction of the Trustee. This has always been the practice 
at the school of the Home District, and has been attended with benelicial effects. The number 
of scholars is now so great that it was found expedient to take two days. We have procured a 
copy of the Order of Examination, together with the Prologue and Epilogue, and an Ode in 
honour of the founders of the colleges soon expected to be built and endowed at York and 
Montreal. 

The Examination of 1819, in his Toronto of Old, is thus referred to by Dr. 
Scadding : — 

Notwithstanding the greater glory of the School at Cornwall, the lis's of the Home District 
School under Dr. Strachan at York always presented a strong array of the well known, and 
even distinguished Upper Canadian names. This will be seen by a perusal of the following 
[programme of examination of the Home District School] which will also give an idea of the 
variety of matters to which attention was given in the school. The numerous family names will 
at once be recognized, especially that of the distinguished Robert Baldwin, who commenced the 
exercises of the day by the Prologue <m our Indian Empire, the now Venerable Archdeacon 
McMurray, of Niagara, the late Canon Saltern Givens, the Boultons, the Ridouts, the Hewards, 
the McDonells, the Strachaus, the Baldwins, etc., etc. 

Order of examination of the Home District Grammar School at York, Wednesday, 11th 
Aiigitst, 1819. First Day. The Latin and Greek Classes Euclid and Trigonometry. Thurs- 
day, 12th August. Second Day. To commence at 10 o'clock. Prologue, by Robert Baldwin. — 
Reading Class. — George Strauihan, The Excellence of the Bible. Thomas Ridout, The Man of 
Ross. James McDonell, Liberty and Slavery. St. George Baldwin, The Sword. William 
McMurray, Soliloquy on Sleep. Arithmetic Class. — James Smith, The Sporting Clergyman. 
William Boulton, Jun., The Poet's New Year's Gift. Richard Oa es. Ode lo Apollo. « rville 
Cassell, The Rose. Bookkeeping. — William Myers, My Mother. Francis Heward, My Father. 
George Dawson, Lapland. — First Grammar Class. — Second Gi-ammar Class. — Debate on the 
Slave Trade. For the Abolition: Francis Ridout, John Fitzgerald, William Allan, George 
Boulton, Henry Heward, VNilliam Baldwin, John Ridout, John Doyle, James Doyle. Against 
the Abolition : Abraham Nelles, James Baby, James Doyle, Charles Heward, Allan McDonell, 
James Myers, Charles Ridout, William Boulton, Walker Smith. — First Geography Class - 
Second Geography Class. — James Dawson, The Boy that Told Lies. James Bigelow, the Va- 
grant. Thomas Glassco, The Paris Workhouse. Edward Glennon, Tlie Apothecary, Natural 
History. Debate by the Young Boys. Sir William Strickland, Charles Heward. Lord Morpeth, 
John Owens. Lord Harvey, John Ridout. Mr. Plomer, Raymond Baby. Sir Willliam Ydnge, 
John Fitzgerald. Sir W^illiam W^indham. John Boulton. Mr. Henry Pelham, Henry Heward. 
Mr. Bernard, George Strauchan. Mr. Noel, William Baldwin. Mr. Shippen, James Baby. Sir 
Robert Walpole, Saltern Givins and J. Doyle Mr.Horace Walpole, James Myers. Mr Pulteney, 
Charles Baby. — Civil His'ory. — William Boulton, The Patriot. Francis Ridout, The Grave of 
Sir John Moore. S. Givins, Great Britain. John Boulton, Eulogy on Mr. Pitt. Warren 
Claus, The Indian Warrior. Charles Heward, The Soldier's Dream. William Boulton, The 
Heroes of Waterloo. — Catechism.- — Debate on the College at Calcutta. Sjjeakers : Mr. Canning, 
Robert Baldwin, Sir Francis Baring, John Doyle, Mr. Waingright, Mark Burnham. Mr. 
'Ihornton, John Knot. Sir D. bcott. William Boulton. Lord Eldon, Warren Claus, Sir Samuel 
Lawrence, Allan Macaulay. Lord Hawkesbury, Abraham Nelles. Lord Bathurst, James Mc- 
Gill Strachan. Sir Thomas Metcalf, Walker Smith. Lord Teignmouth, Hcirace Ridout — Re- 
ligious Questions and Lectures — James McGill Strachan, Anniversary of the York and Montreal 
Colleges anticipated for 1st of January, 1822. Epilogue, by Horace Ridout. 



Chap. XXXIV. MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS ON EDUCATION IN U. C, 1819. 161 

Mr. J. Ross Robertson, in his historj^ of The Old Blue School, thus refers to 
the effect and character of these examinations : — 

These public examinations were red letter days with the parents of York, and the paternal 
and maternal sides of the house were duly represented. Sir Peregrine Maitland and Staff, 
seated on a slightly raised dais, covered with cloth of crimson hue, were usually interested 
spectators in the proceedings. To make the occasion more joyo«s than the ordinary dimissal to 
Christmas, the midsummer vacation day was celebrated by a lunch or dejeuner. 

The central figure at the opening was young Robert Baldwin, whose nsme and memory to- 
day are green in the hearts of all Canadians. His verse travelled over the whole range of European 
history, and lauded the work of Warren Hastings in India, the "Asiatic Researches" of Sir 
William Jones, the English Orientalist, the founding of Calcutta College by the Great Duke, then 
Marquis of Wellesley, the advantage of a similiar institution in Canada, was suggested by the 
lines : 

" Yet much r^imains for some aspiring son 
Whose liberal soul from that desires renown, 
Which gains for Wellesley a lasting crown ; 
Some general structure in these wilds to rear. 
Where every art and science may appear." 

Perhaps the day-dream in Baldwin's fertile brain was the erection of Upper Canada Col- 
lege and King's College in the early future, and then with a few lines which must have warmed 
the heart of the distinguished visitor, he adds : — 

" O, Maitland best ! this proud distinction woos 
Thy quick acceptance, back'd by every muse ; 
Those feelings, too, which joyful fancy knew 
When learning's gems first opened to thy view, 
Bid you to thousands smooth the thorny road, 
Which leads to glorious Science's bright abode." 

The Epilogue was pronounced by Horace Rid out. An extract from this ebullition, which 
was a mixture of machine poetry and doggerel, will suffice. The reciter is supposed to be a 
pupil, who complains of the conduct of the Master : — 

'* Between ourselves, and just to speak my mind, 
In English Grammar, Master's much behind ; 
I speak the honest truth — I hate to dash — 
He bounds cur task by Murray, Lowth and Ashe, 
I told him once that Abercrombie, moved 
By genius deep, had Murray's plan improved. 
He frowned upon me, turning up his nose. 
And said the man had ta'en a maddening dose. 
Once in my theme 1 put the word progress — 
He sentenced twenty lines, without redress : 
( Again for ' Measure ' I transcribed ' endeavour.' 

And all the live- long day I lost his favour." 



Address from the Presbytery of the Canadas to Sir Peregrine Maitland. 

Early in 1819 the following Address was presented to Lieutenant-Governor 
Maitland by the Presbytery of the Canadas, assembled at Brockville, on Wednes- 
day the 13th day of January, 1819 : — 

As it is not the extent of territory that renders a country prosperous ; but the number of its 
subjects, their industrious habits, their correct morals, their superior comforts and their in- 
tellectual eminence. The voice of history attests that these important objects have been pro- 
moted in proportion as pure religion has prevailed. It is under the impression of sentiments of 
this nature, that we have witnessed with much satisfaction the encouragements afforded by the 
Provincial Parliament for the support and erection of Public Schools. And we look forward 
with pleasing anticipation to the period when, under the auspicious rule of your Excellency, a 
college shall spring from these seminaries of learning and our youth in the bosom of the Pro- 
vince, be qua'ified for all the offices of civil and ecclesiastical life. 
1 1 (D.E.) 



102 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1819 



Early School Days in Aldborough, Talbot Settlement, 1816-1820, etc, 

Mr. Archibald McColl, a Farmer in the County of Kent, has furnished me 
with a series of articles, which he had contributed to the *S^. Thovias Journal 
and the Rodney Mercury in May and June, 1892, on "Schools and Dominies" 
in the Township of Aldborough. In his accompanying note he says that what 
he records happened before his time, he had, therefore, to " depend altogether 
on the memories of those who were the boys of long ago." 

These sketches, by Mr. McColl, of the early school days in the old " Talbot 
Settlement " are highly interesting, — revealing, as they do, by way of contrast 
with these days what was the character of the social and school life of seventy 
years ago in the primitive settlement of this country. Much that I have omitted 
from these sketches relate to the pranks of school boys, and personal anecdotes 
of their leaders, — the most noted of whom was the late Sheriff McKellar, whose 
pleasantries and fun. were often of a most amusing kind. The sketches begin 
with a reference to the schools of 1816 and 1819, as follows : — 

Mr. Malcolm Eubhison, Teacher. — The first school in Aldborough was opened in 1819 by 
Malcolm Robinson in his own dwelling, which served the purpose of kitchen, dining-room, 
l^arlor, bedroom, blacksmith shop and schoolhouse. Sheriff McKellar giA^es an amusing descrip- 
tion of his boyish days at this school, which was the first he ever attended. . . , The first 
school in the County of Elgin was opened in the Township of Malahide in 1816, and up to the 
year 1830 only twenty schools existed in the whole "Talbot Settlement," extending at that 
time from the east of the County of Elgin to the west of the County of Kent, a distance of about 
one hundred miles. Mr. Robinson's schoolhouse was situated on Lot 2, in Concession 13, and 
in this School Mr. Lachlan MacDougall, father of Colin MacDougall, Q.C., afterwards taught. 
Only two or three of those who went to that school are now alive. 

Mr. George Munro, Teacher. — In 1820 a school was opened in Mr. Munro's house. Here 
Mr. George Munro, then a young man in his teens, taught the youthful minds of those who were 
entrusted to his care for one year. Here Mr. McKellar began his acquaintance with Mr. Muuro, 
which warmed into a close friendship which lasted till recently, when the death of the old Squire 
broke up the friendship of more than seventy years. 

•After teaching a year in his father's house, Mr. Munro afterwards taught in a schoolhouse 
built on the farm of Mr. John McKellar, who was a cousin of Squire Munro, and lived on what 
is now known as the McBnde farm, on Middle Street, where he taught for two or three years. 
This schoolhouse, in the words of Mr. Munro, was cold, dark and dismal, but with two windows 
of six panes each, in size, seven by nine inches. iSeats and writing desks were logs flattened 
with the axe. At this time so much per scholar was paid by the parents for the privilege of 
attending school. Ten bushel of wheat was the fee. A quire of j^aper cost a bushel of wheat, 
and it required the same quantity of grain to pay for a spelling book. . . . 

After quitting his work as a teacher here, Mr. Munro went to Clearville to teach in the first 
frame schoolhouse which was built between Long Point and Amherstburg. Here Mr. Munro 
boarded with a Mr. Baldwin, who kept hotel there at the time. Phineas, the young son of Mr. 
Baldwin, was a pupil in this school, and only ten years ago wrote a letter to his old teacher, 
telling him of the success he had met with in life, and stating that . . . much of his success 
in life was due to .the teaching he had received, and to the words of wisdom impressed upon his 
memory by his old teacher, who always laboured so earnestly for his pupils' welfare. 

Mr. Baldwin's letter is somewhat touching in places. . . . In it he said : " When 
memory reverts to my boyhood days, I nevtr fail to call to mind my first and best school-day hours 
with you as teacher. How few of the old schoolmates of my boyish days remain on this side of 
the great beyond. Most have gone, I still retain a warm feeling for all." Part of Mr. Munro's 
reply may be appropriately qiioted here, as it bears directly on pioneer life in Oxford. Mr. 
Munro says : " Your never-to-be-forgotten father was my confidant in everything to whose 
friendly and wise counsel 1 was much indebted. He was one of the first pioneers in Oxford 



Chap. XXXIV. MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS ON EDUCATION IN U. C, 1819. 163 



township. In his house was preached the first sermon that was ever preached in Oxford. His 
house was the home of the pioneer preachers of the Gospel, when on their tedious circuit 
through East Kent." 

Sheriff McKellar, in a letter written since the death of Squire Munro, gives his old friend 
credit for being very painstaking with those who were placed in his charge for instruction, and 
aays that he was a very good mathematician and surveyor. The surveying branch of his educa- 
tion he learned from Col. Burwell, and he assisted the Colonel in Burveying the Western 
District, especially the greater part of the County of Kent. While away on these surveying 
expeditions, the party did not see a white person for two or three weeks at a time, meeting 
with many adventures on their trips, wolves being very jilentiful in the forests, and sometimes 
being dangerous when food was scarce. Mr. Munro possessed a wonderful memory and anything 
once learned was never forgotten. An instance of this power may be given. The first survey- 
ing ever done in the Township of Aldborough was done by Mr. Hamley in 1804. His work 
was to lay out the concessions and sideroads, among which were the Furnival Road, along which 
he planted posts, one of which was planted at the corner of the farm on which Mr. Munro, sr., 
settled. At that time all the provision which the family used had to be carried from the lake 
on the backs of men. Mr Munro, who was then a young man, in 1818 used to carry flour 
through what was then only a woodland path, and in his journeyings used to rest his load on 
this post while he rested. The post about this time had rotted off, and was seen no more until 
in 1875, when the township was re-surveyed and stone posts planted. While hunting for the 
original post, Mr. Munro, without hesitation, made a mark about three feet square, and said, 
gentlemen, if you dig inside that mark you will find where the original post s ood and sure 
onough they there found the lower part of what was likely the only remnant of the survey in 
1804 which is now in existence. Mr. Munro was also a fairly good classical scholar. In his 
latter years he aUo learned shorthand, and was a thorough master of Pitman's system of phono- 
graphy. He with great patience wrote the whole of the new Testament in Scotland. 

Mr. John McDwgall, Teacher. — Mr. John McDougall was also one of the early teachers in 
this district, who made his mark on the intellectual faculties of the few scholars who. at that 
time, were able to attend school, being himself a man of fair education and good practical com- 
naon sense. After M. Robinson's school was broken up the next schoolhouse on 'Jalbot Street 
was built on Lot 4, Concession 13. This schoolhouse was built largely of clay, pressed together 
and dried in the sun, there only being timber enough in the building to bind it together. Yet 
it served its purpose for the time being. 

Mr. D. McCallum, Teacher. — In this building Mr. D. McCallum, better known at that time 
as " trouble the hoose," from the fact that in common with a great many others of the men of 
his day he was a little too fond of a dram and when in his cups seemed to take delight in seeing 
how great a nuisance he could mnke of himself. On the last day of his term he took all the 
scholars, boys and girls alike, across the road to a private house, where he treated them all to 
all the whiskey they could drink. The result was that it is supposed that this act was only done 
out of pure kindness to the scholars to whom he was bidding farewell. After the d smissal of 
the school the boys set to work and tore the building to pieces by pulling the clay away from the 
tiiu< er, and made it impossible to teach there any longer, and the result was that another build- 
ing was erected on the same ground, this time of logs roofed with clapboards about 4 feet long, 
which was the roofing in common use at that time. 

Schools of the Time. — In this building school was kept for a number of years, and here many 
A one of the children of the pioneers were prei)ared for their life work and sent out into the 
world to make a name and record for themselves. Here many of those who are yet living 
<Jreamed their little day dreams and mapped out their future career in the same manner as their 
successors are doing to-day. They built their air castles in those happy school-day hours, which 
have long since passed away, only to realize in after years how little of what we expect ever 
■comes to pass. But the knowledge gained in after years never made them unhappy or spoiled 
an hour's pleasure. At that time all in school were on an equal footing, and were not divided 
into classes according to the wealth or profession of their fathers, and no attempt was made to 
have onfi dressed better than another. All were dressed alike in clothes made mostly of the 
flax, which was grown at home and prepared at home from the stage of its existence as a plant until 
it became a raiment for the girls or boys to wear, and if it did not equal in splendour the purple 
and fine linen worn by King Solomon, the children were just as happy as if it did. No shoes 
were worn by any of the scholars so long as it was at all possible to do without them. In fact, 
the children grew up like those in Mrs. Heman's poem "The Graves of a Household," who 
grew in beauty side by side, and filled one house with glee. Their graves are scattered far 
and wide, by stream and mount and sea. Many are in the church-yard laid, and some have 
•died at sea. Some of them have been called upon to fill positions of honour and trust and have 
iilled them in such a manner as to command the respect of their fellow citizens, to bring honour 



164 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1819 



to themselves, and to reflect credit upon the teachers who took such pains to train them up in 
the way they should go, and to impress upon their minds that honesty should guide them in 
all their dealings with their fellow men, and who taught them that " honour and fame from no 
condition rise, act well your part, there all the honour lies," and to their credit be it said that 
the great majority of them lived up to this teaching. It was a very rare case indeed in which 
any of those early scholars were ever accused of acting a dishonourable part. 

Mr. A. Ciirrie, Teacher. — A number of teachers taught in the old schoolhouse No. 4 Talbot 
Street, among them being Mr. A. Currie the father of Rev. A. Currie, of Duart. Mr. Currie 
had studied and for the ministry in the Scottish colleges, and was a scholar of more than ordin- 
ary knowledge, being the thorough master of seven languages. But coming to this country at 
an early date, he gave up the ministry and began teaching school, and while the church lost one 
who would likely have been a noted preacher the children of this place, who were so fortunate as 
to come under his instruction, were the gainers thereby, for although sometimes severe in hi& 
punishments, he was always anxious for his pupils to succeed, and spared no pains to impart 
as much of his learning to them as possible. Mr. Currie was also an extra good hand at making^ 
quill pens. Steel pens were then unknown, and the only substitute used was a pen made out 
of the quill feathers in a goose's wing. It was quite an art to make these pens to write well, 
and as it was very easy to spoil them, we may be sure that the master was kept busy during the 
writing hour repairing pens, and as it was easier waiting to get a pen mended than to write, 
quite likely 'he teacher did not forget the art through lack of practice. Mr. Currie was faithful 
and earnest in fulfilling all the duties of his position, and was revered accordingly. Like Gold- 
smith's village preacher 

A man he was to all the country dear, 

And passing rich with less than forty pounds a year, 

Mr. Stewart, Teacher. — Another of the teachers in this old schoolhouse was a Mr. Stewart^ 
who was a student studying medicine. His career here m as not of long duration, owing to the fact 
that his love for medical science placed him in danger of his life in the following ways : The 
knoll on which the schoolhouse stood is yet often referred to as squaw hill, from the fact that 
a good many years ago it had been used as an Indian burial ground. Some few years previous 
to the building of the schoolhouse a squaw had been buried there. The place of her burial is 
still marked by a small hollow in the ground. Mr. Stewart, thinking this would be a good 
chance to secure a skelet^on for the study of the human frame, with the help of some of the 
larger boys, raised the body and carried it into the schoolhouse, where he kept it for some time, 
being, while there, a source of amusement to the older scholars and of terror to the younger. The 
frame was kept together by wires and stood behind the door. The wires were so arranged that; 
the skeleton could be made, by pulling the wires, to open and close its jaws. 
In the meantime the Indians heard of the grave robbery and were furious, threatening to kill 
the author of the desecration. But before they had time to execute their mission of revenge, 
Mr. Stewart heard of their intention to end his career and suddenly departed. Sheriff McKellar 
attended this school for some time, and here also he was the ruling spirit in all sorts of pranks. 

Mr. John McDiarmid, Teacher. — A schoolhouse was afterwards built a short distance below 
the New Glasgow graveyard, in which Mr. John McDiarmid (a brother of Mr. F. McDiarmid) 
taught for some time. This school was closed, and a school opened near Brock's Creek, a num- 
ber of people having settled in that district in the meantime, and wishing to have school privi- 
leges for their children, they built a schoolhouse near where the Baptist Church now stands. 

Miss Catharine McDiarmid, Teacher. — When Port Glasgow was in the height of its glory a. 
school was opened there. In this school Miss Catharine McDiarmid was the instructor of the 
olive branches of the neighbourhood for some time, and as far as we know enjoys the distinc- 
tion of being the first Jady teacher employed in the schools of Aldborough. Many at that time 
believing that it would be a great act of folly to engage a woman to keep the children in the 
paths of right, or even to impart knowledge to their youthful minds. 

Mr. Kennedy, Teacher. — Early in the historj- of the settlement, a school was established 
near Fifty-Two Creek, in which Mr. Kennedy, a theological student, taught for sonie time. 
About this time was made, so far as we are able to learn, the only attempt to intr( duce a 
private school system. Mr. Robert Young, who was a merchant engaged in business at Port 
Glasgow, engaged a governess to instruct his children privately, but the general opinion was that 
the better plan was that children, who had to fight the battle of life side by side, m ould be better 
able to successfully fight their way through life if they had first to endure the rough and tumble 
life of the public school. . . . The Fifty-Two Creek schoolhouse, on the Aldborough and 
Orford town line, was also a noted institution of learning for a number of years, and this school- 
house had at times within its walls some very able teachers, among whom was Mr. Kennedy^ 
afterwards a Presbyterian minister. 



Chap. XXXIV. MISCKLLANEOUS PAPERS ON EDUCATION IN U. C, 1819. 165 



Teachers' Salaries at this time ranged from twelve to fourteen dollars per month, with the 
privilege of paying their board out of this amount. In those days the charge for board was 
•only one dollar per week, washing included, and this, in spite of the fact that the necessaries of 
life cost from five to ten times what they do now. ]f they had been charged present prices for 
board they would hardly have enough left of their year's salaries to buy tobacco. The balance 
was paid out of the clergy reserve fund, which had not then been secularized. 

If we consider that many of the early teachers were men who were well educated, and 
consider the amall salaries they received, we can only conclude that they must have had a 
higher object in view than the mere gaining of the few dollars they were paid for their services. 
But while many of the teachers were well educated, some few of them did not attempt to base 
their claims for a certi6cate on their literary qualifications. . . Some time in the forties a 

new system was introduced, and this was that the teacher, in addition to the salary paid him, 
was expected to board round, spending a week at a time in each family from which children 
were sent to school. It made no difference whether the teacher liked the people, or the 
people liked the teacher, he was always expected to show up at every house in regular order, 
however much it would damage his feelings to do so. If anyone was slighted, it was an unpar- 
donable offence for which there was no forgiveness. One thing the teacher could not complain 
of, and that was lack of variety. In fome few houses the teacher would have a bed to himself, 
but in the most of cases, owing to lack of room, he was ex2>ected to bunk with from two to four 
of the " kids " who were under his care during the day. This would give him a giod chance 
to see how his pupUs behaved both day and night, but perhaps this would not add much to his 
comfort. . . . But such was the custom of the time, and as such, they had to put up with 
the general rule as best they could. 

Mr. Archibald McLachlin, Teacher. — Ihe lace Registrar, Mr. A. McLachlin, had some 
experience of this mode of life, he having taught for some time in a schoolhouse on Lot 1, in 
Concession 13, near where the schoolhouse in School Section No. 1 now stands. Mr. McLachlin 
had only been a short time out from Scotland when he began his career as a teacher, and was 
not very well acquainted with the manners and customs of the 'people here. As a lieacher he 
was painstaking and industrious, and worked with all his might for the advancement of his 
pupils. New Year day worked its way around shortly after his coming here, and to celebrate 
it in old country style, treated all his scholars in royal style. [Mr. McLachlin afterwards edited 
the St. Thomas Home Journal. He was subsequently the County Registi-ar, and, as a 
man, was highly respected.] 

Mr. A. Buchanan, Teacher. — The old red schoolhouse on Black's lane, in the 10th Con., 
was also a famous institution and the scene of many a hard fought battle between opposing 
factions in the school, who were always ready to fight for the supremacy, and who were always 
bound to maintain their rights against all comers. The first teacher in this school was Mr. 
A. Buchanan, who tried to train the scholars in the path of right for quite a long time. 

Old and Disused School Hoiises. — The Furnival School. — The old schoolhouse on the 
Fumival, near Middle Street, will also be remembered by many, although it is nearly twenty 
years since it has been used for the purpose for which it was built. It was used for a grange 
hall for some time after being closed as a school room. 

The New Glasgow School, near New Glasgow Church, is to be seen still standing. The old 
schoolhouse, which has not been used for the purpose for which it was intended for some fifteen 
years, still stands as a monument to bring back to the memories of those who have spent many 
happy days in the old building, happy thoughts of days gone by. When first built the school- 
house was seated by a long row of benches facing the wall. The desks were built against the 
wall, which gave the teacher a good chance to pass behind the scholars and see just how they 
were engaged. 

The two rows of seats were sufficient for all the school for the first years of the school's exis- 
tence. But as the scholars increased it became necessary to make a change, and the schoolhouse 
was reseated with benches which would hold six scholars, each seat having a long desk in front, 
One purpose which these seats served was that of making a noise. 

When two or three of the boys in a seat had to go to their classes to recite it was the usual 
fling to try and ujiset the seat, which was sure to make a racket, and was, no doubt, very try- 
ing to the teacher's nervous system. Anyway, the seats were always thrown down by "acci- 
dent," and if there happened to be a small boy on the seat when it fell, so much the better and 
so much the more reason for making an effort to make the seat fall accidentally. 

During the last years of school life in the old school a combination seat and desk was used, 
which spoil' d the best laid schemes to make a noise. 



166 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF I DUCATIUX IN UPPER CANADA. 181 ^ 



Mr. John S. McColl, Teacher. — A list of all the teachers who put in time teaching the 
young, and giving the proper training for the battle of life may be interesting to many. The 
first teacher in this school was John S. McColl, afterwards Local Superintendent of Education 
in West Elgin, and who has long since passed away. 

Other Later Teachers. — Mr. John S. McColl was followed by his brother, Mr. Ebenezer 
McColl, now Superintendent of Indian Agencies in the Northwest. Several follcwed. In all, 
nineteen teachers wielded the rod in the New Glasgow school during a pei iod of twenty years. 

The School Books of these Early Days. — Very little attention was ever paid in these days to 
physics, botany, chemistry, statics, geometry and algebra, which are the terror of the luckless 
child of to-day, who has to carry enough of books to make them tired physically as well as 
mentally. On starting to school the child of bygone days simply had to carry a *' shingle," on 
which his letters were printed. This he would study until tired, when he would quietly raise 
up, place his book on the seat and sit down. There being no desks to hold the books, the 
style of book was very handy, as there was no danger of the leaves being torn out. 

After the letters were thoroughly learned, the first step in advance was promotion to the 
class which was engaged in the study of the New Testament, the Bible being then the standard 
test book for reading. The scholars were thoroughly drilled in the teachings of Bible truths 
for a long time after learning to read fairly well. Cobb's spelling book was introduced. Not 
until the scholar could read and spell well was he allowed to begin to write, and a good deal of 
pains was 'aken to teach the scholar to write well. The pens used were made of goose quills, 
the ink also was made of soft maple bark, oak galls or something of that nature. To buy ink 
was impossible at that time, and steel pens had not come into general use. The copy books 
were often made of wrapping paper, foolscap paper being very scarce and expensive. A little 
arithmetic was also taught, and this, in the mRJority of cases, was the total amount of education 
which the pupils, as a general rule, had the chance to receive, more advanced pupils were 
taught a little grammar, geography and history. We will take, for an example, a geographical 
lesson on America, taken from a geoi;raphy published about the year 18U0, and which was the 
only one used at that time. The first question is : — 

What is Am rica ? — The fourth part of the world, called also the New World. 

How is North America divided ? — Into Old Mexico, New Mexico, Canada or New France,. 
New tngland and Florida. 

What is New France 1 — A large tract of ground about the River St. Lawrence, divided 
into east and west, called also Mississippi or Louisiana. 

What does the east parts contain ? — Besides Canada, properly so-called, it contains divers 
nations, the chief of which are the Esquinals, Hurons, Christinals, Algonquins, Etechemins and 
Iroquois. The considerable towns are Quebec, Tadoussac and Montreal. 

What is N ew Britain ? — It lies north of New France, and is not cultivated, but the English, 
who possess it, drive a great trade in beaver and orignac's skins. 

No other information about the North American Continent would be found in this book. 

In a book for advanced scholars there is a short sketch of our country, which is not very- 
complimentary, and is as follows : 

The British settlements of North America, previous to the late revolution, extended from 
26 to 49 degrees north latitude, stretching upwards of 1,000 miles along the Atlantic ocean. 
The Provinces of .Nova Scotia and Canada, the most northerly and the least valuable, alone 
remain subject to Great Britain. The most considerable is Canada, which supplies great quan- 
tities <f furs, obtained by the Indian tade, also lumber and some provisions for the West 
IndifS. Nova Scotia, a cold and barren country, is chiefly valuable for the excellent harbour of 
Halifax. It carries on a considerable business at cod fishing, and supplies some timber for ship- 
building. This is all that the young Canadian historian, in the early ye^rs of the settlement 
here, could leatn of what is now known as the Dominion of Canada, and certainly it does not 
flatter the country very much. But very little about this country was known to the people of 
Britain a hundred years ago, and, as there were no printing presses in the country for years 
afterwards, all the books used were either printed in Britain or the United States, the latter of 
whom had no particular love for anything Britith at that time. They would not be likely to 
write more favorably of Canada than they could jiossibly help. 

The grammar which was used was called "A Gramniatical Institute of the English Lan- 
guage." The grammar proper only contained fifty-six pages, and nearly half of that was 
taken up by notes explaining the meaning of terms in the lesson. But to the book is attached 
an appendix of sixty pages. From it we learn that there are just two genders— masculine, 
which comprehends all males, and feminine, comprehending all females. In a foot note it is 
explained that the English language knows no gender in the vegetable world. It leaves to 



Chap. XXXIV, MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS ON EDUCATION IN U. C, 1819. 167 

philosophy the sexes of plants, and considers all things without life as having no sex. Into 
how many classes may words be distributed? Nouns, ai tides, pronouns, adjectives, verbs and 
particles. Parsing, so far as we find here, was not studied. 

I have also secured a book for advanced scholars, which contains arithmetic, book-kee])ing, 
state and laws of trade, insurance, mercantile laws, and exchange laws between different 
countries, and there are certainly some curious facts to be found within the covers of this volume^ 
containing as it does, some 530 pages. 

As books were not published in Can<da in the early years of its history, books were scarce^ 
and a high price was charged for them, so we may be sure that, with money as scarce and hard 
to get as it was in those days, as few books were bought as would do the term with careful 
handling. A book once bought was expected to do duty for each member of the family in turn. 
The Bible itself, which v as the principal reading book, was not as easily prt cured then as now, 
and, being held in great reverence, the greatest care was taken not to destroy its sacred pages. 
But if the early scholars had not as many books to store their minds with knowledge, nnd 
although verj' few of them would rank as fcholars if judged by the standard of to-day, yet,, 
judged by the struggles they had to endure, and the difficulties they had to conquer, we must 
admit that, as a genei-al thing, they made better use of their opportunities than do the more 
favoured children of to-day, when education is free to all. 

Mr. SUcox, Teacher. — Mr. Thomas Hammond of Aylmer, writes : The first school in 
Aylmer was opened by a Mr. Silcox in an old log building in 1818. This log building was used 
until 1838, when a grammar schoolhouse took its place. 

Schools in Kingston in 1819. 

Mr. A. S. Shaw, Trustee of the Kingston Board of Education, furnishes the 
following information in regard to the schools in Kingston in 1819. He says : — 

In 1819 the town was well supplied with private schools. Mr. P. Hildreth advertised in 
the Kingston Gazette of April 28th, 1819, his terms, as follows : — 

For each studying reading, writing and arithmetic, $1 per month. Those studying 
English grammar by chart, which is the new approved p^an, 86 for six weeks, in which time, if 
they have arrived to years of discretion and good understanding, by their diligent application 
to the study thereof, he warrants them a good knowledge of it. 

Particular attention will be paid to the pupil's grammar. 

Scholars from 5 to 8 o'clock a.m. and from 4.30 to 7 o'clock p.m. 

In May, 1819, another gentleman " Respectfully tenders his services to young ladies and 
gentlemen who wish to study the English language grammatically, systematic writing, arithmetic^ 
or geography, etc. 

The Public Library at Niagara, 1800-1820. 

Miss Carnochan, of Niagara, read a paper at the Canadian Institute, Toronto,, 
in January, 1894. From the report of the paper in the Toronto Mail of the 6th 
of January, I make the following interesting extracts. In the absence of the 
schools in the vicinity of the old Capital of Upper Canada, such a perennial 
pource and centre of intellectual life as a public library would be must have 
afforded a great treat to the many intelligent inhabitants of the town. The Mail 
report was as follows : — 

The subject of the paper was "Niagara Library, 1800 to 1820," and the facts were compiled 
from an old brown leather-covered book, found accidentally a few months ago. 

The contents of the book proves that in those early days a most valuable public library 
existed in the town of Niagara, and that, to the boast made by Niagarians, that here was held 
the first Parliament for Upper Canada, that here was published the first newspaper for Upper 
Canada, that it contains almost the oldest church records, must now be added the honour of 
having had the first public library and the first agricultural society. The varied information to- 
be gleaned from its pages may be thus classified : Ist, a list of names of proprietors through 
the years from 1800 to 1820 ; 2nd, a list of their payments, and those of non-subscribers ; 3rd, 
catalogue of library with prices of books ; 4th money expended, 5th, rules and regulations i 



168 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1819 



<)th, account of annual meetings, contingent meetino;s, etc.; 7th, list of books taken out and 
dates of return ; 8th, alphabetical list of subscribers with separate page for each. Jt is inter- 
esting to follow the library during the years of the past, to note the style of reading, the first 
thirty being religious, very little fiction, but especially rich in history, travel and magazines. 
The librarian, secretary and treasurer was Mr. Andrew Heron, the uncle of the late Andrew 
Heron, who died in Toronto. His services in the capacities were almost gratuitous, as, during 
the latter yeirs he received a percentage on sums paid, but this was a mere trifie, and he must 
have been a great lover of books. The opening words in the book are : — 

"Niagara Library, 8th .Tune, 1800. — Sensible how much we are at a loss in this new and 
remote country for every kind of useful knowledge, and convinced that nothing would be of 
more use to difl'use knowledge amongst us and our offspring than a library supported by svib- 
•scription in this town, we, whose names are hereunto subscribed, hereby associate ourselves 
together for that purpose, and promise to j^ay annually a sum not exceeding ^4, to be laid out 
in books, as agreed upon by a majority of votes at a yearly meeting to be held by us at this 
town on the 15th of Augu-Jt annually, when everything respecting the libraiy will be regulated 
by the majority of votes. " 

Here follows the list of names, which is interesting and valuable in itself, 41 in number, 
afterwards increased to about 100 during these twenty years, but at no time numbering more 
than forty-five proprietors, though there were many non-subscribers, as they are called, who 
merely paid an annual fee. The names of Sylvester Tiffany, the editor of the paper published 
in Niagara, and of Rev. Robert Addison, the first minister of St. Mark's Church, Messieurs 
Butler, McNab, Clans, Dickson and Muirhead, occur. There were almost a thousand books in 
the library, costing £500. In 1805 the Agricultural Society brought in fifty volumes, valuable 
works on agriculture, and were admitted as members Among the trustees are Andrew Heron, 
Robert Addison, Martin McLellan, Ralph Clench, Alexander McKie, etc. Stringent laws with 
regard to return of books were enforced by means of fines. There were no meetings during 
the year 1813, when the town was in the hands of the Americans, and 1814, when it was a heap 
of ruins, but in 1815 the trustees met as if nothing had happened, and more books were bought. 
How preserved is not known, but many books must have been saved, as, from the issue of 
books can be seen, many not in the list of books to replace others are found. 

The last record is in 1820, and is in these words : " Whereas the Niagara Library has been 
greatly wasted, first by being plundered by the army of the United States, and has since been 
greatly neglected, very few of the proprietors having paid their quota to support the same, we, 
whose names are hereunto subscribed, hereby relinguish our claims on the same to Andrew 
Heron (who has now opened a library of his own for the use of the public), in consideration of 
his allowing us the use of his library for three years ; this he engages to do to all those who 
have paid up their yearly contributions to the year 1817 inclusive. To those who have not paid 
to that period he will allow according to their deficiency in those payments. We consider those 
propositions as quite fair, and do thereto assent. James Crooks, J. Muirhead, John Syming- 
ton, John Wagstafi", John Powell, John McEwen, J. Butler, George Young, John Grier." The 
re tson of this transfer was doubtless, because a large balance was owing to Mr. Heron. So far 
we know nothing more of these books. By a strange coincidence, however, a book has been 
«een, now in Ancaster, which was saved from the fire; and is remembered to have been charred, 
though now these pages have been torn away. It is No. 51 in the catalogue, and it is hoped 
others may yet be heard from. Mr. Heron was also the secretary and treasurer of St. Andrew's 
Church, Niagara, and the old record book, dating from 1794, when the fir-t church was built, 
is, in its early pages, all in his peculiar, large handwriting. The paper closed with a reference 
to the library of Rev. Robert Addison, now in possession of St. Mark's Church, containing 
many old and rare folio editions from Leyden, Geneva, Rotterdam, Oxford, etc., numbering also 
about one thousand volumes. St. Andrew's Church has a congregational library dating from 
1833, also numbering about one thousand volumes, and the present Mechanics' Institute Library 
numbers over three thousand volumes. It may be hoped that the libraries of the present day 
may be favoured with secretaries, treasurers and librarians as faithful and painstaking as the 
secretary, treasurer and librarian of the Niagara Library, 1800. 

The School-House at Thorold in 1820. 

Mr. D. E. Miller, Secretary of the School Board at Thorold, writes : — 

The first schoolhouse in what is now the Town of Thorold was built by Mr. Henry C. Ball 
and others in 1820, at the extreme east of the limits of the town, on the St. David's road, lead- 
ing towards Homer. The first teacher was Mr. Rattray. The second school was built more to 
the west of the present town, on the Keefer estate, where Mr. Myers taught. After this a 
«cliool was built about the centre of the town, on the Grenville property. 



Chap. XXXV. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1820. 169 



CHAPTER XXXV. 

EDUCATIONAL PKOCEEDINGS OF THE UPPER CANADA LEGISLA- 
TURE IN 1820. 

Lieutenant-Governor Sir Peregrine Maitland, opened the sixth session of 

the Seventh Parliament of Upper Canada, on the twenty-first day of February, 

1820, with a Speech from the Throne, in which he thus referred to education :- 

You will direct your attention to such laws as are about to expire. Among these is the Act 
for the establishment of schools. While you bear in mind that justice takes place of everh other 
consideration, you will not forget that it is repugnant to the decrees of Providence that civil 
liberty should long maintain its ground among any people disqualified by ignorance and licen- 
tiousness from its enjoyment. Your disposition, therefore, to provide for this valuable object 
will, I am persuaded, always keep pace with your means on the present scale, and under the 
present regulations of the Bill. It is neither prudent nor perhaps desirable to proceed, but 
measures may possibly be adopted, to produce the same good at a more moderate expense. 

Provision for religious instruction and the diffusion of Education are becoming daily more 
important in this Province. 

Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1820. 

Slst Febnutry, 1820. — Mr. Philip VanKoughnet gives notice that he will, on Thursday next, 
move for leave to bring in a Bill to continue, amend, and repeal part of an Act passed in the 
fifty-sixth year of His Majesty's reign, (1816), intituled, " An Act granting to His Majesty a sum 
of money to be applied to the use of Common Schools throughout this Province, and to provide 
for the Regulation of the said Common Schools. 

Mr. Mahlon Burwell gives notice that he will, on Friday next, move for leave to bring in a 
Bill to increase the representation of the people in this Province and a University, in the Com- 
mons House of P ssembly. 

23rd February, 1820. — The Address to His Excellency, in answer to his Speech from the 
Throne, was agreed to. That part of it relating to education was as follows : — 

We shall direct our attention to such laws as are about to expire, and give to the revision of 
the Common School Act that- due consideration which its importance demands. 

We are aware that ignorance and licentiouness are at variance with the true principles of 
civil polity and rational freedom, and, in our deliberations on this important subject, it shall be 
our study to keep in view the improvement of the moral and religious habits of the rising 
generation. 

2Jfth February, 1820. — A Message was this day received from His Excellency the Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, and was read by Mr. Speaker as follows : — 

P. Maitland : 

The Lieutenant-Governor transmits a Schedule prepared by the Inspector-General show- 
ing the various appropriations of sums amounting to £37,853, 9 s. 1 d., for payment of which no 
specific sum is designated, together with a statement from the same Officer of the probible means 
to meet this amount of appropriations. " It appears that of the sum appropriated for Common 
Schools, a large amount paid to District Treasurers remains unemployd, and cannot now be 
legally expended." Yet the Law provides no remedy, but subject to the Lieutenant-Governor 
to continued demands for further advances to the very persons holding the same unaccounted 
for. 

GOVEENMENT HOUSB, YORK, 

24th February, 1820. P.M. 

Slfth February, 1820, — Agreeable to the Order of the Day, Mr. Mahlon Burwell, seconded 
by Mr. Peter Robinson, moves for leave to bring in a Bill to increase the representation of the 
Commons of this Province [including a University,] in Parliament, which was granted, and the 
Bill was read a first time. Mr. Burwell, seconded by Mr. Robinson, moves that the said re- 
presentation Bill be read a second time on Monday next which was ordered. 



170 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1.S20 



S8th Febrivary. 1820. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Commons and University 
Representation Bill was read a second time. 

Mr. Mahlon Burwell, seconded by Mr. Peter Robinson, moves that the House do now go 
into Committee on the Commons and University Representation Bill, which was carried, and 
Mr. Nelles took the chair of the Committee. 

The House having resumed, Mr, Nelles reported progress, and obtained leave to sit again 
to- morrow. 

29th Febriiary, 1820. — Agreeably to th*" Order of the Day, the House went mto Committee 
on the Commons and University Representation Bill, Mr. Is'elles in the chair. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Nelles reported the Bill as amended. On the question 
for receiving the Report the House divided, and the yeas and nays were taken down a& 
follows : — 

Yeas. — Messieurs Nelles, Cameron, Jones, McDonell, Nichol, Robinson, Fraser, Burwell» 
Burnham, Durand, Swayze and Cotter. — 12. 

Nays.— -Messieurs Secord, McMartin, VanKoughnet, Eloward and Casey. — 5. So it was 
carried, in the affirmative by a majority of seven, and the Report was received. 

Mr. Burwell moves, seconded by Mr. Fraser, that the Commons and University Represen- 
tation Bill be engrossed and read a third time to-morrow, which was ordered. 

1st March, 1830. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the aforesaid Representation Bill 
was read the third time. 

Mr. Robert Nichol, seconded by Mr. Mahlon Burwell, moves, that after the word ''Province," 
in the fourth clause, the words " and in conformity to the Rules and Statutes of similar institu- 
tions in Great Britain " bo insered. 

In amendment, Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. James Durand, moves that so 
much of the Bill as provides for the representation of a University in the House of Assembly be 
expunged. 

Upon which the House divided, and the Yeas and Nays were taken down as follows ; — 

Ybas. — Messieurs Secord, McMartin, VanKoughnet, Durand, Howard, and Casey. — 6. 

Nays. — Messieu-s Nelles, McDonell, Cotter, Nichol, Robinson, Jones, Burwell, Cameron^ 
Swayze and Burnham. — 10. 

So it was carried in the negative by a majority of four. 

The origin 1 question was then put and carried. 

Mr. Mah'on Burwell, seconded by Mr. Cameron, moves that the Commons and University- 
Representation Bill do now pass, which was carried, and the Bill was signed by the Speaker. 

Mr. Peter Robins n, seconded by Mr. Cameron, moves that Messieurs Burwell and Nelles 
be a Committee to carry the said Bill to the Honourable the Legislative Council, and request 
their concuirence thereto, which was carried. 

Mr. Burwell, from the Committee to carry up to the Honourable the Legislative Council 
the Representation in Parliament Bill, and to request their concurrence thereto, reported that 
the Committee had done so. 

Agreeably t) notice, Mr. VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. Durand, moves for leave to bring 
in a Bill to repeal part of, and amend, .and to continue, an Act passed in the fifty-sixth year of 
His Majesty's Reign, (1816) intituled, ' An Act for ^'ranting to His Majesty a sum of money to 
be applied to the use of Common Stihools throughout this Province, and to provide for the 
Regulation of the said Common Schools.' Whic^ was granted and the Bill read a first time. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. James Durand, moves that the Common 
School Bill be read a second time on to-morrow. Which was ordered. 

2nd March, 1820. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Common School Bill was read 
the second lime. 

Mr Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. Peter Howard, moves that the House do now 
resolve itself into a Committee of the Whole, to take into consideration the Common School 
Bill. Which was carried, and Mr. Zaccheus Burnham took the chair of the Committee. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Burnham reported progress, and obtained leave to sit at 
again to-morrow. 

Srcl March, 1820. — The House went again into Committee on the Common School Bill. Mr. 
Burnham in the chair. 



Chap. XXXV. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LKGISLATUKE, 1820. 171 



The House having resumed, Mr. Bumham reported the Bill as amended. Ordered tha 
the Report be received. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, seconded by Mr. Jonas Jones, moves that the Common School 
Bill be engrossed and read a third time on to-morrow. Which was ordered. 

Mr. W. W, Bald • in, Master-in-Chancery, brought down from the Honourable the Legis- 
lative Council a Message which he delivered and withdrew, when the Speaker read the same as 
follows : — 

Mr. Speaker : 

The Honourable the Legislative Council request a Conference with the Commons' House 
of Assembly on the subject matter of the Representation in Parliament Bill, and have aj^pointed 
a Committee of two of its members, who will be ready to meet a Committee of the Commons' 
House of Assembly for that purpose in the Legislative Council Chamber at one o'clock this day. 

Wm. Dummeb Powell, 

Speaker. 
Legislative Council Chambek, 

3rd of March, 1820. 

Mr. McMartin, seconded by Mr. VanKoughnet, moves that Messieurs Robinson, Jones, Bur- 
well and Nelles, be a Committee to confer with a Committee of the Legislative Council on the 
subject matter of the Commons and University Representation ni Parliament Bill at one o'clock 
this day, which was ordered. 

Mr. Robinson of the Committee, to confer with a Committee of the Honourable the Legislative 
Council on the Representation in Parliament Bill, reported that that ommittee had proposed an 
amendment to the said Bill, to which your Committee have agreed, and recommend the adoption 
thereof to Your Honourable House. On motion of Mr. Robert Nichol, seconded by Mr. Peter 
Robinson, the amendment was concurred in, au'l Messieurs Jones and Nelles be a Committee to 
acquaint the Honourable the Legislative Council of such concurrence, which was ordered. 

Mr. W. W. Baldwin, Master-in-Chancery, brought down from the Honourable the Legis- 
lative Council the Representation in Parliament Bill sent up from this House, which they had 
passed with some amendments, which they recommended to the adojjtion of this House. 

The Messenger withdrew, and the amendments were considered and adopted. 

Mr. Robinson, seconded by Mr. Nichol, moves that Messieurs Burwelland McMartin be a 
Committee to acquaint the Honourable the Legislative Council that this House have concurred 
in the amendments made by them to the Representation in Parliament Bill, which was ordered. 

4th March, 1820. — Mr. Robinson, seconded by Mr. Peter Howard, moves that the Common 
School Bill do now pass, and that it be intituled, " An Act to amend and continue, under certnin 
modifications, an Act passed in the fifty- sixth year of His Majesty's reign, (1816), intituled, " An 
Act granting to His Majesty a sum of money to be applied to the use of Common Schools 
throughout this Province, and to provide for the Regulation of the said Common Schools." 

Upon which the House divided, and the Yeas and Nays were taken down as follows : — 

Ykas. — Messieurs McDonell, Secord, McMartin, Cameron, VanKoughnet, Robinson Ntlles, 
Howard, Bumham, Jones, Fraser, Burwell, Cotter and Casey. — 14. 

Nays. — Messieurs Nichol and Durand — 2. 

It was carried in the affirmative by a majority of twelve, and the Bill passed, and was signed 
by the Speaker. 

Mr. Peter Robinson, seconded by Mr. Jonas Jones, moves that Messieurs Howard and 
Burnham be a Committee to carry up to the Honourable the Legislative Council the Common 
gchool Bill and to request their concurrence thereto. Which was ordered. 

Mr. Howar.l . first named of the Committee to carry up to the Honourable the Legislative 
Council, the Common School Bill, and request their concurrence thereto, reported that the 
Committee had done so. 

6th March, 1820. — Mr. W. W. Baldwin, Master-in-Chancery, brought down from the 
Honourable the Legislative Council the Bill, intituled : " An Act to amend and continue under 
certain modifications an Act passed in the fifty-sixth year of His Majesty's reign, (1816), 
intituled : ' An Act for granting to His Majesty a sum of money to be applied to the use of 
Common Schools throughout this Province, and to provide for the Regulation of the said 
Common Schools," which they had j^^ssed without amendment. 



172 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1820 



7th March, 1820. — By command of His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor, Black Rod 
summoned the attendance of the Members of the Houseof Assembly in the Legislative Council 
Chamber, when, in His Majesty's name, the Lieutenant Governor assented to the following, 
among other Bills, viz. : 

" An Act to amend, and continue, under certain modifications, an Act passed in the fifty- 
sixth year of His Majesty's reign (1816), intituled, ' An Act granting to His Majesty a sum 
of Money, to be applied to the use of Common Schools througliout this Province, and to 
provide for the Regulation of the said Common Schools ; ' " also 

"An Act to provide for increasing the Representation of the Commons (and of an Uni- 
versity), in this Province in the House of Assembly." 

After which His Excellency closed the Session of the Legislature with a speech from the 
Throne, in whch he thus referred to the amended law relating to Common Schools : 

" I was principally induced to call you together that you might consider what provision you 
could make for the continuance of the Common Schools, established by an Act which would 
soon have expired. * * * The Bill which you have enacted * * * is, I doubt not, the 
result of your best deliberations. * * * 

Note. — Sir Peregrine Maitland referred also to the "Representation in 
Parliament Bill," as " putting on a more equal footing the exercise of the most 
important privilege of a free people," but he said nothing about the University 
Representation clause of it. There being no record of the proceedings of the 
Legislative Conncil preserved, I do not know what its action was in passing these 
Acts. The following are copies of the " Common School Amendmeat Act," and the 
section of the " Representation Act " relating to the University as passed : 

L GEORGE IV., CHAPTER VIL 

An Act to amend continue, under certain modifications, an Act passed in the fifty- 
sixth YEAR OF His Majesty's reign (1816) intituled, '"An Act granting to His 
Majesty a sum of Money, to be applied to the use of Common Schools through- 
out this Province, and to provide for the Regulation of the said Common Schools." 

Sir Peregrine Maitland, Lieutenant-Governor. 

Passed 7th March, 1820 

Most Gracious Sovereign. 

Whereas it is expedient, for the encouragement of education, to continue. Preamble, 
under ce tain modifications, an Act passed in the fifty-sixth year of His Majesty's ^^^ 4 George 
reign, intituled, "An Act granting to His Majesty a sum of Money, to be applied jy_'^ gggg^ 2, 
to the use of Common Schools throughout this Piovince." Be it enacted ly thech. 8, 4 George 
King's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Legis- IV., oh. 36, 2 
lative Council and Assembly of the Province of Upper Canada, constituted and Vic, eh. 61. 
assembled by virtue of and under the authority of an Act passed in the Parliament 
of Great Britain, intituled, " An Act to rejieal certain parts of an Act passed in 
the fourteenth year of His Majesty's reign, intituled, 'An Act for making "^o^^® sgth Georjre 
effectual i^rovision for the Government of the Province of Quebec, in North juch. 36, 
America and to make further provision for the Government of the said Province," continued 
and by the authority of the same that the said Act of the fifty-sixth year of His with certain 
Majesty's reign, except the first, the tenth, twelfth, and so much of the thirteenth exceptions, 
clause as fixes the salary to be paid to any Common School to twenty-five pounds, 
which is hereby repealed, be, and the same is hereby continued. 

2. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid that for the establish- £2,500 to be 
ment of Common Schools in each and every District of this Province, there shall paid annually 

be annually pa'd, during the continuance of this Act, the sum of two thousand five ™ ^^^J^\ Com- 
° men Schools. , 

/ 



Chap. XXX V^I. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1820. 173 



hundred pounds, in manner hereinafter mentioned, out of any moneys which are 

now raised or levied, or which hereafter may be raised or levied by authority of 

Parliament to and for the use of this Province ; of which said sum of two 

thousand five hundred pounds there shall be paid annually to the Home District Distribution. 

two hundred and fifty pounds ; to the District of Newcastle, two hundred and fifty 

pounds ; to the Midland District, two hundred and fifty pounds ; to the Johnstown 

District, two hundred and fifty pounds ; to the Eastern District, two hundred and 

fifty pounds ; to the District of London, two hundred and fifty pounds ; to the 

District of Gore, two hundred and fifty pounds ; to the Niagara District, two Sec. 4 George 

hundred and fifty pounds ; to. the Western District, two hundred and fifty pounds ; IV., ch. 36. 

to the District of Ottawa, two hundred and fifty pounds. 

3. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that the moneys Sums to be ' J 
granted by this Act shall be equally portioned to the Teachers of the several Com- equally divid- 
mon Schools in each and every District of this Province, to be paid to the Teachers ®^ apio°g 
yearly or half-yearly, as may be directed by the said Trustees. Provided, never- *®**'°®'''*' 
theless, that nothing herein contained shall extend, or be construed or extend, to "^viso. 
authorize the payment of a greater sum than twelve pounds ten shillings to the 

several Teachers of the said Schools. 

4. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that it shall and may Board of 
be lawful for the Boird of Education, in each and every District, to nominate and Trustees' 
appoint a Clerk to the said Board, and direct the Treasurer of the District to pay powers in 
him annually out of the moneys in his hands for the purposes of this Act, a sum ^^^ District, 
not exceeding five pounds. 

5. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that anything in the No warrant to 
said Act of the filty-sixth year of His Majesty's reign notwithstanding, it shall not '^^"® .*° ^^ 
be lawful for the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or person administering the '"5nTh®*.' 
Government, to issue any further warrant on the Receiver-General, under the pro- gump hereto^ 
visions of the said Act, to any District Treasurer until a faithful account shall fare paid have 
be rendered, authenticated by proper vouchers-, and attested by the oath of the been account- 
respective Treasurers, of the expenditure of the sums already a^lvanced, or which ®^^°'^' 

may. hereafter be advanced, on account, to their respective Districts. 

P. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that when any Disposition of 
balance shall remain in the hands of the Treasurer of any District beyond the balances in < 
payment of the lawful requisitions, orders or certificates, of the Trustees, *^.® ^^^^^ o^ 
respectively, after the first day of July next, it shall and may be lawful for the ^'**"*'' 
said Treasurer to retain so much thereof as is directed to be paid by this Act in '®*®"™'^* 
any one year to the District of which he is Treasurer, to carry into effect the pro- tionl^The 
visions of this Act, and the balance thereof pay over to His Majesty's Receiver- Treasurer. 
General, for the public uses of this Province, on or before the said first day of 
July. 

7. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that the money How the 
hereby granted to His Majesty shall be paid by the Receiver-General in discharge moneys here- 
of such warrant or warrants as shall, for the purpose herein set forth, be issued by ^y granted 
the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or persons administering the Government of "'^®, *° '^ P*!4 
this Province, and shall be accounted for by the Receiver-General of this Pro- f "^ "°°°"°* 
vince to His Majesty, His Heirs and Successors, through the Lords Commissioners 

of His Majesty's Treasury, for the time being, in such manner and form as His 
Majesty, His Heirs and Successors, shall J)e graciously pleased to direct. 

8. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that this Act shall Continuance 
be, and is hereby declared to be, in force for and during the term of four years, of this Act. 
and from thence to the end of the next ensuing Session of Parliament, and no 

longer. 

Note. — This Section was repealed by 4th George iv., chapter viii. This Act 
itself, and the other subsequent Common School Acts, have been repealed since the 
Union of the Canadas by the 4th and 5th Victoria, chapter xviii. 



174 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1820 



University Representation in the Upper Canada Legislature, 1820. 

The fourth section of the "Act to Provide for Increasing the Representation 
of the Commons of this Province in the House of Assembly," passed in the fifth 
session of the Seventh Parliament of Upper Canada, 7th March, 1820, 60th 
George III., Chapter 2,* provides as follows: — 

IV. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that wherever an Whenever an 
University shall be organized and in operation as a seminary in this Province, V^jytf^^^y 
and in conformity to the rules and statutes of similar institutions in Great Britain, ? • u Ij • ^^ 
it shall and may be lawful for the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or person Province it 
administering the Government of this Province, for the time being, to declare by shall be repre- 
proclamation the tract of land appendant to such University, and whereupon the sented by one 
same is situated, to be a Town or Township,- by such name as to him may seem member, 
meet, and that such Town or Township so constituted shall be represented by one 
Member. Provided always, nevertheless, that no person shall be permitted to By whom 
vote at any such election f.ir a member to represent the said University in Parlia- such member 
ment who, besides the qualifications now by law required, shall not also be entitled elected, 
to vote in the Convocation of said University. 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 

THE CENTRAL (NATIONAL) SCHOOL OF YORK, 1820 

The Central School was established at York in 1820. It was conducted 
on the educational principles of the Rev. Dr. Bell — known as the Madras, or 
monitorial, system of teaching — a counterpart at York of the Lancaster system 
then in great favour at Kingston, and in Lower Canada.^f* 

From the Rev. Dr. Scadding's Toronto of Old, it appears that from the south- 
east corner of this six-acre square, " about half an acre had been abstracted, as 
it were, and enclosed." On this half acre a Common school house had been 
erected by subscription in'1818, as stated by Mr. Jesse Ketchum, (in his evidence on 
the Appleton case, in 1828). Here Mr. Thomas Appleton taught until his services 
were dispensed with in 1820, and the school house, by direction of Lieutenant- 

*Collection of " Statutes of the Province of Upper Canada," together with such British Statutes, Ordi- 
nances of Quebec and Proclamations as relate to paid Province. Revised by Jamea Nickalls, Junior, Esquire, 
Barrister-at-Law, Kingston, Upper Canada, 183L. In this collection this Statute is intituled as the "60th 
George III." In the "Statutes of Upper Canada," to the time of the Union of 1840, Revised and Pub- 
lished by Authority, 1813, this Statute is intituled: "1st George IV." The note appended to it in this 
collection reads : " Superseded by the Act of Union," so that, in point of fact, the above fourth section 
never came into operation, for the Provincial University was not founded until 1842, nor in operation until 
1843. 

tMr. Spragg, in his evidence before a Committee of the House of Assembly on the Appleton case, in 
1828, pointed out what he considered as the difference between the Bell and Lancaster systems, as 
follows : 

Question.— Wh&t is the general system of education pursued by you ? 

Ansxoer. — Rev. Dr. Bell's system, which I consider as prior in invention to Mr. Lancaster's. 
Question. — What is the difference between these two systems ? 

Answer. — The principal difference is that Dr. Bell's system is in accordance with the established 
Church, and in my school I me the Church Catechism, and a Collect at morning and evening prayer. But 
the children are not taught th^ Church Catechism when their parents object to it. 



Chap. XXXVI. THE CENTRAL (NATIONAL) SCHOOL OF YORK, 1820. liS 



Governor Maitland, was transferred to special Trustees, and was afterwards 
known, (as Dr. Scadding states,) as the " Central School," and was what would 
then (1873), he stated : 

Be called a Common School, conducted on the " Bell and Lancaster " principle. Large 
numbers fiequeuted it. Mr. Joseph Spragg, the Master of the school, had enjoyed the 
superior advauiage of a regular trainini; in England as an instructor of the young.* . 
{Pages 164, 165.) Mr. Spragg's predecessor at the Central School was Mr. Thomas Appleton. 
. . . and Mr. Appleton s assistant, for a time, was Mr. John Fenton, who acted as parish 
•clerk in St. James' Church. He was a proficient in popular science, a ready talker and lectuier. 

In Market lane, south of King street, now known as Colborne street, was in olden time, the 
Masonic. Hall, a wooden buiiding of two storeys, surmcmnted by a cupola— the firsi strtcture in 
York that ever enjoyed such a distinction. . . . The lower part of this Hall was, for a con- 
siderable time, used as a (Common) School, (Page 109, 145, etc.) 

This School was kept in 1816, by the Rev. Alexander Stewart ; in 1820, by- 
Mr. Thomas Appleton ; and subsequently (as a private School), by Mr., after- 
wards the Rev. Dr. Thomas, Caldicott, for some years Minister of the Bond Street 
Baptist Church, Toronto. 

The School in Market lane, or Colborne street, was conducted under the 
Common School Act of 1816, and as a Common School of the Township of York. 
In 1816, a new Common School House was erected by subscription, or shares, on 
the south-east corner of the " College Square," and Trustees were elected under 
that Act for its management. 

In 1820, when the Legislative grant of $24,000 a year in aid of Common 
Schools was reduced to $10,000 a year, the District Board of Education dis- 
■continued this, (and other Schools in the Province,) without notifying the then 
teacher, Mr. Thomas Appleton. He applied to the Trustees for redress and the}' 
in turn, presented his case to the Lieutenant-Governor in the following statement : 

Mav it please Your Excellency, 

We, the owners of shares in the Common School House of York, in a school meeting 
assembled, (notice being given to all) res2)ect fully beg leave to state : That early last season we 
were informed that your Excellency had sent to England for a school-master to teach in the Bell 
and Lancaster manner ; and that it was desired, that the Common School House should be had 
for that use, accordingly engagements for short periods were made with the then Teacher, Mr. 
Thomas Appleton, for the express purpose ; but as no teacher had arrived at the time menlion- 
ed, and as we had heard nothing more respecting him, we sujiposed that S' me difliculty had 
frustrated Your Excellency's intentions. 

Therefore, the engagement with Mr. Appleton, the present Teacher was for six months ; the 
expectation of both parties being, that if the Teacher satisfied his employers, he should be con- 
tinued in his situation there. 

His expectations have been increased and strengthened by the great increase of scholars, 
and the approval of all, inducing him to engage an Assistant, thinking, as no notice had been 
given him, that if any other Teacher was expected or wanted, he would be continued as Master. 

We, therefore, doubt not but that Your Excellency will agree with us, that the present 
Teacher's claims are too reasonable and just to be disappointed ; still desirous or meeting 
your Excellency's wishes, we feel anxious to demonstrate our gratitude to Your Exct- llency for 
your parental care and goodness in any way we can, and also take this opportunity of expressing 
our thankfulness for Your Excellency's very liberal subscription and support toward building the 
school house. By crder of the meeting, 

Eli Playtek, 

Chairman. 
York, 28th August, 1820. 

*In his evidence on the Appleton case in 1828,1 Mr. Spragg stated that he had " acquired the Bell's 
ayfltein at the Central NationaI,School in London, before coming to this Province." 



176 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1820 

The Lieutenant-Governor replied, through Mr. George Hillier, his Secretary, 

in the following indefinite terms : — 

York, August 31st, 1820. 
Gentlemen: 

T have the honor to acquaint you, that your application of the 28th instant, on the subject 
of the Common School of the Township of York, has been received and submitted to the Lieuten- 
ant-Governor . 

His Excellency has desired me to acquaint you, that, as he is not aware of any communica- 
tion having been made to you on the subject matter of your petition, he sees no occasion for 
any reference to it. 

G Hillier. 
To the Trustees of the Gammon School of the Township of York : 

In the meantime, and at the instance of the Eev. Dr. Strachan, the Lieuten- 
ant-Governor had sent to England for a Teacher, familiar with the then noted 
system of the Rev. Dr. Bell, known as the Madras, or monitorial, system of teach- 
ing. Mr. Joseph Spragg was the person selected, and he arrived in Canada about 
the middle of the year 1820. The Rev. Dr. Strachan applied to the Trustees of the 
York Common School for the use of their School building, which had been erected 
in 1818 on the " College Square." The request was refused. However, as the 
Common School taught by Mr. Appleton had been discontinued by the District 
Board of Education on account, as was alleged, of the decrease of the Legislative 
grant, the Lieutenant-Governor directed Mr. Spragg to occupy the unused School 
House, and thence forward it was known as the " Central School," so named 
after the parent school in London, at which Mr. Spragg was trained. 

The case of Mr. Thomas Appleton, the discarded Common School Teacher 
was not, however, permitted to pass out of public notice. Year after year he, and 
those who regarded his case with sympathy, sought redress from the Lieutenant- 
Governor and the Provincial Board of Education, but without success. At length 
the House of Assembly took up the case warmly in 1828 — eight years after its 
occurrence — and it thus became a cause celebre, which evoked a great deal of 
feeling, as well as a politico-religious discussion, which was acrimonious and bitter. 
Although the originating cause was in itself, a minor one, as to its essence, yet, 
with other causes, it developed into a prolonged struggle against the alleged 
attempt to introduce a quasi state church system into Upper Canada. For this 
reason, and from the position and character of the Members of the House of 
Assembly who espoused Apple ton's cause, the particulars of the case became interest- 
ing. They will be found in detail in the Legislative proceedings of 1828. They 
throw a vivid side light on the educational state, and official proceedings, of the 
day. They also illustrate the efforts then made to introduce, by means of a novel 
system of teaching, (which was very popular in England at the time), the 
" National," or Church of England, system of schools into Upper Canada. No 
doubt this effort, as well as the successful one, of the Rev. Dr. Strachan, in pro- 
curing a Church of England Charter for King's College in 1827, intensified the 
feeling in the Appleton case, and excited the hostility — it may be unduly — of the 



Chap. XXXVI. THE CENTRAL (NATIONAL) SCHOOL OF YORK, 1820. 177 

popular branch of the Legislature against the Administration of the day, and parti- 
cularly against the Provincial Board of Education. At all events the compara- 
tively simple, yet just cause of Teacher Appleton, (which could have been so easily 
and fairly settled at the time,) was suffered to grow into the nature of a grievance,, 
as it wa that of a hardship. The consequence was the growth of much acrimony 
of feeling, which developed into a state of chronic warfare against, practically, an 
intrenched camp, during which, however, the Provincial Board of Education as 
an outpost was swept away, while useful legislation was retarded in the well- 
intentioned but vain eflforts, at the time, to right alleged wrongs, and to main- 
tain equal rights in educational matters as between all classes of His Majesty's 
subjects, and the various religious bodies in this Province. 

First Eeport of the Central School at York, 1820-21. 

The title of this Report, as published at the time, reads thus : " First Annual 
Report of the Upper Canada Central School on the British National System of 
Education. Patron : His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor, Major General 
Sir Peregrine Maitland, K. C. B. ; Trustees: The Honourable Lieutenant-Colonel 
Joseph Wells ; John Beverly Robinson, Esquire, Attorney General ; Thomas 
Ridout, Esquire, Surveyor General. Mr. Joseph Spragg, Master and Sec- 
retary." 

Report. — The Central School at York, Upper Canada, was opened in the autumn of 1820 
with a very small number of scholars. In the cause of three months the number increased to 
sixty-three, affording an opportunity of instructing according to the system of the Schools of the 
British National Society. 

During the first year one hundred and fifty-eight children, ninety-five boys and sixty-three 
girls, have been instructed in the school, ninety-one of whom had never before received any 
education and others but very little. 

With the opportunity that has been afforded from the present population, it is hoped much 
good has alreaiy been done ; and the great improvenaent of those scholars in particular, whose 
attendance has been regular, is most manifest. 

The numbtr of children that have received instruction since the commencement strengthens 
the confidence entertained of the general benefit that will hereafter be felt from this institu- 
tion. . 

The school is under the particular patronage of His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor, 
who has rep a redly visited it, with Lady Sarah Maitland, and their satisfaction at the pro- 
gress of the children, has been often warmly expressed. 

Notwithstanding the progress that has been made, and the great advantages with which this 
system of education has been pursued in Great Britain and various other quarters of the globe, 
by which the solid injprovement of a large portion of the rising generation is constantly effected \ 
yft the warm co-operauon of those who have the general good at heart, will be always most 
requisite to promote the great design, therefore the cordial assistance of such is earnestly called 
for, and it is hoped this will not be withheld. 

To train up, not only those who are destined for the higher departments of life, but also 
the rising generation in general, to proper and regulr habits of application and industry com- 
bined with sound moral and religious notions, must be surely desirable, as being highly cal- 
culated both for the individual and general good. 

If as it has been said, knowledge is power, it necessarily becomes a duty, in an age when 
the thirst for imj)rovement is continually increasing among all ranks, to implant with useful 
knowledge, good principles and notions in the rising generations, such as will not only fit them 
for the present life, but (what is of infinit ly greater importance) will prepare them for that 
which is to come ; thereby providing the best defence against the iusiduous arts of the ill-dis- 
posed. 

12 (D.E.) 



178 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1820 



" In uncultivated lands noxious weeds spring up. ... If the generous seeds of religion 
and virtue be not carefully sown in the tender minds of children, and if those seeds be not 
cultivated by good education, there will certainly spring up briars and thorns, of which parents 
will not only feel the inconvenience, but everybody else that comes near them." Tilletson. 

Tuition by the scholars themselves, who are rendered capable thereof, under the constant 
superintendence of the Master, has proved to be the most effectual and expeditious method of 
communicating sound education ; by which those who teach and those who are taught, are 
■equally improved and benefited. 

England and other polished nations of the globe, being convinced by experience, of this 
truth, schools, upon this system, on an extensive scale, having been universally established ; and 
it is computed, that, in England, fully 250.000 children are now receiving education under this 
system. Of these, '' not less than 60,000 are annually sent forth to mix in the mass of society, 
<»rrying into it that valuable improvement in religious and moral knowledge, in decent and 
•orderly habits and in attachment to the institutions of their country, which all so happily imbibe 
who are taught in the schools formed on this system." 

It must be obvious to the enlightened mind, that, in forming a school on this system, how- 
ever excellent the system may be, much is necessary to be done, particulirly in its commence- 
ment, to qualify teachers and assistants for the different classes and thoroughly to establish the 
rules and method of this instruction ; and where the superior advantages of the system are not 
generally known, the earnest exertions of friends to the institution are most essential, in order 
to extend its benefits by their recommendations in iti favor, and thus to remove any mistaken 
prejudices that maybe created by its novelty, more especially where the population is small and 
where a change of many of the inhabitants is continually occurring ; for it is of essential con- 
sequence, under the frequent change of scholari that takes place, to have always a good succes- 
sion of those who have, by practice, become well qualified to be teachers. 

Copying from the very successful exertions of the Central School of the National Society in 
London, a suitable opportunity is now afforded here, by the immediate experience of the present 
Master, to prepare other masters to spread this invaluable system of education throughout the 
whole of this Province. 

The School is at all times open to the inspection of visitors, who, on duly estimating the 
improved method of instruction, by the multiplication of power and division of labor, and in 
particular the principles of this system of education, will, it is to be hop^d, always take an in- 
■creasing interest in the same, at every repetition of their visit . 

On establishing a new institution for education, although on a system that has, after full 
•experience, received the high sanction and support of the greatest characters in Europe, it 
appears highly prope" to give the following account of some of the proceedings of the British 
National Society, for Promoting Education on this system (patronised by His Majesty, and sup- 
ported by the principal nobility and gentry in Great Britiin) and to add a few extracts from the 
work of its revered inventor, the Rev. Dr. Bell.* 

Joseph Spragg, 

Secretary. 

It is clear from the Despatch of Sir Peregrine Maitland, in 1823, to Earl 
Bathurst, Colonial Secretary, (given below) that it was the intention of the Govern- 
ment of that day to introduce, without the assent of the Legislature, the Church 

*The following are some of these extracts, etc., referred to in this Report :—" Rev. Ur. Bell, in his 
instructions on ttie new system of education, says, ' The Madras, or new System of Educating, has no 
parallel in the history of mind. It diflFers not only essentially from every system in the principle, on which 
it is built, but also materially in the laws by which it is conducted. . . . It is founded on a discovery, 
made within the walls of a school for the mulitiplication of power and division of labor in the moral and 
intellectual world. ... To attain any good end in education, the grand desideratum is to fix attention, 
to call forth exertion and to prevent the waste of timd in school. This, in the Madras School is achieved 
. . . by the strong and permanent hold which its machinery takes of the mind, and the deep impression 
which it makes on the heart. This system rests on the simple principle of tuition by the scholars them- 
selves. It is its distinguishing characteristic, that the School, numerous so however, is taught solely by 
the pupils of the instutioa, under a single Master, to whom by multifying his Ministers at pleasure, it gives 
indefinite powers, . . . The Madras School is arranged into f jrms or classes each composed of scholars, 
who have made a suitable proficiency. The scholar ever finds his own level, not only in his class, but also 
in the ranks of the school, being promoted or degraded from place to place, or class to class, according to 
his relative proficiency. . . . By the perpetual attendance of the Teachers on their classes, and their 
unceasing vigilance ; by the love of imitation natural to children, by the incessant stimulus of emulation, 
and by the continua' occupation of every member of every class, the most effectual provision is made for 
the greatest discipline as well as the perfect instruction and rapid improvement of the whole school. . . . 
This perpetual occupation, along with perfect instruction, conduces also greatly to good order and silence, 
^ot a moment can be otherwise than pleasantly and profitably employed. . . ." 



I 



Ohap. XXXVI. THE CENTRAL (NATIONAL) SCHOOL OF YORK, 1820. 179 

of England National System of Schools into Upper Canada. With that object in 
view and, as a preliminary step in that direction, the elementary " Central School," 
taught by Mr. Joseph Spragg at York, was established three years before the 
assent of the Home Government was given to the project. This new School dis- 
placed the Common School at York, and, for its use, the School House, then 
occupied by Mr. Thomas Appleton, the Teacher employed by Trustees, under the 
authority of the Common School Act of 1816, was taken. This intention, on the 
part of the Lieutenant-Governor, is thus expressed by him in his Despatch to Earl 
Bathurst, in 1822, to which I have referred : — 

It is proposed to establish one introductory school on the National plan in each 
town of a certain size. It is supposed that a salary of one hundred pounds (£100) per annum to 
the Master of each such school would be sufficient. The number of these schools may be 
increased as the circumstancei of the Province may require, and the means allow. (No. 1.) 

The reply of Earl Bathurst to this dispatch is dated Colonial office, October 
12th, 1823, and was addressed to Sir Peregrine Maitland, as follows : — 

I am happy to have it in my power to convey to you His Majesty's consent that 
you appropriate a portion of the [Crown] Reserves, set apart for the establishment of an Univer- 
sity, for the support of schools ou the National [Church of England] plan of education. (No. 2.) 

It will thus be seen that two kinds of elementary schools were at this time 
projected and put into operation — one, the ordinary Common School, established 
and supported by the Legislature ; the other, the ordinary Church of England 
National School, established by the authority of the Executive Government alone, 
and sanctioned three years after its establishment by the Home Government. 
These National Schools, as will be seen above, were to be supported ou<; of funds 
which had been specially set apart for the maintenance of a University for 
TJpper Canada, and without a vote of the Legislature to that effect. In fact, the 
Legislature, as such, knew nothing about it. 

Proceedings of the Executive Government in Regard to the Central 

School in 1822 and 1823. 

Sir John Colborne, in a IVIemorandum addressed to his Executive Council in 
May, 1830, thus narrates the proceedings of his Predecessor, in regard to the 
introduction of these Church of England " National Schools " into Upper Canada. 
He said : — 

1. That in 1822, Sir Peregrine Maitland submitted to His Majesty's Government a plan for 
■organizing a general system of education, and suggested the expediency of applying the proceeds 
of the sale of part of the lands, under the title of School Reserves, to carry it into effect, and of 
reserving the remainder for the future endowment of an University, should such an establish- 
ment not be considered advisable at present, — and proposed also that an introductory school on 
the National plan in each town of a certain size should be established, and that the number of 
«uch Schools should be increased, as the circumstance of the Province might require. 

2. That Lord Bathurst, in his despatch of the 12th of October, 1823, [quoted above] in reply 
to these proposals, having approved of a portion of those Reserves, (set aside for the establish- 
ment of an University), being appropriated for the use of schools, on the National plan of educa- 
tion, Sir Peregrine Maitland requested the attention of the Executive Council to this subject, in 
order that a portion of the School Reserves might be disposed of, so as to form a fund to 
«n^ble the General Board of Education to enter on its duties. 



180 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1820 



3. That a Committee of the Executive Council, on examining extracts from Lord Bathurst's 
Despatch of the 12th of October, 1823, recommended that eight townships be applied to carry 
into effect the intentions of His Majesty's Government in this matter. 

In the following letter Sir Peregrine Maitland, through Mr. Secretary Hil- 
lier, communicated his views on this subject to his Executive Council in a letter 
dated the ::Oth of May, 1823 :— 

Sir : Earl Bathurst having, in a late despatch to the Lieutenant-Governor, signified the 
sanction of His Majesty's Government to a plan proposed by His Excellency of forming a 
General Board of Education in this Province, as will be shown by the enclosed papers, numbers 
1 and 2 on page 179. 

T have been commanded by His Excellency to request that this subject may engage the 
early attention of the Executive Council. 

A Board of fit persons to carry into effect the proposed plan will be immediately nominated 
by the Lieutenant-Governor ; and it occurs to His Excellency that the object which, in the 
first place, requii'es consideration of the Committee of Council, is the appropriation of some 
portion of the lands, set aside for the endowment of an University, in such manner as shall readily 
and securely create a fund to enable the General Board of Education to enter on its duties, 
either by conveying such portion of lands in trust to the Board of Education — (subject in all of 
its proceedings to the sanction of the Executive Government) — or by such other mode as may 
to the Committee of Council appear more expedient. 

G. HiLLIEK, 

Secretary. 
To THE Honourable the Presiding Councillor. 



CHAPTEE XXXVIT. 

MISCELLANEOUS EDUCATIONAL MATTERS DURING 1820-1824. 

Nothing of special interest occurred in the Legislature of Upper Canada 
during 1821. The following papers are, therefore, grouped together, relating to 
educational matters connected with the years 1820-1824, etc. 

Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly, 1821-22. 

There is no record of the proceedings of the House of Assembly, or of the 
Legislative Council, available for the iirst session of the Eighth Parliament of 
Upper Canada. But during that session, an Act was passed to provide " for 
compensating District Treasurers for Duties imposed on them by the several Acts 
of this Province, relative to Common Schools." The Act was assented to by the 
Lieutenant-Governor on behalf of His Majesty on the 14th of April, 1821* The 
enacting clause is taken from the Statute Book, as follows : — 

It shall and may be lawful for the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, or person administrating 
the Government of this Province to direct the Inspector General, or other officer to wh')m the 
duty appertains, to allow to the Treasurer of any District in this Province, in any sertlement of 
accounts relative to moneys received, paid and expended therein, by Mm, for Common Schools, 
the sum of three pounds for every one hundjfed pounds, which may have been paid through the 
hands of such Treasurer : Provided, such Treasurer shall produce proper vo chers to prove that 
such sum or sums of money as may have been paid into his hands for the use of Common Schools, 
has or have been expended and paid, according to the intent and meaning of the Acts of this 
Province relating to the said Common Schools. 



Chap. XXXVII. MISCELLANEOUS EDUCATIONAL MATTERS IN 1820-1824'. 181 

On the 2Gth of December, 1821, the Petition of sundry inhabitants of the 
Town of York and its vicinity was laid before the House of Assembly and read. 
It prayed for Legislative patronage and aid for establishing Sunday School institu- 
tions. Mr. Robert Nichol, seconded by Mr. Attorney General Robinson, moves 
that this petition be referred to a Select Committee to be composed of Messieurs 
William "Warren Baldwin and John Willson, of the county of Wentworth, that 
they report by Bill or otherwise, which was carried. 

Either the Committee did not meet, or, if they did meet, no report 
from them in any form is recorded in the proceedings of the House of Assembly 
for the session of 1821-22. 

Mr. William Weekes' Legacy for an Academy at York, 1821. 

The second session of the Eighth Parliament of Upper Canada met on the 
twenty-first day of December, 1821, and closed on the seventeenth day of January, 
1822. In the Speech from the Throne, no reference was made to schools or edu- 
cation. Nothing relating to education came before either House, except a 
measure relating to the Weekes' legacy for an Academy at York. 

On the 12th of December, 1821, Dr. W. W. Baldwin gave notice that he 
would introduce into the House of Assembly a Bill for the nomination of Trustees 
to carry into effect the last will and testament of the late William Weekes, 
Esquire, in which, among other things, was devised certain estates towards the erec- 
tion and maintenance of an Academy, or Public Seminary,for the education of youth 
at York. On the 17th of December, the Bill was read a first time; on the 18th, 
the second reading took place, and the Bill considered in Committee, on the 20th, 
the Bill was read a third time and passed. It was sent up to the Legislative 
Council on that day and was there amended. The House of Assembly adopted 
these amendments on the 5th of January 1822 ; and on the I7th of that month, 
the Bill was assented to by the Lieutenant-Governor on behalf of His Majesty. 

Under the authority of this Act, the following persons were appointed 
Trustees for the purposes named in it, viz., the Honourable and Reverend John 
Strachan, D. D. ; the Honourable John Beverly Robinson, and the Honourable 
Henry John Boulton. Mr. Weekes' Executors were Messieurs Charles B. Wyatt 
and John McKay. Against these Executors various suits were brought during 
ten years by creditors of the estate of Mr. Weekes, so that it was not until 1831, 
that the Trustees named were able to report in regard to their trust, which was 
to apply the residue, (after the payment of debts,) of the moneys arising from the 
sale of the real and personal estate of the late William Weekes to the erecting and 
building the foundation of an Academy at York. This they did on the first of 
February, 1831, as follows : — 

Whatever may have been the condition of the estate when it came into the hands of the 
Executors, there is no question aa to its being now insolvent, exclusive of any claims for interest, 
— not a trace of debts or personal assets of any kind belonging to the estate appears in posses- 
sion. 



182 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1821-22: 



Thus the Weekes' trust failed of beins: carried out, and no Academy was^ 
erected or built out of the lapsed estate. 

Course of Study at the Common School at York in 1820-1821. 

The Common School at York was conducted by Trustees, elected under the 
provisions of the Common School Act of 1816, — first at Market Lane, (Colborne 
St.), and afterwards in the new Common School House erected on the College 
Square in 1818. It was discontinued in 1820, when the Common School grant of 
$24,000 per annum, (originally made in 1816), was, in 1820, reduced to $10,000 a 
year. The building was then transferred to new and special Trustees, by order 
of Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Peregrine Maitland, for the purpose of introducing 
into this Province the then new and popular system of teaching in England, 
since known as the Bell, or Church of England National school system of 
elementary schools. 

The following course of study pursued in the Common Schools of that day 

will be interesting for the purposes of comparison with the programme of studies 

of the corresponding schools of this day (1894) : 

All the Classes (at least four lessons a day) read, spell and parse. 

Examinations are held every evening, in Grammar, Spelling and Arithmetic Tables. The 
Church Catechism is heard once a week. The following is the daily order of studies : 



Number of 
Pupils. 

8 



First Class 
of Beys. 



First Class 
of Girls. 



Second Class 
of Boys. 

Second Class 
of Girls. 



Third and Fourth 10 
Class of Children. 



First Class 
of Eoys. 

First Class 
of Girls. 

Second Class 
of Boys. 

Second Class 
of Girls. 



Third and Fourth 
Classes. 



10 



Morning. 



Grammar Lessons, Exercises on 
Grammar, Reading, Spelling 
and Parsing ; Writing or 
Arithmetic. 

Grammar " Tasks " ; Definitions, 
Correction of Erroneous Sjm- 
tax ; Reading ; Parsing and 
Spelling ; Writing or Arith- 
metic. 

Grammar, Parsing ; Etymology, 
Reading, Spelling and Writing. 

Grammar Lessons ; Definitions, 
Reading, Spelling and Pars- 
ing ; Writing. 

Spelling ; Reading ; Analysing ; 
Orthography. 

Afternoon. 

Reading, Spelling and Parsing ; 
Writing or Arithmetic. 

Reading, Spelling and Parsins; ; 
Writing and Arithmetic . 

Reading, Spelling, Parsing and 
Writing. 

Reading, Spelling, Parsing and 
Writing. 

Same as in the Morning. 



Books Used. 

Murray's English Reader, Mur- 
ray's Grammar and Exer- 
cises ; Gray and Walking- 
hame's Arithmetic. 

Enfield's Speaker ; Murray's 
Grammar and Exercises ; 
Carpenter's Scholar's Assis- 
tant ; Walkinghame's Arith- 
metic. 

New Testament : Murray's 
Grammar and Spelling Book. 

Barrie's Reader ; Murray's 
Grammar ; Carpenter's 
Assistant ; Scott's Lessons ; 
Writing. 

Testament and Murray's Spell- 
ing Book. 



Same as in the Morning. 

Same as in the Morning. 

Same as in the Morning. 

New Testament and Barrie's 
Lessons. 



Chap. XXXVII. MISCELLANEOUS EDUCATIONAL MATTERS IN 1820-1824. 185 



Dictionaries by Walker, Entick ; the Union by Brown ; Creighton's Scripture and proper 
names. 

Hours of Instruction : From nine to twelve noon, and from one to four or five p.m. as oc- 
casion requi'es. Mr. Thomas Appleton, Teacher , Messieurs Jesse Ketchum, Jordan Post and 
Dr. T. D. Morrison, Trustees. York. 28th of February, 1821. 



I 



List of Teacheks in the Home District in 1820-1822. 

Mr. John Devine, township of Toronto, in 1820. 

Mr. James McEnrey, township of Toronto, in 1820 ; Uxbridge in 1882. 
Mr. John Neelands, township of Toronto, in 1820 ; Etobicoke in 1822. 
Mr. R. Cathcart, township of York, in 1820, 18-21 and 18-22. 
Mr. E. Pengh, township of York, in 18-20. 

Mr. William b-leigh, township of Markham, in 18-20 ; Pickering in 1822. 
Mr. Jacobe Scott, township of Markham, in 1820. 
Mr. John Canning, township of Markham, in 1820. 
Mr. Thomas Foley, township of Markham, in 1820. 

Mr. James Cawdell, township of Whitchurch, in 1820 ; Vaughan in 1822. 
Mr. R. Clark, township of Whitchurch, in 1820. 
Mr. M. Clark, township of Whitchurch, in 1820. 
Mr. Miles Brown, township of Etobicoke, in 1820. 
Mr. Benjamin Bernard, township of Vaughan, in 1820. 
Mr. R. Patterson, township of Scarborough, in 1820. 
Mr. William Watson, township of Scarborough, in 1820. 

Mr. Alexander McCausland, township of East Gwillimbury, in 1820, 1821 and 1822. 
Mr. William Moore, township of Whitby, in 1820. 
Mr. George Bradford, township of Toronto, in 1822. 
Mr. William Cassells, township of Markham, in 1822, 
Mr. Alexander Jamieson, township of Markham, in 1822. 
'Mr. A. Hubertus, township of Markham, in 1822. 
Mr. Samuel Halton, township of Markham, in 1822. 
Mr. Charles B. Hasher, township of Whitchurch, in 1822, 
Mr. James Jamieson, township of Whitchurch, in 1822. 
Mr. Alexander McCeechener, township of Vaughan, in 1822. 
Mr. B. Preston, township of Vaughan, in 1822. 
Mr. P. Carney, township of Vaughan, in 1822. 
Mr. Thomas Vaux*, township of Vaughan, in 1822. 
Mr. Samuel Brooks, township of North Gwillimbury, in 1822. 
Mr. James Collins, township of King, in 1822. 

Payments on Behalf of Schools During the Years 1820-24. 



Name. 


Year 1820. 
Sterling. 


Year 1821. 
Sterling. 


Year 1822. 
Sterling. 


Year 1823. 
Sterling. 


Year 1824> 
Sterling. 


Joseph SpraRsr, Central School, York, salary, etc. 

Hon. Joseph Wells, Trustee of the Central School, 

York 


£ 8. d. 
394 15 1 


£ 8. d. 
177 13 6 

358 11 2^ 


£ 8. d. 
253 13 If 


£ 8. d. 
249 4 


£ 8. d. 
248 2 Of 









Aggregate Payments for the use of Grammar and Common Schools, 1825-28» 



Teachers of the various District (Grammar) Schooln 

" Common Schools 

For Sunday School Books 



Year 1825. 



Years 
1826-27. 



Year 1828. 



£ 8. d.; £ 

1,1.54 15 9^ 1,050 

2,897 17 1 2,060 

150 .. .. 150 



3. d. 





£ 8. d. 
fi32 2 n^ 
1,250 
150 .. .. 



•Appointed a Clerk ia the House of Assembly in 1829 ; He was afteiwards Accountant of the Hous& 
of Assembly, and died in February, 1880. I knew him to be a most estimable man. 



184 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1823 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 

EDUCATION PROCEEDINGS OF THE UPPER CANADA LEGISLA- 
TURE IN 1823. 

On the fifteenth of January, 1823, His Excellency Sir Peregrine Maitland, 
the Lieutenant-Governor, opened the third session of the Eighth Parliament of 
Upper Canada with a Speech from the Throne. In it he made no reference to 
the subject of education or sfthools. 

Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1823. 

The members of the House of Assembly who took part in its educational 
legislation, were Messieurs David Pattie, David Jones, William Morris, George 
Hamilton, Robert Nichol, — Gates, Samuel S. Wilmot, John Clark, Reuben White, 
Samuel Casey, Peter Shaver, John Will son, Robert Hamilton, David M. Rogers, 
Thomas Homer, Jonas Jones, Alexander McDonell, Mahlon Burwell, Archibald 
McLean, Henry Ruttan, James Crooks, James Gordon, Philip VanKoughnet, 
William Chisholm, — Kerr, Dn Wm, Warren Baldwin. 

The most noted of these members, to whom I have not already referred to, 
were Messieurs Archibald McLean (afterwards Speaker, and, in 1837, elevated to 
the Bench) ; John Willson and Henry Ruttan, (both afterwards Speakers) ; Wil- 
liam Morris, James Crooks and James Gordon (afterwards called to the Legisla- 
tive Council. 

The Honourable Levius Peters Sherwood (elected in 1813 and 1820), was 
Speaker in 1821-1824 ; and, in 1825, was elevated to the Bench. 

The Honourable William Morris was elected for the County of Lanark in 
1825, 1830 and 1835. In 1836, he was called to the Legislative Council ; was 
Receiver- General in 1844, and President of the Executive Council in 1846. He 
died in 1858. 

The Honourable James Crooks was elected for the County of Halton in 
1820 ; appointed Member of the Legislative Council in 1835, and died in 1860, 
«ged 82. His son, the Honourable Adam Crooks, was the first Minister of Edu- 
•cation of Ontario, and was so appointed in 1876. 

Mr. Samuel D. Wilmot was elected a member of the House of Assembly 
in 1820. He was for many years Deputy Surveyor-General of Upper Canada. 

17th Janimry, 1823. — Mr. David Pattie gives notice that he will on Thursday next move 
for leave to bring in a Bill for the purpose of establishing a District (Grammar) tfchool in the 
District of Ottavf'a. 

23rd January, 1823. — Agreeably to notice Mr. David Pattie, seconded by Mr. David Jones, 
■of Leeds, moves for leave to bring in a Bill to establish a Public (Grammar) School in the Dis- • 
trict of Ottawa, which was granted, and the Bill was read a first time. 

Mr. David Pattie, seconded by Mr. David Jones, of Leeds, moves that the Ottawa District 
^Grammar) School Bill be read a second time to-morrow, which was ordered. 



Chap. XXXVIII. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLAIUBE, 1823. 185 



Mr. William Morris gives notice thsit he will, on Monday next, move for leave to bring in a 
Bill to appropriate a sum of money towards the support of a District (Grammar) School and 
Common Schools within the District of Bathurst, and to grant a salary to the SheriflF of the said 
District. 

34th January, 1823. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Ottawa District (Grammar) 
School Bill was read a second time. 

Mr. David Pattie, seconded by Mr. David Jones, < f Leeds, moves that the House do now 
resolve itself into a Committee to take into consideration the Bill to establish a Public (Gram- 
mar) School in the District of Ottawa, which was carried, and Mr. George Hamilton, of Went- 
worth, took the chair of the Committee. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Hamilton reported the Bill as amended. 

Ordered, That the Report be received. 

Mr. David Pattie, seconded by Mr. David Jones, of Leeds, moves that the Bill to establish 
a Public (Grammar) School in the District of Ottawa be engrossed and read a third time 
to-morrow. Which was ordered. 

25th January 1823. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Ottawa (Grammar) School 
Bill was read the third time. 

Mr. Robert Nichol, seconded by Mr. David Pattie, moves that the Bill for establishing a 
Public (Grammar) tchool in the District of Ottawa, be recommitted on Monday next, which 
was ordered. 

Mr. John Clark, of Lincoln, seconded by Mr. John Willson, of Wentworth, moved for^ 
leave to bring up the petition of Mr. William B. Willson and others, praying for the payment of 
moneys due to them as Common School Teachers in the District of Niagara, which was granted, 
and the petition was brought up. 

27th January, 1823. — Agreeably to notice, Mr. William Morris, seconded by Mr. Gates, 
moves for leave to bring in a Bill to appropriate a sum of money for the support of Grammar 
and Common Schools, and the payment of a Sheriffs salaiy within the District of Bathurst, which 
was carried and the Bill read a first time. 

Mr. Morris, seconded by Mr. Gates, moves that the Bathurst Grammar and Common 
Schools, and SheriflTs Appropriation Bill be read a second time to-morrow. Which was ordered. 

Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the House went into Committee on the Ottawa (Gram- 
mar) School Bill, Mr. Samuel S. Wilmot in the chair. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Samuel S. Wilmot reported the Bill as amended. 

Ordered, That the Report be received. 

Mr. David Pattie, seconded by Mr. John Clark, of Lincoln, moves that the Bill to estab- 
lish a Public (Grammar) School in the District of Ottawa be engrossed and read a third time 
to-morrow, which was ordered. 

28th Janutry, 1823. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Ottawa (Grammar) School 
Bill was read the third time. 

Mr. David Pattie, seconded by Mr. Reuben White, moves that the said Bill do now pass, 
and that it be intituled : "An Act to provide for the establishment of a Public (Grammar) 
School in the District of Ottawa," which was carried, aud the Bill signed by the Speaker. 

Mr. William Morris, seconded by Mr. Samuel Casey, moves that Messieurs Pattie and 
Clark be a Committee to carry up to the Honourable the Legislative Council the Ottawa Dis- 
trict (Grammar) School Bill, »nd to request their concurrence thereto. Which was ordered. 

Mr. Daniel Hagerman, seconded by Mr. Bostwick, moves for leave to bring up the 
petition of Thomas Markland, Esquire, and others, of the Town of Kingston, praying for aid 
to purchase books for Sunday Schools, which was granted, and the petition was brought up. 

Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the petition from Mr. William B. Willson and others 
praying for Legislative assistance to procure the public money due them as Teachers of Common 
Schools in the District of Niagara, was read. 

Mr. John Clark of Lincoln, seconded by Mr. Samuel S. Wilmot, moves that the petition 
of Mr. William B. Willson and others be referred to a Select Committee composed of Messieurs 
Hamilton of Wentworth, (rooks and Kerr, and that the said Committee have power to send 
for persons, or papers, and to report by Bill or otherwise. Which was ordered. 

Agreeably to the Order of the Day the Bathurst Grammar and Common School Bill was 
read the second time. 



186 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1823 



Mr. William Morris, seconded by Mr. Peter Shaver, moves that the House do now resolve 
self into a Committee of the Whole on the Bill to appropriate a sum of money towards the 
support of Grammar and Common Schools within the District of Bathurst, which was carried. 
Mr. John Willson of Wentworth was called to the chair of the Committee. The House having 
resumed Mr. Willeon reported the Bill as amended. Ordered that the Report be received. 

Mr. William Morris, seconded by Mr. Robert Hamilton of Lincoln moves that the Bathurst 
Grammar and Common School Appropriation Bill be engrossed and read a third time to- 
morrow. Which was ordered. 

29th Janxun-y, 1823. — Agreeably to the Order of Day, the Bathurst Grammar and Common 
School Bill was read the third time. 

Mr. William Morris, seconded by Mr. David M. Rogers, moves that the Bathurst Grammar 
and Common Schools Appropriation Bill be re-committed to-morrotr. Which was ordered. 

Mr. Robert Nichol, seconded by Mr. David Pattie, moves that it be an instruction to the 
Committee on the Bathurst Grammar and Common School Bill that they separate the provision 
for District Grammar and Common Schools, and for Sheriffs — (up to this point the Bill had 
this double object) — and provide for the said purposes contained in the said Bill by separate 
Bills. Which was ordered. 

SOth January, 1823. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the petition from Thomas Mark- 
land, Esquire, and others of the Town of Kingston, praying for the purchasing of books for pro- 
motion of Sunday Schools was read. 

Mr. D'Arcy Boulton, Mastf r-in-Chancery, brought down from the Honourable the Legisla- 
tive Council the Bill, intituled : An Act to provide for the establishment of a Public (Grammar) 
Pchool in the 1 istrict of Ottawa, which they had passed without amendment, and then with- 
drew. 

Slst January, 1823. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the House went into Committee 
on the Bathurst District Grammar School Bill. Mr. Thomas Horner in the chair. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Thomas Horner reported that the Committee had divided 
the Bathurst Schcol Bill into three distinct Bills, as follows : 

(1) The Bathurst District Grammar School Bill ; (2) the Bathurst Common School Bill 
and (I)) the Bathurst Sheriffs Bill. Ordered that the Report be received. 

Mr. Jonas Jones, of Grenville, seconded by Mr. Alexander McDonell, moves that the 
Bathurst Common School Bill be engrossed and read a third time on^Monday next. Which was 
ordered. 

Mr. Jonas Jones, of Grenville, seconded by Mr. Alexander McDonell, moves that the Bath- 
urst District (Grammar) School Bill be engrossed and read a third time on Monday next. Which 
was ordered. 

3r'i February, 1823. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Bathurst District (Grammar) 
School Bill was read the third time. 

Mr. Jonas Jones of Grenville seconded by Mr. Mahlon Burwell, moves that the said Bill do 
now pass, and it be intituled : * An Act granting to His Majesty a sum of money for the support 
of a Public (Grammar) School in the Bathurst District." Which was carried and the Bill signed. 

Mr. Jonas Jones, of Grenville, seconded by Mr. Mahlon Burwell, moves that Messieurs 
McLean of Stormont and Kerr be a Committee to carry up to the Honourable the Legislative 
Council the Bathurst (District) Grammar School Bill, and to request their concurrence thereto. 
Which was ordered. 

Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Bathurst Common School BUI was read the 
third time. 

Mr. Jonas Jones, of Grenville, seconded by Mr. Mahlon Burwell, moves that the Bill do 
now pass and that it be intituled : "An Act granting His Majesty a sum of money for the sup- 
port of Common Schools in the Bathurst District." Which was carried, and the Bill signed by 
the Speaker. 

Mr. Jonas J<nes, of Grenville, seconded by Mr. Mahlon Burwell, moves that Messieurs 
McLean, of Stormont and Kerr be a Committee to carry up to the Honourable the Legislative 
Council the Bathurst District (Grammar) School Bill, and to request their concurrence thereto. 
W^hich was ordered. 

Mr. Archibald McLean, of Stormont, from the Committee to carry up to the Honourable 
the Legislative Council the Bill intitlued : " An Act granting to His Majesty a sum of money for 
the support of a Public (Grammar) School in the Bathurst District," and the Bill intituled "An 
Act granting to His Majesty a sum of money for the support of Common Schools in the Bath- 
urst District," and to itquest their concurrence thereto, reported that they had done fo. 



Chap. XXXVIII. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1823. 187 



4th February, 1823. — Mr. David M. Rogers, seconded by Mr. Henry Kiittan, moves for 
' leave to bring up two petitions from inhabitants of this Province, praying for money to purchase 
books for Sunday Schools. AVhich was granted and the petitions brought up. 

6th February, 1823. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the petition from sundry inhabit- 
ants of the Village of Cobourg, praying Legislative aid to enable tliem to establish a library for 
the benefit of Sunday School institutions, and the petition from sundry inhabitants of Brockville, 
praying the same, were read. 

Mr. D'Arcy Boulton, Master-in-Chancery, brought down from the Honourable the Legis- 
lative Council, a Message, and having withdrawn the Speaker read the same as follows : 

Mr. Speaker : 

The Honourable the Legislative Council request a Conference with the Common's House of 
Assembly on the subject of the Bathurst District Common School Bill and have appointed a 
Committee of two members who wUl be ready to meet a Committee of the Common's House of 
Assembly, in the Joint Committee Room, for that purpose, at two o'clock p.m., to-morrow. 

Wm Dcjmmbk Powell. 

Speaker. 
Legislative Council Chamber, 
6th February, 1823. 

Mr. John Clark, of Lincoln, from the Committee to whom was referred the petition of Mr. 
W. B. Wilson and others of the District of Niagara, informed the House that the Committee 
had agreed to a report which he was directed to submit for the adoption of the House. Ordered, 
That the report be received, and it was read as follows : 

Mr. Speaker : 

The Committee to whom was referred the petition of certain teachers of Common Schools 
in the District of Niagara, beg leave to report to your Honourable House, that they have ex- 
amined into the merits of the said petition, and cannot do otherwise than agree with those who 
have signed the same in behalf of themselves and the teachers of the Common Schools in the 
said District : that their case is one of peculiar hardship, occasioned by no act of their own, and 
tending much to depress learning in that part of the Province. 

For remedy whereof your Committee beg leave to report the draft of a Bill, which they now 
submit to your Honourable House for its approbation. 

John Clark, 

Chairman. 
Committee Room, House of Assembly, 
6th February, 1823. 

The Bill for the relief of Mr. W. B. Wilson and other Teachers in the District of Niagara, 
was then read for the first time. 

Mr. John Clark, seconded by Mr. James Crooks, moves that the Bill for the relief of the 
Teachers of Common Schools in the Niagara District be read a second time to-morrow. Which 
was ordered , 

Mr. William Morris, seconded by Mr. Peter Shaver, moves that this House do accede to the 
request of the Honourable the Legislative Council on the subject of a Conference on the Bill, 
intituled : "An Act granting to His Majesty a sum of money for the support of Common Schools 
in the Bathurst District," and that Messieurs Jonas Jones, of Grenville, Robert Nichol and 
James Gordon do compose a Committee for that purpose. Which was ordered. 

Mr. William Morris, seconded by Mr. James Gordon, moves that a Message be sent to the 
Honourable the Legislative Council, that the House of Assembly have appointed a Com- 
mittee of four of its Members to confer with the Conferees of their Honourable House, at the 
time appointed, on the subject matter of the Bill, intituled : " An Act granting to His Majesty a 
sum of money for the support of Common Schools in the Bathurst District, and that Messieurs 
VanKoughnet and Gates do carry up the said Message. Which was ordered. 

7th February, 1823. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Niagara District Common 
School Teachers' Relief Bill was read the second time. 

Mr. Philip VanKoughnet, from the Committee to carry up to the Honourable the Legisla- 
tive Council a Message on the subject of a Conference on the Bathurst Common Schools Bill, 
reported they had done so. 



188 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1823 



Mr. William Morris, from the Committee appointed to confer with the Committee appoint- 
ed by the Honourable the Legislative Council on the subject matter of the District of Bathurst 
Common iSchool Bill, presented the following report : 

Mr. Speaker : 

The Committee appointed by your Honourable House to confer with the Committee of the 
Honourable the Legislative Council upon the Bill sent up by this House to that Honourable 
House, intituled : '• An Act granting to His Majesty a sum of money for the support of Common 
Schools in the Bathurst District," in obedience to your orders, met the Committee of the Legis- 
lative Council, who stated to your Committee that the words "and unappropriated " in the first 
clause appeared to have been inadvertently left out, to which your Committee replied that they 
would report the same to your Honourable House. 

William Morris, 

Chairman. 
Commons House of Assembly, 

7th February, 18-23. 

Mr. John Clark, of Lincoln, seconded by Mr, James Crooks, moves that the House do now 
resolve itself into a Committee of the Whole on the Niagara District Common School Teachers' 
Relief Bill. Which was carried, and Mr. Archibald McLean, of Stormont, took the chair. 

The House having resumed, Mr. McLean reported progress, and asked for leave to sit again 
on Tuesday next. Ordered, that the report be received, and leave was granted accordingly. 

Mr. D'ArcyBoulton, Master-in-Chancery, brought down from the the Honourable the Legis- 
lative Council the District of Bathurst Public (Grammar) School Bill, which they had passed 
without amendment. 

Agreeably to the OrJer of the Day, the Niagara District Common School Teachers' Relief 
BUI was read the third time. 

13th February, 1823. — Mr. John Willson, of Wentworth, seconded by Mr. Chisholm, moves 
that Messieurs Clark and Kerr be a Committee to carry up to the Honourable the Legislative 
Council the Act for the re'ief of Teachers in the Common Schools in the Niagara District, and 
request the concurrence of that Honourable House thereto. Which was ordered. 

Mr. John Clark, seconded by Mr. George Hamilton, of Wentworth, moves that the Bill do 
now pass and that it be intituled, "An Act for the relief of Teachers of the Common Schools in 
the Niagara District." Which was carried, and the Bill signed by the Speaker. 

20th February, 1823. — Mr. Clark, from the Committee to carry up to the Honourable the 
Legislative Council the Bill for the relief of the Common School Teachers of the District of 
Niagara and request their concurrence thereto, reported that they had done so. 

2Jfth February 1823. — Dr . W. W. Baldwin gives notice that he will, to-morrow, move for 
leave to bring in a Bill for the establishment of a College in this Province. 

27 th February, 1823. — Agreeably to notice Dr. W. W. Baldwin, seconded by Mr. John 
Willson, of Wentworth, moves for leave to bring in a Bill for the establishment of a College 
within this Province. Which w:i3 granted, and the Bill read a first time. . 

Dr. W. W. Baldwin, seconded by Mr. Samuel S. Wilmot, moves that the College Bill be 
read a second time on Monday. Which was ordered. 

28th February, 1823.— The following Messages were received from the Lieutenant-Governor 
by Mr. Hillier, his Secretary : 

P. Maitland : 

The Lieutenant-Governor transmits to the House of Assembly copies of such reports of 
education as have been received since the last session of the Legislature. 

The Lieuter ant-Governor transmits to the House of Assembly copies of such reports of the 
Board of Trustees of District Schools as have been received since the last session of the Legisla- 
ture. 

Government House, 

February 28th, 1823. 

28th February 1823. — Mr. William Morris, seconded by Mr. Peter Shaver, moves that an 
humble Address be presented to His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor thanking him for 
these Messages and the School Reports. 



Chap. XXXVIII. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C, LEGISLATURE, 1823. 189 



4th March, 1823. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, an Address to His Excellency the 
Lieutenant-Governor, thanking him for his gracious Message, transmitting to this House the 
Report of the Board of Education and Trustees of District (Grammar) Schools and the other 
documents was agreed to, and signed by the Honourable Levius P. Sherwood, Speaker, Mes- 
sieurs Bostwick and Ruttan were appointed a Committee to wait upon His Excellency, and 
present to him the said Address on behalf of this House. 

Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the College Bill was read a second time. 

Dr. W. W. Baldwin, seconded by Mr. Jonas Jones, moves that the House du now resolve 
itself into a Committee of the Whole on the College Bill. 

In amendment, Mr. Samuel Casey, seconded by Mr. Robert Nichol, moves that after the 
word " resolve," the whole of the rest of the original motion be expunged and '• this day three 
months" be inserted. Which was carried. 

Note. — What the provisions of the Bill were.which was introduced in to the 
House of Assembly by Dr. Wm. Warren Baldwin it is difficult now to say, as no 
copy of it is available. It may have been, and likely was, designed to give legal 
effect to the desire of the late Mr. William Weekes, who, by will, had left a legacy 
to found " an Academy, or Public Seminary," at York. This is the more prob ible 
from the fact, that Dr. Baldwin had, during the Session of 1821, procured the 
passage of a Bill through the Legislature, vesting the Weekes' estate in Trus- 
tees, who were authorized to apply the legacy as directed in the will. The estate 
wa«?, however, exhausted before the Trustees could act in the matter. (See 
page 18 J.) 

5th March, 18^3. — Mr. Bostwick, from the Committee appointed to wait upon His Excel- 
lency with the Address of this House, thanking him for his gracious Messages with ^School 
Report etc, reported that they had done so. 

2. — Educational Proceedings of the Legislative Council, 1823. 

The names of the Members of the Legislative Council who took part in its 
educational proceedings, are not given in its Journal for 1823. These proceed- 
ing^ were, however, confined to the giving of the assent of the Legislative Coun- 
cil to the three School Bills brought up from the House of Assembly. No 
measure relating to education or schools originated in the Legislative Council 
itself during the session. 

28th January, 1823. — The Legislative Council met pursuant to adjournment. A deputa- 
tion from the Commons House of Assembly being announced, it was admitted and brought up 
for the concurrence of this House a Bill intituled : — "An Act to provide for the establishment 
of a Public (Grammar) School in the District of Ottawa." 

The deputation having withdrawn, the Bill was read the first time, and on motion made and 
seconded, it was ordered to be read a second time to-morrow. 

30th January, 1823. — The House met pursuant to adjournment. Pursuant to the Order of 
the Day, the Bill intituled : " An Act to provide for the establishment of a Public (Grammar) 
School'in the District of Ottawa," was read a third time, and the question being put, that the 
Bill do now pass, it was carried in the affirmative, whereupon the Speaker signed the same and 
it was by Mr. D'Arcy Boulton, the Master-in-Chancery carried down and returned to the House 
of Assembly. 

3rd Februaiy, 1823. — The House met pursuant to adjournment. A deputation from the 
Commons House of Assembly being announced, it was admitted and brought up for the concur- 
rence of this House a Bill intituled : "An Act gmnting to His Majesty a sum of money for 
the support of a Public (Grammar) School in the Bathurst District ; " also, a Bill intituled "An 
Act granting to His Majesty a sum of money for the support of Common Schools in tho 
Bathurst District." 



190 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA 



1823 



6th February, 1823, — The House met pursuant to adjournment. 

Pursuant to the Order of the Day, the Bill intituled "An Act granting to His Majesty a 
sum of money for the support of Common Schools in the Bathurst District," was read a second 
time, and on motion, made and seconded, the House resolved itself into a Committee of the 
Whole to take the same into consideration. 

The House then went into Committee, the Honourable John McGill in the chair. 

The Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. McGill reported that the Committee had taken 
the said Bill into consideration and had made some amendments thereto, which they recom- 
mended to the adoption of the House. Ordered, that the report be accepted. 

On motion, made and seconded, it was ordered, that a Conference be requested with the 
Commons House of Assembly on the subject matter thereof ; and a message in the following 
words, being signed by the Speaker, was, by Mr. D'Arcy Boulton, the Master-in-Chancery, 
carried down and delivered to that House, as follows : — 

Mr. Speaker : 

The Honourable the Legislative Council request a Conference with the Commons House of 
Assembly on the subject matter of the Bill, intituled, "An Act granting to His Majesty a sum 
of money for the support of Common Schools in the Bathurst District," and have appointed a 
Committee of two Members, who will be ready to meet the Committee of the Commons House 
of Assembly in the joint Committe Room, for that purpose, at two o'clock p.m. to-morrow. 

Wm. Dummer Powell, 

Speaker. 

Legislative Council Chamber, 

6th Pel ruary, 182.^ 

The Honourable and Reverend John Strachan, and the Honourable Thomas Markland, 
were appointed a Committee for that purpose. 

Pursuant to the Order of the Day, the Bill intituled : " An Act granting to His Majesty a 
■sum of money for the support of a Public (Grammar) School in the Bathurst District," was read 
a second time, and, on motion, made and seconded, the House resolved itself into a Committee 
of the Whole to take the same into consideration. The House then went into Committee, the 
Honourable George Crookshank in the chair. 

The Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Crookshank reported that the Committee had 
gone through the Bill and recommended it to the adoption of the House. Ordered, that the 
report be accepted, and, on motion, made and seconded, the Bill was ordered to be read a third 
time to-morrow. 

7th February, 1823. — The House met pursuant to adjournment. Pursuant to the Order of 
the Day, the Bill intituled, " An Act for the granting to His Majesty a sum of money for the 
support of a Public (Grammar) School in the Bathurst District," was read a third time, and, 
the question being put, that the Bill do now pass, it was carried in tlie affirmative whereupon 
the Speaker signed the same. 

A deputation from the Commons House of Assembly being announced, it was admitted and 
brught up and delivered a Message in the following words : — 

Mr. Speaker : 

The Commons House of Assembly have appointed a Committee of four of its Members to 
confer with the Committee appointed by the Honourable the Legislative Council on the subject 
matter of the Bill intituled: "An Act granting to His Majesty a sum of money for " the support 
of Common Schools in the Bathurst District, in the joint Commiitee Room, at two o'clock ji.m., 
to-morrow. " 

Levius p. Sherwood, 

Commons House of Assfmbly, Speaker. 

6th February, 1823. 

The deputation having withdrawn, the said Message was read. 

The Committee appointed to confer with the Committee of the Commons House of Assembly 
on the subject matter of the Bill intituled : " An Act granting to His Majesty a sum of money 
for the support of Common Schools in the Bathurst District," reported that they had done so. 

20th February, 1823.— The House met pursuant to adjournment. A deputation from the 
Commons House of Assembly being announced, it was admitted, and brought up for the con- 
currence of this House a Bill intituled : "An Act for the relief of Teachers in Common Schools 
in the Niagara District " 



Chap. XXXVIII. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, LS23. 191 



The deputation having withdrawn, the Bill was read a first time, and, on motion, made and 
seconded, it was ordered to be read a second time to-morrow. 

24th Fehnuxry, 1823. — The House met pursuant to adjournment. Pursuant to the Order 
of the Day, the Bill intituled : "An Act for relief of Teachers of Comuion Schools in the Niagara 
District," was read a second time ; and, on motion, made and seconded, the House resolved 
itself into a Committee o the whole to take the same into consideration. The House then 
"went into Committee, the Honourable Duncan Cameron in the chair. 

The Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Cameron reported that the Committee had 
made some progress in the Bill, and requested leave to sit again on Thursday next. Ordered, 
that the report be accepted and leave given accordingly. 

27th February, 1823. — The House met pursuant to adjournment. Pursuant to the Order 
of the Day, the House resolved itself into a Committee of the Whole, to take into further con- 
sideration the Bill intituled, "An Act for the relief of Teachers of Common Schools in the 
Niagara District." The House then went into Committee, the Honourable Duncan Cameron 
in the chair. 

The Speaker having resumed the Chair, Mr. Cameron reported that the Committee had 
made some fiirther progress in the Bill and requested leave to sit again on Wednesday next. 
Ordered, that the report be accepted and leave given accordingly. 

28th Febniary, 1823. — The House met pursumt to adjournment. A message from His 
Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor being announced. Major Hillier, the Governor's Secretary, 
was admitted, who delivered to the Speaker the following Messages and papers, and having 
retired, the Messages were read as follows : — 

P. Maitland • 

The Lieutenant-Governor transmits to the Honourable the Legislative Council copies t)f 
such Reports of the Board of Trustees of District (Grammar) Schoals, as have been received since 
the last session of the Legislature. 

The Lieutenant-Governor transmits to the Honourable the Legislative Council, copies of 
such Reports of the District Boards of Education as have been received since the lait session of 
the Legislature. 

P. M. 
■Government House, 

York, 28th February, 1823. 

6th March, 1823. — The House met pursuint to adjournment. Pursuant to the Order 
of the Day, the Houje resolved itself into a Co.nnittee of thi Wndatj take into furthsr 
-consideration the Bill intituled : "An Act for the Relief of Teach irs of C jmmjn Schools in the 
Niagara District." The House then went into Cjm nittee on the Bill, the Honourable Thomas 
Markland in the chair. 

The Speaker having resu ned the Ciair, Mr. Markland reported that tha Co.nmittee had 
gone through the Bill, and recommended it to the adopti )n of the House. Order dd, that the 
report be accepter! , and on motion, made and seconded, it was ordered that the Bill be read a 
third time to, morrow. 

7th March, 1823. — The House met pursuant to adjournment. Pursuant to the Order of the 
Day, the Bill intituled, "An Act for the relief of Teachers of Commjn Schools in the Niagara 
District," was read a third time ; and the question beiug put, that it do now pass, it was carried 
in the affirmative, and the Speaker signed the same. It was than, by Mr D'Arcy Boulton, the 
Master-in-Chancery, carried down and returned to the Com oons House of Assembly. 

19th March, 1823. — The House met pursuant to adjournment. On the Commons House of 
Assembly having been summoned to the Legisladve Cjunoil Oham'ier by Black Rod, En Excel- 
lency the Lieutenant-Governor assented, in His Majesty's nama, to tha following, anmg other 
Bills :— 

1. An Act to provide for the establishment of a Public (Grammar) School in the Ottawa 
District. 

2. An Act for the reaef of Teachers of Common Schools in the Niagara District. 

3. An Act granting to His Majesty a sum of money for the support of a Public (Grammar) 
School in the Bathurst District." 

In an Act passed on the 29th of January, 1823, providing for the establish- 
ment of Courts, etc., in the Bathurst District, it was also enacted. 

That the provision made for the support of District, (Grammar,) and Common Schools 
. . . shall be, and are hereby, extended to the District of Bathurst, etc. 



192 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1823 

The Lieutenant-Governor then closed the Session of the Legislature with a 
Speech from the Throne. In it he made no reference to education or to the school 
legislation of the Session. 

The following are the three Acts relating to Schools, passed by the Legisla- 
ture of 1823. 

4th GEORGE IV, CHAPTER XXVIl. 

1. An Act gkanting to His Majesty a sum of Money for the Suppoet of a Public 
(Grammar) School in the Bathurst District. 

^iV Pengrine Maitland, Lieutenant-Governor. 

Passed 19th March, 1823. 
Most Gracious Sovereign : 

Whereas it is expedient that the like provision be made by law for the estab- Preamble, 
lishment of a Public School in the District of Bathurst as is extended to the other 
Districts of this Province ; we beseech your Majesty that it may be enacted, and be 
it enacted by the King's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and con- 
sent of the Legislative Council and Assembly of the Province of Upper Canada, 
constituted and assembled by virtue of and under the authority of an Act passed in 
the Parliament of Great Britain, intituled : " An Act to Repeal certain parts of an 
Act passed in the fourteenth year of His Majesty's reign, (1791) intituled: "An 
Act for making more effectual provision for the Government of the Province of 
Quebec in North America, and to make further provision for the Government of 
the said Provinoe," and by the authority of the same. 

That from and out of the rates and duties, raised, levied and collected or here- £100 granted 
after to be raised, levied and collected, to and for the Public uses of this Province, annually as a 
and unappropriated, there be granted annually to His Majesty, His Heirs and ^g^^^^j. ^j^^^ 
Successors, the sum of one hundred pounds which sum of one hundred pounds shall Public School 
be appropriated, applied and disposed of in paying the salary of the teacher of the in Hathurst, 
Public (Grammar) School which may be hereafter established in the said District of and shall be 
Bathurst ; and shall be paid by the Receiver-General of this Province, in discharge paid byRecei- 
of such warrant, or warrants, as shall for that purpose be issued by the Governor, ^^^ accounted 
Lieutenant-Governor or person administering the Government of this Province ; forthroughthe 
and shall be accounted for to His Majetsy, His Heirs and Successors, through the Lords Com- 
Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's treasury, for the time being, in such manner miBsioners of 
and form as His Majesty, His Heirs and Successors shall be pleased to direct. ^is Majesty's 



4th GE 3RGE IV, CHAPTER XXVIT. 

2. An Act to provide for the establishment of a Public (Grammar) School in the District 

of Ottawa, 

Sir Peregrine. Maitland, Lieutenant-Governor. 

Passed 19th March, 1823. 
Most Gracious Sovereign : 

Whereas it is considered expedient, for the purpose of promoting the education Preamble 
of the youth in the District of Ottawa, that a Public (Grammar) School should be 
established in that District, in like manner as Public (Grammar) Schools have by 
law been established in the different districts in this Province. May it therefore 
please your Majesty that it may be enacted, and be it enacted by the King's 
most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Legis- 
lative Council and Assembly of the Province of Upper Canada, constituted and 
assembled by virtue of and under the authority of an Act passed in the Parliament 
of Great Britain, intituled, " An Act to repeal certain parts of an Act passed in the 
fourteenth year of His Majesty's reign, (1791) intituled : 'An Act for making more 
effectual provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec in Noi'th America,' A Public 
and to make further provision for the Government of the said Province," and by the School to be 
authority of the same, that from and after the passing of this Act provision be made established in 
by law for the establishing a Public (Grammar) School in the said District of Ottawa, ^t'awa. « 



Chap. XXXVIII. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1823. 193 



2. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That from and out £ioo granted 
of the rates and duties, raised, levied and collected, or hereafter to be raised, to pay a 
levied and collected, to and for the public uses of this Province, and unappropriated, Teacher's 
there be granted annually to His Majesty, His Heirs and Successors, the sum of salary. 

one hundred pounds ; which Paid sum of one hundred pounds shall be appropriated 
and applied and disposed of in paying the salary of the Teachers of the said Sihool 
which sail sum of one hundred pounds shall be paid by the Receiver-General of this 
Province, in discharge of such warrant, or warrants, as shall for that purpose be 
issued by the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or Person Administering the Govern- 
ment of this Province, and shall be accounted for to His Majesty, His Heirs and 
Successors, through the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury, for the time 
being, in such manner and form as His Majesty, His Heirs and Successors shall be 
pleased to direct. 

3. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That the said School School to be- 
shall be opened and kept in the Township of Longueil, in the County of Prescott, kept in Lon- 
at or near the place of holding the General Quarter Sessions of the Peace for the ^®* " 

said District, at such place as the Trustees appointed, or hereafter to be appointed, 
or the majority of them, may think proper. 

4. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That the said School Under the 
shall be established in like manner, and under the same rules, regulations and res- ^?™® rejrula- 
trictions in every particular as are mentioned in the two several Acts of the Parlia- pubhcschooi 
ment of this Province, the one passed in the forty-seventh year of His late Majesty's 

reign (1807) intituled : " An Act to establish Public Schools in each and everv Dis- 
trict of this Province ;" and the other passed in the fifty-ninth year of His late 
Majesty's reign (1820) intituled • " An Act to repeal part of, and to amend, the laws 
now in force for establishing Public (Grammar) Schools in the several Districts of 
this Province, and to extend the provisions of the same. 



4th GEORGE IV, CHAPTER XXXVI. 

3. An Act jfor thk Relief of Teachers of Common Schools in the District of Niagara. 

Sir Peregrine Maitland, Lieutenant-Governor. 

Passed 19th March, 1823. 
Most Gracious Sovereign : 

Whereas it appears that part of the funds advanced to the Treasurer of the Preamble. 
Niagara District, under the authority of an Act passed in the fifty-sixth year of His 
late Majesty's reign, (1816), intituled : " An Act granting to His Majesty a sum of 
money, to be applied to the use of Common Schools throughout this Province, and 
to provide for the Regulation of the said Common Schools," have been applied umler Error in appli- 
the authority of the Board of Education for the District, in payment of certain con- cation, 
tingent expenses thereof, not authorized by the said Act, or any other Act of this 
Province ; and 

Whereas in consequence thereof the sum granted by an Act passed in the six- ^ct of 1820. 
tieth year of His late Majesty's reign, (1820), intituled : "An Act granting to His 
Majesty a sum of money, to be applied to the use of Common School'^ throughout 
this ProvincH, and to provide for the Regulation of the said Common Schools," has 
been withheld from the Treasurer of the said District ; for remedy whereof, 

Be it enacted by the King's most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and Remedy, 
consent of the Legislative Council and Assembly of the Province of Upper Canada con- 
stituted and assembled by virtue of and under the authority of an Act passed in the 
Parliament of Great Britain, intituled, " An Act to repeal certain parts of an Act 
passed in the fourteenth year of His Majesty's reign, ( ), intituled : " An Act for 
making more effectual provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec in 
North America," and to make further provision for the Government of the said Pro- 
vince," and by the authority of the same, 

That from and after the passing of this Act, it shall and may be lawful for the Receiyer-Gen- 
Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or person administering the Goverinnent of this ^''*' directed 
Province, to issue his Warrant upon the heceiver-General, in favor of the Treasurer defrdency^ 
of the Niagara District for all such sum, or sums, of money as may appear to be in 

J3(,D.E.) 



194 DOCUMENTAllY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1823 



arrears for the support of Common Schools therein, for the year one thousand eight 

hundred and twenty, under and by virtue of the said Act of the Legislature of this 

Province, made and passed in the sixtieth year of the reign of His late Majesty ; 

and also such sum or sums of money as may have thereafter accrued by virtue of the . 

said Act, upon the said Treasurer accounting for the expenditure of the first sum so ■^°<'°"°''"*' 

to be issued by the Receiver General of this Province, according to the laws in force 

for that purpose : Provided always, 

Thit nothing in this Act contained shall extend, or be construed to extend, to No Act re- 
repeal any part of the said Act, or any other Act of the Legislature of this Province, pealed, 
making the Treasurer, or any other person, or persons, accountable for the moneys 
placed in his or their hands by virtue of this Act. 

2. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, that if the Trustees of any Truatees may 
Oommon School shall have ommitted to make their quarterly reports, in consequence n^ake omitted 
of the non-payment of their certificates in favour of school masters, it shall and may ""^PortS' 
be lawful for such Trustees to make reports of such schools as shall have been 
regularly kept, in pursuance of the above recited Act ; and it shall and may be law- 
ful for the Treasurer of the said District to pay to the Teachers of such school res- 
pectively, when the payments shall be approved by the Board of Education, and a 
certificate of good conduct shall be produced from the Trustees, such sum, or sums, 
•of money as such Teachers would respectively have been entitled to receive, had 
the reports of their schools been regularly made . 



CHAPTER XXXIX. 

MISCELLANEOUS PAPERS RELATING TO EDUCATION IN UPPER 

CANADA, 1823-1826. 

In 1818, Mr. Edward Allen Talbot and his Father came to Upper Canada, and, 
liaving counselled with their namesake, the Hon. Thomas Talbot, founder of the 
Talbot Settlement, (County of Elgin,) made their home in the Township of West- 
minster. "While there, Mr. E. A. Talbot wrote a series of papers in the form of 
letters on Canada, etc., which, in 1824, he republished in London, (England,) in 
two volumes. From the second volume, I insert the following account which he 
^ives, (in Letter xxx.,) of the state of Education in Upper Canada in 1823 : 
While Mr. Talbot's remarks are somewhat superficial and flippant, yet they give 
a good idea of how an educated observer regarded the educational and social 
condition of Upper Canada seventy years ago. He said : — 

The inestimable advantages resulting from a well-educated and enlightened population, 
cannot be experienced in Canada for many years to come. The great mass of the people are 
-at present completely ignorant even of the rudiments of the most common learning. Very 
few can either read or write ; and parents, who are ignorant themselves, possess so slight a 
relish for literature, and are so little acquainted with its advantages, that they feel s arcely any 
anxiety to have the minds of their children cultivated. The axiom of the great Philosopher 
does not seem to have obtained with the inhabitants of Canada, for they will not believe, that 
" knowledge is power ;" and, being convinced, that it is not in the nature of "book-learned 
skill " to improve the earnestness of their sons in hewmg wood, or the readiness of their 
daughters in spinning flax, they consider it a misajjplication of money to spend any sum in 
obtaining instruction for their offspring. Nothing can afford a stronger proof of their indiffer- 
ence in this respect, than the circumstance of their electing men to represent them in the 
Provincial larliament, whose attainments in learning are, in many instances, exceedingly small, 
and sometimes do not pass beyond the horn-book. 1 have myself been present in the Honour- 
able the House of Assembly, when some of the Members, on being called to be Chairmen of 
Committees, were under the disagreeable and humiliating necessity of requesting other mem- 
l)ers to read the Bills before the Committee ; and, then, as the difterent clauses were rejected 
•or adopted, to request these, their proxies, to signify the same in the common mode of writing. 



Chap. XXXIX. MISCELLANEOUS EDUCATIONAL PAPERS OF 1823. 195 



I have no acquaintance with any of these gentlemen, nor the most distant connection with 
their Honourable House, being only an occasional spectator of its proceedings ; but I never 
could witness such exposure of entire incapacity as these, without blushing for the ignorance 
of men in stations so exalted. 

As another proof of the lamentable want of information among the Canadians, I can posi- 
tively assert, that during a residence of five years in the Province, I have only seen two persons 
with books in their hands, and one of these was consulting a medical publication for the cure of 
a disease under which he laboured. 

Indeed, the scarcity of books in the country-parts of Canada, is nearly as great, as that of 
pine apples on the summit of Snowdon. I cannot easily account for the fact, that even those 
persons who have had the benefit of a tolerable education, should entertain such a determined 
dislike to all kinds of reading, as they display, by acknowledging without a blush, as many of 
them do, that they have never read a book through, since they left school. 

Many circumstances concur to make it impracticable for the Canadians, even if they were 
capable, to educate their own children. 

In consequence of the difficulty of procuring labour, which I have already mentioned, the 
farmer is not only compelled to devote himself entirely to the cultivation of his ground, but 
also to call in the aid of his sons, as soon as they are able to assist him. 

Boys of seven or eight years old are put to work, in Canada, and are kept at it during their 
lives, unless they acquire those habits of indolence which, I have before observed, are so general, 
as to preclude the devotion of much care and attention to any honest or equitable sort of trade. 
Oxen are so well trained, and horses in general so devoid of mettle, that a little child may lead 
them ; and a boy ten years old is therefore nearly as serviceable to his father, as one that is 
eighteen. 

When the parent is sufficiently comfortable to dispense with the constant labour of his son, 
schools are perhaps too remote from his house to render them of any value to his children. 
Great are the advantages to be derived from a residence in the midst of a condensed and well- 
organised state of society, and numerous are the evils which result from a scanty population 
scattered over a wide and cheerless wilderness. While the Province was in its infancy, the 
Supreme Government evinced a disposition to promote the happiness of the settlers, by calling 
the attention of General Simcoe, the first Lieutenant-Governor, to the establishment of schools 
in various parts of the country. This appears from a letter addressed by the Duke of Portland 
to Governor) Simcoe,' which is dated 1796.* It is said, the General endeavoured to comply with 
the wishes of his Majesty's Government. In the session of 1797, the I rovincial Legislature 
presented a memorial to General Simcoe, imploring his Majesty to appropriate a certain portion 
of waste lands of the crown, to the purpose of raising a fund for the institution and support of 
a respectable Grammar-School in each District. In reply to this memorial, the Duke of Port- 
land, at that time one of the principal Secretaries of State, informed the Legislature, that His 
Majesty was pleased to accede to their petitions. t The grant was accordingly made ; but as 
land was previously so easy to be procured without purchase, the demand for the crown land 
has been very small, and the good effects, which were expected to result from the royal bounty, 
have never yet been realized. 

For many years, there were only two schools of any note in the Province : The one at 
Kingston [Cornwall], conducted by the Honourable and Rev. Dr. Strachan, a Scotchman of 
great abilities ; and the other at >iagara, under the direction of Mr. R. Cockrel, an English- 
man, who is accounted a good mathematician. 

In 1807, a Provincial statute was enacted to establish a Seminary in every District, in which 
the Classics and practical Mathematics were required to be taught. A number of Trustees, 
nominated by the Lieutenant-Governor, were to have the ai>pointment of the Teachers, each of 
whom was to enjoy a salary of £100 per annum. 

These schools have been now for some time established ; and we may hope, that the country 
will derive considerable advantage from the knowledge, which they will thus more generally 
•diffuse. The low and inadequate salary, however, is a subject of much regret. For few men, 
whose acquirements would enable them to fulfil, with credit to themselves and advantage to 
their pupils, the important offices of classical and mathematical Tutors, can be found willing to 
settle in the wilds of Upper Canada, on the salary of £100, — a sum, which, I know from experi- 
ence, is not more than sufficient to maintain a single young man in this country. In 1816, 
.another law was passed for the establishment of Common Schools in every Township ; but this 
Bill contains a clau e, which in a great degree renders the whole measure abortive. It declares, 
there shall be a School in every town, village or place in which twenty pupils can be collected. 
'J o each of these schools £25 was to be appropriated. 

* Mr. Talbot here misstates the case ; it w&e Goveraor Simcoe who first moved in this matter. 
+ These documents will be found on pages 16-26 ante. 



196 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 182'3- 



Now, admitting the population at that time to amount to 100,000, one-fifth of whom, may- 
be supposed to be children fit for school, the annual sum of £25,000 would be required to carry 
the scheme into effect, which is at least three times the amount of what the provincial revenue 
was at that time. 

The fact is, the Bill has altogether failed in its design. There was another clause, providing^ 
that the salary proposed should only be given to such teachers as were British subjects ; which 
created so much jealousy among the people, that many of them preferred having no schools 
at all, to having them under the sole direction of Europeans, or Canadians. 

The opinions thus expressed by Mr. Talbot in regard to the Common School 
legislation of 1816 are substantially the same as those contained in the article 
written in 1819 on the History of Education in Upper Canada, given on pages 
153-159. The writer of that " History " remarked : — 

Though the Legislature acted wisely in establishii g District, (Grammar) Schools, as being 
most beneficial to the public, yet that Body never lost sight of the propriety of extending the 
benefits of instruction to the lower orders throughout the Pjovince. Finding the revenue 
greatly increased in 1816, a law was passed, ('containing many excellent provisians), for estab- 
lishing and supporting Common Schools in every Village or Township in the Province. 

This Bill was very much hurt by the insertion of a clause that there should be a school in 
every Tf»wn, Village or place where twenty scholars could be collected. These loose word* 
admit of a latitude of interpretation, which could not have been intended, and multiply schools 
to an extent which it would require three times the Provincial revenue to support. 

Schools in the Town of Niagara in 1820-1823. 

Miss Carnochan, of Niagara, sends me the following particulars : — 

The Reverend Thomas Green came to Niagara m 1820, and opened a private school ; in 
1824, he became Secretary to the Board of Common School Trustees ; his school was in operation 
in 1826, etc. 

In the Niagara Gleaner of the 20th of June, 1823, the following item appeared : — At the 
Niagara District (5rammar School examination, the following Trustees were present and signi- 
fied their approval of the manner in which the different branches were taught, the increasing 
number of pupils, and the progress made, viz. : The Honourable William Dickson, the Reverend 
Robert Addison, the Reverend William Leeming, of Chippewa, and Messieurs Kobert Kerr» 
J. Muirhead and Ralph Clench. 

General Board of Education for Upper Canada, 1824. 

In 1822, Sir Peregrine Maitland, Lieutenant-Governor, wrote to Earl Bath- 
urst, Colonial Secretary, in which he said : — 

Much good might be effected by the organization of a General System of Education, an 
object to which might be applied the proceeds of the sales of some portion of the lands set aside 
under the title of " School Reserves," etc. 

To this suggestion a favourable reply from Earl Bathurst was received. 
This reply was communicated to Sir Peregrine Maitland's Executive Council by 
Mr. Secretary G. Hillier on the 30th of May, 1823, as given on page 180. 

Under the authority of the Act which follows, Sir Peregrine Maitland 
appointed a General Board of Education for the Province, the Members which 

were : — 

The Honourable and Reverend John Strachan, D.D. , Chairman. 

The Honourable Joseph Wells, M. L. C. 

The Honourable George H . Markland, M. L. C. 

The Reverend Robert Addison. 

John Beverley Robinson, Esquire, Attorney-General. 

Thomas Ridout, Esquire, Surveyor-General. 



Ohap. XXXIX. MISCELLANEOUS EDUCATIONAL PAPERS OF 1824. 197 

The attention which the Executive Council gave to the matter referred to it, 
may be gathered from the character of the School Extension Act which was passed 
by the Legislature of Upper Canada in the session of 1823-24 and which was 
Assented to early in 1824. 

There being no records preserved of the proceedings of the Legislature of 
Upper Canada for that Session, it is diflBcult to say what was the tone and temper 
of the discussion in either House in regard to the measure finally passed, as evinced 
by the motions which may have been made and agreed to, or rejected. The Act 
provides for the permanency and extension of previous Common School Acts. 
It also gives effect to the prayers of petitions for aid in behalf of Sunday Schools, 
presented to the House of Assembly in 1821 and 1823, and makes provision for 
the first time, under the authority of the Legislature, for the education of the 
Indians of Upper Canada. The Act itself is as follows, taken from the Consoli- 
dated Statutes of 1841 : — 

4th YEAR OF GEORGE IV., CHAPTER VIII. 

An Act to make permanent and extend the provisions of the laws now in force for 
the establishment and regulation of common schools throughout this province, 
and for granting to his majesty a further sum of money to promote and encourage 
education within the same. 

Sir Peregrine Maittand, Lietitenant-Govemor. 

Passed, January 19th, I8S4. 
Most Gracious Sovereign : — 

Whereas it would greatly tend to advance the happiness of society to dissemi- Preamble, 
nate moral and religious instruction among the people and to render permanent 
the laws now in force relating to Common Schools ; We, your Majesty's dutiful 
and loyal subjects, the Commons of Upper Canada, in I'rovincial Parliament 
assembled, most humbly beseech Your Majesty that it may be enacted, and be it, 
therefore enacted by the King's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice 
and consent of the Legislative Council and Assembly of the Province of Upper 
Canada, constituted and assembled by virtue of and under the authority of an Act 
passed in the Parliament of Great Britain, intituled "An Act to repeal certain 
parts of an Act passed in the fourteenth year of His Majesty's reign, entitled 'An 
Act for making more effectual provisions for the government of the Province of 
<Juebec, in North America, and to make further provision for the government of 
the said Province,' " and by the authority of the same, 

I. That, for the benefit of all classes of His Majesty's subjects and for the £i^q pg, 
encouragement of Sunday schools and for affording the means of moral and religious annum for 
instruction to the more indigent and remote settlements in the several districts Sunday 
throughout this Province, there shall be annually paid, in addition to the sum now Scboola. 
by law directed to be paid for the use and benefit of Common Schools, the further 

sum of one hundred and fifty pounds, which said sum of one hundred and fifty 
pounds shall be appropriated and applied in manner and form as is hereafter 
directed. 

II. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid : That the moneys Moneys 
hereby granted shall be at the disj^osal of tlie general body that is or may be granted to be 
appointed by theGovemor, Lieutenant-Governor, or person administering the govern- expended by 
ment of this Province, for the superintendence of education within the same, to be ^'® i^^'^f 'ph 
by them laid out and expended for the purchasing of books and tracts designed to ^J^^^^ ^ ^' 
afford moral and religious instruction, which said books and tracts, when so pur- » u f 
chased, shall be distributed by the said General Board in equal proportion amongst nioral and 
the several District Boards of Education throughout this Province. religious 

insttuction. 



198 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 



182JJ 



III. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, That it shall and Duty of Dis- 
may be lawful for the several District Boards of Education to make and order, at trict Boards of 
their discretion, a distribution of such books and tracts for the use and encourage- ■•'^ucation. 
ment of Sunday schools, and to the benefit of the more indigent and remote 
settlements in their respective Districts. 

IV. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, That the eighth sth clause of 
clause of an Act passed in the first year of the reign of His present Majesty the Act of 
('1820), intituled "An Act to amend and continue, under certain modifications, an 1816 repealed. 
Act passed in the fifty-sixth year of His Majesty's reign (1816), intituled 'An Act 

granting to His Majesty a sum of money to be applied to the use of Common 
Schools throughout this Province, and to provide for the regulation of the said 
Common Schools,' " be, and the same is hereby repealed. 

V. And be it further enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that the provisions Acts of 1816 
of the above recited Act, and so much of an Act passed in the fifty-sixth year of and 1820 to 
His late Majesty's reign (1816), intituled "An Act granting to His Majesty a sum extend totha 
of money to be applied to the use of Common Schools throughout this Province, Indians, 
and to provide for the regulation of the said Common Schools," as is now in force, 

shall be, and the same is hereby declared to extend to all schools that are now or 
may be hereafter established and kept among the Indians who shall be resident 
within the limits of any organized county or township within this Province, except- 
ing such schools as shall or may be otherwise provided for ; provided, nevertheless. Proviso, 
that in all reports that may be made to the Board of Education before the first day 
of June next, after the passing of this Act, from any school kept for the instruc- 
tion and education of the children of the Indians, it shall not be necessary to cer- 
tify to such Board that the Trustees of the school so reporting were chosen on the 
first day of June last, any law or usage to the contrary, in any wise, notwith- 
standing. 

VI. And be it further enacted, etc. , That every teacher of a Common School Qualifications 
before he shall be entitled to receive any portion of public money, shall be examined of teachers to 
by the Board of Education in the District in which he shall have taught or is about be tested 

to teach a Common School, or shall obtain a certificate from at least one member of "®'°'® P*y' 
such Board, certifying his ability and fitness to teach the same due regard at all 
times being had to the degree of education wanting, or to the branches necessary 
to be taught in the township, village or place in which such teacher hath under- 
taken, or is about to undertake, to teach a Common School. 

VII. And be it further enacted, etc.. That the moneys hereby granted to His jj^^ grants 
Majesty shall be paid by the Receiver-General of this Province in discharge of such are to be paid 
warrant or warrants as shall, for the purpose herein set foi-th be issued by the and accounted 
Governor, Lieutenant-Governor or person administering the government of this ^o''- 
Province for the time being, and shall be accounted for by the Eeceiver-General to 

His Majesty, his heirs and successors, through the Lords Commissioners of His 
Majesty's Treasury, for the time being, in such manner and form as His Majesty, 
his heirs and successors shaU be graciously pleased to direct. 



Trustees of the District (Grammar) Schools in Upper Canada, 1824. 



Eastern District. 
Rev. Salter J. Mountain, 
Hon. Neil McLean, M. L. C. 
Samuel Anderson, \ W 
Joseph Anderson, [ ^ 

John Crysler, '" 

Alexander McMillan. 

Ottawa District. 
Alexander McDonell, 
George Hamilton, , ^ 

Charles Sheriff, he 

R. P. Hotham, 
John Kearns. 



Johnstown District. 
Rev. John Blakey, 



Levins P. Sherwood, 

Elnathan Hubbell, I 

J. Jones, [ 

E. Bottum. j 

Bathurst District 
Rev M. Harris, ' 
James H. Powell, 
George Thew Burke, 
William Marshall, 
William Morris, 
Henry Graham. 



H 



H 



Chap. XXXIX. MISCELLANEOUS EDUCATIONAL PAPERS OF 1824. 



19^ 



Midland District. 

Alexander Fisher, ^ 

Allan McLean, | » 

Thomas Markland, I c 

Peter Smith, g' 

Thomas Dorland. ^ ? 

Newcastle District. 



vs. 



Walker Boswell, . 
Zaccheua Bumham, 
Asa Burnham, 
Robert Henry, 
Elias Jones, 
John Peters, 
Leonard Soper, 
Elias Smith, 
John Bleeker. 



Home Distrut. 

Hon. Samuel Smith, M.L.C. 
D'Arcy Boulton, Senior, "\ M 
John Small. [«2 

Duncan Cameron, 
Thomas Ridout. 



Jl 



Gore District. 



James Crooks, 
Matthew Crooks, 
James Racey, 
John Will son, 
William Ellis. 



M 



Niagara District. 

Hon. William Dickson, M.L.C. 
Hon. William Claus, M.L.C, 
Rev. Robert Addison, 
Rev. William Leeming, 
Richard Leonard, x 

Thomas Curamings, / 
Robert Kerr, > 

James Muirhead, \ 

Ralph Clench. ' 

London District. 



W 



Col, Joseph Ryerson, 
John Harris, ^ 

John Bostwick, 
James Mitchell, 
John Rolph , 
Mahlon Burwell. J 



H 






Western District. 

Hon. James Baby, M.L.C, 
Hon. Angus Mcintosh, M.L.C 
Rev. R. Pollard, 
Alexander DufiF, Esquire. 



District Boards of Education. 



Eastern District. 

Donald McDonald, \ j, ^„i_„_ 
Archibald McLean. J " 

Ottawa District. 

John McDonell, Esquire. 

Johnstovm District. 



Rev. John Blakey, 
J. Jonfs, 

Elnathan Hubbell, 
Levius P. Sherwood, 
E. Bottum, 
Joel Stone. 



Bathurst District. 

Rev M. Harris, 
William Morris, 
Anthony Leslie, 
Alexander McMillan, 
George H. Read. 



CO 



w 



Some Distriit. 

m 

The members of the General Board. 
Gore District. 



Elijah Secord, 
Daniel O'Reilly. 



I Esquii 



London District. 



James Mitchell, 
John Rolph, 
J. B. Askin, 
George C Salmon, 
John Backhose. 



CD 



Note. — In the four other Districts no Local 
Board is reported. 



200 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1825 



CHAPTER XL. 

EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE UPPER CANADA LEGISLA- 
TURE IN 1825. 

Lieutenant-Governor Sir Peregrine Maitland opened the first session of the 
Ninth Parliament of Upper Canada on the 13th of January, 1825, with the 
usual Speech from the Throne. In it he made no reference to either education 
or schools. 

1. Educational Proceedings of the House of Assembly in 1825. 

Forty-three members constituted the House of Assembly in this Ninth 
Parliament, representing twenty-five constituencies. The most noted of the 
members elected were Messieurs William Morris, John Rolph, George S. Boulton, 
Marshall S. Bidwell, Peter Perry, Jonas Jones and John B. Robinson. Mr. 
John Willson, of Wentworth, was elected Speaker. Of the forty-three members 
elected only ten took part in the educational proceedings of the session, viz.: 
Messieurs Hugh C. Thomson, Duncan Cameron, Thomas Horner, William Morris, 
Peter Perry, David Jones, Donald McDonell, Marshall S. Bidwell, James Wilson 
^nd James Atkinson. 

Two School Bills were passed by the House of Assembly, viz.: a Bill " To 
incorporate the Trustees of the Waterloo School House," and a Bill to make 
perpetual the Bathurst Common School Act of 1823, (4th George iv., chapter 
xxvii). These two Bills were sent up for the concurrence of the Honourable the 
Legislative Council. The Waterloo School House Bill was not returned from 
the Legislative Council, but that relating to the Bathurst Common School was 
■concurred by the Council and returned to the House of Assembly, where it was 
a^pparently dropped, as neither of these Bills was assented to by the Lieutenant- 
Governor. 

18th Jamuiry, 1825. — The Petition of Messieurs Peter Knight and John King, and others, 
praying for an Act to incorporate certain persons as Trustees of the Waterloo School House, in 
the Township of Kingston, was read. 

Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, of Frontenac, gives notice that he will on to-raorrow move for 
leave to bring in a Bill, founded on the Petition of Mr. Peter Knight and others, to incorporate 
the Trustees of the Waterloo School House, in the Township of Kingston. 

19ih January, 1825. — Agreeably to notice, Mr. Hugh 0. Thomson, of Frontenac, 
seconded by Mr. James Atkinson, moves for leave to bring in a Bill to incorporate the 
Trustees of the vVaterloo School House, in the Township of Kingston, which was granted, and 
the Bill was read a first time. 

Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, of Frontenac, seconded by Mr. Duncan Cameron, moves that the 
Waterloo School House Bill be read a second time to-morrow. Which was ordered. 

20th January, 1825. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Waterloo School House 
Trustees' Bill was read the second time. 

Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, of Frontenac, seconded by Mr. Marshall S. Bidwell, moves that 
the House go into Committee on the Waterloo School Eouse Bill, which was carried, and Mr. 
Homer was called to the chair. 



Chap. XL. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1825. 201 



The House having resumed, Mr. Horner reported progress, and obtained leave to sit again 
this day fortnight. 

3rd February, 1825. — Mr. William Morris gives notice that he will on to-morrow move for 
leave to bring a Bill to make perpetual the Bathurat District Common School Bill. 

J^th February, 1825. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the House went into Committee 
on the Waterloo School House Trustee Bill. Mr. Horner was called to the chair. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Horner reported the Bill as amended. The report was 
ordered to be received. 

Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, of Frontenac, seconded by Mr. Peter Perry, moves that the 
Waterloo School H juse Bill be engrossed and read a third time on Wednesday next, which was 
ordered. 

7th February, 1825. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, Mr. William Morris, seconded by 
Mr. David Jones, moves for leave to bring in a Bill to make permanent the Bathurst District 
Comm m School Law (4th George iv., Chapter xxvii,), which was granted, and the Bill was 
read a first time. 

Mr. William Morris, seconded by Mr. Donald McDonell, of Prescott, moves that the 
Bathurst District Common School perpetuation Bill be read a second time on Friday next, 
which was ordered. 

9th February, 1825. — Agreeably to the Order of the fDay, the Waterloo School House 
Bill was read the third time. 

Mr. Marshall Bidwell, seconded by Mr. James Wilson, moves that the Bill do now pass and 
that it be intituled : " An Act to Incorporate Sundry Persons under the style and title of the 
Trustees of the Waterloo School House, in the Township of Kingston," which was carried, and 
the Bill was signed by the Speaker. 

Mes ieurs HughC. Thomson and Marshall S. Bidwell, were ordered by the Speaker to carry 
up to the Honourable, the Legislative Council, the Bill, intituled : " An Act to Incorporate 
" Sundry Persons, under the style and title of the Trustees of the Waterloo School House, in 
"the Township of Kingston " and to request their concurrence thereto. 

3rd March, 1825. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Bathurst perpetuation Common 
School BiU was read the second time. 

Mr. William Morris, seconded by Mr. Donald McDonell, moves that the House do now 
resolve itself into Committee of the Whole on the Bathurst School Bill, which was carried, and 
Mr. Thomas Coleman was called to the chair. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Coleman reported the Bill as amended. The report was 
ordered to be received. 

Mr. William Morris, seconded by Mr. Donald McDonell, moves that the said Bathurst 
Common School Bill be engrossed and read a third time on Monday next. Which was ordered. 

7th March, 1825. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Bathurst Common School Bill 
was read the third time. 

Mr. Morris, seconded by Mr. McDonell, moves that the said Bill do now pass, and that it 
be intituled: "An Act to make perpetual an Act passed in the fourth year of His present 
Majesty's reign (1824), intituled : 'An Act granting to His Majesty a sum of money for the pur- 
poses therein mentioned,'" which was carried, and the Bill was signed by the Speaker. 

Messieurs William Morris and David Jones were ordered by the Speaker to carry up to the 
Honourable the Legislative Council the Bill intituled "An Act to make perpetual an Act passed 
in the fourth year of His present Majesty's reign (1^24), intituled 'An Act granting to His 
Majesty a sum of money for the purposes therein mentioned,' " and to request their concur- 
rence thereto. 

8th April, 1825. — Mr. D'Arcy Boulton, Master-in-Chancery, brought down from the Hon- 
ourable the Legislative Council the Bill intituled "An Act to make perpetual an Act passed in 
the fourth year of His present Majesty's reign (1824), intituled 'An Act granting to Hia 
Majesty a sum of money for the purposes therein mentioned,' " [i.e., for Common Schools in 
the County of Bathurst], which they had passed without amendment, and withdrew. 

No further action, in regard to this Bill, appears to have been taken by the 

House of Assembly during the session. Why, does not appear in the Journal of 

the session. 



202 DOCUMENTA.RY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 182.> 



2. Legislative Council Proceedings, 1825. 

There being no record of any proceedings of the Legislative Council for this 
session of the Legislature, (1st session of 9th Parliament, 1825,) either in the Par- 
liamentary Library at Ottawa, or Toronto, I can give no account of its action in 
educational matters, beyond what is mentioned in the last day's proceedings of 
the House of Assembly. 

On the 13th of April, 1825, the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Peregrine Maitland^ 
prorogued the Legislature. He made no reference to schools or education in his 
closing Speech from the Throne. 

Private Schools in Kingston in 1825 and 1826. 

Mr. A, S. Shaw, School Trustee, Kingston, writes, and says : — 

Two schools were opened for young ladies in February, 1825, by Mr. and Mrs. Twigg, and 
Miss Greenland. Mr. Andrew Balfour, in 1826, opened a private school to teach classics, atone 
pound ten shillings (§6), per quarter ; mathematics, at one pound ($4) ; and arithmetic, at 
fifteen shillings ($3). 

The First Schools in Brantford, 1826. 

In his report to the Board of School Trustees, Brantford, dated the 20th of 
February, 1836, Dr. M. J. Kelly, the Public School Inspector, thus gives the 
history of the early establishment of schools in the City of Brantford. 

In its earlv days Brantford seems to have possessed no organized system of public instruc- 
tion, A remote hamlet of the old Gore District, nestled on the banks of the Grand River and 
surrounded by the red men. it possessed few advantages beyond those of trade with the Indians, 
and such as the navigation of those days aflforded. Ancaster and Hamilton were the favored 
places. Although the schoolmaster was abroad, his presence was fitful and his stay usually 
short. 

The first school in what is now the City of Brantford was held in a two storey frame build- 
ing on the Market Square, and which served for town hall, court room, meeting-house and 
schoolhouse. This was about the year 1826. Here the fathers of Aldermen Read and Potts 
were wont to cultivate letters and train the young. Later, a school was opened in the East 
Ward, where, among others, Mr. Thomas James taught successfully, and another on Nelson 
street, in the Queen's Ward, where Mr. Wellesley Johnstone, the late Mr. Orpheus Robinson» 
1 believe, and others presided as teachers. 

Schools in West Gwillimbury, 1824-26. 

Mr. A. F. Hunter, M.A., Editor and publisher of the Barrie Examiner, had 
written in his newspaper a series of sketches of the "History of Simcoe County." 
In chapter thirteen, which he has kindly transcribed for me, he says : — 

About the year 1824 those living in the " Scotch Settlement " of West Gwillimbury united 
to secure instruction for their children, and built a log cabin to serve as a schoolhouse, on lot 
number eight, concession six of the township. It also served as a place of worship. Shortly 
after its erection, the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Peregrine Maitland visited West Gwillimbury 
and came to this, the first schoolhouse there. Some of the young scholars then in attendance 
never forgot the Governor's visit and his kind words to them. 

Who the first teacher was is not recorded; but, in 1826, the settlers obtained the services of 
Mr. John Carruthers, a tall, spare Scotchman, who had come from Scotland during the previous 
summer. His salary as teacher was paid directly as fees by the parents of his pupils — there 
being then no provision by the Government for the payment of teachers, or no official regula- 
tions prescribed for the government of common schools, beyond the Act itself. 



Chap. XLI. EXCHANGE OF THE ORIGINAL UNIVERSITY LANDS, 1822-1827. 203 



Among those who received their first instruction in school from Mr. Carruthers was 
Mr. Thomas D. McConkey, afterwards Member for the County, and subsequently its Sheriflf.* 

Mr. Carruthers taught for two or three years in the " Scotch Settlement," west of Bradford, 
and in 1832 was appointed as catechist and exhorter by the Presbytery of York. 



CHAPTER XLI. 



I 



EXCHANGE OF THE ORIGINAL UNIVERSITY LANDS FOR CROWN 

RESERVES, 1822-1827. 

The Rev. Dr. Strachan was one of those active public men, who, early in his 
day, liad earned the right to be heard in Provincial affairs. He was, therefore, 
soon placed in civil positions of importance and influence, apart from his clerical 
rank as Rector of York, (1812). 

In 181.5, he was, (as stated by Rev. Dr. Scadding, in his Toronto of Old-. 
page 164,) appointed an honorary Member of the Executive Council of Upper 
Canada. 

In 1817-18, he was, (as Mr. Charles Lindsay mentions in his Life of Mr. W. 
L. Mackenzie, volume I., page 158,) promoted to be a full Member of the Execu- 
tive Coimcil of the Province, 

Bishop Bethune states (in his Memoir of Bishop Strachan, page 78) that Dr. 
Strachan was appointed to be a Member of the Legislative Council of Upper 
Canada, in 1820. 

In 1823, as intimated by Lieutenant-Governor, Maitland in a letter written 
by Mr. Secretary Hillier to the Executive Council, dated May 12th, 1823, Dr. 
Strachan was appointed President of the General Board of Education for Upper 
Canada, and, as such, was practically the Superintendent of Education for the 
Province. (This office Dr. Strachan held until the Board ceased to exist in 1832). 

In each of these positions, Dr. Strachan would naturally become an influen- 
tial adviser of the Lieutenant-Governor for the time being. And so he was, while 
he occupied these positions. Even after he had resigned them, and devoted him- 
self to the discharge of his high office as Bishop of Toronto, he exercised an 
influence in public affairs.-f- 

* Sheriff McConkey was an old and valued friend of the Editor of this Documentary History. Mr. 
Hunter, in one of his sketches, thus refers to him :— " With unfailing energy he built up a large business, 
and soon amassed considerable wealih. He entered the field of politics and municipal life with as much 
energy as characterized his business habits. He was elected to the first town council of Barrie, and was 
Reeve of the town in 1855, and again in 1859 to 1863, both years inclusive. In 1860 and 1861 he was War- 
den of the County. In 1863 he contested the North Riding of Simcoe against Mr. Angus Morrison, and 
was successful. He took a leading part and was mainly instrumental in founding the Examiner newspaper 
in 1863 and January, 1864. In the historical debates on Confederation he took a prominent part, and by 
his liberal attitude on the questions of the day he gained the respect of all {.tolitical parties. At the general 
elections of 1867 he was returned by acclamation. In 1875 he was appomted Sheriff of Simcoe County. 
For nearly twenty years previously to this he had been a Justice of the Peace." 

tMr. McMullen, in his History of Canada, volume one, page 445, thus speaks of Dr. Strachan's retire- 
ment from these offices :—" In 1836, he resigned his seat in the Executive Council; and, in 1840, also 
retired from the Legislative Council, and disappeared altogether from political life, in which he had been 
a conspicuous actor for twenty-two years . . . He commenced life by ruling boys ; he finished it by 
ruling men. . . For the ensuing twenty-seven years of his life, he was simply the blameless Christian 
Bishop of his large diocese ; and, on the second of November, 1867, finally crossed that bourne ' whence 
no traveller returns,' in the eighty-ninth year of his age." 



204 DOCUMENTARY HISTORy OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1822-27 



As a member of the Executive and Legislative Councils, his influence was 
•chiefly directed to the promotion of such schools as would in time become feeders 
to the University, which he laboured hard to have established in Upper Canada. 
As to the steps which he took to accomplish this object, be narrates them on the 
occasion of the opening of King's College on the 8th of June, 1843, as follows : — 
In his address on that occasion, he thus referred to the proceedings of the Govern- 
ment of Sir Peregrine Maitland, in 1822-23, in regard to the proposed University 
of Upper Canada : — 

In 1822, His Excellency, Sir Peregrine Maitland, invited the attention of His Majesty's 
Government to the unproductive state of the school lands, and obtained leave to establish a 
Board for the general superintendence of education throughout the Province, and to place at 
its disposal, for the support of new Grammar Schools, where they might be wanted, a portion 
of the reserved lands, retaining a sufficient endowment for the University. The dutif s assigned 
to the Board were various and important. All the schools in the colony were placed under 
its care, and the President was required to make occasional visits to the different Districts, in 
order to ascertain on the spot the actual state of the Common and District (Grammar) Schools ; 
to correspond with the local authorities respecting education in their respective vicinities ; to 
recommend proper school books, and thus introduce uniformity of system throughout the whole 
country. During its short continuance, the Board was most active and useful ; but the colony 
increased so rapidly in wealth and population, under the administration of that excellent and 
amiablii Governor, Sir Peregrine Maitland, that the want of a University became every day 
more evident; and yet, after it was felt almost universally to'be required, even in the opinion of 
the most indifferent, there was no prospecc of a productive endowment. We were greatly 
discouraged by observing that even the Board of Education could not, with the most unremitting 
exertions, dispose of their lands at any reasonable price ; for so long as the Government continued 
to confer grants gratuitously on all applicants capable of becoming useful settlers, there were few 
or no purchasers. 

The cry, however, for the University, became daily more urgent, and the more respectable 
inhabitants very justly complained that there was not, in either Province, an English Seminary 
above the rank of a good school at which a liberal education could be obtained. And thus the 
youth of more than three hundred thousand British subjects had no opportunity of receiving 
nstruction in the higher branches of knowledge. 

To the necessity of supplying this deficiency, the attention of the Provincial Government 
was, in 1823, most anxiously directed, and as an available endowment was the great desideratum, 
a method of securing one in a very short time was happily discovered. From the first settlement 
of the Province, two-sevenths of all the lands in the settled Townships had been reserved— one 
for the maintenance of the Protestant Clergy, called Clergy Reserves— the other still remained, 
for special purposes, at the disposal of the Government, and wei-e called Crown Reserves. 
These latter being still in the Crown, had become in many places very valuable, from the 
settlements around them, and, if brought into the market, would command reasonable prices, 
much more than the lands which had been originally appropriated for the District (Grammar) 
Schools and University, which had been carelessly selected, and continued, from their 
remoteness, almost unsaleable. Now, to secure a competent endowment for a University, it 
was submitted, by Sir Peregrine Maitland to His Majesty's Government to exchange a portion 
of the School lands for a like quantity of the Crown Reserves. For the mere purpose of grant- 
ing lots to settlers, the School lands were as useful to the Government as the Crown Reserves ; 
but such an exchange, if it could be effected, would place at His Excellency's disposal an 
endowment which might be made almost immediately available. After examining the proposal 
Sir Peregrine Maitland gave it his cordial approbation ; but not deeming it within his power to 
make the exchange without special instructions, he determined to refer the matter to the 
King's Government, and at the same time to apply for a Royal Charter for establishing the 
TJniversity. — {Proceedings at the Opening of King's College, etc.. Pages 86-38.) 

Sir George Arthur, in a Despatch to the Marquis of Normanby, Colonial 

Secretary'-, dated, Toronto, 8th of June, 1839, thus speaks of these educational 

proceedings in Upper Canada in 1823. After refering to the passage of Grammar 

and Public School Acts of 1807, 1808, 1816 and 1820, he says :— 

Things appear to have remained in much the same state in regard to the provision for 
education until 182.3, about which period the Secretary of State, (Earl Bathurst,) authorized the 
formation of a General Board of Education, for the management of the lands set apart for the 
purposes of education. 



Chap. XLI. EXCHANGE OF THE ORIGINAL UNIVERSITY LANDS, 1822-27. 205 



Under the auspices of this Board, the question of establishing the proposed University had 
been brought forward ; and it being determined, to efiect. if possible, that object, as a prelimin- 
ary step, a Royal Charter, was applied for and granted. 

In addition to this mark of favour, as the remote situation of the school townships rendered 
the land thereof of comparatively little value, the King munificiently resumed about 225,914 acres 
out of them, alienating as an equivalent, to the Corporation of the University, the like quantity of 
Crown Reserves, mostly under lease, in old settled 'J'ownships, where the lands bore a great value. 

The project of the exchange of the original unproductive University lands 

for the more valuable Crown Reserves, having, as Dr. Strachan states, commended 

itself to the judgment of Sir Peregrine Maitland, he applied to His Majesty's 

Government in F.ngland for permission to make the desired exchange, in the 

following despatch, dated " York, Upper Canada, 19th December, 182a : — " 

The occurrences of every year in this Province bring more forcibly before me the incalcul- 
able importance of the establishment of an University. Education, it is evident, must have an 
ascendancy to a certain extent in every country, and, to provide for that education being 
received under circumstances that must produce a common attachment to our constitution and 
a common feeling of respect and affection for our ecclesiastical establishment, is an object so 
evidently desirable that I need not preSs it upon Your Lordshiy/s attention. 

Your Lordship is aware that about 450,000 acres of land have been set apart for a provision 
for this object ; but some of these lands, though they possess the advantage of being in large 
blocks, lie in tracts at present remote from settlements, and a considerable portion of them is 
not of the first quality. 

It has occurred to me that, if Your Lordship saw fit to allow that an equal quantity of the 
best of these lands were exchanged for that portion of the Crown Reserves which remains to the 
Government, as being under lease, the latter could be almost immediately disposed of at an 
average price of not less than ten shillings per acre. There are about 200,000 acres of Crown 
Reserves at present occupied, and a sum could thus be procured that would admit of the 
immediate establishment of an U niversity on a scale that would render it eflFective. 

It was not until the 3 1st of March, 1827, that a formal reply to this despatch 
of Sir Peregrine Maitland was written, although the assent of the Home Govern- 
ment to his proposal was evidently understood by the Provincial Government. In 
the reply, the royal assent was given to the exchange, and it was accordingly made. 
In a Report of Commissioners appointed by Lord Elgin, Governor-General, 
in July, 1848, to enquire into the affairs of King's College, they state that : — 

The Crown Reserves above alluded to were estimated by His Excellency, Sir Peregrine 
Maitland, at 200,000 acres and worth, on the average ten shillings per acre. The Rev. Dr. 
Strachan, in the following year, 1826, estimated these Reserves at 229,000 acres, and worth 
"ten shilling sProvincial Currency per acre." According to the Deed of Endowment of the 3rd 
of January, 1828, the quantity of land conveyed to the University from the Crown Reserves was 
225,944 acres ; which, however, by certain errors of measurement and prior alienations which 
were subsequently discovered, was reduced to 223,538| acres. The Crown Reserves thus con- 
verted into the University endowment consisted of lands situate in various parts of Upper 
Canada, in actual, or nominal, occupation, under lease, at rate of rental fixed by a certain scale 
established by the Provincial Government, and a large proportion of the lots were in an im- 
proved, or cultivated, state. The following statement of the quantities in the respective dis- 
tricts will sufficiently indicate the value of these lands, so far as their location is concerned : — 
In the Eastern District there were 4,350 acres. 

" Ottawa " " 3.390 " 

" Johnstown" " 13,342 " 

" Bathurst " ' 1,868 " 

'• Midland " " 30,628 " 

" Newcastle " " 36,729 " 

" Home " '• 54.048 " should be 54,05». 

«« Gore " •' 39,146 " 

" Niagara " " 5,137 " 

" London " " 34,481 " should be 34, < 89. 

" Western " " 2,826 

Total 225,944 acres ; should be 225,957. 

— Report of the Commissioners, pages 16 and 17. 



206 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1826-27 



CHAPTER XLII. 

EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE UPPER CANADA LEGISLA- 
TURE IN 1826-27. 

On the 5th of December, 1826, Sir Peregrine Maitland, the Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor opened the third session of the Ninth Parliament of Upper Canada with a 
Speech from the Throne, but made no reference in it to either education or 
schools. The educational proceedings of the House of Assembly were of little 
public importance ; those of the Legislative Council were of even less importance. 
They chiefly related to local matters, A petition from the Reverend Thaddeus 
Osgoode,* asking for aid for Indian schools called forth an interesting Report 
from a Committee of the House of Assembly, of which the Honourable John B. 
Robinson, Attorney-General was Chairman. 

19th December, 1826. — Mr. Attorney-General Robinson, seccnded by Mr. William Thomp- 
son, moves for leave to bring up the Petition of the Reverend Thaldeus Osgoode, Agent for 
a Society formed for promoting education and industry in Upper Canada. 

21st December, 1826. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Petition of the Reverend 
Thaddeus Osgoode, praying for legislative aid in establishing schools among the Indians and in 
the destitute settlements of this Province was read. 

Mr. William Thompson, seconded by Mr. William Morris, moves that the Petition of the 
Reverend Thaddeus Osgoode, be referred to Messieurs Hugh C. Thomson, John Rolph, Francis 
L. Walsh, and Edward McBride, with leave to report by Bill, or otherwise. Which was ordered. 

20th December, 1826. — Mr. Donald McDonell, seconded by Mr. Jonas Jones, moves for 
leave to bring up the Petition of the Reverend John McLaurin, a Member of the Established 
Church of Scotland, which was granted, and the Petition brought up. 

22nd Decefnber, 1826. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Petition of the Reverend 
John McLaurin, praying that a Bill may be passed authorizing him to grant to trus ees, and 
their successors, one acre of land for the site of a District (Grammar) School house in the Dis- 
trict of Ottawa, was read. 

Mr. Donald McDonell, seconded by Mr. Thomas Coleman, moves that the petition of the 
Reverend John McLaurin be referred to a Select Committee to be composed of Messieurs Ham- 
ilton, Walker and Alexander McDonell, with power to report thereon by Bill or otherwise. 
Which was ordered. 

Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, seconded by Mr. Peter Perry, moves for leave to bring up the 
petition of James Atkinson, Esquire, of the Town of Kingston, which was granted, and the 
petition brought up. 

26th December, 1826. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the petition of James Atkinson, 
of the Town of Kingst m. Esquire, praying for authority to vest in trustees and their successors 
in office, a certain piece of land in the town of Waterloo, in the Midland District for school pur- 
poses, was read. 

Mr Hugh C. Thomson, seconded by Mr. Peter Perry, moves that the Petition of James 
Atkinson, Esquire, be referred to Messieurs Donald McDonell andZaccheus Burnham, to report 
thereon by Bill or otherwise. Which was ordered. 

27th December, 1827. — Mr. Marshall S. Bidwell, seconded by Mr. Peter Ferry, moves for 
leave to bring up the Petition of sundry inhabitants of the Counties of Lennox and Addington, 
which was granted and the Petition brought up. 

29th December, 1826. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Petition of sundry inhabit- 
ants of the incorporated Counties of Lennox and Addington, praying that certain persons may 
be incorporated for school purposes in the Village of Bath, was read. 

* For reference to the Reverend Thaddeusj Osgoode see note on page 91, ante. 



Chap. XLII. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1826-2,7. 207 



Mr. Marshall S. Bidwell, seconded by Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, moves that the petition of 
aundry inhabitants of the Counties of Lennox and Addington be referred to a Select Committee 
consisting of Messieurs Jonas Jones and Peter Perry, with power to send for persons and papers, 
with leave to report by Bill or otherwise. Which was ordered. 

Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, from the Committee to whom was re'errei the Petition of James 
Atkinson, Esquire, informed the House that the Committee had agreed to report by Bill, a draft 
-of which he was ready to submit whenever the House wou d please to receive it. The Report 
was ordered to be received, and the Bill was read the first time. 

Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, seconded by Mr. James Wilson, moves that the Waterloo School 
House Bill be read a second time on Tuesday next. Which was ordered. 

5th January, 18.37. — Mr. Donald McDonell, from the Committee to whom was referred the 
petition of the Rev. John McLaurin, informed the House that the Committee had agreed to re- 
port by Bill, a draft of which he was ready to submit, whenever the House would please receive 
the same. The Report was ordered to be received and the draft of bill was read the first time. 

Mr. Donald McDonell, seconded by Mr. Alexander McDonell. moves that the Ottawa 
District School House Bill be read a second time on Tuesday next. Which was ordered. 

6th January, 1827. — Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, seconded by Mr. Alexander McDonell, moves 
for leave to bring up the Petition of Thomas Gibbs Ridoiit, Esquire, and other inhabitants of 
the Town of York, which was granted, and the Petition brought up. 

8th January, 1827. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Waterloo School House Bill 
was read the second time. 

Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, seconded by Mr. Hamilton Walker, moves that the House do now 
go int ) Committee of the Whole on the Waterloo School House Bill. Which was carried, and 
Mr. Alexander Wilkinson was called to the chair. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Wilkinson reported'the Bill as amended. The Report was 
ordered to be received. 

Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, seconded by Mr. Donald McDonell, moves that the Waterloo School 
House Bill be engrossed and read a third time on Wednesday next. Which was ordered. 

9th January, 1827. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Petition of Thomas G. Ridout, 
Esquire, and certain inhabitants of the Town of York, in regard to the Common School House, 
^nd praying for an Act of incorporation for school purposes, was read. 

Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, seconded by Mr. Dune in Cameron, moves that the Petition of 
Thomas G Ridout, Esquire, and others of the Town of York, be referred to a Select Committee 
■composed of Messieurs David Jones and James Lyons, with power to report thereon by Bill, or 
^jtherwise. Which was ordered. 

10th January, 1827. — Mr. John Mathews, seconded by Mr. John Rolph, moves for leave to 
bring up the Petition of Mr. Edward Thompson Philan, which was granted, and the Petition 
brought up. 

Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, from the Committee to whom was referred the Petition of Thomas 
G. Ridout, Ebquire, and others, of the Town of York, informed the House that the «'omraittee 
had agreed to report by Bill, a draft of which he was ready to submit whenever the House 
would please receive the same. The Report was ordered to be received, and the Bill was read 
the first time. 

Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, seconded by Mr. David Jones, moves tliat the York Common 
School House Bdl be read a second time on Saturday next. Which was ordered. 

Mr. Marshall S. Bidwell, from the Committee to whom was referred the Petition of certain 
inhabitants of the Counties of Lennox and Addington in regard to the Bath School Society, in- 
formed the House that the Committee had agreed to report by Bill, a draft of which he wafc 
ready to submit whenever the House would please to receive the same. The Report was order- 
ed tu be received and the Bill was read the first time. 

Mr. Marshall S. Bidwell, seconded by Mr. Peter Perry, moves that the Bath School Bill be 
read a second time on Saturday next. Which was ordered. 

12th January, 1827. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day the Petition of Mr. Edward 
Thompson Philan, praying for the allowance of school money, was read. 

13th January, 1827. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day the Ottawa School House Bill was 
read the second time. 

Mr. Donald McDonell, seconded by ' Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, moves that the House 
resolves itself into a Committee of the Whole on the Ottawa District School House Bill, which 
-was carried and Mr. Zaccheus Burnham was called to the chair. 



208 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPtER CANADA. 1826-27 



The House having resumed, Mr. Burnham reported the Bill without amendment. The 
Report was ordered to be received. 

Mr. Donald McDonell, seconded by Mr. Alexander McDonell, moves that the Ottawa 
District School House Bill be engrossed and read a third time on Tuesday next, which was- 
ordered. 

Mr. John Matthews, seconded by Mr. Alexander Wilkinson, moves that the Petition of 
Mr. Edward Thompson Philan be referred to a Select Committee, and that Messieurs William 
Morris and Robert Randall do compose the same, with power to send for persons and papers, 
and to report thereon by Bill, or otherwise, on which the House divided, and the yeas and naya 
being taken were as follows : — 

Yeas. — Messieurs Atkinson, Baby, Burke, Clark, Coleman, Fothergill, Hamilton, Matthews, 
McCall, Peterson. Randal, Thomson, Wilkinson and Wilson — 14. 

Nays. — Messieurs Beasley, Burnham, Cameron, Gordon, D. McDonell, A. McDonell, 
Morris, Scollick and White — 9. 

The question was carried in the affirmative by a majority of five, and was ordered 
accordingly. 

16th January 1827. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Ottawa District School House 
Bill was read the third time. 

Mr. Donald McDonell, seconded by Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, moves that the Bill do now 
pass, and that it be intituled : "An Act to authorize the Beverend John McLaurin to convey 
to the Ottawa District School Trustees a lot of land for the purposes therein mentioned. "^ 
Which was carried and the Bill signed by the Speaker. 

Messieurs Donald McDonell and Mr. Alexander McDonell were ordered by the Speaker to 
carry the same up to the Honourable the Legislative Council, and to request their concurrence 
thereto. 

Agieeably to the Order of the Day, the York Common School House Bill was read the 
second time. 

Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, seconded by Mr. Robert Randal, moves that the House do now 
resolve itself into Committee of the Whole on the York Common School House Bill. Which 
was carried, and Mr. Charles Ingersol was called to the chair. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Ingersol reported the Bill without amendment. The 
Report was ordered to be received. 

Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, seconded by Mr. James Atkinson, moves that the York Common 
School House Bill be engrossed and read a third time on Thursday next, which was ordered. 

Mr. D'Arcy Boulton, Master-in -Chancery, brought down from the Honourable the Legisla- 
tive Council, the Bill intituled : " An Act to authorize James Atkinson, Esquire, to convey to 
trustees a lot of land for purposes therein mentioned, to which the Honourable the Legislative 
Council had made some amendments, and to which the concurrence of this House was requested, 
and having retired, the amendments made by the Honourable the Legislative Council in and to 
the Bill, intituled : " An Act to authorize James Atkinson, Esquire, to convey to trustees a lot of 
land for purposes therein mentioned," were read the first time as follows : — 

Amendments made by the Honourable the Legislative Council in and to the Bill intituled: 
"An Act to authorize James Atkinson, Esq., to convey to trustees a lot of land for purposes- 
therein mentioned." 

Press 1, line 15. After the word "notwithstanding" insert " provided nevertheless that such perpon 
or persons, and their successor as aforesaid, as well as the master and teachers employed in such school, as 
aforesaid, shall be British subjects." 

Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, seconded by Mr. Donald McDonell, moves that the amendments 
made by the Honourable the Legislative Council to the Bill intituled : " An Act to authorize 
James Atkinson, Esquire, to convey to trustees a lot of land for purposes therein mentioned," be 
read a second time on Friday next. Which was ordered. 

18th January, 1829. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Town of York Common 
School House Bill was read a third time. 

Mr. Hugh ^. Thomson, seconded by Mr. Donald McDonell, moves that the York Common 
School House Bill do now pass, and that it be intituled : " An Act to Enable Certain Persons 
therein mentioned to accept and take a deed of gift from John Small, of the Town ■ f York, 
Esquire, of a sufficient piece or parcel < f ground for the use of a Common School." Which was- 
earried and the Bill was signed by the Speaker. 



Chap. XLIL EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF U. C. LEGISLATURE, 1826-27. 209 

Messieurs Hugh C. Thomson and James Atkinson were ordered by the Speaker to carry the 
same up to the Honourable the Legislative Council, and to request their concurrence thereto. 

January 20th, 1827. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Bath School Bill was read 
the second time. 

Mr. Marshall S. Bidwell, seconded by Mr. Peter Perry, moves that the House do now resolve 
itself into a Committee of the Whole, on the Bath School Bill. Which was carried, and Mr.^ 
Archibald McLean was called to the chair. 

The House having resumed, Mr. McLean reported the Bill without amendment. The 
Beport was ordered to be received. 

Mr. Marshall S. Bidwell, seconded by Mr. Peter Perry, moves that the Bath School Bill 
be engrossed and read a third time on Tuesday next. Which was ordered. 

Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the amendments made by the Honourable the Legisla- 
tive Council in and to the Bill intituled : " An Act to authorize James Atkinson, Esquire, to con- 
vey to trustees a lot of land for purposes therein mentioned," were read the second time. 

Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, seconded by Mr. Peter Perry, moves that the House do now resolve 
itself into a Committee of the Whole on the amendments to the Bill intituled, " An Act to- 
authorize James Atkinson, Esquire, to convey to trustees a lot of land for purposes therein 
mentioned." Which was carried, and Mr. Peter Perry was called to the chair. 

The House having resumed, Mr. Perry reported the amendments made by the Committee* 
and the report was ordered to be received. 

Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, seconded by Mr. Thomas Coleman, moves that the amendments 
made by the Honourable the Legislative Council to the Bill intituled : "An Act to authorize 
James Atkinson, Esquire, to convey to trustees a lot of land for purposes therein mentioned," 
be read a third time on Tuesday next, which was ordered. 

23rd January, 1827. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Bath School Bill was rea(t 
the third time. 

Mr. Marshall S. Bidwell, seconded by Mr. Peter Perry, moves that the Bill do now pass^ 
and that it be intituled : " An Act to Incorporate Certain Persons by the name of ''Ihe Bath 
School Society.'" On which the House divided, and the yeas and nays being taken, were as 
follows : — 

Yeas. — Messieurs Atkinson, Beardsley, Beasley, Bidwell, Burnham, Clark, Coleman, Cum- 
ming, LeflFerty, McDonell, Perry, Patterson, Randal, Rolph, Thompson, Thomson, Wilkinson 
and White— 18. 

Nays. — Messieurs Burke, Cameron, Gordon, Ingersol, Charles Jones, David Jones, McLean,. 
McDonell, Morris and Walsh — 10. 

The question was carried in the affirmative by a majority of eight, and the Bill was signed 
by the Speaker. Messieurs Bidwell and Perry were ordered by the Speaker to carry the same 
up to the Honourable the Legislative Council, and to request their concurrence thereto. 

Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the amendments made by the Honourable the Legisla- 
tive Council in and to the Bill intituled : " An Act to authorize James Atkinson, Esquire,, 
to convey to Trustees a lot of land for purposes therein mentioned," were read the third time, 
passed, and signed by the Speaker, as follows : — 

Press, line 15. After the word, " notwithstanding^," insert " provided nevertheless, that such person 
or jwrsoni*, and their 8ucces.*ors, as aforesaid, as well as the Master and Teachers employed in such School 
as aforesaid, shall be British subjects." 

Messieurs Atkinson and Perry were ordered by the Speaker to carry up a Message to the 
Honourable the Legislative Council, informing them that this House has concurred in the 
amendments made by that Honourable Body, in and to the Bill intituled : " An Act to autho- 
rize James Atkinson, Esquire, to convey xo Trustees a lot of land for purposes therein mentioned." 

25ih January, 1827. — Mr. D'Arcy Boulton, Master-in-Chancery, brought down from the 
Honourable the Legislative Council the Bill intituled : ' ' An Act to authorize the Reverend 
John McLaurin to convey to the Ottawa District School Trustees a lot of land, for the pur- 
poses therein mentioned," which they had passed without amendment ; also the Bill 
intituled: "An Act to Enable Certain Persons therein mentioned to Accept and Take 
a Dped of Gift from John Small, of the Town of York, Esquire, a Sufficient Piece, or parcel of 
Ground for the use of a Common School," to both of which the Honourable the Legislative 
Council had made some amendments, and which he was directed to reconimend to the adoption 
of this House ; and having retired, the amendments made by the Honourable the Legislative 

14 (D.E.) 



:210 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1826-27 



Council in and to the Bill intituled : " An Act to Enable Certain Persons therein mentioned 
t » Accept, and Take a Deed of Gift from John Small, of the Town of York, Esquire, of a Suffi- 
cient Piece, or parcel of Ground for the use of a Common School," were read the first time as 
ioUows : — 

Press, nine 8:— Expunge "said town," and insert "township." 

Press, 1 line 21 :— Expunge " town " and insert " township." 

Mr. William Morris, seconded by Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, moves that the amendments 
made by the Honourable the Legislative Council to the Bill intituled: "An Act to Enable 
Oertain Persons therein mentioned to Accept and Take a Deed of Gift from John Small of the 
Town of York, Esquire, of a Sufficient Piece, or parcel of Ground for the use of a Common 
School," be read a second time on Monday next. Which was ordered. 

7th February , 1827. — Indian Schools. — Mr. Attorney-General Robinson, from the Com- 
mittee to whom was referred the petition of the Reverend Thaddeus Osgoode, praying for 
pecuniary aid in favor of a Society for promoting education among the Indians and destitute 
settlers in this Province, to which Society he represents himself to be Agent, have considered 
the prayer of the said Petition, and have agreed to the following Report : — 

Your Committee do not conceive that with respect to the means of education, any con- 
siderable portion of the population of this Province can properly be said to be destitute, except 
during the existence of circumstances, which in some cases, interpose other difficulties, besides 
the mere want of pecuniary means. 

When a Township is first settled, and while it contains but few inhabitants who are much 
dispersed, instruction cannot be conveniently dispensed to them. So soon, however, as circum- 
stances will admit of a number of children being assembled at any one point, the assistance now 
given from the puolic funds, for the support of Common Schools, is applied for, and your Com- 
mittee have no reason to suppose that it is not impartially dispensed. 

The appropriation, which the Legislature has made for this object, is large and liberal, in 
proportion to our revenues, and your Conmittee is of opinion that if the Legislature had the 
means of devoting a still larger sum to the promotion of education, it could not be more bene- 
ficially applied than in increasing the funds for the support of Common Schools. 

With respect to the Indians, your Committee cannot allude without much satisfaction to the 
gratifying circumstances that many have been lately converted to Christianity, and that they are 
beginning to associate themselves in villages and to avail themselves with eagerness of the means 
of instruction within their reach. 

Your Committee think it very desirable that every community of Indians which may be 
thus formed should enjoy the advantage of a Common School such as most of the townships 
possess, and it is probable that the present Common School fund may not in any case admit of 
this charge, the Committee trust that the House will think it practicable to afford allowance for 
a school master in each village or settlement of Indians, and the details of the ' ' Common School 
Act," not being adapted to communities of Indians, your Committee has endeavoured to make 
a suitable provision in the Bill which accompanies this report. 

J. B. Robinson, 

House of Assembly, Committee Ro<tM, Chairman. 

February 6th, 1827. 

The Indian School Bill (no copy of which is inserted in the Journal of the House) was read 
the first time, and ordered for a second reading to-morrow, which was granted. 

(Note. — As this Indian School Bill did not come up for a second reading, it 

must have been dropped. Probably the provision in the Common School 

Extension Act of 1824 was considered sufficient. Petitions from the Muncey 

and the Mississaugua (River Credit) Indians were received and referred to Com- 

anittees, but these Committees did not report on them.) 

2. Educational Proceedings of the Legislative Council in 1825. 

The whole of the educational proceedings of the Legislative Council during 
xhis session of 1825 was confined to the first reading of the Bathurst Common 
School perpetuation Bill, sent up from the House of Assembly, and its rejection 
after having been considered in Committee of the Whole House. 



€hap. XLIIl. GRANTING OF FIRST CHARTER OF KING'S COLLEGE, 1827. 211 



27th January, 1826. — The Council met, pursuant to adjournment. A deputation from the 
Commons House of Assembly being announced, it was admitted, and brought up for the con- 
•currence of this House a Bill intituled : " An Act to grant to His Majesty a sum of money for 
the purposes therein mentioned {i.e., perpetuation of the Bathurst District Common Schools)." 

The deputation having withrawn, the said Bill was read a first time. 

On motion made and seconded the said Bill was read a second time, and the House resolved 
itself into a Committee of the Whole to take the same into consideration, the Honourable 
William Allan in the chair. 

The Speaker having resumed the Chair, the Chairman reported that the Committee had 
made some progress in the Bill and requested leave to eit again this day three months. Ordered 
that the Report be accepted and leave given accordingly. 

Thus the Bill was rejected by the Legislative Council. 

17th Febrtiary, 1826. — His Excellency Sir Peregrine Maitland, having directed the Black 
Rod to summon the Members of the Commons House of Assembly to the Legislative Council 
Chamber, delivered the usual Speech from the Throne, and was pleased to assent in His 
Majesty's name to the following Bill : — 

"An Act to authorize the Reverend John McLaurin to convey to the Ottawa District 
<jrammar School Trustees a Lot of Land for the purposes therein mentioned. " 

He made no reference in his closing speech to school or educational matters. 



CHAPTER XLIII. 

GRANTING OF THE FIRST CHARTER OF KING'S COLLEGE IN 1827. 

The exchange of the unproductive lands, assigned to the proposed Univer- 
sity of Upper Canada, under the authority of the Duke of Portland's Despatch of 
the fourth of November, 1797, for the more valuable Crown Reserves, (as recom- 
mended by the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Peregrine Maitland, in 1825), made 
possible the establishment of the long-projected University of Upper Canada. 
Accordingly the Rev. Dr. Strachan, its chief promoter, took active measures to 
bring about this result. He, therefore, prepared and submitted to the Lieutenant- 
Governor in March, 1826, an elaborate statement of the reasons why steps should 
be taken to found the proposed University. The statement which Rev. Dr. 
Strachan submitted to Sir Peregrine Maitland was as follows : 

I have the honour to state, for Your Excellency's information, some of the reasons which, in 
my humble opinion, render it highly important that immediate steps should be taken to found 
» University in this Province ; and, as Your Excellency has also been pleased to call upon me 
to suggest what I consider to be in the power of His Majesty's Government towards commenc- 
ing an Institution by which the youth now growing up in the Colony may have an opportunity 
■of finishing their education under teachers of approved ability and tried attachment to the 
Parent State and the Established Church, I take the liberty to point out the way by which 
means may be obtained for accomplishing so desirable an object. 

The present state of Education in this Province consists of Common Schools throughout 
the different Townships, established under several Acts of the Provincial Legislature, and 
which are now, by the exertions of Your Excellency, placed on an excellent footing, requiring 
no other improvements than the means of multiplying their number, which, no doubt, will be 
granted as the finances of the Province become more productive. In about three hundred and 
forty Common Schools established in the different Districts of the Colony, from seven to eight 
thousand children are taught reading and writing, the elements of arithmetic and the first 
principles of religion ; and, when it is considered that the parents commonly send their 
children in rotation — the younger in summer when the roads are good, and the elder in winter 
— it is not too much to say that nearly double this number, or from twelve to fourteen 
thousand children, profit annually by the Common Schools. The consequence is that the 
people, scattered as they are over a vast wilderness, are becoming alive to the great advantage 
■of educating their children, and are in mmy places seconding, with laudable zeal, the exertions 
of the Legislature, and establishing schools at their own expense. 



212 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 182T 



Provision is made by law for the translation of some of the more promising scholars from 
the Common to the District Schools, where the Classics and practical Mathematics are taught. 
In these schools, eleven in number, there are at present upwards of 30C young men acquiring 
an education to quali y them for the different professions ; and, although they can seldom sup- 
port more than one master, several of the young gentlemen who have been brought up in them 
are now eminent in their professions, and would, by their talents and high principles, do credit 
to seminaries of greater name. But the period has arrived when the District Schools will 
become still more useful, by confining themselves to the intention of their first establishment, 
namely, nurseries for a University — an institution now called for by the increased population 
and circumstances of the Colony, and most earnestly desired by the more respectable 
inhabitants. 

There is not, in either Province, any English Seminary above the rank of a good school, at 
which a liberal education can be obtained. Thus, the youth of nearly 300,000 Englishmen have 
no opportunity of receiving instructitm within the Canadas in Law, Medicine or Divinity. The 
consequence is that many young men, coming forward to the learned professions, are obliged to 
loiik beyond the Province for the last two years of their education — undoubtedly the most 
important and critical of their lives. Very few are able, on account of the great expense, to go 
to elngland or Scotland ; and the distance is so great, and the difficulties so many, that parental 
anxiety reluctantly trusts children so far from its observation and control. " The youth ane, there- 
fore, in some degree compelled to look forward to the United States, where the means of educa- 
tion, though of a description far inferior to those of Great Britain, are yet superior to those within 
the Province, and a growing necessity is arising of sending them to finish their education in that 
country. Now, in the United States, a system prevails, unknown to, or unpractised, by any 
other nation. In all other countries morals and religion are made the basis of future instruc- 
tion, and the first book put into the hands of children teach them the domestic, the social and 
the religious virtues ; but in the United States politics pervade the whole system of instruction. 
The school books, from the very first elements, are stuffed with praises of their own institu- 
tutions and breathe hatred to everything English. To such a country our youth may go, 
strongly attached to their native land and to all its establishments, but, by hearing them con- 
tinually deprecated, and those of America praised, these attachments will, in many, be gradu- 
ally weakened, and some may become fascinated with that liberty which has degenerated into 
licentiousness, and imbibe, perhaps, unconsciously, sentiments unfriendly to things of which 
Englishmen are proud. It is, indeed, easy to perceive the danger of sending our most prominent 
youth to a country to finish their education where they hear nothing in praise of their native 
land, and where everything bespeaks hatred and defiance, where her merits are considered 
defects, and all her noblest virtues and glories soiled by the poison of calumny ; nor can it be 
expected that any of them, on their return, will give up their hearts and affections to their 
parent stat^ with the same cordiality that they would have done had they been carefully nur- 
tured within the British Dominions. What, indeed, can be more important to the true pros- 
perity of the Province than the careful education of its youth ? In what other way can we ever 
obtain a well instructed population by which to preserve our excellent Constitution and our 
connection with the British Empire, and give that respectable character to the country which 
arises from an intelligent magistracy, and from having public situations filled with men of 
ability and information ? What has been already done to effect this purpose is highly credit- 
able to to the Province. The two primary steps have been taken, and the third, though the 
most important, is opposed by no serious impediments which may not, it is hoped, be removed 
by Your Excellency, who has nothing more seriously at heart than the promotion of religion and 
education throughout the Province. 

The establishment of an University at the seat of Government will complete a 
regular system of education in Upper Canada from the letters of the alphabet to the most 
profound investigations of Science — a system which will be intimately connected with the Dis- 
trict Schools, as they send up a number of boys to be instructed gratis — and the District 
Schools may be connected with the University by means of scholarships, to increase in number 
as the revenues of the University shall admit, either by the sale of lands appropriated for its 
endowments or grants from the Provincial Legislature. And the University might, in time, 
become connected with Oxford and Cambridge, in England, by possessing four Exhiuitions at 
each, for the benefit of its more promising sons. In this manner, the door to liberal education 
would be opened to all the inhabitants, and the children of the farmer and the mechanic might be 
found filling the highest offices of the colony to which they had arisen by their superior talents, 
fostered by the benevolent institutions of the Province, and Upper Canada might boast a place 
of public instruction rarely equalled and not surpassed by any in the world. This establish- 
ment, by collecting all the promising youth of the Colony into one place, would gradually give 
a new tone to public sentiments and feelings ; and, should any portion of our people cherish a 
leaning towards our neighbour's, it would be removed or checked by means, not in their nature 
violent, bu*-, on the contrary, producing the most beneficial effects on the whole Province. It 



Chap. XLIII. GRArTiNG of first charter of king's college, 1827. 213 



is indeed, quite evident that the consequences of an University establishment, even on a very 
moderate scale, but possessing suflScient recommendations to attract to it the sons of the most 
opu'ent families, would soon be visible in the greater intelligence and more confirmed principles 
of loyalty to those who would be called to the various public duties required in the country. 
Nor is the number small that are thus called upon to fill the various stations of magistrates 
legislators and the ranks of diflFerent learned professions. 

There are, it is believed, between forty and fifty young gentlemen in the Province studying 
the profession of Law — a profession which must, in a country like this, be the repository of the 
highest talents. Lawyers must from the very nature of our political institutions — from there 
bemg no great land proprietors — no privileged orders — become the most powerful profession, 
and must, in time, possess more influence and authority than any other. They are emphati- 
cally our men of business, and will gradually engross all the colonial offices of profit and honor. 
Is it not, therefore, of the utmost importance that they should be collected together at the Uni- 
versity, become acquainted with each other and familiar, acquire similar views and modes of 
thinking, and be taught from precept and example to love and venerate our parent state. It is 
surely of great consequence that a class of intelligent men, belonging to a profession which 
offers the highest inducements of reputation, wealth, influence, authority and power, should be 
actuated by sentiments and feelings of attachment to the British Empire. 

In regard to the profession of medicine, now becoming of great importance in the Province, 
it is melancholy to think that more than three-fourths of the present practitioners have been 
educated or attended lectures in the United States, and it is to be presumed that many of them 
are inclined towards that country. But in this colony there is no provision whatever for 
attaming medical knowledge, and those who make choice of that profession must go to a foreign 
•country to obtain it. 

There are, as yet, only twenty-two clergymen in Upper Canada, the greater number from 
England. It is essential that the young men coming forward to the church, should be educated 
entirely within the Province, but for this there is no provision. It is true the few clergymen 
in the country have been hitherto educated by their elder brethem, and the result has been 
most satisfactory, for, in some respects, they have the advantage over brethren from England ; 
they are better acquainted with the people and can address them with more eflfect ; and as they 
hring over to the church their friends and relatives, the power and influence of the establish- 
ment are increased. But the wants of the Province are becoming great, and however much 
disposed the elder clergy may be to bring forward young men to the sacred profession, they 
have neither time nor means of doing it with sufficient effect. There can bo nothing of that 
zeal, of that union and mutual attachment, of that deep theological and literary inquiry and 
anxiety to excel, which would be found among young men collected at the University, and here 
it is not irrelevant to observ-a that it is of the greatest importance that the education of the 
colony should be conduc ed by the clergy. 

Nothing can be more manifest than that this colony has not yet felt the advantage of a 
religious establishment. What can twenty-two cleraymen do, scattered over a country of nearly 
aix hundred miles in length? Can we be surprised that, under such circumstances, the religious 
benefits of the ecclesiastical establishment are unknown, and that sectaries of all descriptions 
have increased on every side ? And when it is further considered that the religious teachers of 
all other Protestant denominations, a very few respectable ministers of the church of Scotland 
excepted, come, almost universally, from the Republican States of America, where they gather 
their knowledge and form their sentiments. It is evident that, if the Imperial Government 
does not step forward with efficient help, the mass of the population will be nurtured and 
instructed in hostility to all our institutions, both civil and religious 

Were the young men, destined for the professions or any other liberal pursuit, to have their 
minds formed at a University, they would, certainly, compose a body continually increasing, 
which, in union, respectability and thought, would overmatch any tendency to disaffection that 
might appear, and gradually produce a tone and feeling through the Province altogether 
British. 

It is scarcely necessary to urge, in addition to these forcible arguments, that, in Nova 
Scotia, with a population not much exceeding half that of Upper Canada, two Colleges have 
been established, and that even in New Brunswick, a Seminary of the same rank is, at this 
moment, going into operation. 

From all which it appears highly expedient to establish a University at the Seat of 
Government, to complete the system of education in the colony, at which all the branches 
requisite for qualifying young men for the learned professions, may be taught ; since the 
commencement of such an institution, even on a small scale, to increase as its revenues shall 
admit, would be of incalculable benefit to this flourishing Province. 



214- 



DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 



1827 



The following scheme is, therefore, humbly submitted, as forming); a very good beginning : — 
University of Upper Canada. — The President, or Principal, to be at first classed as Professor : — 



Four Professors at £400 per annum, each 

One Professor of Law, per annum 

One Professor of Medicine, per annum 

To the Library, annually 

To a Philosophical and Chemical Appaiatus, annually 

To a L^rarian, annually 

To a Botanic Gardener, annually 

To a Gardener, annually 

To two Scholarships for each District, one of £60 and one of £40 per annum 
To Repairs and Servants 



Deduct, if necessary. 



Required to begin, the annual sum of . 



£ 
1,600 
100 
100 
100 
100 

100 

100 

1,100 

250 


8. 


d. 


£ 
400 

100 
1,100 


8. 


3,650 
1,600 


1,600 


2,050 



d. 



Remarks. 

The services of the President, or Principal, being chiefly those of superintendence, may be 
commanded for a time, without emolument, or, rather, as these duties will not, at first, be 
burdensome he might, till the endowment became available, teach moral Philosophy and 
Theology. It would be desirable that the funds should admit of the first column without 
deduction, but the items in the second column may be dispensed with at first. The President 
may, by methodical arrangement and occasional assistance, conduct with three able and zealous- 
Pri'fessors an excellent course of instruction, till the funds shall admit of the appointment of 
additional Professors. 

The appropriation for the library and apparatus will require to be increased as soon as- 
possible. 

The salary of the Librarian may be saved for some years by making some of the elder 
students discharge the duties of that office. 

The Scholarships may rest in abeyance until the revenues of the institution shall admit of 
the gradual adaption. 

The following outline of study, which may be altered and modified at pleasure, is merely 
suggested to g ve some idea of what may be accomplished under the above scheme, slender as it 
may appear to be : — 

1. Classical Literature, including English Composition. 

2. Mathematics, Practical and Theoretic. 

3. Natural History, including Botany. 

4. Natural Philosophy and Chemistry. 

5. Moral Philosophy and Divinity. 

6. Surgery and Anatomy. 

7. Civil and Public Law. 

The University must be established by Royal Charter, to give it dignity and to enable it to 
confer academical honors and degrees according to the forms established in the English 
Universities. 

It should be made to assimilate as much as possible with Oxford and Cambridge ; and for 
this purpose. Tutors in aid of the Professors should be appointed, as soon as the funds will 
admit. 

The Bishop of the Diocese will, doubtless, be appointed Visitor ; but great care will be 
required in selecting the members who are to compose the Convocation, as the University has 
the power, when established, of sending a Member to the Assembly. 

The Principal and Professors, except those of Medicine and Law, should be Clergymen of 
the Established Church ; and no tutor, teacher or officer, who is not a member of that Church, 
should ever be employed in the institution. 

The Professors of Surgery and Anatomy, and of Civil and Public Law, will, of course, be 
professional gentlemen, not residing within the University. 

Means at the disposal of His Majesty's Government for the establishment of a University 
in Upper Canada : — 



Chap. XLIII. GRA.NTING OF FIRST CHARTER OF KING'S COLLEGE, 1827. 215- 

In 1798, about 549,(X)0 acres of land were appropriated for the purposes of education and 
endowment of schools. Of this appropriation, 190,573 acres have been assigned by His 
Majesty's Government to the General Board of Education, leaving for the endowment of the 
University 358,427 acres, or about seven Townships. 

Of these Townships several are very convenient for settlement, though not yet saleable to 
settlers, because grants from the Crown are easily obtained. 

It is, therefore, proposed to exchange four of these townships for the Crown Reserves under 
actual lease, or which have been applied for, and have not been made over to the Canada Land 
Company. The benefit of such an exchange will be reciprocal. Government will have a tract 
of 248,000 acres at its disposal, in eligible situations, which may be assigned to any object for 
which the Reserves may have been considered applicable ; and the University will be enabled to 
go much sooner into operation, because many of the lessees are anxious to purchase the fee 
simple of their lands, and those who are not will pay a reasonable rent. In either case an 
annual income is secured to the Institution. The Reserves prayed for in exchange yield about 
229,000 acres which may be valued at ten shillings per acre, provincial currency, or rather more 
than £100,000 sterling. Some time must elapse "before such a sum can be realized ; but it is a 
description of property so certain, that on the exchange being made, there would, in my opin- 
ion, be no risk in commencing the University by erecting and furnishing the necessary buildings. 

In response to this statement from ])r. Strachan, Sir Peregrine Maitland, (as 

Dr. Strachan states in his speech at the opening of Ring's College in 1843) : 

Determined to refer the matter to the King's Government, and at the same time to apply 
for a Royal Charter for establishing the University. As local information, and many explana- 
tions might be required, instead of confining himself to writing on the subject, His Excellency 
committed to me the duty of soliciting in person such R' yal Charter and endowment, (i.**., 
exchange of lands). Entrusted with this agreeable commission, I left Toronto (then York) oni 
the 16th of March, 1826, and reached London the 27th of April, and lost no time in bringing 
the objects of my journey under the notice of His Majesty's Government.* 

The parties with whom Dr. Strachan placed himself in communication on his- 

arrival in England were Earl Bathurst, Colonial Secretary, Mr. (afterwards Sir). 

James Stephen, Law Adviser to the Colonial Department, and Sir R. W. Horton,.. 

Under Secretary of State for the Colonies. Speaking of the aid given him by 

Mr. Stephen, Dr. Strachan, at the opening of King's College, in 1843, said : 

Mr. Stephen not only suggested but assisted me in drawing up the articles proper to form 
the basis of the Charter. Indeed, without his kind and able advice and assistance I must have 
failed. He was indefatigable in removing difficulties and meeting objections raised against the 
principle upon which we deemed it wise to construct the Charter. . . . 

The Charter of the University of King's College was not hastily settled. It was nearly a 
whole year under deliberation. It was repeatedly referred to the Archbishop of Canterbury, the 
Most Reverend Dr. Manners, who doubted the propriety of assenting to an instrument so free 
and comprehensive in its provisions. (Proceedings at the Opening of King's College, 1843, page 39.) 

In the interval between Dr. Strachan's arrival in England in April, 1826, and 
the granting of the Charter in March, 1827, he drew up an elaborate" Appeal " for 
circulation in England, which he issue'd early in 1827, with the following title : 

" An Appeal to the Friends of Religion and Literature, in behalf of the 
University of Upper Canada. By John Strachan, Archdeacon of York, Upper 
Canada." This Appeal, (substantially an echo of the first part of the foregoing 
letter to Sir Peregrine Maitland), was as follows : 

The present state of education in the Province of Upper Canada consists of common schools 
throughout the different townships or parishes established under various Acts of the Colonial 
Legislature, which are placed on a most excellent footing and require no other improvement than 
the means of multiplying their number, which will be no doubt granted, as the revenue becomes 
more productive. 

* The reason given by Bishop Bethune, in his Mevtoir of Bishop Strachan, for sending Dr. Strachan to 
England to obtain the assent of the Home Government to the exchange of the unproductive University 
lands for the Crown Reserves, and also to get a Royal Charter for the proposed University, was the failure 
to receive a reply from the Colonial Secretary to the Despatch on these subjects sent to the Secretary by 
the Lieutenant-Governor in December, 1825. No reply was received to that despatch until March, 1827^ 
after Dr. Strachan's double mission had been accomplished. (Page 108.) 



.216 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1827 



lu about three hundred and forty common schools established in the different Districts of 
Upper Canada from seven to eight thousand children are taught reading and writing, the 
elements of arithmetic and the tir^t principles of religion ; and, when it is considered that the 
2>arents commonly send their children in rotation, the younger in summer when the roads are 
good and the elder in winter, it is not much to say that nearly double this number or from 
twelve to fourteen thousand children profit annually by the common schools. The consequence 
is that the people, scattered as they are, over a vast wilderness, are becoming alive to the great 
-fidvantage of educating their children and are seconding with laudable zeal the exertions of the 
Legislature ; insomuch so that the schools supported by subscription are more in number than 
those established by law. 

Provision is made by statute for the translation of some of the more promising scholars 
from the common to the district schools where the classics and practical mathematics are taught. 
In these schools eleven in number there are, at present, upwards of three hundred young men 
acquiring an education to qualify them for the different professions ; and, although they can 
seldom support above one m..ster, several young gentlemen, who have been brought up in them, 
are now eminent in their professions and would, by their talents and high principles, do credit 
to seminaries of greater name. 

But the time has arrived when the district schools will become still more useful by confin- 
ing them to the intention of their first establishment, namely, nurseries for an university, an 
institution now called for by the increased population and circumstances of the colony and 
most earnestly desired by the more respectable inhabitants. There is not in either Province 
any English seminary above the rank of a good school at which a liberal education can be 
obtained. Thus the youth of three hundred thousand Englishmen have no opportunity of 
receiving instruction within the Canadas in Law, Medicine or Divinity. 

The consequence is that many young men coming forward to the learned professions are 
obliged to look beyond the Province for the last two or three years of their education, undoubt- 
edly the most important and critical period of their whole lives. Very few are able, on account 
of the great expense, to proceed to England or Scotland, and the distance is so great and the 
difficulties so many that parental anxiety reluctantly trusts children so far from its observation 
and control. The youth are, therefore, in some degree, compelled to look towards the United 
Stat' 8 where the means of education, though of a description far inferior to those of Great 
Britain, are yet superior to anything within the Province, and a growing necessity is arising of 
sending them to finish their education in that country. Now, in the United States a custom 
prevails unknown to. or unpractised, by any other nation ; in all other countries morals and religion 
are made the basis of public instruction and the first books put into the hands of children teach 
them the domestic, the social and religious virtues ; but in the United States politics pervade 
the whole system of education ; the school books from the very first elements are stuffed with 
praises of their own institutions and breathe hatred to everything English. 

To such a country our youth may go, strongly attached to their native lands and to all its 
establishments ; but, by hearing them continually depreciated and those of America praised, 
this attachment will in many be gradually weakened ; and some may become fascinated with that 
liberty which has degenerated into licentiousness and imbibe, perhaps unconsciously, sentiments 
unfriendly to things of which Englishmen are proud. 

It is, indeed, easy to perceive the danger of sending our most prominent youth to a country 
to finish their education where they hear nothing in praise of their native land and where any- 
thing bespeaks hatred and defiance, where her merits are accounted defects and all her virtues 
and glories soiled by the poison of calumny. Nor can it be expected that any of them on their 
return will give up their hearts and affections to their Parent State with the same cordiality that 
they would have done had the been carefully nurtured within the British Dominions. What, 
indeed, can be more important to the true prosperity of the Province, than the careful education 
of its youth ? In what other way can we ever obtain a well-instructed population by which to 
preserve our excellent constitution and our connection with the British Empire and give that 
respectable character to the country, which arises from an intelligent magistracy and from hav- 
ing public situations filled by men of ability and information. 

What has been already done to effect this purpose is highly creditable to Province ; the two 
primary step* have been taken, and the third which is the most important is opposed by no 
serious impediments. 

The establishment of an University at the seat of Government will complete a system of 
education in Upper Canada from the letters of the alphabet to the most profound investigations 
of science — a system which will be intimately connected in all its branches. Almost the Common 
Schools are connected with the District Schools, as they may send up a certain number of bo\ s to 
be instructed gratis ; and the District Schools may be connected with the University by means 
■of scholarshipd to increase in number as the revenues of the University shall admit, either by 



Chap. XLITI, GRANTING OF FIRST CHARTER OF KING'S COLLEGE, 1827. 217 



the sale of lands appropriated for its endowment or grants from the Provincial Legislature ; and 
the University might, iu time, become connected with Oxford and Cambridge in England by 
possessing some exhibitions at each for the benefit of its more promising sons. In this manner 
the door to a liberal education would be opened to all the inhabitants, and the children of the 
farmer and mechanic might be found deservedly filling the highest offices of the Colony to which 
they had arisen by their superior talents fostered by the benevolent institutions of the Province 
and Upper Canada might boast a plan of public instruction rarely equalled and not surpassed by 
any in the world. 

This establishment, by collecting all the promising youth of the colony into one place, 
would gradually give a new tone to public sentiments and feelings ; and should any portion of 
the people cherish a leaning towards our neighbors, it would be removed or checked by means 
not in their nature violent, but, on the contrary, producing the most beneficial effects through 
the whole Province. It is, indeed quite evident that the consequences of a University estab- 
lished even on a very moderate scale, but possessing sufficient recommendations to attract to it 
the sons of the most opulent families, would soon be visible in the greater intelligence and more 
confirmed principles of loyalty of those who would be called to the various public duties required 
in the country. Nor is the number small that are thus called upon to fill the stations of magis- 
trates, legislators, and the ranks of the different learned professions. 

There are, it is believed, at present between forty and fifty yourg gentlemen in the Pro- 
vince studying the profession of the law, a profession which must, in a country like this, be the 
repository of the highest talents. Lawyers must from the very nature of our political institu- 
tions, from there being no great land proprietors, no privileged orders, become the most 
powerful profession and must, in time, possess more" influence and authority than any other. 
They are emphatically our men of business and will gradually engross all the Colonial offices of 
profit and honour. Is it not, therefor, of the utmost importance that they should be collected 
together at the University, become acquainted with each other, and familiar with similar views 
•and modes of thinking, and be taught from precept and example, to venerate and love our 
Parent State. It is, surely, of great consequence that a class of intelligent men belonging to a 
profession which offers the highest inducements of reputation, wealth, influence, authority and 
power, should be attached by sentiment and feeling to the British empire. 

In regard to the profession of medicine, now becoming of great importance in the Province, 
it is melancholy to think that three-fourths of the present practitioners have been educated or 
attended lectures in the United States, and it is to be presumed that many of them are inclined 
towards that country. But in Upper Canada there is no provision whatever for attaining medical 
knowledge, and those that make choice of that profession must go to a foreign country to 
acquire it. 

There are only twenty-four clergymen in Upper Canada, the greater number from England, 
the remainder natives. Now, unless we can get respectable clergymen from England, it is 
essential that the young men coming forward to the church should be educated entirely within 
the Province, but for this there is no sort of provision. It is true that the few clergymen bom 
in the country have been hitherto educated by their elder brethren, and the result has been the 
most satisfactory, for, in some respects, they have the advantage over their brethren from Eng- 
land ; they are better acquainted with the people and can address them with more efiect, and, 
as they bring over to the church their friends and relations, the power and influence of the 
establishment are increased. But the wants of the Province are becoming great, and, however 
much disposed the elder clergy may be to bring forward young men to the sacred profession, 
they have neither leisure nor the means of doing it with proper effect. There can be nothing of 
that zeal, of that union and mutual attachment, of that deep theological and literary enquiry 
and anxiety to excel, which would be found among young men collected at the University. 

Nothing can be more manifest than that Upper Canada has not yet felt the advantage of a 
religious establishment. What can twenty-four clergymen do, scattered over a country of nearly 
aix hundred miles in length 1 Can we be surprised that, under such circumstances, the religious 
benefits of a church establishment are unknown, and that sectaries of all descriptions have in- 
creased ? And when it is farther considered that the religious teachers of all other Protestant 
denominations, a very few respectable ministers of the Church of Scotland excepted, come from 
the republican states of America, where they gather their knowledge and form their sentiments, 
it is evident that, if the Imperial Government does not step forward with efficient help, the 
mass of the population will be gradually nurtured and instructed in hostility to our institutions, 
both civil and religious. 

Were the young men, destined for these professions or any other liberal pursuits, to have 
Co have their minds formed at a University, they would compose a body continually increasing, 
which, in union, respectability and strength, would overmatch any tendency to disaffection that 
might appear, and gradually produce a tone and feeling through the Province, altogether 
British. 



218 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1827 



The noble Lord at the head of the Colonial Department, who has through life been the 
strenuous and upright friend of religion and the promoter of every measure that had a tendency 
to advance the true prosperity of the colonies, having taken these circumstances into considera- 
tion, has not only commanded in His Majesty's name a 1 oyal Charter to issue, establishing an 
University in Upper Canada, which shall have and enjoy all such and the like privileges as are 
enjoyed by the Universities of the United Kingdom of Grea Britain and Ireland, and has de- 
clared it to be the munilicent intention of our Beloved Sovereign to grant a sum of money for 
the purpose of erecting; the necessary buildings, and to confer such an Endowment as shall, in a 
few years, place the Institution in full and active operation. His Majesty's Government having 
thus done all and even more than could have been expected, nothing would remain but patiently to 
wait till the Endowment yielded the means of commencing the business of instruction, were not 
the wants of the Province so urgent that the delay of five or six years, wnich must elapse before 
the University, under present circumstances, can be put in activity, may be attended with evil 
consequences which may never be retrieved. Under this apprehension, I am induced to appeal 
to the friends of religion that we may be enabled immediately to collect around us the youth of 
Canada for the purpose of instruction. Already has the Venerable Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, sensible of the urgency of the case, granted £500 towards pur- 
chasing a library, and an equal or greater donation is confidently expected from the sister Society 
for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 

It is chiefly on religious grounds that this Appeal for the University of Upper Canada is 
made, which, while it oflers its benefits to the population, will, for a century to come, from the 
peculiar circumstances of the country, be essentially a Missionary College, and the number of 
clergymen which it will be called upon to furnish will be more than double what any other pro- 
fession can require. 

"Table of the Rkligious State of Upper Canada as it Respects the 

Established Church." 

[Note. — This Table comprised the Church of England statistics of the eleven 
Districts then in existence, viz. : Eastern Ottawa, Johnstown, Bathurst, Midland, 
Newcastle, Home, Gore, Niagara, London and Weston. Number of square miles, 
28,260 ; number of Townships and Parishes, 260 ; estimated population, 200,000 ; 
number of settled clergymen, 24 ; number of clergymen required, 112.] 

This Table, in respect to its measurements, having been compiled from a map is not given 
as fractionally exact, but will be found in all parts, substantially correct. 

Assuming that there ought to be a clergyman for every 1,500 inhabitants, it will be seen 
that 112 clergymen are, at this moment, required for the Province of Upper Canada. But it is 
to be remarked that these 1.500 inhabitants are commonly scattered over a surface of several 
hundred square miles, and that, if confined to this number, every clergyman must, to be useful, 
itinerate and have many places of worhip to attend. Under such circumstances all the advant- 
ages of a sedentary established clergy cannot be enjoyed. Even if one clergyman were settled in 
every township of which there are already 260, his labours would be great, for these townships 
or parishes are commonly twelve by nine miles, containing more than 100 square miles and, 
consequently, equal in extent to eight or ten parishes in this country. 

Again the rapid increase of population must be taken into consideration, which will double 
every fifteen or twenty years for a century to come. Now if the p )pulation in 182G amounting 
to 200,000 require 112 additional clergymen, which, with the twenty-four already in the country 
make in all 136, then in 1846, the population, which will at least be 400,000, will require 136 
more clergj'men for their religious instruction, or about seven every year. This new demand, 
together with the number necessary to fill up vacincies, will require, during the early years of 
the seminary a great and increasing number every season. 

The University of Upper Canada will, therefore, necessarily be a Missionary College, and 
will have to furnish a greater number of candidates, for Holy Orders than for any o*' the other 
professions. In this point of view, it appears equally deserving of assistance with Bishop's Col- 
lege at Calcutta ; for, if the latter confine itself entirely to the re igious instruction of those 
who are to become missionaries, it is because there is another semi ary supported by the East 
India Company, where laymen can acquire an academical education. In the Canada Univer- 
sity both are combined, as sufficient endowments could not have been procured for two ; but 
the wisdom of such separation may be well questioned, when it is considered that young men 
aspiring to the sacred profession are frequently a check upon their companions studying for 



Chap. XLIII. GRANTING OF FIRST CHARTER OF KlNO'S COLLEGE, 1827. 219 

other purposes, and are found exerting over them an indirect moral influence of the greatest 
advantage. Considering, therefore, this Institution in the light of a Missionary Seminary, and 
the great want of clergymen in Upper Canada, it must be manifest to everyone that, to put it 
into immediate operation is of the most essential consequence'; and, as His Majesty's Govern- 
ment has done so well, it is not perhaps, too much to expect from the friends of pure religion 
the assistance necessary for supporting the institution till the endowments become available. 
For this purpose six or seven thousand pounds would be sufficient, a sum not exceeding what 
was collected by the American Bishops and their friends two years ago. It is not for the pur- 
pose of censuring the benevolence of my countrymen to the ISister Church in the United States 
that I recall the visit of Bishops Hobart and Chase to remembrance, but to shew that the case 
of Upper Canada, even if it were not an integral part of the Empire and inhabited by fellow- 
subjects and belonging to the same church, is much stronger than that of Ohio. In his appeal 
to the British Public, Bishop Chase detailed, with much truth the many privations to which he 
and his clergy were exposed, and the difficulties and dangers which they had to encounter in dis- 
seminating religion in their diocese. 'Vo this affectionate appeal the hearts of the religious in- 
st4ntly opened, and the venerable Bishop returned in triumph with ample means for establish- 
ing a seminary for bringing up voung men to the ministry of the sacred word and ordinances. 
The writer of this paper is confident that the money thus bestowed will be appropriated in the 
most judicious and disinterested manner to promote the great object for which it was given, and 
that it will yield a rich harvest both here and hereafter to the generous donors. But he confi- 
dently appeals to the same benevolence for like assistance in a case of still greater necessity. 
For no person can fail to perceive that our missionaries in Upper Canada are exposed to greater 
hardships and privations than can possibly be met with in the State of Ohio. Upper Canada is 
560 miles long, Ohio only 200, their breadth is, I believe, nearly equal. The population of 
Upper Canada scattered over this immense country amounts to 200,000, that of Ohio to 800,- 
000, or four times the number settled in a country not, perhaps, one quarter the area, thus 
making the population in Ohio about sixteen times more dense than in Upper Canada. For 
every person that a missionary niPtts travelling through the woods in the British Province, he 
will meet sixteen travelling in Ohio and consequently the roads are proportionally better. There 
are not in Upper Canada four persons to a square mile, in Ohio upwards of forty. The diflfer- 
euce of wealth is perhaps, still greater, because many of the inhabitants of Ohio are emigrants 
from the neighboring States who fret^uently bring with them large capitals, whereas Upper Can- 
ada, since its first establishratent, has continued the asylum of the poor and destitute. First 
the refugee Loyalists who sacrificed everything for their king and country ; next, discharged 
soldiers, who if not settled there, would have become a burden on this country, and now, since 
the general peace, it is filling with paupers from the United Kingdom by which vast sums are 
annually saved which had been spent supporting them before their emigration. While, there- 
fore, I praise the benevolence extended to Bishop Chase, I am persuaded that all his benefac- 
tors will freely admit that our claim is yet stronger, and that, if their ability allow, they wil 
feel conscientiously bound to extend to us similar help. 

When it is considered that the Canadas are capable of maintaining a population of twelve 
or sixteen millions, it is impossible to set limits to the influence which the University of the 
Upper Province, if wisely and piously directed, may acquire over this vast population, the 
greater portion of which may, through the Divine blessing, be brought up in the Communion 
of the Church of England. A farther and more pressing reason for hastening the active commence- 
meut of the University will be found in the fact that our Church, in its present state, may be said 
to be struggling for existence, attacked as she is by the Romish Church and all the sectaires who, 
though agreeing in nothing else, join in opposing her, because she is the establishment of Eng- 
land, We have to contend with 400,000 Roman Catholics in the sister Province of Lower Can- 
ada, under a numerous and regular priesthood, headed by an Archbishop, and four suffragaus, 
and assisted by three colleges ; one at Quebec, one at Montreal and one at St. Nicolet, where 
the different branches of an academical education, as well as theology, are taught. 

The paramount nflue ce of the Roman Catholics in Lower Canada, and their decided 
majority in the Legislature, render all expectations of a great increase of our Church, or of 
any solid improvements in educatinsr the people, for a long time hopeless. The stream of 
amelioration must flow from Upper Canada, and the University must be the source of its sup- 
ply. It will become the rallying point of the Protestant faith, the promoter of sound religious 
principles and profitable instruction through both Provinces. Nor is there a moment to lose ; 
for the recent emigrations from Ireland are daily adding strength to the Roman Catholics, and 
diminishing the comparative superiority of Protestants even in Upper Canada. 

But appalling as these circumstances are, I cannot help feeling the greatest encouragement 
from an occurrence connected with the religious instruction of the Canadas, which is now a 
matter of history. The first step ever taken by the Imperial Legislature towards a recognition 
of th-it obvious but still unacknowledged principle that the colonies of a country have as good 



220 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATIOX IN UPPER CANADA. 1827 



a right to moral and religious instruction from the parent state, as to her laws and government, 
was taken in favour of these Colonies by appointing a Religious Establishment for their benefit 
according to the forms and ceremonies of the (Jhurch of England. 

What, indeed, are the great objects of colonization but to provide for the redundancies of 
population, to aiford to meritorious enterprise and industry the means and opportunity of suc- 
cessful exertion, to recognize and imjirove the unheeded and uncultivated bounties of Nature ; 
to form, at intermediate points, links of connection between the mother country and the 
remotest lands to which her commerce can be extended ; and, in addition, to direct to bene6cial 
purposes the talents and labours of those whom the offended laws have banished from their 
native land. Now, these objects are beneficial to the parent state, producing settlements in the 
most distant regions, notwithstanding the perils of unhealthy climates and unexplored seas. And 
shall the various descriptions of emigrants, of which they are composed, encounter all the privations 
and dangers incident lo the formation of such settlements for the advantage of their native land, 
and be, in the meantime, deprived of their most precious rights and privileges ? Surely, if they 
are entitled to all the comforts of a moral and religious education by remaining at home, much 
more ought such comforts to accompany, or, as soon as possible follow them to the remote 
settlements which they are employed in establishing. And, if any Colony can have a paramount 
claim over another to a privilege which is the common right of all, it is Canada, more particu- 
larly Upper Canada, which was first settled by men driven from their homes by the enemies of 
their country, many of whoui had sacrificed to principle the means which would have enabled 
them to have procured for themselves and children the benefits of moral and religious instruc- 
tion. 

It is to be lamented that this great country, in establishing colonies, has chiefly confined 
her views to pecuniary advantage and seems to have forgotten that the attachment of foreign 
settlements depends infinitely more upon moral and religious feeling than political arrangement or 
commercial profit. For it is evident that ^£40,000 per annum (which is scarcely the expense of 
a single regiment), spent in the' support of a zealous clergy in the North American Colonies 
would do more in producing good feeling and loyal attachment to the relig ous and politicial 
institutions of England than one hundred times the sum spent in any other manner. Religious 
instruction should be made sufticient and commensurate with the wants of the people in every 
part of the Empire ; nor should it be thought a matter of indiflference in colonial policy, or even 
of secondary consideration. It should take the lead of all others ; for to form colonies under 
Christian principles is one of the noblest and most beneficial purposes which governments can 
fulfil ; nor are the present times, we confess, without some indications that a nobler policy may, 
at length, be adopted. For the Legislature which, in 1793, considered the claims of the colonies 
to religious instruction as the suggestion of visionaries and fanatics, although nearly half the 
Empir - had been lost by its neglect, has now sanctioned the adoption of a uniform system of 
religious instruction for the colonies in the East, as well as in the West. And, if it be followed 
up with energy and skill, the British Empire will be established on a foundation more absolute 
than any which unhallowed power can hold in subjection, for it will rest on the opinions and 
affections of two hundred million of men. Nor will such a policy, sublime and afi'ecting as it 
is, and pregnant with tranquility and happiness, increase the public expenditure, f"r, as the 
influence of Christian principles extend the charge for physical coercion will become less, mur- 
murs will give way to blessings and praise ; and one-fourth of the human race being thus 
reclaimed, the remainder will gradually follow, and thus the whole earth become the garden of 
the Lord. 

But the return from this sublime and fascinating prospect, it may be reasonably asked by 
those whose aid we are soliciting, how the clergy are to be supported after they are instructed. 
I answer from the produce of certain lands which have been appropriated for the maintenance 
of a Protestant clergy, concerning which arrangements for making them available are now in 
progress : from subscriptions by the inhabitants of the more populous districts, which may now 
be expected to yield something, and to increase gradually in amount ; from the sittings in the 
towns, which will soon be reasonably productive. Add to all this that the young clergymen 
must and will serve for some years at a very moderate allowance. 

The great difficulty, therefore, which wa have to encounter, is a delay of five or six years 
in commencing our University and the consequent increasing want of religious instruction. It 
has been shown that 112 additional clergymen are now required, and, by the time that our 
endowments becone available, forty more will be necessary. 

Let the friends of religion reflect that this Appeal is in favour of the Household of Faith 
and ought to be heard before that of the heathen ; that it is our brethren who are perishing or 
falling away for lick of instruction. The corruption of human nature is strikingly visible in 
the change which trequently takes place among persons settled in the wilderness. At first they 
lament their distance from churches and schools, but, by degrees, such lamentations die away, 
as well as the religious feelings from which they emanated. Living without restraint and with- 



Chap. XLIII. GRANTING OF FIRST CHARTER OF KING's COLLEGE, 1827. 221 

out the eye of those whom they respect, a sense of decency and religion frequently disappears. 
At length, the disinclina ion to holy things presents itself in all its deformity, a distaste for 
divine worship and neglect; of everything sacred make their appearance, and a total estrange 
ment from God ensues ; and, although, from their situation, crimes against society are few, the 
heart becomes entirely de d to true piety and virtue. Were it not for the women, especially the 
mothers <if families, little that is engaging or amiable would remain in many of the back settle- 
ments. It is in such situations that the influence of the female sex is so beautifully exemplified. 
To their exertions are we often to attribute all the humanity and softness that remain. The 
Bible, the Prayer Book, the sense of God and His Providence, the blessings of a Saviour, and 
the hopes of immortality, are by them preserved and introduced to the notice of their children, 
and brought back at < imes with effect to the recollection of their husbands. Are not such 
entitled to cry to the religious of this country, " Come and help us ? " If we rejoice in every 
attempt to communicate the arts, sciences and letters, how much more ought it to be matter of 
joy to jjublish the blessings of the Gospel ; for, however precious the arts of civilized life — and 
precious they must be confessed to be — they are infinitely inferior to those sublime truths which 
purify the affections of the heart, suggest the noblest contemplations to the mind and determine 
the destiny of the human race. If, then, we believe Christianity to be what it professes, a 
britjht emanation from Heaven, the harbinger of peace and joy, love and felicity to nations, as 
well as individuals ; if we have found from'experience that it purifies and exalts our nature, 
smooths the pillow of death, and opens the gates of immortality, how shall we excuse ourselves 
from labouring, by every means in our power, to revive its energy in the hearts of those who 
have been, from their unhappy situation, deprived of instruction ? Nor need any fear that 
their bounty will become like water spilt upon dry ground. No, it will, through the blessing of 
God, be as good seed sown, bringing forth fifty, sixty, an hundred fold. For the young men, 
whom such assistance will enable us to educate and send forth among the people in the spirit of 
the Lord, will not return empty handed. There are times when the consolations of religion 
are desired by every man — moments of deep afiiiction of heartrending bereavements, when the 
weeping spirit bows to the voice of God, and, at such times, a pious and conciliating clergyman 
cannot fail of making a deep impression. And, indeed, experience proves that, wherever such 
a clergyman is placed, he very soon collects around him the neighbouring settlers and forms a 
resiiectable and increasing congregation. 

King's College Charter of 1827, with Rev. Dr. Strachan's Emendations. 

The printed copy of the orio;inal Charter of King's College, from which the 
following is taken, is the one formerly owned by the Reverend Dr. Strachan 
himself. Its value is enhanced from the fact that it contains, in Dr. Strachan's 
own handwriting, the emendations which he made in it, and the alterations 
which he agreed to, as the basis of the amended Charter of 1837, in regard to its 
exclusive Church of England character. 

The reasons why he agreed to these changes and modifications are thus 
stated by his friend, the Rev. Dr. Bethune, in his Meinoir of Bishop Strachan, 
published in 1870 — three years after he had succeeded Dr. Strachan as the second 
Bishop of Toronto. Dr. Bethune said : 

There was, no doubt, anunwiseand needless stringency in some of the provisions [of the Char- 
ter]; and to the writer of these pages, Dr. Strachan himself affirmed, on his return from England, 
that he had expressed to Lord Bathurst his objection to the provision that the Archdeacon 
of York, for the time being, should be ex officio President of the University ; and he stated also 
his doubts as to whether it was judicious to require from members of the College Council, subscrip- 
tion to the Thirty-Nine Articles. (Page 110). 

In 1850, "A Brief History of King's College in Upper Canada from its first 
germ in 1797, to its suppression in 1850," was prepared under the direction of 
Dr. Strachan. In it was embodied his speech on the occasion of opening King's 



222 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1827 

College in 1843. The narrative contained in that speech was continued down to 
1850. On page eight of that narrative, the changes made in the original charter 
by Bishop Strachau are thus referred to : — 

In 1837 a Statue (7th William IV., Chapter xvi) was passed [by the Upper Canada Le^s- 
lature], amending the Charter of King's College, in which all the reasonable objections made 
against it up to that period, were fairly met. 

Copy of the King's College Charter of 1827, wiih alterations. 

Georgf, the Fourth, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, and so forth, to all these presents shall come. 

Greeting : 

Whereas the establishment of a College within our Province of Upper Canada, in North 
America, for the education of youth in the Principles of the Christian Religion and for their 
instruction in the various branches of Science and Literature, which are taught in our Univer- 
sities in this Kingdom, would greatly conduce to the welfare of our said Province. And where- 
as humble application hath been made to us by many of our loving subjects in our said Pro 
vince, that we would be pleased to grant our Royal Charter for the more perfect establishment 
of a College therein and for incorporating the members thereof for the purposes aforesaid ; 
Now Know Ye, that We, having taken the premises into Our Royal consideration, and duly 
weighing the great utility and importance of such an Institution have, of Our special giace, 
certain knowledge, and were motion, ordained and granted, and do by these presents for Up, 
our Heirs and Successors, ordain and grant, that there shall be established at or near our Town of 
York, in our said Province of Upper Canada, from this time, one College, with the style and 
privileges of an University, as hereinafter directed, for the education and instruction of j outh 
and students in arts and faculties, to continue forever, to be called King's College. 

And We do hereby declare and grant that our trusty and we'l b'-loved, the Bight Reverend 
Father in God, Charles Jame^, Bishop of 'he Diocese of Quebec, or the Bishop for the time hcinj of 
the Diocese in which the said Tomn of York maybe situate, on any future division or alteration of 
the said present Diocese of Quebec. 

[Note. — The foregoing words in italics were altered in Dr. Strachan's own handwriting to 
read as follows : " The Court of King's Bench in and for the said Province."] 

Shall for us and on our behalf be visitor of the said College; and that our trusty and well- 
beloved Sir Peregi lue Maitland [altered to John Colburne] our Lieutenant-Governor of our said 
Province, or the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or other persons administrating the Govern- 
ment of our said Province for the time being shall be the Chancellor of our said College. 

And we do hereby declare, ordain, and grant that there shall, at all times, be one Presi- 
dent of our said College [added by Dr. Strachan : who shall be appointed by us, x»ir heirs and 
successors] who shall be a Clergyman in Holy Orders of the United Church of Englmd and 
Ireland ; and that there shall be such and so many Professors in difierent Arts and Faculties 
within our said College, as from time to time, shall be deemed necessary or expedient and are 
shall be appointed by us or by the Chancellor of our said College, in our behalf, and during 
our pleasure. 

And we do hereby grant and ordain that the Reverend John Strachan, Doctor in Divinity, 
Archdeacon of York, in our said Province of Upper Canada, shall be the first President of our 
said College and the Archdeacon of York, in our said Prov nee, for the time being, shall, by virtue 
oj such his office, be a' all times the Presideid of the said College. [The words in italics were 
expunged by Dr. Strachan]. 

And We do hereby, for Us, our Heirs and Successors, will, ordain, and grant that the said 
Chancellor and President, and the said Professors of our said College, and all persons who shall 
be duly matriculated into and admitted as scholars of our said College, and their successors 
forever, shall be one distinct and separate body politic and coporate in deed and in name, by 
the name and style of " The Chancellor, President and scholars of King's College at York, in the 
Province of Upper Canada ;" and that by the same name they shall have perpetual succession 
and a Common Seal, and that they and their successors shall from time to time, have full power 
to alter, renew or change such Common Seal at their will and pleasure, and as shall be found 
canvenient, and that, by the same name, they, the said Chancellors, President and Scholars, 
and their successors from time to time, and at all times hereafter, shall be able and capable to 
hive, take, receive, purchase, acquire, hold possess, enjoy and maintain to and for t e use of 
the said College, any messuages, lands, tenements, and hereditaments of what kind, nature or 



Chap. XLTII. GRANTING OF FIRST CHARTER OF KING'S COLLEGE, 1827. 223 



•quality soever, situate and being within Our said Province of Upper Canada, so as the same do 
not exceed in yearly value, the sum of fifteen thousand pounds, sterling, above all charges, 
and, moreover, to take, purchase, acquire, have, hold, enjoy, receive, possess and retain, all 
or any goods, chattels, charitable or other contributions, gifts or benefactions whatsoever. 

And We do hereby declare and grant that the said Chancellor, President and Scholars, 
and their successors by the same name, shall and may be able and capable in law to sue and be 
sued, implead and be impleaded, answer or be answered, in all or any Court or Cour s of 
Kecord within our United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and Uur said Province of Upper 
Canada, and other Our Dominions, in all and singular actions, causes, pleas, suits, matters and 
demands whatsoever, of what nature or kind soever, in as large, ample, and beneficial a manner 
and form, as any other body jJoUtic or corporate, or any other Our liege subjects, being 
able and capable in law, may or can sue, implead or answer, or be sued, impleaded or answered, 
in any manner whatsoever. 

And We do hereby declare ordain and grant that there shall be within Our said College 
or Corporation, a Council to be called and known by the name of " The College Council," and 
We do will and ordain that the said Council shall consist of the Chancellor and President for 
the time being, and of seven of the Professors in Arts and Faculties of Our said CoUetie ; and 
that such seven Professors shall be members of the Established United Church of England and 
Ireland, and shall previoitsly to their admission intotJie said College, severally sign and subscribe 
the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion as declared and set forth in the Book of Common Prayer. 

[Note — These words in italics were expunged by Dr. Strachan] 

And, in case, at any time, there sh uld not be within Our said College seven Professors of 
Arts and Faculties, being members of the Established Church aforesaid, then Our will and 
pleasure is and We do hereby grant and ordain that the » lid College Council shall be filled up 
to the requisite number of seven, exclusive of the Chancellor and President for the time being, 
by such persons being graduates of Our said College, and being members of the Established 
Ohurch aforesaid, as shall, for that purpose, be appointed by the Chancellor for the time being, 
of Our College, and which members of Council shall in like mannc, subscribe the Thirty-nine 
Articles aforesaid, p)-evioxisly to their admission into the said Oollege Council. 

[Note — These words in italics were expunged by Dr. Strachan.] 

And whereas it is necessary to make provision for the completion and filling up of the said 
Counali at the first institution of Our said College, and previously to the appointment of any 
Professors, or the conferring of any Degrees therein ; now We do further ordain and declare 
that the Chancellor of Our said College for the time being, shall, upon or immediately after the 
first institution thereof, by Warrant under his hand, nominate and appoint seven discreet and 
proper persons, resident within Our Province of Upper Canada, to constitue jointly with him, 
the said Chancellor and the President of Our snid < ollege for the time being, the first or 
original Council of our said College ; which first or original members of the said Council shall in 
like manner, respectively subscribe the Thirty-nine Articles aforesaid, previously to their admission 
into the said Coiincil. 

[Note. — These words in italics were expunged by Dr. Strachan]. 

And We do further grant and declare that the members of the said College Council, holding 
within Our College the oflBces of ' hancellor. President or Professor in any Art or Faculty, shall 
respective'y h"ld their seats in the said Council, so long as they and each of them shall retain 
such their said offices as aforesaid, and no longer, and that the members of the said Council, 
not holding offices in Our said Council, shall, from time to time vacate their seats in the said 
Council, when and so soon as there shall be an adequate number of Professors in Our said 
•College being members as the Established Chuuch aforesaid, to till up the said Council to the 
requisite number before mentioned. 

And We do hereby authorize and empower the Chancellor, for the time being, of Our said Col- 
lege, to decide in each case what particular member of the said Council, not holding any such 
office as aforesaid, shall vacate his seat in the said Council, upon the admission of any new mem- 
ber of Council holding any such office. 

And We do hereby declare and grant that the Chancellor, for the time being, of Our said 
■College, shall preside at all meetings of the said College Council, which he may deem it proper 
or convenient to attend, and that, in his absence the President of Our said College shall preside 
at all such meetings ; and that in the absence of the said President, the senior member of he said 
Council present at such meeting, shall preside thereat ; and that the said seniority of the members 
of the said Council, other than the Chancollor and President, shall be regulated according to 
the date ni their respective appointments. Provided, always, that the members of the said 
Council, being Professors in Our said College, shall, in the said Council, take precedence over 
and be considt red as seniors to the members thereof, not being Professors in Our said College. 



224. DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1827 



And We do ordain and declare that no meeting of the said Council shall be c r be held ta 
be, a lawful meeting thereof, unless five members, at the least, be present during the whole of 
every such meeting ; and that all questions and resolutions proposed for the decision of the said 
College Council, shall be determined by the majority of the votes of the members of the Council 
present, including the vote of the presiding member ; and that, in the event of an equal division 
of such votes, the member presiding at any such meeting shall give an additional or casting 
vote. 

And We do further declare that, if any member of the said Council shall die or resign hi& 
seat in the said Council, or shall be suspended or removed from the same, or by reason of any 
mental or bodily infirmity, or by reason of his absence fr<im the Province, become incapable, for 
three calender months or upwards, of attending the meetings of the said Council, then, and in 
every such case, a fit and proper person shall be appointed by the said Chancellor to act as, and 
be, a member of the said Council in the place and stead of the member so dying or removing, 
or so suspended or removed, or incapacitated, as aforesaid ; and such new member succeeding to 
any member so suspended or incapacitated, shall vacate such his office on the removal of any 
such suspension, or at the termination of any such incapacity as aforsaid, of his immediate pre- 
decessor in the said Council. 

And We do further ordain and grant that it shall and may be competent to and for the 
Chancellor, for the time being, of Our said College, to suspend from his seat in the said Council 
any member thereof for any just and reasonable cause to the said Chancellor appearing. Pro- 
vided, that the grounds of every such suspension shall be entered and recorded at length by the 
said Chancellor in the books of the said Council and signed by him ; and every person so sus- 
pended shall thereupon cease to be a member of the said Council, unless and until he shall be 
restored to and re-established in. such his station therein by any order to be made in the 
premises by Us or by the said Visitor of Our College, acting on our behalf, and in pursuance of 
any special reference from Us. 

And We do further declare that any member of the said Council, who, without sufficient 
cause to be allowed by the said Chancellor, by an order entered for that purpose on the books 
of the said Council shall absent himself from all the meetings thereof, which may be held within 
any six successive calendar months, shall, thereupon, vacate such his seat in the said Council. 

And We do by these presents, for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, will ordain and grant that 
the said Council of Our said College shall have power and authority to frame'and make Statutes, 
Rules and Ordinances, touching and concerning the good government of the said College, the 
performance of Divine service therein, the studies, lectures, exercises, degrees in Arts and 
Faculties and all matters regarding the same, the residence and duties of tho President of Our 
said College, the number, residence and duties of the Professors thereof, the management of the 
revenues and property of Our said College, the salaries, stipends, provision and emoluments of, 
and for, the President, Professors, scholars, officers and servants thereof, the number and duties 
of such officers and servants, and also touching and concerning any other matter or thing which 
to them shall seem good, tit and useful, for the well being and advancement of Our said College 
and, all agreeable to this Our Charter ; and also from time to time, by any new statutes, rules or 
ordinances to revoke, renew, augment or alter, every or any of the said statutes, rules ; nd 
ordinances as to ihem shall seem meet and expedient. Provided always, that the said statutes 
rules and ordinances, or any of them, shall not be repugnant to the laws and statutes of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, (»r of Our said Province of Upper Canada or to 
this Charter. Provided, also, that the said statutes, rules and ordinances, shall be subject to 
the approbation of the said Visitor of our said College, for the time hehuj. And shall be forth- 
with transmitted to the said Visitor for that purpose ; and that, in case the said Visitor sh«ll 
for Us, and our behalf in writing signify his [their] disapprobation thereof, within two years of 
the time of their being so made and framed, the same, or such part thereof as shall be so disap 
proved of by the Siid visitor, shall, from the time of such disapprobation being made known to 
the said Chancellor of Our said College, be utterly void and of no efi'ect, but otherwise, shall be 
and remain in full force and virtue. 

[Note. — The words in italics were struck out by Dr. Strachan, and " their " substituted for 
"/iis."] 

Provided, nevertheless, and We do hereby expressly save and reserve to Us, Our Heirs and 
Successors, the power of reviewing, confirming or reversing, by any order or orders to be by Us 
or them, made in Our or their Privy Council, all or any of the decisions, sentences or orders, so 
to be made, as aforesaid, by the said Visitor, for Us and in Our behalf, in reference to the said 
statutes, rules and ordinances or any of them. 

And We do further ordain and declare that no statute, rule or ordinance, shall be framed or 
made by the said College Council touching the matters aforesaid, (jrany of them, excepting only 
such as shall be proposed for the consideration of the said Chancellor, for the time being, of Our 
said College. 



Chap. XLIII. GRANTING OF FIRST CHARTER OF KING'S COLLEGE, 1827. 225 



And We do require and enjoin the said Chancellor thereof to consult with the President of 
Our said College, and the next senior member of the said College Council, respecting all statutes^ 
rules and ordinances, to be proposed by him to the said Council for their consideration. 

And We do hereby, for Us Our Heirs and Successors charge and command that the statutes,, 
rules and ordinances, aforesaid, subject to the same provisions, shall be strictly and inviolably 
observed, kept and performed, from time to time, in full vigour and effect, under the penalties 
to be thereby or therein imposed or contained. 

And We do further will, ordain and grant, that the said College shall be deemed and taken 
to be an University, and shall have and enjoy all such and the like privileges as are enjoyed by 
Our Universities of Our United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, as far as the same are 
capable of being had or enjoyed by virtue of these Our Letters Patent. And that the students 
in the said College shall have liberty and faculty of taking the Degrees of Bachelor, Master and 
Doctor, in the several Arts and Faculties, at the appointed ti\iies ; and shall have liberty, withini 
themselves, of performing all scholastic exercises for the conferring of such Degrees, in such, 
manner as shall be directed by the statutes, rules and ordinances of the said College. 

And We do further will, ordain and appoint that no religious test or qualification shall be 
required of, or appointed for, any persons admitted or matriculated as scholars within Our said 
College, or of persons admitted to any Degree in any Art or Faculty therein, save only, that all 
persons admitted within Our said College to any Degree in Divinity, shall make siich and the 
same declarations and subscriptions, and take siich and the same oaths, as are required of persons 
admitted to any Degree of Divinity in Our University of Oxford. 

[Note. — The words in italics were altered by Dr. Strachan so as to read as follows : 
** respecting whom such regulations may be made as the College Council shall deem fit."J 

And We do further will, direct and ordain, that the Chancellor, President and Professors of 
Our said College, and all persona admitted therein to the Degree of Master of Arts, or to any 
Degree in Divinity, Law or Medicine, and who, from the time of such their admission to such 
Degree, shall pay the annual sum of twenty shillings, sterling money, for and towards the sup- 
port and maintenance of said College, shall be and be deemed, taken and reputed to be, mem- 
bers of the Convocation of the said University ; and, as such members of the said Convocation, 
shall have, exercise and enjoy all such and the like privileges as are enjoyed by the members 
of the Convocation of Our tjniversity of Oxford, so far as the same are capable of being had 
and enjoyed, by virtue of these Our Letters Patent, and consistently with the privileges 
thereof. 

And We will, and by these presents for Us, Our Heirs and Successors, do grant and declare 
that these Our Letters Patent, or the emolument or exemplification thereof, shall and may be 
good, firm, valid, suflBcient and effectual in the law, according to the true intent and meaning 
or the same ; and shall be taken, construed and adjudged in the most favourable and beneficial 
sense, for the best advantage of the said Chancellor, President and Scholars of Our said College, 
as well as in Our Courts of Record, as elsewhere and by all and singular Judges, Justices, 
Officers, Minis ers, and other subjects whatsoever of Us, Our Heirs and Successors, any mis- 
recital, non-recital, omission, imperfection, defect, matter, cause or thing, whatsoever to the 
contrary thereof, in anywise notwithstanding. 

In witness whereof. We have caused these Our Letters to be made Patent. 

Witness Ourself at Westminster, the fifteenth day of March, in the eighth year of Our 
Reign (1827). 

By Writ of Privy Seal, 
' BATHURST. 

On the 31st of the same month. Earl Bathurst, Colonial Secretary, sent the 
following Despatch, in regard to this Charter, to the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir 
Perigrine Maitland : 

I have the honour to inform you that His Majesty has been pleased to grant a Royal 
Charter by Letters Patent, under the Great Seal, for establishing at or near the Town of York, 
in the Province of Upper Canada, one College, with the style and privileges of a University, for 
the education and instruction of youth in Arts and Faculties, to continue for ever to be called 
King's College. 



15. (D. E.) 



226 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1827 



I am further to acquaint you that His Majesty has been pleased to grant one thousand 
(£1,000) per annum,* as a fund for erecting the buildings necessary for the College, to be paid 
out of the moneys furnished by the Canada Company, and to continue during the term of that 
agreement. 

I have to autliorize you, on the receipt of this Despatch, to exchange such Crown Reserves 
AS have not b .en made over to the Canada Company for an equal portion of the lands set apart 
for the purpose of education and foundation of a University, as suggested in your Despatch of 
the 19th of December, 182.5, and more fully detailed in Dr. Strachan's Report of the 10th of 
March, 1826 ; and you will proceed to endow King's College M'ith the said Crown Reserves 
with as little delay as possible. 

BATHURST. 

To Major-Genekai Sir Peregrine Maitland, K.C.B. 

Rev. Dr. Strachan having been detained in England longer than was 
expected, Lord Goderich, (formerly Lord Ripon), then Colonial Secretary, in suc- 
cession to Earl Bathurst, certified the account of his personal expenses, in a Des- 
patch to the Lieutenant-Governor, Sir Peregrine Maitland, dated Downing Street, 
London, 28th of June, 1827, as follows : 

You are already aware that a Royal Charter for establishing a University in the Pro- 
vince of Upper Canada has passed the Great Seal, and of Avhich the Rev. Dr. Strachan is the 
bearer. 

As Dr. Strachan was sent home to solicit this Charter, and has been detained on the con- 
cerns of the Church and other matters of gr at interest to the Province, you will consider your- 
self authorized to make him such remuneration from the Clergy Reserve Fund at your disposal, 
as. on account of the length of his detention in this country, and the trouble and expense to 
which he has been exposed, may seem reasonable. 

GODERICH. 

To Majob-Gbneral Sir Peregrine Maitland, K.C.B. 

These expenses of the Rev. Dr. Strachan not having been paid in 1827, 
or some time afterwards, the Lieutenant-Governor directed the Honourable 
Joseph Wells, Bursar of King's College, to pay them. His Secretary's letter to 
the Bursar was dated the 8th of July, 1828, and is as follows : 

In pursuance of the tenor of a Despatch received by the Lieutenant-Governor from His 
Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies, dated 28th of June, 1827, I am com- 
manded by His Excellency to convey to you his au'hority to pay to the Honourable and Vener- 
able John Strachan, out of such moneys as are in or shall come into your hands, on account of 
the University of King's College, the sum of six hundred and seventy-eight pounds, six shillings 
and eightpcnce currency (£678 6s 8d), being the moiety of his expenses incurred on a journey 
to and from England, and eighteen months' detention there, at the instance of the Secretary of 
State, whilst engaged in soliciting from His Majesty's Government the Charter of King's College, 
and attending to the affairs of the Estiblished Church. 

G. HILLIER. 
To THE Honourable Joseph Wells. 



* This one thousand pounds per annum was granted out of the yearly payments by the Canada Com - 
pany for lands sold to it in 1825 6, and for which that Company had agreed to pay to the Government, by 
instalments from 182C to 1842, at the rate of from £15,000 to £20,000 sterling per annum. 



Chap. XLIV. GRAMMAR AND COMMON SCHOOL RETURNS FOR 1827. 227 

CHAPTER XLIV. 

GRAMMAR AND COMMON SCHOOL RETURNS FOR 1827. 

The following returns of the Grammar and Common Schools in Upper 
Canada for the year 1827, were sent in to the Rev. Dr. Strachan, Chairman of 
the General Board of Education for Upper Canada, and were, by Message from 
His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor, laid before the Legislature in that 
year, viz. • 

Eastern District Grammar School. — Tn answer to your communication, I beg leave to state 
that the whole number of pupils attending the School is thirty-eight, of which eight are girls. 
Of the boys, eighteen are learning Latin, and are divided into three classes, as follows : 

1st Class, consisting of four, read in Ovid's Metamorphoses, and are ready to begin Sallust, 
having just completed their reading in Caesar's Commentaries. 

2nd Class, consisting of seven, read in Adams' Select Lessons and Mair's Introduction to 
Latin Syntax, and are ready to commence the Lives of Cornelius Nepos. 

3rd Class, consisting of six, are finishing Rudimann's Latin Rudiments. One boy is reading 
Virgil. 

Of the remaining twelve boys, five are learning English Grammar and reading Murray's 
Introduction ; five are spelling words of four or five letters in Mavor's Spelling Book ; two con- 
fine their att ntion exclusively to writing and arithmetic. 

The boy of the first Latin Class and the boy reading Virgil have just finished the First 
Book of Euclid's Elements of Geometry, and are about to begin a courae of Algebra. 

All the Latin boys are exercised twice a week in Geography (Ancient and Modem) and four 
times a week in Arithmetic. 

This being my first report sihce my appointment to the charge of the Public School of the 
Eastern District, I know not whether I have enlarged too much or entered less into detail than 
may be required. In either case 1 beg that may be ascribed to my inexperience. 1 may men- 
tion that 1 have engaged an assistant in the school since the month of Augu t last. 

H. Ukquhart, Master. 

Ottawa District Grammar School. — I received your letter requesting me to forward to you a 
report of the state of the Ottawa District School. In answer to which I beg leave to say that 
the number of scholars at present attending the school is twenty-seven, and they are arranged in 
classes as follows, viz. : 

Since I had the honor of reporting before on the state of the school, the scholars studying 
Greek and Latin under me, have left the school, and no others have yet supplied their place ; 
they have gone to Burlington College in the United States, there being a great tendency in this 
place to send their children to finish their education in the States. 

We have an excellent schoolhouse built of stone and lime, well fitted up and large enough 
to accommodate from 50 to 60 scholars. 

The School is regularly taught by myself and Mr. Gates as my assistant, and I have always 
since my appointment given every encouragement to education by miking my fees very low. 

Ji)Htf McLaurin, Master. 

Midlaiid Distrist Gramm,ar SeJiOol. — This report contains simply the classification of the 
boys of the Midland District School on the 27th day of November, 1827. Number of boys, 
fifty-one 

John Wilson, Master. 

Newcastle District Gramm/xr School. — In reply to your letter of the 16th, ultimo, I beg leave 
to state for the information of the General Board of Education that the number of boys at 
present attending the District School amounts to twenty-three and may be classed in the follow- 
ing order. . . . During a part of the year the number generally amounts t'> 30. I may also 
state that last year one b >y completed his education for the profession of the Law and is now 
with Mr.' G. Boulton. 

David Ovans, Master. 



228 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 182T 



Home District Grammar School. — The Rev. Thomas Phillips, D.D., the Teacher of the 
Home District School, of York, in the Province of Upper Canada, in conjunction with the 
Royal Grammar School annexed thereto, by command of His Excellency the Lieutenant- 
Governor, Sir Peregrine Maitland, betjs leave most respectfully to report to the Honourable and 
and Reverend the President of the Board of Education and to the Trusteee of the said school in 
the manner following: Number of pupils in the Royal Grammar and District School, this 
day, the 13ih March, 1827, fifty seven, of which there are seven classes are studying the Greek 
Roman languages. All are studying the English language grammatically and are instructed in 
reading, writing and arithmetic ; four classes are studying geography and five of the young men 
are studying mathematics and practical geometry. 

On Friday, the 19th of January, 1827, His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor visited the 
Royal Grammar School, York, and was pleased to signify his approbation of the manner in 
which the young gentlemen performed their various scholastic exercises. The Company present 
was numerous and were highly gratified with the interesting scene. Several pieces were spoken 
on the occasion : One, for the commencemenc of the year 1827, was spoken by Master G. 
Sherwood after a hymn was sung. One, to the ladies, was spoken by Master John Boulton, 
immediately after he had repeated the original Greek Ode. U. E. Loyalist, York, January, 
1827. 

Niagara District Grammar School. — Report of the state of education in the Niagara District 
School for the year 1827, by the Rev. Thomas Creen, Master, Number of pupils, eighteen. 

Mr. Creen was appointed Master of this School in 1822 ; and, in 1823-24, the number of 
pupils averaged 85, a majority of whom were studying the classics. Walter Dickson, Charles 
Secord, Miles O'Reilly, Thomas Taylor and William Winterbottom, Students at law, received 
their classical education principally in this school under Mr Creen. In consequence of the re- 
moval of the head-quarters of the Regiment, the District School has been deprived of consider- 
able support from the ofiicers' families. Some of our pupils have been removed to the Royal 
Grammar School at York, and during the past two years two rival schools have been commenced 
in this town. Notwithstanding these circumstances Mr. Creen is happy to add that the District 
School is on a very respectable footing, and, with the valuable and efficient assistance of Mr. 
Alexander, Assistant Master, will continue to be highly useful to the public. 

Summary. — In the eleven Districts of Upper Canada three hundred and twenty-nine 
scholars attended the eleven District Grammar Schools in 1827. 

Upper Canada Common School Returns fob the Year 1827. 

There were three hundred and sixty-four Common Schools, and nine thousand, eight hundred 
scholars in the eleven Districts of Upper Canada. 

Eastern District Common Schools. — In compliance with the provisions of the ninth section of 
the Provincial Statute of 1816 for the establishment of Common Schools, the Board of Education 
for the Eastern District respectfully have to report that the half year ending in December, 1826, 
there were forty-five Common Scho(>ls in the Eastern District, the teachers of which received 
their respective portions of the provincial allowance. That from the report of the Trustees of 
these schools there appears to have been one thousand one hundred and thirty-six scholars during 
that period, who were receiving instruction in reading, writing and arithmetic, and in some 
instances geography and English grammar. From December, 1826, to June, 1827; there were 
forty-six schools and one thousand, one hundred and sixty-nine scholars. 

The Board still entertains the opinion expressed in the report of last year, that the allow- 
ance from Government, small as it certainly is to each teacher, operates as an encouragement 
and an inducement to many of them to retain their situations, and to the poorer class, it affords 
a stimulus to have schools established where, otherwise, there would be none. 

The Trustees of the different schools express themselves satisfied with the conduct of the 
teachers some of whom are extremely well qualified for their situations. Josejih Anderson, D. 
McDonell, A. McLean, Members of the District Board. 

Ottawa District Common Schools. — We, the subscribers, Members of the Board of Educa- 
tion in the Ottawa District, in compliance with the Official Circular of the 24th October, 1825, 
respectfully report, that the Common Schools of the said District are now eleven in number, 
and are kept by Masters duly qualified, as the Act of Parliament directs, and we have recom- 
mended the appropriation of the sum of £126 lOs for the support of the said schools for the 
year commencing the first June last. George Hamilton, Alexander Grant, Philo Hall, Mem- 
bers of the District Board. 



Chap. XLiV. MISCELLANEOUS EDUCATIONAL INFORMATION, 1826-27. 229 



Bathnrst District Cumnon Schools Sumimry. — Teachers, thirty nine, boys, five hundred and 
seventy-three, girls four hundred and thirty four. Michael Harris, G. H. Reade, Members of 
the District Board. 

District of Newcastle Common Schools. — It will here be perceived that twenty-one schools 
are now on the books of the Board of Education for this District. Four have as yet given in no 
report, but were passed at the last general meeting of the Board, as approved. 

Hitherto the number of schools has permitted an allowance of twelve pounds ten shillings 
per annum to each, but it is probable, from their increasing number, that next year, that amount 
will be diminished. A. N. Bethune, Member of the District Board. 

Miscellaneous Educational Information About Schools in 1826-7. 

Niagara* — In the Niagara Gleaner of the 12th of August, 1826, the 

following notice appeared : 

The Rev. Thomas Handcock, A.B , of Trinity College, Dublin, Assistant Chaplain to the 
force at Niagara, informs the public that he has opened an Academy for the instruction of 
youths in Greek, Latin, etc., at Butler's Barracks. 

On the 9th of September, 1826, a strong appeal was made in a letter to 77ie Gleaner for the 
erection of a School House, as the population of the town was then over 1,200, and as they had 
an able teacher in Mr. Thomson. 

In 1827 the Rev. James Fraser, Presbyterian Minister, gave notice that he would open a 
class for teaching the various branches pertaining to the literary professions. 

On the 2nd of June, 1827, the following certificate was published by the Rev. Thomas 
Green and the Rev. Thomas Handcock : " We have great pie .sure in testifying to the ability 
and fitness of Mr. David Thomson, teacher of the Common School in the Town of Niagara, and 
in congratulating the parents of the children taught by Mr. Thomson." 

On the 23rd of February, 1827 , the pupils of the school contributed eleven shillings and one 
penny half-ponce for the distressed Greeks, as this was the year in which the naval battle of 
Navarino was foii^ht. (Mr. David Thomson was the author of the History of the War of 1812 y 
published at Niagara.) 

Among the pupils taught by the Reverend Thomas Green — afterwards Rector of Niagara — 
were Messieurs Miles O'Reilly, Thomas and W. Fuller, Thomas Burns, R. Miller, W. H. Dick- 
son ; also Judge Miller and Captain Geale. Several of his ex-pupils placed a tablet to his 
memory in St. Mark's Church. He was an Irishman although educated at Glasgow University 
and was a good classical scholar. 

St. Catharines. — +0n the 5th of May, 1827, a meeting was called by notice in the Farmers' 
Jcmrnal and Welland Canal Intelligencer^ and was held in Mr. Dyer's Merchants' Exchange "to 
take into consideration the propriety of raising subscriptions, and adopting measures, for erect- 
ing a building suitable for an Academy in this village." The meeting was a large and respect- 
able one. Dr. Chauncey Beadle was appointed Chairman, and Mr. Henry Mittleberger, Secre- 
tary. The amount required to be raised was put down at four thousand dollars, and the 
following gen'lemen were appointed to collect the same, viz., Messieurs Oliver Phelps, Lyman 
Parsons, Nathan Pawling, Chauncey Beadle, H. N, Monson, John Gibson and John Lampman, 
of Grantham ; John Clark and William Adams, of Louth : Jacob Keefer and Hall Daws, of 
Thorold ; Alexander Hamilton, of Queenston ; James Macklem, of Chippewa ; Rev. Mr. East- 
man and Smith Griflin, of Twenty-Mile Cieek, and Henry Nelles, of Grimsby. Shares were 
apportioned at fifty dollars each, payable in three instalments, and in cash, materials or produce. 
Tliis was the origin of the Grantham Academy, which was incorporated in 1830. 

In the same paper of September 16th, 1829, a notice was inserted to the effect that the 
Grantham Academy, being provided with teachers of unquestionable character and acquirements, 
was opened for the reception of scholars on Monday morning last. The Principal is Mr. Wil- 
liam Lewis, and the female department is superintended by Miss Cornelia Converse. 

\Mmdague. — The Township of Montague, bordering on the Rideau River, was surveyed in 
1774 by Mr. William Fortune. 

In 1802 the settlers numbered about ninety, and then, soon afterwards, the education of the 
youth commenced. 

•Condensed from information furnished by Miss Carnochan, Niagara. 
tCondensed from information furnished by Mr. William Mauson, St. Catharines. 
^Condensed from information furnished by Mr, Francis J. Frost, Smith's Fails. 



230 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1828 



In 1804, a school was opened in Montagu^*, Lot 20, Concession 2, under Mr, Jesse Mclntyre. 
It was taught in his own house. Afterwards a School House was built on Lot 24, and in it other 
teachers were engaged and taught, but whose names have been forgotten. 

In 1815, immigrants were arriving and took up farms on what was known as " The Settle- 
ment of the Rideau." Here and there a school w^as opened as the number of settlers increased. 

Perth. — In response to a request which I made to the Board of Education at 
Perth for particulars as to the schools first established in that town, a Committee 
was formed to collect the desired information and send it to me. This Committee 
consisted of His Honour Judge Senkler, Dr. J. D. Kellock and Messieurs R. J. 
Drummond, (Chairman), T. Cairns and Charles Meighen. The information sent, 
although somewhat late in reaching me, is condensed as follows : 

In 1815, under the colonization regulations, Highlanders settled at and above the comers of 
four townships, of Bathurst, Burgess, Elmsley and Drummond. The locality was known as the 
"Scotch Line." The Reverend William Bell accompanied the settlers, and was allowed ^100 
a year as their Minister. Mr. John Holliday, (father of Mr. James HoUiday, now an old resi- 
dent in Perth.) was sent with the settlers as their 1 eacher, at a salary of £50 per annum. He 
taught the first school on the "Scotch Line," (Lot No. 21, Concession 1 of Bathurst,) not far 
from what is now the centre of the Town of Perth. 

On the loth of November, 1822, a Board of Quarter Sessions was constituted at Perth. Ifc 
consisted of Doctors Thom and Reade, (the Honourable) William Morris, Colonel Taylor and 
Father John Mc' onald. This Board received £100 a year for school purposes, until the school 
or schools should be self supporting. Under the District (Grammar) School Act of 1820, the 
Board had the right to nominate ten pupils as free scholars in the District (Grammar) School. 
This gave rise to a good deal of hard feeling, because of the nomination now and then by the 
Board of the sons of, or the sons of relatives of, members o'^ the Board. 

Mr. John Stuart, was the first Master of this District (Grammar) School. He was succeeded, 
in 1830, by Mr. William Kay. 

Tlie Reverend Ephraim Patterson, late Rector of Stratford, was the last surviving free scholar, 
nominated by the late Honourable William Morris. 

In 1822, Mr. Benjamin Tett opened a school in a house, which is now Mr. John Riddell's 
on Heriot Street, and, in 1825, opened school in a house opposite to the site on which is now 
erected the Methodist Church. 

Mr. Dawson Kerr kept a school next to the Methodist Church, now on Gore Street. 

From 1827 to 1832, Mr. John Wilson, afterwards .Judge Wilson, kept a private school in the 
Fraser House on Craig Street, and afterwards moved his school to the Thompson propertj' on 
Gore Street. 

On the road allowance between the Townships of Beck with and Ramsay, a school was esta- 
blished in " an unsightly log shanty," at a place now in the middle of the Town of Carleton 
Place. It was taught by Mr. Kent, who was said, notwithstanding the mean pretension of the 
school house, to have been a good master. 

Whera the Village of Middleville now stands, in the Township of Ramsay, a school house 
was put up, and was occupied by Mr. Robert Mason and his scholars. 

From these school houses have issued many trained scholars, who have made a name for 
themselves, and none the less so from among those who were the orij^inal scholars of the Di&trict 
of Bathurst. Some still living have a keen recollection of corporal punishment inflicted by 
early teachers, "not wisely, but too well."* 

Cormoall.-): — The first school in Cornwall, of which there is any record, was the one esta- 
blished by the Reverend John Strachan, in the year 1803. This school up to 1807, was carried 
on as a private enterprise, when it came under the provisions of the District (Grammar) School 
Act of that year, (1807). The Cornwall Grammar School soon became known through the length 
and breadth of the land. The list of Mr. Strachan's pupils shows the names of many who were 
in their day, the leading men in Canada. 

Note. — A list of these names will be found on page 43, ante. 

*The remainder of this sketch, from the "early forties," will be given in its order later on. 
tContributed by Mr. C. J. Mattice, Treasurer of the United Counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glen- 
garry, Cornwal!. 



Chap. XLIV. MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION OF SCHOOLS IN 18 26-27. 231 



After Mr. Strachan moved to York, in 1812, the Pchool was carried on by Reverend John 
Bethune, (afterwards Dean of Montreal,) until 1815. His successors were the Reverends Joseph 
Johnston, Henry James and Harry Leith. 

In 1827, the School was placed under the charge of the Reverend Hugh Urquhart, who was 
a most successful Teacher. He remained in charge until 1840. Among his pupils were the 
Hoiiourables John Sandfie'd Macdonald* and Philip VanKoughnet ; their Honours, J. F. Pringle, 
and D. S. McQueen, County Court Judges ; the Rtverend J. F. S. Mountain, D. D. , and Messieurs 
M. R. VanKoughnet, Archibald John McDonell, Barristers ; John Molson, William Molson, 
Bankers ; Robert and George Hamilton, Merchants ; Moss K. Dickenson, M.P., and J. J. 
Dickinson, M. D. 

No building was put up for a school house until 1806, when the wooden house, still standing 
on Lot No. 18, south of Second Street, was erected. It was a cold, bare room, void of paint ; 
windows s x feet above the floor, filled up with long desks, at each of which eight or ten boys- 
sat — the seats being common benches, without backs. The accommodation provided for teachers 
and scholars in the Cornwall High School, from its first start, in 1806, until as late as 1877, was 
very poor. In 185G, a small brick school house was built on another lot. It was an improve- 
ment on the old one, though by no means comfortable or adequate to the purposes for which it 
was intended. It was used for iwenty years, when the present commodious building was erected 
in 1877. 

Peterborough, f — The first school house in Peterborough was erected in 1826. It was a log 
building, and stood on the ground now occupied by the shed in the play-ground, in rear of the 
present Union School bui ding. 

The Reverend Samuel Armour, conducted this school for several years, and was succeeded 
by the Reverend Moses Williams, the Reverend Robert J. C. Taylor and Mr. B. W. O'Grady, 
B.A., T.C. D. 

As the Town progressed other schools, specially devoted to the branches usually taught in 
common schools were organized, and then this building was appropriated solely to the purpose 
of a Grammar School. 

St. TTwmasl — About the year 1829, St. Thomas with a population of some 300 was laid out 
as a Village. 

• At a public dinner given to the Hon. J. Sandfield Macdonald in 1870, he thus referred to bis early 
schooldays: — 

" My friend, Judge Jarvig, has referred to my early life, and has very properly remarked that this is 
the country that offers the widest field to the industrious, or to a man of energy if he only possesses a modi- 
cum of brains. . . . It is true what the Judge states that I arrived in Cornwall forty years ago next 
autumn. ... I was engaged in a dry goods store. But the Judge has told you that I was not satisfied 
with that state of thingo. I went to the School here, which has had a reputation it may be proud of ever 
since the time of the late Bishop Strachan. It was the school that educated the Boultocs, the McGil's and 
the Jarvises. In that School I entered, and there I had to strive with those who were able to be maintained 
by their parents I worked against them at a great disadvantage, and would have succumbed hut that I 
was cheered on by my venerable preceptor ( Dr. Urquhart). MaYiy others have struggled in that School of 
whom Canada shoultf be proud. One of them particularly. He was one of the brightest and most talented 
of the men our eastern district can boast of. But providence has thought proper to take him away from his 
sphere of usefulness. Need I say that I refer to that ornament of the Bench, the late Chancellor Van- 
Koughnet. — Were Or. Urquhart able to boast of no other pupil but that honourable gentleman, he might 
have retired on his laurels. If that old gentlemen had not sent me a letter of encouragement I would not 
have been here, as I was about to break down for want of means. This lettter was written in 1835, and 
. . . I cannot help shewing what was thought of me by one who had the most perceptive idea of the 
ability of his pupils. This letter had the efifect of making me bear up in my struggle with my superiors in 
position and was as follows : 

" ' These certify that the bearer, Mr. John S. Macdonald, was a pupil in the Eastern District Si hool, 
from the I9th November, 1832, to the 23rd December last ; that duriug that perifxi his industry and appli- 
cation were close and assiduous, and that his progress in the several branches of study, to which he directed 
his attention, was highly respectable, and very considerably exceeded what is uoually made in the same 
space of time ; that the perseverance manifested in overcoming the difficulties to be encountered at the out- 
set of a cla.ssical and mathematical education, called forth the particular remark and approval of his teacher, 
as indicatiusf considerable energy of character, and as an earnest of future success in the prosecution of his 
studies. Moreover, that his general department during the same period, was m >st exemplary, and becom- 
ing, evincing at all times a kmlly disposition towards his fellow students and a most respectful deference 
to the discipline of the school ; and that, if the good opinion and good wishes of hii^ teacher can on any 
occasion profio him, he is justly entitled to both.' " 

" I owe all the spirit of independence which I have maintained throughout my career, to my learning 
in that school." 

Mr. Macdonald died in 1872, in the sixtieth year of his age. 

t Contributed by Mr, W, G. Morrow, Secretary-Treasurer of the Board of Edaoation, Peterborough.. 
t Contributed by Mr. Edward McCrone, St, Thomas. 



232 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1827 



The villagers were seemingly of a superior class, for as early as 1824, at a public meeting of 
the inhabitants it was resolved to erect a school house in which, to use the quaint phraseology of 
the time, '* the classical languages should be taught." Until such a building could be got, a 
Grammar School was opened by Mr. Stephen Randal, to whom belongs the distmction of having 
been ihe first classical Master of St. Thomas, in a leased building, in the upper room of which 
was held the Court of King's Bench. The Judge of which was the late Judge Sherwood, and 
the King's Attorney the late Sir John Beverley Robinson. With such distinguished neighbours 
the school could not fail to be a success, and was. The same year Colonel Malhon Burwell pre- 
sented the inhabitants with a building lot part of the property now of Judge Ermatinger. The 
lot of thirty-six square rods in area, was conveyed by deed to his Majesty King George the 
Fourth for school purposes, and out of it was erected a Public and a Grammar school in 1^25. 
The Grammar School was removed to its new location, and was known as the Talbot Seminary. 
Mr. Randal continued teaching there for several years, followed by the Rev. David McKenzie, 
John Walker, Rev. John Fraser and others. 

Many teachers since Mr. Randal's time have come and gone, but the same spirit that 
imbued the people of the ' ' long ago " still holds good with those of the present, and the good 
work of the Seminary, Grammar or High School is still continued with unflagging zeal in the 
present, and not a few pupils, "men of mark '' can look bick with thankfulness at the facilities 
they had of enabling them to fight the battle of life that the higher education in the old and 
aflfectionately remembered school housi enabled them to attain. 



CHAPTER XLV. 

EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF THE HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY IN 

1828. 

There being no copy of the proceedings of the Legislative Council for 1828, 
In either of the Parliamentary Libraries at Ottawa, or Toronto, I am unable to 
give any but the educational proceedings of the House of Assembly for that 
year. 

The Members of the House of Assembly who took part in its educational 
proceedings were Messieurs John Mathews, Alexander Wilkinson, James Gordon, 
William Thompson, Edward McBride, Charles Jones, John Rolph, Francis L. 
Walsh, George Hamilton, Thomas Hornor, Paul Peterson, Marshall S. Bidwell, 
Peter Perry, James Wilson, Robert Randal, Duncan McOall, William Morris, 
and Alexander McDonell. 

The most noted of these Members, not already mentioned, were Messieurs 
John Mathews, John Rolph, James Gordon, Francis L. Walsh, Peter Perry and 
Robert Randal. 

The Honourable John Rolph, M.D., son of Dr. Thomas Rolph, was a native of 
Gloucestershire, England. He came to Canada in 1808. He returned to England 
and graduated at Cambridge. He was afterwards called to the Bar of the Inner 
Temple, After he returned to Canada he settled in the County of Norfolk He 
was an able speaker, and espoused the popular side in the Gourley and Bidwell 
•cases.* He and Captain Mathews, were returned as Members for the County 

* For reference to these cases, see pages 80 and 122, ante. 



Chap. XLY. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY, 1828. 233 

of Middlesex in 1825 and 1829. For many years he occupied a prominent 
place in public affairs, and was, in his later life, Commissioner of Crown Lands. 
As a physician, he was distinguished for his ability and skill. 

Mr. Peter Perry, a close friend of the Honourable Marshall S. Bidwell, exer- 
cised a good deal of influence in the Legislature. He and Mr. W. L. Mackenzie 
were also friendly actors together in the House of Assembly. 

Mr. Francis L. Walsh was Registrar of the County of Norfolk after he 
retired from the Legislature. He lived to the patriarchal age of over 90 years. 

Captain John Mathews was censured by the War Office for having, as a 
retired officer, improperly conducted himself in December, 1825, at a theatre 
when American National airs were being sung. The House of Assemby investi- 
gated the charge, and exonorated hioo. He and Mr. Robert Randal were involved 
in some financial affairs, which were also investigated by the House of Assembly, 
and the matters were fully explained. 



On the 18th January, 1828, His Excellency, Sir Peregrine Maitland, Lieuten- 
ant Governor, opened the fourth session of the Ninth Parliament of Upper Canada 
with the usual Speech from the Throne, in which referred to the University 
Charter in the following terms : 

I have much pleasure in aanouncing to you that His Majesty has very graciously provided 
for the establishnieat of an University in this Province, and has bestowed means upon it 
which will ensure the early accomplishment of an object long regarded by me as among those 
most to be desired for the welfare of the Colony. 

On the 21st January, 1828, the House of Assembly responded to His 

Excellency's speech as follows : 

We shall be highly gratified to find that His Majesty has very graciously provided for the 
•establishment and endowment of an University in this Province, if the principles upon which it 
has been founded shall, upon enquiry, prove to be conducive to the advancement of true learn- 
ing and piety, and friendly to the civil and religious liberty of the people. 

30th January, 1828. — Captain John Matthews gives notice that he will, on Friday next, 
•move for leave to have that part of the Journals of the House of Assembly of the last session 
read which refers to the petition of Mr. Edward Thompson Philan, Common School Teacher. 

Slst January, 1828. — Mr. James Gordon brought up the Petition of certain inhabitants in 
the Town of Amherstburgh and its vicinity in regard to the District (Grammar) tjchool, which 
was ordered to be laid on the Table. 

^th February, 1828. — Mr. William Thompson gives notice that he will, on to-morrow, move 
for reading of that part of the Journals of the House which relates to the York Common 
School Bill. 

Mr. Francis Biby brought up the Petition of the inhabitants of the Town of Sandwich in 
regard to the District (Grammar) School, which was ordered to lie on the Table. 

5th February, 1828. — Mr, Edward McBride brought up the Petition of the Trustees of the 
Grantham Academy, St. Catharines, praying for an Act of Incorporation, which was ordered to 
lie on the Table. 

Agreeably to notice, Captain John Matthews, seconded by Mr. Alexander Wilkinson, moves 
that that pare of the Journals of the last Session, namely, that of the 13th January, 1827, be 
now read, which refers to the Petition of Mr. Edward Thompson Philan, which was carried, and 
ihe Journals were read by the Clerk accordingly, as follows : 

" Mr. John Matthews, seconded by Mr. Alexander Wilkinson, moves that the Petition of 
Mr. Edward Thompson Philan be referred to a Select Committee, and that Messieurs William 
Morris and Robert Randal do compose the same, with power to send for persons and papers, and 
to report thereon by Bill, or otherwise." 



234 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1828 



" On which the House divided, and the yeas and nays being taken, were as follows : 

"Yeas — Messieurs Atkinson, Baby, Burke, Clark, Coleman, Fothergill, Hamilton, Mat- 
thews, McCall, Peterson, Randal, Thomson, Wilkinson and Wi'son — 14. 

"Nays — Messieurs Beasley, Burnham, Cameron, Gordon, D. McDonell, A. McDonell, 
Morris, ScoUick and White — 9." 

" The question was carried in the affirmative by a majority of five and ordered accordingly.' 

Captain John Matthews, seconded by Mr. Alexander Wilkinson, moves that the Petition of 
Mr. Edward Thompson Philan be referred to a Select Committee, and that Messieurs William 
Morris and Robert Randal do compose the same, with power to send for persons and papers and 
to report thereon by Bill or otherwise. Which was ordered. 

6th February, 1828. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, tha Petition of sundry inhabit- 
ants of the Town of Amherstburgh, praying that the District (Grammar) School be removed 
from Sandwich to that Town. 

The Petition of the inhabitants of the Town of Sandwich, praying that the District (Gram- 
mar) School may not be removed from that place. 

Mr. James Gordon, seconded by Mr. Charles Jones", moved that the Petition of sundry in- 
habitants of the Town of Amherstburgh, respecting the Western District (Grammar) School, 
be referred to a Select Committee, with power to send for persons and papers and to report 
by Bill, or otherwise, and that the said Committee be composed of Messieurs the Attorney- 
General (J. B. Robinson,) and Francis Baby, which was ordered, 

Mr. Alexander Wilkinson, seconded by Captain John Mathews, moves that the Petition of 
the inhabitants of Sandwich, be referred to the same Committee to whom was referred th* 
Petition of the inhabitants of the Town of Amherstburgh, and that Messieurs John Rolph and 
George Hamilton, be added to the said Committee which \vas ordered. 

7th Febrimry, 1828. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Petition of the Trustees of 
Grantham Academy, prayina; for an Act of incorporation, and the Petition of Mr. Bulkley 
Waters and two hundred and nineteen others of different denominations of Christians in the 
Counties of Lennox and Addington, praying the House to inquire into the principle upon which 
an University is to be established in this Province, so that no power to hold lands, or other pro- 
perty, be granted to, nor any addition to the number of Members composing the House of 
Assembly be made from, or out of any ecclesiastical, or literary, body corporate, at whose hands, 
danger could or might be apprehended to the Constitution, or to their religious liberties ; and 
also that the House would inquire into the truth of certain charges and statements therein men- 
tioned, and to take such steps as to the Bouse may seem meet to preserve the petitioners and 
their children from ecclesiastical domination etc., were read. 

Mr. Peter Perry, seconded by Mr. John Rolph, moves that the Petition of Mr. Bulkley 
Waters and others be referred to a Select Committee, with power to send for persons and paper* 
to report thereon, and that Messieurs Marshall S. Bidwell, John Mathews, Hugh C. Thomson 
of Frontenac, and George Hamilton do compose the same. Which was ordered. 

Mr. Edward McBride, seconded by Mr. James Wilson, moves that the Petition of the 
Trustees of the Faint Catharines' (Grantham) Academy be referred to a Select Committee, to 
be composed of Messieurs John Clark and Robert Randal, with power to report thereon by 
Bill, or otherwise. Which was ordered. 

8>h February 1828. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Petitions of Mr. Hugh Wilson 
and fifty-two others, of the District of Gore ; Mr. John Bryning and ninety-three others, of 
the District of Gore ; the Petition of Mr. John Hamilton and one hundred and seven othei-s, of 
the District of Gore ; the Petitions of the Reverend Anson Green and one hundred and twelve 
others, of the District of Gore ; Mr. John Switser and ninety others, of the Midland District, 
Mr. Joshua Caverley and seventy-seven others, of the Midland District, Mr. John Grass and 
fifty-seven others, of the Midland District ; Mr. Rowland Gilbert and one hundred and seventy- 
nine others, of the London District, Mr. Michael Rittenhouse and eighty-six others, of the 
Niagara District, Mr. Daniel Weirs and one hundred and five others, of the Niagara District^ 
the Petition of Mr. William Hepburne and one hundred and thirty others, of the Niagara Dis- 
stict, and the Petition of Mr. Thomas Duncan and tifty-nine others, of the Eastern District, 
(identical with that of Mr. Bulkley Waters, presented to the House on the 7ih of February, 
1828,) praying that the House would inquire into the principle upon which an University is to be 
established in this Province, etc., were read and referred to the Select Committee on the sub- 
ject. 

llih Febr^cary, 1828. — The Petition of Mr. Jesse Ketchum and two hundred and fifty others, 
of the Home District ; of Mr. '''amuel Neal and seventy-four others, of the Western District ;. 
of Mr. SHmuel Riihardson and twenty others, of the Home District ; of Mr. John D. Willson 
and tifty-six otliers, ui the Hume District ; of Mr. William King and ninety nthera, of the Home 



Chap. XLV. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY, 1828. 235 



District ; of Mr. Joseph Gardiner and one hundred and thirty others, of the Home and Gore 
Districts ; of Mr. Joshua VanAUanand eighty-five others, of the Home District ; of Mr. Samuel 
Dearborn, Senior and fifty-eight others, of the Home District; of Mr. David Thomson juid 
forty-two others, of the Home District ; o'' Mr. John Black and seventy-seven others, of the 
Home Distric^ ; of Mr. Thomas Henry and one hundred and fifteen others, of the Home Dis- 
trict ; and of Mr. Hiram Capron and twenty-eight others, of the London District, — Christians 
of different denominations — praying that this House would (as petitioned by Mr. Bulkley 
Waters and others) inquire into the principle upon which an University is to be established in 
this Province, etc., were read. > 

Mr. George Hamilton, seconded by Mr. Thomas Hornor, moves that the Petition of Mr. 
Jesse Ketchum and others,, and also other petitions on the same subject, which 1 ave been read, 
but not referred, be referred to the Select Committee, to whom was referred the Petition of 
Mr. Bulkley Waters and others, on the same subject. Which was ordered. 

12th Ftbruaru, 1828. — Mr. Paul Peterson, gives notice that he will to-morrow, move for 
leave to bring in a Bill to provide for (a Sheriff and) for Schools in the County of Prince 
Edward. 

ISth February, 1828.^ AgreeaVy to the Order oi the I>Ay, the Petition of Mr. Archibald 
Chisholm and seventy-one others, of the London District, and of Mr. James Dougherty and 
one hundred and two others, of the London District, (identical with that of Mr. Bulkley Waters 
and others, presented to the House on the 7th of February, 1828,) were read. 

15th Febrivary, 1828.— Mr. Marshall S. Bid well, seconded by Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, of 
Frontenac, moves that an humble Address be prese ted to His Excellency, the Lieutenant- 
Governor, requesting him to cause a copv of the Charter of the University, lately established 
in this Province, to be laid before this House ; together with such information relating to any 
appropriation of lands for the endowment of such University, and such further informati"n on 
the subject of the University as it may be in His Excellency's power to communicate ; and that 
Messieurs Peter Perry and Hugh Peterson be a Committee to draft and report such Address ; and 
that the thirty-second rule of this House be dispensed v.ith, so far as relates to this motion. 
Which was carried and ordered. 

Mr. Perry from the Committee appointed to draft an Address to His Excellency, the 
Lieutenant-Governor, on the subject of the University, reported a draft, which was received 
and read the first, and second time, adopted, and ordered for a third reading this day. 

Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Address to His Excellency, the Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor, requesting info»'mation relative to the University, was read the third time, passed and 
signed by the Speaker, and is as follows : 

To His Hxcellenoy Sir Peregrine Maitland, KJj.B. Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, etc. 

May it Please Your Excellekcy : 

We, His Majesty's dutiful and loyal subjects, the Commons of Upper Canada, in Provincial 
Parliament assembled, request Your Excellency to cause a copy of the Charter of the Univer- 
sity lately established in this Province to be laid before this House, together with any informa- 
tion relating to any appropriation of land for the endowment of such University, or relating 
generally to the subject of the University, as it may be iti Your Excellency's power to communi- 
cate. 

John Willson, 
Commons House op Assembly, Speaker. 

J 5th February, 1828. 

. Mr. Marshall S. Bidwell. seconded by Mr. Hugh C. Thomson, of Frontenac, moves that 
Messieurs J. J. Lefterty and Richard Beasley be a Committee to wait up on His Excellency, to 
learn whea he will be pleased to receive the Address, and present the same. Which was 
ordered, 

18th February, 1828. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Petition of Mr. Jonathnrx 
Woolverton and fifty others of the Township of Grimsby (identical with that of Mr. Bulkley 
Waters, presented to the House on the 7th, instant,) was read. 

19th February, 1828. — Mr. Edward McBride, from the Select Committee, to which was 
referred the Petition of the Trustees of the Grantham Academy, reported that the Committee 
had agreed to a Bill, a draft of which he was ready to submit whenever the House would please 
receive the same. The Report was ordered to be received, and the Bill was i ead the firfat time, 
and ordered for a second reading to-morrow. 



236 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1828 



Thursday, Sid February, 1828. — Mr. Robert Randal brought up the Petition of Mr. 
Thomas Appleton, Common School Teacher, of York, which was laid on the Table. 

Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Petition of Mr. John Harvey and eighty-seven 
others of the District of Newcastle, (identical with that of Mr. Bulkley Waters, presented to the 
House on the 7th, instant, in regard to the University, etc.) was read. Also the petition of 
Mr. Charles P. Treadwell, of the Seignory of Point a I'Original, in the Ottawa District, praying 
for an Act to enable him to convey certain pieces of land to trustees and their successors for 
school purposes, burying-ground, etc., was read. 

Mr. Archibald McLean, seconded by Mr. William Morris, moves that the Petition of 
Charles P. Treadwell, Esquire, be referred to a Select Committee, with power to report thereon 
by Bill, or otherwise, and that Messieurs Jonas Jones and Duncan Cameron do compose the 
said Committee. Which was ordered. 

Captain John Mathews, from the Committee to which was referred the Petition of Mr. 
Edward Thompson Pliilan, informed the Souse that the Committee had agreed to a report, 
which he was ready to submit whenever the House would please to receive the same. The 
Report was ordered t<) be received, and it was read as follows : 

To the Speaker of the House of Assembly : 

Your Committee, directed to report on the Petition of Mr. Edward Thompson Philan, 
respectfully state that they have very carefully investigated his claims ; they have examined his 
documents ; they have been, during the last two sessions, in continued correspondence with the 
Trustees of the District Common School, in the Township of Bertie, with the Secretary to the 
Board of Education and with the Treasurer of the Niagara District, and they have very satis- 
fac orily ascertained that the sum of sixteen pounds, twelve shillings and six pence (£16.12.6) 
due to him from the Common School funds, and they, therefore, hope that the Board of Educa- 
tion of the Niagara District will not consider the payment of this sum out of the first moneys, 
which may come into their hands, as a violation of the law on the subject. 

John Matthews, 
Commons House of Assembly, Chairman. 

2l8t February, 1828. 

Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Petition of Mr. Joseph S. Lockwood and one hun- 
dred and seventh-one others of the Midlanl District, the Petition of Mr. Abram Zavittz and two 
hundred and sixty others of the District of Niagara, the Petition of Mr. Charles Powers and 
one h mdred and twelve others of the District of Newcastle, the Peition of Mr. David Gumming 
and thirty-nine others of the District of Newcastle, the Petition of Mr. John Steele and two 
hundred and thirty others o' the Newcastle District, the Petition of Mr, James H. Wilson and 
sity-one others of the District of Newcastle, the Petition of Mr. John Crawford and two hundred 
and five others of the District of Newcastle, the '^etitioa of Mr. James Rankin and one hundred 
and sixty others of the District of Newcastle and the Petition of Mr. John Harvey and eighty- 
jseven others of the District of Newcastle (identical with that of Mr. Bulkley Waters in regard 
to the Pi*ovinci<vl University, etc., which was laid before the House on the 7th, instant,) were 
read, and referred to the Select Committee on the subject. 

SSrd February, 1828 —Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Petition of Mr. Thomas 
Appleton, Common School Teacher, of York, praying for relief in the premises, was read. 

Mr. Robert Ranial, 8e3onlei by Mr. Duncan McOall, moves that the Petition of Mr. 
Thomas Appl^toi be referred to a Select Com nittee to ba composed of Messieurs John Rolph, 
John Matthews, Thomas Hornor and James Wilson that they have leave to send for persons and 
papers and to report ihareoiiby Bill, or otherwise. Which was ordered. 

Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Petitions of Alexander Nickerson and eighty-six 
others of the Niagara District, of Michael S. Dolard and one hundred and six y-five others of 
the London District, of John Fletcher and seventy-one others of the Home District, of Isaac 
Tja-noureaux and seventy-six others of the Home District, of A. Everett and ninty-two others of 
t!ie Western District, of Ephraim Powell and two hundred and sixty others of the Newcastle 
District, of Duncan Vanalstine and ninety-two others of the Midland District and of the Rev. 
Franklin Medcalf and four hundred and fifty-eight others of the Johnstown District (similar 
tj that of Mr. Bulkley Waters, which was laid bafora the House tm the 7th, instant, in regard to 
the Charter of the proposed University, etc ,) were read and referred to the Select Committee 
on the subject. 

27th February, 1828. — Mr. Marshall S. Bidwell, seconded by Mr. Peter Perry, moves that 
a Massage be sent to the Honourab'e the Legislative Couucil, requesting that the Honourable Legis- 
lative Council will ba pleased to permit the Honourable and Venerable Dr. Strachan to attend a 



Chap. XLV. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY, 1828. 237 



Select Committee appointed by this House to take into consideration and report upon the 
Petition of Mr. Bulkley Waters and others, praying this House to enquire into the truth of 
certain representations in an Ecclesiastical Chart and Letter addressed by the Honourable and 
Venerable Dr. Strachan to His Majesty's Under Secretary of S'ate for the Colonies, and into 
the principle upon which an University is to be established in this Province. Which was 
ordered. 

Mr. Marshall S. Bidwell, seconded by Mr. Paul Pt-terson, moves that an Address be 
presented to His Excellency, praying that His Excellency will be pleased to permit the Honour- 
able and Venerable Dr. Strachan, a member of the Executive Council, to attend the Select Com- 
mittee to whom have been referred the Petition of Mr. Bulkley Waters and others and a num- 
ber of petitions on the same subject, and that Messieurs Rolph and McCall be a Committee to 
draft and report such Address. Which was carried and ordered. 

Mr. John Rolph, from the Committee appointed to draft an Address to His Excellency the 
Lieutenant-Governor, requesting permission for the attendance of the Honourable and Vener- 
able Archdeacon Strachan on a Select Committee appointed by this House, to examine and re- 
port upon the Petition of Mr. Bulkley Waters and others, reported a draft of Address which was 
received and read the first and second times, and ordered for a third reading to-morrow. 

28th February, 1828. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Address to His Excellency, 
the Lieureunt-Governor, requesting His Excellency to be pleised to permit the Honourable 
and Ve lerab'e Archdeacon Strachan, a Member of the Executive Council, to attend a Select 
Committee of this House, was read the third time, passed, and signed by the Speaker, and is 
as follows : 

To His Excellency Sir Peregrine Maitland,K.G.B., Lieutenant-Governor, of Upper Ccmada, etc. 

May it Please Yook Excellency : 

We, His Majesty's dutiful and loyal subjects, the Commons of Upper Canada, in Provincial 
Parliament assembled, respectfully request that Your Excellency will be pleased to permit the 
Honourable and Venerable Archdeacon Strachan, a Member of th^Executive Council, to attend a 
SelectCommittee appointed by the House of Assembly, to examine and report upon the Petition of 
Mr. Bulkley Waters and others, praying this House to enquire into the truth of certain repre- 
sentations in an Ecclesiastical Chart and Letter addressed by the Honourable and Venerable 
Doctor Strachan to His Majesty's Under-Secretary of State, and into the principle upon which 
an University is to be established in this Province. 

John Willson, 
Commons House of Assembly, Speaker. 

28ih February, 1828. 

Mr. Marshall S. Bidwell, seconded by Mr. Peter Perry, moves that Messieurs Paul Peter- 
son and Duncan McCall be a Committee to wait upon His Excellency the Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor, with the Address of this House, and to present the same. Which was ordered. 

Mr. D'Arcy Boulton, the Master-in-Chancery, brought down from the Honourable the 
Legislative Council a Message, and having retired, the Message was read, as follows : 

Mr. Speaker : 

The Legislative Council do give to the Honourable and Venerable Archdeacon Strachan 
leave " to attend a Select Committee appointed by the House of Assembly to examine and 
report upon the Petition of Mr. Bulkley Waters and others, praying that House to enquire 
into the truth of certain representations in an Ecclesiastical Chart and Lettpr addressed by the 
Honourabli and Venerable Dr. Strachan to His Majesty's Under-Secretary of State for the 
Colonies, and into the principles upon which an University is to be established in this Province," 
if he thinks fit. 

WILLLA.M Campbell, 
Legislative Council Chamber, Speaker. 

29th February, 1828. 

29th February, 1828. — Mr. Secretary Hillier brought down from His Excellency, the 
Lieutenant-Governor, several Messages and having retired, the following Message relating to & 
proposed University was read by the Speaker, as follows : 

P. Maitland : 

The Lieutenant Governor, transmits to the House of Assembly, in compliance with its 
address, a copy of the Royal Charter for erecting the University of King's College in thia 
Province. 



238 DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. 1828 



The Lieutenant-Governor further informs the House that His Majesty has been pleased 
to grant as endowment for the University, two hundred and twenty-five thousand nine hundred 
and forty-four acres ("2^5 9it) of the Crown Lands, and to appropriate, from the revenues of 
the Crown, the sura of one thousand pounds sterling, (£1,000) per annum, [out of moneys 
received from the Canada Company], for sixteen years, for the erection of the buildings, and 
also that several of the religious societies in England have contributed to the institution by 
donations of money for the purchise of books, and, by the 'ouiidation of scholarships for 
missionaries to the Indian tribes. 

P. M. 

GOVEKNMENT HoUSE. YORK, 

29th February, 1828. 

Mr. Mirshall S. Bid well, seconded by Mr James Wilson, mives that so much of the 
Massage of His Excellency the Lieutenant- niovern or, and the documents accompanying it, as 
reUtas to the Uaiverjity, b3 refarrei tb th^ Select Comjaittee, to whom was referred the 
Petition of Mr. Bulkley Waters and others. 

The Charter of the University was then read by the Clerk. (See page .) 

Id M.trch, 1828. — Mr. Paul "^eterson, from the Committee to wait on His Excellency, the 
Lieutenant-Gjvern )r, with an Address of this House, re^juesting parmission tor the Honour- 
able and Venerable Archdeacon Scrachan to attend a Committee of the same, reported that the 
Committee delivered the Address, and chat His Excellency hai been pleased to mvke thereto 
the following reply : 

Gentlemen of the House of Assembly : 

I shall not withhold from Archdeacon SSrachan permission to a':tend your Committee, as 
the mitter to which your Address refers, caa have no connection with his duties as a Member 
of Executive Council of this Province. 

P. M. 
Government House, York, 
1st March, 1828. 

Srd March, 1828. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Petition of Mr. Findlay 
Malcolm and fifty-nine others, of the the District of London, (similar to that of Mr. Bulkley 
Waters, in regard to the Chirter of the University,) was read and referred to the Select Com- 
mittee. 

11th March, 1828. — Agreeably to notice, Mr. John Matthews, seconded by Mr. William 
Morris, moves for leave to bring in a Bill for thie relief of Mr. Edward Thomjoson Philan, 
Common School Teacher, which was granted, and the Bill was read a first time, and ordered 
for a second reading to-morrow. * 

Mr. Mirshall S. BiJwell, seconded by Mr. John Rolph, moves that an Address be presen- 
ted to His Excellency praying His Excellency to cause to be laid before this House the Reports 
of the District Boards of Educition, respecting Common Schools, according to the provisions 
of the Provincial Statute of 1816 (5(5 George Srd, Chapter 36) and also the Reports made by the 
Trustees of District Schools, respecting District (Grammar) Schools,accjrdingto the provisions of 
the Provincial Statute of 1S19,(59 George Srd.Chapier 4),and that the forty-first rule of this House 
be dispensed with, so far as relates to this motion, and that Messieurs Peter Perry and Paul 
Paterson be a Committee to draft and report the same. Which wai carried and ordered. 

Mr. Peter Perry, from the Committee appointed to draft and Address to His Excellency, 
the Lieutenant-Governor, pr tying for certain Reports, reported a draft, which was received 
and read the first and seoonl time, adopted, and ordered to be engrossed and read a third time 
to-morrow. 

An Adlress was presented to His Excellency, the Lieutenant-Governor, asking him to 
permit the Honourable James Baby, a Member of the Executive Council to attend and give 
evidence before a Select Committee of this House in regard to certain representations made in 
an Ecclesiastical Chirt and Letter addressed by the Honourable and Venerable Dr. Strichan, 
to His Majesty's Under-Secretary of ritate for the Colonies ; and into the principle uj^on which 
an University is to be established in this Province. 

[Note. — The answer was similar to that given in the case of the Reverend Dr. Strachan.] 

A Messvge was received from the H>nourable the Legislative Council, giving leave to the 
Honou able Messieurs Jamss Baby, Thomas Clark and VVilUam Dickson, to attend a Select 
Committee of the H mse of Assembly in regard to the petition of Mr. Bulkley Waters and others 
in regard to the University Charter, etc., if they see fit to attend. 



Chap. XLV. EDUCATIONAL PROCEEDINGS OF HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY 1828. 239 



12th March, 1828. — Agreeably to the Order of the Day, the Address to His Excellency the 
Lieutenant Governor, relative to to School Reports, was read the third tinie, passed and signed 
by the Speaker, and is as follows : 

To His Excellency Sir Peregrine Maitl