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Full text of "Documents relating to Internal Improvements in the State of Illinois"

Documents relating to 

Internal Improvements 
in the 
State of Illinois 

Washington 

1836 




LIBRARY OF 

KNOX- COLLEGE 




F1NLEY- COLLECTION- ONTHE 
HISTORYAND- ROMANCE- OF 
§3 • THE -NORTHWEST ■ §8 

PRESENTED BY 
EDWARD CALDWELL 



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25th Congress, [ SENATE, ] 

2d Session. 



DOCUMENTS 



rN RELATION TJ 




INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS, 

In the State of Illinois. 



March 5, 1838. 

Submitted by Mr. Young, and ordered to be printed, and that 300 additional copies be fur- 
nished for the use of the Senate. 



An act to establish and maintain a general system of internal improve- 
ment, with supplementary acts : passed at a General Assembly of the 
State of Illinois, begun and held at Vandalia, on the bth December. 
1836. 

Sec i. Be it enacted by the people of the State of Illinois, represented 
in the General Assembly, That there shall be elected by the joint vote of 
the present General Assembly, and biennially thereafter, a board of fund 
commissioners, to consist of three members, who shall be practical and ex- 
perienced financiers, and whose terms of office therein shall expire bienni- 
ally, and who shall be eligible to re-election. Each member of the board, 
before entering into the discharge of the duties of his office, shall severally 
take and subscribe an oath or affirmation, faithfully, honestly, and diligently 
to discharge the duties of his said office, and shall execute a bond to the 
Governor, and his successors in office, for the use of the State, in the penal 
sum of fifty thousand dollars, with good and sufficient security, to be ap- 
proved by the Governor or the person administering the Government, condi- 
tioned for the faithful discharge of the duties of his office, imposed upon 
him, or thereafter to be imposed upon him, by law ; and for the faithful ac- 
counting for all moneys that shall or may come into his hands as fund 
commissioner ; and all vacancies which may occur in the board of fund 
commissioners during the recess of the Legislature, shall be filled by ap- 
pointment by the Governor, which appointments shall continue until the 
end of the next session of the General Assembly, and until their successors 
are elected and qualified, and who shall give bond and take an oath in the 
same manner as is required by the foregoing part of this section of other 
commissioners. 

Sec. 2. A majority of the board of fund commissioners shall constitute a 
quorum for the transaction of business ; and it shall be the duty of the said 
board of fund commisssions to contract for and negotiate all loans author- 
ized to be effected by the Legislature, on the faith and credit of the State, for 
objects of internal improvements or other purposes, unless otherwise pro- 
vided for, on the best and most favorable terms for the interests of the State ; 
and shall sign and execute bonds or certificates of stock therefor, in the 
Blair & Rires, printers. 



manner directed by law ; and shall receive, manage, deposite, and apply all 
sums of moneys arising from said loans, in such manner as shall, from time 
to time, be provided for bylaw ; and shall make quarterly reports to the au- 
ditor of public accounts, or to such other authority as the Legislature may 
direct, on the first Mondays of March. June, September, and December, an- 
nually, of all the proceedings of the said board. 

Sec. 3. The board of fund commissioners shall keep a fair and complete 
record of all their proceedings, together with a full, minute and accurate ac- 
count of all their fiscal transactions as commissioners, with a record of all 
official letters and correspondence, written and received in relation to the 
subject of their duties as fund commissioners, in well bound books, to be 
provided for the purpose ; which records shall at all times be open at their 
office to the inspection of the Governor, the auditor of public accounts, the 
attorney general, and to any member of the General Assembly. In order 
to enable the board to keep said record, they are hereby authorized to ap- 
point a secretary of the board, whenever, in their opinion, the business of the 
board may render it necessary ; which secretary, before entering upon the 
discharge of his duties, shall be required to take an oath or affirmation, 
faithfully and diligently to perform the duties of his appointment, and shall 
enter into bond to the Governor of the State, and his successors in office, 
for the use of the State, in such penal sum, and with such securities as the 
board may by an order direct, conditioned for the faithful and diligent dis- 
charge of his duties, as secretary of the board of fund commissioners, and 
for the safe keeping of all books, vouchers, and papers, which may come to 
his hands as secretary as aforesaid. The members of the board of fund 
commissioners shall each be entitled to receive, as a full compensation for 
their services, at the rate of five dollars per day, for each and every day they 
may be necessarily employed in the discharge of their duties. And the 
board may allow to the secretary of the board such compensation for his 
services as they may deem reasonable and just. 

Sec. 4. That for the purpose of promoting and maintaining a general 
system of internal improvement in this State, and of uniting its various 
branches under the same supervision and direction, (excepting the con- 
struction of the Illinois and Michigan canal,) there shall be created a board 
of public works, to consist of seven members, one from each judicial cir- 
cuit, to be elected biennially by the joint vote of the General Assembly, 
and who shall be styled " The Board of Commissioners of Public Works," 
who shall continue in office for two years, and until their successors are 
elected and qualified, but who shall be eligible to be re-elected. Any vacancy 
which may occur in the board by death, refusal to act, resignation, remo- 
val out of the State, or otherwise, shall be filled by an appointment by the 
Governor, which appointment shall expire at the end of the next session 
of the General Assembly; and the incumbent thus appointed shall take the 
like oath of office, and enter into the like bond, as is required of the mem- 
bers elected by the Legislature, before he shall enter into the discharge of 
his duties as one of said commissioners. 

Sec. 5. Each of the members of the board of commissioners of public 
works previously to entering into the discharge of the duties of their offices, 
respectively, shall take and subscribe an oath or affirmation, faithfully, 
honestly, impartially, and diligently to discharge the duties of his office 'j 
and shall execute a bond to the Governor, and his successors in office, for 
the use of the State of Illinois, in the penal sum of twenty thousand dofc 



3 [■ 259 ] 

tars, with two or more good and sufficient securities, to be approved of by 
the Governor, or person administering the Government of the State, con- 
ditioned for the faithful, honest, impartial, and diligent discharge of the 
duties of his office, as one of the commissioners of the board of commis- 
sioners of public works, and for the faithful disbursement of, and accou ril- 
ing for, all moneys intrusted to him as one 'of said commissioners; and no 
commissioner shall be allowed to have in his hands, at any one time, more 
than twenty thousand dollars ; and every sum advanced to, or received by 
him, shall be deemed to remain in his hands until its application shall have 
been properly accounted for by the necessary vouchers, to be filed with, 
and audited by, the board of fund commissioners, or such other authority 
as may be, from time to time^ directed by the Legislature to examine and 
audit said vouchers. 

Sec. 6. The members of the said board of public works, after having 
been qualified, and having executed bonds in the manner hereinbefore 
directed, shall, on or as soon as convenient before the first Monday in April, 
next ensuing their election, hold their first meeting at the seat of Govern- 
ment, and organize the board by electing one of their number to be the 
president of the said board; and by appointing a secretary of the board, 
who, before entering into the discharge of the duties of his appointment, 
shall take an oath or affirmation faithfully and truly to discharge his duties 
as secretary of the board of commissioners of public works, and shall enter 
into bond to the Governor, and his successors in office, for the use of the 
State, in such penal sum, and with such security, as the board shall order 
and direct, conditioned for the faithful, true, and diligent discharge of his 
duties as said secretary, which may devolve upon him by law, or under the 
directions, resolutions, and orders of the board. 

Sec. 7. The board of commissioners of public works, when oiganized 
and constituted as aforesaid, shall be authorized to locate, superintend, 
direct, and construct, on the part and behalf of this State, all works of 
intern al improvements which have been, or shall be, authorized to be 
undertaken, prosecuted, and constructed by the State, either in whole or 
in part, (excepting the Illinois and Michigan canal, ) and the charge and 
superintendence of all such internal improvements, excepting as aforesaid, 
shall be vested in said board ; and the said board of commissioners of public 
works shall do and perform such services and duties as may, from time to 
time, be imposed upon the said board by law. The said board shall hold 
semi-annual meetings on the first Mondays of June and December, in each 
and every year, at the seat of Government of this State; and the said 
board shall have authority to choose a president pro tempore, in the absence 
of the president, at any meeting of the board, and to adjourn, from time to 
time, to meet at any other place they may think proper ; and the president 
shall have power to call special meetings of the board when, in his opinion* 
the public interests may require it. Three of the members shall con- 
stitute a quorum for the transaction of business, at any stated or special 
meeting of the board, when convened under the authority aforesaid. Each 
of the members of the board shall be allowed to receive, as a compensation 
for their services, the sum of five dollars per day, for every day necessarily 
employed in the discharge of their duties; and they shall and may allow to 
the secretary of the board, as a compensation for his services, such sum as 
they may think reasonable and just And the acting commissioner for the 
fourth judicial circuit shall cause to be surveyed a route commencing at 



C 259 ] 4 

Charleston, via the county seal of Clark county, to the most eligible pofrit 
on the Great Wabash river, between York and (he line dividing the States 
of Indiana and Illinois, and make a report to the next session of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, of the utility of the State constructing a railroad on said 
route, together with an estimate of the probable cost of constructing the 
same : Provided, however, That if, in the opinion of the board of public 
works, after said survey and estimates have been made, that it would be 
best calculated to promote the interests of the points above named, and 
ihe country through which said road may pass, to build a good turnpike 
road, then, and in that case, they shall report accordingly. 

Sec. 8. In the meetings of the board, they shall determine the general 
outline of the operations in relation to such works of internal improvements 
as may be authorized by law, and as either in part or in whole may be 
placed under their direction and supervision ; determining questions of 
importance submitted to the board by the acting commissioners on the 
respective lines or works, or by other persons connected with the public 
works, in relation thereto ; and shall examine and audit accounts relating 
to the expenditures of moneys on the works under their charge and 
supervision ; make estimates of the probable amount of funds which may, 
from time to time, be required to meet expenditures in the prosecution 
thereof, and shall enter said estimates at large in a book to be provided for 
that purpose ; and cause authenticated copies thereof to be served on the 
board of fund commissioners, in due time to enable said fund commissioners 
to provide the necessary amount of funds to meet the payment of said 
estimates ; and shall, also, at their said meetings, make out the reports 
of their proceedings, which shall be required by law to be made and filed 
by them ; and shall attend to such other matters and things as shall arise 
in the discharge of their duties, and as are necessary to be passed upon by 
the board. The board shall also, at any of their meetings, whenever the 
progress and situation of the works under their charge shall render it 
necessary, from time to time, agree upon and assign to the individual 
members of the board, in special charge, a specific portion or division of the 
public works in progress ; and the member to v/hom any such specific 
portion or division shall be assigned, shall superintend the same as acting 
commissioner thereon, under the general direction and during the pleasure 
of the board ; and shall make detailed reports to the board of his proceedings^ 
at its semi-annual meeting, and as much oftener as is practicable and 
convenient. 

Sec. 9. The board shall cause to be kept in well bound books to be 
provided for the purpose, a fair and complete record of all the proceedings 
and doings of the board, and also an accurate and separate account of all 
the moneys expended by them, in the survey and construction of each 
respective work under their direction ; exhibiting, also, the amounts received 
by the board, and each and every member thereof, to be applied by them, 
on the respective works under their direction and supervision \ which said 
books shall at all times be open at the office of the board, to the inspection 
of the Governor, auditor of public accounts, attorney general, members of 
the board of fund commissioners, and members of the General Assembly r 
and to such other authorities as the Legislature may, from time to time,, 
authorize to inspect the same. 

Sec. 10. The said board of commissioners of public works shall make, 
imder their hands, semi-annual reports of their proceedings to the Governor,. 



5 [ 259 1 

or person administering the Government, on the first Mondays in June and 
December, or within thirty days thereafter ; which reports shall contain a 
detailed statement of their operations and proceedings for the preceding six 
months, and shall exhibit the amount of moneys received and expended by 
the board, in the examination and survey of routes and locations of the 
public works, and in the prosecution and constructien thereof, showing 
specifically the amount expended on each respective work up to that date ; 
which reports, or an outline thereof, the Governor shall cause to be forthwith 
published in some newspaper printed and published at the seat of Government; 
and shall cause all said reports to be filed in the office of the Secretary of 
State ; and shall lay a certified copy thereof before the General Assembly, on 
the first week of their sessions, or as soon thereafter as the same may be 
received by him, And if the said board shall at any time refuse or neglect 
to make any semi-annual reports required by this act, or any other reports 
hereafter required by the Legislature to be made, within the time specified 
for making the same, the members of the said board so refusing or neglecting 
to make such reports, shall forever thereafter be ineligible to re-election, 
and moreover shall be liable to impeachment for misdemeanor in office : 
Provided, That if at any stated meeting of the board, there should not be 
a quorum in attendance, the minority met may make a report of the facts 
within their knowledge, relating to the progress of the works and the 
expenditures thereon ; and the making of such report shall exonerate the 
said minority from the above penalties: And provided, also, That if the 
absent members are detained from the meeting of the board by sickness, or 
other causes beyond their control, they also may exonorate themselves from 
the above penalties by rendering to the Legislature a satisfactory reason for 
their absence from the board, and failure to join in such report. 

Sec. 11. The said board of commissioners of public works shall have 
power to employ such engineers, agents, superintendents, and other assist- 
ants as the interests of the State shall in their opinion demand, to enable 
them to discharge the duties required of them by law ; and to pay such 
engineers, agents, superintendents, and assistants such sums as, in their 
opinion, may be a reasonable compensation for the services they may per- 
form, and to remove said officers at pleasure : Provided, That the term of 
any appointments made by the board shall not extend more than sixty days 
beyond the expiration of their own term of office ; and the said board shall 
also have authority to organize their corps of engineers, by the appoint- 
ment of principal or principals, and subordinates, and assign to each their 
respective and appropriate charges and duties, in such maimer as the said 
hoard may deem the interests of the State to demand ; and shall also have 
authority to purchase and procure such mathematical and other instru- 
ments, camps, camp equipage, stationery, supplies, teams, wagons, and 
other apparatus, and employ so many laborers and assistants, as shall be 
deemed necessary by them, to insure the correct and efficient discharge of 
the duties of the engineering department of the public works ; and shall and 
may provide such offices in which to transact the business of the board and 
of the engineering department, as they may deem the interest of the State 
to require. 

Sec. 12. The board of commissioners of public works shall cause such 
examinations and surveys to be made of the several rivers, which may 
from time to time be directed by law to be improved, to ascertain the nature 
mid extent of the obstructions and impediments to the navigation thereof. 



[259] 6 

as shall be necessary to enable the board to determine upon and prosecute 
the most eligible and useful plans of making such improvements ; and 
shall require estimates of the probable costs thereof, under the oath or 
affirmation of the engineer in charge of making the respective surveys 
and examinations ; and shall also cause minute and accurate examinations 
and surveys to be made of the proposed routes of all railroads and other 
contemplated improvements which may from time to time be authorized by 
law, and placed under the charge, supervision, and direction of the board : 
and before placing any of the said works under contract, shall require of 
the engineer or engineers under whose direction and charge the said ex- 
aminations and surveys were made and executed, respectively, a report 
of said examination and survey, attested by the oath or affirmation of the 
said engineer or engineers, describing particularly the localities and nature 
of the routes of the respective railroads and other improvements ; the 
topography of the country over which it may pass ; the facilities for obtain- 
ing materials for the construction of the work ; with such other informa- 
tion as the engineer may deem to be useful and necessary, or which he 
may be required to collect and report by an order of the board ; which 
report shall be accompanied with plans and profiles of the route, and of 
the mechanical structures proposed to be constructed thereon, and specifi- 
cations of the work to be executed ; together with minute estimates of the 
probable cost thereof; which said reports shall be filed by the secretary 
of the board, and shall be open to the inspection of all persons desirous 
of obtaining contracts on the route, during office hours, under such regu- 
lations and restrictions as the board may adopt, to preserve the original 
documents from loss or injury: Provided. That the board may exhibit 
manuscript or printed copies thereof, in lieu of the originals. 

Sec. 13. The board of commissioners of public works shall execute the 
works under their charge and supervision by contract: Provided, however 1 
That whenever any job will not admit of such definite specification as to 
enable contractors to make specific bids for the same, or when jobs are too 
small and inconsiderable to justify the attention of contractors, the board 
or acting commissioner on the line may cause the job to be accomplished 
by laborers to be employed and paid by the board or the acting commis- 
sioner. 

Sec. 14. That so soon as any work, or portion or division thereof, shall 
be ready to be placed under contract, the acting commissioner, to whose 
special charge and supervision the same shall have been assigned by the 
board, agreeably to the provisions of the eighth section of this act. shall 
give notice of the time and place of letting, by advertisements to be pub- 
lished in at least five newspapers printed in this State, and in such other 
newspapers as the board' may deem the interests of the State to demand, 
at least once in each week for five weeks next preceding the day of said 
lettings, which advertisements shall contain a brief description of the nature 
and amount of work which will be offered to contractors, and shall state 
the time within which contractors will be required to commence and com- 
plete the work ; with such other information as the board may deem ad- 
visable. The bids or proposals shall be sealed, and shall state a specific 
and definite price for the work to he performed, and shall be received by 
the acting commmissioner on the work, on. or at any time previous to, the 
day of letting. The acting commissioner on the line, and at least one 
other member of the board, together with the principal engineer in charge 






7 [259] 

of the work, shall attend at the time and the place of the letting ; and the 
said commissioners shall, at the hour of four o'clock in the afternoon of 
the said day, close the further receipt of proposals, and immediately proceed 
to open, examine, and compare the several bids which shall have been 
made for each respective job of work proposed to be let ; and shall let the 
same to the lowest responsible bidder or bidders therefor: Provided, That 
the said commissioners shall have authority to refuse any and all bids, 
which, in the opinion of said commissioners and principal engineer, may 
be deemed exorbitant; and shall and may proceed to re-advertise and let 
the work so overbid, at such time and place as the board may think most 
advisable for the interests of the State. All bids and proposals for work, 
received by any commissioner, shall be retained, and handed over to the 
secretary of the board, who shall file and preserve the same. Proposals for 
contracts to furnish and deliver materials for the construction of works, 
may be received in such manner, and upon such notice, as in the opinion 
of the board may be most expedient to promote the interests of the State ; 
but all proposals for such service shall be received in writing, and filed and 
preserved in like manner as proposals for the execution of work : Prooided, 
That negotiations and contracts for railroad iron, to be obtained from 
foreign countries, may be carried on and made in such manner as the 
board may deem best calculated to advance the interests of the State. 

Sec. 15. All contracts shall be entered into, under such conditions and 
reservations, to be expressed at large in said contracts, as shall enable and 
fully authorize the board of commissioners of public works to declare the 
same to have been abandoned by the contractor or contractors, in all cases 
where the work shall not be fully commenced at the time and according to 
the terms of said contract; and also in cases whenever, in the opinion of 
the acting commissioner and engineer in charge of the work, the contractor 
or contractors shall neglect or refuse to prosecute his contract with an 
assiduity and efficiency that shall give a reasonable assurance to the said 
commissioner and engineer of its uniform progress, and final completion, 
within the time specified in the said contract: or when, in the opinion of 
the principal engineer, said contractor shall perform the work imperfectly, 
and shall refuse or neglect forthwith to remedy such imperfect performance; 
and the job so declared to be abandoned may forthwith be relet by the 
board, without the let, hindrance, or disturbance of the former contractor or 
contractors, or of any person or persons claiming to act for or under him or 
them. The contracts shall also contain a provision prohibiting the sub- 
contracting of jobs, or any portion thereof, without the consent of the board, 
under the penalty of a forfeiture of contract, and of all retained per centage 
remaining unpaid thereon. 

Sec. 16. The contracts shall be signed and sealed by the acting com- 
missioner on the work, for the time being, on the part and behalf of the 
board, and shall be binding on the State ; and shall also be signed and 
sealed by the contractor or contractors ; and triplicate copies thereof shall 
be thus executed. One of said copies shall be retained by the contractors ; 
one shall be filed in the office of the auditor of public accounts ; and the 
other filed in the office of the board of commissioners of public works, and 
recorded by the secretary of the board, in a book to be furnished for that 
purpose ; and the said secretary shall furnish the acting commissioner with 
copies of said contracts, whenever thereunto required. 

Sec, 17. During the progress of the public works, fair and correct esti- 



[ 259 ] 8 

mates of the probable amount of work actually done by the contractors, on 
each respective job, shall be made by the engineer in charge of the work, or 
by an assistant assigned to that service, at stated periods, not exceeding two 
months asunder; and there shall be paid to the contractor a sum not less 
than sixty-seven per centum, nor more than eighty-five per centum on the 
amount of the work actually performed, at the discretion of the acting 
commissioner on the work ; and the balance shall be retained as a security 
to the State for the faithful performance of the contract, until the full com- 
pletion thereof, according to its terms ; at which time the work shall be ac- 
cepted, if done according to contract, and the balance in full shall be paid 
to said contractors ; and the acting commissioner, in making his decision as 
to the equitable proportion of the estimates to be retained as security for the 
State, shall be governed by the diligence and efficiency of the contractors 
in the prosecution of their contracts ; by the aggregate amount of per 
centum already retained, and by the probable risk of injury to the unfin- 
ished works, to be apprehended from freshets or other casualties, which risk 
shall rest with the contractors ; and in the event of any contract being de- 
clared to be abandoned, for any of the causes mentioned in the fifteenth 
section of this act, all retained per centage on the amount of estimates 
shall be forfeited to the use of the State. Copies of all estimates made 
during the progress of the work as above directed, shall be transmitted to 
the secretary of the board of commissioners of public works, to be by him 
filed and preserved for future use and reference. 

Sec. 18. The said board of commissioners of public works is hereby 
authorized and required to adopt such measures as may be necessary to 
commence, construct, and complete, within a reasonable length of time, the 
following works, viz : 

First. The improvement of the navigation of the Great Wabash river, 
in that part of the same over which the States of Indiana and Illinois have 
concurrent jurisdiction, for which improvement the sum of one hundred 
thousand dollars is hereby appropriated ; which said appropriation the said 
board of public works are hereby authorized and required to expend in said 
improvements, in conjunction with the State of Indiana, in equal amounts, 
and for like objects. And the said board of commissioners of public works 
are hereby authorized and empowered to co operate with the board of in- 
ternal improvement of Indiana, or with such other authority or authori- 
ties of said State as are' or may be put in charge of the expenditure of ap- 
propriations made by the State of Indiana for the improvement of said river, 
in the survey and examinations of the obstructions to the navigation, and 
in the location, construction, completion, and management of all works, at 
the joint and equal expense of both States, which, by the joint boards or 
other authorities aforesaid, may be deemed of the greatest utility, to render 
said river navigable at all stages of water, for steam and other boats in that 
part of the said river above specified ; and also, in the disposition, use, and 
management of the water powers created or rendered available by the con- 
struction of said works of improvements. And the said board of commis- 
sioners of public works are hereby authorized and empowered to enter into 
an agreement and compact on the part of the State of Illinois, with the 
board of internal improvement of the State of Indiana, or such other author- 
ity as said State has or may authorize and empower to enter into such 
agreement and compact on the part of said State of Indiana, for the joint 
and mutual co-operation of the two States, in the said survey, location^ 



9 [ 259 ] 

•construction, completion, and management of the improvements and works 
hereby contemplated ; and for the joint and mutual use and management 
of, and jurisdiction over, all hydraulic power created or made available 
thereby; which said agreement and compact, when ratified by the Gover- 
nor of the State of Indiana, or by such other authority as the said State of 
Indiana may authorize to ratify the same, and make it binding on the said 
State, shall be valid and binding on the State of Illinois : Provided, how- 
ever, That if there should be any incoherence between the laws of Indiana 
and of this State, as to the specific mode of advertising and letting contracts, 
and of paying the estimates made during the progress of the work, it shall 
and may be lawful for the board of commissioners of public works to con- 
form to the mode prescribed by the laws of Indiana, in so far as the improve- 
ment of the Wabash river alone may be concerned, until the discrepances 
aforesaid may be remedied by legislative enactments, or by the contemplated 
compact aforesaid ; anything in the fourteenth and seventeenth sections of 
this act to the contrary notwithstanding. And it is hereby made the duty 
of the Governor of this State, to transmit to the Governor of the State of 
Indiana, as soon as practicable, after the passage of this act, a certified 
copy of the preceding part of this section thereof. 

Second. The improvement of the navigation of Illinois river, west of 
the third principal meridian, for which the sum of one hundred thousand 
dollars is hereby appropriated ; and it is hereby made the duty of the board 
of commissioners of public works to apply and expend the said appropriation 
in removing or overcoming the most formidable obstructions and barriers to 
the steamboat navigation in the said river, and to adopt and prosecute such 
plans for said improvements, as in their best judgments will be most bene- 
ficial and efficient to render the said river navigable for steam and other 
boats, at all stages of water therein. 

Third. The improvement of the navigation of Rock river, for which the 
sum of one hundred thousand dollars is hereby appropriated ; and the board 
of commissioners of public works shall apply and expend the said appro- 
priation in removing or overcoming the most formidable obstructions to 
the steamboat navigation in the said river ; and shall commence their 
operations and expenditures, by removing or overcoming the obstructions 
of the above descriptions, which are nearest to the mouth of the said river ; 
and shall progress thence up stream with said improvements, so far as the 
said appropriation will extend ; and the said board may adopt and execute 
such plans for said improvements, as in their judgment will be best calcu- 
lated to render the said river navigable for steam, keel, and other boats, of 
the description and dimensions suited to said river in its course within the 
jurisdiction of this State ; having due regard to the permanency of the 
structures they may erect, and to the greatest and most useful amount of 
water powers to be created or made available thereby for the use of the 
State. 

Fourth. The improvement of the navigation of the Kaskaskia river, for 
which the sum of fifty thousand dollars is hereby appropriated; and the 
said board of commissioners of public works are hereby authorized and re- 
quired to apply and expend the said appropriation on the said river, on im- 
provements adapted to steamboat, keel-boat, and flat-boat navigation, and to 
commence the line of said improvements, at the obstruction to said naviga- 
tion nearest the mouth of the river, and to progress upwards, giving the 
low water channel in the said river, at the shoalest places therein, a con- 



[ 259 ] 10 

venient and uniform depth for the uninterrupted passage of keel and fiat- 
boats, and of steamboats of such dimensions, as in the judgment of the board 
will be best adapted to the navigation of the said river ; and shall also re- 
move such timber obstructions to the navigation as may be deemed injuri- 
ous or dangerous to the said navigation ; and the said board, in adopting 
and executing their plans for the said improvements, shall have a due regard 
to the greatest and most useful amount of water power, to be created or 
rendered thereby for the use of the State, as a proper and economical loca- 
tion and construction of the works will admit of: Provided, Said board of 
commissioners of public works shall equalize the expenditure of said fifty 
thousand dollars, as near as may be, on all portions of said river, susceptible 
of improvement from its junction with the Mississippi, upwards, in remov- 
ing the obstructions from its channel, in making short cuts across the bends, 
and in clearing off the trees from the margin of the same. 

Fifth. The improvement of the navigation of the Little Wabash river, 
for which the sum of fifty thousand dollars is hereby appropriated ; and the 
said board of commissioners of public works are hereby authorized and em- 
powered to expend and apply the said appropriation in the improvement of 
the navigation of the said river, in such manner as they shall deem most 
advisable for the public good, to render the navigation thereof safe and prac- 
ticable for steam, keel, and flat-boats, and the said board shall have due regard 
to the greatest and most useful amount of water power to be created by the 
works they may erect for the improvement of the said river for the use of 
the State. And the said board of commissioners of public works, in the 
construction of dams across any of the rivers aforesaid, are hereby author- 
ized to construct and keep in repair suitable chutes in the said dams, for 
the accommodation of the ordinary flat-boats, and others descending navi- 
gation in the rivers, whensoever, in their opinion, the costs and practica- 
bility of construction, and the interests of the State, will justify the con- 
struction and maintenance thereof. 

Sixth. Two hundred and fifty thousand dollars of the first loans to be 
effected under the provisions of this act, are hereby appropriated ; and shall 
be expended, under the directions of the board of commissioners of public 
works, on the great western mail route, leading from Vincennes to St. 
Louis, as follows, viz : Thirty thousand dollars on that part thereof lying be- 
tween Vincennes and Lawrenceville, embracing what is commonly called the 
V Purgatory swamp." Fifteen thousand dollars on the Little Wabash river 
bottom, between the Big Muddy branch thereof and the main river, at 
McCawley's bridge, in Clay county. Thirty thousand dollars on that part 
of said road lying between the Bluffs and the Mississippi river, in the coun- 
ty of St. Clair ; and the residue of said appropriation shall be expended in 
bridging and repairing said mail route, as equally as practicable, on other 
parts thereof; and the said board of public works are authorized to erect 
and have kept, toll gates on any portion of said route, on which the said 
appropriatfon may in part be expended, as they may deem proper, and 
establish such reasonable rates of toll thereon, as in their opinion will pro- 
tect the rights of the State, and not be burdensome to the people. 

Seventh. A railroad from the city of Cairo, at or near the confluence of 
the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, to some point at or near the southern ter- 
mination of the Illinois and Michigan canal, via Vandalia, Shelbyville. 
Decatur, and Bloomington 5 and from thence via Savannah to Galena ; for 



II f 259 ] 

the construction and completion of said railroad and appendages, the sum 
of three million and five hundred thousand dollars is hereby appropriated. 

Eighth. A southern cross railroad from Alton to Mount Carmel via Ed- 
wardsville, Carlyle, Salem, Fairfield and Albion ; and also a railroad from 
Alton to Shawneetown, to diverge from the aforesaid southern cross-railroad, 
at or near Edvvardsville, and thence from said diverging point via Leba- 
non, in St. Clair county, Nashville, in Washington county, Pickneyville, 
in Perry county, Frankfort, in Franklin county, and Equality, in Gallatin 
county; for the construction and completion of which said railroads and ap- 
pendages, the sum of one millioH and six hundred thousand dollars are 
hereby appropriated. 

Ninth. The northern cross railroad, from Gtuincy, on the Mississippi 
river, via Columbus and Clayton, in Adams county, Mount Sterling, in 
Schuyler county. Meredosia and Jacksonville, in Morgan county, Spring- 
field, in Sangamon county, Decatur, in Macon county, Sidney, in Cham- 
paign county, and Danville, in Vermillion county, and thence to the State 
line, in the direction of Lafayette, Indiana, which railroad shall cross the 
Sangamon river at some eligible point below the north and south forks 
thereof; for the construction and completion of which said railroad and ap- 
pendages, the sum of one million eight hundred and fifty thousand dollars 
is hereby appropriated, exclusive of the necessary sum for constructing a 
bridge over the Illinois river, to be appropriated whenever the said bridge 
may be authorized by the Legislature. 

Tenth. A branch of the central railroad, to commence at some eligible 
point on said road where a direct line from Hillsborough to Shelbyville 
would intersect, the same, or within one mile of the said point of inter- 
section, and to run from thence via Shelbyville, in Shelby county, Charles- 
ton, in Coles county, Paris, in Edgar county, and thence to the State line 
in a general direction for Terre Haute, Indiana; for the construction of 
which said branch railroad, and appendages, the sum of six hundred and 
fifty thousand dollars is hereby appropriated : and it shall be lawful for the 
" Alton, Wabash, and Erie Railroad Company," incorporated January 16, 
1836, to connect the westerly end of their proposed railroad at its point 
of commencement on the Central railroad, with the said branch railroad, 
on such terms and conditions as is provided in this act, for making such 
connexions ; and the said company are hereby exonerated from all liability 
to construct so much of their proposed railroad as lies east of the Central 
road : Provided, That said company or corporators release to the State, in 
the manner hereinafter provided, all claims under their charters, to con- 
struct said eastern end thereof; and, also, 

Eleventh. A railroad from Peoria, in Peoria county, via Canton, in Ful- 
ton county. Macomb, in McDonough county, Carthage, in Hancock county, 
to Warsaw, on the Mississippi river ; for the construction of which said 
railroad and its appendages, the sum of seven hundred thousand dollars is 
hereby appropriated. 

Twelfth. A railroad from Lower Alton, via Upper Alton and Hills- 
borough, to the Central railroad, so as to intersect the railroad from Terre 
Haute to the same ; and the sum of six hundred thousand dollars is hereby 
appropriated for the completion of the same. 

Thirteenth. A railroad from Belleville via Lebanon, to intersect the rail- 
road from Alton to Mount Carmel. at the nearest and most eligible point on 



[259] 12 

said road; and the sum of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars is hereby 
appropriated for the completion of the same. 

Fourteenth. A railroad from Bloomington, in McLean county, to Macki- 
naw town, in Tazewell county, to diverge a fork at said Mackinaw town ; 
one branch or fork of said railroad to run to the Illinois river, and con- 
nect with the Peoria and Warsaw railroad, at Peoria ; and the other branch 
to run through Tremont to Pekin ; for which the sum of three hundred 
and fifty thousand dollars is hereby appropriated. 

Fifteenth. There shall be appropriated the sum of two hundred thou- 
sand dollars of the first moneys that shall be obtained under the pro- 
visions of this act, to be drawn by the several counties in a ratable pro- 
portion to the census last made, through which no railroad or canal is 
provided to be made at the expense or cost of the State of Illinois ; 
which said money shall be expended in the improvement of roads, con- 
structing bridges, and other public works. 

Sec. 19. Nothing contained in the seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, and 
eleventh articles of the foregoing sections shall be so construed as to au- 
thorize and render necessary the expenditure of the whole of any of the 
said appropriations, on the respective works, for the construction of which 
the several appropriations are made, unless the whole amount shall be 
requisite to construct the same, in the general manner and according to 
the general plan specified in this act ; and any surplus of any or either 
of the said appropriations not needed in the completion of the said several 
works and appendages thereof, including the necessary machines, and 
motive powers to put the same into full and -complete operation, and fit- 
ted to accommodate the trade, transportation, and travel thereupon ; and 
the establishment of depots, store-houses, and other buildings, weighing 
machines, and other apparatus necessary thereto, shall be deemed an un- 
expended balance of said appropriation, and be subject to future appropri- 
ation by the Legislature. 

Sec. 20. That, for the purpose of constructing the several works of in- 
ternal improvement contemplated by this act, there shall be constituted a 
fund for internal improvements, which shall consist of all moneys which 
shall and may be raised by the sale of stocks or State bonds, or in any 
other manner by virtue of loans authorized by law ; and of all appropria- 
tions which may be made from time to time out of the revenue of the 
State arising from land taxes ; and of all moneys arising and to be de- 
rived from the tolls and water, and other rents of all the said works of 
internal improvements; and of all rents, issues, and profits, arising from 
the lands purchased or entered by the State for the purpose of promoting 
and aiding in the construction and completion of said works, either by leas- 
ing or selling the same; >and of the proceeds of all lands which maybe 
donated by the General Government in aid of internal improvements in 
this State ; and of all grants or donations which may be received from 
individuals, companies, corporations, or the General Government, to aid 
in the completion of said works; and, also, all the profits and interests 
which may accrue from the said works, in any manner whatsoever, to- 
gether with the balance (after paying the debt due from the Stat*?, to the 
school, college, and seminary funds) of the moneys to be received from the 
Treasury of the United States under the provisions and operation of an 
act of Congress, providing for a distribution of the surplus revenue of 
the United" States by depositing the same with the several States ; which 



13 [ 259 j 

amount of said deposite so funded shall be charged to the said fund fur 
internal improvement, and repaid out of the same, when the said deposite 
shall be demanded by the General Government; and together with all 
net profits to arise from bank, and other stocks hereafter to be sub- 
scribed for and owned by this State, after liquidating the interest on 
loans contracted for the purchase of such bank or other stocks. 

Sec. 21. The board of fund commissioners are hereby authorized and 
required, on the part and behalf of this State, to contract with any individ- 
ual, company, or corporation, at such time as the said board may find it 
necessary to meet the re-payment of the aforesaid deposite of the General 
Government, or the payment of other legitimate demands upon the funds 
for internal improvements, and at such times as they may be advised by 
the board of commissioners of public works that the same will be needed 
in the purchase of lands, or prosecution of the works under their charge, su- 
pervision, or direction, for a loan or loans, from time to time, in all not ex- 
ceeding the sum of eight millions of dollars, on the faith of this State ; 
which said loan or loans shall bear an interest, not exceeding six per cent, 
per annum, payable semi-annually, at the treasury of this State, or at some 
bank or banks in the cities of Boston, New- York, or Philadelphia, as may 
be agreed upon, and the principal of which to be reimburseable at the 
pleasure of the State, at any time after the first day of January, Anno 
Domini one thousand eight hundred and seventy, and to be so negotiated 
that the proceeds may be drawn for, and bear interest at any time as early 
as practicable, when the board of fund commissioners may be advised by 
the board of commissioners of public works that said money will be re- 
quired for the progress of any of the works of internal improvements, for 
the construction of which said funds are appropriated by this act, and the 
said board of fund commissioners shall issue for said loans, transferable 
certificates, to be denominated "certificates of Illinois internal improve- 
ment stock," in the name of the State of Illinois, which, when signed by 
the members of the said board, or by a majority of them, and counter- 
signed by the auditor of public accounts of this State, shall be valid and 
binding on this State; and to facilitate the purposes herein contemplated, 
the said board of fund commissioners shall have power to make such ar- 
rangements relative to obtaining the loans, the payment of interest thereon, 
and the transmission and deposite of the money arising therefrom, as they 
may deem conducive to the best interests of the State, as shall not be in- 
consistent with the provisions of this act, or of any subsequent act of the 
Legislature in relation thereto. 

Sec. 22. For the punctual payment of the interest, and final redemption 
of the principal, of all sums of money which may be borrowed under the 
provisions of this act, there shall be and hereby are irrevocably pledged 
and appropriated, all the interest and claim of the State of Illinois in all 
the works of internal improvements, to the construction of which, either in 
whole or in part, the moneys loaned under the provisions of this act shall 
have been appropriated and expended, together with all lands, waters, and 
water powers thereunto appertaining, and the privileges thereby created, 
and the rents, issues, and profits thereof, together with the net proceeds of 
all tolls collected thereon, for the sufficiency of which to pay the interest 
and principal of the said loans, as the same shall become due and payable, 
the State of Illinois doth hereby irrevocably guarantee, and for which pay- 



[ 259 ] 14 

ments and redemption, well and truly to be made and effected, the faith of 
the State of Illinois is hereby irrevocably pledged. 

Sec. 23. All moneys which may be received by the board of fund com- 
missioners, or either member thereof, from the proceeds of loans, or other- 
wise, under the provisions of this or any subsequent act of the Legislature, 
as soon as conveniently may be after the receipt of the same, be deposited 
by them in some safe bank or banks, to be selected by the board of fund 
commissioners, and to be placed to the credit of the board of fund commis- 
sioners of the State of Illinois, and shall make such contracts with the said 
bank or banks, for the reception and payment of the said deposites, on such 
terms and conditions as will best tend to make the said sums as productive 
as practicable to the fund to which it may belong, and, at the same time, 
insure the prompt payment of all drafts which may become necessary to be 
drawn by the board to meet the expenditures on the public works in pro- 
gress, or for the purpose of purchasing lands, and for the payment of inter- 
est on loans ; and upon the further condition, to be expressed in the con- 
tract with the said bank or banks, that the cashier or president thereof shall 
deliver, or transmit by mail or otherwise, to the auditor of public accounts 
of this State, monthly statements of the accounts of the said board of fund 
commissioners of Illinois, as the same shall stand upon the books of the 
bank, on the last day of every month ; and it is hereby made the duty of 
the said auditor of public accounts to receive and file said statements in 
his office, and to give notice to any of said deposite banks of the failure to 
receive from the said banks any of the said monthly statements, whenever 
delayed beyond a reasonable period ; and in order to enable the said auditor 
to discharge said duties, the board of fund commissioners shall notify the 
auditor of public accounts whenever the said board shall open an account 
with any bank, under the provisions of this section, and, also, of the time 
of closing any such accounts. 

Sec. 24. The board of commissioners of public works shall furnish the 
acting commissioners on the respective lines of the public works with the 
necessary funds to prosecute the works under their charge and supervision, 
respectively : and for that purpose shall give drafts from time to time, on the 
board of fund commissioners, signed by the president, or president pro tem- 
pore, for the time being, and countersigned by the secretary of the board, 
payable to the order of the said acting commissioner, and specifying on the 
face of said draft the particular work to which the amount thereof 
is to be applied ; which said drafts, when endorsed by the said acting 
commissioner, in his official capacity, shall be paid by the board of 
fund commissioners, subject, however, to the provisions and restrictions 
contained in the fifth section of this act ; and also under such other rules, 
regulations, and restrictions, as the said board of fund commissioners may 
deem necessary for its security and proper application : Provided, That 
whenever it may be necessary to pay any contractor or other person, com- 
pany, or corporation, a large sum of money for work performed, materials 
furnished, lands purchased, or for other legitimate purposes, for carrying 
into effect the objects of this act, said payments may be made directly to 
such persons, companies, or corporations, by a draft drawn on the board of 
fund commissioners, payable to the person, company, or corporation, enti- 
tled to receive the same, which draft shall be signed by the president, or 
^resident pro tempore, of the board of commissioners of public works, and 
by at least one, and by as many other commissioners as there are amounts 



15 [ 259 ] 

o( twenty thousand dollars included in the amount of said draft, and shall 
be countersigned by the secretary of the board ; which draft shall specify the 
objects for which it is drawn, and to the particular work, to the account of 
which it is to be charged ; and shall be paid by the said board of fund com- 
missioners, on presenting to said board, under such regulations as they 
may establish for the payment of such special drafts ; and the amounts of 
the last description of drafts shall not be deemed by the board of fund com- 
missioners to be remaining in the hands of the commissioner of public 
works, signing the same, in contemplation of the said fifth section of this act. 

Sec. 25. The board of commissioners of public works shall cause ah 
moneys coming to their hands, or to the hands of the respective acting 
commissioners, io be expended, in the most economical manner, on the works 
of internal improvements authorized by law, and placed under their charge 
and supervision, and on none others, nor for any other objects excepting 
such as are specified in this act; at such times and places, and in such 
sums as they may deem most judicious and conducive to the general public 
jjood ; having in view a prudential distribution of the available labor of the 
State, over and upon all the various works authorized to be constructed, as 
shall tend in as small a degree as possible to increase the prices of labor 
and provisions, beyond a reasonable amount, in any one section of the 
State ; and having also in view a fair and equitable uniform progress of all 
of the said works, at the same period of time. And it shall be the duty of 
the said board of commissioners of public works to commence the different 
portions of the railroads at their intersection and connexion with navigable 
streams, and to progress from said streams, in both directions, in order that 
the roads may become productive of revenue, as early as possible : Pro- 
vided, That nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to prevent 
the said commissioners from prosecuting and putting into operation any 
portions of the said railroads, in the interior, and remote from naviga- 
ble water courses, whenever they may. deem the interest of the State to 
demand it, and particularly in both directions from important trading towns 
on their routes. 

Sec. 26. The said board of commissioners of public works are hereby 
authorized and empowered, so soon as any portions of the said public works 
shall be so far completed as to be capable of use. to provide the requisite 
machines and motive power to put the same into operation, undersuch rules 
and regulations as the said board may think expedient to adopt ; and to es- 
tablish such tolls, and to adopt such measures to secure the faithful collection 
and payment thereof to the board of fund commissioners, as they may deem 
most advisable, to promote the objects intended by this act. 

Sec. 27. It is hereby made the express duty of the board of commission- 
ers of public works, by one or more of its members, to proceed, in early and 
due time, along the lines of the several railroads and other works herein 
authorized to be constructed, and take from the several individuals, compa- 
nies, and corporations, through whose lands the said contemplated works 
may probably pass, or which may be contiguous to the routes thereof, 
grants and releases to the State of the necessary land, timber, stone, and 
other materials necessary for the purpose of constructing any or all of said 
works, or for maintaining and repairing the same, and also for building 
ground for the construction of mills or other hydraulic machinery, to be pro- 
pelled by the water powers created by said works ; and, also, for the purpose of 
erecting ware-houses, engine houses, workshops, and other necessary build- 



[259] 16 

ings ; and also such plats of ground as shall be deemed necessary for de- 
pots and stopping stages, atthe ends and along the routes of the said railways ; 
and also all such sites for dams and locks, and other works to be by them 
erected, under the provisions of this act ; and also to enter and purchase in 
the name and on behalf of the State of Illinois, any lands belonging to the 
General Government, or to individuals, companies, or corporations, which 
will or probably may be necessary for any of the purposes above mention- 
ed. Releases and conveyances shall be taken in the name of the State of 
Illinois, and shall operate to vest in the said State a full and complete right 
to enter upon, use, and take the said lands, materials, and privileges thereby 
granted, at any and all times thereafter. 

Sec. 28. It shall be lawful for the board of commissioners of public 
works, and each of the members thereof, by themselves or by any superin- 
tendent, agent, or engineer, employed by them, to enter upon and take pos- 
session of and use all and singular any lands, streams, and materials of any 
and every description, for the location, prosecution, and completion of the 
improvements contemplated by this act ; and all plats of land as shall be 
necessary for the convenient and profitable use of water powers created 
thereby, and for the location of depots and stopping stages, at the ends and 
along the route of any line of railroad : and for the purpose of construct- 
ing any bridge, dam, lock, canal, side cut, or other river improvement, and 
upon which to erect such and so many lock houses, warehouses, engine 
houses, work shops, and other buildings, as shall be necessary to carry into 
full effect the objects contemplated by this act, whenever, and in all cases, 
any of the aforesaid lands or privileges cannot be obtained by the volun- 
tary grant or release of the owner or owners thereof, avoiding in all cases 
unnecessary damage and injury to private property. 

Sec. 29. That when any person or persons, company or corporation, 
whose lands, waters, or materials, shall have been taken and used in the 
manner and for any of the purposes mentioned in the foregoing section, 
shall feel aggrieved by the taking and using the same for the use of the State, 
by the said board of commissioners of public works, the owner or owners 
of said property shall have redress and remuneration for the injury or sup- 
posed injury, in, the manner prescribed, and under the provisions of an act 
entitled 4i An act concerning the right of way, and for other purposes," ap- 
proved February 28th, 1833 : Provided, That the justice of the peace sum- 
moning the householders to act as appraisers in the case, shall choose the 
said householders with a view to their capacity and integrity, and who shall 
not be directly or indirectly interested in the result of the decision to be 
made by them, and who shall, in addition to the oath required to be admin- 
istered to them by the said recited act, swear or affirm tiiat they are not in- 
terested, either directly or indirectly, in the lands or other property in con- 
troversy, nor in any other lands, waters, or materials, likely to be required 
by the State, in the construction of any of the public works authorized to be 
constructed, and that they have not any present intention of becoming so 
interested ; and the damages to be fixed and awarded by the said house- 
holders shall be paid by the board of commissioners of public works, to the 
owner or owners of the property so taken, or to their legal representatives ; 
which decision and payment of damages, shall operate to vest in the State 
of Illinois all such lands, waters, privileges, and materials, as fully and to 
all intents and purposes, as if the same had been granted or released to the 
State by the owner or owners of said property : Provided, That either 



17 [ 259 j 

party may take an appeal from the said decision before the justice of the 
peace, to the circuit court of the judicial circuit in which the lands or other 
property may be situated, within such time, and in such manner and form, 
as near as may be, as shall be allowed by law in other cases before justices 
of the peace ; and the said justice shall recognise any member or the board 
of public works, or any agent, superintendent, or engineer, employed by 
the said board, and who may appear in the case on the part of the State, as 
the party authorized to act in the case for the State, and no appeal bond 
shall be required to be filed, by the person so authorized to appear and act 
for the State, on any such appeal to be applied for by them, any law or prac- 
tice to the contrary, notwithstanding. And in no case shall the pendency 
of any petition, suit, or appeal, between the State and the said owner of pro- 
perty, operate to delay or hinder the progress and completion of any of the 
works authorized by this act. 

Sec. 30. That whenever any lands, waters, privileges or materials ne- 
cessary to be taken and used for the construction of any of the aforesaid 
works shall belong to minors, feme coverts, persons who are non compos 
mentis, or non-residents of the State, it shall and may be lawful for the board 
of commissioners of public works, or any member thereof, to file a petition 
in the office of the clerk of the circuit court of the county in which said 
lands or other property may lie, stating all the facts in the case, as are with- 
in the knowledge of the petitioner, and describing the land,waters, privileges, 
and materials, which it has become necessary to take and use for the State' 
in the construction of any work, and the said circuit court, setting and act- 
ing as a court of chancery, shall make such orders in the case, and make 
and enforce the execution of such decrees in the premises, as shall appear to 
said court, upon a full hearing of the facts of the case, to be just and equi- 
table, being governed in its decisions by the principles for valuation laid down 
in the act concerning right of way, cited in the foregoing section of this act. 

Sec. 31. The said board of commissioners of public works are hereby 
authorized and required to enter and purchase, for and on behalf of the 
State of Illinois, any lands belonging to the General Government, and lying- 
within five miles of the probable route of any of the public works which, 
in the opinion of any two members of the board, may be deemed valuable' 
and the value of which will in their opinion be materially enhanced bv the 
construction and completion of the said works contiguous thereto : Pro- 
vided^ That any tract of unentered land not exceeding one hundred and 
sixty acres, upon which an actual settler may reside, shall not be entered bv 
the said board, unless the occupant shall consent to such entry. 

Sec. 32. All deeds, grants, releases, certificates of the entries of Govern- 
ment lands, and other vouchers relating to lands, released, purchased or 
taken for the State, shall be filed in the office of the auditor of public 
accounts, and shall be by him recorded in a book to be provided for that 
special purpose, and an alphabetical list of the said vouchers shall be kept 
in the said book, for the convenience of reference. 

Sec. 33. The location of all the railroads authorized by this act shall be 
made with a view of occupying the most direct and eligible route between 
the several points named for their commencement and termination and 
between such intermediate points as are specified, adopting in all cases such 
plan and profile for the respective roads as will be productive of the great- 
est useful effect in their operation, as the nature of the country over which 
they pass, and an economical construction, will admit of: Provided That. 



[259] 18 

in cases where any county or other important trading town cannot be 
reached with the main line of railroad, by a judicious and economical loca- 
tion, it shall and may be lawful for the board of commissioners of public 
works to construct a lateral branch of the said main line to the said town 3 
calculated for a single track only, when the distance to said town from the 
main line shall not exceed five miles, if in the opinion of the board the 
interests of the State will not be compromised or injured thereby. 

Sec. 34. The location of the several roads which intersect the navigable 
rivers shall be made with a view of crossing the valleys thereof, without the 
aid of stationary power wherever practicable, and also with the further 
view of combining the aforesaid character of the line with that of com- 
manding a favorable and eligible site for the construction of bridges over 
the said rivers : Provided, That the construction of bridges over the Illi- 
nois and Great Wabash rivers shall be dispensed with by the board until 
specially authorized by the Legislature ; and if it should be found impracti- 
cable to locate any railroad over the valleys of the Illinois and Wabash 
rivers, without resorting to inclined planes to be overcome by stationary 
power, the said inclined planes shall also be dispensed with by the board, 
and the depot made at the summit, until the action of the Legislature can 
be had upon the subject : Provided, also, That if said railroads intersecting 
any navigable stream shall be ready for use before any bridge over the 
same shall be completed, it shall be lawful for the board to procure and 
keep in operation the necessary ferry boats and apparatus to transport the 
trade and travel across said river, until the said ferry shall be superseded 
by the completion of the bridge over the same ; and for the purpose of 
establishing and keeping in operation the said ferries, the board are hereby 
authorized and required to procure the necessary plats of land on either 
side of any river, by release, purchase, or otherwise, as is herinbefore pro- 
vided for procuring lands for other purposes, to carry into effect the objects 
of this act. 

Sec. 35.. The road bed formation and bridges shall, in all cases, be made 
of sufficient width to admit of the construction of a single track railway 
thereupon, and all the bridges over streams exceeding eighty feet wide from 
bank to bank, shall have sufficient extra width to admit of the safe passage 
of the common road wagons, and the embankments and excavations at the 
end of said bridges shall be accommodated to the passage thereof, unless, 
in the opinion of the board of commissioners of public works, this plan 
may be dispensed with in special cases without prejudice to the public good ; 
whenever it may be inconvenient and expensive to procure suitable build- 
ing stone for the construction of bridge abutments, culverts, or other struc- 
tures, durable and well selected timber may be substituted therefor, with 
the ultimate view of replacing the same with stone, to be transported on 
the railways when completed, at any time when the necessity of the case 
may require it. 

Sec. 36. One track only of the said railways, with the necessary turn- 
outs and side tracks at the convenient point for stopping stages and depots 
along the lines, not less than five miles nor more than fifteen miles asunder, 
and also at the intersection of navigable rivers, and at the commencing and 
terminating points of the several lines of railroads, shall be laid down, 
until, in the opinion of the Legislature, the exigencies of the trade on any 
route and the public good may demand the construction of the additional 
track. 



19 [259] 

Sec, 37. The tracks of all the railways to be constructed in this State, 
Shall be made of one uniform width : which width shall be four feet and 
eight inches in the clear : Provided, That if any agreement or understan- 
ding shall hereafter be entered into between this and any other or all of the 
western States and Territories, to provide for a uniform width of railway 
tracks therein, the board of commissioners of public works shall conform 
thereto : Provided, The same shall not be less than four feet and six inches. 

Sec. 38. The superstructures of all the railways to be laid down on all 
the roads authorized by this act, shall be laid upon a wooden or stone foun- 
dation, or both, as may be most convenient and economical ; and shall be 
made of hard and durable timber, or with stone and timber combined, 
where stone of a suitable quality can be found convenient to the line, as in 
the judgment of the board of public work, is most economical and expe- 
dient, and the rails shall be plated with i on, not less than five-eighths of an 
inch in thickness, (excepting lateral branches) before cars shall be permitted 
to run upon the railways ; and the whole of the main lines shall be of suf- 
ficient strength and solidity to admit of the successful application of steam 
power upon the said railways. 

Sec. 39. The board of commissioners of public works shall adopt such 
plans and elevations for all bridges over navigable streams, as shall not ob- 
struct the ordinary navigation thereof; and shall construct and provide 
safe, convenient, and suitable crossings over all railroads, for all public 
roads and highways laid out prior to the location of the said railroads 
which shall intersect the said railroads : Provided, That they shall have 
power to change the specific location of any such road or highway, in that 
part thereof contiguous to the route of said railroad, in order to command 
the most eligible and economical site for making said crossing : And pro- 
vided, also, That such change of location shall not materially increase the 
length of said travelled road or highway, or prejudice the usefulness there- 
of; and shall also construct and provide crossings for private roads and 
farm ways, at such suitable and convenient points as will be least expensive 
to the State, and least injurious to the railway, and at the same time ac- 
commodate, as generally as practicable, the neighborhood or individuals 
intended to be accommodated thereby. In order to provide against the 
expense and injury arising from an unnecessary number of road crossings 
over railroads, all public and private roads to be laid out, after the location 
of any railroad route, and which shall intersect the same, shall, whenever 
the public interests will not be essentially prejudiced thereby, be located 
and directed to some former established crossing, or to some regular stop- 
ping stage and depot on the line of the railroad. 

Sec. 40. That if any person shall wilfully, wittingly, and maliciously, 
or negligently, obstruct any railroad in this State, by throwing or placing 
upon the track of any said railroad, any material or thing calculated to 
injure any engine, car, or vehicle, running thereon, or to throw the same 
from the track of said railroad, or shall otherwise obstruct or injure any 
railroad, or any engine, viaduct, car, bridge, or other appendage thereof, in 
any manner whatsoever, or shall ride, drive, or lead, any beast, wagon, or 
other vehicle across any railroad, excepting upon the road crossings provi 
dedfor that purpose, every person so offending shall be deemed to be guilts 
of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be fined in any sum 
wot exceeding one thousand dollars 7 or imprisoned any term not exceeding 



[ £59 ] 20 

five years, or both, at the discretion of the court before whom the convictioa 
may be had. 

Sec. 41. Every locomotive engine, passing upon any railroad, shall 
have attached to the same a bell of not less than twenty-five pounds weight? 
and the said bell shall always be rung at the distance of at least sixty rods 
from the place where said railroad crosses any other railroad, turnpike 
road, highway, or public road, upon the same level with the said railroad, 
and shall be kept ringing until the engine and its train shall have crossed 
the said road or way. 

Sec. 42. There shall be boards conspicuously put up, and constantly 
maintained, across each turnpike road and highway, crossing any railroads 
upon the same level therewith, in such a position as can be easily seen by 
travellers, and without obstructing the travel ; and on each side of the said 
board shall be printed in plain and legible capital letters, of at least the size 
of nine inches each; RAILROAD CROSSING; LOOK OUT FOR 
THE ENGINE WHILE THE BELL RINGS. 

Sec. 43. The board of commissioners of public works are hereby au- 
thorized and empowered to adopt and enforce, from time to time, all such 
rules and regulations as they may deem necessary and expedient, for the 
purpose of carrying into full effect the objects of this act, and to provide 
for the security and successful management and operation of the public 
works authorized hereby ; and in the absence of legislative enactments, to 
fix and establish the rates of toll to be collected thereupon, and provide for 
the faithful collection thereof, and for the payment of the amounts collected 
to the board of fund commissioners ; which rules and regulations, and rates 
of tolls, shall be published, and printed copies thereof kept up, publicly 
exhibited along the several lines of the public works, wherever their ob- 
servance is required ; and any person knowingly, wilfully, and maliciously 
offending against the said rules and regulations, or refusing or evading to 
pay the established tolls, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on 
conviction thereof shall he fined or imprisoned by the court before whom the 
conviction may be had : Provided, That the fine shall not exceed fifty 
dollars, and the imprisonment six months, unless the offence shall be deem- 
ed by the court to come within the purview of the fortieth section of this 
act, when the penalties therein prescribed may be inflicted by the court : 
Andprovided also, That no conviction under this act shall be deemed to ex- 
mpt the offender from the payment of all damages which may have accru- 
ed to the public and private property, in consequence of the commission of 
any such offences. 

Sec 44. For the purpose of guarding against accidents, and for the 
greater security of lives and property on railroads in this State, no person 
shall be employed in the situation and capacity of engineer or conductor 
of locomotive engines, or of superintendent of the transportation thereon 7 
who is habitually intemperate. 

Sec. 45. It shall be lawful for any individual, company, or corporation^ 
to connect any branch or other railroad with the roads hereby authorized 
to be constructed, at such points, and upon such reasonable conditions, to pro- 
tect the rights of the State, as the board of commissioners of public works 
may deem to be just and right: Provided, That the tracks of ah such branch 
or other railways shall be of the precise width of the railways of the State ; 
and the construction of the wheels of the cars in use on said branch or other 
railways, and designed to pass off upon the State railroads and run thereon. 



21 [259] 

shall be of such a model as shall not materially injure the Stale railroads : 
And provided, also. That the engines, cars, and coaches, passing from the 
said lateral to the State railroads, shall be subject to and conducted while on 
the said State railroads, by the rules and regulations adopted by the board 
for that purpose. 

Sec. 46. Whenever in the opinion of the board of commissioners of pub- 
lic works there shall or may be surplus water, over and above the quantity 
required for navigation at any dam, lock, or other work constructed at the 
expense of this State, either in whole or in part, the said board are hereby 
authorized and empowered to lease the water power produced by said sur- 
plus water, together with the necessary plats of grounds upon which to 
erect hydraulic machinery, to be propelled thereby, to the highest bidder 
therefor, under such conditions and restrictions as a majority of a full boar3 
of commissioners may deem necessary and proper for the interests of the 
State ; but no water power shall be leased by the board unless the ground 
upon which the same is proposed to be used shall be the property of the 
State, unless otherwise specially provided for by the Legislature. 

Sec. 47. For the purpose of securing the confidence of the people in the 
honesty and integrity of the officers aha engineers concerned in the public 
works, and to protect said officers and engineers from imputations of malfea- 
sance in the discharge of their respective duties, it shall not be lwful for 
either member of the board of public works, or for any engineer concerned 
in the recognizance, examination, or location of any of the public works au- 
thorized by this act, or hereafter to be authorized by law, after the date of 
their election or appointment, to purchase, or in anywise become interested, 
either directly or indirectly, in any lands, tenements, or real estate, lying 
within five miles of the routes or probable routes of any of the railroads 
authorized by this act, or within one mile of the proposed location of any 
dams, or locks, by which water power will be created, until the permanent 
location of any such works shall have been definitely fixed and established 
by the board of public works, and the said established location shall have 
been marked out on the ground and made fully public ; nor shall any con- 
tingent contract, bargain, or understanding be made in the premises, for any 
such lands or real estate by which the provisions and prohibitions contained 
in this section may be evaded, or intended to be evaded, by any such com- 
missioner or engineer. And it shall be the express duty of the said com- 
missioners and engineers, (to the observance and discharge of which each 
engineer shall be sworn or affirmed before entering into the discharge of any 
of the duties of his appointment,) to keep secret, for the interests and advan- 
tage of the State, all information which he or they may become possessed of 
in the discharge of their respective duties, relating to all lands which may 
be necessary and useful for the State to become possessed of, either by 
entry or purchase, for the use of the works, or otherwise to aid in their 
construction, and to enter and purchase the same for the State, under the 
authority of this act, or any subsequent act or resolution of the Genera) 
Assembly authorizing the same; or to give the necessary notice to the board 
of public works, or to some member thereof, that the said lands may be so 
entered or purchased ; and shall not, either directly, or indirectly, give any 
such information to any other person or persons whatsoever : And if any 
member of the board of commissioners of public works, or engineer, shall 
be guilty of a violation of any of the provisions of this section of this act, 
lie shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof 



[2 59] 22 

before any court of competent jurisdiction, shall be fined in any sum no 
exceeding five thousand dollars ; one-half to be paid to the person who 
may inform thereof and prosecute to conviction, and the other half to be 
paid to the fund for internal improvements; and said conviction shall amount 
to a removal from his office or appointment as the case may be, and the 
offender shall forever thereafter be incapable of holding any office or ap- 
pointment in this State : Provided, That nothing herein contained shall 
be so construed as to prevent any commissioner or engineer from purchas- 
ing or leasing for a term of years a residence along any of the lines of the 
public works on which they are engaged, if the same be done in good faith, 
for the purpose of a residence alone, and not with any intention of evading 
the provisions of this section ; nor shall it be so construed as to prevent pur- 
chasers of town property in any town, to which the respective rail routes 
are permanently fixed by law, and the location of which said road at said 
point is in nowise left to the discretion of the board of commissioners of 
public works : And provided. That such purchases of town property shall 
not be situated on the immediate line of the said railroad. 

Sec. 48. The said board of commissioners of public works, or any mem- 
ber thereof, are hereby authorized and required to prosecute and defend all 
suits for damages done to the public works, or trespass on the lands of the 
State, entered or purchased, or otherwise acquired for the use of said works, 
or in aid of their construction for the use of the State, in any court of 
record having cognizance thereof; and to proceed in all matters and things 
as an individual might do ; and such damages, when collected, shall be 
paid over to the board of fund commissioners ; and all acts in force in this 
State, in relation to trespass upon lands, by cutting timber or otherwise, 
shall be deemed to extend to trespasses committed upon State property. 

Sec. 49. Nothing in this act contained shall be construed to extend to 
the Illinois and Michigan canal, or to any operation thereon, or to the funds 
relating thereto, or to the canal lands granted by Congress to aid in the 
construction thereof. 

Sec. 50. The board of commissioners of public works shall suspend 
their operations on the several railroads named in this act, for which com- 
panies have heretofore been incorporated to construct, until said companies 
or corporations shall have relinquished and released to the State their right 
to construct the said railroads or parts of roads aforesaid, respectively, by 
releases signed and sealed by a majority of the board of directors, (if the 
companies have been organized and directors elected,) which releases shall 
and may contain a proviso and reservation for the benefit of the said com- 
panies, that the State shall and will commence, construct, and complete 
the said railroads named and designated in this act, and for which the said 
releases are given, respectively, within the time, and as is provided for in 
the first clause of the 18th section of this act : Provided, That said releases 
shall be given by the said companies or corporations, and filed in the office 
of the Secretary of State within a reasonable time, and without unneces- 
sary delay: And provided, also, That nothing contained in this section 
shall be so construed as to prevent, excuse, or delay the board of commis- 
sioners of public works, or other authorized agent or agents on the part of 
the State, from entering or purchasing lands along or contiguous to any of 
the routes or probable routes of any of the said railroads for the use of the 
State, by virtue of this act, or any other act or resolution of the General 
Assembly prior to the making and filing of any such releases ; but shall 



23 [ 259 ] 

fee construed to extend only to commencing the survey and construction of 
the said several railroads for which releases have not been executed and 
riled as aforesaid. 

Sec. 51. That whenever the proprietor of any town plat, or the corpo- 
ration of any town or borough, through which any of the railroads, author- 
ized by this act, are to pass, shall object to the passage thereof, or the said 
proprietors, corporations, or owners of property, shall require and exact 
from the State unreasonable damages for the right of way through the said 
town plat, it shall be lawful for the board of commissioners of public works 
to locate the said road, in the vicinity thereof, in such manner as will best 
promote the interest of the State. 

Sec. 52. That so soon as there shall be appointed a board of commis- 
sioners of public works under the provisions of this act, said board of 
commissioners shall proceed to survey and locate all railroads contemplated 
in said act so soon as they can possibly perform the same ; and so soon as 
said road or roads are located, it shall be their duty to advertise the same 
in some one or more newspapers printed in this State, as said commissioners 
shall think best, for contracting with any person or persons, company or 
companies, for the contracting and completing of a part or of all of said 
railroad, to be done on the plan laid down by said board of commissioners. 

Sec. 53. That it shall also be the duty of the board of commissioners to 
contract for the immediate construction, so soon as located, of all the rail- 
roads or parts thereof contemplated between Q,uincy and the Wabash, as 
lies between Jacksonville, in Morgan county, Springfield, in Sangamon 
county, Decatur, in Macon county, and Danville, in Vermillion county ; 
thence to the State line in Vermillion county in a direction to Lafayette, in 
Indiana, at such point as the commissioners of this State and of Indiana 
may agree to cross the same. 

Sec. 54. That any company or companies, contracting for the construc- 
tion of all or a part of said railroad, and furnishing money for the completion 
of the same ; (provided the amount so appropriated does not exceed the a- 
mount agreed upon by said contracting parties for the completion of said 
railroads,) and whenever said railroad or roads shall be completed by said 
company or companies, then it shall be the duty of said commissioners, and 
they are hereby required, to report the same to the fund commissioners, 
whose duty it shall be to draw a warrant or warrants in favor of the com- 
pany or companies for the same, together with six per cent interest from the 
time they commenced said work, provided they on their part suffered no 
unnecessary delay. 

Sec. 55. Whenever said railroad is completed according to the provis- 
ions of this act, and the same paid for, then it shall be a public road, and be 
managed and kept in repair as all other public State railroads are kept: 
Provided, That the money to be paid as aforesaid shall be paid out of the 
fund appropriated for the construction of said road, and no other : And pro- 
vided, further, That all parts of said road may be put under contract, and 
completed upon the terms provided in the foregoing sections. 

Sec. 56. This act shall be deemed and taken to be a public act. and shall 
be taken notice of as such, without the necessity of pleading the same ; and 
shall be in force from and after its passage. 

Approved February 27, 1837, 



[ 259 ] 24 

An ACT supplemental to the <; act to establish and maintain a general system of internal im- 
provements. 

Sec. 1. Be it enacted hij the people of the State of Illinois, represented 
in the General Assembly, That the board of fund commissioners, created 
by the act to which this is a supplement, shall take and use all proper 
means and measures for the transferring the stock authorized to be constitu- 
ted by said act, and also for the transferring all State bonds authorized to be 
made and executed under the provisions of this act, and it shall be deemed 
a good execution of the power to borrow, to cause the said certificates of 
stock and State bonds to be sold : Provided, That said stock and bonds shall 
not, in any event, be sold for less than par value. 

Sec. 2. The Governor of the State is authorized and required, whenever 
requested by the said fund commissioners, to execute bonds for and in be- 
half of the State, for any sum or sums of money which may be borrowed^ 
under the provisions of this and the act to which this is a supplement, in 
any foreign language, stipulating for the payment of the interest and prin- 
cipal, in such foreign currency and country as shall be found most benefi- 
cial for the interest of the State ; which bonds shall be signed by the Gov- 
ernor, countersigned by the auditor of public accounts, with the impress of 
the great seal of State affixed thereto, and shall be delivered to the fund 
commissioners. 

Sec. 3. The fund commissioners are authorized to appoint one or more 
agents, with full power to negotiate the loans, and make sale of the State 
bonds and certificates of stock in any foreign country, and to vest the said 
agent or agents with as full and ample powers as are by law vested in the 
said fund commissioners. 

Sec. 4. The State hereby engages and agrees to provide sufficient rev- 
enues and means to pay the interest and principal of all sums of money r 
which, under the provisions of the act to which this is a supplement, may 
be borrowed, as the same becomes due and payable ; and the faith of the 
State is hereby irrevocably pledged, to comply with the provisions of this 
section. 

Approved March 4, 1837. 



An ACT further supplemental to an " net to establish and maintain a general system of in- 

ternal improvements." 

Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the people of the Stale of Illinois, represented 
in the General Assembly, That so much of the act, to which this is an 
amendment, as authorizes- three of the board of commissioners of public 
works to form a quorum of said board to do business, be, and the same is 
hereby, repealed, and hereafter no less than four shall be requisite to consti- 
tute a quorum. 

Sec. 2. The fund commissioners elected under the provisions of the act 
to which this is a supplement, shall hold their offices for two years, and 
until their successors are elected and qualified. 

Sec. 3. Nothing in the act to which this is a supplement shall be so 
construed as to entitle the fund commissioner or commissioners of public 
works to receive their per diem compensation, excepting for the time 
actually and bona fide engaged in the discharge of their respective duties*. 



25 [ 259 ] 

An abstract from the Journal of the Board of Commissioners of Public 
Works of the Slate of Illinois, for April, 1837. 

At the first meeting of the board of commissioners of public works of the 
State of Illinois, begun and held at Vandalia on the first Monday in the 
month of April, A. D. 1837, the following members appeared and took their 
seats as such, to wit: Of the 1st judicial circuit, Murray McConnel; 2d. 
William Kinney; 3d. Elijah Willard ; 4th. Milton K. Alexander; 7th. Eb- 
enezer Peck. 

Messrs. Joel Wright and James W. Stephenson, of the 5th and 6th cir- 
cuits, not appearing to take their seats. 
On motion of Mr. McConnel, 

William Kinney was unanimously appointed president of the board ; 
whereupon he immediately took his seat as president. 

By request. Mr. McConnel consented to act as secretary until a secretary 
should be appointed and qualified. 
On motion of Mr. Willard, 

G. W. Carruthers, Esq., was appointed secretary of the board of public 
works. 

Ordered, That said secretary give bond and security in the sum of five 
thousand dollars ; that he reside and keep his office at Vandalia, and keep 
the same open from eight o'clock in the morning until five o'clock in the 
evening. 

Adjourned until to-morrow morning, 10 o'clock. 



Tuesday, April 4, 1837. 

The board met pursuant to adjournment; present, the members as of 
yesterday. 

This day came G. W. Carruthers, and presented his bond as secretary 
of the board ; said bond was approved, and the approval and the oath of of- 
fice of the said secretary were ordered to be endorsed thereon. 

Ordered, That said bond be filed in the office of Secretary of State of 
the State of Illinois. 

On motion of Mr. McConnel, 

Resolved, That the secretary procure 500 printed blanks for drafts, ac- 
cording lo 24th section of the act " To establish and maintain a general, 
system of internal improvements," and also 300 blanks for deeds of release 
for lands, &c. to the State, under the 30th section of said act. 

Ordered, That the board adjourn until to-morrow morning, 9 o'clock. 



Wednesday, April 5, 1837, 
The board met pursuant to adjournment. 

Present : Hon. Wm. Kinney, president of the board, and Messrs. Wil- 
lard, Peck, Alexander, McConnel, and Mr. Joel Wright of the 5th circuit: 
Mr. Stephenson absent. 

On motion of Mr. Peck, 



[ 259 ] 26 ! 

Resolved, That the commissioner of the fourth judicial circuit be es- 
pecially empowered and requested to do and perform all things necessary 
for the improvement of the Great Wabash river, in the manner, and under 
the restrictions, contained in the first clause of the 18th section of the act 
*■' To establish and maintain a general system of internal improvements," 
and also under the joint resolutions of the General Assemblies of the States 
of Indiana and Illinois, forming a compact between said States, in relation 
to the said improvements. 

Mr. McConnel, from a committee heretofore appointed for the purpose, 
reported the following rules and ordinances, organizing the board of pub- 
lic works and the central office, and prescribing the duty of the secretary 
of the board. 

Sec. 1, Be it ordained by the Board of Commissioners of Public Works 
of the State of Illinois ■■ That there shall be established at the seat of Gov- 
ernment a general office, to be styled the central internal improvement 
office of the State of Illinois. 

2. The secretary of the board shall receive a salary of one thousand 
dollars per annum, to be paid quarterly out of the internal improvement 
fund. 

3. Said secretary shall attend all meetings of the board, and shall keep 
a journal of all the proceedings thereof while in session, and shall record 
the same in a book called the journal, in the order in which the same oc- 
curred, including the resolutions offered, and propositions made by each 
member of the board, together with, the vote of each member upon each 
question, which shall always be by viva voce, when requested by any one 
member of the board; which journal shall, at all times, be open for inspec- 
tion, as provided by law. 

4. It shall be the duty of said secretary to receive and rile, and, if neces- 
sary, record all returns from the clerks of the district offices, or from any 
of the acting commissioners of the board, together with all plans, profiles, 
reports, estimates, specifications, and other documents, transmitted or de- 
livered to said office, by any engineer of any district in the employ of the 
eommisrioners, all of which shall be open for the inspection of all persons in- 
terested, in the presence of said secretary. 

5. Said secretary shall do and perform all other acts required of him by 
law, or by the orders of the board of public works, made while in session, 
or that may be directed by the president of the board during vacation. All 
proceedings of the board shall be signed by the president. 

6. That each commissioner of the board of public works shall be acting 
commissioner, and shall have the control, direction, and management of all 
the different parts of the public works as lie within the respective circuits 
in which they were elected, and shall have upon all and each of said public 
works all the powers given by law to the board of public works over all the 
internal improvements of the State. 

7. They, and each of them, shall be furnished by this board with the 
amount of money necessarv to carry on the surveying, location, estimates, 
and construction, of all and each of said works, and also for the building of 
offices, shops, warehouses, and other necessary buildings, and for salaries of 
officers, engineers, agents, and all other persons employed upon said works, 
in each of the said districts, and for all necessary expenses touching said 
works. 

R Copies of all drafts payable to the acting commissioner shall be filed 



27 [ 259 ] 

and recorded in the district office in the district in which said commissioner 
shall reside ; and when said draft or drafts shall be paid, the receipt of said 
money shall be entered in the proper books of said office, and copies of said 
drafts, and of the accounts of cash received by each commissioner, shall be 
transmitted to the Secretary of the board at the central office, and there 
filed and entered on record in a book to be kept for that purpose. 

9. For the better enabling the Presient of the board to furnish the act- 
ing commissioners with the necessary funds, in pursuance of the foregoing- 
provisions, it shall be the duty of the president to cause to be printed a suf- 
ficient number of drafts upon the board of fund commissioners, in which 
drafts the following blanks shall be left to be filled up by the acting com- 
missioner, when it may become necessary to use said drafts ; to wit : The date 
and place where drawn ; the commissioner to whom payable ; the amount 
to be drawn for; the particular work to which said amount thus drawn for 
is to be applied ; and the number of the draft. And it shall be the duty of 
the president to number and sign, in his official capacity, and to deliver to 
each of said acting commissioners, a sufficient number of said drafts to en- 
able said commissioner to obtain from the board of fund commissioners 
whatever sums of money may be necessary to carry on the improvements 
under his particular charge; which drafts shall be charged by their numbers 
to the acting commissioner to whom delivered. 

10. Whenever it may become necessary for any acting commissioner to 
draw for, pay out, or use, any sum of money not properly chargeable to 
any particular work, (such as the salaries of officers, engineers, agents, and 
other persons employed upon and for all the internal improvements of the 
State, and not for any particular one,) said commissioner shall fill up said 
drafts to be charged to the particular object to which said money is to be 
applied^ and the said drafts when paid, and the money applied to the ob- 
ject for which the same was drawn, shall be charged by the secretary of 
the district office to the general expenditure. 

11. Monthly returns shall be made to the secretary of the board at the 
central office by the acting commissioners and the clerks of the district offi- 
ces, and also to the fund commissioners, of all money expended upon each 
work, and for all other purposes whatever ; and the secretary of the board 
shall cause to be kept in well bound books, a fair and complete record, ac- 
cording to the ninth section of the " Act establishing a general system of 
internal improvement," and the accounts of money expended shall be made 
up from ihe returns aforesaid, and such other vouchers as may be furnished 
by the board from time to time, all of which shall be subject to inspection 
according to law. 



Rides and ordinances dividing the "State into engineering districts , 
and organizing the district offices. 

Sec. 1. Be it ordained by the board of commissioners of 'public works, 
That the State of Illinois shall be divided into four districts for engineering 
purposes, to be called internal improvement districts. 

2. Resolved further. That all that part of the State of Illinois lying north of 
a line commencing at the mouth of the Illinois river, on the west side, thence 
op along the margin of the river at low water mark, to a point opposite the 



[ 259 ] 28 

mouth of the Sangamon river, thence across the Illinois river and up on 
the margin of said river as aforesaid, to the north side of Tazewell county, 
thence east on a line dividing the county of Tazewell from the county of 
Putnam, and then due east to the east side of the State of Illinois, shall com- 
pose the northern district. 

3. That all that part of the Stale of Illinois situated within the following 
boundaries, to wit : beginning at a point where the Central railroad crosses 
the north line of McClean county, thence east to the State line, thence 
south on said line to the Wabash river, thence down said river to the south 
side of the county of Crawford, thence westwardly to the town of Vandalia, 
thence north on the line of the Central railroad, including the same, to the 
north fork of Sangamon river, thence north on the line of said road, exclu- 
ding the same, to the place of beginning:, shall compose the eastern district. 

4. That all that part of the State of Illinois situated within the following 
boundaries, to wit: beginning at the mouth of the Illinois river, from thence 
down the Mississippi to the centre of the town of Lower Alton, thence east 
to Vandalia, thence north on the line of the Central railroad, excluding the 
same, to the north fork of the Sangamon river, thence north on the line of 
said railroad, including the same, to the north line of McLean county, 
thence west to the east bank of the Illinois river, thence down the east 
shore of said river at low water mark to the mouth of the Sangamon river, 
thence across said river and down on the west side of the same to the place 
of beginning, shall compose the western district. 

5. That all that part of the State of Illinois situated south of the eastern 
and western districts, shall compose the southern district. 

6. There shall be one principal engineer appointed in each of said dis- 
tricts, by the board of public works, or by the acting commissioner or com- 
missioners of said districts, whose duty it shall be to make or superintend 
the making of all surveys and estimates of all and each of the public works 
in his district, under the direction of the acting commissioners of the board, 
to whose charge the work is committed, by order of the board of public 
works. Said chief engineer shall receive a competent salary, not exceeding 
three thousand dollars per annum. 

7. The acting commissioner of each judicial circuit shall be authorized 
to employ as many assistant engineers and surveyors and other assistants, 
from time to time, as to said commissioners may seem necessary to facili- 
tate and forward the different works under his charge. 

8. The survey and estimates of said assistant engineers shall pass under 
the supervision of the principal engineer of the district, before the same is 
let to contractors : said assistant engineers shall receive a compensation not 
exceeding two thousand dollars per annum. 

9. There shall be established in each of the said districts an office to be 
styled, the District Office for Engineering Purposes. 

10. The principal and all assistant engineers shall at all times obey the 
instructions and rules adopted by the board of public works, and shall be 
under the control of the acting commissioner of the circuit in which he or 
they may be engaged for the time being. 

11. Copies of all plats, releases, conveyances, drafts, reports, estimates, 
and surveys, shall be kept at said offices. 

12. All bids shall be received and examined, and all contracts let at said 
office, or at such other places as the acting commissioner may deem expe- 
dient. Copies of all bids and copies of the contracts furnished to the acting 



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me state, according to the 53d, 54th, and 55th sections of the act to estab- 
lish a general system of internal improvements, at any time hereafter, so 
soon as the same, or any part thereof, can be located : Provided, The whole 
average cost of said road, and all necessary expenses connected therewith, 



[ 259 ] £8 

mouth of the Sangamon river, thence across the Illinois river and up on 
the margin of said river as aforesaid, to the north side of Tazewell county, 
thence east on a line dividing the county of Tazewell from the county of 
Putnam, and then due east to the east side of the State of Illinois, shall com- 
pose the northern district. 

3. That all that part of the Stale of Illinois situated within the following 
boundaries, to wit : beginning at a point where the Central railroad crosses 
the north line of McClean county, thence east to the Stale line, thence 
south on said line to the Wabash river, thence down said river to the south 
side of the county of Crawford, thence westwardly to the town of Yandalia, 
thence north on the line of the Central railroad, including the same, to the 
north fork of Sangamon river, thence north on the line of said road, exclu- 
ding the same, to the place of beginning, shall compose the eastern district. 

4. That all that part of the State of Illinois situated within the following 
boundaries, to wit: beginning at the mouth of the Illinois river, from thence 
down the Mississippi to the centre of the town of Lower 'Alton, thence east 
to Yandalia, thence north on the line of the Central railroad, excluding the 
same, to the north fork of the Sangamon river, thence north on the line of 
said railroad, including the same, to the north line of McLean county, 
thence west to the east bank of the Illinois river, thence down the east 
shore of said river at low water mark to the mouth of the Sangamon river, 
thence across said river and down on the west side of the same to the place 
of beginning, shall compose the western district. 

5. That all that part of the State of Illinois situated south of the eastern 
and western districts, shall compose the southern district. 

6. There shall be one principal engineer appointed in each of said dis- 
tricts, by the board of public works, or by the acting commissioner or com- 
missioners of said districts, whose duty it shall be to make or superintend 
the making of all surveys and estimates of all and each of the public works 
in his district, under the direction of the acting commissioners of the board, 
to whose charge the work is committed, by order of the board of public 
works. Said chief engineer shall receive a competent salary, not exceeding- 
three thousand dollars per annum. 

7. The acting commissioner of each judicial circuit shall be authorized 
to employ as many assistant engineers and surveyors and other assistants, 
from time to time, as to said commissioners may seem necessary to facili- 
tate and forward the different works under his charge. 

8. The survey and estimates of said assistant engineers shall pass under 
the supervision of the principal engineer of the district, before the same is 
let to contractors : said assistant engineers shall receive a compensation not 
exceeding two thousand dollars per annum. 

9. There shall be established in each of the said districts an office to be 
styled the District Office for Engineering Purposes. 

10. The principal and all assistant engineers shall at all times obey the 
instructions and rules adopted by the board of public works, and shall be 
under the control of the acting commissioner of the circuit in which he or 
they may be engaged for the time being. 

11. Copies of all plats, releases, conveyances, drafts, reports, estimates, 
and surveys, shall be kept at said offices. 

12. All bids shall be received and examined, and all contracts let at said 
office, or at such other places as the acting commissioner may deem expe- 
dient. Copies of all bids and copies of the contracts furnished to the acting 



LLINOIH 

witji parts oJ' 
SD1A.VA, WISCOXSIIV, 
8CC. 




[ 259 ] 

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11. Copies of all plats, reieciooo, ^ — „ 
and surveys, shall be kept at said offices. 

12. All bids shall be received and examined, and all contracts let at said 
office, or at such other places as the acting commissioner may deem expe- 
dient. Copies of all bids and copies of the contracts furnished to the acting 



29 [ 259 | 

commissioners of the respective circuits upon the works within the districts, 
shall be filed and recorded in said office by the secretary of the board, 
according to the sixteenth section of the " act to establish and maintain a 
general system of internal improvements." All moneys to be paid to officers, 
agents, engineers, contractors, and other persons, shall be made payable at 
said office, at such other place or places as may seem expedient. Copies 
of all estimates made during the progress of the different works, shall be 
filed and recorded in said office, together with all other documents and 
proceedings that may be directed to be filed, kept, or recorded in said 
offices, necessary to a fair, full, and perfect understanding of the progress 
of the different works within the respective districts, and the rights of all 
parties connected therewith. 

13. There shall be appointed to take charge of each of said offices a 
principal clerk, to be styled the Clerk of the District Offices, whose duty it 
shall be to furnish well bound books in which to make all records necessary 
and proper to be made at said office. He shall open an account with each 
work situated within, or passing through, the districts, in which he shall 
charge all moneys paid out, upon, or for the construction of said improve- 
ments, and shall credit each of said works with all tolls or other moneys 
received from, or arising out of, the use of the same; said clerk shall also 
keep a general account of all moneys paid out by the acting commissioner 
or commissioners within the district, not properly chargeable to any one 
work or improvement, and to keep all other accounts, and to make all 
records necessary to be made, and that may be directed by the board, or by 
the acting commissioner or commissioners having charge of the works 
passing through said district; and it shall be the duty' of said commissioners, 
and each of them, to cause to be kept in said office an account of all money 
by them, or either of them, received from the fund commissioners for 
the use of the system of internal improvements, and to furnish to said 
clerk of the proper district all information necessary to enable him to per- 
form the several duties enjoined upon him by this ordinance or by the 
board of public works. 

All records, files, and other documents, shall be open for the inspection of 
all persons concerned therein, during office hours, and in the presence of 
said clerk, and under such rules and regulations as may be adopted by the 
acting commissioner or commissioners of the circuits or parts of circuits 
composing said district. 

1.4. Said clerks shall be appointed by the acting commissioner or commis- 
sioners resident in the district, and shall hold their offices during the pleas 
ure of the commissioner or commissioners aforesaid, and until their suc- 
cessors shall be duly appointed, and shall receive a salary not exceeding one 
thousand dollars per annum. 

15. Said offices shall be located at such places as the acting commissioner 
or commissioners in the district may see proper, under the advice of the 
board. 

16. The acting commissioners of the 1st, 4th, and 5th judicial circuits, 
and each of them, are hereby authorized to receive proposals, and put under 
contract all or any part of the cross railroad from Q.uincy to the east line of 
the State, according to the 53d, 54th, and 55th sections of the act to estab- 
lish a general system of internal improvements, at any time hereafter, so 
soon as the same, or any part thereof, can be located : Provided, The whole 
average cost of said road, and all necessary expenses connected therewith. 



[ 250 ] 30 

shall not exceed the sum appropriated by law for said work; which con- 
tracts, when made, shall be executed according to the 16th section of said 
act, for, and on the part and behalf of, this board of public works; and the 
same, when so made, shall be binding upon the State of Illinois, and upon 
the person or persons, company or companies, taking said contract : And 
provided, further, That the six per cent, interest mentioned in the 54th sec- 
. tion of said act shall not be paid, except from the time the said money shall 
be expended upon said work. 

On motion of Mr. Alexander, 
Ordered by the board of public works, That the acting commissioner 
of the 4th judicial circuit be authorized to call on the principal engineer 
of the southern district at the proper time, to have surveys and estimates 
made on the great western mail route leading from Yincennes, Indiana, to 
St. Louis, Missouri, so far as the same lies in said district, preparatory to 
letting contracts on the same. 

On motion of Mr. McConnel, 
Ordered, That the acting commissioner of the 1st judicial district have 
the control and management of all the improvements of the navigation of 
the Illinois river, below the mouth of Sangamon, and that the improve- 
ments of the navigation of said river, above the mouth of Sangamon river, 
shall be under the control and management of the acting commissioners 
of the 5th, 6th, and 7th judicial circuits. 

Resolved, That two and one-half per cent, upon the sums appropriated 
for the construction of the several railroads, provided for by the act ' : To 
establish and maintain a general system of internal improvements," ap- 
proved 23d of February, 1837, will probably be required to meet the ex- 
penditures in the prosecution thereof, before the first day of September 
next, and that the fund commissioners be notified thereof. 

2. That the sum of one hundred and twenty-nVe thousand dollars will 
probably be required to be expended before the first day of September next, 
on the ^reat western mail route leading from Vincennes to St. Louis, un- 
der the provisions of the aforesaid act, and that the fund commissioners be 
notified thereof. 

3. That five per cent, upon the sums appropriated for the improvement 
of the several rivers, under the aforesaid act, will probably be required to 
be expended upon the surveys of said rivers, before the first day of Sep- 
tember next ; and, also, that fifty thousand dollars, appropriated for the im- 
provement of the Great Wabash river, will probably be required, before 
the said first day of September next, to be expended upon the said river, 
and that the fund commissioners be notified thereof. 

Adjourned until to-morrow morning, 9 o'clock. 



. Thursday, April 6, 1837, 
The board met pursuant to adjournment. 
Present : full board. 

On motion of Mr. Alexander, 
Resolved, That thirty thousand dollars will probably be Wanted to defray 
expenses incurred, not chargeable to any particular public work, (viz : clerk 
hire office rent, wagons and teams, camp furniture, &c.,) up to the first 



31 [259] 

day of September next, and that the fund commissioners be notified 
thereof. 

Mr. Peck, who was appointed, in connexion with Mr. McConnel, to draught 
instructions to the engineers, reported the following : 

That the following plan and instructions shall be adopted and pursued 
by the principal engineers appointed by, and under the authority of, the 
board of public works for this State. The secretary of the board, or some 
other authorized person, shall notify the engineer of his appointment, and 
of the district or works assigned to him, and request that a letter of ac- 
ceptance be communicated, which shall be filed by the secretary of the 
board, and preserved. 

The secretary, or some other authorized person, shall, as early as prac- 
ticable, make known to the said principal engineer the names of his senior 
and junior assistants, and of the surveyor to accompany him, who shall be 
required to report themselves to the principal, and to place themselves under 
his instructions, and to be subject to his directions. 

The said principal engineer, unless otherwise directed, or unless the 
same shall be furnished by some person acting in that behalf, shall be au- 
thorized to procure camp equipage, teams, provisions, utensils, implements, 
and stationery, and to employ rod-men, chain-men, axe-men, and the other 
necessary laborers to complete an engineering party or parties. 

In all expenditures it shall be forcibly and strictly enjoined upon the said 
principal engineer, to consult the most rigid economy ; and that he be 
also enjoined to take duplicate receipts for all disbursements, as no amount 
will be placed to his credit unless he shall produce a satisfactory voucher 
therefor. 

The said engineer shall be directed to transmit to the secretary of the 
board an inventory of the articles, camp equipage, teams, and utensils in 
his possession, with an account of the cost thereof; also, a roll contain- 
ing the names and amount of compensation of each individual of the par- 
ty, so soon as the same shall be organized ; and when the work shall be 
completed, the said articles, camp equipage, &c, to be returned to the care 
and custody of some commissioner or authorized agent. It is expected 
that due care will be taken to preserve the property of the State from in- 
jury: and destruction. 

All engagements of hands should be made upon the express condition 
that they shall strictly obey orders, and at all times conduct themselves 
civilly, morally, and industriously, while employed by the State ; also, that 
they shall abstain from the use of ardent spirits while acting with the party ; 
and that a breach of any of the foregoing conditions should be followed 
by immediate dismission. 

The principal, or one of the assistant engineers of each party, shall 
keep a journal of the general operations of each party, separate and apart 
from the field books, to be filed in the office of the secretary. 

In order to carry into effect the intention of the Legislature in relation 
to the survey, location, and construction of the several public works, to 
observe, in addition to the requirement of the laws, the following general 
instructions: 

To make such minute explorations of the country, as to be able to re- 
port under oath, that the " most direct and eligible routes' 1 ' 1 have been ascer- 
tained and selected between the several points named in the act. 

In cases where the designated points on the routes cannot be commanded 



[ 259 ] 32 

without conflicting with the provisions and conditions contained in the 33d 
and 51st section of the act, to make all necessary examinations and estimates 
on routes and places at such points, and to report all the facts collected in 
reference to the difficulty to the board, for further instructions. 

To confer freely with the members of the board of commissioners, and 
receive their directions. 

The surveys to be made with a view to a minimum radius of 500 feet for 
curvatures, and a maximum grade of 30 feet to the mile, approximating, 
however, in all cases, as nearly to a straight line, both vertically and hori- 
zontally, as practical, without incurring unnecessary increase of expenditure. 
In the construction of her public works, it has been the policy of the 
State not to embark in any of a temporary character, or of doubtful expe- 
diency, therefore your estimates will contemplate materials of a durable and 
permanent kind. 

The estimates to be based on a road-bed for a single track only, except- 
ing in approaching and receding from streams, over SO feet wide, in which 
cases an extra width must be given to accommodate the common road wag- 
gons, and ultimately to be used fdr a double track rail- way, and excepting 
also, at depots and stopping stages, where road-bed must be accommodated^ 
to a double track. In estimating the width of streams, under the provision 
of the 35th section of this act, measure from the top of the natural banks, 
in the direction of the line road, without reference to the requisite water 
way to be given for the stream. 

The width of the graduation for a single track to be 14 feet in embank- 
ment, and 15 feet in cuttings, with the slopes adapted to the nature of the 
materials composing them. 

Section 12 of the act, and from section 33 to 39 inclusive, to be consider- 
ed and taken as part of these instructions, and the estimates to be based up- 
on the directions for surveys and construction therein contained. 

The surveys of the rivers having to be prosecuted during certain stages 
of water, it wiii be necessary to take advantage of the proper stage in them 
to make the necessary surveys and examinations of these under the laws, 
and for that purpose other operations which do not depend upon these un- 
certain contingencies must be suspended. 

The surveys and examinations of the rivers to be made conformably to 
the directions contained in the 12th, and so much of the 18th section of the 
act as relates to them respectively. 

The directions and requisitions of the 47th section of the act, in relation 
to the purchase of lands on the routes of the public works, of course to be 
strictly complied with on the part of the engineers,' directly employed by 
the board ; and the principal engineer to be required to impose similar re- 
strictions on all persons attached to the parties engaged in the exploration 
of routes under such orders as the board may make, from time to time, for 
that purpose when communicated to them. 

The acting commissioner on the line must be frequently advised of the 
progress of the surveys, and notified of the lands necessary and proper to 
be obtained by the State, for the use of the works or otherwise ; and also 
of whatever is necessary or advisable to be done, to insure an efficient 
and economical execution of the duties of the engineering department. 

A monthly estimate of the funds necessary for the service of each suc- 
ceeding month, and of the name of the work for which the same is re- 
quired, should be made on the first of each month, to be forwarded to 



33 f 259 ] 

the acting commissioner, with vouchers for the expenditure of each pre- 
ceding month, with an abstract embracing the names, amount paid to each, 
the nature of the expenditure, and the aggregate sum, and an account 
current showing the state of the account, and on what lines the expen- 
ditures have been made. Both abstract and account current to be in 
duplicate. 

The explorations on the whole route to be minute, and such as will 
enable the engineer to present a detailed report upon the best route, and 
the probable cost of constructing the work. 

In no case to permit a camp to be removed, or any work upon the line 
to be done, on the Sabbath day. 

In case of difficulty or doubt, the advice of any of the principal engi- 
neers of the State may be taken, and when asked for should be given. 

No engineer should absent himself for any length of time from any line, 
without notifying the acting commissioner. 

Where more than one principal engineer shall be engaged upon a con- 
tinuous line of road, they should endeavor to adopt the same scale for the 
different maps, plans, and profiles prepared by them. 

To report upon the comparative cost, usefulness, and expedition in com- 
pleting the work, by substituting truss work for expensive embankments 
over morasses, abrupt ravines, river bottoms, and other difficult passes. 

Ordered, That the board adjourn until to-morrow morning, 9 o'clock. 



Friday, April 7, 1837. 
Board met pursuant to adjournment. 
Present, the whole board. 

On motion of Mr. Peck, 
Ordered, That the board adjourn until the first Monday in June next 

WM. KINNEY, President 
O. W. Carruthers, Secretary. 



An abstract of the proceedings of the board of commissioners of public 
works of the State of Illinois, December session, A. D. 1837. 

REPORT OP THE BOARD OF PUBLIC WORKS OP THE STATE OP ILLINOIS 

TO THE GOVERNOR. 

Sir : It has again become the duty of the undersigned, to report to the 
Governor of the State an account of their proceedings for the preceding- 
six months; a period within which so much has been accomplished 
towards the advancement of our system of internal improvements, as to 
encourage the undersigned to hope that the public has reason to be satisfied 
with their labors. 

The splendid predictions which the history of other States had encour- 
aged the friends of improvement to publish, promised to be realized at a 
less distant day, than could have been at first anticipated ; and the increas- 
ed certainty that our State will in a few years be threaded by railroads' 



[ 259 ] 34 

bringing a ready market to the very doors of oar farmers, cannot fail to 
enliven and cheer the patriot and philanthropist. 

' Those who at first were disposed to doubt the propriety of the act giving 
birth to our system, and looked upon it as visionary and impracticable, 
and were incredulous as to the benefits to result from the introduction of 
railroads into our fertile and flourishing State, already begin to doubt the 
Correctness of the conclusions to which they had too hastily trained their 
miuds, aud are yielding a more cheerful support to a measure which is 
unquestionably calculated greatly to promote the public welfare, to exercise 
an entensive and beneficial influence upon our community, and to open 
new channels to the currents of traffic. FevV at the present period are so 
blinded to the lights of experience, or so deaf to the voice of wisdom, us to 
be ignorant of the advantages which are brought home to the " business 
and bosoms" of men by the improvement of railroads; none will deny 
that they enlarge the resources of society, by multiplying the facilities of 
intercourse, and by extending the circle within which the same communi- 
ties may act ; while at the same time it enables men to concentrate their 
efforts upon any given spot where inclination or interest may lead. Whilst 
they reduce distances, they extend the links of social intercourse. They 
furnish to localities all the advantages of their position, and secure to 
them, by a speedy conveyance, all the advantages resulting from an im- 
mediate juxtaposition with those points favored by nature, — with channels 
of intercommunication. They knit together the interests of society, and 
develop new and manifold opportunities for the exercise of a vigorous and 
healthy enterprise, by furnishing sure rewards for the toils of the husband- 
man. 

It having already been demonstrated by the actual success of railroads 
in other States, how advantageous they are on the score of direct pecuniary 
profit, independent of their vital efficacy in accomplishing salutary changes 
upon the sentiments and morals of society, it would seem that hence- 
forward none but those who close their minds against all conviction, and 
wholly refuse to be persuaded, will any longer withhold their support and 
countenance from a system which is warmly cherished by a large majority 
of their fellow-citizens, and which promises so largely for the prosperity 
and happiness of all. 

That there should be great eagerness on the part of the people to avail 
themselves of the benefits promised by the introduction of these improve- 
ments, is not surprising ; that our system in its inception should have been 
extensive, is easily to be accounted for ; it was the ready result springing 
from a great desire for the reception of a benefit ; but that the system will 
prove too large for the interests of the State, leaves room for serious doubt. 
The choice of these channels of communication having been already set- 
tled by a judicious compromise, it would not only be difficult, but obviously 
wrong, except upon very cogent grounds, to attempt any great changes. 

To wait until a sufficient accumulation of business at any interior point 
of the State, should render the necessities for a railroad imperious, would 
certainly be to delay until the exigencies of the case would admit of no 
further cavil. But in a case where the elements of growth and prosperity 
were abundant, and only required opportunity for expansion, it would also 
be acting against wisdom and in defiance of experience, to withhold the 
means of advancement. "When we consider that the currents of traffic 
and of personal intercourse, instead of being confined to channels where 



35 [ 259 1 

only water could be made to flow, may be led over mountains and through 
every region which human industry has enlivened ; and that the " prosperity 
of cities, instead of depending on the accident of being placed on a naviga- 
ble stream, which can float its commerce to a vast interior, would hereafter 
depend upon the foresight and energy of their inhabitants in forming for 
themselves the channels of intercourse," by the aid of railroads, it is not 
surprising that the friends of internal improvements should have manifested 
a great degree of earnestness to furnish for all parts of the State the means 
of advancement, even though the present amount of business, by a frigid 
and narrow calculation, might not seem to warrant the expenditure. The 
projectors of this grand scheme were well capable of comprehending the 
noble results which would flow to their constituents, and, impelled by a wise 
patriotism, have planned a way — a sure and safe one — by which our State 
will be advanced to that exalted rank in the Union, which a kind Provi- 
dence, by bountifully supplying us with all the elements of prosperity, des- 
tined us to fill. 

In exhibiting a statement of the expenditures of the board, it becomes 
necessary for them to explain, that as they were bound to hold their meet- 
ings at the seat of Government on the first Monday of the present month, 
it was impossible to bring with them an account of their expenditures up 
to that date ; the accounts, however, are closed to as late a date as was 
practicable. The expenditures of engineering parties, remote from the resi- 
dence of the respective commissioners, for which vouchers could not be 
furnished in proper time, and such other sums as were from omission and 
inadvertence not fortified by vouchers according to the requirements of the 
board, have been included under the head of estimated expenditures. 

The following statement will show the amount expended for the preced- 
ing six months by the several members of the board, as shown by their re- 
spective accounts, audited and allowed by the board: 

On the Central railroad - -$11,602 02 

Peoria and Warsaw road - - ■ ■ * 3,519 48 

Northern Cross road - 3,710 28 

Paris, Shelbyville, and Alton road - - 2,755 75 

Shawneetown and Alton road - • - 1,725 59 

Great Western mail route - - - - 1,152 81 

Alton and Mount Carmel road - - - 5,114 31 

General fund ..... 10,645 32 

Improvement of Rock river ... 2,91606 

Estimated expenditure since the date of accouts filed - 39,136 20|- 

Total of expenditures - - $82,277 82J 

Amount received ~ - - $132,628 31 



The commissioner of the fourth judicial circuit has received from Samuel 
Mundy, in obedience to an act of the Legislature of the 4th March last, an 
unexpended balance of a former appropriation, for the improvement of the 
Wabash, amounting to $2,826 12. Since the receipt of this sum. $95 L 12 
have been expended upon contracts previously entered into by Mr. Mundy. 
Arrangements have been made, in co-operation with the commissioners of 
the State of Indiana, for the improvement of the Great Wabash river, and 



[ 259 J 36 

contracts for this object have been entered into, for the delivery of the ne- 
cessary materials for the construction of the dam and locks at the Grand 
rapids. 

By the vigilance of the acting commissioner of the second judicial cir- 
cuit, the surveys on the Great Western mail route, between Yincennes and 
St. Louis, were completed at a very early day; and in conformity with the 
law in this behalf, requiring that the first moneys procured should be ex- 
pended on this route, contracts to an amount bordering upon one hundred 
thousand dollars, have been let by the acting commissioner of the second 
and fourth judicial circuits. From the reports of the above named com- 
missioners, these contracts have been vigorously prosecuted; and the bene- 
ficial results of the expenditures upon this road are fully appreciated by 
the community immediately interested in the improvement, and a pleasing 
earnest is manifested of the certainty of the completion of the road, and of 
the lasting benefits to be derived from the use of it. 

The active commissioner of the first judicial circuit, availing himself of 
those provisions of the law contained in the 53d and 54th sections of the 
act, was enabled to place sixty-three miles of the Northern Cross road, ex- 
tending from the Illinois river, via Jacksonville and Springfield, to the east 
bank of the Sagamon river, under contract, with the option of paying in 
State bonds, if other means should not be provided. 

The fund commissioners having, since that letting, effected a sufficient 
loan to provide for the successful prosecution of all the works in due time, 
this road, of course, will receive, out of the funds raised, its fair proportion 
with other similar works. 

All the contracts which have as yet been entered into on the part of the 
State, have been upon favorable terms, and those contracts let upon rail- 
roads have been let for a sum which will probably bring the cost of the 
roads within the appropriation made by the Legislature. 

The money expended upon that portion of the Northern Cross road put 
under contract, as appears by the report of the commissioner, amounts to 
the sum of $22,340 61£. 

Proposals have been accepted for the putting under contract that part of 
the Pekin and Bloomington branch of the Central railroadj extending from 
the Illinois river to Tremont, the seat of justice of the county of Tazewell. 
The contracts have not been closed, inasmuch as the commissioner charged 
with this road was desirous of obtaining the sanction of the board for a 
higher vertical grade than that previously allowed, for the purpose of re- 
ducing the costs of construction. 

A memorial has been forwarded to Congress by the board, asking an ap- 
propriation of land to aid in carrying out our system of internal improve- 
ments, which memorial,' we doubt not, will receive a favorable considera- 
tion, since the sale of the public lands in the State must be greatly facili- 
tated by the prosecution of our system. 

In the prosecution of their duties, the several commissioners have caused 
nearly all the surveys of the different routes to be completed, or so far ad- 
vanced as to have them fully completed, long previous to the next meeting 
of the Legislature, and before it will be advisable to put the roads under con- 
tract. 

Every precaution and pains have been taken in the experimental surveys 
of the different roads, with a view to secure the most direct and eligible 
routes for the location of the roads ; and they are pleased to report, that, fot 



37 [ 259 ] 

the most part, highly advantageous sites for the different roads have been 
found. 

In the prosecution of the surveys of the Great Central railroad, (and ex- 
perimental lines have been run, nearly the whole length of it.) the engineers 
employed have found, after much pains and careful examination, a more 
favorable site for the road than was at first anticipated, and the undersigned 
feel great pleasure in reporting that this important line of communication 
is feasible, and comparatively easy of completion. 

The surveys of the Little Wabash river have not been prosecuted from 
the difficulty in procuring sufficient competent force for the purpose. 

The surveys of the Kaskaskia and Illinois rivers have been made by an 
officer, under the direction of the General Government ; but the report of 
that officer in the premises, has not, up to the present period, been laid be- 
fore the board. It is feared that the continued high stage of water in the 
Illinois, has rendered the survey of that river less useful than is desirable. 

An examination of a minute character has been made of Rock river, and 
it is believed, from the reports of the engineer in charge of that work, that 
an improvement of this stream can be easily accomplished, and within the 
appropriation made for the purpose. It is the design of the acting com- 
missioner of the sixth judicial circuit, to prosecute this improvement with 
all that spirit which its great importance demands. 

The undersigned, in the prosecution of their labors, have been influenced 
by a sincere desire to enable all parts of the State to participate in the ben- 
efits resulting not only from an early use of the roads, but also from the 
expenditure of the necessary means used in their construction, and with 
this view, they have decided that no other contracts shall be let for the 
construction of the roads, for the ensuing six months, than the following: 

1. On the Central road : Miles. 
From Cairo, (northerly.) twenty miles 20 
From Illinois river, (northerly,) eleven miles - - - 11 
From Galena, (southerly,) twenty miles 20 
From Illinois river, (southerly,) eleven miles 11 

2. On Shawneetown and Alton road: 

From Shawneetown to Equality 12 

3. On the Alton and Mount Carmel road: 

From Alton to the diverging point of the Mount Carmel and 

Shawneetown roads, at or near Ed wards ville - - 15 

From Mount Carmel to Albion - 18 

4. On the Alton, Shelbyvilie, and Paris road: 

From Alton, via Upper Alton, northerly, ten miles, so soon as 
the necessary surveys are executed, to determine the practi- 
cability of the road, within the limits for vertical inclination, 
adopted by the board - 10 

From the State line, via Paris, westerly, eighteen miles - 18 

6. On the Northern Cross road : 

FroniQrUincy to Columbia, in Adams county - - - IS 

From Danville, (westerly.) eighteen miles 18 

Not k.- -The portion of the road from the Illinois river to the 

Sangamon river having been previously let - • 64 

6. O i the Peoria and Warsaw road : 

From Peoria, (westerly,) twelve miles 12 



[ 259 ] 38 

Miles. 
Prom Warsaw, (easterly.) twelve miles - - - 12 

7. On the Pekin and Bloomington road : 

From Pekin to Tremont, (previously let) 10 



Total ------ 266 



The aggregate specified and estimated distances amounting to two hun- 
dred and sixty-six miles. 

In this manner, it is designed to proceed with the roads in question, un- 
til their final completion. 

That all the proceedings of this board should meet the entire approbation 
of the public, is not to be expected. Perfection is an attribute to which the 
board does not make any pretension. They have faithfully and zealously 
labored to advance the public interests, by all means within their control, 
and to carry out the designs of the framers of the law, in a spirit of truth 
and justice. 

Their labors have proceeded with unanimity and concert, and they have 
been, thus far, enabled to carry on their designs with great unity of purpose. 
In bringing this report to a close, the undersigned cannot omit to urge 
upon the friends of internal improvement the exercise of a proper patience, 
in awaiting the completion of the works contemplated by the bill. To 
press forward the whole work with too much zeal, would tend to increase 
the expense of construction to a very considerable amount, and, conse- 
quently, to create prejudice against the system, as wisely projected, and tc* 
cause embarrassment in carrying it into execution. The undersigned are 
devoted to the system of internal improvements, and are intensely impressed 
with its importance, and of the vast advantages which are to be gained by 
it to the whole State. 

Forewarned of the difficulties they have to encounter, and of the jealous 
vigilance by which their acts will be scrutinized by a respectable portion 
of their fellow-citizens, they intend steadfastly to pursue the important ob- 
jects intrusted to their charge ; fully persuaded that, out of their labors and 
the labor of their successors and coadjutors in the same field, is to spring 
the largest measure of good which legislative wisdom could bestow upon 
ths community, 

WILLIAM KINNEY, 
PvesH of Board and Com. 2d Judicial Circuit* 
Me McCONNEL, 
Commissioner of 1st Judicial Circuit* 

ELIJAH WILLARD, 
Commissioner of 3d Judicial Circuit. 

M. K. ALEXANDER, 
Commissioner of 4/ h Judicial Circuit, 

J. WRIGHT, 
Commissioner &f 5th Judicial Circuit,. 

J. W. STEPHENSON, 
Commissioner of 6tk Judicial Circuit.. 

E. PECK, 
Commissioner of 7th Judicial CircuiL 
Joseph Duncan, 

Gov-ernor of the State of Illinois. 



39 



[ 259 ] 



At a meeting of the board of commissioners of public works of the State 
of Illinois, bsguLi'aud held at Vandalia, on Monday, the 4th day of Decem- 
ber 1837. Present : 

Of the 2d judicial circuit, William Kinney, President, 

do. Murray McConnel, 

do. Elijah Willard, 

do. M. K. Alexander, 

do. Joel Wright, 

do. James W. Stephenson, 

do. Ebenezer Peck. 



1st 


do. 


3d 


do. 


4th 


do. 


5th 


do. 


6th 


do. 


7th 


do. 



Be it ordahirtd by the Boa*d of Commissioners of public works of the 
Slate of Illinois, That all applications to this board, coming from persons 
other than a commissioner, shall be made in writing and shall contain a 
distinct proposition or propositions' upon which the board may be required 
to act, and shall be presented to the board by the commissioner in whose 
circuit the object to be effected shall lie: Profited, That if said commis- 
sioner shall not be present at the meeting; of the board, where said applica- 
tion is made, or shall refuse to make or offer, said proposition or propositions, 
the same may be offered by any other commissioner present. 

Ordered, That Ebenezer Peck, a member of this board, be appointed 
a general agent of this board and of the State of Illinois, to proceed, in the 
name of the board and of the State, to contract for all the railroad iron 
that maybe needed for all the railroads in said State, that maybe put under 
contract for the coming six months in the State of Illinois, and that he be 
authorized to negotiate for said iron by receiving proposals or otherwise. 

3. Ordered, That the president of the board do furnish the commissioner 
of the 7th judicial circuit (Ebenezer Peck) with sufficient funds to defray 
his expenses in and about the negotiation under the authority of the board 
for railroad iron, spikes, knees, and plates, &c, and that the said sum be 
chargeable to the general fund. 

4. Ordered, That the fund commissioners be requested to furnish the 
acting commissioner of the 7th judicial circuit with every proper facility to 
aid him in his transactions and negotiations for the purpose of purchasing 
railroad iron, spikes, knees, plates, &c., for the use of the State, and that 
this, together with the several resolutions in this behalf, be furnished the 
said fund commissioners. 

5. Ordered, That the acting commissioner of the 1st judicial circuit 
(Murray McConnei) be required to cause the grade of the Pekin and Bloom- 
ington branch of the Central railroad ro be increased, so that the said grade 
shall not exceed in any one place 75 feet to the mile, and that the contracts 
required to be entered into in January next, shall be so made as to allow 
of said change, and a deduction shall be made in the ccst of said work in 
proportion to said change. 

It is further ordered, That if any of said contractors shall refuse to 
enter into said contracts with a necessary provision in relation to said 
change, the said work shall be advertised and let to contract with the grade 
so altered. 

6. Ordered. That the acting commissioner in charge of any specific rail- 
road, together with the o.ii nissioner at the lettings, shall have the dis- 



[259] 40 

cretionary power to adopt a grade exceeding 40 feet elevation to the mile, 
and not exceeding 100 feet to the mile, in any case, which, in their opin- 
ions, a judicious economy in the construction of the work, will warrant 
such increase of inclination, without materially affecting the permanent 
Utility of the work. And also, that such acting and associate commission- 
ers may subtitnte temporary inclined planes, to be overcome by additional 
and extra motive power than that necessary for a grade of 40 feet to the 
mile, at any abrupt depressions, ravines, and declinations, in order to avoid, 
for the present, the expense of excessive heavy embankments, deep cuttings, 
or expensive viaducts ; such temporary inclined planes to be located and 
constructed with a view to a future perfecting of the work, by dispensing 
with the said plans and adopting such embankments, cuttings, and via- 
ducts, whenever the amount of trade on the line, and the interests of the 
community, may require the change to be made. 

Ordered, That so much of the great western mail route as lies in the 
3d judicial circuit, be transfeired to and # given in special charge to the 
acting commissioner of the 2d judicial circuit; and that so much of the 
Alton and Shelbyville railroad as may run through the county of Macou- 
pin, shall be put under the care and direction of the commissioner of the 
2d judicial circuit; and that improvements on the Little Wabash river be 
assigned in special charge to the commissioner of the 3d judicial circuit. 

8. Ordered. That this board estimate the amount which will be required 
from the fund commissioners to meet the expenditures upon the public 
works for the ensuing six months, at the sum of three hundred and seventy- 
five thousand dollars, and that proper notice hereof be given to the said 
fund commissioners, and that the entry of this resolution upon the records 
of this board be deemed a compliance with the law in this behalf. 

9. Ordered, That so much of the Peoria and Warsaw railroad route as 
shall be located in the county of Peoria, (the same being in the 6th judicial 
circuit.) shall be assigned to the supervision of the commissioner of the 
6th judicial circuit, who is hereby required to control the operations on 
said work. 

10. Ordered, That the several acting commissioners be authorized to 
adapt all or such portions of the railroads now authorized to be put under 
contract as they may think proper, to the use of animal power thereon, 
and to put cars thereon to be propelled by such power, so soon as any part 
shall be completed. 

11. Ordered, That the president of the board be requested to open a 
correspondence with our Senators and Representatives in Congress, for the 
purpose of obtaining the passage of a law for the benefit of the State, 
to permit the importation or purchase of railroad iron, spikes, &c, free 
of duty. 

12. Ordered, That a committee of three members be appointed to draught 
a memorial to the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, requesting 
that the said State should provide by law for the creation by the State of a 
railroad from a point on the Wabash river, opposite Mount Carmel, to New 
Albany, on the Ohio river, and also, a railroad from some eligible point 
upon the Wabash and Erie canal, to the State line of the State of Illinois, 
in the direction of Danville, in said last mentioned State. 

13. Ordered, That a memorial to the Legislature of the State of Indiana 
be adopted, requesting of said State the construction of a railroad over 
that part of her territory lying between Terre Haute and the Illinois Stat© 



41 [259] 

line, in the direction of Paris, so as to connect the terminating point of the 
Wabash and Erie canal, with the Paris and Alton railroad. 

14. Ordered, That a committee of three be appointed to draw up a memo- 
rial to Congress, asking the donation to the State of Illinois, of ah 1 unap- 
propriated lands lying within the Congressional sections through which 
any of our railroads may pass ; and that Messrs. Alexander, Peck, and 
Stephenson, be said committee. 

15. < trdered. That the extent of the railroads on the several routes, to 
be put under contract, for the ensuing six months, shall be as follows: 

1. On the Central railroad. 

From Cairo (northerly) twenty miles 20 

Illinois river (northerly) eleven miles 11 

Illinois river (southerly) eleven miles 11 

Galena (southerly) twenty miles 20 

2. On the Alton and Shawneetown road. 

From Shawneetown to Equality - 12 

3. On the Alton and Mount Carmel road. 

From Alton to the diverging point of the Mount Carmel road 

at or near Edwardsville 15 

From Mount Carmel to Albion . . - - 18 

4. On the Alton. Shelby ville, and Paris road. 

From Alton, via Upper Alton, northerly, ten miles; so soon as 
the necessary surveys are executed, to determine the 
practicability of the road, within the limits for vertical 
inclination adopted by the board - - - 18 

From the State line, via Paris, westerly 10 

6. On the Northern Cross road. 

From Quincy to Columbus, in Adams county - - 15 

Danville, westerly, eighteen miles 18 

Note. — The portion of the road from the Illinois to the San- 
gamon river, having been previously let - - - 64 

6. On the Peoria and Warsaw road. 

From Peoria, westerly, twelve miles - - - 12 

Warsaw, easterly, twelve miles 12 

7. On the Pekin and Bloomington road. 

From Pekin to Tremont (previously let) 10 

Aggregate number of miles - - - 266 

16. Ordered. That no portion of any railroad shall be placed under con- 
tract without the consent of the board : Provided, however, That any por- 
tion of any railroad authorized to be put under contract, may, at any tinie^ 
be re let by the acting commissioner. 

17'. Ordered', That hereafter each of the acting commissioners of the 
board shall have power to establish an office or offices in each of their res- 
pective circuits, for internal improvement purposes, when they may think 
proper, ;-,nd shall be authorized to employ a clerk or clerks in each of said 
offic s 

Ordered, That after the first day of January next, the appointment of 
clerks of the present engineering district oifices shall cease, and the said 
offices and appointments shall, from that date, be abolished. But the dis- 
tricts for engineering purposes shall remain as they now are. 



[259 ] 42 

Ordered, That all papers, books, accounts, and other things now filed, or 
hereafter to be filed, and required to be kept in the district offices, shall be re- 
turned to and kept in the said offices, to be established in the circuits, so far 
as the same may be applicable, or relate to the public works in said circuit. 

Ordered, That all certificates and returns now required to be made by 
the said district clerks, or by the said clerks and the coaimissioner, may here- 
after be made by the commissioner alone : Provided, That said commission- 
er shall not be required to make said returns oftener than quarter yearly. 

Ordered, That all records, books, and accounts, applicable to any part of 
the public works, over which the commissioner of the respective circuit 
may have charge, or to any of the duties of said commissioner, shall be 
kept by said commissioner at said offices to be established in the circuit. 

Ordered, That the several principal engineers, or other engineers of the 
district, shall cause to be filed in the offices of the circuits, copies of all 
maps, plats, profiles, and estimates, and all other things now required to be 
filed in the district offices, of all and each of the several parts of the pub- 
lic works passing through said circuit, or over which the commissioner ot the 
circuit may have charge. 

Ordered, That all let tings of contracts now required to take place at the 
offices may be advertised and take place at. the offices to be established in 
the said circuits, or any other place or places the said commissioner or com- 
missioners may deem proper. 

Ordered, That all papers, vouchers, records, maps, plats, profiles, and 
other documents, applicable to all and every part of the public works, situ- 
ated within the third judicial circuit, or applicable to the duty ot the acting 
commissioner of said circuit, now on file at the district office at Belleville, 
Illinois, shall be transcribed, and the copies filed in the office to be establish-, 
ed in the said third circuit, or said copies may be filed in the office at Belle- 
ville, and the originals filed in the office of the third circuit, as the commis- 
sioners of said circuits may agree. 

Ordered, Th it the office of the southern district, now established at 
Belleville, shall remain as an office of the second judicial circuit ; the dis- 
trict office of the western district, now established at Jacksonville, shall re- 
main there, and be deemed as an office of the first judicial circuit. 

Ordered, That ail resolutions and ordinances heretofore passed by this 
board, coming within the purview, or conflicting with the provisions of any 
of the foregoing ordinances and resolutions, be, and the same are hereby, re- 
pealed. 

18. Ordered, That the principal engineer shall be held responsible for the 
official performance of the assistant engineers, in their respective districts; 
and should there be any delay or damage occurring to the contractors, or 
the State, for the want of sufficient work definitely located, or grade, or 
centres given after the location shall have been completed, or any directions 
to contractors respecting the execution of their contracts, it shall be the 
duty of the acting commissioner to direct the principal engineer to take the 
field in person, and immediately see that the engineering duties in his dis- 
trict are performed ; and should the engineer refuse to obey the orders of 
the acting commissioner, respecting the performance of his official duties, 
lie shall be liable to an immediate discharge from his office. It shall be the 
duty of the principal engineer to inspect the work performed by the con- 
tractors as often as required by the acting commissioner, and approve of all 
materials, before the same shall be used for the construction of the road 3 and 



43 [ 259 ] 

shall certify what per cent, can be safely paid upon the work done by con- 
tractors, and shall approve all bills, pay rolls, accounts, (fee, connected with 
the construction of the road, previous to their being paid by the acting com- 
missioner. 

And be it further ordered, That the acting commissioners, upon the 
representation of the principal engineer of their respective districts, of the 
incompetency or wilful neglect of any assistant engineer in performing his 
official duties, as directed by the principal engineer, to immediately dis- 
charge the same from his office, and employ new assistants, who are both 
competent and willing to perform the duties incumbent upon them. 

19. Ordered, That the acting commissioner of the first judicial circuit 
be authorized to cause a survey for a lateral route from the main line of the 
Northern Cross road of the most eligible point on said road, to the town of 
Naples, on the Illinois river ; and that a report of said said survey be made 
to this board at its next meeting, and that said report contain all informa- 
tion necessary to enable this board to determine the propriety of construct- 
ing a lateral way to said town : Provided, That the point of commence- 
ment upon said Northern Cross road shall not exceed five miles from said 
town. 

20. Ordered, That each commissioner shall open a separate book for 
each work under his charge and superintendence, and also one for general 
expenditure, and that he debit himself to the fund commissioners of the 
State of Illinois, in the proper book, for the amount of any draft by them 
paid, and pass to his credit the amount of the several vouchers by him 
obtained in the disbursements, for any of the objects under his superin- 
tendence and control ; that, in all cases, duplicate receipts or vouchers be 
taken separately for the different objects of expenditure, and from time to 
time the commissioner make separate returns to the central office, from the 
several accounts in his office, and in all cases accompanying said returns 
with the vouchers therein referred to; that all disbursements, whether 
made by himself or agent, shall be made in his own name. 



To the honorable the Board of Commissioners of Public Works: 

The undersigned, acting commissioner of public works for the second 
judicial circuit, respectfully reports to the board, at then semi-annual meet- 
ing for December, 1837, his proceedings as acting commissioner, for and 
during the last half year, as follows: 

The survey and location of the Alton and Mount Carmel railroad, which 
in my last report was stated to be in progress, have been completed ; and 
full returns thereof, from the engineer, are in a course of pr< pa ration, 
and will shortly be filed in the office of the board, as required by law. 

The survey of the Belleville and Lebanon branch of the said road has 
also been effected by the same party, and the results will be returned and 
filed, in connexion with those of the main line. 

The party which had been engaged on the foregoing surveys have sub- 
sequently been engaged in preparing work, for the commencement of the 
operations of contractors, on the jobs of work let on the great western mail 
route, between Yinceunes and St. Louis, and more recently in preparing for 
contract the line of railroad between Alton and Edwardsville, on the route 



[ 259 ] 44 

of the Mount Carmel and Alton road. This section of that work I have 
advertised to he let, at the district office in Belleville, on the 2d day of Janu- 
ary next, and now ask the confirmation of the board of this proceeding. 

That portion of the Alton, Hillsborough, and Paris railroad, which runs 
through the second judicial circuit, and attached to the western engineering 
district, has not yet been surveyed, excepting that part thereof which lies 
between Lower Alton and Upper Alton, a distance of about two and a half 
miles. The principal engineer of that engineering district, (Mr. Bucklin,) 
who made the survey, has reported that, on this portion of the work, there 
are serious obstacles to an eligible and economical location withi i the 
limits for vertical inclination of grade now adopted by the board ; and it 
may become necessary for me to apply to the board for a special order, 
in regard to this specific work, in relation to this subject. I have to inform 
the board that the citizens interested in this railroad are exceedingly 
anxious that the necessary steps should be taken to place a fair propor- 
tion of this work under contract, simultaneously with other works under 
the jurisdiction of the board. This survey has been delayed by circum- 
stances beyond my control, and I presume, and believe, beyond the control 
of the commissioner of the first judicial circuit. I would, therefore, suggest 
and request that an order be made for letting a fair proportion of this work, 
so soon as the necessary surveys, location, and estimates shall have been 
made, and the entire practicability of the work ascertained. The expenses 
of the surveys of this work, so far as they have been executed, have been 
paid by me, and will be exhibited in my accounts rendered. 

The survey of the great western mail route between Vincennes and St. 
Louis was executed by R. A. Gilpin, assistant engineer, and the plans, pro- 
files, and estimates of such parts as were designed to be placed under con- 
tract the present season, were made out, certified, and filed i-iccording to 
law. A letting of the work on that section of the route lying between 
Belleville and St. Louis, being the first that was surveyed and ready 
for contract, was had at Belleville on the 25th of August last. This part 
of the line was subdivided into six sections; and three of them, embracing 
the lighter portions of the work, were let at that time at a small advance 
above the estimate of the locating engineer. The bids received for the 
remaining three jobs, two of which embraced the heavy and expensive 
work on the American bottom, between the Bluffs and St. Louis, were 
rejected in consequence of their exorbitancy ; and these jobs, together with 
some other jobs on the line east of Belleville, and extending to the Kas- 
kaskia River bottom, were advertised for contract on the 9th of October 
ensuing. At this letting, two of the jobs, which were laid over from the 
August letting, were taken at a reduction in cost of ten thousand and two 
hundred dollars below the lowest bids which were received for the same 
work in August. But a small portion of the newly advertised work could 
be let, in consequence of the bids received being deemed too high. The 
jobs of work at the Kaskaskia bottom, and at Shoal Creek bottom, in Clinton 
county, were unavoidably postponed to a future letting, advertised to take 
place in January next. But as the condition of the said road at these points, 
and particularly at the former one, from the report of the engineer sent 
expressly to examine it, absolutely required immediate attention, to prevent 
the road becoming impassable during the winter, I have ordered the 
improvements to be commenced by a superintendent, with instructions ta 
confine his operations to canying on the job so far only as would render 



45 [ 259 ] 

this point passable, until the work could be let to a contractor. The work 
has progressed to the satisfaction of the engineer, and thus far fully within 
the estimates. The work executed forms a portion of the job to be let, and 
the amount executed by the superintendent will be deducted from the 
amount of the whole job to be placed under contract. The contractors on 
the line of mail route have, thus far, prosecuted their contracts with 
efficiency and success ; and I am pleased to say that the operations on this 
road, during the present season, have given great satisfaction to the people 
and to the travelling community, and have had the effect to settle public 
opinion in favor of our system of internal improvements, by giving an 
assurance of the certain progress and final completion of the public works. 

Upon the completion of the survey of the western mail route, Mr. Gil- 
pin, as was originally designed, was transferred to the party engaged in the 
survey and location of the Central railroad. There is but one party of en- 
gineers in my circuit, consisting of the principal engineer of the southern 
district, and Mr. Terrel and Mr Scheels, assistants. Mr. Beach was enga- 
ged in August last, as a junior assistant, and has been engaged in the office 
in Belleville, and incidentally and occasionally in the field. These o-en- 
tlemen are all the engineers at present engaged in my circuit. 

The board will have presented to them my accounts for receipts and 
disbursements up to the first day of October, to be examined and audited. 
The accounts for the months of October and November, I shall be under 
the necessity of deferring until a subsequent meeting of the board, in con- 
sequence of not being able to receive and have in readiness all the vouch- 
ers in relation thereto. The accounts up to the first day of October, are 
exhibited in the monthly statements, (marked "A,") for the months of July, 
August, and September, which, together with the accompanying vouchers 
are herewith submitted. 

The contracts on file in the office of the board will show the specific 
jobs, and, in connexion with the plans, profiles, and estimates, the amount 
of work let to contractors. 

All which is respectfully submitted, 

WILLIAM KINNEY. 
Belleville, December 4, 1837. 



Rail Road Office, 1st Judicial Circuit, 

December 1, 1837, 

The undersigned, Mitrray McConnel, one of the commissioners of said 
board, and acting commissioner of the 1st judicial circuit of said State 
submits the following statements as his report to the said board: 

Since the last meeting of said board, the said commissioner has caused 
that part of the Northern Cross railroad situated between the Illinois river 
and Springfield to be surveyed, located, and put under contract ; a report 
of which was made to you as president of said board in July last, which 
report is now on file in the office of the secretary of said board, and is here 
referred to, and made a part of this report. 

Immediately after the letting of said work, as shown in said report the 
contractors entered with spirit and vigor upon the performance of the 
work, and their progress since that date gives sufficient assurance of the 
final completion of the same within the time limited. 



I 259 ] 46 

The commissioner has spared no pains in procuring the right of way 
over the various tracts of land upon which said road is now being located, 
between the Illinois river and Jacksonville, in which he has been greatly 
aided by Mr. Cloud, the clerk of the western district. Tracts of land have 
been procured for the use of the State, whereon to esect offices, depots, and 
other necessary buildings for the use of said work, both at Jacksonville 
and Springfield. 

A building has been erected at Jacksonville upon said land for the offices 
for the engineers and clerk of the western district, and which will be neces- 
sary, both while the road is under construction, and after the same is com- 
pleted. 

Since the report of July last, all that part of the Northern Cross railroad, 
situated between Springfield and Decatur, has been surveyed, and that part 
between Springfield and the east bank of the Sangamon river, has been 
permanently located, and put under contract, (including the viaduct over 
the Sangamon river,) copies of which contracts may be seen filed in the 
proper offices, as the law directs. 

All that part of the Pekin and Bloomington branch of the Central rail- 
road, situated between Pekin and Mackinaw town, on the Mackinaw river, 
has been surveyed ; and that part between Pekin and 'Fremont, the coun- 
ty seat of Tazewell county, has been permanently located and let to con- 
tractors, and a day in January next appointed to enter into said contracts 
according to law. 

Owino" to the great distance between the places of residence of some of 
the contractors and this office, and owing, also, to the inclement season and 
the press of business in the office, it was impossible sooner to finally com- 
plete this business. Said contracts will be filed in the proper offices so soon 
as executed. The commissioner would recommend that the grade of this 
road be changed even beyond fifty feet to the mile, with a view of lessening 
the cost of construction, and the contracts were deferred to procure an ac- 
tion of the board upon this recommendation. 

Much difficulty was encountered in the location of this road. This was 
principally owing to the great and sudden elevation of the country in the 
direction of Bloomington above the level of the Illinois river at Pekin, and 
to the high and undulating surface of the country. 

It was found that said road could not be made at a grade of forty feet to 
the mile. To make said road within any reasonable cost, a grade of fifty 
feet to the mile was necessarily adopted. From ali these facts, it is evident 
that the cost of this road will be greater than some other roads in this cir- 
cuit. But the importance of the work, the great number of inhabitants to 
be benefitted, and the great extent of fertile country to be accommodated, 
will justify even a greater expenditure for its construction. 

Every effort has" been made by the officers and engineers in charge of 
the public works in this circuit, to forward the same and ta economize in 
the location and construction thereof. The cheapest and most eligible 
routes have been selected for said roads, without regard to individual inter- 
est but with a view to the cheapness and permanency of the work, and 
the general good of the whole. That those officers have arrived to perfec- 
tion in the performance of their several tasks is not pretended ; but it is 
believed that, in all instances, they have performed their duties with a rigid 
and scrupulous determination to do right, and to strictly guard the inter- 
est of the State. 



47 [259] 

The first surveyor's company entered upon field duly ahout the twen- 
tieth of May last. Great difficulties were encountered from hfgh waters, 
continued rains, sickness of liar ds and engineers, and a general want of 
information among the hands employed of their necessary duties in this 
new employment. No more than two companies have been employed in 
this circuit at anyone time since the commencement of the surveys, and 
part of the time only one. Yet there have been near four hundred and' fifty 
miles of approximation and experimental lines surveyed. About seventy-five 
miles of railroad have been permanently located and put under contract. A 
great portion of this located road passes over the broken country bordering 
upon the Illinois river, and some of its tributaries, and embraces the most 
difficult parts of the public improvements in this circuit. In addition to 
this, a great amount of work has been done by the contractors between the 
Illinois river and Jacksonville, embracing an extent of active operations of 
about twenty-four miles in length. This work required the almost constant 
attention of the commissioner, and two or more of the engineers employed 
in the circuit. 

The engineering companies were discharged about the middle of Octo- 
ber, and the expenses in every possible way curtailed. Several assistant 
engineers are now necessarily engaged in making profiles, plans, and draw- 
ings of the works now under contract. They have as yet been unable to 
furnish the maps, plats, and profiles necessary to be filed in the office of the 
secretary of the board, but the same will be made and filed in the course of 
this winter. 

The total amount of money drawn by me as commissioner since the 
first commencement of my services as such, is equal to forty-seven thou- 
sand five hundred dollars; and the total amount of money expended bv 
me, upon all the public works under my charge, since the first commence- 
ment of my services as commissioner up to the first day of the present 
instant, is equal to thirty-three thousand eight hundred and thirty-six dol- 
lars and twenty-one cents. A part of this expenditure was for mathemati- 
cal instruments, horses, wagons, and camp equipage, now on hand and 
ready for use so soon as the spring opens ; but by far the greatest portion 
of said expenditure is for work actually done upon the Northern Cross 
railroad. 

This expenditure is properly chargeable to the objects hereinafter named 
in the following proportions, to wit : ' 

To the general internal improvement fund - . <a>lo gqi oft 

Northern Cross railroad from Quincy, &c. . ,22240 OH- 

Pekin and Bloomington branch of the " 5 ~ * 

Central railroad - qq^ .,q 

The reports of the engineers, consisting of that of Mr. Bucklin chief 
engineer, Mr. Hawn, and Mr. Pollock, senior assistant engineers, accompa- 
nying this report, and are here referred to as part of the same, and as o-j V - 
ing all the necessary information relative to said surveys. - 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

, 1 M - McCONNEL, 
Commissioner 1st Judicial Circuit, Illinois. 
To the Hon. William Kinney, 

President of the Board of Public Works 

for the State of Illinois. 



[ 259 ] 48 

Yandalia, December 4, ] 837c 
The undersigned, acting commissioner for the 3d judicial circuit, has 
the honor to report to the board of commissioners of public works the fol- 
lowing detail of operations and proceedings, for the six months preceding 
the 1st of December, 1837, and also the amount of moneys received and 
expended for and on account of the public works. 

1. Central railroad. — No surrender of the company charter on this 
road having been made according to law, the commencement of surveys 
was delayed until the passageof the acts, supplemental to the act to establish 
and maintain a general system of internal improvements, approved July 
21st, 1837. So soon as this authority was obtained, the engineers com- 
menced the examination and survey of the route between the mouth of 
the Ohio and Vandalia. An experimental line is thus obtained through 
the route. 

2. Shawneetown and Alton railroad. — The surveys on this route have 
been extended from Shawneetown to Big Muddy river, and a definite sur- 
vey and location been made from Shawneetown to Equality, a distance of 
about eleven miles. 

STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES. 

Name of the work. Ain't of Receipts. Ain't of Expenditures. 

Central railroad - - - $4,500 $3,000 00 

Alton and Shawneetown railroad - 6,500 1,735 59 

Alton and Mt. Carmel railroad - 1,500 1,732 26 
General fund - - - 1,000 

Note. — Some acts the undersigned has not been able to have transmitted 
to the central office in time for this report; they will be submitted hereafter, 
The whole of which is respectfully submitted. 

ELIJAH WILLARD, 
Acting Commissioner Public Works. 



SEMI-ANNUAL REPORT TO THE DECEMBER MEETING, 1837. 
To the Board oj Commissioners of Public Works of the State of Illinois: 

The undersigned, acting commissioner for the 4th judicial circuity 
would present a semi-annual report of the progress made in the internal im- 
provements of the State, under his superintendence, up to the 1st day of 
November, 1837. 

On the 17th day of April last, I employed A. W. Hoyt as principal engi- 
neer for the eastern engineering district, (as stated in my last report,) at a 
salary of three thousand dollars per annum, his time to commence the 1st 
of May, and authorized him to go to the eastern States to procure assistant 
engineers, mathematical instruments, &c, with a view to the organization 
of two engineering parties ; he employed R. J. Cleveland as a senior assistant, 
at a salary of fifteen hundred dollars per annum, and A. Bielaski as a ju- 
nior, at eleven hundred dollars, also C. S. Williams as a sub-assistant, at 
one dollar and thirty-two cents per day, and on the 8th day of June, com- 



40 I 259 ] 

menced the surveys on the Paris and Shelbyville railroad. On the 15th 
day of Jane, J. K. Rychliclri arrived, who had been employed as a junior 
assistant, at seven hundred and fifty dollars per annum ; on the 1st of July, 
Messrs. Cleveland and Ryehlicki went on to the Northern Cross railroad, 
and Messrs. Bielaski and Williams, with a party partially organized, con- 
tinued the surveys on the Paris and Shelbyville road until the 15th of Au- 
gust, when 0. T. Arms, jr. arrived (who had been employed at fifteen hun- 
dred dollars per annum) and took charge of the party, and the approximate 
location from Terre Haute, Ind., to Shelbyville, a distance of something 
over seventy-one miles, which was completed about the 1st of November. 

Mr. Cleveland finished the location of the Northern Cross railroad from 
the State line of Indiana to Decatur, a distance of eighty-three miles, on the 
26th of October, and commenced the location on the Central railroad, be- 
tween Decatur and Shelbyville. 

The undersigned advertised and let contracts on the Great Western mail 
route on the 6th of September, for the improvement of the Purgatory swamp; 
the contracts to the amount of near thirty thousand dollars were taken by 
responsible men, considerably below the estimate of the engineer who sur- 
veyed the work, and the work is progressing. 

Contracts were also entered into on the 8th of September, for the improve- 
ment of the Little Wabash bottom, on the same road, and the contractor is 
prosecuting his work with efficiency. Contracts were entered into at the 
same time for building bridges across Fox river, Elm river, and Raccoon 
creek, at which points' but little has yet been done. 

Early in June last, Colonel Thos. H. Blake, the acting commissioner of 
the Great Wabash, on the part of Indiana, and the undersigned on the part 
of Illinois, employed Mr. David Burr as principal engineer to superintend 
the improvements on the river, at a salary of two thousand dollars, and he 
has since been actively engaged in making surveys and examinations of 
the river, at and adjacent to the Grand rapids, and we have advertised to let 
contracts on the 22d of November, lor the delivery of seven thousand cubic 
yards of limestone, for a lock and abutments, with a view to improve the 
rapids by slack water. 

The undersigned has drawn on the fund commissioners for the following 
sums, viz: on the 7th of April, two thousand dollars, for the Paris and 
Shelbyville railroad, which was paid about the 5th of June; on the 5th of 
June, two thousand dollars, for the Northern Cross railroad ; on the 21st of 
June, four thousand dollars, chargeable to the general fund, and six thou- 
sand dollars for the Great Western mail route. 

He has also expended the following sums, viz : on the Paris and Shelby- 
ville road, two thousand four hundred and fifty-five dollars seventy-five and 
one-half cents, (a part of which sum will be refunded by an arrangement 
by the commissioners of Indiana, for the time occupied by the engineering 
party between the State line and Terre Haute, in ascertaining the proper 
intersection at the State line ;) on the Northern Cross railroad one thousand 
eight hundred and eighty-eight dollars twelve and three-fourth cents have 
been paid out; and for objects not chargeable to my particular work, such 
as wagons, teams, camp furniture, office furniture, mathematical instruments, 
stationery, salary of principal engineer, his own compensation, &c. &c., 
four thousand five hundred and eighteen dollars fifty and one-fourth cents. 
Leaving a balance unaccounted for on the 1st of November, of five thou- 
4 



[ 259 ] 50 

sand one hundred and thirty seven dollars and ninety-se%*en and one-half 
cents. All of which is respectfully submitted. 

M. K. ALEXANDER. 
December 4, 1837. 



Appendix embracing a partial report of the operations under the su* 
perintendence of the commissioner of the Ath judicial circuity for the 
month of November y 1837. 

On the 6th of November, the undersigned drew on the fluid commission- 
ers for ten thousand dollars for the mail route, and three thousand dollars 
for general expenditure. 

On the 7th an estimate was made by the engineer in charge of the work 
on the mail route of the amount of work done on the Little Wabash bottom, 
and two thousand three hundred and thirty-four dollars and thirty-three 
cents paid to the contractor on said estimate, withholding fifteen per cen- 
tum of the amount of work done as security for the faithful performance of 
the contracts; an estimate was made of work done in the Purgatory swamp 
on said road on the 21st, and three thousand six hundred and eighty-eight 
dollars fifty-seven and three-fourth cents, paid to the contractors, reserving 
the same per centum as above. 

One hundred and forty-seven dollars has been paid out on said road for 
advertising, printing, engineering, &c. 

On the 22d, contracts were let for the stone advertised for, to be delivered 
at the Grand rapids of the Wabash, considerably below the estimate of the 
engineer. 

Seven hundred and thirty-two dollars and thirty-four cents have been 
paid out on the work at the rapids. 

The engineering party engaged on the Central railroad, between Deca- 
tur and Shelbyville, have completed the location between those points, and 
the party disbanded. 

After the location of the Paris and Shelbyville road was completed, the 
party commenced on the Central railroad, between Shelbyville and Van- 
dalia, in which work they are now engaged. 

By an act of the General Assembly of the State of Illinois, passed on the 
4th of March last, Samuel Mu n day was required to pay over to the board 
of public works any unexpended balance of a former appropriation for the 
improvement of the Wabash ; in accordance with said law, he paid over to 
the undersigned, on the 24th of November, two thousand eight hundred 
and twenty- six dollars-and twelve cents ; eight hundred and ■fifty- one dol- 
lars and twelve cents of which the undersigned paid to P. H. Bagwell & 
Co., on account entered into by said Munday, for work at Coffee island, and 
one hundred dollars to Edward Smith, for engineering under the direction 
of the said Munday. 

The reports of A. W. Hoyt, principal engineer of the eastern engineer- 
ing district, and David Burr, principal engineer on the Great Wabash, are 
herewith submitted and referred to, and made a part of the accompanying 
report and appendix thereto. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

M. K. ALEXANDER, 

Commissioner* 



51 [259] 

.'5Tb the honorable William Kinney », president of the boaof public 
works of the State of Illinois : 

The undersigned, commissioner of the 5th judicial circuit, has the honor 
to report the following statement of the progress of the public works within 
the said circuit. 

The survey of the Peoria and Warsaw railroad was commenced about 
the middle of June, under the direction of Mr. John W. Ingersoll. Consid- 
erable difficulty was found in the location of this road from Peoria to Can- 
ton, and also at tlie crossing of Spoon river and Crooked creek. Between 
the two first named points, two routes were carefully surveyed, and esti- 
mates made of the expense of the road on each. The country along the 
whole line has been carefully examined, and where a preference for a par- 
ticular route was not obvious, approximation lines have been run on all 
that appeared plausible. The whole route is believed to be quite as favor- 
able as was anticipated, and the expense will probably not much exceed the 
appropriation of the Legislature for the object. The survey has been con- 
ducted with much skill and assiduity by Mr. Ingersoll and his party. His 
report, annexed to that of James Seymour, Esq., principal engineer of the 
northern district, is befors the board of public works. It is believed that a 
number of miles of this road should be put under contract, so that the work 
may be commenced early next spring. 

That part of the Northern Cross railroad, included in this circuit, has 
also been surveyed. The report of Mr. H. P. Wood worth, the engineer 
having charge of that survey, is before the board. 

As this survey was not commenced until some time in September, there 
lias not been time for the engineer to furnish a detailed report of the same. 
This, with the necessary maps, profiles, and estimates, will be made during 
the present winter ; and it is the opinion of the undersigned that a portion 
of this part of the work should be placed under contract as soon as 
practicable. 

The amount of money received for the public works by the undersigned 
is as follows : 

From the general fund ..... $1,000 00 

For and on account of the Peoria and Warsaw railroad - 4,000 00 
« " « Northern Cross railroad - 2,000 00 

For sale of wagon, purchased for Peoria and Warsaw rail- 
road ,.--..-. 70 00 



The amount expended : 
General expenditures 
On Peoria and Warsaw railroad 
Northern Cross railroad 
Oash on hand 



$7 : 070 00 


■ $927 14 

■ 3.524 23 
1,822 16 

796 47 


$7,070 00 



[ 259 ] rt 

A statement of the above disbursements, with the vouchers' for the sattie f 
accompany this report. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

J. WRIGHT. 
Commissioner of the 5th Judicial Circuit* 
December 5, 1837. 



To the honorable Wm. Kinney , president of the board of public works : 

The undersigned, commissioner for the 7th judicial circuit, has the honor 
to report, that since the meeting of the board in June last, so much of the 
Central railroad as lies within his circuit has been carefully and accurately 
surveyed under the immediate superintendence of Mr. H. P. Woodworth, 
assistant engineer. 

The surveys of Mr. Woodworth, under the direction of the principal en- 
gineer, have been extended from the north line of McLean county, as far west 
as Rock river. This survey having been continued beyond the jurisdic- 
tion of the undersigned, it becomes necessary for him to explain that this 
course was taken from a sincere desire to advance the public interests, with- 
out any intention of encroaching upon the proper duties of others. Mr, 
Woodworth and party were already organized and actually in the field, and 
had, without the knowledge of the undersigned, carried their preliminary 
surveys beyond the limits of the 7th circuit, and it was then thought ex- 
pedient to permit the survey to continue as far as Rock river. 

The preliminary surveys of all that part of the Central railroad which 
lies within the 7th judicial circuit having been completed, it is the inten- 
tion of the undersigned to locate several miles of this road, extending each 
way from the Illinois river, early in the spring, and to put the same under 
contract. 

In a communication received from Mr. Woodworth, upon the subject of 
this road, he remarks : " So far as I can judge from my observations, with- 
out going into the detail of estimating, the route is a very feasible one ; the 
grading will generally be easy, there being few cuts or embankments of 
any magnitude. On the whole, I should think this portion of the Central 
railroad would be less expensive in its construction than has been anticipa- 
ted." The only difficulty attending any portion of this part of the road, 
is in ascending from th?. valley of the Illiniois river to the top of the bluff; 
and this on the south side, of the river can be easily overcome, but on the 
north side of the river much remains to be considered in the choice of 
routes, and it is apprehended that it will be impracticable to gain the sum- 
mit on this side of the river, without adopting, for a short dislance, a grade 
of at least one hundred feet per mile, it will, however, remain to make a 
selection after due examination, from all the routes surveyed ; and in this 
vicinity a very careful examination of all the routes has been made, no time 
or pains having been spared at this point. 

Mr. Woodworth and a proper number of assistants are now busily em- 
ployed at this place in preparing plans and estimates of the several routes 
which they have been occupied in surveying. It will be the duty of the 
undersigned, under the direction of the board, to make suitable allowance 
and compensation to such persons of the surveying party as will be neces- 
sary to aid in perfecting the plans and estimates j and for this purpose 



53 [ 259 ] 

the undersigned would respectfully suggest that some just and equal rate 
of allowance for the whole of the persons so employed in the State should 
be decided upon. 

The undesigned cheerfully bears testimony to the fidelity and zeal of 
Mr. Wood worth, the assistant engineer, and to the party acting with him ; 
by their untiring diligence much labor was accomplished in a short period 
of time. 

The undersigned has expended, since his appointment, the sum of six 
thousand and twenty four dollars eighty-one and three-fourths cents, and 
has received on account of the Central railroad, the sum of ten thousand 
dollars, leaving a balance now in his hands amounting to the sum of three 
thousand nine hundred and seventy-five dollars nineteen and one-fourth 
-cents, which is more clearly exhibited by the accompanying statement of 
accounts, 

E. PECK, 
Acting Com, of 7th Judicial Circuit 



Ih ike Hon. Gov. Wm. Kinney, Elijah Willard, Esq., and General Mil- 
ton K. Alexander, acting commissioners of public works of the 2d, 3d, 
and Ath judicial circuits : 

Gentlemen : The undersigned has the honor to submit the following 
brief statement, descriptive of the general progress of the examinations, 
surveys, location, and construction of the public works, in the southern 
engineering district, which have been intrusted to his supervision as prin- 
cipal engineer thereof. The field operations have been continued from 
the time of their commencement in the month of May last, until the present 
period, which circumstance, together with the attention which has been 
iiidispensibly devoted to the letting of contracts on the line of the great 
western mail route, and to the subsequent prosecution of the contracts, have 
rendered it impossible for me to submit a report in detail at this time. This 
duty has necessarily been deferred until the closing of the field operations 
for the season, which being now done, will forthwith be commenced, and 
prosecuted with all possible despatch. 

Of the Alton and Mount Carmel railroad. 

The examinations, surveys, and location of this work have been made, 
chiefly under my personal charge and superintendence, assisted by Mr. 
W. Terrel, as senior assistant The preliminary survey and location of the 
main line, from Mount Carmel to Alton, was completed during the latter 
part of the month of August last, and that of the Belleville and Lebanon 
branch of this work has subsequently been completed. The party have 
more recently been engaged in making the final and definite location of 
th.it portion of the main line which lies between Alton and Edwardsville, 
and preparing the work for contract. 

The requisite plans, profiles, and* estimates, preparatory to the letting 
of this work, will be completed in due time; and those for the eastern 
division, fro n M/mtit Carmel westward, can be prepared within the time 
necessary for advertising the work for contract, should the board order 



[ 259 ] 54 

any portion of it to be let, without any additional force, beyond what will 
be retained 'in the service for spring operations. 

The survey and location of the Alton and Mount Carmel railroad has been 
made in detail, and with a view to its definite location, and it is believed that 
there will be found little or no necessity for any material deviation from 
the present line. At a few points, which will be designated in the detailed 
report, it may be advisable to make some further examinations, with a view 
to minor improvements in the line, but these will not affect the location at 
points designated by law. 

From an inspection of the map of the country over which this line of 
work passes, it will appear that the line must necessarily intersect the 
various general depressions in the country, nearly at right angles. The 
obstacles which this feature in the country might be supposed to present,. 
to a cheap construction of the work, are few and of limited extent, and 
are easily overcome within the limits prescribed by the board for inclina- 
tions in the vertical and curvations in the horizontal line; and without 
increasing to any material extent, in any one instance, the distance between 
designated points. The numerous valleys which the road intersects, are 
Calculated to furnish the best materials for the superstructure of the rail- 
way, thus obviating the necessity of distant transportation. This is pecu- 
liarly the case with the Bon Pas, Little Wabash, Skillet fork, Kaskaskia, 
Silver Creek, and Cahokia valleys. The facility for obtaining materials 
for the construction of the work, from the Great Wabash and White rivers, 
will add much to the economy in the cost of the eastern division. The 
cost of graduation of the whole line will be moderate, and particularly 
those portions immediately contiguous to the Mississippi and Great Wabash 
rivers. The total length of the line is a fraction over 153 miles. 

Of the Shawneetoim and Alton railroad. 

The commencement of the surveys of this work was deferred until late 
in the season, in consequence of the failure of the company incorporated to 
construct it to comply with the requisitions of the law, in regard to the 
surrender cfthe charter. The operations on this line have been under the 
charge of Mr. Lathope, and who, as I am informed, has progressed to the 
satisfaction of the commissioner in special charge of the work. Not having 
received any recent report from the engineer, I am unable to give a full 
description of the operations, or of the nature of the line. But I have the 
pleasure to state, from the commissioner's verbal report, that the line so far 
surveyed is of the most favorable and satisfactory character ; and that the 
work from Shawneetown to Equality can be fully prepared for contract^ 
and made ready for letting, within the period required for publishing adver- 
tisements thereof. 

Of the Great Western mail route between Vincennes and St. Louis. 

This work was surveyed by Mr. Gilpin, assistant engineer, and the por- 
tions of the work, for which specific appropriations were uiade by law, and 
some other portions which most needed improvement, have subsequently 
been placed under contract. The work has generally been taken at fair 
prices, and at small advances above the estimates of the engineer on the 
western, and at prices below them on the eastern division \ and the con- 



55 [259] 

tracts have mostly been commenced and prosecuted with an energy that 
gives a reasonable assurance of the completion of the jobs within the time 
limited in the contracts. Owing to the difficulty of procuring laborers, and 
other circumstances beyond the control of the contractor, there may be some 
exceptionsas to the time of completion of the jobs to be executed at the present 
season, but the work will be-so far advanced or placed in such a state as to pre- 
sent little or no inconvenience to the travelling epmm.upity, in consequence of 
its unfinished condition. From a late reconnoissance of the whole line, for 
the purposes of inspection and m iking estimates, I am pleased to be able to 
say, that there exists a manifest disposition on the part of the contractors to 
prosecute their respective jobs with fidelity and all convenient despatch. 
An estimate oi" the probable amount of funds, requisite to meet the estimates 
of the present month, will be made out and submitted. 

Of the Kaskaskla and Little Wabash rivers. 

The survey and examination of the obstructions to the navigation in the 
former river have been deferred by the State authority, in consequence of 
this service having been performed, during the present year, by the author- 
ity of the General Government Those on the Little Wabash, have not as 
yet been commenced, for want of the adequate assistance requisite for the 
-organization of a party to this service. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

EDW. SMITH. 

Vandalia, December?, 1837. 



Vandalia, Dec. 5, 1837. 
Hon. Wm. Kinney and Elijah Willnrd. commissioners : 

Gentlemen: Herewith enclosed I have the honor to submit a report of 
the operations of that portion of the Central railroad, the engineering de- 
part U3iit of which yo i hive done me the honor to intrust with me. You 
are aware, from the situation of affairs On this road, that I can make no 
very detailed report at this meeting; and a general description of the late 
survey is all that can possibly be reported. 
. Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. FREEMAN, 
Principal Engineer Central Railroad. 

The h'Morable the Board of Commissioners of Public Works : 

I have the lienor to submit the following report of operations on the Cen- 
tral railroad : 

That portion of the State to which my attention has been particularly 
dire. 'ted, is drained either into the Mississippi or Ohio rivers. The princi- 
pal w iter courses which discharge into the latter river, are Cash and its 
tributaries; and of those which discharge into the Mississippi river, the 
Kaskaskia and Big Muddy river*, and Clear creek, may be considered of 
the first importance. Gash river, in its lower sections runs through a 
series o[ alluvial swamps and flats; in its upper sections, through a very 



[ 259 ] 56 

elevated and broken ridge or table of land, extending: across the country 
from the Ohio to the Mississippi. On the west edge of this table of land aie 
the sources of Clear creek. The branches of Muddy, on the south side, 
also take their rise on this table, and run in deep and narrow vallies to- 
wards the north, to their debonche; north of Big Muddy the country is 
more uniformly level; and even the division ground between Kaskaskia 
and Muddy vallies, is of no great comparative elevation. The valley of 
the Kaskasia is very extensive, with many streams intersecting it in every 
direction, tending towards the main river. The country is of very gradual 
descent to the river, and the channels of the tributaries are not greatly 
below the general level. 

The ridge south of Muddy is of sandstone formation, except a small 
section of twenty-five or thirty square miles of limestone in the vicinity of 
Jonesborough. North of Muddy, but little rock, of any kind, makes its ap- 
pearance. 

This river is also the general division between the prairie and timber 
lands. 

Through this country I have sought a passage for a railroad, according 
to the provisions of the law supplemental to the internal improvement act, 
approved July 21, 1837, and the instructions of the honorable braid. 

By examination of the maps of this portion of country, three routes 
would obviously present themselves. The first in importance, is the most 
direct, leading across the country, and making use of every means which 
it affords to obviate the difficulties attending the transit of a road through 
a hilly and intricate region. 

Another route would be, to avoid the higher ground, by taking a more 
westwardly direction through the Mississippi bottom, until egress would be 
easy. 

And a third, to pass very considerably to the east, and avoid the intrica- 
cies of Cash river. 

Owing, however, to the advancement of the season when the Legislature 
had authorized the prosecution of the work, the full examination of all 
these routes could not be had, and my instrumental surveys have been 
confined to the first mentioned route. 

The following is a brief description of the course of this line: It will 
leave Cairo, and follow up the Mississippi and Cash river bottom, to near 
the big bend of Cash, where a small creek (Canelly) and one of its branches 
are made use of to advance the line. From the head of this creek, the 
course is down a branch of Cooper's creek, crossing the latter, and run- 
ning in the valley of Mill creek. Mill creek is used to its extreme source 
on the ridge dividing it from Clear creek. This ridge is crossed, and the 
course pursued down a branch of Clear creek to its junction with another 
branch coming in from the north, up which the course is directed to the 
main summit of the country. This high ground is kept to the head of 
Drury creek, whose valley is occupied throughout its whole length to Crab 
Orchard creek. 

Crossing Crab Orchard, and the ridge dividing it from Muddy, we ar- 
rive at the latter stream above the mouth of Little Muddy. The high 
ground between the Middle fork and Little Muddy is then occupied to 
Crooked creek, a considerable tributary of the Kaskaskia river. This, as well 
as the East fork, North fork, Patoka, and Richland creek, are crossed trans- 
versely. Hickory creek is passed in the bottom common to it and the Kas- 



57 [ 259 ] 

kaskia river. The Kaskaskia is crossed a short distance below Vandalia, 
and the entrance effected by aid of a depression on the south edge of the 
town. 

The season being far advanced, the surveys were closed until they can 
be resumed with advantage. 

On this line, advantageous grades, with easy curves, can be generally 
obtained ; but a comparison cannot be instituted with the other routes until 
further surveys can be had. 

Respectfully submitted, 

J. FREEMAN, 
Chief Engineer Central Railroad. 
Vandalia, 5th December, 1837. 



Eastern Engineering District Office, 

Paris, Edgar Co., Illinois, Dec. 1, 1837. 

Dear Sir : I arrived at Paris on the 15th November, the day you left 
for the Wabash river. 

At the railroad office, I found my assistant, Mr. Arms, who informed me 
of your wish to have "a statement of the progress made in the surveys, with 
a rough estimate of the cost of constructing the cross railroads in the 
eastern engineering district of the State, with the model of the track as re- 
commended for adoption, and forwarded to Vandalia on or before the 3d 
December," to enable you to report to the board of public works of the 
State of Illinois. 

I have been incessantly employed since my arrival, in fulfilling your 
orders, and I herewith transmit the result. 

The approximate location of the Northern Cross railroad from the eastern 
line of the State, in the direction of Lafayette, in Indiana, to Decatur, Ma- 
con county, Illinois, is completed. This line commences at a point on the 
eastern line of the State, about four miles north of a direct line from Dan- 
ville, Vermillion county, Illinois, to Lafayette, Indiana, and runs straight 
to Danville. At Danville there are two curves of 4.000 feet radius each, 
which carries the line through the town and over the Big Vermillion river ; 
thence the line runs straight 6J miles, to Butler's point, where there ia 
another curve, of 6,000 feet radius; thence straight 171 miles, to the town 
of Sydney. At Sydney there is a curve of 10,000 feet radius, of 9 degrees ; 
from that curve the line is straight 47f miles, to Decatur. 

There are but two obstacles, worthy of note, to the construction of a rail- 
road upon the hue surveyed. The first is the passing of the Big Vermil- 
lion river, near Danville ; the second, the crossing of the Sangamon river, 6 
miles east of Decatur. At the former place, 1 have estimated a bridge of 
2^0 feet in length ; and at the latter, 250 feet. Both bridges to be buiit upon 
Long's plan, treble bracing for the middle stringers, to be supported by tim- 
ber pyramids, based on stone work. 

The superstructure of the road I have estimated to be built according to 
the model forwarded to you. For details, I refer you to the estimate. 

The approximate location of the Central branch railroad, from Shelby - 
ville, Shelby county, to the Slate line, between Paris, Edgar county, and 
Terre Haute, Indiana, is also completed ; and that part between Paris and 



[ 259 ] 58 

the Stale line, is definitely located for grubbing and clearing. I have also 
continued the approximate location of the road from the State line 10 Terre 
Haute, and forwarded an estimate (a copy is transmitted to yon) to Col. T. 
H. Blake, canal commissioner for the State of Indiana, with a plan of the 
line surveyed. 

The location of the Central branch railroad commences upon the east 
line of the State, as before stated, and runs 10 miles 2,080 feet, to Paris, 
with but one curve, and that is of 4,1.00 feet radius. From Paris to 
Charleston, 27 miles, the line is straight ; and as the grade descends from 
Paris to the Embarrass river, and ascends again to Charleston, a telescope 
at either depot will command a constant view of the entire road between 
these two points ; an advantage which but few roads possess. Thirty-two 
miles of the line between Charleston and Shelby ville are straight; and 
there is no curve less than 4,000 feet radius between these two points. 

There are but three expensive points to be encountered upon the entire 
line. The first, is passing the Sugar creek, near Paris, for which a bridge 
of 500 feet in length is contemplated : the second, the passing of the Em- 
barrass river, near Charleston, for which a bridge of 400 feet is required, 
and two heavy embankments: the last, the crossing of the Kaskaskia river, 
for which a bridge of 1,000 feet in length, with two heavy embankments, 
is estimated. 

The approximate location of the Central railroad, from Decatur to 
Shelby ville, is completed, and the surveying corps disbanded ; leaving but 
one engineering party now employed in the field, who are engaged upon 
the surveys of the Cential railroad between Shelbyville and Yandalia. 

The estimates annexed were computed without a careful adjustment of 
the grade, (which a want of time prevented,) which gives the quantity of 
work more than it will probably be when the definite location is completed; 
but I believe they are sufficiently accurate for your present use. 

I have estimated the timber for the track at different prices, to correspond 
as nearly as possible to the difference of transportation : that near Paris 
being the lowest, as steam saw mills will be erected there, on the line of 
the road, to saw much of the timber to be used between the State line and 
Charleston. 

Plans, profiles, drawings, and models, of all the surveys and form of 
construction, are in progress ; and I hope, ere long, to give an estimate, in 
detail, and report to the "board of public works of the State of Illinois. 
Very respectfully, yours, 

ARTHUR W. HOYT, 
Engineer of the Eastern Engineering District, 

State of Illinois. 
General M. K. Alexander, 

Commissioner of tlte Board of Public Works, 

Stale of JllinoiSffor t/u Fourth Judicial District* 



59 



[ 259 ] 



CENTRAL BRANCH RAILROAD. 



Length from the eastern line of the State to Shelby ville, Shelby county \ 
Illinois, 71 miles 3,265 feet. 



Inclination of ihe 


planes, 


pe 


* mile, 


in feet. 


Length of the inclination. 
















Miles. 


Feet. 


Level 


_ 




- 




. 


.. 


11 


1,843 


From 


OtolO 




- 




- 


_ 


27 


2,966 




10 to 20 




. 




- 


- 


23 


4.985 




20 to 40 




- 




- 


- 


8 


4,031 



ESTIMATE of the branch of the Central railroad from, the State line, 
between Paris and Terre Haute, to Shelbyville, Shelby county, Illi- 
nois. 



PROM THE STATE LINE TO PARIS. 

11,320 rods grubbing and clearing, at 62^ cents 
per rod - - - - 

101,832 yards borrowed earth, for embank- 
ment, at 14 cents per yard - 

3,196 yards excavation, to be put into embank- 
ment, at 24 cents per yard - 

16,542 yards excavation, to be wasted, at 14 
cents per yard - 

20 wooden culverts, at $60 each 

670 perches stone work, for culverts, at $5 per 
perch - - 

No. 1. — Wooden bridge. 

Trestle work - - - $625 00 

400 feet bridging, at $15 per foot, 

Long's plan ' - - - 6,000 00 



Amount of first bridge 

No. 2. — Wooden bridge. 

134 perches stone work foundation, at $6 per 

perch, beds hammer dressed - $804 00 

Trestle work - - - 625 00 



$7,075 00 

14,256 4S 

7,671 84 



2.315 88 
1,200 00 

3,350 00 



6,625 00 



[ 259 ] 



60 



ESTIMATE— Continued. 



500 feet bridging-, at $15 per foot, 






Long's plan *" - - - $7,500 00 


$8,929 00 




Amount of second bridge 




Amount for grading - 




$51,423 20 


Which is equal to $4,947 41 per mile. 






Superstructure. 






Timber.— Stringers at $20 per M, mud sills 






and splice pieces, at $14 per M, keys at 2 






cents each, sleepers at 14 cents each ; making 






the cost of one mile of timber - $1,261 81 






Iron. — Rails per mile, 






22 tons, at $100 per 






ton - - $22,000 00 






877 plates, 8 ounces 






each, 438J pounds, 






at 12 cents per 






pound - - 52 62 






7.038 spikes, 4 \ inches 






in length, 2.21 oun- 






ceseach,971 pounds, 






at 14 cents per 






pound - - 135 94 






Loss on iron, \ per ct., 






being for spikes at 






the joints of the 






rails, &c. - - 11 94 






Per mile - _ 2,400 50 




Rail laying: 320 rods, at $2 50 






per rod ... 800 00 


4,462 31 




Amount per mile 




10 miles 2,080 feet, the-distance from the State 






line to Paris, at $4,462 31 per mile 


„ 


46,380 97 


Passenger, merchandise, and engine depot at 






Paris, including turn outs and turning ta- 






bles. The engine house to be built of brick, 






for four engines, and machine shop also of 






brick -'--.-_- 


- 


8,500 00 


Amount - 


106,304 17 


Which is equal to $10,227 51 per mile. 


1 



01 



[259] 



ESTIMATE— Continued, 



PROM PARIS TO CHARLESTON. 

4,375 rods grubbing and clearing, at 62| cents 
per rod - 

398,204 yards embankment, borrowed earth, at 
14 cents per yard - 

121,211 yards excavation, to be put into em- 
bankment, at 24 cents per yard 

46,756 yards excavation, to be wasted, at 14 
cents per yard - ' - - - 

32 wooden culverts, at $70 each 

420 perches stone work, for culverts, at $5 per 
perch -_...«. 

Embarrass river bridge. 

810 perches of stone work for piers, for tres- 
tles, beds hammer dressed, at $6 per 
perch - $4,860 00 

Foundations for stone work - 300 00 

2 trestle and bolster frames, at 

$1,000 each - - - 2,000 00 

400 feet bridging, at $18 per foot - 7,200 00 



Amount of the bridge 

Amount for grading 
Which is equal to $4,188 49 per mile. 

Superstructure, 

Stringers, $30; mud sills and splice pieces, 
$25 per M ; sleepers, 25 cents each ; keys, 
2 cents each ; making the cost of one mile 
of timber - - - $2,039 90 

Iron, per mile, as on page No. 60, 
viz: - 

Kail laying, per mile, as on page 

No. 60, viz: - - - 800 00 

Amount for 1 mile 

Amount for 27 miles 
Depot similar to the one in Paris - 

Amount - - - 

Which is equal to $9,733 71 per mile. 



2,400 50 



$2,734 37 

55,748 56 

29,090 64 

6,545 84 
2,240 00 

2,100 00 



14,360 00 



$112,819 41 



5,240 40 



141,490 80 

8,500 oa 



262,810 21 



C 259 ] 



82 



ESTIMATE— Continued. 



FROM CHARLESTON TO SHELBYVILLfi* 

4,400 rods grubbing and clearing, at 62J cents 
per rod 

356,479 yards borrowed earth, for embank- 
ment, at 14 cents per yard - 

44,969 yards excavation, to be put into em- 
bankment, at 24 cents per yard 

45,012 yards of excavation, to be wasted, at 
14 cents per yard -..'<.'.,.«/__. 

504 perches of stone work, for culverts, at $5 
per perch ~ '- ■ - ; , * ■ , .> 

40 wooden culverts, at $70 each 



No. 1. — Wooden bridge. 



Trestle work - - , $800 00 

500 feet of bridging, at $8 50 

per foot - - - 4,250 00 



No. 2. — Wooden bridge. 

Trestle work - * - $620 00 

600 feet of bridging, at $8 50 per 

foot * .:■ ". - 5,100 00. 



Shelby ville bridge* 



2,284 perches of stone work for 
the trestles, beds hammer dres- 
sed, at $6 per perch - 

720 piles, driven for the founda- 
tion of the stone work, includ- 
ing $100) the cost of the piling 
machine 

Timber ibr six trestle frames } 
$354 48 each 

Framing and raising the 6 trestles^ 
and fitting a bolster to each ; 
each bolster containing 12,000 

; feet, board measure, $1,200 a- 
piece • 



$13,704 00 



1,576 00 
2J26 88 



7,200 00 



$2,750 00 

49,907 06 

10,792 56 

6,301 68 

2,520 00 
2,800 00 



5,050 00 



5,720 00 



63 



[259] 



ESTIMATE— Continued. 



1,000 feet of bridging, Long's plan, 
treble brace work spans of 200 
feet each, at $20 per foot - $20,000 00 



Amount of bridge - 

Amount for grading 
Which is equal to $3,811 56 per mile. 
34 miles and 1,185 feet of superstucturej at 

$5,240 40 per mile - 
Depot similar to the one at Paris 

Amount *•-.._.,.-> 
Which is equal to $9,300 32 per mile. 




RECAPITULATION, 

Cost of the road from the State line to Paris 
Cost of the road from Paris to Charleston - 
Cost of the road from Charleston to Shelbyville, 
Engineering and contingencies connected therewith 



- $106,304 17 

- 262,810 21 

- 318,297 89 

10,000 00 



Total estimate of the Central Branch railroad from the State 
line to Shelbyville, being 71 miles 3,265 feet in length * $697,412 27 

Which is equal to $9,737 89 per mile. 



NORTHERN CROSS RAILROAD. 



Length from the eastern line of the State to Decatur ^ Macon county ^ 

Illinois^ 83 miles t 



Inclination of the planes 


per 


mile, in feet. 


Length of the inclinations. 










Miles, 


Feet. 


Level 


m 




* -» 


10 


2,725 


From to 10 


- 




« 


43 


285 


10 to 20 


. 




« *. 


11 


2,045 


20 to 30 


- 




* 


4 


4,240 


30 to 40 


• 




• a. 


10 


660 


at 40 


« 




M 


3 


605 



[259] 



64 



ESTIMATE— Continued. 



EST1MA TE of the Northern Cross railroad, from the eastern line of the 
State to Decatur, Macon county , Illinois. 



10,055 rods of grubbing and clearing, at 62J 
cents per rod - 

1,183,433 yards of borrowed earth for embank- 
ment, at 14 cents per yard - 

500,800 yards of excavation to be put into 
embankment, at 22 cents per yard - 

59,900 yards of excavation to be wasted, at 14 
cents per yard - 

100 wooden culverts, at $70 each 

9^4 perches of stone work, for culverts, at $5 
perch » 



Vermillion river bridge. 



1,916 perches of stone work foun- 
dation of trestles, at $6 per 

perch - ' ,- ' - $11,496 00 

2 trestles and bolster frames, each 

$1,554 48 - • - 3,108 96 

220 running feet of bridging, 

Long's plan, treble stringers, at 

$20 per foot - - - 4,400 00 

150 feet of trestle and frame work, 

to connect the embankment with 

the bridge, at $5 per foot - 750 00 



Sangamon river bridge. 



1,308 perches of stone work for 

the foundation of trestle work, 

at $6 per perch - - 7,848 00 

Foundation - - - 300 00 

2 trestles, with bolster frames, 

$1,036 00 each - - 2,072 00 

250 feet of bridging, at $18 per 

foot - 4,500 00 



$6,284 37 
165,680 62 
110,176 00 

8,386 00 

7,000 00 

4,620 00 



$19,754 96 



Amount for grading 



14,720 00 



336,621 



65 



[ 259 ] 



ESTIMATE— Continued. 



Superstructure. 








Timber. — Stringers, at $25 per 








M, mud sills and splice pieces, 








at $20 per M; keys at 2 cents 








each, sleepers at 20 cents 








each ; making the cost of one 








mile of timber 


$1,671 85 






Iron. — Rails, per mile, 








22 tons, at $100 








per ton - * $2,200 60 








877 plates, 8 oz. each. 








438^ lbs. at 12 cents 








per pound - - 52 62 








7,038 spikes, 4| inches 








long, 221 oz. each, 








971 lbs. at 14 cents 








per lb. - - 135 94 








Loss on iron, \ per 








cent, being for spikes 








at the joints of the 


' 






rails, &c. - li 94 


2,400 50 






Per mile 




Raillaying.-~320Yods,nt$2 50 








per rod 


800 00 


$1872 35 




Amount per mile 


- 




Amount 42 miles 


- 




$20,463 00 


Forty -one miles of superstructure- 






Stringers, at $30 per M. mud sills 


and splice 






pieces, at " $25 per M ; sleepers 


25 cents 






each, keys 2 cents each, iron and 


rail laying 






the same as above, $5,240 40 per 


mile 




214,856 40 


Passenger, merchandise, and egine depot, at 






Danville and Decatur, including 


turn outs 






and turning tables. The engine : 


10 use to be 






built of brick, for four engines, and the ma- 






chine shops also of brick, at $8,500 00 each 




17,000 00 


Engineering and contingencies 


connected 






therewith - 


■ - 




10,000 00 


Total estimate of the Northern Cross railroad 






from the State line to Decatur, being 83 miles 






in length - 


- 




$783,117 05 


Which is equal to $9,435 15 per mile. 







[ 259 J 66 

To the honorable the Board of Commissioners of Public Works f 

Gentlemen : In obedience to the instructions] have received from you> 
growing out of rny engagement of the 24th of June last, to take charge of 
the improvements contemplated in the Wabash river, I proceed to lay before 
you a report of the measures taken to advance that object. 

Immediately alter the 24th of June last. I repaired to this place, as the 
point presenting the most formidable obstacles to be overcome, to which I 
had been particularly directed as the field for operations, and commenced a 
general though cursory examination of the country, in the vicinity of the 
Grand rapids, and the river from Vincennes to the Ohio. 

The operations now pressing forward, in so many rivers in Kentucky 
and Pennsylvania, in preparing them for an uninterrupted navigation for 
steamboats, appears to point to that mode as the ultimate means which will 
at no long period be resorted to, for all the large tributaries of the Ohio ; 
with this distinctly in view it was deemed necessary, as a preliminary step* 
before a plan could be adopted with judgment to form opinions approaching 
at least to correctness of the practability for improvements below, and the 
kind which would ultimately be used, so that the plans devised for the 
Grand rapids might be in keeping and harmony with those which, at some 
future period, may be constructed between this place and the Ohio. 

With slight exceptions, from Delphi to within ten miles of the junction 
with White river, the Wabash has a mild current of good width, and toler- 
ably well defined banks, which confine the waters to their natural bed, ex- 
cept in time of floods. Below White river, evident changes are perceptible^ 
the stream becomes expanded to something like double of its former width, 
its course more serpentine, it crosses its lowest valley from side to side, 
which is from three to eight miles wide, and in traversing the valley, 
changes its course frequently ; forms cutoffs in the bends of the rivers, and 
rolls with its current vast volumes of sand. Between White river and the 
Ohio, the sand rock of the country is found in the river bed at three places : 
Coffee island, and the Little and Grand chains, and forms the ripples, 
which have been improved by Messrs. Gardiner and Mundy. At these 
places where the rock occurs, the river is susceptible of almost any kind of 
improvement which the extensive and increasing trade of the country 
may require. The great value of the trade of the valley of the Wabash 
would in a short time induce a slack water navigation of the river for the 
uninterrupted business of steamboats, if it were practicable to make such 
an improvement. But however desirable such an object may be, it is pro- 
blematical, at least, from the character of the country, overflown in time 
of floods, from three to eight miles in width, with the bed of the stream con- 
stantly changing, and its current rolling volumes of sand sufficient in a few 
years to fill up its entire bed, for a long distance, whether such a river can 
be generally converted into pools for slack water navigation. In such an 
event, it is doubtful the process of filling up the pools would go on rapidly for 
a few years, and then, to find way, the river would seek a new channel, and 
leave such works as had been constructed on dry ground. 

Although the probabilities are adverse for the general improvement of 
the Wabash, by means of slack water navigation in its whole length, it is 
entirely possible, at some period of time, that at the shoals where the rock 
occurs, works of the kind may be erected ; and this consideration, although 
remotely, had some weight in determining the plan for the works at the 
Grand rapids. 



67 [ 259 ] 

T Tbe Wabash below White river, for the small class of Ohio steamboat?, 
^s navigable the greatest length of time in each year, and for a much longer 
period than it is above, owing more to the shoals from the Grand rapids to 
Little Rock, than want of water from thence to Lafayette. Many inquiries 
relative to the length of time during which the ordinary steam naviga- 
tion is used yearly on the river, have been made, above and below the con- 
tinence of White river, but from the conflicting statements it is difficult to 
form a correct opinion. The time varies doubtless in different years. Du- 
ring the present, there can have been but little or no time when the water has 
been too low for small steamboats to ascend the river to the rapids. A 
steamboat of ordinary light draught came there the last of October, when 
the water was depressed as low, probably, as it has been at any time this 
season ; if it could have ascended the rapids it might have made way for a 
long distance up the river. From the best sources of intelligence that 
could be obtained, it is believed that when the improvements at Grand 
rapids shall be completed, that it will add three months at least in each 
year to the time in which steamboats can now ascend the Wabash above 
the confluence of White river. 

The obstructions proposed to be remedied by the present improvements 
are the series of shoals and rapids, commencing one mile above the junc- 
tion of White river : 

1st. The Grand rapids, descent four feet in a half mile. 

2d. The Hanging Rock rapids, two and one-fourth miles from the foot 
of the Grand rapids, descent one foot seven inches in half a mile. 

3d. Crum's ripple and the ripples at Ramsay's and Beedle's mills are 
next in succession, four and one-fourth miles from Hanging Rock, descent 
three feet two inches from the surface of the water above the dam to Hang- 
ing Rock, the greatest part of which is within three and one-fourth of a 
mile from the dam. 

4th. Little Rock rapids, from the head of which in half a mile is a de- 
scent of one foot and three inches ; making in all a descent often feet. The 
water on the Little Rock shoals varies in depth in low water from four to 
one and a half feet. 

In running the line of levels, the point of high watermark was assumed 
as the base line at the foot of the Grand rapids 21.57 feet above the sur- 
face of the water when the levels were taken. The highest point of rocks, 
on the shoals at Little Kock was 12.97 feet below this base line, and in 
contemplating the proposed work, to give three and a half feet depth of 
water over the rocks, the surface of the river must be raised to a point 9.47 
feet below said base line, or in even number to nine feet six inches, which 
will be the point to which the weir or comb of the dam will be raised to 
when it shall be built. 

To determine the best plan of overcoming this descent in the river, sev- 
eral plans-, other than that of one dam and one lock, the plan adopted, sug- 
gested themselves. The first, if found practicable, was to introduce a 
feeder from White river on ground sufficiently elevated to lock by means of 
a canal into the Wabash, above and below the rapids, and leave the bed of 
the river in its natural state free for the great amount of trade passing it 
in flat and steamboats. Another plan, to make a canal from the upper part 
of the rapids, deep enough to be fed without throwing a dam across the 
Wabash, and in that manner leave the river free. A third one, to erect a 
«&am at Hanging Rock to supply a canal to the foot of the rapids. 

A slight examination sufficed to show the impracticability of the first, 



[ 259 ] 68 

and the inexpediency of the last two. The cost of construction was enoogft 
to decide the question ; but if they could have been made for a much less 
sum, it is doubtful whether they should have been adopted. The steamboat 
trade of the Wabash is immensely valuable, and this cannot be well accom- 
modated in a canal ; the agitation of the waters produced by the motion 
of the steam vessels induces the necessity of paving the banks with stone, 
which injures the boats in their passage through them. Canals are obvi- 
ously too narrow for the free operation of steamboats, whose motions in 
them are so constrained, and their progress so much impeded, that the 
utility of navigating canals by the agency of steam is a doubtful and un- 
settled question. The first of these canals would have been over seven 
miles in length, the latter over two. 

These considerations were deemed sufficient to determine that the pro- 
posed works at the Grand rapids should be by means of locks and dams 
across the Wabash, of the necessary height to give sufficient depth of water 
for boats to pass at all times, the shoals and rapids in the first eleven miles 
above the mouth of White river, and whether one lock and one dam 
should be used for that purpose, or two, was the only question which 
remained undecided. 

The height the waters require to be raised at the lower termination of 
the rapids near White river, to give three and a half feet over the highest 
point of the river bed at Little rock in the lowest stage of water, is twelve 
feet. This height, on a good foundation, such as will be used, is not too 
great to render a dam unsafe, and as a single dam and lock are more eco- 
nomical and more convenient than to surmount the same rise of waters 
by means of two, the use of one only should be preferred, provided the 
country is sufficiently elevated to sustain that height of water against the 
banks of the river. 

In the event of building two dams, the site of the upper one would be 
at Hanging Rock, the lower one near the foot of the Grand rapids. The 
two sites are about two miles apart, and the water from the upper site to 
the extremity of the pool in the river above, would be at the same eleva- 
tion, whether one or two dams should be erected. The only difference to 
the adjacent country, in relation to the height of the water, is for the dis- 
tance between the* two dams, which, does not exceed two miles, and this 
difference in the height of the water would not be greater than three and 
one-half feet ; for in order to give the necessary depth over the rocks for 
steamboats to enter the lock at the Hanging Rock dam, a considerable 
portion of it would have to be submerged by the lower one. A dam at the 
foot of the rapids to overcome the obstructions in the river to Hanging 
Rock, and secure a sufficient depth of water to carry boats safely into the 
second lock, would be seven and one half feet in height above the surface 
of the river ; and to overcome all the obstacles proposed to jae remedied^ 
less than ten and a half feet above the surface of the water wheie the dam 
will be built. 

The greatest part of the descent of the Grand rapids is within half a 
mile of the dam, so that the height to which the waters are raised above 
their natural bed is diminished four feet in that distance. The banks are 
high enough to confine the waters within them, except at the highest floods, 
during which the country is overflowed for miles in extent, with the excep- 
tion of a few insulated points of sandrock ridges, which appear like islands 
in the surrounding waters. 
The difference, therefore, in the height to which the surface of the river 



69 [ 259 J 

will be raised by the use of one or two dams is inconsiderable, not exceed- 
ing three and a half feet for two miles in distance, but to obviate all objec- 
tions on that account, in the estimates the cost of making guard banks from 
the lower to the upper dam sites on each side of the river has been calcu- 
lated and provided for. The difference in the height of the lock gates and 
walls on the plan of two dams would have been three feet less than in one, 
provided the walls had been left at ten feet above the weirs or combs of the 
dams, and sometimes submerged in the waters of high floods, which, al- 
though avoided in the plan adopted, would not have rendered the works 
unsafe with the banks raised to the proper height, and well protected, and 
when the water was at that height, the dams would have made no obstruc- 
tion to the passage of boats. 

It is believed that all the advantages which can be claimed for two dams 
over one, are summed up in these items: of the height of the water, and 
the height of the lock gates and walls ; both are inconsiderable. 

But the plan of one lock and one dam is preferable on account of produ- 
cing less delay and injury to steamboats to pass one lock than to pass two, 
of less delay of landing flat-boats, and the hazard of being drawn over the 
dam in the descending trade of the river, of an increased amount of water 
power, and greater economy in the cost of construction. It is usual to al- 
low three feet for head and fall in building mills; on the plan of two dams, 
the difference in the surfaces of the water at Hanging Rock, above and be- 
low the dam, would have been, only three feet, and therefore valueless for 
practical purposes; the available water power at the lower dam site six 
feet; on the same plan, but with one dam and one lock, the available water 
power will be nine feet fail. Therefore, if two dams and two locks could 
have been constructed for the same cost, the single plan ought to have been 
preferred. The cost of two, however, would have generally exceeded the 
•cost of erecting one. For comparison : 

Plan of two dams and two locks. 

Cost of dam and lock at foot of Grand rapids - $138,825 93 

Cost of dam and lock at Hanging Rock - - 132,782 00 

Total - - - - - $271,608 50 

Plan of one dam and one lock. 
Cost of dam and lock near foot of Grand rapids - $166,928 55 

Difference - $104,679 98 



The plan of dam and lock was adopted, not only on account of the great 
difference of cost in its favor, but also of its greater utility. The height of the 
dam will be sufficient to give three and a half feet water over the highest 
points in the rock bed of the river at Little Rock shoals, without taking into 
consideration the influence the dam will have in backing the waters that dis- 
tance, or for the height the water will stand on the comb of the dam, both 
of which \vill probably be equal to 6 inches, and give a depth of water of 
four feet over the highest rocks. 

The lock will be one hundred and seventy-five feet long, and thirty eight 
feet wide in the chamber, and of the same dimensions as those used in the 
Kentucky rivers, which are now being improved ; the lock is of sufficient ca- 



[ 259 ] 70 

pacity, with a rise of two and a half feet in the river, to pass boats of two 
hundred tons burden, the size which includes the most numerous class. 
which navigate the Ohio, and, at all times, to pass boats drawing three and a 
half feet water ; the gates will be opened with capstans ; the lock walls will 
be two hundred and thirty-six feet in length, with piers of crib-work filled 
with stones, and faced with plank, extending one hundred and eighty feet 
in length above -and below the lock, for protection walls. 

The dam will be one thousand feet in length, built with cribs of timber 
filled with stone, and covered with six inch plank. The site is on the sand 
rock bed of the river, and affords a good foundation for the dam ; the rock 
is more firm and compact than that which is found above water in the vi- 
cinity. Care has been taken in the selection of the site, to place the dam suf- 
ficiently up the falls for the 'agitation of water produced in passing the 
dam to subside on the rock bed of the river, to prevent deep washings below ? 
the formation of new sand bars to impede the navigation, and to prevent 
the structure from being weakened and undermined, The dam is thus 
placed some distance up the falls, and, as a necessary consequence, the rock, 
to some extent, has to be excavated below the lock. This selection of the 
site lessens the height, the dam has to be built about one and a half foot 7 
and adds greatly to its permanency. This rise on the rock takes place 
above the point where the water will be discharged for hydraulic purposes, 
so that the fall secured by the erection of the dam is fully equal to twelve 
leet, nine feet of which, according to the usual allowance of mill wrights 
for head and fall races, will be available for machinery ; with a supply of 
water greater than can be used for many years to come, sufficient at least to 
propel three hundred run of four and a half feet mill stones at seasons of 
the lowest stages of water, and will not be impeded by floods more than 
six weeks in a year. 

The dam will have some slight influence in backing the waters of the 
river in medium floods, but this influence will be small; in higher staged 
floods, in which the water rises on the weir or comb of a dam to something 
like one-fifth part of its natural height, this influence of backing the waters 
is altogether lost, so that a dam has no effect in increasing the rise of 
freshets after they swell to a certain height; in such cases, an increase of 
velocity, at the place the dam is situated, is all the difference which can 
be perceived. The effect on smaller rises of a river must be very slight ; 
for the waters in the pool of a dam of miles in extent, in small floods, 
move with a current that is scarcely perceptible, and the difference, con- 
sequently, of the elevation between the terminations of the pool must be 
small indeed. 

The banks of the river are generally nineteen or twenty ieet above its 
bed, and at the height of ordinary floods ; but, with the exception of three 
places in the distance of eleven miles above the mouth of White river, in 
the highest rises of water the whole valley bordering the Wabash is over- 
flowed for miles in extent. The valley is very level and uniform in its 
surface, of a tough clayey soil, which affords a tolerable guaranty against 
cutoffs, and the river from forming new channels. 

From the lock and abutment on each side of the river guard banks 
can be cheaply constructed to high ground which never overflows ; a fortu- 
nate circumstance in the location, which could not be found at any other 
place within many miles. Almost immediately above the site of the lock 
on the eastern bank of the river, a point of land, twenty feet above the 



71 [259] 

highest floods, projects into the stream, and forms a harbor where boats 
may land safely, without danger of being drawn over the dam. 

This projection of high ground is not so abrupt as to make it difficult to 
pass, but, at the same time, it influences the current from the point to 
the bend of the river on the opposite side, and shields thereby the lock 
from drift and ice. 

The bed of the Wabash for some distance, several miles above the Little 
Rock rapids, is deep and well adopted to become the reservoir of the sand, 
which must, in the nature of things, be deposited at the head of the pool. 
Few places on the Wabash could be found so well adapted for the location 
of similar works, in which safety, convenience, and permanence are so well 
secured. The lock walls are designed to be built of durable materials, and 
in the best manner, as well as the abutments and dam. The great amount 
of trade on the Wabash obviously points to the necessity of doing in the best 
manner whatever is done, so that the work, when put up, will need little or 
no repairs, or be of doubtful utility when completed. The plan is very 
similar to those used in Kentucky on their public works. Care will be taken 
to have the walls and gates of such dimensions that they will be able to 
resist the pressure against them, and in the height of the gates that they 
shall not exceed the limits in ordinary use for large locks, so that nothing 
shall be left to conjecture or the hazard of an experiment. 

The difficulty of procuring stone of good quality, the quantity of materials 
to be collected at one point, the uncertainty of a proper stage of water for their 
transportation, and the necessity of having all the materials ready and 
prepared on the ground before a commencement of any part of the struc- 
tures in the water can be made, induced the recommendation of letting out 
the delivery of the stone for the lock and abutment. This letting for the 
materials took place on the 22d instant, and contracts were taken by two 
responsible companies for the delivery of seven hundred cubic yards of stone 
by the 1st of June next, at fair prices for the States. The contractors have 
already entered with spirit upon the business of their contract, and with an 
activity which promises well for their performance. The prices at which 
these contracts have been taken would seem to insure the completion of the 
whole work within the estimates made for its cost. 

Thus far, building stone of good quality has not been found nearer than 
Porters ville, seventy-seven miles by water above the confluence of White 
river. There the quarries are fine for the massive work for which the 
materials are required ; none of suitable quality have been found nearer to 
the site of the works, although diligent and laborious search has been made 
for that purpose. 

The cost of the dam and lock is estimated at one hundred and sixty -six 
thousand nine hundred and twenty-eight dollars fifty-five cents. The 
whole is carefully estimated, and put at such prices, it is confidently 
believed, as will insure the completion of the work in the most substantial 
manner, without exceeding the estimates by a single dollar. 

It is expected that, according to contract, the stone will be delivered by 
the first of June next, and that the main contracts for building the lock 
and the dam, and abutment, may be let by the 15th of that month, so that 
the work may be completed by the first of November, 1839. 

Ample provisions have been made in the estimates for the use of the 
water power in the construction of culverts and canals for the conveyance 
and discharge of the water. 



[ 259 ] 72 

So great a power for hydraulic purposes created in the heart of an exten- 
sive wheat growing country, and adjacent to the beds of iron ore abounding 
in the valley of White river, cannot fail to insure to the States large profits, 
Its situation in a district of country where water privileges are extremely 
limited will enhance its value, and being so great, and within twelve hours' 
voyage of the Ohio, will give it such claims to the attention of the public 
as cannot, in the nature of things, fail to point it out as extremely well 
situated for any kind of manufacture in which water power is essential, 
and induce it to be extensively improved. 

In regard to the profits to be derived from the construction of the work, 
it will be sufficient to remark that, when completed, it will probably stand 
on more favorable ground, in relation to the revenues to be derived from it, 
than any other in either of the States, So soon as it shall be completed, a 
very moderate rate of tolls collected on the great trade of the Wabash will 
render it profitable in the matter of revenue. But a very short time can 
elapse before the rents from the water power alone will pay the interest on 
the cost of construction, and keep up the necessary repairs and attendants. 
Leases for water power in Indiana rent for one hundred and fifty dollars 
per annum, for privilege for propelling one run of four and one-haif feet 
mill stones, and are readily sought for at these prices. 

The eligibility of this water power for the manufacture of iron and nails, 
of paper, cotton, lumber, and flour, cannot fail of making it, in a short time, 
the source of large revenue to the State. The benefits of these works to 
the country can hardly be appreciated. Great confidence is felt, that, to the 
present navigable portion of the year of the Wabash, it will add at least 
three months to that time, for the upper part of it, and that when the ob- 
stacles to the navigation of this section of the river shall be removed, there 
will be more inducement for the business of steamboats in the summer sea- 
son, and that but ;i very short time in each year will be found, in which 
light draught-boats, suited to the commerce, will not make their regular 
trips from the upper country to its mouth. Nor will the benefits cease with 
the extension of the navigation of the river ; and the rents and tolls which 
will be received, the introduction of property, the investment of capital to 
a great amount in manufactures, will swell the revenue of the States, add 
greatly to the aggregate of their wealth, and to the prosperity and conveni- 
ence of their people. 

The disbursements made in locating the work, examinations for stone, 
purchase of instruments, tools, &c. is one thousand four hundred and sixty- 
four dollars sixty-eight cents; the one-half of which, or the sum of seven 
hundred and thirty-two dollars thirty-four cents, was paid out of the money 
furnished by each commissioner of the respective States, as per account 
with vouchers rendered with the plans and estimates in detail. 

Which are respectfully submitted. 

D. BURR, 
Principal Engineer, Wabash river. 

Mount Carmel, Illinois, Nov. 28, 1837. 



'The honorable the Board of Public Works, State of Illinois: 

Gentlemen: The following is a biief statement of the progress of the 
surveys and examinations for the proposed improvements in the northern 



73 [ 259 ] 

districts. of this State, committed to my charge by your honorable body, 
from the commencement up to the present time. 

The first party was organized on the 8th day of May, 1837, and placed 
upon the line of the Central railroad, between the north line of McLean 
county and Rock river. The examination was commenced near the ter- 
mination of the Illinois and Michigan canal, at Peru. The surveys were 
continued in a southerly direction, with J. W. Ingersoli at the head, until 
the arrival of P. H. Woodworth, to whom the charge was then committed, 
about the 1st of June, and Mr. Ingersoli placed in charge, with his party, 
of the surveys and examinations of the country for the proposed railroad 
between Peoria and Warsaw. 

The third party was organized about the 3d of June, at Galena, with 
William B. Gilbert at the head, and placed in charge of the necessary sur- 
veys and examinations between that place and Rock river, to connect his 
lines with those tc be examined by Mr. Woodworth, and terminating at the 
same point, by making Rock river a division between the two parties. 

The fourth party was organized at Dixon's ferry, Rock river, about the 
20th June, and Mr. A. Blanc placed in charge of the same, to make the ne- 
cessary surveys and examinations of the said river for steamboat navigation, 
until the arrival of Mr. P. H. Oglebie, who was to continue the surveys; 
Mr. B. then to take the charge of the office, and make the necessary maps, 
profiles, &c. of said river and the Central railroad, between Galena and 
Rock river, as fast as the surveys were made, he (Mr. B.) being one of our 
best draughtsmen, on the arrival of Mr. O. who took the field. Soon after it 
was found that the exposure to the weather was such that his health at the 
time would not permit ; it became necessary that he should return to the 
office, and Mr. B. to continue the surveys and examinations for the whole 
length of said river, about one hundred and fifty miles distant ; all of which 
has been finished, with much care and credit to himself. Mr. C. L. Sey- 
mour has lately arrived, for the purpose of examining and assisting in mak- 
ing the estimates as fast as maps, profiles, &c. of said river are finished. 
He (Mr. C. L. Seymour) has also travelled in company with myself the 
whole length of the river from the north line of the State to its confluence 
with the Mississippi, and examined the most difficult point, and consulted 
together with reference to the best place of improving the same; and I have 
requested him to remain until the estimates are finished, as he has had 
practical information upon similar works heretofore, and it being impossible 
for me to attend to all of the necessary estimates at the same time, as the 
offices are now situated, one at Dixon's ferry, Rock river, one at Chicago, 
and the other at Canton, Fulton county. 

The necessary preliminaries, surveys, and examinations, are now com- 
pleted for all of the improvements before mentioned, together with the sur- 
veys of the proposed railroad from Meredosia, in the valley of the Illinois 
river, to Quincy, in the valley of the Mississippi. The latter has been 
done by Mr. Woodworth's party. Since finishing the work as above be- 
fore assigned to him, J. W. Ingersoll's party was disbanded the latter part 
of September; Mr. Woodworth's and Mr. Gilbert's in October ; and Mr. 
Blanc's in November, as you will see from the pay rolls, by retaining from 
two to three in each party until the field books, maps, profiles, and esti- 
mates are sufficiently arranged to dispense with their services for this sea- 
son; all of which is now in progress, and will be finished as soon as the 
necessary work can be well done ; after which a detailed report or docu- 



[ 259 ] 74 

merit will be presented by each assistant engineer upon the different works 
they have been engaged, together with my report upon the same. The 
head of each party, together with the draughtsman, received at the rate of 
$1,500 per annum ; junior assistants' salary at the same time the duties and 
labors were performed, have been that of senior assistants, which duties 
have been 'faithfully executed. Each party has consisted of from eight to 
ten in number, while in the field, and the price per day for leveller $3 00, 
surveyor $2 50, roadman $2 00, chainman, axeman, teamster, cook, &c. 
from $1 00 to $1 25 per day. The number of miles instrumentally ex- 
amined by the different parties have been about 1,000 miles to obtain 500, 
or thereabouts, for actual location, after a careful estimate of the different 
lines examined. The preliminary surveys have been made with much 
care, consequently the proposed lines may be located and put under con- 
tract early next season, or such proportion of each work as you may di- 
rect. At this time I cannot present you with a detailed report of the dif- 
ferent lines until the estimates, maps, profiles, table of grades, curves, &c, 
are finished, as before alluded to. I can say, however, that there are 
no important obstacles in the way of either of the proposed improvements, 
and that the amount appropriated for each will be sufficient for their con- 
struction, or nearly so — some may overrun and others fall short. The 
country through which the railroads are to pass, is favorable for their con- 
struction, and can be finished for much less per mile than the average cost 
of the many other railroads in the United States. The improvement of the 
Rock river, for steamboat navigation, will be attended with very few diffi- 
culties compared with the advantages to be derived from the same ; the 
cost of which will not exceed $200,000, but will probably exceed $100,000 
a little. It will be necessary, however, to exceed 40 feit grade per mile 
in certain cases, for the railroad, which will not be very objectionable, con- 
sidering the points and places where such grades will be necessary, together 
with the distance, which will be short, &c. ; all of which will be clearly 
explained, in the report alluded to, hereafter. 

For a more detailed account of the several proposed improvements, I 
beg leave to refer you to the following document from my assistants upon 
the various works they have been engaged. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, by your humble servant, 

JAS. SEYMOUR. 

Chicago, November 26, 1837. 



Central Railroad Office, 
Dixon's Ferry, November 25, 1837. 

Sir : In compliance with the request contained in your letter of the 8th 
instant, I hereby transmit to you a brief report, estimate, and table of grades 
of a portion of the surveys committed to my charge. 

This will give some idea of the nature and feasibility of the route, which 
may be of essential service to the honorable the board of commissioners of 
public works at their meeting in December. I do not pretend that all the 
various subjects connected with a w minute report" are here embodied, or 
that all the requisite information can be furnished at so early a date since 
the completion of the duties in the field. Sufficient, however, will be given, 
I hope, to satisfy yourself that the aggregate cost of the work will not ex- 



75 [259] 

ceed the amount contained in the following estimate, and that we have been 
entirely successful in finding a feasible route. 

To those acquainted with that section of the country between Galena 
and Rock river, a more favorable result could not have been anticipated 
than that developed by a careful examination of the country, which proves 
so highly favorable to the construction of a railroad. After the rough 
maps and profiles were made of the several lines that have been surveyed, 
much exertion has been used to complete an estimate upon one line from 
Galena to Rock river. I regret, for reasons already mentioned, that I am 
unable to present the maps and profiles of this line. A detached report of 
the result, including maps, profiles, and estimates of the different lines sur- 
veyed, will be furnished as soon as practicable. It is probable that other 
lines may present more feasible results. 

From Galena to Savannah, 30 miles. 

In your letter of instructions, Galena was designated as the point at 
which the survey was to be commenced. The line commences on the 
northeast side of Fever river, and follows its general course to its junction 
with the Mississippi. The ground, most of the way, a distance of six 
miles, is much broken by narrow ravines and ridges. At Low's point, two 
miles below Galena, the river makes a sharp turn to the southwest, and the 
hills adjacent are high and steep ; in several places large ledges of rocks 
project. To pass this point, it is necessary to make a curve of 640 feet ra- 
dius, to avoid expensive rock excavation. From Low's point the line con- 
tinues on favorable ground about five and a half miles, excepting one point 
where the river curves short to the northeast, and then as short to the south- 
west. At this point a curve of 520 feet radius is made to avoid a deep 
side-hill excavation. 

Below the mouth of Fever river, the line follows the valley of the Missis- 
sippi to Savannah, a point to which, by your letter of instructions, the sur- 
vey was directed. A short distance below the mouth of Fever river the 
banks of the Mississippi are high, and, in some places, very steep, the line 
occupying the sloping bank about 28 feet above the river until it reaches 
the Sand prairie, two miles below. In tracing the line through Sand prai- 
rie, we pass over a uniform surface 12 miles. 

At the lower end of this prairie the line crosses Apple river three-fourths 
of a mile below Mr. Watson's house. The river at this place is 172 feet 
wide ; the banks on each side are good, and afford a safe crossing, without 
any danger from the high freshets to which the river is subject. The line 
then ascends into abroad tableland, about 50 feet above the river, and con- 
tinues quite uniform until broken by the valley of Rush creek, five miles 
below. Crossing Rush creek near Mr. Robinson's dwelling, the line passes 
over favorable ground to a point two miles above Savannah ; thence fol- 
lows a steep sidehill to Savannah. The sidehill is mostly composed of 
rock, lying in thin strata, much broken by vertical and horizontal seams, 
which renders them easy to remove. 

Q,uarries have been opened along the sidehill at different places, which 
show very plainly the nature of the rock. 



[ 259 ] 76 

From Savannah to Rock river ) 36 miles , 17 chains. 

Leaving Savannah, the line descends gradually to Plum river bottom ; 
crossing* the river half a mile above the ferry. At this place the river is 
234 feet wide. The line then follows the valley of the Mississippi to the 
head of Cat Tail swamp, a distance of 15 miles. From the head of Cat 
Tail swamp, the line deflects to the northeast, from a tangent 12 miles, 
leaving the valley of the Mississippi, and continues to Rock river, at a point 
about 17 miles below Dixon's ferry. 

The nature of the ground over which this line is traced, is uncommonly 
favorable, the grading very light, and the earth easy of excavation. 

Elevation. 

The highest level attained on the line between Galena and Rock river, 
is only 82 feet. The surface of Fever river being adopted as our base 

line. 

Curves. 

There will be no curve less than 1,200 feet radius, excepting the two 
before mentioned. 

Estimate. 

The following estimate is based upon work of durable character. On 
every part of the line where the material is required, valuable stone for 
building bridges, culverts, &c, can be obtained at very little expense. In 
many places where the line crosses deep ravines, a considerable deduction 
can be made from the estimate cost, by substituting bridges of wooden 
structure in place of earthen embankments. 

I arm sir, with much respect, 

Your obedient humble servant, 

W. B. GILBERT, 

Civil Engineer. 
James Seymour, Esq., 

Chief Engineer of the Central railroad. Northern District. 



77 



[ 259 j 



TABLE of grades from Galena to Rock river. 



No. of 


Length of 


Lnclinatiou 


Ascending or 


Elevation 




grades.. 


grades. 


per mile. 


descending. 


above Fever! 
river. 


Remarks. 




Ms. ch^s. 










] 


0.30 




Level 


25.00 




2 


0.45 


25.00 


Ascending - 


39.06 




H 


0.57 


13.00 


Descending 


29.80 




4 


0.21 




Level 


29.80 


At Low's point. 


5 


1.16 


4.33 


Ascending - 


35.00 




6 


3.21 


2.15 


Descending- 


28.00 




7 


3.75 


_ 


Level 


28.00 


Head of Sand prairie. 


8 


1.28 


22.96 


Ascending - 


59.00 




9 


0.72 


26.67 


Descending 


35.00 




10 


1.10 


10.22 


Descending 


23.50 




11 


4.25 


8.00 


Ascending - 


58.00 


L 


12 


1.10 


27.56 


Descending 


27.00 




13 


1.25 


10.67 


Ascending - 


41.00 




14 


0.60 


21.33 


Descending 


25.00 




15 


0.06 


_ 


Level 


25.00 


Cross Apple river. 


16 


1.01 


28.64 


Ascending - 


54.00 




17 


0.78 


7.47 


Ascending - 


61.28 




18 


2.02 


12.48 


Descending 


36.00 




19 


0.48 


26.67 


Descending 


20.00 


Cross Rush creek. 


20 


2.20 


4.44 


Ascend ing- 


30.00 




21 


1.70 


5.33 


Descending 


20.00 


Savanna h. 


22 


1.22 


10,59 


Descending 


6.50 




23 


1.58 


_ 


Level 


6.50 


Cross Plum river. 


24 


1.40 


17.44 


Ascending - 


32.56 


• 


25 


6.60 


2.24 


Descending 


17.49 




26 


1.40 


5.00 


Ascending - 


25.00 




27 


3.00 


7.00 


Descending 


4.00 




28 


1.10 


3.55 


Descending 






29 


1.46 


6.35 


Ascending - 


10.00 




30 


1.34 


17.40 


Ascending - 


34.79 




31 


1.70 


_ 


Level 


34.79 




32 


1.52 


25.58 


Ascending - 


77.00 




33 


0.78 


4.10 


Descending 


73.00 




34 


0.84 


20.95 


Descending 


51.00 




35 


0.66 


4.52 


Descending 


47.27 




36 


0.72 


21.31 


Descending 


29 34 




37 


0.30 


11.73 


Descending 


24.94 




38 


& l '$ 


fll68 


Ascending - 


42.00 




39 


0.72 


7.02 


Descending 


35.62 




40 


2.08 


1.78 


Descending 


32.00 




41 


3.12 


- 


Level 


32.00 


Rock rivet/ 



f 259 ] 78 

Sir : I have the honor of informing yon that the examinations and sur- 
veys intrusted to my charge, as your assistant, have been completed, viz : 
of that part of the Central railroad between the northern boundary of 
McLean county and Rock river, and of the Quincy and Meredosia division 
of the Northern Cross railroad, Our surveys, agreeable to yoUr instruc- 
tions, were commenced on the south bank of the Illinois river, and as the 
chief difficulties seemed to be in gaining the summit of the bluff, three dif- 
ferent routes or lines were surveyed from the river intersecting on the 
prairie, and thence but one line to McLean county. 

The first of these lines ran up the Big Vermillion river. It" was found 
to be rather a circuitous route • generally an easy, but on account of rocky f 
points, deep ravines, &c., expensive grade. The second line is direct, and 
surveyed with a view to stationary power : a good line, and as pretty a 
grade as could be wished. Our third line is up the Cedar creek, very di- 
rect, gaining the summit of the bluff in about four and a half miles ; and, 
with the exception of two other deep cuts through rocky ridges for a 
short distance, may be considered a good line. The grade on the whole, I 
think, is easy and not expensive. After gaining the prairie^ there is nothing 
to prevent a tangent, with light grading, at least as far as to McLean coun- 
ty. After completing our surveys on the south side of the river, we com- 
menced examinations on the north. Here we found more difficulty in gain- 
ing the high prairie; four routes were examined and carefully surveyed. 
On the first two, we gained the prairie in about one and a half mile, by 
running up ravines, but were compelled to a grade of at least 100 feet per 
mile, on a line with curves. I think, however, that by excavating and em- 
banking moderately, a direct or straight line may be obtained on one of these 
routes. Our third line runs up the Little Vermillion ; a crooked line, with 
one, at least, very abrupt and unavoidable curve ; gaining the prairie in 
about ten miles, and at a point at least four miles from the direct line. 

On Koek river, agreeably to your directions, we surveyed four lines from 
the river. Across the country from Rock to Illinois river, we have surveyed 
two entire lines, one of which has but one curve, and the other we tried to 
suit to the surface of the country. In this survey, more than two hundred 
miles of instrumental observations have been made with the greatest care, 
and with a view to obtain the best feasible line for the road. On the whole, 
1 am happy to say, that 1 think the route is much more favorable than has 
been anticipated. 

The Q,uincy and Meredosia survey was conducted under the immediate 
direction of Mr. Wm. Seymour. The directions given me by yourself res- 
pecting this survey have been strictly observed. Every line has been thor* 
oughly examined, and judging from an examination of the field books, I 
should think the route even more favorable than you anticipated. The 
grades will be generally easy, and not expensive. About ninety miles of 
instrumental observations were made to obtain a line for location of less 
than sixty. My surveys were all completed by the 27th of October, when 
the party was disbanded ; and I am happy to bear testimony to the zeal, in- 
dustry, and fidelity of each member of the party, in the discharge of his 
respective duties while in the field. Their promptness and activity in fol- 
lowing my directions, and unity of action, has enabled us to accomplish so 
much this season. 

We have commenced operations in our office in Chicago, and shall make 
our maps, profiles, plans, estimates, &c., with as much despatch as possible, 



79 [ 259 ] 

We have much work before us, and but little help to do it. However, I 
think we can have everything done in the best possible manner before the 
spring opens. 

I have engaged the services of an assistant draughtsman, whose compen- 
sation is to be left to yourself or the decision of the board of public works. I 
consider his services absolutely necessary, considering the extent of our 
surveys, and the fact that my surveyor was entirely unacquainted with 
draughting, not even being able to plat his own field book. My leveller and 
surveyor are, and will be, profitably employed in the office ; and consider- 
ing we have the work of two surveys (viz: Central railroad and Q,uincy 
and Meredosia) to do in our office, I would suggest the propriety of retain- 
ing, as assistants in the office, the two young men who acted as rodmen on 
the former survey, and alternately as levellers on the latter. They will 
soon learn to render much assistance in platting profiles, estimating, &c. ? 
and may save the expense of another draughtsman. 

As soon as our office work has sufficiently progressed, I shall have the 
honor of making to you a more formal and detailed report. 
In the mean time, 

I remain your most obedient servant, 

H. P. WOOD WORTH, 

Assistant Engineer. 
To James Seymour, Esq., 

Chief Engineer Northern Engineering District ', State of Illinois, 



Canton, Illinois, November 27, 1837. 

Sir ! Having been appointed to conduct the survey of the Peoria and 
Warsaw railroad, and having completed that dutjr, I beg leave to present 
the following report: 

By the internal improvement act of the late session of the Legislature^ 
this road is to extend from the town of Peoria, on the Illinois river, to War- 
saw, on the Mississippi, about four miles below the lower rapids, passing 
through the towns of Canton, in Fulton county, Macomb, the seat of jus- 
tice for McDonough county, and Carthage, the county seat of Hancock 
county. 

It has been deemed proper to divide the road into four divisions: the first 5 
extending from Peoria to Canton, the second, from Canton to Macomb, the 
third, from Macomb to Carthage, and the fourth, from Carthage to Warsaw, 

1st Division. 

The country, in a direct line between Peoria and Canton, is not favorable 
to the location of a railroad, on account of the numerous valleys and 
ravines caused by the head branches of the Big and Little Lamarsh, Cop- 
peras, and several smaller creeks. It is, therefore, necessary to deviate from 
a direct line, either to the south, by following down the bottoms of the 
Illinois river about twenty miles, then ascending the bluff on a grade of 
forty feet per mile, cross the valley of Copperas creek, thence north to Can- 



[ 259 ] 80 

ton ; or to the north, ascending the bluff at Peoria, and, after crossing the 
valley of Kickapoo creek, gain the high prairie ridge north of the head 
waters of the above named creeks. Both these routes being feasible, it 
was necessary, in order to form a correct opinion of their relative advan- 
tages, to survey each of them; this was accordingly done, and the estimate 
of the two lines are herewith presented, and a description of the country, 
with the obstacles to be encountered on each route. 

Bottom route. 

The formation of the bluffs along the Illinois river are of such a nature, 
that the numerous small streams which flow into it, from the high prairies, 
cut into bluffs, deep and often wide ravines, and the earth, thus washed from 
them, is deposited in the bottoms in ridges, and on the top of these ridges 
are found the small creeks or branches which will necessarily increase the 
expense of crossing them. As the line ascends the bluff, it is obliged to 
cross ravines caused by these small branches, the embankments conse- 
quently increasing in depth as the line ascends the bluff. After ascending 
the bluff about two miles and gaining near the top of it, the valley of Cop- 
peras creek presents itself as the most serious obstacle on this route. The 
whole length of embankment across this valley is three thousand two hun- 
dred feet, (sixty-six hundredths of a mile,) and the height of the grade line 
above the bottom ninety feet. The width of the bottom is short, (four 
hundred feet,) there being a strip of bench or table land about twelve hun- 
dred feet in width. The average height of the grade line above this table 
is sixty-five feet. The cost of crossing this valley, of course, depends on 
the plan adopted. 

I have estimated the expense required to build a solid earth embankment. 
On the west side of Copperas creek valley the ground is nearly level, and 
covered with a stinted growth of oaks, commonly denominated barrens. 
Through this timber the line continues about two miles, then enters a 
prairie, and follows the same to Canton ; distance, by way of bottom route, 
thirty miles. 

Prairie route. 

The bluffs at Peoria are of a different formation from those generally 
bordering on the Illinois river, there being a strip of table land from one to 
two miles in width, and eighty feet above the river. To gain this table 
land (according to the line at present established) will require a grade of 
forty seven and five-tenths feet per mile. From this table the line ascends 
the second bluff to the high prairie, and continues on the same about one 
and three-fourths of a mile, where it reaches the valley of Kickapoo creek. 
The valley of this creek, at the point of crossing, is one thousand feet from 
bluff to bluff; and the bottoms are one hundred and sixty feet below the 
grade line. The plan proposed for crossing this creek is by a bridge, after 
the form of Col. Long's, supported by timber piers from the bottom : these 
are to be covered to half their height with earth brought on the road and 
dropped around their base. This will preserve the timber from decay below 
the earth, and serve as a foundation when a re-construction shall be 
required. This plan is proposed for crossing similar valleys by the chief 
engineer of the Niagara and Detroit river railroad, and the bridges are in 



81 



[259] 



use on some of the principal railroads in the country. After crossing this 
valley, the line follows a summit ridge between some small branches of 
the Kickapoo about two miles, and enters the prairie near Henry Jones's. 
From this point the line continues to Canton on a prairie ridge, forming a 
summit between the head-waters of Big and Little Lamarsh and Copperas 
creek on the south, the branches of Kickapoo and Big creek on the north. 
Distance, by the prairie route, thirty-two and two-tenths miles. 

Estimate for grading Prairie route. 
328,198 cubic yards of excavation, at 14 c. 



437,114 



1 

19 



embankment, at 15 c. - 
culvert for a branch of Copperas creek 
small culverts, at $120 
Clearing and grubbing 
Bridge over Kickapoo creek valley 

Total estimate - 



$45,949 72 


65,567 10 


500 00 


2,280 00 

1,500 00 

20,000 00 


$135,794 82 



Estimate for grading Bottom route. 

(Peoria and Copperas creek section, 22 miles/ 
179,600 cubic yards excavation, at 14 c. 



183,076 <• 



embankment, at 15c. 



Bridges over Kickapoo, Big and Little Lamarsh 
38 small culverts, at $130 
Clearing and grnbbins: 



Total estimate - 



Copperas creek section, two miles. 

287,438 cubic yards excavation, at 14 e. - 

802,409 « "■ embankment, at 15 c. 
Viaduct - 

2 culverts, at $130 - - - 

Clearing and grubbing ... 

Total estimate - 

Copperas creek section to Canton, six miles. 

20,159 cubic yards excavation, at 14 cents - 
57,975 cubic yards embankment, at 15 cents 
8 small culverts, at $130 
Clearing and grubbing ... 

Total cost of bottom route - 
Total cost of prairie route - 

Favor of prairie route - 

6 



$25,144 00 

27,; 61 40 

4,700 00 

4,940 00 

13,976 00 

$76,221 40 



$40,241 32 
120,361 35 

3,000 00 
260 00 

1,400 00 

$165,262 67 



$2,822 26 

8,696 25 

1,040 00 

600 00 

$254,642 58 
135,794 82 

$118,847 76 



[ 259 ] 82 

Second division, Canton to Macomb, 36 7-10 miles* 

The only points on this division where extra expense will be required^ 
are the valleys of Spoon river and Big creek ; the latter is about one mile 
west of Canton, and presents the same general characteristics of all the 
streams throughout this country, viz: deep valleys, (or what may be more pro- 
perly denominated ravines.) abrupt and broken bluffs, and uneven ground on 
either side, caused by their small tributaries. The only point near the di- 
rect line where it is possible to reach the main valley of Big creek, without 
crossing several of these small branches, is south of the town of Canton. It 
was therefore necessary to run the line south through the town, before at- 
tempting to run westerly in the general direction of the road. To cross 
this valley, will require an embankment thirty feet high, and about four 
hundred feet in length, with an ascending and descending grade of thirty- 
seven and thirty-six hundredths feet per mile. 

After crossing the valley of Big creek, and passing through the adjoining 
timber, the line enters upon Totten's prairie, remarkable for its regularity 
and smoothness of surface. This prairie is -narrow, forming a summit be- 
tween the branches of Big creek and Spoon river on the south, and Put- 
nam's creek on the north. The line continues down this prairie, (passing 
through the town of Centreville,) about twelve and a half miles, then enters 
the valley of Boughman's branch, and continues down the same to Spoon 
river* 

By reference to the table of grades, it will be seen that I have adopted 
grades of 60 7-10ths feet per mile, for two and a half miles, and 44 9-10ths 
feet per mile for 4,400 feet. 

By a resolution of the board of commissioners of public works, the grades 
on all the railorads in the State are limited to maximum of forty feet per 
mile. In compliance with that requisition, 1 have estimated the expense of 
constructing the road down this valley on that grade. It may be proper 
here to remark, that if this latter grade is adopted, it will require the exca- 
vation to be made below the surface of water in the branches near its source. 
It will therefore be necessary to excavate the road bed wider than usual, in 
order to admit drains of sufficient width to carry off the water which would 
naturally flow into it. It may also be advisable to construct drains on -each 
side of the excavation, on the natural surface, to prevent injury to the slopes 
from washing. 

After descending the valley of Boughman's branch, the line enters the 
valley of, and crosses Spoon river, about one quarter of a mile above Colonel 
Ball's mill. Alter crossing the bottoms, it is necessary to follow down the 
west bluff, about one and three-fourths mile, then cutting through a spur 
of the same between the river and Harris's branch the line enters the valley 
of the latter. This branch presents the same general features as the one on 
the opposite side of the river, but being longer, it will admit of grade thirty- 
nine and seven-tenths feet per mile, until near its source, when the same 
necessity occurs for adopting a steeper grade as at the head of Boughman's 
branch ; it does not, however, require one so steep, being fifty-two and five 
tenths feet per mile for one and three-fourths mile. If a grade of forty 
feet per mile is adopted, the same extra expense will be required as at the 
head of the branch on the opposite side of the river. 

From the head of Harris's branch to Macomb, (twelve miles,) the line is 
straight, passing over a large prairie, slightly undulating ; and by adopting 
ithe grade to the sifrfaee, little expense will be required for grading, 



83 [ 259 ] 

&tlmate for grading second division, thirty-si-x and seven-tenths viiles ; 
Canton to the head of Bough-marts branchy fourteen miles. 

85,253 cubic yards of excavation, at 14 cents - - $11,935 42 

100,423 cubic yards of embankment, at 15 cents - - 15,063 45 

4 culverts, at $120 480 00 

Clearing and grubbing - 600 00 

Total estimate ..... $28,078 00 



Prom the head of Boughmarts to the head of Harris's branch, ten and 

three-fourths miles. 

£7,317 cubic yards of excavation, at 14 cents 
54,063 cubic yards of excavation, at 15 cents 
9S,424 cubic yards of embankment, at 15 cents 
55,210 cubic yards of embankment, at 16 cents 
2,550 cubic yards rock excavation, $1 50 
9 culverts, at $120 - 
1 culvert - 

450 cubic yards slope wail, at $1 
Clearing and grubbing 

Total estimate - 7 ...-.■ . 



$6,624 38 


8,109 45 


14,763 60 


8,833 60 


3,825 00 


1,080 00 


200 00 


450 00 


3,800 00 


$47,686 03 


ifth miles. 


$2,245 74 


5,092 20 


360 00 


5,000 00 


$88,462 84 



Prom head of Harris's branch to Macomb, eleven and one-fifth miles 

16,041 cubic yards of excavation, at 14 cents 
33,948 cubic yards of embankment, at 15 cents 
3 culverts, at $120 - 

Bridges over Spoon river and Big creek 

Total cost of grading 2d division 



Estimate for grading down the valley of Boughmarts branch on grades 
of sixty and seven-tenths and forty -four and nine-tenths feet per mile, 
three and six-tenths miles. 

On sixty seven-tenths and forty-four nine-tenths feet per mile $12,576 44 
On forty feet per mile - 80,005 07 

Favor of steeper grades . . - - $67,428 63 



Third division^ Macomb to Carthage, twenty-eight miles. 

This division embraces a portion of the country drained by the waters 
©f Crooked creek, and to cross its valley is the only point of difficulty. 



f 259 ] 84 

On a direct line between Macomb and Carthage, this 'creek is divided mi&' 
two principal forks, called " the East and West forks," which form a junc- 
tion about twelve miles west, and three and a half south of Macomb. The 
route to whicli the line is confined for twelve miles west of this place, is a 
narrow, flat prairie, directly parallel with the East fork, and forming a 
summit between that and Troublesome creek. The line continues on this 
prairie, parallel with the East fork, till after its junction with the West, then 
descends to the valley of the main creek, through the valley of McDonough's 
branch. At the head of this branch, and in the points of the bluff, throtagh 
which it is necessary to cut, sandstone rock is found near the surface. 
This is the only point on the road where there is any amount of rock 
excavation. After crossing Crooked creek, and passing over a prairie 
bottom from one-half to two feet below high water mark, the line enters 
the valley of Asher's branch, and continues up the same to its head. This 
valley is favorable to the location of a railroad, requiring but few curves^ 
and those of large radii, and grades of twenty-six and four-tenths and 
twenty-nine feet per mile. From the head of Asher's branch to Carthage, 
it is necessary to cross the valleys of three small branches of Crooked creek, 
running in a northerly direction, requiring short and deep embankments, 
and one of them an ascending and descending grade of thirty-eight and 
five-tenths, and thirty-five and eleven hundredths feet per mile ; otherwise 
the line passes over an even prairie, and enters Carthage on the south side.- 
I also examined a route following neara direct line between the extremes 
of this division, and crossing both forks of Crooked creek. The objections 
to this route are the difficulty of crossing both forks, each of which presents 
the same obstacles as the valley of the main creek, although the distance 
would be from two to three miles less. 

Estimate of grading third division, twenty -eight miles. 

105,006 cubic yards of excavation, at 14 cents - - $14,709 24 

32,181 cubic yards of excavation, at 15 cents 
14.545 cubic yards rock excavation, at $1 50 
177,556 cubic yards of embankment, at 15 cents - 
119,429 cubic yards of embankment, at 16 cents - 
10 culverts, at $120 
2 culverts - 

1 bridge over Crooked creek 
Clearing and grubbing - 

Total estimate - 



Fourth division, Carthage to Warsaw, nineteen miles. 

Between Carthage and the timber adjoining the Mississippi, is a prairie 
of laro-e extent, drained by the head branches of Crooked, Beaver, and 
Warsaw creeks. To avoid their valleys, it is necessary to deviate from a 
direct line a short distance to the north and south. Approaching the Mis- 
sissippi, the same peculiarity is presented as near the Illinois river, viz: the 
ground ascending towards the river forming a ridge parallel with it from 



4,827 


15' 


21,819 00' 


26,633 


40 


19,108 


64 


1,200 


00 


2,000 


00 


2,000 00 


2,050 


00 


$94,347 43 



85 



£259] 



sixty to eighty feet above the general surface of the country. To gain the 
summit of this ridge, an ascending grade of thirty eight feet per mile is 
required. The line then descends along this ridge to the bluff, in the rear 
of Warsaw. At this point, in order to gain the whole descent in one tan- 
gent, and on favorable ground, is required a curve of five hundred feet 
radius, which is the only one under twelve thousand feet on the whole 
road. The grade adopted clown this bluff to the river is one hundred and 
eighty-four feet per mile. On this grade passengers and light merchandise 
can be transported with a single locomotive, but the heavier articles of 
transportation will require extra horse-power, or an assistant locomotive. 

The country near the Mississippi is exceedingly broken and irregular in 
its formation, and much care and examination will be required before the 
best possible location can be made. 



Estimate of grading fourth division, nineteen miles. 



225,631 cubic yards of excavation, at 14 cents 
200,888 cubic yards of embankment, at 15 cents 
22,376 cubic yards of embankment, at 16 cents 

8 culverts, at $120 - 

3 culverts, at $200 - 



Clearing and grubbing 



Total estimate 



$31,588 34 

30,133 20 

3,580 00 

960 00 

600 00 

1,000 00 

$67,861 54 



Summary. 



1st division — prairie route 
2d division 

3d division - * - 
4th division 



$3,331 61 per mile for grading. 



$ 135,794 82 

88,462 84 
94,347 43 
67,861 54 

$386,466 63 



The following is a table of the grades adopted from Peoria to Warsaw 



[259] 



86 
TABLE of grades. 



9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

16 
17 

18 
19 

20 
21 

22 
23 

24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 

30 

31 
32 
33 
34 

35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 

AR 

4^ 
8® . 
14 



Location. 



Peoria 



Cross Kickapoo creek 



Prairie 
Prairie 
Prairie 
Prairie 
Prairie 
Prairie 
Prairie 

Cross branch of Cop- 
peras 

Canton 

Big creek 

Totton's prairie 
Totton's prairie 
Totton's prairie 
Totton's prairie 
Totton's prairie 
Centreville 



Valley of Bough man's 

branch 
Valley of Boughman's 

branch 
Cross Spoon river 
Along Spoon river bluff 



Valley of Harris's br'nch 

Valley of Harris's br'ncl 

Fulton county 

McDonough county _ 

McDonough county _ 

Prairie 

Prairie 

Prairie 

Prairie 

Prairie 

Prairie 

Prairie 

Prairie 

Prairie 

Prairie 

Macomb 



o a 

1° 
l."S 

Q 



Miles. 

0?95 

2.80 

3.41 

5.30 

6.30 

7.20 

10.04 

10.99 

12.40 

16.10 

17.99 

19.32 

20.45 

24.62 

27.08 
31.06 
32.01 
32.99 
34.28 
35.83 
36.93 
38.64 
39.50 
40.08 
40.91 
41.86 
46.21 
47.08 

49.20 

50.04 
51.60 
52.08 
52.42 
53.14 
53.98 
55.49 
57.16 
57.95 
58.52 
5". 28 
60.15 
60.61 
61.18 
61.83 
62.69 
63.45 
64.20 
65.53 
67.80 
68.75 
69.51 



bo 

G 



bo 



Miles 

0.95 
1.85 
0.61 

1.89 
O.99 
0.90 
2 84 
0.95 
1.41 
3.70 
1.89 
1.33 
1.13 
1.17 

2.46 
3.98 
0.95 
0.98 
1.29 
1.55 
1.10 
1.71 
0.86 
0.5& 
0.83 
0.95 
4.35 
0.87 

2.12 

0.84 
1.59 
0.45 
0.34 
0.70 
0.84 
1.51 
1.67 
0.79 
0.57 
0.70 
0.87 
0.46 
0.56 
0.75 
0.76 
0.76 
0.75 
1.33 
2.27 
0.95 
0.76 



Inclination of grade. 



Direction. 



Ascending 

Ascending 

Level 

Ascending 

Ascending 

Descending 

Ascending 

Descending 

Ascending 

Level 

Ascending 

Ascending 

Ascending 

Descending 

Descending- 
Descending 
Level 

Descending 
Ascending^ 
Ascending 
Descending 
Descending 
Ascending 
Ascending 
Descending 
Ascending 
Descending 
Descending 

Descending 

Descending 
Level 
Ascending 
Ascending 
Descending 
Ascending 
Ascending 
Ascending 
Ascending 
Level 
Ascending 
Descending 
Ascending 
Descending 
Ascending 
Descending 
Ascending- 
Ascending 
Level 
Ascending 
Level 
Ascending 



Per 
mile. 



Feet. 

47?50 

38.28 

55?44 
12.40 
11.22 

9.77 

9.24 

10.56 

10756 
4.49 

14.00 
2.64 

13.20 
182. 16 

30736 

36.96 

6 

7 
3 
4 

5 

5 

7 



60 
92 
17 
75 
28 
81 
09 
5.02 
3.70 



60.70 

44.90 

9?24 
39.60 
16.37 

29.06 
39.60 
52.80 
10.62 

13720 
15.80 

3.96 
14.94 

2.00 

9.20 
15.84 

9.24 

6734 

7759 



Total elevation of feet. 



For each grade. 



Rise. Fall. 



Feet. 

45700 
76.00 

105700 
12.20 

27775 

15700 

2o7oo 

5.95 
15.90 



47.60 
10.25 



4.14 
3.00 

77oo 



4.20 
12.19 

24720 

59.88 

88.00 

8.00 

io7oo 

L80 
i7so 

12700 

7.00 

14740 

5760 



Feet. 



10.30 

8775 



11.00 

32.50 
72.45 

29790 



8.70 
5.40 

4784 

21 786 
3.19 

128.80 

37.20 



11.78 



13.80 

8750 

77oo 



Above 
Peoria 
lake. 



Feet. 
41.00 
86.00 
157.00 
157.00 
262.00 
274.20 
264.00 
291.75 
283.00 
298.00 
298.00 
318.00 
323.95 
309.85 
328.83 

296.35 
223.90 
223.90 
194.00 
241.60 
251.85 
243.15 
237.75- 
241.89 
244.89 
240.05 
247.05 
225.19 
222.00 

93.20 

56.00 

56.00 

60.20 

72.39 

61.92 

86.12 

146.00 

234.00 

242.00 

242.00 

252.00 

238.20 

240.00 

231.50 

233.00 

226.00 

238.0CV 

245.00 

245.00 

259.40 

259.40 

265.00 



87 
TABLE— Continued. 



[259 ] 



q3 

2 

fcuo 


Location. 


O e8 


O 

a 
o 


\ 
Inclination of grade. 


Total elevation in feet. 


IB 






For each grade. 


Above 


03 




1° 


M*q 


Direction. 


Per 






Peoria 


a 

3 




fa 


g fib 




mile. 






lake. 


1 




w J; 


J 






Rise. 


Fall. 








Miles. 


Miles. 




Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet. 


Feel. 


52 


Prairie 


70.08 


0.57 


Descending- 


7.39 


_ 


4.20 


260.80 


53 


_ _ _ 


71.20 


1.13 


Level 








260.80 


54 


- 


72. 16 


0.95 


Descending 


7.39 




77oo 


253.80 


55 




73.48 


1.32 


Level 








253.80 


56 


_ 


74.24 


0.76 


Descending 


7?65 




5^80 


248.00 


57 


- 


75.00 


0.76 


Ascending 


5.28 


4700 




252.00 


58 


_ 


75.67 


0.67 


Level 








252.00 


59 


- 


76.33 


0.66 


Ascending 


10?56 


87oo 




260.00 


60 


- 


77.73 


1.40 


Descending 


7.92 




11.10 


248.90 


61 


- 


79.55 


1.82 


Level 








248.90 


m 


- 


80.69 


1.14 


Descending 


21~58 


_ 


24730 


224.00 


63 


- - 


81.25 


0.56 


Descending 


12.61 




6.60 


218.00 


64 


Valley of McDonough's 


















branch 


83.52 


2.27 


Descending 


58.00 


_ 


132.00 


86.00 


65 


Cross Crooked creek _ 


85.61 


2.69 


Level 


_ 


_ 


_ 


86.00 


66 


Valley of Asher's branch 


87.31 


1.70 , 


Ascending 


26.40 


45.00 




131.00 


67 


Valley of Asher's branch 


88.45 


1.14 


Ascending 


29.00 


33.00 


_ 


164.00 


68 


- 


83.94 


0.49 


Descending 


10.56 




5.20 


158,80 


m 


Cross Wilson's branch 


89.96 


1.02 


Ascending 


29.00 


29.70 


_ 


188.50 


70 


— — _ _ 


90.53 


0.57 


Ascending 


21.12 


12.00 




200.50 


7t 


Cross Owen's branch _ 


91.59 


1.06 


Descending 


35.11 




37.34 


163.16 


72 


_ _ _ _ 


92.87 


1.28 


Ascending 


38.50 


49764 


_ 


212.80 


73 


_ 


93.94 


1.07 


Ascending 


4.22 


4.48 


_ 


217.2S 


74 


Cross Carthage branch 


94.55 


0.61 


Descending 


27.98 




17.08 


200.20 


75 


Prairie 


95.34 


0.79 


Ascending 


15.05 


1L97 


_ 


212.17 


76 


Prairie 


96.02 


0.68 


Level 


_ 


_ 


_ 


212.17 


77 


Prairie 


96.97 


0.95 


Ascending 


26.40 


25.00 


_ 


237.17 


78 


Pass Carthage 


98.86 


1.89 


Ascending 


14.73 


26.00 


_ 


263.17 


79 


Prairie 


100.19 


0.33 


Descending 


3.96 


_ 


5.25 


257.92 


80 


Prairie 


100.37 


0.18 


Level 






_ 


257.92 


81 


Cross small branch of 


















Bear creek _ 


101.33 


0.96 


Descending 


23.23 




22.00 


235.92 


82 


- - _ _. 


102.65 


1.32 


Descending 


3.70 




4.92 


231.00 


83 


- 


103.24 


0.57 


Descending 


11.35 


_ 


7 00 


224.00 


84 


— — ■ _ _ 


109.85 


6.61 


Level 


_ 


_ 


_ 


224.00 


85 


_ _ _ _ 


111.97 


2.12 


Ascending 


38.28 


81.20 




305.20 


88 


Summit of ridge 


112.31 


0.34 


Level 






_ 


305.20 


87 


Along ridge _ 


113.82 


1.52 


Descending 


39760 


_ 


60.00 


245.20 


88 


Along ridge _ 


114.77 


0.95 


Descending 


31.68 


_ 


30.00 


215.20 


89 


Along ridge _ 


115.18 


0.41 


Descending 


34.84 




14.50 


200.70 


90 


Along ridge _ 


115.23 


0.05 


Level 








200.70 


91 


Warsaw 


115.97 


0.74 


Descending 


184780 


_ 


136750 


64.20 


92 


Mississippi river 


116.00 


0.03 


Level 


- 


- 


- 


64.20 



The foregoing estimates are liberal, and cannot fail to build the road. 
If frame work is adopted in place of heavy embankments, the first cost 
may be much reduced. 

The whole length of the road (by way of the prairie route, first division) 
is one hundred and sixteen miles, passing through a country celebrated for 
the fertility of its soil and the salubrity of its climate, rapidly settling with 
an industrious and enterprising population, and who have evinced, through- 



[259] 



88 



out the whole length of the road, a commendable interest in its progress. 
Liberal donations of land for depots have been offered in some of the towns 
upon the line. Although the grades are undulating, to suit the surface of 
the country, they will not suffer in comparison with any road of equal 
extent in the country. 

The following table will give the gross load with which an engine of 
eight tons weight can ascend grades varying from a level to one hundred 
and fifty feet per mile : 



Ascension per mile. 


Tons. 


Ascension per mile. 


Tons. 


Level. 


160.00 


50 


50.05 


5 


134.39 


60 


43.33 


10 


113.79 


70 


38.07 


15 


101.12 


80 


33.68 


17 


96.03 


90 


30.10 


20 


87.58 


100 


27.10 


30 


70.63 


150 


17.14 


40 


58.80 




. 



By applying the grades, in the foregoing table of grades, to the above, the 
gross load of one engine is ascertained, 

Curvatures. 

With the exception of the curve at Warsaw, there will be required no 
curves under one thousand two hundred feet radii. The majority of them 
are from two to twelve hundred feet, and on a final location they may be 
much improved. 

All which is respectfully submitted, by 

Your obedient, humble servant, &c, 

JOHN W. 1NGERSQLL. 
To James Seymour, Esq. 

State op Illinois, ) 
Fayette county. \ 
Personally came J. W. Ingersoll before me, the undersigned, an acting 
justice of the peace within and for said county, and made oath that the 
facts and statements in his report, as engineer, signed by him, are true 3 
according to the best of his knowledge and belief. 

[l. s.] Witness my hand and seal, this 9th of December, 1837. 

ALLEN McPHAIL, J. P. 



Engineers' Office, Western District, 

Jacksonville^ October 29, 1837. 
Gentlemen : In conformity with the instructions of the acting com- 
missioner' of the first judicial district, and the plan of operations previously 
adopted with reference to the speedy prosecution of all the surveys in this 
district, the necessary arrangements were made as soon as practicable after 
the final location of the first division of the Northern Cross railroad, to 



89 [ 259 ] 

commence the survey and location of a route for the Pekin and Blooming- 
ton railroad, and the continuation of the Northern Cross railroad beyond 
Springfield. The requisite instructions were issued, two brigades of engi- 
neers organized, and the survey of the former road assigned lo Mr. Win. 
Pollock, and the latter to Mr. Frederick Hawn. Subsequently instructions 
were received from the acting commissioner of the first judicial district, 
requiring the immediate preparation for contract of that part of the Pekin 
and Bloomington railroad between Pekin and Tremont, and of that part of 
the third division of the Northern Cross railroad between Springfield and 
the northern bank of the Sangamon river. Accordingly the definitive loca- 
tion of both portions of the respective roads have been completed, as soon 
as possible, by the gentlemen to whose charge they were confided, and their 
reports and estimates are herewith transmitted. 

The country between Pekin and Tremont, as was anticipated, presents 
great obstacles to the economical construction of that part of the road. 
We have, however, been fortunate in being able to adopt a very direct 
route; the value of which location is enhanced by the long and steep grades 
which have been found unavoidable, and which would have been more 
objectionable in curvatures. The cost of graduating the northern route, 
through Park street, in Tremont, which is undoubtedly the cheapest and 
most direct, amounts to $100,294, which, added to the probable cost of the 
superstructure for nine and fifty-nine hundredths miles, at $6,110 per mile, 
makes the total cost $174,778, or $18,225 per mile, including an allowance 
of 10 per cent, for superintendence and contingent expenses. As the bad 
health of Mr. Pollock and his party, and the unfavorable state of the 
weather, has rendered it impossible to extend the examinations to Bloom- 
ington, within the time fixed for letting the 1st division of the road, I am 
unable to state how much the average cost of the whole road may be reduced 
by the evidently more favorable character of the residue of the route. 

The examinations of the route of the Northern Cross railroad has been 
extended east of Springfield to Decatur, and the country sufficiently ex- 
amined to ascertain the practicability of obtaining a very cheap and favor- 
able route, though the location is by no means fixed, except for the first 
seven miles east of Springfield, which has been definitively located, and is 
now ready for contract, agreeably to the instructions of the acting commis- 
sioner. 

The route selected for this part of the 3d division is unusually favorable, 
notwithstanding the unavoiably great expense of crossing the Sangamon 
river. The length of the bridge across the river I have estimated at 300 
feet, or two spans of 150 feet each; to decide whether this is sufficient to 
pass its waters or not, it will be necessary to examine the stream when 
high, an opportunity for which will probably occur the ensuing winter or 
spring. The cost of graduating this portion of the 3d division of the 
Northern Cross railroad six and sixty-six hundredths miles in length, is 
estimated at $58,237, and the superstructure, at $6,339 per mile, at $42,219; 
amounting to $110,483, or $16,569 per mile, including 10 per cent, for 
superintendence and contingencies. The remaining part of the route to 
Decatur is so favorable to the economical construction of the road, that 
there can be no doubt but that the average cost of the whole division will 
be less than $9,000 per mile. 

The above estimates are predicated upon the value of labor and materials 
at this time; but I must here express my conviction that, unless too large 



[ 259 ] 90 

a quantity of work is put under contract at once in this State, the former 
must soon fall, as the fact is notorious that most of the public works in the 
east are finished, and that great numbers of laborers are compelled to pro- 
ceed west to obtain employment. 

I will here suggest the propriety of deferring putting under contract, or 
at least laying down, the superstructure of that part of the Northern Cross 
railroad between Springfield and the Sangamon river, until the completion 
of the graduation between Jacksonville and Springfield ; by so doing, the 
embankments will have an opportunity to settle, especially in the valley of 
the Sangamon, and the superstructure, when laid, will be less liable to 
derangement, and more durable. 

To insure the greatest durability of timber, it should be cut in Decem- 
ber or January: this is an old rule. There is little doubt, however, but 
that timber is just as good cut in the summer, provided it is immediately 
deprived of its bark, and squared so as to take off the sap ; but it is difficult 
to enforce a strict compliance with such a requisition. The timber for the 
bridges on the first and second divisions Northern Cross railroad will be 
cut this winter. Models of these important structures, including that 
across the Sangamon, are now being made, so that there can be no possible 
error in their construction ; the plan is one that admits of the renewal and 
repair of any of the parts with facility. 

The plan of the superstructure of the roads is the same as that adopted 
on the 1st and 2d divisions of the Northern Cross railroad, viz : mud sills, 
supporting cross ties, which connect the longitudinal rails. This seems 
to be the most substanial plan that could be employed consistent with a 
proper economy, and is capable of ready adjustment. 

It would be prudent, I think, at this time, to provide for the future repairs 
of the roads, by establishing nurseries of timber. The locust is the best adapt- 
ed to our deep loamy soil, and is the most durable timber for the purpose ; 
there is sometimes a difficulty in making the seeds germinate, but they are 
very certain to do so if boiling hot water is poured upon them, and they 
are suffered to stand 24 hours, or until they swell. The cost of 160 acres 
of land, fencing, ploughing, planting, interest of cost and tending for ten 
years, could not exceed $8,000, and "it would produce at least 50,000 trees, 
a sufficient quantity of timber to entirely renew the superstructure on 
thirty miles of road. The cost of the present inferior timber employed 
greatly exceeds the above estimate, and is certainly of not one-fourth the 
value. 

It is highly probable that, when it becomes necessary to renew the present 
superstructure on the Northern Cross railroad, it will be found expedient to 
relay it upon a continuous wall of masonry, the materials for which can 
be cheaply transported on the road, in which event less timber will be 
required. 

In the accompanying papers marked A and B will be found the reports 
of Messrs. Pollock and Hawn, and in those marked C and D, estimates, in 
detail, of the respective roads prepared for contract. The maps and pro- 
files will be forwarded as soon as it is practicable to execute duplicates. 

With high respect, 

Your obedient servant. 

J. M. BUCKLIN, 
Principal Engineer Western District. 

To the honorable Board op Public Works 

Of the State of Illinois, 



91 [ 259 ] 

Jacksonville, October 25, 1837. 
Sir: I respectfully submit the following report, and accompanying map 
and profiles, which exhibit the result of an examination and survey for 
that portion of the contemplated Pekin and Bloomington railroad between 
the former place and Tremont, a distance of nine miles and a half; and 
also of an experimental line from Tremont to Mackinaw town, a distance 
of seven miles and a half more. 

Agreeably with your instructions, 1 commenced the survey at Pekin two 
months ago. It was your expectation that, before quitting the field, I would 
run an experimental line the whole distance from Pekin to Bloomington, 
and to complete th» location from the former place as far east as Tremont, 
and as much farther as practicable, this fail. It is probable your expecta- 
tion would have been realized, had the weather proved favorable ; but the 
operations were considerably retarded by Jong-continued rains, and still 
more so by sickness, probably caused by exposure in camping out in wet 
weather. The party commenced taking sick on the 10th of September, 
and in a few days after, the hands were nearly all afflicted with the ague 
and fever, in consequence of which the operations were suspended, or 
nearly so, and could not be resumed until a new set of hands were procured 
from a distance. 

Previous to commencing the survey, I made a reconnoissance of the 
country between Pekin and Tremont, and found it more unfavorable for 
the construction of a railroad than I had anticipated, heavy excavations 
and embankments being unavoidable. The most prominent obstacles 
that present themselves between those two places, are the bluff, or an abrupt 
ascent from the valley of the Illinois river, which commences near two miles 
east of Pekin, and an elevated ridge intervening between Pekin and the 
bluff. Also, James ridge, situated about two miles and a half west of Tre- 
mont, and the adjoining valley of Dillon's creek, between the ridge and 
Tremont. 

To ascend from Pekin to the high land and overcome the bluff, two 
routes were presented, viz: " Indian Hollow" and " Hayne's Hollow.' 1 Lines 
were run up each of them to their heads, by which I found the former to 
be decidedly preferable, on several accounts. Firstly : That its direction 
is the most favorable, it not exceeding half a mile from a straight line be- 
tween Pekin and Tremont, whilst the other varies from it nearly two miles. 
Secondly : That it is longer, and will admit of a grade of fifty feet per mile, 
whilst the other would require eighty. And thirdly : That the ridge before 
mentioned as intervening between Pekin and the bluff, presents a less 
difficulty in that direction than in the other. Hayne's Hollow was there- 
fore abandoned, and the line continued from the head of Indian Hollow 
eastwardly, crossing Lost creek and other small streams running southerly, 
and passing James's ridge, where a favorable depression occurs about half 
a mile south of Mr. James's. From thence, continuing due east the greater 
part of the distance to Tremont, running on a line between sections of land, 
and passing through South street, the dividing line between the old and 
new town of Tremont, so called : the one is the original town, and the other 
an addition layed out at a subsequent period. 

From Tremont the line was continued to Mackinaw town, crossing 
Prairie creek, Mud creek, and the Mackinaw river. The western bluff of 
the| Mackinaw was descended at a favorable place, commencing two miles 
from Tremont, in the direction of Stout's mill. The valley at this place is 



[ 259 ] 92 

wide, owing to the junction of the valley of Mud creek. The line passes 
about a half a mile north of Stout's mill, through a favorable depression in 
the point of a ridge that makes down between the Mackinaw and Mud 
creek. It crosses the Mackinaw river near three-fourths of a mile above 
Stout's mill, and strikes the eastern bluff of the Mackinaw nearly one mile 
and a half below the town of Mackinaw. We have, then, in order to reach 
the level of Mackinaw town, to rise 103 feet. To accomplish that in the 
distance above mentioned, would require a grade of a fraction over sixty- 
eight feet per mile ; and the bluff being much broken, heavy embankments 
would be required within that distance. The grade could be modified by 
extending an embankment out from the foot of the bluff, or by selecting 
that part of the town which lies on the side of the bluff for the entrance of 
the road. The latter would probably be the least expensive. 

The line which I have been describing, bends to the south nearly one 
mile and a quarter from a direct line between Tremont and Mackinaw ; 
but from the reconnoissance which I have made of the country, I am of the 
opinion that it is close upon the most eligible route that can be selected. 
To adopt a more northern route would involve the necessity of encounter- 
ing the bluffs or banks of Mud creek, which would be attended with con- 
siderable expense. On the present line they are avoided, and the stream 
itself is crossed in the valley of the Mackinaw. But the greatest difficulty, 
it appears to me, on a more northern route, would be the valley of the 
Mackinaw. Opposite Mackinaw town, in the direction of Tremont, I 
would suppose it to be three-fourths of a mile wide, and from that direction 
to reach the town, which is situated immediately on the eastern bluff, at 
the height above the valley of near one hundred feet, would certainly be dif- 
ficult, at a moderate grade, and a reasonable expense. A more minute ex- 
amination of the country, however, would be proper before the final deter- 
mination of this part of the route. 

A line was projected direct from the western bluff of the Mackinaw, at 
the point before mentioned, to a depression in James's ridge, nearly half a 
mile north of Mr. James's residence, passing a little obliquely through the 
centre of the public square of the old town of Tremont, and passing Dillon's 
creek at an eligible point ; thence direct to the head of Indian Hollow, cross- 
ing the intermediate streams and hollows higher up than the former line, 
and consequently less expensive on account of these not being so deep. 
The straightness of this line, however, recommends it more than the dif- 
ference of expense, it not varying to exceed four hundred feet from a straight 
line for the distance of nearly eight miles. 

Few curves will be required, and the radius of none of them will be 
shorter than one thousand four hundred and thirty feet. A very small 
proportion of the road will be level, and the grades will range from ten to 
fifty feet per mile. It was not expected by you that the grades would ex- 
ceed forty feet per mile, but to adopt a less inclination than fifty feet on 
some parts of the road would be attended with enormous expense. 

The location line commences at the top of the bank of the Illinois river 
at the foot of Market street in Pekin, ancTcontiues out said street for near 
half a mile, when it bears to the left in the direction of Indian Hollow, 
cutting obliquely across the lots of one or two additions to the town. 

The elevation of the line at the commencement is thirty-six feet above 
low water mark in the river, and continues level for seven hundred feet. 
The next one thousand feet, which reaches the eastern boundary of the 



93 [ 2S9 ] 

public square, is inclined at the rate of ten feet per mile. The whole 
distance so far is seventeen hundred feet, and nearly level, it will be ample 
space for the erection of depots and other buildings, and for the transaction 
of all business connected with the road at that place. 

Near the eastern boundary of the public square a grade of fifty feet per 
mile commences, which is continued to the table land at the head of Indian 
Hollow, a distance of three miles and twenty-one hundred feet. Thence 
on the straight line before described, as far as James's ridge, and also from 
there to Tremont, with the exception of a slight variation to the left between 
that and Dillon's creek, and also to the right as it approaches the town of 
Tremont, in order to pass through Park street, instead of passing obliquely 
across the lots of the town. 

A location line was also ruu from the northern crossing of Dillon's creek, 
through South street, to the western boundary of Tremont. 

Rock for the construction of bridges, culverts, &c, will be inconvenient, 
unless new discoveries of quarries are made, which I think probable might 
be if the necessary examinations were made. There are indications of rock 
along the banks of all the larger streams. Those quarries that are known 
to exist at present have not required much ingenuity or science to discover 
them, as the rock most generally projected beyond the surface of the ground. 
Unless new quarries are discovered, the rock necessary for the construction 
of the road as far as Tremont will have to be taken from the bluffs of the 
Illinois river. Mr. Alexander owns a quarry about three-fourths of a mile 
from the line at the mouth of Indian Hollow, though not of so good a qual- 
ity as would be desirable. 

Timber for the use of the road, I am credibly informed, can be obtained 
along the valleys of Dillon's creek and the Mackinaw river, at the distance 
of three or four miles south of the line. There are also a number of good 
saw mills within the same distance of the line, and in the vicinity of the 
timber. An abundance of good timber might also be obtained from the vi- 
cinity of the bluff west of the Illinois river, at the distance of tour or five 
miles from Pekin. 

The country between Pekin and Mackinaw is chiefly prairie, and well 
adapted to farming purposes ; and between the former place and Tremont, 
it is pretty well settled and improved. The distance between Pekin and 
the termination of our lines in Tremont is, by the southern route, ten miles 
two hundred and sixty feet ; the northern route through Park street is nine 
and a half miles, and four hundred and eighty feet ; and the northern route, 
through South street, nine and a half miles and nine hundred and sixty feet. 

The probable expense of graduation and masonry on the first of the above 
would be one hundred and three thousand nine hundred and seventy-two 
dollars, or ten thousand three hundred and forty six dollars per mile. The 
second would be one hundred thousand two hundred and ninety-seven dol- 
lars, or ten thousand four hundred and fifty-seven dollars per mile ; and on 
the third, one hundred and one thousand eight hundred and sixty-four dol- 
lars, being at the rate of ten thousand five hundred and twenty-one dollars 
per mile. 

From Tremont to Mackinaw the expense per mile will probably be about 
the same, 

I was assisted in the survey by Mr. Woods and Mr. Hardin ; the former 
made the compass survey, and the latter took the levels, I have the plea- 



[ 259 ] 94 

sure to state that bo$i performed their respective duties industriously and 
satisfactorily. 

Your most obedient servant, 

WM. BOLLOCK, 
Senior Assistant Engineer Western District, 
James M. Bucrlin, Esq., 

Chief Engineer of the Western District. 



ESTIMATE OP THE COST OF GRADUATION. 

NORTHERN ROUTE, THROUGH PARK STREET, IN TREMONT, COMMENCING 

AT PEKIN. 

Section 1st 

Excavation, 70,847 cubic yards, at 35 cents per yard 
Excavation, 1,745 cubic yards, at 15 cents per yard - 
Embankment, 1,445 cubic yards, at 15 cents per yard 
Masonry, 25 perches, at $6 per perch 



Section 2d, 

Excavation, 66,910 cubic yards, at 35 cents per yard 
Excavation, 3)755 cubic yards, at 16 cents per yard - 
Embankment, 316 cubic yards, at 10 cents per yard - 
Masonry, 16 perches, at $5 per perch . * 



Section 3d. 

Excavation) 570 cubic yards, at 14 cents per yard 
pmbankment, 7,043 cubic yards, at 20 cents per yard 
Masonry, 40 perches, at $6 per perch 

Section Atk. 

Excavation, 13,200 cubic yards, at 22 cents pet yard 
Embankment, 3,316 cubic yards, at 16 cents per yard 
Masonry, 20 perches, at $6 per perch *> * 



$24,796 45 
261 75 
216 75 
150 00 


$25,424 95 


$23,418 50 

579 80 

31 60 

80 00 


$24,109 90 


$79 80 

1,480 80 

240 00 


$1^800 60 


$2,904 00 
530 50 
120 00 


$3,554 56 



95 [259] 

Section 5ih. 



Excavation, 17,716 cubic yards, at 20 cents per yard 
Embankment, 12,850 cubic yards, at 25 cents per yard 
Masonry, 60 perches, $6 - 



Section 6th. 

Excavation, 7,253 cubic yards, at 20 cents per yard 
Embankment, 9,476 cubic yards, at 20 cents per yard 
Masonry, 143 perches, at $7 



Section 7th. 

Excavation, 36,459 cubic yards, at 30 cents per yard 
Excavation, 2,471 cubic yards, at 16 cents per yard 
Embankment, 1,498 cubic yards, at 20 cents per yard 
Masonry, 16 perches, at $6 - - 

Grubbing .--... 



Section 8th» 

Excavation, 948 cubic yards,, at 12 cents per yard 
Embankment, 6,216 cubic yards, at 20 cents per yard 
Embankment, 28,042 cubic yards, at 26 cents per yard 
Masonry, 90 perches, at $6 - 



Section 9tk. 

Excavation, 14^637 cubic yards, at 20 cents per yard 
Embankment, 22,162 cubic yards, at 25 cents per yard 
Masonry, 230 perches, at $7 
Bridge, 40 feet span, $20 per foot * * 



$3,543 20 

3,212 50 

360 00 


$7,115 70 


$1,450 60 
1,895 20 
1,001 00 


$4,346 80 


$10,937 70 

395 36 

899 66 

96 00 

150 00 


$12,478 72 


$113 76 

1,243 20 

7,290 92 

540 00 


$9,187 88 


$2*927 40 

5,540 50 

1,610 00 

800 00 


$10,877 90 



[ 259 ] 96 

Section 10th. 

Excavation, 2,910 cubic yards, at 16 cents per yard - $465 60 

Embankment, 3,272 cubic yards - 654 40 

Masonry, 40 perches - 280 00 



$1,800 00 



NORTHERN ROUTE, PASSING THROUGH SOUTH STREET. 

The first eight sections are common to the foregoing route. 

Section 9th. 

Excavation, 20.115 cubic yards, at 20 cents per yard 
Embankment, 22,762 cubic yards, at 25 cents per yard 
Masonry, 230 perches, at $7 - 
Bridge, 40 feet span, at $20 per foot 



Section lOtk. 

Excavation, 5,260 cubic yards, at 16 cents per yard - 
Embankment, 3,000 cubic yards, at 20 cents per yard 
Masonry, 40 perches, at $7 - 



SOUTHERN ROUTE, PASSING THROUGH SOUTH STREET. 

The first three sections are common to the preceding routes. 

Section Atfu 

Excavation, 4,538 cubic yards, at 20 cents per yard * 
Embankment, 6,066 cubic yards, at 20 cents per yard 
Masonry, 20 perches, at $6 - - - 



Section &t)u 

Excavation, 4,297 cubic yards, at 16 cents per yard * 
Embankment, 32,300 cubic yards, at 25 cents per yard 
Masonry, 75 perches, at $6 - 



$4,023 00 


5,690 


50 


1,610 


00 


800 00 


$12,123 


50 


$84.1 


61 


600 


00 


280 00 


$1,721 


60 



$907 60 

1,209 20 

120 00 


$2,236 80 


$687 72 

8,075 00 

450 00 


$9,212 72 



97 [ 259 ] 

Section 6t/i. 



Excavation, 9,425 cubic yards, at 25 cents per yard - 
Embankment, 8,958 cubic yards, at 20 cents per yard 
Masonry, 30 perches, at $6 - 



Grubbing 



Section 7 th. 

Excavation, 35,934 cubic yards, at 25 cents per yard - 
Embankment, 22,737 cubic yards, at 20 cents per yard 
Bridge across Lost creek - 

Grubbing and clearing - j - ' -. - 



Section 8th. 

Excavation, 22,480 cubic yards, at 18 cents per yard - - $4,046 40 

Embankment, 3,552 cubic yards, at 20 cents per yard - 710 40 

Masonry, 40 perches, at $T - ' - - - - 280 00 



Section 9th. 

Excavation, 18,040 cubic yards, at 18 cents per yard - 
Embankment, 32,066 cubic yards, at 20 cents per yard 
Masonry, 40 perches, at $7 * - 
Bridge across Dillon's creek - 



Section 10/// > 

Excavation, 2,249 cubic yards, at 14 cents per yard - 
Embankment, 13,795 cubic yards, at 28 cents per yard 
Embankment, 1,437 cubic yards, at 20 cents per yard 
Masonry, 30 perches, at $7 - 



$1,696 50 

1,791 60 

180 00 

100 00 


$3,768 


10 


$8,933 50 

4,547 40 

1,500 00 

326 00 


$15,356 


90 



$5 ; 036 80 



$3,247 20 

6,413 20 

280 00 

2,410 00 

$12,350 40 


$314 86 

3,862 60 

287 40 

210 00 

$4,674 86 



[259] 



98 

SUMMARY. 



No. of section. 


Northern route. 


Southern route. 


Northern route through 
South street. 


1 


$25,424 95 


$25,424 95 


$25,424 95 


2 


24,109 90 


24,109 90 


24,109 90 


3 


1,800 60 


1,800 60 


1.800 60 


4 


3,554 56 


2,236 80 


3,554 56 


5 


7,115 70 


9,212 72 


7,115 70 


6 


4,346 80 


3,768 10 


4,346 80 


7 


12,478 72 


15,356 90 


12,478 72 


8 


9,187 88 


5,036 80 


9,187 88 


9 


10.877 90 


12,350 40 


12,123 50 


10 


1,400 00 


4,674 86 


1,721 60 




$100,297 01 


$103,972 03 


$101,864 21 



ss 



State of Illinois, 

Morgan county. 

Personally appeared before me, Samuel S. Brooks, an acting justice of 
the peace within and for said county aforesaid, William Pollock, assistant 
engineer, in the service of the State of Illinois, on the Pekin and Blooming- 
ton railroad, who, being duly sworn, certifies, to the best of his knowledge 
and belief, the foregoing statements and facts in relation to the survey and 
location of that portion of the above railroad between Pekin and TremonL, 
contained in his report to the principal engineer of the western district, J, 
M. Bucklin, are true and correct. 

Given under my hand and seal this 4th day of November, A. D. 1837. 

SAMUEL S. BROOKS, J. P. [l. s.] 



Engineer's Office. Jacksonville, 

October 27, 1837. 

Sir : I herewith submit the result of the preliminary survey of the third 
division of the Northern Cross railroad, together with a location of that 
part of the route lying between the town of Springfield and the Sangamon 
river. Pursuant to your instructions of the 18th of August, I organized a 
qorps for the examination and survey of the route designated, commencing 
at Springfield and terminating at Decatur. 

On the 29th of August, I commenced running a base line from the centre 
of the east corporation line of the town of Springfield, in the direction with 
the road leading to Dingman's ferry, to Widow^Bilyon's, and from thence 
down a ravine to Mud lake, and touching the river at a point opposite 
Smith's branch. The natural descent of this ravine is about eighty feet 
per mile, which would require a deep excavation, and much of it through 
rock, to get a line of the maximum grade. 
6 



99 [ 259 ] 

I next run a line from station number 114, on the base line, by the way 
of Widow Cartwel's down a ravine, passing the head of Mud lake, and 
touching the river at the point opposite Smith's branch. The descent of 
this ravine is about seventy-five feet per mile, and would also require a 
deep excavation, and probably much of it rock, to get a line of the maximum 
grade. 

Commencing at station number 138, where the last line touched the river 
bottom, I run "up a valley lying nearly parallel with the river bottom in a 
southwestern direction, crossed the road leading from Springfield to Ding- 
man's ferry, diverged into a smaller valley, and running south of Mr. 
Man's house, terminated at station number 29, on the level with the prairie. 

1 found that a grade of forty feet per mile could be had on this line, and, 
for the present, I concluded a further examination unnecessary, as the 
practicability of the last route was evident. As this was the route ulti- 
mately adopted, in pursuance with subsequent instructions, 1 may here say 
that its survey to Springfield was completed on my return from Decatur. 

Pursuing the examinations, I next proceeded across the Sangamon river 
to the mouth of Smith's branch, and following the valley of this branch to 
the southeast corner of section number 10, of township number 16, 1 found 
the grade, to the level of the prairie, not to exceed twenty-seven feet per 
mile. The general direction of the valley is straight, and remarkably well 
adapted to the construction of a railroad. From this point, I continued 
the line due east to the valley of Stephenson's creek, four miles west of 
Decatur. This line is on the north, and running nearly parallel with the 
Sangamon river. In crossing the numerous branches which empty into 
the river, many and serious objections present themselves, the most consider- 
able of which were encountered in crossing Clear creek and Long-point 
slough. Others, nearly as difficult, were met with, and all of them neces- 
sarily require a vast amount of labor and expense to bring the line to the 
proper grade. It appears evident, from the nature and character of the 
country through which I run, that the line was too near the Sangamon 
river. This river drains the entire prairie on the north ; and to avoid the 
numerous heads of branches and creeks it was thought important to look 
for another and better route farther north. This course was rendered dou- 
bly necessary from the character of the country in the neighborhood of 
Decatur. From the valley of Stephenson's creek, on this line, I found it 
altogether impracticable to proceed in the direction of Decatur. The 
greater part of the distance for three and a half miles is a succession of 
valley and ridge, requiring deep cutting and high embankments, and an 
expense which would not be justifiable if it could possibly be done. An 
examination of several days in this neighborhood, together with the topo- 
graphy of the country along the greater part of the line, led me to examine 
further north for a route more feasible and less expensive. At the point of 
termination on the line run from the east, by the engineer of the eastern 
district, I commenced and run a line four miles north to Mr. Montgomery's 
farm; thence, bearing west, I crossed Stephenson's creek, and found that 
it could be crossed easily within the maximum grade. The whole of this 
line, from Decatur to the crossing of Stephenson's creek, is good, requiring 
no very considerable excavations or embankments. This line is out of the 
true direction, but is the only one, in my opinion, practicable between this 
line and the one first run. It may be thought advisable to locate the Cen- 



[ 259 ] 100 

tral railroad on that part of this line which lies between Decatur and Mont- 
gomery's farm, which would save to the State some thousands of dollars. 

Pursuing the route westerly, from Stephenson's creek to my former point 
of crossing- the Sangamon river, I avoided all the heads of branches 
except Clear creek, which so much embarrassed my operations on the 
first line. From Stephenson's creek to Clear creek, the line runs through 
a level prairie, requiring little excavation or embankment, and no cul- 
verts or bridges worthy of notice. The crossing of Clear creek on the 
last line is much better than on the first line, and can, in all probability, 
be improved still more by taking it still farther north near its head. This 
last line, so decidedly preferable to the first, can very materially be improved, 
more especially in the first eight or ten miles after leaving the head of Smith's 
branch. There is no doubt but a straight line of near twenty miles from the 
head of Smith's branch can be obtained, and on good ground, well adapted 
to the construction of a railroad. 

On the 27th of September, I returned to Springfield, and on the 5th day of 
October received instructions to make some preliminary examinations, and 
to proceed to locate the route from Springfield to the opposite bank of the 
Sangamon river. In pursuance of these instructions, I examined the route 
by the way of Keye's branch and Sugar Creek bottom, to the Sangamon 
river, and crossed it at the mouth of Sugar creek. The grade of this 
line is easy ; but owing to the near approach of the Sugar Creek bluffs to 
the creek, a very deep, and necessarily expensive, excavation for half a mile 
was found necessary. 

I next examined the Coal Bank route; and commencing on the bank 
of the river, I followed a small ravine or depression in the direction 
of Mr. Ridgway's farm, and terminated on the base line at station 
number seventy-seven. This ravine is short, and the ascent of the natural 
surface too great to be overcome without an excavation averaging eighteen 
feet for nearly three -fourths of a mile. This, however, was preferable to the 
last line, as the excavation was much less. These two lines terminated on 
the Sangamon river, near two miles above Smith's branch. I did not ex- 
amine the practicability of the ascent on the north side of the river at the 
points opposite the last two lines ; for I had already found easier and less 
expensive approaches to the river on the south side in my former examina- 
tions ; and I could not reasonably expect to find on the opposite side any 
better route through the bluffs than I had already found by the way of 
Smith's branch. Satisfied that no route could be found combining so many 
advantages as the one from the point opposite Smith's branch, by the way 
of Man's, to Springfield, 1 proceeded, in pursuance with instructions, to lo- 
cate on that line. I received no instructions to locate the place of depot in 
the town of Springfield; and as it is yet unlocated, I have assumed two 
routes in reference to the difficult points, either of which may be adopted, 
and have made the estimates which will apply to either, without any addi- 
tional field work. One route commences at the south end of, and running 
through Sixth to near Madison street; thence curving slightly, until I ob- 
tained a proper course for the head of the valley selected For the location, 
and run the line to that point. This line, after leaving Sixth street, passes 
over lots, the property of the heirs of Mitchell ; thence through the prairie 
to Mr. Reed's farm, passing through about one-fourth of a mile north of the 
starch factory ; thence passing through Mr. Lyon's farm, less than a fourth 
of a mile north of his dwelling house; thence" through Mr. King's farm to 






101 [ 259 ] 

the prairie, passing about one hundred and fifty feet in the rear of his 
house ; thence to the head of the valley selected for location. 1 next start- 
ed a line from the south end of, and running through Tenth street, near its 
entire length ; thence curving until the course requisite to strike the valley 
was obtained. From the termination of the curves, the two lines approxi- 
mate and intersect each other at the head of the valley. For a more par- 
ticular description of the two routes, I would refer you to the maps and 
profiles herewith submitted. The expense of construction on the routes is 
the same. The distance from Springfield to the opposite bank of the river 
is divided into six sections of a mile each, and one of three thousand five 
hundred feet. 

The estimated cost, including grading, culverts, and cross- ways, for each 



section, is as follows : 








Section No. 1 


$864 


Section No. 5 


$643 00 


" " 2 


223 


« " 6 


15.828 00 


" " 3 


273 


a u 7 


10,010 00 


» « 4 


1,813 







The greater portion of section number seven, lying in the river bottom, 
and the grade line is supposed to be three feet above high water mark ; but 
as it may vary, the estimated expense of the grading may also vary from 
the above. The seventh section also includes the proposed bridge across 
the Sangamon river ; the width of the river from bank to bank is two hun- 
dred and sixteen feet ; the bed of the river is twenty-one feet below the 
grade line. On the north side appearances indicate a foundation of rock, 
on the south side the bank is clay and sand ; in times of high water the 
river rises seventeen feet, and spreads over the whole bottom. The ques- 
tion presents itself, whether the arch of the bridge at such times will vent 
the whole of the water, and whether it may not be necessary to extend the 
bridge beyond the natural channel of the stream. This question can only 
be settled by a more thorough investigation than I have been able to bestow. 
No quarry of stone is as yet known less than eight miles from the crossing 
of the river, though there are indications of the existence of stone in abun- 
dance within a mile, and timber is abundant in the immediate neighborhood. 

The route from Springfield to Decatur, taken as a whole, is remarkably 
well adapted to the construction of the work proposed. That part of it lying 
between Springfield and the summit level of the prairie, on the opposite side 
oi the Sangamon river, is far better than could have been expected before 
the examination ; and though that portion of the route which has been per- 
manently located is the only practicable one, yet it will be seen from the esti- 
mates that its cost of construction will probably be much less per mile than sim- 
ilar works in other States. The whole work, from Springfield to Decatur, 
a distance of forty- one and a Jialf miles, can undoubtedly be made at an 
expense very small when compared with the cost of other railroads in the 
United States. Its location on or near the northern line, which has been 
thought decidedly preferable to the one first run on the north side of the 
Sangamon river, would better answer the general interests, though it might 
not so well serve individual wishes and cupidity as the line first run. 

In conclusion; I take great pleasure in stating that my exertions to advo- 



[ '259 ] 



102 



cate the public interests have been sustained by the young gentleman con- 
nected with my corps, in a manner equally honorable and satisfactory. 
All of which I would respectfully submit. 

F. HAWN, 
Assistant Engineer of the Third Division 

Of the Northern Cross Railroad. 
To J. M. Pucklin. 



State of Illinois, ) 
Morgan county. ) 
Personally appeared before me, Samuel S. Brooks, an acting justice of the 
peace, within and for the county aforesaid, Frederick Hawn, assistant engi- 
neer in the service of the State of Illinois, on the Northern Cross railroad, 
who, being duly sworn, certifies, that to the best of his knowledge and be- 
lief, the foregoing statements and facts in relation to the survey and loca- 
tion of the third division of the Northern Cross railroad, contained in 
his report to the principal engineer of the western district, J. M. Bucklin, 



are true and correct. 



SAMUEL S. BROOKS, J. P. [l. s.] 



EST1MA TE of the probable cost of grading that part of the 3d di- 
vision of the Northern Cross railroad, located from Springfield to the 
east bank of the Sangamon river, Jacksonville, October, 1837. 



No. of 


Cubic 


Price 


Cubic 


Price 


Amount for 


MASONRY. 


Total 


Total. 


feet. 


yards of 
excava- 


per 
yard. 


yards of 
embank- 


per 
cubic 


grubbing 
and clearing. 




amount for 
grading. 














tion. 




ment. 


yard. 




Perch, 


Price. 










Cents. 




Cents. 


Dollars. 




Dolls. 


Dollars. 


Dollars. 


1 


1,308 


20 


2,107 


21 




20 


8 00 


864 07 


7,203 40 


2 


331 


20 


750 


21 




. 


_ 


223 70 


6,563 03 


3 


66 


20 


1,240 


21 


_ 


. 


_ 


273 60 


6,612 93 


4 


2,124 


20 


4,912 


21 


50 00 


35 


8 75 


1,812 57 


8,151 90 


5 


2,781 


20 


414 


21 


_ 




_ 


643 14 


6,932 47 


6 


32,532 


24 


24,814 


26 


875 00 


75 


9 25 


15,828 07 


22,167 40 


7 


5,490 


24 


25,367 


35 


1,000 00 


- 


- 


10,010 21 


42,758 16 




Aggreg 


ate am 


oimt 


29,655 36 


100,439 29 



ESTIMATE of the probable cost of the super structure for 

Mud sills, 10,560 lineal feet, at 7 cents per foot 
Cross sills, 10,560 lineal feet, at 5 cents per foot 
Rails, 10,560 lineal feet, at 8 cents per foot 
Keys, 2,640 lineal feet, at 3 cents per foot 
Dressing sills, 1.320, at 12J cents per piece 
Dressing rails, 10,560 lineal feet, at 1 cent per foot 
Laying down track, 5,280 lineal feet, at 23 cents per foot 
22 tons of plates or iron, at $110 per ton 



one mile. 


$739 20 


528 00 


844 80 


79 20 


153 33 


105 60 


1,214 40 


2,420 00 



303 [259] 

980 lbs. spikes, at 16 cents per lb. a - - . $156 80 

880 lap plates, at 10 cents per lb. - - - 88 00 

Nails for plates - - - - - 10 00 



6,339 33 



ESTIMATE of the probable cost of the proposed bridge across the 
Sangamon river, on section No. 7. ' 

Foundation , $3,000 00 

928 perches of masonry, estimated thus : 

Value of stone, $0 50 per perch. 

Quarrying, 1 50 do. 

Cutting, 4 00 do. 

Laying, 1 00 do. 

Hauling 8 miles 6 00 do. 

Value of one perch, 13 00 - - - 12 064 00 

Wood work, 300 lineal feet, at $45 per foot - „ 13'5qo 00 

Total amount * , ~~28^564~00 

Summary estimate. 

For grading 6.66 miles - g29 Q55 qk 

For grading 6.66 miles superstructure, at $6,339 33 - 1 42 219 93 

For bridge across Sangamon river, at section 7 • ■ . 28'564 00 

Add 10 per cent, for superintendence - 10 043 Q5> 

Total * : *'■'■- f t 110,483:21 



Belleville, Illinois, 

August 11, 1837. 

Sir ! Whereas the General Assembly of the State of Illinois at its se<? 
Sion held in the yeafs 1836 and 1837, passed an act to establish and main 
tain a general system of internal improvements : and whereas a board f 
commissioners of public works of the State of Illinois, was organized i 
pursuance of the provisions of said act on the fourth day of April 1 «J 
passed ; and it being the determination of the board thus organized to 
every exertion to carry into effect the provisions of said act, according 
the intent and meaning thereof; and whereas, the people of 'the State f I 
a deep interest in the earliest possible commencement and completion nf 
the whole or at least the most prominent works provided for in said t • 
therefore, with the view of providing a source from which a portion of'thl 
necessary aid may be derived, 



[ 259 ] 104 

Be it resolved, That our Representatives in Congress be respectfully re- 
quested to use their most diligent efforts to procure the passage of a law 
through the Congress of the United States, making a donation of each 
alternate section on each side of the most important works contemplated by 
the act aforesaid, or in the failure of this, to urge the adoption of some 
other measure which will contribute to the aid of the State in her great 
undertaking. 

Resolved, That the president of this board be requested to furnish the 
Speakers of both Houses of Congress and each of our Representatives of that 
body with a copy of these proceedings. 

I have the honor to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

WILLIAM KINNEY, 
President of the Board of Public Works, 

State of Illinois, 
To the Hon. A. W. Snyder. 



Belleville, Illinois, 

September 25, 1837. 

Sir : As you are aware that Illinois did, at her last regular session, es- 
tablish one of the most grand and splendid schemes of internal improve- 
ment ever adopted by any State or country, and which is as well situated 
to her locality, agricultural advantages, and commercial necessities, perhaps, 
as such a system ever was or will be to any country, I would, therefore, beg 
leave to suggest the propriety of the members in Congress from this State, 
to ask aid from the General Government, by a donation of land of each 
alternate section on each side of all the projected improvements aforesaid ; 
not only for the benefit of the State, but to facilitate the sale and improve- 
ment of the Government lands lying in the vicinity of said projected 
internal improvements, both rivers and railroads ; and particularly to aid 
in the completion of the great Central railroad, commencing at the mouth 
of the Ohio, and connecting with the Michigan and Illinois canal. Such a 
donation would be carrying out to perfection the same principles of na- 
tional policy that actuated the Government to grant certain lands to aid in 
the construction of the abovenamed canal ; as the said railroad con- 
nected with said canal, will open a grand chain of intercourse in a com- 
mercial, agricultural, and military point of view with the northern, south- 
ern, eastern, and western States, to such an improvement as that, the utility 
of which needs no comment. Certainly no member of Congress could 
object, or refuse the aid of the General Government in facilitating the same. 

It is useless for me to say to you, that Illinois is naturally destined to be 
the garden spot of the world, as it respects agricultural pursuits. Her soil 
is alluvial and groaning to be relieved by the hand of the industrious agri- 
culturist of the immense wealth which it contains ; and that she is a rail- 
way by nature, at least so far finished as would be a new wagon-wheel 
lacking only the tire, compared with other countries, where railroads have 
been, and are yet intended to be, successfully and usefully constructed. What, 
therefore, would it be for the General Government to give aid to such a 
system of internal improvements as Illinois has adopted, so suited to her 
locality in every point of view, and which, if successfully carried out, will 
place the whole system of our agricultural and commercial intercourse in an 
attitude enviable and inviting to the enterprising agriculturist and carriers of 



I 



105 [ 259 J 

liii parts of the world. It therefore seems to me that all that is wanting to 
obtain aid to accomplish such a desirable object, both for the nation and this 
State, is to make an effort; and a moment's reflection by that most honorable 
of all national councils, the Senate and House of Representatives of the 
United States, will satisfy them of the propriety of carrying the projected 
improvements, particularly that of the Central railroad into complete opera- 
tion ; the accomplishment of which will make the mouth of the Ohio 
and Mississippi accessible at all seasons of the year, ice or no ice ; high or 
low water ; from which the whole products of this State for exportation, 
can and will be thrown off, and scattered to the four winds of the world ; 
without having, as has been frequently the case, to wait for the spring sea- 
son, and then come in competition with other countries at the city of New 
Orleans, who have been prevented in the transportation of their exports, 
either for the want of water or retarded by ice. 

Your early attention to this subject will be well received by the board of 
public works, who have heretofore addressed you on this subject, and no 
doubt by the whole community which you represent, and particularly by 
your correspondent and humble servant, 

WILLIAM KINNEY, 
President of the Board of Public Works, 

State of Illinois. 

Hon, A, W. Snyder. 



Public improvements contemplated in Illinois, 

1. The Illinois and Michigan canal. 

2. The navigation of Rock river. 

3. The navigation of the Illinois river, 

4. The navigation of the Kaskaskia river. 

5. The navigation of the Great Wabash river. 

6. The navigation of the Little Wabash river. 

7. The improvement of the great Western mail road from Vincennes 
to St. Louis. 

8. The Central railroad, from the mouth of the Ohio river to the termina- 
tion of the Illinois and Michigan canal at K Lasalle," and from thence to 
Galena. 

9. The Southern Cross railroad, from Alton to Mount Carmel. 

10. The railroad from Alton to Shawneetown. 

11. The Northern Cross railroad, from Q,uincy to the Indiana State line, 
in the direction of Lafayette. 

12. Branch of the Central railroad, from a point near Shelbyviile to the 
Indiana State line, in the direction of Terre Haute. 

13. The railroad from Peoria to Warsaw. 

14. The railroad from Lower Alton, by Hillsboro', to the Central rail- 
road, so as to intersect the railroad from Terre Haute at that point. 

15. The railroad from Belleville to intersect the railroad from Alton 
to Mount Carmel, at the nearest eligible point on said road. 

16. The railroad from Bloomington to Mackinaw, where it is to branch ; 
one branch to terminate at Peoria, and the other at Pekin. 

17. The sum of $200,000 to be expended in the improvement of roads, 
the construction of bridges, and other public works, in those counties 
through which no railroad or canal is provided to be made at the expense 
of the State. 

8 



L