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D OCUMENTS 



Assembly of the State of New York. 



NINETY-SIXTH SESSION— 1873. 



VOLUME 9. -Mob, 161 to 169 indium*. 



ALBANY : 

THE ABGU8 COMPANY, PRINTERS. 

1873. 



UiVERSITY OF CHICAGO 
LIBRARIES 

266*02 
MARCH 1930 



STATE OF NEW YORK. 



No. 161. 



IN ASSEMBLY, 



May 21, 1873. 



LIST OP GENERAL ORDERS. 

o. o. 

1347. (Senate.) An act to incorporate the New York Mortgage and 

Trnst Company. 

1348. (Senate.) An act to amend an act entitled "An act to incor- 
porate the village of Olean in the county of Cattaraugus, 
to provide for the election of officers for . the same, and to 
declare the said village a separate, road district," passed April 
1st, 1858. \ . . % 

1349. An act dividing the State into congressional districts. 

1350. (Senate.) An act to authorize marine insurance companies to 
declare extra dividends in pert^aia cases. 

1351. (Senate.) An act supplementary to an act entitled " An act to 
provide for the incorporation of religious societies," passed 
April 5, 1813, and the several acts amendatory thereof. 

1352. (Senate.) An act further to define the powers and duties of 
the board of the State commissioners of public charities, and 
to change the name of the board to the State board of charities. 

1353. An act to facilitate the detection and punishment of crime. 

1354. An act to regulate the bureau of the public administration in 
the city of New York. 

1355. An act in relation to the powers and duties of county treasu- 
rers, and to authorize certain actions and proceedings against 
them. 

[Assembly No. 161.] 1 



2 [Assembly 

q. o. 

1356. (Senate.) An act to protect the rights of tenants and owners 

of leased lands, in leases commonly known as Campbell's 
leases. 

1357. (Senate.) An act to amend an act for the suppression of the 
traffic in and circulation of obscene literature, being chapter 
747 of the Laws of 1872. ' 

1358. An act to fix the compensation of assessors in the town of 
Westchester, in Westchester county. 

1359. An act to amend the act passed May 8, 1856, entitled "An act 
to authorize the establishment of the House of Refuge for 
Juvenile Delinquents in Western New York, passed April 7, 
1861, and to provide for the payment for the care of such 
delinquents as have been sentenced to Monroe county peniten- 
tiary." 

1360. (Senate.) An act to amend an act entitled "An act making 
provision for the support of certain dispensaries in the city of 
Brooklyn," passed April 21, 1870. 

1361. (Senate.) An act to amend an act passed April 13, 1871, enti- 
tled "An act to amend an act passed May 2, 1864, entitled 
'An act to. amend an act entitled " An act to authorize the for- 
mation of corporations for manufacturing, mining, mechanical 
or chemical purposes," ' passed February 17, 1848." 

1362. (Senate.) An act to amend chapter 371 of the Laws of 1866, 
entitled "An act to extend the operation and effect of the act 
passed February 17, 1848, entitled 'An act to authorize the 
formation of corporations for manufacturing, mining, mechan- 
ical or chemical purposes,' " passed April 4, 1866. 

1363. (Senate.) An act to amend an act entitled "An act to autho- 
rise the formation of corporations for manufacturing, mining, 
mechanical and chemical purposes," passed February 17, 1848. 

1364. (Senate.) An act to amend an act entitled "An act to widen 
and improve Ninth avenue and Fifteenth street in the city of 
Brooklyn," passed May 7, 1869. 

1365. (Senate.) An act to provide for the improvement of Park 
avenue, from Clinton avenue to Broadway, in the city of 
Brooklyn, and to repeal an act heretofore passed for the 
improvement of Park aveniie, from Clinton avenue to Broad- 



No. 161.] 8 

G. 0. 

way, aijd from Hudson avenue to Bridge-street, in the city of 
Brooklyn. 

1366. (Senate.) An act to authorize the Bale of certain lands belong- 
ing to the State. 

1367. (Senate.) An act supplemental to act entitled "An act to 
reorganize the local government of the city of New York," 
passed April 30, 1873. 



STATE OF NEW YORK. 



No. 162. 



IN ASSEMBLY, 



May 22, 1878. 



LIST OP GENERAL ORDERS. 

G. 0. 

1368. (Senate.) An act to alter the map or plan of the city of New 
York by extending Desbrosses street. 

1369. (Senate.) An act in relation! to a sidewalk from the village of 
Albion to Albion cemetery. 

1370. (Senate.) An act to incorporate the New York Rapid Transit 
Company, and to provide a comfortable, safe and speedy sys- 
tem of cheap and rapid transit through the city of New York. 

1371. (Senate.) An act to authorize the Atlantic Railroad Company 
of Brooklyn to extend their tracks through Boerum street 
and other streets in said city. 

1372. (Senate.) An act in relation to assessing the cost of sewers in 
the city of Brooklyn. 

1373. An act to prevent certain fraudulent practices. 

1374. (Senate.) An act to regulate the bureau of the public admin- 
istrator in the city of New York. 

1375. (Senate.) An act to legalize the official acts of William Phair 

as commissioner of deeds. 

« 

1376. (Senate.) An act authorizing the village of Fort Plain to levy 
taxes. 

1377. Concurrent resolutions proposing an amendment to the Con- 
stitution relative to funding the canal and general funding 
debts now charged on the canals. 

[Assembly No. 162.] 1 



STATE OF NEW YORK. 



No. 163. 



IN ASSEMBLY, 



May 22, 1873. 



REPORT 

OF THE SUB-COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE. 

Mr. Rose, from the sub-committee of the whole, to which was 
referred the Senate bill No. 978, G. 0. 1163, entitled " An act to 
provide for the support and care of State paupers," reported in favor 
of the passage of the same with several amendments: 

Section 2. Strike out of line 1 the words " board of," " public " 
and " as constituted," and insert " board " after " State." Strike out 
lines 2, 3, 4 and 5 down to the word u are," and insert " is." Line 
7, strike out " they " and insert " it." 

Section 4, line 13, insert " State" before " board," and strike out 
"State commissioners of public." 

Section 5, line 8, same amendment as last. Line 9, strike out 
u or the secretary thereof." 

Section 11, line 5, strike out " said." 

Section 12, line 1, insert "State" before "board," and strike out 
a State board of public." 

Section 15, lines 6 and 7, same amendment as last. 

The bill was ordered to be reported by the following vote : 

Aye*— Messrs. Cook, Watt, Bay, Sylvester, Stewart, Lincoln, 
Yeomans, Davidson, Babcock — 9. 

No— Mr. Rose— 1. 

[Assembly No. 163.] 1 



^ 



/ 



STATE OF NEW YORK. 



Na 164. 



IN ASSEMBLY, 



May 27, 1873, 



OPINION 

OP THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL, IN REPLY TO A RESO- 
LUTION OF THE ASSEMBLY, RELATIVE TO THE 
ISSUE OF FRAUDULENT STOCK BY THE ERIE RAIL- 
WAY COMPANY. 

STATE OF NEW YORK : 

Office of the Attorney-General, ) 
Albany, March 29, 1873. \ 

To the Honorable the Speaker of the Assembly : 

Sir. — On March 11th instant, the Assembly passed the following 
preambles and resolution : 

Whereas, It is well known that a large majority of the stock now 
outstanding against the Erie Railway Company was, by a corrupt 
collusion of its officers, fraudulently issued, and that there never was 
twenty per cent on the par value of such stock paid into its treasury, 
nor expended by it on its property for the public welfare, owing to 
such corrupt action of its officers ; and 

Whereas, The original purchasers of said stock did not pay more 
than the above-named amount for the same, thereby implicating 
themselves with those who perpetrated the fraud ; and 

Whereas, It has been made public that the board of directors of 
that eompany have declared a dividend on the entire amount of stock 
outstanding against it, which dividend is limited only in consequence 
of the earnings of its road, and not in consideration of the manner 
in which such stock was issued ; .and 

Whereas, The practical effect of allowing dividends to be paid on 

[Assembly No. 164.] 1 



J [Assembly 

such stock would be to recognize and encourage fraud, to paralyze 
the industries of an innocent people, living tributary to the line of 
the road that company represents, by imposing additional burdens 
on them for its use ; to levy unjust and oppressive burdens on the 
commerce of the city of New York, on whose commercial supremacy 
the welfare of the State so largely depends ; to increase the cost of 
living, by increasing the cost of transporting the necessaries of life 
between producers and consumers, and, finally, to enrich adventurous 
gamblers and speculators, as against good morals, the welfare of the 
people and public policy ; and 

Whereas, It has been currently reported and charged, in the public 
prints and elsewhere, that a large ana improper expenditure of money 
was made by the foreign stockholders and officers of the Erie Rail- 
way Company in the transfer of the management of that company in 
the year 1872 ; and that by a corrupt contract for the negotiation of 
its bonds, the agents of said foreign stockholders have since been 
indirectly reimbursed out of the treasury of said company ; and that 
a large sum was used to influence legislation connected with said road 
in the same year ; and that other gross irregularities on the part of 
said road and its managers were committed : Now, therefore, 

JResofoed, That the Attorney-General of this State be and is 
hereby directed to report to this House, within twenty days, whether, 
in his opinion, the dividend so declared upon the aforesaid fraudu- 
lently-issued stock of said company can be legally paid out of its 
treasury, and whether the said Erie Railway Company may not be 
restrained by the courts from paying said dividend, or any other 
dividend, upon any stock thus fraudulently created. 

In obedience to the above resolution I have the honor to report as 
follows : 

I understand the " fraudulent issues of stock," therein referred to, 
to be those made' under the following circumstances: 

By subdivision ten of section twenty-eight of the general railroad 
act it is enacted as follows : 

" Every railroad corporation shall have power * * * * * * 
from time to time to borrow such sums of money as may be necessary 
for completing and finishing or operating their railroad, and to issue 
and dispose of their bonds for any amount so borrowed and to mort- 
gage their corporate property and franchises to secure the payment 
of any debt contracted by the company for the purposes aforesaid ; 
and the directors of the company may confer on any holder of any 
bond, issued for money borrowed as aforesaid, the right to convert 
the principal due or owing thereon into stock of said company, at 
any time not exceeding ten years from the date of the bond, under 
such regulations as the directors may see fit to adopt." 



No. 164.] * 

Under this section it is charged, and I assume correctly, that large 
amounts of stock of the Erie Railway Company have been fraudu- 
lently issued. That bonds were issued by the Executive Committee 
of the Board of Directors to one of their own number as a mere 
means or cover for issuing stock. That the proceeds of such bonds 
were not applied or intended to be applied to " completing, finishing 
or operating " said road, but that said bonds were issued with the 
understanding that the person to whom they were issued should at 
once convert them into stock and allow for them to the company the 
value of the stock into which they should be converted. That there 
was no 'money borrowed on the bonds, no issuing of them for the 
purpose of borrowing money, never at any time anything due or 
owing on them, and never any actual and real owner of said bonds. 

Upon such a state of facts there can be no doubt that the trans- 
action and the issuing of the bonds and their conversion into stock 
was illegal, fraudulent and void,. 

The statute above quoted contemplates a bona fide borrowing of 
money upon bonds for certain specified purposes, and the element of 
convertibility into stock was added as a mere -means of increasing the 
value of the bonds. 

So far there is no difficulty in the matter, but when you come to 
the question of a remedy for this wrong there is much embarrass- 
ment. 

Where such a transaction was contemplated it could no doubt be 
restrained by injunction at the suit of the proper parties. 

And even after the consummation of such a scheme, if any of the 
stock into which the bonds were converted still' remained in the 
hands of the parties to the fraud, or in the hands of those who took 
with notice of the fraud, it would no doubt be the duty of the corpo- 
ration to refuse to pay dividends upon it, and an injunction could be 
obtained forbidding such payment. 

But where the corporation has permitted such stock to be trans- 
ferred on its books and it has passed into the hands of bona fide 
holders, there are two very grave practical difficulties in the way of 
refusing to treat it as valid stock. 

In order to restrain the payment of dividends upon, any particular 
share of stock it must be proved, first, that it is one of the shares so 
fraudulently issued or a derivation thereof; and, secondly, that the 
present holder took it with notice of its vicious origin. 



4 [AflSSMBXT 

The stock of this company changes hands bo frequently and there 
are snch large amounts of it that it may be fairly said to be impos- 
sible to identify at this time any particular shares as being derived 
from the tainted source, and when this was accomplished you would 
still have to prove that the owner bought it knowing of its corrup- 
tion. I may here observe that it cannot fairly be said, as suggested 
in the resolution of your honorable body, that the mere fact of a 
purchase of the stock at a large discount from the par value is evi- 
dence of fraudulent knowledge on the part of the purchaser, or 
" implicates him with those who perpetrated the fraud." Something 
more than the payment of less than the par value of the stock would 
have to be shown to impair the bona fides of the holding. 

It will be seen that the difficulty is not in the law of the case but 
in the facts, or rather in the proof of the facts. 

Referring to the language of your inquiry I have no difficulty in 
saying that the company cannot rightfully pay dividends upon such 
of such fraudulently issued stock as can be identified and traced 
into the hands of persons who took it with knowledge of the fraud, 
and that the payment of -such dividends can, upon proof of such fact, 
be restrained by injunction ; and I think that such an action could 
be maintained by the Attorney-General as an action to restrain an 
improper alienation of the property of the corporation. 
, But the difficulties of proof above referred to are so great that 
such a suit would be practically useless. 

There is a further question to be considered in this case. It has 
been argued with great force that the statute allowing the issuing of 
convertible bonds and the conversion of them into stock does not 
apply where the authorized capital of the corporation is already full. 

All the stock authorized in terms by the charter of this company 
had been issued long before the fraudulent issues above referred to ; 
and if the views above suggested are correct, the power to convert 
bonds into stock had ceased, and the stock issued for the bonds was 
wholly void. It is not necessary, however, to discuss the question 
here whether the argument that the stock cannot be increased beyond 
the charter limit is or is not sound, for the reason that, conceding it 
to be so, the same practical difficulty above referred to remains. In 
seeking to restrain the payment of dividends on this excess of stock 
we should, it is true, be relieved from the difficulty of proving that 
the holder of the stock took it with knowledge that it was a part of 



Nalflfc] :;5 

the over-issue, because, it being absolutely beyond the power of the 
corporation to create it, it would be void even in the hands of a bona 
fide holder ; but the difficulty of tracing it and saying that any par- 
ticular share was part of the over-issue would still remain, and that 
is, as above stated, practically insuperable. 

For the reasons above stated I am of opinion that a suit to restrain 
the payment of dividends on the stock issued in the manner above 
described wonld fail of any practical results, though I shall cheer- 
folly undertake it if directed by the Legislature. 

I may here call the attention of your honorable body to the fact 
that, by act chapter 278 of the Laws of 1868, the issue of the ten 
millions of stock previously made in the manner above described 
was in effect legalized, though I understand that large issues have 
since been made in the same vicious manner. 

The preamble to the resolution indicates that your honorable body 
is impressed with the injury to the public which is supposed to result 
from the imposing of undue burdens upon the people for the purpose 
of paying dividends upon this fraudulent and excessive stock. It is, 
however, evident that the canceling of this excessive stock would not 
necessarily diminish those burdens. If the stock were diminished 
one-half, the only result would be that twice the rate of dividend 
wonld be paid on half the amount of stock, there being no law limit- 
ing the dividends which railroad corporations are allowed to pay to 
any per centage on the capital stock. The company could and would 
exact the same rates of fare, and pay increased dividends on the 
diminished aggregate of stock. 

It is, moreover, clear that if stock, held by bona-Jide purchasers to 
whom the company has permitted regular transfers of it to be made 
npon its books, and thus induced them to pay for it to the vendors, 
should be declared void and canceled because of its being in excess 
of the chartered limit of capital, the company would, upon the 
principle settled by the Court of Appeals in the case of the New 
Haven Railroad Company's over-issued stock, be liable in damages to 
the last bona fide transferrers of the stock thus canceled for the value 
of the stock at the time of the transfer ; to pay these damages a 
debt would have to be created, the interest on which would be about 
equivalent to the saving of dividends on the canceled stock, so that 
nothing would be practically gained by the cancellation. 

The only remedy for such violations of law, if it can be called a 



6 



[Assembly Kb. 164.] 



remedy, is the criminal punishment of the guilty officers of the rail- 
road and the summary proceeding of a forfeiture of the charter ; and 
it is no doubt competent for the Legislature to limit by law the rates 
of fare and freight, and thus effectually set bounds to the amount of 
dividends which shall be paid on this stock. 

Very respectfully, 

FRANCIS 0. BARLOW, 

Attorney-General. 



STATE OF NEW YORK. 



No. 165. 



IN ASSEMBLY, 



May 27, 1873, 



REPORT 

OF THE SUB-COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE. 

Mr. Rose, from the sub-committee of the whole, to which was 
referred the Senate bill No. 476, G. O. 1281, entitled " An act to 
extend the term of office of the Brooklyn park commissioners," 
reported in favor of the passage of the same without amendment. 

The bill was ordered to be reported by the following vote : 

Ayes — Messrs. Rose, Oakley, Ray, Herrick, Stewart, Lewis, Lin- 
coln, Yeomans, Davidson — 9. 

• 

Mr. Rose, from the sub-corn mitte of the whole, to which was 
referred the Senate bill No. 425, G. O. 1284, entitled "An act to 
legalize the acts of Thomas H. Horton as a notary public," reported 
in favor of the passage of the same without amendment. 

The bill was ordered to be reported by the following vote : 

Ayes — Messrs. Rose, Cook, Oakley, Ray, Herrick, Stewart, Lewis, 
Lincoln, Yeomans, Davidson — 10. 

Mr. Rose, from the sub-committee of the whole, to which was 
referred the Senate bill No. 282, G. O. 1113, entitled " An act to 
amend section 19 of chapter 570 of the Laws of 1872, entitled * An 
act to ascertain by proper proofs the citizens who shall be entitled to 
the right of suffrage in the State of New York, except in the city 
and county of New York and the city of Brooklyn,' and to repeal 
chapter 570 of the Laws of 1871, entitled 'An act to amend an act 

[Assembly No. 165.] 1 



2 [Assembly No. 165.] 

entitled " An act in relation to elections in the city and county of 
New York/ " " reported to the passage of the same by the following 
vote : 

Ayes — Messrs. Rose, Herrick, Lewis, Lincoln, Yeomans, David- 
son — 6. 

Noes — Messrs. Cook, Oakley, Ray, Stewart — i. 

Mr. Rose, from the sub-committee of the whole, to which was 
referred the Senate bill No. 478, Qt. O. 1293, entitled "An act to 
release the interest of the people of the State of New York in cer- 
tain real estate to Nathaniel Edmonds," reported in favor of the 
passage of the same without amendment. 

The bill was ordered to be reported by the following vote : 

Ayes — Messrs. Rose, Cook, Oakley, Ray, Herrick, Stewart, Lewis, 
Lincoln, Yeomans, Davidson — 10. 

Mr. Rose, from the sub-committee of the whole, to which was 
referred the Assembly bill No. 997, G. 0. 1160, entitled "An act to 
amend an act entitled ' An act to incorporate the Inebriates' Home 
for Kings county,' passed May 9, 1867, and the acts amendatory 
thereof, passed April 13, 1868, and April 15, 1871," reported in favor 
of the passage of the same with some amendments. 

The bill was ordered to bo reported by the following vote : 

Ayes — Messrs. Rose, Oook, Oakley, Ray, Herrick, Stewart, Lewis^ 
Lincoln, Yeomans, Davidson — 10. 



NINETEENTH 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OP THE 




upetiutettdent of ; 




tttrlic : 



wttndwn 



OF TELE 



STATE OF NEW YORK. 



TRANSMITTED TO THE LEGISLATURE FEBRUARY 28th, 1878. 



ALBANY : 

THE ABGUS COMPANY, PRINTERS. 

1873. 



STATE OF NEW YORK 



No. 166. 



IN ASSEMBLY, 



February 28, 1873. 



NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THS 



Superintendent of Public Instruction, 

state op new york : 

Department op Public Instruction, 
Superintendent's Office, 

Albany, Feb. 28, 1873. 

Hon. A. B. Cornell, 

Speaker of the Assembly : 

Sir. — I herewith transmit to the Legislature the 
Nineteenth Annual Report of the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, and the documents accompanying 
the same. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

ABRAM B. WEAVER, 
SfiiperirUendeni of PvJblic Instruction. 



STATE OF NEW YORK 



No. 166. 



IN ASSEMBLY, 



February 28, 1873. 



NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



Superintendent of Public Instruction 

state of new york : 

Department of Public Instruction, 
Superintendent's Office, 

Albany, Feb. 28, 1873. 

Hon. A. B. Cornell, 

Speaker of the Assembly : 

Sir. — I herewith transmit to the Legislature the 
Nineteenth Annual Report of the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, and the documents accompanying 
the same. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

ABRAM B. WEAVER, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 



Nineteenth Annual Report 



OF THB 



SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 



STATE OP NEW YORK : 

Department of Public Instruction, ) 
Albany, February 3, 1873. ) 

To the Legislature of the State of New York : 

The Superintendent of Public Instruction, in obedience 

to the requirements of law, respectfully submits the 

following 

REPORT. 

The returns for the school year ending September 30, 
1872, given in this report, are as favorable, in nearly all 
respects, as those for any preceding year. This indicates 
a fair measure of prosperity, according to the usual 
standards, but should not be accepted as conclusive 
evidence of such great success that efforts for a better 
condition may prudently cease. 

Although statistics may be truthful in reference to the 
facts reported, and, for some purposes, very serviceable, 
they cannot reveal the whole life of our school system, 
nor, without careful study, will they disclose its defects. 
An account tff the large sums of money raised and 
expended for the support of free schools, of the great 
number of teachers employed and of scholars taught, if 



6 NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

inconsiderately accepted, might encourage the inference 
that there is no occasion for further improvement. But 
those in charge of public instruction should ever keep 
before their minds the question whether we are doing the 
proper work in the best way. I shall express my views 
plainly, in this report, upon some subjects involved in 
that inquiry, in the treatment of which I think changes 
for the better may be made, and submit them, with other 
matter, for the thoughtful consideration of the Legisla- 
ture. 

School Districts and Houses. 

The reported number of school districts in the State, 

exclusive of cities which have no such divisions, was : 

In mi 11,350 

In 1872 11 ,367 

Increase 17 

This increase is chiefly owing to the formation of new 
districts in sparsely settled sections of the State, as 
required by the increasing population. On the other 
hand, owing to the consolidation of small districts and 
the organization of graded schools in cities and villages, 
there has been, in the aggregate, a diminution of thirty 
during the last ten years. 

The number of school-houses, and their classification 
according to the materials of which they are constructed, 
are as follows : 

Log. Frame. Brick. Stone. Total, 

Cities 51 329 10 390 

Rural districts 121 9,890 869^ 473 11,353 

Total, 1872 121 9,941 1,198 483 11,743 

Total, 1871 127 9,914 1,182 505 11,728 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 7 

Their number and classification, as reported for the 
years 1862 and 1872, are as follows : 

Tears. Log. Frame. Brick. Stone. Total. 

1862 228 10,004 964 554 11,750 

1872 , 121 9,941 1,198 483 11,743 



• • **v^ •••• • • • • 



Increase .... 234 

Decrease 107 63 .... 71 7 



The increase in the nnmber of brick school-houses does 
not represent the full number of new buildings that have 
been erected during the period mentioned, for many have 
been constructed in place of old ones of similar materials. 
The improvements, which have been made in providing 
suitable houses and sites, are better indicated by their 
reported value, as compared with preceding years, and 
the sums expended each year for these and kindred pur- 
poses, as stated in the tables which follow. 

The value of school-houses and sites in 1865, when it 
was first reported, and in each of the succeeding years, 
was as follows : 

Tern. Cities. Rami Districts. TotaL 

In 1865 $5,041,061 $4,904,862 $9,945,923 

In 1866 6,720,535 6,534,422 12,254,957 

In 1867 9,500,085 6,680,511 16,180,596 

In 1868 9,599,627 6,859,858 16,459,485 

In 1869 10,760,589 7,688,459 18,449,048 

In 1870 11,981,302 8,445,110 20,426,412 

In 1871 14,606,903 8,861,363 23,468,266 

In 1872 15,165,314 9,350,936 24,516,250 

The average value of school-houses and sites is : 

In the cities $38,885 50 

In the rural districts 823 65 



i 

J 



8 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

The average value of school houses and sites in the 
rural districts was : 

In 1865 $433 02 

In 1866 492 12 

In 1867 693 92 

In 1868 604 98 

In 1869 678 17 

In 1870 744 34 

In 1871 780 46 

In 1872 823 65 

The sums spent in each year, since 1862, for school- 
houses, out-houses, sites, fences, furniture and repairs, 
were as follows : 

Years. Cities. Rural Districts. Total. 

1863 $242,547 53 $186,961 40 $429,508 93 

1864 370,815 34 276,485 89 647,301 23 

1865 516,902 04 282,258 66 799,160 70 

1866 489,348 67 480,875 92 970,224 59 

1867 1,012,482 87 700,624 14 1,713,107 01 

1868 1,166,076 28 1,017,988 67 2,184,064 95 

1869 1,401,464 03 1,053,988 98 2,455,453 01 

1870 1,079,160 61 891,418 27 1,970,578 88 

1S71 692,862 79 901,198 14 1,594,060 93 

1872 1,110,144 14 878,779 04 1,988,923 18 

Totals $8,081,804 30 $6,670,579 11 $14,752,383 41 

More than ten millions of dollars have be,en expended 
for these purposes during the last five years ; and the 
large increase in the reported value of school-houses and 
sites would indicate that the amount had been chiefly 
used in permanent improvements. 

Children and Attendance. 
The whole number of children between the ages of five 
and twenty-one years, as reported, was : 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 9 

Tears. Cities. Rural Districts. State. 

In 1871 645,128 857,556 1,502,684 

In 1872 662,778 859,175 1,521,953 

The number who attended the public free schools, some 
portion of the school year, was 1,024,130. 

The whole number in attendance, in each of the last 
ten years, was as follows : 

Tears. Cities. Rani Districts. Total. 

1863 294,211 592,604 886,815 

1864 293,265 587,919 881,184 

1365 310,556 606,061 916,617 

1866 326,798 592,511 919,309 

1867 362,288 586,915 949,203 

1868 359,229 611,613 970,842 

1869 378,861 619,803 998,664 

1870 409,477 616,970 1 ,026,447 

1871 411,133 616,977 1,028,110 

1872 409,272 614, 858 1 , 024, 130 

The aggregate number of days of attendance, for each 
of the last five vears, was as follows : 

Tens. Cities. Rural Districts. Total. 

1868 36,047,805 47,349,445 83,397,250 

1869 38,125,791 48,952,174 87,077,965 

WO 40,907,068 49,396,980 90,304,043 

1871 39,096,552 53,511 ,055 92,607,607 

1872 38,479,418 50,234,513 88,713,931 

The average daily attendance of pupils, for the same 
period, was as follows : 

Yean. Cities. Rural Districts. Total. 

1867 164,565 255,392 419,957 

1868 166,645 279,223 445,868 

1869 178,607 289,814 468,421 

J 870. 192,623 292,082 484,705 

Wl 195,230 298,418 493,648 

»872 199,853 294,997 494,850 



10 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

The largely increased attendance of pupils upon the 
public schools, which has hitherto marked the years fol- 
lowing the adoption of the Free School Law, has been 
substantially maintained during the last year. 

Though the total number of pupils, reported as having 
been in attendance during some portion of the year, is 
somewhat less, the average attendance is more than for 
any preceding year. According to the foregoing table, 
the average number of pupils in attendance for the whole 
State, each day of the entire term in 1872, was 1,202 more 
than that of the equal term in 1871 ; 10,145 more than in 
1870 ; 26,429 more than in 1869 ; 48,982 more than in 
1868, and 74,893 more than for the shorter term in 1867. 

The average time each pupil in the rural districts 
attended school was sixteen and nine-tenths weeks ; in 
the cities, nineteen and three-tenths weeks. 

The average length of school terms in the cities was 
forty one and three-tenths weeks; in the whole State, 
thirty-five weeks. 

The following table shows the average length of time 
ths schools were in session, in the rural districts, for each 
of the years mentioned : 

Yean. Weeks. Daye. 

1863 30 1 

1864 29 4 

1865 30 4 

1866 30 2 

1867 30 3 

1868 f 32 4 

1869 32 4 

1870 32 4 

1871 32 4 

1872 32 4 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 11 

The number of pupils instructed in the several common 
schools, normal schools, academies, colleges and private 
schools, during the year, was as follows : 

In the common schools 1 ,024, 130 

In the normal schools 6 , 377 

In the academies 31 ,421 

In the colleges 4,012 

In the private schools 131 , 761 

Total 1,197,701 



The total number, thus reported as having attended 
school during the year, is about seventy-nine per cent 
of all persons in the State between the ages of five and 
twenty-one years, and much larger than the entire popu- 
lation between the ages of six and seventeen years. 



12 



Nineteenth Annual Report of the 



For the information of those interested in comparative 
educational statistics, the following tables, based upon 
returns received at this Department, are submitted : 



COUNTIES AND CITIES. 



Albany 

Citar 

Conoes 

Allegany 

Broome 

Blnghamton 

Cattaraugus 

Cayuga 

Auburn 

Chautauqua 

Chemung 

Elmlra 

Chenango 

Clinton 

Columbia 

Hudson 

Cortland 

Delaware 

Dutchess 

Poughkeepsle 

Brie 

Buffalo 

Bssex 

Franklin 

Fulton 

Genesee 

Greene 

Hamilton 

Herkimer 

Jefferson 

Watertown 

Kings 

Brooklyn 

Lewie 

Livingston 

Madison 

Monroe 

Rochester 

Montgomery 

New York 

Niagara 

Lockport 

Oneida 

Utica 

Onondaga 

Syracuse 

Ontario 

Orange 

Newburgh 

Orleans 

Oswego 

City 



1. 






87 

196 

861 

50 

47 

108 

51 

58 

109 

58 

59 

96 

41 

78 

155 
48 
40 

148 
Tl 

114 
55 
61 
71 
69 
58 
85 
58 
47 
90 

168 

154 
61 
68 
58 
80 

196 
87 

188 
78 

10» 
68 

187 
60 
95 
61 
86 

181 
60 
61 

116 



2. 




54 
81 
190 
41 
88 
65 
41 
41 
68 
49 
41 
55 
89 
51 
47 
78 
85 
88 
46 
66 
58 
67 
49 
46 
50 
50 
48 
97 
48 
88 
61 
77 
84 
87 
45 
89 
58 
68 
60 
94 
51 
79 
45 
59 
46 
47 
46 
69 
77 
47 
48 
65 



3. 



© 

I 

S3 
S 9 

►»3 



I 

9 



u 
9 

P. 



94 
45 
48 
90 
90 
87 
90 
90 
49 
99 
90 
40 
17 
98 
91 
45 
17 
16 
91 
99 
95 
80 
90 
90 
95 
95 
90 
11 
99 
19 
84 
89 
49 
17 
99 
90 
94 
84 
96 
45 
95 
88 
99 
88 
94 
88 
98 
98 
89 
99 
94 
44 



*|2- 



f, 






II 



98.15 
98 19 
19.08 
89.94 
41.41 
86.49 
40.05 
89.81 
87.91 
49.06 
89.11 
49.09 
40.79 
99.66 
80 58 
98.64 
88.14 
40.86 
98.89 
90.99 
89.46 
96.88 
85.86 
89.75 
85.96 
85.99 
85.11 
89.48 
88.14 
40.09 
87.99 
19.64 
97.81 
88.58 
85.09 
89.04 
80.41 
17.64 
80.18 
88.59 
88.68 
87.88 
85.99 
97.75 
89.09 
85.99 
87.97 
89.07 
99.96 
86.68 
89.98 
87.94 



5. 



"2 O °" © 

•go " 



•8 



• •3 " H 



2 - 

5lSK 

nils 

pk 



45.60 
65.98 
86.89 
47.95 
51.48 
57.60 
49.80 
60.99 
66.19 
58.68 
49.78 
79.84 
51.69 
44.95 
44.71 
57.10 
47.67 
48.70 
46.89 
48.69 
46.59 
59.69 
46.75 
45.06 
51.08 
49.49 
47.77 
41.65 
59.04 
49.47 
56.89 
41.81 
50.96 
46.74 
48.80 
61.69 
46.08 
68.96 
48.97 
47.61 
48.18 
48.46 
49.57 
64.94 
61.87 
71.60 
50.84 
46.95 
50.84 
46.47 
49.96 
67.47 



Superintendent of Public Instbdction, 





COUNTIES AND CITIES. 


1. 


8. 


8. 


4. 


5. 




Ill 
III 






I 

1 

1 

18 

S3 
83 

a 

89 
37 
S3 

to 
as 

£9 
30 

10 
30 

86 

ai 

98 

n 

si 

30 
99 

3a 

39 
30 
19 
33 
49 
37 


i 

1 

I £ 

£ 5 


tills 




PWauD.. .. ,. 


48 

m 
w 
ut 

iao 
la 

130 
53 

66 
81 
145 

n 

48 
71 
66 
80 
68 
54 
BB 


M 

49 
Tl 
101 
M 

79 
6S 
40 
74 
*»■ 

m 
» 

. 41 
40 

44 

67 
« 
41 


88 
33 
91 

as 

39 
X 
33 

i 

3 
n 

89 
M 
86 
40 

M 

84 

40 
M 

90 

31 
86 

aft 

37 

as 

34 

30 


80 
64 
09 

98 

09 
44 
40 

84 
Bl 
07 

17 
81 
78 
08 
68 
40 
50 

46 
00 

30 
00 
03 
M 
68 

ai 

IS 


BO. 00 
45.84 
45.97 
40.46 
45.87 
57.08 
46.85 
45.84 
50.14 
46.87 
46.31 
46.51 
88.10 
4B.B5 
49.61 
47.78 
47.T4 
48.78 
43.98 
50.83 
50.41 

so!** 

40.81 
49.00 
46.43 
49,16 
45.68 
47.07 
48.83 
48.81 




Looilalwd Cltj... 

tiaumtut 




BocUuil, 




3»c&U. 




Cltj ,. 

Sebohirw 








Hnb«... 


1 




















Twlcbeeler ..... 


ei 
ne 

El 

n 
» 

i» 

84 


41 

4t 




K2. 




8W«.. . 


so 





The whole number of teachers employed in the common 
schools was : 

Ton. Milei. Fannies, Total. 

Inl871 6,481 21,773 28,254 

In 1872 6,670 21,887 28,657 

The nnraber reported as " employed at the same time 
for twenty -eight weeks or more," in each of the last five 
fears, is stated in the following table : 



14 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

No. employed No. employed in 
Yean. in cities. rural districts. Total. 

1868 3,998 12,598 16,596 

1869 4,334 12,806 17,140 

1870 4,463 12,974 17,437 

1871 4,752 13,119 17,871 

1872 4,800 13,256 18,056 

The " district quota " is annually determined by divid- 
ing the aggregate amount apportioned for that purpose, 
by the number of teachers simultaneously employed 
during the previous year, in the several districts, for the 
prescribed legal term of twenty -eight weeks. Though 
the aggregate amount has annually increased, the num- 
ber of teachers from year to year has, in some instances, 
increased more rapidly, causing a decrease in the amount 
of the " quota." 

The amount paid asa" district quota ' ' was : 

In 1868 $47 57 

In 1869 47 15 

In 1870 46 09 

In 1871 47 56 

In 1872 48 11 

In 1873 48 19 



The following statement shows by whom the teachers 
employed in the schools were licensed : 

By normal By Sopt. By local 

schools. Pub. Inst officers. Total. 

Cities 270 448 4,480 5,198 

Rural districts 273 647 22 , 539 23 , 459 



Total for 1872 543 1,095 27,0J9 28>657 

Total for 1871 533 1,054 26,667 28,254 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 15 

The amount expended for teachers' wages was : 

Yean. Cities. Rural Districts. Total. 

In 1867 $2,217,028 94 $2,609,442 70 $4,826,471 64 

In 1868 2,564,592 90 3,032,914 04 5,597,506 94 

In 1869 2,790,068 90 3,302,11169 6,092,180 59 

Li 1870 3,036,439 98 3,460,252 41 6,496,692 39 

In 1871 3,066,787 94 3,586,305 11 6,653,093 05 

In 1872 3,316,926 27 3,640,529 49 6,957,455 76 

Increase over 1871, $250,138 33 $54,224 38 $304,362 71 



The average annual salary for each teacher, calculated 
from the foregoing statements, was : 

Tears. Cities. Rural Districts. State. 

In 1867 $621 36 $216 73 $309 23 

In 1868 641 47 240 75 387 28 

In 1869 642 87 257 86 355 02 

In 1870 680 36 266 70 372 58 

Inl87l 645 37 273 38 372 86 

In 1872 69103 274 63 385 33 

The average weekly wages was : 

Tears. Cities. Rural Districts. State. 

In 1869 $16 16 $7 86 $10 09 

In 1870 16 12 8 13 10 58 

In 1871 15 44 8 33 10 58 

Inl872 16 73 8 37 1104 

The amount paid for teachers' wages was $2,130,984.12 
more than in 1867, which is an advance, in five years, of 
more than forty-four per cent upon the gross amount, 
and of more than twenty-two per cent upon the average 
annual salaries of the increased number of teachers. 

The following is a summary of the statistical reports 
for the year ending September SO, 1872. For a detailed 



16 



Nineteenth Annual Report of the 



statement by counties, see table No. 4, in the appen- 
dix. 



Number of district* 

Number of teachers employed at the same time for 

twenty-eight weeks or more 

Number of children between 5 and 91 years of age 

Number of male teachers employed 

Nnmber of female teachers employed 

Number of children attending the common schools 

Average daily attendance 

Number of visitations by school commissioners 

Number of volumes in district libraries 

Number of log school-houses 

Number of frame school-houses 

Number of brick school-houses 

Number of stone school-houses 

Whole number of school-houses 



Cities. 



004 

4,800 

682,778 

409 

4,796 
400,973 
100,858 

• • • • • • 

189,881 
51 



10 
800 



Rural 
Districts. 



11,867 

18,956 

850,175 

<i,268 

17,101 

614,858 

204,097 

17,940 

741,089 

191 

0,800 



478 
11,858 



Total. 



19,061 

18,056 

1,621,058 

6,670 

31,987 

1,094,180 

494,850 

17,940 

874,198 

191 

9,941 

1,196 

488 

11,748 



Public Moneys. 
The following table shows the receipts and payments 
on account of the Common School Fund, during the year : 

Receipts. 

Balance on hand, September 30, 1871 $33,495 26 

Interest on bonds for lands 8,622 90 

Interest on bonds for loans 8 , 930 39 

Interest on loan of 1840 2,924 46 

Interest on State stocks 67,903 27 

Interest on Comptroller's bonds 2, 160 00 

Interest on Oswego city bonds 2,996 00 

Rent of lands '. 43 50 

Dividends on stock of Manhattan Company 5,000 00 

Interest on money in the treasury 70,022 97 

$202,098 75 
Amount appropriated from the U. S. Deposit Fund, 165,000 00 

$367,098 75 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 17 

Payments. 

Dividends to common schools $244,600 00 

Salaries of school commissioners 90, 187 32 

Indian schools 4,481 66 

$330,268 98 
Balance in treasury, September 30, 1872 27 , 829 77 

$367,098 75 

A statement showing the increase and diminution of 
the fund, and the manner in which its capital has been 
invested from 1805 to the present time, is given in tables 
Nos. 6 and 7, in the appendix. 

Free School Fund. 
The following table shows the receipts and payments, 
on account of this fund, during the last fiscal year : 

Receipts. 

Balance on hand, October 1, 1871 $31 ,666 18 

Avails of State tax received during the year 2,565,672 37 

Reftuided on account of erroneous payment to the 

Albany [Normal School 20 00 

$2,597,358 55 

Payments. 

Regular apportionment to cities and counties. . . $2,411,685 35 

Supplementary apportionment 2, 190 73 

Indian schools 3,209 28 

Teachers' Institutes 15,069 10 

formal School at Albany 16,000 00 

Normal School at Brockport 17,990 S3 

Normal School at Buffalo 17, 115 12 

Normal School at Cortland 18,513 81 

Carried forward $2,501,773 72 

2 



18 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Brought forward $2,501 , 773 72 

Normal School at Fredonia 17, 556 10 

Normal School at Geneseo 17, 996 65 

Normal School at Oswego 28,281 39 

Normal School at Potsdam 18,881 42 

Balance on hand, September 30, 1872 12, 869 27 

$2,507,358 55 



I respectfully suggest to the Legislature the propriety 
of amending the law in regard to the Free School Fund, 
so that the supervision of it by the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction shall be similar to that exercised by 
the Comptroller over the General Fund. 

Under the existing law, all payments from the Free 
School Fund are made upon the warrant of the Super- 
intendent, and all receipts for moneys coming into the 
fund are required to be countersigned by him. His con 
trol does not extend further. He has no means of ascer- 
taining whether the money, for which he receipts, is 
actually placed in the bank to the credit of the fund. 

On account of this defect in the law, mistakes have 
frequently occurred, as the following cases will illustrate : 
In 1868, moneys due from the treasurers of the counties 
of Kings and Lewis, on account of the State school tax, 
amounting to $20,224.88, were paid by those officers to 
the State treasurer, and receipts therefor, duly counter- 
signed by me, were given them. But, by a mistake in 
the Treasurer's office, this sum was deposited in the bank 
to the credit of the General Fund, and was so credited on 
the books of the Treasurer and Comptroller. There was 
no way to rectify the error, except by procuring legisla- 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 19 

tion authorizing a transfer of the money. Accordingly, 
the necessary appropriation was made in the supply 
bill of 1870, and, soon after, the Comptroller drew his 
warrant for the amount, and a check therefor was drawn 
by the Treasurer. This check should have been deposited 
in the bank, to the credit of the Free School Fund, in 
May, 1870. But it was withheld, and the money was not 
placed to the credit of the Free School Fund until Decem- 
ber, 1871. Thus, more than eighteen months' interest 
upon this large sum was lost to that fund. 

In 1869, the sum of $7,734.42, due from the treasurer of 
the county of Richmond for school taxesi and paid by 
Mm to the State Treasurer, was in like manner credited to 
the General Fund. An appropriation was subsequently 
made for the repayment of this sum from the general 
fund to the Free School Fund. A warrant for the amount 
was drawn by the Comptroller, and a check for the same 
amount was drawn by the State Treasurer. That check 
should have been deposited to the credit of the Free School 
Fund, but it never was so deposited. The check was 
indorsed by the State Treasurer, was presented to the 
bank, and was paid ; but the money never went to the 
credit of the Free School Fund. Legal proceedings were 
subsequently instituted, upon the Treasurer's bond, 
for the recovery of the money, and doubtless it will 
eventually be placed where it belongs. 

I have cited these instances, to show the necessity for an 
amendment of the law. If the Treasurer was required 
to make to the Superintendent of Public Instruction a 
monthly report of the condition of the Free School Fund, 
and, also, if the Superintendent were furnished with a 



20 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

* 

duplicate bank book showing the sums placed, day by 
day, to the credit of the fund, such mistakes and omis- 
sions, as those above referred to, would not be likely to 
occur. The law itself should guard against a misappli- 
cation of the public funds. 

Statement of all School Moneys Received and 

Apportioned. 

The school moneys for the fiscal year ending Septem- 
ber 30, 1878, are derived from the following sources : 

From the Common School Fund $170,000 00 

From the United States Deposit Fund 165,000 00 

From the State School Tax 2,448,784 81 

$2,783,784 31 



The apportionment has been made, as required by law, 
as follows : 

For salaries of school commissioners $91 , 200 00 

For supervision in cities 18 , 500 00 

For libraries 65,000 00 

For contingent fund (including $84.99 for separ- 
ate neighborhoods) 1 , 797 57 

For Indian schools 3, 172 00 

For district quotas 871,371 58 

For pupil and average attendance quotas 1 , 742 , 743 16 

$2,783,784 31 



The pupil and the average attendance quotas are 
apportioned to the several counties, and cities having 
special school acts, according to their population, and 
are re- apportioned by the school commissioners, in their 
respective counties, to the several school districts which 
have maintained school the required term of twenty-eight 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 21 

weeks during the preceding school year: one- half 
according to the number of children between five and 
twenty-one years of age residing in the several districts 
on the thirtieth day of September next preceding, and 
one-half according to the average daily attendance at 
school, as determined by dividing the whole number of 
days of attendance at school during the year by the 
whole number of days that school was taught. 

It was undoubtedly the original design, in establish- 
ing this basis for the distribution of a portion of the 
public moneys, to encourage attendance at school ; but 
the practical operation of the law tends to defeat that 
purpose, by rewarding the highest average daily attend- 
ance, which is more easily secured for a short term than 
for a long one. Thus a district maintaining school beyond 
the required legal term, not only receives no public money 
on account of such additional time, but incurs the risk 
of reducing the average daily attendance already attained, 
and, consequently, its share in the next annual appor- 
tionment. 

It would be more equitable, and encourage attendance 
for longer terms, to divide this portion of the fund 
according to the whole number of days of attendance at 
school. 

The following table is a summary of the financial 
reports relating to common schools, for the year ending 
September 30, 1872. For a detailed statement by coun- 
ties, see appendix, table No. 5. 



22 



Nineteenth Annual Report of the 



Reubiptb. 



Amount on hand, October 1, 1871 

Apportionment of public moneys 

Proceeds of gospel and school lands. . . 

Raised by tax 

Estimated value of teachers' board 

From all other sources 



Totals. 



PATXKMT8. 

For teachers' wages 

For libraries 

For school apparatus , 

For colored schools , 

For school-houses, Bites, etc , 

For all other incidental expenses 

Forfeited in hands of supervisors.., 
Amount on hand, October 1, 1872. . . 



L 



Totals 



Cities. 



$818,869 09 

1,01(1,88? 98 

44 86 

4,840,065 60 



90,722 21 



$6,266,689 74 



$8,816,926 27 

10,862 18 

167,966 06 

69,886 04 

1,110,144 14 

721,960 12 

878,906 96 



$6,266,689 74 



Rural districts. 



$264,749 05 

1,641,978 12 

86,452 62 

2,940,862 78 

235,660 87 

169,744 62 



$5,289,448 06 



$3,640,529 

15,197 

57,715 

6,690 

878,779 

429,850 

142 

260,543 



49 
87 
86 
13 
04 
70 
18 
84 



Totals. 



$1,088,618 14 

2,658,866 10 

86,497 48 

7,280,928 38 

235,660 87 

260,466 83 



$11,556,037 80 



$5,289,448 06 



$6,957,456 76 

26,059 50 

225,681 44 

66,525 17 

1,988,923 18 

1,151,800 83 

142 13 

1,139,449 80 



$11,556,037 80 



By deducting from the totals, under the head of pay- 
ments, the sums remaining on hand October 1, 1872, it 
appears that the actual expense of maintaining the com- 
mon schools, during the year, was as follows : 

In the cities $5,887,683 78 

In the rural districts 5,028,904 22 

Total $10,416,588 00 

Corresponding total for 1871 9 , 607 , 903 81 



Increase 



$808,684 19 



The total expenditures for the maintenance of our pub- 
lic schools in each year, from 1850 to the present time, is 
shown in the following table : 

1850 § $1,607,684 85 

1851 1,884,826 16 

1852 2,249,814 02 

1853 2,469,248 *2 

1854 2,666,609 36 

1855 3,544,587 62 

1856 3,323,049 98 

Carried forward $17,745,820 51 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 23 

Brought forward $17,745,820 51 

1857 3,792,948 79 

1858 * 2,600,000 00 

1859 3,664,617 57 

1860 3,744,246 95 

1861 3,841,270 81 

1862 3,955,664 33 

1863 3,859,159 21 

1864 4,549,870 66 

1865 5,735,460 24 

1866 6,632,935 94 

1867 7,683,201 22 

1888 9,040,942 02 

1869 9,886,786 29 

1870 9,905,514 22 

1871 9,607,903 81 

1872 10,416,588 00 

Total $116,562,930 57 



The following table shows the entire amount expended 

during the year for the maintenance of public educational 

institutions, not including appropriations made to orphan 

asylums and other public charities in which instruction 

is given : 

For the wages of common school teachers $6,957,455 76 

For district libraries 26,059 50 

For school apparatus 225,681 44 

For colored schools 66,525 17 

For buildings, sites, furniture, repairs, etc 1,988,923 18 

For other expenses incident to the support of 

common schools 1 , 151 ,800 82 

State appropriation for support of academies. . 41,746 50 
State appropriation for teachers' classes in 

academies , 15,080 00 

Carried forward. .« $10,473,272 37 

* Estimated. 



24 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Brought forward $10,473,272 37 

For teachers' institutes 16, 190 28 

For normal schools 174,339 23 

For Cornell University 44,000 00 

For Elmira Female College 3,500 00 

For Indian schools 7,690 94 

For salaries of school commissioners 90,18732 

For Department of Public Instruction 19,620 08 

For Regents of the University 6,242 26 

For printing reports and school registers 13,958 72 

Total $10,849,001 20 

Corresponding total for 1871 9,880,185 06 

Increase $968,816 14 



District Libraries. 

The condition of the district library system, and the 
ruinous tendency of its present management, are fully 
stated in the former reports from this Department. The 
reported number of volumes has constantly decreased 
from 1,604,210, in 1853, to 874,193, in 1872, notwithstand- 
ing the annual appropriation of $55,000 for their support. 
The decrease for the last year was 54,123. If the system 
is to be redeemed and made useful, the Legislature must 
interfere. 

In accordance with previous recommendations, and for 
the purpose of carrying them into effect, I have prepared 
amendments to the Code of Public Instruction, providing 
for the repeal of those provisions which permit the use 
of library moneys for any other purpose than for the 
purchase of books, and making it the duty of trustees to 
raise by taxation, in each district respectively, a sum 
equal to that apportioned to it for library purposes, and 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 25 

to apply the same exclusively to the purchase of books ; 
and the duty of supervisors to disburse the library 
moneys, only upon the written orders of trustees accom- 
panied by their verified statement giving the names and 
cost of the books purchased or contracted for, and certi- 
fying that at least an equal amount has been raised by 
the district for library purposes within the year. 

Amendments in form, embodying these provisions and 
appropriately designated, will be submitted to the legis- 
lature at its present session, and, I trust, meet with favor. 

Teachers' Institutes. 

Fifty-four county institutes were held, during the last 
calendar year, in as many different counties of the State, 
besides one for Indian school teachers on the Allegany 
and Cattaraugus reservation. The aggregate attendance 
of teachers was eight thousand six hundred and eighty- 
three, of whom two thousand eight hundred and forty- 
five were males, and five thousand eight hundred and 
thirty- eight were females. The average attendance for 
each county was one hundred and sixty-one. 

In St. Lawrence county, a distinct session of the insti- 
tute was not held, the last year, in view of the establish- 
ment of a special training class at the State normal school 
at Potsdam, to continue ten weeks, commencing with the 
fall term in September, for the benefit of those proposing 
to teach during the ensuing season, and the expected 
attendance of a large number of the teachers from that 
county where the school is located. 

On this account, and the neglect of commissioners in 
Columbia, Kings and Onondaga counties to organize 



26 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

institutes, and in some other counties to use proper 
effort for securing a full attendance, there has been a 
decrease in the number of teachers reported to have been 
present at the institutes of the past year. No satisfactory 
excuse has been rendered by the commissioners of the 
three counties last named, for neglecting a plain statutory 
duty to organize an institute in each of their respective 
counties ; and it is a notable coincidence, that both in 
1869 and 1872, at the end of which years the terms of 
office of school commissioners expired, no institutes were 
held in Columbia and Onondaga counties, and that there 
was a diminished aggregate attendance for each of those 
years upon the institutes held in the other counties of the 
State. 

The attendance, though less than in 1871, was seventy- 
one and four-tenths per cent of the whole number of 
teachers employed for the full legal term in the counties 
in which institutes were held. 

The average length of time that those in attendance had 
taught was five and three-tenths terms, or a little more 
than two and one-half years. Assuming this to be a fair 
measure of the experience of the entire number of teachers 
in the public schools of the rural districts of the State, 
more than five thousand of the 13,256 employed for the 
full legal term, and more than nine thousand of the 
23,459 employed during some portion of the year, were 
teachers of no previous experience. 

Though there has been an increase in salaries, a 
demand for better qualifications, and a tendency to 
greater regularity of service, yet these frequent changes 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 27 

continue to occur, causing large accessions of those who 
have had no special training for their work. 

Institutes held for the short term of two weeks are not 
expected to supply such thorough instruction and disci- 
pline as it is the design of the normal schools to impart, 
but they render important service in giving general infor- 
mation relating to improved methods of management and 
teaching, and convey to the great mass of our teachers 
needed advice and encouragement. 

The aggregate cost of maintaining these institutes was 
$15,724.48, or $1.81 for each teacher in attendance. The 
amount paid during the fiscal year, ending September 
30, 1872, for the support of institutes, as given in the 
financial statement, was $16,190.28. 

Statistical information, in regard to the several insti- 
tutes held the last calendar year, may be found in table 
No. 9, in the appendix. 



28 



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. Superintendent of Public Instruction 29 

Indian Schools. 

Prom the reports made to me by the several local super- 
intendents, there appears to be a steady increase iti the 
aggregate and in the average daily attendance at the 
Indian schools, and that most of them are progressing 
satisfactorily in other respects. 

The teachers' institute held upon the Cattaraugus 
reservation, in 1871, was so well attended, and awakened 
such an interest, that I caused another to be organized 
during the past year. It was held at the Indian court- 
house near the village of Versailles, for a term of two 
weeks, commencing July 29tb, under the charge of Prof. 
H. R. Sanford of the Fredonia Normal School. Thirty- 
one teachers were in attendance, and much good resulted 
therefrom. 

During the calendar year, several changes occurred in 
the superintendency of the Indian schools, occasioned by 
the resignations of Mr. Benton of the Allegany and Cat- 
taraugus reservations, and Mr. Raynor of the Shinecock 
reservation, and by the death ©f Mr. Cummings, for many 
years superintendent of the Tonawanda Indian schools. 
The vacancy first mentioned has been filled by the 
appointment of Mr. F. E. Be Wolf, of Versailles, 
Cattaraugus county ; the others have not yet been sup- 
plied. 

Late in the fall, steps were taken towards building a 
new school-house upon the Tonawanda reservation, where 
one is much needed. The Indians agreed to prepare and 
driver the heavy timber, and foundation stone, and to do 
all the necessary team work. I have promised that the 
State will bear the other necessary expenses. Work 



30 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

upon the structure was interrupted by cold weather, but 
will be resumed in the spring. 

The supply bill of 1872 contained two conditional appro- 
priations for building school-houses upon Indian reser- 
vations; one, of five hundred dollars, to be paid and 
expended under the direction of Ex- Governor Seymour 
and Bishop Huntington, for a school-house upon the 
Onondaga reservation; and one, of two hundred and 
fifty dollars, to erect a school house upon the St. Regis 
reservation. The first mentioned sum was to be expended 
"if deemed advisable by the Superintendent of Public 
Instruction ;" and the other "if the same shall be con- 
sidered necessary by the Superintendent of Public 
Instruction." In both cases, I have declined to give my 
consent, and have informed the parties interested that I 
would take no action in the matter, unless facts were pro- 
duced showing that an additional school-house was 
needed. If, in either case, it should be deemed advisable 
to build, the funds under the control of this Department, 
applicable to the support of Indian schools, are suffi- 
cient to meet the expense without an extra appropriation 
for that purpose. 

There seems to be no question but that, under the 
operation of the fourteenth amendment to the constitu- 
tion of the United States, the Indians are entitled to all 
the privileges and immunities of citizens. The time will 
come when such of them as reside in civilized communi- 
ties must perform the duties and bear the burdens of 
citizenship. The education and training, which the Indian 
children now receive at the expense of th# State, are 
intended to fit them to become good and useful members 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 31 

of the body politic. In order, however, that it may pro- 
duce the contemplated result, the Indians must be taught 
to help themselves, by being required to bear some 
measure of responsibility. 

I respectfully suggest that all State aid hereafter 
granted to the Indians for the purposes of education, for 
building and repairing roads and bridges, and for other 
improvements, should be coupled with such a require- 
ment. 

The usual statistical information respecting Indian 
schools will be found in table No. 10, and in the reports 
of the several local superintendents, in the appendix. 

The following is a statement of the receipts aud pay- 
ments on account of Indian Schools during the fiscal year : 

Receipts. 

Balance on hand, October 1, 1871 $4, 740 52 

Appropriation, chapter 718, Laws of 1871 4,000 00 

Apportionment from Free School Fund 3, 147 42 

Total $11,887 94 

Payments. 

Allegany and Cattaraugus reservation $4,875 40 

Oneida and Madison reservation 441 64 

Onondaga reservation 382 40 

St. Regis reservation 532 09 

Shinecock reservation 418 50 

Tonawanda reservation 544 60 

Tuscarora reservation 409 66 

Education of Indian youth 100 00 

General Expenses, not apportioned to reservations . . 36 65 

Total Payments $7,690 94 

Balance on hand, September 30, 1872 4, 197 00 

Total $11,887 94 



3 2 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Thomas Asylum for Orphan and Destitute Indian 

Children. 

The annual report of the trustees of this asylum, con- 
taining a detailed statement of the receipts and expendi- 
tures for the last fiscal year, may be found in the appen- 
dix, ( I.) 

The receipts are reported to have been $9,992.35, the 
full amount of which was expended, leaving unpaid bills 
at the end of the fiscal year amounting to $739.20. 

Ninety-six pupils were in the asylum at the date of 
the report. 

J respectfully recommend that the usual appropriation 
be made for the support of this worthy charity. 

New York Institution for the Instruction of the 

Deaf and Dumb. 

The following statement shows the number of pupils 

remaining in this institution at the close of the fiscal 

year, and to what parties their maintenance is chargeable. 

New York State pupils 329 

New Jersey State pupils 33 

County pupils 131 

Paying pupils 14 

Frizzell fund pupils 1 

Not provided for 1 

Total 509 



Of these, two hundred and ninety -four are males, and 
two hundred and fifteen are females. During the past 
year, good health prevailed among the pupils, and they 
made satisfactory progress. From personal visitation 
and inspection, I am satisfied that the institution is faith- 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 83 

fully performing the work allotted to it, and I recom- 
mend, therefore, that the necessary appropriations be 
made for its support. 

Its general management is vested in a board of directors 
who serve gratuitously, and who deserve much credit for 
the ability and fidelity with which they have discharged 
their self imposed duties. The intellectual department 
remains in charge of Prof. Isaac Lewis Peet, as principal, 
who is assisted by an experienced corps of teachers. 

The board of directors are considering the question of 
erecting another building somewhere in the rural districts, 
and of transferring thereto all pupils under twelve years 
of age. It is believed that such a change would lessen 
the expense of supporting pupils, and be advantageous 
in other respects. 

It seems proper, while speaking of this institution, to 
notice the death of the venerable Dr. Harvey P. Peet, 
who was connected therewith for a period of more than 
forty -two years, and who, during the greater portion of 
that time, was its principal. He was, also, for many 
years president of the board of directors. Under his care 
and management, the institution grew to be the largest 
and best managed of its kind in the world. Nearly the 
whole of his long, active and useful life was devoted to 
improving and ameliorating the condition of deaf-mutes ; 
and the distinguished success, which attended his efforts, 
entitles him to a high rank among the philanthropists 
and educators of our age. 

For fuller information respecting the institution, and 
in relation to the general subject of deaf-mute instruction, 



34 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

I respectfully refer to the report of the principal, Prof. 
I. L. Peet, in the appendix, marked (A). 

Institution for the Improved Instruction of 

Deaf- Mutes. 

At the beginning of the last calendar year, the number 
of pupils under instruction in this institution was sixty- 
four. During the succeeding nine months, fourteen more 
were admitted, making the whole number seventy-eight. 
Within the same period, eleven were discharged, leaving 
sixty -seven pupils in attendance at the close of the fiscal 
year, September 30, 1872. 

It will be remembered that only the articulative method 
of instruction is used in this institution, which is the first 
one of the kind established in this State. Its success has 
attracted much attention, and has led to the introduction 
of the same system into several other establishments for 
the deaf and dumb. 

Under the provisions of chapter 180, of the Laws of 
1870, the Institution for the Improved Instruction of Deaf- 
mutes was authorized to receive and instruct State pupils 
upon the same terms as the Institution for the Deaf and 
Dumb. Upwards of twenty State pupils have been ap- 
pointed under the provisions of said act, but no appro- 
priation has, so far, been made for their support. The 
institution has borne the expense of their maintenance 
out of its own limited funds, and the State is, therefore, 
indebted to it in the sum of several thousand dollars; 
and this obligation cannot honorably be repudiated. 

I respectfully recommend that the Legislature make 
provision, at its present session, for the discharge of this 



SUPERINTBNDENl OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 35 

indebtedness, as well as for the maintenance of State 
pupils at this institution, for the current and ensuing 
fiscal years. 

New York Institution for the Blind. 

The following information respecting this institution is 
respectfully submitted : 

The number of pupils, at the beginning of the year 
1872, was one hundred and fifty-six. Thirty-nine were 
subsequently admitted, and twenty-nine, whose terms 
had expired, were discharged, leaving one hundred and 
sixty-six pupils in attendance at the close of the year. 
Of these, one hundred and forty are New York State 
pupils. 

The sanitary condition of the institution, during the 
year, was remarkably good. No deaths occurred, and 
there were no cases of serious sickness. 

The general course of instruction remains the same as 
previously reported. The difficult experiment of instruct- 
ing female pupils in the operation of the sewing-machine 
was here first undertaken, and has been attended with 
marked success. The example has since been followed 
by a number of institutions in other parts of the United 
States. Considerable attention has also been devoted to 
the training of male pupils in the art of tuning pianos, 
and with much success. 

The ingenious system of point- writing and printing 
devised by Prof. William B. Wait the accomplished 
principal, and which he has styled the "New York Sys- 
tem," was unanimously adopted by the convention of 
superintendents held at the city of Indianapolis in 1871. 



36 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

It has Bince been introduced into all the institutions for 
the blind in this country, and also, I understand, into 
some of the European institutions. Mr. Wait deserves 
great credit for his skill and perseverance in devising and 
perfecting this system. 

State Certificates. 

Under existing provisions of law, the Superintendent is 
authorized, upon the recommendation of school-commis- 
sioners, or other satisfactory evidence, to issue State cer- 
tificates which license the holders thereof to teach any 
common school in the State. While it is desirable that 
authority to grant licenses of this character should exist, 
under proper restrictions, I am of the opinion that the 
law should be so amended as to render the exercise of 
the power safer, and more just to the profession at large. 

There are very many devoted and successful teachers 
who are entitled to a permanent footing in their profes- 
sion, as an inducement to continue therein, and as a 
recognition of their abilities. But the present plan of 
granting State certificates only upon recommendation, 
besides being liable to abuse, operates unfairly, even 
when conscientiously administered. The way to pro- 
motion should be open to all teachers alike ; the standard 
of qualification should be accessible to all, and the advan- 
tage and distinction of receiving a State certificate should 
depend not merely upon success in obtaining recommen- 
dations, but upon the higher merit of success in teaching. 

The Legislature will be asked to change the law on this 
subject, so that such certificates may be granted only 
upon the examination of applicants. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction 37 

Normal Schools. 

The State has eight normal and training schools in full 
and successful operation. They were but fairly estab- 
lished and opened, when they were assailed by the pro- 
fessed friends of education acting in the interest of private 
academies. Formerly, when we had at first only one, 
and, later, two normal schools, they were not molested. 
However great the contrast may have been between them 
and other schools, there was practically no competition 
or conflict. They could not accommodate a sufficient 
number of students to materially affect teachers' classes 
in academies. 

The first normal school was established, as an experi- 
ment, in 1 844. For nineteen years it was the only insti- 
tution of the kind iu the State, and was surrounded by a 
multitude of academies professing to do similar work in 
training teachers for the common schools. A patient 
and protracted trial of the two plans through that long 
period, and a comparison of results, led to the conclusion 

a 

that normal and training schools, organized and con- 
ducted with special reference to the object in view, were 
the proper institutions to educate teachers for the public 
schools. Accordingly, provision was made for a second 
normal school at Oswego, in 1863, and a law was passed 
in 1868, authorizing and directing the Governor, Lieuten- 
ant-Governor, Secretary of State, Comptroller, Attorney- 
General, Treasurer, and Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion, to act as a commission, on the part of the State, to 
locate six others. That trust has been fully executed, 
and the authorized number of schools has been estab- 



88 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

lished. This was not hasty or inconsiderate action ; it 
was deliberate, and was based on experiment. The 
corresponding action of other States, and the manage- 
ment of systems of education in foreign countries, confirm 
the wisdom and expediency of the course here pursued. 
It was admitted that our public schools needed teachers 
possessing more thorough professional training than any 
other institutions, then existing in this State, afforded. 

But when the new normal schools were opened to the 
public, and their superior advantages were eagerly 
sought, mutterings of opposition were heard from those 
interested as officers, stockholders, or otherwise, in the 
private academies. This feeling of hostility was indus- 
triously cultivated, ' and, enlisting all the elements of 
opposition it could combine, manifested itself in the 
Legislature of 1872, by an unsuccessful attempt to defeat 
the usual appropriations. 

There was no real provocation for this assault, except 
the success of the normal schools. Their excellence and 
popularity were such as to diminish the attendance at the 
academies, and, consequently, lessen the profits of the 
proprietors. That, in their estimation, was grievance 
enough. The idle assertions, retailed by those selected 
for that purpose, about a misappropriation of the income 
of the Common School Fund, was refuted by the simple 
fact that the normal schools were supported wholly out 
of the Free School Fund. The accusation of extravagance 
was un sustained, except by calculations charging the cost 
of organizing and equipping the schools upon the first 
few graduates. The complaint about maintaining, at 
public expense, eight institutions to train teachers for the 



Superintendent of Public Instruction 39 

common schools, and which were free to students, having 
the proper qualifications, from all parts of the Stat*, was 
shown to be insincere on the part of those who used it, 
by their contemporaneous action in voting a general tax 
of $126,000 for the benefit of academies, more than one 
hundred of which are not public schools, but charge 
tuition that goes to their proprietors, as will their share 
of the appropriation, referred to, if paid. 

This controversy results from the bad policy of the 
State, that not only tolerates, but partially supports, two 
conflicting systems of education. One of them is the free 
school system, which, by authority of law, and the pre- 
ference of the people, has already absorbed many of the 
old academies, and revived them as public schools. The 
other consists of private academies and seminaries owned 
and managed by individuals, corporations, or religious 
denominations. Their proprietors prefer to keep them 
outside of the free school system, to subserve their own 
interests ; and ask pecuniary aid from the State, to enable 
them to compete with the public schools. If all the 
schools of every grade, whicli the State to any extent 
supports, were associated in one homogeneous system, 
and the appropriations of the State were confined to that 
system, as heretofore xecomm ended by this Department, 
and as repeatedly urged by the State Teachers' Associa- 
tion, there would be no ground for conflict. 

It is not pretended that professional training of teachers 
is unnecessary. It is claimed, however, in behalf of the 
academies, that they are better adapted for such work 
than the normal schools which are organized for that 
special purpose. If, in this matter, the State were pur- 



40 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

suing a new and untried course of uncertain issue, it 
might be proper to pause before sucb a pretension. But 
experiments in this and other States, and the practice of 
other nations which have successful systems of public 
instruction, establish a different conclusion, which can- 
not be reversed by the mere assertion of interested par- 
ties. It the first influence of the new normal schools has, 

among other good effects, already aroused the academies 

■ 

to a determination and promise to do better work than 
ever before, that influence should be continued. 

Instead of considering pretexts for abandoning the 
normal schools, their condition should be studied for the 
purpose of improving them. It may be that the course 
of instruction, ordinarily pursued, could be made simpler 
and shorter, without diminishing their usefulness; and 
the expense to students, and to the State, be thereby 
reduced. As an experiment of this kind, special train- 
ing classes have been established in several of the schools, 
during the last year, for the accommodation of those who 
cannot attend, or who do not need, the full regular 
course. Perhaps other changes in their organization or 
management might be made to advantage. But no sug- 
gestions of this kind come from their opponents. The 
existence and success of the normal schools are what 
trouble them ; the abandonment of those schools is what 
they desire. 

Whether eight normal and training schools are needed 
in this State, which has one and a half millions of chil- 
dren to be instructed, and that constantly employs nearly 
twenty thousand teachers, may still be a debatable ques- 
tion in the minds of those who prate about higher educa- 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 41 

tion, which is very desirable in its place, but who have 
little sympathy for free schools. It has been settled, 
however, in harmony with the judgment of the world, 
that they are essential to the improvement of our public 
schools ; and it becomes the friends of our free school 
system, while they consider carefully any suggestion 
made in good faith for the improvement of the normal 
schools, to reject and repel all propositions tending to 
their overthrow, especially when dictated by rival interest. 

The ordinary annual expense of maintaining all the 
normal schools is about $150,000, payable out of the Free 
School Fund. If this is an injudicious expenditure, it 
should certainly be stopped. But a fuller statement of 
the case shows that it is a part of more than ten millions 
of dollars, annually expended by the people of this State, 
to maintain a system of public instruction embracing 
about twelve thousand free schools. Much less than 
one-third of this aggregate amount is raised by a general 
tax, and more than two-thirds of it by local taxation 
voted voluntarily by the inhabitants in the several school 
districts. Whether it is advisable to expend the sum 
mentioned, to educate teachers who, although possibly 
they may never occupy every school-room in the State, 
will, nevertheless, cover the entire State with their influ- 
ence, or to expend the whole great amount to pay poor 
teachers, and to support poor schools, is not debatable 
with those who believe that the improvement of our com- 
mon schools is the first duty to the tax-payers who sup- 
port them, and who use no others. 

I commend all our eight State normal schools to liberal 
and unfaltering support. 



42 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Normal ScTiool at Albany. 

This is the oldest of our State normal schools. Al- 
though seven others have lately been established, there 
has been a steady increase from year to year in the num- 
ber of its students and of its graduates. 

During the year ending September 30th, 1872, forty- 
seven counties of the State were represented. The aggre- 
gate attendance was five hundred and fifteen, and the 
average daily attendance was two hundred and seventy- 
five. The average of their ages was nineteen years. 
Within the two terms ending July 2, 1872, two hundred 
and twenty-two normal students were admitted. The 
average time they had previously spent in teaching was 
a little more than one and a half terms. 

The number of graduates, during the year, was eighty- 
two ; and, with scarcely an exception, they have already 
entered upon the work of teaching. The whole number 
of graduates, since the school was opened in 1844, is one 
thousand nine hundred and eighteen, of whom seven 
hundred and twenty-two are males, and eleven hundred 
and ninety-six are females. Many of them have become 
distinguished in their profession, and have done much to 
elevate the character of instruction in our common 

schools. 
The model and primary departments, maintained for 

the practice of normal students, are supported by the 

tuition of pupils attending them. The income from these 

departments, during the last year, was $5,014.26, and the 

cost of their maintenance, for the same period, $4,000, 

leaving a balance of $1,014.25 applicable to the general 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 43 

9 

purposes of the school. The attendance is limited to a 
prescribed number, but, because of their acknowledged 
excellence, patrons have been willing to pay liberally for 
tuition. 

Normal School at Oswego. 

During the nine years this school has been in opera* 
tion, four hundred and eighty-three students have 
graduated, and many more, who had not fully completed 
the regular courses of study, are engaged in teaching. 
The number of graduates, last year, was sixty-six. Of 
these, thirty-six completed the Elementary English 
course ; twenty-two, the Advanced English course ; and 
eight, the Classical course. 

The whole attendance of normal-students was four 
hundred and twenty ; the average daily attendance, two 
hundred and twelve; and the average of their ages, 
twenty-one years. 

The position of professor of natural science was made 
vacant by the resignation of Prof. E. A. Strong, at the 
close of the summer term in July. The vacancy was 
filled by the appointment of Dr. N. T. True of the State 
of Maine, who entered upon his duties at the commence- 
ment of the fall term in September following. Several 
other changes have occurred in the faculty, and are 
named in the accompanying report of the local board. 

The school is furnished with a library and apparatus 
valued at $9,000 ; and considerable additions have been 
made to the collections in natural history, by means of a 
system of exchanges recently adopted. 

The special appropriation of ton thousand dollars for 



44 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

beating apparatus, made by the Legislature of 1871, and 
expended for that purpose as mentioned in my last 
annual report, was not paid until after the commence- 
ment of the last fiscal Jrear, and therefore is included in 
the accompanying financial statement. A primary and 
a junior department of the public schools of the city are 
still maintained in the normal school building, for the 
convenient practice of normal students. 

Normal School at Brockport 

The whole attendance of normal students, for the year, 
was three hundred and twenty nine ; the average attend- 
ance, two hundred and fourteen ; and the average of 
their ages, a little more than nineteen years. The num- 
ber of graduates was eighteen, making sixty-five since 
the establishment of the school. Besides these, nearly 
seven hundred of the under-graduates have engaged as 
teachers in the schools of the State. 

Additions have been made to the library and appara- 
tus, at a cost of $882.48, making the total value nearly 
eleven thousand dollars. 

The improvements made to the buildings and grounds, 
during the last two years, are valued at more than 
$10, 000. The sum of $2,775.98 was paid, at the beginning 
of the last fiscal year, for bills previously incurred for 
these purposes under the special appropriation of $5,000 
made in 1871. 

In 1872, an additional appropriation of $3,000 was 
made "for repairs, to be expended by the local board." 
According to the accompanying report of the board, the 
sum of $2,563.34 was drawn on the warrant of the Comp- 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 45 

troller, and expended during the last year. This special 
appropriation, like several others to normal schools in 
that year, was made and expended independently of 
this Department. 

In my annual report to the Legislature in 1870, mention 
was made of a reduction in the amount appropriated the 
preceding year, for the support of this school, in conse- 
quence of a credit of $12,000 on the books of the Comp- 
troller, afterward discovered to be erroneous. On account 
of this deficiency, a special appropriation of $9,084.50 
was made in 1870, which was sufficient for the payment of 
bills then incurred, but not to meet the current expenses 
of the school for the remainder of the fiscal year. An 
appropriation of $5,169.13 is yet required to make good 
former deficiencies. 

In the academic department, the income from tuition 
was $8,237.59, and the amount paid for instruction, 
$1,045, leaving a balance of over $2,000 for the general 
expenses of the school. 

By a clause in the appropriation bill of 1871, the local 
board, which originally consisted of thirteen members, 
was reorganized with nine members ; and, again, by a 
similar enactment in 1872, a change was made, increasing 
the number to eleven, designating in both cases the per- 
sons to constitute said board. The general management 
of the school has been commendable. 

Normal School at Fredonia. 

The number of normal students in this school has 
annually increased. Three hundred and five were enrolled 
the last year, and the average of their ages was but little 



46 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

less than nineteen years. The average daily attendance 
was one hundred and seventy-six. 

During the year, ten completed the prescribed courses 
of stndy and received their diplomas, making the whole 
number of graduates, since the opening of the school, 
eighty-six. 

The receipts for tuition, in the academic and practicing 
departments, were $857.20. 

Of the special appropriation of $5,000 made, in 1871, 
"for repairs, improving grounds and fencing," the sum 
of $1,800 was applied, before the close of the last fiscal 
year, in partial payment of expenditures made for those 
purposes. r 

In my last annual report, the attention of the Legisla- 
ture was called to the insufficiency of the steam-heating 
apparatus originally provided, and the necessity of radi- 
cal improvements in order that the school might not be 
interrupted. An appropriation of $3, 000 was accordingly 
granted for this purpose. Early last fall, repairs and 
additions to the heating apparatus were made, which the 
contractors guarantee shall be adequate to warm the 
building. 

Normal School at Cortland. 

The sum of $1,000 was appropriated by the Legislature, 
in 1870, for repairs and for improvements to the normal 
school grounds ; but not having been expended, it was 
re-appropriated for the same purposes in 1872. The pro- 
posed improvements have been made, but the bills there- 
for were not paid until October last, after the close of 
the last fiscal year, and therefore are not included in the 
financial statement. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction 47 

The cost of the additions to the library and apparatus, 
referred to in the report of last year, amounted to 
$4,623.12, of which the sum of $4,462.49 has been paid 
from the special appropriation of $5,000, made for that 
purpose in 1871. 

Much interest has been awakened in the department of 
natural history, and many valuable contributions to the 
various collections have been made by the friends of the 
school. The reference library is large, and well adapted 
to the wants of th<> students. 

Since the organization of the school, six hundred and five 
normal students have been enrolled, of whom seventy- 
four have graduated, and about four hundred have 
engaged in teaching. The number of normal students, 
connected with the school the last year, amounted to 
three hundred and seventy. The average of their ages 
was nineteen, and the number of graduates was thirty- 
four. 

The receipts for tuition of non resident pupils, in the 
academic and practice schools, was $371. 

Normal School at Potsdam. 

The special appropriation of $3,000 made, in 1871, 
for fencing the normal school grounds, and expended for 
that purpose, as mentioned in my last report, was paid 
after the commencement of the ensuing fiscal year, in 
October, and is therefore included in the financial state- 
ment herewith submitted. 

The sum of $920.01, for insurance of buildings after 
they were tendered to the State and before they were 
accepted in its behalf by the Normal School Commis- 



48 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

« 
sion, was paid in December, 1871, to the building com- 
mittee by whom the indebtedness was incurred, and is 
included in the financial table of receipts and payments. 

The sum of $600 was appropriated, in 1872, for supply- 
ing the building with water, but no bills therefor have 
yet been presented. 

The receipts for tuition in the academic department 
amounted to $2,139.60. 

Three hundred and sixty-three normal students were 
registered during the last year. The average of their 
ages was over nineteen years ; and the number of gradu- 
ates was fifteen. 

A temporary training class, for the special benefit of 
persons intending to teach the ensuing season, was organ- 
ized at the commencement of the fall term on the fourth 
day of September, and was maintained for a period of 
ten weeks with an attendance of fifty five teachers. The 
plan was also adopted in the normal schools at Buffalo, 
Cortland, Fredonia, Gteneseo and Oswego ; and the results 
have already justified the experiment, and give encour- 
agement that it may be made a means of much practical 
benefit. 

Normal School at Buffalo. 

This school was opened but three weeks before the 
commencement of the last school and fiscal year for which 
report is made. The number of normal pupils, for the 
year, was one hundred and seventy-one ; the average 
attendance, eighty ; and the average of their ages, over 
eighteen. The present year shows a large increase, the 
average attendance for the first term being one hundred 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 49 

and forty-one. The advancement of pupils has been 
commendable, and it is expected that from twenty to 
twenty -five of those now in attendance will be prepared 
to graduate at the close of the next summer term. 

By the bequest of the J ate Jesse Ketchum, who donated 
the spacious lot upon which the normal school building 
is located, a memorial fund of ten thousand dollars has 
been established for the benefit of the common schools of 
Buffalo, the income to be expended for medals to be dis- 
tributed as prizes for meritorious conduct and attainments 
in learning. Two gold medals, one of the first class, 
valued at iorty dollars, and one of the second class, 
valued at twenty dollars, have been assigned to the nor- 
mal school, and will be first awarded by the local board 
to members of classes graduating in June next, on the 
basis of scholarship, deportment, and skill in teaching. 

The sum of $6,000 was appropriated by the Legislature 
of 1872, to be expended by the local board in repairs 
and improvements of the normal school building. The 
annual report of the board states that the sum of $4,461.07 
was drawn on the warrant of the Comptroller for these 
purposes. 

The sum of $1,615.22 has been expended during the 
year for bookstand apparatus. 

The amount received from tuition was two hundred and 
forty dollars. 

Normal School at Genesee 

This school has been in operation but little more than 
one year. The attendance of normal students, which was 
seventy one at the opening, amounting to one hundred 

4 



50 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

and ninety-one during the year ending September 30, 
1872, with an average attendance for that period, of 
ninety-seven. The average of their ages was nineteen. 
Ten of the number were sufficiently advanced in their 
studies to graduate the first year, and all of them, beside 
others who attended for a special term, are now engaged 
in teaching in the schools of this State. 

The library of text- books, and the chemical and philo- 
sophical apparatus, are adequate to the wants of the 
school. During the year, additions were made at a cost 
of $508.96 ; and the total value is now about $6,000. 

The Legislature of 1872 made a special appropriation 
of $8,000, for this school, u to be paid and expended by 
the local board for repairing and replacing the heating 
apparatus. 9 ' This is another instance in which an appro- 
priation was made, to be expended by the local board 
independently of this Department ; and I can only state 
that the board report that $1,500 of this amount was 
received from the State Treasurer, and that, out of it, the 
sum of $188.07 was expended before the close of the 
fiscal year, on the thirtieth day of September last. 

The receipts for tuition, in the academic and practicing 
departments, amounted to $1,919.85 ; of which the sum of 
$755.38 was expended for repairs, $146.86 for apparatus, 
and $360 for instruction, leaving in the hands of the local 
board, from these two sources named, an unexpended 
balance of $1,975.14. 



SUPXRINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INBTRUCTION. 



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56 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Educational Meetings. 

The State Association of School Commissioners and 
City Superintendents met at the court-house in Rochester, 
on Tuesday, the 2 1 st day of May last, and continued in 
session three days. Many leading educators, besides 
school officers, from different parts of the State, were 
present. In respect to the character and scope of the 
subjects presented, the well-considered and practical 
suggestions brought out in the discussions, and the 
earnest and thoughtful interest in the exercises manifested 
by all in attendance, this meeting was probably unsur- 
passed by any of its kind ever held in the State, and 
cannot fail to produce beneficial results in those sections 
which were so fortunate as to be there represented. 

It was decided to hold the next convention at Saratoga 
Springs, May 20, 1873. 

The State Teachers' Association held its twenty-seventh 
anniversary at Saratoga Springs, during the three days 
commencing July 23, 1872. The arrangements made by 
the local committee for the meeting, and for the entertain- 
ment of members, have rarely been equaled, and the 
attendance of many from our own and other States, who 
have become eminent in various departments of educa- 
tional labor, gave character and interest to the pro- 
ceedings. 

The next meeting of the association will be held at 
Utica, commencing July 22d, 1873. 

Teachers' Classes in Academies. 
The number of academies in which teachers' classes 
were maintained, during the past year, was ninety. The 
attendance of pupils, as reported, was one thousand five 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 57 

hundred and eighty-nine, of whom five hundred and 
ninety were males, and nine hundred and ninety -nine 
were females. 

Academies, for the instruction of these classes, are 
annually designated by the Board of Regents in accord- 
ance with the statute, which also provides that the sum 
of ten dollars shall be paid for each pupil, not exceeding 
twenty to each academy, instructed "under a course 
prescribed by the Regents of the University, during at 
least one third of the academic year, in the science of 
common-school teaching." 

A list of the academies designated for the instruction 
of classes in the science of common- school teaching, 
during the year 1873-3, will be found in the appendix, 

(Document R). 

■ 

Supervision. 

The vital importance of thorough supervision, to the 
success of any system of public instruction, has been so 
folly discussed in my former reports, that it is unneces- 
sary to dwell upon it here. 

Its necessity seems to be conceded by all who have had 
any experience in the work of popular education, or who 
have intelligently observed it. This could hardly be 
otherwise, since effective supervision, in some form, is 
manifestly the principle of life in all property conceived 
plans for general education. Without it, all expenditures 
of money, no matter how liberal, will be ineffectual. It 
is useless to build costly and convenient school-houses, 
and to employ an army of teachers, if the system lacks 
supervision. 



58 NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

The only question is in respect to the best means of 
securing it. None of the different plans suggested, which 
have come to my notice, would, if adopted, be better than 
that which has been adhered to so long in this State. 
Most of those proposed as a substitute for it have already 
been tried, and afterward abandoned because unfitted to 
produce the desired results. The present system of super- 
vision by commissioners having been in operation since 
1866, there has been ample time to test its merits, and to 
reveal any defects with which it may be justly charge- 
able. That it has imperfections is indeed true ; but I am 
not convinced that any other method would subserve the 
purpose as well, or with less cost to the State. I would, 
however, favor any modifications that are really calculated 
to render it more effective. 

Two changes, with this view, have been proposed : One 
relates to the number of commissioners, and the extent 
of territory over which they shall severally have jurisdic- 
tion ; and the other, to the mode of selecting them. By 
the first, it is proposed to increase the number of those 
officers, and to reduce the size of their districts. The advo- 
cates of this plan propose, as a part of it, that the services 
of these officers shall be rendered gratuitously, but that 
their expenses shall be paid. The objection to the system 
of supervision by town superintendents, stated in my 
report of 1870, that so large a number of officers, for this 
service, distributed throughout the State, would render it 
impracticable to conduct many of the operations of this 
Department with requisite directness and precision, 
applies with increased force to the plan under considera- 
tion. In fact, it is objectionable on nearly all the grounds 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 59 

which led to the abandonment of that system. Nor 
would it, in my opinion, be less expensive. The sum 
allowed to the one hundred and fourteen commissioners, 
under the present system, would be found quite inade- 
quate to meet the expenses which would be incurred by 
the two thousand officers, whom it is proposed to sub- 
stitute for them, in making the necessary inspections 
of the schools under their charge, and in the perform- 
ance of their various other official duties. 

The other proposed change relates to the manner of 
selecting commissioners. It is suggested that they be 
appointed by some authority which shall be held respon- 
sible for the choice of competent and faithful officers, 
instead of choosing them by popular election. It is con- 
tended that the office is frequently bestowed upon incom- 
petent persons as a reward for political service, in disre- 
gard of the requisite qualifications for an intelligent 
discharge of its varied and important duties. In respect 
to some of the commissioners elected at different times, 
there is foundation for this charge. I cheerfully bear 
testimony, however, to the ability and faithfulness of the 
large majority of those who have held the office since my 
connection with this Department. 

Under either mode, improper selections would, without 
doubt, occasionally be made. There might be less danger 
of a bad choice were the office filled by appointment, and 
it is, therefore, a subject well worthy the consideration of 
the Legislature, whether the law should not be amended 
to that effect. But, in whatever mode the school com- 
missioner may be selected, he should be required by law 
to give his undivided attention to the duties of that office. 



60 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Special Appropriation for Academies. 

The annual appropriation act for 1872 contains the 
following clause : 

u For the benefit of the academies, and academical 
departments of union schools, the sum of $126,000, 
or so much thereof as may be derived from a tax of one- 
sixteenth of one mill upon each dollar of the taxable pro- 
perty of the State ; the sum thus arising to be divided as 
the literature fund is now divided, which is hereby 
ordered to be levied for each and every year." 

Conceding the full value and importance that may be 
justly claimed for academic instruction, I respectfully 
submit that the taxation, authorized and directed by the 
passage above quoted, is liable to serious objections. 

Prior to 1853, the public-school system embraced no 
provision for academic instruction. In that year an " act 
to provide for the establishment of union free schools ' ' 
was passed, which authorizes districts organized under it 
"to establish in the same an academical department," or 
to adopt existing academies therein situated, and to sup- 
port them by local taxation. The same act directs that 
the public- school moneys, apportioned to such districts, 
shall be applied to departments below the academic. 
That is the extent to which* the public-school system had 
gone in that direction, until 1872. Previously, quite a 
large number of academies had been organized by indi- 
viduals, stock companies and religious denominations. 
These institutions have been aided by the State, by divid- 
ing among them the income of the Literature Fund since 
1818, and part of the income of the United States Deposit 
Fund since 1838, which sums have never been reduced, 



Superintendent ob Public Instruction 61 

and, for several years past, have amounted to $61,000. 
That amount the academies still receive, and the allow- 
ance, rated per capita, has increased from $2.68 in 1862, 
and $4.64 in 1867, to $10.08 in 1872, for each academic 
scholar in attendance at the one hundred and ninety 
academies which reported and participated in the appor- 
tionment last year, while the public-school moneys 
annually distributed by the State for all purposes, inclu- 
ding teachers' wages, libraries, salaries of school com- 
missioners, supervision in cities, support of normal 
schools and teachers' institutes, and the supply of school 
registers for nearly twelve thousand districts, amount 
to but $2.84 per capita for all who attend our public 
schools, and but $1.94 for each child of school age 
residing in the several districts. The balance needed 
for the full support of the schools is raised by local 
taxation. 

Of the one hundred and ninety academies so partici- 
pating in the distribution, forty were originally organized 
as academical departments in public schools, and forty- 
one have been adopted by the districts, wherein they are 
located, and thus converted into public schools, making 
eighty-one academies supported mainly by local taxation. 
The one hundred and nine others that participated, are 
private academies outside of the public-school system, 
and charge tuition. 

Now the proposition is to raise an additional tax of 
$125,000, for the special benefit of these public and private 
academies. It will be remembered that it has never been 
the policy of the State heretofore to maintain, or in any 
degree to assist, these academies by a general tax. It is 



62 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

first to be determined, therefore, whether it is right and 
proper to adopt a new rule, and to tax the people of the 
State, at this time, for that kind of education. Upon this 
general question the following suggestions, made in the 
report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction for 
1870, are deemed to be sufficiently pertinent to justify a 
repetition here. 

' 'Should the academies be made free? Having pro- 
vided a way whereby this may be done by the voluntary 
action of those directly interested, and who are willing to 
assume that burden, ought the State to go further, and 
support them by a general tax, or compel the commu- 
nities where the academies are located to adopt and main- 
tain them ? I do not make this inquiry concerning the 
colleges ; for the most advanced reformer has not yet 
suggested that character for those institutions. The free 
scholarships in Cornell University, secured to the several 
assembly districts, are exceptional. They are not a 
charge upon the State, nor upon any of its citizens. In 
establishing them, the State simply directed how the pro- 
ceeds of the congressional grant of land-scrip should in 
part be applied. 

' i However great may be the personal advantage of an 
education, the primary object of the State, in bestowing 
it, is not to benefit individuals as such, but to qualify 
them properly for their relations and duties to each other 
as members of the same community. The true theory is, 
I apprehend, that each citizen has an interest in the edu- 
cation of all others, such as to justify the taking of private 
property to support public schools. Public instruction is 
a governmental measure, adopted to promote the security, 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 63 

good order and common welfare of society, and thus to 
preserve the integrity of the State. But for this com- 
munity of interest, the State would have no better right 
to take the property of one citizen to educate another, 
than it would have to give it to him directly. Advanced 
education is not, in my judgment, so essential to these 
public ends as elementary instruction, and consequently 
the obligation to provide for it is not so fundamental and 
imperative. Nor is it clear to my mind that public con- 
siderations would thereby be subserved in proportion to 
the extent of instruction beyond the course now author- 
ized, though in many cases not pursued, in the common 
schools. What should be the proper limit of the effort 
and expense of the State in this matter is, however, a 
debatable question, which, for the purposes of this report, 
it is unnecessary to settle more definitely than has already 
been done by allowing local taxation for the support of 
academic departments in union schools ; for I am satisfied 
that the provisions of law on this subject should remain 
as they now are, permissive, instead of being made com- 
pulsory. 

"However thoroughly the public mind may be con- 
vinced that taxation to provide for rudimentary education 
is justifiable, I am of the opinion that the time has not 
yet arrived when it would be generally approved for the 
sake of conferring what is technically known as higher 
education. The most that can reasonably be asked or 
expected at the present time is, that localities may deter- 
mine the question for themselves ; and that, they now have 
power to do. In any union free-school district, the 
inhabitants may by vote direct the board of education 



64 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

i 
to establish an academic department, or they may adopt 

an academy, situated in the district, as such department. 

In all districts, trustees have power to prescribe the course 

of study to be pursued, and to select teachers of such 

grade of qualification as they may desire. Whenever, 

therefore, they may wish to have the classics and higher 

mathematics taught in the schools under their charge, 

there is nothing in the law to prevent them from having 

it done. That these things are not attempted is because 

public sentiment would rebel against such an injudicious 

exercise of this power. 

"For years the academies have been surrounded by 
conditions favoring their conversion to a free-school 
system. While many have been absorbed in union 
schools, the fact that a majority of them have not been 
adopted shows that the sense of the communities where 
they are located is adverse to such a course. Much more 
certain is it that there is no disposition to support them 
by a general tax, for the benefit of particular localities. 
They cannot be universally established in connection with 
our public schools, because of the well-founded conviction 
that they are not commonly needed. As a mere piece of 
legislation, a law might be enacted to that effect ; but if 
that should be done, and if the academic departments 
should be formally established, the law could not be 
practically executed in a large proportion of the districts, 
for want of scholars qualified to pursue an academic 
course of study. 

" As it is, therefore, in the power of any district to 
establish and maintain a free high school, whenever it is 
willing to incur the expense, and as comparatively few 



Superintendent of Public Instruction 65 

have yet ventured to exercise that power, it would seem 
to be a measure uncalled for, to make the existing acade- 
mies free by a general tax, or to charge their support 
upon the communities in which they happen to be located, 
without reference to their wishes or necessities." 

But if, in opposition to these considerations, and con- 
trary to the former policy of the State, it should be deter- 
mined to levy, for academic instruction, a third tax in 
addition to both the general and the local taxes now 
raised for public schools, there is no reason or justice in 
providing for that class of instruction more liberally than 
for common-school education. Certainly, academies, 
which only a comparatively small number of scholars 
attend, have no stronger claim upon the people of the 
State, than the common schools located in the several 
districts, where a great majority of the people receive 
their only education. 

But the effect of this measure is to swell the amount for 
each academic pupil to $30.74, as against $2.84 for each 
common-school pupil ; and the proposed increase is 
exacted from tax-payers all over the State, who, except in 
the few districts where the academies are located, cannot 
use them without sending their children from home, nor 
then, without paying tuition after having paid three dis- 
tinct school taxes. Such a discrimination in favor of 
higher education, against those who cannot avail them- 
selves of its advantages, is not only a wide departure 
from the policy heretofore pursued, but is manifestly 
unjust. 

To levy a general tax to raise the State school moneys 

annually apportioned to the several districts, and then to 

5 , 



66 Nineteenth Annual Report of tsb 

levy a local tax in the districts to make up the full 
amount needed to support the public schools, would seem 
to be all that could reasonably be demanded ; to levy a 
third tax of $125,000 for academies, more than half of 
which would be given to the proprietors of private schools, 
to enable them to compete with the public schools sup- 
ported by the first two taxes named, would, in more than 
one sense, be an imposition. 

There are, moreover, special objections to giving any 
moneys, raised by tax, to those academies which are not 
public, but which belong to stockholders, or companies, 
or religious denominations, who manage them for profit, 
and will receive for themselves this appropriation, if made, 
as they do the tuition which they charge. How many of 
them are sectarian in their character is not definitely 
ascertained, as that fact is not reported, nor willingly 
admitted. It is well-known, however, that a number of 
them are institutions of strict sectarian character, and, 
for that reason alone, are not entitled to support by gene- 
ral taxation. But all of the private academies are 
managed for the religious or personal interests of their 
proprietors, and are no more entitled to be supported by 
public taxation, in competition with the public schools, 
than are the thousands of private elementary schools. If 
they are to be supported at the public expense, let them 
become public schools, as many of that class already 
have, and as the law now provides. If, however, they 
are to subserve any denominational or personal interests, 
let those who own them, and who retain control over 
them for such purposes, maintain them. They have no 
claim to public support. The tax in question is, indeed, 



Superintendent or Public Instruction. 67 

asked for by those who expect to receive it, but it does 
not appear that others ask the privilege to pay it. 

A general tax for academic instruction, if proper in any 
case, which is questionable, should be applied only to 
such instruction in public academies. 

The circumstance that teachers 9 classes are maintained 
in some of the academies is no argument in favor of 
the appropriation in question, for it is not made in con- 
sideration of such classes, but is to be divided, like the 
income of the literatare fund, according to the number of 
academic pupils. The usual appropriation of $18,000, 
which they now receive for teachers' classes, is not all 
nsed. A bill, No. 168, has been introduced in the Senate, 
during the present session, to authorize the application 
of $2,500 of an unexpended balance of the appropriation 
madp, in 1871, for such classes, to the purchase of books 
and apparatus. 

Now that the State has developed a public-school sys- 
tem, ample for the educational wants of the people, that 
embraces eight normal schools to train teachers for the 
common schools, and that authorizes the establishment of 
academies, or the adoption of those already existing, in 
districts where they are needed and the people are willing 
to support them, which system has been made free to all 
by general and local taxation, there appears to be no 
necessity or justification for increasing that taxation, for 
the purpose of giving to rival private schools more than 
they have heretofore received and still receive from the 
income of the Literature Fund and from the income of the 
United States Deposit Fund, and vastly more, in propor- 
tion, than the common schools receive. 



68 Report of Superintendent of P oblic Instr uction. 

The tax tinder consideration, if continued, would deter 
private academies, though supported at public expense, 
from becoming public schools, as the law provides, by 
making it more profitable for their owners to keep them 
as they are. It would tend to perpetuate the existence of 
the two distinct and conflicting departments of education 
in this State, instead of uniting them in one harmonious 
plan. It would weaken our free-school system, and 
encourage further assaults upon it. 

It is respectfully submitted, that it would be better for 

the cause of education generally, should the State devote 

its energies and resources exclusively to its own system 

of public instruction, with a view to render it so efficient 

and acceptable to all classes, that none shall desire to 

oppose it. 

ABRAM B. WEAVER, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 



D OCUMENTS 



▲OOOMPAJmXtt TBI 



REPORT 



OF THI 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 



LIST OF DOCUMENTS 

AOOOMPAJCTINO TMB 

REPORT OP THE SUPERINTENDENT OP PUBLIC 

INSTRUCTION. 



Table No. 1. Statement of State tax, levied in 1867 and in 1872. 

2. Statement of School tax paid, and School moneys received, by 

each county. 

3. Apportionment of School moneys. 

4. Abstract of Statistical reports of School Commissioners. . 

5. Abstract of Financial reports of School Commissioners. 

6. Increase anddiminutionof the capital of the Common School 

Fund. 

7. Investment of the capital of the School Fund. 

8. Comparative Statistical and Financial statements for the years 

1867 and 1872. 

9. Statistics of Teachers' Institutes. 
10. Statistics of Indian Schools. 

Document A. Report of the Principal of the New York Institution for the 

Instruction of the Deaf anc 1 Dumb. 

B. Report of the Superintendent of the Allegany and Catta- 
raugus Indian Reservation. 

C/ Report of the Superintendent of the Oneida and Madison 
Indian Reservation. 

D. Report of the Superintendent of the Onondaga Indian 
Reservation. 

E. Report of the Superintendent of the St Regis Indian Reser- 

vation. 

F. Report of the Superintendent of the Shinecock Indian 

Reservation. 

G. Report of the Superintendent of the Tonawanda Indian 

Reservation. 



72 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

H. Report of the Superintendent of the Tuscarora Indian 
Reservation. 

I. Annual report of Thomas Asylum for Indian Children. 
J. Annual report of the Normal School at Brockport 
E. Annual report of the Normal School at Buffalo. 
L. Annual report of the Normal School at Cortland. 
M. Animal report of the Normal School at Fredonia. 
N. Annual report of the Normal School at Geneseo. 
. O. Annual report of the Normal School at Oswego. 
P. Annual report of the Normal School at Potsdam. 
Q. Normal School circular. 

R List of Academies to Instruct Common School Teachers. 
S. List of School Commissioners. 
T. Reports of School Commissioners. 



SuPBanrrsNDMHT or Public Iswravorios. 



TABLE No. 1. 

Statement of the Slate Tax of threefourths of a mill, levied 
in 1867, and of the State Tats of one and one-fowrtk mills, 
levied in 1872, for the support of Common Schools. 



00DNTH8. 


1867. 


187*. 


Valutlon. 


AaxmntofUx. 


TalsMlon. 


Amount of tu- 




H 
H 

m 

40 
M 
46 

a 

00 

■ 
» 
n 

71 

so 

IB 

IT 
66 
M 

OB 
99 

81 

49 
IS 

n 

80 
OS 

as 

St 
TS 

3 

80 
SB 

or 

St 

» 

M 

61 
88 

B 

10 

so 

B0 

ss 

11 

04 
SO 
41 

se 

OS 
00 


868.184 SS 

to, vie et 

10, Ml B7 
0, 080 11 
S6,*S8 66 

18,47ft 3S 

10,547 81 
18.1S4 80 
B, OSS 00 
17.980 00 

1l'8*B IT 
88,743 81 
41,444 SS 
1800 84 
8,016 08 
4,714 77 
17, SIS SB 

o,msB 

BS1 OS 
18,801 SS 
80,076 68 

17* 896 » 
6>1188 
17, BOS IS 

15, 010 84 
80,408 SI 
10.GSBS7 

891,738 07 

18.800 81 
88,140 40 
8S,B04SS 
SS.711 SB 
88,107 96 
18,038 48 
17,88107 

16, 194 IB 
7.S84 06 

S0,7BB7S 
88,411 IB 
^806 87 
7,077 04 
S0,04BSS 
16,167 87 
7, MS 08 
7,710 58 
6,688 67 
14.068 08 

17.801 61 
18,666 46 

4,848 41 
7,S01S4 
10, 119 40 
18,480 18 
8.096 TO 
18,480 08 
10,041 80 
00,188 00 
11,144 00 
10,181 SS 


74 

SS 
BT 
S4 

18 

41 

OS 
SS 
08 
IS 
SI 

87 

84 

SS 

ST 

40 
38 
80 

17 
08 

« 
SO 
SB 
88 
4S 
10 
SS 
08 
SO 
01 
SI 

SB 
OB 
07 
BB 
87 
SS 
IB 
OS 
48 
08 
ST 
44 
TT 
IB 
OS 
SS 

so 

TS 
00 
SS 
M 
ST 
84 


•00,818 00 
10.998 78 
10.041 IT 
10,781 48 
86,165 M 
10,888 14 

11.040 08 
14,141 IS 

7.688 64 

SB, 887 08 

S.SS7BS 

10,870 SB 

43,107 44 

64,186 00 

— SO 

SB 

0* 

88 

SB 

SB 

1 

74 

OS 

SB 
88 

S4 
B4 

1 a 

80 

B4 

St 018 76 

86,893 00 
18,881 60 
18,001 81 
16,688 76 
8,888 84 
8S.SB7 00 
87,678 11 

10, IBS 04 

11, IBS 17 
17,417 46 
16,6*1 40 

8,808 89 
6,084 00 
B>1SS* 
18,061 SO 
18.491 18 
14,770 36 
8, Til 61 
7,601 S6 
10,107 07 
18,688 46 
8,768 84 

10. 041 SS 
18,604 88 
74,071 11 
11,606 8S 

0,889 SS 






CMttnagu.. 


CSastuqu 






OolonbU 






lilt... 

JK 




Bullion 




Ln£ 


















Sj2"g° 






















Sum™ . 














Wjqoii... 




«!,«B4,107,7* 


sa, oeMM «6 


$8,088,8*7,446 


■X, 610,784 SI 





74 



Nineteenth Annual Report of the 



TABLE No. 2. 

Statement showing the amount of School Tax paid by each 
County, the amount of Tax received back, the amount of Com- 
mon School Fund received, and the total amount received by 
each County. 



COUNTIES. 



Albany 

Allegany 

Broome 

Cattaraugus 

2*7*8* 

Chautauqua 

Chemung 

Chenango 

Clinton 

Columbia 

.Cortland 

Delaware 

Dutcheu 

Erie 

Bssex 

Franklin 

Fulton 

Genesee 

Greene 

Hamilton 

Herkimer 

Jefferson 

Kings 

Lewis 

Livingston 

Madison 

Monroe 

Montgomery 

New /York 

Niagara 

Oneida 

Onondaga 

Ontario 

Orange 

Orleans 

Oswego 

Otsego 

Putnam 

Queens 

Rensselaer 

Richmond 

Rockland 

St. Lawrence 

Saratoga 

Schenectady 

Schoharie 

Schuyler 

Seneca 

Steuben 

Suffolk 

Sullivan 

Tioga 

Tompkins 

Ulster 

Warren 

Washington 

Wayne 

Westchester 

Wyoming 

Yates 

Indians 

Contingent Fund Bal. 

Total 



School tax 
paid. 



$60,888 09 
10,998 76 
10,041 17 
10,731 42 
26,165 81 
90,868 14 
11,049 06 
14,141 18 

7,683 64 
96,697 68 

9,827 68 
10,670 88 
42,107 64 
64,126 90 

6,780 80 

7,203 98 

4, 712 02 
17,756 88 

7,294 29 

988 96 

12,091 28 

18,866 74 

948,922 98 

4,910 77 
18,884 95 
18,986 68 
88,028 24 

9,588 84 
1,801,567 04 

18.891 48 
87,107 89 
48,899 64 
24,018 76 

86.892 00 
18,881 60 
18, 991 31 
16,682 76 

8,882 84 

. 82,897 99 

87,578 18 

10,185 04 

11, 169 17 

17,427 46 

16,524 40 

6,908 89 

0,984 06 

6,518 88 

12,961 90 

18,491 18 

14,770 86 

8,711 69 

7,601 26 

10,107 67 

16,628 46 

8,758 84 

19,041 69 

18,604 86 

74,979 12 

11,505 82 

9,889 28 



School tax 
received. 



$9,610,784 81 



$64,967 04 
97,814 88 
28,242 78 
80,107 84 
85,967 16 
89,082 86 
21,684 68 
98,594 10 
28,546 46 
96,868 91 
17,151 84 
81,881 86 
40,227 66 
96,296 61 
19, 695 75 
19,799 19 
16,822 67 
18,776 84 
20,039 17 
2,541 94 

94.889 16 
43,147 97 

198,066 06 
20, 219 06 
28,886 98 
27,666 40 
61,610 24 

18.890 69 
457,864 94 

29,246 89 
66,856 98 
69,244 61 
97,585 16 
48,188 51 
17,820 77 
46, 768 11 
83,384 68 
8,980 69 
86,994 69 
62,996 46 
16,566 61 
12,886 42 
56,634 58 
81,093 35 
12,084 97 
92,034 36 
12,554 98 
16,384 42 
44,994 80 
26,868 16 
21,898 60 
19,428 66 
90,897 87 
46,128 99 
14,750 29 
81,446 61 
80,034 12 
67,172 87 
19, 176 64 
19,509 95 
8,179 00 
1,719 58 



$2,448,784 81 



Common School 
rand received. 



$7,196 94 

2.448 47 
2,521 57 
9,649 11 
8,958 68 

8.468 08 
1,946 86 
9,601 64 
2,590 90 

9.469 00 
1,511 19 
9,767 49 
8,782 49 

10,458.08 
1,782 08 
1,764 28 
1,477 06 
1,706 11 
1,796 41 
214 27 
2,285 49 
8,827 68 

98,078 41 
1,769 11 
9, 110 41 
9,474 19 
6,979 50 
1,748 81 

64,196 96 
2,679 07 
6,984 87 
0,144 97 
9,484 87 
4,091 88 
1,654 48 
4,237 16 

2.940 98 
815 84 

8,484 45 

6.449 49 
1,499 25 
1,914 89 

4.941 42 
2,818 42 
1,106 52 
1,968 87 
1,118 19 
1,487 42 
8,986 80 
2,425 96 
1,950 58 
1,787 52 
1,887 75 
4,199 91 
1,811 39 
9,818 85 
9,691 68 
6,895 40 
1,702 94 
tll7 66 



$948,800 00 



Total 
received. 



$79*158 28 
30,968 86 
80,764 85 
89,756 95 
89,990 68 
42,550 88 
98,581 44 
81,095 74 
31,186 86 
99,890 SI 
18,669 46 
84,689 86 

48.060 07 
106,740 64 

91.857 88 
91,476 42 
17,790 65 
90,481 95 

91.897 58 
2,766 31 

97,194 04 
46,075 65 
991,158 46 
21,938 17 
95,408 84 

80.140 59 
67,889 74 
90,680 40 

611,561 99 
81,917 89 
71,290 80 
68,889 48 
80,090 08 
47, 150 80 
18,875 95 
61,005 97 
86,895 66 
9,746 68 
89,498 97 
68,440 95 
17,065 86 
14, 100 81 
60,576 00 
88,906 77 

18. 141 49 
28,988 88 
13,668 17 
17,691 84 
48,980 10 
98,789 14 

98.858 06 
91, 166 18 
92,985 19 

49.898 88 

18.061 68 
34,258 96 
82,795 80 
78,498 97 
90,877 78 
18,697 61 

8,172 00 
1,712 58 



$2,692,684 31 



8uPSBINTXm>KNT OF PXTBLIO INSTRUCTION. 



75 



CO 

oo 



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CO 2» 

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O £ 

a 3 



3 






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3 

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a 

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02 



8 

x 
t 

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SOPSRINTENDENT OP PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 95 

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102 



Nineteenth Annual Report or the 



(A.) 

NEW YORK INSTITUTION FOR THE INSTRUC- 
TION OF THE DEAF AND DUMB. 

Hon. Abeam 8. Weaveb, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Dbab Sib. — In compliance with your request for informa- 
tion concerning this institution, it gives me great pleasure to 
state that, on the 30th of September, 1872, there were remain- 
ing in the institution five hundred and nine pupils, of whom 
two hundred and ninety-four were males and two hundred 
and fifteen were females. Of these, three hundred and twenty- 
nine were beneficiaries of the State of New York ; one hun- 
dred and thirty-one, of the counties in this State ; and thirty- 
three, of the State of New Jersey ; fourteen were supported 
by their parents or guardians, one by a scholarship known as 
the Frizzell fund, and for one no provision had as yet been 
made. 

During the year preceding the date mentioned above, there 
was an average of three hundred and fifty-three State pupils, 
being three in excess of the number for which provision had 
been made in the appropriation bill ; and it is probable that, 
during the year ending October 1st, 1873, the number of State 
pupils will not fall far short of three hundred and fifty. 

Of the fourteen pay pupils, but five are from the State of 
New York ; and of these, three are below the age of twelve, 
and one is above the age of twenty-five ; and therefore only 
one of the number would be eligible as a State pupil, if the 
education of the deaf and dumb were made free to all between 
the ages of twelve and twenty-five, now prescribed by law for 
indigent deaf-mutes. This shows that the State would lose 
very little if an amendment should be made to the school law 
of 1864, simply striking out the word "indigent" where it 
refers to the deaf and dumb. The argument in favor of this 
is that parents will delay bringing their children to the insti- 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 103 

tntion, and will seldom keep them there long enough to enable 
them to obtain a good education, if they are obliged to meet 
the expense. It is in the interests of the deaf and dumb, 
rather than in those of the parents, that I would plead with 
you to recommend that all restrictions of a pecuniary nature 
should be removed. I confess to much sympathy, however, 
with parents who have the mortification of being obliged to 
plead indigence before they can secure admission for their 
children, and to some regard for the credit of the State of 
New York, which ought not to be less enterprising and gene- 
rous, in respect to the education of this unfortunate class of 
children, than Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and other 
Western States, and most of the Southern States. 

The number of teachers is twenty-nine, of whom eleven 
are ladies and eighteen are gentlemen. Of the ladies, seven 
can hear and speak ; three can speak but cannot hear, and 
one is a congenital deaf-mute. Of the gentlemen, six can 
hear and speak ; six can speak but cannot hear, and six are 
deaf and dumb from birth. This institution, established by 
act of the Legislature in the year 1817, has enjoyed a corpo- 
rate existence of nearly fifty-six years, and is the oldest insti- 
tution of a benevolent character in the State. Originally sup- 
porting its indigent pupils through private contributions, it 
has grown, since this burthen was assumed by the State, to be 
the largest school for the deaf and dumb in the world. 

The year that has just closed has been one of continued 
prosperity. The health of the inmates has been good, only 
two deaths having occured, one by an accident and the other 
as the result of a constitutional disease. The expenditures 
have not exceeded the receipts, and the various objects sought 
by the institution have been thoroughly accomplished. 

The education imparted to the pupils has the three-fold 
purpose of developing their physical, intellectual and moral 
nature. Owing to the peculiar circumstances in which he is 
placed by his misfortune, the deaf-mute comes to the institu- 
tion with no more acquaintance with language than an infant 
a few months old. The words and phrases by which thought 




J* 



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H 



104 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

K 
• 

is expressed are entirely unknown to him. The beliefs, opin- 
ions and principles, which form a part of the mental constitu- 
tion of his fellow men, have for him no existence. The laws 
by which other persons are deterred from the commission of 
crime, or which define the relations which they may properly 
hold toward each other, are for him as if they had never been 
enacted. In the hopes, aspirations and consolations of religion, 
he has no part. The past is to him a sealed book ; the future, 
a blank page. 

Received into the institution under these circumstances, he 

is introduced into an altogether new phase of existence. In 

the society of his fellows, he learns a language of gestures, 

I ' « ] addressed to the eye, whereby he soon obtains new ideas and 

Sa degree of mental development to which he has hitherto been 
fjj a stranger. In the class-room, he is gradually taught the 

J meaning, and uses of words, and how to combine them into 

% sentences. He learns to attach ideas to what he sees written 

|| or printed, and is thus enabled, by means of the pen, to 

receive and impart communications in language. All this is 
a very difficult undertaking, and has given rise to special pro- 
cesses which constitute the art of deaf-mute instruction. 
In the more recent visits made by yourself to the icstitn- 
j.J| tion, I think you have observed improvements in these pro- 

cesses, the effect of which has been to bring the pupil to a 
practical use of language at an earlier period of his course. 
In the class you visited in the month of November, you must 
have observed the surprising progress made by those who had 
been but two months under instruction. Not only were they 
able to write in a fair and legible hand, but they were able to 
obey a number of directions, written on the teacher's slate, in 
language involving the use of the article, noun, adjective, 
verb and preposition, and to state afterwards in writing what 
they and others had done ; and all this without the use of a 
single gesture of explanation on the part of the teacher. 
The improvement in method consists in leading the pnpil 
I to attach words directly to objects and actions, without die 

f' intervention of signs, so that he shall be made to think in 

t 

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Superintendent of Public Instruction. 105 

words from the first. It is the purpose of the principal to 
carry this idea as far as possible, and he is not without hope 
that he may be able to devise a course of instruction, whereby 
the sign language may be entirely excluded from the school- 
room. If he succeeds in accomplishing this, he will be able 
to furnish a series of lessons with such full directions, that 
any intelligent person gifted with a faculty for teaching, but 
Dot conversant with deaf-mute instruction, can commence and 
complete the education of a deaf-mute. This may lead to a 
distribution of the pupils among small and inexpensive estab- 
lishments scattered about the State, under circumstances that 
will greatly reduce the expenditure at present necessary, and 
bring the pupils much nearer their homes. 

The question is agitated among the directors whether the 
institution is not too large ; and, under the advice of the prin- 
cipal, they propose, to erect a new building in some rural 
locality where land is cheap, and place therein the children 
under twelve years of age, now supported by the counties, in 
entire separation from the older pupils. 

The reasons, as stated in his report to the Board of Direc- 
tors, are as follows : " The argument for this application of 
the principle of classification is the same that has led to the 
establishment of graded schools for hearing-children, and is 
especially applicable to an institution like this, which is a 
home as well as a school. The more homogeneous any com- 
munity, the more simple, economical and effective the means 
by which it is united and controlled, and the greater the 
peace, quietness and happiness that exist among its members. 

" In no two points can our smaller and larger children be 
said to be homogeneous. The former need to be looked after 
in every respect. Their supervision must be individual in its 
minuteness. They must be washed and dressed and tended 
with maternal care. The ailments to which they are liable 
must be anticipated and guarded against. The food must be 
purchased and prepared and served with special adaptation to 
their age and physical peculiarities. The hours of study and 
play must so alternate as never to produce fatigue of mind or 



106 



Nineteenth Annual Report of the 



body. They must be amused at the same time that they are 
instructed. Even their religions services and instruction must 
be conducted in a different manner. Their attention cannot 
be compelled to connected remarks, nor can they follow a 
prayer that would properly express the sentiments and aspira- 
tions of their seniors. 

" The older pupils, however, can be governed by general 
rules, and kept in order by a general system of supervision. 
They can, in a great measure, take care of themselves and 
their property. They can be assembled together for discourses 
that would weary their juniors, and can be instructed and 
delighted by means that would be a source of discomfort 
to the latter. They can, moreover, come under a system, 
which, for their age, is adapted to produce the best results; 
namely, so dividing the time that they can have a number of 
continuous hours in the best part of the day for regular and 
systematic instruction and study, while other hours can be 
devoted continuously to the acquisition of a handicraft by 
which they may support themselves when they leave the 
institution. The system, in fact, that benefits them most, is 
the system most injurious to the younger pupils. 

" There are other considerations, however, which have a 
more important bearing upon the subject than those which 
have already been adduced : 

" 1st. It requires greater care to protect the younger children 
from those physical injuries which are apt to result from asso- 
ciation with older children. The larger boy, if circumstances 
favor impunity, even if not of a depraved disposition, may 
abuse a smaller one, especially if the latter has given him 
cause of annoyance. 

" 2d. There is also danger where both classes of children are 
in the same school, that the younger, when found capable of 
keeping up with the older ones in their studies, will be placed 
in the same class-room with them, and thus gain a premature 
intellectual development at the expense of their physical. 

" 3d. It is in its moral aspect, however, that the most serious 
objections to the association of the two classes of pupils are 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 107 

to be discovered. The younger boy is apt to imitate only that 
which is rough and unmannerly in the elder one, without 
being able to adopt the more manly qualities whieh might 
form a partial compensation. The younger must be established 
in the habit of obedience and right conduct, while the older 
most be confirmed in principle, and trained to act from higher 
motives. 

" There is yet another point of view, from which this whole 
subject may be regarded. I allude to the stimulus which is 
given to the mind by completely changing all its associations. 
If a child should enter the institution at the age of six, and 
remain until he is twenty, as is quite possible under existing 
laws, he would have a long monotonous life in school, unre- 
lieved by any change, while he would be less likely to be cured 
of habits that needed correction, or aroused from listlessness 
into which he might sink, than if at some point in his long 
career he started, as it were, de novo, under a different body 
of teachere, and a different set of regulations, as well as amid 
new surroundings. 

" The connection existing between the two schools, by reason 
of their being under the control of the same board of direc- 
tors, would be such as to benefit both. The system of instruc- 
tion pursued in the school for the younger children would be 
directly preparatory to the one intended for the older children, 
and the latter would be raised to a higher plane by having so 
much elementary work accomplished in advance." 

During the year, the attention of the principal has been 
repeatedly called to a system introduced by Prof. A. Graham 
Bell, into the institutions for the deaf and dumb in Hartford, 
Connecticut, and in Northampton and Boston, Massachusetts, 
for the purpose of giving to the deaf and dumb the power of 
correct enunciation. He has accordingly visited these institu- 
tions and subjected the method to a searching examination. 

This system, to which its author has given the name of 
" visible speech," consists in suggesting to the mind, through 
the eye, by symbols, the different organs concerned in the 
utterance of particular sounds, and forms an independent basis 



108 Nineteenth Annual Report of tse 

of phonetic writing, adapted alike to all languages, and ena- 
bling any person familiar with it to pronounce correctly, at 
sight, any sentence in any language when properly written in 
those characters. 

The ordinary method of teaching the deaf and dumfi to 
speak has been denominated the method of imitation, and 
consists in teaching the deaf-mute directly, without the inter- 
vention of symbols to pronounce, first, the powers of the let- 
ters, and, after that, their combination in syllables. In this 
way the pupil learns to recognize, by looking at the lips of his 
teacher, what he is taught to utter for himself. 

Pjof. Engelsman, who, for several years, has been connected 
with our own institution, is the great exponent of the last 
named system on this side of the Atlantic. Under his direc- 
tion, articulation and lip reading have been successfully taught 
to about fifty of our pupils, or one-tenth of the whole, which 
represents the proportion who are capable of being benefited 
thereby without seriously subtracting from the time required 
to enable them to gain a good knowledge of written dis- 
course. 

A careful comparison of these two rival systems of teach- 
ing articulation to the deaf and dumb has, as yet, failed to 
convince me that Professor Bell can produce the more exact 
and satisfactory results. I shall follow, with great interest, 
the development of his system, and if I perceive that it is 
accomplishing superior results, I shall unhesitatingly recom- 
mend its adoption. It would be unwise for us to make expe- 
riments in that direction now, when it is receiving such a fair 
trial elsewhere, especially as Prof. Bell makes a charge of 
$500 to each person whom he indoctrinates into his system. 

It should be observed, however, that articulation is not, of 
itself, a system of education, nor, like the sign language, a 
means to an end, but is simply an incidental advantage given 
to a deaf-mute whereby he may give expression to the English 
language after he has mastered the language. 

The classes of deaf persons who can be benefited by instruc- 
tion in articulation are ; 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 109 

1st. Semi-mutes who, having heard and spoken before 
losing their hearing, have still a mental ear and a mental 
speech, even though, from the circumstance of their deafness, 
their pronunciation has become very defective. The correc- 
tion of this pronunciations and the bestowal of an ability to 
recognize words by watching the lips of a speaker, are very 
important objects to be sought, and should never bp neglected. 

2d. Deaf-mutes, in whose case a partial degree of hearing 
exists, though not sufficient to enable them to acquire lan- 
guage through the ear. In their case, this low degree of 
hearing is of use in giving them an idea of voice. 

3d. Peculiarly intelligent congenital deaf-mutes, whose 
perceptive faculties are very highly developed. 

For all others, the attempt to teach this acquirement is time 
uselessly taken from that needed to acquire a knowledge of 
the language itself. This, as has already been remarked, is 
the direct and paramount object of instruction in the class- 
room. Give a deaf-mute a mastery of alphabetic discourse, 
and you give him the key to all knowledge ; you enable him 
to stand on equal terms with all who can read and write. 

In connection with this acquisition, however, all the pupils 
have a course of instruction in geography, Scripture history, 
the history of the United States, general history and arith- 
metic, and most of them obtain a good knowledge of accounts. 
Id the High Glass, which is selected from those capable of 
making higher attainments, are studied algebra and geometry, 
natural philosophy, astronomy and chemistry, mental and 
moral philosophy, and grammar, rhetoric and logic. Latin, 
as a foundation of etymology, a means of. comparing gramma- 
tical forms, and a device for improving style by the processes 
of translation, is also taught to a selected few. 

Great attention is paid to forming a good moral character 
in our pupils, and establishing in their minds principles of 
rectitude. The general laws affecting crime are explained, 
and an elementary idea is given them of the rights of pro- 
perty. They are also taught those fundamental points of 
religion in which all denominations of Christians agree, but 



110 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

they do not receive a bias toward any particular form of wor- 
ship and belief; and, hence, pastors of both the Roman Catho- 
lic and the Protestant faith find in onr pupils a foundation on 
which they can severally build the superstructure of their own 
peculiar tenets. . 

While the pupils are thus intellectually and morally devel- 
oped, they receive also a mechanical education whereby they 
may support themselves when they leave the institution. The 
boys, if of sufficient age, spend three consecutive hours daily 
under skillful artisans, who instruct thern in tailoring, shoe- 
making, cabinet-making and horticulture. Within a short 
time, printing has been added to the list, and will be a valuable 
resource for quite a number. The girls, besides learning 
different branches of household work, are taught plain sewing, 
tailoring, dress-making and the art of operating on the sewing- 
machine. 

The arts of design have also been lately introduced, for 
both boys and girls, under the skillful tuition of a graduate of 
the institution, who spends three hours a day with successive 
classes, and two hours with a special class of both boys and 
girls selected from the most gifted. 

From what has been said, it will be perceived that the 
benighted, irresponsible and often dangerous deaf-mute is 
transformed, under the beneficent influences of the institution, 
into an intelligent, accountable, peaceful, law-abiding, self- 
supporting citizen, capable of sustaining his part in the rela- 
tions he bears to his fellow-men. In this view, the benevo- 
lence to the individual is lost sight of in the benefit to the 
State, which, in furnishing the means for this special educa- 
tion, provides for its own security in the evil it averts, and 
receives back more than it gives in the good it effects. The 
sustaining of such an institution is, therefore, to be regarded 
in the light of duty rather than of charity. 

I cannot close this statement without adverting to an event 
which, while it affects the institution directly, is regarded as 
a calamity by all who are interested in the cause of deaf-mute 
education throughout the country. I allude to the death of 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. Ill 

my father, Dr. Harvey P. Peet, on the first of January last, 
after a connection of forty-two years with this institution. 
Five years ago he retired from the active duties of principal, 
which, as vice-principal, I had shared with him for the sixteen 
preceding years, but he retained a nominal connection with 
the office, under the title of Principal Emeritus. As a mem- 
ber of the Board of Directors, of which he was at one time for 
ten years the president, he contributed to the last to the wel- 
fare of the institution. His counsel to myself, and the earnest 
solicitude he manifested for my success, gave me both assist- 
ance and encouragement in the arduous labors 1 assumed 
when he vacated his post. 

His contributions to the literature of the profession have 
been more numerous and important than those of any other 
man that has ever been connected with it. The course of 
instruction he prepared has been used in every institution for 
the deaf and dumb in this country; and the teachers whom he 
has trained, and inspired with his own enthusiasm and devo- 
tion, have further extended his personal influence, by accept- 
ing the post of principal in very many of the states of the 

Union. 

Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant,. 

ISAAC LEWIS PEET, 

Prinoipal. 

lebriuvry 18, 1873. 



112 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 



■( B. ) 

ALLEGANY AND CATTARAUGUS INDIAN 

RESERVATIONS. 

Hon. A beam B. Weaver, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Sib. — I confess to a feeling of satisfaction in being able to 
report a degree of progress by the pupils in the Indian schools 
upon these reservations during the past year, commensurate 
with expectations. The average attendance was much better, 
and the children were far more regular in coming together at 
the morning session. This is attributable, in a great measure, 
to the increased interest among the Indian people in regard 
to the importance and advantage of having their children 
receive the fullest possible benefit from these schools. Here- 
tofore the parents have not generally seemed to care whether 
their children attended the schools or not. 

This most desirable change I attribute largely to the influ- 
ence of the evening lectures, during the institutes held, for the 
benefit of teachers, at the Indian council house during the two 
preceding summers, addressed directly to the parents, with a 
view of enlightening them upon their relations to the schools 
and their duty to their children in the matter of education. 
In their results I cannot but consider these lectures one of the 
best features of the institute, and if continued, as I think they 
should be, I would recommend the plan of devoting each even- 
ing to plain practical talks to the people at different points, 
so as to reach the largest possible numbers. 

These institutes have also exerted a marked improvement 
upon the character of the teaching in the schools, and I can- 
not too highly commend the willingness and faithfulness which 
characterized the teachers previously employed, in adopting 
the new methods taught them by their institute instructors. 

At the asylum school, I employed, as an experiment, two 
normal graduates, a principal and assistant, with the under- 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 118 

standing that they were to use the object system. Their work 
has been so satisfactory, the same principal and a normal 
assistant have been employed during the present year. A 
normal graduate is also teaching in School No. 5, on the Cat- 
taraugus reservation, the most advanced of the Indian schools, 
with pleasing results. 

In teaching, as in all other vocations, to be successful, the 
means used must be adapted to the nature of the material 
with which you have to deal. It is a matter of history and 
experience, that different races have their distinctive phases 
of character. This is peculiarly so with the Indian ; his appa- 
rently natural, stolid indifference to intellectual matters cannot 
be overcome by any appeal to the intellect or mind, except 
through the senses. It is because of this feature, that the 
object-method is so peculiarly fitted, for these schools. I would, 
therefore, recommend a more general introduction of small 
globes and numeral frames, both of which are greatly needed 
in nearly all of the schools, and of other modern simple con- 
trivances for the aid of the teacher ; and also a continuation of 
institute instruction. Instead, however, of a two weeks' insti- 
tute, as heretofore, I am of the opinion that an institute for 
one week, with the understanding that no teacher, unwilling 
to attend its sessions regularly, would be employed in the 
schools, would be more likely to accomplish the desired 
results. I would further suggest the expediency of the Depart- 
ment paying for the transportation of teachers to this institute 
from the Tonawanda and, perhaps, other reservations more 
remote. In doing this, those schools would also be benefited, 
equally with those on the Cattaraugus and Allegany reserva- 
tions, without the expense of, what is probably impracticable, 
a separate institute. 

The plan of requiring teachers of Indian schools to attend 
the usual county institutes instead, as some suggest, would be 
decidedly objectionable, because of the difference of teaching 
required in our common schools and the Indian schools, which 
are as unlike as are the two races — Caucasian and Indian. 

8 



114 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Because of this, the instructor of the institute should be expected 
to first visit the schools while in actual session, and thus, in 
some measure, acquaint himself with their peculiarities and 
condition, and the special wants of scholars and teachers. It 
was largely because of such visitation on the part of Prof. EL R. 
Sanford, of the Fredonia Normal School, as he admits, that 
the institutes of last summer, and of the preceding year, which 
he conducted, were so successful. 

The time of opening the schools has been changed from 
May to the last Monday in March or the first Monday in 
April, and from November to the first Monday in October, 
each term continuing sixteen weeks, except at the Asylum, 
where school is maintained forty weeks, divided into three 
terms arranged for the convenience of the Asylum superin- 
tendent. The change avoids the " blackberry season" and 
the extreme heat of summer, and a portion of the severest 
weather of winter, and is an admitted improvement. In 
several of the schools on both reservations, the improvement 
made was both encouraging and unexpected, and clearly 
demonstrated the capacity of the Indian mind for education 
when properly conducted. 

In my report for 1871, I referred to the erecting of a 
school-house in district No. 1, Cattaraugus reservation, partly 
by Indian contributions. Last spring it was sufficiently 
completed for occupation during the summer term, and 
is creditable to the enterprise of the Indian people of the 
district. 

In conclusion, I would recommend that the plan of having 
the Indians keep their school-houses in repair, so far as is 
practicable, without State aid, be continued. In some of the 
districts, as Nob. 2 and 6 on the Allegany reservations, and 
No. 10 on the Cattaraugus reservation, the interest of the 
people is not, as yet, sufficient to expect it. In the majority 
of the districts, they are able to assist in the expense of main- 
taining the schools, and will do so rather than have them 
dispensed with. Too much assistance is a curse rather 
than a blessing. The true plan is that happy medium (if 



Superintendent op Public Instruction. 115 

it can be found) which will stimulate the recipients to self- 
exertion. 

For statistical information, see table No. 10 in the appen- 
dix. 

Respectfully, 

C. E. BENTON, 
Late Superintendent of Indian Schools. 

Fbedonia, February 14, 1873. 



(0.) 

ONEIDA AND MADISON INDIAN RESERVATION. 

Hon. Abbam B. Weaver, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Sib. — I beg leave to submit the following report of the con- 
dition of the schools for the Oneida Indians. During the year 
ending September 30th, 1872, school was maintained on these 
reservations for a period of thirty-three weeks. 

The whole number of children between the ages of five and 
twenty-one, residing on the reservation, is forty-seven ; and the 
whole number of pupils, registered as attending school some 
portion of the year, is thirty-nine. 

The daily attendance is not what it should be. A portion 
of the pupils are quite regular at school, and make good pro- 
gress in their studies. The school-houses and apparatus are 
in good condition. I would recommend a continuance of 
your liberal policy with these schools. 

Respectfully yours, 

N. L. TILDEN, 
Superintendent Oneida Indian Schools. 



116 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 



(D.) 
ONONDAGA INDIAN RESERVATION. 

Hon, Abbam B. Weaver, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction : ' 

Sib. — In obedience to the requirements of your Depart- 
ment, " that a written statement showing the condition of the 
schools nnder my charge should be sent to yon by the 15th of 
December in each year," I submit the following : 

The Onondaga Indians have had the advantages of a school 
only about twenty-five years, and during much of that time 
but a small part of the tribe have sent their children to school. 

This tribe has long been divided into three factions : 1st. 
Pagans, comprising about half of the population, who have 
generally opposed schools, and kept up the customs and festi- 
vals of the ancient Onondagas. 2d. The Methodist Episcopal 
Christian party, who have generally sent their children to the 
State school, more or less irregularly. 3d. The Wesleyans 
(formerly), who of late have become merged with the attend- 
ants upon the Protestant Episcopal Mission Church, and who 
have withdrawn some of their children from the State school, 
and send them to a parochial school under church care. 

The existence of these two schools near each other, each 
scantily furnished with scholars, and under patrons and 
parents who are more or less hostile to the opposing school, 
has a depressing effect upon education among the pagan por- 
tion of the tribe. There may be children enough to give 
employment to two teachers, but they should both be under 
the same supervision, and not be employed in rival schools 
jealous of each other. 

Three hundred Indians, of whom one-half abjure Christian- 
ity and books, are here made the victims of (perhaps well 
intended) sectarian zeal, and the schools suffer from the 
scramble. 

The State school had been established more than twenty 
years before its rival started, and the two should be harmon- 



SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 117 

ized under State care ; nor should two Christian sects clash 
with each other over so meagre a catch of possible converts, 
the effect of their rivalry being to strengthen paganism in 
the tribe. The State school has done the Onondagas good, 
and could more children be brought to attend it, the tribe 
would be better for it. 

I have not dwelt in this report upon the subject of Indian 
nationality, or petty tribalism, as an effectual hindrance to the 
elevation and advancement of this tribe, having mentioned it 
in so many former reports, and urged reasons for its discontin- 
uance, and the substitution in its place of tax-paying, respon- 
sible citizenship. 

I remain your obedient servant, 

J. KNEELAND, 
Superintendent of Indian, Schools. 
South Onondaga, Dee. 8, 1872. 



(E.) 

ST. REGIS INDIAN RESERVATION. 

Hon. Abbam B. Weaver, 

Superintendent of PvbUo Instruction : 

Sir. — In compliance with your request, I submit the follow- 
ing statement in respect to the schools upon the St. Regis 
reservation : The school-houses are in bad order ; No. 1 needs 
re-shingling and No. 2 re-siding. In both cases privies are 
needed, which I intend to build as soon as convenient. 

The condition of the schools and the progress of the pupils 
are not encouraging. The children are irregular in attend- 
ance, often remaining away from the school for weeks at a 
time. Some attend only in the summer, and it is a common 
thing for pupils to come to school as late as ten and eleven 
o'clock in the morning. They cease to attend school when 
fourteen or fifteen years of age. 



118 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Parents appear to have but little control over their children 
or regard for their welfare. The Indians are a wandering race, 
indolent and shiftless, and do not improve in any respect, 
unless it is in dress, of which the young girls and boys, espe- 
cially, are very fond, and in which they endeavor to imitate 

the whites. 

Your obedient servant, 

HENRY BERO, 
Superintendent of Indian Schools. 
Hogansbubgh, Nov. 29, 1872. 



(F.) 

SHINECOCK RESERVATION. 

Hon. Abb am B. Weaves, 

Superintendent of PvbUc Inei/ruction : 

Sib. — I would respectfully make the following report con- 
cerning the Indian school on the Shinecock reservation, for 
the year ending September 30th, 1872 : 

The whole number of children on the reservation and 
belonging to the tribe, between the ages of five and twenty- 
one years, was forty-three. The whole number of pupils 
registered as having attended school some portion of the year 
is thirty-five, and the average daily attendance nineteen. The 
school has been taught thirty-two weeks during the year. ' 

Although the number of children residing upon the reserva- 
tion, during the past year, is not as large as that of the pre- 
ceding year, it will be seen by a comparison with my last 
report that the average attendance is considerably larger. 

There is every indication that the members of the tribe fully 
appreciate the importance of educating their children, and 
they eagerly avail themselves of the privileges afforded them 
through the just liberality of the State which extends to them 
gratuitously the opportunity for intellectual improvement. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 119 

At the request of the trustees of the tribe, who are ex officio 
trustees of the school, I employed a female member of the 
tribe to teach the summer school. The school, since its 
organization up to that time, had been taught exclusively by 
white teachers. 

The experiment was eminently successful ; the teacher, being 
thoroughly familiar with the characteristics of the pupils, and 
in Ml sympathy with the tribe, manifested an earnest desire 
to improve those under her charge. I think that it is advisa- 
ble in all cases to select teachers from the tribe, when com- 
petent persons can be found who will accept the position. 

The school-house and the adjoining buildings are in good 
repair. The interior of the school building has been thor- 
oughly renovated during the past summer. 

The Indians take commendable pride in having the school- 
house neat and attractive in appearance, and have always 
manifested a willingness to contribute their own labor when- 
ever it became necessary to make any improvement either 
upon the buildings or grounds. 

Very respectfully, 

GILBERT J. RAYNOR, 
Superintendent Shmecock Indian School. 
East Moriches, Dec. lOtfA, 1872. 



(G.) 

TONA WANDA INDIAN RESERVATION. 

Hon. Absam B. Weaves, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Sis. — The undersigned, superintendent of Indian schools on 
the Tonawanda reservation, in addition to the statistical state- 
ment made and forwarded the 17th of September last, would 
respectfully submit the following report : 

The two schools on this reservation have been taught nearly 
the usual length of time, during the past year. In the early 




120 Nineteenth Annual Report or the 

part of last fall, I urged the Indians to repair the old houses 
and have them ready for the winter term. But very few 
Indians would even promise to help, and I found, on inquiry, 
they were much divided, and that sharp contentions were fre- 
quent in their councils, among their leading men. I still press 
the subject upon them, that they do something for them- 
selves towards the improvement of their school-houses, and 
have also assured them that when they are ready to do their 
part, they will receive the necessary assistance in building one 
or two new houses, in case the labor school is not established. 

I understand the subject has been considered in their coun- 
cils, and that some of the old chiefs became so excited over the 
subject, that they opposed all schools, and recommended the 
stopping of the present schools and a return to their old Pagan 
rule and worship. 

I soon ascertained that the trouble and divisions were such 
that it was impossible to get them to do anything, and, rather 
than let the schools finally stop, I resorted to the Quaker fund 
sent to help maintain the schools, and employed workmen to 
make needed repairs. In one house I took up the old seats, 
mended the floor and repaired the windows, and put in new 
seats and desks of modern pattern. In the other house, the 
windows and plastering were repaired, and a new stove was 
placed, the entire expense amounting to nearly $100. 

It is now thought by that portion of the Indians, interested 
in religion and schools, that as long as the office of " chief " is 
kept up in their tribe, no considerable improvement can be 
made ; and some of them are making an effort to do away with 
the office of " chief," and be ruled as they say they are on the 
Cattaraugus reservation. They think, if they could get a vote 
upon the question, they would have, at least, a majority of 
twenty-five. 

This fall, at their annual fair, their exhibitions of all kinds 
of grain and vegetables were very good. The floral hall was 
nicely decorated by the women. Ohoice fruits, bead work, and 
almost everything usually exhibited at county fairs, were there 
in good order ; also the display of farming utensils, poultry 



Superintendent of Public Insthuotion. 121 

and stock, was very commendable. Intemperance seems to be 
the great curse of the Indians. In grain-growing, stock-rais- 
ing, and in most respects, I think they are improving as fast as 
could be expected nnder the circumstances. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

H. CUMMINGS, 

Superintendent 

Dated Akbon, Dec. 2, 1872. 



(H.) 

TUSCARORA INDIAN RESERVATION. 

Hon. Assam B. Weaves, 

Superintendent cf Public Instruction : 

Sib. — The undersigned, superintendent of Indian schools on 
the Tuscarora Indian reservation, respectfully submits the fol- 
lowing report in relation to the expenses and condition of the 
schools for the year ending September 30, 1872 : 

The whole number of children of school age, residing on 
the reservation, is one hundred and seventy-two. The whole 
number attending school some portion of the year was one 
hundred and eighteen, an increase of seven over the preceding 
year ; and the average daily attendance, at both the schools 
located on the reservation, forty-four, or a little more than one- 
fourth of all the children of school age. When we take into 
consideration the fact that Indian children seldom go to school 
before they are six or seven years old, and usually leave by the 
time they are fourteen or fifteen, I think the attendance is 
creditable. 

Mis6 Peck taught school forty weeks in district No. 1, and 
received $250. She will remain there another year, if her 
health permits. She is an excellent teacher, and it would be 
difficult to supply her place for any such pay as she receives. 



122 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

MifiB Libbie Pletcher taught in district No. 2, thirty-two 
weeks, and received $160. She succeeded well as a teacher, 
and the Indians were well satisfied with her services, bat she 
declined to teach longer, and Miss Mary McMaster takes her 
place for the winter term at $6 per week. 

It will be seen by the above that the State has paid for 
teachers' salaries, during the year, $410. The cost of books, 
stationery and superintendence, amounts to $89.41, making the 
whole cost to the State $499.41. The Indians willingly fur- 
nish fuel and do some little repairs on the buildings, but they 
seem to think that nothing more ought to be required of them. 

The general condition of the Tuscaroras is much better than 
it was a few years ago. Their buildings are better, and they 
work their land better, and are much less given to idleness and 
intemperance. As I visit the schools from time to time, I can see 
that the children improve as fast as could be expected of those 
that not only have their lessons to learn, but our language also ; 
for it is a fact that most of them, when they enter school, are 
unable to speak one word of English. As a specimen of what 
some of them are doing, I send a copy-book written by an 
Indian girl thirteen or fourteen years old. It was taken from 
Miss Peck's school, and she has several more quite as good. 

After seven years of experience with the Tuscarora schools, 
and watching closely the improvement of the pupils and the 
general advancement of the people, I think the State could 
not spend the same amount of money for a better purpose. 

Tour obedient servant, 

E. STOCKWELL, 
Superintendent of Indian Schools. 
Wilson, Nov. 30, 1872. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 123 



(i.) 

THOMAS ORPHAN ASYLUM. 

Hon. Abram B. Weaver, 

Superintendent of PubUc Instruction : 

Sib. — The trustees of the Thomas Asylum for Orphan and 
Destitute Indian Children respectfully beg leave to report 
to yon the condition of the asylum for the year ending Septem- 
ber 30, 1872. 

The number of children reported in the institution at the 
close of last year was eighty-nine. Six were then dis- 
charged, leaving, to commence the current year, eighty-three, 
of whom seventy-one remained through the year. There 
were received during the year twenty-seven, making the total 
number one hundred and ten, of whom sixty-four are boys 
and forty-six are girls. Of these, fourteen have been dis- 
charged, leaving the nnmber at the close of the year ninety- 
six, of whom fifty-three are boys and forty-three are girls. 
The average for the whole year is 91.7. 

The financial statistics for the year are as follows : 

Receipts. 

From annuities of Indian children $266 52 

From board of teachers and others 93 85 

From articles sold and labor performed 39 58 

From donations 7 00 

From the State of New York for support of 

children 7,608 64 

From share of general appropriation to incorpo- 
rated asylums 459 60 

From XL S. Indian department 1 ,000 00 

From cash in hands of treasurer at the end of last 

fiscal year 517 16 

Total $9,992 35 



124 NlNBTBBNTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

DlSBUBSEMENTS. 

For meat $339 19 

For bread and breadstuff , 1,617 71 

For groceries and other provisions 563 16 

For clothing ; 615 18 

For labor, including salaries of superintendent 

and matron 2,428 12 

For house furnishing and repairs 689 98 

For fuel and lights 108 03 

For tools and blacksmithing 141 29 

For stock and feed for stock 191 45 

For rent of land, seeds and manure ^ 65 38 

For traveling expenses 54 54 

For medical and funeral expenses 118 68 

For stationery and postage 10 65 

For permanent improvement 3,369 70 

For exchange - 1 60 

For insurance 214 25 

For fencing 125 00 

For unclassified items 70 80 

For cash on hand 6 84 

Total $10,731 55 

Of which remains unpaid 739 20 

Which being deducted leaves total, as before, $9,992 35 



In making these statements the trustees would gratefully 
recognize that providential care which has preserved the lives 
of all these children, and shielded them from fatal accident 
and from all attacks of epidemic disease during the year 
under review. This latter point is the more noticeable, inas- 
much as small-pox, the so-called spotted fever, and cholera 
infantum, diarrhoea and dysentery have prevailed extensively 
in the surrounding country. Probably the exemption from 
the latter class of diseases is attributable to important sanitary 
measures about to be mentioned, as these constitute the chief 



Superintendent of Public Instruction* 125 

known points of difference between the condition of these 
children and that of others among whom these diseases have 
been very prevalent, and, among the white people especially, 
very fatal. 

At the close of last year's report, it was stated that 
certain permanent improvements were in progress, of which 
a full account wonld be given in the report for the next year. 
These improvements having been completed, the trustees 
desire to make the briefest explanation consistent with this 
promise. 

In seeking to practice the highest degree of economy in 
carrying on the institution, it had been determined to bore 
for gas as the cheapest practicable means of famishing fuel 
and lights, good illuminating and heating gas being known 
to be abundant in the rock underlying all this region. The 
valley of the Cattaraugus, in which the asylum is situated, has 
been formed by the erosion of this rock, which crops out 
along the creeks on each side of the asylum, and was supposed 
to form the floor of the valley at a slight depth beneath the 
surface. Selecting the place most convenient for all the anti- 
cipated uses of the gas, operations were commenced by driving 
cast iron pipe into the soil, expecting, after a few joints had 
been driven, that each successive joint would be the last 
required to reach the rock, until at a depth of 220 feet a 
powerful stream of very pure water forced itself up through 
the pipe and arrested the driving. It was at once seen that 
if this stream should prove permanent, it would be of far 
greater value to the asylum than the attainment of the original 
object ; for, in the first place, there was no living water upon 
the premises, the only supply having been obtained from 
wells, of which there were fonr in number, from thirteen to 
twenty feet in depth, in a soil so gravelly that it was impossi- 
ble to escape contamination from the surface. 

A second consideration was, that, in so flat grounds, and 
where so large a mass of humanity was congregated continu- 
ally, the amount of effete animal matter mingling with the 
soil and carried down through the gravel, must of necessity, 



126 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

• 

sooner or later, bo poison the water as to produce injurious, 
and ultimately, to a greater or less extent, fatal effects upon 
all who might be compelled to use it. These evil effects had 
already begun to attract attention, and to occasion much 
anxiety relative to the future prosperity of the institution. 

A friend from New York city had already given sixty dol- 
lars towards defraying the expense of introducing pure water 
into the building, and search had been made on every side 
where springs were to be found sufficiently elevated to admit 
of being brought into the building, but none could be discov- 
ered yielding permanently the necessary quantity of water, 
except one at so great a distance, and with so many obstacles 
to be overcome, that the expense would have been several 
thousand dollars, and the quality of the water what is termed 
very hard. 

Happily this artesian well was all that could be desired as 
to both quantity and quality ; and, having waited long enough 
to become satisfied of its permanence, the boring for gas was 
relinquished, a hydraulic ram procured, and the water intro- 
duced into the attic of the main building whence it is distri- 
buted to every place where it is needed, the wastage from the 
ram being conducted into the pasture and furnishing a living 
stream sufficient to meet all of the requirements of the cattle 
kept upon the premises. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

LEWIS SENECA, President. 
E. M. PETTIT, Treasurer. . 
B. F. HALL, Clerk. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 127 



(J.) 

SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT OP THE LOCAL BOARD 
OP THE STATE NORMAL AND TRAINING 
SCHOOL AT BROCKPORT. 

Hon. Abram B. Weaves, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Sib. — The Local Board of the State Normal and Training 
School at Brockport, N. Y., in the county of Monroe, pursu- 
ant to the requirements of section 3d of the Laws of the State 
of New York, passed April 7, 1866, entitled "An act in regard 
to Normal Schools," hereby transmit to the Legislature of the 
State of New York, through the Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, the following report of the condition of said 
School for the year ending December 31, 1872 : 

I. Building and Grounds. 

The special appropriation of the year 1872, amounting to the 
sum of $3,000, has been expended in necessary repairs to the 
building and grounds. The unfinished rooms in the fourth 
story have been completed, and circular stairs built from the 
third story to the fourth. Most of the rooms have been newly 
painted and papered, and only ordinary repairs will be needed 
for some time to come. 

II. Other Property. 

Library and apparatus have been increased during the past 
year by the purchase of books and apparatus to the amount of 
$882.48, the items of which are set forth in the accompanying 
financial report. 



128 Nineteenth Annual Report or tub 

III. Valuation. 

, The estimated value of property on 31st day of December, 
1872, is as follows : 

Value of building $110,000 00 

" grounds 15,000 00 

$125,000 00 

" furniture, same as last year 5 , 795 56 

Library and apparatus, reported 

last year $9,936 54 

Added 882 48 

10,819 02 

Total $141,614 58 



IV. Financial Bepobt fob the Year ending Sept. 30, 1872. 

No. 1. — Normal Department. 

1871. Receipt*. Dr. 

Oct. 1, To cash on hand $0 99 

Oct. 21, To cash from State Treasurer on warrant of Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction 8,091 77 

Oct. 21, To cash from State Treasurer " 2,775 98 

Dec. 1, To cash from State Treasurer " 1,884 28 

Dec 1, To cash from State Treasurer " 17 99 

Dec. 11, To cash from State Treasurer " 1,649 88 

1872. 

Jan. 18, To cash from State Treasurer " 1,784 98 

Feb. 15, To cash from State Treasurer " ... 1,572 00 

March 18, To cash from State Treasurer " 1,572 00 

April 15, To cash from State Treasurer " 1,502 00 

April 15, To cash from State Treasurer " 70 00 

May 16, To cash from State Treasurer " 1,572 00 

June 8, To cash from State Treasurer M 1,575 80 

July 2, To cash from State Treasurer " 1,766 22 

Aug. 10, To cash from State Treasurer on warrant of Comp- 
troller. 1,108 75 

Sept. 19, To cash from State Treasurer on warrant of Comp- 
troller '. 1,459 59 

$28,848 58 



Superintend bnt or Public Instruction. 



129 



1871. DUburmmenU. Cr. 

October 25, By paid Warren Millard for lime $17 50 

October 25, By paid CD. McLean, salary 250 00 

October 25, By paid C. D. McLean, postage, and expenses to 

Fredonia 81 77 

October 25, By paid P. B. Palmer, salary 180 00 

October 25, By paid H. G. Burlingame, salary 140 00 

October 25, By paid W. H. Lennon, salary 140 00 

October 25, BypatdMrs. W. C. 8ylla,salary 120 00 

October 25, By paid C. M. Chriswell, salary , 70 00 

October 25, By paid Miss N. L. Jones, salary 90 00 

October 25, By paid Miss G. Roby, salary 70 00 

October 25, By paid Miss M. J. Thompson, salary 70 00 

October 25, By paid Miss J. E. Lowery, salary 00 00 

October 25, By paid Miss E. Richmond, salary 00 00 

October 25, By paid Miss S. M. Efner, salary 00 00 

October 25, By paid Miss M. A. Cady, salary 00 00 

October 25, By paid James Knox, salary 48 00 

October 25, By paid Miss F. C. Barnett, salary 80 00 

October 25, By paid R. J. Gordon, salary 24 00 

October 25, By paid W. Knowles, janitor 50 00 

October 25, By paid Ivison & Co., books 109 10 

October 25, By paid C. Scribner& Co., books 52 50 

October 25, By paid Gas Co., gas 44 10 

October 25, By paid A. S. Hamilton & Co., locks, etc 84 84 

October 25, By paid A. K. Franklin, trucking...... 7 44 

October 25, Bypaid Luter Gordon, coal 1,027 50 

October 25, By paid Luter Gordon, lumber 586 85 

October 26, By paid Thomas Spellman, plastering 15 75 

October 26, By paid H. N. Beech, printing 9 20 

October 28, By paid A. D. Mahon, printing 48 75 

October 26, By paid O. B. Avery, express 10 90 

October 26, By paid Brainerd & Wells, hardware 61 18 

October 26, By paid Brainerd & Wells, roofing, nails, etc ... . 1 ,547 08 

October 26, By paid Whitney & Co., cloth for stereopticon. . . 2 25 

October 28, By paid W. H. Fuller, painting 665 00 

October 26, By paid S. Ketner, Van Slyke's order for work . . 15 50 

October 26, By paid J. A. Latta, Van Slyke's order for work. . 6 00 

October 26, By paid D. Holmes, Van Sly ke's order for work. . 21 50 

October 26, By paid D. Holmes, Fuller's order for work 25 00 

October 26, By paid D. Holmes, for drawing contracts 2 00 

October 28, By paid Patrick Koen, work 80 00 

October 28, By paid J. C. Van Slyke, work ' 17 88 

Dec. 4, By paid J. Pendergast, work. . . 6 49 

Carried forward 96,840 69 

9 



130 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Brought forward $5,860 59 

Dec. 6, By paid Chas. D. McLean, salary 250 00 

Dec. 6, By paid F. B. Palmer, salary 180 00 

Dec. 6, By paid H. G. Burlingame, salary 140 00 

Dec. 6, By paid W. H. Lennon, salary 140 00 

Dec. 6, By paid W.C. Sylla, salary 130 00 

Dec. 6, By paid Miss N. L. Jones, salary 00 00 

Dec. 6, By paid Miss C. M. Chriswell, salary 70 00 

Dec. 6, By paid Miss C. Koby, salary 70 00 

Dec. 0, By paid Miss M. J. Thompson, salary 70 00 

Dec. 6, By paid Miss 8. M. Efner, salary 60 00 

Dec. 6, By paid Mrs. M. A. Cady, salary 00 00 

Dec. 6, By paid Miss £. Richmond, salary 00 00 

Dec. 6, By paid Miss J. E. Lowery, salary 60 00 

Dec. 6, By paid Mr. J. Knox, salary 48 00 

Dec. 6, By paid Miss E. Brennan, salary 37 50 

Dec. 6, By paid Miss F. C. Bamett, salary 80 00 

Dec. 6, By paid R. J. Gordon, salary 24 00 

Dec. 6, By paid Wm. Knowles, Janitor 50 00 

Dec. 6, By paid Gas Company, for gas 41 85 

Dec. 6, By paid Underbill & Co., Pendergast's order .... 11 50 

Dec 6, By paid Brainerd & Wells, repairing roof 215 25 

Dec 6, By paid Wm. H. Benedict, brooms, etc. 88 14 

Dec. 8, By paid R. W. Millard, cartage and freight 10 70 

Dec 9, By paid C. D. McLean; expenses to Oswego 9 00 

Dec 9, By paid J. D. Shears, tracking 13 60 

Dec. 9, By paid F. B. Palmer, expenses to Utica 5 84 

Dec. 15, By paid Gas Company, gas 65 08 

Dec 15, By paid C. D. McLean, salary 250 00 

Dec 15, By paid F. B: Palmer, salary ' 180 00 

Dec. 15, By paid H. G. Burlingame, salary 140 00 

Dec. 15, By paid W. H. Lennon, salary 140 00 

Dec. 15, By paid Mrs. W. C. Sylla, salary 120 00 

Dec 15, By paid Miss N. L. Jones, salary 90 00 

Dec. 15, By paid Miss C. M. Chriswell, salary 70 00 

Dec 15, By paid Miss J. E. Lowery, salary 60 00 

Dec. 15, By paid Miss C. Roby, salary 70 00 

Dec 15, By paid Miss M. J. Thompson, salary 70 00 

Dec 15, By paid Miss S. M. Efner, salary 60 00 

Dec. 15, By paid Miss E. Richmond, salary 60 00 

Dec 15, By paid Miss M. A. Cady, salary 60 00 

Dec 15, By paid Miss E. 6. Brennan 50 00 

Dec 15, By paid Mr. J. Enox 48 00 

Dec. 15, By paid Miss F. C. Barnett, salary 30 00 

Carried forward $9,333 00 



Superintendent or Public Instruction. 181 

Brought forward $9,888 00 

Dec: 15, By paid R. J. Gordon, salary 24 00 

Dec. 15, By paid Win. Knowles, salary 50 00 

Dec. 15, By paid O. B. Avery, express 12 80 

1872. 

January 24, By paid M. E. Baker, telegraphing and postage. . 18 77 

January 24, By paid C. D. McLean, salary 250 00 

January 24, By paid F. B. Palmer, salary 180 00 

January 24, By paid H. G. Bnrlingame, salary 140 00 

January 24, By paid W. H. Lennon, salary 140 00 

January 24, By paid Mrs. W. C. Sylla, salary .. 120 00 

January 24, By paid Miss C. M. Criswell, salary » . 70 00 

January 24, By paid N. L. Jones, salary 00 00 

January 24, By paid Miss C. Boby, salary 70 00 

January 24, By paid Miss M. J. Thompson, salary 70 00 

January 24, By paid Miss 8. M. Efner, salary 00 00 

January 24, By paid Mrs. M. A. Cady, salary 00 00 

January 24, By paid Miss E. Richmond, salary 60 00 

January 2£, By paid Miss J. E. Lowery, salary 00 00 

January 24, By paid Miss K. 8. Brennan, salary 50 00 

January 24, By paid J. Knox, salary 48 00 

January 24, By paid F. Barnett, salary..... ' 80 00 

January 24, By paid R. J. Gordon, salary 24 00 

January 24, By paid Wm. Knowles, janitor 50 00 

January 24, By paid Brainerd & Wells, hardware 18 20 

January 24, By paid Braman & Spring, stationery $7 25 

January 24, By paid D. Holmes, postage 5 00 

January 24, By paid A. K. Franklin, trucking 4 50 

January 80, By paid Gas Company, gas 84 15 

Feb; 21, By paid C. D. McLean, salary 250 00 

Feb. 21, By paid F. B. Palmer, salary 180 00 

Feb. 21, By paid H. G. Burlingame, salary 140 00 

Feb. 21, By paid W. H. Lennon, salary 140 00 

Feb. 21, By paid Mrs. W. C. Sylla, salary 120 00 

Feb. 21, By paid Miss K. L. Jones, salary 00 00 

Feb. 21, By paid Miss K. 8. Brennan, salary 50 00 

Feb. 21, By paid Miss M. J. Thompson, salary 70 00 

Feb. 21, By paid Miss C. M. Chriswell, salary 70 00 

Feb. 21, By paid Miss C. Roby, salary.. 70 00 

Feb. 21, By paid Mrs. M. A. Cady, salary 00 00 

Feb. 21, By paid Miss J. E. Lowery, salary 00 00 

Feb. 21, By paid Miss E. Richmond, salary 00 00 

Feb. 21, By paid Miss 8. M. Efner, salary 00 00 

Feb. 21, By paid Mr. J. Knox, salary 48 00 

Carried forward... $12,022 78 



182 



Nineteenth Annual Report or the 



Brought forward $12,922 78 

Feb. 21, By paid Miss F. C. Barnett, salary 30 00 

Feb. 21, By paid R. J. Gordon, salary " 24 00 

Feb. 21, By paid Wm. Enowles, janitor 60 00 

March 23, By paid C. D. McLean, salary 250 00 

March 23, By paid F. B. Palmer, salary 180 00 

March 23, By paid H. G. Burlingame, salary 140 00 

March 23, By paid W. H. Lennon, salary , 140 00 

March 23, By paid Mrs. W. C. Sylla, salary 120 00 

March 23, By paid Miss 0. M. Cbriswell, salary 70 00 

March 23, By paid Miss K L. Jones, salary 00 00 

March 23, By paid Miss C. Roby, salary 70 00 

March 28, By paid M. J. Thompson, salary 70 00 

March 23, By paid Mrs. M. A. Cady, salary 60 00 

March 23, By paid Miss S. M. Efner, salary 60 00 

March 23, By paid Miss E. Richmond, salary 60 00 

March 23, By paid Miss J. E. Lowery, salary 60 00 

March 23, By paid Miss E. S. Brennan, salary 00 00 

March 23, By paid Mr. J. Knox, salary 48 00 

March 28, By paid Miss F. O. Barnett, salary 30 00 

March 28, By paidR. J. Gordon, salary 24 00 

March 28, By paid Wm. Knowles, janitor 50 00 

April 20, By paid 0. D. McLean, salary 250 00 

April 20, By paid F. B. Palmer, salary 180 00 

April 20, By paid H. G. Burlingame, salary 140 00 

April 20, By paid W. H. Lennon, salary 140 00 

April 20, By paid Mrs. W. C. Sylla, salary 120 00 

April 20, By paid Miss N. L. Jones, salary 90 00 

April 20, By paid Miss C. M. Chris well, salary 70 00 

April 20, By paid Miss C. Roby, salary 70 00 

April 20, By paid Miss M, J. Thompson, salary 70 00 

April 20, By paid Mrs. M. A. Cady, salary 60 00 

April 20, By paid Miss E. Richmond, salary.. 60 00 

April 20, By paid Miss S. M. Efner, salary 60 00 

April 20, By paid Miss J. E. Lowery, salary 60 00 

April 20, By paid Miss E. S. Brennan, salary 50 00 

April 20, By paid J. Enoz, salary 48 00 

April 20, By paid Miss F. C. Barnett, salary 80 00 

April 20, By paid R. J. Gordon, salary 24 00 

April 20, By paid Wm. Enowles, janitor 50 00 

May 21, By paid C. D. McLean, salary 250 00 

May 21, BypaidF. B. Palmer, salary 180 00 

May 21, By paid H. G. Burlingame, salary 140 00 

May 21, By paid W. H. Lennon, salary 140 00 

Carried forward....* $16,580 78 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 133 

Brought forward $10,680 73 

May 21, By paid Mrs. W. C. Sylla, '.salary 120 00 

May 21, By paid Miss C. M. Chriswell, salary 70 00 

May 21, By paid Miss N. L. Jones, salary. . . 00 00 

May 21, By paid Miss M. J. Thompson, salary 70 00 

May 21, By paid Miss C. Roby, salary 70 00 

May 21, By paid Mrs. M. A. Cady, salary 60 00 

May 21, By paid Miss E. Richmond, salary 60 00 

May 21, By paid Miss J. E. Lowery, salary 60 00 

May 21, By paid Miss 8. M. Efner, salary 60 00 

May 21, By paid Miss K. 8. Brennan, salary 50 00 

May 21, By paid J. Knox, salary 48 00 

May 21, By paid Miss F. C. Barnett, salary 30 00 

May 21, BypaidR. J. Gordon, salary 24 00 

May 21, By paid Wm. Knowles, janitor 60 00 

Jane 11, By paid A. S. Hamilton & Co., keys 3 30 

Jane 15, By paid C. D. McLean, salary 260 00 

Jane 16, BypaidF.B. Palmer, salary 180 00 

June 15, Bypaid W. H. Lennon, salary 140 00 

June 15, BypaidH. G. Burlingame, salary , 140 00 

June 15, By paid Mrs. W. C. 8ylla,salary 120 00 

June 15, By paid Miss C. M. Chriswell, salary 70 00 

June 15, BypaidMissN. L. Jones, salary 90 00 

June 15, BypaidMiss J. E. Lowery, salary 60 00 

June 15, By paid Miss 8. M. Efner, salary 60 00 

June 15, By paid Miss E. Richmond, salary 60 00 

June 15, By paid Miss C. Roby, salary 70 00 

June 15, By paid Mrs. M. A. Cady, salary 60 00 

June 15, By paid Miss ML J. Thompson, salary 70 00 

June 15, By paid J. Knox, salary 48 00 

June 15, By paid Miss K 8. Brennan, salary 50 00 

June 15, By paid Miss F. C. Barnett, salary 80 00 

June 15, By paid R. J. Gordon, salary 24 00 

June 15, By paid Wm. Knowles, janitor 50 00 

July 2, By paid C. D. McLean, salary 250 00 

July 2, By paid C. D. McLean, mileage 194 22 

July 2, By paid F. B. Palmer, salary 180 00 

July 2, By paid H. G. Burlingame, salary 140 00 

July 2, By paid W. H. Lennon, salary 140 00 

July 2, By paid Mrs. W. C. 8ylla, salary 120 00 

July 2, BypaidMissN. L. Jones, salary 90 00 

July 2, By paid Miss C. M. Chriswell, salary 70 00 

July 2, By paid Miss C. Roby, salary 70 00 

July 2, By paid Miss M. J. Thompson, salary 70 00 

Carried forward $20,342 26 



134 NlNBTBBNTH ANNUAL REPORT OF TBS 

Brought forward $20,843 35 

July J3, By paid Mrs. M. A. Cady, salary 60 00 

July 2, By paid Miss S. M. Efner, salary 60 00 

July 2, By paid Miss B. Richmond, salary 60 00 

July 2, By paid Miss J. E. Lowery, salary 60 00 

July 2, By paid Miss E. 8. Brennan, salary : 50 00 

July 2, By paid J. Knox, salary 48 00 

July 2, By paid Wm. Knowles, janitor 50 00 

July 2, By paid R J. Gordon, salary 24 00 

July 2, By paid Miss F. O. Barnett, salary 80 00 

August 15, By paid M. Hayken, painting 872 50 

August 15, By paid S. F. Parker, Hayken's order 20 00 

August 15, By paid J. I. Learnard, painting 106 88 

August 15, By paid J. F. Peterson, painting 5 00 

August 15, By paid W. H. Benedict, Peterson's order 10 00 

August 15, By paid J. B. Vanderhoof , labor 8 50 

August 15, By paid Patrick Eoen, labor 7 00 

August 15, By paid Henry Bolt, labor 18 50 

August 15, By paid A. B. Losee, labor 26 18 

August 15, By paid Underhill, Braman & Co., lumber 117 48 

August 15, By paid D. Holmes, Van Slyke's order 6 00 

August 15, By paid Brainerd & Wells, hardware 811 87 

August 15, By paid L. J. Pease, Van Slyke's order 25 00 

August 15, By paid Patrick Collins, labor 4 00 

August 15, By paid Michael King, labor 14 88 

August 16, By paid Wm. Welch, lime . . 12 00 

August 17, By paid C. S. Wright, labor 28 75 

August 19, By paid Patrick Mehan, labor 2 00 

August 20, By paid J. C. Van Slyke, labor 2 68 

August 21, By paid Patrick Eoen, labor 1 50 

August 22, By paid E. Whitney, Van Slyke's order 00 

Sept 4, By paidN.B. Bizer, labor 2 50 

Sept 28, By paid J. L Learnard, painting 280 12 

Sept 25, By paid William Welch, sand and lime 68 05 

Sept 25, By paid William Welch, Brad t's order 5 50 

Sept 25, By paid L. J. Pease, Van Slyke's order 15 00 

Sept 25, By paid Thomas Spellman, Van Slyke's order. ... 7 75 

Sept 25, By paid Henry Bolt, labor 58 50 

Sept 25, By paid K. W. Bradt, labor 6 87 

Sept. 25, By paid J. A. Latta, Van Slyke's order 5 50 

Sept 25, By paid J. A. Latta, Bradt's order* 4 00 

Sept 25, By paid Brainerd & Wells, hardware 278 02 

Sept 25, By paid Underhill & Co., lnmber 107 48 

Sept 25, By paid A. B. Losee, labor .'. 71 50 

Carried forward 122,784 16 



SupsnnrrmmjBwr or Public iNSTnucrfoir. 135 

Brought forward. $82,784 16 

Sept 25, By paid E. Johnston, labor. 2 50 

Sept. 25, By paid Patrick Eoen, labor 28 15 

Sept 25, By paid P. Williams, labor 15 75 

Sept 25, By paid Patrick Collins, labor 15 00 

Sept 25, Bypaid J. B. Vanderhoof, labor 28 72 

8ept 25, By paid W. Vanderhoof, labor 12 50 

Sept 25, By paid S. W. Allen, labor 8 00 

Sept 25, By paid J. T. Peterson, labor 21 88 

Sept 25, By paid Michael King, labor 85 00 

Sept 25, By paid A, K. Franklin, Van Slyke's order 2 68 

Sept 26, By paid L. Cool ey & Co., brackets 84 98 

Sept 26, By paid A. Coats, labor 8 50 

Sept 26, By paid E. Whitney, Van Slyke's order 28 77 

Sept 26, By paid E. C. Cook, labor 16 87 

Sept 26, By paid M. B. Branson, labor 7 00 

Sept 26, BypaidC. S. Wright, labor 57 50 

Sept. 27, By paid L. B. Courtney, labor 1 18 

Sept 27, By paid L. B. Courtney, labor <..» 15 75 

Sept 27, By paid J. Raleighs, Van Slyke's order 11 50 

Sept 27, By paid W. K Johnston, Bradt's order 3 00 

Sept 27, By paid J. Doyle, labor 2 00 

Sept 27, By paid Henry Rice, Van Slyke's order 8 85 

8ept 27, By paid T. Henion, labor 41 25 

Sept 27, Cash on hand 282 74 

$23,348 58 

No. 2. — Academic Department. 

1871. RecripU. Dr. 

October 1, To cash on hand $1,288 08 

October 4, To cash of tuition 198 40 

October 7, To cash of tuition 208 19 

October 18, To cash of tuition 106 40 

Nor. 4, To cash of tuition 56 90 

Not. 25, To cash of tuition 140 00 

Not. 27, To cash of tuition 250 40 

Dec 4, To cash of tuition 819 00 

Dec 8, To cash of tuition 168 00 

Dec 16, To cash of tuition 142 40 

Dec 28, To cash of tuition 81 20 

1872. 

January 6, To cash of tuition 48 80 

January 20, To cash of tuition 26 10 

Carried forward... ., $2,978 87 



136 



Nineteenth Annxjal Report of the 



Brought forward $3,978 87 

Feb. 5, To cash of tuition 22 80 

Feb. 28, To cash of tuition 275 00 

March 20, To cash of tuition 40 00 

March 9, To cash of tuition 118 10 

March 15, To cash of tuition 86 00 

March 80, To cash of tuition ,.... 80 00 

April 22, To cash of tuition ." 64 70 

May 6, To cash of tuition 47 60 

May 22, To cash of tuition 95 40 

June 8, To cash of tuition 48 00 

June 14, To cash of tuition 81 00 

July 5, To cash of tuition 56 10 

Sept 12, To cash of tuition 156 00 

Sept. 18, To cash of tuition 90 00 

Sept 17, To cash of tuition 105 00 

Sept 18, To cash of tuition 95 60 

Sept 21, To. cash of tuition 78 00 

Sept 24, To cash of tuition 78 00 

$4,475 67 

1871. Disbursements. Or. 

October 10, By paid James W. Queen & Co., apparatus $452 75 

October 14, By paid Brainerd & Wells, hardware * 42 86 

October 18, By paid Wm. Welch, plaster..... 54 97 

October 21, By paid L. Cooley & Co., mouldings 50 89 

October 25, By paid J. Knox, salary 52 00 

October 25, By paid Wm. Knowles, janitor 25 00 

Nov. 7, By paid James W. Queen & Co., apparatus 118 82 

Dec 4, By paid J. Pendergast, labor 15 26 

Dec. ' 6, By paid J. Knox, salary 52 00 

Dec. 6, Bypaid Wm. Knowles, janitor 25 00 

Dec 6, By paid Wm. Welch, tile 8 98 

Dec 6, By paid J. H. and E. Bennett, labor 22 00 

Dec 8, By paid Tunis Henion, labor 5 00 

Dec 9, By paid A. B. Losee, labor 59 50 

Dec 15, By paid Tozier & Haight, stationery 88 08 

Dec 15, By paid J. Knox, salary 68 00 

Dec 15, By paid Miss K M. Johnston, salary 85 00 

Dec. 15, By paid Wm. Knowles, janitor 25 00 

Dec 15, By paid James Harper, labor 2 50 

Dec 15, Bypaid W. H. Fuller, painting 88 82 

Dec 15, By paid Brainerd & Wells, hardware 117 85 

Carried forward $1,288 68 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 187 

Brought forward f 1 , 288 68 

Dec. 15, By paid Underbill, Bramaa & Co. , lumber 40 85 

Dec. 22, By paid L. Cooley & Co., inside blinds 152 00 

1872. 

January 0, By paid J. H. Atkins, sand 10 50 

January 12, By paid J. W. Queen & Co. , apparatus 26 00 

January 18, By paid W. H. Fuller, painting 17 88 

January 18, By paid W. H. Fuller, painting 17 64 

January 24, By paid H. McElwin, slating black boards 185 50 

January 24, By paid Miss E. M. Johnson 70 00 

January 24, By paid J. Enox, salary 52 00 

January 24, By paid Wm. Enowles, janitor 25 00 

January 24, By paid A. 8. Hamilton & Co., hinges 4 68 

January 24, By paid Brainerd & Wells, glass , 27 55 

January 24, By paid H. Casey, carting 8 00 

January 25, By paid J. Pendergast, labor ' 4 50 

Feb. 2, By paid A. B. Losee, labor 19 00 

Feb. 8, By paid Chas. Schick, labor 17 00 

Feb. 8, By paid J. W. Queen & Co., apparatus 108 00 

Feb. 15, By paid C. G. Brewster, apparatus 18 00 

Feb. 21, By paid Miss E. M. Johnson, salary 70 00 

Feb. 21, By paid J. Enox, salary 52 00 

Feb. 21, By paid Wm Enowles, janitor 25 00 

Feb. 21, By paid E. Whitney, carpeting 25 25 

Feb. 21, By paid D. Paine, repairs...! 51 18 

Feb. 21, By paid Tozier & Haight, stationery 16 59 

Feb. 21, By paid Gas Company, gas 89 25 

Feb. 21, By paid Chas. Schick, labor 27 00 

Feb. 21, By paid A. B. Losee, labor 27 00 

Feb. 21, By paid J. Smith, lumber 19 51 

Feb. 21, By paid O. B. Avery, express 4 75 

Feb. 21, By paid Brainerd & Wells, hardware 72 84 

Feb. 21, By paid Underbill, Braman & Co., lumber 20 68 

Feb. 21, By paid Wm. H. Fuller, oiling blinds, etc. . . . ... . . 65 87 

Feb. 21, By paid C. D. McLean, mileage 268 28 

March 28, By paid Miss E. M. Johnson, salary 70 00 

March 28, By paid J. Enox, salary 62 00 

March 28, By paid Wm. Enowles, janitor 25 00 

April 4, By paid Brainerd & Wells, glass 25 40 

April 4, By paid A. E. Franklin, trucking 18 25 

April 5, By paid C. H. Jenner, repairs 85 64 

April 6, By paid O. B. Avery, express 5 90 

April 20, By paid Miss E. M. Johnson, salary 70 00 

Carried forward $8,178 12 



j 



138 Nineteenth Annual Report or tbe 

Brought forward $8 , 178 12 

April 30, By paid J. Knox, salary 62 00 

April 20, By paid Wm. Knowles, janitor 25 00 

April 20, By paid L. T. Beach, printing 26 00 

April 20, By paid Oas Company, gas 98 08 

April 20, By paid O. B. Avery, express 4 80 

April 20, By paid Mahon & Brigham, printing 88 85 

May 6, By paid A. B. Losee, labor 5 00 

May 21, By paid Miss E. M. Johnson, salary 70 00 

May 21, By paid J. Knox, salary 52 00 

May 21, By paid Wm. Knowles, janitor 25 00 

May 21, By paid L. Cooley, Jr., drawing specifications. ... 20 00 

June 15, By paid Miss B. M. Johnson, salary 70 00 

June 15, By paid J. Knox, salary 52 00 

June 15, By paid Wm. Knowles, janitor 25 00 

July 2, By paid Miss £. M. Johnson, salary 70 00 

July 2, By paid J. Knox, salary 52 00 

July 2, By paid Wm. Knowles, janitor 25 00 

Sept. 80, By cash on hand 596 47 

|4,475 67 

Summary of Financial Rbpobt. 
Beceipto. 

Amount in hands of local board, October 1, 1871 (normal) .... $0 99 

Amount in hands of local board, October 1, 1871 (academic) . . 1,288 06 

Amount received from State for year ending Sept. 80, 1872. . . 28,847 59 

Amount received from tuition, academic department 8,287 59 

127,824 25 

Dubttnementt, 

Amount paid for instruction, normal department $15, 157 50 

Amount paid for instruction, academic department 1 , 045 00 

Amount paid for library, text-books and apparatus. 882 48 

Amount paid for repairs and improvements 6,715 57 

Amount paid for incidental expenses 8,194 49 

Amount in hands of local board, October 1, 1872 (academic 

department) 596 47 

Amount in hands of local board, October 1, 1872 (normal de- 
partment) 282 74 

' $27, 824 25 

V. Faculty. 
There were no changes in the faculty during the past year. 



Superintendent or Public Instruction. 139 

VI. Local Board. 

By a clause of the general appropriation bill for the year 
1872 (chap. 541, Laws of 1872), the number of the local board 
was increased to eleven, and Aaron N. Braman and Elijah 0. 
Chriswell were added to the former number. 

The following are the names and residences of the board as 
at present organized : 

Jerome Fnller, President, Brockport. 

Daniel Holmes, Secretary, Brockport. 

J. Durward Decker, Treasurer, Clarkson. 

Eliphalet Whitney, President, pro tpm. 9 Brockport. 

Joseph A. Tozier, Secretary, pro tern., Brockport. 

M. B. Anderson, Rochester. 

Henry W. Seymour, Brockport. 

Augustus F. Brainerd, Brockport. 

John A. Latta, Brockport. 

Elijah 0. Chriswell, Clarkson. 

Aaron N. Braman, Brockport. 

VII. Departments, 

The school consists of a normal and a training school. 

The normal school is organized and conducted with the 
riew to give pupils a thorough knowledge of the subjects they 
will be required to teach in the public schools of our State, to 
instruct them in the philosophy of education, and to furnish 
them with a knowledge of the best methods of instruction in 
the different subjects taught, and skill in the use of them. 
These ends are sought by requiring daily recitations on thor- 
oughly prepared lessons throughout the entire course of 
study ; by daily dictation, class discussion and recitation on 
methods and the philosophy of education during most of the 
course; and the daily use of the methods taught in the actual 
instruction and management of classes in the training school 
during the greater part of the course. 

It is the object of the training school to furnish normal 
pupils with the opportunity of teaching under competent 
critics, in all the branches required to be taught in our public 



140 Nineteenth Annual Report or the 

schools. It consists of a primary, an intermediate and an 
academic department, which represent all the various grades 
of instruction required in district, union and high schools. 

The academic department has held a high position from the 
first, in point of numbers and in the character of its students. 
Aside from its value as a constituent part of tho training 
school, it has a direct value in its relation to the normal school, 
in many respects which ought not to be overlooked. It is not 
only self-supporting, but beyond this it is an important source 
of revenue, as the financial report will show. It fits pupils 
for the normal school, better than they are likely to be fitted 
without such a place of preparation. It sends out yearly a 
large number who attend school with no direct purpose of 
becoming teachers, but who, for various reasons, teach a term 
or more, and who teach better for even the slightest acquaint- 
ance they obtain, through their connection with this school, with 
improved methods of instruction. This class of teachers must 
continue to be large for many years to come, as it has been 
in years past. The academic department, if it does not do 
all our schools require, does something for this large class of 
teachers that would not be done without it, and that without 
public expense. This department supplies a real want in the 
community where the school is located ; and, in so doing, an 
act of justice is performed to those who have furnished the 
building and grounds to the State ; and also the sympathies 
and interest of the surrounding community, without which 
no institution can do its best work, are enlisted in behalf of 
its good management and prosperity. It instructs yearly 
many who enter upon business, who continue in study 
through the higher college course, or who enter professional 
life, and who go out prepared to give more intelligent and 
hearty aid to the cause of education, whatever may be their 
calling, for the links of association that have bound them to 
the normal school. 

While the number and character of those yearly gradu- 
ating from this school are a token of direct good to the many 
schools around, which wait for such aid, your board feel 



SXJPSRTNTSNDSNT OF PUBLTO INSTRUCTION. 141 

impressed with the fact that the list of graduates is a verj 
inadequate measure of the actual value of the school to the cause 
of education. The list of undergraduates who have gone out 
to teach, and who do not feel that they can come back to com- 
plete their course, is far greater. Since the establishment of 
the school, not less than six or seven hundred of these have 
actually entered upon the work of teaching. In order that 
this class of teachers may be the better prepared for their 
work, methods of instruction and practice in the training 
school are distributed over the greater part of each of the 
longer courses. But there is another element of value for the 
cause of education, besides that which is measured by the num- 
ber of terms which normal pupils give to the actual work of 
teaching. It is the intelligent interest that all those who 
come in contact with these schools, who draw something of their 
spirit and views from them, will take in the cause of popular 
education in the several localities where they may be settled. 
Put a man of intelligence, and one who appreciates the wants 
of our schools, in each school district in the State, and it would 
accomplish almost as ipuch as the same number of teachers 
could do without their support. Intelligent communities will 
bring good teachers, quicker than teachers of the highest grade 
can train communities to support good schools. In short, the 
value of normal schools is not to be estimated by number at 
all, but by quality. The question of their support should not 
depend, in any degree, upon their availability immediately to 
supply all the schools of the State. They extend their influ- 
ence in many ways, and reach a number of schools many times 
as great as those actually taught by their pupils. The ques- 
tion should be, " Is the work they do good work ?" If it is, 
the laws of nature will Bee to it that it is both duly intensive 
and extensive in its results. An evidence, bearing on the one 
question to be asked, is the almost universal call for teachers 
from our normal schools in all parts of our State where they 
have been tried. The higher wages paid to them, and the 
rapidly increasing earnestness with which these calls are made, 
are points of important interest. The number seeking to 



142 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

avail themselves of the advantages of this school is as great as 
can be well provided for with the means at the disposal of 
your board, and, perhaps, as large as can be profitably placed 
together in our school. 

The normal courses of instruction and other important 
information will be found in the Appendix (Document Q). 

VIII. Attendance. 

From September 30, i871, to September 30, 1872 : 

Normal department 329 

Academic department 289 

Intermediate department 188 

Primary department 210 

Total 1,016 



IX. Alumni. 
Graduated during the past year : 

Male 7 

Female 11 

Total 18 

Whole number graduated since school was established : 

Male 22 

Female 43 

Total 65 



State of New York, ) 
Monroe County, \ ' ' 

Eliphalet Whitney, president pro tern*, and Daniel Holmes, 
secretary of the local board of the Brockport Normal School, 
being duly sworn, say, and each for himself severally says, 
that he has read the foregoing report, and knows the contents 



SUPMMJNTMNPMNT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 143 

thereof, and that the same is true according to his best judg- 
ment and belief. 

ELIPHALET WHITNEY, PresHpro tern. 
DANIEL HOLMES, Secretary. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me ) 
this 6th day of February, 1873. ) 

K. Chickebing, Notary Public. 

List of graduates of Brockport State Normal and Training 
School, from the beginning of the school to September, 1872, 
with date of graduation: 

Graduated June 23, 1868. 

Sophia A. Graves. Susan Fisk. 

Harriet E. Davis. 0. Louise Fisk. 

Graduated July 13, 1869. 

Coralin Bennett. Jennie Y. Miller. 

C. Herbert Silliman. Harriet L. Oillett. 

Henrietta M. Allen. George D. Olds. 

Gbaduatkd July 1, 1870. 

Ruth E. Newcomb. William H. Sybrandt. 

Charles B. Fairchild. JaiAes W. White. 

Emma J. Smith. Mina L. Shear. 

Frsncelia P. Wood. Emma L. Warren. 

Maria L. Allen. Mina A. Frye. 

Louise M. Winslow. Martin L. Deyo. 

Frances A. Richmond. Jane E. Lowery. 

Esther L. Spink. Imogene P. Ferguson. 

Stephen D. Wilbur. 

Graduated Juke 30, 1871. 

Harriet Harmon. Ella D. Barrier. 

James Knox. Frank M. Goff. 

Emma J. Ghriswell. Cora A. Smith. 

Catharine M. Castle. Charles Cunningham. 



1 44 NlNKfEEKTB ANNUAL REPORT OF VMS 

Delia A. Fnller. Kittie Taylor. 

Lizzie A. Sylvester. George F. Yeomans. 

John D. Burns. John M. Milne. 

Harriet A. Kerby. Mary F. Prndden. 

A. JucUon Osborne. Ida L. Goodrich. 

Frances A. Hicks. George T. Qaimby. 

Gkaduated July 2, 1872. 

Delbert A. Adams. Candace H. Norton. 

Flora M. Bassett. Ettie Clark Reynolds. 

Julia Byrns. Charles G. Smith. 

Jennie S. Fnller. Edwin L. Warren. 

William Goodell. Delia A. Chappell. 

Amelia E. Hayes. Ida V. Miner. 

Charles F. Hamlin. Delclath Pierce. 

Fitz James Hill. Franc T. Quimby. 

Jonas Minot, Jr. Sophia Bolard. 

Special Announcement in Circular. 

Location. 

The village of Brockport is situated seventeen miles west 
of Rochester, on the line of the Rochester and Niagara Falls 
railroad. The buildings command a fine view of the village 
and the surrounding country. The grounds are extensive, 
embracing an area of more than six acres, handsomely graded 
and adorned with gravel Walks, a circular drive and full grown 
shade trees. 

£xpe?i8es. 

Board, including furnished room, fuel and light, can be 
obtained in the village, in private families, at from $4 to $4.50 
per week. 

In the normal- school building, board, including furnished 
room, fuel, light and washing, is provided for young ladies at 
$3 per week. The accommodations furnished, and the general 
plan of conducting the boarding hall, can be learned from the 
following statements : 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 145 

1. The building is large and commodious, affording the best accommoda- 
tions for boarding one hundred and twenty students. All the rooms are 
large, high and well ventilated, with a closet attached to each. 

2. Each room is carpeted, and neatly furnished with everything necessary 
for the comfort *of the student, and is occupied by only two ladies. The 

. rooms are heated by good coal stoves. The coal is delivered in each room. 
8. A servant, who does all the heavy work pertaining to the dining-room, 
kitchen and study-rooms, is provided for every thirty boarders. Each young 
lady is expected to work one hour per day. The work done by the boarders 
and servants is under the immediate supervision of a matron, who has the 
general oversight of the whole boarding-house. 

4. The quality of the board is fixed by the boarders, subject to the appro- 
val of the matron. 

5. Each boarder is charged one dollar per week to defray the expense of 
furnishing study-room, dining-room and kitchen, and to pay the wages of 
matron and servants. All other expenses, including board, fuel, light, 
and washing, will not exceed two dollars per week, as shown by the state- 
ment of the secretary of the boarding-hall. Thus, the entire expense u 
brought within three dollars per week. 

6. Those who prefer not to participate in the risk will be received into 
the boarding-hall by paying three dollars per week, and performing the 
required work. 

7. The room rent is payable quarterly in advance. Eight dollars is pay- 
able each month, in advance, for board. Should the entire expense be less 
than three dollars per week, the surplus which has been paid in advance will 
be a refunded*at the end of the term. 

8. AlljWho board in the boarding-hall are expected to furnish their own 
towels, napkins, sheets, pillow-cases and one comforter, each of which, as 
well as every article of clothing, should be distinctly marked with the 
owner's full name. 

9. No deduction will be made for absence during the first two weeks of 
the term, nor for absence from any cause, after the time of entering, for a 
period of less than five weeks. 

State Normal School, Brockport, N. Y., July 1, 1871. 
To the Local Board of the State Normal School: 

Gxktlkmkn.— The books of the boarding-hall show that the average 
expense per week for board, room rent, fuel, light and washing, for the year, 
has been less than three dollars. I would further state that the general plan 
and management of the boarding-hall, and the character of the board, have 

grren universal satisfaction. 

Yours very respectfully, 

DELIA A. PULLER, 

Secretary. 

10 



146 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

It will be seen from the above statements, that the whole 
expense per annum, to young ladies attending the normal 
school, will not exceed $120. 

On arriving at Brockport, baggage may be left at the depot 
until boarding places are selected, when it will be delivered 
free of charge. Students, arriving on Tuesday or Wednesday 
of the week in which the term opens, should proceed imme- 
diately to the normal school building, where they will meet 
some member of the faculty, who will render them all neces- 
sary assistance. 



Suvs hints nde nt of Public Instruction. 147 



(K.) 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LOCAL BOARD OF 
THE STATE NORMAL AND TRAINING SCHOOL 
AT BUFFALO. 

Hon. Abbam B. Weaver, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Sir. — The local board of the State Normal and Training 
School at Buffalo, in answer to the requirements of the law, 
submits its second annnal report as follows: 

The local board and its officers remain as at the last report, 
viz.: 

Hon. N. K. Hall, Buffalo, Chairman. 
Wm. H. Greene, Buffalo, Secretary. 
Joseph Warren, Buffalo, Treasurer. 
Thomas F. Rochester, Buffalo. 
Francis H. Root, Buffalo. 
Henry Lapp, Clarence. 
Allen Potter, East Hamburgh. 
Grover Cleveland, Buffalo. 
Albert H. Tracey, Buffalo. 

The executive committee of the board is composed of the 
first five gentlemen named above. 

Faculty of the School. 

Two changes have taken place in the faculty during the 
year, occasioned by the resignation of Miss Sarah Bostwick in 
July, and of Miss Laura G. Lovell in November. The place 
of the former was filled by the appointment of Miss Mary 
Wright, and that of the latter by the appointment of Miss 
Ellen Wiltse for the time being. The names, departments of 
instruction, and salaries, are as follows : 



148 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Names. Departments. Salaries. 

H. B. Buckham, A. M., Principal, Philosophy and Didactics $2,500 

Wm. B. Wright, A. M Ancient and Modern Languages. . 1 ,800 

Calvin Patterson Pure and Applied Mathematics. . 1 ,800 

DavidS. K;ellicott, M. 8 Physical Science 1,500 

George Hadley, A. M Chemistry and Geology 1,000 

Mark M. Maycock Drawing and Penmanship 600 

CharlesW. Sykes Vocal Music 500 

Mary Wright Elementary Methods and Critic. . 1 ,000 

Mary J. Hannon Elocution and Rhetoric 1 ,000 

Susan Hoxie General Assistant 750 

Ellen Wiltse. , . . . General Assistant, pro tempore. . . 900 

The teachers in the school of practice are paid by the city, 
except that Miss Flora E. Crandall is paid a hundred and fifty 
dollars for services outside of her regular duties as teacher of 
the grades under her care. Each of these teachers is critic 
teacher in her own room. Their names are as follows, the 
salary of each, except Miss Crandall, being $650 : 

Flora E. Crandall, first and second grades. 

Ada M. Kenyon, third and fourth grades. 

Isabella Gibson, fifth and sixth grades. 

Kate Field, seventh and eighth grades. 

Mary M. Williams, ninth and tenth grades. 

Number in Attendance. 

The number of students reported last year, as in attendance 
at the opening of the school, namely, fifty-six, has increased 
to one hundred and eighty-five. The average attendance 
during the first year was seventy, the number registered being 
ninety-four. The average attendance during the first term of 
the second year, to the Christmas recess, was one hundred and 
forty-nine, the number registered being one hundred and 
sixty-seven. The average attendance would be, in both cases, 
nearer to the number registered, if it were not necessary to 
include in the count those who joined the school without due 
consideration, and who, finding that its character and the 
work to be done in it were misapprehended, withdrew after a 
few days of unsatisfactory trial. During the first year eight 
or ten such were registered, as a few have also been during 



Superintendent or Public Instruction. 149 

the present term. The board proposes to recognize in the 
catalogue only those who have been members of the school for 
at least one fnll quarter, or ten weeks. 

Of these students one hundred and forty-six are residents of 
Buffalo, twenty-two are residents of Erie county outside of 
Buffalo, sixteen are from other counties of this State, and one 
from another state. 

Coubsks of Study. 

The course of study most appropriate for the student-teacher 
is not easily decided upon. The law, indeed, fixes a standard 
of attainments for certificates of different grades, and trustees 
of schools are, so far, restricted in the employment of teachers. 
But this standard is, in the main, an intellectual one ; the 
application of it is in the hands of a large number of persons, 
and, therefore, liable to great want of uniformity ; and the 
differing circumstances and demands of different districts 
impose on those who grant licenses the necessity of making 
certificates of similar tenor stand for qualifications of very 
dissimilar grade. It is thus, in effect, left to the individual 
student to determine, outside of this law, what kind and what 
extent of preparation for teaching he will make. As a rule, he 
can or will remain in the normal school but a short time; in 
many cases there is want of a fixed purpose to teach long 
enough to make thorough preparation good economy, and too 
often a choice of teaching, as even a temporary work, from no 
discovered fitness or liking for it. Among the students there is 
a too prevalent want of recognition of the importance of little 
things, such as spelling, penmanship, ability to write a page 
of English without blunders, and an equally prevalent ambi- 
tion to enter at once on studies thought to be more advanced. 
Those who are to teach in mixed schools will need to know a 
little of almost everything, and those who are to teach in 
graded schools will need to know, as they think, only smaller 
and well-defined parts of a few subjects. 

In connection with this is another serious question. Shall 
the study of methods be, in the main, joined with the study of 



150 Nineteenth Annual Rbport of the 

subjects, or shall subjects be studied first and almost exclu- 
sively with reference to a thorough knowledge of their con- 
tents, and then the general principles of teaching be learned 
and applied to this knowledge in a distinct course of lessons! 
If the former ; is not the student in danger of losing both, from 
the obvious impossibility of joining the two in the instruction 
of any ordinary class, except as the manner of the teacher and 
an occasional and hurried excursion into the region of methods 
may furnish a model for the student to imitate in his teaching 
of others ? Would he not, by this education, become a mere 
dabbler in methods, without the substance of' knowledge on 
which to exercise them? If the latter; .will not the great 
majority of students, as in fact they do, attend only the classes 
studying subjects, and so practically make a knowledge of 
sciences with a good model before them while they are learn- 
ing their only preparation for teaching ? And, considering the 
large number in attendance and the small number of graduates, 
will not this tend to make our normal schools large academies 
and small professional schools ? 

Two points are held to be clearly established : That pupils 
do not come to the normal school with sufficient knowledge of 
subjects to justify us in graduating them as teachers; and that 
philosophies and methods, considered to be essential to the 
complete outfit of the teacher, are most successfully communi- 
cated where the substance of education is gained. The acqui- 
sition of knowledge, the study of methods, and the beginning 
of practice, can all be carried on, with best results for all par- 
ties concerned, in one and the same school and under a uniform 
discipline, all whose efforts are directed to one result. 

These considerations seem to furnish to the board the only 
ground on which they can proceed in arranging their course of 
study. Certainly, thorough education of the scholar ought in 
all cases to be the basis of professional training; and with 
equal confidence it is asserted that, in all cases, professional 
training should supplement education as a scholar. Our nor- 
mal schools must furnish the opportunity of this education 
that they may properly complete their work ; the student must 



SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 151 

acquire this, that he may, and before he can, answer the ques- 
tion whether he can make of himself a teacher of others. 
And this education, acquired with direct reference to the use to 
be made of it in the professional work to follow, will be the 
best substitute for that work, if it should, unfortunately, be 
omitted, and will best prepare the teacher to acquire all his 
skill by the daily experience ef the school-room, and at least 
cost or risk to the pupil. The academic function of the 
course of study must be based on this principle ; to select sub- 
jects of study, and to use methods of presenting them, with refer- 
ence to their being elements in the professional work to which 
they all tend, more than with reference to their being elements 
in a general education equally applicable to all sorts of pursuits. 
In this way a good education brings a most important, indeed 
an indispensable contribution, to the study of philosophies and 
methods. So valuable is this tribute, that the ordinary gradu- 
ate is worth double what he would be without it by the study 
of methods alone, and the cost of bringing so many to the 
point of entering the professional course, that a comparatively 
small number may complete it, is more than repaid, inasmuch 
as this education is at once the best introduction to studies 
strictly professional, and the best preparation for teaching, pos- 
sible without them. 

The courses of study, tested by our experience so far, and 
very carefully Veviewed and modified by the faculty for pre- 
sentation in this report, are these : 



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154 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

' Special Glass. 

The board is well aware that these courses of study call for 
a longer attendance at the school than the circumstances of 
many teachers, and the demands of many school districts, will 
either permit or justify. If all teachers in our public schools 
were required to graduate at our normal schools before they 
even begin to teach, these courses express our idea of what a 
professional outfit should be. "We know that many who will 
offer themselves as teachers of schools for the coming summer, 
and who will be employed as such, would be frightened at 
the suggestion of spending two years' time in preparation 
for such schools as they propose to teach — frightened not from 
teaching without such preparation, but frightened only from 
undertaking it. Trustees and parents in many districts would 
share the sentiment that their schools do not really need it ; 
and the sad truth that so many are intending to teach for a 
term or two only, with no preparation, to be succeeded in 
their turn by others of like mind, makes the hope of sending 
a trained teacher into every district of even a single county 
seem desperate. 

To meet this state of things and to carry out so far as pos- 
sible our desire to influence schools of all sorts, and especially 
schools near home, the board has authorized, and the newly 
elected school commissioners of Erie county have cordially 
approved, the forming of a special class at the opening of the 
spring term, to continue five or six weeks, and to be composed 
of those who design to teach in the summer schools. It is 
hoped that many, who could not attend through a single year 
even, would join this class, and that many trustees and parents 
would insist on having a teacher with at least the limited pre- 
paration which, in this class, he might obtain. A special 
course, adapted, as well as the wisdom of the faculty can 
devise, to the most obvious needs of small country schools, will 
be arranged. This experiment (for in this light we regard it) 
has already been tried with encouraging success in other 
schools, and, if reasonably prosperous with us in the spring, will 
be repeated in the autumn. We hope that many, who will 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 155 

join the class for the short time indicated, will return to take 
a fall course of study, and that many schools may be led to 
see the profit of having teachers who recognize the necessity 
of being trained for their work, and so, by and by, be led to 
demand graduates of some normal school. 

Preparatory Class. 

By far the larger proportion of our students, as already 
indicated, are residents of the city of Buffalo. It is not pro- 
bable that this proportion will continue, but for the present 
we may reasonably suppose that at least half will be home 
students. Indeed, the board considers that its duty and inte- 
rests alike point to the city and county, in which the school is 
located, as its legitimate field of work. More than three hun- 
dred teachers are constantly employed in the city, and four 
hundred more during the year in the county. Located as our 
school is, so near to three other normal schools, it would seem 
that it should find its main work in schools at home. 

A practical difficulty has arisen in this connection. Pupils 
finish the course of study, in the grammar schools of the city, 
at an average age of a year younger than is required for enter- 
ing the normal school. If they are obliged to resort to other 
schools for a time, many will finish their education in those 
schools, unless it is seen that graduation at the normal school 
is the direct path to employment. Many pupils, whose plans 
to teach are as well formed and definite as the plans of persons 
so young well can be, applied, during the summer, for admis- 
sion to the normal school when, they should leave the gram- 
mar schools. They were at first refused ; but when it became 
evident that the coveted opportunity of educating teachers for 
the city would thus, in many instances, be lost, the Superin- 
tendent was requested to indorse recommendations of those 
who would reach the age of sixteen before the first day of 
December. This he consented to do; but there were still 
quite a number who would reach that age at different subse- 
quent dates during the year, and who were very anxious to 
enter the school at once. Under these circumstances, the board 



156 Nineteenth Annual Report of tee 

authorized the forming of a preparatory class which should 
embrace promising pupils who would be sixteen before the 
beginning of the next school year, and those students from 
abroad who have properly indorsed recommendations but 
might fall somewhat below the required standard at the pre- 
liminary examination. This was possible without any addi- 
tional cost to the State, as a change in the school of practice, 
in accordance with regulations of the city department of edu- 
cation, released one of the teachers from part of her work for 
the year. This class has numbered sixteen persons under age, 
and its privileges have been confined strictly to such residents 
of Buffalo as were able to pass a fair examination on the same 
questions as are given to others, and who express their inten- 
tion to go through one of its courses of study in accordance 
with the pledge given below. It may be necessary, with the 
consent of the Superintendent, to continue this class so long as 
the number of more advanced students does not forbid. The 
fact that pupils educated to the age of fifteen in the graded 
schools of the city are, as a rule, more mature in some traits 
of character and also in intellectual discipline than persons of 
the same age educated in country schools, should have weight ; 
but the main justification of such a course would be found in 
the assured opportunity of educating the teachers of the city. 

The Spirit of the School. 

It has been the purpose of the board, and the constant 
endeavor of the principal and faculty, to do full duty to the 
State. We all recognize the obligation of using the appro- 
priation made for the maintenance of the school in such a way 
as to do the State best service. It is onr desire to make the 
school contribute to the improvement of common schools by 
the better education of teachers, and that all who receive the 
bounty of the State in the form of free tuition, and other 
special advantages, shall consider themselves bound to render 
an equivalent to the State by better services in these schools. 
To this end, none are admitted who are not properly recom- 
mended and indorsed, with the exception explained above, 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 157 

and all sign a statement of intention to teach in the schools of 
the State. The forms of pledge are given below, and the 
board will gladly consent to make them more definite and 
binding if the Department will so instruct the principal. 

Pledge of Intention to Teach. 

We, the undersigned, having received appointments to the 
State Normal School at Buffalo, hereby declare (1) that oar 
purpose in entering the school is to prepare ourselves for 
teaching ; and (2) that it is our intention, as we acknowledge 
it to be our duty, to teach for a reasonable length of time in 
the schools of the State. 

Pledge of the Preparatory Class. 

We, the undersigned, hereby state, with the consent of our 
parents, that it is our intention to procure regular appoint- 
ments to the State Normal School as soon as we reach the 
age of sixteen, and to go oh with our studies in the school 
as a preparation for teaching. 

Graduation. 

In pursuance of the policy announced in the prospectus and 
otherwise, the faculty have not been anxious to push students 
on to graduation. It would have been possible to graduate -a 
email class at the end of the first year, but a school can better 
afford to be without graduates for a year longer than to send 
oat even a few imperfectly prepared for their work. It was 
specially necessary, as we are situated, that the first class to 
leave us should be well equipped with all the school can fur- 
nish. The character and success of that class will do much 
towards making our reputation for some years to come. The 
faculty have, therefore, rather delayed than hastened the time 
of the first graduation. At the close of the present term, four 
or five will have finished their course of study and practice, 
and at the end of the next term eighteen to twenty more. 
The four or five first mentioned will teach, if they find oppor- 
tunity, during the summer term, and will graduate at the end 



158 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

of the year with the others. This will give us additional 
opportunity of judging what use they can make of their train- 
ing in the normal school, before they receive its diploma. 
Indeed, it would be good policy in all cases, if it were practi- 
cable, to send out those who have finished courses of study as 
" probationers " for six months, so that to the estimate of 
ability in the school of practice, under the eye of a critic 
teacher, might be added the estimate of success in an indepen- 
dent position. 

At the beginning of the present term, several fragments of 
classes, which the gathering of a new school had brought 
together into classes imperfectly graded, were condensed into 
one class, which will probably be prepared to graduate from the 
highest or classical course at the end of the next year. The class 
will, in fact, be able to do more work than is laid down in the 
scheme of studies, and if all the class, at present twenty in 
number, should remain together till that time, we may confi- 
dently expect the members of it to be more than usually well 
qualified to fill advanced positions. Besides, the probability 
is that a class of almost or quite equal numbers will be ready 
at the same time to graduate from the elementary course. 

Should all these hopes be realized, the end of the third year 
would find us with a list of alumni) or rather of alumna, num- 
bering not far from sixty. If the sixty should be good teach- 
ers, the character and fortunes of the school would be fairly 
settled. 

The Jessie Ketohum Prize Medals* 

The late Jesse Eetchum, of Buffalo, was well known as a 
friend and benefactor of public schools. He long cherished 
the hope of seeing a normal school established in the city, and 
gave for that purpose the lot on which the school now stands. 
In honor of Mr. Eetchum, and to carry out his well-known 
wishes, his son-in-law, B. H. Brennan, Esq., transmitted, in 
September, 1871, to the mayor of the city "a deed of trust 
designed to establish a memorial fund for the benefit of the 
public schools of Buffalo/' together with the sum of $10,000, 



SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 159 

the income of which is to be expended annually in the purchase 
of medals as prizes for meritorious conduct, and attainments 
in learning. Mr. Brennan expressly desired that the normal 
school should be included among the public schools of the city ; 
and, through the generosity of the trustees of the fund, a gold 
medal of the value of forty dollars as a prize of the first class, 
and a gold medal of the value of twenty dollars as a prize of 
the second class, have been assigned to the normal school and 
accepted by us as an annual gift. We were not called upon to 
disenss the general question of prizes in school, and, in the cir- 
cumstances, felt ourselves at liberty to do only as we did. The 
fixing of the data on which the awards should be made was 
left to the board, subject only to the approval of the trustees 
of the fund, and the matter was referred by us to the faculty. 
They have very properly determined that skill in teaching 
shall be an important element in awarding the medals. The 
main points in their plan of award are these : 

1. The competition for the medals shall be confined, to the 
members of graduating classes, thus giving the opportunity of 
carrying off a prize to those only who go through the profes- 
sional course of the school. 

2. Scholarship, deportment and skill in teaching shall be 
separate items, each Entering equally into the account. 

3. Records kept in numbers shall not alone decide who is 
roost worthy, bnt these modified by the judgment of the faculty 
as to the character, ability and promise of the student, and 
these specially with reference to merit and success as a 
teacher. 

The first of these medals will be awarded to the class gradu- 
ating in June next. 

Academic and Collegiate Depabtmentb. 

The plan of the board did not at first contemplate any 
academic department other than the collegiate. This would 
be to invite a rivalry with schools of a properly academic 
grade, which was not desired. A few, however, wished to 
join the normal classes without pledging themselves to teach ; 



160 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

and as the number in the normal classes would for the pres- 
ent allow, permission* to join these classes has not been 
restricted except on condition of paying tuition. These stu. 
dents are allowed no special privileges of any sort, and all 
receipts from tuition are devoted to the school. During the 
past year, reference books and apparatus were purchased with 
the money so received ; and it is proposed to purchase from 
the same fund, as soon as may be, a telescope, a microscope, 
and additional reference books for general use. 

As reported last year, and as announced in the prospectus 
and circulars of the school, the board hoped and in part 
planned, with the consent of the Superintendent, to make this 
one, of the eight normal schools of the State, a normal college. 
Their idea was, that its course of study should be extended 
three or four years beyoud the normal course, and that a 
grade of scholarship, at least equal to that for which academic 
degrees are usually granted, should be attainable in it, with 
the intention that this highest grade of learning should be, for 
the most part, given to the schools of the State. Their 
thought was, that more advanced study in the normal school, 
by even a small class, would elevate the spirit of scholarship 
in the whole school, and would do much towards impressing 
upon all, the truth, that sound learning is an inseparable 
attendant, if not a necessary element, of fruitful teaching. 
This was not to interfere with, but to supplement, the ordi- 
nary course of study, and to furnish a continued example of 
the culture and the ability which come with an extended 
course of liberal studies. The wish was, not to make this 
school out-rank the other schools, but, while not neglecting or 
thinking lightly of the elementary work which the great 
majority of students in all normal schools must do, to add to 
this something which might distinguish it from other schools. 
This hopfe is not abandoned, but is still cherished as capable 
of realization. Circumstances have not given it the impetus 
we had expected, but we still think the plan a feasible 
one. It has not seemed best to lay down a four years 9 course 
of study without students for the first year's work, but the 



SUPERINTENDENT Of PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 161 

local board respectfully urges the Superintendent to give the 
scheme such official aid as he can. 

Wants of the School. 

The greatest want is a suitable building under our control 
for a boarding-hall. We have plenty of room for such a 
house on the school lot, and if one could be built and 
equipped plainly but comfortably for this purpose, board 
could be famished at cost for all who attend school from 
abroad. The greater cost of board in the city than in the 
villages, in which the other normal schools are located, is very 
much to our disadvantage with all pupils who do not live at 
home. 

The want of additional books of reference and of apparatus, 
particularly chemical apparatus, can be gradually supplied 
from the proceeds of tuition, but a small sum annually, above 
what can be spared from the regular appropriation, would 
add much to the efficiency of all departments. 

The building is not in need of repair, except that, as 
reported last year, cracks in the walls, occasioned by the set- 
tling of the foundations and shrinking of the timbers, disfigure 
maoy of the rooms. The walks leading from the street to the 
building require new flagging, as a means of comfort and 
cleanliness. 

The sum of fifteen hundred dollars will probably cover all 
necessary extra expenses for the year, and that sum the board 
respectfully asks the Legislature to grant. 

Detailed Statement of Receipts and Expenditures of the 

Local Board of the Buffalo Normal School for the year 

ending September 30, 1872. 

Receipts. 

Received from the State on account of annual appropriation . . $17,115 12 
Received from the State on account of special appropriation . . 4,461 07 
Receired from tuition in academic department 240 00 

Total receipts $21,816 19 

11 



162 



Nineteenth Annual Report of the 



$12,750 oo 



1,615 43 



EXPENDITURES. 

On account of teachers* salaries for the year : 

H. B. Buckham $2,500 00 

Win. B. Wright 1,800 00 

Calvin Patterson 1,800 00 

David B. Kellicott 1,500 00 

Mark M. Maycock 600 00 

Chas. Sykes 500 00 

Geo. Hadley 750 00 

Laura G. Lovell 900 00 

Sarah Bostwick 900 00 

Mary J. Harmon (part of year) 600 00 

Susan Hoxie 750 00 

FloraE. Crandall 150 00 

On account of library, text books and apparatus : 

Frank Hamlin, receiver, text-books $709 82 

Martin Taylor, text-books 751 75 

Frank Hamlin, receiver, text-books 2 70 

Breed & Lent, and others, reference books 126 66 

D. S. Kellicott, tools and sundries for laboratory, 25 00 

On account of furniture : 

Mead & Hunt, school desks and settees $150 00 

Hersee & Sons, chairs for chapel 56 75 

On account of repairs and improvements, main- 
ly for fitting up principal's residence and chemical 
and philosophical rooms : 

W. A. Evans & Co., lumber $166 00 

Hart, Ball & Hart, plumbing 1,000 00 

D. W. C. Weed & Co, hardware 109 22 

James Duthie, carpenter's work 148 04 

James Dickie, lumber 864 55 

Valentine Brothers, bells and gongs ... 102 25 

John Keenan, mason work 51 95 

Hart, Ball & Hart, gas-fitting 798 28 

John C. Post, oil and paint 78 68 

E. J. Cornell, painting 52 00 

George Strobel, carpenter's work 45 42 

John Spier, shrubs and labor for lawn 88 28 

On account of janitor's wages: 
Wm. Hopkins, from time of accepting building, 

by State, to opening of school $482 61 

Wm. Hopkins, balance to October 11, 1871 85 50 

Carried forward $568 11 $17,516 75 



206 75 



2,944 57 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 



163 



Brought forward. $568 11 $17,516 75 

Win. Hackett, from October 11, 1671, to August 

31,1872 711 09 

1,279 20 

On account of contingent expenses : 

FM quarter: 
E. B. Backham, traveling and other expenses in- 
curred in engaging teachers $74 70 

Postage on preliminary circular 6 00 

Postage on prospectus of school 15 25 

Postage on circulars of school of practice 2 08 

Letter postage 4 00 

Express charges 8 75 

Telegrams ! 1 00 

Sundries 35 

108 58 

Second quarter : 

H. R Backham, blank book for library $1 00 

Postage 8 50 

Paper ruled for records 1 75 

L K Chester & Go., making carpet 3 00 

Jewett & Co., coal shovel, hat hooks, screens, etc., 9 75 
Mrs. Hogan, twelve days' house cleaning before 

school opened 15 00 

John Barns, putting coal into cellar 21 50 

& English, brooms and brushes 7 50 

J. Ormsby, one cord hemlock wood 6 50 

Buffalo Gas Company, meter and gas to January 

1,1872 20 85 

H. B. Buckham, expenses in attending meeting of 

principals 4 95 

Warren, Johnson & Co., printing and stationery, 125 66 

Lee&Loomis, coal 898 00 

1,118 96 

Third quarter : 

• 

H. B. Buckham, postage on annual circulars. . . . : $10 25 

Postage on circular for city ... 8 12 

Letter postage 2 08 

Express charges 5 75 

Cloth for covering reference books 2 16 

Sundry small items 2 56 

Jewett & Co., foot scrapers 4 00 

Bnflalo Gas Company, gas, January and February, 31 15 

Lee & Loomis, coal 626 01 

687 08 

Carried forward $20,710 47 



164 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Brought forward $20 ,710 47 

Fourth quarter, and to September 80 : 

H. B. Buckham, letter postage 

Postage on circulars 

Express charges 

Cartage 

Sundries 

Buffalo Gas Co., March and April 

J. Voltge, dust pans, etc 

J. Castle, thermometers 

Warren & Co., printing and stationery 

Hart, Ball & Hart, repairing steam pipes 

Lee & Loomts, coal 

Lee & Loomis,«coal 

A. Caspar, soap, mops and other supplies for house 
cleaning 



Cash on hand, September 30, 1872. 



$1 50 




4 85 




1 02 




2 87 




4 68 




20 30 




8 10 




15 00 




878 80 




215 05 




228 82 




299 00 




18 43 






1,188 27 






55 11 



Total $21,958 85 

Summary of Receipts and Expenditures. 

Total receipts from all sources $21 ,816 19 

Due from State to balance 18766 



$21,958 85 



Paid on account of teachers' salaries , $12,750 00 

Paid on account of books and apparatus 1 ,615 43 

Paid on account of furniture 206 75 

Paid on account of repairs and improvements 2,944 57 

Paid on account of janitor's wages 1 ,279 20 

Paid on account of contingent expenses, first quarter 106 58 

Paid on account of contingent expenses, second quarter 1 ,118 96 

Paid on account of contingent expenses, third quarter 687 03 

Paid on account of contingent expenses, to September 80 1 , 188 27 

Cash on hand, September 80, 1872 55 11 



$21,958 85 



Erie County, 88. : 

Nathan K. Hall, chairman, and William H. Greene, secre- 
tary, of the local board of the State Normal School at Buffalo, 
being duly sworn, say, and each for himself says, that the fore- 
going detailed statement of the receipts and expenditures of 
the said local board has been approved by the executive com- 



Superintendent op Public Instruction. 1C5 

mittee of the said board, and that he believes such statement 

to be correct. 

N. K. HALL. 

WM.. H. GREENE. 

Subscribed and sworn before me this ) 
3d day of January, 1873. \ 

Edward Gayer, 

Notary Public in and for Erie County. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

WM. H. GREENE, 
Secretary of Local Board. 
Buffalo, January 1, 1873. 



Special Announcement — Circular. 

The next term of the Buffalo Normal School will begin on 
Wednesday, September 4th. 

The school is open to all applicants of proper age and quali- 
fications, who desire to prepare for the work of teaching in 
the public schools of the State. The plan of the school com- 
prises the following particulars : 

1. A thorough Education in Subjects of Study. — Three 
courses of study are arranged : an elementary, an advanced 
English and a classical. Students of ordinary ability can 
finish the first in one year, the second in two years, and the 
third in three years. 

2. A thorough Study of the Theory of Teaching. — This is 
intended to embrace the philosophy of education, methods of 
instruction, principles of government, and, in short, all that 
the teacher can learn outside of the school he is to teach. 
This, for such as have finished one or other of the courses of 
study (and no others can be admitted to it) requires one full 
term or half year. 

3. Practice under Vriticism in our Model School for 
another full term. — Our school of practice is organized so as 
to represent the system of graded schools in the city of Buf- 
falo. The students will have the opportunity of teaching 



166 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

classes of different grades, as well as of observing the manage- 
ment* and instruction of a well-ordered system of schools. 

To graduate, therefore, from the elementary course, requires 
at the least two years, from the advanced English three 
years, and from the classical four years. It is not imperative 
that the study of subjects be pursued in this school. Students 
who can pass a good examination in these subjects may be 
admitted at once to the work of the professional year, but a 
thorough knowledge of them must be insisted upon, whether 
acquired with us or elsewhere. 

Applicants must be at least sixteen years of age on entering 
the school, and must obtain from a school commissioner or a 
city superintendent a recommendation to the State Superin- 
tendent, by whom all appointments are to be made. They 
are further examined at the school when they enter, and must 
show a fair knowledge of the common branches. When once 
admitted to the school, they are entitled to its advantages until 
they have finished any of its courses of study. Tuition is free, 
and the necessary text-books are supplied without charge, 
except for unreasonable wear. It is not required that students 
shall finish the course without leaving the school for a time, 
if circumstances make it necessary, but it is very desirable to 
finish at least the work of a year without interruption. The 
school can be responsible only for graduates, though we shall 
be glad to assist, as far as is proper, all who attend it. We 
strongly urge upon all young persons, who intend to teach, 
that their own interest will be promoted by their graduating 
at a normal school. 

Board will be provided, for such as desire it, in private 
families ; those who wish for this assistance should apply to 
the principal as early as possible. The price of board is from 
four to six dollars a week. 

• Any further information, or copies of the circular containing 
the courses of study in full, may be obtained by addressing the 
principal* 

WM. H. GKEENE, 

Secretary of Trustees. 
Hknbt B. Buokham, A. M., Principal. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 167 



(L.) 

FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE STATE 
NORMAL AND TRAINING SCHOOL AT CORT- 
LAND. 

Hon. Abeam B. Weaver, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction ; 

Sib. — According to the requirements of law, the local board 
of the State Normal and Training School at Cortland, New 
York, submit their fourth annual report. 

The report is for the year beginning October 1, 1871, and 
ending September 30, 1872. 

Improvements upon the Grounds. 

During the spring and summer of 1872, the grounds were 
much remodeled in regard to the walks ; trees, deciduous and 
evergreen, were planted, and some portions of the grounds, 
not formerly so designed, were sodded. New fences were put 
np on the west and south sides of the grounds. These improve- 
ments were superintended by Mr. F. E. Knight, of Cortland. 

The expenses of these improvements were about one thou- 
Band dollars, which the Legislature reappropriated for this 
purpose in May, 1872. This fund was appropriated two years 
before, but not being used it lapsed to the State, April 28, 1872. 

. Changes in the Local Board. 

On the 27th day of June, 1872, Mr. Arnold Stafford, a 
member of the local board from its first organization, was sud- 
denly stricken down in death. Mr. Stafford, as a member of 
the committee on building and grounds, had at all times faith- 
folly served the interests of the school. 

In accordance with the provisions of law, the Superintend- 
ent of Public Instruction appointed Mr. Robert B. Smith, of 
Cortland, as a member of the local board, to fill vacancy caused 
by the death of Mr. Stafford. Mr. Smith's appointment bears 
date September 11, 1872. 



168 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Changes of Teachers. 

Miss Emily E. Cole, of the class of January 31, 1871, 
assumed charge of the primary department, February 14, 1872. 

Miss Julia H. Willis, having resigned her position as critic 
in the primary department, January 30, 1872, Miss Mary E. 
Lester entered upon the duties of critic in that department 
February 14, 1872. 

Mrs. H. E. M. Babcock, having resigned her position July 
2, 1872, Miss Clara E. Booth, of the class of July 2, 1872, was 
appointed to fill the vacancy. 

Miss Mary A. Hubbard, class of January 30, 1872, com- 
menced her duties as principal of the intermediate depart- 
ment September 4, 1872, in place of Miss Helen K. Hubbard, 
who resigned her position July 2, 1872. 

Salabies. 

The salaries now paid in the several departments are as 
follows : 

Principal of the school $2,500 00 

Department of Natural Science 1 > 700 00 

Department of Latin and Greek 1 ? 600 00 

Department of Mathematics 1,400 00 

Methods and Superintendent of Training School, 900 00 

Department of Elocution and Rhetoric 750 00 

Department of Modern Languages and Geog- 
raphy 700 00 

Department of History and English Language, 700 00 

Department of Vocal Music 300 00 

Department of Drawing 250 00 

Principal of Academic Department 800 00 

Principal of Intermediate Department 700 00 

Critic of Intermediate Department 700 00 

Principal of Primary Department ,. . . 600 00 

Critic of Primary Department 600 00 

Total per year $14,200 00 



:s 



Superintendent .or Public Instruction. 



169 



Library* 

Daring the year the text-book library was moved into the 
office, where convenient cases had been prepared for it. 

The former library room is now occupied almost exclusively 
by the reference library. This library is, for its size, one of 
the most valuable to be found in connection with any school. 
Students have free daily access to the books, and the use 
made of the advantages afforded demonstrates the value of the 
collection to the school. 



Attendance. 
Attendance from October 1, 1871, to October 1, 1872. 

Whole number in normal school 370 

Whole number in training school : 

Academic department 61 

Intermediate department 205 

Primary department 281 

547 

Total for the year 917 



The School as a Normal School. 

The following table shows the number of new students — 
names not appearing upon the rolls before — for each term 
daring the history of the school : 



• 



£ 



8 



From March 8, 1809, to July 80, 1809 

From September 8, 1889, to ffebroaryl, 1878 . 

From February 18, 18T0, to July 1, 1910 

From September 14, 1810, to January 81. 1971 

From February 1ft, 1971, to Jnne 80, 1871 

From September 6, 1871, to January 80, 1973 . 

From February 14, 197*, to July 8, 1978 

From September 4, 1971, to January 88, 1878 . 

Totals— different names . v 



• 






§' 






a 






5 

a 


J 
•3 


| 


& 


a 


£ 


88 


89 


57 


48 


68 


116 


80 


40 


TO 


66 


84 


140 


18 


88 


40 


51 


55 


106 


88 


80 


48 


86 


47 


78 


880 


865 


645 



170 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Attendance bt the Year. 

First year, ending September 30, 1869 57 

Second year, ending September 30, 1870 822 

Third year, ending September 30, 1871 401 

Fourth year, ending September 30, 1872 370 

Total, by years 1,150 

Of the above, seventy-four have graduated and have since 
rendered the State most valuable service in educational work. 

Another class is near its graduation, and still another large 
class will enter upon its graduating work at the beginning of 
next term. 

Of those undergraduates who have been in attendance, five 
hundred and seventy-one in all, between three and four hun- 
dred, or over sixty per cent of the whole, have done more or 
less of educational work in the public schools of the State, 
during and since their connection with the school. 

A comparison of the two tables above brings out the fact 
that the students have been very regular in their attendance 
for a series of terms. This gives much value to the statement 
that the work done in teaching by the undergraduates is most 
excellent, from their having enjoyed so long the advantages 
afforded by the school. 

Whence the influential educational work accomplished by 
this school for the State, during the three and a half years of 
its existence, sums up as follows : 

1. Seventy-four graduates, many of whom have been occu- 
pying very prominent places in teaching; two more classes 
near to their graduating work. 

2. Over three hundred undergraduates- have done a vast 
amount of teaching in the common schools of the State, during 
and since their connection with the school, and have taught 
much better because of this connection. 

3. Last, but not least, the good that has been done to the 
cause of sound education for the masses, by a school not 
dependent upon individual tuition for support. This is no 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. ] 71 

small item in estimating the real value of any school to a 
eommnnity. 

Surely this is no unworthy showing for the brief history \>f 
three and a half years of school work ; for nearly five hun- 
dred intelligent and active minds have exerted an influence of 
do mean importance upon the pupils under their tuition. 

The State may well feel gratified at the work accomplished 
by its normal schools; for years only add to. the vigorous 
influence exerted by them. 

Department of Natural Science. 

The appointments of this department are superior with 
regard to their practical utility. The additions during the 
year have been many, among them one of Ritchie's large 
rotary, automatic air-pumps. 

There has also been added a large collection of stereopticoa 
transparencies on the subject of natural history and physi- 
ology. These views were made expressly for this school by 
Mr. H. D. Bumsey, of Homer, N. Y., under the immediate 
supervision of the professor of the department. 

There is also added a large collection of transparencies upon 
the following subjects : astronomy ; geology ; mineralogy ; 
early art; ancient ruins ; physical geography ; historical 
architecture. 

It is expected that there will soon be added another valua- 
ble collection, illustrating comparative anatomy. These 
transparencies will be made by Mr. Bumsey expressly for this 
department from original plates by B. Waterhouse Hawkins, 
of Sydenham, England. 

The alumni and other students who have been connected 
with the school are doing much by their continued contribu- 
tions to increase the value of the cabinets of natural history, 
mineralogy and geology. Valuable donations have been 
made by others, friends of general education. 



172 NlNMTSMNTH ANNUAL REPORT Or THE 

Financial Statement. 

Receipts. 

Amount on hand, October 1, 1871 (tuition, etc.), $1»334 63 

Received from the State 22>976 30 

Received from other sources (tuition and aca- 
demic diplomas) 381 00 

Total $24,691 93 

Disbursements. 
Teachers' salaries $14,200 00 

Library and apparatus 4,623 12 

Improvements on grounds 143 93 

Contingent expenses : 4,009 25 

Amount on hand, October 1, 1872 (tuition, etc.), 1>715 63 

Total $24,691 93 

Respectfully submitted. 

HENRY S. RANDALL. 

President 
Wm. Newkikk, Secretary. 

Detailed - Statement of Receipts and Audited Liabilities 

made by the Local Board of the State Normal and Train- 

ing School, at Cortland, N. Y.^for the year beginning with 

October 1, 1871, and ending with September 30, 1872. 

Receipts. 

Amount on hand, October 1, 1871 (tuition, etc.) $1 , 884 68 

Received from the State 22,976 80 

Received from other sources (tuition and academic diplomas), 881 00 

Total _J?±l!!!!! 

Disbursements. 

Teacher? 8aUme$. 
James H. Hoom $2,500 00 

ThomasB. Stowell 1,700 00 

Norman F. Wright 1,000 00 

Carried forward *5,800 00 



Superintendent of Public Instruction 178 



Brought forward $5,800 00 

Prank 8. Capen 1,400 00 

James H. Shnltz 800 00 

Martha Roe 900 00 

M. Frances Hendrick 750 00 

Helen EM. Babcock 700 00 

Sarah M. Button 700 00 

Mary Marsh (part time) 800 00 

Mary Morton (part time) » 250 00 

Helen K. Hubbard 700 00 

Amanda J. Hopkins 700 00 

Mary E. Lester 000 00 

Julia H. Willis (half year) 800 00 

Emily E Cole (half year) 800 00 

$14,200 00 

Library and Apparatus. 

Appleton &' Co., D., text-books $9 00 

Bradford, G. W., text-books 18 00 

Cowperthwaite & Co., text-books 80 45 

Ginn Brothers, reference books 22 57 

Gurley, W. & L. E, mathematical apparatus 211 50 

Harper & Brothers, reference books 29 94 

Irison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., reference books, 284 78 

Irison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., text-books .... 96 48 

Ledion, Julian, anatomical preparations 223 00 

Lippincott & Co., J. B., reference books 82 44 

Little, Brown & Co., reference books 216 81 

Mahan & Wallace, text-books 89 50 

Mather & Lyon, 114 plates for stereopticon 100 00 

Mc Vicar, M., arithmetical apparatus 75 00 

Pease & Flaisted, oxygen-gas holder, per T. B. 8., 50 00 

Queen A Co., James W., apparatus, etc 1 ,156 84 

Ritchie* Sons, E. 8., apparatus 841 25 

Roe, Martha, reference books 7 50. 

Schermerhorn & Co., J. W., apparatus and books, 1 ,448 59 

Scribner, Armstrong & Co., reference books 210 97 

Sheldon & Co., text-books 28 40 

4,623 12 

Improvement* on Ground*. 

Holmes, deary & Co., planting trees and work on 

grounds $47 29 

McAllister, Robert, planting trees 71 00 

Stafford, Arnold, lumber and labor. 25 64 

148 93 

Carried forward $18,967 05 



J 74 



NlNBTMSNTS ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 



Brought forward. ; . $18,967 05 

Contingent Expenses. 

Bennett, L. H., janitor $600 00 

Benton, H. F. , lumber, office secretary 204 45 

Bradford, G. W., stationery and chemicals 182 12 

Brewer & Son, H., wood, dusters, etc 27 26 

Carmichael, J. C, repairs, library tables, etc 54 65 

Chamberlain, Smith & Co. , supplies 573 06 

Coon, H. W., piano rent 60 00 

Darby, Miles E., janitor 150 00 

Dean, W. 8., labor 20 60 

Doud, T. H., book-binding 1 00 

Freeman, James, labor 7 00 

Ginn Brothers, music charts 8 00 

Hanscoin, P. L., printing labels 2 25 

Homer & Cortland, gas company 121 00 

Hooker, Wesley, printing 25 00 

Hoose, J. H., traveling expenses, freight bills, etc., 88 29 

Hose Company, W. W., rent Taylor Hall 15 00 

Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., stationery 26 00 

Jarvie, H. A. , 500 government envelopes 16 80 

Jones, B. B., printing 88 75 

Kinney, F. G., printing 12 00 

Livermore, W. H. , printing v 4 00 

Mahan & Wallace, stationery. 118 68 

Merton, Nelson, labor * 15 00 

Molloy, Edward, printing >. . . 4 00 

Newkirk & Smith, supplies , 2 81 

Nye, Daniel, labor 15 00 

Office sundries ; * 95 77 

Pierce, Franklin, painting 41 00 

Pomeroy, S. T., repairing organ . . . 2 50 

Randall, H. S., postage 8 00 

Return fare, per J. H. H. (three terms) 889 93 

Roe, Martha, ribbons for diplomas 22 50 

Rogers,H. L., freight 85 00 

Stowell, T. B., traveling expenses, etc 40. 02 

Sturdevant, Fish A Co., carpeting 8 25 

Tisdale & Co. , W. D., coal 1,052 00 

Wickwire & Co. , C. F., supplies 18 57 

Wilson, P. A., labor 2 60 

4,009 25 

Total disbursements $23,976 80 



Superintendent of Public Instruction 175 

Recapitulation. 
Teachers' salaries $14,200 00 

library and apparatus 4,623 12 

Improvements on grounds 148 93 

Contingent expenses 4,009 25 

* $22,976 30 

Balance on hand, October 1, 1872 1,715 08 

Grand total $24,691 98 

We hereby certify that we have examined the within state- 
ment of receipts and audited expenditures for the normal and 
training school at Cortland, during the past year, and believe 

the same to be correct. 

HENRY S. RANDALL, 

* President. 

William Nkwkirk, 

Secretary. 

State of New York, ) 
County of Cortland, ( Um ' 

Sworn and subscribed to before me this 6th day of January, 

A. D. 1873. 

[l. s.] Howard J. Harrington, 

Notary Public. 

GRADUATES. 
First Commencement, Friday, July 1, 1870. 

Gentlemen. 

Name. Post-office. County. 

Fowler, Charles A Bingham ton .... Broome. 

Pearne, Wesley U Oxford Chenango. 

Vanderburgh, Fred. A . . Cortland Cortland. 

Ladies. 

Brownell, L. Annie Nyack Rockland. 

Cole, Sarah M Elbridge Onondaga. 

Northrop, Ada Homer Cortland. 

Ratcliffe, Adaline A Liberty Sullivan. 

Stewart, Kate R Parksville ...... Sullivan. 



176 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Name. Post-office. County. 

Willis, Mary L Tally Onondaga. 

Willis, Julia H Tally Onondaga, 

Gentlemen 3 

Ladies . 7 

Total 10 

Class Organization. 

Fowler, Charles A President. 

Pearne, Wesley U Poet and Musician. 

Vanderburgh, Fred. A. . . Vice-President and Historian. 

Stewart, Kate R Secretary. 

Willis, Julia H - Prophetess. 

Class day — Planting of Ivy — June 29, 1871. 

Second Commencement, Tuesday, Januaby 31, 1871. 

Ladies. 

Name. Post-office. Copnty. 

Bentley, Jenney L Cortland Cortland. 

' Cole, Emily E Elbridge Onondaga. 

Finney, Madge M Binghamton Broome. 

Lincoln, Alice L Virgil Cortland. 

Lee, Mary E Marathon Cortland. 

Lester, Mary E Binghamton Broome. 

Pomeroy, Clara T . . Cortland Cortland. 

Pomeroy, Anna C Cortland Cortland. 

Perry, Mary Alice North Wilna .... Jefferson. 

Smith, Hattie A Clark's Factory . . Delaware. 

Stickney, Fanny Booneville Oneida. 

Tillinghast, Mary N . . . . Marathon Cortland. 

Ladies, total 12 

Class Organization. 

Cole, Emily E President. 

Lester, Mary E Vice-Pres't, Poetess and Historian. 

Lincoln, Alice L Prophetess. 

Class day— Planting of Ivy— July 1, 1872. 



Superintendent or Public Instruction. 177 

Third Commencement, Friday, June 30, 1871. 

Gentlemen. 

Name. Poet-offloe. County. 

Knox, Stratton S Oqoago Broome.. 

Keeler, Melvin J De Ruyter Madison. 

Robinson, William P. . . Cortland Cortland. 

Shnltz, James H Virgil Cortland. 

Ladies. 

Ainsworth, Ella A East Lansing Tompkins. 

Brainard, Ella F Cortland Cortland. 

Bostwick, Sarah Newark . . Wayne. 

Brown, Sarah Abbie Harpersville Broome. 

Cately, Alice M Tully Onondaga. 

Eels, Helen Freetown Cortland. 

Fletcher, Sarah F Cortland Cortland. 

Hall, Francelia A Scott Cortland. 

Lewis, Ella M Lisle Broome. 

Hiers, Amelia Howe's Cave Schoharie. 

Mathewson, Ella L Geneva Caynga. 

Potter, Helen L Union Valley. . * . Cortland. 

Van Ness, Henrietta .... Greene Chenango. 

Wright, Florence M . . . Greene Chenango. 

Gentlemen 4 

Ladies 14 

Total > ; 18 

Summary of Graduates to date. 
Gentlemen 7 

Ladies 83 

Total 40 

Class Organization. 
Knox, Stratton S President. 

Keeler, Melvin J Poet. 

Shnltz, James H Secretary. 

12 



178 Nineteenth Annual Report of tee 

Bostwick, Sarah Vice-president. 

Fletcher, Sarah F Historian. 

Wright, Florence M Treasurer. 

Class day— Planting of Ivy— July 1, 1872. 

Alumni Association, Organized June 30, 1872. 

President pro tempore, Wesley XT. Pearne. 
Secretary pro tempore, Mary E. Lester. 

Stratton S. Knox, Wesley U. Pearne, Emily E. Cole, Sarah 
Bostwick, Mary E. Lester, were appointed a committee to 
draft a constitution and by-laws, for effecting a permanent 
organization at the next meeting. 

Fourth Commencement, Tuesday, Januaby 30, 1872. 

Gentlemen. 

Name. Post-office. County. 

Murphy, Channcey P Perry City Schuyler, 

Spencer, Wm. S Blodgetts' Mills . . Broome. 

Ladies. 

Gaffney, Emma Binghamton Broome. 

Gilbert, Flora A Cortland Cortland. 

Hall, Emily A Gulf Summit .... Broome. 

Hawley, Helen Taylor Cortland. 

Hubbard, Mary A ...... . Norwich Chenango. 

Seacord, Mary K Cortland Cortland. 

Tackabury, Libbie G. .... Canastota Madison. 

Wiles, Emma A Freetown ....... Cortland. 

Woodruff, Julia E . . Unadilla Otsego. 

Gentlemen 2 

Ladies 9 



Total 11 



Class Organization. 

Wm. S. Spencer President and Orator. 

Helen Hawley Vice-President and Prophetess. 



Superintendent or Public Instruction. 179 

Libbie G. Tackabury Secretary. 

Emma Wiles Treasurer. 

Chauncey P. Murphy Historian. 

Emily A. Hall Poetess. 

Mary A. Hubbard Essayist. 

Class day July 1, 1873. 

GRADUATES. 

FltfTH COMMENCJEMENT, JtJLT % 1872. 

Gentlemen. 

Name. Post-office. County. 

Hermon S. Hopkins Groton Tompkins. 

George E. Ryan Virgil Cortland. 

Ladies. 

Anna Black Cortland Cortland. 

Clara E. Booth Perry Centre Wyoming. 

Esther E. Baldwin South Cortland . . Cortland. 

Frederica B. Camenga . . . South Brookfield, Madison. 

Cassie R. Fowler York Livingston. 

Flora A. Greene Groton Tompkins. 

Ida Griswold South Cortland . . Cortland. 

Libbie M. Hall Gulf Suratoit. . . . Broome. 

Libbie L. Harris Fabius Onondaga. 

Myra M. Hubbard Norwich Chenango. 

Mary L. Hopkins Cortland Cortland. 

Anna E. Kane McLean Tompkins. 

Clara H. McGraw Binghamton Broome. 

Edith H. McGraw Binghamton Broome. 

Ella M. Maritt Cortland Cortland. 

Elizaetta McLean Clark's Factory . . Delaware. 

Julia F. Montgomery Marathon Cortland. 

Carrie E. Richardson ..., Caroline Depot .. Tompkins. 

E. Bertha Smith Cortland Cortland. 

S. Marie Stillman De Ruyter Madison. 

Mary B. Willey Sherburne ....... Chenango. 



180 Nineteenth Annual Report of tMe 

Gentlemen 2 

Ladies 21 

Total 23 

Class Organization. 

Clara E. Booth : President. 

Libbie L. Harris Vice-President. 

Herman S. Hopkins Secretary. 

Flora A. Gredne Treasurer. 

Cassie R. Fowler Prophetess. 

F. B. Camenga Historian. 

George E. Ryan . . . . Orator. 

Mary B. Willey Essayist. 

E. Bertha Smith Poetess. 

Class day July 1, 1873. 

Summary of Graduates to Date. 
Gentlemen 11 

Ladies 63 

Total 74 



Special Announcement in Circular or January 1, 1872. 

Board of Trustees. 

Hon. Henry S. Randall, LL.D., Hon. H. R. Duel. 

President Henry Brewer. 

William Newkirk, Secretary. F. Hyde, M. D. 

Chas. C. Taylor, Treasurer. „ Robert B. Smith. 

Hon. Horatio Ballard. Norman Chamberlain. 

Faculty. 

James H. Hoose, Ph. D., Principal, Mental Science, and 
Philosophy of Education. 
N. F. Wright, A. M., Latin and Greek. 
Frank S. Capeif, A. M., Mathematics. 
Thomas B. Stowell, A. M., Natural Science. 
James H. Shultz, Professor of Academic Department. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 181 

Martha Roe, Superintendent of Practicing Schools, Methods 
and their application. 

M. Frances Hendrick, Rhetoric, Elocution, Heading and 
Superintendent of Gymnastics. 

Clara E. Booth, English. French and German. 

Sarah M. Sutton, Methods, English. 

Mary Marsh, Vocal Music. 

Mary Morton, Drawing. 

Mary A. Hubbard, Principal and Critic in Intermediate 
Department. 

Amanda J. Hopkins, Methods, and Critic in Intermediate 
Department. 

Emily E. Cole, Principal and Critic in Primary Department. 

Mary E. Lester, Methods, and Critic in Primary Depart- 
ment. 

Academic Department. 

For those who purpose entering this department, the follow* 
ing information is given : 

Applications for admission should be made, either in person 
or by letter, to the principal of the school, and should be 
accompanied by a careful statement of the character, habits 
and present attainments of candidates. No idle, ,insubordi- 
nate or dissipated pupil will be tolerated. 

Students will be received at any time, but in no case for 
leas than a quarter except by special arrangement ; and no 
deduction in price of tuition will be made for those who enter 
within the first two, or leave within the last three weeks of 
the term ; nor for absences during the term, except for sick* 
ness. 

Classes out of the regular course will not be organized for 
the accommodation of students 'entering this department. 

Cowrsee of Study. 

First — The Advanced English Course. Second — The Classi- 
cal Course. These are nearly identical with the same courses 
in the normal department, except that they embrace no pro- 
fessional training. 



182 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Cost of Tuition. 

Non-resident pupils will be charged the following rates of 
tuition per quarter : English Course, $6.00; Classical, $7.00. 

Graduation, 

Students, graduating , from either of the courses in this 
department, are charged a graduation fee of five dollars. 

General Information. 
Location. 

The village of Cortland is noted for its pleasant situation, 
the healthfulnees of its climate, and the beauty of its surround- 
ing scenery. It is situated midway between Syracuse and 
Binghamton, on the line of railroad connecting those places. 

The Utica, Ithaca and Elroira railroad also passes through 
the village, making connections with the Midland and South- 
ern Central railways. 

Board. 

Board, including furnished room, fuel and light, can be 
obtained in private families in the village, at prices ranging 
from $4.00 to $5.00 per week. Rooms for self-boarding can 
be easily obtained. 

Pupils should reach Cortland at least one day before the 
opening of the term, and go directly to the normal school 
building, where they will be advised in regard to boarding 
places. Baggage may be left at the depot until rooms are 
secured, when it will be delivered free or charge. 

The normal courses of instruction and other important 
information will be found in the Appendix (Document Q). 



Superintendent or Public Instruction. 188 



• (M.) 

FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT OP THE STATE 
NORMAL AND TRAINING SCHOOL AT PRE- 
DONIA. 

Id conformity with the provisions of chapter 466 of the 
Laws of 1866, the following report of the condition of the 
State Normal and Training School at Fredonia, for the year 
ending December 31, 1872/ including statistical and financial 
statements for the year ending September 30, 1872, is sub- 
mitted: 

Officeks. 

The general management of the school devolves upon the 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, as trustee. 

Faculty. 

Rev. John W. Armstrong, D. D., Principal, Moral Science 
and Didactics. 

J. M. Cassety, A. M., Principal of Academic Department, 
Algebra and Astronomy. 

H. R. Sanford, A. M., Natural Sciences, Civil Government. 

0. R. Burchard, A. M., Mathematics. 

Eev. J. N. Fradenburgh, A. M., Ancient Languages and . 
German. 

Miss Maria Swanger, Methods in Elementary course. 

Miss Elizabeth Richardson, A. M., Physical Geography and 
Objects. 

Mrs. Kate B. Burchard, Composition, Rhetoric and English 
Literature. 

Mrs. Z. G. Carruth, French and History. 

Miss E. Theodosia Hodgkins, Principal of Senior Depart- 
ment. 

Miss Kate A. Whitney, Principal of Junior Department. 

Miss Mary A. Be mi 8, Principal of Primary Department. 



184 . Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Miss Carrie Ferrin, Assistant in Senior Department. 

Miss Ida R. Noble, Assistant in Senior Department. 

Miss Annie S. Burroughs, Assistant in Junior Department. 

Miss Clara S. Whitney, Vocal Music. 

The courses of study, and other important information, will 
be found in the general circular (Document Q). 

The following table shows the receipts and expenditures on 
account of this school, during the fiscal year ending Septem- 
ber 30, 1872 : 

* 

RboeipIb. 

Balance on hand, October 1, 1871 (tuition) $2,676 92 

From the State, oat of annual appropriation .... 17,556 10 

From the State, out of special appropriation. . . 1,800 00 

From tuition in academic and training schools. . 857 20 

Total $22,890 22 

Payments. 
For teachers' wagea $15,650 00 

For library, text-books and apparatus 113 95 

For repairs and improvements 2,116 26 

For all other expenses 4,582 10 

$22,462 31 
Balance on hand (tuition), October 1, 1872, 427 91 

Total $22,890 22 

Detailed Statement of Receipts and Expenditure* far the 

year ending September 30, 1872: 

A Receipts. 

Balance on hand, October 1, 1871 (tuition) $2,676 92 

From the State, out of annual appropriation 17,556 10 

From the State, oat of special appropriation 1,800 00 

From tuition in academic and training schools 857 20 

$22,890 22 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 185 

Expenditures. 

. Fbr Teacher? Wages. 

John W. Armstrong $2,600 00 

J.lLCassety 1,600 00 

RRSanford 1,500 00 

O.RBurchaxd 1,600 00 

J. K Fradenburgh 1,200 00 

Maria Swanger 1,200 00 

Elizabeth Richardson 800 00 

Mra. Bnrchard \ 760 00 

Mrs. Z. G. Carruth 860 00 

KlenWiltse /. 400 00 

Kate A. Whitney 600 00 

IdaRNoble 600 00 

Carrie Ferrin 600 00 

E. Theodoftia Hodgkins 700 00 

MaryABemis , 600 00 

Clara a Whitney 260 00 

Annie Burroughs 800 00 

Jeaunie Kinsman 200 00 

$15,660 00 

For Library, Text-books and Apparatus. 

J. W. Armstrong, books and apparatus $62 00 

J. C. Friabie, books 40 20 

L. 8. Howard & Son, books 21 75 

' 118 05 

For Bepaws and Improvements. 

J. M. Cassety, heating apparatus $87 00 

McDougall & Avery, repairing boiler, steam fix- 
tures, etc. 187 06 

Bias Forbes & Co., gas fixtures 21 80 

Lewis T. Parker, painting 9 31 

R J. Skinner, fence 1,800 00 

Porter Bros., repairs, etc 11 09 

2,116 26 

For all other Expenses. 

Elias Forbes & Co., gas $800 60 

W. McKinstry, printing and advertising 75 80 

D. A. Clark & Co., chemicals 46 62 

w\ W. Wright, janitor's services 088 48 

8cott & McCluer, hardware, supplies, etc 86 11 

J. D. Maynard, glass, chemicals, etc 17 95 

J. W. Armstrong, sundry disbursements 109 95 

Carried forward $1,675 60 $17,880 21 



186 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Brought forward $1,575 60 $17,880 21 

J. W. Armstrong, mileage of students 225 82 

J. C. Frisbie, stationery 184 45 

Benton & Gushing, printing and advertising 88 00 

N.J. Jackson & Co., coal .. 1,882 50 

W. A. Adams, furniture 48 10 

Wm. B. Archibald, rent of organ 46 00 

Francis B. Parker, water 87 50 

Clark Bros. & Marsh, cloth for caulking 12 75 

Howard Bros., stationery ' 66 64 

8. M. Hamilton, coal 987 50 

D. L. Bhepard, hardware 21 01 

D. W. Maynard, chemicals, etc. 6 55 

D. C. Clark, chemicals, etc 20 80 

Edward McGovern, inspecting boilers 11 00 

Amon L. Barm ore, rustic window shades 64 16 

Curtis & Shepard, hardware 9 22 

: 4,582 10 

Total expenditures $22,462 81 

Repobt of Pbincipal. 

Hon. Abram B. Weaver, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction: 

The principal of the Fredonia Normal and Training School 
begs leave to offer the following report : 

The fourth year of the Fredonia Normal and Training School 
has been characterized by an increased degree of usefulness 
and influence. For this, it becomes us to return thanks to our 
Heavenly Father " from whom all blessings flow." 

The design of the State, in organizing and supporting such 
schools, appeal's to have been more fully appreciated and more 
completely met by both teachers and pupils, than ever before. 
Growing out of the exigencies of the great educational system 
adopted by the Legislature, and intended to supply a defi- 
ciency not before provided for by the higher schools of the 
State, it was necessary that there should be something peculiar 
in their organization. 

In establishing them, the State did not contemplate merely 
the forming and supporting of several academies or high schools, 
where the pupils might learn thoroughly the different branches 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 187 

to be taught in the public schools. 'There were already many 
such academies and other schools, where this work conld be 
done as well as in the normal schools, and at far less cost to 
the villages where they were located. The term training, con- 
stituting a part of their title, indicates that, to a sound and 
thorough scholarship wherever obtained, there Would be added 
such a practical training in the art of organizing, teaching and 
governing schools, as must greatly increase the efficiency and 
usefulness of their graduates, and greatly elevate the tone and 
character of the schools they would teach. 

Earnestly laboring for the accomplishment of this design, it 
is with no small pleasure that we can report the almost uniform 
and triumphant success of oar graduates in the school-rooms 
of the county and State. The attention, which these results 
have attracted towards the "normal methods" of teaching and 
training, is one of the evidences of a gratifying progress in 
public opinion on educational matters. 

• • 

Changes in the Board op Instruction. 

The only change, which has occurred in the board of instruc- 
tion, is the resignation of Miss Kate Whitney, the principal 
teacher and critic of the Junior practicing school. Identified 
with the school from its reopening in 1869, she had brought 
her department to a high- degree of advancement, and had 
acquired deserved popularity. We were happy to be able to 
secure, as her successor, Miss Jennie Kinsman, one of our 
graduates of the fall term of 1872, who is ably discharging 
the duties of the department. 

Improvements Needed in Accommodations. 

Originally, the normal building was constructed without any 
adequate knowledge of the requirements of a normal school # 
More practicing rooms are needed. 

It would aid us much if a glass partition were erected across 
each of the two large practicing rooms, cutting off fifteen feet 
from the back end, and the. space subdivided into three prac- 
ticing rooms for classes. 



188 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Both the library and the apparatus rooms are very inade- 
quately supplied with cases. 

An appropriation for meeting these wants is very desirable. 

■ 

Attendance. 

The attendance of students in the several departments, dur- 
ing the year ending September 30, 1872, was as follows : 

In the normal department 305 

academic department. 145 

senior department 214 

•junior department 200 

primary department 85 

Total *. 949 

Graduates. — First Class, Term ending February 1st, 1870. 

Elementary Course. 

Miss Ellen Carter Laona, N. Y. 

Mary Carlisle Malone, N. Y. 

Second Class— tTerm ending July 1st, 1*870. 

Miss Annie Burroughs Portland, ST. Y. 

Mary A. Bemis ^ . Clymer, N. Y. 

Ettie Cleland Cassadaga, K Y. 

Hattie J. Gays Dunkirk, N. Y. 

Mary Hart Fredonia, N. Y. 

Henrietta B. Landon Fredonia, N. Y. 

Nettie Pringle Fredonia, N. Y. 

Hattie E. Sweet Fredonia, N. Y. 

M. Pamelia Squires Chenango Forks, N. Y. 

Lizzie M. Schaffer Fredonia, N. Y. 

Luella Tinkham Fredonia, N. Y. 

Classical Course. 

■ * • 

Ellen H. Clothier . . . Fredonia, N. Y. 

Lacy M. Washburn Fredonia, N. Y. 



Superintendent or Public Instruction. 189 

Third Class — Term ending February 7th, 1871. 

Elementary Course. 

Miss Ella J. Cumming8 Arkwright, N. Y. 

Mrs. R. V. Lewis Dunkirk, N. Y. 

Miss Ida R. Noble Canton, N. Y. 

Mary A. Saunders Gowanda, N. Y. 

Mary Wright Sinclairville, N. Y. 

Higher English Course. 

Mr. Barton C. Crocker Dunkirk, N. Y. 

James E. Eaton Gowanda, N. Y. 

Foitbth Class — Term ending Junb 30th, 1871. 

Elementary Course. 

Miss Ida Briggs * . . . . Stockton, N. Y. 

Nellie Clothier Fredonia, N. Y. 

Adista Coon Portville, N. Y. 

Addie Daily Fredonia % N. Y. 

Carrie Ferrin Ellington, N. Y. 

• Anna Hayes Fredonia, N. Y. 

Mrs. G. H. JIammond Fredonia, N. Y. 

Miss Mary Morissey Sheridan Centre, N. Y. 

Nettie Mark Frewsburgh, N. Y. 

Nettie Piatt Horuellsville, N. Y. 

Juliette Simmons Poland Centre, N. Y. ' 

Mary Simons Belmont, N. Y. 

Belle Spink Fredonia, N. Y. 

Nina Sheppard Buffalo, N. Y. 

Luella Wheelock Fredonia, N. Y. 

Clara Washburn Indianapolis, Ind. 

Higher English Course. 

Elizabeth Richardson Hamlet, N. Y. 

Lillie Tabor Tuscola, 111. 

Classical Course. 
Hannah Enry . . Fredonia, N. Y, 



r 



190 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Fifth Class — Txbm ending Fbbbuaby 14th, 1872. 

Elementary Course. 

Miss Tilla Brown Fredonia, N . T. 

Maria Everts. Auburn, N. Y. 

Jeannie Kinsman Ellington, N. Y. 

Alice Luther Fredonia, N. Y. 

Abbie Mark Frewsburgh, N. Y. 

Martha Mitchell \ Hartfield, N. Y. 

Carrie McNaughton Sinclairville, N. Y. 

Ida Pierce Fredonia, N. Y. 

Hattie Shelley Fredonia, N. Y. 

Sarah Stevens Fredonia, H". Y. 

Joanna Toomey Dunkirk, N. Y. 

Hattie Beck Sinclairville, N. Y. 

Higher English Cowrse. 

Miss Carrie Ferrin Ellington, N. Y. 

Martha Mitchell Hartfield, N. Y. 

Frank Stebbins Sheridan, N. Y. 

Sixth Class — Term ending July 2d, 1872. 

Elementary Course. , 

Mis8 Maria Blanchard Sardinia, N. Y. 

Mary Buckley Wells Bridge, N. Y. 

Mary Clizbe Galway, N. Y. 

Margaret S. Cushing Fredonia, N. Y. 

Hannah Cleaveland Olean, N. Y. 

Mary E. Clarke Fredonia, N. Y. 

Mary E. A. Clark Point Peninsula, N. Y. 

Clara De Wolff Versailles, K Y. 

Florence Dennison Forestville, N. Y. 

Eva Eaton Gowanda, N. Y. 

Orpha Griswold Brocton, N. Y. 

Flora Hall Perrysburgh, N. Y. 

Ell Vene S. Little Candor, N. Y. 

Belle O'Neil Dunkirk, N. Y. 

Ellen Porter Fredonia, N. Y. 

Eva M. Parker Little Valley, N. Y. 



SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 19 J 

Mia Annie Smith ... Marehfield, N. Y. 

Georgia Tillinghast Fredonia, K T. 

Donna B. Thing Dunkirk, N. Y. 

Theckla Thompson Randolph, N. Y. ' 

Estelle Warren Fredonia, N. Y. 

Kittie Wheelock Groveland, N. Y. 

Higher English Course. 

Emma Bronson Aurora, 111. 

Annie Burroughs Portland, N. Y. 

Hattie Beck Sinclairville, N. Y. 

Sarah Fay , Fredonia, N. Y. 

Felicia Low Fredonia, N. Y. 

Etta Partridge Dunkirk, N. Y. 

Florence Taylor Portland, N. Y. 

Theckla Thompson Randolph, N. Y. 

Cornelia Willsie Kiantone, N. Y. 



Number 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Number 
Number 



Summary. 

n 1st graduating class 2 

n 2d graduating class 13 

n 3d graduating class 7 

n 4th graduating class 19 

n 5th graduating class 14 

n 6th graduating class 31 



Total to July 2d, 1872, three years 86 

Conclusion. 
Nearly all of these graduates are teaching in this State at 
salaries varying from $375 to $1,000 a year. Their uniform 
success — not one has made a failure — and the excellent influence 
they exert upon the schools vindicate the wisdom of the 
normal school system, and justify the expenditure of all the 
care and money necessary to secure their highest efficiency. 

Your most obedient servant, 

JOHN W. ARMSTRONG, 

Principal. 



192 Nineteenth Annual Report op the 

Special Announcement in Circular of January 1, 1879. 

Practicing Schools. 

Persons, not living within the corporation limits of Fre- 
donia village, may be admitted to the practicing schools as 
pupils, on the following terms : 

Tuition for one term of twenty weeks in the aca- 
demic, common English $10 00 

Academic, higher English and languages 12 00 

Senior 8 00 

Primary and Junior 6 00 

Payment will be required in advance for each half term. 

It is intended that each of the practicing schools shall be a 
model school of its grade, and that the most approved methods 
of teaching shall be employed in every department. 

Location. 

The school is located in the beautiful and thriving village 
of Fredonia, about half an hour's ride on the street cars from 
Dunkirk. Fredonia is noted for the mildness and salubrity 
of its climate, and for the intelligence and refinement of its 
people. 

Boarding. 

Good board can be obtained at about $4.50 per week. 

The normal courses of instruction and other important 
information will be found in the Appendix (Document Q). 



Superintendent or Public Instruction. 193 



(N.) 

FIRST ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LOCAL BOARD 
OF THE STATE NORMAL AND TRAINING 
SCHOOL AT GENESEO, 

Hon. Abbam B. Weaver, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

, Sir. — In accordance' with the requirements of section three, 
chapter 466 of the Laws of the State of New York, pasted 
April 7th, 1866, entitled "An act in regard to Normal 
Schools," the local board of the State Normal and Training 
School at Geneseo, N. Y., hereby transmits to the Legislature 
of the State of New York, through the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, its first annual report. 

This report covers the time from the opening of the school, 
September 13, 1871, to October 1st, 1872. 

This school was opened September 13, 1871, and, notwith- 
standing some inconveniences and misfortunes, we are grati- 
fied to be able to report it in a very prosperous condition. 

The faculty have used every endeavor to advance the inte- 
rests of the school, by faithful effort and thorough instruction, 
and have been successful in inspiring the students with earn- 
estness and zeal in study, and a spirit of self-control. 

Heating Apparatus. 

Twice during the year we were troubled by the failure of 
our steam heating apparatus. On each occasion we were 
obliged to replace a part of the boiler, and once to repair the 
steam coils that had been frozen. We do not anticipate any 
serious inconvenience from it hereafter, provided it be of 
sufficient power to warm the building properly. 

The Legislature, with a liberality worthy the honor and 
dignity of that body, made adequate provision for the pay- 
ment of the expenses incurred in making these unexpected 
repairs. 

13 



J 



194 Nineteenth Annual Report of tbb 

Building. 

The building is a beautiful brick structure of the modem 
style of architecture, and has the modern improvements of 
gas, steam and water ; yet it is not well adapted to our pur- 
poses. We have no assembly room, nor any room capable of 
seating more than one hundred and twelve persons. The 
class rooms are so small that they must be crowded, and so 
few in number that it has become, necessary to U6e cloak rooms 
for the purpose of hearing recitations. With a continually 
increasing attendance, it is easy to see that these difficulties 
will be multiplied, and more room become an imperative 
necessity. Hence, the local board desires an appropriation to 
aid in constructing a suitable assembly room, and in making 
the necessary alterations consequent upon such an addition. 

Libraries and Apparatus. 

The text-book library contains a sufficient number of works 
to answer the present purposes of the school, and there are 
also some books of reference. 

There is no general library belonging to the school, but the 
students have the use of the Wadsworth library free of charge. 
This library contains about ten thousand volumes of standard 
and popular works and books of reference, making it very 
complete, and sufficiently extensive for the use of any student. 

There are also free reading rooms, where students may find 
all the prominent daily, semi-weekly and weekly papers ; 
papers upon science, religion, literature, art and politics; all 
the monthly magazines, and the American and foreign quar- 
terlies and reviews. 

The advantages to be gained from these two institutions 
cannot easily be estimated, and the opportunities afforded for 
literary culture are such as are seldom found in much larger 
towns. 

The chemical and philosophical apparatus is very complete, 
and quite sufficient to illustrate all the elementary principles 
and facts of these sciences. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 195 

Valuation op Property. 

The actual value of property at the date of this report, 
October let, 1872, is as follows : 

Value of lot and buildings $82,000 00 

Valueof furniture 3,407 62 

Value of library and apparatus 5,948 96 

Total value $91,356 58 

Financial Statement. 

JSeceipts. 

Received from State Treasurer from regular 

appropriation $17,996 65 

Received for tuition 1,919 85 

Received from State Treasurer from special 
appropriation to repair heating apparatus .... 1 , 500 00 

Total receipts $21,416 50 

Disbursements. 

Expended from regular appropria- 
tion, as per detailed statement. . $17,996 65 

Expended from tuition fund, as per 
detailed statement 1,261 64 

Expended from special appropria- 
tion, as per detailed statement . . 183 07 

Amount in hands of local board, 
October 1st, 1872 1,975 14 

Total $21,416 50 



196 



Nineteenth Annual Report of the 



Detailed Statement of the Expenditures of the Local Board 

of the State Normal and Training School at Geneseo, for 

the year ending September 30, 1872. 

Expenditures from Regular Appropriation. 

Expenses for month ending October 10th, 1871. 

Voucher No. 1, Wm. J. Milne, salary $250 00 

Voucher No. 2, Jerome Allen, salary 75 00 

Voucher No. 3, R. A. Waterbury, salary 150 00 

Voucher No. 4, J. B. Gorham, salary 100 00 

Voucher No. 5, Helen Roby, salary 100 00 

Voucher No. 6, N. L. Van Husen, salary 100 00 

Voucher No. 7, 8ara F. Fletcher, salary 70 00 

Voucher No. 8, E. 8. McMaster, salary 60 00 

Voucher No. 9, Glora F. Bennett, salary 60 00 

Voucher No. 10, Delia M. Day, salary. 50 00 

Voucher No. 11, Delia M. Vanderbelt, salary. 40' 00 

Voucher No. 12, M. E. Parks, salary 80 00 

Voucher No. 14, C. G. Hudnutt, telegraphing 9 53 

Voucher No. 15, W. W. Eillip, postage stamps 13 48 

Voucher No. 16, Charles Jones, coal: 955 81 

Voucher No. 17, W. R. Walker & Son, stationery 5 75 

Voucher No. 18, L. W. Crossett, stationery 77 08 

Voucher No. 19, Jacob Clapper, wood 57 50 

Voucher No. 21, J. W. Clement, printing 73 80 

$2,277 45 

Expenses for month ending November 7th, 1871. 

Voucher No. 1, Wm. J. Milne, salary $250 00 

Voucher No. 2, Jerome Allen, salary 150 00 

Voucher No. 8, R. A. Waterbury, salary 150 00 

Voucher No. 4, J. B. Gorham, salary 100 00 

Voucher No. 5, Helen Roby, salary 100 00 

Voucher .No. 6, N. L. Van Husen, salary 100 00 

Voucher No. 7, Sara F. Fletcher, salary 70 00 

Voucher No. 8, Glora F. Bennett, salary 60 00 

Voucher No. 9, E. 8. McMaster, salary ^ . . . 60 00 

Voucher No. 10, Delia M. Day, salary 50 00 

Voucher No. 11, Delia M. Vanderbelt, salary 40 00 

Voucher No. 12, M. E. Parks, salary 30 00 

Voucher No. 13, H. Howe, janitor 166 67 

Voucher No. 14, W. H. Whiting, gas 75 00 

Voucher No. 15, A. W. Butterway, furniture 26 25 

Voucher No. 16, John Richmond, clocks 72 50 

$1,500 42 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 197 



Expense* for month ending December 5th, 1871. 



Voucher No. 1 
Voucher No. 2 
Voucher No. 3 
Voucher No. 4 
Voucher No. 5 
Voucher No. 6 
Voucher No. 7 
Voucher No. 8 
Voucher No. 9 
Voucher No. 10 
Voucher No. 11 
Voucher No. 12 
Voucher No. 13 
Voucher No. 14 
Voucher No. 15 



Wm. J. Milne, salary $250 00 

Jerome Allen, salary 150 00 

R. A. Waterbury, salary 150 00 

J. B. Gorham, salary 100 00 

Helen Roby, salary 100 .00 

N. L. Van Husen, salary .' 100 00 

Sara P. Fletcher, salary 70 00 

E. 8. McMaster, salary 60 00 

Glora F. Bennett, salary 60 00 

Delia M. Day, salary 50 00 

Delia M. Vanderbelt, salary 40 00 

M. E. Parks, salary 8000 

H. Howe, janitor 66 66 

W. H. Whiting, gas 107 00 

P. R. B. Pierson, engraving 75 50 

$1,400 16 



=c 



JBxpenseifor month ending January 9<A, 1872. 

Voucher No. 1, William J. Milne, salary $250 00 

Voucher No. 2, Jerome Allen, salary 150 00 

Voucher No. 8, R. A. Waterbury, salary 150 00 

Voucher No. 4, J. B. Gorham, salary 100 00 

Voucher No. 5, N. L. Van Husen, salary 100 00 

Voucher No. 6, Helen Roby, salary 100 00 

Voucher No. 7, Sara F. Fletcher, salary *. 70 00 

Voucher No. 8, E. 8. McMaster, salary 60 00 

Voucher No. 0, Glora F. Bennett, salary 60 00 

Voucher No. 10, Delia M. Day, salary 50 00 

Voucher No. 11, Delia M. Vanderbelt, salary 40 00 

Voucher No. 12, Mary E. Parks, salary 80 00 

Voucher No. 13, H. Howe, janitor..* 66 66 

Voucher No. 14, Fohreck & Goebler, apparatus 164 75 

Voucher No. 15, William H. Whiting, gas 108 00 

Voucher No. 16, C. M. Vance, agent, express and freight ..... 60 37 

Voucher No. 17, W. W. Killip, rent of piano and organs 40 75 

toucher No. 18, H.Howe 88 57 

Voucher No. 10, W. H. Whiting, gas fittings 16 17 

Voucher No. 20, John Carson, photographs. 6 00 

$1,665 27 



Etpeneee for month ending February 6tA, 1872. 

VoucherNo. 1, William J. Milne, salary $250 00 

Voucher No. 2, Jerome Allen, salary 150 00 

Carried forward **00 00 



198 



Nineteenth Annual Report of the 



Brought 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 



forward * $400 00 

8, R. A Waterbury, salary 150 00 

4, J. ,B. Gorham, salary 100 00 

5, Helen Roby, salary 100 00 

6, N. L. Van Husen, salary , 100 00 

7, Sara F.Fletcher, salary 70 00 

8, Glora F.Bennett, salary 60 00 

0, £. S. McMaster, salary 60 00 

10, Delia M. Day, salary .50 00 

11, Delia M. Vanderbelt, salary 40 00 

12, M. E. Parks, salary 80 00 

18, H. Howe, janitor 66 66 

15, Silas C. Green, repairs 67 15 

16, Richard Champ, masonry 27 00 

17, E. C. Ensign, labor on heating apparatus. ... 8 25 

18, J. B. Gorham, repairing blackboards 5 10 

10, C. M. Vance, agent, express charges 8 60 

20, B. E. Ensign, labor on heating apparatus. ... 8 00 



Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No.' 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 



Expenses for month ending March 12th, 1872. 

1, William J. Milne, salary 

2, Jerome Allen, salary 

8, R. A. Waterbury, salary 

4, J.,B. Gorham, salary 

5, Helen Roby, salary 

6, N. L. Van Husen, salary 

7, Sara F. Fletcher, salary , 

8, Glora F. Bennett, salary 

0, Emma S. McMaster, salary 

10, Delia M. Day, salary. 

11, M. E. Parks, salary 

12, Delia M. Vanderbelt, salary 

18, H. Howe, janitor 

14, H. R. Parish, coal , 

15, E. R. Andrews, printing and stationery. . . 

16, E. A. Sheldon, charts 

17, Silas C. Green, labor on water-pipes 

18, H. L. Johnson, lumber , 

10> W. H. Whiting, lime and brick 

20, F. Mates, blacksmithing 

21, W. R. Walker & Son, stationery 

22, John McCoy, teaming 



$1,880 76 



$250 00 
150 00 
150 00 
100 00 
100 00 
100 00 

70 00 
60 00 
60 00 
50 00 
50 00 
40 00 
66 67 

71 11 
53 47 
36 00 
85 85 
24 18 
10 65 

7 70 
6 15 
300 



$1 ,405 23 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 199 

Expenses for month ending April $th y 1872. 

Toucher No. 1, Wm. J. Milue, salary $250 00 

Voucher No. 2, Jerome Allen, salary 150 00 

Voucher No. 3, R. A. Waterbury, salary 150 00 

Voucher No. 4, J. B. Gorham, salary 100 00 

Voucher No. 5, Helen Roby, salary 100 00 

Voucher No. 6, N. L. Van Husen, salary 100 00 

Voucher No. 7, Sara F. Fletcher, salary 70 00 

Voucher No. 8, Glora F. Bennett, salary 60 00 

Voucher No. 9, £. 8. McMaster, salary 60 00 

Voucher No. 10, Delia M.Day, salary 50 00 

Voucher No. 11, M. E. Parks, salary 50 00 

Voucher No. 12, Delia M. Vanderbelt, salary 40 00 

Voucher No. 13, H. Howe, janitor 66 67 

Voucher No. 14, Clark & Maynard, books 12 00 

Voucher No. 15, 8. Julia Beach, mileage 7 45 

Voucher No. 16, F. E. Wells, mileage 5 50 

Voucher No. 17, Maggie 0. Milne, mileage 1 88' 

Voucher No. 18, F. A. Winne, mileage 1 16 

Voucher No. 10, Cornelia Clute, mileage 50 

Voucher No. 20, W. H. Whiting, gas 104 40 

Voucher No. 2i, W. H. Whiting, gas .' 57 20 

Voucher No. 22, W. H. Whiting, gas-pipe, etc 18 00 

Voucher No. 28, W. H. Whiting, gas 45 60 

Voucher No. 24, W. H. Whiting, fire-brick, lime, etc 8 42 

Voucher No. 26, U. 8. Express Company, charges 05 85 

Voucher No. 27, J. Siddons & Son, plumbing 57 67 

Voucher No. 82, W. W. Killip, postage stamps and tele- 
graphing 8 05 

Voucher No. 83, M. Conway, masonry 7 80 

Voucher No. 84, John Dennis, masonry 7 80 

Voucher No. 86, Wm. Sax ton, teaming 5 25 

Voucher No. 87, Chas. Goheen, water lime 1 66 

Voucher No. 40, E. 8. Ritchie A Son, apparatus 100 44 

Voucher No. 41, James W. Queen A Co. , apparatus 68 00 

Voucher No. 42, F. L. Pope A Co., apparatus 10 20 

Voucher No. 43, 8. C. Green, repairs 6 75 

$1,881 75 

Expenus for the month ending May 7th, 1872. 

Voucher No. 1, Wm. J. Milne, salary $250 00 

Voucher No. 2, Jerome Allen, salary 150 00 

Voucher No. 3, R. A. Waterbury, salary 150 00 

Carried forward $550 00 



200 



Nineteenth Annual Report of the 



Brought 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher. No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 
Voucher No. 



forward $550 00 

4, J. B. Gorham, salary 100 00 

5, Helen Roby, salary 100 00 

6, N. L. Van Husen, salary 100 00 

7, Sara F. Fletcher, salary 70 00 

8, Glora F. Bennett, salary 00 00 

0, E. S. Monaster, salary 60 00 

10, Delia M. Day, salary ...\ 50 00 

11, M. E. Parks, salary 50 00 

12, Delia M. Vanderbelt, salary 40 00 

13, Charlotte Dykeman, teaching 25 00 

14, H. Howe, janitor 66 06 

15, J. W. Clement, printing, etc 66 85 

16, A. S. Barnes & Co., books 18 00 

17, N. G. Hawley, binding 8 71 

18, W. W. Eillip, rent of piano and organs 52 87 

19, W. H. Whiting, gas 104 00 

20, W. H. Whiting, gas \ 53 60 

23, Samuel Carey, labor on heating apparatus. . . 29 54 

24, Wm. H. Robinson, board of laborers 22 20 

25, Patrick Burns, labor attending masons 10 06 

26, Wm. J. Milne*, atlas 9 00 

27, H. Crawford, drawing water 10 00 

28, A. A. Cox, lime and sand 4 00 

29, Jerome Stocking, repairing pump, etc. ...... 1 75 

30, Warren Luce, planting trees. 4 19 



$1,665 93 



Expenses for month ending June 4tft, 1872. 

Voucher No. 1, Wm. J. Milne, salary $250 00 

Voucher No. 2, Jerome Allen, salary 150 00 

Voucher No. 8, R. A. Waterbury, salary 150 00 

Voucher No. 4, J. B. Gorham, salary 100 00* 

Voucher No. 5, Helen Roby, salary 100 00 

Voucher No. 6, N. L. Van Husen, salary 100 00 

Voucher No. 7, Sara F. Fletcher, salary 70 00 

Voucher No. 8, Glora F. Bennett, salary 60 00 

Voucher No. 9, E. S. McMaster, salary 60 00 

Voucher No. 10, Delia M. Day, salary 50 00 

Voucher No. 11, Mary E. Parks, salary 50 00 

Voucher No. 12, Delia M. Vanderbelt, salary 40 00 

Voucher No. 13, H. Howe, janitor 66 67 

Voucher No. 14, Charles Jones, coal 700 00 

Carried forward $1,946 67 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 201 

Brought forward $1,946 67 

Voucher No. 15, J. W. Chapman, slate and slating 68 90 

Voucher No. 16, W. W. Killip, telegraphing 90 

Voucher No. 17, L. W. Orossett, stationery 45 83 

Voucher No. 18, J. W. Clement, printing 12 65 

Voucher No. 19, Henner & Parker, trees 18 00 

$2,082 44 

Expenses for month ending July Zd % 1872. 

Voucher No. 1, We J. Milne, salary $250 00 

Voucher No. 2, Jerome Allen, salary 150 00 

Voucher No. 8, R. A. Waterbury, salary 150 00 

Voucher No. 4, J. B. Gorham, salary 100 00 

Voucher No. 5, Helen Roby, salary 100 00 

Voucher No. 6, N. L. Van Husen, salary 100 00 

Voucher No. 7, Sara F. Fletcher, salary 70 00 

Voucher No. 8, Glora F. Bennett, Balary 60 00 

Voucher No. 9, E. 8. McMaster, salary 60 00 

Voucher No. 10, Delia M. Day, salary 50 00 

Voucher No. 11, Mary E. Parks, salary 50 00 

Voucher No. 12? Delia M. Vanderbelt, salary 40 00 

Voucher No. 13, H. Howe, janitor 66 67 

Voucher No. 14, C. F. Doty & Co., hardware, stoves, etc 527 48 

Voucher No. 15, J. C. Larwill, labor and material 815 00 

Voucher No. 16, E. A. Pickard, labor and material 251 84 

Voucher No. 17, M. W. Chase, ink-wells 80 00 

Voucher No. 18, W. H. Whiting, gas 61 60 

Voucher No. 19, W. W. Killip, rent of piano and organs 62 87 

Voucher No. 20, Thomas Maloney, teaming 18 00 

Voucher No. 21, Walter Yorks, boxing trees 5 00 

Voucher No. 22, John McCoy, teaming 2 00 

Voucher No. 23, C. O. Beach A Co., carpets and furniture ... 104 87 

Voucher No. 24, John Siddons & Sons, plumbing 62 29 

Voucher No. 25, E. A. Pickard, glazing 9 10 

Voucher No. 26, H. Howe, making carriage-block 4 42 

Voucher No. 27, J. B. Gorham, repairing blackboards 2 60 

$2,688 24 

Summary. 

Expenses for month ending October 10th, 1871 $2,277 45 

Expenses for month ending November 7th, 1871 1 ,500 42 

Expenses for month ending December 5th, 1871 1 ,409 16 

Expenses for month ending January 9th, 1872 1 , 665 27 

Carried forward $6,852 80 



202 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Brought forward $6,852 80 

Expenses for month ending February 6th, 1872 1 ,880 76 

Expenses for month ending March 12th, 1872. 1 ,405 28 

Expenses for month ending April 9th, 1872 1 ,881 75 

Expenses for month ending May 7th, 1872 1,665 98 

Expenses for month ending June 4th, 1872 2,082 44 

Expenses for month ending Juiy 2d, 1872 2,688 24 

Total $17,996 65 

Expenditures from Tuition Fund. 

Paid J. C. Larwfll for building privies, and repairs $755 88 

Paid John M. Milne for teaching 860 00 

Paid Stellar Tellurian Co. for apparatus 146 26 

$1,261 64 



Expenditures from Special Appropriation. 

Paid C. F. Doty A Co. for use of stoves, etc $85 48 

Paid H. Howe, boarding laborers 15 62 

Paid J. C. Larwill for boxing air-draughts and coils 70 17 

Paid J. W. McCone, labor 8 00 

PaidF. W. Mates, blacksmithing 6 85 

Paid P. Crystal, teaming 2 00 

$188 07 



We hereby certify that we have examined the foregoing 
statement of receipts and audited expenditures for the State 
Normal and Training School at Geneseo, N. T., for the year 
ending September 30th, 1872, and believe the same to be 
correct. 

H. ALLEN, 

President pro tern. 
W. E. Laudebdalb, 

Secretory* 

Sworn and subscribed to before me, ) 
this 31st day of December, 1872. J 

James J. Cone, 

Notary Public. 



SUTBRINTBNDXNT OF PVBLW INSTRUCTION. 208 

Attendance. 

"The whole number of students enrolled from September 13, 
1871, to October 1st, 1872, was as follows : 

In normal school 191 

In academic department 157 

In intermediate department 151 

In primary department 183 

Total 682 

Graduates. 

At the close of the first school year the following persons 
received diplomas : 

Classical Course. 

John N. Drake, Frank A. Winne, 

Frank £. Wells, Glora F. Bennett. 

9 

Advanced English. 
Ella A. Chamberlin, Ava Wilkinson. 

Elementary Training. 

Mary P. Allen, Maggie L. McNaughton, 

Julia M. Skinner, Sarah L. Watson. 

All the above, and many others who dte not gradnates, but 
who have attended the school during some portion of the year 
are engaged in teaching in the schools of this State. 

Special Announcement in Circulab of November 1, 1872. 

Looal Board. 

Gen. James Wood, President. Peter Miller. 
Dr. W. E. Lauderdale, Secretary. Adoniram J. Abbott. 
Hon. Hezekiah Allen, Treasurer. Daniel Bigelow. 
John Rorbach. Hon. Solomon Hubbard. 

James W. Wadsworth. 



204 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Faculty. 

William J. Milne, A. M., Principal; Didactics and Moral 
Philosophy. 

Jerome Allen, A. M., Natural Sciences. 

R. A. Waterbury, A. M., Mathematics. 

John M. Milne, Academic Department, and Ancient. Lan- 
guage. 

Miss Helen Roby, Preceptress ; Rhetoric and Composition. 

Miss N. L. Van Husen, Elementary Methods. 

Miss Emma S. McMaster, English Grammar. 

Miss Glora F. Bennett, Mathematics and German. 

Miss Ella A. Chamberlin, History and Geography. 

Mrs. Sara Fletcher, Critic and Head Teacher of Interme- 
diate Department. 

Miss Delia M. Vanderbelt, Critic in Intermediate Depart- 
ment. 

Miss Delia M. Day, Critic and Head Teacher of Primary 
Department. 

Miss Mary P. Allen, Critic in Primary Department. 

Miss Mary E. Parks, Yocal Music. 

Mrs. Charlotte Dykeman Himes, Elocution. 

Miss F. Melaine Goddard, Drawing and Painting. 

Mrs. W. K. Walker, Instrumental Music. 

Location. 

The village of Geneseo is delightfully situated in the valley 
of the Genesee, thirty miles south of Rochester, on the rail- 
road leading from Rochester to Dansville. Students living on 
the line of the New York Central railroad will take the cars 
to Rochester, thence to Avon by Genesee Valley railroad, and 
thence to Geneseo. Students coming by the Erie railway 
take the cars to Avon and thence to Geneseo. 

Advantages. 

The school is supplied with a complete text-book library, 
containing, besides the works used in the school, others for 
reference. The students have free access to the Wadsworth 



i 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 205 

4 

library, which contains nearly ten thousand volumes. There 
is, besides, a public reading room where can be found all the 
leading daily papers, papers on science, literature, art and 
religion, and all the monthlies and quarterlies, making it one 
of the most valuable aids to the student. The chemical and 
philosophical apparatus of the school is all new, and extensive 
enough to enable the student to perform all experiments of an 
elementary course. 

Boarding. 

Board can be obtained in private families at rates varying 
from $3.50 to $4.50 per week, exclusive of washing. The 
boarding hall in the normal school building is designed exclu- 
sively for ladies, in which board, including furnished room, 
fnel, lights and washing, is furnished at $3.75 per week. 

All who board in the boarding hall are required to furnish 
their own towels, napkins, sheets, pillow-cases and comforters ; 
each of which, as well as every article of clothing, should be 
distinctly marked with the owner's name in full. 

On arriving at Oeneseo, students should go immediately to 
the normal school building, where they will meet some mem- 
ber of the faculty who will render them all necessary assistance 
in securing boarding places. 



206 



Nineteenth Annual Report or tbe 



(O.) 

8IXTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE STATE NOR- 
MAL AND TRAINING SCHOOL AT OSWEGO. 

Hon. Abeam B. Weaver, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Sib. — We have the honor of herewith submitting to you the 
annual report of the State Normal and Training School at 
Oswego, for the year ending September 30, 1872. 

We have no suggestion to make, beyond what was presented 
in the last report in regard to a Kindergarten department and 
enlarged accommodations for the school. These additional 
facilities would greatly enhance the usefulness of the school ; 
and we desire again tp urge them upon your attention. The 
school continues in as prosperous a condition as ever. 

Attendance of Students. 

Registered. Arerage. 

Normal department 420 212 

t> .. . ( Junior 204 155 

Practicing. | Primary 249 139 

Total 873 506 

Average age of ladies in attendance 21 

Average age of gentlemen in attendance 21 

Number of graduates from normal department : 

Ladies 60 

Gentlemen 6 

66 



Changes of Teachers. 

The following changes of teachers have occurred during the 
year: 



Superintendent or Pxtslic Inbtmuction. 207 

Prof. E. A. Strong, on account of the ill health] of his family, 
resigned his position at the close of the spring term, and Dr. 
N. T. True, of the State of Maine, was appointed to fiirthe 
vacancy. 

Hies Mary Ryan, teacher of reading, resigned at the close 
of the spring term, to take a more lucrative position in the 
New Jersey State Normal School at Trenton. Miss Mary R. 
Ailing was appointed to fill the vacancy. 

Miss Eate Davis, teacher of primary methods and critic in 
the primary department of the practice school, resigned at the 
close of the spring term to take a more lucrative position in a 
private school at Oak Park, 111., and Miss Defransa Hall was 
appointed to fill the vacancy. 

Mr. John G. Parkhnrst was appointed at the beginning of 
the September term, to teach vocal music in the place of Miss 
Mary Davis, resigned. 

Mr. William M. Aber, who rendered assistance last year as 
an undergraduate, has since graduated, and has been appointed 
to do full work. The new teachers are doing good service and 
all departments of the school are working to the entire satis- 
faction of the board. 

GILBERT MOLLISON, 

President. 
J. K. Post, Secretary. 

Detailed Statement of Receipts and Expenditures of the 
Local Board of the Oswego Normal and Training School, 
for the year ending September ZOth, 1872. 

Receipts. 

Received from the State on requisition, being amount of annual 
appropriation $18,000 00 

Received from State on requisition, amount appropriated for 
heating apparatus 10,000 00 

Received from State, balance of last year's appropriation 281 89 

Total receipts $28,28180 



S08 



Nineteenth Annual Report or the 



D1SBUB8BHENT8. 

Teacher J Wage*. 

E. A. Sheldon $1,875 00 

E. A. Strong. 2,000 00 

LB.Poucher 1,37000 

Herman Krusi 1 , 268 00 

M. S. Cooper 1 , 140 00 

S. J. Armstrong 1 ,000 00 

E. S. Lane 250 00 

Mary Ryan 650 00 

E. S. Hutchens 600 00 

Kate Davis 150 00 

M. C. McCumber 250 00 

Wm. M. Aber 450 00 

Mary E. Davis * 275 00 

C.L. Miller , 80 00 

Isabella Parsells 10 00 

D. H. Cruttenden 1,200 00 

♦12,418 00 

Furniture Account. 

RBickford $201 61 

J. Bickford, Jr .'. 39 55 

Bickf ord & G illett 359 00 

J. J. Hart, carpets and oil cloths 40 62 

H. B. Smith & Co. , steam-heating apparatus 10,000 00 

$10,640 78 



Apparatus Account. 

Bryant & Co., celestial indicator 

Rohrbeck & Goebeler, chemical apparatus , 

M. McVicar, mathematical apparatus 

Library Account. 
Sheldon & Co., books , 

William Wood, chemistries 

D. H. Cruttenden, grammars ; . , 

Ginn Brothers, Greek Lexicons 

Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., books 

I. G. Wynkoop, music books 

Wool worth, Ainsworth & Co., books 



$25 00 
80 93 
75 00 



$180 93 



$57 25 
11 25 
40 00 

14 40 

15 00 
2 25 

54 00 



$194 15 



1 



Superintendent or Public Instruction. 209 

CorUingerU Bsep&ntes. 

P. Malone, janitor's service $400 00 

Advertiser and Times, printing 84 00 

Oswego Water-works, water rent 89 00 

J. D. Hammond, music 11 65 

Barrett, Calvert & Aber, stationery 130 5$ 

Kinyon, Smith & Co., hardware 80 

A. G. Cooke, coal 500 40 

C. H. Butler, chemicals 7 68 

E. A. Strong, disbursements 27 81 

L. Gordon, ribbon for diplomas 35 25 

Lake & Co., mason work, etc *. 18 64 

R. J. Oliphant, printing 288 48 

P. Malone, cleaning and labor 77 25 

Daniel Perry, trees 8 50 

Lippincott & Kinyon, lumber 24 07 

Oswego Gas Light Company, gas 140 59 

Chas. Scribner & Co., parchment, diplomas 45 00 

J. N. Collins & Co. , hardware 145 61 

M. Sheridan, draining 250 40 

Skinner & Colnon, painting 218 69 

Ratigan & Culkin, mason work, etc 178 82 

Gardner Bros., carpenter work and materials 697 26 

E. A. Sheldon, disbursements 119 81 

Hamilton, Coe & Co., stationery 26 78 

Peter Collette, labor 64 75 

John Hughes, labor 12 00 

J. L. Poole, paper and papering 64 17 

Wallace, Davis* Co., fixing stoves 7 68 

K. M. Andrews, matches 3 98 

A P. Williams, fixing doors 4 08 

R Dempsey, labor - t 7 80 

Parkhurst Bros., music 7 10 

Oliver Peck, rent of piano and tuning 17 00 

Sidney Van Buren , labor •• 1800 

August Koehley, book-binding W 65 

Thomas Donohue, labor - t M 68 

William Aber, twine 3 35 

City Board of Education, coal U2 20 

Oswego Printing Co., printing 1^ 50 

N. M. Rowe, charcoal » 55 

Caleb Green, paper hanging • ** w 

Mileage of pupils " 6 61 

$4,897 58 

Total disbursements $28,281 89 

.^ 

14 



210 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Financial Statement — Summary. 

Receipts. 
Received from the State $28,261 39 

Disbursements. 
Teachers' wages : . . . . $12,418 00 

Contingent expenses 4,897 53 

Library account 194 15 

Apparatus account . 180 98 

Furniture account 10,640 78 

Total $28,281 39 

Liabilities. 
Balance of requisition of June 29lh, 1872 $1,904 01 

GILBERT MOLLISON, 

President 
J. K. Post, Secretary. 

State of New York, ) 
County of Oswego, \ 88m • 

Sworn and subscribed to before me, this 10th day of 
January, 1873. 

J. SHEPAED FITCH, 

• Notary Public. 

OFFICERS. 

State Department of Public Instruction. 

Abram B. Weaver, Superintendent. 
Edward Danf'orth, Deputy Superintendent. 

Local Board. 

Gilbert Mollison, President. David Harmon. 

John K. Post, Secretary. Theodore Irwin. 

Daniel G. Fort, Treasurer. Alanson S. Page. 

Samuel B. Johnson. Benjamin Doolittle. 

Thomas S. Mott. Abner C. Mattoon. 

John M. Barrow. Delos De Wolf. 

Thomson Kingsfurd. 



i 



Superintendent or Public Instruction. 211 

Faculty. 

Edward A. Sheldon, A. M., Didactics. 

Nathaniel T. Trae, A. M., M. D., Natural Sciences. 

Isaac B. Poacher, A. M., Arithmetic and Algebra. 

Herman Krusi, Geometry, History and Philosophy of 
Education, French and German. 

David H. Cruttenden, A. M., Lecturer on Languages. 

William M. Aber, Latin, Greek, History, Botany and Book- 
keeping. 

Joha G. Parkhurst, Vocal Music. 

Matilda S. Cooper, English Grammar, Methods of Teaching 
Grammar, Number and Object-lessons. 

Sarah J. Armstrong, Rhetoric, English Literature and Com- 
position. 

Mary R. Ailing, Gymnastics, Spelling, Beading and Elo- 
cution. 

Emma S. Hutchins, Drawing and Penmanship. 

Martha McCumber, Geography and Methods in Geography 
and Botany, and Principal of Junior Practice School.. 

Defransa Hall, Primary Methods, and Principal of Primary 
Practice School. 

Mary W. Hunt, Critic in the Junior Practice School. 

Kate Whiting, Critic in the Primary Practice School. 

Graduates fob the Term ending January 30, 1872. 

Elementary English Class. 

Balch, E. Alice. Reynolds, Myra M. 

Bannister, Elvira. Eice, Emily J. 

Cram, Ellen. Sheak, Elizabeth. 

Ingraham, Lucretia F. Sikes, Almira E. 

Jayne, S. Augusta. Stoddard, M. Louise. 

Williams, Rose B. 



212 



Nineteenth Annual Report of the 



Advanced English Class. 



Cusick, Mary. 
Jackson, Margaret. 
Miller, C. Lucretia. 
Parsels, Isabelle. 
Rice, Anna A. 

Burt, Mary EL 



Roberts, Amy J. 
Southwell, Alfaretta 
Steber, Emma A. 
Trask, Adele. 
Williams, S. Ida. 

Classical Class. 

Worthington, Eleanor. 



Graduates fob Term ending July 2, 1872. 
Elementary English Class. 



Adriance, Julia L. 
Backer, Amy A. 
Bennett, Emeline M. 
Blair, Charlotte M. 
Bush, Arthine A. 
Bretts, Melissa M. 
Clubbs, S.Anna. 
Davis, Mary E. 
Edwards, Adeline S. 
Gillespie, Mary A. 
Green, Ella H. 
Hubbard, Grace A. 



Locke, Helen E. 
Lynch, Helen. 
Matheson, ■ Frances L. 
Miller, Sarah H. 
Moore, Adelaide G. 
Morel, Sophia L. 
Phair, Mary A. 
Rollinson, Elizabeth G. 
Sikes, Viletta G. 
Sisson, Emma D. 
Smith, Lena M. 
Stbckwell, Frances C. 
Wait, Susan A. 



Advanced English Class. 



Churchill, Octa G. 
Crura, Taylor. 
Dewey, Lola M. 
Edwards, D. Sophia. 
Houghton, Mary F. 
McLellan, John W. 

Aber, William M. 
Barrett, H. Elbert. 
Farnham, Le Roy D. 



Ormiston, Julia E. 
Payne, Augusta F. 
Piersall, Josephine M. 
Royce, Millicent A. 
Smith, Cora A. 
Stevens, Harriet E. 

Classical Class. 

Meigler, Mary J. 
Stimete, Charles C. 
Williams, M. Alice. 



Superintendent or Public Instruction. 213 

Catalogue of Graduates. 

Complete list of the names of the graduates, including dates 
of graduation, and also the salary of each so far as known. 

BtFKBtifOBS ussd in List.— * Graduated from Elementary English Department, t Gra- 
duated from Advanced Snglish Department. $ Graduated from Classical English Depart- 
ment. 1 Left the profession. 1 Not teaching. $ Married. 

Names. Dates of Graduation. Salaries. 

Aber, William M. * f t July 2, 1872 $1 , 000 

Adriance, Julia L. * July 2, 1872 600 

Allen, John G. f January 80,1871 1,500 

Allen, Margaret A. * a January 80, 1871 400 

Ailing, Mary R * July 6, 1809 800 

Anderson, Medora C* February 6, 1867 §450 

Andrews, Esther A * Class of 1863 1,000 

Andrews, Jane* Class of 1862 1,000 

Andrews, Margaret L.* Class of 1864 f § 

Aplin, K. Louise* July6, 1869 

Armstrong, Clara J* July8,1868 ". 1,000 

Armstrong, Sarah J.* £ February 6, 1867 1,000 

Arnold, Fanny f July 8, 1868 550 

Arnold, Helen M.* February 8, 1869 825 

Arnold, Marcia A.f January 80, 1871 475 

Avery, Jennie H.f e • July 1, 1870 800 

Backer, Amy A.* July2,1872 | 

Bailey, Alice F* July6, 1869 | 

Balch, E. Alice* January 30, 1872 500 

Bannister, Elvira* January 80, 1872 400 

Barber, Mary 8* Classof 1862 400 

Barker, Hannah J. f February 8, 1869 500 

Barker, Mary* Classof 1862 .•... f § 

Barlow, Mary E* July 10, 1867 | 

Barrett, H. Elbert* ft July 2, 1872 900 

Barstow, Ellen L * February 6, 1866 If § 

Baxtti, Bella J .* July 1 , 1870 ,800 

Bassett, Wayland G. S.f February 1, 1870 | 

Becker, Helen.* Classof 1862.... f % 

Beaman,MaryE.*t July 6,1869 700 

Beeman, H. Augusta* f July 8, 1871 600 

Benedict, Harriet N * July 10, 1867 400 

Bennett, EmelineM* July 2,1872 500 

Bennett, Ida W.\d July 6, 1869 400 

Bettis, Addie F.*« February 8, 1869 

Bishop, Electa R* July 10, 1867.. 600 

a t July 8, 1871. e * January 80, 1871. « Died September 6, 1871. 

ft t Jnly 10, 1887. <f * February 1, 1870. 



214 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Names. Dates of Graduation. Salaries. 

Black, Jenny* Class of 1862 | 

Blackwood, Belle*. February 6, 1866 $525 

Blair, Charlotte M* July 2, 1872 450 

Blasdell, Susan* February 8,1869 f § 

Blood, Eliza A* Classof 1862 550 

Bloomer, Jennie* July 6, 1869 500 

Bond, Maggie L* Classof 1865 400 

Boyd, Andrew J.f February 5, 1868 | 

Bradt, H. Amelia* February 6, 1866 T § 

Brant, Alida R*/ February 6, 1867 

Brant, Louisa H * Class of 1868 T § 

Brennan, Kate S * July 8, 1871 600 

Brewster, Sarah P *g Class of 1862 

Brigham, ElvaM.* July 3, 1871 400 

Brown, Ada B* February 6,1867 % § 

Brown, Amelia* July 10, 1867 525 

Brown, Manily T.f February 8, 1869 1 ,200 

Bruce,EllenM* Classof 1862 525 

Bruce, Ida.f February 1, 1870 1 ,500 

Bryan,Mary* Classof 1865 450 

Bryant, Marie E.* February 6, 1866 T | 

Bunnell, Hannah E.* Class of 1868 600 

Burchard, Oscar Rf July 6, 18&9 1 , 500 

Burke, Ellen B* July8,1868 1 § 

Burt,KateB.f February 6, 1867 § 750 

Burt,KateM.* Classof 1865 7 § 

Burt, Margaret M.* Class of 1864 425 

Burt, Marion V.* February 6, 1866 425 

Burt,MaryH*tJ.. January 80, 1872 1,000 

Bush, Arthine A* July2, 1872 800 

Butler, Mary L* February 1,1870 | 

Butts, Melissa M* July2, 1872 400 

Campbell, Anna* Class of 1868 

Cajd, Florence * Classof 1868 Tf § 

Card, George N.f February 8, 1869 1,500 

Card, Milton H. j February 3, 1869. * 7 

Carpenter, Mara E.* July 6, 1869 700 

Carpenter, Marion K* July 10, 1867 500 

Carpenter, Rosamond H.* February 3, 1869 | 

Carpenter, Sarah * Class of 1868 | 

Carrier, Mary E.f January 30, 1871 375 

Carter N. Jane* Class of 1868 T § 

Case, Pamelia C * Class of 1862 | 

/ Died March, 6, 1871. g Died June 17, 1888. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 215 

Names. Dates of Graduation. Salaries. 

Chalmers, Angeltne* Class of 1865 $450 

Chalmers, Julia A* February 6, 1867 600 

Champion, Anna* JulyS, 1871 500 

Chandler, Eliza A.* Class of 1865 450 

Chapin, Edward* July8,1871 1,000 

Charles, Libbie 8.* July 10, 1867 450 

Chase, Olive A.* July8,1871 600 

Churchill, H. Jennie* July 6, 1869 f § 

Churchill, Octa G.* f July 2, 1872 600 

Clancey, Marie L.* Class of 1864 600 

Clapp,EvaH* February 5, 1868 400 

Clapp, Leonora T.* Class of 1862 

Clark, Charles D* Class of 1862 

Clarke, Fanny M.* January 80, 1871 | 

Clark, Florence* Class of 1868 f § 

Clark, Hattie * February 5, 1868 450 

Clubb8,8. Anna* July 2, 1872 | 

Coata,Ph<Bbe* Classof 1868 

Cole, Ella J*. February 6, 1867 f § 

Collins, Hannah J* July25,1866 800 

Cook, Juliet A.*f J July 8, 1871 700 

Coon,Emily* February 1, 1871 875 

Cooper, Arthur*t July 8, 1871 | 

Cooper.Fanny* Class of 1868 T § 

Cooper, Matilda 8.* Class of 1862 1,200 

Copley, Euphemia D.* Class of 1868 600 

Crabb, Eugene M.f July 1,1870 600 

Cragin, Lucy M.* Class of 1868 700 

Crawford, Charles H. ft •. . July 1, 1870 1,800 

Crooks, Helen A. f February 5, 1868 §700 

Cross,Helen G,* February 6, 1867 400 

Cnim,Ellen* January 30, 1872 600 

Crum,Taylor*t July2,1872 | 

Curtice, Delia* Class of 1865 700 

Curtis, Hannah f July 6, 1869 f § 

Cusick, Mary*f January 80, 1872 400 

Cyrenius, Frances J* February 6, 1866 f § 

Dalrymple, Harriet A.* July 6, 1869 500 

Darrow, MaryE.* July 3, 1871 500 

Davies, Adeline E* February 6, 1867 §550 

Davis, Adaf January 30, 1871 

Davis, AnnaK* February 6, 1867 f § 

Davis, Hattie E. f January 30, 1871 

Davis, Helen A.* Class of 1862 If § 

Davis, Kate H* Class of 1862 650 



216 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Names. Dates of Graduation. Salaries. 

Davis,Maria E* July 1, 1870 , 1 

Davis,Mary E* Class of 1862 1 § 

Davis, Mary, E. J fc July 1, 1870 $1,000 

Day, DeliaM.*' February 3, 1869 • 500 

De Lano, Teen J * i February 5, 1868 520 

Dempsey, Kittie L * July 6, 1869 425 

Denton, Sarah L * j July 6, 1869 1,200 

Dewey, Lola M* f .^ July2,1872 550 

Dickerman, Emma* July 8, 1871 1,500 

Dikeman, Charlotte N* February 8, 1869 If § 

Dildine, Mary E * July 6, 1869 400 

Dlnmore, Lizzie* Class of 1865 450 

Dobbie, E. Talina* February 5, 1868 If § 

Doris, Elizabeth L.* July 8, 1868 550 

Douglass, Henry M.f J: July 8, 1868 1,000 

Dowse, Harriet F.f July 1, 1870 500 

Drew, Jeannette A.* February 6, 1867 If § 

Dugane, Sarah D.* Classofl864 If § 

Dunning, Georgef k * February 5, 1868 

Edwards, Adelines.* , July2, 1872 500 

Edwards, D. Sophia* f July 2, 1 872 450 

Edwards, Eva 8*^ February 5, 1868 550 

Edwards, Lindley M.f July 6, 1869 1 ,200 

Eggleston, Henrietta M*f July 8, 1871 480 

Ells, Amelia A. * February 6, 1867 T§ 

Fairchild, Fanny M.* July8,1868 450 

Farnham, Le Roy D *f J July 2, 1872 | 

Fenner, Emma J* '. July 10, 1867. 400 

Ferguson, Sarah M.» I July 6, 1869 400 

Fitzpatrick, Julia A * February 8, 1867 ......... | 

Forbush, J. Estelle* July 8, 1871. . : 860 

Foster, Mary F * February 6, 1867 If § 

France, Aaron Rf . February 1, 1870 500 

Franks, Maria B * July 1, 1870 550 

French, Arminaf February 6, 1867 T § 

Funnelle, Amanda P.* Class of 1862 1 ,500 

Funnelle, LenaS.*m July 10, 1867 T § 

Furman, G. Monroef July 6, 1869 1,200 

Furman, John W.f January 80, 1871 1,000 

Gage, L. Jennie* February 5, 1868 550 

Gage, Mary E* Class of 1865 T § 

Galloway, Eudora F. * February 6, 1868 700 

Gaylord, Margaret K .* February 8, 1869 500 

A * July 8, 1872. j t Feb. 8, 1809. / f Jolj 8, 1871. 

{ t July 6, 1869. Jt Died Oct M, 1870. m t February 6, 1867. 



Superintendent or Public Instruction. 217 

Nana*. Dates of Graduation. Salaries. 

Gibbs, Frances M.* February 6, 1866 $550 

Gibbs, M. Elizabeth* m July 10, 1867 475 

Gilbert, Christina H* Class of 1863 700 

Gilchrist, Augusta L* February 6, 1866 ........ . T § 

Gill, Emily I .» February 6, 1866 | 

Gillespie, Letitia J* July 6, 1869 460 

GiBespie, Mary A * July 2, 1872 | 

Gray, Laura M* February 6, 1867 IT § 

Gray, May E.* July 6, 1869 400 

Green, Cassius M.f July 6, 1869 I 

Green, Ella H* July 2, 1872 | 

Hall, Belle* February 8, 1869 I 

Hall, Defransa A * July 10, 1867 700 

Hall, Mary F* n , January 80, 1871 700 

Hamilton, Anna E* Class of 1864 450 

Hamilton, Mary L* Class of 1868 IT § 

Hammond, Marcia C* July8,1868 | 

Hanen, Anna M *o February^, 1866 

Hanen, Mary J. * Class of 1862 | 

Hanford, Marion K* Classof 1865 T % 

Harkness, J. Warren f February 8, 1869 | 

Harmon, Mary J.* Class of 1865 1,200 

Haskell, Sarah M* February 6, 1866 f § 

Hawkins, Hattie E. f July 1 , 1870 860 

Hemenway , Jennie * f July 8, 1 871 600 

Henry, Susan R* July 8, 1868 800 

Hemes, Isabella f .. - July8,1868 IT 8 

Hicks, Elvenia L f Februarys, 1868 f § 

Hodgkins, E. Theodocia * February 1, 1870 600 

Holbrook, Mary M. f February^ 1867 1 § 

Hopkins, Amanda J. *p Julyl,1870 700 

Hopson, Edla E.* July 25, 1866 % § 

Houghton, Mary F. * f July 2, 1872 600 

Howard, Ellen E. f January 80, 1871 | 

Howard, James S. f January 80, 1871 1,000 

Hubbard, Amelia E .* q Class of 1864 

Hubbard, Grace A. * July 2, 1872 | 

Hubbard, Maria H *r July 10, 1867 | 

Hubbard, Zilpha 8* July 6, 1869 450 

Hughes, EmUy L. * July 10,1867 f § 

Hughes, Jennie E.f February 5, 1868 700 

Hunt, Emma S. * February 8, 1869 425 

m t February 6, 1897. o Died November 8, 1897. q Died June 1, 1871. 

lit July ft, 1880. ' ptFtbraaryl, 18TO. rt February ft, 1897. 



218 



Nineteenth Annual Report or the 



• • k • • 



Salaries. 

$eoo 

1§ 
800 

525 

600 

IS 
I 

700 

900 

1,500 

IS 

1,200 
650 

\ § 
475 



Names. Dates of Graduation. 

Htmt, Mary W. * July 8, 1871 

Hyland, Eliza J * Class of 1864 

Ingraham, Lucretia F.* January 80, 1872 

Jackson, Margaret * f .. . January 80, 1872. . . . 

Jayne, S. Augusta * January 80, 1872 

Jenkins, Helen M. * Class of 1862 

Jennie, Amelia H * February 6, 1867 

Johnson, Nancy P.* July 6, 1869 

Jones, Eleanor E.* February 8, 1869 

Jones, Ellen L. *. . July 8, 1871 

Jones, Lewis H. ** February 5, 1868 

Jones, Miriam P.* February 5, 1868 . 

Jones, Rebecca* February 6, 1867 . 

Joslin, Sylvia P.* July 6, 1869 

Keeler, Esther J. * July 6, 1869 

Kellogg, Corralinn. A. * \ February 1, 1870 . 

Kendall, Harriet D. * t July 6, 1869 

Kenific, Maggie * .• February 6, 1866 450 

Kerr, Kittle* Class of 1865 § 875 

525 

700 

1% 

500 

550 

400 

800 

IS 

2,000 

TS 

600 

IS 

500 

1,500 

f 

400 

§ 

425 

500 

400 

IS 

500 

800 

450 



Ketchum, Angeline H* July 10, 1867 

Keyes, Sarah L. \ February 6, 1867 . 

Kilbourne, Mary A* .". Class of 1862 .... 

Kiinber, Fanny C. * February 1, 1870, 

King, Jennette C. * July 10, 1867 

Kingsford, Elizabeth* July 1, 1870 

Kriekade, Mary A. * January 80, 1871.. 

Lapping, Martha A * Class of 1865 

Lathrop, Delia A. * February 6, 1868 . 

Lawrence, Maria E. * February 5, 1868 . 

Lawrence, Mary L.f : July 6, 1869 , 

Leach, Sarah H * February 5, 1868. , 

Leary, Jennie K.* Class of 1865 

Lee,MaryT.* Classof 1868 

Lee, Nellie* * Classof 1865 

Lecte, Harriet R* ... January 30, 1871., 

Leffin.Lizzie .*« Class of 1865 

Leonard, Mary A * July 10, 1867 

Lester, Ordelia A* July 3,1871 

Lewis,MaryE* July 3,1871 

Lewis, Matilda* Classof 1862 

Lines,AnnaM.* Classof 1863 

Locke, Abbie E * February 6,1867. . 

Locke, Helen E * July 2, 1872 



#t July 1,1870. 



t Died October 81, 1910. 



u Died December 7, 1910. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 219 

Names. Dates of Graduation. Salaries. 

Loughridge, Sarah F* January 80, 1871 $900 

Lynch, Helen* July2,1872 | 

Macken, Chauncey B. \ February 5, 1868 | 

Manning, Delia.* Glass of 1862 525 

Maraden, Frances M. * July 6, 1869 450 

Martin, Fanny E* February 5, 1868 700 

Matheson, Frances L* July 2,1872 400 

Maxwell, Fanny C* July 25, 1866 600 

Maybee, Sarah H* January 30, 1871 550 

McAuley, Margaret L* July 1,1870 450 

McBride, Mary E.*f« July 3,1871.-. 800 

McBride, Ruth.f July 6,1869 700 

McCool, Celia E * July25,1866 600 

McCumber, Martha C* February 6, 1867 900 

McDowell, Nora* Classof 1865 f g 

McElroy, Alice E.*w February 6, 1867 500 

McFarlane, Jennette* February 5, 1868 If § 

McGonegal, Mary A* Classof 1863 1,200 

McLean,IdaE* July 1, 1870 | 

McLeiah, Anna* f July 3, 1871 700 

McLellan, John W * \ July 2, 1872 | 

Mead, Emma A* February 6, 1868 | 

Mergler, Mary J * f t July 2,1872 800 

Merriam, Emily M* x July 10, 1867 f § 

Merriam, Eunice J* July 6,1869 f § 

Merritt, Ellen J.* f July 6,1869 | 

Miller, Adaline B.f July 6,1869 475 

Miller, Catharine L.fy July 6,1869 

Miller, C. Lucretia* \ January 80, 1872 1 , 000 

Miller, Martha.* Classof 1862 f § 

MHler, Sarah H* July 2,1872 500 

Moody, Jennette L.f July 1,1870 328 

Moore, Adelaide G* July 2,1872 | 

Morey, Amelia* July 6,1869 700 

Morey, Charles K\ July 1,1870 750 

Morey,Helen* July 1,1870 425 

Morgan, Abbie B * July 25, 1866 800 

Morris, Frances M.* July 3,1871 462 

Morris, Harriet K* Julyl0,1867 | 

Morris, Sarah M* July 3,1871 420 

Morrison, Emma 8 .* February 6, 1867 f § 

Morrow, Alcinda L * July 8, 1868 1 , 000 

Morton, Lizzie H* July 10, 1867 ... 450 

*t July 1,1910. wt July 10, 1867. 8 1 February 6,1807. y Died October 8, 18751. 



220 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Names. Dates of Graduation. Salaries. 

Mott, Elzina E.* July 6, 1860 $550 

Moid, Sophia L* July 2, 1872 | 

Mulliner, Mary L * February 6, 1869 | 

Munson, Henrietta E * t July 1, 1870 800 

Murray, Esther A.* February 1, 1870 400 

Nelon, Bridget M.* July 1, 1870 450 

Newby, Nathan f July 6, 1869 1,500 

Nichols, Eliza J. * Class of 1868 525 

Noble, Ida R. f July 1, 1870 600 

Norman, Louisa* Class of 1862 700 

North, Olive* July6, 1869 400 

Ormiston, Julia E. * f July 2, 1872 800 

Osborne, 8. Katharine * July 10, 1867 1,000 

Paddock, Armada G. * Class of 1868 1,200 

Palmer, Althea A.*f July 8, 1871 500 

Parks,Minnie* July 6, 1869 550 

Panels, Isabella * f January 80, 1872 800 

Parsons, Alice M.* February 6, 1867 55.0 

Parsons, Elizabeth * 1 Classof 1862 

Parsons, Emma 8.* 2 February 5, 1868 500 

Parsons, Flora T.* Classof 1862 1,200 

Parsons, Jennie A.* February 5, 1868 1 § 

Parsons, Laura 8* Classof 1862 700 

Parsons, Mary A.* Classof 1862 T § 

Payne, Augusta F *t July 2, 1872 600 

Payne, Emeretta F.* January 80, 1871 500 

Peacock, Anna R * July 10, 1867 500 

Pease, Fanny W * Class of 1862 

Penfield, Philomela* Classof 1865 T§ 

Perkins, Anna H* July 8, 1868 450 

Perkins, Emily H. * Class of 1866 T § 

Perkins, Mary E.* Classof 1865 T § 

Perry, Sarah L .* * February 1 , 1870 800 

Phair, Mary A.* July 2, 1872 | 

Phillips, Emily E* July 6, 1869..... 600 

Pierce, Ruth A * February 8, 1869 T § 

Piersall, Josephine M.*f July2, 1872 | 

Pike, Anna L.* February 6, 1866 f § 

Pitman, Mary R.* February 5, 1868 1 § 

Plumb, Louisa C. * Classof 1862 f § 

Pond, Olive A.* February 8, 1867 T § 

Porter, Lucretia * July 26, 1866 500 

Potter, Harriet A * February 6, 1867 .....' 650 

« t February 1, 1870. 1 Died April 21, 187*. S t July 10, 1807. • 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 221 

Name*. Dates of Graduation. Salarie*. 

Poocher, Florence M.f July 6, 1869 f § 

Powers, Louisa A* Class of 1864 $500 

Pride, Martha A. * February 6, 1866 f § 

Pyne, Sarah J.* July 1, 1870... 600 

Quackenbush, A. Cordelia* Class of 1864 f § 

Ranger, Sarah A* Class of 1865 400 

Ransom, George B.f July 6, 1869 | 

Reynolds, Ellen f July 6, 1869 550 

Reynolds, Myra M * January 80, 1872 450 

Rice, Anna A.* f January 30, 1872 360 

Rice, Belle O* 3 July 1, 1870 600 

Rice, Emily J* January 80, 1872 | 

Rice, Sarah E.* Julyl, 1870 400 

Richards, Charles W.f July 6, 1869 1,000 

Rider, Lucyf February 1, 1870 750 

Riggs, Mary E * 4, 5 July 8, 1868 

Riggs, Matthew B.f 6 July 6, 1869 

Riley,MaryA* January 30, 1871 800 

Robb, Jeannette A.* February 8, 1869 If § 

Robbing, Delia* February 6, 1866 450 

Roberts, Amy J.*f January 30, 1872 750 

Robertson, Elizabeth * Classofl865 850 

Rollinson, Elizabeth G* ... July 2, 1872 500 

Romans, Mary A* July8,1868 500 

Root, Emma L* February 6, 1867 Tf § 

Root, Martha J* July8,1868 ^ § 

Rope,KateE* July 10, 1867 | 

Ross, Minnie A * July 8, 1868 ]... 475 

Rowe,Martha* Classof 1862 800 

Rowlee, Burdett D.f July3, 1871 800 

Royce, MUlicent A * f July 2, 1872 450 

Safford, Louise M.» February 6, 1867 ^f § 

Salmon, Lizzie* 7 July 1, 1870 375 

Salmon, Mary J.* February 6, 1866 500 

Sanford, Emily 8 * February 1, 1870 050 

Sawyer, Laura A.f July 8, 1868 f § 

Sayre, Harmie J. * July 10, 1867 f § 

Scott,MaryE* Classofl865 400 

Scott, Tillie A.* Class of 1864 450 

Beaver, Ellen M.* 8 Classofl868 

Seeber, Martha A*' Class of 1862 750 

Sexton, Ellenf July 1, 1870 475 

8 1 February 1, 1870. 5 Died July 83, 1871. 7 1 Feb. 1, IffTO. 

A t February 5, 1868. 6 Died September S6, 1870. 8 Died August 89, 1889. 



222 NlNBTJSBNTH ANNUAL RSPOBT OF THE 

Names. Dates of Graduation. Batata. 

Sheak, Elizabeth* January 80, 1872 | 

Sheldon, Edward A* Class of 1862. $2,600 

Sheldon, Mary D. fl9 July 8, 1868 | 

Sheldon, Phinie C .* February 8, 1869 400 

Sherman, Auronett M * July 8, 1871 550 

Sherman, Josephine I.f July 1, 1870 | 

Sherwood, Henry W.f 10 July 1, 1870 1 ,500 

Shippey, Seville B.f July 1, 1870 700 

Sikes, Almira E* January 80, 1872 | 

Sikes, Viletta G.* July2,1872 | 

Simmons, M. Elizabeth* July 8, 1871 900 

Sisson, Emma D. * July 2, 1872 450 

Sisson, Eugene P.f July 8, 1868 1,200 

Skinner, E. Avalinef July 1, 1870 475 

Slater, Louisa* Classof 1868 875 

Smith, Cora A* \ July 2, 1872 400 

Smith, Cynthia R* January 80, 1871 420 

Smith, Hannah M.f July 1. 1870 750 

Smith, Helen M* July 6, 1869 | 

Smith, Ida B* July 25, 1866. . 1% 

Smith, Lena M. * July 2, 1872 400 

Smith, Mary E* February 6, 1867 475 

Smith, Mary H.* Class of 1868 | 

Smith, Rhoda R* Class of 1865 T§ 

Smith, William A.f 11 July 1,1870 | 

Southwell, Alfaretta* f January 80, 1872 425 

Sowles, Mehetablef February 1, 1870 400 

Spencer, Jane S. f t January 80, 1871 

Sprott,Mary* February 1, 1870 

Staats, Margaret J. * Class of 1864 525 

Staats, Maria A * July 8, 1871 ; 500 

Staats, Matilda C* 12 February 6, 1867 700 

Starr, Ellen D. * .- February 6, 1866 | 

Steber, Emma A .* f January 80, 1872 

Sterling, Sarah C. * Class of 1865 

Stevens, Harriet E.*t July2,1872 

Stevenson, AgnesA.J July8,1868 1 § 

Stevenson, Rosanna * Classof 1864 1 § 

Stewart, Mary C* * July6,1869 550 

Stickney, Jennie H.* Class of 1868 1,500 

Stimets, Charles C.*tt July 2, 1872 1,200 

Stocking, Ellen * February 1, 1870 450 

Stockwell, Frances C* July 2, 1872 | 

9 1 February 8, 1809. 10 1 February 1, 1810. 11? July 8, 18m. 11 1 July 10, 18«7. 



500 
600 



450 
500 
875 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 223 

Names. Dates of Graduation. Salaries. 

. Stoddard, M. Louise* January 80, 1872 $600 

Stoel, Martha W. * Classof 1865 600 

Stowell, Alice * Classof 1866 §450 

Strong, Anna EL* February 8, 1869 400 

Bomner, Harriet B. * July 10, 1867 1 § 

Sutton, Lucia * July 1, 1870 1 § 

Sutton, Sarah M. f Julyl, 1870 700 

Swan, MaryH.*12 February 6, 1867 f § 

Swanger, Emma L f July 8, 1868 1 § 

Swanger, Maria M.* 18 February 8, 1869 1,200 

Taylor, Helen M. f February 8, 1868 400 

Taylor, Sarah * Classof 1865 

.Terry, N.Wesley f Julyl,1870 | 

Terry, Sarah E*. July 8, 1871 400 

Thunnan, Gertrude * 14 February 6, 1866 

Tiftany, De Witt C * July 25, 1866 600 

Tiffany, Helen A* January 80, 1871 500 

Tiffiiny, Jane R * t July 8, 1871 500 

Titus, Mary J. f February 1, 1870 I,g00 

Town, Margaret A.* Classof 1865 400 

Toxer, Mary J * f January 80, 1871 700 

Trask,Adelle*t January 80, 1872 600 

Trowbridge, Edward A. f February 6, 1867. 1,500 

Trowbridge, Mary L.* ., July 6, 1869 800 

Tubbs, Helen M.* Class of 1862 425 

Tubbs, Rhoda A. * February 8, 1869 500 

Tuttle, Helen A.* February 6, 1867 500 

Tyler, Anna M.* 15 Classof 1865 

Vanderbelt, Delia M* January 80, 1871 400 

Van Husen, Nancy L * July 8, 1868 1 , 000 

VanWagenen, CharlotteE* July 8, 1868 f § 

Vaughn, Sena C. * July 25, 1866 550 

Wait, Susan A. * July 2, 1872 600 

Waitt, Mary G * February 1, 1870 650 

Wales, Lucretia H.* February 5, 1868 600 

Wallace, M. Louise* February 1, 1870 600 

Watson, Jane S* July 10, 1867 675 

Waughop, Maryette C. f February 1, 1870 | 

Weed, Eliza H* Classof 1862 600 

Weed, Frances E.* Classof 1862 ..' 525 

Weller, Eugene D.* Classof 1862 T 

Werner, Julia A.* July 8, 1868 600 

Wheeler, Sopuronia M.* July8, 1868 T § 

11 1 July 10, 1887. 18 1 July 8, 1866. 14 Died January 23, 18OT. 15 Died August 11, 1870. 



224 NlNBTBBNTB ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

Nam*. Dates of Graduation. Salarto. 

White, Franc E. # February 8, 1809 If § 

Whitney, Emma H* Classof 1862 If § 

Whitney, Kate A.* February 6, 1806 $500 

Whitney, Rose* July 6, 1869 700 

Williams, Florinda E.* July 8, 1871. 800 

Wffliams, Helen M. f July6, 1869 700 

WiMams, M. Alice* \% July 2, 1872 | 

Williams, Mary * Classof 1868 f 8 

Williams, Rose B.* January 80, 1872 425 

Williams, S.Ida*f January 80, 1872 400 

Wilson, Helen M* Classof 1862 T § 

Wilson, Julia A.* February 8, 1869 400 

Wiltsie, Ellen* 16. February 3, 1869 800 

Woolworth, Clara N * February 1, 1870 500 

Worthington, Eleanor* ft January 80, 1872 1,000 

Yocum, JaneP* Classof 1866 | 

Young, Melinda* % July 1, 1870 

Total number of graduates since the school was established : 

Ladies 440 

Gentlemen 43 



Total 483 

Special Announcement in Ciboulab of February 1, 1S72. 

Library and Apparatus. 

Aside from a respectable library of text, miscellaneous and 
reference books, the students have access to very large and 
choice pnblic libraries, containing thousands of volumes of 
valuable books. Large additions have been made to the chemi- 
cal and philosophical apparatus. In short, the school is pro 
vided with every needed facility for illustration and instruction. 

Modd and Practicing Schools. 

The practicing schools include about 400 pupils, and embrace 
the primary and junior grades. 

The model schools are designed to exhibit the highest order 
of excellence in teaching, while the practicing schools afford 
an opportunity for the normal pupils to manifest their natural 

16 1 July 8, 1968. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 225 

aptitude to teach, and to put into practice the principles and 
methods they have learned both from observation and instruc- 
tion. 

Boarding. 

All the ladies of the school, not residing in Oswego, will be 
required to board in the boarding-house provided for their 
accommodation, unless excused by the proper committee. Here 
they will be under the immediate care of the teachers of the 
school, who board in the building. The house is pleasantly 
located in the central part of the town, but a short distance 
from the school, and is capable of accommodating from one 
hundred to one hundred and twenty-five pupils. Effort will 
be made to make this a pleasant home, and, as far as is con- 
sistent with this idea, to lessen the cost of living to the pupils. 

The terms for room and board are as follows : 

L There will be a charge of from seventy-five cents to one dollar per 
week for rent of room, and thirty-five cents for fuel to each pupil, to be paid 
in advance, at the time of entrance, for the whole term. All the rooms are 
carpeted, and otherwise provided with the necessary articles of furniture. 

No deduction will be made for absence during the first two weeks of the 
term, nor for absence from any cause, after the time of entering, for a period 
of less than five weeks. 

These terms are on the supposition that not less than two occupy the same 
room, and furnish their own sheets, blankets, comfortables, pillows, pillow- 
cases, napkins and towels. 

Any who prefer to room alone can do so by paying one-half the regular 
rent additional, and by occupying the back rooms on the fourth floor ; and 
where all the bedding and other articles enumerated, except napkins, are 
famished by the house, there will be an additional charge of twenty-five 
cents per week. 

2. The other expenses of living (board, light, breakage and wear and tear 
of kitchen and dining-room furniture), except washing, will be divided pro 
rata among the boarders, each one paying a proportionate share. For the 
past term they have been two dollars and seventy-five cents per week, to 
each pupil. This will be required monthly in advance. Thus each pupil 
will have to pay eleven dollars at the beginning of the term, and at the com- 
mencement of every four weeks thereafter, for board. This is in addition 
to the rent and fuel provided for above. If it is found at the end of any 
month that the cost has been less than eleven dollars, the balance in favor 
of the pupil will be refunded ; and if it is found that the cost has exceeded 
that amount, then the pupil will be expected to pay the excess. 

15 



226 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

To the regular boarders of the house there will be a charge of forty cents 
per dozen for washing. To those boarding themselves, or rooming out of 
the house, fifty cents will be charged. All articles should be distinctly 
marked with the name of the owner. 

No deduction will be made for board in cases of absence less than one 
week, either at the beginning or at any time before the close of the term, nor 
for absence during the holiday week, as a large portion of the expenses must 
be kept up, the same as during other portions of the term. 

In accordance with the terms above stated, the cost of living will be, for 
a term of twenty weeks, to those who provide themselves with the articles 
enumerated, and where the rent is seventy-five cents per week, seventy-seven 
dollars ; where the rent is one dollar, and other conSitions the same, eighty- 
two dollars ; where eveiy thing is furnished by the house, five dollars must 
be added to each of the above amounts. This makes the highest cost to the 
pupil, when the most desirable rooms are rented, and everything is furnished, 
four dollars and thirty-five cents per week ; and the lowest price, where the 
pupils furnish themselves, three dollars and eighty-five cents. This estimate 
does not include washing. 

8. To those who desire to board themselves, rooms will be rented in an 
adjoining building, connected with the boarding-house by a covered passage, 
where every convenience will be afforded for this purpose. The charge for 
furnished rooms will be one dollar per week, if the pupils provide their own 
light bedding, as is required in case of boarders, and fuel. When the light 
bedding is provided, twenty-five cents more will be added, making the entire 
cost, where everything is furnished, one dollar and twenty-five cents per 
week. Pupils may, in this way, reduce the expense of living to two dollars 
or two and one-half dollars per week. Those who desire to have their wash- 
ing done in the boarding-house laundry will be charged fifty cents per dozen. 

A few gentlemen maybe accommodated as table boarders in the boarding- 
hall, but none will be allowed to room in the building. The charge is three 
dollars per week. 

Board may be procured in private families for four and a half dollars per 
week, including light and fuel. 

On Arriving at Oswego, students may leave their baggage at 
the railroad depot, retaining their checks, and report them- 
selves at the boarding-hall, on the corner of West Second and 
Caynga streets. 

The courses of study and other important information will 
be found in general circular (Document Q). 



Superintendent or Public Instruction. 227 



< 



(P.) 

FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LOCAL 
BOARD OF THE STATE NORMAL AND TRAIN- 
ING SCHOOL AT POTSDAM. 

Hon. Abbam B. Weaver, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Sis. — The local board of the State Normal and Training 
School at Potsdam, New York, in accordance with the provi- 
sion of section three, chapter 466, Laws of 1866, respectfully 
submit their fourth annual report to the Legislature. 

Attendance. 

Whole number of pupils registered in each of the depart- 
ments, respectively, during the year ending October 1, 1872: 

Normal 363 

Academic 203 

Intermediate 136 

Primary 146 

Total 848 

Average number of pupils in attendance for each of the 
departments, respectively, during the year ending July 2, 
1872: 

Normal 180.20 

Academic 87.14 

Intermediate 116.50 

Primary ... 113.37 

Total _497 . 21 

Faculty. 

Malcolm McVicar, Principal, and Professor of Mental and 
Moral Philosophy and Didactics. Salary, $2,500. 



228 Nineteenth Annual Report 01 tbe 

George H. Sweet, Vice-Principal, and Professor of English 
Literature and Ancient Languages. Salary, $1,500. 

Henry L. Harter, Professor of Mathematics. Salary, $1,400. 

E. D. Blakeslee, Professor of Natural Sciences. Salary, 
$1,400. • 

Miranda S. Marks, Preceptress, and Teacher of Khetoric 
and History. Salary, $1,000. 

Ellen J. Merritt, Teacher of Methods. Salary, $700. 

Lucy A. Leonard, Teacher of Composition. Salary, $700. 

Emma L. Qua, TeacKfer of English Grammar. Salary, $700. 

Amelia Morey, Principal of Intermediate Department. 
Salary, $900. 

Eleanor E. Jones, Principal of Primary Department. 
Salary, $800. 

Olive A. Chase, Critic in Intermediate Department. Salary, 
$500. 

Frances A. Parameter, Critic in Primary Department. 
Salary, $500. 

Changes m the Faculty. 

George H. Sweet resigned his position as Vice-Principal 
and Professor of English Literature and Ancient Languages 
August 12th, 1872, and Henry L. Harter, Professor of Mathe- 
matics, was appointed to fill his place as Professor of Ancient 
Languages, and E. D. Blakeslee was appointed to fill his place 
as Vice-Principal. 

Warren Mann was appointed Professor of Mathematics, to 
fill the place left vacant by the transfer of Henry L. Harter 
to the department of Ancient Languages. 

Miss Emma Li Qua, teacher of English Grammar, resigned 
her position July 2, 1872, and Miss Juliet A. Cook was 
appointed to fill her place. 

Miss Olive A. Chase, Critic in Intermediate Department, 
resigned her position August 19th, 1872, and Miss Helen D. 
Austin was appointed to fill her place. 

Miss Ellen J. Merritt, on account of poor health, was com- 
pelled to suspend her work during the fall term. Miss Mary 



Superintendent of Public Ixstruction. 229 

F. Hall supplied her place for the remainder of the year, and 
has since been appointed to the position of Teacher of Methods. 

Financial Statement for the Tear ending Sefiember 30, 

1872. 

Receipts. 

« 

Amonnt in hands of local board, Oct. 1, 1871. . $693 52 

Received from the State during the year 20 > 96 L 41 

Received for tuition in the academic department, 2? 139 60 

Amonnt due to the local board, Oct. 1, 1872 196 32 

Total $23 1 990 85 

Disbursements. 

Contingent expenses of the school $3 > 517 91 

Miscellaneous bills 6)031 44 

Teachers' and janitor's salaries 14 > 441 50 

Total $23,990 86 



Detailed Statement of receipts and expenditures of the local 
board of the State Normal and Training School at Pots- 
dam, for the year ending September 30, 1872 : 

Receipts. * 

Amount in hands of local board, October 1, 1871 $693 52 

Received from the State, on account of regular appropriation 

for the school 17,961 41 

Received from the State, on account of special appropriation 

made by the Legislature in the Supply Bill of 1871 3,00000 

Received from tuition in the academic department 2, 189 60 

Amount due to the local board, October 1,1872 196 32 

Total $23,990 85 

Disbursements. 

Contingent expenses for the quarter ending July 4, 1871, as per vouchers filed » 

with the Department of Public Instruction. 

Toucher No. 1, O. E. Bonney, Janitor $125 00 

Toucher No. 2, Ira Ransom, work 8 25 

Toucher No. 8, Emma L. Qua, rent of piano 12 50 

Carried forward $145 75 



230 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Brought forward $145 75 

Voucher No. 4, Ellen J. Merritt, rent of organ 8 00 

Voucher No. 5, Henry L. Harter, rent of piano 8 00 

Voucher No. 6, Geo. N. Benedict, tuning piano 4 00 

Voucher No. 7, Seeley & Brown, school supplies 84 49 

Voucher No. 8, Watkins, Leete & Co., goods, etc. 24 10 

Voucher No. 0, Ezra R. Andrews, diplomas 9 40 

Voucher No. 10, H. D. Thatcher & Co., goods 15 56 

Voucher No. 11, Mont. Tel. Co. and Am. Ex. , telegraphing, eta, 5 80 

Voucher No. 12, Elliot Fay, printing 27 50 

Voucher No. 18, Students, necessary fare 54 05 

Voucher No. 14, H. F. Lawrence, school supplies 26 06 

Voucher No. 15, A. N. Deming, coal, etc 186 80 

Voucher No. 16, Elliot Fay, postage 11 42 

Voucher No. 17, Geo. B. Swan, lumber 27 59 

Voucher No. 18, Eastman & Johnston, labor and materials. . . 46 44 

Voucher No. 10, O. G. Howe, ribbon for diplomas 6 60 

Voucher No. 20, R & 8. D. Bridge, delivering baggage 8 80 

$594 86 



Contingent expenses far the quarter ending November 14, 1871, a$ per wuehen 

fled with the Department of Public Instruction, 

Voucher No. 1, O. E. Bonney, janitor $125 00 

Voucher No. 2, O. E. Bonney, cleaning and oil 64 18 

Voucher No. 8, Ellen J. Merritt, rent of organ 8 00 

Voucher No. 4, Emma L. Qua, rent of piano 12 50 

Voucher No. 5, Elliot Fay, printing 28 10 

Voucher No. 6, EUiotFay, postage 10 00 

Voucher No. 7, Baldwin & Co., coal 1,827 50 

Voucher No. 8, G. B. Manley, wood 59 88 

Voucher No. 9, H. F. Lawrence, ink and paper 32 80 

Voucher No. 10, Seeley & Brown, books and supplies 88 60 

Voucher No. 11, Duff & Foster, sheep pelts 8 25 

Voucher No. 12, R. & S. D. Bridge, delivering baggage t 5 70 

Voucher No. 18, H. D. Thatcher & Co., goods ' 47 62 

Voucher No. 14, Geo. B. Swan, blockwood, etc 12 19 

Voucher No. 15, Watkins, Leete & Co., goods « 25 07 

Voucher No. 16, M. McVicar, cash paid 22 50 

Voucher No. 17, P.D. Gorrie, goods 4 25 

Voucher No. 18, N. E. Gary, carting 1 60 

Voucher No. 19, Mont. Tel. Co., telegraphing and express ... 8 72 

Voucher No. 20, Ira Ransom, work 1 25 

$1,848 16 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 281 

Contingent expenses for the quarter ending January 30, 1872, as per vouchers 
fled with the Department of Public Instruction. 

Voucher No. 1, O. E. Bonney, janitor $125 00 

Voucher No. 2, Ellen J. Merritt, rent of organ • 8 00 

Voucher No. 8, Emma L. Qua, rent of piano 12 50 

Voucher No. 4, Ezra R. Andrews, diplomas 18 50 

Voucher No. 5, H. F. Lawrence, paper and envelopes 27 60 

Voucher No. 6, George N. Benedict, tuning pianos 12 00 

Voucher No. 7, A. 8. Barnes & Co., books 7 50 

Voucher No. 8, Cox & Herrick, ribbon 8 83 

Voucher No. 9, Myron 8. 8 1 rat ton, cash paid 1 50 

Voucher No. 10, N. E. Gary, freight and cartage 2 44 

Voucher No. 11, Eastman & Johnston, goods and labor ....'.. 15 90 

Voucher No. 12, Henderson & Abbott, work and fixtures .... 5 00 

Voucher No. 13, W. E. Badlam, tuning piano 2 50 

Voucher No. 14, A* N. Tupper, repairing locks 50 

Voucher No. 15, R & S. D. Bridge, delivering baggage 8 40 

Voucher No. 16, Burnham, Watkins & Co., lumber and wood, 28 48 

Voucher No. 17, Watkins, Leete & Co., stove pipe and goods, 91 23 

Voucher No. 18, H. D. Thatcher & Co., crayons, etc 68 45 

Voucher No. 19, Elliot Fay, printing and postage 48 75 

Voucher No. 20, George B. Swan, ash mouldings 1 44 

Voucher No. 21, Ira J. Ransom, work 16 75 

Voucher No. 22, Mont TeL Co. and American Express Co., 

telegraph and express 8 95 

Voucher No. 23, Bachelder & Son, repairing chairs 4 75 

$514 97 



Contingent expenses for the quarter ending April 28, 1872, as per vouchers fled 

uHth the Department of Public Instruction. 

VoucherNo. 1, O. E. Bonney, janitor $125 00 

Voucher No. 2, Emma L. Qua, rent of piano 12 50 

Voucher No. 3, William Jennings, wood 55 50 

VoucherNo. 4, George W. Bonney, oil 13 06 

Voucher No. 5, A. 8. Barnes & Co., books 6 75 

Voucher No. 6, Harvey J. Welch, keys 1 80 

Voucher No. 7, George N. Benedict, tuning pianos 9 50 

Voucher No. 8, Thomas Charter, carting and freight 1 03 

Voucher No. 9, George Parkhurst, frames 3 75 

Voucher No. 10, Seeley & Brown, goods 12 70 

Voucher No. 11, H. F. Lawrence, ink, paper, etc 19 43 

Voucher No. 12, Elliot Fay, printing and postage 13 00 

Voucher No. 13, Cornelius Clark, sawing wood 19 84 

Carried forward 9293 36 



232 Nineteenth Annual Report of tse 

Brough t forward $298 86 

Voucher No. 14, 0. E. Bonney, kindling wood, etc. 2 10 

Voucher No. 15, Mont. Tel. Co. and Am. Exp. Co., telegraph 

and express 2 80 

Voucher No. 16, H. D. Thatcher & Co., chemicals, etc 66 20 

Voucher No. 17, C. "W. Leete, goods, etc. 44 86 

Voucher No. 18, Baldwin & Co., coal 65 00 

Voucher No. 10, R. & S. D. Bridge, delivering baggage 4 05 

Voucher No. 20, Ira J. Ransom, work 20 50 

Voucher No. 21, E. 8. Ritchie & Son, Siren 50 00 

$538 86 



\ 



Contingent expenses for the quarter ending July 2, 1872, as per voucher* fled 

with the Department of Public Instruction. 

Voucher No. 1, O. E. Bonney, janitor t $*25 00 

Voucher No. 2, Emma L. Qua, rent of piano, v, 12 50 

Voucher No. 3, Baldwin & Co., coal 92 17 

Voucher No. 4, E. R. Andrews, diplomas 6 00 

Voucher No. 5, O. G. Howe, ribbon for diplomas 6 60 

Voucher No. 6, James Train, wood * 67 88 

Voucher No. 7, O. E. Bonney, sawing and splitting wood. . . 19 12 

Voucher No. 8, Seeley and Brown, goods 50 

Voucher No. 9, A. N. Tupper, fitting keys 50 

Voucher No. 10, Students' return fare 81 45 

Voucher No. 11, Elliot Fay, printing and postage 88 50 

Voucher No. 12, C. W. Leete, goods and work 9 14 

Voucher No. 18, H. D. Thatcher & Co., goods 22 70 

Voucher No. 14, George W. Swift, work, etc 42 00 

Voucher No. 15, George N. Benedict, tuning pianos 8 00 

$526 56 



Teachers' and Janitor's Salaries. 

Malcolm McVicar, principal $2,500 00 

George H. Sweet, services as teacher 1,500 00 

Henry L. Harter, services as teacher 1,400 00 

E.D. Blakeslee, services as teacher 1,400 00 

MirandaS. Marks, services as teacher 1,000 00 

Mary F. Hall, services as teacher 687 00 

Lucy A. Leonard, services as teacher 700 00 

Emma L. Qua, services as teacher 700 00 

Amelia Morey, services as teacher 900 00 

Eleanor E. Jones, services as teacher 800 00 

Carried forward $11,537 00 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 233 

Brought forward $11,537 00 

Mary L. Wood, services as teacher 600 00 

Amelia A. McFadden, services as teacher 600 00 

Frances A. Parmeter, services as teacher 500 00 

Olive A. Chase, services as teacher 500 00 

Elizabeth Hargrave, services as teacher 52 50 

Kittie M. Kimball, services as teacher 45 00 

Ellen J. Merritt, services as teacher 72 00 

Alvinza B. Collins, services as teacher 35 00 

O. E. Bonney, services as teacher 500 00 

|14,441 50 



Statement of expenditures for grading, improving and fencing ground*, pursu- 
ant to chapter 715, Laws of 1871. 

Voucher No. 1, Watkins, Leete & Co., goods $569 24 

Vouch*:- No. 2, D. Parmeter, posts, flagging, etc 1 ,427 80 

Voucher No. 8, Jesse Reynolds, labor, etc 1,002 06 

$8,000 00 



Miscellaneous bills, as per biUs with accompanying vouchers filed in the office of 
the secretary of the local board, paid from moneys received for tuition in the 
academic department during the year ending September 80, 1872. 

Voucher No. 43, H. D. Thatcher & Co., goods $8 04 

Voucher No. 44, Baldwin & Co., lime 5 00 

Voucher No. 45, Geo. B. Swan, lumber 9 00 

Voucher No. 46, Chas. Le Fevre, labor 22 50 

Voucher No. 47, Henry Train, labor, etc 49 20 

Voucher No. 48, Watkins, Leete & Co., labor and goods. ..... 6 88 

Voucher No. 49, Watkins, Leete & Co., labor and material. . . . 149 62 

Voucher No. 50, Burnham, Watkins & Co., lumber 17 50 

Voucher No. 51, Eastman & Johnston, labor and goods 20 95 

Voucher No. 52, N. E. Garey, carting 4 04 

Voucher No. 53, O. E. Bonney, lumber 15 16 

Voucher No. 54, W. 8. Patten, labor 11 40 

Voucher No. 55, Ira J. Ransom, work 42 98 

Voucher No. 56, Ira J. Ransom, work 14 26 

Voucher No. 57, Watkins, Leete & Co., error in former bill. . 8 50 

Voucher No. 58, Henry M. Train, labor 7 00 

Voucher No. 59, Ira J. Ransom, constructing pipe 15 06 

Voucher No. 60, Watkins, Leete & Co., stove-pipe 17 09 

Voucher No. 61, Geo. B. Swan, horse hire 2 00 

Voucher No. 62, Foster & Goggin, insurance 600 00 

Carried forward $1,022 08 

4 



'234 NiNBTBBNTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

Brought forward (1 ,022 08 

Voucher No. 68, H. N. Redway, insurance 602 81 

Voucher No. 64, Geo. W. Swift, plans and estimate SO 00 

Voucher No. 65,- Hall & Gardner, balance for coal 24 50 

Voucher No. 66, Asher & Adams, N. T. Atlas and Gaz 12 00 

Voucher No. 67, M. Mc Vicar, two sets apparatus 150 00 

Voucher No. 68, M. Mc Vicar, payment on house 605 00 

Voucher No. 69, M. McVicar, payment on house 895 00 

Voucher No. 70, Chas. C. Townsend, services 60 00 

Voucher No. 71, Chas. C. Townsend, services 60 00 

Voucher No. 72, Geo. H. Sweet, cash paid 60 

Voucher No. 78, Mr. Gorrow, work % 10 00 

Voucher No. 74, Chas. C. Townsend, services 60 00 

$8,081 44 

St. Lawrence County, 88. : 

Henry Watkins, president, and Charles O. Tappan, secre- 
tary, of the local board of the State Normal and Training 
School at Potsdam, being dnly sworn, say, and each for him- 
self says, that he has examined the foregoing account, and 
believes the same to be, in all respects, correct and jast. 

CHARLES O. TAPPAN. 
HENRY WATKINS. 

Sworn and subscribed before me this ) 
6th day of February, A. D. 1873. ) 

John G. McIntybe, 

Notary Pvblic. 

The Working of the School. 

The local board take this opportunity of expressing their 
satisfaction with the general working of the school during the 
current year, and with its results thus far. Since the organi- 
zation of this normal school, in 1869, it has sent forth twenty- 
two graduates, nearly all of whom are teaching in the State of 
New York; one at a salary of one thousand dollars per year, 
one at a salary of seven hundred and seventy-five dollars, and 
others at salaries varying from six hundred to four hundred 
dollars. At the close of the spring term of 1873, we shall 
have graduated about twenty more. From the employers of 

\ 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 285 

those already sent out, and from the principals of the schools 
in which they are engaged, we have received the most 
emphatic testimony to their practical efficiency in the school- 
room, and the general satisfaction with which their labors are 
received. It is onr aim so to instruct and train those now in 
our hands that in doe time they may advance to an equal 
success, and worthily perform their share in the work of 
education in the Empire State. 

We think our courses of study are somewhat too heavy, 
though as yet there seems to be no available remedy. We 
teach nothing more than teachers, of the rank which normal 
school graduates are expected to hold, ought certainly to 
know; yet there is an inconvenience in teaching them so 
much in so short a time. A diploma is a license for life, con- 
ferring valuable privileges upon the possessor, and opening 
the doors to the more lucrative positions; and hence no 
diploma should be granted except for tested ability and solid 
acquirements. 

It would be impossible to thoroughly prepare teachers for 
principalships and the higher departments of union schools, 
and the schools of the cities, if our course should contain less 
than it does. At present it would be impolitic to lengthen 
the time. Our highest classes are the smallest of all, and we 
believe this is the uniform experience of all institutions which 
have long courses. The addition of one year to the course 
would probably reduce by half the number of the graduates. 

Teaching is not yet so firmly established among the pro- 
fessions, nor are its attractions so brilliant, as to induce 
many to spend more than four years in preparing to engage in 
it. It would greatly help us if we could raise the standard of 
admission; and nothing would be easier than this, if the 
quality of the instruction in the district schools were good 
enough. But so long as the teaching of the common schools 
of the country districts, from which we receive most of our 
students, is what it is, we shall have no sufficient foundation 
on which to build, if we raise the standard of admission. 
Even as it is, we have been compelled to have a preparatory 



236 Nineteenth Annual Report or the 

class. In this class, many possessing the capacity have received 
that fundamental instruction which enabled them to take high 
rank in succeeding classes. Some who had taught two or 
three terms in district schools have been obliged to enter this 
preparatory class, because they lacked that knowledge of 
the elementary principles of the common branches needed 
to pass the regular entrance examination. When teachers are 
so ignorant, what must their pupils be ? 

There seems to be no immediate remedy for this defect of 
the district schools. To elevate the character of these is a 
work requiring time and patience and money ; the latter is the 
one thing needful. It is all in vain to hold educational conven- 
tions, and preach to teachers of the dignity and awful responsi- 
bility of their calling, if the wages of the audience average 
five dollars per week. It is hard to convince the young Ameri- 
can man and the young American lady, that such vast responsi- 
bilities accompany such a slender income. They do not like 
to continue long in an occupation where the burdens and the 
bounties are so unequally yoked together. Hence, many con- 
tent themselves with superficial preparation and slovenly 
work ; and many more make haste to escape from the ranks 
in which the duties so heavily outweigh the emoluments. 

One of the crying evils of our district schools is the frequent 
change of teachers. Only in exceptional instances, is the same 
teacher employed in a school for two successive terms. The 
training of a mind should be a closely connected and harmoni- 
ous process. It should not, twice in every year, be rudely 
changed. What would be thought of any board of trustees or 
building commission which should, once in a month, change 
the architects of a great and important edifice, and attempt to 
carry out their different plans? Yet very similar is the action 
of many of the trustees of the district schools. Though the 
mental development of the children is not so absolutely in the 
teacher's power as is the structure of a building in the power 
of its architect, yet the various methods of teaching, pursued 
by different teachers, their divergent notions, and dissimilar 



SUPSRTTfTBNBBNT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 287 

characters, abilities and attempts, mast inevitably exert a hurt- 
ful influence upon the budding faculties of childhood. 

The authority of the school commissioners avails but little 
for the correction of these evils. The people demand schools 
of some sort ; and at prevailing wages, the supply of good 
teachers is not large. Some districts, also, with a sparse popu- 
lation, contain so little taxable property, that to maintain a 
good school would be a severe burden. But numerous other 
districts overflow with riches; the barns are filled with plenty, 
the taxable property is counted by tens of thousands of dol- 
lars; yet in these districts are seldom seen those excellent 
schools which this wealth ought to support. Several young 
men of this vicinity are now engaged in teaching common 
schools in southern Illinois. This ought not to be so. St. 
Lawrence county should not allow her competent teachers to 
be drawn to Illinois, nor to any other State, east or west, by 
higher wages. The youth of northern New York are every 
way worthy of as good instruction as the youth of southern 
Illinois. Patriotism ought to induce the people to keep their 
best talent in their own midst; and their local and family pride 
and in terests should induce them to give the best instruction 
to their own sous and daughters. A judicious increase of 
teachers' wages throughout the State, would enable the com- 
missioners to demand higher qualifications, and to insist upon 
better teaching. 

Thus would the foundations of intelligent citizenship be laid 
with greater security and strengthened, and all the higher 
institutions of learning would rejoice in a policy which must 
ultimately enlarge the boundaries and multiply the triumphs 
of American scholarship. 

The Discipline of the School. 

The discipline of the school is administered in harmony with 
the following 

Principles of Government, 

which are printed in the general regulations, and placed in 
the hands of every student : 



238 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

1. In seeking to develop a symmetrical character and the power of self- 
government in each pupil, the Golden Rule, " Do unto others as ye would 
that others should do unto you/ 1 is made the foundation of every require- 
ment. 

2. The relation of teacher and pupil involves a pledge on the part of both 
to regard the interests of each other as sacred, which pledge is assumed as 
given when the pupil enters the school. 

3. From the very nature of the relation between teacher and pupil, the 
teacher is always considered the proper judge of what is to be viewed, under 
any given circumstances, as right or wrong, but before making any decision 
all the circumstances are fully canvassed. 

4. The highest good of the individual pupil, so far as it is compatible with 
the highest good of the whole school, is made the starting and closing prin- 
ciple of all discipline. 

5. No requirements are made of any pupil that are not, under similar 
conditions, made of every pupil in the school. 

6. The spirit in which everything is done is considered more important, 
in its effects upon the pupil and the school, than the form. 

7. Deportment is considered as a study, and is placed under the head of 
scholarship. Mental discipline alone is not the measure of success in prac- 
tical life, nor is it the measure of the highest form of manhood and woman- 
hood. The power acquired through the study of various subjects under the 
guidance of teachers, will be effective in after life, just to the extent in 
which strength of character and the power of self-control has been devel- 
oped. In view of this fact, proper deportment is the crowning excellence 
of true scholarship, and should receive the first attention both of parents 
and teachers. The various regulations of the school are therefore not arbi- 
trary rules, intended simply to secure order that the teachers may perform 
their work successfully, but they are a course of study and instruction 
designed to cultivate correct views of the relations of the governing to the 
governed, correct habits, and the power of self-government 

Special Training Glass. 

Desiring to bring the advantages of the normal school to 
bear more directly upon the district schools, a consultation was 
held by a committee of the local board, several members of 
the faculty and the school commissioners of St. Lawrence 
county. At this meeting, which was held at the close of the 
spring term in July last, it was urged, that the graduates of the 
normal schools secured positions in union and graded schools, 
that the nnder-graduates who taught district schools had 
received no professional instruction, and, consequently, the 
common schools of this and neighboring counties were not 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 239 

receiving as much benefit from the normal school located in 
their midst as the interests of popular education renders 
desirable. It cannot be expected that those who have spent 
three or four years in the normal school should afterward con- 
fine their teaching to the district schools or seek positions 
therein, while places much more desirable are offered to them 
in school 8 of higher grade. Yet the local board and faculty 
were desirous of doing whatever lay in their power to do, for 
the immediate good of the district schools. The result of the 
consultation was the adoption of a plan for the instruction of 
a special training class, during the first ten weeks of the fall 
term. Accordingly, the following circulars were prepared and 
sent to all the school commissioners of the State for distribution : 

SPECIAL CIRCULAR ' 

The local board, at a meeting held July 6th, 1872, after a fall discussion 
and consultation, decided, with the approval of the State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, to organize a class in the normal school, at the opening 
of the next term (September 4th), for the purpose of giving special instruc- 
tion for ten weeks to such persons as intend to teach in the public schools 
of the State, one or more terms during the school year commencing October 
1st, 1872. 

The instruction in the class will be confined to arithmetic, grammar 
geography, reading, school economy, composition and penmanship. All 
however, who are prepared to pursue higher subjects, without interfering 
with the work of the class, will be allowed to do so in the regular normal 
school classes. It is proposed, during the ten weeks, to make a rapid review 
of each subject, having special regard to practical methods of presentation 
for common schools. 

Coubse of Instruction. 

Arithmetic. 

The instruction in arithmetic will include a discussion of the best methods 
of presenting all the principal processes, including the five fundamental 
roles, both in whole numbers and fractions, greatest common divisor least 
common multiple, percentage with its various applications to stocks insu- 
rance, banking, exchange, etc., ratio and proportion, alligation, and extrac- 
tion of square and cube root 

QrdfMnat 

The instruction in grammar will include a review of the subject, the ele- 
ments of analysis, and a discussion of the best methods of giving elementary 



240 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

instruction or first lessons, and the use that should be made of text-books in 
advanced work. 

Geography. 

The instruction in geography will include a discussion of the best methods 
of giving primary lessons, of topical recitation, of map drawing, of the use 
of maps and globes, and of a general plan for the presentation of the whole 
subject. 

Beading. 

The instruction in reading will include a drill in reading, and the discus- 
sion of the elements of reading and elocution, and the best methods of con- 
ducting class exercises in common schools. 

School Economy. 

The instruction in school economy will include the discussion of the best 
methods of organizing and governing common schools, including classifica- 
tion, examinations, the powers and rights of school commissioners, of trustees, 
of teachers, pupils and patrons, and the appliances which should be used in 
governing a school. 

Composition and Penmanship. 

The instruction in composition and penmanship will have special refer- 
ence to work that should be done in common schools. 

Appointments. 

To gain admission to the class, an appointment must be obtained from 
some school commissioner in the State. Commissioners will grant an 
appointment to any person who has been licensed to teach, and who intends 
to teach in the public schools of the State, one or more terms during the year. 
Appointments will also be granted to persons, who have not yet been 
licensed to teach, by giving satisfactory evidence to commissioners that they 
are qualified to enter the class, and that they intend to teach in the public 
schools during the year. 

Before being admitted to the class, applicants must pass an examination 
in the elements of arithmetic, grammar and geography. The examination 
will take place September 4th. 

Special Privileges. 

Free instruction and the free use of text-books will be given, for ten 
weeks, to all who are admitted into the class. Ample opportunity will also 
be given to members of the class to witness the methods of instruction and 
management in the training school. 

By making an application to the commissioner of your assembly district, 
he will inform you immediately if you can have an appointment 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 241 

For further information you can apply to Dr. H. Mc Vicar, principal of 

the school. 

HENRY WATKIN8, 

President of Local Board. 
Chab. O. Tappan, 

Secretary of Local Board. 

• 

The commissioners distributed the circular to those of their 
acquaintance whorn they thought likely to improve the oppor- 
tunities offered, and sent also the following letter : 

The accompanying circular, from the local board of the State Normal and 
Training School at Potsdam, will inform you in regard to a special training 
class for common-school teachers, which is to be commenced at the opening 
of the school in September. 

You will see by the circular, that the instruction in this class will be such 
as will greatly benefit any who intend to teach in the common schools dur- 
ing the year. 

Should you desire to attend the class, on the conditions named in the cir- 
cular, you can inform me by return mail, and I will give you an appoint- 
ment. The appointment will be sent to the principal of the school, and will 
be there on your arrival at Potsdam in September. 

Please extend the information in regard to the class to all whom you 
know, who expect to teach during the year. 

Yours respectfully, 



School Cbmmimoner. 

The following is the form of the appointment used by the 
commissioners : 

This is to certify that has given to me satisfactory evidence 

of fitness for admission into the special training class in the State Normal 

and Training School at Potsdam, N. Y., and of intention to teach, one 

or more terms, in the public schools of the State, during the school year 
commencing October 1st, 1872. , 

I therefore appoint to the class, for the ten weeks commencing Sep- 
tember 4th, and ending November 13th, 1873, subject to the examination for 
admission by the Faculty. 



School Oommimoner, St. Lawrence County. 

The result of these efforts was the organization of a class at 
the opening of the fall term, September 4, 1872, numbering 

16 



242 XlNBTBBNTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

fifty-five pupils. The instruction given conformed as nearly 
as possible to the announcements of the circular, with the 
addition of gymnastics. The example was followed by the 
normal schools at Cortland, (ieneseo, Fredonia, Oswego and 
Buffalo. Thus the plan is having a more extensive trial than 
this school alone could give it. 

In our class, many difficulties were met. The pupils came 
with all degrees of qualification. Some were barely able to 
pass the moderate examination prescribed by the commis- 
sioners, and had never taught. Others could have passed much 
higher examinations, ana had taught several terms. Some 
came just within the requirements with regard to age, and 
were not sufficiently mature to do the work which those of 
riper years were able and desired to accomplish. Their expec- 
tations and purposes were of great variety ; some desired to 
thoroughly master the fundamental principles of teaching and 
school management; others desired advanced instruction in 
the various subjects which they had not completed to their 
satisfaction ; some desired almost endless discussion on the con- 
troverted points of grammar, and easy solutions of knotty 
examples in- arithmetic ; others wanted to be taught how to 
teach, regardless of whether they possessed sufficient know- 
ledge of subjects to make such instruction of any value. 

Among these conflicting desires, and the diversities of 
ability, qualifications, purposes and expectations, the teachers 
endeavored to strike that golden mean which, in such a case, 
is the surest path to success. At the close of the ten weeks, 
examinations were held, at which two of the commissioners of 
St. Lawrence county were present. At the end of the second 
day's examinations they addressed the class, stating their emi- 
nent satisfaction with the work they had accomplished. The 
commissioners also expressed a strong expectation that the 
members of the class would testify by practical results in the 
school room that this special training had not been lost upon 
them. They promised to pay particular attention to their 
schools that they might the better judge of the success of our 
experiment. Nearly all of the fifty-five members of the class 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 243 

are now engaged in teaching ; and the reports which we have 
received concerning their schools are extremely gratifying. 

The extra labor laid upon the faculty, in thus conducting 
seven daily recitations of so large a class, was a serious draft 
upon their resources ; but if the result of their attempt to con- 
nect more closely with the common schools, should prove a 
help in the solution of the normal school question in this State, 
even those most heavily burdened will not regret the labor 
they expended. 



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246 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

GRADUATES. 

Fiebt Clabb — Term ending Febbuaey 7, 1871. 
Amanda M. Martin. Alice C. Stevens. 

Second Class — Term ending June 29, 1871. 

Hannah B. Barnes. Amelia A. McFadden. 

Joannas Haig. Mattie C. Carpenter. 

Frances A. Parmeter. 

Third Class — Term ending January 30, 1872. 

Mrs. Joanna Anderson. Harriet B. Stearns. 

Matilda Osier. Aldnla Stone. 

Seraphina I. Howard. Celestia Blatchley. 

Elizabeth Hargrave. 

Fourth Class — Term ending July 2, 1872. 

Anna M. Anderson. Herbert C. Adams. 

Francene Swift. Martha I. Burt. 

Alice M. Wood. Emily M. Dayton. 

Eliza J. Wall. Hattie A. Fisher. 

SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT IN CIRCULAR OF SEP- 
TEMBER 1, 1872. 

Local Board. 

Henry Watkins, A. M., President Aaron N. Deming. 
Hon. Chas. O. Tappan, Secretary. Eben Fisher, D. D. 
Jesse Reynolds, M. D., Treasurer. Roswell Pettibone, A. M. 
Hon. Noble S. Elderkin. John I. Gilbert, A. M. 

Hon. A. X. Parker. 

Faculty. 

M. McVicar, Ph. D., LL. D., Principal, and Professor of 
Mental and Moral Philosophy and Didactics. 

E. D. Blakeslee, A. M., "Vice-Principal, and Professor of 
Natural Sciences. 

Henry L. Harter, A. M., Professor of Ancient Languages, 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 247 

Warren Mann, A. B., Professor of Mathematics. 

Giles P. Hawley, A. B., Teacher of Elocution and Vocal 
Music. 

Miranda S. Marks, Preceptress, and Teacher of Rhetoric, 
Literature and French. 

Lucy A. Leonard, Teacher of Language and Composition. 

Mary L. "Wood, Teacher of Gymnastics, Reading and 
German. 

Mary F. Hall, Teacher of Methods and Geography. 

Amelia A. McFadden, Teacher of Mathematics. 

Juliet A. Oook, Teacher of Grammar. 

Amelia Morey, Principal of Intermediate Department, and 
Teacher of Methods. 

Eleanor E. Jones, Principal of Primary Department, and 
Teacher of Methods. 

Frances A. Parmeter, Critic in Primary Department. 

Helen D. Austin, Critic in Intermediate Department. 

Academic Department. 

« 

For those who purpose entering this department, the fol- 
lowing information is given : 

Application for admission should be made either in person 
or by letter to the principal of the school, and should be 
accompanied by a careful statement of the character, habits 
and present attainments of candidates. No idle, insubordinate 
or dissipated pupil will be tolerated. 

Students will be received at any time, but in no case for 
less than a quarter, except by special arrangement ; and no 
deduction in price of tuition will be made for those who enter 
within the first two, or leave within the last three weeks of 
the term, nor for absence during the term, except for sickness. 

Classes out of the regular course cannot be organized for the 
accommodation of students entering this department. 

Courses of Study. 

First. The Advanced English Course. Second. The Classi- 
cal Course. These are identical with the same courses in the 



j 



248 NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

normal department, except that they embrace no professional 
training. 

Cost of Tuition. 

Pupils will be charged ike' following rate of tuition per 
quarter : English course, $6.00 ;. classical, $7.00 ; diploma and 
graduation fee (extra), $5.00. 

General Infoemation. 
Location. 

The village of Potsdam is situated in the town of Potsdam, 
St. Lawrence county, on the railroad between Watertown and 
Potsdam Junction. Pupils should reach Potsdam the day 
before the opening of the term, and go directly to the normal 
school building, where they will be advised in regard to 
boarding places. Baggage may be left at the depot until a 
boarding place is secured, when it will be delivered free of 
charge. 

Boarding. 

Board can be obtained in private families, including wash- 
ing, at rates varying from $3.50 to $4.50 per week. The 
boarding hall in the normal school building is designed exclu- 
sively for ladies. The plan upon which it is conducted is 
explained in the following propositions : 

1. Each room is carpeted and neatly furnished with everything necessary 
for the comfort of the student, and is occupied by only two ladies. The 
carpets and furniture in the entire boarding hall are new. The rooms are 
heated by good coal stoves. The coal is delivered at the doors of the 
students' rooms. 

2. A servant, who does all the heavy work pertaining to the dining-room, 
kitchen and study-rooms, is provided for every twenty-five boarders. 

3. Each young lady is expected to work one hour per day. The work 
done by the boarders and servants is under the immediate supervision of a 
matron, who has the general oversight of the whole boarding-house. The 
work done by boarders is arranged so as not to interfere with recitations or 
study hours. 

4. The quality of the board is fixed by the boarders, subject to the 
approval of the matron. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 249 

5. Each boarder is charged one dollar per week room rent, to defray the 
expense of furnishing study-rooms, dining-room and kitchen, and pay the 
wages of matron and servant. 

6. Board, fuel, light and washing are furnished at cost, the whole expense 
of which has averaged $3.10 per week during the past year. 

7. Thirty-five dollars are payable quarterly in advance, ten dollars of 
which are applied to the room rent, and the remaining twenty-five dollars 
are deposited in the bank, to meet the current expenses of the boarding hall 
for the quarter. Should the entire expense be less than three and a half 
dollars per week, the surplus, which has been paid in advance and deposited 
in the bank, is refunded to each student at the end of the term. 

8. Each boarder in the boarding hall furnishes her own fork, teaspoon, 
towels, napkins, two sheets, two pillow-cases and two comforters, each of 
which, as well as every article of clothing, should be distinctly marked with 
the owner's name. 

9. The plan and workings of the boarding hall have given entire satisfac- 
tion, and those who availed themselves of its advantages during the past 
year reduced their expenses to the small sum of $8.10 per week, including 
room rent, board, fuel, light and washing. It is important that all who 
desire to secure rooms in the boarding hall should apply before arriving at 
Potsdam. 

The normal courses of instruction and other important 
information will be found in the appendix (Document Q). 



250 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 



(Q.) 

NORMAL SCHOOL CIRCULAR. 

The following is the common form of circular for each of 
the State normal and training schools, located respectively at 
Brockport, Buffalo, Cortland, Fredonia, Geneseo, Oswego and 
Potsdam : 

STATE OF NEW YORK : 

Depabtment of Public Instruction, SupVs Office, ) 

Albany, August 1, 1872. J 

To School Commissioners and City Superintendents of Schools : 

Tour attention is respectfully invited to the following 
announcement relating to the State Normal and Training 
School at . 

The design of the school is to furnish competent teachers 
for the public schools of the State. * 

Each county is entitled to twice as many pupils as it has 
representatives in the Assembly. For the want of qualified 
candidates the quotas of some counties may not be filled, 
while the number of eligible applicants from other counties 
may be greater than their quotas. Therefore, you need not 
limit your recommendations to any prescribed number, bat 
encourage worthy and aspiring young men and women, who 
are qualified and intend to make teaching their vocation, to 
attend this school. 

To gain admission to the school, pupils must be at least six- 
teen years of age, and must poesess good health, good moral 
character and average abilities. They must pass a fair exami- 
nation in reading, spelling, geography, and arithmetic (as far 
as the roots), and be able to analyze and parse simple sen 
tences. 

All appointments for admission are made by the State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, subject to the required 
examination, upon the recommendation of the several school 
commissioners, or city superintendents of schools, whose duty 



SUPBBLSTBNDBNT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 251 

it is to use every reasonable means to secure the selection of 
suitable candidates. 

Ii is suggested that yon advertise where you will meet and 
examine applicants for appointments, at a time not later than 
fifteen days before the opening of the term. Recommenda- 
tions should be made as early as practicable, and be mailed 
promptly to the Superintendent of Public Instruction at 
Albany. 

FORM OF RECOMMENDATION. 

To the Sup&rfat&ndsnt of Public Instruction: 

hereby recommend of in the comity of 

aged .... yean, as possessing the health, scholarship, mental ability and 
moral character requisite for an appointment to the State Normal and Train- 
ing School at 

[Date.] , 



School Com'r. . of the County of. 

Special Privileges of Pupils. 

Tuition, and the use of all text-books, are free. Students 
will be held responsible, however, for any injury or loss of 
books. They are advised to bring with them, for reference, 
any suitable books they may have. The amount of fare neces- 
sarily paid on public conveyances in coming to the school will 
be refunded to those who remain a full term. 

Terms and Vacations. 

The year is divided into two terms of twenty weeks each. 
The fall term commences on the first Wednesday in Septem- 
ber, and the spring term on the second Wednesday in Febru- 
ary. There will be an intermission for a week during the 
holidays. 

All pupils should be present promptly at the opening of the 
term. 

The examination for admission and classification will com- 
mence on Wednesday ; and a failure, on the part of candidates, 
to be present at that time, will subject them and the teachers 
to the inconvenience of a private examination. 



252 NlN&TBBNTH ANNUAL REPORT OF TBS 

COURSES OP INSTRUCTION. 

Elementary English Course. 
First Year. 

First Term. — Arithmetic, grammar, geography, reading (last half ), spell* 
log and impromptu composition, linear drawing (daily), penmanship (last 
half), vocal music (first half), light gymnastics (daily). 

Second Term. — Arithmetic, grammar and analysis (first half), botany (second 
half), rhetoric and English literature, reading (first half), physiology and 
zoology (first half), United States history (second half), object and perspec- 
tive drawing, composition (semi- weekly), penmanship (first half), vocal music 
(second half), light gymnastics (daily). 

Second Yean 

First Term.— Philosophy and history of education, school economy, civil 
government and school law, methods of giving object lessons and of teach- 
ing the subjects of the elementary course, declamation, essays and select 
readings. 

The object lessons include lessons on objects, form, size, color, place, 
weight, sounds, animals, plants, human body and moral instruction. 

Second Term. — Practice in training school, essays, select readings or decla- 
mations. 

Advanced English Course. 

Students to be admitted to this course must pass a satisfactory examination 
in all the studies of the first year in the elementary English course. 

First Year. 

First Term. — Algebra, natural philosophy, general history, light gymnas- 
tics, geometry, compositions, declamations, botany (half term), select readings. 

Second Term. — Algebra, book-keeping, physical geography, chemistry, 
geometry and trigonometry, light gymnastics, compositions, declamations 
and select readings. 

Second Year. 

First Term. — Same as the first term of the second year of the elementary 
English course. 

Second Term. — Moral philosophy, compositions, mineralogy and geology, 
practice in training school, methods in higher studies, light gymnastics. 

Classical Course. 

Students to be admitted to this course must pass a satisfactory examina- 
tion in all the studies of the first year in the elementary English course. 

First Year. 

First Term. — Algebra, geometry, general history, light gymnastics, botany 
(half term), Latin, compositions, declamations and select readings. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 258 

Second Term.— Algebra, light gymnastics, book-keeping, Latin, physical 
geography, and astronomy, geometry and trigonometry, compositions, decla- 
mations and select readings. 

Second Tear. 

First Term.— Latin, light gymnastics, natural philosophy, Greek or modern 
languages, compositions, declamations and select readings. 

Second Term.— Latin, moral philosophy, chemistry, light gymnastics, Greek 
or modern languages, compositions, declamations and select readings. 

Third Tear. 

First Term. — Latin, philosophy of education, Greek or modern languages, 
light gymnastics, methods of giving object lessons and of teaching the sub- 
jects in the elementary English course, compositions, declamations and 
select readings. 

Second Term. — Latin, compositions, Greek or modern languages, methods 
in higher studies, mineralogy and geology, practice in training school. 

Diploma. 

Students, who complete either of the above courses satisfac- 
torily, will receive corresponding diplomas, which will serve as 
licenses to teach in the public schools of the State. 

It will be seen by the preceding courses of study, that stu- 
dents who have thoroughly mastered the subjects named in the 
first year of the elementary English course, can in two years 
complete the advanced English course, or, in three years, the 
classical course. 

Students may be admitted to any class on examination ; but 
no person can graduate from any one of the prescribed courses 
without passing through the last two terms of that course. 

Conclusion. 
Allow me to urge you to use all proper means to extend 
information in regard to this school, that young persons who 
possess the requisite qualifications may be induced to partici- 
pate in its benefits. Your experience must bear witness that 
the greatest need of the common schools is the service of more 
teachers who arc thoroughly qualified ; and I confidently trust 
that you will give a cheerful and prompt response to this call 
for your official action. 

ABRAM B. WEAVER, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 



254 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 



ACADEMIES TO INSTRUCT COMMON-SCHOOL 

" TEACHERS. 

The following academies have been designated to instinct 
Teachers' Classes daring the academic year 1872-73, nnder 
the provisions of the statute (University Manual, page 38, 
§3): 

Counties. Names of Academies. 

Allegany Alfred University, Academical Department 

Friendship Academy. 

Genesee Valley Seminary (2).* 
Broome Binghamton Free Academy. 

Deposit Academy. 

Whitney's Point Union School. 

Windsor Academy. 
Cattaraugus . . Chamberlain Institute. 

Olean Academy and Union School. 

Ten Broeck Free Academy. 
Cayuga Auburn Academic High School. 

Moravia Union School. 

Port Byron Free School and Academy. 
Chautauqua . . .Ellington Union School. 

Forestville Free Academy. 

Jamestown Union School and Collegiate Inst. 

Westfield Union School and Academy. 
Chenango Afton Union School and Academy. 

New Berlin Academy. 
f Norwich Academy. 
f Oxford Academy. 

Sherburne Union School. 
Clinton Champlain Union School. 

Plattsburgh High School. 

• Provisional appointment: the annexed figure denotes the numerical order of the 
provisional appointment. 



SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 255 

Counties. Names of Academies. * 

Colombia Claverack Academy and H. R. Institute. 

Spencertown Academy. 
Cortland Cincinnati Academy. 

Cortland Academy. 
Delaware Delaware Academy. 

Delaware Literary Institute. 

Stamford Seminary. 

Walton Union School. 
Erie Aurora Academy. 

Clarence Classical Union School. 

Griffith Institute. 

Hamburgh Union School. 
Essex Elizabethtown Union School. 

Keeseville Union School. 

Franklin Fort Covington Academy. 

Genesee Gary Collegiate Seminary. 

Genesee and Wyoming Seminary. 

Rural Seminary. 

Greene Greenville Academy. 

Herkimer Academv at Little Falls. 

Fairfield Academy. 

West Winfield Academv. 
Jefferson Black River Conference Seminary. 

Hungerford Collegiate Institute. 

Union Academy of Belleville. 

Watertown High School. 
Lewis Lowville Academy. 

Martin Institute. 
Livingston . . . Dansville Seminary (1).* 

Genesee Wesleyan Seminary. 

Geneseo Academy. 

Mount Morris Union School. 
Madison Canastota Union School (4).* 

Central New York Conference Seminary. 

• Provisional appointment : the annexed figure denotes the numerical order of the pro- 
visional appointment. 



256 Nineteenth Annual Report or the 

ConntieB. ' Namei of Acutaniei. 

Madison Evans Academy. 

Oneida Seminary. 

Yates Union School. 
Montgomery.. Amsterdam Academy. 
Niagara Lockport Union School. 

Wilson Union School. 

Oneida Borne Academy. 

Onondaga .... Baldwinsville Academy. 

Jordan Academy. 

Munro Collegiate Institute. 

Onondaga Academy. 

Skaneateles Union School. 

Syracuse High School. 
Ontario Canandaigua Academy. 

Geneva Classical and Union School. 
Orleans Albion Academy. 

Holley Union School. 

Medina Free Aoademy. 

Yates Academy. 
Oswego Falley Seminary. 

Mexico Academy. 

Pulaski Academy. 
Otsego Oilbertsville Academy. 

Unadilla Academy. 
Rensselaer Lansingburgh Academy (5).* 

Nassau Academy. 
St. Lawrence . . Canton Union School. 

Gouverneur Wesleyan Seminary. 

Lawrenceville Academy. 
Saratoga Halfmoon Academy. 

Mechanicville Academy. 

Waterford Union School. 

Schoharie New York Conference Seminary. 

Steuben Franklin Academy, Prattsburgh. 

Rogersville Union Seminary. 

Woodhull Academy. 



SUTBRMTMNDBNT OT PUBLIC IfiTSTXtTCTION. f5~ 

Counties. Names of Academies. 

Sullivan Liberty Normal Institute! 

Monticello Academy (3).* 
Tioga Candor Free Academy. 

Owego Free Academy. 

Waverly Institute. 
Tompkins Oroton Academy. 

Ithaca Academy. 

Trumansburgh Academy. 
Warren Glen's Falls Academy. 

Warren&burgh Academy. 
Washington . . Fort Edward Collegiate Institute. 

Sandy Hill Union School. 

Washington Academy. 
Wayne Lyons Union School. 

Macedon Academy. 

Newark Union School and Academy. 

Palmyra Classical Union School. 

Bed- Creek Union Seminary. 

Sodus Academy. 
Wyoming .... Attica Union School. 

Middlebury Academy. 

Pike Seminary. 
Yates Penn Tan Academy. 117 

* Prorlslonal appointment: the annexed figure denotes the numerical order of the pio- 
▼iatanal appointment, 

17 



258 



NlMTBBNTH ANWUAL REPORT OF THE 



LIST OP SCHOOL COMMISSIONERS IN THE STATE 

OP NEW YORK, 

Fob thb Teem Cohmehoino Januabt 1, 1873. 

Oonntiw. DlsU. Whom. Bott-ollleM. 

• 

Albany .... 1. John F. Shafer Cedar Hill. 

2. Zebediah A. Dyer East Berne. 

3. Thomas Helme McKownville. 

John O. Cole (City Supt.) . . . Albany. 
Murray Hubbard (Pr. Bd. Ed.) Cohoes. 

Allegany . . 1. Frank S. Smith Angelica. 

2. Walter D. Ren wick Friendship. 

Broome .... 1. Hiram Barnum Osborne Hollow. 

2. George Jackson Bingbamton. 

6. L. Farnham (Sec. Bd. Ed.) . Binghamton. 
Cattaraugus. 1. Newton C. McKoon Ellicottville. 

2. Henry M. Seymour Salamanca. 

Cayuga .... 1. Hulbert Daratt Cato. 

2. Charles H. Greenfield Niles. 

3. Lauren M. Townsend Moravia. 

B. B. Snow (Sec. Bd. Ed.) .... Auburn. 

Chautauqua, 1. Henry Q. Ames Sherman.. 

2. Lucius M. Robertson Frewsburgh. 

Chemung. . . Jonas Sayre Van Duzer Horseheads. 

E.3. Yeoumans (Sec. Bd. Ed.), Elmira. 
Chenango . . 1. Matthew B. Ludington N. Norwich. 

2. David G. Barber Oxford. 

Clinton .... 1. William B. Dodge Schuyler Falls. 

2. Robert S. McCullough Chazy. 

Columbia . . 1. John Strever Clermont. 

2. Hiram Winslow Green River. 

Cyrus Macey (City Supt.) .... Hudson. 
Cortland ... 1. George W. Miller Marathon. 

2. Rums T. Peck Solon. 

Delaware. . . 1. George D. Ostrora Franklin. 

2. Amasa J. Shaver Meredith. 



SVPBRINTKyDBNT Of PVBLIO INSTRUCTION. 259 

Counties. Distt. Name*/ Post-offlcet. 

Dutchess ... 1. Derrick Brown Poughkeepsie. 

2. Edgar A. Briggs (Box 88$) . . Poughkeepsie. 
R. Brittain (Clk. Bd. Ed.) . . . Poughkeepsie. 
Erie 1. Charles A. Young Ton aw and a. 

2. George Abbott Hamburgh. 

3. Rnssel J. Yaughan Springville. 

J. A. Lamed (City Supt.) .... Buffalo. 

Essex 1. William H. McLenathan Jay. 

2. Thomas 6. Shaw Olmstead ville. 

Franklin ... 1. Sidney P. Bastes Malone. 

2. William Gillis Fort Covington. 

Fulton John M. Dougall Johnstown. 

Genesee .... Richard L. Selden Le Roy. 

Greene .... 1. Samuel S. Mulford Tannersville. 

2, Robert Halstead Greenville. 

Hamilton . . . Isaac H. Brownell North ville. P. O. 

Herkimer . . 1. John D. Champion Little Falls. 

2. William W. Bass Jordanville. 

Jefferson ... 1. Willard C. Porter Adams Centre. 

2. Henry Purcell Watertown. 

8. George H. Strough Lafargeville. 

D. G. Griffin (City Supt.) .... Watertown. 

Kings 1. C. Warren Hamilton New Lots. 

Thos. W. Field (City Supt) . . Brooklyn. 
Lewis 1. William D. Lewis Constableville. 

2. Charles A. Chickering Copenhagen. 

Livingston . . 1. John W. Byam Livonia Station. 

2. Robert W. Green Dansville. 

Madison .... l.J Joseph E. Morgan Earlville. 

2. Paul S. Maine Perry ville. 

Monroe 1. Edwin A. McMath (158 Pow- 
ers I?lock) . Rochester. 

2. George W. Sime Brockport. 

S. A. Ellis (City Supt.) Rochester. 

Montgomery George F. Cox Amsterdam. 

New York . . Henry Kiddle (City Supt.) . . New York. 
Niagara ... 1. William Gritman Lockport. 

2. Esek Aldrich Johnson's Creek. 

Jas. Ferguson (City Supt.) . . . Lockport. 



260 Nineteenth Annual Rmfomt of ibb 

Conntlet. Dteti. Name*. Foat-offic«a. 

Oneida .... 1. John R. Pugh Utica. 

2. Charles T. Burnley Clinton. 

3. Henry S. Ninde Rome. 

4. Horace O. Farley. Prospect. 

A. McMillan (City Snpt.) .... Utica. 

Onondaga . . 1. J. Warren Lawrence Plank Road. 

2. James W. Hooper Geddes. 

3. Parker S. Carr Fayetteville. 

£. Smith (City Supt.) Syracuse. - 

Ontario .... 1. Hyland C. Eirk Phelps. 

2. Robert B. Simmons Allen's HilL 

Orange 1. Oeorge E. Smith Monroe. 

2. Asa Morehouse New Hampton. 

R. V. K. Montfort (City Supt), Newburgh. 

Orleans .... William W» Phipps Albion. 

Oswego .... 1. Isaac W. Marsh Bowen's Corners. 

2. William B. Howard Fulton. 

8. John W. Ladd Mexico. 

V. C. Douglass (City Supt.) . . Oswego. 
Otsego .... 1. Nahum T. Brown East Worcester. 

2. Warren L. Baker Portland ville. 

Putnam .... John H. Spencer Farmer's Mills. 

Queens .... 1. Eugene M. Lincoln Glen Cove. 

2. Garret J. Garretson Newtown. 

Alanson Palmer (City Supt.). . Long Island City. 
Rensselaer . . 1. Amos H. Allen Petersburgh. 

2. George W. Hidley Wynantskill. 

David Beattie (City Supt.) . . . Troy. 

Richmond . . James Brownlee Port Richmond. 

Rockland. . . Spencer Wood Clarkstown. 

St Lawrence 1. Dan. S. Giffin Heuvelton. 

2. A. Barton Hepburn Colton. 

3. Barney Whitney Lawrenceville. 

R. B. Lowry (City Supt.) . . . Ogdensburgh. 

Saratoga ... 1. Neil Gilmour Bailston Spa. 

2. Oscar F. Stiles Saratoga Springs. 

Schenectady, David Elder Van Vechten. 

S. B. Howe (City Supt) ^Schenectady. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 261 

Counties. Diiti. Name*. Ptwt-offlcea. 

Schoharie. . . 1. John S. Mayhan Gilboa. 

2. John Van Schaiok Cobleskill. 

Schuyler. . . Charles T. Andrews Watkins. 

Seneca Henry V. L. Jones Ovid. 

Steuben .... 1. Zenas L. Parker Bath. 

2. Reuben H. Williams Woodhull. 

3. William P. Todd Canisteo. 

Suffolk .... 1. Horace H. Benjamin Riverhead. 

2. S. Orlando Lee Huntington. 

Sullivan ... 1. Charles Barnum Monticello. 

2. Isaac Jelliff Liberty. 

Tioga Lemuel D. Vose Owego. 

Tompkins . . 1. Orville S. Ensign Ithaca. 

*2. Robert O. H. Speed Caroline. 

Ulster 1. Cornelius Van Santvoord .... Kingston. 

2. Ralph Le Fevre New Paltt 

8. Harrison R. Winter Phoenicia. 

Warren .... Daniel B. Ketch urn Glen's Falls. ' 

Washington 1. Ezra H. Snyder Argyle. 

2. Edward C. Whittemore Adamsville. 

Wayne 1. Joseph H. L. Roe Wolcott 

2. Felix J. Griffen Marion* 

Westchester, 1. Joseph H. Palmer Yonkers. 

• 2. Casper G. Brower Tarrytown. 

8. Joseph Barrett...* Katonah. 

Wyoming . . 1. Edwin S. Smith Dale. 

2. Edson J. Quigley Gainesville. 

Yates Bradford ?. Wixom Italy Hollow. 

* For term commencing January 1, WW. 



262 Ninxtsentb Annual Report ot ths 



(T.) 
REPORTS OF SCHOOL' COMMISSIONERS AND OF 
CITY SUPERINTENDENTS OF SCHOOLS TO THE 
SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

CHENANGO COUNTY— Fibst Disibiot. 

Hon. Abeah B. "Weaver, 

Superintendent o/PtibUe Instruction : 

i 

Sir. — In compliance with your request, I most respectfully 
submit the following report : 

Were we to place side by side a school as taught ten years 
ago, with one taught to-day, the efficiency of the latter over 
the former would be very marked indeed. If we go back 
twenty years, a more striking difference would be seen. 
Opinion is often given and judgment rendered, without 
weighing evidence. Thus it is with many men in regard to 
our present school system. The same horizon that circum- 
scribed their vision in years past, remains the limit to-day, 
and they see nothing good only as it partakes of former times 
and things obsolete. But notwithstanding such impediments 
in the way of progress, our schools are marching forward, and 
the system under which we are working is demonstrating 6ach 
succeeding year its efficiency. 

As time advances different circumstances control, new 
wants appear and changes must necessarily be made. Among 
the more important ones, earnestly advocated by many leading 
educators, are compulsory attendance at the public schools, 
uniform examinations of teachers throughout the State, and 
the prohibiting by law corporal punishment, all of which, if 
carried into effect, might result in good ; but they are ques- 
tions that should be well considered before becoming law. 
Much the larger number, proportionately, of children not 
attending school is found in cities. A law to regulate the 
attendance in such places, no doubt, would be salutary. But 
for the rural districts the necessity is not so great ; proper 



8UTSRINTBNT>BNT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 263 

persons elected trustees wonld, in a great measure, overcome 
the evil. If allowed fair compensation for their labor (which 
is no more than bare justice), they wonld feel it their duty to 
look after the interests of schools more than they now do. A 
comparatively small effort, in my opinion, on the part of trus- 
tees, would bring into school nearly every pupil that should 
so attend. A few dollars thus expended would remove much 
of the delinquency, which, it is claimed, law should be enacted 
to accbmplish. A* the matter now stands, trustees pay but 
little or no attention to the question of attendance or non- 
attendance at school, and it cannot be expected they will labor 
much unless rewarded. 

A uniform examination of teachers would remove much of 
the responsibility now resting upon commissioners, just wherein 
they fail in moral courage to bear such burdens. If every 
commissioner would act in accordance with the dictates of his 
own conscience, but little trouble would arise under the pre- 
sent system of examination. 

Unless corporal punishment is reformatory in our public 
schools, it should at once be prohibited by law. Good as well 
as evil has resulted from the practice. The evil is more 
noticeable than the good, for almost every case of improper 
punishment is brought before the public in some form ; on the 
other hand, the good results come not so much from the exer- 
cise of punishment as from the acknowledged right of the 
teacher to enforce obedience by this means if necessary. Some 
teachers pass through term after term without resorting to 
it, because their pupils know they will, in case of necessity, 
apply it in one way or another, which right vested in a teacher 
commands obedience without the use of the rod. Whether 
our common schools would be as well governed if positive law 
prohibited the right to punish physically, is questionable. 

My views in regard to the library question are the same as 
stated in former reports. Libraries are of but little use, and 
trustees' reports respecting them are vague and unreliable. 
The necessity for such reading matter twenty years ago does 
not exist now, hence their usefulness can never be what it was 



264 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

then. Under these circumstances it seems unnecessary that a 
portion of the public money should be apportioned for such 
purposes. A fund for school apparatus would be more in 
keeping with the wants of districts. 

The teachers' institute held in September last, at Oxford, 
compares well with those of former years. The number of 
names registered exceeds that of some former institutes. The 
interest exhibited and benefit derived were fully equal to* 
expectations. Our instructors, Rev* J>Winslow and Prof. 
A. J. Robb, are gentlemen well qualified for such work. 
Moral worth was made a prominent feature in their instruc- 
tion, presented as one of the most important requisites, with- 
out which teachers could not be successful in their work. 
Their aim was to excite the mind to a more noble bearing and 
to higher aspirations in the great wprk of teaching. Long 
and kindly will they be remembered for the good work done 
while with us. 

The academies in this district are doing a good work. A 
large majority of the teachers of this county have been mem- 
bers of the teachers 9 classes, and the instruction received 
has rendered many of them good, zealous workers. The one 
at Norwich has been growing in popularity and stands well in 
the line of such institutions. The one located at New Berlin 
rests upon a firmer basis and commands a greater confidence 
than ever before. 

The union graded school at Sherburne deserves more than 
a passing notice. From the time of its organization to the 
present, there has been an increasing interest which places 
the school second to none in the county. The new brick 
building erected two years ago, notwithstanding some defects 
which experience has shown, is worthy of commendation, the 
aim having been to build for the wants of a high school, and 
in keeping with the times and place. The prominent feature 
of the school is not in a fine building, nor showy equipage, 
but in a course of study, ample in its extent, reaching from 
the primary to the classical, and in the thoroughness of its 
instruction. 



SUFMRIXTBNDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 265 

.Eleven candidates have been recommended for admission to 
normal schools daring the past year — to Brockport, six, and 
Cortland, five — an evidence that teachers are seeking means to 
better qualify themselves for the school-room. 

Another faint effort has been made in the village of Nor- 
wich to organize a high graded school. Many of the leading 
inhabitants see the necessity and realize some of the advan- 
tages derived from such a anion. At present there is one 
academy, four district schools, and one or two private schools, 
all of which are well attended. Bat for a growing and enter- 

a 

prising village of nearly six thousand inhabitants like Norwich, 
the school facilities are far behind what they should be. Under 
the divided interest now existing, it cannot be expected 
schools can be built up to meet the wants of an intelligent 
people. The merging of the whole school interest in one 
central idea would produce beneficent results, unforeseen by 
its warmest advocates. Before another twelve months shall 
have passed, it is hoped that the good work begun will be com- 
pleted. 

In my round of visits thus far, it is gratifying to learn that 
there is general satisfaction with the schools of this district. 
The majority of them are as efficient as means and appli- 
ances will admit. Were better wages paid, and school-rooms 
furnished with only strictly necessary apparatus, it would 
place them far in advance of what they are at present. Action 
taken to force trustees to supply the school-room with these 
necessaries, would be placing aids in the hands of teachers, of 
which now they are sadly deficient. Some method devised to 
relieve the weaker districts and place them nearer on an 
equality with the more wealthy, would be an act of justice ; 
for to support a school with an assessed valuation of from ten 
to twenty thousand dollars, is much more burdensome than 
where the valuation reaches from fifty to one hundred thou- 
sand. As competent a teacher is required in the one case as 
the other, and if that principle is carried out, the taxation is 
twice or thrice greater in the former case than in the latter. 

The liberal provisions made by the State for educational 



266 NlNBTBPNTH ANNUAL REPORT OP THM 

purposes, and the earnest advocacy of reforms and improve- 

ments, are sources of gratification. Making the best use of 

means placed within onr reach, to advance general intelligence, 

is a moral obligation binding npon eveiy man. Efforts put 

forth, that shall successfully grapple with the great questions 

of the day, will soon render the school system of the Empire 

State second to none in the world. 

For favors rendered and forbearance shown on the part of 

the Superintendent of Public Instruction, I shall ever feel 

grateful. Trusting that future business relations may prove 

as harmonious as they have been in the past, I am very 

sincerely, 

Tour ob't servant, 

M. B. LUDINGTON, 

School Commissioner. 
North Norwich, December 81, 1872. 



CLINTON COUNTY— First Dictbic*. 

Hon. Abram 8. Weaver, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Sir. — In compliance with your request, I have the honor to 
report, in addition to the statistical and financial abstracts pre- 
viously submitted, that the ninety-two school districts under 
my supervision are all in fair running order, though a 
large proportion of them are too small and weak to build suit- 
able school-houses and support large and prosperous schools, 
as will readily appear from the following statistics : 

The whole number of days taught, as found from abstracts 
of trustees' reports, is 12,878 ; but to this number should be 
added, for districts which employed more than one teacher at the 
same time, 5,544 days, making a total of 18,422 days actually 
taught. The whole number of days of attendance divided by 
the whole number of days taught gives a little less than 
twenty-four pupils to each teacher employed, including sum- 
mer and winter terms. But as tho seventeen schools in dia- 



SUPMBTNTMNDBNT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 267 

triet No. 1, Pittsburgh, the seven in district No. 1, Keese- 
ville, and several other schools average over forty each, it is 
evident that the general average, not including such larger 
schools, must be much less, probably not exceeding fifteen to 
each school. The attendance is much less in summer than in 
winter. I find by reference to teachers' reports, that there were 
fifteen summer schools that did not average six pupils each, and 
ten others that fell short of ten each for the whole summer 
term. Such small schools are usually maintained in winter 
as long as a fair attendance can be secured, and then the sum- 
mer term limited to the time necessary to secure the public 
money ; and as every day beyond that diminishes the average 
attendance, it is, consequently, financial policy to limit the 
summer schools to the time necessary to complete the twenty- 
eight weeks. 

The valuation of the property in several of these districts 
hardly reaches $5,000, and there are about thirty districts in 
which it does not exceed $10,000 each. I have, during my 
term of office, carefully rejected every application for the 
formation of new districts. 

I find it my duty to present another unfavorable aspect of 
the schools of my district, one which I judge is not limited to 
Clinton county, and leave it to others, who have the matter in 
hand, to provide the remedy. I refer to the frequent change 
of teachers. The abstract of trustees' reports does not furnish 
the correct number of teachers employed. There were in this 
district one hundred and twenty-one schools which intended 
to maintain a school twenty-eight weeks or more. In these 
schools were employed one hundred and seventy-eight teach- 
ers, a number less by fifty-two than indicated by the abstract of 
trustees' reports, fifty haviug taught in two districts and two 
in three districts each, consequently reported two or three 
time? each. Of this number thirty-eight were males ; and one 
hundred and forty, females; one hundred and seventy-four 
were licensed by local authorities, and four, as reported, by the 
Superintendent of Public Instruction. Only four of the male 
teachers were employed in the summer schools. Male teach- 



S68 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

ere are generally employed only in each schools as it . is 
thought females are incapable of teaching, and hence it seems 
hardly correct to say that lady teachers receive less pay than 
gentlemen for doing the same work. Of the one hundred 
and seventy-eight teachers, one' hundred and fourteen, or 
about sixty-four per cent, taught only one term each during 
the year in this commissioner district, and most probably in 
no other. 

From what source are these small, short-term schools to be 
supplied with teachers I No graduates from the state nor- 
mal schools will want to spend their time in them, even if the 
districts could afford to pay them a fair compensation. Most 
of the teachers are obtained from the districts where they are 
employed ; young persons educated in the same school. The 
small wages paid, and the short terms of service in such 
schools, give no encouragement to the teachers to attend 
teachers' institutes and associations to learn the best methods 
of teaching ; but they teach as their fathers were taught years 
ago in the same schools! thus handing down, from age to age, 
the same plans of organization and the same methods of teach- 
ing, without any knowledge of modern improvements. By 
reference to the last annual report of the Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, I find this frequent changing of teachers 
is not limited to Clinton county. 

In view of the great number of districts that are thus evi- 
dently deprived of the advantages derived from improved 
methods of teaching, as taught at our institutes and associa- 
tions, allow me most respectfully to suggest one partial remedy 
that has occurred to me, which is to require school commis- 
sioners to hold, semi-annually, town institutes of one week 
each, in each town, and to grant licenses only to such teach- 
ers as attend punctually one of these institutes, limiting the 
licenses given at the spring institute to six months, and ^at the 
fall to one year ; also limiting the first grade to two years, to 
be obtained only at the county institute, and holding no other 
examinations. I think I can see many good results growing 
out of such an arrangement. 



SuTBEiNTsiWEtrr of Public Instruction. 269 

The two union graded schools continue to be the schools 
of this district. The prosperity of the one located at Pitts- 
burgh was checked last fall by the loss by fire of the academy 
building, in which were kept the grammar and academic 
departments of the school. These departments now occupy 
rooms rented for the purpose, but the inhabitants intend soon 
to erect new buildings. Their schools ace well graded, employ- 
ing seventeen teachers. Vocal music is taught in all the 
grades by a highly qualified teacher. A tuition fee is charged 
for tuition in the academic department. The union graded 
school at Keeseville has an academic department, free to resi- 
dent pupils. 

Much attention, during this fall term, has been given to the 
teachers' class ; and methods of teaching primary classes, as 
well as a knowledge of all the branches taught, have received 
special attention. 

I believe only one graduate from the normal schools is now 
teaching in this commissioner district, though this county is 
continually furnishing them with pupils. 

Many other large schools in this district employ first-class 
teachers, and maintain good schools, benefiting in a high degree 
all who patronize them, but they can never come up to the 
highest point of usefulness resulting from a uniform course of 
studies, uniformity of classification and uniform methods of 
teaching, until they adopt the union graded school system. 
The one is stationary, the other progressive. 

The Clinton County teachers' institute was held at Platts- 
burgh, commencing August 13th and continuing ten days, and 
was conducted by Prof. I. B. Poucher, assisted by Miss M. S. 
Cooper, both of the Oswego Normal and Training School. Not- 
withstanding the extra efforts made by my associate commis- 
sioner and myself to secure a general attendance, there were less 
than one hundred teachers that were benefited by the institute. 
The conductors met our highest expectations, and by their 
untiring efforts maintained until its close a high degree of 
interest among the teachers. 

The seventh annual meeting of the Clinton County teachers' 



270 



Nineteenth Annual Retort or twe 



association was held at West Chazy commencing December 
26th, and con tinned three days. It was well attended by 
nearly all the live teachers in the county, and was interesting 
and profitable. A session of similar character was held one 
year previous at Schnyler Falls, leaving a good and bene- 
ficial influence npon all connected with it. 

Permit me, in conclusion, to tender my thanks to teachers 
and pupils for their respect, to town and school officers for 
their cheerful co-operation, and to the Superintendent of Pub- 
lic Instruction for his kind forbearance, and to conclude the 
duties of this office by reverently asking that Heaven's bless- 
ings may rest upon our common schools. 

IRA D. KNOWLES. 
Pkeu, December 31, 1872. 



CORTLAND COUNTY— First District. 

Hon. Abrah B. Weaver, 

/ Superintendent of Pvblic Instruction : 

Sir. — The following report is respectfully submitted : 
The following financial and statistical tables present leading 
items of trustees' reports for the years 1871 and 1872. 



Statistical. 



NAMES OF TOWNS. 



Cortland villa. 
Clnctnnatae . 
Freetown . . . 

Harford 

Lapeer 

Marathon 

Vinrtl 

Wlllet 

Total 



i 


No. of children 












between the 


Number in 


Average 


S 


age* of five and 


attendance. 


attendance. 


• 

94 


twenty-one. 










1871. 


1879. 


1871, 


1879. 


1871. 


1879. 


1,650 


1,416 


1,101 


1,019 


558 


478 


8 


897 


858 


985 


980 


199 


119 


8 


807 


819 


978 


970 


188 


1«T 


7 


959 


978 


957 


805 


181 


197 


9 


975 


958 


948 


951 


194 


196 


7 


498 


480 


418 


456 


919 


906 


90 


688 


569 


484 


475 


968 


980 


8 
91 


998 


951 


944 


984 


189 


199 


4,141 


8,915 


8,810 


8.980 


1,670 


1,567 

i 



SUPEBTNTXNDXNT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 271 

It will be noted that the number of children of school age 
for the year 1872 is less by 226 than for the year 1871, while 
the whole number in attendance was bat thirty less. 



Financial. 



NAUBS OF TOWN8. 



Corttandrflle 
Cindnnatas 
Freetown .. 

Harford 

Lipeer 

Martthon ... 

Virrfl 

Wfflet .. .., 

Total... 



Total amount 
reeeired and expended. 



1971. 



$7,097 47 
1,965 88 
ft, 318 87 
8,938 66 
2, 016 68 
2,876 14 
8,880 06 
1,670 89 



$26,229 09 



1872. 



Amount fatted by tax. 



1871. 



$7,588 21 
1,887 12 

1.766 47 
2,112 54 
1,614 70 
2,926 72 

8.767 56 
1,587 74 



$28,160 06 



$8,111 20 
782 47 
772 27 

2,962 80 
785 79 

1,4)8 55 
926 89 
788 84 



$11,22181 



1872. 



$8,269 60 
752 57 
888 55 

1,287 74 
482 74 

1,520 80 
981 20 
691 48 



$9,279 74 



The total amount paid for teachers' wages, for the year 1871, 
was $20,713.60, and for the year 1872, $19,739.92. The aver- 
age weekly compensation of teachers, for the year 1871, was 
$8.02; for the year 1872, $7.75. The average expense per 
pupil for 1871, was $7.91 ; for 1872, $7.06, being eighty-five 
cents less. . 

The tendency of public opinion is to greater liberality in 
building and repairing school-houses. In the village of Mara- 
thon, where but a few years ago, a vote could not be secured 
to raise comparatively a small sum for building purposes, one 
of the finest school buildings in the county has been erected, 
during the past year, at an expense of more than $8,000. 
New school-houses have also been built in some of the rural 
districts, and others have been thoroughly repaired. 

The number of school districts having more than one trus- 
tee has been reduced to six, and is gradually lessening year by 
year. This class of officers, receiving no compensation for 
services, and ofttiines being subjected to unreasonable fault- 
finding and unfriendly criticism, as a whole, have done well. 
. I have but a word to say of the teachers. With few excep- 
tions they have done well, and are to be commended for their 



273 Ninstmmnth Aniwal Rsport or TBB 

earnest endeavors to discharge tbeir duties faithfully and effi- 
ciently. I am glad to state that they are more fully compen- 
sated than formerly. There are some persons, however, who 
mournfully assert that teachers are paid too much, and even 
blame the commissioner for his efforts to elevate their qualifi- 
cations, for fear they will demand and receive higher wages, 
thus incurring additional taxation. The business of teaching 
is no sinecure, and there is no department of labor more worthy 
of adequate compensation. 

Another year's experience confirms me more fully in the 
opinion, expressed in my last report, that young persons are 
allowed to teach at too early an age. The enactment of a law 
prohibiting persons under the age of eighteen from teaching, 
would be the most immediate and efficient means of improv- 
ing the condition of the schools. There are but few boys and 
girls under this age that have the judgment and discretion so 
essential to a proper discharge of the responsible duties of a 
teacher. 

Much has been said in regard to the qualifications of teachers 
and with propriety too. But little, so far as my observation 
extends, has been said as to the qualifications of school com- 
missioners. It is a notorious fact that many have secured the 
position through political machinery, who are incompetent ; 
that is to say, they are put in a position to supervise, criticise 
and instruct a body of teachers, a majority of whom are better 
qualified, in all respects, than themselves. This condition of 
affairs is humiliating to the teachers. How can it be remedied \ 
I answer, by introducing civil service reform in this particular. 
School commissioners should be selected by competitive 
examination, and not by intriguing, wire-pulling politicians, 
regardless of qualifications. There should be selected by the 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, or other competent 
authority, a committee of three or five distinguished educators, 
in each senatorial district, to examine candidates for the office 
of school commissioner, at stated periods ; and the names of two 
or three sustaining the best examination should be presented 
to the Superintendent of Public Instruction, -who should 



Superintendent of Public Instbuction. 278 

appoint one of the number thus selected, school commissioner, 
for three years. No one should be eligible to reappointment 
until after having shown by another examination his superior 
qualifications. A plan of this kind would doubtless aid mate- 
rially, in elevating the standard of education, and prevent 
presuming ignorance from usurping the place that should be 
occupied by worth, intelligence and capability. 

Since academies occupy a kind of anomalous relation to our 
public school system, their interests being in a measure antago- 
nistic to free schools, the propriety of sustaining them in part, 
from the State treasury, is being seriously questioned, and freely 
discussed. There is but one academy in this commissioner 
district, and for some years it has had but a feeble existence. 
I am fully aware that there are some academic schools that 
are doing a much needed and useful work, and should be 
liberally sustained; but when an academy becomes so far 
reduced that the trustees are willing to farm it out, without 
pecuniary consideration, to incompetent teachers — to teachers 
even who are barely qualified to teach a district school, then 
the propriety of its longer existence at public expense, is ques- 
tionable. A person to teach any grade of district school must 
obtain the necessary license ; but any one, competent or other- 
wise, may take the position of principal or teacher in an 
academy, without license. Teachers' classes thus fall, some- 
times, into the bands of those who are wanting in most of the 
qualifications necessary to a proper discharge of their duties 
toward them. A half hour per day devoted to a teachers' 
class, by an illy qualified principal, will not prepare a class of 
teachers very rapidly or very thoroughly, for their work. The 
ten dollars per capita, paid by the State for each member of 
the class, seems to be the prominent feature in the case, 
regardless of results. 

It is obvious, in view of the foregoing, that the Regents 
should require academic teachers to be licensed in accordance 
with a fixed and elevated standard ; and, furthermore, they 
should select such academies to instruct teachers' classes as are 
in charge of teachers of undoubted qualifications. 

18 



274 Nineteenth Annual Report or the 

• 

Cortland Normal School continues to sustain its reputation 
as one of the most efficient institutions of the kind in the 
State. The attendance during the year has been larger than 
during previous years. The wisdom of establishing normal 
schools is becoming more apparent, and it is hoped that 
measures will speedily be taken to free them from all encum- 
bering, local obligations. 

The examination of candidates for the Cornell free scholar- 
ship was held at Cortland, in August last, by the school com- 
missioners, under the amended law. The candidates exhibited 
a higher grade of scholarship than at any previous examina- 
tion. These free scholarships, connecting the institution with 
the public schools of all parts of the State, must, in time, exert 
a wide and salutary influence. 

The last session of the Cortland County teachers' institute 
was held at Homer. Prof. O. Morehouse, of Albion, acted 
as conductor, doing his work well. Mrs. Mina Metcalf, of 
Randolph, served as assistant, and both gained the confidence 
of all as educators of intelligence and ability. The attend- 
ance was large, being about two hundred. The session was 
one of profit and usefulness to the teachers. 

It is believed that in no part of the State have teachers' 
associations and school conventions been reduced to system, so 
fully as in Cortland county. During the past year, nearly all 
the schools and teachers have been assembled in their respec- 
tive towns for review, discussion and comparison of methods 
of teaching ; and for the purpose of adding interest to these 
occasions, the exercises were interspersed with essays by pupils 
and teachers, prize spelling, addresses, vocal and instrumental 
music. The attendance in many instances, by almost the entire 
community, indicates the interest and influence that have thus 
been awakened. 

This day closes fifteen years' service as school commissioner. 
A retrospective glance brings to view marked and decided 
improvements in the condition qf the schools. During this 
period, our wise and beneficent free school system has been 
inaugurated throughout the State ; the basis of apportionment 



SUPXRINTXNDBNT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 275 

of the public moneys has been greatly modified for the better ; 
normal schools have been established in various sections of our 
great commonwealth ; teachers' institutes have become more 
general and more efficient, and union free schools have sprung 
up in every direction. . Cornoll University, which, at the begin- 
ning of this period, had no existence, now stands in all its 
magnificent proportions, literally a u light set upon a hill," 
beaming with kindly rays upon our public schools. In this 
commissioner district, the Cortland Normal School has been 
established ; an efficient union free school at McOrawville has 
been instituted; school-house sites have been enlarged and 
improved ; many new school-houses have been built in the rural 
districts, and in several of the villages costly school edifices 
have been erected. It is safe to assert, that at no previous 
time have the schools been in better condition than at present. 
I have striven for the single purpose of elevating the stand- 
ard of teachers' qualifications, and of increasing the usefulness 
of the schools; and I have the pleasant satisfaction of know- 
ing that these efforts have, in a measure, been crowned with 
success. There is no pleasant er field of labor than the cause 
of education, and although the pecuniary compensation may 
not always be ample, yet the consciousness of aiding in elevat- 
ing the moral, social and intellectual condition of our fellow- 
men, will ever bring the most pleasing rewards. * 

D. E. WHITMORE, 

School Commissioner. 
Marathon, Dec. 31, 1872. 



CORTLAND COUNTY— Second District. 

Hon. Abram B. Weaver, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction ; 

Sir. — In compliance with your request, I respectfully sub- 
mit the following report. 

In the following tables will be found some of the more 
important statistical and financial items from my abstracts of 
trustees' reports: 



276 



Nineteenth Annual Re poet or the 



Statistical. 



NAMES 
OF TOWNS. 


• 

! 

OB 

•o 
o 

6 
fc 

17 
90 
19 
9 
10 
11 
14 


No. of children 
between the 

ages of five and 
twenty-one. 


Number in 
attendance. 


ATerage 
attendance. 


Value of 

school-houses 

and sites. 


1870. 


1879. 


1870. 


1872. 


1870. 


1872. 


1870. 


1672. 


Scott 


460 
996 
886 
884 

806 
861 
665 


486 
1,0*29 
874 
891 
888 
860 
529 


401 
688 
819 
807 
299 
884 
497 


878 
084 
815 
979 
804 
817 
480 


189 
818 
186 
148 
184 
168 
249 


168 
841 
188 
180 
186 
161 
206 


5,715 
10,880 
4,840 
4,780 
2,896 
8,000 
4,696 


4,860 

10,476 

8,940 

2,626 
8,460 

8,940 


Solon 


8,410 


8,879 


2,783 


2,707 


1,887 


1,284 


86,206 


88,865 



It will be readily seen in the above table that the number of 
children between the ages of five and twenty-one is thirty-one 
less in 1872 than in 1870. The number in attendance, seventy- 
six less ; the average attendance, fifty-three less. The number 
of male teachers employed during the year faas forty-two ; the 
number of female teachers, one hundred and twenty-five. 



Financial. 



JUMES OF TOWNS. 



— • 

Cnyler... 
Homer... 
Preble . . . 
Scott .... 
Solon.... 
Taylor... 
Trozton. 

Total 



Total amount 
received and expended. 



1870. 



$8,028 87 
4,886 51 
2,461 08 
1,866 26 
2,080 37 
1,852 68 
8,678 25 



$19,552 92 



1872. 



$2,716 61 
4,140 82 
1,953 47 
1,790 82 
1,857 10 
1,866 47 
8,975 69 



$17,529 88 



Amount raised 
by tax. 



1870. 



$911 91 

1,660 18 

1,000 56 

688 06 

865 77 

514 47 

1,129 65 



$6,668 67 



1872. 



$927 67 
1,488 86 
748 68 
668 40 
687 97 
674 47 
1,999 94 



$6,952 48 



An examination of the above table shows that the amount 
expended in 1872 was $2,023.04 less than in 1870; that the 
amount raised by tax was $411.14 less. The amount expended 
for teachers' wages was $25.62 more than in 1870. The 
amount of public money apportioned to the districts was 
$422.93 less than in 1870. The highest wages paid any male 
teacher during the year was $15.00 per week ; the lowest, $5.00. 
The highest wages paid any female teacher was $7.50; and the 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 277 

> 

lowest, $3.00 per week. The average expense of instructing 
each pupil in attendance during the year was $6.48. Of the 
whole number of districts under my supervision, only ten have 
three trustees. 

In respect to the condition of the schools, I am able to say, 
that whereas three years ago it was the exception, upon enter- 
ing the school-room, to find classes thoroughly drilled in the 
work passed over in their various studies, now the exception 
has become the general rule, and, I believe, the teachers of this 
district, as a body, are earnestly laboring to make their 
instruction thorough and efficient. The school associations 
held in each town during the year have done much to inspire 
both teachers and pupils with the necessity of doing Such work 
in the school-room as they will wish to present to the public; 
and, by these yearly convocations, a new impetus seems to *be 
given to the cause of education. A majority of those who 
taught in the summer schools found their way, at the close of 
their terms, to the teachers' classes established in the Cortland 
Academy and Normal School, showing a desire to better pre* 
pare themselves fpr their work. With the present corps of 
teachers in those institutions of learning, we look with bright 
prospects to the higher standard which the teachers of Cortland 
County must take in the future. 

A teachers' institute was held in this county in October last 
at the village of Homer, under the management of the com- 
missioners. Prof. O. Morehouse, of Albion, N. Y. 9 assisted by 
Mrs. Mina Metcalf, appointed as instructors by the Depart, 
ment, did good service. As conductor, Prof. Morehouse is a 
very efficient worker, showing earnestness and decision at 
every step, and laboring faithfully to secure to the teacher a 
higher proficiency as a necessary qualification for the instruc- 
tion of youth. Mrs. Metcalf introduced many useful methods 
in primary instruction, and carried away with her the best 
wishes of the institute. 

In my previous reports I have urged the necessity of apply- 
ing the library money to the purchase of globes and maps. In 
this opinion I am more confirmed, as I pass from school to 



278 Nineteenth Annual Export of tbe 

m 

school and find not one ont of twenty schools in possession of 
a globe, and only a scanty supply of maps. The want of a 
uniform series of text-books prevails to some extent in the 
schools, making the labors of the teachers less effective, and - 
thereby preventing suitable classification of pnpils for the 
purposes of instruction. I hope the day is not far distant 
when those in authority will devise means to compel the use 
of the same series of text-books in every school in the State. 
Then, and not until then, will one teacher be able to so classify 
his pupils as to be able to instruct a school of sixty pupils 
jnore easily than he can one of thirty now. 

At present, tbe practical utility of the knowledge imparted 
is made, "to some extent, the primary object of education, 
instead of the expansion of the various faculties of the mind. 
Parents usually appear to think, if they send their children to 
school and never visit it themselves, they are doing all that is 
necessary; and a general disposition prevails to throw all 
responsibility upon the teacher. Both instructor and pnpils 
require sympathy much oftener than they receive it. I know 
of nothing which so animates and encourages the teacher as 
the frequent visits of parents and others. Nothing can inspire 
the pupils more than the presence of their parents, and nothing 
can supply the place of their zealous co-operation and frequent 
visits. 

I believe investigation, and a few years' trial, have proved 
that the free school system is the only one consistent with the 
national character of our schools. This being so, neither the 
parsimony of the selfish, the prejudices of the ignorant, nor 
the insidious attacks of the enemies of liberty, will endanger 
its permanency or impair its usefulness. To me it appears 
consistent, that if the State has anything at all to do with 
education, if it has a right to impose a tax either directly or 
indirectly for the maintenance of schools, it must also have a 
right *to prevent these means being ineffectual in educating 
tbe people. By adopting a system of national education, we 
declare that it is not an individual or parental duty, but a 
State one ; and government has undoubtedly the same right to 



Superintendent or Public Instruction. 279 

compel the attendance of children, when they are not sent by 
parents, that it has to compel the payment of school tax when 
necessary. Nor would the rights of any parents be violated. 
No one can claim the unenviable right of keeping his children 
in ignorance, or the distinction of depriving them of the bene- 
fits of instruction provided by the State. Every person living 
in civilized society enjoys certain advantages as a social being, 
and society has the power of demanding that he be quali- 
fied to reciprocate those benefits. It therefore provides for 
his education not merely on the ground of benefit to the 
recipient individual, but to the country of which he is a citizen. 
The parent cannot demand to do that which is obviously 
wrong in itself, hurtful to his offspring, and opposed to the 
interests of the country. Rendering attendance compulsory 
would not at all affect those who are willing to send, and those 
who are not would only be prevented doing an injury to their 
children and to the State. The right of the parent to direct 
every action of his child is not a natural one, and should not 
therefore in this matter be made legal. We do not recognize 
in the former a power to oblige his offspring* to steal, and in 
this way injure the State ; then why recognize a right to keep 
them in ignorance! The rights of the State are as much 
natural rights as those of parents, and, having the same origin, 
cannot be incompatible; neither can there be a just claim to 
exemption from doing what is just. 

I am confident, notwithstanding the many defects here and 
there existing, that the school year just closed has been one of 
much improvement, not only in the management of the schools, 
but also in methods of instruction ; and, as I re-enter upon 
another term, I fully resolve to discharge the duties of my 
office with greater fidelity, if possible, and with a just appre- 
ciation of the necessity of a higher standard of qualification 
for all those who become instructors in the common schools. 

R. T. PECK, 

School Commissioner. 
Solon, Deo. 28*A, 1872. 



280 Nineteenth Annual Report or toe 

DUTCHESS COUNTY — Second Distbict. 

Hon. Abeam B. Weaver, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Sis. — In this, my last report, I beg leave to state that the 
schools in this district are in a promising condition, very 
i^any of them making great improvement in the grade of 
study and in the thoroughness of their work. The school 
buildings have been very much improved daring the year. 
Several entirely new ones have been erected, admirably fitted 
for school purposes, and others are in contemplation. We 
held a teachers' institute at Poughkeepsie, which was well 
attended, but was not so fruitful in results as might seem to 
be warranted by the outlay of time and money. I deem some 
radical change in this matter necessary to preserve the unity 
of trustees and teachers with reference to institutes. 

I am more than ever convinced that very much depends 
upon the commissioner to keep the general tone of the schools 
under his supervison good, and to preserve the faith of the 
people in the district schools. I beg leave to recall my sug- 
gestion of last year, that some measures be adopted whereby 
the taxation may be more completely and fairly adjusted, to 
the end that greater harmony may prevail. If not outside 
of my province, I would recommend your Department to 
institute some inquiry, with reference to the number not 
attending school who are of suitable age, as the schools, with 
their present capacity, might do double the work with but 
slight increase of expenditure. 

I would like to commend again some of the high schools in 
this district, under private management, which have greatly 
contributed to improve the scholarship in the common schools, 
foremost among which is our Bhinebeck Institute. 

Thanking the Department for its courtesy and kindness 
during my term of office, I subscribe myself 

Yours, etc., 

ISAAC F. COLLINS, 

School Commissioner. 

Rhinebecx, N. Y., Dec. 3Ut } 1872. 



Supnsintmnbmnt of Public Instruction. 281 

ERIE COUNTY— Thibd District. 

Hon. Abeam B. Weaver, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Sib. — Please accept this report for the last preceding school 
year. The schools, as a whole, have been successful. Peace 
and harmony reign throughout the entire commissioner dis- 
trict. The prominent wants and needs of our schools are the 
same as stated in a preceding report : more interest in schools 
by the people, and a better grade of teachers. The lack of 
these forms the great obstacle to success. Though some 
advancement has been made, yet the field is left comparatively 
unimproved. Trustees hire teachers, set them at work, and 
then, seemingly, conclude their responsibility is done. The 
teacher, being entirely alone, without outside help save a call 
or two from the commissioner, struggles on to the middle of 
the term, perhaps, and finds the interest waning. Patrons 
complain, children are taken from school, and the result is at 
least a partial failure, which may be attributed to one or both 
of the causes previously stated. 

I trust our Legislature will see that' all public money is 
given to support our glorious school system, instead of foster- 
ing institutions that war against our schools in more ways 
than one. It has been truly said, " Why give aid to schools 
of academic grade in which tuition is not free, when the law 
provides for union schools in which tuition is free?" 

The number of children, and the average daily attendance, 
are nearly the same as for the previous year. Libraries con- 
tinue to go the down-hill course, and in this section, at least, 
have nearly reached the bottom. They are practically dead, 
and of no value to any one. 

One new school-house has been built in district No. 12, of 
Collins. District No. 13, of Concord, will build another year, 
and then we shall have comfortable, and, in many districts, 
tasty houses, seated with improved seats and otherwise neatly 
furnished. 



282 NnmTMBNTR Annual Report of the 

This closes my duties as school commissioner. For your 
uniform kindness ever manifested toward me, I give to yon 
my sincere thanks. 

Youre truly, 

S. W. SOULE, 

Commissioner. 
Collins Centbe, N. Y., Dec, 1872. 



JEFFERSON COUNT Y— Second District. 

Hon. Abeam B. Weaves, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Sib. — For statistics I would refer you to my abstract of 
trustees' reports. 

Of the one hundred and seven school-houses in this dis- 
trict, about eighty are in comfortable condition for the health 
of the pupils. We have all kinds of school-houses, from very 
good to very bad ; three new houses have .been put up during 
the past year. In several districts they are making arrange- 
ments to build new bouses next season, and in some to thor- 
oughly repair those they have. I have assurances that, in the 
future, the people will pay more attention to the wants and 
comfort of their children in these respects, than has been shown 
in the past. 

In some districts the books in the libraries are well preserved, 
and are read more or less by children and parents ; in the 
majority of districts, however, they are a thing of the past, no 
interest whatever being taken in them. I think I am safe in 
saying that not one trustee in twenty has known the number 
of volumes in his school district library for the past ten years ; 
and the number given 'in trustees' reports is generally guess 
work. The one-trustee system is gradually gaining ground. 
The business of a district with one trustee is done better and 
much more promptly. There is one union free school (and 
there should be at least three more), also one academy located 
at Antwerp, both in a flourishing condition. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 288 

Teachers' classes are instructed in both schools, and much 
practical good to our common schools results from the moral 
and intellectual training there received. Teachers, generally, 
are principally deficient in practical teaching, application and 
general information. The majority Jare strictly confined to 
text-books. I have necessarily refused to license many. 

Our institute was held this fall at the court-house in the city 
of Watertown. It commenced August 25th, and continued 
two weeks. The instruction was principally conducted by Prof. 
Cruttenden, assisted by Miss Flora T. Parsons. The attend- 
ance was not as large as in some previous years, yet the insti- 
tute was a decided success. 

As to norma] and training schools, I hear no objection to 
increasing the number. All with whom I have conversed 
acknowledge their superiority over other schools, and feel grate- 
ful to the managers of our public educational interests that 
such means are placed within the reach of all who will qualify 
themselves for teachers. 

Trustees 9 reports are very imperfect ; their financial accounts 
are often poorly kept, even when they have account-books. 
Some, who in their own accounts make the entries Dr. and Or. 
properly, when they come to enter them in the district books, 
confuse their receipts and payments.. Would it not be advan- 
tageous for the Department to provide a trustees' account-book, 
with proper rulings answering to the separate specifications of 
the blanks for trustees' reports ? 

An increasing zeal is exhibited by most of the teachers. 
Few, however, are fully aroused to the great importance, utility 
and responsibilities of their work. Too many apparently teach 
for pay merely, rather than from love of their work, and an 
earnest desire to do the greatest amount of good in this field 
of intellectual and moral culture. Teachers, who will be in 
demand by the people, must seek to attain better qualifica- 
tions and make teaching a profession: 

Commissioners must also seek by example and precept to 
infuse, this spirit into their teachers, be more thorough in their 
examinations, more decided in denying licenses tq those of 



294 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

The following are the items of this expenditure : 

For teachers' wages $1,932,370 37 

For school apparatus 152,603 86 

For colored schools (all expenses) 41 , 646 31 

For school-bouses and sites * 607,808 24 

For all other incidental expenses, viz. : 

For fuel $123,225 14 

For janitors' salaries 110,578 59 

For officere' salaries 73 , 878 71 

For other expenses 50,486 78 

358,169 22 

For corporate schools - 103,519 75 

Total.... $3,196,117 25 



The whole number of schools under the charge of the board 
of public instruction of this city, and superintended by the 
undersigned and six assistants, is two hundred and eighty-one, 
comprising forty-eight grammar schools for males, forty-four 
grammar schools for females, ninety-five primary schools, ten 
colored schools and departments, including the Saturday nor- 
mal school for colored teachera, two other normal schools, 
including the normal college for females, thirty-one evening 
schools and fifty-one corporate schools. 

The following table exhibits the number of pupils taught 
during the year in such class of schools, as compared with the 
preceding year : 

18W. 18W. 

Male grammar schools 31,271 81,907 

Female grammar schools 28 , 062 27 , 807 

Primary schools 128,173 127,651 

Colored schools 1,832 2,046 

Evening schools 20,979 19,526 

Corporate schools 23,418 21,699 

Normal schools 2,145 2,015 

Total 235,880 232,651 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 295 



By this it will be perceived that the number of pupils, 
reported as taught during the year 1872, is more than three 
thousand in excess of that reported the previous year, the 
largest part of this increase being in the corporate schools. 



Male grammar schools. . . 
Female grammar schools 

Primary schools 

Colored schools 

Evening schools 

Corporate schools 

Normal schools 

Total 



Average attendance. 


Number of teachers. 


1872. 


1871. 


1872. 


1871. 


16,080 

14,028 

64,028 

707 

0,860 

8,267 

1,446 


16,424 

14,068 

68,844 

782 

8,814 
.7,621 

1,801 


668 

606 

1,266 

48 

874 

166 

22 


666 

470 

1,286 

44 

868 

162 
28 


106,826 


108.888 


2,887 


2,018 



From this it will be seen that the average attendance of 
pupils in 1872 is nearly four thousand in excess of that 
reported last year. 

Two new school edifices, in process of erection at the date 
of my last report, have been completed daring the year, and 
the schools opened therein are now in' successful operation. 
These buildings together are adequate for the accommodation 
of an attendance of about five thousand children, and the 
number at present in daily attendance is about 4,500. 

The examination of the schools by the deputy superintend- 
ents of grammar and primary schools, during the year, has 
resulted in showing in many respects a decided improvement 
in the instruction given to the various classes, while the repu- 
tation of the schools for good discipline has been quite satis- 
factorily maintained. 

Respectfully submitted, 

HENRY KIDDLE, 

City Superintendent 



296 NlNSTEMNTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

NIAGARA COUNTY— City of Lookpobt. 

Hon. Abbam B. Weaver, 

State Superintendent of PvMic Instruction : 

Sib. — In compliance with your request, I have now the 
honor to present to yon a special report regarding the progress 
and condition of educational matters in this city, with such 
remarks as the subject has suggested. As the financial situa- 
tion of our city schools has been already fully exhibited in 
my annual report, it appears unnecessary to enter particularly 
into further details on that head. 

When I was appointed to the office of superintendent of 
public schools in this place, Lockport was an incorporated 
village. The principal school at that time, as now, was the 
union school, first opened for instruction in 1848. It is a 
substantial stone building, but, however, hardly large enough 
for the increasing wants of the city. There were, besides, two 
good modern brick school-houses, one containing four rooms, 
and capable of accommodating with comfort about two hun- 
dred and fifty children, although we have often been obliged 
to crowd in many more ; the other containing two rooms, and 
accommodating, perhaps, one hundred and twenty. The 
other school-houses were gloomy, old-fashioned buildings, with 
poor accommodations for the pupils, and by no means equal 
in any respect to the requirements of the present day. 

A few years ago the subject of building new school-houses 
began to be agitated in our board of education. Some time, 
however, as is generally the case, elapsed before action was . 
resolved upon. At length, in the spring of 1868, it was deter- 
mined to build, on a lot previously purchased by the board, a 
school-house in that part of the city called East Lockport. 
Two primary school districts and one secondary district were 
consolidated for that purpose, and the school-house was accord- 
ingly built. It is a substantial brick building, called the 
Clinton-street School, and contains seven spacious rooms, one 
of which is used as an assembly room. It was opened for 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 297 

instruction in March, 1869. In the autumn of that year a 
piece of ground was purchased on High street, and a contract 
was entered into for the erection of another school-house. 
Winter intervening, the building was not completed until the 
following autumn. It is an edifice possessing about the same 
accommodations as the other, but it is of higher architectural 
pretensions, and the expense of erecting it was proportionably 
greater. Occupying a commanding site, it is an ornament 
not only to the neighborhood in which it is situated, but also 
to the city at large. About a year ago another handsome 
edifice was finished, named the Hawley-street School, which 
will accommodate about the same number of scholars as each 
of the other two. 

The erection of these three school-houses has been attended 
with considerable expense to the city; but our citizens, I 
believe, consider the money as profitably expended ; and Lock- 
port may now boast of being as well provided with good 
primary school buildings as any city of the same size and 
means in the State. 

I need hardly enlarge here upon the beneficial influence of 
comfortable and convenient school-rooms. On the plastic 
nature of children impressions are easily made; but when 
made, are often difficult to be effaced. If children fresh from 
home are placed in dark, crowded, and ill-arranged rootm, the 
feelings then excited may long associate the idea of school 
with that of gloom and discomfort. If, on the contrary, chil- 
dren on their first entrance into school find themselves seated 
in convenient and commodious apartments, with all the sur- 
roundings pleasant and agreeable, it is probable that the effect 
produced on their minds will be highly favorable, and will be 
manifested in a love for school, and their consequent improve- 
ment. The aesthetic principle in their nature will be fostered 
and strengthened ; a taste for the elegant and beautiful will 
gradually be developed; and the place where they receive 
their first lessons in learning will be remembered not as a 
dreary prison-house, but will in after life be associated with 
bright and happy images on which memory may love to dwelL 



298 Nineteenth Annual Export of the 

During my superintendence the number of teachers employed 
in our public schools has increased from twenty-eight to forty. 
Their salaries have likewise been considerably increased, being 
nearly doubled in amount. Of the forty teachers employed, 
three only are males, the work of instruction being principally 
carried on by female teachers. 

The increase in the number of scholars attending our public 
schools has been steady, and the average attendance will not 
compare unfavorably with that of other cities. But while this 
is the case, it must be acknowledged with regret that the 
attendance might and ought to be much larger. Many parents 
do not appear to appreciate sufficiently the vital importance 
of punctual and regular attendance on the part of their chil- 
dren. Many parents are in circumstances that seem, at least 
during a part of the year, to render the help of their children 
necessary to the subsistence and comfort of their families. 
Yery few, I am happy to think, are at the present day totally 
indifferent to the education of their children. There is, how- 
ever, a certain class of boys, here as elsewhere, over whom 
parents seem to lose control, who unfortunately prefer the 
license of the streets to the wholesome restraint of the school- 
room ; and I regret that there does not exist some compulsory 
means to stop them in a career, which, if not checked, will 
inevitably lead to crime and infamy. 

In the school system of this city the scholars pass by exami- 
nation from the primary schools into the junior department of 
the union school. This may be called a grammar school, 
instruction being given in the branches usually taught in 
grammar schools. One principal and live assistant, teachers 
are employed, and the scholars number upwards of three hun- 
dred. The instruction is thorough and efficient; the order 
and discipline are excellent, and the school is highly and 
deservedly popular. From the junior department the pupils 
pass once a year, by examination and certificate, into the 
senior or academic department. The course of study in this 
department is similar to that of our best academies, embracing 
the higher branches of English education, mathematics, the 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 299 

Latin, Greek, French and German languages. It is provided 
with a good mineral and geological cabinet, philosophical 
apparatus and a library of about two hundred and seventy 
volumes. It is in a prosperous condition, and its reputation 
for scholarship and discipline is high in the city and county. 
A majority, indeed, of the teachers in onr city schools have 
heretofore received their finishing education in this depart- 
ment Ever since its institution it has also been noted as a 
nursery of teachers for Niagara county, and has, in this respect, 
proved of signal service to the cause of education in this sec- 
tion of the State. 

During the past year there were only two of our teachers 
that held diplomas from normal schools in this State, and one 
of these was recently married and has left the profession of 
' teaching. No one can entertain a higher opinion than I do of 
the utility of these schools, and of the training and qualifica- 
tions of the teachers that they send forth into the field of 
education ; but it would seem that their graduates generally 
look for and obtain positions where higher salaries are paid 
than in this city ; and this remark will apply with still greater 
force to the district schools in the country. When teachers 
are better paid, and their situations become more stable and 
permanent, a greater number of normal school graduates will 
be found willing to take charge of district schools, and the 
results in the great work of education will be proportionably 
beneficial. 

For more than five years, discipline in both departments of 
our union school has been maintained without recourse to 
corporal punishment. Appeals to the sense of duty and to 
feelings and principles of honor, and the promotion of emula- 
tion among the pupils, have hitherto been the agencies princi- 
pally relied upon by our teachers, and have been found adequate 
to the end proposed in the good government of the school. 
The cases have been very few in which suspension or expul- 
sion has been necessary. It has not yet been deemed expe- 
dient to prohibit corporal punishment in the primary schools ; 
but as the best public sentiment is now pronouncing strongly 



300 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

against physical coercion, and as teachers themselves are begin- 
ning to perceive that schools can be governed without resort 
to this degrading mode of punishment, it is hoped that ere 
long it may altogether be dispensed with. If teachers have 
.the tact and ability to arouse and fix the attention of their 
scholars, and to preserve an interest in their daily work, there 
will be little need for the employment of such punishment in 
the maintenance of order and the enforcement of study ; and 
teachers who, at the present day, would rely upon the rod as 
the chief instrument of discipline, have certainly mistaken 
their calling. A resort to such punishment, except in extreme 
cases, should, I think, be discountenanced and avoided. 

We have been endeavoring of late to introduce to a greater 
extent into our schools the method of object teaching, and oral 
instruction in general. Much has been recently said in favor ' 
of this method of instruction, and some have thought that its 
friends have gone too fast and far in its advocacy. It cannot, 
however, be denied, that it is a powerful instrument in awaken- 
ing and cultivating the perceptive faculties, and in training 
the young both to think and to express their thoughts with 
facility. It is, of course, necessary to proceed cautiously and 
intelligently in its employment. To nse and not to abuse it 
requires skill, intelligence and information on the part of the 
teacher. In the hands of a weak, unskillful, or careless 
teacher, it may fail in producing the expected results, and may 
degenerate into an uninteresting round of descriptive adjec- 
tives and a useless repetition of set phrases. 

Unless this kind of instruction is well arranged and care- 
fully considered, a loss of valuable time may ensue. It is 
all-important in our primary schools, that the children shall be 
well and thoroughly trained to spell, read and write; that 
they should be made familiar with the principles and practice 
of arithmetic, and with the main facts relative to geography 
and the history of their own country. These elementary 
branches must not be neglected, and their acquisition should 
not be interfered with. They lie at the foundation of the 
educational structure ; on them all future knowledge is to be 



SUPMRINTXNDSNT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 801 

built ; and oral instruction, to carry out its design profitably, 
must be so regulated as to assist, and not to hinder or embar- 
rass the scholar in the mastery of these essential rudiments. 
I am satisfied that oral instruction can be so regulated, and 
may be so managed from almost the commencement of the 
child's attendance in school, as to be productive of important 
advantages, in famishing the young mind with objects of 
thought, in encouraging inquiry, observation and reflection, 
and in so ordering and exercising the mental powers as to 
assure greater success in general study. 

In the first stage of the school career, judicious oral instruc- 
tion may thus be rendered eminently serviceable in awaken- 
ing perception and inculcating morality and virtue ; and as 
advance is made in knowledge, it will become still more 
decidedly useful in preparing the mind to receive truth, to 
retain it intelligently, and to grasp and acquire new informa- 
tion. It is a matter of regret to think how much time is, 
virtually lost in mere reproduction of the words of the text- 
book ; and how many children go out from school into the 
world without the development and cultivation of their facul- 
ties, which it is the true province of education to provide. 
The best system of teaching will always aim at a combination 
of oral instruction with that based upon the text-book, and at 
imparting such intellectual culture as will enable the diligent 
pupil to master any new subject that may be presented in the 
course of study. The permanence of free government depends 
on the knowledge and morality of the people. How import- 
ant then it is that the instruction supplied by our schools 
should be such as will best accomplish the true ends of educa- 
tion, by preparing the pupils for an intelligent and virtuous 
exercise of their civil rights, and the performance of the duties 
that devolve upon them as citizens, in a pure and patriotic spirit. 
Whatever system of instruction is adopted, much of its 
efficiency will, of course, depend upon the teachers to whom 
the work of carrying it out is entrusted. Teachers may be 
faithful, and may even labor hard in their vocation, and yet 
not meet with the success that they expect. Custom and 



802 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

routine throw barriers around many teachers, which they find 
it difficult to surmount. To-day will see them do what they 
did yesterday, and they would be at a loss to assign any better 
reason for so doing than that they did it yesterday. One 
great use of teachers' institutes, teachers' associations, and of 
educational periodicals, is to help such teachers out of the dull 
and barren path of habit and routine, by unfolding to them 
their deficiencies, and pointing out appropriate remedies. It 
is with teachers'as with scholars, though in a different sphere ; 
they should be continually learning. The intellectual armor 
must be polished, or it will be in danger of rust. It ought to 
be the desire, as it is the duty, of teachers to qualify them- 
selves for respectability in their profession ; and it would be 
much better, both for themselves and their profession, if they 
cherished persistent aspirations after excellence. Teachers 
cannot become well informed and accomplished without sus- 
tained effort and constancy of purpose. 

I have the satisfaction of being able to state that the 
teachers in the schools over which I have control appear to be 
actuated by the proper spirit, and moving in the right direc- 
tion ; that our young teachers seem desirous of qualifying 
themselves for the intelligent and successful discharge of their 
highly responsible duties ; and that our schools are, upon the 
whole, in a prosperous condition, in a course of steady improve- 
ment, and in the enjoyment of the support and confidence of 
the community. . 

The union school district library of Lockport, originally 
formed by the consolidation of the several district libraries, now 
contains upward of 3,700 volumes, among which are many 
standard and valuable works. All possible pains is taken to 
keep it in good condition. It is extensively used, not only by 
the school children, but by the citizens at large, and may be 
considered a public benefit. 

I remain, with much respect and consideration, 

Your obedient servant, 

JAMES FERGUSON, 

Lookpoet, Dec. 26, 1872. City Superintendent. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 808 

ONONDAGA COUNTY— Third District. 

Hon. Abram B. Weaver, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Sir. — In accordance with your request, I submit the follow* 
ing brief report. 

The schools under my jurisdiction are, in the main, in good 
condition. I have endeavored, during the past year, to raise 
the standard of teachers' qualifications; and, of all those 
who attended the several examinations held by me, fifty- 
seven per cent passed the required examination, and received 
certificates, ranging as to time from six months to three 
years. I believe that in no way can a commissioner do 
more to improve the condition of the schools under his charge 
than by a careful examination as to the qualifications, ability, 
and moral character of those who seek the position of teacher ; 
and there are now too many at the lysad of our common 
schools who, by insufficient education, inability to instruct, or 
lack of high moral sentiment, are robbing the children of the 
aid, discipline and example to which they are justly entitled.* 
Of those teaching during the present winter term, more than 
three-fourths are females, there being a less number of male 
teachers now employed in this district than at any time 
before. 

During the year just past, several school buildings have 
been thoroughly repaired ; and there are now less than a dozen 
school-houses in this commissioner district but that are in 
excellent condition, and only three that are insufficient and 
uncomfortable. During my next term I intend that all these 
shall be improved, or new houses be erected instead. 

Notwithstanding our admirable free-school system, there 
are still many children, both male and female, who, having 
illiterate parents or guardians that do not appreciate the 
benefits arising from even a common-school education, are but 
seldom seen in the schools. Such children should be com- 



804 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

pelled to partake of the advantages which the property of the 
State is compelled to furnish. 

Very respectfully yours, 

PARKER S. CARR, 

School Commissioner. 
Faykttevillb, December 28, 1872. 



ONTARIO COUNTY— Second District. 

Hon. Abeam B. Weaves, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

8nc — In compliance with your request of the 15th ult., I 
cheerfully submit the following brief report of the condition 
and want 8 of the schools under my supervision. 

It is a. pleasure to me to be able to say to the Department, 
that here in the second commissioner district of Ontario 
county the good work of educating the rising generation is in a 
healthy and prosperous condition. In this, my third annual 
report, I am able, for the first time, to report a public school of 
good condition in each of the one hundred and nine school 
districts of this commissioner district. These districts have at 
present in their employ one hundred and eighteen different 
teachers. The people are becoming better acquainted with the 
free school law, partly by a study of the same, and partly by 
the good effect it has upon the schools of their respective dis- 
tricts. I find that the better the people are acquainted with 
the free school system, the more anxious they are to secure 
good and efficient teachers, that they may thereby increase the 
average daily attendance, and thus draw more money from 
the public fund. I recommend to all teachers, who may chance 
to read this report, that it is a good plan for teachers to vie 
with each other in endeavoring to secure a high per cent of 
daily attendance of their pupils. One of the great hindrances 
to thoroughness in our district schools, is irregularity of attend- 
ance. This can be somewhat overcome by the teachers, if they 
will give it their attention. 



Superintendent or Public Instruction 805 

Tbe improvements in school buildings are going on as fast 
as can be expected. There has been but one new school-house 
bnilt the past year, but several have been thoroughly repaired, 
making them as good as new. The people are beginning to 
think that it is better and cheaper to build comfortable school- 
houses for the accommodation of their children, than to pay for 
fuel and doctors' bills. There are, aside from the one hnudred 
and nine district schools in this commissioner district, three 
academies and one seminary, located at Canandaigua, Naples 
and East Bloomfield, all of which are first-class schools. If 
these schools continue for the next three years in the condition 
they are at present, I shall expect much good from them to the 
district schools. I find that the tendency of every good insti- 
tution is to enhance the interests of all other good institu- 
tions. 

I would call the attention of the Department to that portion 
of sec. 66, title 7, of the " Code," which gives the trustees 
power to assess each taxable inhabitant of a district on the 
property owned or possessed by him situated partly in his own 
district, and partly in an adjoining district. This has been 
and is the cause of much pecuniary embarrassment to several 
of my school districts. The inhabitants of a wealthy district 
purchase the territory of an adjoining poorer district, which 
joins their farms, thereby carrying the assessment of the weaker 
district into the stronger one, bo that eventually the wealthy 
district will control so much of the real estate of its neighbor- 
ing district that it will be impossible for the poor district to 
sustain a school. The following example is but one of several 
which I might cite : The assessed valuation of district No. 11, 
town of Richmond, is about $98,000 ; that of an adjoining 
district, No. 10, of the same town, is $21,212; much of the 
property that goes to swell the assessment of No. 11 lies within 
the boundaries of No. 10. If No. 10 could hold all the pro- 
perty lying within the boundaries of the district, it would sup- 
port a much better school than it feels able to, under tbe 
present state of affairs. Each district should have the power 

20 



806 NlNETEBNTM ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

to tax all the real estate lying within its boundaries. I would 
suggest to the Department that the attention of the Legislature 
be called to this point. 

I would next call the attention of the Department to the 
ten days' session of our institutes. Experience and observa- 
tion suggest to me that this is not the most judicious way to 
spend time and money. There are but few of the teachers 
who lay their plans to attend the institute more than one 
week. A few come the first week, and not the second. A 
majority attend the second week only. It can be seen at once, 
that this makes very it unpleasant for the conductors of the insti- 
tute. Most of our instructors have a two weeks' course which 
they wish to present to the members of an institute. They 
are obliged to give a hasty review at the beginning of the 
second week, for the benefit of those who attend only the 
second week. This has a tendency to discourage those who 
come for the entire session. This review is necessarily so 
hasty that it is of but little benefit to the new members of the 
nstitute, while the interruption detracts from the general 
interest of the exercises, and serves to discourage prompt 
attendance in the future. 

I would suggest that our institutes be held semi-annually 
for five and one-half days, the Department to furnish one 
competent conductor, who shall have the general management 
of the institute. This conductor shall so arrange the pro- 
gramme for the entire session as to alternate with the commis- 
sioner or commissioners and some of the older teachers, in the 
exercises of each day. Teachers are not worked enough at our 
institutes. Many of them have good ideas in regard to teach- 
ing, and if they were assigned certain topics at certain times 
each day, they would prepare themselves in such a way as to 
do justice to the subject and credit to themselves. I think 
that such a course would be attended with less expense to the 
State, and be more beneficial to the teachers than the present 
system. 

In conclusion, allow me to express my heartfelt thanks to 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 807 

the Superintendent for hie prompt and satisfactory answers to 
all questions submitted for his consideration. 

Kespectfnlly your obedient servant, 

K. B. SIMMONS, 

School Commissioner. 
Bbistol, December 31, 1872. 



QUEENS COUNTY — Long Island City. 

Hon. Abbam B. Weaves, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Sib. — Of the present condition and wants of our public 
schools I have the honor to submit the following report : 

By an examination of the financial statements already for- 
warded to the State Department of Public Instruction, it will 
be seen that the whole amount of money paid for public 
instruction in this city for the year ending September SO, 1871, 
was $31,930.46, while for the year ending September 30, 1872, 
there wag paid for the same purpose but $28,158.45. Of this 
latter amount $937.50 was for salaries due the previous year, 
so that properly the expenses for the former year were 
$32,867.96, and those of the latter but $27,220.95. Notwith- 
standing the reduction in expense, of our schools, I am happy 
to state the salaries of teachers have been increased in the 
aggregate by $1,200. The balance to the credit of the board of 
education, for the support of public instruction, September 30, 
1871, was $6,707.35, while the reported balances in the hands 
of the several boards of school trustees, September 30, 1870, 
the year before the schools were united under one general 
management, amounted to $12,426.55. 

In 1871, the total assessments for school purposes in the 
several districts now included within the limits of Long 
Island City amounted to $23,000 ; in 1872, the assessments 
for the same purposes amounted to only $19,494.77. The 
State apportionment for these two years was $5,713.35 and 
$6,342.51, respectively. From these figures it will be seen 



808 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

• 
that from September 30, 1870, to January 1, 1872, the three 

schools within the present limits of Long Island City were 
entitled to $41,139.90, while one year later, as the schools were 
coming nnder their present management, the board of education 
had for the corresponding fifteen months at its disposal but 
$32,544.63. When we take into the account an increase last 
year of eighty in our average attendance, and when further, 
we report a still greater increase than this in our present 
attendance over that for the school year just ended, the finan- 
cial condition for the support of the schools already established, 
is that of not only comparative, but absolute embarrassment. 

Two wards of the city, the third and fifth, represented 
respectively by 651 and 574 children of legal school age, more 
than one-fourth of the entire school population of the city, and 
together paying for the support of public schools $7,340.24, or 
more than three-eighths of the entire school tax, are yet with- 
out such schools. The requirements of these wards for the 
establishment of schools therein, and the equally urgent 
requirements of all our grammar schools for an upward relief 
in the establishment of a high school, must be met before our 
system is general in its application or complete in its grade. 

The adoption of a uniform list of text-books, besides being 
a matter of economy to the tax-payer, has simplified the work 
of properly grading the classes of the several schools. In clas- 
sification, in discipline, in system, and methods of instruction, 
we believe our schools are generally improving. Also the 
improvement in the average and regularity of attendance is 
very marked. 

We are pleased with the general earnestness and good will 
with which our teachers enter upon their class-work ; we can 
but regret, however, that the limited qualifications of any, as 
shown by their examinations, compel us to issue certificates of 
a grade lower than our highest. To quote another, we are of 
the opinion, that " a low grade certificate means, though it 
does not so state, that its holder is not possessed of the required 
literary qualifications to recommend him or her to a position as 
teacher in our public schools." As compared with the exami- 



8UP*R1NTKM>MNT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 309 

nation of classes made last February, the results of the second 
semi-annual examination made in June, show most gratifying 
evidences of thoroughness in instruction and class-drill upon 
the part of the teachers, and attention and application on the 
part of the pupils. 

In concluding this report, we can but express our satisfaction 
at the harmonious workings of all the details of this depart- 
ment ; to this state of good feeling, seconded by the faithful 
efforts of our teachers, are we indebted for whatever is excel- 
lent in the character and extent of the work which is now being 
done in our public schools. 

Respectfully submitted, 

ALANSON PALMER, 

' Superintendent. 

Long Island City, Dec. 31, 18T2. 



RICHMOND COUNTY. 

Hon. Abram B. Weaver,* 

Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Sib. — There is not much that is new to report in this district. 
The schools pursue the even tenor of their way, with slight 
advances, on the whole, in the right direction. There has 
been especially a noticeable increase in the attendance at the 
annual school meetings, indicating an increased interest in the 
schools, for which I have been earnestly laboring. The result 
is seen in the addition of over $3,000 to the salaries of the 
teachers, and more than $20,000 beyond the expenditure of 
last year for schools and apparatus. 

If it were possible for the commissioner to attend all the 
district meetings, I am firmly persuaded that a decided impulse 
could be given everywhere to the prosperity of the schools, 
not otherwise to be obtained. In two instances, where an 
adjourned or a special meeting was held, at my request, to 
allow me to be present, difficulties were removed and supplies 



310 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

were voted in a manner which equally surprised and gratified 
the inhabitants. I desire again to record my conviction that 
the inhabitants of the districts are more liberal in their views 
as to school matters than trustees generally are willing to 
admit. In no case has an increase of salary for the teacher, 
or a fair appropriation for the school, been refused, where it 
has been earnestly recommended by the trustees. 

Of course, as all the district meetings are held on the same 
evening, it is impossible to reach them in the way indicated, 
and equally impossible to secure a full attendance at any 
special meeting, and above all, in those districts where liberal 
measures are most to be desired. 

I have had to form a new district, by dividing No. 2, South- 
field, much against my wishes, as concentration is everywhere 
more desirable, affording as it does the opportunity of grading 
the scholars. There were local reasons, however, in this par- 
ticular case, rendering the division inevitable ; so that No. 4, 
Southfield, is now added to our districts. 

In No. 3, Castleton, a noble new school-house has been 
finished, at a cost of $30,000, and is now occupied. It 
affords an instructive illustration of what one man can accom- 
plish, when he is intelligent, liberal and earnest in his efforts 
to promote the cause of education. Two years ago that dis- 
trict was very poorly provided with school accommodations, 
when a gentleman, holding a prominent position in the press 
of New York, set himself to work to remedy the deficiency. 
He imbued some of the other inhabitants with his own spirit, 
and with such effect that the new building is the result, a 
model of comfort and elegance. As a contrast, in No. 6, 
Northfield, where more room is needed, and where those, who 
would have to furnish by far the greatest proportion of the 
funds, are willing to build a new school-house, one man, 
drumming up the voters of the poorer and least intelligent 
class, succeeded in thwarting, for the second time, a plan 
which would have given the district an ample and beautiful 
edifice. 

District No. 2, Castleton, has built an addition to the school- 



SUPBBINTBNDJBNT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 311 

house, coating $5,000, and furnishing accommodations for four 
additional teachers, two being already employed. This dis- 
trict is, in all respects, a model. The trustees are educated, 
liberal men, always ready to act in the interest of the school. 
As one instance of their judicious care, they direct their 
teachers to go, in a body, one day in every month, to visit 
some school in the city or elsewhere celebrated for its excel- 
lence. The two gentlemen at the head of the school, who 
have no superiors anywhere, enter heartily into the plan, and 
carry their corps of young teachers here and there, wherever 
a model school is to be found. The result is admirable. The 
ambition of the teachere is stimulated. They see the best 
methods of instruction in the best schools. In consequence 
their own school rises to the level of the best to be found 
anywhere. 

This year the number of children of school age is 11,406, 
as against 11,490 last year. The number in attendance during 
some part of the school' year is 5,770, compared with 5,886 
last year ; but although these figures indicate a falling off of 
116 in attendance, the average daily attendance has slightly 
exceeded that of last year. Still, an average daily attendance 
of only 2,675 out of the whole number of 11,406, shows a sad 
neglect, on the part of parents, of what is due to their chil- 
dren. There are 884 children in attendance in private schools. 

The expenditures, during the past year, show a gratifying 
advance in the right direction : 

1871. 1872. 

Teachers' wages $44,478 $47,175 

For school-houses 23,351 41 ,158 

Total expenses 87,900 107,000 

Our teachers' institute was highly successful and gratifying, 
although we were deprived of the services of a conductor. 
The gentleman appointed by the Department telegraphed to 
us, after the institute was organized and in session, that illness 
prevented him from coming. In this emergency, some of the 
teachers, at my request, took charge of the exercises, and with 



812 Nineteenth Annual Report of tee 

such success that the universal opinion of those in attendance 
was, that, in point of real, practical school work, in the 
interest maintained and the benefit received, this institute was 
in no degree behind any previous one. 

Respectfully submitted, 

JAMES BROWNLEE, 

School Commissioner. 
Port Richmond, Dec. 1872. 



ST. LAWRENCE COUNTY— Second District. 

Hon. Abbam B. Weaver, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

Sir. — The schools in this district, during the past year, have 
given increasing evidence of improvement in character. The 
management, discipline, system and method of instruction 
seem to be constantly improving. 

The greatest evil, I have oberved in the general management 
of our schools, is the hap-hazard way of conducting classes. 
Teachers do not seem to know just what th6y want to accom- 
plish nor just how they expect to accomplish it; instead of 
presenting the subject analytically, each point in its proper 
order, until the climax comprehending the whole principle 
under discussion is reached, the matter is taken up indiffer- 
ently, without a well defined plan or method. The result is 
the inquisitive few may study out and master the principle, 
but the indifferent many pass on no wiser than before. 

In correcting this evil and in impressing upon teachers the 
conviction that systematic labor and success are inseparable, I 
think the normal school in this county is exercising a benefi- 
cent influence ; and yet the only benefit the common schools 
derive from the normal is through the teaching of undergradu- 
ates. It is a notorious fact, that the meager wages of our com- 
mon schools offer no inducement to the normal graduate ; they 
take their diplomas and accept a position In some kindred insti- 
tution, academy or graded school, and thus the primary object ia 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 818 

establishing normal schools is, to a considerable extent, frus- 
trated. 

To correct this and bring the normal and common schools 
into close 'and practical relations, should engage the earnest 
attention of all zealous educators. This subject' was ably 
discussed by Dr. lie Vicar, principal of Potsdam normal 
school, at the last commissioners' association, and a practical 
step has been taken towards effecting the above desidera- 
tum, by organizing in the normal school at Potsdam a 
special training class consisting of those who purposed teach- 
ing the ensuing winter. The class consisted of between 
eighty and ninety members, and was instructed during ten 
yeeks in the following branches : arithmetic, grammar, geo- 
graphy, reading, penmanship and school economy. Princi- 
ples and methods of presenting them were made the objective 
point, and the final examination, conducted in the presence of 
the commissioners of this county, evinced the fact that the 
discipline, the class bad received, was an advance towards 
accomplishing what the welfare of our schools and the wants 
of our teachers imperatively demand. The class was designed 
to do, on an enlarged scale, the work usually done at institutes, 
and therefore the holding of an institute in this county was 
excused. The task of instructing this class was voluntarily 
assumed by the faculty without additional compensation. 
The success that has already attended their efforts, and the 
success I believe to be in store for them, will, I trust, guaran- 
tee the only remuneration desired— the enhancement of the 
cause of education. 

It seems to me that the laws regulating the use of text-books 
are very much at fault. Reposing, in district trustees, the power 
of determining what books shall be used, many of whom 
are unlettered and still more indifferent, is in effect leaving 
the matter open to the competition of publishing houses who 
unscrupulously make their interest paramount to the real 
educational interests of the community. Imagine a school of 
twenty or twenty-five scholars using a series consisting of five 
readers and a primer, Thus, in order to teach reading pro- 



314 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

perly, twenty scholars are classified in Bix grades. In my 
judgment this is absurd ; and yet it is the rale and not the 
exception. Under the present system, I see no hope of estab- 
lishing a nniformity of text-books, even in the same school. I 
think the best educational interests wonld be consulted, by 
reposing this power in the commissioner of each county. 

Respectfully yours, 

A. BARTON HEPBURN. 
Colton, Dec. 14th, 1878. 



ST. LAWRENCE COUNTY— Thied District. 

Hon. Abram B. Weavbr, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Sir. — Upon the completion of the work of another year and 
of my third term of service, a review of the results gives me 
much satisfaction, and encouragement to enter with renewed 
zeal upon the labor of another term. 

An examination of the abstracts of trustees' reports for this 
period will show a material improvement in nearly every item 
indicating the general condition of the schools of this district. 
This will be especially seen in both the average and total 
attendance, the length of school terms, and the amount paid 
for teachers' wages. The amount expended for school par- 
puses, excluding the amount paid for building school-houses, 
is now double the amount expended for all school purposes 
nine years ago. 

At that time the condition of school-houses generally was 
poor in the extreme. Now a large proportion of districts are 
supplied with neat and commodious school buildings. Then 
there was but a single school that could lay any claim to 
gradation. Now we have two thoroughly organized and 
prosperous union sehools, and several graded schools of two 
and three departments. But the most marked progress is the 
advance in public sentiment. The impulse imparted by the 
Free School Act is universally acknowledged. The advan- 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 815 

tages of graded over ungraded schools is understood. There 
is a demand for more thorough work on the part of school 
officers and teachers. 

The establishment of the state normal school at Potsdam 
has contributed largely to the accomplishment of these results. 
Several graduates of this school are employed in this commis- 
sioner district. The schools are largely supplied with teachers 
from the undergraduates. Although few of them have taken 
the course of instruction in methods of presenting subjects, 
or in organization and discipline, yet they catch the spirit 
of the institution, go to their work with a more enlightened 
view of their calling, have a more definite plan of work, and 
generally succeed well. 

One of the most urgent necessities of the times is an adequate 
number of thoroughly trained teachers, sufficient to fill all the 
schools. This, under existing circumstances, cannot be 
secured. It is indeed strange, that while in all other profes- 
sions schools for professional training are an admitted neces- 
sity, for which high schools and colleges only afford the 
requisite preparation, it has not generally been regarded of 
equal importance to thus provide for the training of teachers. 
The inconsistency of this view needs only to be stated to be 
seen, and the necessity for an increased number of professional 
schools to give suitable training to teachers requires no argu- 
ment. The State has long recognized the necessity for this 
training. For years appropriations have been annually made 
to eighty or ninety academies in the State for instructing 
teachers' classes. For nearly a quarter of a century, teachers' 
institutes have been supported in all the counties of the State. 
The normal school system is a recognition of this necessity. 

The results in the first class of schools render a continua- 
tion of this appropriation of doubtful propriety. Persons to 
fill these classes are rarely selected for their fitness, but from 
favoritism, or to secure a tuition bill. The time devoted to 
these classes does not exceed one or two hours per day. The 
character of instruction is sadly defective. 

Teachers' institutes have done a noble work, and were a 



816 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

necessity. But the time devoted to each annual session is 
00 short, and the number in attendance so, large, that with the 
increased number of normal schools, it may with propriety be 
deemed expedient, in some cases, to do away with them, and 
provide special training classes for teachers in the normal 
schools. In this connection I desire to record my unqualified 
approval of the views expressed in a paper read by Dr. 
Mc Vicar before' the Association of School Commissioners and 
Oity Superintendents, at Rochester, in May. 

In July last the commissioners of this county were invited 
to meet the faculty and local board of the state normal 
school at Potsdam, to consider the expediency of organizing a 
special training class for persons intending to teach one or more 
terms, in the public schools of the State, during the year com- 
mencing October 1, 1872. After a full discussion and consult- 
ation, it was decided, with the approval of the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, to organize such a class, for ten 
weeks' instruction, at the opening of the present term. The 
time required in perfecting the arrangements, arranging a course 
of study, etc., left less than two weeks, previous to the opening 
of the term, for giving public notice. Although the time of 
notice was thus limited, a class of sixty was formed. As was 
anticipated many difficulties were encountered. It was deter- 
mined to make the standard of admission to the class low. Of 
necessity the class was mixed. Some did not fully understand the 
nature and design of the instruction ; others were not properly 
prepared to do the work. The instructors found difficulty in 
determining the wants of the class, and of adapting instruction 
to their necessities. Notwithstanding these and other embar- 
rassments, the effort was a decided success. The fifth week of 
the course I visited the class, examined carefully the methods 
of instruction pursued, and the progress made. In connection 
with Commissioner Hepburn, I was present at the examination 
at the close of the term. It occupied two days, was thorough and 
critical. The class acquitted themselves with credit. The 
ability displayed in the presentation of subject's was especially 
marked. 



SUPERINTENDENT Of PfJBLIO INSTRUCTION. 317 

An abstract of points discussed in several subjects taught is 
herewith submitted. 

Abstract of Points discussed ik Special Training Class under the 

head of Grammar. 

What is Required of a Teacfier. 

I. A knowledge of the subject to be taught (which pupils belonging to 

this class are supposed to have). 
II. A knowledge of the principles of teaching as based on the human mind. 

1. Design of human mind. (1.) Growth. (2.) Use. 

2. Needs of; food — knowledge. 

8. Avenues of knowledge — senses. 

4. Use the mind makes of the knowledge it receives through the 

senses — perceives, remembers, compares, reasons and judges. 
The faculties to be cultivated and strengthened for use. 

5. They are cultivated and strengthened by exercise. 

Hence, 
(1.) Ideas should precede words. 
(2.) Objects should precede names. 
(3.) Knowledge should precede definitions. 
(4.) Instruction should proceed from the 
(4) Known to the unknown, 
(5.) Particulars to generals, ' 
(6.) Concrete to abstract, 
(7.) Simple to complex, 
(8.) Facts to principles. 

6. Principles deduced. 
IIL Knowledge of Arrangement. 

1. Objective Course. 

(1.) Object of— growth and development. 

(Objective — begins with objects. 
! H TT fl ?n 1 ? order " 
Synthetic— builds up. 
Inductive — leads to laws or principles. 
(8.) Materials used — facts, objects. 
(4.) Mental operation — comparison. 
(5.) Result— definitions, principles, rules, laws — define. 

2. Analytic Course. 

(1.) Object of— growth of mind— use of knowledge. 

Subjective— begins with the subject. 
_ f Advanced— second in order. 
* '' * Analytic— takes apart 

Deductive— leads from principles (application). 
(8.) Materials used— subject to be considered. 



318 



Nineteenth Annual Report or the 



(4.) Mental operation— comparison (differences). 

(5.) Result— Logical arrangement of scientific classification. 

Applying these principles in considering the subject of Language, we 
have two courses, Synthetic and Analytic ; the first to be used in gaining 
knowledge, the second in arranging and applying. The first course is not 
designed to be used in primary and junior grades, the second in the 
senior, etc, but after gaming a knowledge of the noun by the objective 
method — that is by taking sentences containing nouns, comparing and 
examining them, learning the class, uses, properties, relations and inflec- 
tions; then by the Analytic method arrange the knowledge gained in the 
best form to be retained, recited, used or applied. Then take the adj. in 
same manner, etc , with the other "Parts of Speech," the objective work 
always preceding the subjective. "First catch the rabbit, then cook him." 
The work in Grammar we divide into two courses, Primary and Advanced : 
Primary, in which the teacher presents the subject objectively; when the 
subject is mastered by the pupil, then arranged analytically, for recita- 
tion and use, under the direction of the teacher. 
Advanced, in which the pupil may have sufficient mental strength to gain 
the knowledge of the subject from the text-books without the aid of the 
teacher, and may then be arranged and applied under his direction. If 
the pupil is not able to do this, however, the kind of work in the 
Advanced will be substantially the same as in the Primary or First 
course. 

(unit 



Primary Coarse.- 



First Step. 



Second Step.- 



1. Sentence 
gaige). 



of Ian- ( 1. Del 

- a. 



S. Noun. 
8. Adjective. 

4. Verb. 

5. Adverb. 

6. Preposition. 

7. Conjunction. 

8. Interjection. 

'l. Personal Pronoun. 

3. Noons. 
8. 'Adjectives. 

4. Verbs. 
6. Adverbs. 

6. Preposition. 

7. Conjunctions. 

8. Interjections. 



9. Kinds, ac to vm. 
8. Parts— Sab. and Pred. 



Giving (1) definition, and (t) 
wet of each in sentences 
(simple). 



Reviewing; def. and uses, 
taking classes, properties, 
relations, inflections and 
roles. 



The whole course examined, discussing definitions, arrangement (arranged 
in the order of dependence), etc., etc. Specimen lessons given. 



SUPBRINTXNDBNT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. gJQ 



1. ANALYTICAL AfiRAHGEMBHT OF SUBJECTS PRESENTED IN THE FlBST 

COUBBE. 



Advanced 
Course. 



i 

a 
S 

s 

as 

o 

si 



1. Def. 

9. Classi- 
fication 
o£ 



"5. 

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1. Ac. to use. 



Note. Proposi 
9. Ac to No. 
of Prop. 



1. Member*. 



9. Proposi- 
tions. 



f 1. Declarative. 

S. Interrog. 

8. Imp. 

4. Exclam. 
itlon. l 

1. Simple. < 



8. Connec- 
tives. 



4. Classes. 



1. Def. 
9. Parts. 



1. Similar. 

9. Dissimi- 
lar. 

1. Def. 

9. Classes. 



1. Log. Bab. 
9. Log. Pred. 
Def 



8. Ele- 
ments. 



1. Prin. 
Leading. 
9. Sabor. 
Clause. 



1 



fl. Ac. to Bank. 

9. Ac. to Modi- 
fiers. 

8. Ac. to Office. 
4. Ac. to Form. 



li 



1. Co-ordinate— Conjunctions. 
9. Snbor- ( -" QopJonctipns. 
dinate. 



UWAIC 



RelatWe Pro. 
. . , ~ Conjnnc. Adv. 

1. Compound— A sentence consisting of two or 
more members connected by coordinate con- 
nectives is, etc. 
9. Complex— A sentence consisting of dissimilar 
propositions connected by subordinate connec- 
tive is, etc. 



Specimen Lessons Qvoen. 

IV. Knowledge in regard to the presentation of a subject. Method. 

1. Different methods of presenting a subject 

(a.) Lecturing method. 
(b.) Pupils memorizing from books. 
(e.) Catechetical questioning. 

(d.) Questioning to develop idea of the subject— objective 
teaching. 
Discussed advantages and disadvantages of each ; which should be rejected, 
which preferred, and for what reasons. 

2. Work of teachers in presenting a subject objectively. Questioning. 

3. Order to be observed in obj. presentation. 

(a.) Present the thing or object from which his conclusion is 
to be deduced ; leading the child, by questioning, to 
perceive and state the truth to be learned, keeping the 
object before him until the idea is familiar. 

(b.) Pronounce correctly and distinctly the term to be given, 
and require individual and simultaneous recitation 
until familiar. 

(c.) Children spell, teacher write on board the matter 
obtained, and children reciting until they can repeat 
without hesitating. 

(d\) Thorough review and testing— summary. 

(«.) Reproduction— oral and written. 

if.) Application— thorough drill. 



Nisstkmhtb Annual Report or the 

l. Rules foi questioning. 

(1.) Questions should not include the idea to be obtained, 

either by using word or words of answer, or by giving 

idea in other words. 
(2.) Questions must be to the point, (8) clear, concise, and (4) 

adapted to the capacity of the children. > 

(5.) In a series, questions should be logical or in the order of 

dependence, based on previous answer and exhaustive. 
(*.) Do not indicate answer by inflection of voice, emphasis, 

or expression of countenance. 
(7.) Do not ask questions which can be answered by ye* or no. 



n Letson* Given. 
V. Knowledge of work following presentation. 

1. Topical recitation— how arranged, how conducted. 
8. Test questioning — how conducted. 

8. Application, parsing, analyzing, applying or using knowledge 
obtained. 

Specimen Leuont Owen. 
VI. Knowledge of use of books. 

Work op Spboiax Thjumiho Class lit Composition. 



f J 

a.? 1 



I. Letter itself. 



= II. Folding. 

° TIL Snpemeriptlon. 

irv. Stamping. 



■"""•iiia: ..... 

)I, Style, 
a. Position. 

S. Body of Letter. 

Signature. 



. Long and Short 



g S. Uni?j. 

•5 4. Strength. 5 

.M 1,6. Harmony. [£ 

TV. Practical work In Leltur- writing and Writing of Compositions on variooa n 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. \ 821 
Abstract or Points Discussed in Special Training Class under 

THE HEAD OF GEOGRAPHY. . 
I. 

Objects of State in founding Public School*. 

1. Culture, highest development of individual. 

2. To give to masses rudiments of useful 'knowledge. 

A. Teachers 9 work, as appointed means of securing those 
objects, should be as definite as the objects. 

B. Definiteness in work, as involving purpose. 

C. Purpose in work, as involving knowledge ; first, of materials 

to be used; second, manner of using materials, or method. 

D. Materials. 1. Being— Phys. Mental, Moral, etc. 

2. Truth— Phyz. Mental, Moral, etc 

E. Method. Mode of bringing the being and truth in contact. 

True method must consult both the being and the truth ; 
in so doing, certain unvarying, universal principles under- 
lying method, are discovered. 

F. Principles. 

I. As regards the child. 

1. Child begins with senses. 

2. Child discovers for himself. 

3. Child deals with individual (unit of subject) analytically. 

4. Child builds Up whole subject (synthetically). 

IL As regards the teacher. 

1. Teacher should analyze truth (subject-matter). 

2. Teacher should find elements-^present roots. 
8. Teacher should present one thing at a time. 

4. Teacher should be thorough. 

5. Teacher should observe order of nature. 

6. Teacher should proceed from simple to difficult — known to 

unknown— concrete to abstract — individual to general. 

n. 

Principles stated above applied to Geography. 
The class concluded that the fundamental ideas of Geography are position, 

Exercises on Position, Form, Site. 

1. Various exercises on schoolroom, building, grounds, children's 
homes, and neighborhood where children live (which are specially 
intended to induce quick, accurate perception). Children are 
taught how to represent (draw) the same. 

21 



/ 

/ 

;/ 
§22' NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

2. a. Children study in detail their own town, constructing map of 
the same. 

b. Study county, constructing map. 

c. Work introductory to continents, on the following points: 

Shape of earth — Surface— coast forms of land and water — 
elevations — inland waters — poles— equator— hemisphere, 
etc. 

III. 

1 . Order of Topics in study of Continent given in detail, with reasons 

for order ; also, illustration of each. 

2. Order and kinds of class-work on each point. See " Forms A " 

and " B." 

'IV. 

General discussion and practical suggestions with regard to — Exercises pre- 
paratory to recitation — kinds — value. — Objects and Modes of Recitation. — What 
constitutes perfect recitation. — Objects of study. — Tabular tiews and analyses; 
value, when used, how used ? — Means of impressing on memory forms of 
countries, continents, surface, etc. — Means of getting children to think of reali- 
ties instead of the representation. — Reviews and Examinations, value of, modes 
of, and value of each mode. — Apparatus. — Difficulties in map-drawing. — 
Plan of taking up various topics in the study of the continent 



SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 



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Superintendent of Public Instruction. 325 

Subjects in Arithmetic considered in Special Training Class. 

Notation, Numeration, Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division. 

Properties of Numbers. 

Greatest Common Divisor. 

Least Common Multiple. 

Fractions, Common and Decimal. 

Longitude and Time. 

Ratio and Proportion. 

Percentage. 

Stocks, Commission, etc 

Profit and Loss. 

Life Insurance, Insurance, Taxes. 

Interest, Banking. 

Application of Per Cent. 

Discount 

Exchange. 

Partnership. 

Alligation. 

Square Root. 

Abstract of Points Discussed in Special Training Class, ttndbb the 

Head of School Economy. 

I. Natural qualifications of teachers for school government. 

1. Magnetism, power of impressing others, or personal influence, 

(a.) Source of such power. 

(ft.) Conditions which control its exercise in the school-room. 

2. Ability to discriminate character. 

(a.) By noticing acts. (1.) As to their origin, or cause which 
gave rise to them. (2.) As to their direction, or chan- 
nel in which they flow. (8.) As to the end or purpose 
to be served by them. 
(b.) By noticing personal appearance. (1.) General features 
of face and head. (2.) Peculiarities of body, including 
gestures, dress, etc. 
8. Sympathy for others. 
4 Amiable temper. 
5. Easy manner. 
II. Acquired qualifications of teachers for school government. 

1. A knowledge of the elements which enter into good government. 

2. A knowledge of the forces at work in society in forming char- 

acter. 
8. The habit of noticing the forces at work in the pupil, and the 
tendencies to which they lead. 

4. Self-possession, as regards temper, manner and execution. 

5. An accommodating spirit. 



326 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

III. The course which should be pursued by the teacher in the school-room. 

1. In regard to personal appearance. 

(a.) Positions of body ; (1) natural ; (2) affected. 
(b.) Peculiar habits and treatment of the body, 
(e.) Dress, (1) called for by the position occupied; (2) adapted 
to work. 

2. Dispositions manifested. 

(a.) Decided, but not harsh and austere. 
(b.) Pleasant, yet not light and frivolous. 
(e.) Even/yet not monotonous. 
(d.) Patient and gentle. 
(e.) Active and energetic. 

3. Discriminations made. 

(a.) In regard to what ought to be overlooked in the conduct 

of the pupil. 
(b.) In regard to what ought to be censured in the conduct 

of pupils. 
(&) In regard to the peculiarities of pupils. 
(d.) In regard to when, where and how censure and punish- 
ment should be inflicted 

IV. Organization of a school. 

1. Temporary organization. 

(a.) Classification; (1) examinations; (2) distribution of pupils 

in^classes. 
(b.) Programme; (1) opening exercises; (2) time for recita- 
tion; (8) time for study; (4) recesses; (5) general exer- 
cise; (6) time for business, 
(c.) Seating; (1) by classes; (2) by age; (8) by choice; (4) by 
conduct 
V. Regulations for the government of a school. 

1. In regard^to privileges. 

(a.) Should be in accordance with acknowledged principles 

of right 
(b.) Should be such as can be given to each pupil under like 

circumstances, 
(e.) Should be such as will promote the objects for which 

the pupil is in school. 

2. Requirements. 

(a.) Should be such as will do no violence to any part of the 

pupil's nature. 
(6.) Should be simple, definite and as few as possible, 
(e.) Should be such as will promote the objects for which the 

pupil is in school 
{d.) Should be such as can in every case be enforced without 

doing violence to the rights of the pupil. • 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 327 

ie.) Should not be announced until demanded by something 

in the order of the school-room. 
8. Restrictions. 

(a.) Should be such as necessarily grow out of the relation 

of the pupils to each other and to their teacher, 
(ft.) Should be such as will assist the pupil in the power of 

self-government 
((?.) Should be such as will do no violence to any part of the 

pupil's nature. 
VI. Appliances for the government of a school. 

1. Time element. 

(a.) Proper division of. 

(b.) Promptness in regard to. 

(e.) Proper use of, in cases of discipline. 

2. Place element 

(a.) Position of teacher in school-room. 
(&.) Seating of pupils. 
(e.) Condition of desks, floor, etc. 
(&) Ornamentation of school-room. 
(<?.) Plan and use of play-ground. 

3. Exercises. 

(a.) Opening of school, music, recitations, reading of Scrip- 
ture, etc. 
(b.) Music at intervals during the day. 
(e.) Physical exercises. 

4. Report by pupils. 

(a.) Special, (1) daily, (2) at fixed intervals. 
(b.) General, (1) by classes, (2) by whole school. 

5. Standing, kept by teacher. 

Tbst Questions in Grammar— Special Training Class. 

1. Name and define all kinds of pronouns. State in what respects they 
are alike and in what different 

2. State in which course and in which step pronouns should be consid- 
ered ; also, what should be taught first in regard to them, and when kinds 
of pronouns should be given. State reasons in each case. 

3. Mention the characteristics of an Objective or Synthetic course. 

4. Mention the characteristics of an Advanced or Analytic course. 

5. Compare the Analytic and Synthetic courses. 

6. State in order the work of the second step, with reasons. 

7. State the work of the first step Synthetic course, with reasons. 

8. State the reasons for dividing the work into steps. 

9. How does the order of presenting the subject — verb— compare with 
the order you would require in a topical recitation ? Give reasons. 

10. Give the order for a topical recitation of the verb. 



328 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

11. State the difference between a verb and a verbal word. Mention the 
classes of verbal words. State in what part of the work they should be 
considered, with reasons. 

12. How much of etymology and syntax should be taught objectively ? 
Reasons. 

18. In which course, in what manner, and to what extent should books 
be used in teaching grammar ? 

14. State the advantages, if any, of an objective course in grammar. 

15. Under what circumstances, if ever, would you depart from the 
arranged course in your text-books ? 

16. How would you answer this objection " That those who made the 
grammar knew more about the subject than we do, consequently we are 
marring instead of improving by any changes we may make?" 

17. Mention the different kinds of work which should follow the presmta- 
Hon of a subject. State the object of this work. 

18. How many, and which of the terms, Etymology, Syntax and Prosody 
should be given at the beginning of the study of grammar ; also, how many 
and which of the terms, Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Adverb, Adjective, Conjunc- 
tion, Preposition and Interjection should be given at the beginning t 

19. How many of the principles of teaching will prove this position ? 
State them. 

20. Define adjective ; state what you understand by modify. 

21. State definition of preposition, as given in book, and criticise it. 

22. State what must be taught in regard to verb before definition of 
regular and irregular verbs can be given. 

28. State what must be taught in regard to verbs before "Principal 
Parts " or " Principal Forms " of the verb can be given ; give reasons. 

24. State the rules to be observed in giving or criticising definitions ; or 
state all the characteristics of a good definition. 

25. Define principle, definition and rule. 

26. Give rule first in regard to questioning ; give an example in which it 
is violated. 

27. Give rules second, third and fourth in regard to questioning. 

28. Give rules fifth, sixth and seventh in regard to questioning. 

29. Why do verbs have the same number as their subjects 1 

80. State the difference between questioning to develop an idea and test 
questioning. 

•31. State the advantages, if any, of a graded oral course for children over 
the method usually pursued in books. 

82. How will you meet this objection, " That more time is required in 
teaching Grammar objectively than in memorizing from books?" 

88. In analysis, give the classification of sentences and the basis of classi- 
fication in each case. 

84 State all ways in which the elements of simple sentences are frlamiflfld, 
naming the basis of each classification. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 329 

86. State all that must be taught in analyek, in regard to sentences 
which are notMmple, before definition of complex and compound sentences 
can be given. 

36 Define a complex sentence ; give an example and analyze in full. 

37. Define a compound sentence and give an example. 

38. Define simple sentence. Give an example containing several kinds 
of modifiers. Analyze in full. 

39. Define conjunction. 

40. State all the principles of teaching given. 

41. Mention instances (perhaps from some text-book with which you are 
acquainted) in which some or all of these principles are violated. 

42. Define article. State the difference between an article and an adjec- 
tive. 

48. Criticise this definition, " A word used as the name of an object is 
called a noun. 1 ' 
48. Give the uses of infinitives. 

44. Give definition and kinds of connectives ; also, words used as such 
and state in what part of the work connectives should be considered. 

45. Define Mood; and state which of the terms mood or mode should 
be used. 

47. In beginning grammar, what subject will you take up flr*t y and how 
much will you teach in regard to it in primary course ? 

48. State the reasons why the teacher should not indicate the answer by 
inflection of voice, emphasis or expression of countenance. 

48. Criticise this answer which was given in examination yesterday. 
" Ask the question so the pupil will not know what the answer is." 

50. What faculties are most active in childhood ? To which of the facul- 
ties then should the teacher most frequently appeal in teaching children? 

51. State three reasons in favor of teaching language objectively, and as 
many against 

62. State objections, if you have any, to the catechetical method of con- 
ducting a recitation. 

53. State objection, if you have any, to the lecturing method of conduct- 
ing a recitation. 

54 Give your opinion of the rule " Questions should not be asked which 
can be answered l)y yes or no. 

55. What u Parte of Speech " must be taught before definition of adverb 
can be given ? 

56. Define tense. Give your opinion of this definition "Tense is that 
accident of the verb which distinguishes the time of the action or state 
affirmed." 

57. State the different ways' in which participles are used. 

58. Define grammar predicate, and state how many things it must include. 

59. Give grammar predicate in this sentence " The sky is blue." State 
the use of each word in the predicate. 



880 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

00. Define attribute, and name the parts of speech which may be used to 
express the attribute. 

The class have gone into the schools (a large portion of them 
in my district) ; I have visited some of them in their school- 
rooms, and have learned of the success of others. The results 
are truly gratifying, and I beg leave to earnestly recommend 
the continuation of these special training classes in all the nor- 
mal schools of the State. 

I would suggest that teachers be required to leave with 
the district clerk at the close of each term, for inspection and 
use of their successors, a permanent record of their work, the 
text-books used, classification, advancement of each class, order 
of recitation and time devoted to each, and the standing of 
each pupil in the school. To enable the teacher to carry out 
this plan successfully, I would also suggest that the Superin- 
tendent, of Public Instruction cause suitable blanks to be pro- 
vided for the purpose, and attached to teachers' registers. 

When the present normal schools assume their true relation 
to the common schools of the State, as " an inherent part of 
the public school system," when training schools are provided 
sufficient to accommodate all the teachers of the State, when 
by legal enactment all teachers shall be required to go through 
a course of systematic training, then will public school teaching 
take its proper place among the professions, and our schools 
become justly our pride. 

Respectfully, 

BARNEY WHITNEY, 

School Commissioner. 
Lawbencevillb, Jan., 1873. 



SARATOGA COUNTY— Febst Disteiot. 

» 

Hon. Abeam B. Weaver, 

Superintendent of Pvblic Instruction : 

Sib. — In compliance with your circular of November 15, 
1872, 1 submit this report : 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 381 

In looking over the reports of commissioners from different 
parts of the State, for several years past, I am constantly and 
forcibly reminded that many of their statements are not 
candid. Anxious to stand high in the opinion of the State 
Department, and of their constituents, they are constantly 
asserting that their schools are in a highly prosperous and 
flourishing condition. Their reports are written on gilt edged 
and perfumed paper. The truth, in all its plainness and start- 
ling facts, is hidden by the brilliant colors in which they paint, 
and the pains taken to varnish their reports. Were their 
representations generally correct, the schools of this State 
would, years ago, have reached a point far above that 
attained by the schools under any other system. Perfection 
would long since have been attained. The pratical workings 
of our common school system must, of necessity, be better 
known to and by school commissioners than by any other per- 
sons. The defects of that system, and of the laws under which 
it is conducted, they also know better than any other persons 
can know them. The knowledge acquired by the State 
Department, and by the Legislature, regarding our common 
school system, its wants, and the proper legislation relating 
thereto, must, of necessity, be mainly derived from this source. 
Legislators may have beautiful theories respecting such mat- 
ters, but the practical relation, in which the commissioner 
finds himself placed toward our schools, shows to him the 
defects of these theories. That commissioner is derelict in 
duty, therefore, who fails to state fully the defects which 
exist, however humiliating it may be to him personally, or 
however painful and startling to. the friends of education. I 
have no fancy picture to paint in my report; no glowing 
description of the wonderful proficiency of my schools ; the 
high attainments of my teachers and scholars. No wish, in 
short, to class my district amongst those marvels of excellence 
annually chronicled by commissioners, whose constituents will 
have so much reason in the future (were their reports just) to 
" rise up and call them blessed." 

On the contrary, I find myself compelled, in pain and 



332 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

humiliation, to admit that the schools under my jurisdiction are 
in a deplorable condition. Extensive travel in nearly every 
part of the State during my term of office, intimate acquaint- 
ance with other commissioners and with large numbers of pro- 
fessional educators, with persistent inquiry in all available 
directions and upon all opportunities, force upon me the con- 
viction that, as a rule, the schools throughout the State are in 
an equally bad condition. There was a time, during the first 
year of my term, when I fancied I had the worst possible dis- 
trict in the State. I do not think so now, having modified 
my opinion so far as to think my district as good as the 
average. Oar schools could not be in this condition without 
a reason, and this reason must be either a defective system, a 
defective administration of the same, or both. Commissioners 
can render no higher service than to search for these defects, 
point them out and suggest remedies. Of course no commis- 
sioner can be expected to devise a plan free from fanlt, but, in 
the multiplicity of their counsel, there should be wisdom, and 
if defects are found in our system that all condemn, it may, 
with Teason, be concluded that legislation should at least 
remedy such defects. 

The great reason why our schools are so poor is that our 
teachers are poor. Teachers are poor from two main reasons : 

1st. They are not professionally educated. 

2d. They are not thoroughly examined a»d supervised by 
commissioners. 

A poor teacher necessarily has a poor school. " The blind 
cannot lead the blind ;" neither can a man teach what he does 
not know. Teaching is a profession. It should be regarded 
as a learned profession. As in all other professions, he who 
seeks to follow it should be professionally educated. Who would 
employ a lawyer who had never studied law! A physician 
who had never studied medicine? An engineer without 
knowledge of engineering ? Why should teachers be licensed 
or employed without a thorough and profound knowledge of 
what they are to teach, and with no knowledge of the science 
of teaching? It is no light thing to train and mould the 



SUPERINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 333 

human mind, to quicken the faculties, to strengthen the intel- 
lect, until it grasps the mysteries of nature and goes forth 
with giant strength to drink at every fountain of knowledge. 

A teacher's professional education should consist, 

1st. Of a thorough knowledge of what he will be required to 
teach. 

2d. Of an ability to impart that knowledge. 

No necessity exists for a common school teacher having a 
knowledge of the classics, or of the higher mathematics. As 
well ask an engineer to read medicine, or a lawyer to study 
trigonometry. It is well to know all these things, but few, 
however, have either time or capacity to be thoroughly fami- 
liar with anything outside of their own special calling. If 
the lawyer wishes to excel in his profession, let him eschew 
mathematics and study law; the physician, medicine; the 
teacher, teaching. More and more the business of the world 
runs into special channels, and requires those with special 
education to succeed in these respective channels. Our 
teachers are taught wrong. They have a smattering of too 
many things, and a profound knowledge of too few things. 
A smattering of Greek, Latin, French, music, rhetoric, and so 
on ad infinitum^ comprises their course of 6tudy in too many 
instances. A mastery of the elementary branches taught in 
common tchools, they never have. Too often they have been 
assured by the principals of the schools which they attended, 
"that they need not spend more time on these studies, bnt 
must hurry along and get into the higher branches." The 
very studies they are required to teach they know the least 
of. If ambitions, 4C they study up lessons " a little ahead of 
their classes, and stumble through terms of school, in this way 
acquiring an apparent idea of the very knowledge they have 
advertised themselves as possessing. But where is that fami- 
liarity with the subjects they are teaching, which alone can 
enable them to interest their pupils, and to clear from before 
their eyes the fogs enveloping every new study? Years of 
practice may qualify them, but in the meantime they have 
been frauds upon the public whom they serve. 



334 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

Again, a man may possess all knowledge, bat if he fail in 
the ability to impart that knowledge, he must assuredly fail as 
a teacher. As the painter portrays npon the dead canvass in 
bright and glowing colors, the picture which lives in his mind, 
so should the teacher stamp upon the minds of his pupils these 
living thoughts which alone comprise real knowledge. It is 
a rare and wondrous gift, sent by nature to but few, that 
enables one to be a true dispenser of light and knowledge ; but 
many others may approximate towards it, by systematic cul- 
ture. So far then as teachers in their respective spheres are 
required to teach, just so far I would require them to be 
masters of their profession, both in their knowledge of, and 
ability to give instruction in, those subjects. A gradation of 
teachers necessarily follows, and the gradation should depend 
entirely upon proficiency, as measured by some fixed, well 
known and impartial standard. Recognize teaching as a pro- 
fession, admission to it depending upon, and to be attained 
only by conforming to the standard, and at once teachers of 
merit will be recognized and encouraged, and will receive a 
proper compensation for their services ; and, on the other hand, 
blockheads, and those who with knowledge cannot impart it, 
will find themselves outside of school-houses, and in positions 
where their capacity for harm is materially lessened. 

How then shall teaching be made a profession, and teach- 
ers be professionally qualified ? The normal schools of the 
State are the great means towards these ends. A scholar 
graduating at one of these institutions receives a diploma, 
which is prima facie evidence of his qualifications and of his 
admission to the profession. He has attained to a fixed stand- 
ard, which standard is high enough to cover the probabilities 
of his future professional employment. One thing at least is 
a ssn red, his exact knowledge of the elementary branches 
taught in common schools, and commissioners look in vain for 
this assurance, if coming from any other quarter. Give us 
normal teachers is the cry from every commissioner district 
in the State. Why are comparatively so few of them in the 
field? Because they are not recognized as professional teach- 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 385 

era, as masters of their art, and are driven out of the field by 
teachers who are non-professionals, and will teach for lower 
wages for a few terms, "just to get a little money." Because 
non-professional teachers have crowded down teachers' wages, 
and the educated professional finds better compensation in 
some other field of labor, where the same fundamental know- 
ledge is needed and appreciated. 

Not that I would require all teachers to take a normal 
course, but only that I would require all teachers recognized 
as professionals to conform to the normal standard. I care 
not how they attain to that standard, simply that they do 
attain to it. I simply wish to say, that I regard normal 
schools as the best means yet devised* for properly educating 
and fitting common -school teachers for the performance of 
their duties. I would admit any teacher amongst those recog- 
nized as professionals when they attain to the same standard, 
and would grant them a diploma of equal rank, after having 
passed a similar examination ; such examinations to be con- 
ducted and diplomas granted by an examining board, con- 
sisting of normal professors, appointed for that purpose by 
the Department. I would give no commissioner or body of 
commissioners the power of making these professionals; 
merely the powers now granted by section seven, title two 
of the Code. 

This would relieve professionals from the annoyance of 
annual or triennial examinations by commissioners, knowing 
less, perhaps of their duties, than the teachers themselves. It 
is right that an incentive should be held out to teachers to 
attain to a certain standard, which, when attained, entitles 
them to be recognized as professionals, as members of one of 
the learned professions, and as such entitled also to certain 
rights and privileges in distinction from non-professionals. I 
have no favor to curry with any normal school ; no approval to 
give beyond that which is merited. Yet I desire, in this con- 
nection, to raise my voice in condemnation of the attempt 
made at the last session of the Legislature to decry the merits 
of the normal school system. I have never known a well 



886 NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 

informed and unbiased friend of education do otherwise than 
eulogize the system and approve its workings. The man who 
talks against it either is not informed or " has an ax to grind." 
It is quite possible for a man to talk in the Legislature and 
not know what he is talking about, and the effort made to talk 
down " normals," in order to talk up " academies," is a strik- 
ing illustration of the fact. 

In connection with the examination and supervision of 
teachers by commissioners, I have little to say in addition to 
the views I have already presented in former reports. Such 
examination to be useful should be " uninfluenced by friends 
and unbiased by mercenary motives." The commissioner 
should stand in a position, so that his examination and deci- 
sion thereupon should be with the only motive of fulfilling 
the law. A standard as inflexible as the decrees of fate should 
guide him, and he should, in all cases, be compelled to adhere 
to that standard. Candidates should be made to realize that 
commissioners are not to be blamed for their ignorance. Let 
them understand that if qualified they will be licensed, if not, 
rejected ; that commissioners have no power to license them 
if unqualified, and a great stumbling block in the way of 
many commissioners will be removed. I do not see how com- 
missioners can fail to be influenced 'more or less, according to 
circumstances, until their office is made strictly a non-partisan 
one. Remove commissioners from political influence, place 
them where they cannot run their office with a view to future 
re-election, and better examinations and supervision will at 
once follow. 

Make the office one of appointment by the Superintendent, 
after competitive examination, and a great gain would be 
made over the present plan. As well might the pastor of a 
church be elected politically, as a commissioner of schools. It 
is no objection to this plan to say that it increases the responsi- 
bilities of the Superintendent, that it clothes him with too 
much power. He is in any event the responsible head of the 
system, and should have full power to appoint his subordi- 
nates. Even now he has the power of removal for cause 



SUPMRINTBNVENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 387 

shown; why not appointment as well t Efficient supervision 
would necessarily follow jndioions appointments. Compensa- 
tion should correspond to the work done. A pecuniary 
inducement would insure visitation. A prescribed fee for 
each necessary visitation, with mileage for distances actually 
traveled, the account to be verified in items and audited by 
the- board of supervisors, would, in my opinion, be an 
improvement. 

I would also suggest, that commissioners might be saved 
much embarrassment, if some limit were placed by law to 
the age of teachers. No person is fit to teach a district 
school under twenty years of age, and but very few succeed 
after they are fifty. A young man or woman may possess a 
knowledge of books sufficient to enable him or her to pass the 
required examination, yet to succeed as teachers they should 
and must possess a knowledge of human nature, character, etc., 
which age and experience alone can bring. We do not consider 
a man wise enough to vote until he is twenty-one years of age ; 
the law does not even permit his contracts to be binding, but 
treats and terms him as " an infant." This limit is fixed, as 
that at which the average of men can safely be intrusted to do 
their own business. Should teachers be intrusted then with 
public business at a still more tender age ! Teachers are pub- 
lic officers, and receive compensation from public funds, but no 
other public office can they hold until they have arrived at 
what the law calls " years of discretion." I can safely say, I 
have never known a teacher to do well, under that age. In 
the absence of any legal limitation upon the subject, I estab- 
lished a rule of not examining candidates under eighteen years 
of age, and I found the result to be excellent. In the other 
extreme, it is said many of our best educators are over fifty. 
True, yet how few of them teach common schools. As a rule, 
teachers do not succeed in district schools, after arriving at that 
age. Glass legislation always works harshly upon a few, yet 
the few should stand aside for the good of the many. District 
school teachers, like Methodist preachers, are itinerant, and 
itinerants succeed best when neither too old nor too young. 

22 



338 Nineteenth Annual Report or tbe 

Having thus touched upon the recognition of teaching as a 
profession, the education of teachers, their examination, super- 
vision and limitation, and some of the necessary qualifications 
of their examiners, I pass to the consideration of another rea- 
son why so many of onr teachers are poor ones. I am now 
entering upon what some call debatable ground. In what I 
have to say regarding academies, I shall say only what I have 
found to be true in my own experience ; I make no fight against 
what is styled the " academic system." That it may have 
merits I admit. That scholars may learn and teachers qualify 
at academies, I also admit. Against those academies, however, 
which are only leeches upon the public treasury, which delibe- 
rately hnmbng the public by false representations, I wage war. 
Other sections of the State may be more favorably situated 
than my own. So far, however, as my observation and inquiry 
have extended, I find the same sad state of affairs ; I have never 
yet met a commissioner, a normal professor, an institute 
instructor, or in fact any one with a practical knowledge of 
the matter, except those connected in some way with acade- 
mies, who did not denounce academies as one of the main 
causes in filling the teachers' ranks with those who are incom- 
petent. " By their fruits shpll ye know them." I judge them 
by this alone. In the three years of my commissionership, I 
have examined scores and hundreds of candidates who have 
graduated at some academy. The number who passed a credi- 
table examination could be counted on the fingers of one hand. 
Too many of them were a disgrace to the schools at which 
they graduated. Most of them were in possession of " Regents' 
certificates." It cannot for a moment be admitted that the 
Regents of the University are other than men of the highest 
character and integrity. They are not knowingly parties to 
the gross frauds practiced at the so-called " Regents' examina- 
tions ;" and no other conclusion can be arrived at than that the 
Regents are deliberately deceived by the principals of these 
academies. 

The ignorance displayed by many of these graduates, upon 
the most elementary subjects, is astounding. How can a 



Super intends nt of Public Instruction. 389 

graduate obtain 9 Regents' certificate who bounds the State 
of New York on the east by Vermont and New Hampshire, 
south by Connecticut and Rhode Island, west by Ohio and 
Michigan ; or gives the Amazon as the largest river in Africa ; 
or that has a north torrid and a south torrid zone ; or that 
parses nouns as verbs, verbs as nouns ; or the article, a, as an 
active, transitive verb ; or the verb, to be, as a preposition ; or 
that answering three questions negatively, in writing, each 
time writes, u know " ? How, unless by fraud ? Yet all these 
instances, and hundreds of similar ones, occurred in my own 
experience. Other commissioners, with scarcely an exception, 
privately tell the same sad story. And yet, with such evi- 
dences of the utter tmworthiness of academic management, 
coming, as the evidence does, from every part of the State, 
and from the very sources of all others that are impartial, 
unbiased and practical, the Legislature can be induced to mis- 
appropriate thousands of dollars from the public treasury in 
sustaining such schools ! 

I do not say that teachers cannot qualify at academies. I 
simply say they do not. I do not say that all academies are 
bad. I simply say I do not know of one that is good. I 
assert that the academies of to-day do not turn out as good 
scholars as district schools did twenty years ago. Principals 
can be found of such unblushing effrontery as to send, with 
their graduates, letters of commendation to commissioners, 
recommending, in the highest terms, candidates whom the 
commissioner, by examination, finds utterly unqualified, and 
whom the principal must have known to be so. If principals 
will deliberately attempt to deceive commissioners, equally 
so will they deceive the Regents. This honorable body has to 
shoulder blame which properly attaches to the principals of 
academies. The reason for this systematic deception is this, 
it is a source of profit to the principals. They make^a specu- 
lation by it. With their so-called "normal classes," they 
deter many from going to the normal schools, making pupils 
and parents believe that they can obtain the same course of 
study at far better rates at home. "Teachers" are thus 



340 Nineteenth Annual Report or ise 

ground out by scores, whose only qualifications are a letter of 
recommendation from their principals and a Regents' certifi- 
cate. It may be said that this is strong talk, and that I am 
not warranted in making such assertions. I present 6imply 
facts, assert nothing but the truth, and if the truth hurts these 
principals and their schools, they can blame only themselves 

for it. 

44 "Us true, 'tis pity, 

Pity 'tis, 'tis true." 

It is time the Regents were apprised of the gross frauds 
practiced upon them as well as the public. It is time that the 
intelligent and powerful public press, grappled with this evil. 
It is time that the earnest educators of the State, painfully 
aware of this evil, laid aside their modesty and prepared to 
give it battle to the death. It is time that the Legislature was 
informed upon the subject, and, instead of allowing them 
longer to fatten at the public crib, should cut them off forever 
and leave them to their own resources. It may, with safety, 
be laid down as a cardinal principle in such matters, that no 
private school should be sustained, wholly or in part, by the 
public treasury. 

I mean by private schools, those owned and managed by 
private citizens, as a business speculation, and for private 
emolument. I may print a newspaper ; it is private capital 
which I invest, and I print the paper for my own private gain. 
It is a private business speculation, and I have no right to ask 
donations or help from the public treasury, because die public 
reads, or is profited, or even educated by my paper. So with 
schools ; I may invest an equal amount of capital in a school ; 
I say who shall and who shall not be admitted as students ; I 
lay down certain rules for the guidance of its inmates; I 
prescribe a certain course of study. like the other, it is a pri- 
vate speculation, established and conducted for my private 
gain. Shall I, because it is a school, be allowed to fasten upon 
the public treasury ? Must the public, in either case, be asked 
to sustain my private speculation? 'A good private school is 
not only always self-sustaining, but a source of profit and 



Superintendent ot Public Instruction. 341 

revenue to its owner. No private school is worth sustaining 
that cannot flourish without .aid from the public treasury. 
Cut off public aid from these schools, throw them entirely upon 
their own resources and merits, and at once the most objection- 
able features of the academic system will end. The country 
will no longer be overrun with " teachers," graduated solely 
as a speculation. Professionals will no longer be crowded out 
of place by those possessing no qualifications, except such as I 
have mentioned. A better class of teachers will be in demand 
and will find employment at profitable wages, and at once our 
common schools will improve. It is idle to say that the 
remedy for all this is in the commissioner. He may do much 
by strict examination and vigilant supervision, but no good 
reason exists why his candidates should not be qualified, nor 
why his supervision should not be over schools that are con- 
ducted by intelligent, educated professionals. 

My opinions as to our library system, and the application of 
the library money, as given in former reports, have been 
strengthened by another year's experience. My statistical 
report will show how completely this fund is perverted in 
disregard of the law. 

The teachers' institute for the county, held this year at 
Saratoga, with Prof. Sanford and Mrs. Himes as conductors, 
was the best institute as yet held in the county. I trust the 
future will witness a steady increase of interest in this valuable 
aid to teachers. I repeat the recommendation made in a 
former report, that attendance at institutes be m&de obligatory 
upon teachers, unless, for cause shown, attendance is excused 
by the commissioner. It seems to be the only way of bene- 
fiting, by aid of institutes, those most in need thereof. 

I would suggest that an amendment to the school law might 
with great propriety be made, by which the Superintendent, 
and also commissioners could enforce obedience to their orders. 
It is often said that the law clothes the Superintendent with 
arbitrary powers. In my opinion, his powers are not suffici- 
ently so. He may in many instances issue orders, but unless 
trustees or districts choose to obey them, they are of no effect 



842 Nineteenth Annual Report of tbe 

He cannot enforce them. It is a singular anomaly that the 
law may authorize him to decide a case, and that so far as the 
law goes his decision is final, not even the highest courts in 
the State having power to modify or set it aside, and yet this 
very order may be a dead letter. He cannot compel obedi- 
ence to it. It is like the " dope's bull against the comet." 
It reads well upon paper, but does not affect the comet 
With commissioners it is even worse. One may find a school- 
house wholly unfit for tenancy by human beings, the dis- 
trict too penurious to repair it or build anew, and the supervisor 
indifferent or too fearful of his popularity to risk a few votes 
by joining in an order of condemnation ; the commissioner 
makes an order directing the expenditure of two hundred dol- 
lars in repairs, and the trustees either refuse point blank, or else 
neglect to carry the order into effect. The school law points 
out no way by which the commissioner can enforcethe order. 
I had a similar case within the past year. It was only after I 
had assured the trustees that I would present their case before 
the grand jury of the county for indictment that the order 
was carried into effect. Should a commissioner be obliged to 
resort to such harsh measures? In this case two trustees 
were in favor of the repairs and about half the district also, 
the third trustee and balance of the district objecting. All 
admitted the need of repairs, but a personal or political quar- 
rel caused the dissension. I mention this case merely as a 
strong illustration of the unpleasant position in which the law, 
as it now stands, may leave an official striving only to do his 
duty. I submit that a remedy might easily be found by 
authorizing the Superintendent or commissioner in all similar 
cases to withhold from districts in default all participation in 
the public money until the order is complied with ; districts, 
in all cases arising between themselves and commissioners 
direct, having the right of appeal to the Superintendent for 
redress as against any arbitrary or uncalled for order on the 
part of commissioners. 

I have, in former reports, offered suggestions as to other 
defects in our present school law, with such proposed changes 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 348 

as my experience has led me to deem advisable. It is unne- 
cessary for me to repeat them here, or the arguments which 
were advanced in their favor. I am strongly opposed to the 
constant tinkering of fundamental law. On the other hand, 
I believe the world to be progressive, and I would allow 
nothing defective to stand in the way of its progress. Laws 
regulating a system, be that system what it may, should be 
jealously guarded and kept intact, until its defects are patent 
and the remedies suggested. These remedies should be such 
as experience pronounces advisable. Our free school system 
can no longer be deemed an experiment. The State is com- 
mitted to its policy. That policy in its general features is a 
success and merits the approval it receives. In many of the 
minor details of its administration it is defective. These 
defects I would see remedied. Changes in the law must come 
through the Legislature. The suggestions for such changes, 
and their necessity, properly come to the Legislature by and 
through the State Superintendent. He must, in a great 
degree, depend upon commissioners for details. Those com- 
missioners will be nearer their duty who, instead of report- 
ing their districts as bordering on perfection, as being 
"all right," will frankly tell him of that which is wrong. 
Such defects as I have found in my official capacity, I have 
pointed out in my reports. If it is said that my proposed 
changes and remedies savor of coercion, I answer, that I seek 
to make them effective. Kid gloves are not needed in a com- 
bat with ignorance and cupidity. 

Assuring you that I shall always look back upon the official 
relation that has existed between us with pleasure, I submit 
this report as my last official act, and thanking you for the 
uniform courtesy received at the hands of yourself and assist- 
ants, I am very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

SETH WHALEN, 

School Cornmvwtioner. 
Ballston Spa, N. T., Dec. 27, 1872. 



844 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

. SARATOGA COUNTY— Second Distmot. 

Hon. Abbam B. Weaver, 

Superintendent of Pvblic Instruction : 

Sib. — I Bend yon the following in addition to the financial 
and statistical report already forwarded to yonr Department. 

The school districts in this commissioner district remain the 
same as last year, except that one party has been set off from 
one district to another. Several applications have been made 
to be transferred to other districts, but trustees will not give 
their consent, although, in some cases, it would be an advan- 
tage to all parties. 

Trustees who have thirty-six and even forty weeks* school, 
complain because they receive no more public money than if 
they maintained school twenty-eight weeks. I find the dis- 
tricts having the longest terms are anxious to have the best 
teachers, and, as a general thing, take pains to have the school- 
house and its surroundings in good order. Two districts have 
failed to have school the required twenty-eight weeks. There 
is a general feeling, on the part of the inhabitants, to have 
better schools ; consequently a demand for more good teachers. 
My time is fully occupied with the duties of the office, and I 
find it too short to do all that needs to be done. I have 
visited nearly all the schools in my district twice during the 
past year, and many of them three times. During the spring, 
I meet teachers in the different towns for examination. In 
the fall all are expected to attend the institute, where oppor- 
tunity is given for examination. There is one continual round 
of work, but I have the satisfaction of knowing that the 
schools are improving. - 

Thirteen pupils have been appointed to the normal schools 
of the State from this commissioner district, during the year 
past. Most of them are in the schools now, and I hear are 
doing well. One from this district graduated at the Albany 
Normal School last commencement, and is now teaching near 
this place. 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 845 

According to trustees' reports, there is a falling off in the 
number of children .between the ages of five and twenty-one, 
but an increase in average attendance. The whole number 
of children of school age in this commissioner district is eight 
thousand five hundred and thirty-seven, and of these twenty- 
two hundred and eighty-four are in the village of Saratoga 
Springs. Of the whole number, six thousand three hundred 
and ninety-eight attended school some portion of the year. 
The whole number of teachers employed at the same time for 
twenty-eight weeks or more is one hundred and forty. The 
whole number of school-houses is one hundred and twenty- 
two. Several districts are now building new houses. 

Five private schools reported an attendance of one hundred 
and eighty-three pupils. One of these is Temple Grove 
Seminary, located in the village of Saratoga Springs. 

The meeting of the State Teachers' Association in this place, 
during the past year, did much good, not only among the 
teachers, but the friends of education throughout this vicinity. 
The first and second commissioner districts united in holding 
a teachers' institute in the village of Saratoga Springs, begin- 
ning the -26th of August and continuing ten days. The exer- 
cises were conducted by Prof. Henry R. Sanford, of Fredonia, 
assisted by Mrs. Himes, and were exceedingly instructive 
and profitable. It is better to have the same instructors from 
year to year, because they understand the wants of the 
teachers. The whole number of teachers in attendance at our 
institute was two hundred and twenty-three, with an average 
attendance of one hundred and forty, a decided gain in num- 
bers and average attendance. 

Thanking you for the many favors received, I am, very 
respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

O. F. STILES, 

School Commissioner. 
Saratoga Springs, Dec. 18£/t, 1872* 



846 NlNXTBENTB ANNUAL REPORT Of THE 



SENECA COUNTY. 

Hon. Abeam £. Weaves, 

Stipermtendent of PvbUo Instruction : 

Snt.— There has been a marked improvement in the schools 
of the county during the past year. The inhabitants of the 
several school districts are fully aware of the advantages 
derived from good schools, and they are in earnest in every 
effort to improve them. 

The value of school-houses and sites was, on the 30th day 
of September, 1872, $120,845. Since that time the Collegiate 
Institute property, situated in the village of Ovid, has been pur- 
chased by union school district No. 1, Ovid, which raises the 
above amount to $140,000. The inhabitants of districts, gene- 
rally, are willing to raise any amount of money necessary for 
building good substantial school-houses. A few districts have 
poor school-houses yet, but the delay to build has been in con- 
sequence of difficulty concerning sites or contemplated changes 
in the districts. 

The libraries of union schools are valuable and they are 
appreciated ; but in the common school districts they amount 
to but little and are generally neglected. 

The schools are well classified, and good order prevails in 
nearly every school. Teachers have had very little difficulty 
in governing their schools in this county the past year, and a 
resort to punishment of any kind has been seldom necessary. 
The qualifications of teachers in Seneca county, as compared 
with last year, are considerably better. 

The teachers' institute held at Ovid, commencing October 
7, 1872, was well attended by the teachers of the county, and 
it was profitably conducted by Prof. K. E. Post, assisted by 
Profs, fioughton and Gillett. 

I have, as far as practicable, restricted the time for the exami- 
nation of teachers to three days in the spring, and three days 



SUPJBRINTBNDBNT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 847 

in the fall ; the result I think favorable to onr schools, and a 
decided improvement in the grade of teachers. 

Your obedient servant, 

WILLIAM HOGAN, 

School Commissioner. 
Waterloo, Nvo. 26, 1872. 



SUFFOLK COUNTY — Fiest Distkiot. 

Hon. Abeam B. Weaves, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Sir. — The following report of the condition of the common 
schools in the first commissioner district is respectfully sub- 
mitted : 

I* abstract the following from the financial and statistical 
reports made to the Department in October last : 

The amount apportioned to this district for the past school 
year was $11,335.25 ; $11,104.93 for the payment of teachers 9 
wages ; $230.32, library money ; an excess over the year pre- 
vious of $92.26. The different towns received as follows: 
Easthampton, $923.87 ; Biverhead, $2,424.42 ; Shelter Island, 
$292.54; Southampton, $3,858.92; Southold, $3,835.92. 

The sum raised by tax in Easthampton was $1,077.08 ; in 
Biverhead, $5,346.24; in Shelter Island, $813.83; in South- 
ampton, $6,593.79; in Southold, $11,322.93; total, $25,153.87, 
being $2,364.14 less than the previous year. A decrease in 
this regard obtained only in the towns of Biverhead, Shelter 
Island and Southampton, and was due to the smaller sum 
expended in the repairing, enlarging and furnishing of school 
buildings, while in the other towns there was an increase of 
taxation. 

The following was the assessed valuation of the taxable pro- 
perty in the several towns : Easthampton, $567,301 ; Biver- 
head, $868,945; Shelter Island, $205,508; Southampton, 
$1,940,619; Southold, $2,339,090, making an aggregate of 
$5,921,455. The average rate of taxation for school purposes 



348 Nineteenth Annual Report of tbm 

in the town of Easthampton was one and nine-tenths mills ; in 
Kiverhead, six and one-tenth ; in Shelter Island, three and 
nine-tenths ; in Southampton, three and four-tenths ; in South- 
old, four and eight-tenths ; average rate for the district, four 
and two-tenths. 

There was expended for teachers' wages,*during the year, 
the sum of $27,530.57, being $1,817.49 more than in 1871. 
Shelter Island expended for this purpose $278 less than the 
year before, while in the other towns there was an increase in 
the amount paid for that purpose; The money expended for 
school apparatus amounted to $287.08, exceeding the amount 
of the previous year by the sum of $276.36. All of the schools 
are sadly deficient in this respect, and many of them nearly 
destitute. Forty school districts use the library money in pay- 
ment of teachers' wages, $93.96 being so used. Were all 
districts compelled to expend their share of this money in pro- 
curing school apparatus I am confident a much greater benefit 
would accrue, therefrom. 

The total receipts and expenditures were, for Easthampton, 
$2,153.43 ; Kiverhead, $8,455.11 ; Shelter Island, $1,106.37 ; 
Southampton, $12,233.77 ; Southold, $17,2(2.75 ; for the entire 
district, $41,201.43. 

Schools were maintained in sixty school districts, employ- 
ing at the same time eighty-one licensed teachers ; the average 
length of time sohool was taught was thirty weeks. The 
whole number of persons engaged as teachers in the common 
schools of the district was 139, fifty males and eighty-nine 
females. Of this number three held State normal school 
diplomas, three State certificates, and the remaining 133 were 
licensed by school commissioners. 

There was no school in district No. 19 (Bed Greek), town 
of Southampton, during the past year, nor the year previous, 
in consequence of a lack of pupils. For a similar reason, there 
has been no school in district No. 6 (North-west) town of East- 
hampton, for many years, until last March, when a school was 
started, continuing twenty-eight weeks, and in all probability 
will be regularly maintained in the future. 



Superintendent or Public Instruction. 849 

In district No. 14, of the town 'of Southold, comprising 
Plum island, and, on Gardiner's island, a district, at present 
unnumbered, in the town of Easthampton, no school was ever 
held so far as I am able to ascertain, nor are there any indi- 
cations of a change in this respect, the only inhabitants being 
the proprietors, their families and such other persons as may 
be temporarily employed as laborers. The valuation of pro- 
perty in these islands is considerable, and I am unable to 
understand why said property should be exempt from all local 
taxation for the support of schools more than many unsettled 
and unimproved portions of other school districts. Bobbins' 
island, by a decision of the Department, was constituted a 
part of an adjacent district, and thereby made to contribute 
its quota to the support of the school therein, and it appears 
to me that the same rule would apply to these islands as well. 

Considerable outlay has been made in some districts in 
repairing, painting and otherwise improving the appearance 
and convenience of their school buildings. The school-house 
in district No. 2 (Orient), town of Southold, which was con- 
demned during the year, has been removed, the site enlarged 
and a new, commodious and attractive house erected thereon, 
at a cost of $4,000. Although many of the inhabitants 
severely denounced " the arbitrary proceeding," which 
deprived them of their old school-house, I believe the con- 
viction to be nearly universal, that it has resulted most favor- 
ably, and I am certain that never was the interest in the 
success of their school greater, nor the condition of the school 
more thriving. An intelligent and devoted corps of teachers, 
active and efficient board of trustees, appreciative and pro- 
gressive popular sentiment, all combine to render this school 
one of the most prosperous in this part of the county. 

In view of the above, and many other facts which might be 
adduced, I think it clearly obvious that the people of the 
"East End" appreciate the advantages which education 
secures, and are disposed to avail themselves of the manifold 
benefits our system of common schools was intend to confer. 
Those schools of which particular mention was made in my 



850 



Nineteenth Annual Report of the 



last written report still maintain their rank, and, in many 
others, evidences of improvement are manifest, reflecting great 
credit upon the teachers in charge. 

Prof. D. H. Crnttenden, assisted by his wife, conducted oar 
institute, held at Riverhead in October, in their usual masterly 
manner. Both were never more instructive or more success- 
ful in the discharge of their duties. Mrs. Cruttenden's method 
of teaching history and drawing, showing the application and 
uses of the latter as an aid to the teacher in any and all the depart- 
ments of learning, can scarcely be excelled, and must tend to 
procure for those studies far more time and attention than has 
customarily been given in too many of our schools. In addi- 
tion to her class-work, Mrs. C. addressed a crowded house on 
the last evening of the session, showing the relative position 
of the various arts and sciences in the scale of human know- 
ledge, and their influence upon society, and dwelling at length 
upon the effect of those of an aesthetic nature on the individual 
character. The lecture received the closest attention, and at 
its close was highly eulogized. 

With this report the term of office, to which three years 
since I was elected, closes. During this time I have addressed 
myself to the removal of what I considered the greatest obsta- 
cles to the efficient working of our common-school system. 
Where I have had the cooperation of teachers and school offi- 
cers these obstructions have been materially lessened, and I 
take this opportunity to express my obligations to such teach- 
ers and officials; their zeal for the cause of education and 
willingness to do all in their power for its promotion, will 
ever be held in grateful remembrance. 

Having been reelected to the office, and conscious of no 
abatement of interest in educational matters, with three years 
of experience I hope to achieve still more for the advancement 
of a cause so essential to individual and national weal. 

H. W. BENJAMIN, 

School Commissioner. 
Bivsbhead, Dec. 31, 1872. 



Superintendent of Public Ixbtbtjction. 351 

SUFFOLK COUNTY— Second District. 

Hod. Abbam B. Weaver, 

Superintendent of PvbUo Instruction : 

Sir. — This district now comprises the towns of Babylon, 
Brookhaven, Huntington, Islip and Smithtown. By an act of 
the Legislature, passed in March, 1872, the town of Hunting, 
ton was divided, and that portion lying south of a line one mile 
north of the Long Island railroad and parallel to it, was estab- 
lished as the town of Babylon, while the other portion remained 
as the town of Huntington. This obliged me to number anew 
the school districts in the new town of Babylon, and several in 
the town of Huntington. Babylon has the school-houses of 
seven districts within its limits. Joint district No. 22, formerly a 
of Huntington, became joint district No. 8, of Babylon. The 
house is in the town of Oyster Bay, in the county of Queens. 
District No. 28, of the old town of Huntington, was, just pre- 
vious to the renumbering of the •districts as above stated, con- 
solidated with district No. 7, of Huntington. 

My immediate predecessor, in his annual report to the Depart- 
ment, made in November, 1863, in speaking of the attendance 
of pupils, says, " Without any hesitation I affirm that not fifty 
per cent of the children of school age in this assembly district, 
have entered a school-house for the purpose of receiving instruc- 
tion during the year ending September 30, 1863 ; and that, of 
the number that have been so instructed, no more than twenty- 
five per cent were in attendance for a longer period than two 
months." 

At that time teachers were not, as now, required to make 
oath to the correctness of their registers ; indeed, many had no 
register, but kept their rolls of attendance on loose slips of 
paper. The statistics were not otherwise as reliable as those 
taken at the present time. The statement above quoted, how- 
ever, is made with a clearness and a precision that do not 
admit of a doubt that the writer himself had full faith in its 
truth or correctness. He had been performing the duties of 
school commissioner for many years, and was devoted to the 



J 



352 



Nineteenth Annual Report or the 



work, so that no one could judge more correctly than he in 
such matters. 

By the new mode of collecting statistics, which went into 
operation in 1865, we are able to obtain a pretty correct know- 
ledge, in these particulars, and the statistics for that year show 
a very decided progress over 1863. In 1865, the number 
attending school was 5,280, and the average daily attendance 
was 2,107. The entire school population was 8,774. The 
average time school was taught, throughout the commissioner 
district, was a little more than thirty-three weeks, or over eight 
months. Thus, in 1865, over sixty per cent of the school popu- 
lation attended school some portion of the year, and the aver- 
age daily attendance at school, for more than eight months, was 
over twenty-four per cent. 

This is not singular. The statistics, from 1865 to the present 
time, give unmistakable evidence of very decided progress in 
the cause of public instruction. The number of pupils attend- 
ing school, in 1872, was 6,629, being an increase over 1865 of 
1,849 ; of this increase the town of Brookhaven has 169 ; 
Huntington (including the new town of Babylon), 866 ; Islip, 
310 ; and Smithtown, four. The average daily attendance, in 
1872, was 3,206, being 1,099 greater than in 1865, or an increase 
of fifty-two per cent. For Brookhaven, 297 ; Huntington 
and Babylon, 515; Islip, 246; and Smithtown forty-one. 
Brookhaven had an average daily attendance of thirty-five per 
cent of its school population ; Huntington, thirty-five and a 
half per cent ; Babylon, twenty-eight per bent ; Islip, thirty- 
one and a half per cent ; and Smithtown, twenty-eight and a 
half per cent. 

This increase in the attendance has been gradual, except in 
1868, when, owing to the abolition of rate-bills, the gain was 
larger than at any other time. The number of children of 
school age in 1872 was 9,683, exceeding that of 1S65 by 909 ; for 
Brookhaven, sixty-two ; Huntington and Babylon, 694 ; Islip, 
116, and Smithtown, thirty-seven. The average time, school was 
taught in 1872, was over thirty-five weeks. The attendance at 
school, therefore, in 1872, was equivalent to one-third of the 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 358 

whole number of children of school age being at school every 
day for nearly nine months. The increase of attendance has 
required an increase in the number of teachers. Twenty-five 
more have been employed to instruct the extra eleven hun- 
dred pupils in daily attendance. 

The amount of pnblic money apportioned to this district in 
1872 was $16,674.29, exceeding that of 1865 by $7,999.96. 
Of this Brookhaven has $2,710.44; Huntington and Babylon 
$3,878.14 ; Islip $1,461.94, and Smithtown $449.44. 

The amount raised by tax in 1872 was $49,600.78, exceed- 
ing what was raised in 1865, as tax and rate-bill combined, by 
$31,636.14. This increase is, for Brookhaven, $10,369.55; 
Huntington and Babylon, $12,346.26 ; Islip, $8,130.39 ; Smith- 
town, $789.94. 

The money expended for teachers' wages in 1872 was 
$43,829.60, being $20,703.64 more than in 1865. Of this 
increase Brookhaven furnished $7,384.10; Huntington and 
Babylon $7,267.11 ; Islip $5,047.50, and Smithtown $1,004.93. 

The total receipts and expenditures were, in 1872, 
$76,791.85, being $47,680.31 more than in 1865. Of this 
increase Brookhaven has $13,721.88 ; Huntington and Baby- 
lon, $21,616.40 ; Islip, $10,903.38, and Smithtown, $1,438.64. 
No one, certainly, will deny that these figures indicate remark- 
able interest and activity in school matters. 

In many districts the school-houses were too small to accom- 
modate the pupils. In those cases some were enlarged, and 
others were replaced by new ones. The estimated valuation 
of school-houses and sites in 1865 was $47,551 ; in 1872 it was 
$113,653, an increase of nearly 250 per cent. The amount 
expended for school-houses, sites, fences, out-houses, repairs, 
furniture and the like, in 1872, was $21,285.47. About $7,000 
was for buildings erected during the year, and much of the 
remainder was for payments on houses previously erected. 
Seven new houses have been built the past year at Amityville, 
Bay Shore, North Babylon, West Babylon, SoutlT;Haven, 
Kidgeville and Ronkonkoma. 

Since 1865, twenty-seven new school-houses have been built, 

23 



354 Nineteenth Annual Report of the 

and eleven others enlarged or thoroughly repaired. In the 
town of Brookhaveft, ten were bnilt and one raised a story 
and enlarged. In the present towns of Huntington and Baby- 
lon, twelve have been bnilt and fonr enlarged. In the town 
of Islip, four have been built and three enlarged. In Smith- 
town, one built, and three enlarged and thorough! y repaired. 
Quite a number of these new buildings cost upward of $4,000 
each ; one, $7,000, and one, $11,000. The cost of enlarging in 
one instance, included above, was $6,000. These improve- 
ments have been almost wholly voluntary on the part of the 
residents. But six school-houses have been formally con- 
demned. 

The average wages for a teacher, in 1865, was $251.36 per year 
of thirty -three weeks. In 1872, it was $374.61, for thirty -five 
weeks. In 1865, $500 was considered a pretty fair salary for 
our best male principals. Teachers then receiving that sum, 
or less, left the county, and are now receiving elsewhere some 
four times, others five times, that amount. The highest price 
paid in 1872 was $1,300. Several male principals are receiv- 
ing $1,000, and one female principal gets $750, which is the 
highest. The teachers are generally persons of intelligence, 
fully competent to instruct and to govern. They are earnest, 
ambitious and faithful. Many possess much taste and refine- 
ment. 

We had an institute at Riverhead, commencing October 7, 
and continuing two weeks. Prof. D. H. Cruttenden and Mrs. 
Cruttenden officiated. My opinion of Prof. Cruttenden has 
heretofore been fully given. Further knowledge of him con- 
firms me in that opinion. Mrs. Cruttenden's instructions in 
history and graphics possessed real merit, and were valued by 
all. Mrs. Cruttenden gave an evening lecture upon " The 
Unity of the Arts, Sciences and Religion," which contained 
much original thought. Dr. James Cruikshank lectured upon 
"The Structure of the Alphabet," and Commissioner Mount 
upon " Civil Government." The Rev. Wm, Isaacs Loom is, 
LL. D., lectured upon " The Natural Law of Motions," in 
which he took the position that " a globe by a single motive 



Superintendent or Public Instruction. 855 

force could be urged in any conceivable direction ; that Sir 
Isaac Newton, not knowing that a single motive force could 
impress a globe with curvilinear motion, his views in relation 
to the movements of the planets are not true to nature." The 
lecturer had evidently thought much upon the subject, and 
announced some startling propositions with a boldness and 
force of speech that belong to a conviction ef newly discovered 
truth. In this connection 1 should mention that in July last 
Prof. Cruttenden held at Riverhead, for two weeks, what he 
terms, " linguistic Conversations," at which he discussed the 
Bcience of language. In an educational view the session was 
a complete success. 

Upon the subject of supervision, I desire to record my 
approval of the views expressed by Commissioner Whalen, of 
Saratoga county, in his report of December, 1870. 

I take this opportunity to tender my sincere thanks to the 
Superintendent of Public Instruction for the aid and encour- 
agement he has rendered me, and for his uniform kindness and 
courtesy. The office of school commissioner, which I have 
held for the last nine years, I this day relinquish. Its duties, 
its responsibilities, its powers, its opportunities for me, will 
soon be among the things of the past. I assumed them, 
impressed with their importance, and familiarity with them 
has not lessened my respect for them. I assumed them, 
firmly resolved to apply myself assiduously and perseveringly 
to their faithful performance. How far I have been success- 
ful others must determine. In this respect I am not troubled 
by the remembrance of any serious dereliction of duty. I 
have tried to do right ; I hope I have done well. 

THOMAS S. MOUNT, 

School Commissioner. 
Sromr Brook, L. L, Deo. 31, 1872. 



356 



Nineteenth Annual Report of the 



WASHINGTON COUNTY— Second District. 

Hon. Abb am B. Weaver, 

Superintendent of Public Instruction : 

Sir. — The annual reports of the school trustees, for the year 
ending September 30, 1872, furnish a variety of statistics 
interesting to all having any concern for the welfare of our 
public schools. 

The number of school districts, reported in the second com- 
missioner district of the county, is one hundred and eighteen. 
The number in the respective towns is as follows : Dresden, 
nine ; Fort Ann, nineteen ; Granville, eighteen ; Hampton, 
six ; Hartford, thirteen ; Hebron, seventeen ; Kingsbury, 
fifteen ; Putnam, seven ; and Whitehall, fourteen. Of these, 
one hundred and fifteen are common, and four are union 
school districts, organized under the general union school act. 
The union schools are located, one at Sandy Hill, one at West 
Hebron, one at Middle Granville, and one at Whitehall. 

The amount received and disbursed in the several districts 
reaches the large sum of $51,613.24. 

The principal sources from which money is obtained are the 
State funds, constituting what is called public money, and 
taxation. The amount of public money apportioned to the 
several districts was $17,576.39. The amount raised by tax 
was $29,461.31. Of the remainder the sum of $1,152.41 was 
on hand at the beginning of the school year; $2,727.50, 
the estimated value of teachers' board; and $695.63, the 
amount received from various miscellaneous sources, as tuition 
bills of non-residents, legacies, etc. The principal items of 
expenditure were for* teachers' wages, school-houses, repairs, 
furniture, fuel, etc. The amount expended for teachers' wages 
was $36,060.92; for school-houses, repairs, furniture, etc., 
$8,184.94 ; for fuel and other incidental expenses, $6,830.41 ; 
for libraries, $18.90, and for school apparatus, $82.99. There 
were $435.08 in the hands of trustees September 30, 1872, 
available for school purposes. 

The amount expended for teachers' wages by towns was as 



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 357 

follows: Dresden, $1,481.87; Fort Ann, $4,638.29; Gran- 
ville, $5,261.37 ; Hampton, $1,073.10 ; Hartford, $2,562.27 ; 
Hebron, $3,682.79 ; Kingsbury, $7,725.73 ; Pntnam, $914.02 ; 
Whitehall, $8,721.48. Total, $36,060.92. 

The whole number of children of school age, residing in the 
several towns in this district, was as follows : Dresden, 289 ; 
Fort Ann, 1,077; Granville, 1,340; Hampton, 297; Hart- 
ford, 613 ; Hebron, 779 ; Kingsbury, 1,636 ; Putnam, 193 ; 
Whitehall, 3,278. Total, 9,502. 

The whole number attending some part of the school year 
was as follows : Dresden, 223 ; Fort Ann, 850 ; Granville, 
1,077; Hampton, 229; Hartford, 496 ; Hebron, 631; Kings- 
bury, 1,389 ; Putnam, 141 ; Whitehall, 1,307. Total, 6,343. 

The average attendance was as follows : Dresden, 108,934 ; 
Fort Ann, 449,974 ; Granville, 525,215 ; Hampton, 97,266 ; 
Hartford, 254,724; Hebron, 335,381; Kingsbury, 678,888; 
Putnam, 77,858; Whitehall, 593,911. Total, 3,122,151. 

From these statistics, it appears that one-third of the whole 
number of the children of school age did not attend any part 
of the year ; and that out of the whole number claiming to 
attend at all, only one-half, on an average, were present every 

day. 

The whole number of teachers reported was 266 ; of which 
eight were licensed by normal schools, ten by the State super- 
intendent, and 248 by the commissioner of the district. Sixty- 
two were males, and 204 were females. 

The number of volumes reported in all the district libraries 
was 9,699, valued at $2,901. Out of the whole 118 districts, 
only eighty-six have book cases for their library books. 

There were 120 school-houses reported, of which ninety- 
seven were frame ; twenty, brick ; and three, stone. Of the 
stone school-houses, two were in Fort Ann, and one in Kings- 
bury. 

The estimated value of school-house sites, was $19,675 ; of 
school-houses, $107,020 ; making the total estimated value of 
the school property $126,695. These were in the respective 
towns as follows: Dresden, $1,850; Fort Ann, $11,320; 



358 



Nineteenth Annual Report of the 



Granville, $21,780; Hampton, $1,825; Hartford, $5,060 . 
Hebron, $11,660; Kingsbury, $34,650; Putnam, $1,185; 
Whitehall, $37,365. Total, 126,695. 

Kingsbury is the banner town in two respects; it reports 
a larger average attendance than any other town, and, also, a 
greater number of weeks taught during the school year. Of its 
fifteen districts, one had forty weeks of school, five had thirty- 
two weeks each, one had thirty-one, three had thirty each, three 
had twenty-nine each, and only two restricted themselves to 
the shortest possible time of twenty-eight weeks each. 

The banner common school district, as regards length of time 
in which school was actually taught, was district No. 5, on 
Morris Hill, in the- town of Hampton. This district had 
thirty-six weeks of school. We call attention to this, because 
it deserves commendation on its own account. In addition, it 
is composed mainly of Irish families, the trustee himself being 
an Irishman. It effectually refutes the slander, that the Irish 
in this country are opposed to education or are unaware of its 
benefits. 

One hundred and one districts have one trustee each, thir- 
teen have three trustees each, and there are four boards of 
education, of nine members each. One hundred and thirteen 
districts own their school-house sites ; five do not. Only five 
school-houses are separated from the highway by a fence ; one 
hundred and fifteen are not separated. One hundred and two 
school districts have privies, sixteen do not I In fifty districts 
the teachers boarded around ; in sixty-eight they did not. 

In all the districts, school was taught only five days in the 
week. Six districts, one in each of the towns of Dresden, 
Fort Ann, Granville, Hampton, Putnam and Whitehall, paid 
the teachers' time while attending the teachers' institute. 
One hundred and thirteen districts used all their library money 
in payment of teachers' wages ; only five did not use it. Two 
districts have built new school-houses this year ; to wit, dis- 
trict No. 17, in Fort Ann, and district No. 10, in Granville. 

One of the most conspicuous instances of irregularity, on 
the part of school officers, is the neglect to keep a record of 



860 RbFOBT OF SUPEBItTFXNDBltT OF P UBLIO Inbts UCTIl 

sb wages in other departments of industry are, what can 
expected of teachers at that rate of compensation. 

But we must have a higher standard of qualification on 
part of teachers. This has been the objective point of the « 
going commissioner, in all his school work. The idea has b 
in examinations to make teachers aware of their imper 
tions, and to awaken in them a desire to remove them, 
very soon became satisfied that we could not at present ex] 
professional teachers in our common schools. What he labc 
to accomplish was, to secure a corps of teachers from the t 
and daughters of well-to-do farmers, who would naturally h 
a few years, more or less, between the time of their fioist 
their education and that of their settling down in life, in wl 
to devote a portion of the year to teaching. He encoura 
those, who were going to spend a year or bo away from he 
at school, to go to the State normal schools, where they wo 
not only receive just as good instruction as at other inst 
tions, but would also be instructed in methods of teach: 
His labors in that direction have not been wholly with 
result ; and he has recommended a larger number for appo 
ment to the State schools during the past year than dm 
the whole former period of his commisBionerehip. Let thii 
continued for a few years longer, and we shall have teacl 
worthy of the vocation, and our common school system 
realize the purpose it was intended to accomplish. An< 
this, we are sure all the people will say, amen. 

WILLIAM H. TEFFT, 

School Commiwumet 

Whitehall, Dec, 1872. 



362 Index. 

Am situs, 

need or, In rnral districts. 

payment* tor. Indtlee 

la cooo Met 

total payment :u Win: WW 

APFOBtlomiDT. 

of school mooeys 



•opprWslon In cltlee 

salaries of eehool commissioners.. 

yean IBgTand 1971 

tabular ■tatamrati 

New York Statu Convention of School Commlialone r* and City Superintends" 

Teachers' A 
proceedings, character of . . 



aggregate nnmber of day of. In cities 



Sum. 

average dally. In lBHTand 197S IcomparalliO 

of pnplle Id cities 

counties 

raial districts 

perteecher. In cities 

rum! dlatrlete 

Increase in aggregate and average dally.,., ..........,.,,.,.. ................. 

number of children of ecbool age. (See Children.) 

per cent of average attendance of pnplle on number of children between 5 and 

In cities, rural district* and State 

per cent or dally attendance on whole number attending In cities, towns and SU 

table showing nnmber in attendance for but tan yean 

whole nnmber of poplin for each qualified teacher In cltlee 

rural districts 



rural dletrlcta 

State 

city superintendent 

financial and statistical tables .... ... IS, 78, 78, 8 



city » npcrintendent 

financial and statistical tables - 18,75,78,81, 

Blihd, N*w Yorx Isbt i t u t i ob ron THS 

attendance of pupils 

condition 



864 Index. 

Cirtii COOWTT, 

financial mod statistical table* it, TO, 78, SI 

school commissioners 

teacher*' Institute 

ClUBTiiriJUA COCUTI, 

financial and statistical tables It, IS, IB, 6 



taudil and statistical tables It, TO, 78,8 

school commissioner 

teacher*' institute.. 

Chihamoo Codbtt, 

financial and statistical table* 11,15,78,8 

■pacta] report, first district, 



number of, between Sand II In cities 9. V 

In rani district* p, » 

In mantle* 

In 1887 Slid 187* 

for each tocher. Id cltlai, rural districts and Stall 
nambat of, In attendance at school. (See Attendance.) 

amount expended for houses and sites, ., 

libraries and apparatoe 

amount raised by local tax 

apportionment of school moneys, 1878... ,. .. ........... 

children, number between fire and twenty-one 

perteacber. 

colored schools, coat of. 

commissioner* end euperlnteiident* 

financial tables (summary) 91 

llbrarle*, number and value 

moneys received from Stat* 

nnmberof district* - 

parcantaga of attandanca 

proceeds of Oospel and school lands 

pupils, number In arerage dally attandanca 

whole number attending 

school-house* and »H*a, vahte 



•pedal report* 

State Ui paid 

statistical table* (summary) 78,81 

teacher*' lnatltat**, stattetle* of 

***•» ■■ ■ 

time school w*» kept 



Nobsul School, 



ooutM or study lor 

department* 

eatabllahed 

expenditure* ... . 

graduate*, nm of — 

Dumber of 

library end apparataa, addition* to 

local board 

repair* and Improvement* 

report of local board.. 

Dur mo Iicm. laartTDTioa fob 

clanlflcatlon of pupil* .. .. 

eatabtlahad.. ...... - 

acuity ... 

Instruction In trade* — 

language ol eigne and artknlatluo ... 

new building, additional room proposed 

nam her of pnplle In attendance 

report of principal 

Dair-Mura, Imnrano* ran th» Ibtbotbd lair aoorios ■>. 
financial condll Ion 



number In attendance 

Dbuwabb Cotmrr, 

financial and Mntialkal table*.... It, IB, 7B. 61. 

■ebool comml*ttouer* 

teachers' institute 

Dutbiots, 

aggregate nnmber of. In count!** 

■ I ral district* 0, H. IS, 

Boil* ..., IB, -IB, 

Dibtbict LiBBiHiKs. (Beo Libraries.) 

DllTBICT QUOTSS, 



1. Slate tax and ralnatioo percounlle* 1n ISSTand Wit 

a. Bcbool tu paid and recalled breach county 

Apportionment of Common School Food . 

J. Apportionment of School Moneys tor 187* ,, ... 

4. Abstractor tttaiistleal Reports from Cotntnistloner* 

5. Abetract of Financial Rapoiuftom Com miss loner* 

B. Statement of Condition of Common Sohool Fund fu: tbe yeat endlsg Septem 



1. Investment of capital of Common Bcbool Food . . . 

8. Compsratli* Buttstlee tor the year* 1SBB-1 and I8TM . . 
». KttlttM of Teacher*' loMltntaa In J81t 



Funosii Nouul School, 



cooreeof ilady tor 

department* 

eipendilarae 

(■catty 

financial uid KatlftleaJ tablet 

KltilUUor. same* of. 

nnmberof 



report of principal 

■pedal appropriation tar I a>n rote man u 

Ultloo collected 

wbeu established 



proporod amendment of lav 

statement of 

operation of 

Fnn Schools, 

academical department* In 

nnmberoT 0, 8t 

Tultoh ComrlT, 

financial and etatiftlcal tablet 14, 75, 7S, 81, Be 

acbool commlsaloner 

teacher*' iMtttota . , 

GlIEIII COOHTT, 

financial and ataHetlcal table* H, TS, TO, 81, 84. 

acbool commietloner 



l School, 

hi lor beating a] 

saof pupils - .- SO, 

coai» of study tor — - 

departmental . . . 

endowment* . . - 

fccnltj 

graduates, name* nf 

number of... ...................... .. .- .- ..... .,..., ....... 

local board appointed , 

report of local board ... - ......,,,... 

acbool opened .......................... .. ........... .............. .... . £&, 

tuition collected 00, 

Qotpm. ifd School Lanoa, 

proceed! o I » 

nummary, compuMlTe, (Or 1897 and 199 



872 Isdxx. 

Onancleland statistical taMe* 1», 78, TS, (B, », I 



rddlMrlct... 



OBOBDiSi hoiK RlJlll 

report of, financial 

•tatletlcal.. 



school -booses, appropriation for saw bnlldlng 

Obtiiuo Couutt, 

fnMltute, teacher*' 1 

financial and statistical tables IS, To, TO, Bt. 8fl, ! 

special report, second district 

Ohinoe Copsir, 

financial and EtnHstiCfll tablee IS, 74, 79, BS, 88, 1 

school commissioner* 



financial ana statistical tablea IS, TO, 71, Bt, H, f 

teacher*' lutitaM 

Oemsa Cut, 

cltj bonds, common *ehool l*.nd 1 

city superintendent 

financial and statistical table* It, 78, 79. 83, 66, ( 

Oswsao Comrr, 

flnanclaland statistical table* IS, 18, 79, St, 68, I 

school commissioners . . .. .. ,, . .................... 

teachers' Institute 

OawBoo Nobxil BCBOOI^ 

apparatus and library • 

financial statement* 6S, I 

graduate*, name* of 



number of papll* 

report or local board . , . 
schools for practice. . . , 



value or property - - 

when established...- 

remoo Couhtt. 
tlnandal and statistical table* It, 78, TV. Bt, & 



Fm, Fnor. Isaac Luna... 

Pbbi, Da. Habtb-t P 



374 Index. 

dlatrict .... 

how determined 

locreue and diminution of. 

Kxqbnti of CmrramTT, 

academies appointed by, to In stmct common-tcnool teacher* 

•MUM of study, prescribed bj 

□ amber of papils attending teachers - classes 

RissanuB Couhtt, 

financial and statistical tables IS, TO, 7», 8S, 85 

school commissioner* 



abstracteof, financial and statUtkal. 18, 81. M. 

from commissioner*, written 

of Indian school* 100, 

of normal schools. 

Richmond Co nun. 

financial and statistical tablet.. tt, 70, IB, M, 80 

school commlMlooer. 

special report 

teachsnV Institute. 



city snparintendent > 

flnanclal and statistical tablei it, TO, TO, 83, 86 

wnxun Oourtt, 

financial and etatltrkal tables 18, TO, 10, 83, 86 

•cbool commiaaloDer 



St. Lin-Risen Couktt, 

flnanclal and •tatisttcnl table* It, 70, 78, 8a, 80 



■pedal report, lecond district 

third district 

special training class 48, MB, 

T. RaOU IKDUH ItlSIRTiTJOH, 

report of, financial 



superintendent , 

•chool-bouMi, appropriation fcr new balldlng 

BaUToea Coojtrr, 

flnandal and statistical table* 11, 70, TO, 88, 80 

•cbool commlHtonera 

•pedal report, first district. 

teachera' Institute DO, 

fk'BJlNIOTirjY ClTT, 

cltj superintendent 

flnandal and itatlttlcal table* 18, 77, 79, 88, 8S 



Index. 375 

JOCTTTT. fW- 

table* IS. 77. TO. ss. 8*, 88, w 



d Matlstlctl tab]** 18,77,79.88.85.88. 01 

r.in»!.ilpir* ........... ,.,....--..--...-..--------------.. Ml 



d •tatiaUcal tabic* IS. T7. TO. 88. SB, f 



*, (8m App*r»tna.) 
(8m District*.) 



;■: of. In 1686. 1888, 1887. 1888, 1888. II 



■ tor, tod HIM, eW.. In title* 8.80. M 

rural dlatricta 8.80, 81 

In1887andl871.il. Stat* BT 

, brtdt. 7 

ipe ndllqn (Or .. ... 8, 87 

'. [l***18c*rlon . f . 7.18,81,88, 98 

idtlort for, •nrfitUa, etc., In 1878 g, as 

l**l ten year* . S 

idaltmfn title*. ., 7,8*. 88 

"OOBtl** M , 88 

roraldlttrltt*.. , v 7,94, gg 



1.88.81,88, I 



• ■ . 18, 80 

'••••■ 80, 7B 

'«» a 

-•■- 18,17,80.74. TO 

e oftcnnnof. for 1S7S. In r.ltien. rnnil district*. State .. .10.18, 78 

l**t tan rear* .... . M> 

'Instruction In (g 

(srunrar, ^ M 

STerage attendance upon in (14 



»Pem.... 78,81.88, 100 

* ' 14 

f«, 1887 and 1ST! gg 

fott«n»**r* %%n, 19 

:h county 7^ T4 

reaehconntj 74 



. . is, 77. m n. m. a 



SlFlBATI NnBBIHiaBOOM. 



report of, fin*;. -. '-*■ 

itv .• : a! . . 
taf- ■; -•::• ■■■■:■■■ : . 



propriety of .. . 80, ttt, 481, 8U 

Burs Cunnuni, 

•athorltj' to grant 

present plan nnJoM 

proposed snwmiinBiiU 10 Uu law - 

Bute School Tax, 



BTATI YlLOlTION, 


STATISTIC*! RBPOKTC. 






W.8I 


HdibcUI tad (UUellcal table* 


18, 77. 80. 88. 86, » 


















Sellitaw Codwtt. 
























... M, 171, SM 






BurasrooB*, 





878 Ibdxx. 

Tompkjh* CotJHTT, 

financial ami statistical tables IS, 11, 80, St, 86, 

school CO mm! Mia tiers 

teachers' Institute 

TOHaWAXtU K*S«BVlTIOH, 

report o(, financial 

statistics.! 

stipe rlnteu dent 

■chool-houaea, now building to be erected 

flnvicUl and statistical tables 18, T7, 90, 88, 86, 

iuperlntend»nt of schools 

Tsui, Dr, N.T 

TiTSCiEom Rmibvatios, 

report of, flrmdaj 



Ulsteh Cochtt. 

financial and statistical tables IS, 77, 80, St, 8 

school com mi 8»ionnra '. : 

teachers' Institute .. 

L'nittD Btath Dmkmit Praro, 

monejs recelTed from, and apportioned to public acnoola 



city superintendent 

nnmber of qnotaa— special act 

statistical and financial tables IB, 77, W, 83, SS 

VanraTioH, BraTB, 

ccnntJeain 188T 

counties In 1871 

Yum or ComneBioaote, 

nnmber of .- 

Wiiant Coinm, 

financial and sJatisUcal tables 13, 77, 80, SB, 85, 

school commissioner 

financial and statistical tahle. 18, 77. SO, BS, 86. 

sell ool commission en 

special report, Becond district 



financial and statistical tablea 18, 77, 80, 88, 88, 

schoul commissioners 



Wmnonni CotFHTi, 

financial and statistical tables la, 77, 80, 88, 38, 



1 



Tl 



Index. 379 

Wtomuto Couhtt, % Paob. 

financial and statistical tables 18, 77, 80, 88, 86, 88, 9* 

school commissioners Ml 

teachers' institute 99 

Yatss Couhtt, 

financial and statistical tables 18, 77, 80, 88, 88, 89, 99 

school commissioner 961 

teachers' Institute , 97 



i: 

I 1 



STATE OF NEW YORK 



No. 167. 



IN ASSEMBLY, 



April 3, 1873. 



REPORT 

OF COMMITTEE ON CLAIMS, ADVERSE TO CLAIM OF 

GEORGE CHAMBERLAIN. 

Mr. Lincoln, from the committee on claims, to which was referred 
the bill entitled " An act in relation to the claims of George Cham- 
berlain, for damages occasioned by the partial construction of the 
Genesee Valley canal," having taken up the same, and examined 
the affidavit of said George Chamberlain thereon, the said committee 
conclude that there is not sufficient evidence in said affidavit to 
warrant it in recommending its passage; and said committee has, 
therefore, reported adversely thereto. 

C. S. LINCOLN, 

Chairman* 

[Assembly No, 167.] 1 



JOURNAL 



American Geographical Society 



NEW TO BK. 



EDITED BY THE RECORDING SECRETARY. 



M.DCCC.LXXIII. 



VOL. IV. 



pbhted for tee booiett by the state of hew yofx 
london: trwbner & co.— paris: gust. bossanqe. 

1874. 



STATE OF NEW YORK. 



No. 168. 



IN ASSEMBLY, 



March 88tlx, 1873. 



/ 
i 



ANNUAL EEPORT 



or 

AMERICAN GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY OF NEW 

YORK FOR THE YEAR 1872. 

Rooms of the American Geographical Society, ' 

Cooper Institute, 

New York, March 28th, 1873. 

Hon. A. B. Cornell, 

Speaker of the Assembly : 

Sir, — I have the honor to transmit herewith the 
annual report of the American Geographical Society 
of New York for the year 1872. 

Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

Dr. E. R. STRAZNICKY, 

Recording Secretary. 



AMERICAN GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 



OFFICERS AND COUNCIL, 1873. 

President, 
CHARLES P. DALY, LL. D. 

Vice-Presidents, 
F. A. CONKLING, FRANCIS A. STOUT, 

T. BAILEY MYERS. 

Honorary Secretary, 
Rev. JOSEPH P. THOMPSON, D. D. 

Foreign Corresponding Secretary, 
JAMES MUHLENBERG BAILEY. 

Domestic Corresponding Secretary 
W. H. H. MOORE. 

Recording Secretary, 
E. R STRAZNICKY, M. D., Ph. D. 

Treasurer, 
HENRY CLEWS. 

Council, 
WILLIAM REMSEN, GEORGE W. CULLUM, U. 8. A., 

W. TILDEN BLODGETT, GEORGE CABOT WARD, 

WILLIAM E. CURTIS, ELIAL F. HALL, 

THEO. W. DWIGHT, LL. D., THEODORE ROOSEVELT, 

WILLIAM JONES HOPPIN. 



CONTENTS. 



List of Officers and Council v 

Charter of Incorporation 2 

Amended Charter. 4 

By-laws 6 

Honorary, Corresponding, and Resident Members 16 

Transactions of the Society for 1872 86 

Alphabetical List of Donors to the Library and Map-room 57 

Pafeb8 Read befobb the Society: 

L Annual Address, by Chief- Justice Daly, the President. Subject — 
The Geographical Work of the World in 1872. Delivered 
February 17th, 1873 68 

£L Annual Address, by Daniel C. Gilman, President of the University 
of California, at Oakland. Subject — Geographical Work in the 
United States during 1871. Delivered January 30th, 1872 119 

HL The History and Authority of the Verrazano Map, with a reduced 
copy of the same, by J. Carson Brevoobt. Read November 
28th, 1871 145 

IV. Physical Geography of the North-western Boundary of the United 

States, with twelve illustrations, by George Gibbs. Read 
November 11th, 1869. Continued 298 

V. North-western North America: Its Resources and Its Inhabitants. 

By J. T. Rothrock, M. D. Read December 17th, .1873 898 

VL On the Paleogeography of North America, by Prof. T. Sterry 

Hunt, LL. D., F. R. S. Read November 12th, 1872 416 

VR On Martin Behaini's Globe and his Influence upon Geographical 

Science, by Rev. Mytton Maury. Read March 19th, 1872 . . . 482 
VIII. Report of the Reception tendered by the American Geographical 
Society to Henry M Stanley, Esq., on the evening of Novem- 
ber 26th, 1872 458 



ANNUAL REPORT 



or THB 



AMERICAN GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 



7b the Honorable the Legislature of the State of New 
York: 

The undersigned beg leave to present this their second 
annual report, for the year 1872, in accordance with the 
provisions of the act of April 8, 1871. It contains the 
list of officers of the present year, the Society' s receipts, 
expenditures and financial condition up to the present 
time ; the annual report of its Council, the reports of its 
various officers, the state of its library, and the papers 
read before it, which embrace a large amount of new and 
valuable geographical and statistical information, espe- 
cially in relation to our own country. 

Respectfully submitted. 

CHAS. P. DALY, President. 
F. A. CONKUNG, 

Chairman of the Council. 
HENRY CLEWS, Treasurer. 
Dr. R R. STRAZNICKY, 

Recording Secretary. 



Charter of Incorporation, 



CHARTER OF INCORPORATION. 



Grafted Apbil 18th, 186* 



Tke People of the Stale of New York-, represent 
Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows ; 

Section 1. George Bancroft, Henry Grinnell, Prai 
Hawks, John C. Zimmerman, Archibald Russell, J 
Leavitt, William C. H. Waddell, Ridley Wat 
De Witt Bloodgood, M. Dudley Bean, Hiram Bi 
Alexander J. Cotheal, Luther B. Wyman, JohD 
J. Calvin Smith, Henry T. Poor, Cambridge Livin 
Edmund Blunt, Alexander W. Bradford, and the! 
ciates, who are now or may become hereafter assc 
for the purposes of this act, are hereby constitt 
body corporate by the name of The American Geo$ 
ical and Statistical Society, for the purpose of coll 
and diffusing geographical and statistical inforraati 

§ 2. For the purposes aforesaid, the said Society 
possess the general powers and privileges, and be e 
to the general liabilities, contained in the third title 
eighteenth chapter of the first part of the R 
Statutes, so far as the same may be applicable, ant 
not have been modified or repealed ; but the re: 
personal estate which the said Society shall be autb 
to take, hold and convey, over and above its li 
and maps, charts, instruments and collections, sht 
at any time exceed an amount, the clear yearly i 
of which shall be ten thousand dollars. 

§,3. The officers of the aaid Society shall be' a 
dent, three vice-presidents, a corresponding sec] 
a recording secretary, a librarian, and treasure; 



Charter of Incorporation. 3 

such other officers as may from time to time be provided 
for by the by-laws of the said Society. 

§ 4. The said Society, for fixing the terms of admission 
of its members, for the government of the same, for 
changing and altering the officers above named, and for 
the general regulation and management of its transac- 
tions and affairs, shall have power to form a code of 
by-laws not inconsistent with the laws of this State or 
of the United States ; which code, when formed and 
adopted at a regular meeting, shall, until modified or 
rescinded, be equally binding as this act upon the said 
Society, its officers and its members. 

§ 5. The Legislature may at any time alter or repeal 
this act. 

§ 6. This act to take effect immediately. 



Statk of New Yoke, \ 
Secretary's Office. ) 

I have compared the preceding with the original law on file in this office, 
and hereby certify the same to be a correct transcript therefrom and of the 
whole of said original law. 

Given under my hand and seal of office, at the city of Albany, 

[l. &] this thirteenth day of April, one thousand eight hundred and 

fifty-four. 

A. Q. JOHNSTON, 

Deputy Secretary of State. 



Amended Charter. 



AMENDED CHARTER. 



Passed Aran. 8th, 1871. 



State of New York, No. 337, in Senate, Ma 
1871. — Introduced by unanimous consent by Mr. Br 
read twice and referred to the Committee on Liter 
reported favorably from said committeej and com 
to the Committee of the Whole. 

Chap. 973. 
An Act in relation to The American Geographic 
Statistical Society. Passed April 8th, 1871. 

The People of the State of Neui York, represen 
Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows : 

Section 1. The name or corporate title of th 
Society shall hereafter be, "The American Gteogra 
Society of New York." 

§ 2. The objects of the said Society shall be the ad 
ment of geographical science ; the collection, clai 
tion and scientific arrangement of statistics, and 
results ; the encouragement of explorations for tht 
thorough knowledge of all parte of the North An 
continent, and of other parte of the world which i 
imperfectly known ; the collection and diffusi 
geographical, statistical and scientific knowled. 
lectures, printed publications, or other means; the 
ing up of a correspondence with scientific and L 
societies in every part of the world, for the collect* 
diffusion of information, and the interchange of 
charts, maps, public reports, documents and vb 
publications ; the permanent establishment in the ■ 



Amended Charter. 5 

New York of an institution in which shall be collected, 
classified and arranged, geographical and scientific works, 
voyages and travels, maps, charts, globes, instruments, 
documents, manuscripts, prints, engravings, or whatever 
else may be useful or necessary for supplying full, accu- 
rate and reliable information in respect to every part of 
the globe, or explanatory of its geography, physical and 
descriptive ; and its geological history, giving its clima- 
tology, its productions, animal, vegetable and mineral ; 
its exploration, navigation, and commerce; having especial 
reference to that kind of information which should be 
collected, preserved, and be at all times accessible for 
public uses in a great maritime and commercial city. 

§ 3. The power given by the act hereby accorded to the 
said Society, to take, hold, convey, manage, and make 
use of its real and personal estate, shall be understood 
as authorizing said Society to take and hold by gift, 
grant, bequest, devise, subject to all provisions of law 
relative to devises and bequests by last will and testa- 
ment, or purchase real estate to the value of three hun- 
dred thousand dollars, and to invest its income or its 
personal estate generally so as to produce a regular 
annual income sufficient for the accomplishment of the 
purposes set forth in the first section of this act ; but said 
annual income shall not exceed twenty-five thousand 
dollars annually. 

§ 4. The said Society shall make an annual report of 
its proceedings to the Legislature. 



State of New York, I 
Office of Secretary of State, ]*' 

I have compared the preceding with the original law on file in this office, 
and do hereby certify that the same la a correct transcript therefrom and 
of the whole of said original law. 

Given under my hand and seal of office, at the city of Albany, 
[i* a.] this twenty-second day of May, in the year one thousand eight 
hundred and seventy-one 

D1EDRICH W1LLERS, Jr., 

Deputy Secretary of State. 



BY-LAWS. 



Bbvuskd Dzoekbrb 9th, 1889. 



CHAPTER I. 

TITLB. 

The titlo of the Society is, ' ' The American Geogra] 
and Statistical Society." * 

CHAPTER n. 

OBJECTS. 
The objects of the Society are, "the collecting 
diffusing of geographical and statistical information 

CHAPTER Hf. 

MEMBERS. 

The Society shall consist of resident, non-res 
honorary, corresponding and ex-ojflcio members. 

1. Resident members are those residing in the c 
New York, or its vicinity. 

2. Non-resident members are those residing at 
twenty-five miles distant from the city. 

3. Honorary members shall be chosen on accot 
their distinction in the science of geography or stat 
and not more than twelve of them shall hereaft 
elected in any one year. 

4. Corresponding members shall be chosen from 
who have aided the advancement of geograpl 
statistics. 

5. Ex-oTfficio members shall be foreign diplomatic : 
sentatives and consols resident in the United States 

• Changed by net of April 8, 1971. 



By-Laws. 7 

tates diplomatic representatives and consols in 
rantries. 

dent, non-resident, corresponding, and honorary 
shall be elected as follows : All nominations of . 
e shall be openly made in writing at a meeting 
ciety, or the Council, by a member thereof, and, 
with the name of the member making them, 
a the minutes. The persons thus nominated, 
■roved by the Council and elected by the Society, 
payment of the initiation fee, if nominated as a 
ir non-resident member, and without such pay- 
nominated as a corresponding or honorary 
become members of the Society accordingly. 
ions entitled to become ex-officio members of 
by shall, on the recommendation of the Council, 
i Society constituted and declared to be snch 

name of any member of the Society may, on the 
ldation of the Council, and by a rote of two- 
the members present at a stated meeting of the 
>e dropped from the roll of its members. 

CHAPTER IV. 

INITIATION FEE AND ANNUAL DUBS. 

initiation fee, including the dues for the current 
11 be, for a resident member, ten dollars ; and 
■resident member, five dollars ; in both oases to 
immediately on election. 

annual dues thereafter shall be, for a resident 
five dollars ; and for a non-resident member, 
rs and a half ; both to be paid in advance, 
member of the Society, not in arrears, may 
for life all dues for membership, by the payment 
one, if a resident member, of fifty dollars ; and, 
resident member, twenty-five dollars, 
name of any resident or non-resident member 
ciety, neglecting for two successive years to pay 



10 . By-Laws. 

proposition thus presented, when seconded, and the 
tion thereon stated from the chair, shall be deemed 
in the possession of the Society, and open for discus 
but may be withdrawn by the mover at any time I 
amendment or decision. 

3. No member shall speak: more than once npoi 
same question until all the other members pr* 
desiring to speak, shall have spoken ; nor more 
twice on any question without leave of the Society. 

CHAPTER IX. 

QUORUM. 

At all meetings of the Society, nine members pr* 
shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of bnsi 

CHAPTER X. 

COMMITTEES. 

All Committees authorized by the Society shall, u: 
otherwise specially ordered, consist of three men 
each, and be appointed by the presiding officer. 

CHAPTER XI. 

PBEfllDIHG OFFICER. 

At all meetings of the Society, on the arrival o: 
appointed hoar and the presence of a quorum, the p 
dent, or, in his absence, one of the vice-presidents 
in the absence of both, a chairman pro tern., i 
immediately take the chair, call the meeting to o: 
and preside. He shall have only a casting vote, 
shall preserve order and decide all questions of oi 
subject to an appeal to the Society.. He shall 
unless otherwise specially ordered, appoint all commi 
authorized by the Society,; and at every annual elec 
before the opening of the polls, he shall appoint 
tellers of the election. 



IS. By-Laws. 

of the Society entitled to rote, to be handed to the tel 
before the opening of the polls at each annual electi 
He shall officially sign and affix the corporate seal of 
Society to all diplomas, and other instruments or do 
mento authorized by the Society or Council. He si 
have charge of the corporate seal, charter, by-la 
records and general archives of the Society, except 
far as they may be expressly placed under the charge 
others. He shall certify all acts and proceedings of 
Society, and shall notify the Council of the death, res 
nation or removal of any officer or member of the Socii 
He shall have charge of the rooms of the Society, > 
shall perform all such other and further duties as m 
from time to time, be devolved upon him by the Soc) 
or the Council. He shall receive for his services s 
salary or pecuniary compensation as shall be determi 
by the Society or the Council ; bnt neither in the Soci 
nor the Council shall he have a vote on any quest 
relating to or affecting his salary or pecuniary comj 
sation. He, together with the Council, shall have 
charge and arrangement of the books, mape, and col 
tions belonging to the Society. He shall cause to 
kept in the rooms of the Society a registry of all dc 
tions to the library or collections of the Society, acknc 
edge their receipt by letter to the donors, and report 
same, in writing, to the Society at its next stated meeti 
7. All documents relating to the Society, and un 
the charge of the secretaries respectively, shall be pla 
in such depositories in the rooms of the Society as 
Council may provide and designate for that purpose. 

CHAPTER XHI. 



The treasurer shall have charge of and safely keep 
contracts, certificates of stock, securities, and maninu 
of title belonging to the Society. He shall collect 
dues and keep the funds of the Society, and disburse 



By-Laws. \% 

ier the direction of the Council ; and so often as 
funds in the hands of the treasurer shall amount 
indred dollars, he shall deposit the same, in the 
the Society, in some incorporated bank in the 
lew York, to be designated for that purpose by 
cil ; and the said funds, tjius deposited, shall be 
it of the said bank on the check of the treasurer, 
igued by the chairman of the Council, and only 
tgitimate and authorized purposes of the Society, 
mrer shall, previous to the annual meeting of 
ty, prepare and submit to the Council, for audit, 
1 account of his receipts and disbursements for 
>f the Society during the past year ; and which 
scount, duly audited, he shall present, with his 
eport, to the Society, at its annual meeting. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

COUNCIL. 

Council shall have the management and control 
fairs, property, and funds of the Society ; and 
ignate an incorporated bank in the city of New 
lere the said funds shall, from time to time as 
rue, be deposited by the treasurer, 
lay frame its own by-laws not inconsistent with 
er or by-laws of the Society, 
■ay, from time to time, determine the salary or 
y compensation of the recording secretary ; and 
> appoint the necessary agents, clerks, and ser ■ 
Jie Society, with such powers, duties, privileges, 
pensation as it may from time to time determine, 
' at pleasure revoke such appointments, and 
ters in their stead. 

hall have power to fill, for the unexpired term, 
ncy that may occur in any of the offices of the 

.hall have power, at its discretion, to declare 
le seat of any member of its own body (except 



By-Laws. 15 

extinction shall have been set apart for that 

CHAPTER XVI. 

ALTERATION OF THE BY-LAWS. 

oration in the by-laws of the Society shall be 
less openly proposed at a stated meeting of the 
entered on the minutes, with the name of the 
proposing the same, and adopted by the Society 
sequent stated meeting, by a vote of two-thirds 
imbers present. 

CHAPTER XVII. 
ADOPTION OF THE BY-LAW^. 

■egoing are hereby adopted and declared .to be 
ws of the Society ; and all by-laws .of the Society 
e adopted are hereby rescinded, and declared to 
id void. 



HoNOSAsr Members. 



HONORARY, CORRESPONDING, AND RESIi" 
MEMBERS. 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 



His Imperial Highneaa the Grand 
Duke Constacttne of Russia, Presi- 
dent of the Imperial Geographical 
Society, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

Frbmoht, John Chas., LL. D., New 
York. 

Grtkskll, Henry, New York. 

Latabd, Austin. Henry, D. C. L., 
London, England. 

IiiYHiaflTORB, David, D. D., LL. D. 

McClintock, .Francis Leopold, 
LL. D., London, England. 

HlDDENDORFF, Adolph Theo. von, 
Secretary of the Imperial Academy 



of Sciences of Russia, St. 

burg. 
Pbtkrmahh, Prof, Augustus, 

Gotha, Germany. 
Qcbtelbt, Lambert 1 

Jacques, President of the 

Commission of Statistics 

gium, Brussels. 
Rawlikbon, Sir Henry Ore 

D. G. L., President Roy 

graphical Society, Londoi 

Stbute, Otto Wllhelm t. 
Petersburg, Russia. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS. 



Abbe, Prof., Cleveland, Cincinnati 
Observatory, Ohio. 

Alexander, John Henry, Balti- 
more, Md, 

Ar.TAMTRABO, Befior Don Ignaclo, 
Mexico. 

Altord, Benjamin, U. 8. A., Port 
Vancouver, Washington Territory. 

Akchbald, Andrew B., Paris, 

Barantja, SeDor Joaquin, Got. of 
Campeche, Mexico. 

Barclay, James T., M. D., Jerusa- 
lem, Syria. 

Baukabd, Henry, LL. D., Hartford, 
Conn. 



Bahtlett, John Russell, Proi 

R.L 
Bastian, A., H. D., Preside 

graphical Society, Berlin. 
Baz, Befior Don Juan Jos', G 

of the District of Mexico. 
Becker, M. A., General Si 

Imperial Geographical I 

Bkhm, Dr. E., Gotha. 
Bradley, Rov. Daniel B., Sil 
Bright, John, M. P., London, ! 
Bdshnrll, Rev. Albert, ( 

Equatorial Africa. 
Carlos, Befior Don Jose, VI 

ton, D. C. 



CORRSSPOITDINB Membebb. 



17 



Paul, Genera, Switier- 

Hon. Wm., Edinburgh, 

W., P. R. G. a, London, 

or Marine], Governor of 

Hon. J. B., Bio Janeiro, 

88 W., San Francisco, 

as B. , Rome, Italy. 
, Geo. P., Madfaoii, Wis. 
James, Hartford, Conn. 
nan, Madison, WU. 

K., Lieut U. a N., 
n, D. 0. 
liam H., Hanover, N.H. 

H.,U. 8. A., Washing- 

Franz, late Secretary of 

al Royal Geographical 

Vienna, Austria. 

r. T., Commissioner, 

d, D. C. 

liel Coit, LL.D.,Presi- 

raity of California, Oak- 

ias J., Washington, D.C. 
Flalsey, M. D., Micro- 



Arnold Henry, LL. D., 
S.J. 

'., IT. a Commissioner, 
a,D. C. 
Illiani Neilson, LL. D., 

eographicnJ and Btatis- 
y, Dublin. 

a. f. v.,0. aGeoiogi- 

of the Territories. 
Friedrioh von, Member 
erial Royal Geographi- 
Vienna, Austria. 

b. Curtis, M. D., Biam. 



HUH, Wm. XL, TJ. a Consul, Zan- 
zibar, Africa. 

Hitchcock, Prof. C. H.. Ph. D., Han- 
over, S. H. 

HoOBsnTTaB, Dr. Ferdinand vo n 
Professor in the University of 
Vienna, Austria. 

Hough, Franklin B. , M. D., Albany, 
N. V. 

Humphreys, Brig. -Gen. A. A., U. B. 
A., Chief of Engineers, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Host, Prof. T. Stony, LL. D., Boa- 
ton, Mass. 

Jamison, Wm., H. D., Quito. 

Julian, Alexis A., Island of Som- 
brero, W. L 

Kkhnkdi, Jos. Camp. Griffith, late 
Superintendent of the D. B. Census, 
Washington, D. a 
rao, Clarence, Commissioner .Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Lachlan, B., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
amambky, Eugen tod. Imperial 
Russian Geographical Society, St. 
Petersburg, Russia. 

Lafhuc, Increase A., Milwaukee, 
Wis. 

Lbavbnwobth, Bliae W-, Syracuse, 
N. Y. 

LK8BHPS, Ferdinand de, Suoe, Egypt 

Long, Stephen H., Colonel D. a A. , 
Louisville, Ey. 

Ltoh, Hon. Caleb, Idaho. 

McCabtbb, Divio Bethune, M. D., 
Hong Eong, China. 

McClellakd, Robert, Wash., D. C. 

Maclat, Wm. W., TJ. & N., Annap- 
olis, Md. 

Malts Bans, V. A. , Honorary Bec- 
retary of the Geographical Society, 
Paris, France. 

Mansfield, Edward D., Gctnmav 
aioner of Statistics of Ohio, Oo- 



'no Members. 

Ptnhkiro, J. G. Fernanda 

Brazil. 
Pobbchb, Tbeo., Waahingt 
Rax, John, H. ])., F. R. Q. 

don, England. 
Rio db Li Loza, Befior Don ] 

President Geographical sj 

tical Society, Mexico. 
Roberto, Gen. W. Milni 

Engineer Northern Pac 

Rodoebs, John , Rear- Admit 
Romero, Hon. Hathiaa, Hi 

Finance of Meiico. 
Rotkbock, Dr. J. T., WU 

Pa. 
Saint-Haktih, Vivien d 

President Geographical 

Paris. 
Sapuoacbt, M. le VIscoi 

Janeiro, Brazil. 
Bchadb, M. D., Louis, Wa 

D. C. 
Bchlaowtwbit-Bakuhlur 

Herman von, Munich. 
BcHLAOIRTWBIT-SAKUNI.iJM 

Robert von. 
Sewabd, Hon. Wra. H., 

Auburn, N. Y. 
Sbtmoor, Hon. Horatio, 

Utlca, N. T. 
Skanbund, Thomas, V. 8 

Island of Mauritius. 
Simmons, D. B., M. D., Yedc 
Smith, Edward R., Washing 
Btbtbhb, Henry, F. R. 8. ; 

England. 
Tbjaija, Don Sebastian J 

Mexico. 
Yak Btjkex, General Tbomi 

Commissi oner-General, Y 

position, New York. 
Warns, Joseph, Oxford, E 
Wheeler, G. M., Lieu 

Corps of Engineers, Wi 

D.C. 



80 Rbswrut Members. 



i Benedict, Erastus C, 64 Wall street. 

Bennett, James Gordon, 435 Fifth avenue. 
Bergh, Henry, 438 Fifth avenue. 
Bernbeimer, Adolph, 101 Franklin street. 
Beraheimer, Isaac, 320 Broadway. 
Bembeimer, Leopold, 146 West Forty-second sti 
Bernneimer, Simon, 218 West Fourteenth street. 
Berry, Richard, 301 Broadway. 
Bickmore, Prof. Albert 8., M. A., Museum, Cei 
Bierstadt, Albert, 01 West Tenth street 
Bill, Edward. 
L. H. Bishop, T. Alston, 55 Fifth avenue. 
Bixby, John H., 461 Fifth avenue. 
Black, William, 565 Broadway. 
Blake, Charles F , IS Park place. 
Bleecker, T. B-, Jr., 61 William street. 
Blodgett, Daniel C., 01 Fifth avenue. 
Blodgett, William T., 353 Pearl street. 
Bloomfield, William, 1S3 Nassau street. 
Boardman, Andrew, 833 Broadway. 
Body, John B., 1 Btate streeL 
Bolton, Henry U., Pli. D., 50 West Fifty-first stn 
Boorman, J. M., Cliff House, Tarrytown, N. Y. 
Booth, Wm. 'A., 100 Wall street 
Booth, Wm. T., 100 Walt street 
Botta, Ylncenzo, 35 West Thirty-seven th street 
Bradford, William, 51 Weat Tenth street 
Brady, Hon. John B-, 19 West Thirty-third stm 
Brevoort, J. Careon, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Bridgham, 8. W., 40 West Twenty-third street 
Bristed, C. Aster. 
Brooks, Sidney, Newport, R. I, 
Brown, Ebenezer H. , 131 Nassau street. 
L. M. Brown, James, 59 Walt street 

Brown, James M., 09 Wall street 
Brown, Stewart, 09 Wall street. 
Brown, Walston H., 09 Liberty street 
L. M. Bryce, James, 119 East Eighteenth street 
Burden, Charles P., 174 Water street. 
Butler, Ben]. F., 45 Exchange place. 
Butler, Charles, 13 Wall street. 
Butler, Cyrus, 24 Cliff street. 
Butterfiold, Gen. Daniel. 

Carter, James a, 60 Wall street 



Rbsidxkt Membkrs. 



Carter, Robert, 080 Broadway. 

Cary, Lucius &, 00 Pine street. 
ML Caiy, William F., 90 Pine street. 

Casey, Joseph J., 2 Irving place. 

Casserly, Bernard, Manhattan Club. 
M. Catlin, N. W. Btuyvesant, 45 William street. 

Ohapin, Key. E. H., D. D., 44 East Thirty-third street. 

Chapman, Jos. H., 51 Wall street.' 

Charllck, Oliver, 351 West Thirty-fourth street. 

Choate, William 0., 40 Wall street. 

Churchill, Franklin H., S3 Pine street 

Cisco, John J., 50 Wall street. 

Clark, E. V., Century Club. 

Clift, Smith, 15 West Twenty-ninth street 

Clews, Henry, 83 Wall street. 

Colligate, Charles C, 55 John street. 
M. Colton, Joseph H., 73 Beekjnan street. 

Conger, Hon. Abraham B., 132 Nassau street 

Conger, Clarence R, 10 West Twentieth street 

Conklin, Eugene E., 432 Canal street 

Conklin, William A., Museum, Central Park, N. Y, 
M. Conklin, Hon. F. A., 170 Broadway. 
M. Cooley, James E., 78 Fifth avenue. 

Cooper, Edward, 17 Burling slip. 

Cooper, Peter, 17 Burling slip. 

Cone, Israel, 104 Fifth avenue. 

Coulter, Samuel, 88 Chambers street. 

Cowdin, Hun. Elliot C, 98 Grand street 

Cox, James F., 02 William street. 

Cox, Hon. Samuel a, 18 East Twelfth street. 

Cram, Dunham Jones, 81 Irving place. 

Crawford, S. W., Maj.-Gen. U. B. A., Ohamberaburg, Pa. 

Crooks, Ramsey, 07 Front street 

Cnuckshank,Jas.,I J L.D. I 164S. Oxford st, Brookryn.N.Y. 
M. Cnllum, Geo. W"., HaJ.-Qen. U. 8. A., corner Greene and 
Houston streets. 

Carrie, GUbert E., 153 Broadway. 

Curtis, Lewis, 40 University place, 

Curtis, Hod. William E., 300 East Fifteenth street. 

Daly, Chief Justice Charles P., LL. D., 84 Clinton place 

Daly, Hon. Joseph F., 214 West Twenty-fifth street 

Darling, William A., 69 West Forty-fourth street 

Dash, John IS., 47 East Nineteenth street 

Davies, Hon. Henry E., 120 Broadway. 

Davis, Alex. J., 34 Waverley place. 



Resident Members. 



Davison, Edward P., 138 Pearl street 

Dawson, H. B., Horrisania, N. T. 
De Costa, Rev. B. F., 42 East Nineteenth street. 

Delano, Franklin H., 86 Broadway. 
L. M. Dennis, Charles, SI Wall street. 
L. M. De Peyster, Frederick, 67 University place. 

Detmold, Christina E., Ill Broadway. 

Detmold, William, M. D., 38 East Ninth street 

De Voe, Col. Thomas F., 104 West Thirteenth st) 

Dickerson, E. N. , 83 East Thirty-fourth street. 

Diehl, Israel 8., 68 Reade street 

Dinsmore, Wra. B., 59 Broadway. 
Dodge, Robert, 12 Wall street 

Dodge, Hon. William E., 18 Cliff street 

Dodge, William 15. , Jr., 18 Cliff street 
' Doremua, R Ogden, M. D., 227 Fourth avenue. 

Douglas, Andrew E., 89 Wall street. 

Draper, Henry, M. D., 271 Madison avenue. 

Drone, Eaton &, 807 East Eighteenth street 

Drowne, Henry T., 62 Wall street. 

Du Chaillu, Paul B., 48 East Thirtieth street 

Duncan, Wm. Butler, 11 Nassau street 
Dunshee, Henry W., 142 West Tenth street 

Durant, Thomas C, H. D., 20 Nassau street 

Duyckinck, Evert A., 30 Clinton place. 

Dwight, ProE Theo. W., LL. D., 43 Lafayette pi 



t, Hon. J. W.,27l Broadway. 
Edwards, Jonathan, 304 West Thirty-eighth stree 
EHinger, Moritz, 11 Ann street 
Elliott, 8. M., M. D., 82 Waverley place. 
Elsworth, HeDry, 228 West Fourteenth street. 
Emmet, Thomas Addis, M. D., 91 Madison aveni 
Emott, Hon. James, 20 Nassau street. 
Evans, Walton W., 47 Exchange place. 
Evarts, Hon. Wm. M., 52 Wall street 
Eyre, Henry 8. P. , 174 Pearl street " 

1884 Fails, Thomas H., 180 Water street 

Fembach, Henry, 846 Broadway. 
L. M. Field, B. H., 137 Water street 
L. M. Field, Oyrus W., Qramercy place. 
Field, David Dudley, 4 Pine street 
Field, Dudley, 4 Pine street 
1860 170 Field, Rev. H. H., S Beckman street. 



RsSIDSlfT MSUBSBR. 



1858 L. M. Griawold, George, 73 Booth street 

1871 Groom, Wallace P., SCO Pearl street 

1856 Guernsey, Egbert, M. D., 18 West Twenty-third U 

1864 Guernsey, R. S., H. D., 1B0 Broadway. 

1669 Hablcht, C. E., London. 

1869 Hadden, John A., 88 Chambers street 

1871 Hall, Hon. A. Oakey, 13 West Forty-second street 

1868 320 Hall, Elial P., 87 Nassau street 

1869 Hallock, His. Frances, 140 East Fifteenth street 

1869 Halsted, William M., 878 Broadway. 

1872 L. M. Hamersley, John W., 255 Fifth avenue. 

1871 Hamilton, Alexander, Jr., 17 Washington square 1 

1861 Hammond, Henry B., 30 Nassau street. 

1871 Hand, Clifford A., 51 Wall street. 

1870 Harris, R. Duncan, 91 Madison avenue. 

1868 L. M. Harris, Hon. Townaend, Union Club, Fifth avenu 

1870 Harrison, Prof. Thomas F., 146 Grand street 

1868 SS0 Hartt, Prof. Chaa. F., M. A., Ithaca, N. Y. 

1850 L. H. Haremeyer, John C, 835 West Fourteenth street. 

1870 Havens, Charles G. , 20 Exchange place. 

1870 Hawkes, Prof. W. Wright, 37 8. William street. 

1873 Hawkins, Dexter A., 5 West Thirty-fourth street. 
1873 Hawley, E. Judson, 47 Fifth avenue. 

1866 Hayes, Isaac 1., H. D., 51 West Tenth street 

1869 Hays, William J., 51 West Tenth street 

1869 Hazard, Rowland R, Jr., 110 Broadway. 
1866 Hegeman, William, 303 Broadway. 

1868 340 Hegeman, William A. Ogden, 66 Pine street. 

1850 Henderson, John C, 464 Broome street 

1856 Herring, Silas C, 351 Broadway. 

1870 Hess, Julius, 30 Exchange place. 
1856 Hewitt, Abram 8„ 17 Burling slip. 
1868 Hewlett, John D. , 51 Wall street 

1873 Hoffman, William B., 48 West Twenty-second str 

1860 Hoffmann, Friedrich, Ph. D., 64 Sixth avenue, 

1868 Hoguet Robert J., 113 Dnane street 

1873 Holbrook, Levi, P. O. box 686. 

1870 350 Holmes, William H., 69 Bookman street 

1858 L. M. Holtoo, Darid P., H. D., 148 East Seventy -eighth 

1666 Hoppin, William J., 69 Pine street. 

1683 Hoyt, David, 386 Cherry street 

1865 Hull, Amos G., 31 Park row. 
1856 Hunt, Wilson G., 63 White street. 
1856 Hunter, James, 330 East Tenth street 



Resident Membebs. 



Huntington, Daniel, 48 Hut Twentieth street. 

Hnrlbert, William H., World office. 

Hatchings, Hon. Robert 0., 48 West Thirty-eighth street 

Hutchias, Waldo, 40 Wall street 

nuyshe, Wentwoith, 69 Wall street 

Ireland, John R, 900 Broadway. 

Jackson, H. A., S3 Wall street. 

Jacob, Ephraim A. , 322 Broadway. 

James, Frederick P., 400 Fifth avenue. 

Jarvis, Nathaniel, Jr., 124 West Twenty-third street 
M. Jay, Hon. John, U. B. Ambassador, Vienna, Austria. 

Joechunsen, Jos. P., 240 Broadway. 

Johnson, Bradish, 117 Front street 

Johnson, Hezron A., 20 Pine street. 

Johnson, Henry W., 22 East Thirty-fifth street 

Johnston, James B., 90 Broadway. 

Johnston, John T., 119 Liberty street. 

Jones, Charles C, Jr., 61 Wall street 
M. Jones, John D., 01 Wall street. 

Jones, Walter B. T., «S Wall street. 

Joy, Prof. Chas. A., Columbia Oollege. 

Kane, J. Granville, 340 Broadway. 
Knufmaun, Sigismund, 89 Nassau street 
Kearny, Edward, 189 Front street 
Kelley, Lieut J. D. J., U. a N., New York. 
Kelly, Eugene, 87 West Thirty-fourth street 
Kendrick, CoL Henry L., U. 8. A., West Point, N. T. 
Kennedy, John A., ISO West Twenty-second street 
Kennedy, Robert L,, 26 Nassau street. 
King, George, 5 Mercer street 
King, Oliver K. , 81 Broadway. 
Kingsland, A. C, 114 Fifth avenne. 
Kirkland, Hon. Charles P., 21 Nassau street 
Klamroth, Albert, 04 St Mark's place. 
M. Knapp, Shepherd, 88 Wall street 
Kuhne, Frederick, 118 Broadway. 

Lambert, E. W., M. D. , 130 Broadway. 
M. Lane, Smith E., 109 Broadway. 
Lanier, J. F. D., 29 Pine street 
Larremore, Hon. Richard L., LL. D., 89 East Sixtieth * 



Rsbidbut Mehbbsb. 



1859 L. H. Lathers, Richard, 89 William street 

1868 Lawrence, Abraham R. , 26 Nassau street 

1869 L. M. Lawrence, John a, 117 William street. 
1871 300 Lee, Ambrose, 877 Broadway. 

1864 Lefferu, Marshall, 81 Broadway. 

1 1859 Lenox, James, 58 Fifth avenue. 

1868 Leonard, William H. , 67 East Fifty-third street 

1868 Leslie, Frank, 637 Pearl street 

1871 Letson, Robert S., 68 South street 

1872 L. M. Libber, William, 361 West Twenty-third street 
1853 L, H. Livingston, Cambridge, 145 Broadway. 

1870 Loew, Hon. Frederick W., 618 Lexington avenu 
1857 Low, A. A., 81 Burling slip. 

1878 310 Lydtg, David, 63 Seventh avenue. 

1870 Lyman, Edward H. R. , 31 Burling slip. 

1863 Hackle, Robert, 24 Beaver street. 

1868 MacKellar. William, 164 Nassau street 

1871 Maclay, Robert, 432 Canal street. 

1869 Maclay, Hon. William B., 08 Second avenue. 

1873 N. R. Macmillan, Frederick. 

1866 HcClnre, George, 16 Union square. 

1871 HcCreery, James A., 202 Broadway. 

1868 McLean, James M-, 156 Broadway. 

1868 390 McLean, Samuel, 133 Duaue street 

1870 McMillan, Charles, M. D., 4 East Thirty-fourth * 

1869 McMnllen, John, 1212 Broadway. 
1866 Manners, David S„ Jersey City, N. J. 

1870 Marbury, Francis F. , 64 Wall street 
1873 L. M. Marie, Peter, 48 West Nineteenth street. 
1868 Marsh, Luther R., 170 Broadway. 
1808 , Marshall, Unas. H., 38 Burling slip 

1870 .Marston, Charles E., 7 New street 

1868 Martin, Isaac P., 31 Nassau street 

1873 880 Martin, William R., 70 West Thirty-fifth street. 

1869 Martine, Randolph B., 31 Nassau street 
1868 Harquand, Henry G., 43 Wall street 
1868 Matsell, George W., 164 Nassau street 
1873 L. M. Matthews, Edward, 4 Broad street. 
1873 Maury, Rev. Mytton, Fordham, N. T. 
1863 May, Lewis, 1 New street 

1871 Mayo, William 8., M. D., 308 Fifth avenue. 
1873 . Meeker, H. G., 454 Lexington avenue. 

1870 Menzies, William, 81 Nassau street 
1863 840 Merrick, John a, 805 Broadway. 



86 Transactions of the Society for 1870. 

On motion the letter was referred to the record! 
retary to be filed. 

The president then introduced to the Societj 
William Newcomb, of Cornell University, Ithac 
read a paper on "Hispaniola: its Past, Preset 
Future." 

After the conclusion of the paper, and on mo 
Jndge Kirkland, seconded by Mr. Hall, the thanki 
Society were presented to Prof. Newcomb for hi 
eating and instructive paper, and a copy of it ret 
for publication in the Journal. 

On motion the meeting then adjourned. 

Regular monthly meeting of the American U-eogr; 
Society, Cooper Institute, New York, March 19tl 
In the absence of the president, Chief-Justice Chi 
Daly, Professor Theodore W. 1) wight, LL. D., pi 

The minutes of the last annual meeting, Januar 
and of the regular monthly meeting, February 20t1 
were read and approved. 

Mr. Stout, on behalf of the Council, reported the 
of the following candidates as having been appro 
election as 

Resident Members — J. H. Van Alen, Jacob 1 
Bernard Roelker, Thomas Rigney, Albert Klamro 
James R. Trueheart ; as 

Life Members — Edward MatthewB and James 
Alen ; and as a 

Corresponding Member — By Mr. Francis A. i 
Prof. Herrmann von Schlagintweit Sakilnlunski, 
dent of the Geographical Society in Munich. 

By Chief-Justice Charles P. Daly, as a correaj 
member, Charles Van Benthuysen, Albany, N. Y 

No ballot being called for, on motion these get 
were declared duly eleoted members of the Societ 

Mr. Moore, on behalf of the treasurer, Mr. Henry 
reported a cash balance in the treasury of $849.49 



88 Transactions of the Socibtf for 1872. 

less little band who were with as here 8 few months since, 
eve of the departure to grapple, amidst the icebergs, th 
tic-ability of the problem of a North-west Passage, — it 
natural that we should be deeply interested in such par 
as have been afforded as, this evening, of the appliances, n 
and surroundings of the men who contemplated a westei 
age to India four centuries ago. The address to which v 
listened this evening has been delivered by one whose i 
not unfamiliar in scientific circles or amongst studen 
whose labors, in his professional sphere, have been appi 
by many who have listened to him to-night, and who c: 
bear witness how gracefully he can unite the labors of the 
with those of the scholar. In following him through hi 
esting details of the researches and the explorations of 
Behaim, we cannot but appreciate anew our debt of grati 
the men who performed the thankless task of develop 
appliances and conceiving and propaganding the explorat 
which others were enabled to execute the voyages which 
culminated in the acquisition of a world, and conferred 
ishable glory on their names. The application of the asl 
and the abandoning of the time-honored route of expl 
along the African coast, for Bteering a bold course westi 
pursuit of Cathay and fabled lands as yet unexplored, i 
in the addition of a continent, in the greatness and prog 
which the Old World, while admitting a sister in the fa 
nations in the present, is already looking for a rival in intel 
wealth, and progress. Whether to Toscanelli, to Behaii 
Columbus we are indebted for this bold departure fn 
beaten path of exploration, it has been instructive to he 
relative actions recalled, where each is worthy of our gr 
and participated in a course producing so brilliant a reaul 
appreciate the value of the discovery of the mariner's c 
more fully when we have recalled to us the faults which n 
the astrolabe of so little value when it did not please th 
to shine, or the sea to be still; and wo sympathize with t 
who rose superior to the temptations which their eurroi 
and vocations in life held out to them to devote their entir 
tion to their daily duties, and what was then, as now, pc 
considered the greatest achievement, — the acquisition of m 



40 Transactions or the Socibtt for 187S. 

Mr. Robert Dodge seconded the motion Trith 
interesting remarks, describing his own inspection 
globe at Nuremberg, and suggesting a hope that a 
might soon be added to the collection. He also i 
that the paper be printed. 

The resolutions were adopted, and the meeting 
adjourned. 

Regular monthly meeting of the American Geog 
cal Society, held at the hall of the New York His' 
Society, corner Second avenue and Eleventh street 
York, April 18th, 1872. Chief-Justice Charles P. '. 
the president, in the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting, March 19th, 1875 
read and approved. 

Mr. Stout, on behalf of the Council, report* 
names of the following candidates as having 
approved for election as 

.Resident Members — Eugene E. Conklin, Hora 
Poote, S. W. Bridgham and Prof. Frederick Steng. 

No ballot being called for, on motion these gent 
were declared duly elected members of the Society 

Mr. Paul B. ))u Chaillu proposed as an 

Honorary Member — His Majesty Charles XV, 
Eugene, King of Sweden and Norway ; 

And by the same as a 

Corresponding Member— Pr<ft. A. E. Nordenskj< 
Stockholm. 

On motion it Was 

Resolved, That His Majesty the King of Sweden an< 
Nordenekjold be declared duly elected members of the S 
without reference to the Council 

Which was unanimously adopted. 

The recording secretary read, in the absence < 
Clews, the treasurer's report, exhibiting a cash b 
in the treasury of $853.67. 

Mr. Hall, the librarian, read Mb monthly report, 



42 Transactions or thb Boomer ros 187t. 

Resident Members — Peter Mari6, B. L. Goulding, 
Olark, Gen. 8. W. Crawford, U. 8. A., Rev. H 
Maury, E. Steiger ; 

And by Chief-JuBtice Charles P. Daly, as 

Corresponding Members — Charles Maunoir, G 
Secretary Geographical Society, Paris; Dr. A. Bs 
President of the Geographical Society, Berlin ; 

By E. R. Straznicky, recording secretary, as 

Corresponding Members — M. A. Becker, Genera 
retary of the Geographical Society of Vienna ; I 
Behm, of Justus Perthe* s Geographical Institute in C 
and assistant editor of Petermann's MiUheilungen. 

No ballot being called for, on motion these gent 
were declared duly elected members of the Society 

Mr. Remsen, on behalf of Mr. Clews, read the treas 
report, exhibiting a cash balance in the treasu 
$1,301.80. 

Mr. Filial F. Hall, the librarian, read his monthly r 
showing that eighty-nine items had been added ; 
library of the Society by donation. 

On motion both these reports were accepted 
ordered to be placed on file. 

The president then announced, with appro 
remarks, the death of our late associate, John D. A 

On motion of Mr. Stout, seconded by Mr. Kerns 
was unanimously 

Resolved, That a special committee of three be apj 
by the president to draft suitable resolutions on the di 
Mr. Wolfe, and to report the same to the next Council m 

The president accordingly appointed Messrs. ; 
Remsen, and Drowne as suoh committee. 

The president called the attention of the Society 
donation of rare Mexican books by Mr. W. H. Hm 
accompanied by the following letter 'to the recordin. 
retary: 



44 Transactions or the Society fob 187SS. 

Regular monthly meeting of the American Gee 
cal Society, held at the hall of the New York Hi 
Society, corner of Second avenue and Eleventh 
New York, November 12th, 1873. Chief-Justice C 
P. Daly, the president, in the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting, May 21st, 181 
read and approved. 

Judge We E. Curtis, on behalf of the Council, r 
the names of the following candidates as havk 
recommended for election as 

Resident Members — Jonathan Edwards, Rol 
Grinnell, Gen. James H. Simpson, U. S. A. ; 

And by Francis A. Stout, Esq., as 

Corresponding Members — Monsieur Vivien de £ 
tin, Vice-President Geographical Society, Paris ; 

By Prof. Hartt, of Cornell University, 

W. Chandless, Gold Medallist of the Royal Geo 
cal Society, London. 

No ballot being called for, on motion these get 
were respectively deolared duly elected resident a: 
responding members. 

In the absence of the treasurer, Mr. Henry Cle 
recording secretary presented his monthly report, t 
ing a cash balance in the treasury of $482.68. 

Mr. Klial F. Hall, the librarian, presented his a 
report, showing that since the last report ha< 
rendered (on the 21st May, 1872), in all, six hundt 
fifty-one additions were' made' to the library, b 
purchase and donation. 

On motion both these reports were accept* 
ordered to be placed on file. 

Mr. Remsen, on behalf of the Council, presented 
lowing report of the special committee appointed 
21st of May, 1872, relative to the death of Mr. Ji 
Wolfe, as one of our associates. 

The Council respectfully presents the following i 

On the 1st of June, 1878, a meeting of the Conn 



46 Transactions ok the Society for 1812. 

a. Baron Osten -Sacken, late Imperial Russian 
General — A collection of the Russian Imperial cc 
or survey-maps, of the Russian Empire. 

b. Admiral Inglefield, of the British Navy — Th 
collection of mapB and charts of the British coat 
bering over one hundred and fifty. 

c. Major Constable — A collection of Chinese a 
anese maps. 

On motion of Judge Wm. E. Curtis, seconded 
Stout, it was 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Society be p 
through the recording secretary, to the various donors : 
vain able donations. 

The president then introduced to the Society I 
Sterry Hunt, of Boston, who read a paper on the 
Geography of North America. 

After the conclusion of the reading of this paj 
on motion of Judge Wm. E. Curtis, seconded 
Remsen, the thanks of the Society were prese 
Prof. Hunt for this very interesting and insi 
paper, and a copy of it was requested for publics 
the Journal. 

On motion the meeting then adjourned. 

Regular monthly meeting of the American Geo 
cal Society, held at the hall of the New York Hi 
Society, New York, December 17th, 1873. Chief- 
Charles P. Daly, the president, in the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting, November 12tl 
were read and approved. 

Col. Oonkling, chairman of the Council, report 
the names of the following candidates had been aj 
for election as 

Resident Members — Frederick Macmillan, ' 
Prime, Samuel S. Cox, Levi Holbrook, Dexter A 
kins, Morris S. Miller, Dunham Jones Grain ; and 



48 Transactions or tbs Society for 187$. 

Rothrock, of WilkeBbarre, Pa., who read a papt 
" Our North-west : its Resources and its Inhabitant* 

After the conclusion of the paper, and on motio 
the Hon. Hiram Barney, seconded by Mr. Stout 
thanks of the Society were presented to Br. Rothroc 
his very interesting and instructive paper, and a oo] 
it was requested for publication in the Journal. 

On motion the meeting then adjourned. 



Annual meeting of the American Geographical Son 
Cooper Institute, New York, January 38th, 1873. ] 
absence of Chief-Justice Daly, the president, CoL C 
ling, one of the vicerpresidents, occupied the chair 

The minutes of the last meeting, December 17th, 
were read and approved. 

Col. Conkling, as chairman, presented the annual r 
of the Council, which on motion was accepted and on 
to be placed on tile. 

Mr. Henry Clews, the treasurer, read his annual re 
exhibiting a cash balance in the treasury of $08. OS 
stating that the Society is now entirely out of debt. 

On motion the treasurer's report was accepted 
ordered to be placed on file. 

Mr. Elial F. Hall, the librarian, read his annual it 
showing that during the past year one thousand 
hundred and fifty-six items had been added b 
Society's library and map-room. 

On motion the librarian's report was accepted 
ordered to be placed on file. 

Col. Conkling, as chairman of the Council, then rep 
the names of the following candidates an having 
approved for election as a 

Resident Member — John J. Casey; 

And by Mr. Francis A. Stout, aa a 

Corresponding Member — General Thomas B. 
Buren, U- B. Commissioner- General to the Vienna 1 
sition. 



Transactions of the Society fob 1812. 49 

y Mr. Robert Bodge, as a 

ponding Member — Dr. J. T. Rothrock, Wilkes- 

i. 

(lot being called for, on motion these gentlemen 
dared duly elected resident and corresponding 

wording secretary then read the amendments to 
wb of the Society as proposed at the last monthly 

on December 17th, 1873. 

tion these amendments were accepted, and the 

so amended declared to be in force. 

shards, as chairman of the Nominating Commit- 

reported that the names of the following gen- 
re recommended for election, as officers of the 
for the ensuing year : 

U — ClIAKLKB F. Dalt, LL. D. 

•eaident* — F. A. Conkling, Fbancis A. Stout, T. 

!ybbb. 

Corresponding Secretary — Jab. Mithlbnbkrg Bailby. 
ie Corresponding Secretary — W. H. H. Moobz. 
ng Secretary — E. R. Stbaznicky, M. D., Ph. D. 
er — Henry Clews. 
-Wm. Rkmbbk, W. T. Blodqbit, W. E. Cubtis, 

Dwight, LL. D.; Gso. W. Cullum, U. S. A.; Geo. 
abd, Elial F. TTat.t., Thbodobb Roosevelt, Wll. 



esident then appointed Messrs. John W. Ham- 
Clinton Gilbert as tellers, who reported that the 
the gentlemen as recommended on the ticket 

nimonsly elected. 

tion they were then declared duly elected officers 

■ciety for the year 1873. 

ssident then introduced to the Society Dr. Augus- 

longeon, who read a paper on "The Coincidences 



52 Transactions of the Society for 1878. 

On December 17th, Dr. J. T. Rothrock, of Wilkesl 
read a paper on " Our North-West: its Resources and : 
tauts." 

The roll of resident members has continued to it 
will be seen from the following statement : . 

Number of resident members on January 30, 1872 

Number since added 

Total 

Deduct for deaths and resignations 

Number remaining January 28, 1873 

Among the names of those who will be painfully mi 
the rolls of the Society, especial mention is due to 1 
most steadfast friends and generous benefactors, Prof, i 
B. Morse and John David Wolfe, Esq. The former, wl 
is bo intimately connected with the earliest geograpl 
United States, has left to the Society a legacy of one 
dollars for the endowment of a medal to bo awarded I 
guished services in the field of geographical science an< 
lions. 

The annual report of the treasurer, Henry Clews, Esq. 
a satisfactory condition of the finances of the Society, 
tiou to the regular income, a special, private subscrij 
been set on foot, which promises to yield a further sura 
hundred dollars per annum for the next two years. 

From the annual report of the librarian, Elial F. Hal 
will be seen that considerable and valuable additions h 
made both to the library and to the department of i 
charts, amounting in the aggregate to one thousand ll 
dred and fifty-six items. 

The donation of the Royal Hydrographic Office in 
embracing the whole collection of maps and charts of 
ish coast, and numbering one hundred and sixty sheets, 
particular mention. This valuable addition to our collet 
made through the instrumentality of Admiral Inglefiel 
Royal Navy. 

At the request of the proper authorities the Society h 



54 Transactions of tee Society fob 187%. 

DUibunemmt*. 

Salaries for 1871-72 * 

Purchase of books, maps, etc 

Furniture 

Stationery 

Printing 

Sundry expenses for meetings, advertising, reporting, 

postage, etc 

Travelling expenses to lecturers 

Gas bills 

Loan oanoelled , 

* 

Leaving a cash balance on band of 

If to this sum is added : 

a. The uncollected dues of 600 resident members at $S, 

b. The guaranteed subscription for 1873 

The available resources for the coming year will 
then be % 

There are outstanding abont $1,000 of back dues for 
1872, of which a considerable amount, perhaps one-hall 
collected in the coming year. Besides this amount ther 
initiation fees of prospective new members, which also 
on an average to about $600 per annum. 
Respectfully submitted. 

HENRY CLEW 
Trt 

New Tore, Jan, 2fftf 

The undersigned, a committee appointed to audit i 

orer's account, have this day compared the above aoot 

the books of the treasurer, and have verified the payi 

comparison with the vouchers, and find the same to be coi 

the balance on hand to be therein fifty-eight dollars and t 

WILLIAM REHSEN, 

GEORGE CABOT WAR 

Com 



Transactions or tbs Society for 187X. 55 



AL REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN FOR 1872. 

Rooms of tbb American Geographical 1 

Society, Cooper Institute, V 

New York, Jim. 26th, 1873. J 

rdance with the existing by-laws, the librarian respect- 
Biite the following report for the period commencing 
luth January, 1872, and ending on the 31st December, 
ie book of donations shows that daring that period fire . 
md eighty-one entries have been made, and that they 
' following description ; 

-Folios 7 

Quartos 17 

Octavos 220 

Duodecimos ., 9 

i — Quartos 114 

Octavos 708 

sheets 187 

by donation 1,243 

ok in which the purchases are recorded shows 
r-fonr entries have been made, and these com- 
bllowing : 

-Folios 88 

Quartos 

Octavos 60 

Duodecimos 

i— Quartos 3 

Octavos 18 

sheets 7 

by purchase 114 

J total by purchase and donations 1 , 358 

the donors, the Royal Hydrographioal Office of the 
i, in London, deserves special mention. Through the 
is of Admiral Inglefield, of the Royal British Navy, 



f>6 Transactions of tux Society fob 187S. 

the whole collection of the charts of tbe British coast, 
ing one hundred and sixty sheets, was presented to the 
The names of all the other donors, institutions, and 
that have contributed to the library and map-room of the 
will appear in the printed list attached to the librarian') 
report. 

Respectfully submitted. 

ELIAL F. HAL! 
Zibr 

REPORT OF THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE TO B 
KATE OFFICERS FOR THE YEAR 1873. 
American Geographical Socie 
New York, Jan. lia\ 1873. 
The undersigned, a special committee appointed at 
monthly meeting of this Society, on the 17th of Decemb 
for the purpose of preparing nominations for the elet 
officers on the 28th of January, 1873, respectfully rep 
they would recommend the names of the following gentl 
be elected as officers of the Society for the year 1873 : 
President — Charles P. Daly, LL. D. 
Vice-Presidents ~~ F. A. Conkltng, Fbancib A. Si 
Bailey Myers. 
Foreign Corresponding Secretary — Jab. Muhlenberg 
Domestic Corresponding Secretary — W. H. H. Moore 
Recording Secretary — E. R. Straznicxy, M. D., Ph. 
Treasurer — Henby Clews. 

Council — Wm. Reuben, W. T. Blodgett, W. E. 
Theo. W. Dwight, LL. D.; Geo. W. Cdllum, U. 8. A 
Cabot Ward, Elial F. Hall, Theodore Roosevei 
Jones Hoppin. 

Respectfully submitted. 

J. W. RICHARDS, Choi 
SAMUEL D. TILLMAN. 
HORATIO M. ALLEN. 



60 Donations to Library. 

Kais.-KOnig. Geologische Reichsanstalt, Wien. 

Lyceum of Natural History, New York. 

Mexican Geographical and Statistical Society, Mexico. 

New York Association for Improving the Condition of tbi 

New York. 
New York State library,' Albany. 

Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass. 
Pulkowa Observatory. 

Royal Academy of Sciences, Brussels, Belgium. 

Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, Cornwall, England. 

Royal Danish Society of Sciences, Copenhagen. 

Royal Danish University, Lnnd, Sweden. 

Royal Geographical Society, London. 

Royal Societies of Sciences, TTpsala. 

Royal Society of Sciences, Gfittingen. 

Royal Society, London. 

Royal Statistical Bureau of Sweden, Stockholm. 

Secretary of State of the Argentine Republic, Buenos Ayi 
Statistical Bureau of the Free City of Pesth. 
Statistical Society, London, England. 

United States Coast Survey Office, Washington, D. C. 

Yerein fur Erdknnde, Darmstadt. 
Yerein fur Erdkunde, Dresden. 

Yerein fur Geographic und Statistik, Frankort-am Main. 
Vermont, State Library, Montpelier, Yt. 
I 



64 Annual Address, 

Among the most prominent of tl 
may name the earthquake inCa 
which extended over 1,600 miles o 
the three days of the continuum 
seven thousand shocks were fel 
the unfortunate city of A ntioch, i 
loss of two thousand lives ; the oc< 
of violent shocks at Accra, on the 
contemporaneous with which was 1 
destroyed every vessel but one in t 
and earthquakes, more or less se 
New Zealand, in Java, in the Fl 
macha in the Caucasus, in Englar. 
places in Europe, at Valparaiso, 1 
Islands, Oaxaca in Mexico, in Tei 
on the North-east coast of Ameri 
land States, and as far north as Q 
earthquakes upon our Western la 

The continuous passage, from 
of immense ice fields along the c 
from Baffin's Bay and Smith's S 
Mount Vesuvius, last April, the n 
centuries ; the great February stoi 
the United States, during which « 
cars were blocked and numerous 1 
ble enow drifts in Nova Scotia, th 
nado in Ohio, blowing down oi 
houses ; and the great galea inva 
of property on our Western lakes 
in Bombay ; the violent cyclone in 
the terrific gales and hurricanes c 
Sea, by which one thousand mile 
the water rising higher than had e' 
the inundation of the River Po, 
square miles and rendering sixty t 
less ; the inundations of the lib: 
Loire, and toward the close of t 



ixsRicAS Explorations and Su&vxyb. 65 

rricane, and floods in England, and the extraor- 
lirlwind in Ireland ; the intense cold in the begin- 
le year, by which many persons in onr North- 
Itates perished ; the excessive heat daring the 
' May, June, July, and August ; the phenomena 
rdinary electrical convulsions throughout the 
ates, during this heated period, and the appear- 
uge sun-spots, which were discovered and seen 

days toward the close of July ; the excessive 
e present winter, one of the accompaniments of 
i been the terrific snow-storm that recently over- 
e State of Minnesota, during which hundreds of 
sposed to it, and unable to escape, were frozen 
to which enumeration, by no means a foil one, 1 

the terrible earthquake which occurred a few 
o at Somghee, in India, a town 114 miles north 
■y, involving the loss of 1,600 lives, 
urrenoe of physical events of this character, so 
ad and so numerous, within the limited period 
3 year, adds weight to the theory maintained by 

other geologists, that causes now in operation, 
ti may have been acting over long periods of 
adequate to account for all the disturbance and 
hat have taken place upon the earth's surface. 

kerioah Explorations and Surveys. 
leneral survey of the geographical work accom- 
iring the past year, I will first call attention to 
been done in our own country. It comprises 
lb labors of the Coast Survey, under the admir- 
rintendence of Prof. Peirce ; of the Engineer 
Lie U. S. Army, under the direction of its accom- 
lief, Brig. -Gen. A. A. Humphreys, whose report 
ear is one of unusual extent and exceeding 
the explorations in the Territories of Utah, 
d Montana, under the direction of Prof. F. V. 
lie chief of the Geological Survey of the United 



66 Annual Address, 1873. 

States Territories ; the continuation of the survey 
fortieth parallel, under Mr. Clarence King ; the e: 
tions west of the hundredth meridian, under 
tenant George M. Wheeler, of the Engineer Cc 
reconnoissance of the basin of the Upper Yello 
River, in Wyoming and Montana Territories, eml 
the head -waters and sources of that river, by Capt. 
Barlow, assisted by Capt. D. P. Heap, of the Co 
U. S. Engineers ; explorations and surveys in the 
Mountains in Utah, by Capt. W. A. Jones, of th 
corps ; the determination of the difference of lor. 
between Detroit, Mich., and Port Leavenworth in B 
by Lieut. E. H. Ruffner, likewise of the same 
and the reconnoissance and cartographical labors, 
the direction of that officer, for a series of maps 
scale of an inch to four miles, embracing Eansat 
of the sixth principal meridian, Colora 
the Indian Territory, Chickasaw Nai 
of New Mexico ; the continuation of 
exploration of the Colorado River and its 
exploration by his associate, Prof. T 
region north toward the Wahsateh Mow 
ration and scientific investigation, by V 
upon the geography, hydrography, and 
tions of the Aleutian Islands, and th 
surveys, explorations, and reconnoissan 
with the building of the North Pacific I 
head of Lake Superior to Puget Sound, 
Engineer, Gen. W. Milnor Roberts ; 
cal observations of the Signal Service Bt 
Department, under Brig. -Gen. A. J. 
pletion of the scientific voyage of the " 
the Continent of South America, organi; 
Survey for the more particular observat 
lines of South America, for deep-sea dredging throi 
the voyage, and the making of Zoological and oth 
lections in natural history,. to which should be add 



VOTAGJB OF TBB "HA8SLJ5B." 07 

continuation of the geological surveys of the States of 
New Hampshire, New Jersey, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, 
Illinois, Louisiana, and California, embracing an amount 
of work, which, in extent and value, will compare with 
that of any previous year. 

Before proceeding to give a brief account of the nature 
of these respective labors, I must express my acknowledg- 
ments, particularly to Prof. Hayden, Lieut. Wheeler, 
Gen. W. Milnor Roberts and E. R. Esterbrook, Esq., of 
the Signal Service, all of whom have most kindly, upon 
request, furnished me with the latest information in their 
respective departments. 

Coast Survey. 

The year was unfavorable for surveying operations 
along our coast ; but the labors of the Coast Survey have 
been in other respects active and important. They have 
embraced the scientific voyage of the steamer " Hassler " 
around the Continent of South America, which was 
organized for the more particular observation of the coast- 
lines of that continent, for deep-sea dredging through- 
out the course of the voyage, and for the making of 
zoological and other collections in natural history. The 
temporary occupation of points upon the Rocky Moun- 
tains for scientific purposes ; an expedition for the more 
exact determination of the difference of longitude between 
Washington and Greenwich, which, under the direction 
of Prof. J. E. Hilgard, was brought to a successful con- 
clusion last September ; the continuation of the survey 
of the harbor of New York, in which considerable prog- 
ress was made during the year, and observations relat- 
ing to the hydrography of the Gulf of Mexico. 

Voyage of tbte "Hassleb." 

The voyage of the " Hassler " lasted nine months. The 
chief scientific result has been the observation by Prof. 
Agassiz of the evidence of post-glacial action on the coast 
of South America, both on the Atlantic and the Pacific 



68 AlfJfUAL Addbsbs, 1873. 

side, below the thirty-seventh parallel of south la 
with the detection of existing glaciers in the Sti 
Magellan and on the coast of Chili, and an in 
zoological collection, embracing 100,000 specimei 
fish in which alone amount to 80,000. Hie deep-sea 
ing, a very important object, was not pursued 
extent, from some defect in the apparatus or other 
Agassiz found a strong resemblance between 
parts visited and regions of the Alps with whicl 
familiar, which resemblance, he says, is not snpe 
bnt extends to the geological structure of the 
region. What he saw, he says, was the evide 
glacial action, or, as he expresses it, terrestrial ma 
ice moving upon the solid ground, a 
which as floating bodies could not hi 
abrasion which he saw ; the planing, g 
rowing of the rocks. He found the c 
a glacial-worn aspect as far north as tl 
in Chili. His conclusion from what 
during the glacial period both hemis 
each been capped with an enormous she 
ing northwardly from the Atlantic, and 
wardly from the Arctic toward the e< 
from what he saw in South America, 
that ice has been the great paring mach 
rocky surfaces of the globe have bee 
that the great geological agents have n< 
and water, but that ice has had a gret 
ing the earth's surface. The profes 
knows that his observations will be que 
pleasantly : "An old hunter does not t 
fox for that of a wolf; and I, an old 
tracks, know their foot-prints when i una tne: 
should perhaps here mention that Prof. Hart 
accompanied Agassiz in the exploration of the A 
in a paper read before this Society during the 
pointed out mistakes which the professor had n 



Prop. Ha wen's Exploration. (S9 

the observation in South America of what he Bupposed 
to be the result of glacial action ; and that eminent geolo- 
gists, such as Lyell, Dawson, Br. Steny Hunt, and Home, 
do not admit that there ever was such a glacial period as 
Agassiz believes to have existed, or anything at any time 
but glaciers in particular localities; and the opinion of 
these geologists has been somewhat strengthened by 
recent observations of M. C. Grad in North Africa, 
especially in the Atlas range and in the Desert of Sahara. 
On the other hand, Lieut. -Col. Drayson, R. A., has just 
published a work in which he gives not only a formidable 
array of evidence in proof of a glacial epoch, but assumes 
it to be a necessary consequence of the change which 
takes place in the direction of the earth' s axis, whereby 
the whole earth is affected. This change, Col. Drayson 
argues, would, in about 16,000 years, cause a decrease in 
the obliquity of thirty-five degrees, which, he says, 
would bring about climatic changes quite sufficient to 
produce Agassiz' s glacial epoch. 

Surveys and Exploration of the United States 

Engineer Corps. 

The labors of the Engineer Corps during the past year 
have been very extensive in the geographical work of the 
improvement of harbors and rivers, a matter of the high- 
est importance and value in our country, so large a por- 
tion of which is as yet but partially developed. The 
survey of our great lakes by the corps has also been car- 
ried on; that of Lake Superior being completed, and that 
of Lake Michigan carried so far that it will probably be 
completed in another season. With this work have also 
been connected astronomical and meteorological observa- 
tions, and lake-surface observations, extending over the 
entire lake region. 

Prof. Hayden's Exploration in Utah, Idaho, and 

Montana Territories. 

The result of Prof. Hay den's expedition during the 



70 Annual Address, 1873. 

year in Utah, Idaho, and Montana, I prefer to give in the 
language of the communication he has courteously sent 
me: 

" The report of the exploration of the valley of the 
Upper Yellowstone, and the head-waters of the Madison, 
during the season of 1871, by theU. S. Geological Survey 
of the Territories, created such an interest in the public 
mind all over the country that Congress was led thereby 
to pass a law forever withdrawing from the public lands 
intended for sale, or occupancy by settlers, a tract com- 
prising 3,575 square miles. This reservation was called 
the Yellowstone National Park, and was intended to pre- 
serve and protect the wonderful curiosities of nature 
within its borders for the benefit and instruction of the 
people. To complete this exploration, so successfully 
commenced, a second expedition was made into that 
region during the past summer (1872). The appropria- 
tion for the survey by Congress, during the session of 
1871-73, was so liberal that the geologist in charge was 
enabled to organize two separate parties. To each of 
these parties there were attached a geologist, an astrono- 
mer, topographer, and meteorologist, with the necessary 
assistants for each. One of the parties, under the imme- 
diate direction of Mr. James Stevenson, surveyed a route 
from Ogden, Utah, to Fort Hall, Idaho Territory, where 
full preparations were made for a pack-train with sup- 
plies to proceed up Snake River. The party passed up 
the west side of Snake River valley, making a careful, 
detailed survey of all the branches of that stream, 
located the Great Teton range, and then passed up the 
valley of Henry's Fork, and entered the Madison Valley 
through the Targee Pass, and reached the Geyser Basin, 
August 14. 

"The second party, under the direction of Prof. Hay- 
den, proceeded to Bozeman, Montana, in the valley of 
the Gallatin, and made that its point of departure. The 
valleys of the Yellowstone, Madison, and Gallatin, with 



Prof Eatdei^s Exploration. 71 

their numerous branches, were all carefully examined, 
and the materials secured for a map of the country in 
contour lines of one hundred feet each. 

"The event of the season was the ascent of the Grand 
Teton. There is no tradition that any white man has 
ever reached its summit. A party of thirteen began the 
ascent ; but only two succeeded, Mr. Stevenson and Mr. 
Langford. They found upon the summit a rude structure, 
which appeared to be an inclosure, and which must have 
been built several hundred years since, and is supposed 
to have been used as a protection from the wind. 

i i The elevation of the Grand Teton was found to be 
13,762 feet above the sea, thus making it one of the mon- 
arch peaks of our continent. 

"The examination of the four remarkable passes at 
the head of Henry's Fork was another of the interesting 
and important results of this Survey. Here are four 
passes across the water-shed of the continent, connecting 
the Atlantic with the Pacific Slope. These passes repre- 
sent the four points of the compass. The Targee, or East 
Pass, is 7,063 feet above the sea, and opens into the 
Upper Madison, forming the most important gateway to 
the Yellowstone National Park. The Madison, or North 
Pass, leads into the Lower Madison Basin, thus connect- 
ing the North-west with the great interior basin of Utah, 
as well as the Pacific Slope. The Bed Bock Pass, with 
an elevation of 7,271 feet, leads to the valley of Jefferson 
Fork, and thus to any portion of Montana. Henry's 
Lake, which gives origin to Henry's Fork, is located in 
the centre of these passes, and has an elevation of 6,443 
feet. 

"This wonderful region, which seems to form the apex 
of the continent, was carefully explored and mapped. 
Here, within a radius of fifty miles, the snows that fall 
upon the mountain-tops give origin to the largest rivers 
on our continent, forming one of the most remarkable 
water-sheds, in a geographical point of view, in the 



78 Annual Address, 1878. 

world. On the north side are the sources of the Yellow- 
stone ; on the west, those of the Three Forks of the Mis- 
sonri; on the south-west and south, those of the Snake 
River, flowing into the Columbia, and thence into the 
Pacific; and those of the Green River, flowing southward 
to join the Great Colorado, and finally emptying into the 
Gulf of California; while on the east side are the numer- 
ous sources of Wind River. We thus see that this 
water-shed gives origin to three of the largest rivers in 
North America — the Missouri, Columbia, and Colorado. 
The general elevation of this portion is from 7,000 to 
8,000 feet; while the mountain-peaks, which are very 
numerous, average from 9,600 to 11,000 feet. From one 
lofty peak at the source of Snake River 470 mountain- 
peaks were counted within the circle of vision. 

"About the sources of Snake River it was found that 
the existing maps were quite incorrect. Madison Lake, 
which was previously supposed to be the source of Madi- 
son River, was found to give origin to Snake River. It 
is a beautiful body of water, about eight miles wide and 
twelve miles long. From it flows a stream about one 
hundred feet wide, which, after flowing a distance of five 
miles, empties into another lake, about four miles long 
and one and a half miles wide. The first of these, was 
called Lake Shoshonee, and the latter Lake Lewis, in 
honor of the great explorer of the North-west 

"At the upper end of Lake Shoshonee a new geyser 
basin' was discovered, containing over one hundred 
springs, several of which ranked with first-class geysers. 
The ornamentation about these springs is peculiar, and 
even more beautiful than that around the springs in the 
geyser basins on the Madison. 

" Careful observations were made by both parties for 
latitude and longitude at every available point, and seve- 
ral localities, as Fort Hall, Virginia City, Fort Ellis, and 
Helena, were fixed with a good degree of precision. 

"Six of Green's best cistern barometers, and a dozen 



Survey of the Fortieth Parallel. 78 

aneroids, were in constant use. The observations and 
collections in geology, mineralogy, botany, and the vari- 
ous departments of natural history, far exceeded those 
of any previous year. 

"Besides the two principal parties mentioned above, 
five small parties have been operating in different parts 
of the West, under the auspices of the Survey, with 
great success. Prof. Joseph Leidy spent about two 
months examining the ancient lake basins of Wyoming 
for vertebrate remains, and Prof. E. D. Cope occupied 
most of the season in various parts of the West, making 
most important discoveries. 

"The relations of the great Cretaceous and Tertiary 
groups of the West to each other have become a question 
of the highest interest; and Mr. F. B. Meek, the distin- 
guished paleontologist, spent the summer along the line 
of the Pacific Railroad, studying these formations and 
collecting the evidence from invertebrate fossils; while 
Prof. Leo Lesquereux, our great authority on fossil 
botany, took up the coal groups in the West, and made 
the plants a subject of special investigation ; and Prof. 
Gyrus Thomas devoted the summer to the agricultural 
resources of the North-west. 

"All these gentlemen are now busily engaged in pre- 
paring their reports for publication by Congress." 

Survey of the Fortieth Parallel. 

The geological and topographical exploration of the 
territory between the Sierra Nevada and the Rocky 
Mountains, under Mr. Clarence King, has, .during the 
year, embraced the completion of the field-work of the 
geological exploration of the fortieth parallel; an illus- 
trative series of the studies of the geology and topog- 
rapy of the extinct volcanoes, and further studies in 
glacial action. A third volume of this most interesting 
survey is now in the course of publication by the Gov- 
ernment. 



74 Annual Address, 1878. 

Lieut. Wheeler's Expedition in Nevada, Utah, 

and Arizona. 

Prom notes kindly famished me by Lieut. Wheeler, I 
am enabled to give the result of the year's work of the 
expedition under his charge. There have been three 
seasons of field-work in 1869, 1871, and 1872; the areas 
embraced being Eastern California, nearly the entire part 
of Nevada south of the fortieth parallel, Western and 
Southern Utah, and Northern and Western Arizona. 
Some idea of the vastness of this field of exploration 
-may be inferred from the fact that these surveys covered 
a belt of country equal in area to the whole of the New 
England and the Middle States, and that the reconnois- 
sance lines of these surveyb reach, at the least, fifteen 
thousand miles. They have been made in conformity 
with an act of Congress, the object of which is to estab- 
lish an astronomical base, and the continuance of military 
and geographical surveys and explorations West of the 
hundredth meridian. Before the passage of this act, a 
comprehensive plan of surveys was submitted to the Engi- 
neer Department, which was ratified and adopted as the 
basis on which future surveys by Lieut. Wheeler should be 
made. The plan was, briefly, to divide the territory lying 
west of the hundredth meridian into eighty -five equal rec- 
tangles, and to work up each of them with rigorous exact- 
ness, and publish the results from time to time, in connec- 
tion with an index-map of the whole area embraced, each 
small map being thrown up to ten times the size in the 
index-map, so that, by turning from one to the other, a 
complete knowledge of the country in its relative and 
detailed character can be obtained. The " importance," 
says Lieut. Wheeler in the communication he has sent 
me, " of accurate and frequent maps in connection with 
Western surveys has long been apparent to my mind, 
not only for their obvious convenience as maps of refer- 
ence for the traveller and the emigrant, but as being the 
essential ground-work on which all explorations and 



Lieut. Wheeler's Expedition. 75 

investigations should rest, and to which the after-labors 
of the geologist, the miner, and the capitalist should be 
referred." In connection with the perfected Engineers' 
map, a series of maps or charts might easily, he says, 
be arranged, covering a variety of topics, and exhibiting 
an epitome of all researches and scientific observations 
in the regions embraced. "In which service," he con- 
tinues, " I may mention an historical map on which, with 
appropriate markings and colorings, the lines of the 
earliest explorers, and the area of each and every survey 
that has been prosecuted, should be carefully designated; 
a map of climatology, covering a multitude of features; 
an agricultural map, showing the lines of demarcation 
between different belts of country in their adaptability 
to cereals and fruit ; a mineralogical map, necessarily 
fluctuating in accuracy and completeness, detailing the 
most recent and well-established specifications in regard 
to mining areas, either by itself, or in connection with the 
agricultural map ; a map of mountain, desert, and arable 
land, with diagrammatic exhibition of areas where irriga- 
tion and Artesian wells are necessary and considered 
practicable ; and so on, through quite an extended series. 
The amount of information which would be easily imparted 
by such a system of charts, and which could be extended 
at will to cover an increased variety of topics, would be 
very great." 

As an important factor in the accurate making of maps, 
" astronomical observations," he writes, "have been 
employed to a large extent, and I am happy to state that 
I have been enabled to collect a measurably complete 
and valuable set of observations from a corps of trained 
assistants, stationed not only at different points in the 
territory surveyed, but at more distant points, such as 
Cheyenne, Fort Steele, and Green River Station on the 
Union Pacific road, from which communication was 
established with the main observatory in Salt Lake City, 



76 Annual Address, 1873. 

the Mormon observatory at the latter place being placed 
at my disposal by Brigham Young." 

" The importance of these observations," he says, "in 
perfecting a survey, where so many physical obstacles 
prevent accurate geodetic work, can hardly be overesti- 
mated. Whilst regarding map -work as the first in the 
line of the surveyors' and explorers' work, and as the 
basis for all that accompanies it, I have not allowed the 
various departments of meteorology, geology, natural 
history, mining, and other industries to be dwarfed in 
importance or restricted in action. Besides constant and 
valuable work; in all these departments, much attention 
has been given to numerous allied topics, such as irriga- 
tion, routes for roads and railways, and the needs and 
possibilities of the different regions traversed. An 
attempt has thus been made, as should always be the 
case, £o connect the work of the survey with the indus- 
trial interests and special development of the Western 
country, where science, pure and simple, can hardly be 
expected to take root as yet, but should go hand-in-hand 
with practical utility and the needs of the peculiar stage 
of development of the civilization' which covers it" 

The main office-work of the expedition is at present 
concentrated on the preparation of the five volumes which 
are to cover the season's field labors. These volumes are 
to be condensed to the greatest brevity possible, without 
the sacrifice of valuable material, and will comprise about 
one hundred and seventy-five pages quarto each, if pos- 
sible. The result of the season will be segregated into 
appropriate departments, and the volume issued accord- 
ingly. The greater part of the thirteen of the projected 
eighty-five rectangles are in process of compilation, five 
having been added during the last year, and their publi- 
cation in map-form, with an index-map, will be made as 
speedily as tie careful mechanical execution of the work 
can be effected. " 



Capt. Barlow's Expedition. 77 

Capt. Barlow's Expedition to the Source of the 

Yellowstone River. 

The reconnoissance of Captain Barlow has been in the 
basin of the Upper Yellowstone River, and was made in 
the months of July and August, 1871, for the purpose of 
examining the source of the Yellowstone; the result of 
which, in the form of an official report, was laid before 
Congress last April by the Secretary of War. The 
report is one of exceeding interest, giving a detailed 
description of the region traversed, being in part oyer the 
same field of operations covered by the geological expe- 
dition of Prof. Hayden. It embraces the general geo- 
graphy of the region, the mountain forms, the peaks 
and heights, the streams that connect with the Yellow- 
stone, the waterfalls and canons ; an elaborate descrip- 
tion of the basin of the Great Geyser, or hot spring, "a 
thorough solution of the wonders of which," says Capt. 
Barlow, " is to be attained only by long and patient obser- 
vation by a corps of observers at different points;" the 
thermal springs ; the calcareous deposit known as Soda 
Mountain ; the mud volcanoes and the lakes which are 
tributary to Snake River. From the summit of a moun- 
tain 10,400 feet above the level of the sea, which Captain 
Barlow named Mount Hancock, he and his party 
obtained what he calls an unparalleled view of a vast 
extent of country, bounded by the Gallatin Mountain 
and Elephant's Back on the north, the Yellowstone range 
on the east, the Wind River range on the south, and the 
Great Teton range on the west. To the report is attached 
a most valuable map of the region traversed, delineating 
the curvatures of the mountain forms, the position and 
shape of the Yellowstone Lake, and the course of the 
great canon of the Yellowstone. The meteorological 
records and the numerous and interesting specimens col- 
lected in this reconnoissance were unfortunately destroyed 
by the great fire in Chicago. 



78 Annual Address, 1818. 

Capt. Jones' 8 Exploration in the Uintah Moun- 
tains. 

The exploration and surveys of Capt. W. A. Jones 
have been in the Uintah Mountains in Utah ; the Uintah 
range is a spur of the Wahsatch Mountains, beginning in 
lat. 40° 80' N., with an altitude of about 12,500 feet, 
and thence tending north-easterly to Green River, where 
the spur terminates. The extreme elevation of the range 
is in the vicinity of Gilbert's Peak, where the mountains 
reach to about 18,500 feet, and the whole region is one 
hitherto comparatively unknown. The object of this 
expedition was to ascertain the character and extent of 
the valleys through which the streams run flowing from 
these mountains; the nature of the timber, and the 
adaptability of the valleys for cultivation and settlement, 
and especially the examination of the country in the 
vicinity of Green River, with reference to the supposed 
existence there of large mineral deposits. He found the 
mountain-slopes covered with extensive forests of young 
growth, showing that extensive fires have ranged there for 
long intervals. The valleys were numerous, deep, and 
narrow, extending quite to the summit. The enormous 
basins that range along either side of the summit-line, 
he thought, from their position, must be filled in the 
winter with great drifts of snow, furnishing in the summer 
a continuous supply of water to the numerous mountain- 
streams. The whole region, mountain and plateau, he 
says, is especially adapted for grazing, grass being found 
everywhere, even to the mountain-summit ; and, as there 
is always water, he thinks that a pastoral people could 
live quite comfortably in these mountain-valleys. He 
speaks highly of the region watered by the North Uintah 
River, having everywhere a superabundance of grass, 
wood and water, and a climate incomparably fine. The 
mineral deposits were found to be unimportant, and a 
noticeable feature of the whole region was the scarcity of 
birds, reptiles, and insects. 



Surveys for the Northern Pacific Railroad. 79 

Prof. Powell's Exploration of the Colorado 

River. 

Prof. J. W. Powell has, during the year, continued 
his survey of the Colorado River, under the auspices of 
the Smithsonian Institution, and has made his second 
preliminary report. He has continued the examination 
of the wonderful series of canons along the course of the 
Colorado, and has visited a group of volcanic mountains 
north of the Grand Canon, to which he has given the 
name of the Uinkaret Mountains. The work done during 
the year has developed a most remarkable series of faults 
and folds in the earth's crust, which, in the opinion 
of Prof. Henry, will be of the highest interest to the 
geologist. 

An extensive series of faults running northerly and 
southerly across the Grand Cafion were examined ; some 
of them, as far as the Wahsatch Mountains. The fissures 
of these faults have been vents for volcanoes, and are 
from 60 to 200 miles in length. Discoveries were also 
made of coal, salt and metals. The number of the houses 
found of the prehistoric inhabitants of this region has, 
by the discoveries of this year, been increased to about' 
one hundred ; one being situated on the crater of a vol- 
canic cone. The collection of rock-inscriptions, or pic- 
ture-writing, has been much enlarged. The Seven Cities, 
called by the Spaniards the Province of Tusayan, were 
revisited for ethnological purposes, and the passage of 
the Grand Canon, in boats, was again successfully accom- 
plished, although attended, at one time, by great peril 
in consequence of the sudden rising of the river during 
the night. 

SURVEYS FOR THE NORTHERN PAOIFIO R AIL ROAD. 

The Northern Pacific Railroad has, dui^ng the year, 
been extended from Moorhead on the Red River of the 
North, to the Missouri River,. opposite the mouth of the 
Heart River, a distance of 198 miles, making, so far, a 



80 Annual Address, 1878. 

continuous line from Dnlnth, at the head of Lake Supe- 
rior, of 450 miles, showing the energy and celerity with 
which this great work has been carried on. The surveys 
in connection with the work have been very extensive, 
embracing a reconnoissance upon the Missouri River of 
2,300 miles ; a preliminary survey east of the Rocky 
Mountains of 360 miles ; one of the like character in the 
Rocky Mountains of 700 miles, and upon the Pacific Slope 
and over the Cascade Mountains of 1,727 miles. There 
have been, east of the Rocky Mountains, amongst the 
mountains, and along the Pacific Slope 1,165 locations, 
the railroad surveys and locations amounting to 3,843 
miles, or about twice the length of the main line between 
Lake Superior and Puget Sound. The data, from these 
surveys made during 1872, chiefly between latitude 45° 
and 49° N. will, when elaborated, add greatly to our 
geographical knowledge of this most important and inter- 
esting region.* 



♦As this survey is one of great interest in this country the following 
account of it, in detail, is given, from the communication received from 
Gen. Roberts: 

During the season of 1872, the Company extended their road across the 
Territory of Dakota, on a nearly east and west line, from Moorhead, on the 
Red River of the North, to the Missouri River opposite the mouth of Heart 
River, a distance of 198 miles, making a continuous line from Duluthat the 
head of Lake Superior, of 450 miles. 

Additional surveys were made from the mouth of Heart River to the 
western boundary of Dakota Territory, and beyond into Montana Territory, 
crossing the Little Missouri River and extending to the Junction of the 
Powder River with the Yellowstone ; a distance of 260 miles. This survey 
was conducted in the field under the direction of D. C. Linaley, Assistant 
Chief Engineer, and Gen. T. L. Rosser, Division Engineer, with a Gov- 
ernment escort under the command of Gen. Stanley, U. S. A. 

A survey was also made along the Musselshell River, from a point near its 
great bend to its sources in the Belt range, a spur of the Rocky Mountains, 
and thence over by a favorable pass, and down Sixteen Mile Greek to the 
Missouri River, and connecting at the ** Three Forks" of the Missouri with' 
the initial point, " departure point one, 1 ' a distance of 178 miles. This 
survey was conducted in the field by Col. John A. Haydon, Assistant 
Engineer, with a Government escort under the command of Col. E M. 



W. H. Ball's Explorations. 81 

W. H. D all's Explorations in the Aleutian Islands. 

Mr. W. H. Dall's investigation in connection with the 
geography and hydrography of the Aleutian Islands 
has been carried on during the year under the auspices 
of the Coast Survey, his headquarters being at Ulnluk, 
Oonalaska. He has discovered in these islands the remains 
of a people antecedent to the race that now inhabits 
them. Around the sites of ancient villages he found 
burial-caves in which the dead bodies had been placed, 

Baker, U. 8. A. This survey disclosed an additional practicable railroad- 
line by the Sixteen-Mile Greek Pass, which connects advantageously with 
the several lines surveyed in 1871, across the main range of the Rocky 
Mountains. 

A reconnoissance of the Missouri River was made during the season of 
1872, extending from the proposed crossing of the Missouri at Heart River 
to the head of the Missouri River, at " departure point one," above men- 
tioned, embracing about 1,300 miles — including a survey for a railroad 
around the Great Falls of the Missouri (21 miles). This examination also 
covered the reconnoissance of the River from Sioux City to Heart River. It 
was made for the purpose of ascertaining the character of the navigation in 
detail, and the work required for its improvement. It was conducted by 
Mr. Thos. P. Roberts, Assistant Engineer. 

A survey was made on two additional routes crossing the main range of 
the Rocky Mountains ; one by an extension of the survey of 1871, up the 
Wisdom River to its sources in the Bitterroot range of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, and across the summit to the head-waters of the Salmon River, and 
down the Salmon River to its junction with the Snake, or Lewis' Fork of 
the Columbia River ; and thence down the Snake River to Lewiston at the 
mouth of the Clearwater, one of its tributaries, where it connects with the 
surveys of 1871. The surveys up the Wisdom River were conducted by 
Mr. M. T. Burgess, Assistant Engineer, and the surveys down the Salmon 
River were conducted by Col. W. W. de Lacy, Assistant Engineer. 

The unfinished surveys on the Missoula River were resumed, and a line 
was located from the town of Missoula, in Montana Territory, down 
Clarke's Fork of the Columbia River to Lake Pend d'Oreille, a distance of 
207 miles. This work was conducted by Mr. James Beltner, Assistant 
Engineer. A survey was also made by him from the Fishery Creek, over 
the Bitterroot range, down to the North Fork of Clearwater, connecting 
with the survey of Col. East wick made in 1871, from Lewiston up the North 
Fork, 

An additional route was also traced over the main range of the Rocky 
Mountains in the vicinity of Mullan's Pass, passing in the vicinity of Helena, 

6 



82 Annual Address, 1873. 

and gayly dressed, some being encased in wooden armor. 
The bodies were so placed and arranged as to indicate 
their ordinary occupations ; — men in canoes, as in the act 
of rowing ; women dressing skins, holding children, etc., 
etc. This method of burying in canoes was common 
among the South- American Indians, but had not hitherto 
been known to have been practised by the North- Ameri- 
can tribes. Mr. Dall is preparing an Arctic flora and 
fauna, and his forthcoming work will be of interest 
alike to the geographer, the archaeologist, and the 
naturalist. This very capable and industrious young 



by Mr. T. P. Roberts, Assistant Engineer, making a shorter line than the 
route via Ten-Mile Pass, surveyed in 1871. 

In addition to these, a large amount of surveying and location of lines 
was accomplished during 1872, on the Pacific Slope, westward of the region 
already referred to, under the immediate direction of Thomas B. Morris, 
Division Engineer. 

A line was located along the Columbia River, by James F. McCabe, 
Assistant Engineer, from Ealama to the mouth of Snake River, 350 miles; 
another by R A. Habersham, Assistant Engineer, from the Cascades of the 
Columbia to Portland, on the Willamette River, 42 miles; the track of the 
main line from Ealama northward toward Puget Sound was extended 40 
miles, to within 15 miles of Olympia, which is at the southern extremity of 
the Sound; while a location was made along the eastern side of Puget Sound 
to Sehome, on Bellingham Bay, 282 miles from Ealama. These locations 
were made by R A. Habersham and Geo. H. Birnie, Assistant Engineers. 

Lines were also run from the main line to various points on Puget Sound. 
Preliminary surveys were made between the mouth of Snake River and 
Lake Pend d'Oreille, by Mr. Hubert C. Ward, Assistant Engineer. The 
line was afterwards located over the same general region by Col. P. G. 
Eastwick, Assistant Engineer. 

Mr. Ward made a survey from Lake Pend d'Oreille across the Columbia 
Plains to the Wenatchee, and up the river to the summit of the Cascade 
range of mountains, where he was met by a line surveyed by Mr. J. T. 
Sheets, Assistant Engineer, from Puget Sound up the Skagit River. These 
surveys give the shortest practicable line between Lake Pend d'Oreille and 
Puget Sound. 

Mr. Ward surveyed several passes in the Cascade range, bringing them 
into connection with the lines just mentioned; so that much has been added 
to our topographical and geographical knowledge of the Columbia plains, 
and of the Cascade range of mountains. 



The Darien Expedition. 88 

explorer has been recently engaged in hydrographio 
explorations in the Northern Pacific, and has just 
returned to San Francisco, where he is preparing the 
report of his latest labors for the Government. 

The Hydrographio Bureau's Survey of the 

Northern Pacific. 

An expedition has been organized by Commander 
Wyman, Chief of the Hydrographio Bureau of the Navy 
Department, for a more complete geographical explora- 
tion of the seas between our Pacific coast, China and 
Japan, and for the construction of more accurate charts; 
our increasing and important commerce in this direc- 
tion demanding a more accurate survey of this part of 
the Pacific. An observer has been stationed during the 
year at St. Paul, in the Aleutian Islands, by the Signal 
Service Bureau, which observer, in addition to his 
meteorological duties, is to examine as far as possible the 
temperature of the sea in that vicinity, to note the tides, 
the passage of ice through Behring Strait, the movement 
and temperature of the Japanese current, if arrested and 
thrown upon the American coast by the blocking-up of 
the Strait, and to preserve specimens of the drift that 
may be picked up. 

The Darien Expedition. 

In the winter of 1870, .the Government of the United 
States sent out an expedition, under Commander T. O. 
Selfridge, U. S. N., to explore the practicability of the 
several routes suggested for an interoceanic canal 
through the Isthmus of Darien. He surveyed the several 
proposed routes, commencing at Caledonia Bay and the 
Gulf of San Bias, and found them to be totally imprac- 
ticable. In the winter of 1871, another expedition was 
sent out under the same commander, to explore the 
route by the Atrato and Tuyra rivers, which was 
done, and was likewise found impracticable. Another 



84 Annual Address, 1873. 

route was also surveyed by the way of the Atrato and 
Napipi rivers. This route the exploring party were 
unable to examine as fully as had been desired, in conse- 
quence of the coming-on of the rainy season ; but they sue- 
ceeded in completing a line of survey from the Pacific to 
the Atrato, and the indications were so favorable that the 
Government sent out another expedition at the close of 
last year, under Commander Selfridge, to complete the 
survey. Commander Selfridge is to begin on the Pacific 
side in the Bay of Oupica, about ten miles below the 
former points of exploration, where he expects to find a 
depression. Very favorable expectations are formed in 
respect to the result of this survey ; and if a canal by this 
route be practicable, and should be constructed, it would 
reduce the distance for sailing vessels between New York 
and Hong Kong from 110 to 83 days, making a difference 
of twenty-seven days. There is also an expedition for 
the survey of the Nicaragua route, under the direction 
of Commander Lull, U. S. N., which our member, Mr. 
Body, who is familiarly acquainted with the different 
parts of the isthmus, thinks will prove to be the most 
practicable. In a few months we shall have definite 
information in respect to both of these routes. 

The American Palestine-Explobing Expedition. 

The American Palestine-Exploration Society has 
recently despatched an expedition to Syria, under the 
charge of Lieut. E. Z. Steever, of the U. S. Engineer 
Corps, for the exploration of the country east of the 
River Jordan, and of the northern part of Syria. The 
expedition consists of Lieut. Steever and three associates 
from this country, with whom will be united, in the field 
of exploration, a certain number of educated and trained 
natives of Syria, making together a very effective body 
for the prosecution of the geographical and archaeological 
labors of the expedition, which will extend over a period 
of three years. The expedition is one of great interest to 



Tee Signal Sebvicm. 85 

the geographer, the Biblical scholar, and the archaeolo- 
gist, as the region to be explored is almost unknown, 
and is one to which the attention of those interested in 
these respective fields of inquiry has long been directed. 

The Signal Service. 

Nothing in the nature of scientific investigation insti- 
tuted by the National Government has proved so accept- 
able to the people, or has been productive, in so short a 
time, of such important results, as the establishment at 
Washington of the Signal Service Bureau. It has been 
in operation only since November, 1870, and in this 
limited period it has become, through the efficiency of 
Brig. -Gen. A. J. Myer, the Chief Signal Officer, and 
his three able assistants, Profs. Cleveland Abbe, Thomp- 
son B. Maury, and the Acting Signal Officer, Lieut. 
R. Craig, one of the most complete organizations of the 
kind in the world. 

At the commencement of 1871, the territory occupied 
by the stations of observation was mainly that of the 
United States, — to the east as far as Portland in Maine, 
thence along the Atlantic coast and the Mexican Gulf, 
very nearly to the Bio Grande, and along the southern 
shores of the great lakes, and throughout the interior, as 
the interests of the Service required. During the year 
reports were also received from stations located at wide 
intervals on the elevated plateau lying between the 
Missouri valley and the Pacific Slope, and from three 
points upon or near the Pacific coast. 

During the past year the Service has been extended 
within the United States by the addition of several 
stations lying between those which were already estab- 
lished, and of several points of observation located in the 
valley of the Bed River of the North, the peculiar mete- 
orological conditions of which furnish an interesting 
source of study. 

Beyond the United States, through the cooperation of 



86 Annual Address, 187S. 

the Canadian Government, the Service has been extended 
northward, in the valley of the Red River, to Port Garry, 
in Manitoba ; thence along the northern shores of Lakes 
Huron, Erie, and Ontario, and down the valley of the 
St. Lawrence as far as Quebec. 

Reports are also received from Halifax, Nova Scotia, 
and it is thought that arrangements will be made by 
which reports may be had from the islands of Cape Bre- 
ton and Newfoundland. From the localities enumerated, 
telegraphic reports are received daily at the Chief Signal 
Office at Washington, and from them are deduced the 
daily forecasts of the weather. This branch of the Ser- 
vice has proved especially valuable, a comparison of the 
daily forecasts or probabilities with the meteoric condi- 
tion, as afterwards ascertained, having given up to 
November 1st, 1871, an average of sixty-nine per cent* 
and from that date to October 1 st, of last year, an average 
of verification of seventy-six per cent. 

The summit of Mount Washington, N. H., has been 
occupied as a signal station for the past two years, and 
Gen. Myer expects to obtain reports from some of the 
loftier summits of the Alleghanies farther South during 
the present year. It is also probable that reports will be 
received from some peak of the Rocky Mountains during 
the ensuing Bummer. 

As soon as it is practicable it is the intention of the 
department to establish a station of observation in the 
Sandwich Islands, from which, it is hoped, warning may 
be received of any meteoric disturbance originating 
perhaps on the coast of Asia, and destined to reach the 
Pacific coast of the United States. 

It is also expected by the Chief Signal Officer that, 
during the present year, arrangements will be made for 
the receipt of telegraphic reports from various points in 
the West India Islands, which, it is hoped, may enable 
the department to announce the approach of many of 
these cyclonic storms, the presence of which is now only 



The Signal Sbbvice. 87 

known when they strike the southern coasts of the United 
States. As an additional aid in the tracing of . these 
storms, regular observations are made upon several of 
the steamships plying between New York and the Isth- 
mus of Panama, and it is thought that arrangements will 
be made whereby it will be possible to obtain a con- 
tinuous record between this country and Europe by 
means of regular observations upon the transatlantic 
steamships. 

Gen. Myer remarks in his report that sometimes obser- 
vations made in Great Britain seem to indicate the 
presence there of disturbances traced out to sea from our 
shore ; and, if the arrangements anticipated should be 
carried out, there will be from our remotest stations on 
the Aleutian Islands to Great Britain a connected line of 
observation, extending over nearly half the circumference 
of the earth. It is impossible to estimate too highly the 
importance of regular observations of this nature, in con- 
nection with those which have now been extended over a 
considerable portion of Europe. Humboldt, in treating 
of magnetic observations, has especially dwelt upon the 
greater value of those which have been regular and con- 
tinuous over those that are taken at intervals, no matter 
how widely, over the earth's surface, and this remark 
applies with equal force to meteorological observations. 
"The Signal Service," says a writer in the New York 
Herald, "has given timely forewarning of the heavy 
storms upon our sea- coast and lakes, of the heavy rain- 
falls and floods, of the early arrival of frosts, and of the 
cold tidal air- waves which cover the land with snow;" 
and this kind of information has become so varied, 
extensive, and valuable, that it is in contemplation by Mr. 
E. R. Esterbrook, of the Signal Service of this city, to 
establish a monthly meteorological journal for the more 
regular and general diffusion of the facts, the deductions 
to be drawn from them, and the advancement of the 



88 Annual Address, 2878. 

science of meteorology generally, which, I trust, 
receive, as it deserves, a wide public support. 

Meteorology. 

At the anniversary meeting of the Meteorological 
Society of London, last August, the president, Mr. Tripe, 
in his annual address, called attention to the valuable 
results obtained through meteorological observation upon 
the course of epidemics and the influence of high and 
low temperatures upon the public health* He said that 
the conclusion among meteorologists was tolerably uni- 
form that very oold and very hot weather induce an 
increase in the number of diseases and deaths ; that a 
cold, wet summer always coincides with a less amount 
of sickness and fewer deaths than a hot, dry summer ; 
that very oold weather causes a great increase in the 
sickness and mortality of any given population ; and 
that the increase extends to all kinds of diseases. That, 
for instance, small-pox increases as the temperature 
sinks below, and soarlet fever as it rises beyond, certain 
points ; and that the influence of all other meteorologi- 
cal elements upon disease is almost inert as compared 
with temperature. He expresses the opinion that statis- 
ticians will eventually be enabled to determine the precise 
relations which exist between the state of the public 
health and meteorology ; so that, in addition to the 
knowledge which these observations give us of the move- 
ments of the atmosphere and of the law of storms, we 
have also the expectation that they will shed additional 

m 

light upon diseases and their causes. 

American Geographical Papers. 

In closing this record of our own labors during the 
year, I would call attention, finally, to the many valu- 
able papers that have appeared in the course of the year 
in various periodicals, among which may be especially 
named the paper of Prof. J. Le Conte, of California, 



American Geographical Papers. 89 

entitled, "A Theory of the Great Features of the Earth," 
in Silliwian's Journal, — a paper of great interest and 
value, — in which the professor does not assume to give 
an entirely satisfactory theory (for he concedes that the 
state of our knowledge does not yet admit of it), but 
claims to direct attention to what he insists is the true 
direction of inquiry. The paper of J. W. Foster, LL. D., 
in the Naturalist, on the mountains of Colorado, their 
topographical features, geology, vein-phenomena, cli- 
mate, the effects of electrical phenomena in their vicinity, 
and the evidence of post-glacial action ; and Mr. Muir's 
observations in the Overland Monthly, on the glaciers 
of the Sierra Nevada. Dr. J. P. Widney's paper, in 
the same periodical, on the Colorado desert, which he 
supposes, at a past period, to have been a portion of the 
Gulf of California, which then, he thinks, extended 
about 200 miles above its present limit. This upper 
portion, in his opinion, was cut off, upon the east side, 
by the Colorado River, depositing quicksand in its 
thick floods and a deposit of red mud from the great 
plateau of Northern Arizona, until the upper part, with 
an area of 180 miles in length and an average of thirty 
miles in width, was completely' separated from the 
Gulf, and elevated into a barren desert, becoming, as 
he says, a disturbing element in the climate of South- 
ern California. It is now, to use his own language, 
"a huge furnace, from which withering blasts make 
forrays upon the favored territories around ; " and he 
calls attention to the importance and possibility of turn- 
ing the river into it, and converting what is now a desert 
into an inland lake. And, lastly, Prof. T. B. Maury's 
paper, in the Popular Science Monthly, upon the Law 
of Storms, as developed by the collected observation 
of the XT. S. Signal Service. 



90 Annual Address, 1878. 

Population of the United States. 

The Government published during the year the results 
of the census of 1870, by which it appears that the total 
population of the United States is 38,589,377. 

The mixed population of the city of New York con- 
sists of: Native-born, 523,198; foreign-born, 419,094,— 
the excess of the native over the foreign being 104,104. 
The foreign population of the city of New York is thus 
distributed : 

Irish 201,999 

Germans 151,216 

Austrian* 2,787 

English and Welsh 26,026 

French .' 8,265 

Scotch 7,562 

Canadians 4,419 

Poles 2,398 

Bwisfl... 2,178 

Swedes and Norwegians 1,930 

Dutch 1,287 

The largest foreign population in proportion to the 
whole is in the city of New York. In this order Chicago 
stands next, then St. Louis ; after St. Louis, Cincinnati, 
and then Philadelphia. In New York and Philadelphia 
the Irish outnumber the Germans. In Chicago, St. Louis, 
and Cincinnati, the Germans outnumber the Irish. In 
Cincinnati they are nearly three times as great ; in St 
Louis, nearly double ; and in Chicago, about one-third 
more. In Philadelphia the Irish are nearly double the 
number of the Germans, and in New York they are about 
one-third more. The foreign population concentrates 
chiefly in the commercial cities, and in the manufacturing 
and mining districts of the eastern portion of the United 
States, and is largely distributed over the Western States. 
In the Western States the foreign emigrants are mainly 
found in the vicinity of lakes and rivers. They rarely 
settle in the mountain-districts, and prefer the wooded 



Aectio Exploration. 91 

country to the prairie. The Scandinavians seek the far 
States />f the North-west, three-fourths of the Swedes 
and Norwegians being in Minnesota. The Irish are in 
the large cities, and in Massachusetts, in Connecticut, 
in North-western New York, in Northern Illinois, and in 
North-eastern Ohio. The Germans are largely repre- 
sented in the cities, are widely extended over the Western 
States, and have avoided New England. The English and 
Welsh are found chiefly in or about the cities pf New 
York, Boston, and Philadelphia, or wherever there are 
coal-fields or great iron-works. The Latin races, so- 
called, are relatively small. They do not, including 
Mexicans and South-Americans, equal the emigration 
from the kingdom of Bavaria alone. The Italians are 
but 17,149, and the Spaniards only 3,701, and of this 
small number one-third are in New Orleans. 

Arctic Exploration. 

In the beginning of the year great interest was mani- 
fested in the subject of Arctic exploration, for, apart from 
the geographical achievement of reaching the North Pole, 
it has now become apparent that Arctic exploration is of 
the highest importance in a scientific point of view, when 
it is accompanied with meteorological, barometrical, and 
astronomical observations, and an investigation of ihe 
Arctic fauna, flora, geology, and paleontology, in the 
latter of which departments of knowledge it has proved 
to be one of the most instructive of fields for the light 
which it sheds on the past physical history of the globe. 
It was hoped that this year would be especially propi- 
tious, as the summer of 1871 had been very favorable to 
exploration. The inhabitants of the most northerly set- 
tlement in Greenland told Dr. Bessells, of Capt. Hall's 
expedition, that there had not been so warm a summer 
for fifty years, and the effect of it was seen in an enor- 
mous drift of ice-fields southward from Smith's Sound 
and Baffin's Bay along the coast of Newfoundland from 



92 Annual Address, 1873. 

February to May. " It may be affirmed, without exagger- 
ation," says a writer from St. John's, Newfoundland, in 
May last, "that a river of ice, varying from 60 to 200 
miles in breadth and 2,000 miles in length, has been for 
three months incessantly pouring its contents into the 
tepid waters of the Gulf Stream." 

The experience of the two preceding years, 1869 and 
1870, also gave great encouragement, especially in 
respect to that region of the Arctic between Spitsbergen 
and Nova Zembla. Capt. Palliser, a walrus-hunter, 
reached, in 1869, half a degree beyond Cape Nassau, and 
in his opinion, could then have sailed entirely around 
Nova Zembla. Capt. E. H. Johannsen, without any 
difficulty, traversed the entire Carian Sea twice, follow- 
ing its east and west coast without being disturbed by 
ice or seeing any considerable quantity of drift-ice in the 
entire sea. In 1870, the Norwegian fishermen reached the 
north-east coast of Nova Zembla, and remained on the 
coast until the latter end of October. During the same 
year Captain Johannsen sailed around the whole of 
Nova Zembla, which had never been accomplished 
before, and, in 1871, Captain Mack sailed along the west 
coast of Nova Zembla, 500 nautical miles, arid reached 
Cape Nassau in the beginning of July, finding upon the 
islands violets, buttercups, and other flowers. 

All this was very encouraging, so much so that the 
eminent geographer Petermann confidently expressed the 
conviction that a stanch steamer could pass from the 
Scandinavian coast through the Arctic Ocean to Beh- 
ring Strait and return the same summer, to which should 
be added, that the result of the inquiries made at the 
Helder a century ago was, that the Dutch fishermen had 
always penetrated farther north in this part of the Arctic 
than in any other. Great expectations were consequently 
formed of what would be accomplished during the past 
year in this particular locality, which, I regret to say, 
have not been realized. A Russian expedition was talked 



Arctic Exploration. 93 

of, but nothing came of it. The long-projected French 
expedition for the exploration of the region between 
Nova Zambia and Behring Strait, which was to be 
commanded by Captain Mack, an officer experienced in 
Arctic exploration, it was anticipated, would sail; but, for 
some reason, the expedition was indefinitely postponed. 
Five expeditions, however, started, — Mr. Leigh Smith, in 
his yacht the " Samson;" two Norwegian expeditions, a 
Swedish expedition, and the Austro-Hungarian expedi- 
tion. To this should be added explorations and discov- 
eries by Capt. Nils Johnson, in Norwegian vessels upon 
the east coast of Spitsbergen. 

Mr. Leigh Smith sailed in his yacht, toward the close 
of July last, with the intention to push his way to the 
east coast of Greenland, but was stopped by the ice. 
He then determined to attain the highest latitude possi- 
ble, and afterward to attempt the examination of Spits- 
bergen. But it proved to be an unusually close season 
both on the western and the northern side. He reached 
only to 80° 30' N. lat., less than he had attained the pre- 
vious year. The yacht was beset by ice, sprung aleak, 
and Mr. &mith was compelled to return. 

The Norwegian expedition consisted of two vessels, 
commanded by Capts. Jensen and Hansen. Its object 
was the circumnavigation of Spitsbergen. It was equally 
unsuccessful. One of the vessels damaged her screw, 
which disabled her ; and the other, from inability to find 
an entrance through the masses of ioe, was compelled to 
return to Bergen. 

The Swedish expedition is one of great interest. It 
consisted of three vessels, — the steamer " Polhem," the 
steamer " Gladen," and the brig " Ouke Adam " — the 
expedition being under the general superintendence 
of Prof. Nordenskjdld, the eminent Swedish savant 
and Arctic explorer. This expedition was mainly 
equipped by funds subscribed in Gothenburg; and, from 
the accounts which I have read of its fitting out, it is, I 



94 Annual Addrkss, 1873. 

should think, for the combined purpose of scientific 
investigation and geographical discovery, the most thor- 
oughly equipped expedition that has ever entered the 
Arctic seas. It started last summer, and the plan agreed 
upon was to pass the summer and autumn in explora- 
tions upon the east coast of Greenland, to winter in 
Mossell Bay, and next spring to reach the pole by sledge- 
travelling, for which every preparation had been made. 
Whether the expedition succeed in this or not, its further 
work will be to explore the Eastern Spitsbergen Sea, and 
to map the whole of the eastern lands, including the mys- 
terious Gillies land ; and a material part of the labors 
of these Swedish scientists will be to take meteorological, 
thermometrical, and magnetic observations, and do what 
they can for the science of zoology. 

The steamer u Polhem" is the principal vessel. The 
other two were to have returned at the close of the sum- 
mer ; but as they failed to do so, great anxiety was felt 
in Sweden, for these two vessels had not been equipped 
to pass an Arctic winter. For this purpose a steamer — 
the " Albert" — was despatched with supplies, the hope 
being entertained, notwithstanding the lateness of the 
season, that she would be able to communicate with 
them. I am happy to say that news was received two 
months ago that the three vessels were in Mossell Bay, 
where they were to pass the winter— a point at which 
the succor brought out by the "Albert" may possibly 
reach them. Another expedition sailed from Sweden 
during the year to establish a colony on the southwest 
coast of Spitzbergen, the object being mercantile, — the 
obtaining of phosphates for artificial manure. If such a 
colony be established in Spitzbergen, it will be of great 
use in explorations, like the Danish settlement in Green- 
land, as a point to keep up communication and a depot 
for supplies. 

The An stro- Hungarian expedition consisted of two 
vessels, — the steamer "Tegethof," the chief officers of 



Arctic Exploration. 95 

which are Lieutenants Weyprecht and Payer, and the 
yacht "Isbjorn," of Count Wilczek. It will be remem- 
bered that Weyprecht and Payer, in the preceding year, 
made an exploration of the sea between Spitzbergen and 
Nova Zembla, in the yacht " Isbjorn," which was pre- 
liminary to the present expedition. The object of the 
expedition, which was to be mainly carried out by the 
steamer "Tegethof," was to penetrate the sea east of 
Nova Zembla, and proceed, if possible, as far as Behr- 
ing Strait, the main object being to explore the land 
lying to the north in that direction, which, it was sup- 
posed, would be facilitated by the warm currents of the 
Siberian rivers that terminate in this portion of the 
Arctic basin. If no land should be discovered at the 
North, then the "Tegethof" was to winter at Cape 
Tscheljuskin, the northernmost point of the continent of 
Asia. If it should prove impossible to reach Behring 
Strait or to return, then the yacht " Isbjorn" was to be 
abandoned, and Count Wilczek, his scientific associates 
and crew, were to return in boats by way of one of the 
Siberian rivers. The vessels reached Tromso in June, 
whence the u Tegethof" proceeded and sailed along 
the western coast of Nova Zembla, encountering very 
thick ice; and Count Wilczek sailed to Spitzbergen, 
where, to the north and east, the sea was tolerably open. 
He attempted to ascend the Horn Sound, but, being 
unable to do so, sailed southward, where he encountered 
heavy masses of ice in the vicinity of Hope Island ; upon 
which he sailed for Cape Nassau, Nova Zembla, and had 
great difficulty in forcing his way through the ice. On 
the 12th of August the two ships met, in about lat. 76° 
N., and after keeping company two days they parted, 
as the ice was everywhere forming; the " Tegethof" to 
proceed to the North and Count Wilczek sailing for the 
mouth of the Petchora River, which he succeeded in 
reaching after great difficulty. Here he and his party 
abandoned the yacht and ascended the Petchora with 



96 Annual Address, 187$. 

their boats for six weeks, when they reached Perm, and 
from there they found their way to Moscow, about two 
months and a half ago. 

Count Wilczek, in his communication to the Vienna 
Geographical Society, regrets that the season was so 
short, considering the rich material they found in Spitz- 
bergen, in a geographical point of view, and says that 
both it and Nova Zembla yielded a rich harvest of botani- 
cal and zoological matter. Having with them good 
instruments, they made meteorological observations and 
coast and inland surveys. The "Tegethof" was heard 
from last on the 16th of August. The weather was excep- 
tionally severe, but still Lieut. Weyprecht thought that 
they would be able to work round the northern part 
of Nova Zembla, and winter on the Siberian promontory, 
Cape Tscheljuskin, or as it is otherwise spelled, Cheljus- 
kin. He says that they found the modern charts of the 
coast of Nova Zembla utterly untrustworthy, and that 
the old Russian charts were the best. He was,, unfortu- 
nately, unable to make any corrections, as the continued 
prevalence of fogs and clouds prevented astronomical 
observations. 

The unfavorable character of last summer for explora- 
tion, as shown in the result of these several expeditions, 
which may be attributed to the nature of the preceding 
winter, which was exceedingly cold, and the fact of the 
intense cold of the present winter, give rise, very natu- 
rally, to some anxiety respecting Capt. Hall and the 
u Polaris," which has not been heard from since August 
5th, 1871. He was then off Tossak Tussuissuk, lat 73° 
21' N., Ion. 56° 5'. W. All on board were well. 
The sea-going qualities of the vessel had been tested 
and found favorable ; his complement of sixty Esqui- 
maux dogs had been obtained, and Hans Christian, the 
well-known dog driver, with his fiimily, had joined the 
expedition. He met, at Hollensburg, Baron Yon Otten 
returning from the Swedish expedition, who furnished 




Arctic Exploration. 97 

him with maps, copies of his log, deep-sea soundings, 
etc. I earnestly urged Capt. Hall, before he left, to 
abandon the attempt he proposed making by Jones's 
Sound and to go by Smith's Sound and Kennedy's Chan- 
nel, following up the route of Kane and Hayes, which, I 
was convinced, was the route that offered the most ad- 
vantages for an attempt to reach the pole, and he con- 
cluded to defer his decision until he should reach the 
Arctic. It appears from the communications received 
that Baron Yon Otten advised him to go by Smith's 
Sound : and when last heard from he had concluded to do 
so, and on the 24th of August, 1871 , with a full roster of 
thirty-eight persons, he sailed in his little vessel for Smith's 
Sound. . The advantages of this route over all others, in 
an attempt to reach the pole, was earnestly advocated 
last April before the Royal Geographical Society of Lon- 
don by Capt. Sherard Osborn, R. N., upon the grounds 
that the nearest approach to the pole had been made in 
that direction, that it was attended with less risk than 
any other, and offered greater opportunities than the 
other routes for scientific observation; and this distin- 
guished Arctic explorer and author was supported in 
these views upon that occasion by the eminent Arctic 
explorers Admiral Back and Sir Leopold McClintock. 
Admiral Back said that he approved of every word that 
Capt. Osborn had uttered ; that the Arctic Committee 
had seriously considered the question, and had come to 
the conclusion that the route which offered the greatest 
probability of success was by Smith' s Sound, or, as he 
expressed it, the route taken by the gallant American, 
Dr. Kane; and Sir Leopold McClintock said that he 
believed that that route afforded the best chance of reach- 
ing the North Pole, and also the safest retreat in the event 
of a reverse. It is the route which our own eminent 
explorer, Dr. Hayes, has persistently advocated for years, 
and is also the one recommended towards the close of the 
year by the various scientific societies that united in an 
1 



98 Annual Address, 1878. 

application to the British Government to fit out another 
polar expedition. 

It is gratifying, therefore, to feel that Oapt. Hall is 
at least in the right direction, and that the summer of 
1871, when he sailed for Smith's Sound, was one of the 
most favorable seasons that have been known for many 
years. Still, the severe winter that followed, and the 
severity of the present winter, very naturally make as 
anxious, as his vessel was not specially built for service 
in these northern regions and is provisioned only for the 
year 1873; and it is very much to be regretted that the 
British Government, which has achieved so much in the 
field of Arctic exploration, did not respond to the call 
made upon it to send out an expedition this spring. 
Whilst upon the subject of the safety of Capt. Hall's 
expedition, I may mention that Mr. Howarth, in some 
recent views upon the temperature of northern climates, 
calls attention to the impression prevalent among 
whalers, that excessively severe winters in more temper- 
ate latitudes are generally accompanied by an unusual 
degree of mildness in polar regions. . 

In the year 1594 Barentz, the Dutch navigator, sailed 
around the north-east point of Nova Zembla, where, find- 
ing his further progress blocked by ice, and being unable 
to return, he and his crew built a hut in a little bay, 
where they passed the winter and underwent an amount 
of suffering that is almost without a parallel in 
the history of Arctic exploration. There is no record 
that any navigator since has passed the north-east point 
of Nova Zembla until the year 1871, when Capt. Karlsen, 
the master of a small Swedish sloop, of sixty tons, called 
"The Solid," succeeded in doing so and sailing into the 
little bay. He found the hut still standing, with everything 
remaining exactly as Barentz had left it 276 years ago. Its 
interior corresponded exactly with the old engraving of 
it attached to Gerard De Veer's narrative of the voyage, 
published in Amsterdam in 1508. The sleeping-berths, 



! 



Arctic Exploration. 99 

the halberts, the muskets, the clock upon the wall, were 
in the same place. The hut had evidently never since 
been entered by man. Upon the outside were several 
large puncheons, and heaps of the bones of the bear, the 
reindeer, the seal, and the walrus. In the interior were 
the instruments and books used by the inmates, one of the 
books being a Dutch copy, in excellent preservation, of 
Mendoza's Description of China, the country they had 
hoped to reach by a supposed north-east passage around 
the pole. A flute was found that still gave out a few 
notes ; a pitcher of Etruscan shape, exquisitely engraved, 
and drinking-vessels, recalling the touching incident, men- 
tioned by De Veer, of these poor fellows, in the midst of 
their intense sufferings, asking their captain to let them 
make merry on Twelfth Night with a little sack and two 
pounds of meal,— an indulgence bringing to their minds 
the assemblage of friends, wives, and children, then in 
the enjoyment of that festive night in their far-off homes 
in Holland. The articles, about 150 in number, consist- 
ing, in addition to those named, of working-tools, cook- 
ing-vessels, pictures painted upon tin, an iron box, etc., 
were brought by Gapt. Karlsen to Hammerfest, where 
these interesting relics were purchased for £600 by an 
English gentleman named Bay, then on his way to Lap- 
land, who transferred them to the Dutch Government for 
the price he had paid for them, and during last year they 
were received in Holland, and are at the Foreign Office at 
The Hague until the final place of their deposit shall have 
been settled. All who have read the thrilling account of 
this early voyage, and of the fate of the intelligent, perse- 
vering, and brave commander, whose name has been 
given to the great bay that washes the western shores of 
Nova Zembla, will feel an interest in the recovery and 
preservation of these humble memorials of one of the most 
heroic of Arctic explorations. 



100 Annual Address, 1873. 

General Geographical Labors. 

In leaving' the Arctic and our own country, I may 
enumerate, among the matters of general geographical 
interest, the Government surveys that are in progress 
and which are connected with the publication of maps 
in Great Britain, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Belgium, 
Italy, and Austria. The Russian surveys in the Cau- 
casus, in Eastern and Western Siberia, and in Turkestan, 
and the great survey in India, trigonometrical, topo- 
graphical, and geological, which has been instituted 
by the British Government, the results of the two first 
years of which have recently been published in India. 
Observations upon changes that have taken place in the 
earth' s level upon the northern shores of Africa, upon the 
coasts of Patagonia, and evidences observed of the past 
depression of a large part of South Africa. The pro- 
posed new measurements of arcs of the meridian, one to 
be measured by Gen. Bayer, from Christiania to Palermo, 
and a proposed prolongation of the French measurement 
of 1797 across the Mediterranean in the vicinity of 
Algiers. The fact observed by Mr. Hornstein, of Vienna, 
that terrestrial magnetism affords a measure of the 
period of the sun's rotation upon its axis, the observa- 
tions of Mr. Hornstein leading him to believe that the 
three elements in terrestrial magnetism— the declination, 
inclination, and horizontal intensity — run in a cycle of 
26.33 days, corresponding with the time of the sun's rota- 
tion upon its axis, which is also 26.33 days. Discussions 
carried on during the year respecting ocean-currents and 
the general laws of ocean-movements, chiefly between 
Dr. Carpenter and Mr. Croll ; the former maintaining 
that the oceanic circulation and currents arise from 
causes produced by the difference of the temperature of 
the ocean at the equator and at the poles, and the latter 
disputing this hypothesis, and believing that the oceanic 
movement is due to other causes. Speculative discus- 
sions as to whether the interior of the earth is solid or 



Archaeological Discoveries. 101 

fluid. The exploration of the group of islands in the 
South Pacific known as the New Hebrides, in 1871 and 
1872, by lieutenant A. H. Markham, an interesting and 
valuable account^ of which was communicated by him 
during the year to the Royal Geographical.. Society. 
The expedition of the "Challenger," fitted out by the 
British Government at the instance of the Royal Society, 
for the examination of the great ocean basins of the 
world, in which will be embraced the contour and form 
of the ocean's bed, its currents and temperature at 
various depths ; the animals, plants, and other objects 
found in it in different regions; the transparency of 
its waters in different parts of the world ; the philosophy 
of the tides ; and the geology, ethnology, biology, and 
botany of those parts of the earth above the waters 
which may be visited by the vessel. With all of this are 
to be connected determinations in respect to longitude, 
daily magnetic observations, hourly meteorological obser- 
vations; and the relations of barometric pressure to 
latitudes are to be carefully elucidated. The Atlantic, 
Pacific, Antarctic and Arctic oceans are to be visited in 
the course of this voyage, which it is supposed will occupy 
three years and a half ; an expedition, that, in the large- 
ness of its conception and the completness of its equip- 
ment, is worthy of the scientific character of the nation 
that organized it. 

An Italian expedition for a voyage around the world 
has also been instituted, consisting of two vessels, the 
" Garibaldi " and the " Corvelli. " I am unable to state the 
nature of the investigations contemplated, but infer from 
what is said respecting it that attention will be especially 
paid to the hydrography and to an improvement of the 
cartography of the Pacific Ocean. 

Archaeological Discoveries. 

Amongst the archaeological results of the year may be 
named the discovery of additional lake-dwellings, or, as 



102 Annual Address, 1873. 

they are called, lacustrine villages of the prehistoric 
inhabitants of Europe at Bienne, in Switzerland, and in 
other parts of Europe. The discovery of the skeleton of a 
man at Mentone, in France, which is supposed to be of 
great antiquity. The exploration, by Mr. J. Stevens, of 
pit-dwellings or tent-circles, at Finkly, near Andover, in 
England. The discovery, by Col. W. T. Roberts and a 
party of explorers, of the ruins of what was once a popu- 
lous city, covering an area of about three square miles in 
an uninhabited and desolate part of Arizona, beyond the 
San Juan River, southward and westward, about ninety 
miles from the boundary lines between Arizona and Utah, 
and about the same distance westward from a prolongation 
of the western line of Colorado. The ruins were sur- 
rounded by a wall of sandstone about ten feet thick, neatly 
quarried and dressed, which had crumbled away in many 
places and was partially buried in the sand that had 
drifted around it. The entire area within the wall had 
formerly been covered with houses, built of solid sand- 
stone, without mortar, and which exhibited excellent 
masonry in their construction. The ruins consisted 
entirely of stone, not a stick of worked timber having been 
seen. On the north-west coast of Asia near the Hellespont 
or Dardanelles, excavations were carried on in the years 
1871 and 1872, by Dr. Henry Schliemann, north of the 
village of Burnarbaski, and to the east of the River Sea- 
mander, which have resulted in the discovery, in his opin- 
ion, of the site and the remains of ancient Troy, the fall 
details of which were communicated by him to the New 
York Herald, and fill six columns of the issue of that jour- 
nal of December 21st, 1872 ; a discovery, which, whether it 
has or has not revealed the site of Homer's famous city, 
is of great interest as disclosing the ruins of successive 
settlements, one above the other, upon the same site, in 
strata of comparative regularity ; the upper part exhibit- 
ing the remains of wooden structures, below which were 
the ruins of the dwellings of a people who built with 



Asia. 108 

unburned brick, and who from the religious symbols, the 
utensils, the implements and the pottery found, are sup- 
posed to have been an uncivilized people of the Arian 
race ; and at the lowest depth of all Were the ruins of struc- 
tures built with massive stones, where a wall was found 
of huge stones joined together with clay, and the ruins 
of a colossal tower of solid masonry, forty feet thick, 
built upon the primitive rock which Dr. S. thinks may 
have been a tower on the wall and the one which Andro- 
mache ascended to sweep the plain in search of Hector. 
The pottery in the lower strata showed an advanced 
knowledge of art, and a taste and opulence very far 
beyond those of the people whose remains were entombed 
in the successive layers above. Lastly, I may mention 
Gen. Di Cesnola's discoveries in the tombs in the Island of 
Cyprus, a collection gathered from the exploration of 
more than 8,000 tombs during the last three years, and 
embracing more than 10,000 distinct and different articles. 
Glass of all forms, fabrics, and varieties, terra-cotta, statu- 
ary of various kinds, sizes, and periods, in bronze and in 
stone ; vases, gems, and carved stones, jewelry, lamps, 
mirrors, weapons, utensils, implements, etc. Before this 
discovery few, if any, products of Phoenician art or manu- 
facture were known, whilst here they are very numerous, 
combined with objects exhibiting the different stages of 
Egyptian, Assyrian, and Grecian art. As a collection 
representing the progressive development of ancient art, 
nothing like it has ever been obtained ; and it is gratifying 
to know that the collection has been purchased by John 
T. Johnson, Esq., of this city, and is to form a part of 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York. 

Asia. 

A great deal has been done during the past year to 
enlarge our knowledge of Asia, and especially of that 
part of it from which the civilized world has been so long 
cut off through the jealousy of the local Mahometan 



104 Annual Address, 1878, 

rulers. The advance of the Russians in Turkestan has 
been followed by geographical explorations and surveys 
on their part, with which have been connected baromet- 
rical and meteorological observations, and the advance 
during the year of a Turkish force into Arabia Felix, and 
the occupation by it of Sanaa, the ancient capital of 
Arabia, and the modern capital of Yemen, will lead 
to a more extended knowledge of this fertile portion 
of Arabia, of which we know comparatively little 
since the visit of Niebuhr in 1763. In 1870, Capt. 
Miles and M. Werner Munzinger, 0. B., explored a 
portion of the interior of the southern part of Arabia, 
extending from Aden over three degrees of longitude, 
and Baron Yon Maltzan has since been engaged in 
making researches upon the geography of the western 
part north of Aden, between the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb 
and 48° E. Ion., the results of which he has communi- 
cated in an interesting paper to the Royal Geographi- 
cal Society. A corps of English engineers, under Major 
St. John, in exploring routes in Central Asia for a 
telegraph, have traversed portions of Persia, upon the 
eastern boundaries of it, hitherto almost unknown; 
and Mr. Stanford, in connection with this expedition, 
has been examining the geology of the coasts of Persia 
and of Beloochistan, on the Persian Gulf and the 
Arabian Sea. The Russian Government has had under 
consideration a plan for connecting the Caspian Sea with 
the Black Sea by a canal, which, though it will be but 
the length of a German mile, is a work of such gigantic 
magnitude that it will require the labor of 32,000 work- 
men for six years to complete it. It is doubtful, how- 
ever, whether the advantages, commercial or otherwise, 
that would result from connecting the two seas are of 
sufficient importance to justify the enormous expenditure 
that would be requisite for the execution of the work. A 
railroad is also projected eastwardly from Scutari on the 
Bosphorus, and south of the Black and Caspian seas, to 



Asia. 105 

Teheran, in the north-eastern part of Persia ; thence to 
Herat, in Afghanistan, and from there south-easterly to Shi- 
kapore, in India. This project is one in the interest of the 
British Possessions in India, and if undertaken would 
doubtless be an English enterprise. A much more feasi- 
ble and practical railroad route across Asia, it is sup- 
posed, would be one to be built in the interest of Russia, 
from Moscow through Nizhnee Novgorod to Tomsk, thence 
to Irkootsk, and from thence south around Lake Baikal, 
and across the Khalkas desert to Pekin, in China. Well- 
informed Russian gentlemen, with whom I have con- 
versed, regard this route as a very important one in 
respect to the country through which it would pass. They 
consider it feasible, and anticipate no serious difficulty in 
carrying the road across the Mongolian desert in its 
approach to China. Mr. Prjevalski, a Russian traveller, 
has been engaged in the exploration of the south and 
south-eastern portions of Mongolia to the northern bound- 
aries of the Chinese province of Hansu. He designs to 
explore the Aliakhan Mountains, and expects to make 
his way to Russian Turkestan, across the western portion 
of Thibet. Mr. Fedchenko made an important journey 
through Khokan as far as Gulcha on the east, and to 
the Ala'i Plateau, and has collected a mass of informa- 
tion that will throw great light on the geography of that 
part of Asia. His journey in Southern Mongolia occu- 
pied ten months, and embraced a general survey of the 
country, meteorological observations, the collection of 
zoological and ornithological specimens, and a great 
variety of plants, insects, and specimens of minerals. 

Mr. Staritzi, who has been engaged for five years in 
investigating the hydrography of the Sea of Japan, has 
returned during the year, and laid the results of his 
labors before the Russian Imperial Geographical Society. 
He has determined the longitude of thirty-eight diflTerent 
points within an area embraced between 15° N. lat., 
and 120° and 160° E. Ion. His labors embrace observa- 



106 Annual Address, 1873. 

tions on the coasts of Manchuria, the Island of Sega 
lien, the Okhotsk Sea, Kamtchatka, Japan, and the 
Chinese waters ; an examination of the temperature of the 
Sea of Japan at different depths ; the measurement of 
various heights in Kamtchatka, in which was included 
the volcano of Koriah, which he found to be 11,000 feet 
high, and a large number of meteorological observations. 
Oapt. Fisler, a Russian officer of engineers, has explored 
the River Hi from the extreme eastern limit of the 
Khanate of Kuljah to the Balkash Lake, in Asiatic Russia, 
into which the river flows. 

The results of the expedition under Maj. Sladen, insti- 
tuted by the British Government in 1869, to explore the 
trade route between Burmah and China by the River Irra- 
waddy to Bhama, and thence to Momien, in China, have 
been published at Calcutta by Dr. Anderson, a member 
of the expedition. It is a work of great geographical 
interest, chiefly for the information it contains respecting 
the Irrawaddy and its sources, a river of the magnitude of 
the Ganges, which had remained hitherto unexplored. 
Capt. Burton, the well-known Asiatic and African 
traveller, has just published a work on the unexplored 
portion of Syria, and during the past summer he has 
been engaged in exploring certain parts of Iceland, of 
which we have little knowledge ; collecting during his 
trip much geographical and anthropological information. 
A. Vamb&y, the traveller in Bokhara, has given in Mr. 
Bates's Illustrated travels an account of Dzungaria, or, as 
it is called on the maps, Soungaria, in the north-west 
corner of the Chinese empire, — a country recently con- 
quered by the Russians, which extends to the north of 
-Eastern Turkestan, and to the east of the Russian fron- 
tier, between 42° and 48° N. lat. And in the same 
work Mr. A. M. Cameron has begun the publication of a 
three years' journey in Borneo, the first part of which is 
especially interesting for a comprehensive account of the 
great Archipelago, of the islands of Sumatra, Luzon, 



Dr. Livingstons. 107 

Celebes, Borneo, and Paqua, or New Guinea, written par- 
tictilarly with the view of calling attention to them as a 
new and vast field for exploration ; where, he says, repu- 
tation can be achieved as great as that of Livingstone. 
Signori Beccaria and D'Albertes are now engaged in an 
exploring expedition in Papua, or New Guinea, under 
the auspices of the Italian Geographical Society. It 
appears that they have been advised to attempt the west- 
ern side as the most accessible, but have determined to 
adhere to their orginal plan of beginning with the explo- 
ration of the River Outanata. The corvette "Vittoria 
Pisani" has since sailed from Japan to Papua, to com- 
municate with these Italian explorers, and to supply them 
with additional funds sent by the Italian Geographical 
Society. 

Apbioa. 

The African results of the year have been the rescue of 
Dr. Livingstone and the knowledge of the explorations of 
Dr. Schweinfurth in the regions west of Khartoum and to 
within three and a half degrees of the equator. The 
account of the extensive explorations of M. Alfred Gran- 
didier, the French naturalist, in the Island of Madagas- 
car, and the explorations and discoveries of Karl Mauch 
in the regions north-west of the Trans- vaal Republic. 

Dr. Livingstone. 

The rescue of Dr. Livingstone, through the energy, 
intrepidity, and capacity of Mr. Stanley, in the successful 
carrying-out of the expedition instituted by our fellow- 
member, Mr. James Gordon Bennett, for the deliverance 
of the great African traveller, and the extensive nature 
of the discoveries he has made, have been so folly pub- 
lished in the journals of this country and of Europe as to 
dispense with the necessity of my doing anything more 
than to unite in the common congratulation interchanged 
throughout the world at this happy event The limits of a 



106 Annual Addr&ss, 1878. 

discourse embracing so wide a survey will not enable me 
to enter into any extended observations upon the Doctor's 
discoveries. I can only say that I share in the general 
impression that the great water-system he has been fol- 
lowing up is not, as he supposes, connected with the 
Nile. This belief is founded upon Baker's measurement 
of the elevation of the Mwutan Nzigi, or Albert Nyanza, 
and Livingstone's account of the Lualaba River ; the dis- 
coveries of Dr. Schweinfurth in the White Nile region ; 
the fact that from Dr. Livingstone's account the Lualaba 
carries nineteen times as much water as the Bhar-al-Ghazel, 
the chief western tributary of the White Nile, and three 
times as much as the White Nile. These and other rea- 
sons advanced by Dr. Behm and Clements R. Markham, 
C. B., would seem to warrant the conclusion that the water- 
system which the Doctor has been exploring constitutes 
the chief source of the Congo, a river, at least as it 
approaches the Atlantic, of great volume, depth, and vel- 
ocity. But this conclusion is disputed by Dr. Beke, a 
very competent authority on all African matters; and 
indeed it is a very hazardous thing to express any opinion 
upon the geography of the unexplored portions of 
Africa, as was found after the discovery of the curious 
course of the Niger. The southern part of the Mwutan 
Nzigi, or Albert Nyanza, has yet to be explored ; and we 
must wait until Dr. Livingstone has completed his 
explorations, which will probably be accomplished in 
two or three years, for the solution of the problem. 
The last intelligence respecting the Doctor is that the 
supplies forwarded to him by Mr. Stanley had reached 
him, and that he had left Unyanyembe to complete his 
discoveries ; also that his observations, which were brought 
to Zanzibar by Mr. Stanley, have arrived at the Cape, 
and are in the hands of Sir Thomas Maclear; that they 
contain some things that are new and interesting, are 
very voluminous, and that it will take two or three 
months to reduce them. 



DR. 8CMWEI2fFURTR y S EXPLORATIONS. 109 

Db. Sohweinfubth's Explorations West off the 

White Nile. 

Dr. Ghistav Schweinfurth has been engaged, since 1868, 
in exploring Africa west of the White Nile, and has 
traced to its source the Bhar-al-Ghazel, the most impor- 
tant of the western branches of the White Nile. This 
gentleman, who appeared before the Berlin Geographical 
Society last May, has brought back a large amount of 
geographical information, which will go far towards set- 
tling, if it do not completely settle, the question of the 
sources of the Nile. He penetrated west as far as Ion. 
26° and south to within 3° 30' of the equator ; and, as 
Livingstone has penetrated to nearly an equal distance 
towards the equator, the space of this unknown region 
has been materially diminished, and will ere long be 
explored. Dr. Schweinfurth found that a spur from those 
Blue Mountains of the Balegga which were seen by Sir 
Samuel Baker formed the water-parting between the Nile 
and a river which the Doctor has discovered called the 
Uelle or Welle ; and that the streams which have been 
explored either by himself, or, previously, by Petherick, 
rise on the northern side of this spur, or water-parting, 
and unite to form the Bhar-al-Ghazel. This water-part- 
ing, he says, lias a uniform slope to the north and west, 
broken only by granite masses which rise to a height of 
3,000 feet above the sea-level. This range seems to sink 
gradually to the west, and has, the Doctor says, a very 
different character from the Nile valley to the north, or 
the valley of the river at the south which he discovered, 
the Uelle. This river he found to be 800 feet wide and 
twenty feet deep ; along its valley was a luxuriant growth 
of vegetation, oil palms, sugar-cane, and tropical fruits, 
and he thinks that this river continues westward and 
northward to Lake Tschad. In the Mombuttu country he 
found in the vegetation and in the animals indications of 
the affinity of that region with the western coast ; amongst 
which may be instanced the existence of the gorilla. 




110 Annual Address, 1818. 

like Livingstone, he found tribes that are cannibals, and 
to the south of the Mombuttu country there exists a dwarf- 
ish race, or pigmies, known by the name of the Acca, which 
Herr Bastian, the president of the Berlin Geographical 
Society, supposes to be the Baccabacca, a dwarfish race, 
in the east of Central Africa, mentioned by early writers. 
Dr. S. brought one of these pigmies back with him nearly 
as far as Khartoum, who died and was buried at Khar- 
toum. The discovery of this dwarfish people is a confir- 
mation of the pigmies mentioned by Homer, Aristotle, and 
Herodotus as living near the sources of the Nile. The 
Dokos, or pigmies of Dr. Krapf, are placed by him about 
the same parallel of latitude, but further to the east; 
whilst the Obongos, the curious little people described 
by Du Chaillu, dwelt in Ashango Land, on the western 
coast, near the equator. 

The people of Niam Niam or Sandeh, that inhabit the 
region where these western sources of the White Nile rise, 
and where the River TJelle flows, are described by Dr. 
Schweinfurth as totally different from the Nile tribes. He 
found them gluttonous, skilful in pottery without the 
use of the wheel, in basket-making, carving, carpenter- 
work, and in the forging of their weapons. They exhib- 
ited, also, great taste for music, having a national instru- 
ment, which is a kind of cross between the harp and the 
guitar. Their burial-rites resemble those of the Arabs, 
and their language is a Nubian dialect, without gram- 
matical inflections or any words to express abstract ideas. 
This very interesting and important journey embraced a 
period of three years and four months, and Dr. Schwein- 
furth has now gone upon another African expedition, the 
expense of which is to be borne by his brother, a mer- 
chant of Riga. 

M. Geakdedieb's Explobations in Mad aga scab. 

M. Alfred Grandidier, a French naturalist, has been 
engaged for five years in exploring the Island of Mada- 



Ancibnt Rums Discovered by Karl Mauvh. Ill 

gascar. He says that hardly any of the accounts that 
have been published respecting Madagascar, no matter 
in what language they have been written, are reliable ; 
and that the interior of this great island upon modern 
maps is filled with false rivers, mountains, and places 
altogether imaginary. My limits will not allow me to go 
into the details of this most interesting exploration. 
Between the years 1865 and 1870 M. Grandidier fixed 
the latitude of 188 different points, the longitude of 
twenty-four towns; made a very large number of observa- 
tions, barometrical, thermometrical, and astronomical, 
and examined the coast-line for 1,260 miles, and when to 
this are added ethnological investigations, the taking of a 
large number of photographs, and his collections in 
natural history, some idea may be formed of the extent 
and value of the labors of this indefatigable explorer. 

Ancient Ruins Discovered by Karl Mauoh. 

Karl Mauch, the discoverer of the gold-fields in South- 
east Africa in 1871, and who made the perilous descent 
of the Vaal River alone, in a wretched flat-bottomed 
boat, for 350 miles, to its junction with the Orange River, 
has made an interesting discovery of a ruined city lying 
160 miles due west from Sofala, a town on the east 
coast of Africa. These ruins, which are named Zim- 
babye (in Portuguese Zimbaoe), and which he places 
in lat. 20° 14', and Ion. 31° 48', consist of two different 
parts, separated from each other by a distance of 800 
yards; the one part being upon a granite rock 400 
feet high, and the other upon a terrace of lesser ele- 
vation. The heavy growth of vegetation and heaps of 
rubbish prevented him from examining them as fully as 
could have been wished. He found ruined walls, thirty 
feet high and varying from ten to fifteen feet in width, 
formed of stones of hewn granite, put together without 
mortar. In several places ornamental stone pillars pro- 
jected eight or ten feet beyond the mason-work, and the 



112 Annual Address, 1873. 

zigzag direction of the walls and labyrinthine passages 
connected with them seemed to indicate the ruins of a 
great fortress. He particularly examined a tower, thirty 
feet high, built also of blocks of granite, which was well 
preserved. It was cylindrical in form for the first ten 
feet from the base, the base being fifteen feet in diameter ; 
and the rest of the tower was of a conical shape, being at 
the top eight feet in diameter. The presumption is that 
these ruins are of high antiquity. It is inferred, from 
their structure and general character, that they were not 
built by the Portuguese, the Arabs, or by any of the black 
tribes that inhabit the part of Africa in which the ruins 
where found. According to the account given by the 
inhabitants in the vicinity, they have occupied the country 
only for about forty years, and they say that when they 
came there the country was uninhabited. It was assumed, 
however, by all of them, that the region was once inhabited 
by a white race, which seems to be confirmed by traces of 
habitations, and by implements found, which never could 
have been made by the blacks. The country between the 
ruins and the east coast is of a most pestilential character, 
which will probably account for its remaining so long 
unknown. The country, however, where the ruins are 
situated is a fine one. It is a high plateau, 400 feet above 
the level of the sea, well watered, fertile, and thickly 
inhabited by a very industrious people, who are agricul- 
turists and cattle-raisers. The existence of ruins of this 
nature so far inland from the coast is certainly very sin- 
gular. It is conjectured that they were built by the Phoe- 
nicians ; and Petermann, to whom Karl Mauch sent the 
account of his discovery, thinks, from their proximity to 
the newly discovered gold-fields, that the locality of these 
ruins is the Ophir so long sought for, to which Solomon 
sent for gold, ivory, and precious stones. The locality 
of the Ophir of the Bible, however, is a question that has 
been much discussed by archaeological scholars and geog- 
raphers, and there are many grave objections to be con- 



Suppression of tub African Slave-Trade. 118 

sidered before entirely assenting to Dr. Petermann's con- 
jecture. The intelligence has just been received that 
Karl Mauch has returned to Europe, I regret to learn, 
very much enfeebled by the African fever. 

Suppression of the African Slave-trade. 

Whilst the slave-trade has entirely ceased on the west 
coast of Africa, it is maintained with great activity upon 
the east coast, and in the countries watered by the streams 
which flow from the west into the White Nile ; the point 
of concentration or the emporium of the latter traffic 
being at Khartoum, on the White Nile. It has been for 
the suppression of the latter trade that, with the aid of 
the Viceroy of Egypt, the expedition of Sir Samuel Baker 
was undertaken, and that distinguished traveller was of 
the opinion, towards the end of 1870, that the traffic upon 
the White Nile had been entirely suppressed; but informa- 
tion from Khartoum, during the present year, is to the effect 
that this is far from being the case. Dr. Schweinfurth is 
of the opinion that the military expedition of Sir Samuel 
Baker into the countries of the Bhar-al-Ghazel, which, 
he says, has already cost £400,000, is, as he expresses it, 
" an awful mistake." He says that the best the Viceroy 
can do with these negro countries is to let them alone ; 
that they are not productive, and that if they were, their 
distance from navigable streams is too great to admit of 
the exportation of anything less valuable than ivory. In 
his opinion, the slave-trade can be stopped in this direc- 
tion only by cutting off its sources, and closing up its 
outlets ; which he regards as a difficult and very expen- 
sive undertaking. Baker left Gondokoro in 1871, and 
nothing definite has since been heard from him. Fearing 
that he might be cut off by intervening hostile tribes, the 
Viceroy of Egypt has recently decided to send an expe- 
dition for his relief, the command of which is to be 
intrusted to Col. Purdy, an American officer. Sir Bartle 
Frere, at the head of an expedition for the suppression 

8 



114 Annual Address, 1878. 

of the slave-trade upon the east coast of Africa, has 
arrived at Zanzibar. From the capacity of this eminent 
man, supported as his expedition is by the governments 
that have cooperated to farther its objects, there is reason 
to hope that he will be able to destroy the means that 
have hitherto sustained the slave trade upon the eastern 
coast, through the open support of it by the Sultan of 
Zanzibar, and the secret encouragement given to it by the 
Portuguese officials. The opening of the large region of 
Central Africa to civilization — a country the great value 
of which is now becoming apparent— depends more upon 
the suppression of this infamous and debasing traffic than 
upon anything else. 

The Livingstone East Coast Expedition. 

In connection with the expedition of Sir Bartle Frere 
is what is known as "The Livingstone East Coast Expe- 
dition," for the prosecution of which Sir Bartle Frere 
has received £1, 500 from the Livingstone Fund. The com- 
mand of this special expedition has been intrusted to 
Lieut. V. L. Cameron, R. N., who will be accompanied 
by Dr. Dillon. What is to be undertaken is to be settled 
at Zanzibar, and is, probably, now determined upon. 
Mr. Clements E.. Markham, C. B., is of the opinion that 
the expedition will proceed to Lake Tanganyika, and from 
there attempt to communicate with Dr. Livingstone, who, 
it is thought, may be then upon the western shore exam- 
ining the underground dwellings of Kabogo ; that it 
will supply the Doctor with the watches and instruments 
he needs, and then undertake any work he may suggest. 
It is supposed that he will desire that these officers should 
examine the region of Lake Ukerewe, or Victoria Nyanza, 
and explore the country between the southern end of the 
Mwutan Nzigi, or Albert Nyanza, and Lake Tanganyika. 



Livingstone's Congo Expedition. 115 

Livingstone's Congo Expedition. 

There is also a cooperating expedition upon the west 
coast, called u The Livingstone Congo Expedition," com- 
manded by Lieut. W. J. Gandy, R. N., an officer who 
has had experience as an African explorer, both upon the 
western and the eastern coast. This expedition is fitted out 
by the Royal Geographical Society, a fund of £2,000 
having been generously contributed for that purpose by 
Mr. J. Young, Livingstone's old and tried friend. This 
expedition has gone to Sierra Leone, where the Africans 
who are to accompany it are to be obtained, and from 
thence it will proceed to St. Paul de Loando, south of the 
mouth of the Congo. From this place the expedition 
will make its way by San Salvador to the banks of the 
Congo, and, ascending this great river, will attempt to 
reach its head- waters and source, which is supposed to 
be one of the great lakes recently discovered by Living- 
stone. Lieut. Gandy, before his departure, published an 
admirable paper on the Congo, in Mr. Markham' s Ocean 
Highways ', embodying all that is known respecting this 
important river, accompanied by a map giving an outline 
of the country from the west coast to the region of Liv- 
ingstone' s discoveries ; upon which Lieut. Gandy has 
indicated his conjectures as to the. upper tributaries and 
sources of this long-known and mysterious river. The 
Congo, under the name of the Zaire, has been repre- 
sented upon maps since the days of Ortelius as one 
amongst the greatest of African rivers, as an immense 
stream running westwardly into the Atlantic, and deriving 
its waters from a great chain of lakes ; and yet, with the 
exception of the exploration of it for 280 miles by Capt. 
Tuckey, in 1816, we know as little about it now as was 
known in the sixteenth century. This is, therefore, a 
most important expedition ; and, if successful, there is 
every reason to believe that it will, in connection with the 
recent discoveries of Livingstone, clear up what is now 
the greatest of African problems. 



116 Annual Address, 1878. 

Conclusion. 

In conclusion, I may say, after this survey of the 
labors of the year, that the spectacle it presents is one 
of earnest and wide-spread activity in the prosecution 
of geographical inquiry. This is due in no inconsider- 
able degree to the formation in different countries, within 
the last forty years, of geographical societies that have 
gradually impressed upon the age the importance of 
exploring the unknown regions of the earth, and of obtain- 
ing more accurate and scientific knowledge of the parts 
that aro known, — as a means alike of bringing about a 
more extended intercourse amongst mankind, and of 
enlarging our knowledge of those great physical laws, as 
yet but imperfectly understood, which affect the earth 
and everything existing upon it.* This activity is due 

* There are now throughout the world, as far as I have been able to 
ascertain, thirty-one (8l) geographical societies. I give their names and 
where situated. Belgium : Belgian Geographical Society, Antwerp. Eng- 
land: Royal Geographical Society, London. France: Geographical 
Society, Paris; the Geographical Circle, Lyons. Russia. : Imperial Russian 
Geographical Society, Si. Petersburg; Geographical Society, Irkootsk; 
Society of Explorers of Western Siberia, Omsk; section of the Imperial 
Russian Geographical Society, Orenburg; Caucasian Geographical Society, 
Tiflis; section of the St Petersburg Society, YUna. Germany : Geog- 
raphical Society, Berlin; Imperial Royal Geographical Society, Vienna; 
Geographical Association, Dresden; Geographical Society, Munich; Asso- 
ciation of the Friends of Geography, Levpsio; Committee of the Norm- 
Polar Expedition, Bremen; Association for Geography and Kindred 
Sciences, Darmstadt; Association for Geography and Natural Sciences, 
Kiel; Geographical Institute, Gotha. Hungary: Association for the 
Exploration of Transylvania, Eermannstadt ; Geographical Society, Psslh. 
Holland : Royal Institute for the Philology, Geography, and Ethnography 
of Dutch India, The Hague. Italy: Italian Geographical Society, Fhrenee; 
Italian Geographical Circle, Turin. Spain : Royal Spanish Academy of 
Archaeology and Geography, Madrid. India : Geographical Society, Bom- 
bay. United States: American Geographical Society, New York. 
Mexico : Mexican Geographical and Statistical Society, Mexico. South 
America : Imperial Geographical Society, Bio Janeiro; Historical Geog- 
raphical and Ethnographical Institute of the Empire of Brazil, Bio Janeiro; 
Historical and Geographical Institute of the Rio de la Plata, Buenos Ayr*. 



Conclusion. 117 

also to the establishment during the last few years of 
periodicals devoted either exclusively or in part to the 
advancement of geographical science. I would espe- 
cially refer to Dr. Petermann's Mittheilungen, and 
Mr. Markham's Ocean Highway w, periodicals distin- 
guished for the marked ability with which they are con- 
ducted, and the extent and value of the information they 
supply. I should also mention the monthly Illustrated 
Travels, edited by H. W. Bates, Esq., the Assistant 
Secretary of the Royal Geographical Society; the 
weekly publication of Nature, conducted by Mr. J, 
Norman Lockyer, the eminent astronomer, which as a 
general scientific journal furnishes much information 
upon geographical subjects ; the Annvmre Qiograqphique, 
published at Paris ; and Le Qldbe % a geographical journal, 
published at Geneva. 

The stimulus given by the geographical societies, and 
by these periodicals, is very essential ; for no branch of 
knowledge has been so slow in its development, or has 
had so many obstacles to evercome, as geography. The 
world has had to unlearn a great deal believed in for 
centuries upon the tales of travellers, and the imaginary 
knowledge of cosmographers. It took a long period of 
time to convince men of what was opposed to the evidence 
of their senses, — that the earth, instead of being flat, was 
round; that, instead of being stationary, it was con- 
stantly in motion ; and that, instead of the sun' s moving 
around it, it moves around the sun. The spherical form 
of the earth, its diurnal motion upon its axis, and its 
annual revolution around the sun, were known to Eudoxus 
800 B. C. ; and 450 years afterwards, in the second century 
of our era, Ptolemy, in his principal work, brought 
together a body of reasons, many of which are incoih- 
prehensible to us, upon which he came to the conclusion 
that the alleged diurnal and annual movement of the 
earth were untrue, and the world accepted his decision 
for 1,300 years. Within twenty years after Galileo 



118 Annual Address, 1878. 

demonstrated the diurnal motion of the earth, Bernard 
Varen, or, as he is called, Varenius, the physician of 
Amsterdam, published the celebrated work which revo- 
lutionized the science of geography, and laid the founda- 
tion of a separate science, that of physical geography; 
and yet it is only within, the last half century that 
physical geography has assumed the character of a dis- 
tinct branch of inquiry. Even at the present period the 
progress of geography is slow, for if we use the term 
" knowledge " as expressing what the science of geography 
demands, the world is not more than half known ; and 
though there are not now, as in the days of Prince Henry 
the Navigator and of Columbus, great continents or vast 
islands to discover, let it not be forgotten that a consider- 
able portion of the earth is yet unexplored ; that a very 
large part is known but imperfectly, and that physical 
geography presents an immense field for the future labors 
of mankind. 



IL 

ANNUAL ADDRESS 



By Daniel C. Oilman, 

fete Profefltor of Physical Geography in the Sheffield Scientific School of Tale College, 
now President of the University of California, at Oakland. 



Subject— GEOGRAPHICAL WORK IN THE UNITED 

STATES DURING 1871. 

♦ 

Dxlitbbkd Jahuabt 80th, 1873. 

Mb. President and Gentlemen, — At the last annual 
meeting of the American Geographical Society, your 
attention was invited to a review of the last decade of 
geographical researches within the territory of the United 
States. This evening, in compliance with yonr invitation, 
I bring before yon an account of the geographical work 
of our countrymen daring the past twelve months. At 
first it seems to be a familiar and an easy task, bat before 
I have concluded you will surely be impressed with the 
variety, the magnitude, and the success of the various 
enterprises which have been in progress under the aus- 
pices of American explorers, geographers, and men of 
science ; I trust you will also appreciate the difficulty 
which there is in collecting and discussing the results of 
such investigations. It is only by occasional reviews 
like this that we can appreciate the great importance of 
maintaining, with vigor and liberality, in the national 
metropolis, an association, with its officers, its rooms, 
its collections, its bureau of charts, its library, and, above 
all, its publications, as the centre to which all important 



122 Oilman's Animal Address, 1872. 

the work of the Northern Pacific Railroad Company, 
which, while actually constructing the railroad line, at 
both the eastern and the western extremity, is also carrying 
forward important surveys upon the lofty regions of the 
North-west, Similar work, of which I have less definite 
knowledge, is in progress in the South-west. 

5. Our various journals abound in minor essay s illus- 
trative of American geography, among which should 
be especially noted the studies of Prof. James D. Dana 
in respect to the glaciers of New England ; the elaborate 
inquiry of Prof. Hilgard in respect to the formation of 
the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi Delta; .the essays 
upon Earthquakes a nd Volcanoes, published in the North 
American Review, by Prof. J. D. Whijjney ; Clarence 
King's lively sketches of mountaineering in the Siena 
Nevada, which appeared in the Atlantic ; the contribu- 
tions of Eev. James Condon, and others, to the Overland 
Monthly; the Border Sketches of Gen. Marcy, which 
belong to the lively pictures of frontier-life ; the various 
studies of the earthquakes of 1870, and the historical 
survey, by W. T. Brigham, of the earthquakes known 
to have occurred in New England from 1638 to 1809. 

6. Our countrymen have also been more or less at work 
in foreign lands. A new survey of the Isthmus of Darien 
lias been made by Capt. Selfridge. The head of an 
important department of the Government, Mr. Capron, 
has been called by the Government of Japan to inves- 
tigate the resources and capacity of that empire; Dr. 
B. A. Gould has successfully established the observatory 
at Cordova ; Prof. W. D. Alexander has begun a survey 
of the Sandwich Islands, upon the method of the Upited 
States Coast Survey ; Mr. Squier has been publishing his 
observations in Peru ; Prof. Hartt has returned from a 
new visit to the Valley of the Amazon ; Mr. Gabb has 
been led, by the action of our government, to print a sum- 
mary of the observations he has for several years been 
prosecuting in San Domingo; Dr. Habel has returned 



Work of the Corps of Engineers, U. 8. A. 128 

from a seven years' residence in Central and South 
America, to work up, on the banks of the Hudson, his 
observations ; a party of students from Williams College 
have been at work under the charge of H. M. Myers, in 
researches in Spanish Honduras, and a committee of 
American gentlemen, all of whom have travelled in the 
Holy Land, has been organized to codperate with the 
Palestine Exploration Committee of England in the sur- 
vey of Biblical lands. This review would not be complete 
without an allusion to the party of American astrono- 
mers who visited the South of Europe, to observe the 
solar eclipse of December 23d, 1870, and who have been 
publishing their researches. 

Such are the topics which suggest themselves in a rapid 
survey of the progress of geography, by the labors of 
Americans, during the year 1871. It is obvious that we 
can dwell upon only a very few of the undertakings of 
which I have given you a list. The selection I make is 
based upon the general interest which may be felt upon 
the subject; for often the most patient and elaborate 
work is ill fitted to be brought forward for discussion in 
a popular address. 

n. The Wobk of the Cobps of Engineers, U. S. A. 

Under the engineers of the army, of whom Maj.-Gten. A. 
A. Humphreys is chief, a vast amount of skilful labor is 
performed, pertaining to the improvement of our harbors 
and rivers, as well as to the construction and repair of 
fortifications on the sea-coast and upon the frontier. But, 
besides these services, several works have been lately in 
progress, which are of national interest and of geographi- 
cal significance, directed by this accomplished corps. I 
refer especially to the survey of the great interior lakes, 
which has been for many years in successful progress, 
the survey of the fortieth parallel, the survey of Arizona 
and Eastern Nevada, and the noteworthy reoonnoissanoe 
of the Yukon River, in Alaska. For all these matters 



124 Oilman's Annual Address, 1872. 

of general interest, besides a vast amount of important 
details in respect to the astronomical, geodetic, meteoro- 
logical and engineering work of the corps, reference 
should be made to the report of Maj.-Gen. Humphreys, 
one of the most comprehensive and satisfactory of ail the 
reports which are annually prepared for Congress. 

1. The prosecution of the survey of the great lakes is 
entrusted to Gen. C. B. Comstock, of the Corps of Engin- 
eers, under whose direction in the past year the work 
was carried forward on Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, 
Lake St. Clair, Lake Champlain, and on the St Lawrence 
River. Among the interesting points in his report may 
be mentioned the determination by telegraph of the 
longitude of Detroit, Duluth, and St. Paul ; the careful 
measurement of a base-line, not far from three miles in 
length, on Minnesota Point, near Duluth ; the introduc- 
tion of plane-table work on the shore of Lake Michigan ; 
the institution of an inquiry into the tides and seiches of 
the lakes (the latter of which, it is suggested, may be due 
to tornadoes) ; the prosecution of deep-sea soundings in 
Lake Superior, with an investigation of the organic life 
at low depths, by Prof. S. I. Smith; and the diligent 
elaboration of the ordinary details of the survey by 
triangulation, topography, hydrography, and the publi- 
cation of maps. A commencement has been made of a 
survey of the River St. Lawrence, from the northern 
boundary of New York to the east end of Lake Ontario ; 
and the southern end of Lake Champlain for thirteen 
miles has been surveyed. 

2. The survey of the fortieth parallel, which is also 
under the guidance of the Chief Engineer of the Army, 
has been vigorously prosecute^, during the past year, not 
only by observations in the field, but also by the publica- 
tion of two of the elaborate reports. Mr. Clarence King, 
the well-known leader of the expedition, with the title of 
United States Geologist, has published, in the American 
Journal of Science, an account of the glaciers of the 



Work of the Corps of Engineers, U. 8. A. 125 

Pacific coast within the territory of the United States, 
and he has contributed to the Atlantic Monthly a series 
of vivacious articles illustrative of his experience in " high 
mountaineering." As the scientific results of this expe- 
dition begin to appear, and attract attention at home and 
abroad, it may be well to recapitulate the outlines of this 
great survey. 

The survey was organized under Mr. King's direction, 
in the spring of 1867, for the purpose of making a geo- 
logical and topographical examination of the country 
bordering upon the Union and Central Pacific railroads, 
as for to the north and south of the fortieth parallel as 
practicable. In the first season the survey was carried 
from the western boundary of California as far east as 
the second Humboldt range. A detailed examination 
was also made of the Washoe silver region. The next 
summer (1868) the survey was carried on in three divis- 
ions as far as the western limit of the Great Salt Lake 
Desert. The Toyabe silver-bearing mountain-range, the 
White Pine silver district, and some of the metalliferous 
deposits of Colorado, were also examined. In 1869 the 
survey was carried eastward as far as the Green River 
divide, the belt measuring, as before, 100 miles from 
North to South. A. short campaign, in the autumn 
of 1870, was devoted to a study of the sources of the 
lava-flows which have poured eastward from the axial 
line of the Sierra Nevada and the Cascade ranges into 
the Great Basin. During the summer of 1871 the field 
work was still in progress, one party having entered 
the Uintah Mountains from Fort Bridger, working 
eastward toward the Green River canon, and the other 
going from Fort Sanders into the North Park and the 
Elk Head Mountains. Both parties found the wide-spread 
smoke a great obstacle to topographical work. The 
character of the work performed has been, first, topo- 
graphical, a system of triangnlatione having been carried 
from summit to summit over the whole country traversed. 



126 Oilman's Annual Address, 1872. 

Minor triangles have been measured, the elevations 
approximately determined upon a system of 300 foot 
grade-curves located by the barometer, and the altitude 
of all prominent mountain-peaks and localities upon the 
plains has also been determined. Careful and actual 
geological sections have been made over the whole area ; 
the climatic conditions of the Great Basin have been 
studied ; the botany and geology of the region traversed 
received special attention, and the mining industry has 
been elaborately investigated. 

The two portions of the work which have been pub- 
lished within the year lie before you ; one is the report 
on the mining industry, a volume of text with an atlas ; 
the second is the report of the botany, the illustrations 
of which are inserted with the text. 

It would lead me beyond the limit of this discourse 
were I to give a particular account of the two reports ; 
but they are too interesting to the geographer to be passed 
by with mere mention. 

The first chapter of the volume on mining districts 
relates to their geographical distribution and geological 
mode of occurrence. After a brief description of the 
Great Basin, and a reference to the one prominent law of 
arrangement of the Cordilleras, that they wend from north 
or north-west to south and south-east, Mr. King affirms 
that all the structural features of local geology are in strict 
subordination to this longitudinal direction of ranges. 
So, likewise, the localities of the precious metals, as 
originally noticed by Prof. W. P. Blake, appear to arrange 
themselves in parallel longitudinal zones. After this 
introduction there are geological descriptions of the most 
famous of the mining districts of Nevada, an investiga- 
tion of the Green Eiver coal-basin, and an inquiry into the 
mines of Colorado, by Mr. J. D. Hague, especially the 
gold district of Gilpin county and the silver district of 
dear Creek county. 

A novelty in subterranean geography or cartography 



Work of the Corps of Engineers, U. 8. A. 127 

is presented in the atlas which accompanies this volume, 
in which many miles of hidden roads and passages are 
carefully delineated. 

The Botany has been prepared by Mr. Sereno Watson, 
the chief collector, with the cooperation of Prof. D. C. 
Eaton, in whose herbarium and library the description 
of the plants was perfected. Somewhat more than 100 
species new to science are described, and much light is 
thrown upon the distribution of timber and on the fami- 
lies of the desert-flora. The work is prefaced by a clear 
and compact account of the region traversed, with an 
excellent outline map, and with a very striking general 
description of the vegetation of the country, — the moun- 
tainous and desert region of Northern Nevada and Utah, — 
the northern portion of what used to be called "The 
Great Basin." The vegetation, like the country, should 
be considered in its two chief aspects, — that of the moun- 
tain, and that of the valley. No portion of this whole 
district, however desert in repute and in fact, is destitute 
of some amount of vegetation, even in the driest seasons, 
except only the limited alkali flats. But the vegetation 
is monotonous in aspect by want of trees and grassy 
greensward, by the wide distribution of a few low shrubs, 
and by the universally prevalent gray or dull olive color 
of the herbage. " The everlasting sage-brush" (Artemi- 
sia tridentata\ familiar to all travellers, is everywhere 
present. To the general absence of trees the Truckee 
Valley presents an exception, where two varieties of poplar 
grow freely in the river-bottom. So on the mountains, 
which are usually treeless as the valleys, a few scattered 
varieties of trees are found, mostly within the canons, 
ajid probably never exceeding forty or fifty feet in height. 
The mountain-flora includes a larger number of shrubby 
species than that of the valleys, though many of them 
are very sparingly distributed. The number of Alpine 
and sub- Alpine plants are proportionally large. The total 
number of indigenous, phaenogamous species enumerated 



128 Oilman's Annual Address, 1872. 

4 

in the report is 1,235, representing 489 genera, and eighty- 
four orders, — about one-third of which belong to the 
mountain flora, one-fourth to the desert flora, and the 
remainder to the "alkaline" and "aquatic" groups. 
The essay, from which these particulars are gathered, is 
a very interesting exhibition of the geographical distri- 
bution of the plants of the region. 

The agricultural resources of the basin are quite 
restricted. Even were the rivers and streams most econo- 
mically distributed, it is estimated that of 34,000 square 
miles examined in Northern Nevada, not over 1,000 square 
miles could ever be brought under cultivation. Some 
investigations were made as to the possibility of culti- 
vating certain forms of vegetation without irrigation, 
but on a scale too limited to be conclusive. 

3. Besides the exploration of the fortieth parallel, there 
is another important survey in progress, under the direc- 
tion of Lieut. Geo. M. Wheeler, of the corps of engineers, 
covering a district considerably to the south of the Cen- 
tral Pacific Railroad, and including sections of South- 
western Nevada, South and Eastern California, South- 
western Utah, Northern, North-eastern, and Eastern 
Arizona. The party, who numbered some eighty-five 
persons, took the field in May, 1871, and continued at 
work till December, when they returned to winter quar- 
ters. Their purpose has been to attain a thorough topo- 
graphical knowledge of the country, to determine the 
latitude and longitude of important points, to observe the 
geology and vegetation, to inquire into the numbers and 
condition of the Indians, and the facilities for road-con- 
struction, etc. Those who are familiar with these regions 
will observe that this work is a continuation of that which 
was carried forward in 1809 by the same officer of the 
engineers. 

From unofficial statements we learn that the success of 
this great undertaking has been all that could be desired. 
The months of September and October were devoted to 



Work of the Corps of Engineers, U. S. A. 129 

the Colorado cafton, which was penetrated to a distance 
of 226 miles above Camp Mohave. The topographical 
data, the zoological specimens, the photographs and 
drawings, the facts illustrative of the ancient civilization, 
and the mining information, are said to be full and impor- 
tant. 

But one grievous occurrence has saddened this brilliant 
record. The chief topographer of the party, Mr. P. W. 
Humel, and that accomplished young writer, Mr. Loring, 
of Boston, were cruelly murdered by the Apaohe Indians, 
on the Wickenburg stage, as they were homeward-bound 
with the results of their observations, after haying 
encountered, without molestation from the Indians, all the 
perils and hardships of the exploring party. The notes 
of the chief topographer have been recovered in a con- 
dition for use ; those of the volunteer observer, from 
which an entertaining book might have been expected, 
can hardly be made use of. 

4. Within the last twelve months we have also had 
from the engineer corps an important contribution to our 
knowledge of Alaska. The reconnoissance of Capt. C. 
W. Raymond upon the Yukon River, which was com- 
menced in the spring of 1869, was completed in the sum- 
mer ; and the report, with a map, which hangs before 
you, was submitted to Congress in April last. 

The chief point to which Capt. Raymond's attention 
was directed was the determination of the latitude and 
longitude of Fort Yukon. Incidentally, the trade of the 
region was to be examined, and the condition of- the 
native tribes investigated. He was also directed to ascer- 
tain as much as possible in respect to the resources of the 
Yukon and its tributaries. 

The delicate and responsible duty intrusted to Capt. 
Raymond (which was performed in a highly creditable 
manner, according to the published endorsement of the 
chief of his corps Gen. Humphreys), will quickly be 
comprehended from a single statement. Fort Yukon, the 

9 



130 GiLMAifs Annual Address, 1872. 

most northern point of the river of that name, for several 
years past has been the extreme western trading-station 
of the Hudson Bay Company. It was supposed to be 
west of the boundary between Russian and British 
America ; and, if so, its establishment was contrary to the 
terms of a treaty between Great Britain and Russia. The 
Russians, however, had been quite indifferent in the 
matter ; but not so the Americans, who, after the acqui- 
sition of Alaska, began to push up the Yukon River for 
purposes of trade. This made it very important to deter- 
mine the exact locality of the fort, and Capt. Raymond 
volunteered to undertake the difficult and hazardous 
duty. Launching a little steamer near the mouth of the 
river, he set out, on the 4th of July, 1869, to make the 
ascent ; reached Fort Yukon, a distance of over 1,000 
miles, traversed wholly by the steamer, on the 31st of the 
month; determined the latitude to be 66° S3' 47', and 
the longitude 145° 17' 47'; set at rest the question at issue ; 
informed the traders that they were in American territory. 
and, on the 9th of August, took possession of the build- 
ings, and raised the flag of the United States over the fort. 

The map which hangs before you embodies, in a carto- 
graphical form, the result of this reconnoissance. The 
maps of a previous date have been based on that of the 
Russian lieutenant, Zagoskin, which was made in 1842-3, 
with the corrections and additions of Dall, Whimper, 
Smith, and other explorers of the telegraph company. 
The journey of Messrs. Ketchum and Labarge, of the 
telegraph company, in 1866, first established the fact that 
the Kvichpak River of the Russians, and the Yukon of 
the English, were the same streams. These travellers, to 
whom Capt. Raymond expresses his thanks, have not 
published their narrative. 

The report of Capt. Raymond, extending through 110 
octavo pages, is very clear and comprehensive, and throws 
much light upon our new acquisitions. This reconnoifl- 
sance, with the work of Mr. Davison, of the Coast Survey, 



Survey of California. 181 

on the coast, and the volumes of Messrs. Ball and 
Whymper, are the geographical fruit of the Alaska pur- 
chase. 

III. The Survey of California. 

Since the publication of the Natural History of New 
York, and the Geology of Pennsylvania, there has been 
no survey of one of the United States at all comparable 
in fulness and in importance with the survey of Califor- 
nia, now in progress, under the direction of Prof. Josiah 
D. Whitney. Everybody talks about the wonderful 
natural resources of the Golden State ; but few people, 
even within its borders, have any adequate conception of 
the admirable inquiries into, or presentation, of these 
resources which have been made by the State Geologist 
and his associates. We presume that the word " geology," 
while it has had a charm for some persons, has to others 
conveyed too restricted a meaning. The people of the 
State cannot have appreciated that under this designation 
they were securing elaborate and accurate maps of the 
entire State, and (on an enlarged scale) of certain impor- 
tant localities ; a comprehensive study of the physical 
structure of the country, as a basis for investigations into 
the climate, agriculture, facilities of communication, and 
sanitary conditions of a new and undeveloped region ; an 
original investigation of the geology, both in its general 
and its economic aspects, and a full study of the animals 
and plants which are native to the region. The size of 
the State, its wonderful capabilities, its variety of attrac- 
tions, its marvellous growth, its prospective wealth and 
influence, are circumstances which render it very desir- 
able that the original survey of the State should be on a 
good plan, by good methods, and by competent observers. 
AH these conditions have been secured. Only one other 
element wps necessary, — liberal financial support. In 
this the State has wavered, but now gives signs of a 
determination to see the work completed as it should b& 



182 Oilman's Annual Address, 1872. 

However costly the* outlay, we are sure it will never be 
regretted. The strictest principles of economy require 
that such a work should be vigorously prosecuted and 
thoroughly performed. 

The results of the survey, thus far, are as follows : 
(a) The publication of a map of the Bay of San Fran- 
cisco, and its vicinity, on a scale of two miles to an inch, 
of which a copy was shown to the Society last year. Two 
other maps are also in the engraver's hands, (ft) The 
first is on a scale of six miles to an inch, embracing about 
60,000 square miles in the central and most thickly set- 
tled part of the State. Of the four sheets which this map 
will cover, the two southern are almost ready for publi- 
cation, and the two northern will be ready in about two 
years, (c) A general map of the State, on a scale 
of eighteen miles to an inch, to be issued both as 
a topographical and as a geological map, will also be 
ready before spring. Only one corner of the central 
map remains to be surveyed topographically, (d) Pour 
volumes of illustrated text have also been printed, 
v besides the Tosemite Guide, and various brochures. 
One of the volumes is a preliminary report on the 
structure of the State, two are devoted to paleontol- 
ogy, and one to ornithology. The last has been pub- 
lished within the year, and is devoted to the birds, not 
only of California, but of the North- American continent 
north of Mexico, and west of the Rocky Mountains. The 
second volume of the birds is nearly ready. Prof. Baird 
and Dr. Brewer are its editors. Prof. Baird and Dr. 
Cooper have prepared the first. During the last year 
Prof. W. H. Brewer has been engaged in the herbarium 
of Dr. Gray, in Cambridge, upon the description of the 
plants of the Pacific slope, collected by him as the bota- 
nist of the survey. A volume of conchology is also 
nearly ready. The geology proper is also to be pushed 
forward with vigor. Men of science everywhere hail with 
satisfaction the progress of this publication as honorable, 



The Northern Pacific Railroad. 183 

i 

not only to California, but to American science, and which 
is published with a degree of typographical and carto- 
graphical accuracy and beauty which is worthy of the geo- 
logical work. Those who would learn more of the nature 
of the survey may turn with advantage to a fresh and 
trustworthy article in the Overland Monthly for Janu- 
ary, 1873. 

IV. The Nobthern Pacific Railroad. 

The attention of the public is often directed to the 
financial attractions of the Northern Pacific Railroad, 
and to the immense advantages which will accrue to the 
country from the completion of a second railroad line to 
the Pacific, shorter, lower, and easier than the central 
route. The central route has already modified the com- 
merce of the world by making this country a common 
highway from Western Europe to Eastern Asia; and every 
additional facility for transcontinental communication 
which is secured increases our national commerce and 
power. It is not long since I heard one of the high officers 
of the government, officially informed upon the matter, 
declare that the solution of our Indian troubles in the 
North-west depended upon the rapid prosecution and 
completion of the second Pacific Railroad ; for, however 
jealous the North-western tribes may be of the approach 
of a party of engineers, they cannot resist the influences 
of power and civilization which the locomotive brings 
with it. 

But, while some of these general aspects of the Pacific 
railroads are familiar to us, we are in danger of failing 
to notice how great a contribution is quietly making to 
our knowledge of Western geography by the parties of 
engineers who are persistently carrying the level, the 
transit, and the barometer into obscure and almost inac- 
cessible parts of the national territory. These surveys 
have been extended from the Pacific to the Mississippi, 
on the line of the Northern Pacific Railroad, there being 



134 Oilman's Annual Address, 1872. 

at the present time, as I am informed, but a short space 
of seventy miles which remains undetermined by the leveL 

Gten. W. Milnor Roberts, the chief engineer of this 
road, has recently returned to New York, and with refer- 
ence to this lecture has been so kind as to give me much 
information in respect to the surveys of which he has been 
both superintendent and participant. He mentioned inci- 
dentally the great service which the telegraph had ren- 
dered in the conduct of parties in the field, so widely sep- 
arated. By its aid he has been able personally to direct 
the work which has been in simultaneous progress upon 
both the eastern and the western slope of the Cordilleras, 
sending his orders and receiving information freely by 
the telegraph. 

The work of his parties last summer is of the greatest 
interest, from the fact that a large part of it was concen- 
trated upon the question as to the most favorable route 
for crossing the Rooky Mountains in Western Montana, 
with the subordinate consideration of the Yellowstone 
Valley on the east as a mode of approach to the summit, 
and on the west of the relation of the railroad route to 
the lofty Bitter Root Mountains, which have hitherto 
been quite inadequately explored. 

Those who are familiar with the history of Rocky 
Mountain explorations are well aware that the earliest 
crossing of the Divide took place in the region which 
was so carefully examined last' summer. Here it was 
that, in 1806, Lewis and Clark, those intrepid pioneers, 
attained the highest waters of the Missouri, crossed over 
the water-shed, and descended, first of white men, into 
the tributaries of the Columbia. We may well, in this 
connection, refresh our memory by turning to their nar- 
rative. 

Since the days of Lewis and Clark our maps have borne 
the names which they attached to the mountain-streams 
—Jefferson, Madison, Gallatin, and Dearborn, the presi- 
dent and secretaries of the National Government in the 



Ths Northern Pacixtc Railroad. 135 

time of these explorations ; and the map which they gave 
us (poor as it now appears) remained for half a century 
our most complete, I may almost say our only 6riginal 
portrayal of the region. Then came, in 1863, the Pacific 
Railroad surveys of the General Government, conducted 
in this part of the country by Gov. I. I. Stevens. A 
little later, one of his chief collaborators, Capt. Mullan, 
U. S. A., was detailed to construct a military road from 
Fort Walla- Walla, on the Columbia, to Fort Benton, on 
the Missouri, — a work which occupied him from 1868 to 
1862, — and now the actual construction of a railroad has 
already been begun. The task of Capt. Mullan occupied 
him four years, when a wagon-road of 624 miles was 
completed across the Rocky Mountains. 

The summer of 1871 has thrown a vast amount of light 
upon the Montana passes ; four parties, besides that of 
the engineer-in-chief, Gen. W. M. Roberts, having been 
engaged in investigating this group of mountain-entrances. 
To understand their work, two points of departure must 
be kept in mind, — the town of Helena, Montana, or, better 
yet, a point a little south of it, where those two well- 
known streams the Gallatin and Jefferson come together. 
The second point of departure is the junction of the Deer 
Lodge and Little Black Foot rivers, on the western slope 
of the Rocky Mountains. We may term these departures 
One and Two. 

One of the parties of the Northern Pacific Railroad 
last summer went up from Departure One, along the 
easternmost of the three Missouri affluents, — the Gallatin, 
over the Bozeman Divide, and so into the Yellowstone ; 
a second from the same departure went up the western 
affluent, the Jefferson, over the Deer Lodge Pass, 
and so down to the Departure Two ; a third party, start- 
ing from Departure Two, proceeded down the Hell Gate 
and Missouri Rivers, into the Bitter Root Mountains, and 
so to the Jocko river; a fourth party examined the 
Lower Dearborn valley to its union with the Missouri, 



186 GiLMAifa Anmtal Advbbss, 1872.. 

and then westward np the Dearborn valley, examining 
the passes known as Cadotte's, and Lewis and Clark's, 
and going over the mountains to Departure Two. 

Gen. Roberts made a personal examination of eight 
passes between Cadotte's, on the north, and Deer Lodge, 
which is about eighty-five miles south in an air-line; 
and his observations led him to order an instrumen- 
tal survey of the most promising pass, " Ten-Mile Pass," 
from the initial point on the Deer Lodge, over the pass, 
and so down to the Missouri, a few miles north of Helena. 

Meanwhile other parties were at work between Montana 
and the Pacific, farther west ; one going up the Clear 
water toward the summit of the Bitter Boot range, and 
afterward, going down the Snake River from Lewiston ; 
a second party surveyed from the summit of the Cascade 
down the Yakima to the Columbia ; a third party were at 
work on the "Forty Miles," beyond the Cowlitz residency, 
and a fourth was engaged to make a reconnoissance from 
the Columbia River, near Lake Chelan, towards the Pend 
d' Oreille country. 

Besides all this work, the engineer-in-chief made an 
instrumental reconnoissance of the Yellowstone valley. 

The results of such a number of investigations are 
obviously important. They involve several points of 
interest. First) the best approach from the east to the 
Rocky Mountains, is it the Missouri or the Yellowstone ! 
Second, in either case, what is the best way over the 
Rocky Mountains ? or, in other words, which one of eight 
passes, in a region of nearly 100 miles long, is to be pre- 
ferred? Third, what is the best way down the Pacific 
slope to the valley of the Columbia, — is it the Mullan 
wagon-road or some other way ? Fourth, the best route 
down the Columbia valley, and, finally, the structure of 
the Cascade Mountains? On all these points the com- 
pany has secured, by the work of last summer, detailed 
information (for which in due time the world will be 
wiser) ; but it is not quite ready to publish it. 



Tbjs Northern Pacific Railroad. 137 

Gen. Roberts comments on the productiveness of Mon- 
tana like most other persons who have been there. He 
says that the soil in the valleys and on the slopes of the 
foot-hills exoels in productiveness any region where he 
has dwelt, excepting Oregon and Washington. 

He anticipates that the road will be open to the 
Missouri in the fall of 1872; that it may be extended to 
the Yellowstone in 1873. During 1875 the line could be 
graded, and the track laid over the Rocky Mountains to 
meet there the line from the Pacific, if that end of the 
track should be completed with equal despatch. 

One of the subordinate surveys carried on, under the 
auspices of this great corporation, during the past year, 
was conducted by Gen. T. L. Rosser, from the Missouri 
River, at Fort Rice, to the Yellowstone, by the way of 
Heart River and Glendive's Creek, a distance of 226 miles. 
As it happened that I was at Fort Wadsworth, D. T., on 
that lofty plateau which is called the Coteau of the Prairie, 
when a part of the escort for Gen. Rosser's party went 
forth last summer, and thus heard from the leader of the 
expedition an account of the problems to be settled and 
the difficulties to be encountered, I have looked with 
much interest for the publication of the results of their 
summer's work, and have been favored with an early 
copy of it. Much apprehension was felt lest the Indians, 
who watch with jealousy what we call the advance of 
civilization, should attack the survey, and so a strong 
escort was fitted out under the command of Gen. Whist- 
ler. No trouble was given by the Indians, except the 
burning of the grass, which would have been useful as 
forage. 

The party reached the mouth of Heart River September 
11th, and proceeded at once to survey it. They soon 
reached the Heart Butte, the deserted seat of Black Feet' s 
empire, and, a few miles west, came upon a field of coal 
which was thence continous to the Yellowstone. In several 
places the coal was burning, and appeared to have been 



138 GiLMAtfs Annual Address, 1872. 

. doing so for years. At the top of the ridge which divides 
the waters of the Heart and the Little Missouri, the Man- 
vaises Terres were first seen, and appeared to be an insur- 
mountable obstacle ; bat soon a water-course descending 
into the valley was discovered. The stream running 
through this valley he named Dave's Creek; its waters 
are strongly alkaline, the timber chiefly cotton- wood, and 
"very scattering." Prom Dave's Creek the party went 
over into the valley of the Little Missouri, a tortuous 
cafion, the walls of which are some five or six hundred feet 
high. The bluffs in many places show advantageously the 
peculiar geology of the Mauvaises Terres. Running down 
this stream five miles, he reached Andrew's Creek, and 
ascended it to the prairie level, from which he descended 
again to Inman's Fork, one of the tributaries of the Little 
Missouri. Beyond this fork is the divide between the 
little Missouri and the Yellowstone. Glendive's Creek 
led the party down to the valley of the Yellowstone ; the 
stream being here 1,000 feet wide, the valley about two 
miles. A map and profile of the regions were prepared 
by the topographers, Messrs. Meigs and Eastman. 

It is greatly to be desired that the gentlemen who are 
in charge of this national undertaking will find an oppor- 
tunity to give to the public the scientific results of their 
recent surveys, and especially that the measurement of 
altitudes and distances in regions where a road is not 
finally located will be preserved and published for the 
benefit of future inquirers. 

V. The Yellowstone Geyseb Region. 

No portion of our national domain has of late been 
regarded with so much curiosity and surprise as the 
region of geyser and hot springs, which has been brought 
to light near the sources of the Yellowstone and Fire 
Hole rivers, just east of the divide between the Missouri 
and the Columbia. So remarkable are the narratives of 
the visitors to these regions that a bill is now pending in 



Tee Ntntm Census of the United States, 1870. 139 

Congress to reserve from settlement, under the name of 
a national park, the tract in which the most surprising of 
the phenomena appear. It is satisfactory to know that 
the bill will probably become a law. 

On the latest-published maps of the Engineer Depart- 
ment, the courses of the Upper Yellowstone and the Fire 
Hole rivers are faintly delineated ; but on the map of Mr. 
De Lacy, Surveyor- General of Montana, the local nomen- 
clature and the approximate courses of the rivers are 
more fully brought out ; and on the two maps which, by 
the courtesy of the engraver, Mr. Julius Bien, of New 
York, I am able to bring before you, the exact position 
of the principal geyser and hot springs is indicated. 
These two maps were drawn by Mr. E. Hergesheimer, of 
the United States Coast Survey, at the instance of Dr. 
F. Y. Hayden, to illustrate his report upon the region. 
The substance of this report, with reduced copies of the 
map, will be found in the American Journal cf Science 
for February and March, 1872. 

In connection with this report of Dr. Hayden' s, refer- 
ence should be made to the early story of the Wash- 
burne-Langford party, which was printed in Scribner's 
Monthly for 1871, and which gives a very graphic account 
of the region ; to a narrative by Walter Trumbull, in the 
Overland Monthly; and to the report which has been 
published in full by various newspapers, within the last 
few days, of the expedition of Capt. Barlow, of the United 
States Engineers, which visited this region in the summer 
of 1871. The survey of Gen. W. Milnor Roberto, already 
referred to, began at a lower point upon the river, east of 
Bozeman's Pass, and continued towards the Missouri, and 
Gen. Bosser touched the river at a much lower point. 

VI. The Ninth Census of the United States— 1870. 

During the past twelve months the publication of the 
results of the ninth census of the United States has been 
commenced, and we have before us now the advance 



140 Prop. &ilmai?s Annual Address, 1872. 

sheets of the Statistics of Population by States and Terri- 
tories, both in the aggregate, and as white, free-colored, 
slaves, Chinese and Indian, at each census. We have 
also the Report of the Superintendent of the Census, 
Gen. F. A. Walker, on the conduct and results of the 
work entrusted to his charge. Although the law of 
Congress under which this decennial enumeration was 
taken is for behind the requirements of modern statistical 
science, its execution was entrusted to an excellent officer, 
and the results may be received with great satisfaction 
and confidence. 

But as this Society no longer recognises the statistical 
side of geographical inquiry, I do not feel at liberty to 
dwell at length upon this topic, and indeed I should 
hardly have introduced it at this time were it not for the 
sake of presenting to you some of the results of the 
census in a very clear and instructive cartographical 
aspect. It is fair to presume that you are still interested 
in the geographical side of statistical inquiry. 

The manuscript maps which I now hold before you 
were prepared under Gen. Walker's direction in the cen- 
sus office, as examples of the mode by which the results 
of the census may be exhibited on maps. These very 
maps are soon to be presented to the appropriate com- 
mittee in Congress, in the hope that their publication 
will be commended, and that other kindred maps will be 
prepared and given to the public under the supervision 
of the Census Bureau. 

These maps are seven in number.* I hold' up first a 
map of Alabama, which shows at a glance in what part 
of that State the Africans preponderate, a series of tints 
being employed, as you observe, which are darker in 
proportion as the number of Africans increases. Now, it 
would take a long time to discover from a column of 



* This portion of the Address was given extempore as the speaker turned 
to the maps, and was reported with difficulty. 



The Ninth Census of the United States, 1870. 141 

figures the feet which yon here see at a glance ; that 
through the middle of the State, from East to West, there 
is a black belt where the colored people are most numer- 
ous. No alphabetic list of counties would suggest that 
fact, or enable ns to surmise the reason. It would per- 
haps have been better if the structure of the country had 
been more fully delineated, for here we have only the 
water-courses. An exhibition of the altitudes of the 
State would have been a desirable feature. 

Here is a similar map for the entire Southern sea-board, 
which exhibits the distribution of the Africans, not 
county-wise but State-wise. You see here at a glance 
that the blacks preponderate in South Carolina. Louis- 
iana stands next. Then comes Virginia, North Carolina, 
Texas, Arkansas, Tennessee, Maryland, Kentucky, and 
so on. Underneath this map hangs a map of the same 
series of States, exhibiting the same class of facts ten 
years previous, when the census of 1860 was taken, and 
these two maps, if compared, will show the effect of 
emancipation upon residence. Here you see South Caro- 
lina, in the present census, is the darkest. So it was in 
1860. Georgia and Alabama stood second ten years ago. 
They stand third now. Louisiana stands second, and 
Mississippi has entered the same grade as South Carolina, 
when, ten years ago, it stood below. Texas, which was 
ten years ago fourth in rank, is now the fifth. 

Here is another map which exhibits the distribution 
of foreigners at the South ; on it we see that the foreign 
born population is thickest, where the Africans are not, 
and vice versa. South Carolina, which was darkest 
before, is lightest now. Missouri, where the Germans 
have so largely gone, stands foremost. West Virginia 
and Kentucky are alike. Texas corresponds with Dela- 
ware. In the South-east is a region where very few 
foreigners have gone ; more to Florida than Georgia, more 
to South Carolina than to North Carolina. Here we have 
the Northern States, a map of the former free States, 



142 Prof. Oilman's Annual Address, 1872. 

showing the proportion of foreign to total population. 
Yon observe how the line of emigration has been through 
the North ; and it is very curious that of people coming 
in from Europe, the densest population is found farthest 
from the sea-coast. They are pressing into Minnesota, 
the State which has the largest proportion of foreign born 
people. Wisconsin stands second. New York third, 
corresponding with Nebraska, and with Massachusetts ; 
Connecticut is fifth ; then comes Illinois and New Jersey, 
and Iowa ; and Maine is eighth, corresponding with New 
Hampshire and Indiana. Here we have another map, 
exhibiting the proportion of blacks in the Northern 
States. You see that a State where they cling ' most 
decidedly is Kansas. New Jersey next. Ohio next. The 
Southern tier, you see, has their company more than any 
other. The last in rank is Minnesota, where we saw 
before that the foreigners most abounded. 

This map (showing another), although you can hardly 
see it across the room, is to me the most interesting of all ; 
first, because it is a map of the whole country; and 
second, because it is prepared with special study and care. 

It is intended to show us in what parts of every State 
the German element is most abundant, and then by mak- 
ing a deduction for this preponderance in certain regions, 
to show what is the average distribution in the remainder 
of the State. Notice, for example, in Missouri the pre- 
ponderance of Germans in the St. Louis region, and their 
comparative scarcity in South-western Missouri. See in 
New Jersey the marked ascendancy of this element in 
Hoboken and Jersey City, and their vicinity, while in the 
State, as a whole, the German element by no means pre- 
ponderates. 

But I will not dwell longer upon these instructive dia- 
grams, for they were not designed to be shown to so large 
an assembly. The interest, however, which you mani- 
fest in them, leads me to express the hope that the Soci- 
ety, as individuals and as a body, will exert what influ- 



Proposed American Explorations in the East. 143 

ence they can rightly bring to bear upon Congress, to 
Becure the publication of some such diagrams as those 
which you have before you. 

As an example of what may be done in this graphic 
mode of representation, let me call your attention to a 
beautiful series of printed maps, which the Prussian gov- 
ernment has recently printed. I refer to the atlas entitled 
Der Boden und die IcmdvyirUchqftliehen VerhSltnisse 
des Preu88i8chen Staates, nach dem Gebietswmfange vor 
1866, von A. Meitzer, — a work in which, with great clear- 
ness, accuracy, and beauty, the territorial divisions, the 
geographical and geological structure of the country, the 
density of the population, the wealth, taxation, distribu- 
tion of industries, etc., etc., are cartographically pre- 
sented. 

VII. Proposed American Explobations in the East. 

It is a little beyond the scope of this discourse to speak 
of work projected by our countrymen, especially in other 
lands, bat the great importance of the plans to which I 
am about to refer will certainly justify the reference. 

The admirable purposes and results of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund of London are well known in this 
country, but hitherto very little effort has been made to 
enlist the cooperation of our countrymen in their impor- 
tant efforts to thoroughly investigate the land of the Bible. 
At first this seems a little strange, for the Americans were 
pioneers in the field of inquiry, and since those epoch- 
marking researches of Dr. Edward Robinson, and his 
learned associate, Dr. Eli Smith, several of our country- 
men have made important contributions to the geography 
of the East In Palestine alone the researches of Lynch, 
W. M. Thomson, Barclay, Osborn, Hackett, Wolcott, 
Johnson, and many others, are especially noteworthy. 
A plan of cooperation has lately been proposed by which 
Americans can help forward the work of Syrian explora- 
tion more effectually, it is thought, than by contributing 



144 Prof. Oilman's Annual Address, 1812. 

to the English fund. A committee has been formed in 
New York, made up to a great extent, of persons who 
have travelled in the East ; and it is purposed to collect 
a sum of at least $10,000 to be expended by this com- 
mittee upon some limited region where the English are 
not at work, thus supplementing their investigations. 
The Archbishop of York has written to the president of 
the American committee, Dr. Jos. P. Thompson, express- 
ing the satisfaction felt by the English committee of which 
he is chairman, at the formation of a committee in New 
York, so that no apprehension of rivalry or reduplication 
need be anticipated. Dr. William M. Thomson of Bey- 
rout, has made a recommendation which the New York 
committee adopts, that the field of exploration be the 
region east of the Jordan Valley and the Dead Sea ; if 
possible also, Hermon, the Lebanon, and the plains and 
valleys of Northern Syria. He suggests Eerak, south- 
east of the Dead Sea, as the first station for the Moabite 
region, and thence he would have the survey continue 
through Gilead and Bashan into the east region of the 
Hauran. 

No one can doubt the fruitfulness of this field in 
geographical and archaeological respects. To secure the 
harvest, only money is needed ; services of competent 
men will then be engaged as explorers, equipped with all 
the resources of modern science. Certainly in a plan 
like this, the American Geographical Society must take 
a deep interest. 

Mr. President : My hour is gone ; my task is done. 
Let us hope that the current year will be as full of good 
results as that which we have reviewed. 






I 












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NOTES ON GIOVANNI DA VERRAZANO AND ON A 

PLANISPHERE OF 1629, ILLUSTRATING HIS 

AMERICAN VOYAGE IN 1524, WITH A 

REDUCED COPY OF THE MAP. 



By Jambs Carbon Breyoobt. 



READ NOVEMBER 28th, 1871. 



Introductory. 

The discoveries made in the great ocean by Columbus 
at the close of the fifteenth century, gave to the Spaniards 
a supposed claim not only to coasts and islands which 
they had seen, but also to all the unknown lands and 
seas beyond and to the west of a certain meridian of 
longitude. This demarcation line, however, was not 
based on any better right than the partition of the 
heathen and undiscovered countries of the globe between 
Spain and Portugal, confirmed by the Pope, Alexander 
VI, in May and September, 1493,* and further, but not 
definitely settled between these two nations in June, 1494. 
As time passed on, the hopes entertained by the Spanish 
sovereigns were dispelled by the assurance that the 
western waters did not anywhere, as supposed by Strabo,f 
afford a clear seaway to the eastern shores of Asia, for a 

♦See Humboldt, Examen Critique and Cosmos; also Oscar Peschel, Die 
Tkeilung der Erde, etc., 1871. 

f While the mathematicians teach that the circle passes behind it (the 
earth) and returns into itself, so that did the magnitude of the Atlantic not 
prevent, we might navigate on the same parallel from Spain to India. 
[Lib I] 1() 



146 Notes on the Verbazano Map. 

new continent interposed itself, which up to 1524, had 
been found continuous from Florida to the distant 
southern strait discovered by Magellan. 

In 1513, Balboa discovered the South Sea, thus reveal- 
ing a probable division of the New World into a southern 
and a northern continent, which last was, however, sup- 
posed to be a part of Asia until 1540. The South Sea 
was thus named, because it was supposed to lie to the 
south of this eastern extremity of Asia, and on many 
maps of the time, it was thus represented. The proba- 
bility, however, of the existence of a narrow strait or 
water communication between the South Sea and the 
Atlantic, just north of Mexico, was a favorite theory 
among geographers, long believed in, leading to many 
voyages for its detection, and which, as a search for a 
north-west passage, survived to this day, when having 
been found, it turns out to be impracticable. 

It was the hope of making such a discovery that 
impelled the navigator, whose voyage we are about to 
examine, toward that part of the New World which still 
remained unexplored, and we shall briefly review the 
geographical discoveries which, up to the year 1524, had 
been made from the north and from the south, along the 
coast of the present United States of America. 

In 1513, Juan Ponce de Leon discovered the mainland 
of Florida, and afterwards sent out exploring expeditions 
along its Atlantic coast, which do not appear to have got 
beyond the mouth of the Rio de Chicora, or Savannah 
River, in latitude 32°. He died in 1521 from a wound 
received on his last voyage while fighting with the natives. 

The Licentiate, Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon, in 1520 and 
1521, explored the coast north of the Savannah, and 
appears to have reached Cabo Santa Helena, or Cape 
Fear, in latitude 34°, and somewhat beyond it. It is 
claimed by some that his vessels had reached to the Bahia 
Santa Maria, or Chesapeake Bay, before 1526, the date of 
his last expedition. The coast-line of the Gulf of Mexico 



Oceanic Explorations. 147 

was slowly explored from 1498 to 1518, when the hope of 
an opening into the Mar del Sur was abandoned.* 

The coasts of Newfoundland, or Baccalaos,f and of 
Nova Scotia, or Terra de Bretones, had been explored by 
the French and others on fishing voyages, at least as far 
south as Cape Sable, or to the Penobscot (Bio de Noruin- 
bega), in latitude 43° 20', before 1524. These explorations 
from the north and from the south left a gap between lati- 
tudes 34° and 43° north, which the geographers of the 
Congress of Bajadoz, in 1524, seemed unable to fill, having 
discovered that no official examination of the coast between 
Florida and Terra Nova had ever been made. 

The hearsay report of Sebastian Cabot, who was said 
to have followed the coast from Newfoundland to Florida 
without finding an opening to the west, does not appear 
to have had any influence on the question. He was him- 
self one of the members of this Congress, and could have 
cleared up this point if he had really coasted these shores 
in 1497 or 1498, as told by Peter Martyr. % 

Estevan Gomez, § a Portuguese, in Spanish employ, 
who had accompanied Magellan as far as the strait, a 
member of the Congress, and who had proposed a search 
along thiB unexplored coast, was therefore officially com- 
missioned to look for a passage westward between these 
parallels. He sailed in February, 1525, and was absent 
about ten months, coasting from north to south, having 
distinctly ascertained that a continental shore filled the 
void, thus completing the line of an impenetrable barrier 
across a westward route to the Spice Islands, extending 
from latitude 53° north, to the Straits of Magellan, in 54° 
south. 

The return of the Vittoria in 1522, under Sebastian 
Del Cano, the only ship left of the five which had sailed 

* See note, Oulf of Mexico. f See note, Baeealaoa. 

\ See note, Cabot. 

§ A fall account of the voyages of this navigator has been prepared, and 
will soon be published, by the Hon. Henry C. Murphy.' 



148 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

in 1519 with Magellan, led to much speculation concern- 
ing a nearer way to the Moluccas than the one thus 
opened by the Spaniards. Many minds were excited, 
both* by this great feat, and by the reports of the rich 
empire which Cortes was then conquering, to new geo- 
graphical enquiry. Cortes himself offered, in 1524, to 
search both oceans for the supposed northern strait lead- 
ing to the west, though it appears that he confined him- 
self to exploring the South Sea only.* 

Meanwhile the attention of Francis the First was turned 
in the same direction, whether from the report that such 
a blank was to be filled in the maps, or that the French 
king had learned as much trom his own cosmographers. 
That he hoped to find a short passage to the Moluccas, 
we know from the letter of Giovanni de Verrazano of 
1524, who had been directed to search for it. Perhaps 
among the crews of the vessels captured by this naviga- 
tor on previous corsairial expeditions, there were men 
who had revealed to him the state of Spanish geographi- 
cal knowledge, and the probability of a western passage, 
to be found between the parallels above mentioned. It 
was also no doubt the desire of the king to discover a 
rich empire like Mexico, which the Spaniards were then 
plundering, and which might open to him also a supply 
of the precious metals. Verrazano seems to have failed 
in a first effort to sail, with four vessels, as he says, north- 
wardly, but with one vessel only he started again, and 
after an exploration of some months, between the paral- 
lels of 34° and 50° N. accordi ng to his own estimate, he 
returned with information that no passage could be found. 

The explorations of Verrazano and of Gomez on the 
eastern shores of North America, and those directed by 
Cortes on the west, closed all hopes of a short sea-way 
to the Indies. But the entire disconnection of Asia with 
America was not positively proved until Behring dis- 
covered in 1728, the strait to which his name was given. 

* See notes, Cortes and Zuazo. 



The Planisphere op 1529. 149 

Discovert of the Vebrazano Planisphere of 1529. 

The interesting discovery by Mons. R. Thomassy, an 
experienced archivist, author of interesting geographical 
papers and of the geology of Louisiana, among the maps 
of the College de Propaganda Fide in Rome, of a Mapu- 
mundi, made by a certain Hieronimns de Verrazano, 
dating from about the year 1529, was first made known 
in a paper entitled Les Popes Geographes, published in 
the Annales des Voyages, Paris, 1852.* Mons. Thomassy 
could hardly have been aware of the keen interest that 
such a discovery would awaken among those interested 
in early American explorations, or he would have given 
a less meagre account of this precious map. He deserves 
our sincere thanks, however, for drawing attention to 
this and other valuable geographical monuments pre- 
served in Rome, and which seem to have escaped the 
active research of Humboldt and Jomard. A study of 
this map by the author of the Examen Critique de la 
Geographie dn Nouveau Continent, would have been 
fruitful of results, and we can hardly venture to tread a 
path which he first opened, without great diffidence, and 
the hope that the investigation which we may only sketch 
out, will by others be prosecuted to definite results. 

Our remarks are based upon a study of two photo- 
graphic copies of the original map, which, after long and 
repeated attempts, have at last, through the kind offices 
of Mr. Thos. E. Davis, been procured from Rome by the 
President of this Society. f 

Thege photographs are now before you, but are unfor- 
tunately not distinct enough to enable us to read the 
names inscribed along, our coast, between the points 
which limit the explorations of our navigator. This is 
most unlucky, and another copy must be procured before 
the critical examination of the subject can be properly 



* See TLOteiThomasay. 

t See page 80 of the Report of this Society for 1871. 



150 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

undertaken. We have deciphered a few of the names, 
and have prepared a careful copy of that part of the 
Mapamondi which more specially interests us as Ameri- 
cans. 

The original map is on three large skins pasted together 
forming a sheet, according to Mons. Thomassy, the first 
describer of the map, 260 centimetres long and 180 high, 
say 102.36 inches by 51.18 inches, or with a width twice as 
great as the height. It is a general map of the world, as 
known to the designer of it, Hieronimus de Verrazano, 
but it bears no date. From the remark written under the 
name Nova Gallia, that this land was discovered five years 
before, we infer (supposing the date of Giovanni de Ver- 
razano' s voyage, as given himself, to be 1524), that the 
map was made in 1529. There is good reason to believe 
that Hieronimus (Jerome) was a brother of John, and 
that he put down the coast here alluded to from authentic 
data furnished by his brother. 

There are certain coast features drawn on the map, 
which are not alluded to in the letter, seeming to prove 
that Jerome had his brother's charts before him. The 
plain indication of Long Island Sound, and of Cape Cod, 
is of itself sufficient proof that it was compiled from 
original drafts or notes. The latitudes, however, differ 
entirely from those given in the letter. The truth, per- 
haps, cannot be developed until this chart, which is open 
to examination, has received a closer study. New copies 
of it are needed, which may more faithfully render the 
coast names and minor details. 

Further remarks on the map will be found in the notes 
to this paper.* The great interest that attaches to it, in 
our eyes, is the fact of its being the earliest known tracing 
of our coast, as made from actual exploration. 

The only account of Verrazano' s voyage left to us is in 
the form of a letter, written from Dieppe, July 8, 1524, to 

* See note, Verraeano Planitph&re. 



Life and Voyages of Verrazano, 151 

the French king, in which he gives a short and sketchy 
report of his explorations, withont naming any points, 
and in such general terms that many have doubted the 
genuineness of the letter. It was not published in Prance, 
but first appeared in Italian, in Venice, 1556, in the third 
volume of the Collection of Voyages, edited by Ramusius, 
which was prepared in 1553, but no document positively 
confirming the letter has since been found. 

No serious doubt, however, had ever been raised 
impugning the truth of this letter until the late Bucking- 
ham Smith attempted, in two critical articles, published 
in 1864 and 1869, to disprove its genuineness. 

Life and Voyages of Verrazano. 

Geographers, as well as historians, meet with many 
historical riddles. Even concerning Columbus, much 
remains to be explained, and of the early voyages of 
Sebastian Cabot just enough is known, in the lack of fur- 
ther documentary evidence, to render the search for truth 
almost hopeless. The voyages of Americus Vespucius 
present a wide subject for controversy, and the few facts 
concerning Verrazano, whose voyages more closely than 
any other early navigator relate to our own coast, invite 
the most searching criticism of geographers. 

We have, in this case, to deal with an individual who 
was known under two characters, as a privateer and as 
an explorer. On this account we must treat of him in 
each character separately, in order not to confuse the 
narrative of his career. In later times, a Hawkins or a 
Drake, a Cavendish or an Anson, united these opposite 
occupations and were famed in both, but Verrazano' s 
exploits as a corsair have been hitherto only alluded to 
in scattered notices, and uncertainty rests on the time and 
manner of his death. He was the first to show h6w the 
growing power of Spain could be crippled, and Spain, in 
return, has not honored his memory. 

We have collected many detached notices of his core- 



152 Notes on the Verbazano Map. 

airial employments, and have endeavored to partly clear 
up the mystery of his death. 

Family of Verrazano. 

The Verrazano family belonged to Florence, and our 
navigator, according to Giuseppi Pelli,* was the son of 
Pietro Andrea and Fiametta Capelli. From the letter of 
Annibale Caro, quoted by Tiraboschi,t we learn that he 
had a brother, probably Hieronimus or Jerome, who com- 
posed the map before us. According to Prof. Geo. W. 
Greene, the Cavaliere Andrea, the last one of the family 
died at Florence in 1819. 

Pelli supposes that Giovanni de Verrazano was born 
after 1480. This date, together with the lact that he had 
resided several years in Cairo and Syria, % form the sub- 
stance of all that can be ascertained about him in Italy. 
Engaged in the trade of spices, silks and the precious 
commodities Of the east, which were slowly brought, after 
numerous barters, to the ports of the eastern Mediterra- 
nean, where vessels from the trading cities of Italy 
awaited them, our navigator learned what a gain it would 
be, if these necessary commodities could be procured by 
a direct sea voyage to the Moluccas. 

At what time he became a seafarer and on what seas 
he sailed previous to the year 1521, we have no informa- 
tion, unless we accept the vague indications contained in 
Carli's letter. The late Buckingham Smith ascertained, 
from Portuguese authorities, that he was in the East 
Indies in 1517, probably making the voyage in a Portu- 
guese vessel. Possibly, after an experience of some 
years in the Mediterranean, the cradle of European nau- 
tical enterprise, he may have entered the service of Spain, 
who at that time was drawing soldiers and sailors from 
every part of Europe, and in her service must have 

* See note, Pelli, Elogio de Verrazano. f See note, Oaro. 

J See note, OarW* letter. 



Verrazano as a Corsajr. 153 

learned the track followed by her vessels for trade or con- 
quest to the West Indies.* Nay, he may himself have 
sailed to the West Indies, as it seems he did with the 
Portuguese to the Moluccas. The route to the latter by 
the Cape of Good Hope, was discovered in his time, and 
the quite recent oceanic discoveries of the Spaniards, 
seeking the far east by the west, must have further 
excited his ambition, and increased his desire to open a 
still shorter water communication with Cathay and the 
lands of the great Khan. 

In 1521, Verrazano appears as a French corsair off the 
southern shores of the Iberian peninsula, and thence- 
forward Spanish historians make frequent mention of him 
undivr the name of Juan Florin or Florentin, never, how- 
ever, adding the surname Verrazano. 

Verrazano as a Corsair. 

As a corsair, his exploits have hitherto been known 
only from a few passages in Barciaf and Herrera, while, 
curiously enough, the letters and decades of Peter Mar- 
tyr % and the history by Bernal Diaz, § which contain , 
dates and interesting details relating to these incidents, 
seem to have been overlooked. The late Buckingham 
Smith, who wrote several notices of him, and was engaged 
upon another at the time of his death, was about to 
explore this field. 

A distinct reference to his predatory cruises against the 
Spaniards is made by Juan himself, in the heading of his 
letter to Francis the First, which identifies him with the 
feared Juan Florentin, the corsair. | 

We might otherwise hesitate to accept the fact, which 

* See note, Routes to the Indies. 

\Bnsayo Oronologieo para la Hist. gen. de la Florida. Madrid, 1728. 
\Opus Bpistolarum, Compluti (Alcala), 1680, and Paris, 1670; Decades de 
Orbe Now, Alcala, 1530. Paris, 1587. ■ 
§ Eistoria Verdadera, etc. Madrid, 1632. 
| See Appendix, Identification of Florin as Verrazano. 



154 Notes on the Verraza.no Map. 

is stated by Barcia alone. Other Spanish authors, such 
as Herrera, speak of the explorer Verrazano, as if he 
were a distinct character. " 

Soon after the gold-producing islands of the sea had 
been discovered and made productive by the Spaniards, 
corsairs of various nationalities began actively to dispute 
the rich spoil of these new Indies with their grasping 
conquerors. These corsairs watched the south-western 
coasts of the peninsula, and no doubt many a rich capture 
was made by them before Juan succeeded in his daring 
project of lying in wait to seize the treasure- ships of 
Cortes. 

The first gold from Mexico, together with curious speci- 
mens of the handicraft of the natives, collected by Juan 
de Grijalva in 1518, was sent to Diego Velasquez, the 
governor of Cuba, in charge of Pedro de Alvarado ; and 
the king's share was received in Spain early in 1519. 
The first treasure collected by Hernando Cortes, who 
landed in Mexico in 1519, was despatched direct to Spain,* 
the vessel sailing from Villa Rica de Vera Cruz, July 26, 
1519, in charge of Alonzo Hernandez de Puertocarrero 
and Francisco de Montejo, and arriving at San Lucar in 
October, f after a short stoppage in Cuba. 

The king, however, was at that time # in Flanders, and 
the treasure was not presented to him until March, 1520, 
at Tordesillas. % No doubt, the news of this rich arrival 
was at once noised abroad, and led to the fitting out of 
corsairs by France, in order to share in the golden harvests 
of the Spaniards. 



* The vessel was carried by Alaminos, her pilot, through the Florida chan- 
nel (reconnoitered by him in 1518, while accompanying Ponce de Leon), in 
order to avoid passing near Cuba. It was the first voyage to Spain made by 
this route. 

f See Peter Martyr's letter of December 2d, 1519. 

J A more correct account, by an unknown hand, given in the Dowmentc* 
Ineditos vol. i, 1842, p. 421, says that the first things sent by Cortes were 
presented to the emperor, in Yalladolid, during holy week (April 1-6), 1520. 



Verrazano as a Corsair. 155 

Another consignment of gold from Hispaniola, accord- 
ing to Peter Martyr,* fell into the hands of Juan Florentin 
in 1521, being his first recorded capture of treasure. 
Peter Martyr estimates the value of this prize at 80,000 
ducats, besides a large quantity of pearls and sugar, f 

As Cortes despatched his vessels directly home, with- 
out permitting them to stop at any of the West India 
islands, and as this vessel was from Hispaniola, it seems 
certain that it was not sent by the conqueror of Mexico. 
Barcia gives the same date, but the ship he speaks of was 
taken in 15234 Bernal Diaz does not speak of this 
vessel's capture, as it was not one sent by Cortes. 

Herrera I gives, perhaps, the most reliable account of 
the doings of the French corsairs in this year. He says 
that these corsairs were cruising on the coasts of Anda- 
lusia and the Algarves, watching for vessels from the 
Indies. Pour or five vessels were therefore ordered to 
be fitted out at the cost of the foreign merchants, and the 
command of them was entrusted to Don Pedro Manrique, 
brother of the Conde de Osorno. Two of them were com- 
manded by Estevan Gomez and Alvaro de la Mesquita. 
The first of these was a pilot under Magellan, and had 
abandoned his commander October 8, 1520, when partly 
through the strait, imprisoning Mesquita, his nephew, 
captain of the San Antonio. They had reached Seville, 
May 6th, 1521, and while awaiting the issue of their dis- 
pute were thus ordered into service. 

Just as they were about to sail, news was brought that 
the French corsairs had taken two out of three caravels 
coming from the Indies. The third, with the smaller 
part of the treasure, was said to have escaped. It was 



* See his letter of November 19, 1522, and decade v, chap. 8. 
fSee notes, Martyr, Dec. v, chap. 8. His letter of March 6, 1521, men- 
tions the arrival of a despatch, and speaks only of treasure expected. 
t Bhuayo, 1728, page 8, see note, Bard* 
| Dec. in, Lib. I, Cap. XIV, 1581 

3 



156 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

added that the corsairs were watching to make the cap- 
ture of five expected Portuguese vessels. 

A light vessel was therefore sent to the Azores to wan 
these of the danger they were in, and the convoy then 
started in pursuit of the corsairs. It found, on the 24th 
of June, seven French vessels anchored under Cape St. 
Vincent, which came out to meet it and gave battle. 
The French retired at last, and were chased all night, 
but in the morning turned on their pursuers. Manrique 
got the wind of them, when they again fled, and were 
chased forty leagues. He recaptured a prize loaded with 
wheat, and another with artillery and arms, and took all 
the small boats of the French. 

Manrique returned to San Lucar to repair damages, 
hastening matters by a forced levy on the merchants, as 
he wished to join a Portuguese fleet, going to the islands 
to convoy the vessels from Calcutta. 

Having waited at the islands until August, it became 
certain that the five ships would not arrive this year from 
the east, so Manrique left the Portuguese fleet there, with 
supplies for the expected vessels, and cruised on the 
Spanish coast, having learned from a vessel plundered 
near Gtolicia, that twenty-six corsairs had been seen in 
one place and twenty in another. 

It appears, therefore, that the French corsairs were 
very active in this year, but Herrera does not mention 
Florin as a commander of any of them. Martyr alone 
names him, and we depend upon his authority only. 
No captures of treasure-vessels are reported as having 
been made after the month of May. No doubt the 
treasure taken early in the year was at once sent home, 
probably to La Rochelle, which appears to have been 
the place where Juan had been fitted for the cruise. 

The coast of Andalusia, between Gibraltar and Cadiz 
is high and indented by wild and sterile valleys, then 
almost uninhabited, and the pirates would lie there, 
watching from the heights for approaching vessels, which, 



Verrazano as a Corsair. 157 

habitually sighted Gape Trafalgar on their return from 
either of the Indies. On this account homeward-bound 
vessels, about 1 524, were ordered to make for the port of 
Corunna.* 

During the rest of 1621, or in 1522, Verrazano may 
have attempted the first voyage of discovery alluded to 
in his letter to King Francis, but of this we shall speak 
further on. 

On this first cruise he says he had four vessels, and the 
expression in the preamble to the letter, " that which had 
been accomplished by the four ships" alludes, no doubt, 
to the rich spoil he had taken from the Spaniards in 1521, 
as well as to the attempt to sail to the north-west. This 
supposition finds confirmation in the same heading of 
the letter, where, in allusion to another cruise, the words 
"what we did with this fleet of war " seem to refer to 
his great capture of 1523. He was not making open war 
on the Spaniards, and had, no doubt, been instructed to 
conceal all mention of any aggressive acts toward them. 

In 1522, he seems to have made an unsuccessful cruise, 
at least if we can believe Viera, the historian of the 
Canaries,! who, writing in 1772, seems to have neglected 
the authors we have quoted, but derives his information 
on the subject of Verrazano from the MS. history of Don 
Pedro Augustin del Castillo, preserved in Teneriffe. In 
this year, as he says, the governor of these islands, Pedro 
Suares de Castilla, ordered a squadron of five small ves- 
sels to seek for the corsair. It met him off the Punta de 
Gando, with seven captured emigrant vessels, which he 
had taken while on their way from Cadiz to the islands. 
He was chased and forced to release his prizes, which 
seem to have been of little value. Viera adds that he 
betook himself to the Azores, and there captured two 
treasure-ships of Cortes, but this occurred, as we shall 
see, in 1523. It is uncertain whether he returned in 1522 

* See notes, Martyr \ Dec. 8. I See notes, Viera. 



158 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

to France, or remained in Spanish waters. Martyr,* in 
1522, records a rumor that the French pirates had fifteen 
ships, and that many of them were cast away on the 
coast of Africa. This report may have been a garbled 
version of the story told by Viera. 

On the 15th of May, 1522, Cortes despatched his third 
letter to the king, dating it from Cuyoacan, near Mexico, 
after the capture of the capital. The consignment accom- 
panying this letter comprised in treasure, jewels, rarities 
and live animals, the most valuable collection hitherto 
sent from the Western Indies to Spain. It included the 
emperor 9 s fifth, a present from Cortes and his men to the 
monarch, and consignments to individuals. Two of the 
three vessels bearing this precious freight were in charge 
of Antonio de Quinones and Alonzo de Avila, Diego de 
Ordaz and Alonzo de Mendoza, while Juan de Eibera, the 
secretary of Cortes, was made the chief envoy, and 
entrusted with the despatches and the presentation of the 
imperial share of the treasure, borne on the third vessel, t 
A glowing description of the treasure and curiosities can 
be found in some detail in Martyr, Oviedo, Gromara, 
Herrera and other Spanish historians. 

According to Bernal Diaz, these vessels left Vera Cruz 
on the 20th of December, 1522. This date is erroneous, 
and although we do not know the exact day of their 
departure, it was made, probably, in June, 1522. They 
passed into the Atlantic through the channel of the 
Bahamas, piloted, as before, by Antonio de Alaminos, 
the discoverer of this passage.^ One notable event of the 
voyage was the escape from its cage of a tiger, which 
killed and wounded several sailors. The little fleet put 
in at the Azores, where two of the vessels, fearing corsairs, 
concluded to remain, and actually stayed, over the winter, 

♦Dec. 5th, chap. 8. 

t According to Martyr. Herrera, Dec. Ill, Lib. Ill, Cap. I, is confused on 
the subject. 
| See notes, €hdf of Mearico. 



Verrazano as a Corsair, 159 

but the third, bearing Juan de Bibera and a small part 
of the treasure, continued the voyage and reached Spain 
in safety. The treasure had been long expected, and 
Peter Martyr says, iu a letter of July 14th, 1522, that the 
vessels had been sighted off the coast, but this proved a 
false report. In his letter of November 19th,* he speaks 
of Juan de Bibera' s quite recent arrival. Tired of wait- 
ing at the Azores, Diego de Ordaz and some others also 
reached home safely, in a Portuguese vessel. 

In 1523, | the Council of the Indies, either of its own 
accord or acting on a decree of the emperor, had instructed 
Capt. Domingo Alonzo to convoy a fleet of East Indian 
bound vessels as far as the Canaries, \ and then repair to 
the Azores, with his three caravels, and convoy the Mexi- 
can vessels home. The rich convoy sailed from Santa 
Maria, of the Azores, about the middle or end of May, 
1523. It consisted of the three vessels of war, the two 
treasure-ships of Cortes, and of another treasure-ship 
from Espanola. When the fleet were just about to sight 
Cape St. Vincent, and were thirty-five geographical miles 
(ten Spanish leagues) from it, a fleet of six vessels was 
descried coming to meet them. Probably they were mis- 
taken for Spanish vessels, and were allowed to come 
close aboard; at any rate, the strange fleet attacked them, 
proving to be armed French corsairs, fitted out from La 
Rochelle, and under the command of the dreaded Juan 
Florin himself. 

One of the Spanish caravels took to flight ; the others 
fought bravely, but were overcome and .forced to surren- 
der with their convoy, Antonio de. Quinones being killed 
during the action. § The date of the capture is not given, 

* See notes, Martyr, Contarini. 

t See notes, Martyr, Dec. VII, Cap. IV; and also Cortes de VaUadoHd, 1523. 

% These were the first Spanish trading-vessels bound there, the Vittoria, 
under Sebastian del Cano, haying returned a few months before, viz., Sep- 
tember 6th, 1522. 

§See note, Htrrera, 1528. 



160 Notes on the Verbazano Map. 

but Martyr's letter concerning it was written June 11th, 
1523, and Contarini' s on the 7th, probably within a week 
of its occurrence.* Curiously enough, there is no distinct 
mention of it in the decades of Peter Martyr, though he 
speaks of it in 1525 as an event that happened three years 
before. The two treasure-ships were taken, and Herrera 
and Gtomara include the ship from Espanola, also. With 
this great prize, perhaps the largest made up to that time, 
and with Davila a prisoner, Florin got safely home to 
La Rochelle. Davila was kept a prisoner there for three 
years. A portion of the treasure was laid at the feet of 
Francis the First. 

Charles felt the loss deeply, and soon afterward issued 
a second order, f of wider application than the first one of 
1523, and the Council ot the Indies thereupon ordered 
that all homeward-bound vessels should rendezvous at 
Hispaniola, in order to be convoyed safely home. Conta- 
rini says, that he ordered pursuit to be made from several 
ports, offering the pursuers one-half of the treasure if it 

could be ivcaptured4 

The disappointment of Hernan Cortes, when he learned 
of this loss, may be imagined, but drawing a lesson from 
experience, he took measures also, in order to avoid such 
mishaps in the future. 

The Spaniards complained bitterly of these depreda- 
tions, committed by vessels countenanced and perhaps 
sent out by a friendly sovereign, but. the neutrality obli- 
gations of those days were almost as lax as those of some 
modern maritime powers. The Greeks, Moors and Nor- 
mans had been leading piratical nations, and the Norse 
taste for predatory expeditions developed the race of 
buccaneers, which inflicted so much loss and damage on 
the Spaniards in the seventeenth century. The jealous 

* See note, Martyr, Contarini; see Oviedp, for an estimate of the value of 
the capture, 
f See Cortes de Toledo, 1525, and Herrera, Dec. Ill, Lib. VII, Cap. IV. 
\ See note, Contarini, 



Verrazano as a Corsair. 161 

colonial policy of Spain encouraged in other nations a 
desire to partake in the rich harvest, and in the end, 
impoverished her. Had the colonies been thrown open 
to foreign settlement and to a trade at least partially 
free, instead of being treated as they were, as part of the 
royal patrimony, a widely different result would have 
ensued. 

Verrazano, who probably reaped a large share of the 
treasure and spoils derived from this capture, was again 
fitted out with a stronger fleet than before, and, accord- 
ing to Barcia, who is not always reliable in his accounts, 
made innumerable prizes in Spanish waters. He may 
have made another piratical trip in 1523, but if so, there 
is no particular mention of him in connection with it. 
Herrera says, that Pedro de Manrique was sent out, 
probably after the decree of 1523 had been issued, with 
a strong fleet of five vessels to convoy, from the Azores, 
five vessels from Puerto de la Angra, in the island of Ter- 
ceira, known as the Armada de Averias,* and carrying 
an immense treasure of gold, pearls, sugar, etc. This 
was brought safely to Seville, and half the treasure was 
borrowed by the emperor to pay for the outfit of his army 
against Francis the First, f Perhaps Verrazano had 
watched the armament of Manrique, and finding it too 
strong to be attacked, resolved to make a second attempt 
at exploration, refitting in Madeira, and starting with 
the Dauphine alone early in 1524. 

After his return from this last voyage, under date of 
July 8th, 1524, he writes to the French king, reporting 
what he had accomplished, and seems to have repaired 
to court % in August, the king being at Lyons. We 
incline, however, to the opinion that he made other and 
successful piratical expeditions to his previous field of 

•One fitted out by the custom-house authorities, 
t Herrera, Dec. Ill, Lib. IV, Cap. XXI. 

J He was expected there, according to Fernando Carlis' letter, first pub- 
lished in 1853: see notes. 

11 



162 Notes on the Verbazano Map. 

adventure. The story that ie was taken and hung in 
this year has been told by two Spanish chroniclers, but 
it cannot easily be maintained in the face of recorded 
facts to the contrary, which we shall presently bring for- 
ward. 

We learn by a letter of Peter Martyr, dated August 4, 
1524,* that Florinus had captured, but a short time before 
this date, a richly laden Portuguese ship, bringing from 
the Indies a freight valued at 180,000 ducats. If this 
prize was taken at this date by Verrazano, he must have 
fitted out for the cruise in great haste, if we are to accept 
the date of his letter of July 8th from Dieppe as a true 
one. Martyr was, no doubt, using Florin' s name in this 
case without proper authority. 

The Council of the Indies, acting on the royal decree 
of 1523, fitted out some well-armed Biscayan vessels, 
which encountered and captured, in 1524, a piratical 
French fleet, and the pirates were taken to Seville to be 
tried. That pirates were taken is probable, but that 
Florinus was taken with them, as stated by Bernal Diaz 
and De Barcia, f seems unlikely. Viera does not speak 
of such a capture, but as he writes only of the Canaries, 
he may have omitted any reference to it, as not being 
within his subject-matter. Herrera, the most reliable 
authority, is also silent about the matter, which in an 
author otherwise so minute and careful, is significant 
Peter Martyr, too, so very communicative on all such 
matters, says nothing about the capture and hanging of 
French pirates. The only authors who mention such a 
capture, and who name Florinus as the captain of the 
pirates, are the ones above mentioned. 

The first of these, Bernal Diaz, says that the pirates 
were taken to Seville, and that Florinus, with other pirate 
captains, was forwarded to Madrid, but that the king sent 
an order to hang them on the spot, and Diaz adds that 

* See note, Martyr. f See notes, Bernal Diaz and De Barcia. 



Verrazano as a Corsair. 163 

the hanging took place in the Puerto del Pico. This port 
is on one of the Azores of the same name, and opposite 
Fayal, where criminals had from a very old date been 
hung, and until quite recently was still the scene of such 
executions. Bernal Diaz did not, perhaps, know that 
Pico was a small mountain village on the road to Madrid, 
and naturally made the above mistake. He, however, 
was in Mexico at the time, and his authority, in regard to 
the identification of Florinus with the person hung as 
leader of the pirates, is not of great weight. 

The only other authority for the same facts is Gonzales 
de Barcia, who, writing in 1723 in his Ensayo de Florida* 
under the year 1534, says that four Biscayan vessels took 
Florinus and carried him to Seville, with his companions. 
He adds that they were sent, or were about to be sent, to 
Madrid, but that to satisfy an influential and angry clamor 
he was hung in the Puerto del Pico, together with the 
other pirate captains. Barcia, who seems to have copied 
Bernal Diaz and made his confusion still worse, seems to 
have made another mistake, for it is improbable that the 
corsair chiefs, once in Seville, should have been sent to 
the Azores for execution. 

The late Buckingham Smith assured us that he had 
been to the village of Pico, and "that he had seen and 
copied the order for the execution. Unluckily, as he 
stated, the order, signed by the king, was given at Lerma, 
where the court then was, but bore no date. These docu- 
ments of Mr. Smith, which are soon to be published, and 
to which, on that account, access has been denied us, 
would prove that some pirates were executed at Pico, 
while the king was at Lerma ; but the name Florinus, 
even if it appears in the judge's order, would not prove 
that the career of the corsair ended here. 

Notwithstanding such evidence, we hazard the conjec- 
ture that the indignant Spaniards did not get hold of the 
right man, but that either they assumed they had him (for 
it seems that the commander in question had never been 



164 Notes on the Verraza.no Map. 

seen by the Spaniards), or that the chief so mentioned 
was a delegate or lieutenant, perhaps a relative, of our 
herb, commanding his vessels while he was on his explor- 
ing voyage or attending the king. This is not an improb- 
able explanation of what appear to be contradictory 
statements, for we have very strong and positive testi- 
mony that our navigator was alive after the year 1524. 

Upon comparing the accounts left us by these two 
authors, it is almost certain that the last copied the first 
in most of the particulars relating to Juan florin; and if 
so, the reported death of the corsair at the hands of the 
Spaniards must be taken as founded on hearsay only. 

We learn from Peter Martyr that the French corsairs 
were actively and successfully cruising for Spanish prises 
in 1525,* but he does not again name Florinus as one of 
their commanders. A French document of 1526-7, to be 
spoken of presently, would seem to show that Verrazano 
was still disposed to pick up a prize, if possible, and 
perhaps he did so, but this is merely conjecture. Let 
us however proceed to that part of his career which more 
nearly concerns us, namely his voyage to the American 
coast in 1524. 

Verrazano' s Voyage to America. 

We shall now speak of our navigator in his character 
of explorer, though he is only known as such by a letter 
addressed to Francis the First, just after his return from 
a voyage across the western sea. That other papers con- 
cerning this voyage were written, we know from the state- 
ment of Verrazano himself, and from Ramusius, but 
these papers are not now to be found. The letter to 
King Francis, dated at Dieppe, July 8th, 1524, proposes 
to give an outline only of his doings as an explorer. By 
a singular chance, this letter or a copy of it, found its 
way to Florence, the home of its author, and the diligent 

•See notes, Martyr, Dec. VIII, Cap. IX. 



Verrazano's Voyage to America. 165 

• 

Ramusio, or as he Latinized his name, Ramusius or 
Rhamnusius, secured it for the third volume of his col- 
lection of voyages and travels (published in 1556), and 
prefaced it with a eulogy of the navigator. Without 
omitting anything of importance, Ramusius, as it will be 
seen, has amended the style of the original letter. 

Were it not for this narrative, thus saved from oblivion 
by the Italian geographer, the name of Verrazano would 
have been an enigma to after ages ; for the meagre notices 
of him elsewhere found, would have afforded little to 
gratify curiosity. For three hundred years this letter 
was the only document attesting the fact of his voyage, 
and it seemed hopeless to expect that any chart, authen- 
ticating it,though such an one had been seen by the English 
geographer, Hakluyt, in 1582, should have been preserved 
to our times. 

The letter of the Florentine, as it first appeared in 1556, 
unaccompanied by any confirmatory document, might 
well appear to be of doubtful authenticity. Such a letter 
might easily have been composed, either from oral or 
written information, by a clever writer familiar with the 
general results of the voyage of Estevan Gomez, in 1525, 
and it would of course be antedated, in order to establish 
a French claim to the hitherto unknown coast, from lat. 
30° to 45° N, one thousand geographical miles in extent ; 
from Florida to Bacalaos. No doubts of this kind, how- 
ever, appear to have been raised, perhaps because Verra- 
zano and his voyage were too well known at the time, to 
permit such doubts to be entertained. The exploration 
is confidently spoken of by Pierre Orignon, in 1539,* as 
having been made fifteen years before this date. Ramu- 
sius publishes Crignon's Memoir in 1556, f in the same 
volume which contains the. Florentine's letter and no 
doubt was ever raised against the voyage until recently. 
A map similar to the one described below, seems to have 

* See notes, EskmceUn. \ See notes, Bamuriw. 



166 NOTES ON THE VERRAZANO MAP. 

been generally known to geographers about 1530, for the 
great western sea, which is depicted on the map found in 
Rome, appears on oharts after that date, and the name 
New France was given to our coasts, by all except Span- 
ish geographers,* even before Car-tier's voyage of 1534, 
and before the third volume of Ramusins was published. 

Verrazano wap probably familiar with all previous 
explorations of the New World, inoluding the recent 
return of Magellan's last vessel, and had learned also 
that the only unexplored gap in the line of the new con- 
fluent was comprised within eertain limits, say from lati- 
tude 84° to 45° North. The avowed object of his voyage 
was, therefore, the discovery of a strait or passage within 
these parallels, to Cathay and the Spice Islands, shorter 
than the one discovered by Magellan in the far south. 

Finding the New World as a great barrier to the 
approach of the rich East, and realising after the dis- 
covery in 1513 by Vasco Nufiez de Balboa of the South 
Sea, near Panama, and the long voyage across it by 
Magellan in 1521, that Asia was not connected with 
America, within the tropics, the Spaniards had almost 
abandoned the search for a nearer passage by sea to the 
Moluccas, Cipango and Cathay. Just at this time, Verra- 
zano made his adventurous voyage, unsuccessful as to its 
primary object, but most interesting to Americans, as the 
first account of our coast by a European. 

A close and critical analysis of this letter has not 
yet been made. The late Buckingham Smith doubted its 
authenticity, and sought to prove, from the letter itself, 
as also by contemporaneous evidence recently brought to 
light, that it was fictitious, and was probably composed 
by some Italian, anxious to heap laurels on the brows of 
his countrymen. Mr. Smith's "Inquiry" of 1864, is 
ingenious but not exhaustive, f Shortly after its appear- 

*See Munster's Ptolemy of 1530, and other maps given by Kohl; Maine 
Hist. Soc., PI. XIII-XV. Also notes, Maps after V&rrasano. 
f See notes, B. Smith. 



Verrazano's Voyage to America. 167 

ance, he learned that a map by Jerome Verrazano 
was preserved in Rome. In 1866, he published some 
remarks on M. Thomassy' s account of it, still doubting 
whether it would serve to prove the genuineness of the 
letter. His idea of the original map seems to have been 
that it was on a very small scale, for he translates the 
modern label "carta pecora" (parchment map) as 
"small map. 99 He endeavored, but in vain, to procure 
a copy of it, though, had he been successful, his opinions 
would have been materially altered. 

Dr. J. Gh Kohl, the most able comparative geographer 
of our day, has also examined the letter,* and finds no 
reason to reject it. He examines the narrative closely, 
presenting his views concerning the exploration, which 
are entitled to great consideration, although he had also 
been unable to procure a copy of the chart now before us 
to compare with the letter. 

If the letter of 1534 had been fictitious, and had been 
written with the intention of supporting a prior claim by 
the French monarch, it would have been heralded forth 
and great efforts would have been made to circulate it as 
widely as the despatches of Cortes, which appeared about 
that time. Documents giving the instructions or patent 
to the explorer would have accompanied this manifesta- 
tion, and a map would have been given or spoken of as a 
proof of the actual exploration. It may be urged that 
the disasters which overtook France, and the capture of 
the king, prevented this publication, but these being past, 
no attempt was made to wrest from the Spaniards the 
claim acquired by the voyage of Gomez. The main 
object of the voyage, besides the discovery of a strait or 
passage to the Indies, was, no doubt, the further hope of 
finding another Mexico to conquer and plunder. 

Disappointed at the poor results of the voyage, the 
French gave it no further thought, and similar indiffer- 



* Op. cit., p. 248-70 and p. 290, note; also in notes. 



168 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

enoe attended the Spanish voyage of Gomez. These 
explorers brought home no gold, and reported but little 
that was inviting to Europeans. The notion that the pre- 
cious metals were only to be sought for under the tropics 
was deeply rooted in the minds of men of that day, and 
the failure of the Cabots and Cortereals to discover rich 
countries in the north caused these early explorations to 
be neglected. 

The learned and painstaking Italian editor, in his pre- 
fatory remarks to the letter, * expresses most distinctly 
his belief in the person and exploit of Verrazano, saying 
that he had received from many persons who knew him, 
the views entertained by the explorer respecting further 
voyages to be made to these coasts for settlement and 
discovery. Ramusius also had seen or heard of other 
letters, which he says were then lost, apparently stating 
it as a fact known to others besides himself. Pierre Crig- 
non, writing in 1539, speaks of the voyage as having been 
made fifteen years before, without having, apparently, 
any knowledge of the letter to the king, first printed in 
1556. 

Hakluyt is another witness to the truth of the voyage, 
though of a much later date ; but his statement is very 
explicit, and confirms the fact that Verrazano had pre- 
pared a map, which he had seen. In another memoir of 
Hakluyt, which is about to be published by the Maine 
Historical Society, this map is again spoken of.f 

The existence of Verrazano, and of a map prepared by 
himself or by his direction, is thus put beyond doubt, 
and it will hardly be necessary to refute the arguments 
of the late Buckingham Smith in greater detail. % 

Sir Humphrey Gilbert* who was a diligent collector of 
charts in support of his views respecting a north-west 
passage, makes, however, no mention of Verrazano 9 s map 

* 

* See notes, Bamusius. f See notes, HakfayL 

% See notes, B. Smith. 



Vmrbazanc?8 Voyage to Amebic a. 169 

either in his discourse or map of 1566, although he speaks 
of the voyage as an accomplished fact. 

This map, prepared, most probably, by Juan himself, 
(for his brother or relative Jerome is nowhere named by 
Haklnyt), was, no doubt, a duplicate of the one which he 
must have sent to the French monarch. It is nowhere 
stated that Juan was in England, and the story told by 
Hakluyt of his having made offers of discovering new 
lands to Henry the Eighth, has, so far, not a document to 
support it, though such an one may yet be found. 

Who this Hieronimus di Verrazano, designer of the 
map now before us, could be, is uncertain. He is not 
mentioned anywhere, unless the allusion to Giovanni's 
brother, in Garo's letter, may have reference to him. 
Researches made in the proper quarter may explain his 
connection with the navigator. Possibly, he had accom- 
panied his relative on the exploring voyage. He must 
have been an experienced cartographer, for his work is 
quite equal to anything of the kind at that date, and 
duplicates of it may yet be found. 

We shall not attempt to criticise this newly revealed 
.Mapamundi in detail. Any study of its general construc- 
tion, and of its merits, would carry us too far away from 
the main point' of interest to us, namely, its representation 
of our coasts as explored by Juan, in 1524, being the 
earliest authentic representation of them hitherto found. 

The letter in question is given in the Collections of the 
New York Historical Society, Vol. I, New Series, 1841, 
with a translation of it, prepared by the late J. GK Cogs- 
well. This translation was made from a manuscript copy 
which had been procured by Mr. GK W. Greene, in 1837, 
in Florence. Tiraboschi, in his History of Italian litera- 
ture, Yol. VII, page 261, had mentioned this text, and 
also a cosmographical treatise by Verrazano, as preserved 
in the Strozzi library in Florence. The Hon. Gteorge 
Bancroft drew attention to this notice in his History of 
the United States, Vol. I, page 20. 



170 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

Mr. Greene, then U. S. Consul in Tuscany, found the 
MS. in the Magliabecchian library, which shared with 
the Laurentian, the old Strozzi collection, the former 
library receiving all the historical documents. The MS. 
is contained in a volume of miscellanies, marked class 
XIII, Cod. 89, Verraz. The letter and the appendix, Mr 
Greene says, are " written in the common running hand 
of the sixteenth century, tolerably distinct, but badly 
pointed," and the rest of the volume, containing miscel- 
laneous pieces, chiefly relating to contemporary history, 
is evidently the work of the same hand. 

The text, however, although the same in substance, 
was found in point of style to be quite different from that 
given by Bamusius, who appears to have " worked the 
whole piece over anew," correcting and improving the 
sailor's rough language. The manuscript was fall of 
Latinisms and barbarous forms intermixed with pure Tus- 
. can. The appendix, not given by Ramusius, " does not 
appear to be free from errors, some of which may be 
ascribed to the copyist" 

It is not known whether the letter was first written in 
French or Italian. The subscription is a Latinized name,, 
but it could hardly have been written in Latin. Nor is 
the original mentioned anywhere by any immediate 
cotemporary but the one to whom its preservation is due. 
This letter is followed, in the Strozzi volume, by the let- 
ter of a young Florentine, Fernando Carli, addressed from 
Lyons to his father in Florence, portions of which we 
give in the appendix. 

Carli was in Lyons when the letter reached the King, 
and it seems to have been circulated and talked about. 
Carli, who appears to have had a taste for the sea, and 
who had before given accounts of the doings of a fleet 
fitted out to pursue Moorish pirates, saw the letter, and 
writes August 4th, 1524, to his father, about Verrazano' 8 
voyage, which he knew would interest the Florentines as 
compatriots of the explorer. He says that he has added 



Verrazano* 8 Voyage to America. 171 

a copy of Yerrazano's letter to his own, and Mr. Greene 
thinks that these were circulated and copied in Flor- 
ence ; the Strozzi manuscript being probably one of these 
copies. 

Carli' s letter, however, was not published Until 1853, 
when it appeared in the Archivo Storico Italiano, etc., 
Tome IX, Firenze. Mr. Buckingham Smith had it trans- 
lated for his paper, read before the New York Historical 
Society, October 4, 1864, in the printed copy of which 
both texts of it are given. Mr. .Smith treats this letter as 
a fiction, simply because it does not allude to any other 
event besides this voyage, which fact we consider to be 
the best proof of its genuineness. In fact Carli says that 
he has written about other news before. 

As a confirmation of Yerrazano's letter, .we give Mr. 
Smith's version of Carli' s letter, slightly corrected, in 
the appendix. It will be noticed that a distinct allusion 
is made to the cosmographical portion of Yerrazano's 
letter. The mention of a disastrous beginning of the 
voyage, is owing to his confounding the first attempt 
with the second one. Near the close, he gives a clue to 
the fate of one of the two vessels, which from Verra- 
zano's letter, might be supposed to have been lost. 
Ramusius found them in Florence, and copied the Verra- 
zano letter only, omitting the cosmographical appendix 
and Carli' s letter. 

Mr. Greene, in his article on Verrazano, which appeared 
in the October number of the North American Hevieto, 
and in his Historical Studies, which we have freely used 
in this memoir, mentions the researches made by himself 
elsewhere in Florence, in order to glean some facts con- 
cerning Verrazano, but that none were found. An 
examination of the family library, left by the last of the 
race, then recently deceased, had been made by an Italian 
bibliographer, who stated that he had found nothing 
about Giovanni, except "a manuscript bound up in the 
family copy of Ramusius, and a few loose papers. These 



172 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

last added nothing to what was already known. The 
former was purchased by Capt. Napier, R. N., and is 
now in England.' 9 Mr. Greene presumes that the MS. in 
in the bound volume, was the cosmographical appendix, 
or perhaps a copy of the same text as the one in the 
Magliabecchian library. He expresses a wish that Capt. 
Napier would publish it, if it should prove to contain 
anything not hitherto printed. As this has not been 
done, it is to be supposed that the surmise of Mr. Greene 
was correct. 



Let us first take up the heading of the letter, which we 
translate, giving also the original texts of it, both from 
Ramusius, and as published by Mr. Greene, in a note to 
his paper above quoted.* The text as given in the New 
York Historical Society Collections, varies slightly from 
it. Paraphrasing it afterwards, according to our sense 
of its meaning, is, perhaps, the readiest way of criticis- 
ing it. 

"The Capt. Giovanni da Verrazano, Florentine from Nor- 
mandy to the most serene orown of France, says: 

" After the luck met with on the Northern coasts, most serene 
Lord, I did not write to your most serene and most Christian 
Majesty, about that which had been accomplished by the four 
ships, which it had ordered on the ocean to discover new lands, 
thinking that it would have been kept informed of all, how by 
the impetuous force of the winds we were constrained, with only 
the ships Normanda and Dalfina damaged, to run bax5k to Brit- 
tany, where refitted, your sacred Majesty must have received 
the report of what we did with this fleet of war along the coasts 
of Spain, afterwards the new plan to pursue the first navigation 
with the Dalfina only, from which being returned, I will give an 
account to your sacred Majesty of what we have found." 

Verrazano was not a ready penman and had neglected 
making any direct report to the King before this one, an 

* See note, Heading qf Letter. 



VkrrazancPs Voyage to Amerjca. 173 

omission, or neglect which he seeks to excuse or palliate 
in the above awkward manner. We now offer a para- 
phrase of this heading, as explained by what we have 
gathered together in the earlier part of this paper. 

We made a first attempt at discovery (no date given, 
but probably 1522) with four ships, but were driven back 
by storms. The two ships If ormande and Dauphine, ran 
back to Brittany (probably to Brest) damaged, where we 
refitted. (He does not speak of the fate of the two 
others, but as Garli states that a certain Brunelleschi 
turned back at the first untoward obstacle they encoun- 
tered, it is probable that both came back safely.) I did 
not write about the ill-success of this voyage, knowing 
that you had been otherwise informed about it. After 
refitting and gathering a fleet of armed vessels, we cruised 
in Spanish waters and made prizes, as you well know. 
(He refers no doubt to his capture in May, 1523, of one 
of the treasure-ships of Cortes.) I then determined to 
sail from the Desiertas direct, with the Dauphine alone, 
(this was in the spring of 1524), and have now just 
returned from this voyage, &c. 

Yerrazano, as we have seen, was generally in the 
Spanish waters from May to November in the three con- 
secutive years 1521, 1522 and 1523. As we have shown 
in the first part of this paper, he captured a vessel with 
a large amount of gold early in the year 1521. In 1522 
he cruised near the Canaries, according to Viera, and was 
driven thence toward the Azores, and brought home no 
prizes. Perhaps, after taking some months to refit, he 
sailed on his first exploring voyage late in one of these 
years, which would account for his ill-success and return 
in distress early in 1523. We know that in May or June, 
1523, he captured the best of the three treasure- vessels 
sent out by Cortes in that year. He then may have sent 
his prize, with other vessels home, and sailed January 
17th, 1524, on his voyage to our coasts, the account of 
which is contained in the letter. It is hardly possible, as 



174 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

suggested by Dr. Kohl, that he could have made the first 
voyage in the autumn of 1523, and made another just 
after it, in 1524. 



We now give translated extracts of the most important 
passages of the letter, omitting the long accounts of the 
natives and selecting those which bear directly on the 
exploration of the coast. In doing this we have found 
it necessary to make a new translation, which is more 
literal than the one given in 1841, and which we believe 
to be a more strictly accurate rendering of the original. 

Verrazawo's Exploration op the American Coast. 

1. From the Desiertas rocks, near the Island of Madeira 
of his serene Majesty the King of Portugal, with the said 
Dauphine, on the 17th of the last month of January, with 
fifty men, furnished with victuals, arms and other warlike 
instruments, and naval ammunition, for eight months, 
we started, sailing westward with an easterly wind, blow- 
ing with gentle and moderate lightness. 

1. 1524 was Bissextile. 

The true date was January 27th, new style. 

The Desiertas are in latitude 32 deg. 30 min., long. 16 deg. 30 
miii., thirteen miles £. S. E. from Madeira. 

Appears to have sailed for over three weeks with the north 
trade-winds. 

2. In twenty-five [ 27 % ] days we ran 800 leagues, and on 
the 14th of February we encountered a tempest as severe 
as any one that sails ever experienced, from which, with 
divine aid and goodness, and to the praise of the glorious 
name ( of the ship % ), which, fortunately, was able to stand 
the violent billows of the sea, we were delivered, and 
resumed our navigation, continuing towards the west, 
inclining somewhat to the north, and in twenty-five [21 ?] 
days more we ran 400 leagues, when there appeared a 
new land never seen by ancient or modern. 



Exploration of the American Coast. 175 

2. He changed his course to W. N. W. in about long. 56 cleg. 
W., and must have passed well north of the Bermudas,* which 
appear to have- been unknown to him, although they were known 
to the Spaniards long before, for they appear on the map in Peter 
Martyr's works in 1511. He well knew the extent of the Spanish 
and French explorations, and is confirmed in his statement by 
Hen-era, who says that no Spanish vessel had been along this coast 
before the voyage of Gomez, in 1525. 

3. It showed itself somewhat low at first, but on 
approaching it, within a quarter of a league, we knew by 
the great fires which they were making on the coast that 
it was inhabited. We examined it, running to the south, 
seeking to find some port in it where we could anchor the 
ship to investigate its nature. 

3. Drifted northwardly by the Gulf Stream, of which he seems 
also to have been ignorant, his course must have been almost N. 
W. after the storm, and he could not possibly, as he claims, have 
made land in latitude 34 deg., but must have struck it about 39 
deg. 30 min:, off Little Eggharbor beach. 4 

He sighted land about March 6th, O. S. The fires were made 
by the Indians, who then flocked to the shore in the spring, to 
feast on shell-fish and manufacture shell money. His most south- 
erly point after this vas in 39 deg. 5 min., for if he had made 
his landfall in a lower latitude he would have seen and placed on 
his chart the great gulfs, known as Delaware and Chesapeake 
bays. Of these there is no trace on the map. 

His most southerly point must have been, therefore, in 39 deg. 
05 min., a few miles north of Cape May. He says nothing about 
the great inland or western sea depicted on his map, separated 
by a narrow isthmus from the Atlantic, and near which is the 
inscription given elsewhere. 

He may have learned from the Indians that there was a great 
sea to the west (the Delaware), or his sailors may have sighted 
what they took to be such from the mastheads. 

4. For the space of fifty leagues we could not find a 
suitable port of any kind where we could safely stay, and 

* See note, Examination of the Voyage. 



176 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

seeing that the land continued ascending (scendeva) 
towards the south, we determined to turn and examine it 
towards the north, where we found the same [difficulty] 
in landing on the coast. Ordering a boat to land, we saw 
a number of people, who came to the shore of the sea, 
and who fled as we approached, sometimes stopping and 
turning around, gazing with much admiration ; but reas- 
suring them with various signs, some of them came near, 
showing great pleasure on looking at the wonders of our 
dress and figure and white complexions, making divers 
signals (to show) where the boat could most easily land, 
and offering us their food. We could not learn many 
details concerning their customs on account of the short 
stay which we made on shore, and the distance (of the 
ship) from the shore. 

We found, not far from these, other people whosp mode 
of life we thought to be the same, and the shore was 
covered with fine sand fifteen feet high, extending in the 
shape of small hills some fifty paces broad. 

4. The description of the coast applies very exactly to the 
shores of New Jersey. Hudson, in 1609, describes it in almost 
the same terms, and saw so many fires, even in September, that 
he called one of the inlets Bamende gat, now Barnegat. 

His vivid and flattering description of the country and of its 
forests is exaggerated, in order to heighten the value of his dis- 
covery. But few trees in leaf could have been observed as early 
as March. The earliest flowering tree is the dogwood or Cornus 
florida y which opens about May 10th. . 

5. Then ascending we found some arms of the sea which 
entered through some inlets washing the shore on one and 
the other side, as the coasts run. (Poi ascendendo si 
trovana alcuni bracci di mare che entrano per alcune 
foci rigando il lita dall una all. altra parte come corre il 
lito de quello. [This should, perhaps, read " channelling 
the beach from side to side as the coast runs. " ] When 
near by, the land shows itself broad, and so high that it 
rises above the sandy coast, with fine landscapes and a 



Exploration of the American Coast. 177 

country full of very great forests, partly open and partly 
dense, dressed in various colored trees of as great a size 
and agreeable appearance as it is possible to express. 

5. This is the only description in the letter that we believe can 
be applied to the harbor of New York. He probably anchored 
outside of Sandy Hook or in the outer harbor, and saw Shrews- 
bury river, the Kills, and the Narrows, observed the bar and 
rapid tides, thus satisfying himself, without penetrating to the 
inner bay, that there was no strait here leading to the South sea. 
The expression " washing the shores on both sides as the coasts 
run " would apply to several parts of these coasts, but taken in 
connection with the " several arms of the sea" it applies especially 
to the two long sandy spits known as Sandy Hook and Coney 
Island, which form the entrance of New York harbor. 

His mention of land rising inland makes it almost certain that 
he was in New York harbor. No such feature is seen south of it. 
He would have in view from his anchorage, Long Island, rising to 
about 100 feet, Staten Island to 307, and the Navesink Highlands 
232 feet, these last being close to the shore. 

6. It [the land] has many lakes and ponds of living 
water, with numerous kinds of birds adapted to all the 
pleasures of the chase. This land is in 34°, the air 
wholesome, pure, and tempered as to cold and heat. 
The winds do not blow fiercely in these regions, and those 
which prevail most are north-west and west. 

During the summer season in which we were there, the 
sky is clear, with little rain ; and when sometimes the 
southern winds bring in suddenly some fog or mists, they 
do not last, and are dispersed, it becoming pure and clear. 
The sea is gentle and not boisterous, its waves being 
gentle. Although all the coast is low and devoid of ports, 
it is not dangerous to navigators, being all clear and with- 
out any rock. The depth, as near as four or five paces 
from the shore, at high or low water, is twenty feet, 
increasing with such uniform proportion to the depths of 
the sea, with such good holding ground, that any ship, 

however tossed by a tempest in those parts, cannot perish. 
12 



178 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

provided the cable does not break, and this we have 
proved by experience. This we positively tested, for in 
the beginning of March, the winds blowing with great 
force, as in other regions, we were riding with the ship on 
the open sea, and found that the anchor must break before 
it would drag or make any movement. 

6. This paragraph in the letter, including a part not here 
given, forms a reaumdoi all that he had observed up to this time, 
with general remarks that apply to the whole of our coast. 

Notices, the prevalent north-west winds, a peculiar feature 
in our climate. Also the absence of fogs, the absence of all out- 
lying rocks, and the good anchorage along the coast, with the 
shelving bottom. He exaggerates, however, the boldness of the 
coast, as forty or fifty paces would be the nearest distance for 
such a depth as he notes. This may be due to an error of the 
copyist. He could hardly have invented the combination of all 
these features, so different from any part of the European shores. 

Comparing the narrative with the chart, it will be seen that 
there is an indentation of the coast which is, no doubt, meant to 
indicate New York harbor, for the trend of the coast here 
changes, as represented on the map and described in the letter. 

7. We started from this place, continuing to run along 
the coast, which we found turning to the west [east], 
observing along the whole of it great fires from the num- 
ber of its inhabitants. Approaching the shore to get 
water, there being no port, we ordered the boat on shore 
with twenty-five men [ a large boat ? ]. On account of the 
very heavy surf beating on the shore, which was quite 
exposed, it was not possible, without peril of losing the 
boat, for any one to put foot on shore. We saw many 
people coming to the shore making various friendly signs, 
pointing out where we might land. 

7. Leaving New York harbor, he finds the coast running vest 
(evidently a mistake for east), and runs down the south shore of 
Long Island. There are but three or four practicable inlets along 
this coast, and they are not readily discovered when a few miles 
at sea. 



j 



Exploration of the American Coast. 179 

Long Island, and particularly Rockaway bay, was a great 
resort for the purpose of manufacturing wampum or seawan, 
the money currency of the natives. Numerous shell beds 
line the shores of the bay where the manufacture was carried 
on. The incident related here probably happened on Rock- 
away beach, where the land meets the narrow and barren outer 
sand-bar, which for over seventy miles separates the ocean from 
the bay or lagoons behind it. It must have happened at some 
point where there is no outer beach. 

8. Leaving here, and always following the shore, which 
turned towards the north (meaning somewhat to the north), 
we came, in the space of fifty leagues, to another land 
which seemed very beautiful, and full of the largest for- 
ests. Landing on it, twenty men went about two leagues 
into the land, and found that the people, from fear, had 
fled into the woods. We saw many of their boats, made 
from a single log twenty feet long and four feet wide, 
which are manufactured without [the help of] iron or 
stone, or any kind of metal, for in the space of the whole 
200 leagues which we had coasted of this land, no stone 
of any kind was seen by us. By the aid of the fourth 
element they take out enough wood to serve for the hollow 
of the boat, and do the same for the bow and stern, so 
that in navigating it may cut the water. 

The land, as to site, richness and beauty is like the 
other, full of forests of various kinds of woods, but not 
so odoriferous, from being more northerly and colder. 

8. The south coast of Long Island has a general trend to the . 
E. N. £., and there is but one conspicuous inlet (Fire Island inlet) 
along its whole extent of 115 geographical miles. The first third 
of the island lies nearly east find west, the rest turning to about 
E. N. E. by N*. Thus his course, first east and then north, may 
be understood as applying to Long Island. By the expression 
u stretched to the north," he means that the land was to the north 
of him. He appears to have landed again near Quogue or Bridge- 
hampton. His remark that this is another land, distinguishes 
Long Island from New Jersey distinctly. 



180 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

9. After remaining in this land three days, riding on 
the coast, from the paucity of harbors, we resolved to 
depart, running always along the coast, between north 
and east, and only sailing [by day] and dropping anchor 
at night. 

9. The navigator certainly repeats himself here, that is, writing 
carelessly or hurriedly, and having made digressions, he means 
that after leaving either New York harbor or the Rockaway 
shore he sailed rather more to the N. £. 

10. At the end of a hundred leagues, we found a very 
pleasant site placed among some small rising hills, in the 
midst of which there ran towards the sea a very large 
river, which was deep at its mouth, and from the sea to 
the hills there, on the flood tide, which we found eight 
feet [rise], there might have passed ships of any burthen. 
Being, however, anchored on the coast in a good berth, 
we did not wish to venture in without a knowlege of the 
entrance. We proceeded with a boat to enter the river 
and land, which we found very populous, and the people 
much like the others, dressed with birds' feathers of divers 
colors. They came towards us joyfully, emitting very 
great shouts of admiration, showing us where, with the 
boat, it was safest to land. We ascended the said river 
into the land about half a league, where we saw a tine 
lake about three leagues in circuit, through which there 
were passing from shore to shore about thirty of their 
boats, with numbers of people who were crossing over to 
see us. In a moment, as often happens in navigating, a 
violent contrary wind from the sea blowing up, we were 
forced to return to the ship, leaving the said land with 
much regret, considering that from its convenience and 
pleasant aspect it could not but have some valuable 
quality, as all the hills there showed minerals. 

10. Passing around Montauk point, the easterly extremity of 
Long Island, he would find a great contrast awaiting him, for 
whereas he had hitherto sailed along a sandy coast without rocks, 



Exploration or the American Coast. 181 

and, excepting New York, with only low hills in the distance, he 
now would find in front of him the rocky coast of Connecticut, 
and the outlying rocky islets known as Gull or Fisher's islands, 
while in the distance, on the right, he saw Block island, the only 
really detached island along our coast, from the Bahamas, near 
Florida, in latitude 26 deg. 30 min., to this island, in lat. 41. deg. 
10 min. Some have considered that either Nantucket or Martha's 
Vineyard were here described, but there can be no doubt that 
these islands were not noticed by him as insular. 

The " pleasant situation among steep hills, etc.," is probably 
the mouth of the Thames, which he reached, passing through the 
race between Fisher's and Gull islands. The tidal current 
through the race was observed by him and is alluded to here. 
The vessel was anchored in the roadstead behind Fisher's 
island, fearing to enter, and a strong southerly gale might well 
have induced his boat to return to the ship. 

The distinct indication on the map of a large inlet, resembling 
Long Island sound, was put down while here. He may have 
explored it sufficiently to be satisfied that it was not a strait such 
as he was searching to discover. 

11. Weighing anchor, we sailed eastward, as the land 
turned that way, running eighty leagues. [Ramusius 
says fifty.] We saw, always in sight of it* (sempre a vista 
di quella discoprimmo), an island of triangular form, 
distant ten leagues from the continent, in size like to the 
island of Rhodes, full of hills, covered with trees and 
thickly inhabited, [judging] from the series of fires 
which we saw them making all along the shore. We 
baptized it with the name of your illustrious mother 
[Louisa]. 

11. The fifty or eighty leagues is an overestimate, and the 
island he saw, and which was certainly Block island, must have 
been noticed before. It has no harbor, and the shores are gravel 
and sand cliffs, the interior being hilly, and at that time covered 
with trees, which may have made it appear higher. 

* The punctuation may alter the sense here so as to read, " running eighty 
leagues, always in sight qf it" i.e., the land; the island being discovered after* 
wards. 



182 Notes on tbe Verrazano Map. 

12. Not coming to anchor there on account of the con- 
trary weather, we came to another land, distant fifteen 
leagues from the island. We found a very fine port, into 
the mouth of which we entered. We saw about twenty 
boats with people, who came with various cries and 
wonder around the ship, not approaching nearer than 
fifty paces, stopping to consider our build, our looks, 
and dress. Then they altogether sent up a loud shout, 
signifying pleasure. Reassuring them somewhat, and 
imitating their gestures, they came so near that we threw 
to them some bells and mirrors and many trinkets, which 
they took laughing, and carefully looking around the 
ship. * * * We struck up a great friendship with them, 
and the day after, we entered the port with the ship, we 
having been anchored a league out at sea on account of a 
contrary wind. * * * They came with a number of their 
boats to the ship, their faces painted and daubed with 
various colors, showing real signs of pleasure, bringing 
us some of their provisions, making signs where we should 
anchor in the port for the safety of the ship, keeping with 
us until we had dropped anchor, in which we stayed 
fifteen days, refreshing ourselves in many ways. * * * 
They would rest on an island a quarter of a league from 
us. * * * We, several times, went inland five or six 
leagues, finding it as pleasant as is possible to be 
described ; all kinds of cultivation going on, corn, wine, 
and oil. There are spaces of twenty-five or thirty leagues 
of bare, open country, and devoid of any impediment of 
trees, of such fertility that any kind of seed in it would 
yield its utmost. 

12. He entered Narragansett bay only fourteen miles from 
Block island, and at first he seems to have anchored at its mouth, 
but afterwards between Goat island and the present town of 
Newport. Throughout the letter we have refrained from criti- 
cising the notices of the natives, confining our remarks to geog- 
raphical points only, but it would be impossible to describe the 



Exploration or the American Coast. 183 

inhabitants of these shores with such accidental precision, were 
the letter a mere fiction. 

Dr. Miller, in the New York Hist. Coll., Vol. I, applied this 
description of Narragansett bay to the harbor of New York. 
Dr. Cogswell, in the New Series, Vol. I, of the same, corrected 
him, but we think erred in making the description of the Thames 
adapt itself to New York. 

Our opinion, however, of the letter, in a geographical point of 
view, is that the navigator penned it in haste, and was more 
anxious to please the king, by a favorable report of the coasts 
explored, than to describe them correctly. The letter mast not 
be strictly accepted as detailing all the courses sailed, and as 
describing all the harbors visited. 

As he was here in April, he could not have found ripe fruit on 
the trees, but the Indians, as we know, laid in stores of dried 
fruit and nuts for the winter. The boats made from single logs, 
called dug-outs, are still made and use4 by the white people. The 
Indians used fire to hollow out their boats, applying the fire to a 
tree left standing, from which the bark had been removed a year 
beforehand. The fire could be easier managed on the upright 
log, so as to control the process, and make a neat finish. The 
broad-bladed paddle used by the two arms, without a rest, 
describes the Indian mode of rowing exactly. 

The round Indian lodges, thatched with marsh flags, were not 
peculiar to these tribes. The pulse was the maize or Indian corn, 
of which they had several varieties, and as stated, the planting 
and the harvesting were preceded by various ceremonial observ- 
ances. 

The most remarkable omission in the description of the natives 
is that of the habit of smoking tobacco, which prevailed among 
them as far north as Maine. 

13. This land is situated on the parallel of Rome, in 
41f °, but somewhat colder by accident and not by nature, 
as I will relate to your Majesty elsewhere. Describing 
now the site of the said place [posto, query porto^] it 
looks towards the south, half a league wide, then enter- 
ing, it extends to the east and north twelve leagues, where, 
widening, it forms a most ample basin, with a circuit of 



184 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

twenty leagues, in which are five islets of much fertility, 
and pleasant, full of high and spreading trees, among 
which islands any number of fleets might remain without 
fear of storms or of any other chance obstacles. Turning 
towards the south, at the entrance of the port, there are, 
on both sides, gentle hills, with many channels that pour 
clear water from the hills into the sea. In the midst of 
the mouth [of the harbor], there is a reef (scolio) of free 
stone, of a kind fitted to build any kind of machine or 
fort for its production. 

13. The latitude given here is nearly oorrect, the entrance of 
this bay being in latitude 41 deg. 27 min., which coupled with 
the notice that the harbor looks south, leaves hardly a doubt as 
to the identification of this position. 

He was able, here, to observe the latitude at leisure, and repeat- 
edly. With the instruments then used, the altitudes taken at sea 
were not trustworthy, being liable to an error of several degrees; 
but with a large wooden quadrant of some four feet radius, fitted 
with a plumb line, and on which the degrees were an inch long, 
it would be possible to read altitudes to within ten minutes. The 
rock is evidently meant for Goat island, which is admirably 
adapted to defend Newport harbor. This, it will be observed, 
was the only sheltered port into which he took his ship during 
the cruise. He was here from May first to sixteenth, new style. 

14. Having refreshed ourselves at our leisure, we left 
the said port on the sixth day of May, following the 
shore, never losing sight of the land. We sailed 150 
leagues, finding it of the same nature, and a little higher, 
with some mountains, which all showed minerals. We 
did not stop there for fear that the favorable weather 
might not last ( per la prosper ita del tempo ne serviva). 
Looking at the coast, we thought it was like the last. 

14. Leaving Newport, his course was first east-south-east, and 
then northerly. The one hundred and fifty leagues include the 
fifty mentioned just after; in fact, the last paragraph is a general 
sketch of the land north of Cape Ood, which he was about to 
explore. 



Exploration of the American Coast. 185 

15. The shore ran to the east ; in the space of fifty 
leagues, holding more to the north, we found a highland 
fall of dense woods, the trees in which were pines, 
cypresses, and snch like, which grow in cold regions. 
The people [were] quite different from the others, and in 
proportion as those before were gentle in behaviour, these 
were in roughness and appearance the more barbarous ; 
so that no matter how many signals we made to them, we 
could hold no conversation with them. They were dressed 
in the skins of bears, wolves, marine lynx (cervieri marini, 
seals f), and other animals. 

15. He passed around south of Martha's Vineyard and Nan- 
tucket, considering them as the main land, and must have been 
made cautious of danger by the tide rips and soundings on Nan- 
tucket shoals. These he indicates on the map as a long sand spit, 
which seems to be named Cap Arenosus on the map; and steering 
well clear of Gape Cod, he probably made Cape Ann and the 
rocky coast of Maine. The change of scenery and of the people 
are noted. 

16. Twenty-five men went inland, against their [the 
natives] will, two or three leagues, and when they returned 
to the shore they shot at us with their bows, shouting 
loudly, and escaping into the woods. We found nothing 
of any value in the land, except immense forests, with 
some hills. They may have some metals, as we saw 
many of them with copper (rame) rings in their ears. 

16. It is uncertain where this landing was made, but it was 
probably between Nahant and Cape Ann. 

17. We departed, running along the coast between east 
and north, which we found more pleasant, open and bare 
of woods, with high mountains back in the land, sloping 
towards the shore of the sea. In [the space of] fifty 
leagues, we discovered thirty-two islands, all near to the 
continent, small, and of good appearance, following the 
outline of the land (alte tenendo la verzura della terra), 
from which were formed the most beautiful ports and 



186 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

canals, as they do near Ulyria and Dalmatia, in the 
Adriatic sea. We had no intercourse with the people, 
bnt supposed them to be, in their customs and nature, 
like to those we had left. 

17. The distant mountains may well have been the White 
Mountains in New Hampshire, which, on clear days, are visible 
from the sea, and would at this season still be covered with snow. 
His remark that therd are no mountains near the coast is a cor- 
rect one. 

The rocky islets of the coast of Maine, which he so well com- 
pares to those on the Illyrian coast, prove that he had really been 
here, for no map of the time could have suggested this feature. 

18. Sailing between east and north for the space of 
150 leagues, and having already consumed all our naval 
stores and victuals ; having discovered 502 leagues, that 
is 700 more of new land, supplying ourselves with water 
and wood, we determined to return to Prance. 

18. In the appendix, he gives his departure from the coast as 
in latitude 50 deg., which would imply that he visited the east 
coast of Newfoundland. This we doubt, as he merely wished to 
connect his own coastwise explorations with the well-known 
Terra de Bretones and Terra Nova, and would hardly extend 
his voyage to points frequented by the Portuguese and Spaniards. 

His map shows no trace of the Bay of Fundy, and he does 
not describe any point, towards the close of his coasting, that 
can be identified. It is probable that he turned away in about 
latitude 44 deg., being confident, from the easterly trend of the 
coast, that he had traced the continental barrier to a point already 
visited. The map shows a large river estuary, which is, perhaps, 
the Penobscot, whence he started homewards. He may have 
sighted Cape Sable, but probably missed it by having taken an 
E. S. E. course from the point of his departure. His estimate of 
500 leagues of new discovery is nearly correct, if we assume that 
he struck the coast in latitude 39 deg. 30 min., and left it in 
latitude 44 deg. 

His own estimate of the length of a degree is 62£ Italian miles, 
and he coasted, from our estimate below, some 540 geographical 
miles. His expression " 500, that is 700 leagues," is explained in 



Exploration of the American Coast, 187 

the appendix, where he says that he made 300 leagues in latitude 
(about five degrees), and 400 in longitude. 

He oould, as we believe, not have ooasted an extent of more 
than five degrees of latitude, and about six degrees of longitude. 
The dates appear to be as follows, old style: 

January 17th, leaves the Desiertas. 

March 6th, reaches land. 

March 15th, probably reaches New York harbor. 

April 21st to May 6th, in Newport harbor. 

May 6th to 20th, probably coasting. 

July 8th, arrives at Dieppe; twenty-eight days voyage. 

Upon an attentive examination of the courses and distances 
sailed, some of which are given twice, we come to about the same 
result as his own. 

1. From landfall, coasts south ...,.' 50 leagues. 



•*^m 



2. Coasts north to New York, say 100 " 

3. Thence east and north to Thames B 100 " 

4. To Newport (overestimate ?) 80 " 

5. Newport to Cape Ann 150 " 

0. North-east 150 " 

580 



§. The navigator must have meant to use the term miles of 62£ 
to a degree, for he would otherwise quadruple the true distances. 

In the case of the third course and of part of the fifth, he cer- 
tainly repeats himself. His estimates must be mere guesses in 
round numbers. 

A measurement from a U. S. Coast Survey chart of the coast, 
dated 1864, gives the following result: 

Latitude 39 deg. 05 min. to New York 90 miles. 

New York to Montauk point 110 " 

Thence to Thames and Newport 60 " 

Newport to Cape Ann 170 " 

Cape Ann to Penobscot river 110 " 

540 miles. 



188 Notes on ths Vbrrazano* Map. 

Old navigators were very prone to exaggerate the distance* 
sailed. See instances quoted by Humboldt, JEnamen Critique, 
Y. 161, who says that the direction is more important than the 
distance. 

Letter and Map Compared. 

With the aid of the map newly discovered, we can 
follow Verrazano's track along our shores with some 
confidence. 

First, the Jersey coast is shown trending too much to 
the N. E., but the variation of the compass to the west- 
ward would cause it to appear so to him. Then the har- 
bor of New York shown as a river only, because he 
probably did not penetrate far into it. Next the Long 
Island coast, correctly shown, inclining more to the east- 
ward, with the interesting and correctly-indicated feature 
of a sound behind it. He passes Fisher's island, which 
he seems to have supposed to be connected with Point 
Judith, of the mainland, just east of it, which appear on 
his map as a promontory, beyond which he places Narra- 
gansett bay, with his /. Luisa, or Block island, off its 
mouth. 

The E . S. E. trend of the coast from that point on his 
map is due, as observed before, to his having taken 
Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket as part of the mainland. 
The long sand-bar to the east of this is a rough draught of 
Nantucket shoals, or Gape Cod, as they presented them- 
selves to him. 

It will be noticed that the parallels of latitude on the 
map are very different from the observations recorded in 
the letter. These parallels are all full five degrees too 
much to the south of their proper position. Hieronimus, 
who made the map, must have committed this mistake, 
and we can offer no explanation to account for the dis- 
crepancy. On the charts of those times, we do not expect 
that the longitude can be more than guessed at, but the 
latitude is generally within much narrower limits of error. 



VI . II 




A j*C*4 *—[<$** 12 







rtfa 



Sis Occupations after Vota qb to America. 189 

* 

Columbus, also, was very wrong in his data for the 
latitude of the island of Cuba, and does not seem to have 
ever corrected himself. Perhaps the latitudes on thu 
map were made expressly incorrect in order to mislead 
the uninitiated, or in order to avoid appearing to encroach 
on the Spanish discoveries, which, under Matienzo and 
Ayllon, had been carried, in 1520, to lat. 34°. Giovanni 
was, no doubt, aware of the fact that the Spaniards had 
reached this altitude before his voyage hither, and Hier- 
onimus in 1529 had, perhaps heard that lat. 37° had been 
reached by Ayllon in 1526. 

Perhaps the indication of a western sea, separated by 
an isthmus from the Atlantic ocean, appearing on maps 
after 1529 as Mar de Verrazano, was an attempt to place 
the great Baza de Santa Maria (Chesapeake bay) on his 
chart, thus giving to Nova Gallia the appearance of a land 
distinct from the Florida of the Spaniards. This would 
account for the absence of all mention of it ill Giovanni's 
letter of 1524. 

For some remarks on the cosmographical portion of the 
letter, we must refer to the notes at the end of this paper. 

His Occupations after the Voyage to America. 

After the dispatch of the letter to the king, we learn 
from Carli that Verrazano was expected at Lyons, where 
he may have gone to report in person to the king, but 
there is no mention of his appearance there. Afterwards 
we almost lose sight of the adventurotis explorer, who 
offered to the French monarch a vast province in a tem- 
perate latitude, on which France might well have concen- 
trated her enterprise, and which would have repaid her a 
hundred-fold as a colony, and as a school for her maritime 
forces. But at that time, France was nearer annihilation 
than during her recent struggle with Germany, and all 
thought of colonization beyond the seas was out of the 
question. The king was a prisoner in the hands of the 
emperor, his army had been dispersed, his treasury 



190 Notes on tub Verrazano Map. 

emptied, and the prospect was such that without heip 
from abroad France would have become a province of the 
empire. England, at this juncture, lent her assistance to 
her distracted neighbor in her traditional form, a loan 
of money. As Mr. Biddle well suggests,* Verrazano, 
finding no response to his offers to make further explora- 
tions, may have laid before Henry the Eighth his newly 
made discovery, for we find Hakluyt, in 1582, f saying 
that " John Verazauus, which had been thrise on that 
coast, in an old excellent mappe which he gave to King 
Henrie the eight, and is yet in the custodie of master 
Locke, doth so lay it out as it is to bee seene in the mappe 
annexed to the end of this boke, beeing made according 
to Verazanus plat." Hakluyt is advocating a renewed 
search for a north-west passage to China, and colonization 
of the coasts visited by Verrazano. His statement that 
he had been thrice on that coast is probably taken from 
Sir Humphrey Gilbert's little treatise of 1566, X published 
in 1576, who only says, Cap. X, "Also divers have offered 
the like unto the Frenche king, who hath sent two or three 
times to have discovered the same," meaning the north- 
west passage. Gilbert was, no doubt, familiar with the 
work of Ramusius, and names Verarsannus, a Florentine, 
several times, though in one case (Cap. Ill, § 7), the 
name of Cartier is intended. In a paragraph just before 
this, he states that " Jacobus Cartier made two voyages 
into those partes." He does not seem to have been 
acquainted with Roberval' s voyage, so that he evidently 
meant to include Cartier' s voyages of 1584 and 1586 in his 
expression above quoted. 

Hakluyt has left another notice of the "excellent 
Mappe," contained in an unpublished manuscript belong- 
ing to Sir Thomas Phillips, and which this gentleman 
has kindly allowed to be copied for the Maine Historical 

♦Biddle'a Cabot, 1881, p. 376. \ Divers Voyages* Epkt d**ic 

\A discourse of a Diseouerie for a new, passage to Oataia; London, 1570, 
4th. This rare tract is given in Hakluyt. 



Bis Occupations after Voyage to America. 191 

Society. This manuscript will be published at an early 
date, with notes ; but, meanwhile, in the first volume that 
was prepared for this society by Dr. Kohl, we find an 
extract from it, added to a foot-note at page 391, by the 
late Gov. Willis, who edited the volume. This manuscript, 
prepared in 1584 for Sir Walter Raleigh, and covering 
over sixty-two large folio pages, makes, in Chap. 17, 
§§ 10, 11, an interesting reference to "a mightie large 
olde mappe in parchmente, made, as it should seme^by 
Verrazanus, now in the custodie of Mr. Michael Locke" 
and also to "an olde exceUerU globe in the Queends 
privie gallery at Westm'r, vfch also seemeth to be of 
Verrazanus makinge" 

It will be observed that in neither of these passages 
from Hakluyt is the map positively said to have been 
made by John Verrazanus, but that it was derived from 
him, and that it seemed to be of his make. This careful 
absence of an assertion that it was by John, was, no 
doubt, owing to the name " Hieronimus de Verrazano 
faciebat" appearing on it. Hakluyt could not probably 
explain this difference of name, and therefore makes a 
carefully-guarded statement concerning it. 

He describes, however, the map now preserved in Rome 
in these few words so exactly that we are led to suppose 
that it was the very one that was presented to the English 
king about 1529, and still to be seen in the queen's 
gallery in 1584. Sebastian Cabot's great mapamundi of 
1544 was also in this gallery, and we should be rejoiced 
to find in some old document a list merely of the maps 
that hung there. 

That Verrazano may have made a proposal for discovery 
to the English king is possible, but there is not a scrap of 
evidence to prove it, excepting Hakluyt' s assertion above 
quoted. If he made such an offer, it was not for the sake 
of emolument, for he seems to have been provided with 
ample fands/as we have just shown, and as might be 
expected after the rich captures he had made. 



;192 Note8 on the Verrazano Map. 

In 1526, or perhaps later, his name is included as the 
commander or pilot of a squadron of three vessels fitting 
out, apparently for a mercantile venture, but in reality 
for another cruise in Spanish waters. We find proof of 
this in a document discovered and quoted by the indefa- 
tigable Mons. Margry, in his Navigations JFrangaiseSj 
etc.* Paris, 1867, p. 194, and given in a partly abridged 
and translated form in the notes to this paper. 

This document is an agreement for a voyage to the 
Indies for spices, including prospective predatory cap- 
tures, which last were, no doubt, the chief incentives to 
the enterprise. Nothing is said about discovery, or the 
search for a western route to the Moluccas. 

The agreement is made between Philipe Chabot, 
admiral of France, Preudhomme, the general of Nor- 
mandy, several merchants, among whom is the notable 
and famous Jean Ango, and "messire Jehan de Varesam, 
principals pilote. ' ' 

This was indeed a partnership of distinguished men ; 
two royal officers of high rank, three rich merchants, 
and a pilot who is able to venture a sum equal to that of 
Jean Ango, the great merchant-prince of Dieppe. There 
can be but little doubt that this pilot was our successful 
corsair, who must have reaped a fair share of the prize 
taken from the Spaniards. The paper, unluckily, is not 
dated, but, as Mons. Margry remarks, it must be posterior 
to 1525, as Chabot was not appointed admiral of Prance 
until 1526.* 

The enterprise was hardly meant to be a purely com- 
mercial one, when the character of three of the partners 
is taken into account. Commanded and guided by a 
successful corsair, who five years before, had captured 
most valuable prizes from the Spaniards and Portuguese, 
and who, three years before, had taken the spoils of 

*His appointment, according to Pere Anselme, YoL IV, p. 571, dates 
from the 23d of March, 1525. As the legal year began March 25th, he was 
really appointed in 1526. 



His Occupations after Voyage to America. 193 

Mexico when just about to be laid at the emperor's feet, 
it is not likely that he should be contented with a distant 
and uncertain trip to the Spice islands.* This new 
venture was* no doubt, to be another corsairial one, and 
the paragraph of the agreement which alludes to possible 
prizes to be taken, and which we give in full, explains the 
animus of the undertaking. 

Giovanni de Verrazano was therefore alive and prosper- 
ous in 1526. That the French were able to fit out vessels 
in spite of the national distress, we have sufficient proof. 
But a slight impression could have been made on the 
towns of the Atlantic coast by the war with the emperor 
in Italy. The armies were small, the French Mediter- 
ranean fleets were fitted out on the southern coasts, and 
only the people along the line of march of the armies 
could have suffered much. 

Whether this voyage was undertaken, and if so, what 
happened during the course of it, is unknown. If the 
vessels reached the Bast Indies, they would have been 
absent two years. Perhaps a careful study of the plani- 
sphere of 1529, as recording what was then known about 
the south-eastern regions of Asia, might throw some light 
on the question whether Verrazano was there in person. 
A cursory study of it will show that it contains some 
discoveries of the Portuguese, then recently made ; but 
these may have been copied from charts taken from prizes, 
and do not prove anything. 

If the execution of onr navigator took place in 1527, t 
and the late Buckingham Smith stated to the president 
of our society that he had proofs to that effect, which are 
shortly to be published, it is possible that Verrazano was 
captured while on this cruise. His previous success may 

*See notes, Admiral Chabot; also Buckingham Smith, 

fSee Transactions of this Society for 1871, p. 82. Also the Rev. B. F. 

De Costa's "Northmen in Maine/' etc., 1870, p. 61, note, who states, on 

Mr. Smith's information, that the execution took place at El Pico, in New 

Castile, in October, 1527. 

. 13 



194 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

have led to the fitting out of the armament above described, 
the mention of the East Indies in the agreement having 
been inserted in order to conceal the real objects of the 
enterprise. 

The uncertainty that hangs over his death, both as to 
its manner and date, may be cleared up, but at present 
his name disappears from history after /the proposed 
voyage to the East Indies. 

Ramusius, in the preface to the letter of 1524, states 
simply that on the last voyage which he made, naming 
no time or locality, he was taken by " tJiose people" when 
landing with some companions, and was roasted and 
eaten in the presence of those who had remained on the 
ship. Having just spoken of his voyage to Florida, 
Ramusius, no doubt, meant by " those people" American 
savages, who however, never killed and eat captives 
unless they were prisoners of war. Supposing, however, 
that the story came to his ears in that form, whence or 
from whom did he derive it % 

Ramusius was in correspondence with Oviedo, the 
Spanish historian of the Indies, and may have learned 
the story from him, as we shall presently show, though 
Oviedo could hardly have told it as having happened to 
Verrazano. Ramusius himself, as we suppose, inserted 
the Italian navigator's name as the victim of the butchery. 

In order to understand clearly what we are to believe, 
it will be well to say that no exploring voyage to the 
American coast, between Terra Nova and Florida, is 
known to have been made between the years 1524 and 1534, 
excepting the Spanish ones of Estevan Gomez, in 1525, 
and of Ayllon, in 1526, and one by John Rut, or Root, 
sent out in 1527 by Henry the Eighth. The French, most 
certainly, did not undertake one, and the above are the 
only ones of which there is any record. 

The voyage of Gomez, who explored the coast from 
Bacalaos to Cuba, was planned in 1523, but was delayed 
until 1525 by his having to attend the Council of Bajadoz, 



Hia Occupations after Voyage to America. 195 

and it was then possibly hastened by the report that 
the French had undertaken a similar one. Ay lion's 
voyage was made northwards from the West Indies, and 
is fully described by Oviedo ; but he certainly did not 
get further north than Cape Fear, in north lat. 34°. 

The English voyage to which we have alluded was 
made in 1527, but very little is known about it. It appears 
to have been an attempt to accomplish the discovery of a 
north-west passage by some strait north of Newfoundland, 
and like all others before and since, it failed in its object. 
It is not certain at whose instance it was undertaken, 
Hakluyt giving Robert Thorne, an English merchant 
trading in Seville, as its projector,* while Biddle hints at 
the possibility of its having originated with Verrazano. f 
If he sailed for the East Indies about this time, he could 
not have been in England to propose such an expedition. 
We find, however, that a certain learned Italian, Albert 
de Prato, was with the expedition, and it is possible that 
he was the active agent who induced the English monarch 
to send it forth. De Prato was a Florentine, perhaps a 
friend or agent of Verrazano' s, who may have supplied 
him with the arguments to lay before the king in favor of 
the enterprise. Jerome, the author of the map before us, 
may have accompanied him to England to forward the 
views of his relative, but all this is mere conjecture. 

Hakluyt, in 1582, and in his later works, speaks of an 
expedition of 1527, about which he could ascertain but 
very little. % 

Samuel Purchas, in Vol. Ill of his " Pilgrimes," 1625, 
p. 809, has a letter, written from Newfoundland, August 
3d, 1527, and some authentic details concerning this 
voyage, made nearly a century before. We learn that its 
commander was John Rut ; that two vessels, the Mary of 
Guilford and the Samson, were under his command, and 

* See note, Voyage of 1537. t Biddle, Cabot, p. 276. 

J See note, Voyage of 1527, and HaUuyt, on same. 



196 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

that they sailed from Plymouth June 10th 9 and attempted, 
to pass to the north of Newfoundland. The Samson 
parted company in a storm, and was not heard of again, 
while the Mary, two days afterwards, on the third of July, 
met with ice, and, giving up the main purpose of the 
voyage, put into St Johns, Newfoundland. Here But 
addressed a letter, dated August 3d, to the king, accom- 
panied by one from Albert de Prato to Cardinal Wolsey. 
Purchas, unluckily, does not give this last one, and the 
originals of both have disappeared. But declares his 
purpose to reach certain islands, to which he has been 
ordered, whether the Moluccas or West Indies is uncer- 
tain. Purchas says nothing about the return of But, but 
Hakluyt, in his work of 1589, informs us that he had 
heard that he reached home in October. 

This is all that is positively known about this voyage, 
from English sources, but we find in two Spanish authors 
a notice of the visit of an English corsair to the West 
Indies in this year, whose commander gave such an 
account of his adventures that, as first suggested by Mr. 
Biddle in 1831, we must believe the vessel to have been 
the Mary of Guilford.* 

The story was told by the English commander to a 
certain Ginez Navarro, captain of a caravel in the harbor 
of San Juan (Portorico), in November, 1527, and it agrees 
well with the details recounted in the letter of August 3d, 
but has the additional mention of the death of his pilot 
This, he said, had happened between Newfoundland and 
Bio Chicora f (Savannah B). The pilot, a Piedmontese, 
had landed to speak to the Indians, who had killed him. 
His name is not given, nor is it said that he was roasted 
and eaten, together with those who landed with him. 

Mr. Biddle, % with much ingenuity, placing the above 



* See note, Oviedo and Berrera en the BngUih vend qf 1587. 
f This name was given by Ayllon in 1590. 
t Biddle, Cabot, Chaps. IX, XIV. 



His Occupations after Voyage to America. 197 

facts together, concludes that the Piedmontese pilot was 
Verrazano, thus confirming the account by Ramusins, 
and giving its true date. It will be noticed that the name 
of Verrazano is nowhere associated with this voyage, and 
that Mr. Biddle's conjecture is founded on the fact related 
to Navarro that the pilot was a Piedmontese, and that 
his fate was somewhat similar to the one recounted by 
Ramusius as having happened to our navigator. 

Prom this theory, plausible as it may appear, we must 
dissent, for the following reasons : Verrazano was a 
person of too much consequence, supposing him to have 
been the pilot of the expedition, to have remained without 
mention in Rut's letter. Neither was his name recorded 
in De Prato' s letter, else Purchas would have quoted it, 
for it was familiar to the author of the " Pilgrimes" and 
he would have eagerly published the fact. 

Again, had Verrazano been with Capt. John Rut, it is 
not probable that he would consent to repeat his explora- 
tion of our coast while the north-west passage remained 
to be attempted. This would have converted an enter- 
prise which had a noble object into a mere trading voyage, 
while we know that Verrazano' s favorite idea was the 

• 

discovery of a short sea-way to the Moluccas. He had, 
to be sure, proposed colonization to the French king, but 
Rut seems to have had no such instructions. As Navarro 
relates, he wished to reach the territory of the Grand 
Khan, but was easily turned aside from his purpose, and 
sought a market for his wares in the West Indies. 

Verrazano, further, was the very last person to have 
consented to a West India voyage only, for his name was 
in every Spaniard's mouth as having captured several of 
their treasure-ships, and he would not have deliberately 
put his head into the lion's mouth. 

If Rut did lose his pilot in the manner told by Rut, it 
may well have been Albert de Pratq who was killed. We 
know nothing about this Florentine, but he appears to 
have been the companion and associate of Rut, no doubt 



198 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

his pilot, as sailing masters were then called, and he was 
probably in possession of a chart of the exploration of 
1524, Ignorant of the savage nature of the tribes inhabit- 
ing the coasts of Maine, who appear to have been made 
more hostile by the French fishing vessels, who from an 
early day frequented those coasts, he may have been 
massacred on attempting to land among them. Verrazano 
knew their nature better, and would not have exposed 
himself to such risks. 

The stubborn- fact, however, remains that Ramusius 
should himself have ascribed such a fate to Verrazano. 
The Italian historian may have, perhaps, learned from 
Oviedo, that the Italian pilot of an English vessel was 
killed on our coast, and thus supposed the victim to have 
been Verrazano. 

Oviedo, however, in his account of the visit of the 
English vessel, as quoted in the appendix, does not say 
a word about the death of its pilot, and has it that the 
vessel came from Brazil. It is however certain that it 
was the same vessel which is mentioned by Herrera, from 
the attendant circumstances being described exactly as 
told by Navarro. Oviedo places the visit in the year 1527, 
while Herrera erroneously puts it in 1519.* 

As alcade or commander of the fort of the city of Santo 
Domingo after 1538, which had fired on the Englishman, 
he must have gathered many details on the spot, though 
his account is less full than Navarro' s report, which was 
first published by Herrera in 1601, and which Ramusius, 
probably, never saw. 

It might be suggested that the Italian historian was 
also a correspondent of the veteran navigator, Sebastian 
Cabot, and learned the story from him. But Cabot was 
engaged from 1525 to 1531 on his expedition to the La 
Plata river. He may have heard of the voyage of Rut 

•The Rev. B. F. De Costa dissents from this supposition, but he had no* 
teen the account in Oviedo. See Northmen in Maine, p. 54. 



His Occupations after Voyage to America. 199 

afterwards, and of the death of his pilot, and learned his 
name. * Had it been Verrazano, and had he written to 
that effect to Ramusius, he would have added some 
authentic facts, which the latter would have recorded, 
leaving no uncertainty as to the date of his disappearance. 
One more remark, and we close this part of our subject. 
If Verrazano had lost his life after his capture by the 
Spaniards or in the manner suggested by Ramusius, it 
would seem remarkable to find no allusion to his death on 
the planisphere of 1529. This map contains several 
legends on the American coast relating to him, and if he 
had died meanwhile, they would have been, no doubt, 
differently worded ; or if he had been killed on that coast, 
Hieronimus would have added a legend to that effect 
The voyage of 1537 was so recent that the mapmaker 
could have easily ascertained from Rut or his companions 
the precise locality where the scene had occurred. 

From a consideration of all the above data, we must 
conclude that if Verrazano lost his life on our coast, it 
was not on the voyage made by the Mary of Guilford in 
1527. Ramusius may be right in his account of it, but 
then it must have happened at a later date, which is pos- 
sible, although no record has been preserved of voyages 
Mther, by exploring vessels of any nationality, until 1534, 
when Jacques Cartier sailed around the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence, and in 1536 wintered on the river of the same name, 
near Quebec. 

After the positively authentic appearance of Verrazano 
as a subscriber to the French expedition to the East 
Indies, and as its chief pilot, we lose sight of the Floren- 
tine completely. He may have died in the course of it, 
If it ever left the shores of France, but all speculations 
as to his occupations after this must be mere guesses, 

♦ Jk. tale was told in Spain, concerning Cabot himself, somewhat similar to 
tills one, namely, that he had been killed in a conflict with the natives, for 
wMch see Biddle's Oabot, p. 107. 



200 Notes on the Verbazano Map. 

though future researches may bring to light, as in the 
case of Sebastian Cabot and Jean Alfonse, some papers 
that might help to clear up the doubts which now sur- 
round his career. His name appears but once after the 
year 1526, and then in such a manner that no satis- 
factory inference can be drawn from it. 

Tiraboschi, the author of a most valuable history of 
Italian literature, who was the first, as before stated, to 
draw attention to the Strozzi manuscript, also referred to 
a letter, printed in 1581, * among the collection of the 
epistles of Annibal Caro, as having a reference to Giovanni 
di Yerrazano. 

This, the seventh of the collection, is dated from Castro, 
October 13th, 1537, and is addressed to the inmates of the 
household of Mgr. Giovanni Gaddi at Borne, Caro being 
at that time the secretary of the Cardinal, and already 
distinguished for his literary and artistic tastes. It is 
written in a playful vein, and is of considerable length, 
describing the little journey he was making, in humorous 
terms. In the beginning, he speaks of having been left 
at home while his friends have gone to visit some oaves, 
and to pass the time, he now addresses them, each in turn, 
in this epistle. The first one addressed is a Yerrazano, 
in the following terms : 

" To you, Yerrazano, as a searcher (cercatore) of new 
worlds and of their wonders, I cannot yet tell anything 
worthy of your map, for we have passed no lands which 
have not already been discovered by you, or by your 
brother (fratello)." 

The rest of the letter is meant to be amusing, but in the 
passage above quoted he is certainly addressing a real 
personage. Mr. Smith, in his Inquiry, assumes that 

*The editions of 1573 and 1574, printed by Manucius in Venice, we have 
not seen. We quote from the one issued by the Giunti in Venice, Vol I, 
pp. 6-9, entitled, " Be lettere familiom del Oommendatore Annibal Cairo. In 
VeneUa, oppress* Bernardo QiunH, e FrateUi, M.D.LXXXL" 2 vols. 8°, pp. 
176 and 272. 



His Occupations ajpter Voyage to America. 201 

Caro was at this time a tutor in the family of M. Gaddi, 
an opulent Florentine, and that he was addressing his 
pupils, and sportively referring to their studies. Anni- 
bal Caro was born in 1507, and coming of a poor but good 
family, he was compelled, after completing his studies, 
to become a tutor to the children of Ludovico Gaddi, in 
Florence. The cardinal, a brother of Ludovico, noticed 
him, and took him to Rome as his secretary. This was 
in or before 1537, consequently Caro was not addressing 
his pupils in Florence, but a household composed of men 
of considerable intelligence and learning. Hieronimus 
was, no doubt, one of the cardinal' s proteg£d, and was, 
therefore, playfully addressed by Caro. It is hardly 
possible, now that we have the mapamundiof 1529 before 
us, to doubt but that the author was the mapmaker of 
the letter. The fraiello may have been Giovanni, but, 
so far, no evidence to corroborate his being still alive in 
1537 is known. Had he not been then in existence, how- 
ever, the terms of the letter would probably have been 
differently worded. 

In time, some proofs settling the vexed question of 
Verrazano' s death may be discovered, but at the present 
time we know nothing that is convincing and satisfactory. 

Verrazano was certainly alive in and after 1526, and 
was then only forty-six years old. He had been success- 
fa] as a corsair, was an experienced navigator, and must 
have been a man of some mark and influence. Had he 
been captured and hanged, or had he met with the death 
described by Ramusius, the occurrence would certainly 
have been noted somewhere, and a document may yet be 
found, attesting the mode of his death, whether fortuitous 
or from natural causes. The discovery of this mapa- 
mundi, so long unknown, shows that we may yet hope 
to learn further details concerning the first explorer of 
our coasts. The land that can pride itself on having 
produced a Columbus, a Vespucius and a Verrazano, is 
no longer divided into petty states, rivals and jealous of 



202 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

each others fame, but is a great and united empire. The 
memory of deeds done in the past by a Genoese or a 
Florentine, a Venetian or a Neapolitan, ought to be 
recorded as done by an Italian, and thus induce a more 
active inquiry into what is now obscure and neglected. 



Contents. 203 



NOTES TO PAPER ON VERRAZANO. 



L Bacalaoa. 
TL Explorations for a Western Strait North of Florida, up to the 

year 1527. 
IH. Explorations of the Atlantic Coast of Florida from the South, 

1510, 1526. 
IV. Explorations for a Strait to the Westward in the Caribbean Sea 

and within the tropics. 
V . Explorations in the Gulf of Mexico. 
YL Sebastian Cabot. 

Y1L Alonzo de Zuazo on a Strait to the Moluccas. 
V1LL Hernando Cortes and his proposal in 1524 to search for a Strait 
IX. Eetevan Gomez. 

X. Identification of Juan Florin as Giovanni di Yerrazano. 
XL Decades of the New World , by Peter Martyr. 
X I i. Letters of Peter Martyr. 
Xlll. Contarini on the French corsairs. 
XTV. Herrera's Decades. 
XV. Bernal Diaz del Castillo. 
XVL Oviedo on the capture of 1523. 
XVII. Gomara on Florin. 
XVUL De Barcia on Juan Verrazano. 
XIX. De Viera on Juan Florin. 
XX. Cortes de Valladolid, 1528. 
XXL Cortes de Toledo, 1525. 
XXIL Corsairs in the West Indies after 1527. 
Xxiil. Routes to and from the Indies. 
XXTV. Suppression of geographical knowledge by Spain. 
XXV. Family of Verrazano. 
XXVI. Crignon, Parmentier, Estancelin. 
XXVIL Desmarquets. 
XXVm. Ribault 
XXIX. Tavannes Memoirs, 1586. 
XXX. Andre Thevet, 1557. 
XXXL Francois de Belle-forest, 1570. 
AXXlI. Italian versions of the Heading to the Letter. 
XXAUL Cosmographies! portion of the Letter. 
XXXXV. Notes on the cosmographies! portion of the Letter. 
XXXV. Examination of the Voyage across the Atlantic. 



204 Contents. 

XXXVL Thomasey. 

Yxxyn. Description of the Mapamundi by Hieronimus de Verrazano, 
XXX VIII. Charts after Verrazano. 
TYYTY New France, of Verrazano. 
XL. Gastaldi, 1548, Mercator, 1560. 
XLL Ramnsins. 

XLIL Admiral Ghabot and Yerrazano. 
XLEH. Oviedo on the English voyage of 1537. 
XLIV. Herrera on the voyage of 1537. 
XLV. Hakluyt on Rut's voyage of 1527. 
XL VI Tiraboschi. 
XLVII. CarlTs letter. 
XLYIIL Jean Alfonse, and his death. 
XTJX Buckingham Smith's notices of Yerrazano's voyage. 
L. Dr. J. G. Kohl on Yerrazano's voyage. 



Baoalaos. 205 



NOTES. 



L— BACALAOS. 

Numerous derivations have been suggested for this word, 
which is simply an old Mediterranean or Romanoe name, given 
to the preserved Codfish, when it has been dried and kept open 
and extended by the help of a small stick. This was the Stock- 
fish of the North, and from the word baevlum, it became the 
JBacalao and JBaccalieu of the South of Europe. The baculum 
or rod was .an attribute of the Gods Bacchus and Mercury, 
being perhaps a synonym of the first, in allusion to the rod sup- 
porting the grape-vine. Many words of Latin origin can be 
traced to this and the Greek pdxxos. 

Another root, the Sanscrit cad or gad 9 a stick, is found in the 
Greek and Latin name of this fish as Gadus. The English word 
goad shows the same root, and gives the English name Codfish. 

The Holland word Gabel, a fork, Latin gabalus, is the root of 
the word Cabelyau, the Batavian name of the Codfish. 

Other varieties of the dried Cod are known as Dunfish, 
because dried on the downs or dunes/ Klipftsh when dried on 
the cliffs or Jdippen: Tusk or Torsk when dried by the help of 
fire, from dorren, Norwegian to dry, past part, gedorr. 

The French name Monte, for the Codfish, is of uncertain ori- 
gin. It may be from Mor, a Gothic name for the sea, having the 
same root as Mare, Mer 9 etc. The French name for wet salted 
Cod is Morue verte, perhaps from its being procured from the 
Isle Verte, which is, as we believe, one of the earliest names given 
to Newfoundland, and may be found there still in the name 
Banc au vert, or green bank, South of the Island. We shall 
endeavor to show at another time that the Banks were visited 
for their fisheries, and were well known in the early part of the 
fifteenth century. 



206 Notes on the Vbrrazano Map. 

EL— EXPLORATIONS FOR A WESTERN STRAIT TO 

THE NORTH OF FLORIDA, UP TO THE YEAR 1527. 

« 

The early explorations of the Northmen from Greenland, and 
the fishing voyages of the Bretons and others, were not made in 
search of a strait, and are not here noticed. 

1476. Jbhann von Kolno or Scolnus said to have been sent by 
Christian II of Denmark, to search westward, and to have reached 
land west of Greenland. 

1490-96. Bristol men attempt at various times to sail out west- 
ward, but find no land. 

1497. Sebastian Cabot leaves Bristol in May, with one vessel ; 
passes to the South of Isle Yerte or Bacalaos, and enters the 
gulf behind it June 24th, searching for a strait to the West; 
sails around the gulf, passing out through the Strait of Belleisle, 
and reaches home about August 10. 

1498. Cabot is said to have made another voyage with uncer- 
tain results. Probably coasted north of lat. 52 deg. 

1500. Juan Dortielo8, said to have been sent from Spain to 
explore to the Northwest. 

1500. Gaspar Cortereal leaves Lisbon with one or two vessels, 
in May, and sails North of Bacalhaos to Labrador, but does not 
land there, being absent about ^ve months. 

1501. Gaspar leaves again, May 15th, with three vessels and 
lands in Labrador. He is lost, but the other two vessels reach 
home about the middle of October, bringing seventy of the 
natives. 

1501. An English expedition said to have visited Terra Nova, 
guided by Portuguese. 

1502. Miguel Cortereal y brother of Gaspar, leaves May 10th 
with one vessel for Bacalhaos, and is not again heard o£ 

1503. Two vessels said to have been sent to search for the 
Cortereals, which perhaps survey the coast from Cabo Raso to 
Bonavista. 

1504-6. Jean Denis leaves Honfleur with Qamart of Rouen 
as pilot, and explores the Island of Newfoundland, North oC 
Bonavista. 

1508. Thomas Aubert, of Dieppe, in the Pensee, visits New- 
foundland. 



Explorations of A tlantic Coast of Florida. 207 

15J 2. Juan de Agramonte, commissioned by Queen Jnana of 
Castile, to explore to the Northwest, with two Breton pilots. 

1524. Giovanni di Verraaano, in the employ of Francis the 
First, after an unsuccessful attempt in 1522, leaves Madeira 
January 17th with one vessel, sights the New Jersey coast of 
the United States, and explores these shores from lat. 39 deg. to 
44 deg., and reaches Dieppe July 4th. 

1525. Estevan Gomes, a Portuguese in Spanish employ, leaves 
Corunna with one vessel, traces the American coast from North 
to South, from lat. 44 to 34, and reaches Corunna in December, 
bringing home a number of the natives. 

1526. Nicolas Don (D'aunis?), a Breton fisherman, is driven 
by gales Southwest from Cape Breton, and believing that he 
has discovered new coasts, offers to explore them for the 
Emperor. 

1527. John' Rut, with Albert de Proto as pilot and cosmographer, 
leaves the Thames, May 20th, with two vessels, the Mary of 
Guilford and the Samson, to search for a strait westward. The 
Samson is lost in June, and her consort puts into St. Johns, New- 
foundland, where they found Norman, Breton and Portuguese 
fishing vessels, and then coasted to Florida, visited Hispaniola 
and Porto Rico, reaching home in October. 



UL — EXPLORATIONS OF THE ATLANTIC COAST OF 
FLORIDA, FROM THE SOUTH, 1510-1526. 

1510 or before. Terra or Isla de Bimini (Bahama or perhaps 
Florida) discovered. 

1513. Juan Ponce de Leon, with the pilot Alaminos, discovers 
the mainland of Florida, coasting its gulf shore to lat. 24 deg., 
and the Atlantic shore to near lat. 30 deg. On his return he has 
to stem the Gulf Stream, gets entangled among the Bahamas, 
and finds the pilot Diego Mirueio the elder exploring them. 

1520. The Licentiate Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon, one of the 
Auditors of Hispaniola, sends two vessels from Puerto de Plata, 
on the North side of Cuba, to capture slaves along the coast of 



208 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

Florida. One of his vessels said to have been commanded by 
Captain Jordan, with Diego Miruelo as pilot, the other by the 
pilot Pedro de Qnejo. This last one reaches in lat. 34 deg., 
August 18, Cabo de Sta Elena (Cape Fear) and probably farther 
Still. 

In company with the last one of Ayllon's vessels there went a 
small vessel, sent by another of the Auditors, Juan Ortiz de 
Matienzo, under the pilot Fernando Sotil, for exploration, which 
went as far as lat. 84 deg. also. 

1521. De Leon having a royal grant to colonize Bimini and 
Florida, makes an expedition with two vessels from St. Juan 
(Porto Rico). 

1521. Ayllon said to have again sent two vessels to Chicora, 
which appear to have coasted as far as Bahia Santa Maria (Chesa- 
peake Bay). 

1523. June 26, Ayllon obtains a royal grant to colonize Chicora 
and other provinces, between 35 deg. and 37 deg., but delays 
acting under it 

1526. Ayllon takes the command of a large expedition, con- 
sisting of one large and three smaller vessels, with two boats, 
manned or carrying 500 men and 80 or 00 horses. Leaves Puerto 
de Plata with Pedro de Quejo as pilot, in middle of July. The 
larger vessel is lost entering the Rio Jordan (Cape Fear R), 
winters at Guadalpe, some 40 or 50 leagues to the S. W. (Pedee 
R., Georgetown?). Ayllon died October 18, leaving his nephew 
Juan Ramirez as Governor. The dissensions that arose after his 
death and the many deaths from disease and cold, cause the 
abandonment of the enterprise, and 150 men only get back, the 
body of Ayllon being lost on the way by the foundering of one 
of the small vessels. 



A careful and close analysis of the Maps of 1527 and 1529, of 
Hernando Colon and Diego Ribero, was published in 1860, by 
Dr. J. G. Kohl. The names on the Maps are compared by him 
with the known documents that illustrate their origin. We 
must refer to this able work for critical details which lie beyond 
the scope of this paper. 



Explorations fob a Strait in tub Caribbean Sea.209 

IV.— EXPLORATIONS FOR A STRAIT TO THE WEST- 
WARD, IN THE CARIBBEAN SEA AND WITHIN 
THE TROPICS. . 

1492. Christopher Columbus, sailing westward, discovers 
islands, and reaches to Nuevitas on the north side of Cuba. 

1493-96. Columbus sails on his second voyage, but only 
reaches the Isle of Pines on the south side of Cuba. 

1498-1500. Columbus on his third voyage discovers the main- 
land of South America, near the Island of Trinidad, coasting to 
Margarita. 

1499-1500. Alonzo de Hoyeda, with Juan de la Cosa and 
Americus Vesputius, touches S. America, and coasts it to lat. 
3 deg. North. 

Alonzo Nino and Christoval Guerra: uncertain as to point 
reached* 

Vicente Yanez Pinzon reaches to lat. 8 deg. 20 min. South of 
the Equator, on the coast of S. America. 

1500. Diego de Lepe searches South of Cape St. Augustine. 

1500. Pedro Alvarez Cabral, with a Portuguese fleet, on his 
way to the East Indies, discovers the East coast of Brazil 

1500-1502. Rodrigo de Bastidas with Juan de la Cosa, coasts 
the mainland of S. America, to Cape San Bias on the isthmus. 

. 1502-3. Hoyeda, with Juan de Yergara, follows the same coast 
to Curacao. 

1502-4. Columbus on his fourth voyage explores the coast of 
the Caribbean Sea from Guanaza and Ruatan Is. to near the Gulf 
of Darien. 

1504-5. Juan de la Cosa visits the Gulf of Uraba. 

1505. Hojeda visits the coast near Caquibacoa. 

1506 or 1. Vicente Yanez Pinzon and Juan Diaz de Soils sail 
west from Hispaniola, and explore the coast of Yucatan, from 
Golfo Dulce to the Rio de Lagartos on the North shore. 

1508-9. Pinzon and De Solis reach lat. 40 deg. S., on the coast 
of Brazil. 

1511. Peter Martyr's map appears: the first Spanish one of 

the West Indies published up to that date. It contains all the 

West Indian discoveries up to the year 1508. 

1513. De Balboa discovers the Mar del Sur. 
14 



210 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

1524. Gil Gonzales Davila sent from Hispaniola to search for 
a strait about Golf o Dulce. 



V.— EXPLORATIONS IN THE GULF OP MEXICO. 

Columbus on his first voyage in 1402 was steering along the 
parallel of 28 deg. directly for the coast of the United States, 
and if he had not turned to the Southwest, would have made 
land about Cape Carnaveral in Florida. On this voyage he 
explored part of the North coast of Cuba, which he believed to 
lie Northwest and Southeast. 

On his second voyage in 1494 he sailed along the South coast 
of the same Island as far as the Isle of Pines. Here he paused 
and prepared a declaration, which he forced all his companions 
to sign, to the effect that Juana (as he called it) was a long penin- 
sula jutting out from Asia.* 

The Map which he presented to the Pope and to Rene of Lor- 
raine about 1498, is now lost, but it was no doubt copied by 
Johann Ruysch in his Mapamundi attached to the Roman edition 
of Ptolemy of 1508. Much altered, it was copied by Hylaoomilus 
as the Tabula Terrae Novae in the Strasburg Ptolemy of 15)3. 
In this last Cuba appears twice, the St. Die geographer having 
inserted Isabella between the Cuban peninsula of Columbus and 
Espanola, its insular character being then recognized. Johann 
Schoner on a globe of 1520 has also a oopy of the Columbus 
Map of 1498. 

Of the names attached to the Cuban peninsula on these three 
sketches, which are a part of the hundreds, which Columbus 
gave to points on the coast,f we have identified nearly all, as 
names which were familiar to the discoverer from his Mediter- 
ranean experience. Thus we find names altered by copyists, but 
which can be recognized, such as Fin de Apulia, Cabo del Gato, 
Cabo Melle, de Lucca, de Livorno, d' Aries, de Como, de Parma, 
d' Alicante, etc. 



* Navarrete. Coleccion de loe Viages, Ac., II, 148. 
f See third voyage of Columbus. 



EfPL OB A TI0N8 IN TBS 6 ULF OF MEXICO. 211 

It soon became known that Cuba was an Island, apparently 
from what Peter Martyr says, before 1500, though it was not 
circumnavigated officially until ,1608, by order of Sebastian de 
Ocampo. 

The last voyage of Columbus in 1502, completed the explora- . 
tion of the shores of the Caribbean sea to Guanaja or Roatan I. 
Vincente Yanez Pinzon and Juan Diaz de Solis, on a voyage of 
adventure in 1507, sailed along the East coast of Yucatan from 
the Golfo Dulce to the Rio de Lagartos, and this last limit of 
northern exploration in this quarter is given on Peter Martyr's 
little Map of the West Indies, accompanying his first Ocean 
Decade of 1511.* 

4 

In 1513 (not 1512) Juan Ponce de Leon discovered Florida. 
Alaminos was his pilot, and together they coasted the Atlantic 
shores of it, to near the mouth of the present St. Johns river, in 
lat. 30£ deg. The fair open channel, with the swift current run- 
ning through it from the South, was observed by the pilot an<J 
used by him, as will be seen below. 

Vasoo Nunez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus and discovered 
the Mar del Sur in the same year last mentioned, and it would 
seem a natural supposition to have at once sought for a passage 
into it North of the Rio de Lagartos, but this was not done. 

Francisco Hernandez- de Cordova, February 8th, 1517, accom- 
panied by the pilot Antonio de Alaminos, who as a boy had been 
with Columbus, and to Florida with De Leon, sailed west from 
Havannah and struck Cape Catoche; then coasted west and 
southwest to the Bahia de Malapelea in Campeachy, where the 
natives repulsed him and he turned back. He gave to Yucatan 
its present name, but considered it an Island. On his voyage 
home he landed in Florida. . 

In 1518, Juan de Grijalva, by order of Diego Velasquez, his 
uncle, the first Governor of Cuba, explored the coast with 
Alaminos, beginning with the Island of Cozumel, and ending 
apparently at Cabo Rosso in lat. 21 deg. 45 min. near Tampico. 

He brought home a large amount of gold, and exciting 
accounts of a vast and rich empire in the interior of the land he 

* See Martyr, Dec. II, Cap. 7; Herrera, Dec. I, Lib. VI, Cap. 17; Docum 
Ined, 1842, 501. 



212 Notes on tes Verrazano Map. 

had discovered; and in the following year (1510) the famous 
Hernando Cortes, burning for its conquest, with Alaminos again 
as pilot, undertook the expedition which resulted in the subjuga- 
tion of Mexico. 

The first vessel despatched to Spain, with treasure, by Cortes 
from Vera Cruz, July 26, 1519, passed into the Atlantic through 
the Florida Channel Afaminos, her pilot, the discoverer of this 
passage,* in 1513, was the first who led a vessel through it to 
Spain. 

In the same yearf Francisco de Garay, .Governor of Jamaica, 
and the rival of Cortes, either in person or by his deputy Alonzo 
Alvarez de Pineda, ran along the coast to the Rio de Panuco or 
Palmas, in lat. 23 deg. 45 min. 

In 1520 De Garay sent Diego de Camargo north, in the gulf, 
with three or four caravels, and the exploration of the coast 
appears to have been begun somewhere about Pensacola, so as to 
very nearly connect it with the Florida of Juan Ponce, and was 
carried westward to Panuco, if the Map and memoir that he pre- 
sented to the Emperor, can be trusted. (See Navarrete HI, 147-8, 
and Martyr Dec. V, cap. L) 

In 1523 De Garay went in person to the Rio Panuco, with 
Diego Meruelo the elder as his pilot. J It would appear, how- 
ever, that De Garay's explorations remained unknown to Cortes, 
for in his letter to the Emperor of 1523, he is uncertain whether 
Mexico and Florida were joined together. 

The short unexplored coast line, from Pensacola to Apalachi- 
cola, appears not to have been traced until the unfortunate 
Pamphilo de Narvaez landed on the coast of Florida in 1527, 

* Hen-era, Vol. I; Descripcion, p. 4; Barcia Ensayo, p. 154. 

f Gomara II, cap. 25, says 1518, which is improbable. Pineda was one 
of the malcontents accompanying Cortes in 1518, and who conspired to 
abandon him. Two of them were sentenced to death; the pilot De Umbra 
to have his feet cut off; Pineda, another pilot, and his brother to receive two 
hundred lashes, etc. De Umbria seems to have remained after this in the 
service of Cortes, but Pineda got away and entered the service of De Garay. 

t Diego Meruelo had been sent by Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon in 1520 to 
the Rio de Chicora, and, according to Barcia, lost his life there with Ayllon 
m 1526. His nephew, of the same name, went as stated, with Narvaez to 
Apalache. 



Sebastian Cabot. 213 

and his pilot Diego Meruelo the younger had coasted in search 
of him, finding the land running East and West, thus positively 
connecting the above provinces. The exploration of the Gulf of 
Mexico was therefore spread over a period of twenty years, 
while it might have been accomplished in as many days. * 



VL-SEBASTTAN CABOT. 

It is now certain that Sebastian Cabot never sailed along the 
coasts of the United States South of Nova Scotia. The English 
have often claimed that he did so in 1497 or 1498, and upon this 
shadowy basis founded a right of possession by discovery. Cabot 
himself never published any statement to the above effect, but 
his papers, which Hakluyt says were in the hands of a certain 
William Worthington, as late as 1582, are now lost. Had he 
made such an exploration, Hakluyt would not have been satisfied 
with the meagre parade of hearsay reports, on which he claims 
such discovery. A very important note by a friend of Cabot, 
given below, and published during his lifetime, is suppressed by 
Hakluyt, while he attaches weight to the perhaps ill understood 
report made by Cabot to Peter Martyr in 1515.f 

Had Cabot really thus visited this coast, from Newfoundland 
to Florida, he would of course have been appealed to as an 
authority by the Congress of Bajadoz in 1524, of which he was 
a member when the question of searching for a strait about there 
was considered. His silence at .that time is of itself conclusive 
on this point. 

We have carefully investigated the older and the more recently 
published accounts of Cabot's voyage of 1497, and shown that 
his land-fall was Cape North on Cape Breton Island, that he got 
embayed in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and came out of it through 
the straits of Belleisle, whence he sailed back direct to England. J 

* See Oscar Peschel's excellent resume on the discoveries in the Gulf of 
Mexico, ZeUalUr der Bntdeckungen 1858, Cap. 7. 
t Martyr Dec. m, Lib. VI. 
\ Historical Magazine, New York, March, 1868. 



214 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

Over-estimating the distances sailed inside the Gulf, he meant to 
inform Martyr that he had sailed West to the meridian of Cuba, 
and the good historian no doubt added that he had reached 
South to the Latitude of the straits of Gibraltar, misunderstand- 
ing the range of the voyage. That Cabot himself did not claim 
to have sailed so far South is also definitely proved by a passage 
hitherto neglected because unfavorable to the English chums 
in the preface to Richard Eden's Decades, 1556, sig. c. i. 

" These regions are cauled Terra Florida and Regio Baccalearum or Bac- 
challaos of the which you may reade sum what in this booke in the vyage 
of the woorthy owlde man yet lyuing Sebastiane Cabote, in the vi booke 
of the thyrde Decade. But Cabote touched only in the north corner and 
most barbarous parte hereof, from whense he was repulsed with Ise in the 
moneth of July." 

Written under Cabot's own eye, and perhaps dictated by him- 
self in order to rectify Martyr's misstatement of his claims, it 
would seem to set the question at rest most completely. Hakluyt 
in his passages, gathered after Cabot's death, to back the English 
claims, omits this distinct limitation of Cabot's discoveries, and 
even Richard Biddle, in 1881, does not seem to have observed it 

Cabot corresponded with Ramusius, and perhaps had corrected 
the statement made by Martyr, for in the Somario of Martyr's 
three first Decades, made and published by the Italian historian 
in 1534, it is not repeated. That Ramusius was aware of the 
real extent of Cabot's explorations is also evident from the Intro- 
ductory "Discorso" to his third volume of 1556, written in 1553, 
while Cabot was still living, in which no mention is made of his 
explorations South of New France. Hakluyt, of course, did not 
notice these omissions, as they would have led to the plain infer- 
ence that we here point out. 

Cabot's own planisphere, of which but one copy, discovered in 
1843 by Yon Martius, is now known, preserved in the French 
National Library, shows distinctly his Prima Vista to be Cape 
North, and he places no other name of his own on this coast, 
excepting to the Island of St. John (Prince Edward's ?), just west 
of the cape and inside the Gulf. 

Verrazano was therefore the first one that we know to have 
sailed along our coast, and his name deserves to be attached to 
some prominent point of it. 



Alonzo Db Zuazo on a Strait to the Moluccas. 215 

VIL— ALONZO DE ZUAZO ON A STRAIT TO THE 

MOLUCCAS. 

Although the following passage more directly belongs to 
another subject, we quote it to show how intelligent minds were 
a,\ a certain period of time endeavoring to solve a problem which 
was not fully answered until Magellan's ship had circumnavigated 
the globe. It has but recently appeared in Spanish (Doc. Ined., 
1864, .p. 296), copied from the Archives of the Indies in Seville. 

The Licentiate Alonzo de Zuazo, the legal adviser of the three 
Jeromite friars who were sent by the Regent, Cardinal Cisneros, 
in 1516, to Hispaniola to govern the West Indies, and who is 
best known as the mediator between Cortes and Narvaez, wrote 
to the Emperor, January 22d, 1518 : 

" In another matter there is a great mystery [teeretd]. The concession of 
Pope Alexander is known ; the partition of the world as If it were an orange 
between the King of Portugal and the grand parents of Your Majesty by 
certain imaginary lines which were not drawn, because although they sent 
certain pilots to mark a boundary and fix those lines at the points where 
they ought to be, as this wad a division by longitudes, of which the pilots 
know nothing and practise nothing, they could not and knew not what to 
do with certainty, and therefore returned without accomplishing anything. 

"While drawing the lines, I found that your Majesty was much wronged 
in the Tierras Firmes of Brasil. From Cape St. Augustine thirty leagues at 
best may belong to the King of Portugal, and he possesses more than two 
hundred, from which he yearly receives more than twenty thousand ducats 
in brasil [wood] and slaves. I, to make sure of it, sent a pilot at my cost to 
the said Cape, and I found that its position on the Maps was more than a 
hundred and thirty leagues too much to the East.* 

" There is another mystery. In the East, Portugal possesses much which 
belongs to Your Majesty. The City of Malaca itself, which has 25000 inhab- 
itants, belongs to you, as it would appear, from that Mapamundi which 
Americo caused to be printed, who went to those parts : the [same] which 
the Senor Infante f has in his chambers, in a circular form. 

* The good Zuazo deceived himself on this point. See " Die TheUung 
der Erde, <fc>., by Oscar Peschel, Leipzig, 1871. Bulletin de Geographic, 
ind Kohl's text to Die dltesten general karten von Amerika, Weimar, 1860. 

f The Spanish editors, in a note, say that this must have been Don Fer- 
nando, brother of Charles the Fifth and afterwards Emperor of Germany. 

A printed Map of the world, compiled by Americus Vespuccius, is not 
now known. Zuazo may probably have seen a Map drawn by hand for 
or by Vespuccius. 



216 NOTSa ON THE VSRRAZANO MAP. 

" That Tour Majesty may not mourn over this, as did Alexander to call 
himself master of other worlds, you must first order the division to be made: 
and secondly fit out two small fast sailing vessels to examine it all (mean- 
while the strait which I have heard of in Tierra Firme may be verified, and 
Diego Alvitez, recently from there, has said it was so), and they can sail 
along the coast to the South, * or reach that which comes from the North 
ifiooerm en la Gotta del Sur o Uevaree a eUa de lade Norte) as Vasco Nunez 
has been doing." 



VIIL— HERNANDO CORTES, AND HIS PROPOSAL, IN 
1524, TO SEARCH FOR A STRAIT. 

The letter, known as the fourth carta^relacion 9 sent by the 
Conqueror of Mexico to the Emperor, contains an interesting 
passage relating to a proposed search for the strait, between 
Florida and Bacalaos. From the date of the letter, October 15, 
1524, it appears that Cortes had heard of the geographical con- 
gress met at Bajadoz, and wished to please the Emperor by 
causing explorations to be made in both oceans for it. A good 
version of the extract may be found in Biddie's Cabot, Chap. 
VII, copied by Conway Robinson, in his work, " An account of 
discoveries in the West until 1510, and of voyages to and along 
the Atlantic Coast of North America, from 1520 to 1573. Rich- 
mond, 1848," page 300. f 

We give below an abridged version from the Spanish text in 
Gayangos. 

" I have informed you in the earlier part of this letter of the parties sent 
by sea and by land, which I hope may meet with success, as I wish to serve 
your Majesty in every possible way. All that I see remaining to be done in 
that way is to learn the secret of the coast remaining to be discovered, 
between the Rio de Panuco [Lat 28 deg. 45 min.] and La Florida,}: which 
last was discovered by Juan Ponce de Leon ; and thence along the North- 



* Zuazo does not seem to have heard of the voyage of Joan Diaz de 
Bolls in 1516 along the coast of South America. 

t This work deserves wider circulation and notice. Robinson consulted 
many original authorities, and gives an admirable resume* of the subject 

X Cortes had not learned of the explorations of Alonzo de Pineda in 1519, 
and of Francisco de Garay in 1520, by which the Gulf Coast had been com- 
pletely traced. 



CORTBSy AND SIS PROPOSAL TO SEARCH FOR STRAIT. 217 

erly coasts of said Florida as far as the Bacallaos. * It is certain that along 
those coasts there is a strait that passes through to the South Sea. If found, 
it will be seen that it comes out very near to that archipelago which Magel- 
lan discovered,! according to a certain Map [figure] which I possess % of 
those parts. Should a strait be found about there, it would be of great 
value in reaching the Spice Islands by a route shorter than any other by two 
thirds, and also because it would pass through lands now owned by your 
Majesty. Although much in debt for the cost of the expeditions already 
sent out, and for the expenses of this Government, I have resolved to send 
three caravels and two brigantines out on this undertaking, but it will cost 
me over ten thousand gold pesos. This will be the greatest service of the 
kind I have done, if as I say the strait should be found, but even should 
none be met with, it must happen that many great and rich lands will be 
discovered, which will increase your Majesty's possessions. 

"There is also a negative advantage in case no strait be found, in that 
your Majesty can then determine what measures will be best in regard to 
the use of the Spice Islands and lands adjacent to them. In such a case I 
offer my best services, which will cost your Majesty but little, in carrying 
out your orders. Please the Lord, the strait may be found, and I will do all 
I can towards that end. 

44 1 mean to send the vessels on the South sea to explore the coast, simul- 
taneously with those in the North sea.g The first will follow the coast until 
they find the strait or connect the shore line with that discovered by Magel- 
lan, and the last until they come to the Bacallaos." 

Cortes at this time conceived Nova Hispania to be a part of 
Asia, bat by the year 1540 he had explored the ooast so far 
North as to make it nearly certain that North America was a 
continent by itself. 

Oviedo, lib. xxxiii, Cap. xli, Ed. Acad. 1853, p. 456, remarks 
on this letter: 

" I take Cortes to be better as a Captain, and more versed in warlike mat- 
ters, such as we have been describing, than as an expert cosmographer, for 
all what he says ; for the strait of Magellan is very far from the point he 
speaks ot, and very far from being placed where Cortes, according to his 

* Neither had he heard of Leon's and Ayllon's undertaking on the Atlantic 
coasts, which had reached to about 84 deg. N. Lat. 

f Probably Magellan's I. de Ladrones (the Marianas?) or the Philippines. 
He could hardly mean the Desventuradas. 

X No map by any of the companions of Magellan is now known. Their 
track was perhaps copied by Agnese, on Maps described in this Note. 

§ It does not appear that Cortes sent out these last vessels. His explora- 
tions in the Pacific, actively pursued, do not bear on the subject. 



218 Notes on the Verkazano Map. 

say or his Map, which he sayB he has, wishes to make it, and there can be 
no doubt about this now" [1541]. 

Oviedo in this sneer displays much ignorance, for Cortes was 
speaking of an undiscovered strait that might be found in the 
North, and whose Westerly opening might not be far from the 
Philipines or Ladrones; a plausible conjecture, which the Map 
recently described by Prof. Peschel explains quite clearly.* This 
little Mapamundi, which is preserved in Munich, seems to be the 
work of Baptista Agnese, and a duplicate of it from Dresden, is 
given by Dr. Kohl (Maine, No. XIV), who had seen still another 
in the British Museum ; this last one signed by Agnese and dated 
1536. Another Map from the Bodleian Library, Oxford, given 
by Dr. Kohl (Maine, XV, c), drawn, perhaps, by Agnese also, 
shows a Northern strait between Terra de los Baccalaos and 
Terra de los Bretones, much as Cortes may have imagined it to 
he. § There is a small Mapamundi, which may best illustrate the 
geographical views of Cortes, prepared by Gaspar Vopellius, and 
inserted by Hieronimus Girava in his Cosmographies which 
appeared in Spanish at Milan, 1556, and again at Venice in 1570. 
On this Map, in which Nueva JEkpana is joined to India Oriental^ 
the Malucas are placed on the Equator, some forty degrees West 
of the longitude of Mexico, and close to the American coast, 
which is made to run almost East and West from Panama to the 
Ganges. 



IX.— ESTEVAN GOMEZ. 

Estevan Gomez, a Portuguese pilot, entered the service of the 
King of Spain, offering to discover a western sea way to the 
Spice Islands, but Fernan Maghalhaens was preferred to the 
command of the expedition, with Gomez as his first officer. 
When half way through the Strait, Gomez, who had been made 
pilot of a vessel commanded by Alvaro de la Mesquita, abandoned 
the expedition, arrested Mesquita and returned to Spain. Pend- 
ing the settlement of their dispute, the two were sent out in 
1528 with a fleet fitted out to pursue the French corsairs. Later, 

* Ratienitche Wdtkarte, etc., Leipzig, 1872. 



Estevan Gomez. 219 

Gomes prevailed upon the Emperor to fit oat a vessel for the 
discovery of a Strait North of Florida, between lata. 87 deg. and 
44 deg. He was detained by having to attend the Geographical 
Congress of Bajadoz, appointed to determine the mutual claims 
of Spain and Portugal to the Moluccas, and also, it is said, by a 
remonstrance against his enterprise from the Portuguese King, 
who claimed Newfoundland as falling within the demarcation 
line of 1515. The Congress sat from March 1 to May 1, 1524, 
and perhaps longer. The commission to Gomez was not signed 
until February 10, 1525, and he probably sailed within a few 
days after that date, leaving Corunna with one vessel. No trust- 
worthy account of his voyage has ever appeared. Spanish authors 
treat of it in general terms, and the Iterra de Gomez appears on 
Spanish Maps afterwards, but it is uncertain what extent of coast 
was explored. It appears that he searched it f roni Newfoundland 
to Florida, being absent ten months, returning in December, 
unsuccessful in the main object of his voyage. 

A paper entitled " Hernando Magallanes and Estevan Gomez, 
pilots who sought a Western strait to India," was read June 5, 
1866, before the New York Historical Society, by the late 
Buckingham Smith, which is briefly reported in the Historical 
Magazine, Yol. X, 1866, p. 229. Mr. Smith appears to have 
learned that a full account of the voyage was to be found in an 
unpublished work by the geographer Cespedes, who wrote near 
the close of the sixteenth century, containing full details of it, 
but was unsuccessful in finding it, nor had Munoz or Navarrete 
seen it. 

Andres Garcia de Cespedes was the author of several geograph- 
ical or mathematical works, enumerated by Leon y Pinelo in his 
Epitome of 1629, pp. 140, 148 and 184. One of these is entitled 
Regimento de Navegaoion que mando hazer et Reg. N. S. por 
orden de su Consejo real de las Indias. Madrid, 1606, folio. 
This work does not contain the full voyage of Gomez. Another 
one, perhaps containing it, is his " Isolario general" in manu- 
script, present owner unknown. * 



820 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

X— IDENTIFICATION OP JUAN FLORIN AS GIOVANNI 

DI VERRAZANO. 

In the Spanish accounts of his exploits as a corsair, he is always 
called Juan Florin or Florentin. Peter Martyr first mentions 
him as Florin, in the sixth chapter of his eighth Decade, written 
1525, bnt first printed in 1530. Though mention is often made 
of the French pirates, from the eighth chapter of the fifth 
Decade (written in 1521), to the end of the work, and especial 
stress is laid (Dec. VIII, cap. IX) on the safe arrival of the 
treasure ships at the end of July, 1 525, guarded by the fleet sent 
out to convoy them, he omits any allusion to the capture of Juan 
Florin. Such a matter would hardly have escaped his notice, nor 
does he mention it in his letters. 

These letters were first printed in 1530. The first notice of the 
leader of the pirates by name, is in one dated November 10, 1522, 
where he is simply called Florinus, a French pirate. In June, 
1523, he speaks of Jbannis Florini, the French pirate, and he is 
last mentioned by name in August, 1524, though the French 
pirates are spoken of later in the year. 

All that can be negatively inferred concerning the capture of 
Florin, from Peter Martyr, is that in this last letter of November 
1 8th his name does not appear. 

Ramusius does not appear to have seen the full edition of the 
Decades, of 1530, nor the letters either, for in the Italian Somario 
of 1534, which, as Mons. Davesac* has recently shown, was pre- 
pared by him, he had only the three first Decades (as published 
in 1516 in Spain, in Basle in 1533, and Cologne 1574) before him. 
Nor does Ramusius appear ever to have seen these last five 
Decades. Had he seen them, he would perhaps have recognized 
Verrazano under the names which Peter Martyr uses, when speak- 
ing of him. The full editions of Martyr's Decades and Letters 
do not seem to have left Spain for many years, and were perhaps 
jealously guarded from general circulation for more than fifty 
years, since in 1574 but three Decades were reprinted, and not 
till Hakluyt published at Paris in 1587, the whole eight, do they 
seem to have been quoted by authors generally. 



* Davesac Buil. de (Uog. y July, 1873, p. 10, note. 



Decades of the New World. 221 

Oviedo does not, but Gomara does name Florin, and as a 
pirate his name does not appear in any published Spanish or 
other work "until Herrera (Dec. Ill, Lib. IV, cap. XX), in 1601, 
speaks of him as Florin de la Hoehela, captain of six armed ves- 
sels. In the same Decade (Lib. VI, cap. IX), he gives the voyage 
of Juan Verra9ano Florentin, from Ramusius, without a suspicion 
that these names belonged to one person. 

The next printed reference to him as a corsair, is in Bernal 
Diaz del Castillo, whose narrative of the Conquest of Mexico, 
written in 1568, was not printed until 1682. He calls him Juan 
Florin and Florentin, a French corsair, and gives* the first pub- 
lished account of his capture and execution. 

De Barcia, in his Ensayo Cronologico de Florida, 1723, was 
the first to identify the corsair with the discoverer. He calls him 
Juan Verrazano Florentin, Corsario de Francia, and gives a very 
brief notice of his exploring voyage, from Ramusius, and of his 
exploits under the name of Juan Florentin, alludes to the report 
of his death in America, and then gives the story of his capture 
and execution, apparently from Bernal Diaz. 

Thus two centuries had elapsed before this identification was 
made, during all which period no one had even suspected it. 
The heading of his own letter, first published in 1556, might 
have awakened a surmise to this effect, and possibly the Spanish 
Government knew the truth, but it is curious that the fact should 
have been so slow in finding its way into print. 



XL— DECADES OF THE NEW WORLD, BY PETER 

MARTYR. 

Translated Extracts from the Decades of Peter Martyr concerning French pirates. 

Dec. V, Cap. 8 [1532 ; and written about' the same time as his 
letter of November 19]. " Of these two w * [hidalgos who had served 
under Cortes], "Benavides, leaving his companions, returned 
recently in one of the two ships sent by Cortes. In them gifts 
are brought, which are said to be far more precious and beautiful 
than those which came in the year when his Majesty went to 
Belgium, and seen by your Reverence. They estimate these 



222 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

treasures to be worth about two hundred thousand ducats, bat 
these ships have not yet reached us. They have stopped at the 
Cassiterides, called the Azore Islands by the Portuguese, the 
sovereigns thereof, to avoid falling into the hands of French 
pirates, as happened to one coming last year from Hispaniola 
and Cuba loaded with Gold of the weight of Seventy-two thou- 
sand ducats, of precious pearls six hundred eight ounce pounds, 
and two thousand arrobas of sugar. The Spanish arroba con- 
tains twenty-five six ounce pounds. Many brought individually 
much besides, all which became the booty of the pirates. An 
armed fleet ha's been sent, which is to bring these two safely from 
the Azores. These ships bring, as Benavides reports, three tigers. 
Two gentlemen, captains in the wars in those countries, remain 
in charge of these ships, Alfonso de Avila and Antonio Quig- 
nones, carrying the gift to the King from the people, but the 
share of Cortes is entrusted to Juan Ribera, private Secretary of 
Cortes, and his companion in all his labors from the beginning. 
News has recently been brought that fifteen ships of the French 
pirates were seen cruising on the Ocean, expecting to lay hands 
upon these ships as they did with the other, but that. they were 
driven by storms on the Coast of Africa, and that many of them 
were drowned." 

Cap. X (1522)., " . . . .but there is a rumor of uncertain origin, 
that the French pirates have already got scent of those ships ; 
may God bring it out aright." 

Dec. VI, Cap. X (1524). "The troubles of these times, due to 
the various pirates and the hostilities with the French King, have 
put a stop to our communications both by land and by sea." 

Dec. VII, Cap. IV (1524). " They say that Cortes has 300,000 
pesos ready to send to Caesar. . . . .but learning of the capture of 
so many laden ships by the French pirates, hardly ventures to 
despatch these. Thus, while in our Council of the Indies, coun- 
sel was being held on the measures to be taken for the safety of 
these ships, it was resolved, and provided by Caesar upon our 
petition,* and ordered that they should gather, as fast as each 
one was laden, at Hispaniola as a rendezvous. The ships being 
gathered from all those lands, a strong fleet would thus be formed, 

* See Cortes de Valladolid. 



Decades of the New World. 223 

which would be safe from the attack of pirates if they had to 
defend themselves. What fate is to befall the armament is to be 
determined by Divine Providence." 

Cap. V (1524). w While I am writing of these things, word is 
brought that four, ships from 4he Indies have arrived on our 
Spanish coasts. What treasures they bring we have not heard." 

Dec. VIII, Cap. IV (1526). "They say that Cortes is still deplor- 
ing the loss of those great treasures, captured by. the French 
pirates about three [two ?] years ago, which he was sending to 
Caesar. But what shall we say concerning the gems and precious 
stones ? Passing over the rest, there was a pyramidal emerald, 
whose base was nearly as broad as the palm of a man's hand. It 
was told to us in the Council and to Caesar that such an one had 
never seen by human eye before. It is said that the French 
Admiral purchased it at an incredible price from the captor of 
this booty. But they treat Alfonso de Avila with inhumanity. 
He is a young man of noble family, but not rich. They keep 
him a prisoner in a foul dungeon, upon the sole pretext that to 
him were entrusted . this jewel and the other treasures. They 
think that they can exact from him twenty thousand ducats if 
he wishes to ransom himself." 

Cap. VI. " Cortes, by reason that the French pirate named 
Florinus, took his fleet with many precious things, which he and 
the other officers in New Spain, partners in hi* conquests, were 
sending to Caesar, has from grief over so great a loss, sent no 
letters either to Caesar or to our Council. He has thus allowed 
a suspicion to arise from this and from the sayings of many who 
frequently return from those Kingdoms, of a defection from 
Caesar." 

Dec. Vlll, Cap. IX [writing about a large fleet bound to the 
West Indies, on which there went a retainer of his, Juan Mende- 
guren, he says, November, 1525], "From him I have received 
letters from Gomera, one of the Fortunate Islands, where all 
vessels crossing the Ocean stop for refreshments. He writes that 
they had got thus far prospering, in the space of ten days, and 
that fast ships could do it in less, but that it was the duty of the 
convoy to wait for the slow sailers, lest they should fall into the 
jaws of the French pirates, who watched them for some time 



224 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

m 

under sail, that they might fall upon the laggards. I do not 
remember whether I have said or not, that two ships sent by 
Fernando Cortes from New Spain, the latest new lands known to 
as, had arrived at the Azores. I will tell you how it was arranged 
that they should not fall into the wide spread jawB of the pirates, 
who had long waited for them cruising around, and how they 
avoided them and what they bring. One of them, having dis- 
charged her cargo, determined to try her luck, and by the help 
of Providence, did not fall among the robbers, escaping safely. 
This news being heard, a fleet of six ships was hastily prepared, 
of which four are two hundred tons burthen, and also two cara- 
vels completely equipped for fighting, in case they met with 
pirates. The King of Portugal added four others, good sailers 
and well furnished with all kinds of guns. They sailed on the 
25th of June, took in the cargoes left behind, and returned safely 
about the end of July. Thanks were offered to God in Seville. 
We expect the chief captains every day. There were only two 
small ships from Cortes. They ascribe the little treasure in the 
ships to the poverty of those regions. They bring to Caesar only 
seventy thousand gold pesos." [He gives the reasons for ordering 
the spice laden vessels from the East Indies to start and to land 
at Corunna, among which is the fear of pirates along the South- 
ern coasts, for, as he says], " there are in those shores between the 
high mountains many desert valleys, which are not much peopled 
on account of their sterility. These are the hiding places of 
pirates, who signalled by their men watching on the top of the 
mountains, attack the passing ships. On this account it was 
ordered that business should be carried on there " (at Corunna). 
- This Chapter is dated November 19th, 1525. 

Martyr completed one more Chapter of this eighth Decade 
and died in October, 1526. There is some confusion in his 
accounts as given in the Decades, and they must be compared 
with his Letters in order to understand them. It will be noticed 
that in the Decades he only names Florinus once and that he 
says nothing about his capture. 



♦ Letters op Peter Martyr. 225 

XIL— LETTERS OF PETER MARTYR. 

The letters of Peter Martyr cover a most interesting period of 
European history, namely, from 1488 to 1525. They are full of 
details which can be found nowhere else, and abound with gossip 
of all kinds. He wrote them in fluent but not very classic Latin, 
to persons in Italy or Spain, and often in haste, as he himself 
admits. We find in them many passages concerning the New 
World, taking, as he did, a vivid interest in the progressive dis- 
coveries made there. As a member of the Council of the Indies 
and as an attache' to the royal court he had opportunities of 
learning all that was happening there. He gathered these details 
into Decades, the first one, written before 1500, being published 
in 1511, two others appearing in 1516, and the whole eight in 
1530, after his death, which occurred in 1526. 

The letters, 812 in number, were first published at Alcala in 
1530, and again at Paris in 1670, but have not been translated. 

In Ep. 634 (Paris Ed.), dated January 30th, 1519, he mentions 
treasures expected to arrive from islands near the Continent. 
This was the consignment of gold collected by Juan de Grijalva 
during his expedition to Yucatan and the lower Mexican coast in 
1518. This was forwarded by Velasquez, Governor of Cuba, and 
got safely in to Seville. 

In Ep. 650 (Paris Ed.), dated December 2d, 1519, he announces 
the arrival of the first treasure sent by Cortes. 

In Ep. 686 (Paris Ed.), dated September 13th, 1520, he says 
that all Gold from the Indies must pass through the Casa de 
Contratacion, and in Ep. 715 (same ed.), of March 6th, 1521, he 
alludes to treasure expected, as he says, from the lands West of 
Cuba. Verrazano, a few weeks after this last date, took one or 
two vessels from the Indies according to Herrera, but they were 
not sent by Cortes. 

The next four letters are full of details oonoerning the pirates 

and their captures. 

Epist. 774 (Ed. 1530), 771 (Ed. 1670). 

Valladolid, November 19, 1522. 

" These vessels from Fernand Cortes the conqueror of the 

Yucatan and other newest lands, have arrived at the Cassi- 
15 



226 Notss on the Verbazano Map. 

terides, Portuguese Islands, commonly called- the Azores. Con* 
oerning the treasures thereof, but particularly the ornaments and 
vestments consecrated to their deities, and how far they differ 
from those sent by the same, and which you saw in Valladolid, 
they speak with great animation and say that those brought in 
one of the three ships exceed the former greatly in beauty and 
value. 

The other two vessels, however, fearing the French corsairs, 
have remained at the said islands. They pretend to say that car- 
goes to the value of eight hundred thousand ducats are brought 
in them. There they will stay, consequently, until another fleet, 
which has been ordered to be fitted out, can be sent from Seville 
to convoy them, for we have been taught by a very bitter exam- 
ple, which ought to make us more vigilant, unless fortune blinds 
us. 

For last year one Florin, a French pirate, captured a ship 
coming from Hispaniola with gold to the amount of eighty thou- 
sand ducats, six hundred eight ounce pounds of pearls and two 
thousand arrobas of sugar. As Commander of these three ves- 
sels came Juan Ribera, as private envoy of Fernan Cortes, who 
in the name of his Master, Fernan Cortes, is to present half of 
those gifts to Caesar, and the other half is to be offered by the 
two representatives of the magistrates and soldiers of those lands 
in their name to Caesar. These two are still with the ships. 

Juan Ribera resolved to tempt fortune with one of the ships 
and came in. What he brought you shall learn elsewhere. He 
has not yet landed the cases he brought, which, however, are all 
his own, nothing for the King himself. 

In the three ships they brought over three tigers, reared from 
whelps, each in his cage. By the violence of the storms, one of 
the cages was opened a little one night. By great exertion the 
tiger burst the planks asunder and attacked the men as fiercely 
as if it had never seen one. Five of those it met were badly 
wounded (each) by one blow. Their comrades, roused by the 
noise, disabled the quadruped with spears and drove it into the 
sea. To avoid the same happening again they shot the second 
one in its cage with darts. So they only bring one, which God 
grant may, with the other things, escape the jaws of the pirates, 
for they have become so greatly allured by that booty, by means 



Letters of Peter Martyr. 227 

■ 
of which they have gathered fresh strength, that we can no longer 

safely navigate our ocean." 

Epistle 782 (Ed. 1530), 779 (Ed. 1670). 

Valladolid, June 11, 1523. 

"This very day more bad news is brought. I have already 
written about three ships which Fernan Cortes sent with immense 
treasures from the most remote lands, two of which for fear of 
pirates stayed at the Cassiterides, the Azore islands, until a new 
fleet could be sent to convoy them. A little fleet of three cara- 
vels was sent for their protection, but in vain. The larger vessel 
laden with those precious things, attacked by two ships, fell into 
the hands of John Florin, the French pirate. The other ship 
escaped, with only one of the twelve large cases, and one of the 
tigers of which I have already spoken. These few thus escaped, 
immensely excel in richness and elegance of the dresses, the gifts 
seen by you, before the Emperor's departure from Valladolid to 
Galicia on his way to the Low Countries. And no wonder. 
Those came from tiibes in the provinces, these were brought from 
the treasury of that great King Muteczuma, and the other gran- 
dees of his court and their famous temples. Those who had 
handled the articles aver that those lost by this mischance exceed 
in value 600,000 ducats. There was a large quantity of gold dust, 
and the robes dedicated to their Gods were richly trimmed with 
gold. I took the Venetian Ambassador* and several nobles to 
see them at the house of those who are taking care of this box, 
until it is presented to Caesar. These enable us to judge of what 
was lost. They admired the beauty and richness, the designs 
wrought with wondrous skill, and figures intermingled with all 
kinds of flowers, plants, animals, snares and birds. They are a 
strong proof that these people are polished, of acute minds and 
industrious." 

Ep. 804, Ed. 1530. 

Ep. 800, Ed. 1670. 

Valladolid, August 3d, 1524. 

"To turn to other matters; a courier of the King of Portugal 
comes hither with the complaint, that Florinus the French pirate 
had captured a ship of his King, coming from the Indies, in 



Bee 



228 Notes on the Verbazano Map. 

which the freight they brought was taken, amounting to a sum 
of one hundred and eighty thousand ducats of gums and spices." 

Ep. 806, Ed. 1530. 

Ep. 802, Ed. 1670. 

Valladolid, November 18th, 1524. 

" The sea is also hostile to us. Of the many carracks wrecked 
and damaged by storms you know most fully, for they were all 
Italian. Jacob de Veer, distinguished in Spain in your day, 
built one. 

This fell into the hands of the French pirate, with a thousand 
five hundred bags of Spanish wool, and with other things which 
were going to the fairs of Belgium and Antwerp, amounting in 
value to seventy thousand ducats. 



Xni.— CONTARINI ON THE FRENCH CORSAIRS. 

The Venetian envoy in Spain, at this time, was the well-known 
Gaspar Contarini, and we find several allusions in his despatches 
home to the captures by the French corsairs. These papers are 
now in the Marciana (library) in Venice, bequeathed to it by one 
of his descendants, in 1843. Mr. Rawdon Brown, the able 
editor of several volumes of Calendars of Venetian State papers, 
relating to English affairs, pointed out these letters to Mr. Henri 
Harrisse, author of the Biblioteca Americana Vetustissima, 1866, 
and of other works showing great research. We give such 
extracts from them as bear upon the treasure of Cortes, from his 
Supplement to the work just mentioned, Paris, 1872. 

The first extract, not dated, speaks of the new empire dis- 
covered by Cortes. 

The second, from Carte 27, dated November 18, 1522 (one day 
previous to a similar one of Martyr's, both written after the 
arrival of Juan de Ribera), mentions the treasure, but says 
nothing about corsairs. 

The third extract, from Carte 29, dated June 7, 1523, 
announces the capture of two out of three treasure-vessels by 
French vessels, and the escape of the third. He then adds: 
" His Majesty, here, has written to all his ports that as many as 



Herrera's Decades. 229 

possible should go out and pursue the said French vessels, and 
desires that half of the gold and vestments which may be recap- 
tured should remain to them; for they hold that these French 
vessels cannot have yet reached a place of safety." 

The other extracts are not dated, and speak of still richer trea- 
sures expected, etc. 



XTV.— HERRERA'S DECADES. 

Decade III, Lib. IV, Cap. XX, 1523. Alonzo Davila, 
Antonio de Quinones, Diego de Ordaz and Alonzo de Mendoza 
were waiting at Santa Maria, in the Azores, to be sent for, and, 
becoming tired of waiting, Diego de Ordaz resolved to come on 
with other passengers, in a Portuguese ship, and landed in Lis- 
bon. Capt. Domingo Aldnzo left the vessels bound to the Indies, 
that he was convoying, at the Canaries, and went to the Azores 
with his three caravels. Coming back to Spain with Davila, 
Quinones and their fellow passengers, with the gold and things 
they were in charge of, at ten leagues from Cape Saint Vincent, 
six armed French vessels came out against them,* whose captain 
was Florin of Rochelle. Of the three Spanish caravels, one took 
to flight, two prepared for battle, and, although they fought 
bravely, were captured. Antonio de Quinones was killed, and 
Alonzo Davila was carried to La Rochelle, whence those vessels 
came, and was a prisoner there for three years. Almost all the 
treasure was lost, which Cortez was sending to the King, not 
only as a present, but also his fifth, and a vessel, which was 
coming from Espanola, with sixty-two thousand ducats, six hun- 
dred marks of* pearls, and two thousand arrobas of sugar. 

Cap. XXI. The Emperor felt deeply the loss of the two cara- 
vels which the French captured, and of the ship, and with so 
much the more care he ordered that care should be had to protect 
the Armada by a fleet fitted out by expending the custom duties 

(averias). 

Lib. VII, Cap. IV. (The Emperor) sent instructions to all the 
Governors of the Islands and Tierra Firme to assure the safety 



♦This is probably an exaggeration; Florin had, probably, four only. 



230 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

* 

of the inward and outward voyage, and directing them what 
course to follow to avoid the corsairs. 

Dec. III y Lib. Xy Cap. XI y 1526. And as the French were 
still continuing to cruise (as corsairs), it was ordered that all 
vessels from the Indies should be well armed, and that they 
should gather at the Island of Hispaniola, and should sail together 
for mutual protection, for it was reported that the corsairs had 
captured a ship and taken from it the pilot and compass [chart ?] 
in order to learn the navigation and help to look for the ships of 
the Indies, where they might be taken with greater safety to 
themselves. 

The same arrangement was made for vessels sailing to the 
Indies, and that a Captain-General should have authority over 
the fleet, who, with experienced pilots, might save much loss, 
punish the mutineers, and repress the bad practice of the crews, 
who maltreated passengers and committed offences in the places 
where they stopped. 

Revised maps were to be prepared under the supervision of 
Hernando Colon, etc. 

A magazine of artillery and ammunition was also ordered to 
be established in Seville for arming the India-bound veselfl. 



XV.— BERN AL DIAZ DEL CASTILLO. 

Cap. CLIX (CLXIX), fols. 163 and 164. Let us leave the 
letters and speak of the good voyage which our Procuradoret 
pursued after they started from the port of Vera Cruz, which 
was on the twentieth day of the month of December [?], one 
thousand five hundred and twenty-two,* and they happily 
passed through the channel of Bahama, f and, on the way, two 
of the tigers out of the three which they carried escaped and 
wounded some sailors, and they determined to kill the remaining 

♦This date appears only in Bernal Diaz, and is certainly erroneous. 

f The vessels were piloted by Anton de Alaminos, the discoverer of this 
channel, who accompanied Cortes to Mexico, and took his first vessel to 
Spain by this route. Bee B. Diaz, Cap. UII; also note, Gtdf of MM*, to 
this paper. 



Bernal Diaz Del Castillo. g31 

one, because he was very wild and they conld not manage him, * 
and continued their voyage to the island called la Tercera; and 
as Antonio de Quinones was captain, and considered himself 
valiant and in love, it appeared that he was returning to that 
island with a woman, and a quarrel arose about her, and they 
gave him a sword cut on the head, of which he died after some 
days, and Alonzo de Avila remained sole commander; and while 
Alonzo de Avila was steering, with the two ships, towards Spain, f 
not far from the island, Juan Florin, a French corsair, fought 
with them, and he took all the gold and ships, and Alonzo de 
Avila, and took the prize to France. And, in the same manner, 
Juan Florentin pillaged another ship coming from the Island of 
St. Domingo, and took from it twenty thousand pesos of gold 
and a great quantity of pearls and sugar and ox hides, and, with 
all this, he returned to France very rich, and made great presents 
to his King, and to the Admiral of France, of the articles and 
pieces of gold which we brought from New Spain, so that all 
France was marvelling at the riches which we sent to our great 
Emperor, and the desire took the said King of France also to own 
a part of the Islands of New Spain, and he said, at the time, that 
with the gold only that was going to our Caesar from those lands 
he could wage war with his France, and although at that time 
Peru was not known or conquered, but, as I said, he only had 
that from New Spain, and the Islands of St. Domingo and St. 
Juan and Cuba and Jamaica, and it is told that afterwards the 
King of France said, or sent a message, .to our great Emperor 
that as he and the King of Portugal had divided the world 
without giving him a portion of it, that they should show to him 
the testament of father Adam, whether they were named as his 
sole heirs, and lords of those lands which they had taken between 
the two without giving him any of them, and that for that 

# Herrera, Dec. Ill, Lib. Ill, Cap. I, says there were two, and that the 
one which escaped wounded eight men and killed two. These animals were 
American jaguars. 

f Bernal Diaz is the only authority for this scandalous tale, which may he 
only soldiers' gossip. Herrera, better informed, says Quinones was killed in 
the action with the corsairs. Diaz omits all reference to Juan de Ribera, the 
secretary of Cortes, who, according to Peter Martyr, was the chief of the 
deputation. 



282 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

reason it was lawful to rob and take all that he could on the sea; 
and forthwith he ordered Juan Florin that he should return with 
another fleet to seek his living by the sea; and on that voyage 
which he undertook, and on which he made another great prize 
of all cargoes between Castile and Canary Islands, he met with 
three or four strong ships manned by Biscayans, and some of 
them attacking him on one side and the rest on the other, they 
fought with Juan Florin and destroyed and disabled him, and 
captured him and many other Frenchmen, and took their ships 
and clothing, and carried Juan Florin and other captains prison- 
ers to Seville to the Casa de Contratacion, and despatched them 
prisoners to his Majesty; and after he knew it, he ordered that, 
on the way, they should be executed, and in the Puerto del Pico 
they were hung, aud thus made our gold safe, together with the 
captains who carried it, and Juan Florin who took it Now let 
us return to our story, which is that they took Alonzo de Avila 
prisoner, and they put him into a fortress, believing that they 
would get a great ransom, because he carried so much gold in his 
charge— -guarding it well — and Alonzo de Avila, <fcc, Ac. 



XVL— OVIEDO ON THE CAPTURE OF 1523. 

Lib. XXXIII, Cap. XLI, Ed. Acad. Madrid, 1853, Vol. 8, 
p. 407-8. 

This historian does not name Florin, although he mentions the 
loss of the vessels. After speaking of the despatch of the trea- 
sure and curiosities, he adds : 

44 They were taken at sea by French corsairs, and many who I have heard 
speak of this, and who saw those things, estimated their value at more than 
one hundred and fifty thousand ducats of gold, and that of the money which 
they took besides, or rather the gold and silver, at as much more. And 
although he [Cortes] regretted what had happened, he said that on the other 
hand he was pleased that they had taken them, because they would not he 
missed by His Majesty, as he would labor to send others much richer and 
more curious, according to the news received from certain provinces, which 
he had then sent to conquer. And that he was also satisfied with such a 
loss, because the French and other nations to whom these things became 
known, would know that besides the great and extensive kingdoms and 



OMAR A ON FlOBIN—Db B ARC I A ON VSRRAZANO. 233 

seignoralties which Their Majesties held in Spain and elsewhere, one of the 
least of their vassals could perform such a service in so remote a region as 
these Indies, gaining so many kingdoms for the increase of the royal sceptre 
of CastffiV' 

Oviedo arrived in Spain from Espanola November 5, 1523, and 
was with the Court during 1524 and 1525, starting again for 
America April 30, 1526. If, therefore, Florin had been taken or 
hung during that time, Oviedo would certainly have chronicled 
the fact. 



XVH.— GOMARA ON FLORIN. 

La Conquista de Mexico, §arago£ a, 1553, fol. lxxxvii. 

After describing the things sent in the three caravels from 
Mexico, and giving the names of the officers in charge of their 
precious freight, all which seems to be taken from Martyr's 
Decades, he continues : 

4 'But Florin, a French Corsair, took the two caravels which carried the 
gold, this side of the Azores. And he took at the same time that which was 
coming from the Islands with seventy-two thousand ducats, six hundred 
marks of mother of pearl (aljofar) and pearls, and two thousand arrobas of 
sugar." 

Francisco Lopez de Gomara became the Chaplain of Cortes 
after the conquest, and is generally considered a most reliable 
though sometimes partial historian. He may have been in Seville, 
a young man, at the time of Florin's capture of the treasure, and 
is the first author, after Martyr, who mentions Florin's name. 
That he, like Martyr, should be silent about the taking and hang- 
ing of Florin, is significant of the groundlessness of the story. 



XVIH— DE BARCIA ON JTJAN VERRAZANO. 

Eneayo Gronologico para la SRstoria General de la Florida: 
por Don Gabriel de Cardenas y Gano. Madrid, 1723, folio. 

This is one of the numerous works of the indefatigable Don 
Andres Gonzales de Barcia, whose name is concealed under the 
above anagram of it. 



284 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

Fol. 8, year 1524, "Juan Verrazano, a Corsair of France, 
coasted the Eastern shores of Florida for more than 700 leagues. 
Having sailed on the 17th of January from the uninhabited rock 
of Madera, he arrived at the mouth of the river of Canada or St. 
Lawrence, noting the lands, its people and their customs, as he 
himself writes* to Francis the First, King of France, from 
Dieppe, on the 8th of June [July]," whose narrative is abridged 
by Antonio de Herrera, who believed that he returned to France, 
although some say that he did not, having died on the way ; and 
others that on attempting to land he was eaten by Indians the 
following year. If he did not return to Florida afterwards, it 
would not be easy to agree about it The truth is, that at that 
time, there infested our Seas Juan Florentin, a French pirate, 
who made himself famous from having taken, in the year 1521, 
the Ship in which Hernan Cortes was sending to the Emperor 
Charles V, a present of gold, silver and other precious things, in 
the charge of Alonzo de Avila, whom he took a prisoner,! and 
another ship coming to Spain from the Island of Santo Domingo, 
of great value, with which, and others, he returned to France 
very rich, and made great presents to the King Francis, and to 
those of his court, who was astonished to see such riches." 

"He took again to the sea, much honored and favored, and 
with greater forces and preparations; did great damage, and took 
innumerable prizes; and retiring to France with them, he was 
met near the Canaries this year by four Biscayan vessels, who 
took his ships and what they carried, carrying him a prisoner to 
Seville, with others. Thence they were sent to Madrid, but those 
who had influence and had been damaged through his violence, 
clamored for justice : so he and the other Captains were exe- 
cuted, being hung in the Puerto del Pico as pirates, public 
enemies of nations." 

Barcia* erroneously places the first capture in 1521. We have 
shown that Florentin took a Santo Domingo ship in this year, 

* The Spanish reads, "como se dice, que el mismo lo eecrivio a Fran- 
cisco, <fcc.;" but he cannot mean to say that he was not acquainted with 
the letter itself in Ramusius. 

t Who (Avila) having recovered his liberty went afterwards with Francisco 
Montejo to the conquest of Yucatan as Royal Treasurer, keeping the rank 
he held in New Spain. (Parenthesis in text.) 



De Viera. 285 

but the Cortes treasures, with another West India vessel, were 
taken in 1528. In 1522 he was driven away from the Canaries, 
according to Viera, and also from the Spanish coast,, according to 
Herrera,* without carrying off any prizes. The conflict with the 
BiscayanB is the story told by Bernal Diaz. This is therefore a 
very confused account, and palpably incorrect as to dates. His 
story of the execution is evidently taken at second hand from 
Bernal Diaz, leaving but a slender hearsay report as a foundation 
for it. As before stated, these two writers alone mention the 
execution of Juan Florin. 

It will be noticed also that he makes him sail along our coast 
from north to south. 



XIX.— DE VIERA. 

Notices of the general History of the Canary Islands, by Don 
Joseph de Viera y Clavijo. Madrid, 1772. 3 vols. sq. 8vo. 

Vol. n, Cap. Xn, p. 294 (Castillo MS., lib. 8). 

Action of the Governor of Canary, Pedro Suarez dd Castilla, 
Ac. (abridged). 

" In the sixth year of his government, which was in 1522, he sent out 
vessels to recapture seven boats with emigrants for the Islands, and made 
Juan Florin, the corsair, release them. 

" He then betook himself to the Azores, and captured two vessels return- 
ing from America, sent by Cortes, with the Ransom of Montezuma, with 
over 88m. Castellanos in bars of gold and plate, precious stones, pearls," Ac. 

There are two Castillo manuscripts mentioned by de Viera, in 
his Prologo. The above extract is probably from the one by 
Don Pedro Agustin del Castillo of Tenerife, being a history of 
the Islands. It would be interesting to look at this manuscript 
carefully, as it may oontain further details about the above occur- 
rence. 

• Dec in, Lib. I, Cap. XIV. 



236 Notes on the Verrazajxo Map. 

XX.— CORTES DE VALLADOLID. 

Las Cortes de Valladolid del ano do 1523. 

Printed 1551. 

Peticion LXXIII. 

" Item that the seas of the Kingdom of Granada and Andalusia, 
and also those of Castille, being full of Moorish, Turkish and 
French corsairs; so that no one can traffic, and every da y they 
attack the forts and capture persons and effects, and also other 
damage, therefore your Highness is begged that the fleet may 
cruise in said seas, and that another fleet may be prepared, if neces- 
sary, so that the seas may be cleared in such a manner that com- 
merce can be carried on, that the galleys may be equipped and 
entrusted to a person of experience and accustomed to maritime 
matters, and that your Highness would provide in such a way 
that these Kingdoms may not suffer such damage, disgrace and 
affront that no one dare leave his house, and merchants dare not 
come to Castille, from* fear of the corsairs, and from this reason 
the goods that are brought and enter the Kingdom are twice as 
costly as they used to be. 

To this we answer, that we appreciate what you tell us, and it 
is right that measures should be taken, and we charge you to 
arrange among yourselves the manner and method which is to be 
followed to remedy it, and advise us thereof ; because what can 
be provided according to our means shall be done, and in the 
providing of the galleys we have already entrusted them to a 
person experienced in the sea." 

Peticion LXXII. 

" Further ; that a guard of the coast of Granada be provided, 
as it was in the time of the Catholic Kings. 

To this we answer, that it shall be done." 

This is probably the petition alluded to by Peter Martyr, as 
having been presented by the Council of the Indies, in Decade 
VII, Cap. IV. It is, however, uncertain whether the sending of 
an armed fleet under Domingo Alonzo to -the Azores, was an 
independent act of the Council of the Indies, or in accordance 
with this decree. 



Cortes de Toledo. 237 

XXI.— CORTES DE TOLEDO. 

Las Cortes de Toledo del ano de 1525. 

Printed 1550. 

Peticion XXII. 

" Also we entreat your Majesty that since all the Kingdom and 
the coasts of Castile, as well as those of Andalusia, are much 
cursed (damnifioada) by the robberies which the French and 
Moors have committed, and continued to do daily, of many ships 
and merchandise of great value, and of the gold from the Indies, 
which they have taken because our coasts are not guarded ; by 
which your Majesty is much injured, because the French provide 
themselves with our ships, and the Moors take them also, and 
with them carry on war, and the coasts will remain without ship- 
ping, from which great damage will ensue to the whole Kingdom, 
may your Majesty be pleased to order that in the Cities and places 
in the land of Biscay and of Guypuscoa those who may wish to 
do so may arm, your Majesty ordering and aiding them to do 
this, and further providing thus for the sea coast as may be 
required ; and also in the ports of Andalusia and the Moorish 
coast, may your Majesty order this to be remedied and provided 
for ; in such manner that the French and the Moors may not do 
mischief as they have done hitherto ; all which your Majesty has 
promised many times for the peace of your Royal mind and for 
the honor and profit of these Kingdoms ; and towards this his 
Holiness has granted and grants many Bulls and Indulgences. 

To this we answer that we hold it a service for all those of our 
Kingdoms who desire it to arm for the above purpose ; and to 
aid in the outlay they may make, we have ordered and now order 
that during our Royal reign the fifth belonging to us in all prizes 
taken shall be granted; in furtherance of which we order our 
Council to make the required regulations ; and as for the coast- 
guard, we have ordered our Council of War to issue orders, to 
provide that the coast be made safe and well watched, that our 
subjects may not suffer loss." 

This decree was perhaps issued in 1528 or 4, after the great 
captures of the Mexican treasure vessels, and the Biscayans, who 
met and captured a fleet of French Corsairs, probably fitted out 
under its authority. 



238 NOTES ON THE VSRRAZANO MAP. 

t 

XXBL— CORSAIRS IN THE WEST INDIES AFTER 1527. 

Continual complaints of the ravages by French and English 
corsairs were made by the officials in the West Indies after the 
year 1527. The thirst of the Spanish monarchs for gold, and 
the rapacity of individual adventurers, left the colonies poor, and 
productive of little besides articles of intrinsic value. So little 
had been expended for the defence of these rich islands and 
provinces, that as late as 1535 there had been constructed but 
one fort for their defence,* the poor one in the port of Sto. 
Domingo, of which the historian Oviedo was alcalde from 1533 
to 1554. His complaints of its poor condition, with its ten 
soldiers, a few small cannon and small supply of powder, were 
unceasing. This fort, and some minor defences at other points, 
are said to have been constructed for defence against the Indians 
only, and not as a protection to the ports. 

The only naval armament consisted, in 1541, of galleys at a 
few ports, f and the sea was quite open to any daring foreign 
adventurer. This defenceless condition became known to the 
French and English, who soon took advantage of it, and their 
privateers roamed in the Gulf and Caribbean Sea, entering ports 
and seizing laden vessels in them, sacking towns or levying ran- 
som, and refitting in places which dared not refuse supplies. 

Some of the English vessels had French pilots, who were 
better acquainted with the routes to the islands and the coasts 
there than their own, the French having been the first to inaugu- 
rate privateering at the sources of the supply of precious metals. 

From this time the pursuit of Spanish treasure became unceas- 
ing, and was continued for a century and a half by the French 
or English, the Dutch also entering the lists after shaking off the 
Spanish yoke. The history of the early buccaneers has not been 
written, but many tales of the exploits of their successors have 
been gathered. Spain paid dearly for her colonial policy of 
exclusion, and reaped no lasting benefit from her possessions in 
the New World. 

•Doc In., 1864,581. 

t Bee in reference to the above : Oviedo, Herrera, and Documentoe Inedttoa, 
particularly the volume for 1864, pages 12, 15, 511-13-48-70-72-75-81-88. 



Routes to and from the West Indies. 239 

XXIII.— ROUTES TO AND FROM THE WEST INDIES. 

No settled route from Spain to the West Indies had been 
pursued until Pedrarias Davila, in 1514, going to Castilla del Oro 
(Darien), with a fleet, took advantage of all that could shorten 
the navigation, and his path across the ocean was thenceforth 
adopted as the regular one to be followed. Oviedo, Herrera, 
Cespedes and others describe the route outward and inward 
circumstantially. 

The first course outward from Spain was to Gran Canada, 
Gomera or Falma, occupying eight or ten days, where supplies 
were taken in. Taking a departure from Ferro, a course was 
made W. S. W., £ S., toward the Northerly windward Islands, 
favored by the Brisas or trades, endeavoring to sight La Deseada 
and Dominica. This course, occupying about twenty-five days, 
was estimated at 750 leagues. On a great circle, it measures 721 
Spanish leagues, or 2,470 nautical miles. Vessels badly steered 
wo.uld go wide of the mark, and first make the leeward islands, 
or even the coasts of Honduras. From Dominica they would 
generally make for the city of Santo Domingo, on the south side 
of Hispaniola, unless bound for Tierra Firme. The whole voyage 
was made in about thirty-five to forty days, and the vessels bound 
to the Northerly Islands would sail in April or May, but if for 
Tierra Firme, in August or September. 

The return voyage was made in a higher latitude, in order to 
avoid the trades and meet the north-west winds. At first, vessels 
passed out into the ocean through the old Bahama channel, but 
after the Florida channel had been discovered by AJaminos, and 
the corsairs became troublesome, they were ordered to rendezvous 
at Havannah, and sail in fleets for mutual protection. Thence 
they kept well to the north, sometimes sighting the Bermudas, 
and generally stopping at the Azores. If the Azores could not 
be made, a course was made to Cape Blanco. From either of these 
points the course was taken toward Cape St. Vincent, in Portu- 
gal. In the winter season the lower course, in lat. 33 deg., was 
preferred. Twenty or thirty days was the average time of the 
voyage to the Azores, and fifteen or twenty thence to San Lucar, 
though much better time was sometimes made, while others were 



240 Notes on the Verrazano Map. 

three or four months on the way. The start from New Mexico, 
or Havannah, was generally made early in May. 

We give the above in order to indicate the stations which the 
corsairs would most likely select to waylay Spanish vessels, and 
the seasons at which they might expect them. About 1527, the 
French and English corsairs found that by following the trades 
to the West Indies, they could better attack the treasure-laden 
vessels of the Spaniards before they had gathered at their ren- 
dezvous in Cuba. The precautions taken to guard them after 
they had thus met together almost put an end to the watch of 
the corsairs around the Azores and Cape St Vincent, which had 
proved so profitable to Verrazano. 



XXIV.— SUPPRESSION OF GEOGRAPHICAL KNOW- 
LEDGE BY SPAIN. 

The jealous secretiveness of Spain regarding her marine charts 
has been noticed in another note, and therefore the appearance 
of a chart of the West Indies in Martyr's Decade of the Ocean, 
in 1611, must have been unauthorized and probably distasteful 
to the government. Curiously enough, the King, in this very 
year, forbids the communication of Spanish charts to foreigners, 
and it may be that this measure was dictated by the publication 
of this chart as much as by the Portuguese attempt to get mape 
from Vespucius. Possibly this may have led to a suppression of 
the book, for but very few copies of it are now known. The 
next editions, of 1516 and 1580 (this last, the fullest one, and 
published after his death) have no maps at all 

No maps by Columbus or by the Spanish explorers of America 
were ever published. We have none by Cortes or Pizarro, 
Magellan or Gomez, but they all prepared draughts of their dis- 
coveries, no doubt, that served the JPMotos Mcyores in the com- 
pilation of the fine manuscript charts preserved in European 
libraries. In fact, we find many references to such charts, but 
very few of them are now known. 

No official general charts of the Americas were published in 
Spain until 1 790, but several sketches, such as Pedro de Medina's 



Family of Vsrrazano. 241 

of 1545, appeared in Spanish works after the middle of the six- 
teenth century. The first general map of the new continent, 
published from Spanish authorities, is that by Sebastian Cabot in 
his Mapamundi of 1544, of which but one copy, found by the late 
Von Martins of Munich, and sent to the Royal library in Paris, 
in 1843, is now known. Cespedes, in 1606, speaks of it as having 
been presented to the King of Spain. Its rarity can only be 
explained by the desire to suppress it by. Spanish authority; and 
the loss of Cabot's papers and memoirs after his death, in 1556, 
was, no doubt, the result of the same jealous desire to suppress a 
general knowledge of the Spanish colonial empire. The attempts 
made to represent the New World by Hylacomilus, in 1513, by 
Schoner and Apianus, in 1520, and Gemma Frisius, in 1525, were 
mere guesses at the real outlines of America, until the general 
interest taken in the Spanish discoveries after the conquest of 
Mexico, and the wonderful voyage of Magellan, brought out the 
tolerably accurate map of Oronoe Fin6, of Dauphine in 1531. 
Severe penalties were threatened, and death was to be the punish- 
ment of those who allowed strangers to get copies of Spanish 
charts. These charts, however, must have fallen, at times, into 
the hands of foreigners, and our navigator, no doubt, had found 
several such in his prizes, and thus the routes to the Indies 
became known to the English and French. Spanish pilots may 
have entered foreign service, but if so they probably assumed an 
aliasy and but one such is named up to the year 1530, 



XXV.— FAMILY OF VERRAZANO. 

Two Eulogies of Giovanni de Verrazano appeared in Florence 
about the same time. One, which we have not seen, was included 
by Giuseppe Allegrini, a printer in Florence, in the second 
Vplume of the work entitled JRitratti ed JElogi degli TTomini 
Ittustre delta To8cana, 1768. The other was prepared by Giuseppe 
Pelli for the same work, but was for some reason, not accepted, 
and was printed separately by the author, with a preface men- 
tioning the above facts, in 1769. It is signed G. P., but we learn 

the name of the author from Tiraboschi. Pelli also published 
16 



242 ' NOTXB ON THE VERRAZANO MAP. 

Memoirs for the life of Dante, a work of some value, and which 
was republished in 1823. 

The notice of Verrazano is entitled Elpgio \ di Giovanni da 

Verrazano \ fflorentino | Seopritore deUa Nuova Franda nd 

Secolo XVI. | [Colophon.] In Mrenze MDCCLXIX. | N&a 

Stamperia di Giuseppe AUegrini, e Comp. | Square octavo, 

pp. zi. 

The copy we have consulted, perhaps the only one in this coun- 
try, was purchased at the Kirkup sale, London, December, 1871, 
and was kindly loaned to us by the Hon. Henry C. Murphy. 

The family of Verrazano is considered by Pelli, to have 
come from Verrazan,* a place in the Yal di Grfcve, a few miles 
South of Florence (which in the twelfth century belonged to 
the De Bertoldis e da Panzano), and at the time of his writing 
still held property there. The same writer says that the Gon- 
falonierate was twice held by members of the family, and the 
Priorate about forty times. He names Ludovioo di Francesco 
di Baocio da Verrazano, as having distinguished himself when 
Governor of Leghorn and Commander of the galleys of San 
Stefano. 

His eulogist states that his parents' names were Piero Andrea 
di Bernardo [di Bernardo] da Verrazano, and Fiametta Capella. 
Giovanni was certainly born after 1480, and had a brother, who 
was of the Priori in 1529, (possibly the Hieronimus who made 
the chart, now preserved in Borne, which Mons. Thomassy has 
described.) 

The biographer adds that he had seen, in the possession of the 
family, a copy of Ramusius with a MS. treatise on navigation 
added to the letter, which was no doubt a copy of the one 
seen in the Magliabechian Library, by Mr. Greene in 1887, and 
given in Vol. I of the Proceedings of the New York Historical 
Society, New Series, 1841. Besides the above, Pelli gives some 

* There is a place, whose modern name is very like that of our navi- 
gator's, viz., Verraea, the ancient Voragina or Y<vragio y a few miles west 
of Cogoletto, one of the places which claims to be the birthplace of Colum- 
bus. Verraza is on the Riviera de Ponente y some eighteen miles west of 
Genoa, a place where much shipbuilding is done, and the birthplace of 
Jacopo di Yoragine, a Dominican, Archbishop of Genoa in 1292, and the 
compiler of the carious collection of stories known as the Golden Legend. 



Family of Vbrrazano. 243 

other details, not immediately relating to onr Navigator, and 
notices in a brief manner the voyage of 1524, from the text of 
RamusiuB, without a suspicion that a copy of perhaps the origi- 
nal letter was preserved close at hand, in the city where he was 
writing. 

No doubt the family history could be traced with greater cer- 
tainty by a modern Italian scholar, versed in such studies. We 
can add one or two names to the family, that may assist investi- 
gators. A fine Manuscript sermon, written in the neatest style 
of Italian script, signed at the end "Alexander Verrazanus 
escripsit MCCCCLXXXXIIII," was procured by us from the 
above mentioned sale of Baron Eirkup's library, lot No. 4085. 
This may have been an u