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Full text of "Documents relative to the colonial history of the state of New York"

GENETALOGV COLLECTION 



DOCUMENTS 



I,ATIVE TO THE 



COLONIAL HISTORY 



STATE OF NEW-YORK 



PROCURED IN 



HOLLAND, ENGLAND AND FRANCE 



JOHN ROMEYN BRODHEAD, ESQ., 



AND BY VIETUE OF AN ACT OF THE LEGISLATUKE, ENTITLED "AN ACT TO APPOINT AN AGEKT TO 
PEOCUP.E AND TEANSCP.IBE DOCUMENTS IN EUROPE RELATIVE TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY 
OF THE STATE," PASSED MAY 2, 1889. 




PUBLISHED UNDER AND BY VIRTUE OF AN ACT OP THE LEGISLATURE, ENTITLED " AN ACT TO PROVIDE FOR THE PUBLISHING 
CERTAIN DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY OF THE STATE," PASSED MARCH 30, 1849, AND AN ACT ENTI- 
TLED "an ACT IN RELATION TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY OF THE STATE, AND THE PUBLICATION AND DISTRIBUTION 
THEREOF," PASSED APRIL 12, 1856. 



EDITED BY 

E. B. O'CALLAGHAN, M. D., LL. D. 



WITH A GENERAL INTRODUCTION BY THE AGENT. 



VOL. I. 



ALBANY: 

WEED, PARSONS AND COMPANY, PRINTERS. 

1856. 



Volumes III., IV., V., VI., VII. and IX. of this work were published under the direction of the Governor, 
Secretary of State and Comptroller of the State of New- York ; and the publication has been completed 
under the authority of the Regents of the University, in virtue of the Act of the Legislature to that effect, 
passed April 12, 1856. 

The Documents in Dutch and French were translated by E. B. O'Callaohan, M. D., LL. D., who was 
employed for that purpose, and to superintend the publication generally. 



CORKESPONDENCE. 



The Legisktnre having recently placed the publication of the Documents collected by you in Europe, relative to 
the Colonial History of the State of New-York, under the direction of the Regents of the University, I have been 
instructed by the Committee of the Regents charged with the subject, to request you to prepare a General Introduction 
to that work, to be prefixed to the first volume, which is now nearly ready. 

Your agency in procuring the Documents of which this publication is composed, and your thorough knowledge of 
the whole subject, clearly point you out as the proper person to perform this service ; and the Committee hope that 
your well known interest in this work will induce you to comply with their request. 

I add my own personal and earnest wishes that you will undertake this task, and am, with great consideration, 

Yours most truly, 

JOHN V. L. PRUYN, 

Chairman of the Commiiiee. 
John Romeyn Brodhead, Esq., &c., &c., <Scc., 

New -York. 



1136138 



New-York, 1 July, 1856. 
Sir: 

I have received your letter of yesterday, in which, as Chairman of the Committee of the Regents of the 
University having the subject in charge, you request me to prepare an Introduction to the " Colonial History " of this 
State — commonly so called — to be prefixed to the first volume. 

The Committee, in making this request, have done me an honor which I highly appreciate, and for which I beg 
you to express to them my acknowledgments. Feeling, as is very natural under all the circumstances, a peculiar 
interest in the publication of this work, I shall not decline the flattering duty you have asked me to perform. It 
seems to me that the most satisfactory Introduction to the work would be, mainly, a detailed account of the origin, 
progress and results of the Historical Agency by which the Documents forming the publication were procured. With 
this understanding, I shall set myself about its preparation at once, and execute my pleasant task as promptly as 
other engagements will permit. 

With high regard, I am, Sir, 

Sincerely yours, 

JOHN ROMEYN BRODHEAD. 
John V. L. Pruyn, Esq., &c., &c., &c., 

Albany. 



GENERAL INTEODUCTION. 



The Public Records of the State of New -York are, chiefly, in the office of the 
Secretary of State at Albany. They are as various in their character as they are 
voluminous in their extent. Most of them relate to and illustrate the History of the 
State ; and without them no accurate or detailed knowledge of that history can be 
gained. 

Previous to the American Revolution the seat of the Colonial Government was 
the city of New- York, and the public records of the Province were kept there. They 
extended back to a very early period after the first settlement of the country. The 
most ancient of them were in the Dutch language ; and they related to the affairs of 
New Netherland, as New -York was called while it was a Colony and Province of the 
United Provinces, from soon after its discovery, in 1609, to its surrender to the English 
in 1664. These Dutch records, however, are incomplete. It is known that the early 
Provincial authorities recorded their transactions with care ; but, unfortunately, with 
the exception of some entries of lands, the oldest of which is in 1630, none of the 
records of Director Minuit's administration, from 1626 to 1632, nor of Director Van 
Twiller's, from 1633 to 1638, have been preserved. The series of papers, however, is 
tolerably complete during the time of Director Kieft, from 1638 to 1647, and of 
Director Stuyvesant, from 1647 to 1664. 

After the surrender of New Netherland, in 1664, the records of the Province of 
New-York were kept in English, and were preserved in much better condition than 
the fragmentary archives of the Dutch period. Those relating to lands and local 
transactions, however, are generally far more perfect than those affecting the political 
history of the Province. This was, no doubt, owing to the practice which prevailed, 
to a great extent, with the British Colonial Governors, of retaining in their own 
personal custody the correspondence between themselves and their superiors in 



vi GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 

England. But the chief cause of the deficiencies in the public records of New -York 
may be traced to the vicissitudes which marked its annals in the transfer of sovereignty 
from Holland to England, and iu the assumj^tion of sovereignty by the Colonists in 
the Revolution. 

Upon the full organization of the State government the city of Albany became the 
capital, and the Colonial and Provincial records — other than those relating to the 
municipality of the metropolis — which had formerly been kept in New-York, were 
removed thither. The pressing concerns of a new and impoverished Commonwealth 
for a long time prevented much thought being given to those silent and fading 
memorials which recorded the events of the earlier days of the State. 

Yet, there were many who looked upon historical inquiry in its true light, as an 
incentive to progress and an aid to patriotism. They felt that too little was known 
of the olden times of New -York, and that especially the half century during which it 
was a distant dependency of Holland was the " dark period " in its history. 

A few prominent citizens accordingly assembled, on the 20th of November, 1804, in 
the city of New -York, and agreed to form themselves into a Society, " the principal 
design of which should be to collect and preserve whatever may relate to the natural, 
civil, or ecclesiastical history of the United States, in general, and of this State in 
particular." This was the origin of the New -York Historical Society, which, on 
the 10th day of February, 1809, received a special Act of Incorporation from the 
Legislature. The members of the Society immediately took steps to accomplish the 
high purposes of their association, and soon collected a valuable library of printed 
books and manuscripts. At length the time came when it was thought that the 
attention of the State authorities might judiciously be drawn to the importance of the 
objects for which, especially, the Society had been organized. At its request, De Witt 
Clii^ton, then its Vice-President, accordingly prepared the following memorial, which 
was presented to the Legislature at its session in 1814: : 

" TO THE HONORABLE THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF NEW-YORK. 

" The Memorial of the New -York Historical Society most respectfully represents : 

" That this Institution was established for the purpose of acquiring and promoting a know- 
ledge of the natural, civil, literary and ecclesiastical history of America, and more particularly 
of this State. The attainment of objects so various, comprehensive and important, requiring 
such extensiveness of information, such profundity of research, such exertion of industry and 
such liberality of expense, is unquestionably beyond the means and the faculties of any indi- 
vidual, however he may be endowed with the gifts of fortune and genius, and whatever may 
be the extent of his enterprise, activity and influence. Associations, comprehending a mass 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. vii 

of information and talent, and embracing not only the disposition but the ability to promote 
knowledge, are essentially necessary to crown with success any important undertaking of this 
nature. With these motives, and for these objects, this society was formed. A liberal and 
enlightened Legislature, justly appreciating its importance, granted it a ciiarter of incorpora- 
tion ; and it now only remains for them to complete the important work which has received 
their approving voice, by an extension to this society of a portion of that munificence which, 
we are proud to say, characterizes the legislation of this State. 

" During the short period of the existence of this society, we have devoted no inconsidera- 
ble portion of time, attention and money to collect books, pamphlets, manuscripts, maps, 
medals, and other materials, which may tend to illustrate and complete the great outlines of 
our history. This collection, on account of the number, the variety and the rarity of its 
objects, may be safely valued at ten thousand dollars. If, in the infant state of the society, 
without public patronage, and without any other excitement than a desire to be useful, as 
humble contributors to the great stock of human knowledge, we have been able to accomplish 
so much, what might we not effect if public bounty should be united with individual contribu- 
tion, and if the countenance of the Legislature should stamp a value upon our researches, and 
enable us to dispel the clouds which envelope the history of our country? 

" It is well known to your honorable body that America has been settled principally by the 
English, the Dutch, the French, the Spaniards, and the Portuguese. The Swedes at one 
period planted a Colony on the Delaware. The Danes also have occupied islands in the West 
Indies; and several islands between Asia and America derive their population from Russia 
and its dependencies. How important and how necessary is it to procure books which have 
been written in those countries, illustrative of the affairs of America. It is well known that 
many manuscripts are buried in the archives of State, or in the libraries of public bodies, 
which might be transcribed, and which would shed new light on our history. The Biblio- 
theca Americana, published in England, imperfect as it is, indicates what invaluable and 
unexplored treasures for our historians may be obtained in that country. 

" But we would beg leave to solicit the attention of the Legislature more particularly to the 
history of this State. It is unnecessary to descant upon the imperfections of its natural 
history. Whole departments of this science have been almost entirely neglected ; the powers 
of observation and investigation have not been applied to elucidate and explore them; the 
destructive hand of time is rapidly sweeping into oblivion many important objects of inquiry; 
and what might now with facility be rescued from oblivion, the flight of a few years will place 
beyond the reach of human power. 

" The civil history of this State may be divided into four parts : 

" I. When occupied by the aborigines. 

" II. When under the government of the Dutch, which was about half a century. 

" III. Its state under England, which continued about one hundred and twelve years, and 
which includes the proprietary government of the Duke of York, and its government 
under the Kings of Great Britain, excepting about sixteen months, when it was 
repossessed by the Dutch. 

"IV. And, lastly, its political existence as a member of an independent government. 

"Before the lapse of many years, the remnant of the Indian nations which now inhabit the 
State will experience the fate of all sublunary things. The few antiquities of the country, the 
forts and the tumuli, which may now be easily explored, will be effaced by the extension of 



viii GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 

cultivation. Tiie natural history of the man of America, disfigured and perverted as he has 
been by European intercourse, may still be obtained to a considerable extent; his language 
may be put on record, and his traditions may be perpetuated. 

"As, before tlie Revolution, the Colonies of France and Great Britain were connected by 
vicinity, by treaty, by trade, and by continual and habitual intercourse with the Five Nations 
and other Indians which occupied this State, we can obtain valuable materials to illustrate this 
important period from the libraries and public collections of those countries. Many learned, 
elaborate and interesting works have never been seen in America ; some are so scarce that they 
cannot be procured without the expense of transcribing; and papers of great moment have 
never been printed. 

" The regular minutes of the transactions of the Indian Commissioners for this Colony, from 
1675 to 1751, as kept by a secretary employed for the purpose, were bound up in four large 
folio volumes. This invaluable collection, and the subsequent Colonial records relative to 
Indian affairs, are not now to be found in this State; and they were probably conveyed away 
by Sir John Johnson, or his agents, at the commencement of the Revolution. The loss of 
these documents would produce a chasm in our history that could not be supplied ; and we 
hope that they may still be retrieved. Our concerns and negotiations with the Indians, since 
our existence as a State, have not been preserved in regular and complete order. They are 
scattered among the bureaus of our chief magistrates or are buried in the voluminous files of 
the Legislature. 

" To obtain materials for the Dutch portion of our history, comprising an interesting period 
of half a century, we must have recourse to the papers of the Dutch West India Company, 
and to the archives of the then government of that nation ; to the Dutch records of some of 
our counties, and in the ofBce of the Secretary of State ; to the public offices in the neighboring 
Colonies, with whose governments the Dutch had negotiations ; and to several books published 
in the Dutch and Latin languages, relative to this country, and which are scarcely known to 
us. The darkness which hangs over this branch may be perceived in the History of New- 
York, written by William Smith, a work which skims lightly over this interesting period, 
leaving it almost entirely unnoticed. 

" To supply that part of our history when we were subject to Great Britain, the most 
valuable materials may be obtained from various sources. From Chalmers' Political Annals it 
appears that there are many manuscripts in the Plantation Office, entitled 'New-York Entries' 
and 'New-York Papers.' We find in the catalogue of manuscripts preserved in the British 
Museum, some writings that refer particularly to this State; and in the catalogue of books 
belonging to that institution are preserved many works concerning America, in the Dutch, 
English, French, Spanish and Latin languages, affijrding a fund of information important and 
inestimable. We also know that there are many interesting books and manuscripts, relative to 
this country, in the library of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in America; and, 
perhaps, much important information may be obtained from the public offices in Canada. 

" The history of our country, since the commencement of the Revolutionary war, is in a 
better state of preservation ; but even here, how many interesting events are passing into 
oblivion, how many important facts are distorted and misrepresented, how many illustrious 
achievements are forgotten or neglected. Documents that may illuminate the obscure, explain 
the doubtful, and embalm the memories of the good and the great, may now be drawn from 
their dark abodes, where in a few years they will be forgotten or lost. Letters of distinguished 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. ix 

individuals, fugitive pamphlets, perishable manuscripts, ought now to be obtained and preserved. 
The time is precious, and not a moment should be lost. 

" The only history of this member of the Confederacy is that of William Smith, which is 
brought down to the year 17;32. Is is too much to say that the most important is the worst or 
least described part of the Union? 

"Anxious, as we are, to explore these sources of intelligence, and to collect these ample 
materials, yet we feel that the want of funds presents an obstacle that can only be surmounted 
by the liberality and public spirit of the Legislature. We have done much, and we are willing 
to do more, in order to preserve the history of the State from oblivion. We are influenced by 
no other motive than that of elevating the character and promoting the prosperity of a 
community to which we are bound by every tie that is deemed precious and sacred among 
men. And let it not be said that the exigencies of the times and the pressure of a foreign war 
render it inexpedient to apply the public bounty to this object. The State is rich in funds, 
rich in credit and rich in resources; and she ought to be rich in liberality and public spirit. 
Genuine greatness never appears in a more resplendent light, or in a more sublime attitude, 
than in that buoyancy of character which rises superior to danger and difficulty ; in that 
magnanimity of soul which cultivates the arts and sciences amidst the horrors of war; and in 
that comprehension of mind which cherishes all the cardinal interests of a country, without 
being distracted or diverted by the most appalling considerations. 

" We, therefore, most respectfully solicit the favorable notice of the Legislature, and we 
confidently hope that the result will be auspicious to the interests of literature and to the 
honor of our country. 

"New- York, January, 1814." 



Tills memorial of the Historical Society was received with great favor by the 
Legislature, which, with a liberality that has always belonged to the State of New- 
York, passed two acts on the 13th and the 15th of April, 1814, recognizing, in the 
most gratifying manner, the claims of the Institution to the regard of the representatives 
of the peojile. Public attention was now drawn more distinctly to the condition of the 
archives of the State. They were found to be in great disorder, and the necessity of 
some arrangement and classification of them was conceded. The Dutch records, 
especially, being in a generally unfamiliar language, provision was made for their 
translation, and Dr. Francis Adriaen Vaw der Kemp, a learned Hollander, was 
appointed by Governor Clinton to perform this service, which he accordingly did. 
His translations, forming twenty-six volumes, are now known and generally quoted as 
the "Albany Records." A concurrent resolution was also passed by the Legislature at 
their session in 1819, authorizing the Secretary of State, under the direction of the 
Governor, to cause to be bound and arranged such of the records as he might think 
expedient. On the 4th of January, 1820, Mr. John Van Ness Yates, then Secretary 
of State, submitted a Report to the Legislature, detailing the steps he had taken in 



^ GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 

carrying their resolution into effect, and containing an interesting and elaborate 
synopsis of the several divisions and the specific character of the public records in his 
custody. To this Keport was appended a general Catalogue, I., of the Dutch Colonial 
Kecords ; II., of the English Colonial Records ; and III., of the State Records ; and 
from this statement it appeared that there were at that time in the Secretary's oflSce, 
altogether, 661 books, 324 maps, and 900 bundles of papers. 

But though the Report of Mr. Secretary Yates and the translations made by Mr. 
Van der Kemp had undoubtedly served to enlighten the public mind as to the 
historical value and importance of the archives of the State, there was still great 
misapprehension in regard to their actual extent and character. Apparently unheeded, 
and allowed to moulder in neglect, a very large proportion of these records yet 
remained in bundles, which were deposited in boxes or hidden in almost inaccessible 
corners in the old State Hall, without any proper arrangement or means for their 
convenient examination. It is not surprising, under these circumstances, that while, 
on the one hand, the public archives were known to be defective in many important 
respects, on the other hand the State should have been supposed to be less rich in 
historical records than it really was ; and that the attention of those whose minds 
had long been given to the subject should have been earnestly directed towards the 
best means of securing and increasing the literary property of the people by adding 
to it those materials for the illustration of their history which were preserved in the 
offices of Euroj^ean governments. The income of the deposit with the State of certain 
surplus moneys of the Federal government having then recently been set apart for the 
promotion of public education, it was thought by many that a portion of this revenue 
might be properly applied towards the accomplishment of the object which had been 
originally suggested to the Legislature in 1814, in the memorial of the New -York 
Historical Society. 

Accordingly, at a meeting of that Society on the 10th of April, 1838, a committee 
was appointed to solicit from the Legislature an annual grant, out of the income of the 
United States' Deposit Fund, to defray the expenses of procuring materials in Europe 
for the illustration of the history of the State. In pursuance of this action, a memorial 
was presented to the Legislature in behalf of the Historical Society ; but owing to the 
lateness of the period of the session, it was not judged expedient to press the application 
at that time. In the following December the Society again appointed a committee to 
present the subject at Albany, with a view of procuring an adequate appropriation for 
the purpose of obtaining copies of all the documents in the public offices of Holland 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. xi 

and England relating to the Colonial history of New -York. On the 8th of January, 
1839, Mr. John L. Stephens, from this committee, accordingly reported the draft of 
the following memorial, which was adopted by the Society and ordered to be attested 
and delivered to the committee to be by them presented to the Legislature. 

"TO THE SENATE AND ASSEMBLY OF THE STATE OF NEW-YORK. 

" The Memorial of the New- York Historical Society respectfully represents : 

" That, by the charter received from your honorable body, your memorialists were entrusted 
with the performance of certain duties, and particularly were bound to collect and preserve 
documents, papers and evidences, and generally all materials relating to or in any way affecting 
the history of this State; that, in the prosecution of this object, they have collected, and now 
hold in safe keeping, many interesting and important documents and papers, which, but for 
your memorialists, would have been destroyed or lost. 

"And your memorialists represent that they have been advised by those who from official 
station had unusual opportunities and facilities for making researches, and have learned from 
other sources on which they can rely, that there are now in the archives and public offices of 
Holland and England many documents, letters, correspondences and papers, relating to and 
bearing upon and directly connected with the events and prominent persons of our Colonial 
history and of our War of Revolution; which said documents, letters, correspondences and 
papers contain matters in relation to the views and purposes of those governments in the 
treatnientof their Colony; the reports, opinions and advices of their Governors, Military Com- 
manders, and other officers then resident here ; the population, resources and general condition 
of the country, and the character, temper and feeling of the people; all of which were stu- 
diously concealed from the colonists, and to a great extent are still unknown in this country. 

"And your memorialists represent that the said documents, letters, correspondences and 
papers illustrate and explain many uncertain passages in our Colonial history and our War of 
Revolution ; and that without them, or copies thereof, or access thereto, no true and perfect 
history of this State can ever be written. 

" And your memorialists represent that, under a sense of the importance of the trust reposed 
in them, and deeply solicitous to procure this valuable addition to the materials now under 
their control, they consider it their duty to make known to your honorable body that their 
means are inadequate to undertake the expense attendant thereon. And they represent further 
that, even if they did possess the means, they do not believe they could, in their own name, 
accomplish this object. The inspection of the archives of governments and the documents in 
public offices is not granted on the application of individuals, or even of private associations, 
but only on the request of a high power. 

" And your memorialists represent that an inspection of the said documents, letters, 
correspondences and papers would be permitted, and copies thereof granted, upon formal 
application for that purpose, made in the name and by the authority of this State. Your 
memorialists entertain the belief, from the fact that such permission has been granted on the 
application of other States of our Confederacy ; and that an Agent appointed for that purpose 
by the State of Georgia is now in London, receiving every facility from the Departments of 
the English government. 



Xa GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 

" And your memorialists represent tliat the present is a most favorable moment for such an 
application. It is a season of general peace, and great good feeling between our respective 
governments ; and opportunities and facilities are now afforded, in a spirit of tlie most 
friendly courtesy, which, in time of war, or even of a troubled political horizon, would be 
peremptorily refused. 

"And your memorialists represent that, in all probability, this is the only moment in which 
your honorable body will be called upon to give its aid in this matter, for it is only because 
of the special trust reposed in your memorialists that they have deemed it their duty to ask 
the interposition of your honorable body; and, though all might consider it a proper subject 
for the action of this State, its interest is too general and the prospect of success too remote 
to occupy the minds of individuals. Your memorialists do not believe that there will ever be 
a more favorable opportunity for renewing their request, and in all probability no such attempt 
will ever be made by others. 

" And your memorialists believe that it is worthy the ambition of the Empire State to have 
under its own control the materials for writing its history. Already, in its rapid increase of 
population and resources, it stands as a wonder in the history of the world : in a few years 
its changes will almost surpass human belief, and then, the smallest scrap which illustrates its 
former condition will be regarded as a precious memorial. Indeed, even now it is precious ; 
for — with a full knowledge of all that has been attempted upon this subject — your memorial- 
ists represent that the History of the State of New-York remains yet to be written. 

" To the end that the Historian may come to this work with all the advantages which its 
importance demands, your memorialists pray 

" That an appropriation be made by your honorable body, at its present session, for the 
purpose of defraying the expenses of an Agent, to be sent, under the direction of this Society, 
in the name and by the authority of this State, to ask for and procure from the governments 
of England and Holland, if possible, the originals, and if not, copies, of all documents, letters, 
correspondences and papers in their archives and public offices, which relate to or in any way 
affect our Colonial history and our War of Revolution ; and that the same, when procured, 
be deposited for safe keeping with your memorialists. 

"P. G. STUYVESANT, 

[ L. s. ] "President of the New -York Historical Society. 

" JOHN C. JAY, 
" Rec. Secretary of the New - York Historical Society." 

This memorial was communicated to the Legislature, in the following message from 
the Governor to the Assembly, on the 5th of February, 1839 : 

" I have the honor to transmit a memorial from the New -York Historical Society, praying 
for the passage of a law authorizing the appointment of an Agent to visit Europe, to tran- 
scribe documents remaining in the public offices of the governments of England and Holland, 
illustrating the Colonial history of this State. 

" It would advance the cause of free government throughout the world, and it is due to 
ourselves, to the memory of our predecessors, and to a just regard for the respect of posterity, 
that every important circumstance connected with the rise and progress of our free institutions 
should be recorded and illustrated. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. xiii 

" It is believed that we have, hitherto, manifested a singular indifference in regard to this 
object. The English government has made a munificent gift to our State Library of records 
illustrating the early history of that nation. Massachusetts has taken care to preserve the 
resources for her history, during the Revolutionary contest, by causing to be published the 
Journals of her Colonial Congress. The State of Georgia has now an Agent in London, 
engaged in obtaining copies of the records belonging to that State. This State has certainly 
not less interest in rescuing and preserving the memorials of her Colonial condition. 

" I respectfully commend the petition of ' The New-York Historical Society' to the favora- 
ble consideration of the Legislature. 

" WILLIAM H. SEWARD." 



This message of the Governor and the accompanying memorial of the Historical 
Society were referred by the House of Assembly to a select committee, who, on the 
19th of February, 1839, made the following report, by their Chairman, Mr. Chapin: 



" That the subject of the communication and memorial has received from the committee 
the attention to which the opinion of the Executive is entitled, and which the objects of 
the memorialists seem to claim. 

" The committee are agreed in believing with his Excellency that upon this subject 'we 
have hitherto manifested a singular indifference,' and that ' it is due to ourselves, to the memory 
of our predecessors, and to a just regard for the respect of posterity, that every important 
circumstance connected with the rise and progress of our free institutions should be recorded.' 
Nor are they less united in believing that the annals of our Colonial history, now secured in 
the archives of foreign governments, would, if transcribed and made public, reveal facts of the 
greatest interest to the State. 

" The memorialists constitute the Historical Society of the State of New-York, and were 
chartered for the important purpose of collecting and preserving documents, papers, evidences, 
and generally all materials relating to or in any way connected with the history of this State. 
In discbarge of the duties thus imposed upon them, and in pursuance of the objects thus 
intrusted by the Legislature to their care, they have been for many years ardently and faithfully 
engaged in securing from the wreck of time numerous and valuable memorials of our early 
history, which, but for their laudable efforts, would have been consigned to oblivion. In the 
prosecution of purposes so important and ennobling, the memorialists, it should be observed, 
have been limited in their researches to our own country, while it is equally remarkable that 
a great mass of materials relative to our Colonial history are hid from view and secured within 
the offices of transatlantic governments. Separated thus far distant from tlie most fruitful 
sources of information on this subject, it is but reasonable to suppose that their efforts have 
been materially restricted and their usefulness abridged. Superadded to this, there has ever 
existed a great difficulty, if not an impossibility, in obtaining access to the documents, papers, 
&c., so valuable in illustrating our history, and which, if sought for, have eluded research from 
the want of that legislative sanction and authority now desired by your memorialists. 

" Impressed with these considerations, and encouraged by the counsel and inuflence of the 
most distinguished of our citizens, the petitioners represent that they are desirous to obtain 



^ GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 

the passage of a law by this Legislature, authorizing the appointment of an Agent to visit 
Europe, and, under the sanction of legislative enactment, to transcribe the documentary papers 
there to be found, having reference to the history of this State. They further represent that 
they have been advised by many, high in official stations, that there are great numbers of 
letters, records and official documents in England, Holland and France, detailing the particulars 
of our primitive and Revolutionary history, and those relating to public and private negotiations, 
to distinguished individuals and influential associations, to the plans of foreign governments in 
their treatment of the Colonies, to the character of our people, and to the nature and resources 
of our arts and arms. And it is also represented, with like truth and force, as your committee 
believe, that at no period of our history have circumstances been so auspicious for the 
prosecution and successful issue of their purposes as those presented at this time. Not only 
are the relations between the governments referred to and our own more intimate and better 
understood than heretofore, but the increased facilities of intercommunication, and the mutual 
dependencies of trade, and reciprocity of public and private favors are such as to render the 
present truly propitious for the execution of the designs contemplated by the memorialists. 

" The importance of these facts has induced other States and associated bodies to become 
enlisted in the extension of similar objects; and it is reasonably inferred, the committee think, 
that the State of New-York — behind none in her extent and population, her arts and her 
commerce, the productions of her soil, the interest and variety of her historical reminiscences, 
and the intelligence and public spirit of her citizens — will not, on this subject, remain unfaithful 
to her honor, her interests and her fame. 

" Among the early Colonies and the people composing the inhabitants of our newly discovered 
country, none were more distinguished than New-York and its enterprising citizens; and up 
to the present moment it has continued to develope the elements of its greatness, thus 
characteristic of the Empire State. In the drama of our Colonial and National history, she 
was, and continues to be, proudly eminent. Her soil, her streams and her people are known 
to fame. History, faint as it is, reveals her crimsoned plains, her bulwarks of military and 
naval art, and the chivalry of her sons. The virtues, the heroism and the councils of her 
citizens were felt and appreciated during the primitive condition of our common country, and 
while our united energies were called forth in the cause of freedom. But, though History has 
not denied us the evidences of these truths, yet how much more may she not do for the honor 
of our State and the glory of our ancestors, when our own historians are admitted to all the 
sources of her historic treasures! 

"It is worthy of remark that the only ostensive history of the State of New -York was 
written by an Englishman, and dedicated to the Right Honorable George, Earl of Stanhope, 
Commissioner of Trade and Plantations, &c. The extent and character of this history may 
be estimated from the confession and announcement of the author, in his declaration that it 
was ' but a narrative,' and that ' it deserves not the name of history.' And further, in his 
dedication, that 'it was not presented for his Lordship's information,'' as 'all the world knows 
that the aSiiirs of the British Colonies have been for several years past under his principal 
direction, and the wisdom of the measures pursued for their prosperity and defence are 
indisputable arguments of his acquaintance with their condition.' 

"Thus were the details of our Colonial history, and all the 'wisdom' displayed in the 
government of the Colonies, presumed to have been condensed within the cranium of his right 
honorable lordship. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. XV 

"The further usefulness of the author to this Province and to posterity, it might be added, 
was prematurely arrested by his refusal to renounce his allegiance to the Crown at the most 
critical juncture of our history — his confinement at the ' Livingston Manor' — his transportation 
to New-York by General Washington, and his subsequent shipment to the land of his birth 
and of his choice. 

"From the Dutch history of 'New Netherland,' a pamphlet published at Amsterdam, may, 
in like manner, be gathered the fruitful events of our Provincial history up to the time of that 
elaborate work, eschewing, always, the veritable Knickerbocker. 

" From a notice of these particulars, it is submitted, by your committee, whether the history 
of the State of New-York ought not to rest on higher and safer authority than that referred to, 
and whether it should not be written by one of her own citizens possessed of the materials, to 
be derived from the sources before mentioned, and from the researches and under the 
supervision of the State Historical Society. 

"During the period from 1609, when our shores were first discovered and our noble river 
ascended by Henry Hudson, to 1614, and while as a Dutch Colony, up to 1664, and 
subsequently as an English Colony, from that date to 1776, it was well known that the most 
intimate relations existed between the colonists and the mother countries, and that the 
numerous records, documents and continuous correspondence of the governmental agents and 
others were, as they duly should have been, filed and preserved in the various offices of the 
respective governments. These related to the occurrence and cause of successive events, to 
public officers and prominent persons among the colonists, to the character and productions of 
our new country, and to the feelings and sufferings of our virtuous and heroic ancestors. In 
addition to these, they related, at a later and still more interesting period of our history, to the 
events that brought about the War of Revolution, to the political views and acts of our people, 
to our condition and resources, to our councils, and to the policy of the parent government in 
connection with the reports and advices of military and naval commanders and civil and 
judicial officers. 

" Nor are the particulars here noticed to be obtained alone from the archives of England 
and Holland. The government of France is presumed to be in possession of documentary 
papers having reference to the part she took in our Revolutionary struggle, to her subsequent 
relations to this country, and to ' the French and Indian wars,' which by no means form the 
least affecting and important portion of our Colonial history. 

" The military operations of the French in our State, their erection of fortifications at 
various points, and the events which transpired — often tragical in their character — should be 
subjects of lively interest with the descendants from those who braved the toils and dangers 
incident to their defenceless condition and the merciless warfare of their enemies. 

" While, then, our Colonial history has been unequaled by that of any other Province in its 
fruitfulness of incidents and in its relative importance to the Colonies, your committee are of 
opinion that it claims to be faithfully recorded ; and that the efforts of the memorialists, to 
accomplish a work so desirable and useful, justly merit the sanction and patronage of the 
Legislature. 

" It may not be unimportant to add that, while the Colonial history of this State is seen to 
be thus fraught with local and general interest, it is characterized by the existence of the most 
singular relics of art, the origin of which has hitherto baffled the inquiries of the philosophic 
and curious, but which reveal the startling fact that, at a period long antecedent to all know- 
ledge of our ancestors, it was signalized as the theatre of great aud strange events. 



xvi GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 

" Many of these, like the chronicles of our own times now sought to be saved fronn the 
same oblivious fate, are fast disappearing before the modern ' march of improvement' and the 
destructive influence of lime, while others, if known to the early colonists, have sunk into 
ruin and forgetfulness. 

" It appears to the committee, from a review of the subject submitted to their examination 
and opinion, that it would be worthy of the pride and ambition of our citizens to encourage 
the enterprise of the memorialists, and to secure for the State the materials for its enlarged 
history. And your committee believe that no subject is calculated to inspire us with a 
stronger love of freedom and of country than the records of the times and the chivalric deeds 
of our fathers — those who gave us life, liberty, and a country made sacred by their blood. 
Ingratitude alone must be our apology in failing to cherish the memory and the annals of their 
history. Nor is it less an obligation to our predecessors, than a duty to posterity, that we 
encourage the perpetuity of their examples of virtue and of patriotism. 

" In the execution of the purposes set forth by the memorialists, and commended by the 
Governor, it is represented that two years should be employed, and that an expenditure of 
$4000 may accomplish the work. 

" This amount, though less than that suggested by the inclination of the committee, has 
been deemed to be an adequate appropriation, which, while it may insure the successful issue 
of the enterprise, will not be thought unworthy the Empire State for the accomplishment of 
an object which cannot fail to prove honorable to iier fame. 

" With these views of the subject, the committee submit the accompanying bill." 

The bill reported by the select committee, having duly passed both Houses of the 
Legislature, was signed by the Governor on the 2d of May, 1839, and is as follows: 



"AN ACT TO APPOINT AN AGENT TO PROCURE AND TRANSCRIBE DOCUMENTS IN EUROPE 
RELATIVE TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY OF THIS STATE. 

" Passed Mat 2, 1839. 

" The People of the Stale of Ncw-TorJc, represented in Senate and Assemhlrj, do enact as follows: 

" Section 1. An Agent shall be appointed by the Governor of this State, by and with the 
advice and consent of the Senate, to visit England, Holland and France, for the purpose of 
procuring, if possible, the originals, and if not, copies, of all such documents and papers, in 
the archives and offices of those governments relating to or in any way affecting the Colonial 
or other history of this State, as he may deem important to illustrate that history. 

"% 2. The said documents and papers, when procured, shall be deposited in the office of the 
Secretary of this State, subject to the use of the State Historical Society. 

" >^ 3. A sum not exceeding four thousand dollars is hereby appropriated for defraying the 
expenses of said Agent." 



The words of this act are very broad and indefinite, and they seem to have been 
purposely made so. What was evidently intended was, that the Agent should select 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. xvii 

and obtain, in Europe, historical documents and papers, which, when procured, were 
to be added to and form a part of the existing records of the State, at Albany. He 
was necessarily invested with a large discretion ; he was to procure as much additional 
material as he could ; and his scope of selection was limited only by the comprehensive 
restriction to such documents "relating to or in any way affecting the Colonial or 
other history" of New -York, as, in his own judgment, he might " deem important to 
illustrate" that history. 

Under this law, the names of sevei'al gentlemen connected with antiquarian 
investigations were suggested as fit and proper to execute its duties ; and in March, 
1840, the Historical Society, through its President, Mr. Peter A. Jay, addressed an 
official letter to the Governor, reminding him that two distinguished citizens of the State 
were then representing the United States government abroad — Mr. Henry Wiieaton, 
at Berlin, and Mr. Harmanus Blbecker, at the Hague — whose public position would 
give them superior facilities for research, and who would no doubt cheerfully superintend 
the execution of the contemplated work ; and the Society accordingly recommended 
that one or the other of these gentlemen should be appointed Agent of the State. 
Various circumstances, however, delayed the execution of the act. At length, on the 
15th of January, 1841, nearly two years after the passage of the law, Mr. John 
RoMEYN Brodhead was commissioned as Agent. He had resided during the previous 
year in Holland, with Mr. Bleecker, attached to the American Legation at the Hague, 
and was to some extent familiar with the peculiar duty he was expected to perform. 
In order, however, to avoid what was felt to be the chief inconvenience in the execution 
of his mission, namely, the procuring of duplicates of documents already in the posses- 
sion of the State, the Agent spent several weeks in a careful examination of the prin- 
cipal historical records in the Secretary's office at Albany. They were at that time, to a 
great degree, in the comparatively unarranged and confused condition already described ; 
and the investigation of them was necessarily imperfect and unsatisfactory. There 
was no catalogue or abstract sufficient to indicate their dates or contents. Notwith- 
standing these unfavorable circumstances, copious notes and memoranda were made by 
the Agent, and every precaution was taken to secure the means to assist and guide his 
judgment as far as possible, when he should be engaged in his investigations in the 
foreign archives. 

Previous to his departure for Europe, the Agent received the following instructions 
from the Governor: 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 



" STATE OF NEW-YORK; ■> 

"Executive Department,) 

" Albany, March 2'ttk, 1841. 
"To John Romeyn Brodhead, Esquire : 

" The Legislature of tliis State having on the 2d day of May, 1S39, passed an act for the 
appointment of an Agent to visit England, Holland and France for the purpose of procuring 
the originals or copies of such documents and papers, in the archives of those governments, 
relating to the Colonial and other history of this State as are important to illustrate that 
history, and you having been duly appointed such Agent, and being about to proceed in the 
execution of your duties, it seems to be proper that I should communicate to you the views 
entertained by the Executive in relation thereto. 

" This communication is to be regarded as advisory only. The language of the acts is quite 
indeQnite, and was undoubtedly designedly made so, in order to leave the Agent at liberty to 
exercise a sound and wise discretion, according to the circumstances affecting the object of his 
mission. In recommending those objects to the Legislature, I observed that their successful 
accomplishment would advance the cause of free government throughout the world, and that 
it was due to ourselves and to the memory of our predecessors, and to a just regard for the 
respect of posterity, that every important circumstance connected with the rise and progress 
of our free institutions should be recorded and illustrated. 

" The general policy of the European governments towards their transatlantic possessions 
has been heretofore studied by us chiefly in the acts of their agents here, while its compara- 
tive unimportance in the domestic history of those States has caused it to be often overlooked 
or superficially treated by European historians. It is represented to us that there are now, in 
the archives and public offices of Holland and England, many papers relating to the events 
and persons prominent in our local history anterior to and through the Revolution. Among 
such papers may be expected to be found reports, advices, and other communications from the 
Colonial Governors, Military Commanders, the early colonists, and other individuals resident 
here. 

" The policy of France, in establishing her military positions upon this continent, is regarded 
among the most important and interesting particulars of our history; and her long struggle to 
retain those positions exercised a great influence for a long period upon the condition, disposi- 
tion and purposes of the people of New-York. It is, I presume, chiefly with a view to obtain- 
ing authentic evidence concerning this part of our history tiiat you are expected to visit that 
country. 

" It would be highly interesting to obtain the originals or copies of the instructions for- 
warded to the French and English Governors of Canada ; to learn the views which possessed 
them, of a commercial, military or colonizing character; their expectations of the future 
growth of their settlements bordering upon the colony of New-York ; their expenditures and 
receipts; the nature and extent of their alliance with the Indian tribes; and the history of 
their expeditions across the St. Lawrence, and of their posts upon Lake Ontario and the Riv. r 
Niagara, so far as developed by official reports, or memorials from the foreign departments 
under whose administration these various operations took place. 

" It will be equally important to obtain in England the copies of those papers relating to 
the occupation of the Colony, which are said to have been removed to the mother country, 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. xix 

together with such official documents, memoirs and statistical details as were doubtless com- 
municated from time to time to the British government by its agents here. Among these 
transactions, the conduct of Sir William Johnson, his agency with the Indians, iiis communi- 
cations to his government, and his views as to the extension of the British power, would be 
particularly valuable. The expedition of Colonel NicoUs has never yet been known to us in 
all its details. The capture of the city of Albany, under his orders, has found as yet but a 
few lines on the pages of the historian. 

" The Dutch records have furnished us with a vast amount of information relating to the 
Colony while in subordination to the West India Company; but the official reports of Govern- 
ors Van Twiller, Stuyvesant, Kieft, &c., to the father-land, and the documents which must 
necessarily have been communicated from time to time by those zealous agents, are yet to 
become a part of the materials of our history. 

" Many details in relation to the patents, manorial rights, &c., and much information relating 
to the Indian trade, will no doubt be gleaned from the archives which may become accessible. 

" All these, as far as the appropriation will permit, after defraying your necessary expenses 
and the private charges which will attend you in your various journeys, will become matter of 
interest to you in your general investigations. 

<'You are advised to proceed first to Holland, to ascertain what documents and papers 
require your attention there ; then to proceed to England, and institute a similar examination 
there. Having thus ascertained what will be most important in those countries, you will 
proceed to solicit the originals, or cause transcripts to be made, as circumstances shall indicate. 
While this is going forward in those countries, you will have leisure to proceed to Paris, in 
performance of your duties at that capital. 

" You will from time to time report to the Executive of this State, and will be at liberty at 
all times to seek advice from him in regard to the discharge of the duties of your mission. 
You will ship to the address of the Secretary of State any books or parcels you deem it 
important to be sent to this country. • 

"You will be allowed at the rate of two thousand dollars per annum, payable quarterly, for 
your compensation, besides your traveling expenses and disbursements for the purposes of your 
mission. You have already received an advance of fifteen hundred dollars. On rendering 
accounts for one thousand dollars of that sum, you may draw upon the Comptroller for another 
sum of one thousand dollars in advance, in like manner, and so on, accounting and drawing 
the extent of the amount appropriated in the bill. 

" In testimony whereof, I have hereunto subscribed my name, and caused the 
[ L. s. ] great seal of the State to be affixed, this twenty-seventh day of March, in the 
year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and forty-one, and of the 
Independence of the United States of America the sixty-fifth. 

" WILLIAM H. SEWARD." 



In pursuance of his commission and instructions, Mr. Bkodhead embarked for 
Europe on the first of May, 1841. He commenced his investigations in the archives 
at the Hague in the following summer ; and for nearly three years was diligently 
engaged in prosecuting his labors in the several Record offices of Holland, England and 



XX GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 

Trance. It was necessary, in the first place, to procure the official authority from the 
proper departments of government, without which the documents the Agent was in- 
structed to procure could neither he inspected nor copied. In Holland and in France, 
the requisite permission was readily and liberally granted. But in England the official 
regulations were much more embarrassing. 

When, at length, fairly engaged in his researches, the Agent found himself 
surrounded with difficulties, which, though to some extent he had anticipated, he had 
no means of entirely overcoming. Among much that was altogether new and of 
invaluable importance to the American historian, there was also found in the archives, 
especially of England, much that was more or less familiar. With the imperfect 
memoranda which he had been able to make of papers already in possession of the State, 
the Agent was constantly exposed to the chance of copying duplicates ; and the more 
so, as he was obliged to make his selections upon a prompt exercise of judgment, and 
without proper opportunities for comparison. All documents about which there was 
no doubt were at once selected for transcription ; and, on the other hand, such as were 
positively known to be in existence at Albany, in a complete form, were passed by. 
But the temptation to secure everything in any way illustrating our history, of the 
actual possession of which, by the State, there appeared to be any uncertainty, was ever 
strong. The duty of the Agent, as defined by the law, was to procure all such 
documents, " relating to or in any way affecting the Colonial or other history" of New- 
York, as he might " deem important to illustrate that history ;" and in executing this 
very comprehensive trust he was instructed to use a " sound and wise discretion." It 
was thought that this discretion would be most advantageously exercised by securing, 
while there was a favorable opportunity of doing so, all papers coming within the terms 
of the law, the suppression or omission of which might, in the judgment of competent 
historical authority, leave incomplete the public records of the State. Moreover, 
it was always considered that the object of the Agency was to add documents to the 
archives of the State, and not to procure and prepare the materials of a work for 
publication. Besides, the existence of duplicates of documents from different sources, 
in all public collections of papers, is known to be not only universal but oftentimes 
desirable, as such duplicates tend to verification. The Agent accordingly thought it to 
be his duty rather to risk redundancy than deficiency ; and in all cases of doubt he 
preferred to secure papers with a liberal hand, while it was in his power to do so, 
leaving the question of their relative importance and their entire publication to be 
considered and settled afterwards, when ampler opportunity should be afforded for 
comparison and discrimination. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. xxi 

Soon after commencing his investigations in Europe, the Agent found that, owing to 
the large number of documents discovered, and the necessary expenses of their 
transcription, the original appropriation by the Legislature would be insufficient. 
Eeports were from time to time addressed to the Governor, who communicated them 
to the Legislature ; and further sums of three thousand dollars on the 11th of April, 
1842, and five thousand dollars on the 13th of April, 1843, were voted to defray the 
expenses of the Agency. Having at length executed his duty as fully as he could, Mr. 
Brodhead returned home in the summer of 1844, and was occupied during the rest of 
that year in arranging and indexing the documents he had procured. These formed 
eighty volumes, and were deposited in the office of the Secretary of State, at Albany, 
where they now remain. 

Early in 1845, the Agent presented to the Governor his final report, giving a 
detailed statement of his proceedings and of their results, which was communicated to 
the Legislature in the following message : 

" EXECUTIVE CHAMBER, •) 

"Albany, 21 Feb., 1845.5 

« TO THE LEGISLATURE. 

" Herewith I have the honor to transmit the final report of the Agent of the State, appointed 
in pursuance of the provisions of the act of the 2d May, 1839, ' to procure and transcribe 
Documents in Europe, relative to the Colonial history of this State.' The report presents a 
brief but very clear history of the progress of the Agency, of the difficulties encountered, and 
of the general results accomplished, and will be read with the interest belonging to the 
suhject. 

" My pressing engagements have not allowed me time to make myself acquainted with the 
documents which the Agent has secured, or with the expenditures which have been incurred, 
beyond the statements of the report now transmitted ; and I cannot, therefore, speak of the 
degree of success realized from the establishment of the Agency, or of the economy which 
has characterized the expenditure of the moneys appropriated. 

" It will be seen, from the closing paragraphs of the report, that the Agent is in advance, to 
meet the expenses which have been incurred, over and above his own compensation, for the 
last portion of the period of his service. His account is not submitted to me, but will of 
course, I presume, be ready for presentation to the Legislature, whenever its action in the 
matter shall require it. 

" The schedules of documents accompanying the report I have not found it possible to 
command the time even to read, although the transmission of the report has been delayed 
for some days, in the hope that so much leisure might be found. Any further delay would 
only abridge the time which will be allowed to the Legislature to make these examinations, 
and to take the necessary action to bring the Agency to a final close and the accounts of the 
Agent to a settlement and liquidation. Hence, the report and accompanying papers are 



xxii GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 

transmitted without the information which enables me to make any recommendation, or 
even suggestions, as to the legislation called for or the appropriations required. 

" SILAS WRIGHT. 



« ' REPORT OF JOHN ROMEYN BRODHEAD. 

" ' To His Excellency, Silas Weight, 

" ' Governor of the State of New -York. 

" ' Sir — I have now the honor to lay before you a final report of my proceedings, as Agent of 
the State of New-York, under the act entitled " An act to appoint an Agent to procure and 
transcribe documents in Europe relative to the Colonial history of this State," passed May 2, 
1839, and of the results of my researches in the archives of Holland, England and France. 

"' Before, however, detailing these proceedings, it may not be out of place to refer briefly 
to the circumstances which led to the passage of the act of the Legislature by which the 
enterprise now brought to a conclusion was sanctioned. 

" ' This Agency is the result of the antiquarian spirit that has lately gained so much ground 
in our country. That spirit, growing and freshening with the advance of years, has been 
greatly strengthened and fostered by the exertions of the New-York Historical Society ; an 
institution which, it is but faint praise to say, has more than fulfilled the high hopes entertained 
of its future value and influence, by its projectors, in the year 1804. Exerting itself laudably 
in times of difficulty — struggling with adversity, and braving obstacles — its important 
objects gradually became appreciated by the public ; and in the year 1814 a memoi'ial, drawn 
up by the late Governor De Witt Clinton, then vice-president of the society, stating in a 
clear and masterly manner the objects of the institution, was presented to the Legislature, 
and was so favorably received as to induce the grant of twelve thousand dollars in aid of the 
funds of the society. Its library to this day remains a noble monument of the munificence 
of the State and of the liberality of individuals. 

" ' In this memorial, the prescient mind of Clinton suggested, in effect, the measure which it 
was left to after days to see carried into execution. Referring to the gaps and deficiencies in 
our own existing records, the papers of the Dutch West India Company and the archives of 
the then government of the Netherlands were pointed out as the sources whence materials 
for the Dutch portion of our history were to be obtained; and the recoi'ds of the Plantation 
Office (Board of Trade) in London, and tlie library of the British Museum, were also alluded 
to, as affording an important and inestimable fund of information respecting the period of our 
subjection to the Crown of Great Britain. The public offices in Canada, it was also suggested, 
might contain much of interest to our historians. But circumstances for a long time 
prevented any direct effort being made by the society to obtain the favorable consideration 
of the subject by the Legislature, and it was not until the year 1838 that any formal steps 
were taken in the matter. In the month of April of that year, upon the motion of Mr. George 
Folsom, a memorial was prepared and presented to the Legislature, urging the importance 
of an investigation of European archives, for the purpose of procuring those materials for the 
illustration of our history which our own State records could not furnish ; and praying 
the State to undertake, for the benefit of the people, an enterprise the society of their own 
means were unable to carry into execution. This memorial, however, was presented so near 
to the close of the session as to render it expedient to postpone further efforts till the next 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. xxiii 

year; when, the subject having been clearly and forcibly introduced by a message from the 
Governor, and its importance urged upon the members of the Legislature by the zealous and 
unwearied attention of Mr. John L. Stephens, the late Mr. William L. Stone, and others, an act 
was passed, with great unanimity on the 2d May, 1839, authorizing the appointment of an Agent 
" to visit England, Holland and France, for the purpose of procuring, if possible, the originals, 
and if not, copies, of all such documents and papers in the ai-chives and offices of those 
governments, relating to or in any way affecting the Colonial or other history of this State, as 
he may deem important to illustrate that history," and directing that the documents, when 
procured, be deposited in the office of the Secretary of State, at Albany, subject to the use of 
the State Historical Society. 

" ' Under this act I had the honor to receive a commission as Agent, on the 20th of January, 
1841. By the general instructions, in which the views of the Executive in relation to the 
duties of my mission were subsequently communicated to me, I was advised to proceed first 
to Holland, and ascertain what documents required my attention there ; and then to England 
and to France. The inspection of the State papers of foreign governments, it is well known, 
is not a mere matter of course, but is considered a privilege of a high order; and is granted 
in most cases only upon applications backed by high personal or official influence. I had 
an interview, accordingly, with the Secretary of State of the United States, for the purpose 
of procuring specific instructions to the American Ministers at London, Paris and the Hague, 
in favor of my Agency ; but he having declined giving them at that time, I embarked for 
Europe on the 1st of May, 1841. 

" ' On my arrival at London, on my way to Holland, I had several interviews with Mr. 
Stevenson, then American Minister at the court of St. James, and communicated to him, very 
fully, the objects of my mission. Mr. Stevenson, though uninstructed by the General 
Government on this point, interested himself at once, very warmly, in the subject ; and 
advised an application forthwith, to Her Majesty's government, for permission to the Agent to 
make selections and transcripts of documents in the British archives relative to our Colonial 
and other history. A note was accordingly addressed to the Marquis of Normanby, on the 
22d May, 1841, explaining the objects of the State in making the application, and requesting 
that the necessary facilities might be affijrded me for accomplishing, with as little delay as 
possible, the purpose of my mission to England. This note was referred by the Marquis of 
Normanby to Lord Palmerston, Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs ; and on the 
20th July following an answer was returned to Mr. Stevenson, that Lord Palmerston felt 
some difficulty in acceding to my application, but that if 1 would send to him a list of any 
particular documents I wished to obtain, his lordship would have them examined by some 
competent person, and, if no objection should be found to their being communicated, they 
should be copied for my use, on the usual terms, at my expense. 

" 'Upon the receipt of this answer to my application, Mr. Stevenson immediately replied, 
explaining that no partictilar docuine7its were asked for by the Agent of New-York ; that the 
object of the State was to have its Colonial history written from authentic documents, many 
of which were presumed to be in the State Paper Office, but whose particular character could 
not be known, and that they could not, therefore, be described ; that the limitations and 
restrictions imposed in former cases were of course expected to be observed in the present, 
and that the Agent would, in fact, consider himself subject to the control and pleasure of the 
department. 



xxiv GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 

"'It was hoped that, on a review of the subject, Her Majesty's government would have 
looked more auspiciously upon the application, and that, so far from perceiving in it anything 
objectionable, would rather have viewed the objects of the State as of a purely literary and 
altogether praiseworthy character, and, as such, commending themselves to the favorableand 
liberal consideration of an enlightened government. But the then ministry went out of 
office without having altered or modified their decision, which — considering the impossibility 
of my pointing out the particular documents I might wish to have transcribed, without 
having the opportunity of learning even the date of one of them — amounted, in fact, to a 
refusal of the application of the State. While referring to this subject, I cannot omit 
availing myself of the occasion to acknowledge the warm and ready interest Mr. Stevenson 
took in the objects of the Agency, and the personal obligations I feel for the courtesies he 
extended to the Agent. 

" ' Meantime, pursuant to my instructions and to Mr. Stevenson's advice, I had proceeded to 
Holland, with a view of investigating the archives of that country for documents relating 
to our early Colonial history ; intending, upon the termination of my researches in the 
Netherlands, to return to London, and avail myself of the expected liberality of the British 
government. Immediately on my arrival at the Hague, I opened the business of my mission 
to Mr. Bleecker, then the Charge d' Affaires of the United States near the King of the 
Netherlands. The well known interest of this gentleman in the cause of historical research, 
induced him to enter, at once, cordially into the views of the State; and I gladly and 
gratefully embrace this opportunity to renew the expression of my thanks for those valuable 
counsels, and friendly efforts to further the objects of my appointment, which he was always 
ready to give and anxious to make. 

" ' In order to obtain the necessary facilities for investigating the archives of the Netherlands, 
an application was addressed by Mr. Bleecker, on my behalf, to the Baron Verstolk de 
Soelen, Minister of Foreign Affairs. Upon my presentation to the King, a few days afterwards. 
His Majesty received me in the kindest manner, expressing much pleasure with the objects of 
my mission, and a warm interest in its successful accomplishment. The general direction of 
the royal archives being entrusted to the Minister of the Interior, the application was 
promptly referred to the Baron Schimmelpennick, the head of that department; and an 
interview was accordingly had with His Excellency, who at once informed me that he would 
give directions to the officer in charge of the archives to afford me all facilities for the 
purpose of fully carrying out the objects of my commission, and which had been directed by 
the King himself to be as liberal in their extent as the exigencies of the service would allow. 
" ' The government records at the Hague are placed under the supervision of an 
«' Archivarius," at present Yonkheer J. C. de Jonge, a gentleman of great intelligence and 
urbanity, and from whom I received numerous marks of kindness and courtesy, which I am 
happy to acknowledge. M. de Jonge, on my presenting myself at the archives, pointed out 
the various depositories in which the documents presumed to relate to the subject of my 
research were contained ; and gave directions that every book and paper, known or supposed 
to contain information affecting our Colonial history, be submitted, without reserve, to my 
inspection, and every arrangement made that could facilitate my labors. 

" ' The archives of the Netherlands, it is believed, constitute one of the richest depositories 
of historical information to be found in Europe ; commencing with the period of the Union 
of Utrecht, in 1579, and extending down to the French Revolution. They are contained in 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. XXV 

an immense suite of apartments in the old palace of the Binnenhof ; and the documents are, 
in general, very well arranged, though not all equally well preserved. The greater part are 
contained in parchment-bound volumes, in most instances paged and indexed for convenient 
reference. They consist, chiefly, of minutes of the proceedings of the States-General, at their 
ordinary and secret meetings, kept by their Grefficrs, or clerks; in which are entered, in detail, 
the resolutions of that body on all matters coming before them. These registers commence 
with the year 1579, and are preserved in an unbroken series from that date. The diplomatic 
correspondence of the government, as well as copies of general letters, and also the 
instructions and commissions issued from time to time, are preserved in several separate series 
of books. The original papers and memorials, received by tlie States-General from time to 
time, are arranged on Liasses, or files, or are tied up in bundles, which are deposited in the 
Secrete and Lokei Kits. These papers have suffered much more from the effects of time and 
exposure than those in the bound volumes. 

" ' It was necessary that careful and laborious researches should be made in all these different 
repositories. Aided by the accurate knowledge and long experience of Mr. J. A. de Zwaan, 
the " Commis Chartermeester" at the royal archives — and whose enthusiastic and untiring 
cooperation, I am proud to acknowledge, contributed in an essential degree to the success of 
the research — I was unremittingly occupied during several months in a toilsome investigation, 
in the course of which upwards of four hundred volumes and bundles of papers were carefully 
examined. Many of the documents were worm-eaten and decayed ; and the circumstance 
that most of them were written in the perverse and obscure characters common in the 
seventeenth century, increased not a little the difficulty of the research. 

"' The results of my investigations in the archives at the Hague, however, strengthened the 
impression I had previously entertained, that though a great and valuable amount of 
information, on points either entirely novel, or at best but imperfectly known in our history, 
was there contained, the records of the Dutch West India Company, which had the supervision 
and direction of the Colony of New Netherland, were the grand magazine in which I might 
hope to find those more particular details of voyages, discoveries, emigrations, settlements and 
personal narratives, which would be of the highest interest to the descendants of the early 
settlers, as well as to the historian of New-York. Relying on the information which had 
been given me at the Hague, that these records, commencing with the period of the 
organization of the company in 1621, were preserved complete at Amsterdam, an order was 
accordingly obtained from the Minister of the Colonies, directing the keeper of the old East 
and West India Companies' papers, at Amsterdam, to afford me every facility for examining the 
documents in his custody. The archives of the city of Amsterdam were also presumed to 
contain important information relative to the Colony of " Nieuw-Amstel," which that city 
undertook to manage in the year 1656 ; and a letter in my behalf was in consequence 
addressed by the Minister of the Interior to the Burgomaster. In further prosecution of my 
duty, I accordingly visited Amsterdam. 

" ' But, on applying at the West India House, I was, to my infinite surprise and mortifica- 
tion, informed by Mr. de Munnick, the keeper, that all the books, documents and papers of 
every kind, belonging to the old East and West India Companies, of a date prior to 1700, had 
been sold at public auction in the year 1821, by order of the government of the Netherlands. 
That nothing should be left undone, however, I instituted a thorough search among the 
remaining papers, in the hope that something, however small, might have escaped the opera- 



xxvi GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 

tion of the order. But I regret to say that this examination was attended with no favorable 
result ; and I reluctantly abandoned the cherished hope that the archives of the "West India 
Company would have proved a rich mine of historical wealth to our State. Examinations 
were also made in the papers of the East India Company, in the hope that something might 
be ascertained relative to Hudson's voyage of discovery, which was made in their service. 
The only trace found of that voyage is a memorandum in one of the " ship books," which 
accidentally escaped sale, stating that the yacht Halve-Maan, of forty lasts (eighty tons) 
burthen, had been sent " towards the north," in 1608. Unwilling, however, to abandon all 
hope of recovering a portion, at least, of the records which had been sold, I caused adver- 
tisements to be inserted in the most widely circulated journals of the country, requesting any 
person who might have in his possession any documents relating to the history of the Colony 
of New Netherland to have the goodness to communicate with the (then) Consul of the 
United States, at Amsterdam, Mr. J. W. Van den Broek. The kind attentions and friendly 
exertions of this gentleman, to further the objects of my visit to Amsterdam, have imposed 
on me an obligation which I would do great injustice to my feelings if I did not take this 
opportunity to acknowledge. It was subsequently ascertained that a portion of the records, 
sold at Amsterdam, was in the possession of the original buyer, a person residing at the 
Hague. I purchased permission of him to make an examination of this portion, which was 
accordingly effected. Nothing, however, relating to our history was found ; and the mortify- 
ing conviction is now forced upon us, that the papers of the West India Company relating 
to New Netherland — which, until the year 1821, were easily attainable by the State, and 
whose destruction has left such a chasm in the original materials for the illustration of our 
annals — are now irrecoverably lost! 

" ' The application to the authorities of the city of Amsterdam, for permission to examine 
their archives, was at once acceded to in the most courteous manner, and prompt arrange- 
ments were made to facilitate my investigations of the records in the Stad-Huys. Quite a 
number of interesting documents, relating to the City's Colony on the South river, were found 
and copied. 

" ' Examinations were also made of the valuable collections of manuscripts and pamphlets 
in the Royal library at the Hague ; and the most courteous attention was shown by the esti- 
mable librarian, Mr. J. W. Holtrop. 

" ' The result of my researches, in the various repositories in the Netherlands just referred 
to, is the procurement of sixteen volumes of transcripts, containing upwards of four thousand 
pages. As a full and accurate catalogue of the documents transcribed is appended to this 
report, it is unnecessary to give any particular analysis of their character here. I will only 
remark that they commence with the year 1614, and extend down, in a tolerably complete 
series, to 1678, consisting chiefly of memorials and papers presented to the States-General 
respecting New Netherland, and the proceedings of that body in relation to the various mat- 
ters from time to time brought before them affecting the Colony and its inhabitants. The 
act of the Legislature directed me to procure, if possible, the originals, and if not, copies of all 
documents illustrating our history. I applied for the originals, but the regulations of office 
did not allow a compliance with my request ; copies were therefore made of the papers 
selected. Not the slightest difficulty, however, occurred in obtaining these, and not a single 
objection was made to my having any document transcribed I wished. The most unbounded 
liberality was evinced on every occasion by the government of that country to which we 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. XXVU 

trace, with such affectionate veneration, the foundation of our State, and the most friendly 
and gratifying interest was always exhibited by the gentlemen connected with the different 
departments of the administration, with whom the business of my mission from time to time 
brought me into communication. 

" ' The investigations in the archives of the Netherlands being now terminated, I returned 
to London in December, 1841, to prosecute the duties of my mission. A new ministry, with 
the Earl of Aberdeen as principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, had come into power, 
and Mr. Stevenson had been succeeded by Mr. Everett as Minister of the United States, near 
Her Britannic Majesty. At the request of the Governor, and justly appreciating the 
importance to the Union, as well as to the State of New-York, of the objects contemplated 
by the State in sending an Agent to Europe, the President of the United States had instructed 
Mr. Everett to apply to the British government for such facilities as might be necessary for 
the successful prosecution of my proposed researches in England. 

" ' Directly on his arrival at London, I had an interview with Mr. Everett, and acquainted 
him fully with the objects of my mission, and with the previous steps that had been taken. 
It need scarcely be said that the views of the State were at once warmly and zealously entered 
into by the distinguished gentleman who represents our country in England, and whose 
friendly and valuable counsels have laid me under obligations I shall always be proud to 
acknowledge ; or that it was fortunate for the cause of literature and historical investigation 
that the Earl of Aberdeen was Foreign Secretary of Great Britain when the Agent of this 
State made a renewed attempt to obtain permission from Her Majest)''s government to execute 
the duties of his mission. No time was lost; and on the 23d December, 1841, Mr. Everett 
addressed a note to Lord Aberdeen, recapitulating the steps Mr. Stevenson had taken with 
the late ministry, and expressing a hope that the requisite facilities for the attainment of the 
objects of my mission would now be afforded by the government of Great Britain ; for which 
it is claimed that it has " never permitted itself to be surpassed by any other, in the 
countenance which it has at all times extended to every judicious effort for the promotion of 
useful knowledge." Some time subsequently, Lord Aberdeen having suggested that though 
it might not be possible for me to furnish a specific list of the historical documents desired, 
yet, that a general statement of their nature must be practicable, and would facilitate a 
decision on the pending application, I prepared a statement of the kind proposed, and as 
specific as the nature of the case admitted ; which Mr. Everett transmitted to his lordship, 
in a note dated 14th February, 1842, in which the purely literary character and objects of my 
commission were again urged, and the hope expressed that the synopsis I had prepared would 
remove whatever hesitation may have existed in reference to a compliance with my request. 

" ' It is unnecessary to detail the various difficulties that were encountered, and the many 
delays that occurred, before the desired permission was obtained. At length, on the 6th of 
April, 1842, I commenced my labors in " Her Majesty's State Paper Office." An order was 
sent by Lord Aberdeen to the keeper of the state papers, allowing me to inspect the 
documents in the office relative to the Province of New-York ; with the understanding that 
my examinations were to be made in the presence of an officer of the establishment, and that 
I was merely, in the first instance, to indicate, by slips of paper, the documents I might wish 
to transcribe, and not to transcribe, or make extracts of any of them, until the papers so 
indicated should have been examined and allowed, on the part of Lord Aberdeen. 

" ' This order was interpreted by the keeper of the state papers with such strictness as to 
cause me serious embarrassment and inconvenience. I was not allowed to make the slightest 



xxviii GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 

note or memorandum, even of the date of a document; which, under the circumstances — the 
mass of papers to be gone over being so large — was desirable, and even necessary, ia order 
to avoid the risk of marking duplicates, and the embarrassment of depending on memory alone. 
This, and other points — one of which was a permission to employ copyists of my own selec- 
tion, by whom the transcripts could have been made at a much less expense than that incurred 
by the charges of the regular clerks of the office — formed the subject of a subsequent note 
of Mr. Everett to Lord Aberdeen. His lordship promptly replied, giving me the further 
permission desired respecting the making memoranda, &c., but declining to accede to the 
request that I might be allowed to employ a private copyist. I was obliged, in consequence, 
to pay to the clerks of the office 4d. sterling for every folio of 72 words that they transcribed. 
" ' Her Majesty's State Paper Office, in London, is strictly a part of the Sovereign's own 
private library — an appendage to the Secretary of State's office. Being entirely a government 
establishment, it is not considered as on the same footing as the manuscript department of the 
British Museum, or other institutions of a like character. No person is allowed to visit the 
office, for the purpose of consulting documents, until an order for the purpose has been 
obtained from one of the Secretaries of State, who alone have the right of granting the 
privilege. This order usually specifies the series of papers to which the visitor is to have 
access ; and its directions are strictly and scrupulously followed by the keeper. This office 
is the depository of all papers and dispatches that pass through the offices of the Secretaries 
of State, which are there arranged under the superintendence of a keeper, deputy keeper, 
and other officials ; and the accurate and perfect manner in which this is done reflects the 
highest credit on the gentlemen to whom the government entrusts this important duty. The 
building in which these papers are contained was erected in the year 1830, in St. James' 
Park, near the government offices ; and is, in every respect, well adapted to its purposes. 
In addition to the papers from the offices of the Secretaries of State (among which is to be 
found a very voluminous correspondence with the Governors and Military Commanders in 
America), the State Paper Office now contains the whole of the records of the " Board of 
Trade," down to its dissolution, in the year 1782, which were transferred to it by order 
of government, in March, 1842. Upwards of two thousand large folio volumes, relating 
chiefly to the American Colonies, were thus added, in one mass, to this invaluable repository 
of historical wealth. 

" ' The general supervision and management of the British Plantations in America, and 
elsewhere, was entrusted by King Charles II., by royal commission, dated 1 December, 1660, 
to a standing council, who were instructed to correspond with the several Governors, &c., and 
in general to dispose of all matters relating to the good government and improvement of the 
Colonies. Subsequent commissions were from time to time issued to various individuals, sub- 
stantially of the same tenor, constituting them a Council for Foreign Plantations, for the time 
being. On the 21st of December, 1G74, the King revoked the commission for the existing 
council, and directed their books and papers to be delivered to the clerk of the Privy Council. 
By order in council, dated 12 March, 1675, King Charles II. referred whatever matters had 
been under the cognizance of the late Council of Trade and Foreign Plantations to a commit- 
tee of the Privy Council, consisting of the Lord Treasurer, the Lord Privy Seal, and others, 
and directed them to meet once a week, and report their proceedings to the King in council, 
from time to time. During the reign of King James II., the afiairs of the Plantations con- 
tinued to be managed by a similar committee of Privy Council; and upon the accession of this 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. xxix 

monarcli (6 February, 1C85), the Province of New-York having devolved to the Crown, it was 
placed under the supervision of this committee. Upon the accession of King William III., in 
February, 1689, a committee of the Privy Council continued to manage the affairs of the 
Plantations, until their growing importance suggested the necessity of a separate and distinct 
department of government for their direction. 

" ' The year ] 696 is the era of the permanent organization of what is familiarly known to 
our historians as the " Board of Trade." On the 15th May, in that year, King William III., by 
royal commission, constituted and appointed the great officers of state, for the time being, and 
certain other persons, " Commissioners, during the royal pleasure, for promoting the trade of 
the Kingdom, and for inspecting and improving the Plantations in America, and elsewhere." 
This board was empowered and required to examine into the general condition of the trade of 
England, and of foreign parts, and to make representations to the King thereupon ; to take 
into their custody all records and papers belonging to the Plantation Office; to inquire into 
the condition of the Plantations ; to examine into the instructions of the Governors, &c., and 
represent their conduct to the King ; to present the names of proper persons for Governors 
and Secretaries, &c., in the Colonies, to the King in council ; to examine into and consider 
the acts passed in the Colonies ; to hear complaints, and make representations thereupon, &c. ; 
and with power to send for persons and papers. The Board of Trade and Plantations, as thus 
organized, was continued through the succeeding reigns, by royal commissions, until its final 
dissolution, by act of Parliament, in July, 1782. 

" ' The records of the Board of Trade were kept with much care and system. Their 
proceedings on all subjects brought before them were accurately entered in a series of large 
folio journals, commencing with 1696 and extending down to 1782; and which, including 
the records of the proceedings of the Committee of Privy Council, between 1675 and 1696, 
number about 130 volumes. 

" ' The documents relating to the affairs of each Province and Colony were regularly and 
separately preserved in two series of books ; the one styled " Entries," in which were recorded 
all the letters and representations of the board in reference to its concerns ; and the other 
entitled " Papers," in which all the original documents received at Whitehall were carefully 
bound up. There are 123 large volumes of " Entries " and " Papers," relating to the Province 
of New-York, in the Board of Trade series, commencing with 1664 and extending to 1782; 
in which are included the documents relating to the proprietary government under the Duke 
of York, which were transferred to the Committee for Foreign Plantations, &c., upon the 
devolution of the Province to the Crown on the accession of King James II. Documents of 
general concern to all the Provinces and Colonies were recorded and preserved in a separate 
series of books, amounting to sixty, entitled " Plantations General." 

" ' The records of the State Paper Office, properly, are not nearly so perfect, especially in 
the earlier periods, as those of the Board of Trade. It was only in matters of great secrecy 
and concern that the Provincial Governors were required to correspond directly with the 
Secretaries of State ; and it is probably in consequence of this that there are only six volumes 
of New-York records from the Secretary's office between 1696 and 1752. These volumes 
are composed, chiefly, of letters from the Governors to the Secretaries, which are, in many 
instances, almost literal copies of those sent to the Lords of Trade. There are very few 
letters from the Secretaries to the Governors during this period. There are no Secretary of 
State's records whatever, relating to New-York, between 1752 and 1762 ; but after this year, 



XXX GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 

and down to 1781, the correspondence is full and voluminous ; that relating to this Province, 
aloae, fillino- nineteen large folio volumes, and comprising, as well, the letters of the Secreta- 
ries to the Governors. Besides the several series relating to the different Provinces, there is 
a set of volumes, numbering eighteen, entitled " Plantations General," in which the general 
correspondence of the Secretaries with the Colonies and with the Superintendents of Indian 
Affairs, &c., between 1760 and 1781, is preserved. 

" ' In addition to the volumes above mentioned, amounting in all to 356, a series of books, 
sixty-two in number, entitled " Trade Papers," embracing a miscellaneous collection of docu- 
ments relating to trade and foreign plantations from 1542 to 1761, was submitted to my 
inspection, agreeably to the terms of the Secretary of State's order. In the course of my 
researches I ascertained that there were other sets of books and papers in which documents 
relating to our history were contained, but which my order, as it stood, did not allow me to 
examine. I was consequently obliged to apply to Lord Aberdeen for further permissions, 
which were granted ; and nearly a hundred other volumes and bundles of papers were sub- 
mitted to my inspection. 

" ' Thus upwards of five hundred volumes and bundles of papers were thoroughly and 
carefully examined in the State Paper Office. Each document desired for transcription was 
indicated by a slip of paper, and subsequently reexamined by a gentleman connected with the 
Foreign Office, under Lord Aberdeen's direction. Such of them only as were not obje(;ted to 
were copied. The copies were made by the regular clerks of the office on the terms above 
stated ; and in every instance the orthography of the originals was scrupulously followed. 
In making my selections, the greatest care and caution were necessary in order to avoid 
marking duplicates of papers, which are very numerous ; and the immense number of the 
documents themselves, and the unexpectedly high charge for transcribing, were also causes 
of considerable embarrassment. I cannot close this reference to my researches in the State 
Paper Office, without bearing testimony to the excellent and orderly arrangement of every 
part of the establishment ; and I should be greatly wanting to my feelings if I were to omit 
an expression of my admiration of the politeness and attention of Messrs. Charles Lechraere 
and Robert Lemon, the deputy keeper and chief clerk. To the latter gentleman, particu- 
larly, I feel under great obligations, not only for his personal courtesies to myself, but for 
the ready and zealous interest he manifested in the success of the undertaking I was charged 
by the State to execute. 

" ' Presuming that the office of the Privy Council might contain information relative to the 
subject of my reserach, I addressed a note to Mr. Greville, one of the clerks in ordinary, 
requesting permission to examine its earlier records. A pi-ompt and most courteous answer 
was returned, complying with my request ; and I examined the registers under the care of the 
librarian of the archives, Mr. Henry Reeve, to whose kindness I am much indebted for 
the facilities he afforded me. Very few documents, however, were found relating to our 
Colonial history. There are no separate papers whatever, in the Privy Council Office, of a 
date prior to 1700 ; but the registers of its proceedings are preserved complete from the time 
of Queen Elizabeth. 

" ' The library of tlie British Museum, already a magnificent monument of the public spirit 
of the nation, is daily becoming more and more worthy the admiration of the world. The 
collection of printed books and pamphlets, whose number, though not accurately known, 
certainly exceeds 300,000 volumes, is one of the most perfect in existence ; and there are 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. xxxi 

nearly 40,000 volumes of manuscripts. The arrangements for the examination of these 
literary treasures are very convenient ; and though, in such a metropolis as London, some 
regulations are necessary to exclude improper persons, those regulations are so easy to be 
complied with that the library may be said to be, in effect, open to the public. Through the 
kind and polite attention of Sir Henry Ellis, the principal librarian, I had every facility 
afforded me for examining the various printed and manuscript collections, and quite a number 
of transcripts were made of papers bearing upon our history. While speaking of this noble 
institution, I may be permitted to remark that nowhere else was I more strongly convinced 
of the indispensable necessity, to the investigator, of accurate catalogues, both for printed 
books and for manuscripts. There is now in course of preparation a systematic alphabetical 
catalogue of the printed works, of such comprehensiveness, that the letter "A" alone occu- 
pies about twenty large folio volumes. Notwithstanding the active and skilful exertions of 
the learned and competent gentlemen who are engaged in this important work, it will be 
many years before it can be completed. The manuscripts are already catalogued and their 
examination thus rendered perfectly easy. The Harleian, the Lansdowne and the Cottonian 
collections, by means of their accurate catalogues, which were published some years ago by 
government, are almost as well known to literary men on this side of the ocean as to those 
in Europe ; and each addition to the manuscript department, as it is received, is at once 
catalogued and thus rendered accessible. 

" ' The Archiepiscopal library at Lambeth has also afforded us some interesting historical 
materials. My application to the Archbishop of Canterbury for permission to make researches 
in the library was promptly and cheerfully complied with ; and it gives me great satisfaction 
to have this opportunity of acknowledging the very marked liberality of the venerable 
prelate at the head of the English Church, as well as the urbanity and friendly interest dis- 
played by His Grace's librarian, the Rev. S. R. Maitland, in making every arrangement for 
my convenient examination of the documents in his custody. 

" ' From the various repositories in London, to which reference has just been made, I pro- 
cured nearly seventeen thousand pages of transcripts of documents relating to our history, 
which fill forty-seven volumes. A complete and accurate catalogue of the " London Docu- 
ments" is appended to this report, by means of which the character of each paper can be at 
once ascertained, and any particular analysis of the series, at present, is thus rendered unne- 
cessary. It commences with 1614 and ends with 1782 ; comprising the official correspon- 
dence of the Governors of New-York, from its surrender by the Dutch in 1664 to the end of 
the Revolution, as well as various documents of interest received from private hands. In 
making my selections, the greatest care was taken to avoid procuring papers known to be 
already in the Secretary of State's office, at Albany. I was unable to find any traces of the 
original books of records of the Indian Commissioners, which are supposed to have been 
removed from this State during the Revolutionary war; but copies have been made of all Sir 
William Johnson's official letters to the British government, which remain in the State Paper 
Office, as well as of the greater part of the proceedings respecting Indian affairs, which were 
from time to time sent to London. 

" ' It will, perhaps, be noticed that previous to 1674 there are 'no dispatches or 
communications from the Duke of York or his secretary to his officers in New-York, and but 
few from them to His Royal Highness. The first entry book, or record of letters from the 
Duke, commences with 1674, and from that period they are tolerably well preserved. There 



XXxii GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 

are several deficiencies in the series of letters from Governor Nicolls, and very few of 
Grovernor Lovelace's communications were found. There does not seem to have been any 
file of Governor Andros' letters, to the Duke or Sir John Werden, handed to the Committee 
for Trade and Phintations when the affairs of the Province came under its supervision, upon 
the devolution of New-York to the Crown, on the accession of King James II. ; but after 
that date the records are much more perfect. After the final organization of the Board of 
Trade, by King William III., in 1696, the New-York papers are full and complete. 

"' The policy of France in regard to her Canadian possessions — the establishment of her 
military positions on our frontiers, and her negotiations with the Indian tribes on our borders, 
and within the very limits of our territory itself, are directly and intimately connected with our 
Colonial history; and hfer long struggle to maintain her influence in the northern portion of 
our continent, affected, in no small degree, the condition, disposition and purposes of the 
people of New-York. It was with a view of obtaining authentic historical materials, 
illustrating these points, that an examination of the archives of the French government was 
made a part of my duty. 

" ' Having made some progress in my researches in London, and commenced the transcription 
of documents there, I wrote to General Cass, then Minister of the United States at Paris, 
explaining the objects of the State, and requesting his intervention with the French government 
for the purpose of procuring me permission to examine its archives for papers relating to 
Canada and New-York. A simple statement of my object was all that was necessary to 
awaken the warmest interest of tiiat eminent gentleman ; and he forthwith applied, on my behalf, 
to Admiral Baron Duperre, then Minister of the Marine and the Colonies, for permission to 
examine the papers relating to Canada in the bureaus of his department. An answer was 
promptly returned, authorizing me to make the researches I wished, without limitation; and 
adding, that " all the facilities he can desire will be accorded" to the Agent. I will only 
remark, in passing, that this liberality did not prove to be mere formal phrase. 

" ' In further prosecution of the duties of my mission, I accordingly went to Paris in June, 
1842, and commenced my examinations in the archives of the Marine and the Colonies. The 
general management of the French dependencies in America having been from an early period 
entrusted to this department, its archives are very rich in materials relating to their history. 
They consist chiefly of instructions of the French government to its agents in America ; letters 
and dispatches to the King and his ministers, and original papers from the Colonial authorities 
to the Home government; correspondence with the neighboring English Colonies; reports of 
interviews with the Indian tribes; plans of campaigns and details of battles and skirmishes, 
&c., &c. 

"' The documents relating to Canada and New-York are contained in two several divisions. 
The one is a series of bound volumes, commencing with the year 1663 and ending very 
abruptly with 1737. It comprises about 70 volumes, and contains the dispatches and 
commissions of the King and his ministers to the Governors and other functionaries in the 
French Colonies. It is greatly to be regretted that the volumes subsequent to 1737 appear to 
be missing. The other, and by far the most fertile repository, is a series of upwards of an 
hundred enormous "cartons" or port-folios, each larger than two ordinary folio volumes, and 
in which, at the time of my examination, were placed loosely and without chronological order, 
or even the least attempt at arrangement, a mass of original documents relating to Canada, 
from 1G30 to the Treaty of Paris, 10th February, 1763. The state of deplorable confusion in 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. xxxiii 

which I found the contents of these cartons can scarcely be conceived by any one who has not 
made personal investigations, and it must be very evident that it was embarrassing in no 
small degree. It not only very greatly increased the labor of the research, but it was found 
that in many instances papers of presumed importance were missing from the mass. It is 
hoped, however, that under the superintendence of the present competent and intelligent chief 
of the archives, M. Davezac, these valuable papers, whose present confusion (one of the results, 
perhaps, of the Revolutionary fury of 1793) exhibits such a striking contrast to the system and 
order tliat generally prevail in the French government bureaus, will soon be arranged in a 
manner consistent with their high importance and worthy the dignity of the nation. Several 
months were occupied in a careful and toilsome investigation of these documents, and such as 
were found to relate to our history were selected and transcribed. 

"'Knowing, however, that tlie archives of the Department of the Marine and the Colonies 
was not the only source from which to obtain information, an application was addressed to 
the Minister of War, Marshal Soult, Duke of Dalmatia, which was promptly answered by a 
letter stating that orders had been given for my admission to the dep6t and archives of the 
War Department, " for the purpose of examining and copying all the documents relative to 
the operations of the French, in Canada, until the period of the Treaty of Paris, in 1763." 
This frank and liberal order, so characteristic of the gallant soldier wiio presides over tiie 
Council of Ministers, was very handsomely carried into effect by General Baron Pelet, the 
Director-General of the archives of the department, to whose obliging and polite attention I 
am very greatly indebted for the facilities he afforded me for examining the documents in his 
custody. The archives of the Department of War present a very gratifying contrast, in respect 
to arrangement, to those of the Marine and the Colonies. The papers are chronologically 
arranged in bound volumes, and their examination was as agreeable and pleasant as that of 
the cartons of the Marine was laborious and annoying. The documents selected and 
transcribed relate chiefly to the period between 1755 and the treaty of Paris, and comprise 
the correspondence of the Military Commanders in America with the French government. 

" 'An application was also made for permission to examine the archives of the Department 
of Foreign Affairs, for papers relating to the history of Canada, and the intercourse between 
that Colony and the Province of New-York ; but M. Guizot, in his reply to Gen. Cass' note, 
thus expressed himself: " I would be very happy to comply with your request, if my department 
possessed any documents relative to this Colony ; but the Ministry of the Marine, to which 
you have already applied, is the only one which can furnish you with information on this 
subject, Canada having always been under its supervision, and never having had any relations 
with my department." 

" ' Researches were also made in the collections in the Royal library at Paris; a most full 
and unqualified permission for which purpose was granted by Mr Villemain, the Minister of 
Public Instruction, and every facility afforded by the gentleman in charge of this magnificent 
institution. 

'"My investigations in the several repositories at Paris, just alluded to, occupied me several 
months, and resulted in the procurement of seventeen volumes of transcripts, containing 
upwards of six thousand pages. A full and accurate catalogue of the "Paris Documents," in 
which every paper, its date, and a reference to its page, is indicated, being also appended to 
this report, renders any particular reference to their contents unnecessary in this place. 
They commence with 1631, and extend to 1763; including selections of the correspondence 



xxxiv GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 

of the Governors of Canada with the authorities in France respecting Indian affairs, tlie 
relations with this Province, &c., as well as the dispatches of the Military Commanders during 
the romantic and exciting period in our history of the " French War." 

" ' As at the Hague and in London, the reguh tions of the offices at Paris did not allow me 
to execute that part of the law, establishing the Agency, requiring the procurement, if possible, 
of original documents. Transcripts were made, therefore, of the papers selected, and the 
orthography of the originals was followed as accurately as possible. In closing this reference 
to my researches at Paris, I cannot forbear the remark, that the proverbial reputation of the 
French government, in regard to all matters connected with scientific and literary investigation, 
was amply sustained in the courtesies that were extended to the Agent of this State ; and that 
the historical treasures which were found in its archives are only equaled by the prompt and 
generous liberality with which they were thrown open to my inspection. That much of the 
good feeling exhibited was owing to the high standing of our Minister at the French Court, 
is unquestionable ; and I feel it a duty, not less incumbent than grateful, again to acknowledge 
the marked kindness of General Cass, and the personal and zealous exertions he never failed 
making, to render my visit to Paris most advantageous to the State. 

" ' The researches in the French archives being completed, I returned to London and was 
some time occupied in further investigations, and in making preparations for my return to 
America. The documents transcribed at Paris and in London were carefully packed, insured 
and shipped for New-York ; and my arrangements having been completed, I embarked for 
home on the 7th July, 1844. 

" ' From this detail of proceedings, it will be perceived that the execution of my mission was 
attended with considerable embarrassment. This occurred chiefly in London, where the 
regulations of office were much more stringent than at the Hague or in Paris. In both these 
latter places there was no difficulty experienced, either in obtaining access to the archives or 
in procuring transcripts at reasonable rates. The price paid for copies was about eleven cents 
for eacii page. In London, however, as before stated, my application for permission to employ 
a private copyist having failed, I was obliged to pay to the regular clerks in the State Paper 
Office 4d. sterling for every folio of seventy-two words, or about twenty-five cents for an 
ordinary page transcribed. This circumstance, and the unexpectedly large number of volumes 
to be examined, caused me much embarrassment. It became desirable to limit my selections 
as much as possible, in order to keep the expenses within the amount of the funds appropriated 
for the Agency ; while at the same time my duty did not allow me to pass by a single document 
coming under my observation, "important" to illustrate our history. I have before slated 
that, in the course of my investigations in the State Paper Office, I ascertained that there were 
other series of books and papers than those the terms of my original permission allowed me to 
inspect, containing information respecting our history ; and that a subsequent order from Lord 
Aberdeen gave me the liberty to examine a large number of additional volumes. I am far 
from affirming, however, that everything in relation to our history, in the British archives, has 
been obtained ; though I think it may safely be said that the greater and more valuable portion 
of the materials there preserved has been secured. Had sufficient funds been placed at my 
disposal, I should have pursued my researches until everything accessible had been obtained ; 
and should especially have endeavored to procure copies of the correspondence of the British 
Military Commanders in America, from the surrender of Canada to the end of the American 
Revolution. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. xxxv 

" ' The selection of documents was a point necessarily left to the discretion of the Agent; and 
in the execution of this important duty I adopted for my rule a principle which cannot be 
better expressed than in the words of the Editors of the "Clarendon State Papers," who say 
in their preface — " In so large a collection, there occurred, as might well be expected, some 
papers of a private nature, others of no consequence to the public. To separate these from the 
rest was a point left to the discretion of the Editors by the Trustees of the late Lord Hyde. 
Such, therefore, as appeared to them in either of these lights are rejected from publication. 
They have used their best judgment, and the utmost caution, in acquitting themselves of this 
trust ; and if there are still any given which may appear to some to be scarce worthy of 
publication, they desire it may be considered that men's ideas of such matters are often very 
diHerent, and that any particular paper which, upon being perused apart from the rest, may 
seem of too little consequence to merit the public notice, would yet have been very improperly 
suppressed, either because it may be connected with and tend to illustrate a more interesting 
paper, or on account of some other circumstance which may not immediately occur to 
the reader." 

'• 'Immediately on my arrival in New-York, in August last, I waited on Governor Bouck, and 
acquainted him with the results of my mission. As the transcripts made in London and in 
Paris were uuarranged, and as it was essential to their usefulness that they should be disposed 
in accurate chronological order, bound into volumes, and carefully indexed, before being 
deposited in the Secretary of State's oifice, the Governor thought it best that I should 
occupy myself with this duty, and report fully to the Executive upon its completion. I have, 
accordingly, been diligently engaged in the execution of this work since August last. 

" 'The transcripts were all separately made, and in such a manner that they could be afterwards 
arranged in proper order. This was necessarily the case, as the originals were not all contained 
in one particular set of books or papers, but were scattered through many and various series. 
The documents copied at the Hague, and in Amsterdam, were all arranged and indexed by 
myself during leisure evening hours, while in London, in the winter and spring of 1843, and 
were bound and sent to Albany in the summer of that year. These "Holland Documents" 
occupy, as before stated, sixteen volumes, and have been for more than a year in the 
Secretary of State's office. In arranging the " London Documents," great care was necessary, 
in order to avoid the apparent confusion of dates caused by the use of the Old Style, which 
prevailed in England till the year 1752. It is believed, however, that this point has been 
carefully guarded, and that the plan I adopted, viz: the use of the Historical year (which 
commenced on the 1st of January) instead of the Legal year (which commenced on the 25th 
March), and of the Old Style, until 1752, when the act of Parliament took effect, will be found 
to have been judicious, and to meet the approbation of the investigator. The " Paris 
Documents" are arranged according to the New Style, which was adopted in France in 1-5S2. 

" ' The calendars to the " Holland," " London " and " Paris " Documents, appended to this 
report, have been prepared with much care, and it is hoped will be found useful. They indicate 
the number of each document in the volume, its general scope and character, its date, and its 
page ; and thus, persons at a distance will be enabled to ascertain at once the contents and the 
bearing of each paper in the whole series of eighty volumes of European transcripts. 

" 'By the act of the 2d May, 1839, establishing the Agency, the sum of four thousand dollars 
was appropriated towards defraying its expenses. On the 11th of April, 1842, a further sum 
of three thousand dollars was appropriated by law for its prosecution ; and on the 13th of 



xxxvi GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 

April, 1S43, a further sum of five thousand dollars was appropriated by the Legislature. These 
several appropriiitions, amounting to twelve thousand dollars, have been drawn from the 
treasury and entirely exhausted in defraying the expenses of my mission; accurate accounts for 
which have been rendered to the Comptroller. I will only add, that I have advanced from my 
own private means a considerable amount, in addition, which has been applied to defraying 
the expenses of transportation, insurance, binding, and other incidentals connected with the 
arranging and cataloguing of the documents; in which duty, as before stated, I have been 
constantly occupied since the month of August last. 

" 'I have endeavored to lay before your Excellency as full and as concise a report as possible 
of the execution of the duties of the Agency I had the honor to have entrusted to me by the 
government of my State. The whole question of this Agency, and of its results, is now before 
my fellow-citizens, and to their judgment it is cheerfully submitted. Under any circumstances, 
and in any event, and however unworthy the instrument selected to execute her high 
commission, it must ever be a source of proud reflection that the State of New-York — not less 
faithful now, in her time of power and greatness, to her honor and to her fame, than in her day 
of difficulty and oppression to the principles she then so fearlessly asserted — has been among 
the foremost of the Confederation to vindicate her self-respect to the world, by rescuing from 
obscurity and long neglect the scattered memorials of her Colonial existence, to place them 
side by side the records of her independent progress. 
" ' I have the honor to be, Sir, 

" ' Very respectfully, 

" 'Your Excellency's obedient servant, 

"'JOHN ROMEYN BRODHEAD. 

" 'Albanv, 12ih February, 1845.' " 

The message of the Governor, and the Agent's final report, communicated therewith, 
were referred to a select committee of the Senate, of which Mr. Folsom was chairman. 
On the 5th of May, 1845, that committee made the following report: 

" A respect for the memorials of the past may be justly considered as one of the marks 
of advanced civilization. Among savage nations the only care is for the supply of present 
wants, which, being es*lusively of a physical nature, like those of irrational animals, are 
easily satisfied, with equal indifference to the past and the future. But as mankind rise in 
the scale of intelligence, a growing solicitude is felt in regard to circumstances and events 
beyond the present moment ; the necessity of making provision for future exigencies becomes 
more and more apparent, and leads to untiring exertion to accomplish so important an end. 
It is reserved, however, for a still higher degree of progress to develope any considerable 
interest respecting the past. It is an old utilitarian maxim that makes a dead lion of less 
claim to consideration than a living ass ; and the mind requires to be raised above the 
ordinary calculations of mere thrift to appreciate the value of what no longer possesses actual 
power or influence in the esteem of the busy world. The monuments of history, standing 
aside in the seclusion of by-places and deserted spots, or buried beneath what is generally 
regarded as the useless rubbish of the remains of antiquity, are passed by with indillerence 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. xxxvii 

Tinlil an enlightened desire is awakened to know something of the early foundations of 
society, or to explore the sources of national greatness. 

" It has been made a subject of reproach to this country, by the enemies of republican 
institutions, that no care is taken among us to preserve our ancient records — a charge 
implying a semi-barbarous condition of society, and far from complimentary to our national 
character. But admitting its truth, to a considerable extent, there is good reason to believe 
it will not be long deserved ; for public attention is beginning to be more and more directed 
to the importance of rescuing from destruction whatever may tend to illustrate the rise and 
progress of our institutions, and exhibit, in bolder relief, the character and labors of the 
pioneers of civilization upon the shores of the New World. 

" It is the misfortune of this State that its early founders have been held up to the ridicule 
of the world by one of its most gifted sons, who has exhausted the resources of his wit and 
satire in exposing imaginary traits in their characters, while the most polished efforts of his 
graver style have been reserved to adorn the Corinthian columns of the more aristocratic 
institutions of foreign countries. A late excellent writer, the author of a valuable History of 
the United States, although a stranger to our country, has spoken in proper terms on this 
subject; he remarks as follows : ' Founders of ancient colonies have sometimes been deified 
by their successors. New-York is perhaps the only commonwealth whose founders 'have 
been covered with ridicule from the same quarter. It is impossible to read the ingenious 
and diverting romance entitled Knickerbocker's History of New-York, without wishing 
that the author had put a little more or a little less truth in it ; and that his talent for 
humor and sarcasm had found another subject than the dangers, hardships and virtues of the 
ancestors of his national family. It must be unfavorable to patriotism to connect historical 
recollections with ludicrious associations.' 

" To remove the reproach thus thoughtlessly attached to the annals of our State, it is 
only necessary to bring to light the true character of its early colonists, whose father-land 
ranked at that period among the foremost nations of Europe in point of commercial wealth 
and enterprise, and before all others in the freedom of its government ; a freedom purchased 
by forty years' struggle against the bloodthirsty myrmidons of Spanish despotism. The traits 
ascribed by the mock historian to the first settlers of New -York can scarcely be supposed 
to have characterized such a people ; on the other hand, the manly virtues they displayed 
amidst the toils and hardships of colonial life, removed at so great a distance from the scenes 
of their early associations, deserve a very different commemoration at the hands of their 
descendants and successors. 

" The New -York Historical Society — an institution that has done much to preserve the 
historical records of our State — first suggested to the Legislature the propriety of searching 
the archives of the Netherlands, and other European governments, for documents illustrative 
of the early history of the State. In compliance with a memorial from that institution, the 
Legislature passed the act of May 2d, 1839, authorizing the Governor and Senate ' to appoint 
an Agent to visit England, Holland and France, for the purpose of procuring copies of all such 
documents and papers, in the archives and offices of those governments, relating to or in any 
way affecting the Colonial or other history of this State.' The sum of four thousand dollars 
was at the same time appropriated to carry out the objects of the Agency, which, by two sub- 
sequent appropriations, was increased to twelve thousand dollars. On the 15th of January, 
1841, nearly two years after the passage of the law, .John Romeyn Brodhead, of the county 



xxxviii GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 

of Ulster, was appointed to tliis Agency, and embarked for England on the first of May fol- 
lowing, for the purpose of entering upon the duties of his mission. A copy of his instructions, 
from the Executive of the State, is annexed to this report. 

" In pursuance of these instructions, Mr. Brodhead, on his arrival in London, applied to 
the British government for permission to make transcripts of such documents in its archives 
as related to our Colonial history. The application appears to have been coldly received by 
Lord Palmerston, then Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Aflairs, notwithstanding the 
kind offices rendered to the Agent by Mr. Stevenson, Minister from the United States near that 
government ; and, without losing time, Mr. Brodhead proceeded at once to Holland, where 
a very different reception awaited him. Repairing to the Hague, he was presented to the 
King by the Hon. Harmanus Bleecker, the American Minister to the Netherlands ; and it 
was soon found that His Majesty took a lively interest in the objects of the mission, and was 
disposed to grant every possible facility to aid the researcht^s of the Agent. It seems to have 
been regarded in that country as a gratifying circumstance, that the descendants of Dutch 
ancestors, who had left the father-land two centuries ago, should so far cherish the remem- 
brance of their ancient lineage as to dispatch one of their number across the wide ocean to 
seek memorials of the olden time ; and a warm feeling of kindness was extended by all 
clasps towards the Agent, and liberal arrangements were made to lighten and facilitate his 
labors. 

" The results of Mr. Brodhead's researches in Holland are sixteen volumes of transcripts 
in the Dutch language, an analysis of which is contained in his printed calendar. It will be 
observed that these documents comprise a great variety of details relative to the original 
discovery and settlement of our State ; commencing with notices of the first navigators who 
explored the North and East rivers, and embracing copies of the decrees of the States-Gene- 
ral, granting the privileges of trade and further discovery to companies of merchants, which 
led to the subsequent colonization by patroons or patentees of lands. One of these grants, 
bearing date October 11th, 1614, is accompanied by a descriptive map of the North river and 
the adjacent country, executed within five years after the discovery by Hudson. It only 
remains that the seal of a foreign language should be taken off from these valuable and 
curious records, to render them accessible to all ; and to this end the committee would 
recommend that a suitable person be employed to translate them at the public expense. 

" Among these documents the committee would particularly notice one that possesses 
peculiar interest in its relation to the Dutch Colony on the Island of Manhattan. The precise 
year in which that Colony was planted is not known ; the oldest records in possession of the 
State, before the receipt of these documents, commence with the administration of Governor 
Kieft, in the year 1G38, with the single exception of some grants of land which go back to 
1630. But there was found a few years ago among the papers of Governor Bradford, of the 
Plymouth Colony, a correspondence between that functionary and the Dutch authorities of 
New Netherland, on the Island of Manhattan, bearing date in the year 1627 ; and Bradford, 
in a letter written at that time, says of the Dutch, ' that for strength of men and fortifica- 
tions they far exceed them and all others in the country.' Until the reception of these fruits 
of the Agency, we were thus indebted to another Colony for the first notice of the coloniza- 
tion of our own State. It is true, a few trading houses had been established, and forts 
erected, both on Manhattan Island and at Albany, several years before ; but no accounts of a 
regular settlement of the country by families from Holland at that early date have reached us. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. xxxix 

" The document alluded to, although brief, enables us to show the existence of the Colony- 
still earlier than the correspondence with Governor Bradford. The attention of the Legislature 
has already been called to it, in a report made to this body during the last session, but for a 
very different purpose, and in an incomplete and inaccurate translation ; it is therefore 
reproduced here. It is a letter written from Amsterdam by Mr. Schagen, the Deputy of the 
States-General at the meeting of the West India Company, to the Dutch Government at 
the Hague, announcing the arrival at Amsterdam of a ship from New Netherland, with advices 
from the Dutch colonists on the Island of Manhattan ; bearing date November 5th, 1626. The 
followinc; is a translation of this document : 



« ' TO THE HIGH AND MIGHTY LORDS OF THE STATES-GENERAL AT THE HAGUE : 

" ' Mt Lords, — There arrived here yesterday the ship called the "Arms of Amsterdam," 
which sailed from the river Mauritius [the Hudson], in New-Netherland, on the 23d of 
September. Eeport is brought that our people there are diligent, and live peaceably ; their 
wives have also borne them children. They have purchased the Island of Manhattes from the 
Indians for the sum of sixty guilders ; it contains 11,000 morgens of land. They have sown 
all kinds of grain in the middle of May, and reaped in the middle of August. I send you 
small samples of the summer grains, as wheat, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, canary seed, 
beans and flax. 

" ' The cargo of the ship consists of 7,246 beaver skins, 
178J otter 
675 " 

48 mink " 

36 cat-lynx " 

33 mink " 

34 small rat " 
together with a considerable quantity of oak timber and nut-wood. 

" ' Commending your High and Mighty Lordships to the favor of the Almighty, 
" ' I am your High Mightinesses' humble servant, 

" ' P. SCHAGEN. 
" 'At Amsterdam, Nov. 5th, anno 1626.' 

" The historical value and interesting character of this document cannot fail to strike any 
one who is capable of appreciating the first efforts to introduce the arts of civilized life into a 
new and widely extended domain, which has since grown from these small beginnings into 
a large and flourishing commonwealth, excelling in population and resources some of the 
monarchies of the Old World. 

"Some doubt has hitherto existed in regard to the name of the Director-General or Governor 
of the Colony prior to the year 1633 ; and although it was generally supposed that the office 
was then held by Peter Minuit, yet no official act of that person as chief magistrate was 
among our records. The fact is now established by the discovery of an original grant of lands, 
signed by Peter Minuit and his Council, dated at Fort Amsterdam, July 15th, 1630. The 
original parchment containing this grant was procured by Mr. Brodhead, and is now deposited 



xl GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 

in the Secretary of State's office. It is the only official act now extant of the first Governor 
of the Colony. 

" It is not, however, the intention of the committee in this report to pursue the analysis of 
the documents procured by Mr. Brodhead from the different archives to which he had access. 
The calendars printed with his report are sufficient for this purpose, and exhibit with great 
clearness the variety and richness of materiel comprised in the collection. 

"The committee will only add, that Mr. Brodhead, having finished his labors in Holland, 
returned to London in December, 1841, where in the meantime a change of ministry had 
taken place — Lord Palmerston having been succeeded by Lord Aberdeen in the office of Foreign 
Secretary. A more friendly policy towards the objects of the Agency was now manifested, 
and, with the valuable aid of the new American Minister, Mr. Everett, the preliminary difficulties 
were removed, and Mr. Brodhead entered upon the labors of his mission ; not, however, 
without encountering many precautions of the government, that contributed to embarrass these 
labors and add to the trouble and expense attending them. It will be observed, in the report 
of Mr. Brodhead, that he did not confine his researches in England to the archives of state, 
but extended them to the magnificent collections of manuscripts contained in the British 
Museum, as well as other repositories in London and its vicinity. 

"In the summer of 1842, Mr. Brodhead proceeded to Paris, where the active kindness of 
General Cass, the American Minister, procured him all desirable facilities. The seventeen 
volumes of transcripts obtained in the French capital commence with the year 1631 and 
extend to 1763. They are beautifully engrossed, and will be consulted with great interest by 
every student of American history, especially in relation to the border wars that led to the 
final reduction of Canada and the extinction of French power on this Continent. 

"Having completed his researches in Paris, Mr. Brodhead returned to England, and on the 
7th of July, 1844, embarked for New -York, where he arrived early in the following month. 
Immediately after his arrival, he reported himself to Governor Bouck, and made known to 
him the general results of his mission. From that time until the date of his final report, the 
12th of February last, he was employed at the city of New -York in arranging the documents 
in chronological order, framing indexes, and preparing his report. The documents were at 
the same time bound up in eighty distinct volumes, viz : Sixteen volumes of Holland 
Documents, seventeen volumes of Paris Documents, and forty-seven volumes of London 
Documents, — the latter coming down to the year 1782. 

" Should it be supposed that no practical utility will be derived to the State from the 
possession of these documents, it may be stated that important references have already been 
made to them, in the course of legislation, during the present session of the Legislature. The 
following extract from the report of a committee of the Assembly, in relation to lands granted 
by the State for military services, shows their value in this respect : 

" 'The committee, also, in the spirit of the ruleof rendering justice to whom justice is due, 
feel constrained to acknowledge the important aid they have received, in this investigation 
and search for the musty records of olden time, from the report and documents of J. Romeyn 
Brodhead, Agent to procure and transcribe documents in Europe relative to the Colonial 
history of this State. Important papers and references, relating even to this claim, have been 
brought to light by his researches, and exhibit the importance of the objects and execution of 
his trust.' — Report of Mr. Boug/tton, ^c, Ainil 21, 1845. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. xli 

" The committee cannot better close this account of the fruits of this interesting mission than 
by quoting a few passages from a private letter addressed to the Agent by the Hon. George 
Bancroft, the American historian. After having consulted the collection, with reference to 
the period embraced in the forthcoming volumes of his History of the United States, Mr. 
Bancroft remarks as follows : 

" ' Your papers I examined very carefully, from 1748 to the close of the series, and was 
deeply impressed with a sense of their importance. There is nothing in print like the minute 
and exact reports made by the French officers in Canada of their operations on our frontier 
during their long struggle for the preservation of Canada. Your papers surround Montcalm 
with all the interest of a hero of romance, and trace his overthrow, clearly, to distinct and 
inexorable causes. 

" ' For the following period, your collections were also most interesting, and were absolutely 
necessary to the complete understanding of the politics of New-York during the years before 
the Revolution. The less numerous papers in the years of the Revolution contain some of 
the most curious and surprising character.' 

" In regard to the expenses of the mission, it appears, from the account rendered by the 
Comptroller, that there has been paid to the Agent, from the State treasury, the sum of 
$12,000, being the amount appropriated by the Legislature to defray the expenses of the 
Agency, at three several periods ; to wit : On the 2d of May, 1839, $4000 ; on the 11th of 
April, 1842, $3000 ; and on the 13th of April, 1843, $5000. By the Comptroller's books, it 
appears that Mr. Brodhead has furnished accounts and vouchers for $12,014.23, including his 
compensation to July 7th, 1844, leaving a balance in his favor, to that date, of $14.23. 

" It appears, from an abstract of the Agent's accounts, that the Holland documents, exclusive 

of binding, cost $ 703 13 

The Paris documents, 904 80 

The London do., 4,078 01 

$5,685 94 
Salary of the Agent, two years eleven months and ten days, at $2000 per annum, $5,888 87 
Traveling expenses, 439 42 

$12,014 23 



" It also appears, from the account, that there remains due to the Agent the sum of $1390.98, 
including salary, expenses of binding the documents, &c., from the 14th of August, 1844, to 
the 12th of February last. The committee have examined this account, with the vouchers, 
and recommend that it be paid ; and ask leave to introduce the accompanying bill." 

The bill reported by the select committee having been passed into a law on the 13th 
of May, 1845, the Agent's accounts were duly settled, and his duty was completed. 

The documents thus collected by Mr. Brodhead remained for several years in the 
condition in which they had been deposited in the Secretary's office, aflfording light and 
aid to historical inquirers, not only of this but of other States. The " Paris Documents" 



xlii GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 

"were found to be of special interest to the literary investigators of Canada and the 
northwestern States, while many of the papers procured in England contained new and 
important facts illustrating the general history of the Union. The " Holland 
Documents" related more particularly to the local annals of New -York, while it was 
the Dutch Pro^-ince of New Netherland. Nevertheless, there were many pajjers found 
in that series which had an important bearing upon points of great interest to the 
neighboring Colonies, and which explained some uncertain passages, especially in the 
history of New England, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Maryland. The documents 
procured in Holland and France, however, were in the Dutch and French languages — 
the law of 1839 having required the Agent to obtain "if possible the originals, and if 
not copies," of papers — and proper translations were necessary in order to render them 
generally useful. 

In the meantime the new State Hall at Albany had been completed, and the records 
of the Secretary of State, together with those of the other State officers, had been 
removed thither. A better opportunity was thus affi)rded to ascertain the character 
and extent of the historical archives which had remained so long in great disorder, and 
almost inaccessible. Measures were afterwards taken by Mr. Secretary Morgan to have 
these old papers properly arranged and bound ; and more than two hundred large folio 
volumes of original documents were accordingly prepared and placed in a condition for 
easy reference. For the first time, the State archives were thus reduced to comparative 
order, and a necessary work was accomplished, the want of which had caused many of 
the embarrassments already referred to. A general catalogue or calendar of all the 
records in the Secretary's office, which shall indicate the date, character and contents of 
each document, is still greatly needed ; and it is hoped that it will soon be prepared 
and printed. 

The attention of the Legislature having been again directed to the subject, an ap- 
propriation was made, in the session of 1848, for collecting and translating some of the 
documents belonging to the State, connected with its history. In pursuance of this 
action, certain papers were compiled, under the direction of Mr. Secretary Morgan, 
by Dr. E. B. O'Callaqhan, which, on the 5th of January, 1849, the Legislature ordered 
to be printed. In the following April, the Legislature directed the Secretary of State 
to cause to be printed a second volume of what was styled the " Documentary History" 
of New -York. Of this work, four volumes, in all, have been published. They contain 
a miscellaneous compilation, among which are some of the manuscripts procured by the 
Historical Agent in Europe. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. xliii 

It was thought by many, however, that such of the documents of the Agency as 
were in foreign languages should be translated, and that either the whole collection, or 
a selection of the naost important papers in it, should be published, as a distinct work, by 
the authority of the State. This proposition was favorably received, and a bill was 
introduced into the Legislature, which was passed into a law on the 30th of March, 
1849, as follows : 



"AN ACT TO PROVIDE FOR THE PUBLICATION OF CERTAIN DOCUMENTS RELATING TO THE 
COLONIAL HISTORY OF THIS STATE. 

" Passed March 30, 1849, ' three-fifths beino present.' 

*' The People of the State of New -York, represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows: 

" Section 1. The manuscript documents relating to the Colonial history of this State, now 
in the office of the Secretary of State, which were procured under and by virtue of an act of 
the Legislature, passed May 2, 1839, entitled ' An act to appoint an Agent to procure and 
transcribe documents in Europe relative to the Colonial history of this State,' or such portions 
thereof as the State officers hereinafter named shall deem advisable, shall be translated and 
printed for the use of the State. 

" <^ 2. The Governor, Secretary of State and Comptroller shall cause said documents to be 
prepared, printed, and bound in volumes of such size as they may determine upon, and 
for such purpose are hereby authorized to employ some suitable person to translate such parts 
thereof as are necessary, at a reasonable compensation to be fixed and certified by them. 

" § 3. The said State officers shall issue proposals for the printing and binding of such 
number of copies of said documents as they shall deem advisable to cause to be printed, not 
exceeding five thousand, in the same manner as proposals are required to be issued for the 
printing and binding of legislative documents, and shall make a contract for such printing 
and binding with such person or persons as shall have submitted proposals therefor, which, all 
things considered, they may deem most advantageous to the interests of the State, provided 
any of said proposals shall be by them considered reasonable. 

" % 4. The said State officers are hereby authorized to cause such portions of said documents 
to be stereotyped as they may deem the interests of the State to demand, and to secure or 
sell the copyright thereof, as in their judgment shall be for the interest of the State. 

" § 5. One thousand copies of said documents, when printed and bound, shall be deposited 
with the Secretary of State, and one copy thereof delivered by him to each member of the present 
Legislature, the President of the Senate, clerks and elective officers of the present Senate and 
Assembly, and twenty-three copies thereof (being one to each) to the several State officers 
who are entitled to bound copies of legislative documents; and the residue of said one 
thousand copies shall be by said Secretary of State retained, until disposed of as the Governor, 
Secretary of State and Comptroller may direct for the purpose and in the way of literary 
exchanges; and the remaining copies which shall be printed under the provisions of this act 
shall be sold under the directions of said State officers for such price as shall be determined 
by them, not less than twenty-five per cent over the actual cost of preparing, printing and 
binding the same, and the proceeds thereof paid into the State treasury. 

" ■§ 6. This act shall take effect immediately." 



xllv GENERAL INTRODUCTION. 

It became a question whether, under the discretion vested by this law in the State 
officers therein named, the whole of the documents or a selection of them only should 
be published. Mr. Brodhead, who was then Secretary of the American Legation at 
London, and about to return home, offered to superintend the publication of such a 
selection, if it should be determined upon, without any charge to the State for his 
services. It was, however, on full consideration of the subject, deemed best to print 
the whole of the documents, and, under the authority vested in the State officers by the 
second section of the law, they employed E. B. O'Callaghan, M. D., to make the 
necessary translations and to superintend the publication generally. In a communication 
to the Assembly, dated the 29th January, 1851 (Assembly Documents, No. 66), 
also in a report from the Comptroller to the Senate, made on 1st February, 1853 
(Senate Documents, No. 24), and in the annual reports of the Comptroller to the 
Legislature, will be found detailed statements of the progress of the work. The 
arrangement adopted was, that the publication should consist of ten quarto volumes. 
Of these, the first and second were to contain translations of the " Holland Documents ;" 
the third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth, the " London Documents ;" and the 
ninth and tenth, translations of the " Paris Documents." The publication of the work was 
commenced in 1853 by the issue of the third volume, or the first of the English series — 
the translation of the papers to form the first and second volumes not having been then 
completed. The fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh and ninth volumes were afterwards 
successively issued, all of them accompanied by foot notes by the translator. 

It will be observed that no editor's name is attached to the third volume of the work — 
the first which appeared as above stated — the note on the back of the title page having 
been thought to afford sufficient information as to the manner of its publication ; but in 
the subsequent volumes the name of the translator was, by the permission of the State 
officers, affixed as editor. 

At its session of 1856, the Legislature passed the following act : 



"AN ACT IN RELATION TO THE COLONIAL HISTORY OF THE STATE AND THE PUBLICATION 
AND DISTRIBUTION THEREOF. 

"Passed April 12, 1856, 'three-fifths being present.' 

" The People of the State of New -York, represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows : 

"Section 1. The publication of the documents relating to the Colonial history of the State, 
pursuant to chapter one hundred and seventy-five of the Laws of eighteen hundred and forty- 
nine, shall be completed under the direction of the Regents of the University, who shall 
hereafter have the charge of the same, and of all things relating thereto, in place of and with 
the same powers as the officers named in said act. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION. xlv 

" § 2. If the said Regents shall ascertain that, by the contracts already made in regard to the 
said work, the State has agreed to print the whole of said documents, and they shall be of 
opinion that portions only of those not yet printed should be published, they, the said Regents, 
may, in that event, arrange with the contractors for the publication, in the place of the 
documents thus withdrawn, of others in relation to the early history of the State, to an 
equivalent extent, so as not to increase the amount of the contract. The Secretary of State 
is hereby authorized to permit all proper investigations in his office, and the use of any 
documents or books therein, for this purpose. 

" '^ 3. Five copies of the said published documents shall be delivered to each member of the 
present Legislature, and five copies thereof shall be given to each of the clerks, officers and 
reporters of the present Senate and Assembly, and to the several public officers who are entitled 
to bound copies of legislative documents. Three hundred copies thereof shall be placed with 
the Regents of the University, and two hundred and fifty copies thereof with the Secretary of 
State for literary exchanges and distribution, as they may deem proper. The remaining copies 
shall be ofl^ered for sale, under the direction of the Regents, on such public notice, and on such 
terms and price, not less than two dollars and fifty cents per volume, as they may deem proper; 
and such copies as remain unsold, at the end of six months, shall be placed in the custody of 
the Regents of the University, subject to future distribution by the Legislature; the proceeds 
of any such sales made by the said Regents, after deducting their necessary expenses under 
this act, shall be paid into the State treasury. Persons who may have already subscribed 
for or purchased said documents, or such of them as may have been published, shall be 
credited with the amount they may have paid, and be allowed to complete their sets at the 
price fixed by the Regents as aforesaid. 

'"§ 4. This act shall take effect immediately." 

On inquiry into the progress made in the translations and the condition of the work 
generally, it was found to be so nearly completed that it was deemed inexpedient by 
the Regents to attempt any exercise of the discretion vested in them under the second 
section of the act of the Legislature. All that remained for them to do was to 
superintend the residue of the publication, according to the arrangement determined 
upon and the contracts made by their predecessors. 



TRANSCRIPTS OF DOCUMENTS 



EOTAL ARCHIVES AT THE HAGUE AND IN THE STAD-HTTYS OF THE CITY OF AMSTERDAM. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: I-YIIL 



1603-1656. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS. 



The documents contained in the first and second volumes of this work are translations of accurate 
transcripts of originals found in the Royal Archives at the Hague, and in the Archives of the city of 
Amsterdam, during the year 1841. 

It will be observed that there are several different references at the head of the papers. These relate to 
the particular divisions or repositories in the Archives, in which the originals were found ; and it has been 
thought advisable to retain them in every case, not so much on account of any particular use they can now 
be to the investigator, but rather because they afford a curious and valuable proof of the authenticity of 
each document. 



ROYAL ARCHIVES AT THE HAGUE. 

In arranging the papers — which it will be noticed were separately transcribed — a strictly chronological 
order was observed, being the one that seemed to be most judicious. 

Each paper has, generally, two memoranda upon it — the day of its actual date, and the day when it was 
presented to the States-General. 

The Resolutions have, of course, only one date ; but most of the papers and memorials presented to the 
States being the subjects of Resolutions of that body, there is a memorandum of the day of reception marked 
on each, which corresponds with the date of the Resolution ; and in this manner each paper has been arranged 
— not according to the actual date — but according to the order of time in which it was acted on by the 
States, and being always found near the Resolution to which it gave rise. 

As there are various references in these papers, it is thought that the subjoined statement of the different 
repositories from which they were taken may not be altogether useless. 

1. Registers or Notulen of the States-General. These books may be considered the most important in 
the Archives. They contain the official records of the proceedings of the States-General respecting every 
matter that came before them. They were kept by the greffiers or clerks of the States, and commence with 
the year 1576. 

2. West India Registers. By a resolution of the States-General of 16 April, 1638, all their proceedings in 
respect to the affairs of the West India Company are to be kept in separate Registers. These commence with 
1688, and extend to 1670, when they were discontinued. 

3. Secrete Resolutien. These Registers contain the proceedings of the States General in regard to subjects 
which it was deemed proper to record in separate volumes, such as treaties, declarations of war, &c., &c. 
The volume 1609-1615 is missing. 

4. Imtructie Boeken. These contain the Instructions issued from time to time to officers and agents 
of Government. 

5. Commissie Boeken. These contain the Commissions issued to officers. 

6. Acte Boeken. • Containing the originals of all Laws, Placaats, &c., of the States-General. 

G 



1 HOLLAND DOCUMENTS. 

7. Registers of Uytgaande Brieven. These contain copies of letters from the States to their oflBcers and 
diplomatic agents, as well as to Foreign powers. They commence with the year 1646, previous to which the 
drafts of letters were preserved on the Liasses — of which presently. 

8. Registers of Ingekomen Brieven General. These contain copies of General letters received, commencing 
with 1650. The originals are preserved on the Liasses ; and it often happens that the Bylagen or appendi- 
ces to the letters are not copied in these Registers. 

9. Registers of Ingekomen Brieven uyt Engeland. These hooks contain copies of letters from the Legation 
in England, the originals of which are on the Liasses. 

10. Registers of Ligekomen Brieven uyt Spanje, containing copies of letters from the Ambassadors in Spain, 
the originals of which are on the Liasses. 

11. Liasses. Loopende. These are files, on which the originals of all general letters and memorials received 
by the States-General are preserved. Each paper is marked with the day of its date, and of its reception by 
the States. They are arranged and referred to, according to the latter date. These Liasses also contain drafts 
of general letters sent by the States. 

12. Liasses Admiraletiet, containing papers relating to maritime affairs, and communications from the 
Board of Admiralty. 

13. Liasses West Indien. These contain papers relating to the concerns of the West India Company. 
They commence with the year 1623 and are arranged in a manner similar to the foregoing. 

14. Loket Kas. A large case with pigeon holes and drawers properly labeled, containing bundles of papers 
relating to various subjects, which were probably deposited here, on account of their being too bulky to be 
conveniently placed on the Liasses. 

15. Secrete Kas. A case similar to the foregoing, containing papers relating to matters recorded in the 
Registers of Secrete Resolutien. 

16. Notulen van de Raad van Staat. These books contain the proceedings of the Council of State. 

17. Notulen van Holland ends West Friesland. This is a large series of printed volumes of Proceedings 
of these two Provinces. It was usual for the States-General to ask the opinion of the Provincial States on all 
questions of great public moment. 

ARCHIVES OF THE CITY OF AMSTERDAM. 

1. Resolutien van de Vroedschappen. These books contain the minutes of the Acts, Proceedings and 
Resolutions of the City Council of Amsterdam. 

2. Muniment Register van den Raad. In this series of books are registered, at length, Reports of Commit- 
tees, and important papers relating to the affairs of the city. One of the volumes — " Muniment Register B " — 
is not now in the Archives, and is supposed to have been lost about thirty years ago. 

3. Oroot Memorial. These volumes contain records of Public acts of the City Council, Instructions to 
Officers, Contracts, &o. 

4. Gemien Missiven. Containing Records of letters sent under the direction of the Council. 

5. A bundle of papers, entitled Rekeningen rakende Nieuw Nederland, containing accounts, &c., relating to 
the Colony of the City on the South river. 

6. A large bundle of papers, entitled, Verscheide stukken rakende de Colonie van Nieuw JVederland. These 
papers, relating to the general concerns of the City Colony, including letters and reports received from thence, 
&c., ifcc, have all been arranged in chronological order, as nearly as their dates could be ascertained. 



CONTENTS. 



1603. Faoh. 

August 1. Resolution of the States-General appointing Captain Dale to a company of foot 1 

December 8. Resolution of the States-General that Captain Thomas Dale's commissiou be expedited 1 

December 24. Resolution of the States-General on the subject of Captain Thomas Dale's pay, <tc 2 

1606. 

Kovember 15. Memorandum that Thomas Dale and Sir Thomas Gates were in garrison service at Oudewater, 2 

1608. 

April 24. Resolution of the States-General to allow Captain Sir Thomas Gates to be absent from his company, &a., 

in order to go to Virginia 2 

1611. 

January 20. Resolution of the States-General upon the recommendation of the Prince of Wales, to allow Captain 
Thomas Dale to absent himself from his company for three years in order to go to "Virginia in the 
English service, 2 

January 25. Further resolution of the States-General on the subject of Captain Dale's going to Virginia 3 

February 9. Further resolution of the States-General on the same subject 3 

February 21. Resolution of the States-General on the subject of furnishing passports, &c., to certain ships about to 

set out on voyage of discovery of a passage to China, ifec, &c 3 

September 7. Resolution of the States of Holland, &e., upon the memorial of certain merchants about a newly dis- 
covered navigation, 4 

1614. 

March 20. Resolution of the States of Holland, upon the memorial of certain merchants, that the States-Genera! 

be recommended to pass a general ordinance in favor of all those who discover new lands, &c.,. . . 4 

March 27. Resolution of the States-General, upon the memorial of certain merchants, Ac, to grant the act or 

concession derived in favor of all those who discover any new lands, passages, &c., Ac, 5 

March 27. General Octroy, or Charter, for all those who may discover any new passages, havens, lands or places, 

(fee, i&c. 6 

July 18. Resolution of the States of Holland,.upon the memorial presented on behalf of certain merchants, con- 
cerning the erection of a general trading company for Africa and America, 6 

June 21. Resolution of the States-General upon the same subject, 7 

August 25. Resolution of the States-General on the subject of the erection of a West India Company 7 

September 2. Further resolution of the States-General upon the same subject, 7 

September 27. Resolution of the States of Holland on the subject of a general West India Company, with a draft of 

an act proposed to be passed by the States-General 8 

August 19. Letter of King James I. to the States-General about Sir Thomas Dale, "Marechal de Virginie," *e., 

dated Newmarket, 9 

September 30. Resolution of the States-General upon the foregoing letter, to allow Sir Thomas Dale to continue his 

residence in Virginia until their High Mightinesses shall otherwise direct 9 

October 11. Resolution of the States-General (upon the report by the Deputies of the United Company of Mer- 
chants who have discovered New Netherhind, of the particulars of their discovery), to allow the 
said Company the exclusive right to make four voyages to New Netherland, <fec., within the time of 
three years from 1st January, 1615 10, 

October 11. Original draft of tlie special grant to Gerritt Jacobsen Witssen and others, united in one company, of 
an exclusive right of trading, ifec, to New Netherland, for four voyages, within the period of three 
years, commencing 1st January, 1615, or sooner (with map), 11 



CONTENTS. 



leu. 

October 



1616. 
August 



August 



August 19. 

August 19. 
September 12. 
November 3. 

1617. 
January 18. 



July 



January 26. 

1617. 

December 2. 

January 26. 

January 26. 

January 29. 

February 3. 

February 6. 

February 9. 

August 10. 

October 4. 



1620. 
February 12. 



Official copy of the above special grant to Gerrit Jacobsen Witssen and others, of an exclusive right to 
trade, &c., to New Netherland, from the "Acte Boek " of the States-General - 

Minute of the appearance, before the States-General, of Captain Cornelia Hendricksen, <tc., in behalf of 
Gerrit Jacobsen Witssen and others, Directors of New Netherland, and of his submitting his second 
report of certain discoveries he had made in New Netherland, in a small yacht of eight lasts burthen, 
called the Onrust, which the Directors had caused to be built there, &c., &c. ; upon which the States- 
General resolve that, before coming to any decision on the special grant asked for, the report be 
committed to writing, (fee 

Memorial of Gerrit Jacobsen Witssen and others. Directors of New Netherland, to the States-General, 
in relation to the discovery, under their direction, by Captain Cornells Hendricksen, of Munnichen- 
dam, of certain lands, bay, and three rivers, in the latitude of from 38^ to 40'; with an explana- 
tory map, and also a copy of the general charter or ordinance of 27th March, 1614, annexed, 

Report of Captain Cornells Hendricksen, of Munnichendam, of his discoveries in New Netherland, 
presented to the States-General 

Resolution of the States-General thereupon, 

Resolution of the States-General upon the foregoing memorial, ifec, postponing a decision, 

Resolution of the States-General upon the same, again postponing a decision 

Minute of the presentation to the States-General of a memorial of Lambrecht van Tweenhuysen and 
others, praying the government for a ship of war, to encourage the fishery, &c., at Terra Nova, etc., 
a decision upon which is postponed, 

Resolution of the States of Holland upon the petition of the Directors of the Australian Company, pro- 
hibiting William .Tanssen from printing or publishing the journals or maps of voyages made in behalf 
of the said Company, Ac, , 

Resolution of the States of Holland forbidding William Janssen to make any corrections upon the globe, 
or to publish any map containing the newly discovered passage from the North to the South Sea, <fcc., 

Address of Sir Dudley Carleton, English Ambassador to the States-General, on the subject of Sir Thomas 
Dale's petition to their High Mightinesses 

Letter of Noel de Caron, the Dutch Ambassador at London, to the States-General on the same subject, 

Petition of Sir Thomas Dale to the States-General, setting forth his services in Holland, Virginia, etc., 
with two endorsements of the action of the States-General thereupon 

Resolution of the States-General, referring Captain Dale's petition to the Council of State, <fcc 

Report and advice of the Council of State to the States-General, upon the foregoing reference 

Minute of the States-General, postponing a final resolution upon the report of the Council of State 
upon Captain Dale's petition 

Resolution of the States-General upon Captain Dale's petition, 

Resolution of the States-General, that their determination upon Captain Dale's petition be put into 
the hands of the Council of State, in order to be carried into effect 

Resolution of the States of Holland, upon the complaint of William Janssen of the interdict against 
his publishing maps, <fcc,, allowing him permission to publish 

Resolution of the States-General, upon the petition of the Company trading to the Island of New 
Netherland, praying for a continuation of their special grant, to examine the same before coming 
to a decision, 

Resolution of the States-General, upon the petition of Henrick Eelkens, and others, participants in the 
New Netherland Company, <i;c., that the petitioners be allowed to send their ship to New 
Netherland, 

Resolution of the States-General, upon the petition of the Directors of the Company trading to New 
Netherland, praying for two shif s of war, in order to colonize that country under the protection and 
authority of their High Mightinesses, that before coming to any conclusion thereupon, the opinion 
of the Admiralty be taken 

Memorial of the Directors of the New Netherland Company to the Prince of Orange, 



CONTENTS. 



liii 



1620. Page. 

February 26. Resolution of the States-General, upon the report of the Acimiralty, that before coming to any decision 

upon the subject of the foregoing petition, the opinion of the Prince of Orange, be taken 23 

March 10. Resolution of the States-General, upon the same subject 24 

April 10. Further resolution of the States-General, theieupon 24 

April 11. Resolution of the States-General upon the foregoing petition, absolutely refusing its prayer 24 

August 29. Minute of the States-General, stating the presentation of the petition of the joint owners of the ship 
Blyde Bootsckap, Capt. Cornells Jacobsen May, who had discovered certain new populous and 
fruitful lands, and asking for a special grant, &c. ; also, of another petition of Henrick Eelkens, and 
others, praying their High Mightinesses to refuse a grant to any persons but the petitioners — and that 
thereupon both parties being called in, tlie States resolve that both the parties shall meet together, 

and try to arrange matters amicably, . 24 

November 6. Resolution of the States-General to reluse the new grant petitioned for, as above 25 

1621. 

September 13. Resolution of the States of Holland, respecting certain traders to Guinea and Virginia, 25 

September 14. Resolution of the States-General, referring to the Admiralty of Zealand the petition of Henrick Allarts, 

and others, for permission to send a ship to New Virginia, 26 

September 15. Resolution of the States-General, allowing Henrick Eelkens, and others, to send their ship, the Wilte 

Duive, to Virginia, Ac, 26 

September 24 Resolution of tlie States-General allowing Dierck Volkertse, and others, to send a ship to Virginia,. . . 26 
September 28. Resolution of the States-General, allowing Claes Jacobsen Haringcarspel, and others, to send two ships 

to New Netherland and the adjoining lands, <fec. 2T 

1G22. 
March ' 16. Resolution of the States-General, upon the request of Sir Dudley Carleton, the English Ambassador, 
that some order be taken upon the memorial he had presented to the States-General about Virginia, 
that Burgomaster Pauw be requested to write to the participants in the trade to New Netherland, 
that they inform the States-General of the situation of the matter referred to by the Ambassador,. . 27 

April 21. Resolution of the States of Holland about the transportation of families, Ac, to the West Indies 28 

April 27. Resolution of the States-General, upon the further request of Sir Dudley Carleton, to come to some de- 

cision upon his Proposition about Virginia — to look for the same, and also for what has been 

printed in Amsterdam on this subject 28 

June 18 Resolution of the States-General upon the petition of Claes Jacobsen Haringcarspel, and others, for an 

extension of time, etc, to postpone a decision 28 

November 29. Resolution of the States-General, that the documents in their office relating to the West India Com- 
pany, be delivered to the Directors thereof, upon their receipt, ic, 29 

1624. 
March 22. Secret resolution of the States-General concerning a proposed union of the West India Companies, ... 29 
March 30. Letter of the Committee of the XIX. of the West India Company at Amsterdam, to the States-General, 

about the arrest, at Hoorn, of a French ship for Virginia 30 

March 29. Letter of the Committee of the West India Company at Hoorn, concerning the ship for Virginia arrested 

there , 31 

April 6. Letter of the States-General to the Chamber of XIX. of the West India Company, about the above 

matter, 32 

April 9. Secret resolution of the States-General upon the proposed union of the West India Companies, &c., Ac, 32 
May 17. Secret resolution of the States-General upon the same matter, with a draft of a letter to the Ambassa- 
dors in France, &c., 33 

June 4. Extract of the journal of Messrs. Van Aerssen and Joachimi, the Ambassadors to England, <fec., 33 

October 14. Minute of the report made to the States-General by the Directors of the West India Company, 34 

1625. 

May 6. Resolution of the States-General admitting Mr. Sch.agen to a seat as a Deputy from Holland, etc. 36 

1626. 

September 4. A statement of the property and effects of the West India Company, in the year 1626 35 

October 10. Resolution of the States-General, appointing Messrs. Van Eck and Schagen their Deputies to the meet- 
ing of the West India Company, 37 

November 5. Letter of Mr. P. Schagen to the States-Gener.T,l, stating the purchase of Manhattan Island from the 

Indians, for 60 guilders, &c., &c 37 

November 7. Minute of the receipt of the above letter, 38 



Ibr 



CONTENTS. 



1627. 
NoTember 

1629. 
October 
November 

1030. 
July 



16. Extr.ict of a letter from the XIX. of the West India Company to the States-General, with news from 
New Netherland 

23. Letter of the West India Comjiany to the States-General, remonstrating against a peace with Spain,. . . 

16. Reasons and considerations offered by the West India Company to the States-General, concerning the 

proposed peace with Spain, <fec., 

15. Patent to Samuel Godyn and Samuel Blomraaert, for lands at South Hoeck on the South river, signed 

by Peter Minuit and his Council, 

13. Patent to Kiliaen van Rensselaer for cert.iin lands, Ac, signed by Peter Minuit and his Council 



April 



April 
April 


1. 
7. 


April 


10. 


May 


5. 


May 


6. 


May 
May 
March 


5. 

23. 

27. 


April 


8. 



May. 
May 

1633. 
March 

June 

June 

1634. 
March 
May 

May 



May 


13. 


May 


22. 


June 


10. 


June 


10. 


June 


10. 


May 


27. 



19. E.\tract from the Pointen van Beschryving ( or points upon which the Deputies of .the States-General 
to the XIX. are to obtain information ), for the meeting of the West India Company on 20th March, 
5. Letter of G. van Ariihem (one of the Deputies of the States-General to the XIX.), to the States- 
General, upon the information of the West India Company, that one of their ships, the EendragI, 
coming from New Netherland, had been arrested by the English Government at Plymouth, ic, <tc.. 

Resolution of the States-General to write to their Ambassador at London, thereupon 

Letter of the States-General to Messrs. Joachimi and Brasser, their Ambassador and Deputy at London, 
about the arrest of the Eendragt, 

Letter of Messrs. Joachimi and Brasser, to the States General, with an account of their interview with 
the King, about the Eendragt, <Sre., 

Letter of the West India Company, to the States-General, about the affair of the Eendragt, with a 
deduction of their title to New Netherland, &a., &c., 

Resolution of the States-General to write to their Ambassador, itc, at London, and to send a copy of 
the above letter, etc., to them 

Letter of the States-General to their Ambassador, Ac, at London, thereupon 

Letter of Messrs. Joachimi and Brasser, Ambassador, (fee., at London, to the States- General 

Memorial of the Ambassadors of the States-General to King Charles I., among other matters, respecting 
the arrest of the Eendragt, and stating the purchase of the Island of Manhattan from the Indians, by 
the Dutch, <fec., 

Answer of the English Government to the remonstrances presented to the King by the Ambassador and 
Deputy of the States-General, in April, 1632 (in which, among other things, the Dutch claim to New 

Netherland is denied, Ac ), 

27. Letter of Messrs. Joachimi and Brasser, to the States-General, communicating, among other things, that 
the Lord High Treasurer had agreed to release the Eendragt, with a proviso, saving any prejudice 
to His Majesty's rights, Ac, 

23. Extract from the Pointen van Beschryving, for the meeting of the West India Company on the first 
of April, 1G33 

10. Resolution of the States of Holland, upon the subject of the trade of the East and West India Compa- 
nies, Ac, Ac, '. 

10. Remonstrance of the West India Company to the States of Holland, against a peace with Spain, con- 
taining a general account of the commercial concerns of the Company 

18. Extract from the Pointen van Beschryving, for the meeting of the West India Company this day, 

13. Resolution of the States-General, appointing a committee to hear and examine the matters in difference 

between the West India Company and the Patroons, Ac, of the colonies in New Netherl.ind, 

13. Letter of the States-General to the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company on the foregoing 

subject 

Letter of the States-General to the Patroons of New Netherland, on the foregoing matter. 

Resolution of the States-General, referring a letter from the West India Company, asking for a delay, 

Ac, to the committee appointed on the subject of the differences, Ac , 

Further resolution of the States-General upon the foregoing matter 

Letter of the States-General to the P.itroons of New Netherland thereupon, 

Letter of the States-General to the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company thereupon, 

Letter of Mr. Joachimi, the Dutch Ambassador at London, to the States-General, respecting a complaint 
of some English merchants .ngainst the officers of the Dutch West India Company, in New Nether- 
land, for interrupting their trade there, and causing them damage, Ac, 



CONTENTS. 



Iv 



1633. Page. 

Nov. l-Y. Various depositions of the sailors, <fec., belonging to the English ship sent to the Hudson river, giving 

details of the conduct of the officers of the West India Company in New Netherland 72 

1634. 
June 13. Resolution of the States-General, referring the letter of the An-bassador Joachimi, with the preceding 

depositions to a committee, 82 

June 16. Resolution of the States-General, substituting other persons on the committee on the differences between 

the West India Company and the Patroons, &e., 82 

June 20. Kesolution of the States-General, upon the report of the committee on the subject of the letter of the 

Ambassador at London, that extracts of the papers be furnished to the West India Company, 

to inform their High Mightinesses of the right of the matter, &a 82 

June 21. Resolutions of the States-General, making a further change in the committee on the differences between 

the West India Company and the Patroons, <S;o., 83 

June Letter of Messrs. Pauw, S. Blommaert, Kiliaen van Rensselaer and Henrick Hamel, Patroons of New 

Netherland, to the States-General, setting forth their causes of complaint against the West India 

Company, together with their pretension and claim against the Company 83 

June 22. Answer of the West India Company to the pretension and claim of the Patroons of New Netherland,. 89 

June 22. Replication of Messrs. Pauw, <tc., Patroons of New Netherland, to the answer of the West India 

Company, 89 

June 24. Resolution of the States-General, postponing a decision on the differences between the West India 

Company and the Patroons, <fcc., for twelve days, in order to enable the parties to come to an 

amicable settlement, ifec 91 

July 18. Extracts from the Pointen van Beschryving, for the meeting of the West India Company on 3l8t July, . . 91 

October 24. Memorial of the XIX. of the West India Company to the States-General, in relation to a subsidy, and 

to the question of the dilBcultiea with the English in New Netherland, 91 

October 24. Resolution of the States-General thereupon, referring the same for consideration, 93 

October 26. Memorial of the XIX. of the West India Company to the States-General, upon the subject of the diffi- 
culties with the English in New Netherland, and containing a deduction of their rights and title 

thereto, from first discovery, purchase, &a., 93 

October 25. Resolution of the States-General upon the report of the committee appointed to consider the difficulties 

that have arisen between the English and the West India Company in New Netherland 95 

Draft of a new project of Freedoms, Privileges and Exemptions, to be granted by the States-General to 

all such Dutch subjects as may be thought qualified to become Patrooas, Ac, in New Netherland, 

under the West India Company, ifec. 96 

1636. 
May 24. Extract from the Pointen van Beschryving, for the meeting of the West India Company on June 1, 

1636 100 

August 30. Resolution of the States-General, referring the memorial of Lubbertus van Dinolagen, Fiscael and Schout 

in New Netherland, to the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company, Ac 100 

August 30. Letter of the States-General to the Directors of the Amsterdam Chamber thereupon, , 101 

October 6. Resolution of the States-General, referring the further memorial of Lubbertus van Dioelagen to the 

Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company, and that they make answer in fourteen days, 101 

October 6. Letter of the States-General to the Directors of the Amsterdam Chamber thereupon, 101 

October 20. Resolution of the States-General to place the answer received from the West India Company in the 

hands of Mr. van Dinclagen 102 

November 26. Extract from the Pointen van Beschryving, for the meeting of the West India Company on 8th 

December, 102 

lesY. 

April 3. Letter of Mr. van Beveren, Ambassador at London, to the States-General concerning the French fisheries 

at Terra Nova, Ac 103 

April 30. Resolution of the States-General upon the further memorial of Lubbert van Dinclagen to write seriously 

to the XIX. of the West India Company, Ac, Ac 103 

April 30. Letter of the States-General to the XIX. of the West India Company about Dinclagen's affairs, Ac.,. . . 103 

September 2. Resolution of the States-General approving of the appointment of William Kieft as Director in New 

Netherland, in place of Wouter van Twyler, 104 

1638. 
January 19. Extract from the Pointen van Beschryving, for the meeting of the West India Company on 25th 

January, 1638, 105 



M 



CONTENTS. 



1638. 
April 



April 



April 


30. 


June 


14. 


June 


21. 


August 


30. 


August 


30. 


September 2. 


September 9. 



January 17. 



16iO. 
March 



July 
July 



1641. 
February 



March 
May 

July 

July 
August 
August 
August 



August 23. 
September 17. 
October 17. 
October 25, 



Paoe. 

Resolution of the States-General, that from this day forward all the resolutions, letters. &c., concerning 

the East and West India Companies, shall be kept and registered in separate books, <tc 105 

Kesolution of the States-General, referring the memorial of certain participants in the West India Com- 
pany, respecting the planting of colonies in New Netherland, to their Deputies to the meeting of the 
XIX., &c., 105 

Resolution of the States General, instructing their Deputies to the meeting of the XIX to endeavor to 
have proper church discipline introduced into Brazil, and also to induce colonization to New 
Netherland ; the States undertaking that they shall not be dispossessed by any foreign power, &o., Ac, 106 

Report to the States-General in answer to questions proposed by their High Mightinesses concerning the 

state of the Colony of New Netherland in the year 1638 106 

Letter of Mr. Joachimi, the Ambassador at London, to the States-General about the English complaints 

concerning New Netherland, ifec, dated 24th May, 108 

Extract from the Poinien van Beschryving, for the meeting of the West India Company on 5th July, 

1638, 110 

Articles and conditions for the trade to New Netherland, <te., proposed by Mr. de Laet, 110 

Resolution of the States-General, referring to a committee certain Articles and conditions, under 
which trade to New Netherland may be carried on, proposed by Mr. John de Laet, for the approba- 
tion of their High Mightinesses 114 

Resolution of the States-General upon the report of the committee charged to examine the foregoing 

conditions, Ac 115 

Extract from the Pointen van Beschryving, for the meeting of the West India Company on the 27th 

September 115 

Resolution of the States-General to pay to Kiliaen van Rensselaer his expenses of coming to the Hague, 116 
Letter of the Enckhuysen Chamber of the West India Company to the States-General, in answer to the 

complaints of the Swedish Minister about the arrest of a ship coming from the West Indies, 116 

Resolutioii of the States- General, referring the further memorial of Lubbert van Dinelagen to their 

Deputies to the meeting of the XIX, 117 

Resolution of the States-General, instructing their Deputies to the XIX. to exert themselves, in order 

that the inhabitants of New Netherland may be put in the best condition, <fec., 117 

Resolution of the States-General, instructing their Deputies to the XIX. to press for free access to New 
Netherland, in behalf of the Count of Solms and others who are prepared to plant colonies 
there, ifee., 118 

Resolution of the States-General, on a draft of Freedoms and Exemptions for Patroons, &a., in New 

Netherland, &c 118 

Draft of Freedoms and Exemptions for all Patroons, masters or private persons, who may plant any 

colonies, Ac, in New Netherland, itc, - 119 

Resolution of the States-General, giving to Kiliaen van Rensselaer venimi lestandi, for his property in 

New Netherland 124 

Grant of the Stales-General to Kiliaen van Rensselaer of a right to dispose of his property in New 

Netherland by last will and testament 124 

Extract of a report made to the States-General, of the proceedings of the XIX. for the year 1642, 125 

Resolution of the States-General, referring the further memorial of Lubbert van Dinelagen to the 

Deputies to the XIX., in order that the arrearages due to him may be settled, Ac 126 

Letter of Mr. Joachimi, the Dutch Ambossador at London, to the States-General, about the complaints 

of the New England people against the Dutch of New Netherland, &c., 127 

Letter of Lord Say and Scale, concerning the intrusion of the Dutch into New England, &o , 128 

Resolution of the States-General to send a copy of the foregoing letter to the West India Company, ... 129 

Letter of the States-General to the Directors of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company, . 129 
Letter of Mr. Joachimi, Ambassador at London, to the States-General, about the New England 

complaints, <tc 129 

Extract from the Pointen, <fee., for the meeting of the West India Company, September 15, 1642, 132 

Letter of Mr. Joachimi, Ambassador, <feo., to the States-General, about New England, <fec 138 

Letter of same to the States-General, about New England, Ac , 1S4 

Resolution of the States-General, upon the receipt of the foregoing letter, to look into the Retroacta, . . 135 



CONTENTS. Ivii 

1643. Page. 

February 2. Extract from the Pointen, <te., for the meeting of the West India Company, on February 21, 135 

June 19. Extract from the /"oin^en, &c., for the meeting of the West India Company, July II, 136 

July 28. Resolution of the States-General upon the further memorial of Lubbert van Dinolagen, formerly Fiscael 

in New Netherland, 186 

August 20. Letter of the States-General to the meeting of the XIX. of the West India Company, about the com- 
plaints of the English concerning New England, &c., 137 

November Y. Resolution of the States General, upon the report of the Deputies of their High Mightinesses to the 

meeting of the XIX. of the West India Company, in September 137 

November 24. Resolution of the States-General, making a change in the committee upon Dinclagen's affairs, 138 

December 2. Extract from the Posn^cK, Ac, for the meeting of the West India Company, on December 12 138 

December 11. Resolution of the States-General upon the report of the committee charged to examine the matters in 

difference between Lubbert van Dinclagen and the West India Company, 138 

December 16. Resolution of the States-General, referring the further memorial of Lubbert van Dinclagen to the Depu- 
ties to the next meeting of the XIX., ifee 139 

November 3. Memorial of the Eight Men in New Netherland, to the States-General, respecting the troubles there, 

dated at Manhattan 139 

1644. 
April 5. Resolution of the States-General to send a copy of the foregoing memorial to the XIX. of the West 

India Company, that they may take prompt order thereupon, 140 

April 23. Letter of the West India Company to the States-General, upon the subject of the memorial from New 

Netherland 141 

April 27. Resolution of the States-General to send copies of the above letter of tlie West India Company, <tc., to 

the different Provinces, Ac, <fco., 142 

October 1. Report to the States-General by the Deputies who attended the meeting of the West India Company 

ia April 142 

October 8. Letter of Mr. Spieringh, the Swedish Minister, to the States-General, complaining of the exaction of 

duties on a ship coming from New Sweden 143 

October 15. Resolution of the States-General upon a further memorial of the Swedish Minister, 143 

October 20. Resolution of the States-General, referring a letter of Cornells Melyn, Patroon of Staten Island, <tc., to 

the Deputies to the XIX., with instructions, <tc., (fee, 144 

October 22. Resolution of the States-General, recommending their Deputies to the meeting of the X.X. of the West 

India Company to inform themselves about the situation of affairs in New Netherland, ifec 144. 

October 29. Memorial of Mr. Spieringh, the Swedish Minister, to the States-General, concerning the imposition of 

duties, (fee, on ships coming from New Sweden, &e 146 

December 28. Extract from the report of their High Mightinesses' Deputies to the meeting of the XIX. of the West 

India Company, in October 148 

December 15. E.Ytraet from the minutes of the XIX. of the West India Company, concerning New Netherland 

affairs, the recall of Director Kieft, ifec., &c 148 

December l.'i. Report upon the affairs of New Netherland, presented to the West India Company by the General 

Board of Accounts, 149 

1645. 
April 21. Letter of the States-General to the XIX. of the West India Company, about the complaint of the 

Swedish Minister concerning the detention of the ships Calmersleutel and Fama, coming from New 

Sweden, &a., 166 

July 12. Report to the States-General, by their Deputies to the XIX., of the principal matters that have 

occurred in that Assembly since March, 1645 1S7 

July 12. Considerations offered by the General Board of Accounts of the West India Company to the XIX., in 

regard to the number of ships, Ac, to be employed by the Company, <fee 158 

July 31. Memorial of Mr. Speiringh, the Swedish Minister, to the States-General, about the arrest of the ships 

CahnersleiUel and Fama 169 

July 6. Statement of the cargo, <fee., of the ships Calmersleuld and Fama 169 

July 1. Instructions from the XIX. of the West India Company, for the Director and Council of New Netherland, 160 

August 15. Extract from the Pointen, <tc, for the meeting of the West India Company on 2d September, 1645, 163 
October 16. Extract from the proceedings of the meeting of the XIX. at MiJdIeburg, from the 9lh of September to 

the 16th October, 1645 163 



Iviii 



CONTENTS. 



1646. 
May 

July 

July 

July 

July 
July 
July 

July 
July 

July 
July 

Jiily 
164V. 

1648. 
January 

January 



1644. 
June 

1643. 
October 



February 
March 27; 



1642. 
January 
February 

1647. 
June 
June 

1644. 
Otober 

1647. 
July 

1648. 
January 
January 



Pagk. 

26. Letter of the Amsterdam Chamber of the "West InJia Company to the States-General, about a ship 

confiscated in New Netherland by the Director and Council there 173 

13. Letter of the West India Company to the Stales-General, asking their High Mightinesses to ratify the 

commission for Mr. Peter Stuyvesant, as Director in New Netherland 176 

13. Resolution of the States-General thereupon, that before taking any action they must be informed what 

disposition the Company has made of the complaints from New Netherland, Ac., &c 175 

24. Letter of the West India Company to the States-General, again asking that Mr. StuyTcsant's commission 

may be expedited 175 

24. Resolution of the States-General, further postponing a decision thereupon, 176 

26. Letter of the West India Company, again praying that Mr. Stuyvesant'a commission be expedited, &e., 176 
26. Resolution of the States-General, that the West India Company send to their High Mightinesses an 

authentic copy of Mr. Stuyvesant's instructions 1T7 

28. Resolution of the States-General, ratifying and approving Mr. Stuyvesant's commission, <fec., 177 

28. Minute of the appearance of Peter Stuyvesant, Director of New Netherland, <fec., before the States- 
General, and of his taking the oath, etc., &c., 177 

28. Commission of Mr. Peter Stuyvesant as Director-General of New Netherland, ic, Ac 178 

28. Minute of the appearance before the States-General of Lubbertus van Dinclagen, Deputy and First 

Councillor to the Director in New Netherland, and of his taking the oath, &c. 179 

28. Record of the oath of Lubbertus van Dinclagen before their High Mightinesses, &c., 179 

Short account of New.Netherland, from the year 1641 to the year 1646, 179 

7. Resolution of the States-General, referring a letter of Peter Stuyvesant to their High Mightinesses, 

dated October 6, 1647, to their Committee on the affairs of the West India Company, <tc 188 

11. Resolution of the States-General, referring the memorial of Jochem Pietersen Cuyter and Cornelia 

Melyn, with the appendices, to their Committee on the affairs of the West India Company, ifec 188 

Papers concerning the situation of affairs in New Netherland, and the proceedings against Cornelis 

Melyn and his adherents, marked letter A. to letter R., viz : 188 

21. Excise Laws of New Netherland, 1644, 188 

24. Letter of the Ei^ht Men at the Manhattans to the Assembly of the XIX., 1 90 

Resolution adopted by the commonalty of the Manhattans, 191 

Certificate of the election of the aforesaid Eight Men, 192 

Petition of Maryn Adriaensen and others, for leave to attack the Indians, 193 

25. Commission to Maryn Adriaensen to attack the Indians at Corlaers Hook 194 

, 28. Sundry depositions respecting conversations with Director Kieft^ 194 

Interrogatories to be proposed to Fiscal Hendrick van Dy ck, 195 

Interrogatories to be proposed to Dr. Johannes de la Montaigne 197 

Interrogatories to be proposed to Cornelis van Tienhoven, 198 

Interrogatories to be proposed to the Reverend Everardus Bogardus 200 

21. Petition of the Twelve Men at the Manhattans, and answer thereto 201 

8. Order dissolving the Board of Twelve Men 203 

8. Letter of William Kieft to Director Stuyvesant, complaining of Joehem P. Cuyter and Cornelis Melyn, 203 

22. Letter of Jochem P. Cuyter and Cornelis Melyn to Director Stuyvesant, in answer to Kieft's charge,. . 205 

28. Letter of the Eight Men of the Manhattans to the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company, 

describing the sad condition of New Netherland and complaining of Director Kieft 209 

25. Judgment of Director Stuyvesant, banishing Jochem Pietersen Cuyter from New Netherland, 213 

18. Resolution of the States-General upon the proposition to throw open the trade to New Netherland, <fec., 214 
20. Resolution of the States-General that the inhabitants of New Netherland may ship their produce to 

Brazil, Angola, ic, 215 



CONTENTS. 



lix 



1648. 




February 


6. 


February 


7. 


February 


10. 


February 


10. 


February 


13. 


April 


9. 


April 


28. 


April 


28. 


April 


28. 


April 


30. 


May 


6. 


May 


6. 


August 


27. 


October 


21. 


October 


22. 


November 


6. 


November 20. 


1649. 




April 


26. 



April 



June 


1. 


June 


4. 


July 


3. 


September 30. 


October 


9. 


July 


26. 


October 


13. 


July 


26. 


July 


26. 


July 


28. 


August 


12. 


October 


13. 


October 


14. 



Pagk. 

Minute of tlie approval of the foregoing resolution by Deputy Mortimer of Zealand, 215 

Resolution of the States-General, referring two memorials against Directors Kieft and Stuyvesant to 

the Directors of the West India Company, 215 

Resolution of the States-General on the considerations of the Directors of the Zealand Chamber of the 

West India Company, in regard to the interests of the Company and New Netherland, &c., 215 

Minute concerning the regulation of tlie trade to New Netherland, &c., &c 216 

General report of the Committee of the States-General upon the affairs of the West India Company, 

and the means of putting them on a better footing, <fcc., with extracts of papers accompanying the 

same 216 

Resolution of the States-General, referring the further memorial of Messrs. Cnyter and Melyn to their 

Committee on the affairs of the West India Company, &c 248 

Resolution of the States-General upon the report of their committee, cliarged to examine the case of 

Messrs. Cuyter and Melyn, to grant an appeal to the memorialists, with an interdiction of the 

sentences pronounced against them by Director Stuyvesant and Council, on the 25th of July, 1647, 249 

Letter of the States-General to the Director in New Netlierland thereupon 249 

Mandamus in Case of Appeal, in favor of J. P. Cuyter and Cornelis Melyn, against the sentence of 

the Director and Council in New Netherland, with inhibitory clause, &c 250 

Resolution of the States-General, approving the draft of the foregoing mandamus 252 

Resolution of the States-General upon the further memorial of J. P. Cuyter and Cornelis Melyn, to 

grant safeguard to the memorialists, 252 

Passport in favor of J. P. Cuyter and Cornelis Melyn, inhabitants of New Netherland 253 

Minute of Mr. de Laet, Director of the West India Company, having delivered to the States-General 

authentic copies of tlie treaties, Ac, of the Company with Foreign Princes, <te., within the limits of 

their charter, 253 

Resolution of the States-General, referring to a committee the petition of the guardians of John van 

Rensselaer, son of Kiliaen van Rensselaer, &c., 254 

Resolution of the States-General upon the report of Mr. van Reinswoode, to whom was referred the 

foregoing memorial, &c, that copies of the same and of the appendices be sent to the West India 

Company, <tc., before a final disposition is made thereof, &c., 254 

Letter of the Amsterdam Chamber of tlie West India Company to the States-General, about a Spanish 

barque confiscated in New Netherland, &e 255 

Resolution of the States-General, referring back the memorial of Samuel Blommaert and others against 

the guardians of Mr. van Rensselaer, Ac. , 255 

Resolution of the States-General, referring to the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company the 

memorial of the guardians of John van Rensselaer, complaining of Stuyvesant, &c., 256 

Proceedings of the States-General in the case of Samuel Blommaert and others against Jolian van 

Wiely and Wouter van Twiller, guardians of John van Rensselaer, &c., 256 

Further proceedings of the States-General in the above ease 256 

Further proceedings of the States-General in the above case, 256 

Further proceedings of the States-General in the above case 257 

Further proceedings of the States-General in the above case 257 

Resolution of the States-General upon a letter of Director Stuyvesant 257 

Letter of the Nine Men in New Netherland, to the States-General, stating that they have sent a com- 
mittee to Holland to obtain redress, <fee., 258 

Memorial of the Delegates from New Netherland to the States-General, asking for the appointment of a 

committee of their High Mightinesses, Ac, &c., 259 

Memorial to the States-General, signed by Adriaen van der Donck, Augustin Herman, and others, on be- 
half of the commonalty in New Netherland 259 

Additional observations on the memorial of the commonalty of New Netherland to the States-General, 262 

Remonstrance of New Netherland to the States-General, and the occurrences there 271 

Letter from Lubbertus van Dinclagen, Vice-Director of New Netherland, to the States-General, about the 

Deputies of the commonalty ^19 

Resolution of the States-General, referring the foregoing letters, memorials, &c., to a committee, to ex- 
amine and report upon the same, &c., 319 

Resolution of the States-General in the case of the guardians of Van Rensselaer against Blommaert 

and others, 320 



CONTENTS. 



1649. 

November 
November 



Novenibe 
Decembei 



December 
December 



July 
December 



December 
December 



1650. 
January 



Jamiaiy 



February 



164- 
July 



May 



May 



1649. 
January 



July 

August 

March 

March 
March 
March 



Paoe. 

5. Further resolution of the States-General in the above case 320 

13. Resolution of the States-General, referring to the XIX. of the West India Company the further memo- 
rial of the guardians of John van Rensselaer, &c., &c., 320 

10. Letter of Peter Stuyvesant to the States-General, in answer to their High Mightinesses' letter of April 

28, 1648, concerning the case of Melyn, &a 321 

26. Resolution of the States-General, refening the foregoing letter, 32-4 

2. Resolution of the States-General, upon a petition of Cornells van Tienhoven, Secretary of New Nether- 
land, as attorney for the Director and Council there, respecting an appeal (Melyn's) 324 

13. Resolution of the States-General, referring a further petition of the guardians of Van Rensselaer, <tc.,. . 325 
Answer of Cornells vai Tienhoven, Secretary of New Netherland, &c., to'the appeal of Cornells Melyn 

from the sentence of the Director and Council there, Ac, <fec., 325 

13. Resolution of the States-General, referring the above memorial, Ac, 326 

13. Memorial to the States-General, of Joost Teunissen, of New Netherland, baker, complaining of the con- 
duct of Director Stuyvesant, (« ith) 326 

26. Pelitlonof Joo^t, T uni sen to Peter Stuyvesant, Director of New Netherland, Ac 326 

13. Memorial to the States-General, of Sibout Claessen, of New Netherland, house carpenter, complaining of 

Stuy vesant's conduct, (fee, 328 

13. Resolution of the States-General, referring the above memorials (with another from Augustin Herman) 

to their High Mightinesses' committee, to examine the same and report thereon 330 

16. Resolution of the States-General, referring two bags of papers, in the case of Blommaert and De Laet, 
against Wi' ly and Van Twiller, guardians of Van Rensselaer, to the Provincial Court of Hulland, 

i c, to prouo 1 1 ce sentence, <fec 330 

Jilemorandum of things necessary to be done for New Netherland, 331 

Abstract, by the West India Company, of the Remonstrance from New Netherland 331 

27. A short digest of the excessive and very prejudicial neglect that New Netherland has experienced since 

it has been under the Directors of the West India Company, <fec 332 

31. Answer of the West India Company to the several points contained in the Abstract of the Remon- 
strance from New Netherland. ( Note. — The original of this document is in the handwriting of 

Cornells van Tienhoven ), 338 

1. Petition of the Delegates from New Netherland to the States-General, praying dispatch in the redress 

of their grievances, Ac, 346 

1. Resolution of the States-General, referring the foregoing petition, Ac 34Y 

8. Memorial of Cornells Melyn, Patroon on Staten Island, to the States-General, complaining of Director 
Stuyvesant's irreverent neglect of their High Mightinesses' mandamus, Ac, with the following 
papers: 348 

25. Sentence pronounced by Director Stuyvesant on Cornells Milyn 349 

6. Authority to serve the mandamus on Director Stuyvesant, Ac, 351 

19. Letter of the Prince of Orange to Director Stuyvesant, admonishing him not to molest J. P. Cuyter and 

Cornells Melyn 351 

22. Receipt from the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company, of a sealed letter from the States- 
General 352 

2. Cornells van Tienhoven's certificate that Mr. Melyn had delivered to Director Stuyvesant certain letters 

from the States-General and the Prince of Orange, 352 

8. Certificate of the service of the States-General mandamus on Director Stuyvesant in the church, in 

presence of the commonalty 352 

29. Cornells Melyn's " disrespectful protest" handed to Mde Stuyvesant, 353 

1. Director Stuyvesant's answer to Cornells Melyn's disrespectful protest, 354 

16. Return of service made of their High Mightinesses' mandamus on Vice-Director Lubbert van 

Dinclage, and his answer, 355 

16. Return of service of the mandamus on the members of the Council and others, and their answers, 355 

16. Return of service of the mandamus on Fiscal van Dyck, and his answer, 356 

23. Return of service of the mandamus on Secretary van Tienhoven, and his answer 357 

23. Return of service of the mandamus on Jan Jansen Damen, and his i 



CONTENTS. 



August 10. 

December 10. 

1650. 
February 8. 
February 22. 



Page. 
Declaratioa of Vice-Director van Dincklage and Mr. La Montagne, of Director Stujvesant'a hostility to 

Mr. Melyn's son-in-law 358 

Declaration of William Hendricksen, that he distilled brandy on Staten Island 358 



March 3. 

March 4. 

March 7. 

March 12. 



March 


12. 


Ma.ch 


19. 


March 


2.3. 


March 


24. 


March 


14. 


March 


31. 


April 


'• 


April 


1. 


April 


7. 


April 


8. 


April 


8. 


April 


8. 



Apr 



Resolution of the States-General, referring the foregomg memorial, Ac, &c. 359 

Observations on the boundaries and colonization of Kew Nctherland, submitted by Secretary Cornelis 

van Tienhoven to the committee of the States-General, Ac, 369 

Plan submitted by the Deputies of the West India Company respecting the trade and colonization of 

New Netherland. ( The original of this document is in the handwriting of Van Tienhoven) 362 

Schedule of public charges in New England ; submitted by Secretary van Tienhoven to the committee 

of the States-General 364 

Information on the occupation of land in New Netherland for colonies or private bouweries, &c., sub- 
mitted by Secretary Tienhoven to the committee of the States-General, 365 

Observations on the duties exacted by the West India Company upon goods destined to New Nether- 
land, and whether it is best to continue the same, (Sec, submitted to the Committee of the States- 
General by the Deputies from New Netherland, 372 

Petition of the Delegates from New Netherland, stating the insufficiency of shipping accommodations, 
Ac, for the numbers of persons who are desirous to emigrate to New Netherland, Ac, with a certifi- 
cate of William Thomassen, master of the ship Valckenier, anne.X'ed 376 

Resolution of the States-General on the report of their committee upon the subject of the affairs of 

the West India Company, New Netherland, Ac, Ac, 377 

Letter of the States-General to the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company, upon the fore- 
going resolution 378 

Letter of the States-General to all the Chambers of the West India Company, except the one at Amster- 
dam, on the same subject, -. 379 

Contract lietween the West India Company and Van der Donck and others, for the transportation of 

200 persons to New Netherland, Ac 379 

Resolution of the States-General thereupon 880 

Resolution of the States of Holland and West Friesland respecting the Delegates from New Nether- 
land, Ac 380 

Letter of the Groningen Chamber of the W^est India Company to the States-General respecting the 

trade to New Netherland, 381 

Resolution of the States- General thereupon 381 

Resolution of the States-General upon the representation of the committee, on the affairs of the West 
India Company, that Director Stuyvesant be ordered not to molest the Delegates from New Nether- 
land, who are about to return, Ac, Ac 382 

Letter of the States-General to Director Stuyvesant 382 

Resolution of the States-General to grant Manorial privileges to John van Rensselaer, Ac, Ac 383 

Resolution of the States-General to admit Dirck van Suhelluyue to practice as Notary public in New 

Netherland 334 

Commission of Dirck van Sehelluyne, as notary in New Netherland, Ac 384 

Resolution of the States of Holland upon the petition of the Deputies from New Netherland about the 

transport of emigrants, Ac 385 

Memorial of the Delegates from New Netherland to the committee of the States-General respecting the 

state of affairs in New Netherland, Ac, (with) 385 



December 17. 
November 29. 
December 13. 

1650 
April 11. 

April 11. 

April 11. 

April 11. 



Extract of a letter from Janneken Melyn, dated at New Netherland, 386 

Extract from the minutes of the Council at New Netherland, 386 

Protest of Vice-Director van Dinclagen against Director Stuyvesant, for having exported horses to 

Barbadoes, 387 

Draft report of the Committee of the States General to whom was referred the Remonstrance from New 

Netherland, with provisional articles for the government, Ac, of that country 387 

Remarks of the West India Company upon the foregoing report 391 

Preamble to the proposed provisional articles, Ac, with remarks of the West India Company, 393 

Memorial of Adriaen van der Donck to the Committee of the States-General, demanding that Secretary 

van Tienhoven be examined on interrogatories, Ac, 395 



J^l CONTENTS. 

1650. Pace. 

April 11. Resolution of the States-General upon the proposed provisional articles, <tc., 396 

April 11. Resolulion of the States-General, authorizing the sending, <tc., of arms and ammunition to Kew Nether- 
land, to be distributed under the direction of the government there 397 

April 12. Memorial of the Delegates from New Netherland to the States-General respecting the hostilities carried 

OQ by the Spaniards, notwithstanding the peace, (with) 397 

April 12. Deposition of Wilhelm Noble, respecting the Spaniards, &.C., <fec., 398 

April 12. Resolution of the States-General to write to Director Stuyvesant to publish the treaty of peace (of West- 
phalia) in New Neflierland, <tc 399 

April 1 2. Letter of the States-General to Director Stuyvesant thereupon, 399 

April 14. Resolution of the States-General, referring the draft of the provisional order for the government, &c., 

of New Netherland, to their committee, itc, &c 400 

May 13. Extract of the Points, upon which the committee of the States-General were charged to report, 400 

May 24. Draft of Freedoms and Exemptions, proposed by the West India Company for the approval of the com- 
mittee of the States-General, 401 

June 8. Resolution of the States-General, upon the receipt of a letter from the Provincial Court of Holland, <tc., 

in the case of Blommaert et al. vs. the guardians of Van Rensselaer 406 

June 14. Resolution of the States-General, approving, &c., the sentence (which is inserted at length) of the 

Court of Holland, in the case of Samuel Blommaert et al. vs. Wouter van Twiller et al., executors 

of the late Kiliaen van Rensselaer, 406 

June 30. Resolution of the States-General to grant to Cornells Melyn a passport, or safe conduct, for his return 

to New Netherland, &c., 407 

June 30. Letter of protection of the States-General in favor of Cornelis Melyn, who is about to return to New 

Netherland 408 

July 1. Resolution of the States-General, approving the draft of the foregoing, 409 

July 21. Resolution of the States-General, instructing their committee upon the affairs of the West India 

Company to examine Cornelis van Tienhoven, now at the Hague, upon certain points respecting 

matters in New Netherland, &e., 409 

July 21. Interrogatories upon which the committee of the States-General is to examine Secretary Cornelis van 

Tienhoven 409 

July 20. Extracts from the papers of Director Kieft, viz : 414 

1641. 
August 29. Proposals of Director Kieft to the commonalty, and the election, in consequence, of the Twelve Men,. . 414 
1642. 

January 21. Resolution of the Twelve Men, on a proposed expedition against the Indians, 415 

1643. 

February 25. Commission to Maryn Adriaensen to attaet the Indians at Corlaer's Hook, 416 

February 27. Petition of the inhabitants of Long Island for leave to attack the Indians, with the answer thereto, ... 416 
1650. 

August 9. Report of the Committee of the States-General on Mely n's papers 417 

August 9. Resolution of the States-General upon the foregoing report, <tc 418 

August 17. Letter of Director Stuyvesant to the States-General 418 

October 15. Resolution of the States-General thereupon, 420 

September 1 3. Letter of the Selectmen of New Amsterdam to the States-General 420 

November 18. Resolution of the States-General, referring the foregoing letter, and one from Adriaen van der Donck, 

to their committee, <to., 421 

November 29. Secretary van Tienhoven's answer to the Remonstrance from New Netherland 422 

Extract of the observations by the committee of the Stockholders of the West India Company, respect- 



ing 



the affairs in New Netherland, &c., 432 



January 14. Resolution of the States-General, referring a memorial of Adriaen van der Donck, Delegate from New 

Netherland 433 

January 14. Resolution of the States-General, ordering their proceedings about the East and West India Companies 

to be continued to be kept in separate registers 433 

February 7. Order of the Committee of the States-General, that Cornelis van Tienhoven do answer the interrogato- 
ries touching the origin of the war with the Indians, 433 

March 14. Resolution of the States-General to write to the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company to 

send Jan Claessen Damen and Cornelis van Tienhoven to the Hague, &c 434 



CONTENTS. Ixili 

1651. Page. 

March 14. Letter of the States-General to the West India Company thereupon 434 

March 21. Resolution of the Stales-General, referring the answer of the West India Company, 436 

April 21. Resolution of the States-General to write to the West India Company not to allow Secretary Tan Tien- 

hoven to return to New Nctherland, and also that they instruct the captain of the ship Waterhont, 

not to receive him on board, 435 

April 21. Letter of the States-General to the West India Company thereupon 435 

August 19. Memorial to the States-General from certain inhabitants and merchants of Holland, trading to Virginia, 

Ac, complaining of the conduct of the English, Ac, 436 

November 23. Secret resolution of the States-General, recoinnjending the subject of the trade to Virginia, Ac, to the 

serious consideration of their Ambassadors to England, Ac, 437 

1652. 
February 10. Memorial of Adriaen van der Donck, Delegate from New Netherland, to the States-General, respecting 

affairs in that country 438 

1650. 

December 22. Letter to the States-General from the Selectmen in New Nctherland 44I 

December 22. Declaration of Vice-Director van Dinclagen and Fiscal van Dyck, before a notary at Manhattan, 

respecting the conduct of Director Stuyvesant, 441 

1652. 

February 10. Resolution of the States-General, referring the foregoing documents 442 

February 16, Report of the committee of the States-General, to which was referred the memorial, Ac, presented by 
Adriaea van der Donck, on the 10th instant, and the resolution of their High Mightinesses 

thereon 443 

February 16. Extracts and copies of letters, journals, Ac, from New Nctherland, viz: 

1650. 
August 1*7. Extract of a letter from the Selectmen to Adriaen van der Donck— condition of things at the 

Manhattans 444 

September 10. Extract of two letters from Augustin Herman — Stuyvesant does as he pleases, 444 

September 13. Extract of a letter from Jacob van Couwenhoven and Dierck van Schelluyne — Selectmen misrepre- 
sented, 445 

September 8. Extract of a letter from Vice-Director Dincklage — law is violated 445 

September 13. Extract of a letter from the Selectmen, complaining of all redress being postponed, 445 

July 4. Extract of the journal kept by order of the commonalty — Stuyvesant appropriates to himself the pew 

in the church belonging to the Selectmen 445 

September 12. Extract of a letter from Vice-Director Dincklage — abuses as notorious as the sun at noonday, 446 

September 6. Extract of a letter from the Selectmen — reliance still placed on their High Mightinesses' promises 446 

Extract of a memoir sent by Vice-Director van Dincklage — Stuyvesant violates his promises 446 

October 6. Extract of a letter from Jacob van Couwenhoven and Dirck van Schelluyne— condition of the country 

worse and worse — Stuyvesant gone to New England, 446 

September 13. Letter of the Selectmen of New Amsterdam to the States-General, again applying for redress of the 

public grievances, 447 

Letter of the Selectmen of New Amsterdam to the committee of the States-General, to the like effect, 448 
August 29. Protest of the Selectmen of New Amsterdam against the Director and Council, for refusing to recog- 
nize them and for having deprived them of their pew in the church, 448 

November 30. Extract from the journal of the Selectmen — guns sold to the Indians of Cannarse (L. I.), 449 

December 22. Extract of a letter from the Selectmen — arrival of Melyn — vindicate their conduct 449 

November 3. Extract of a declaration of Vice-Director van Dincklage as to what the Fiscal told him, 449 

November 3. Extract of a declaration of Jochem Pieters Cuyter — the Chamber of Amsterdam will uphold the Director, 

even unto blood, 450 

December 22. Extract of a letter from the Selectmen — are nothing but ciphers — ignored by Stuyvesant, whom the 

Vice-Director and Fiscal protest against, 450 

November 26. Extract of a letter from the Selectmen — visit of Stuyvesant to Hartford— urge Van der Donck to 
renewed exertion — Swedes on the South river unresisted— Stuyvesant instructed not to heed any 

passport from their High Mightinesses 450 

1651. 
September 12. Extract of a letter from the Selectmen — they are dismissed from office and menaced with prosecution, 452 
October 18. Extract of a letter from Notary van Schelluyne — dare not prepare any more writings — living like 

sheep among wolves , 452 



Ixiv 



CONTENTS. 



1651. 
September 19. 
September 20. 

October II. 

February 28. 



September 17. 

1652. 
February 16. 



February 


16. 


February 


23. 


February 


24. 


March 


2. 


March 


2. 


March 


1. 


March 


8. 


March 


8. 


March 


13. 


March 


15. 


March 


16. 


March 


6. 


April 


13. 


April 


22. 


April 


22. 


April 


26. 



April 



April 


27. 


April 


27. 


April 


27. 


April 


27. 


April 


27. 


April 


27. 



May 

May 



May 
May 



May 



Page. 

Extract of a Latin letter from Vice-Director van Dincklage — the older Stuyvesant gro-ws the worse he gets, 453 

Extract of a letter from Augustin Herman — Van Tienhoven returned, and exposed by the basket- 
maker's daughter, 453 

Extract of a letter from Notary van Schelluyne — continues to be persecuted — protest from Fiscal 

van Dyck 454 

Extract of a counter protest of Vice-Director van Dincklage against the Director and Council, with a 

few of his charges against them 454 

Extract of the declaration of Brant van Slechtenhorst, Director of the Colonic Rensselaerswyck — Vice- 
Director van Dincklage thrust out the Council and committed to the guard-house 456 

E.'itract of a letter from Vice-Director van Dincklage — waste of the public property, 457 

Memoir of Adriaen van der Donck respecting the ancient boundaries of New Netherland, as first 
occupied in 1609 ; the usurpations by the English from time to time, and what was ceded to them 

by Director Stuyvesant 457 

News from New England in 1650, 460 

Letter of the States-General to the different Chambers of the West India Company, about New Nether- 
land — provisional order 462 

Letter of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company to the States-General, in reply, 462 

Resolution of the States-General thereupon 463 

Letter of the Dordrecht Chamber of the West India Company to the States-General, (with) 463 

Observations of the Dordrecht Chamber respecting the government of New Netherland, <S:c 463 

Resolution of the States-General thereupon, 465 

Letter of the Zealand Chamber of the West India Company to the States-General 465 

Resolution of the States-General thereupon, 466 

Letter of the Delft Chamber of the West India Company to the States-General 467 

Resolution of the States-General thereupon 467 

Resolution of the States-General upon the petition of Engletje Wouters 467 

Letter of the States-General to the Director and Council at New Netherland thereupon, 468 

Letter of the Groningen Chamber of the West India Company to the States-General, 468 

Resolution of the States-General thereupon, 469 

Resolution of the States-General, upon the petition of John and Charles Gabry, to write to Stuyvesant 

in their behalf, 469 

Letter of the States-General to Director Stuyvesant thereupon 469 

Resolution of the States-General to grant to Adriaen van der Donck, Patroon of Colendonck, in New 

Netherland, " veniam ^estandi et disponendi," as formerly granted to Van Rensselaer 470 

Patent to Adriaen van der Donck, investing him with a right to make a testamentary disposition of his 

property in New Netherland, 470 

Resolution of the States-General, recalling Director Peter Stuyvesant 471 

Letter of the States-General to Stuyvesant thereupon 472 

Letter of the States-General to the West India Company thereupon 472 

Resolution of the States-General, on the petition of Jan van Buren, to write to the Director and 
Council in New Netherland to sustain Dirck van Schelluyne in his profession as notary in New 

Netherland 472 

Letter of the Slates-General to Stuyvesant thereupon, 473 

Resolution of the States-General, referring to their committee a memorial of Martin Beekman and 

Cornelis Melyn, complaining of Director Stuyvesant, &c., 473 

Memorial of Adriaen van der Donck to the committee of the States-General, stating his intended 

return to New Netherland, <tc., ifec 473 

Resolution of the States-General thereupon, 474 

Secret resolution of the States-General respecting the answer of the Council of State, in England, to 

the Ambassadors of the United Netherlands, upon the 36 Articles of the proposed Treaty 475 

Secret resolution of the States-General upon the foregoing matter, 475 

Resolution of the States-General, revoking their letter of recall to Stuyvesant, of the 27th of April last, 

and ordering Van der Donck to deliver up the eame, &c. 475 

Memorial of Adriaen van der Donck to the States-General respecting various matters connected with 

hia visit to Holland on behalf of the commonalty at New Netherland, &c 476 



CONTENTS. 



Ixv 



1662, p^OE. 

May 24. Resolution of the States-General thereupon 473 

May 24. Letter of the States-General to the different Chambers of the West India Company upon the foregoing 

matter 4Y8 

May 28. Letter of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company, to the States-General, respecting their 

High Migtinesses' resolution of 16th May, revoking Stuyvefaat's ree.ijl, &c 479 

May 28. Resolution of the States-General thereupon 4»jg 

June 20. Minute of the receipt of a letter from A. V. de Jonge, Accountant-General of the West India Company, 

in place of Samuel Blommaert, lately deceased, &e., 4g0 

June 22. Resolution of the States-General, referring a letter from the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India 

. Company in answer to their High Mightinesses' letter of 24th May, to a committee, &c 480 

June 24. Letter of the Dordtrecht Chamber of the West India Company to the States-General, in answer to 

theirs of 24th May 4gO 

June 24. Resolution of the States-General thereupon 481 

July 17. Secret resolution of the States-General on the commencement of the war with England, 481 

July 17. Secret resolution of the States-General to send a frigate to New Netherland, &c., 482 

July 22. Secret resolution of the States-General ou the subject of the preservation of New Netherland, &c., 482 

July 22. Secret resolution of the States-General to write to Director Stuyvesant, that in the present situation of 

affairs between England and the United Provinces, he keep a careful watch, and that no person be 

employed, of whose devotion to the State he is not assured, &c., <fec .■ 482 

July 22. Letter of the States-General to Stuyvesant thereupon, 4g3 

July 31. Secret memoir of the Directors of the West India Company to the committee of the States-General, re- 
specting the preservation of Brazil and New Netherland, <tc 483 

July 31. Secret resolution of the States-General upon the report of their committee, (fee, (fee 484 

August 6. Memorial of Adriaen van der Donck to the States-General, asking for speedy action on his memorial 

already presented, ifec • 435 

August 5. Resolution of the States-General, referring the foregoing memorial to their committee, <fec 486 

August 7. Proposals of the Dutch for Free Trade and for the settlement of the boundary of New Netherland, with 

the answer of the English Council of State thereto 4gg 

August 13. Resolution of the States-General, referring back to their committee the memorial of the West India 

Company, of July 31st, respecting the preservation, Ac, of Brazil and New Netherland 487 

September 3. Resolution of the States-General on the projected Invasion of New Netherland, Ac, 487 

September 3. Letter of the States-General to the Amstesdam Chamber, thereupon 488 

September 18. Defence of Hendrick van Dyck, Fiscal in New Netherland, (with) 489 

September 18. Letter of Hendrick van Dyck to the States-General, 49I 

1646. 

July 28. Certificate that Director Stuyvesant hath taken the oath of office 4 92 

July 10. Commission of Fetrus Stuyvesant as Director of Curasao, 492 

1645. 

May fi. Commission of Fetrus Stuyvesant as Director of New Netherland, 492 

May 5. Commission of Lubbertus van Dinolage, as Vice-Director of New Netherland 493 

June 23. Commission of Hendricks van Dyck, as Fiscal of New Netherland , 494 

1652. 
September 16. Instructions to the Director and Council of New Netherland, dated 7th July, 1645, with Van Dyck's 

comment on each article, 495 

Letter of the States-General to the Director and Council of New Netherland, dated 1st April, 1650, with 

Van Dyck's commentary, showing how it was not obeyed 502 

Instructions to Hendrick van Dyck, as Fiscal of New Netherland, with his observation on each article, 604 

March 28. Lampoon on Director Stuyvesant, with explanations 510 

March 28. Extract from the Resolutions of the Council and Selectmen of New Netherland, dismissing Van Dyke 

from office, with the comments of the latter, 510 

March 28. Extract of another Resolution, with Van Dyck's comments 511 

September 16. Letter of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company to Fiscal Van Dyck, dated 9th April, 

1652, with the latter's answer 612 

1651. 
December 6. Declaration of Elizabeth Jans, inn-keeper of Amsterdam, that Cornells van Tienhoven frequented her 

house with one Lysbert Jansen Croon 514 



Ixvi 



CONTENTS. 



1651. 
December 8. 

December 8. 
December 11. 

16J2. 
December 6. 
December 20. 

December 28. 



December 28. 
December 31. 



January 



January 


17. 


January 
February 
February 


11. 
6. 
10. 


February 
March 


20. 
4. 


April 


10. 


AprU 


10. 


May 


14. 


May 


14. 


May 


16. 


May 
May 
May 


16. 
21. 
24. 



June 

June 

August 

August 

August 

August 

August 



November 
November 



Page. 
Declaration of Louisa Nog that she hired lodgings in Amsterdam for Cornelis van Tienhoven and a 

woman, and that he had been caught by the Sheriff, 515 

Declaration of Jacob Thomassen to the like effect, 616 

Declaration of Margaretta Portus, that Van Tienhoven and Ljsbet Jansen lived as man and wife 517 

Resolution of the States-General, referring the foregoing defence and appendices, 618 

Resolution of the States-General, referring a memorial of Van Rensselaer, de Laetand others, complain- 
ing of the conduct of Director Stuy vesant, to a committee 618 

Resolution of the States-General, on the report of the committee, to send the above mentioned memo- 
rial to the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company for information upon the matters 

therein stated 619 

Letter of the States-General to the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company thereupon 619 

Letter of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company to the States-General, in answer, 619 

Resolution of the States-General thereupon 520 

Letter of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company to the States-General, ( with ) 520 

Points extracted from the memorial of the Patroon, etc., of Rensselaerswyok to the States-General, and 

the remarks of the Amsterdam Chamber thereupon, 522 

Points against the Patroon, <tc., whereupon satisfaction is to be demanded, 524 

Resolution of the States-General, referring the foregoing papers, &a 526 

Resolution of the States-General upon the report of the Committee on the foregoing matter, 526 

Resolution of the States-General, upon the report of their committee, to send Fiscal van Dyck's com- 
plaint against Director Stuyvesant to the West India Company 526 

Resolution of the States-General, referring a memorial of Van Rensselaer, &e., to a committee 527 

Resolution of the States-General, refusing to interfere in the case of a sentence pronounced in New 

Netlierland against the ship Forluyn 627 

Resolution of the States-General to grant to Hendrick van der Capelle a writ of appeal, with an 

enjoining clause, against a sentence pronounced in New Netherland 627 

Writ of appeal granted by the States-General to Hendrick van der Capelle against a sentence of 

Director Stuyvesant, cfcc, 528 

Letter of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company to the States-General, recommending 

Van der Donck's book, entitled Beschryvinge van Nieu Nederland, 630 

Resolution of the States-General, referring Adriaen van der Donck's memorial for a copyright of his 

book on New Netherland, Ac, to a committee, 631 

Resolution of the States-General, calling on the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company for a 

copy of Van der Donck's book, to be examined, <tc., 531 

Letter to tlie West India Company thereupon 531 

Letter of the West India Company in reply, transmitting Van der Donck's book, 632 

Resolution of the States-General, granting Adriaen van der Donck a copyright for fifteen years in his 

book, entitled Beschryvivge van Nieu Nederland, 633 

Resolution of the States-General, referring to a memorial of John de Laet, against Tausain Muysaert, 

respecting Rensselaerswyck, ifec 533 

Resolution of the States-General, upon the report of their committee, to send the above ease to the 

Provincial Court of Holland, whose sentence the States-General will confirm, 633 

Letter to the Court of Holland thereupon 53-t 

Resolution of the States-General to send to Van der Capelle a copy o^ 534 

Resolution of the States of Holland, <fec., on appeals from sentences in New Netherland, 634 

Letter of the States-General thereupon 535 

Memorial of Van der Capelle to the States-General, in answer to their letter of 6th August, 635 

Resolution of the States-General thereupon 636 

Resolution of the States-General on the presentation of papers from the West India Company relating 

to the boundary of New Netherland, Ac, 637 

Papers on the boundary in America between the Dutch and English 639 

Letter of the West India Company to the States-General, praying thatthe boundaries in New Netherland 

may be settled, (with) 541 



CONTENTS. Ixvii 

1651. Page. 

February 28. A description of the ancient boundaries of New Netberland, with suggestions of Director Stviyvesant 

as to what would be a proper boundary 542 

Ifovember 6. Memorial respecting the limits and jurisdiction claimed by the West India Company, in virtue of their 

charter, in New Netherlaad 546 

1650. 
November 26. Extract of a letter of Director Stuyvesant to the West India Company, giving an account of hia visit 

to Hartford 643 

1653. 

November 8. Resolution of the States-General on the receipt of the foregoing papers, &« 549 

December 30. Letter of Captain Ivregier and others, a committee on belialf of the people of the Manhattans and Long 

Island, to the Burgomasters of Amsterdam, (with) 649 

December 11. Petition of the commonalty of New Netherland to Director Stuyvesant, 650 

December 30. Short notes, in form of explanation of some points contained in the preceding petition of the colonies 

and villages of New Netherland, 553 

1654. 
July 9. Letter from the Burgomasters of Amsterdam to Director Stuyvesant, notifying the intention to send 

some orphans to New Netherland, 556 

September 11. Resolution of the States-General to desire the XIX. of the West India Company to send their High 

Mightinesses a condensed report on the boundary in New Netherland, Ac, 556 

September 29. Resolution of the States-General to send to their Ambassadors in England the memoir and other papers 

on the boundary question, furnished by the West India Company, &c 556 

September 29. Letter of the States-General to their Ambassadors in England 557 

October 9. Letter of Messrs. Beverningk and Nieupoort, Ambassadors in England, to the States-General 557 

December 4. Resolution of the States of Holland, &e., respecting the boundary question in New Netherland 569 

November 27. Letter of Messrs. Beverningk and Nieupoort, Ambassadors at London, to Mr. Ruysch, the Greffier of the 

States-General, in answer to their High Mightinesses' letter of 29th September last, respecting the 

boundary question in New Netherland, ( with ) 659 

Memorandum prepared by the Ambassadors in London, respecting the,English and Dutch possessions in 

America, &c., 561 

December 9. Resolution of the States-General upon the foregoing documents, 562 

December 9. Letter of the States-General to the West India Company thereupon, 663 

December 30. Letter of the West India Company to the States-General, in reply, (with) 563 

December 30. Memoir on the English encroachments on New Netherland, 564 

1641. 

October 10. Articles proposed to the West India Company by Rev. Hugh Peters, 663 

October 10. Authority to Rev. Hugh Peters, signed by John Winthrop, Governor of Massachusetts, and John 

Haynes, Governor of Connecticut, 568 

1655. 
January 2. Resolution of the States-General to send copies of the foregoing documents to Mr. Nieupoort, their 

Ambassador at London, Ac 568 

January 2. Letter of the States-General to Ambassador Nieupoort thereupon 669 

1654. 

December 28. Letter of the Zealand Chamber of the West India Company to the States-General 569 

1655. 

January 4. Resolution of the States-General thereupon 570 

January 14. Resolution of the States-General, referring a memorial presented on behalf of Van de Capelle, to a 

committee, &o. , 67 1 

April 3. Resolution of the States-General upon a further memorial of Van de Capelle 571 

April 24. Resolution of the States-General to write to Stnyvesant, in favor of Charles Gabry, merchant of 

Amsterdam 571 

April 24. Letter of the States-General to Director Stuyvesant thereupon, 572 

May 1. Tariff of 1655 672 

May 20. Letter of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company to the States-General, respecting the 

boundary question in New Netherland, <Src 673 

May 24. Resolution of the States-General thereupon, to write to Ambassador Nieupoort, at London, &c 574 

May 24. Letter of the States-General to Ambassador Nieupoort thereupon, 674 



Ixviii CONTENTS. 

1656. Paoe- 
May 29. Letter of the Amsterdam Cliamber of the West India Company to the States-General, about the boun- 
dary question in New Nelherlaiid 574 

May 31. Resolution of the States-General thereupon, to write to Ambassador Xieupoort, 575 

May 31. Letter of the States-General to Ambassador Nieupoort thereupon 575 

July 10. Resolution of the States-General, upon the memorial of the Spanish Ambassador asking for the arrest of 

a piratical vessel in the harbor of New Netherland, &e 676 

July 28. Resolution of the States-General, referring to a committee a letter of the West India Company, dated 

at Amsterdam, July 26, together with some papers about New Netherland, &c., 576 

December 11. Letter of Don Estevan de Gamarra y Contrevas, the Spanish Ambassador at the Hague, to the 
States-General, in reference to the arrest of Sebastian de Raefif, &c., alleged pirates, now in New 

Netherland, <fec 576 

December 11. Resolution of the States-General, referring the above to their committee, <fec. 578 

December 31. Letter of Ambassador Nieupoort to the States-General, stating that he has just heard that the Swedes 

had been driven out of New Netherland by the Dutch, &c 678 

1656. 

January 6. Resolution of the States-General thereupon, to write to the^West India Company for information, 579 

January 6. Letter of the States-General thereupon, 580 

January 6. Letter of Don Estevan de Gamarra y Contrevas, the Spanish Ambassador, to the States-General, again 
referring to the case of Sebastian de Raeff, an alleged pirate, in New Netherland, and asking for 

letters, &c. , in favor of Juan Gallardo, &c. 680 

January 6. Resolution of the States General thereupon, 581 

January 10. Further resolution of the States-General upon the memorial of the Spanish Ambassador, 581 

January 10. Letter of the States-General to Director Stuyvesant thereupon 581 

January 7. Letter of Ambassador Nieupoort to the States-General, referring to the news about the Swedes in New 

Netherland, ifec 582 

January 13. Letter of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company to the States-General, in answer to their 

letter of the 6th January, respecting the Swedes in New Netherland, &c 683 

January 15. Resolution of the States-General thereupon 584 

January 18. Further resolution of the States-General thereupon 584 

January 18. Letter of the States-General to the West India Company respecting the Swedes, <tc 584 

January 28. Report of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company respecting the Swedes who have 

arrived from New Netherland, (with) 585 

January 24. Letter of the West India Company to the States-General, (with) 687 

January 24. Deduction, or a Clear and precise Aecount of the condition of tlie South river, in New Netherland, and 

of the unseemly conduct of the Swedes there, <tc 587 

Extracts of letters from William Kieft, formerly Director in New Netherland, to the West India 

Company, 1638-1640 692 

Deed of sale by the Indians of lands on the Schuylkill, <fec., signed at Fort Beversrede, on the South river, 693 
1048. 

November 9. Extract of a letter from Adriaen van Tienhoven to Peter Stuyvesant, dated at Fort Beversrede 694 

1051. 

July 16. Memorial of the inhabitants of Schuylkill to Director Stuyvesant 594 

July 30. Declaration of Wappanghzewan, an Indian sachem, respecting Governor Printz' wishes to buy his lands 

. on South river, ifec, 696 

July 9. Declaration of Mattehoorn and two other Indians, respecting the lands on the South river, itc., dated 

Furt Nassau 597 

1055. 
July 19. Declaration of Amattchooren and other Indians, of the cession of certain lands on South river to Peter 

Stuyvesant, " Chief Sachem of the Manhattans," 599 

1053. 

October 6. Extract of a letter from Director Stuyvesant to the West India Company 600 

Extract of a letter from Gerrit Bicker, Commandant at Fort Casimier, to Peter Stuyvesant 601 

1654. 

July 27. Extract of a letter of Peter Stuyvesant to the West India Company, dated 27th July, 1054, 601 

Depositions of various persons respecting the Swedes on the South River, taken before Secretary 

van Ruy ven, 1654 602 

May 27. Extract of a letter from Governor John Risingh to Director Stuyvesant, 606 



CONTENTS. 



1666. 

September 11. 



September 25. 

1656. 
January 28. Resolut 



Capitulation and conditions upon ■which Fort Casimir was sur 

Stuy vesaut, 

Capitulation between Risiugh and Stuyvesant at Fort Christina,. 



ndered by Suen Schuts to Director 



February 12. 

February 22. 

February 22. 

February 22. 

March 3. 

March 16. 

March 22. 

March 22. 

March 24. 

March 29. 

April 27. 

June 30. 

July 4. 

July 12. 



August 1. 

August 7. 

August 10. 

August 10. 

August 10. 

August 12. 

August 12. 

August 12. 

August 16. 

August 16. 

October 4. 

1655. 

October 30. 

September 2. 

1656. 

October 4. 



1 of the States-General upon the receipt of the foregoing documents, referring them to a secret 
committee, &a 

Resolution of the Council of the City of Amsterdam, appointing a committee to consider how trade in 

New Netherland could be promoted, 

Letter of the Directors of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company to the States-General, 

respecting the boundary question in New Netherland 

Resolution of the States-General thereupon, to ratify' the articles of agreement made at Hartford on 19th 

September, 1 65(1, &c. , &e., 

Ratification of the Treaty of Hartford by the States-General, 

Letter of a Committee of the West India Company to the Committee of the City of Amsterdam,. . . . 

Points proposed by the Assembly of the XIX to the States-General, in the year 1654, 

Resolution of the Common Council of the City of Amsterdam to purchase a tract of land in New 

Netherland 

Resolution of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company, appointing a committee to arrange 

with the City of Amsterdam the conditions for planting a Colonic in New Netherland, 

Letter of Mr. Appelboom, the Swedish Minister, to the States-General, complaining of the conduct of the 

West India Company's officers in New Netherland, in dispossessing the Swedes of the South river,. 

Resolution of the States-General thereupon, - 

Resolution of the States of Holland, &c., upon the foregoing memorial, <fec 

Draft of the City of Amsterdam on the Exchange Bank, in favor of the Waldenses 

Letter of the Council of Amsterdam to Director Stuyvesant, recommending Jan Gailardo Ferrara, 

Draft of the City of Amsterdam in favor of the Waldenses, 

Resolution of the Council of Amsterdam on a plan for colonizing New Netherland 

Resolution of the Council of Amsterdam, approving the conditions for planting a Colonie on the South 

Draft of conditions offered by the City of Amsterdam to emigrants to New Netherland, witli remarks 

of the West India Company 

Form of Permit to sail to New Netherland, 

Resolution of the States-General, referring an agreement entered into by the West India Company 

with the City of Amsterdam, ifee 

Letter of the States-General to the XIX. thereupon, 

Letter of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company to the States-General, respecting the 

City of Amsterdam's Colonie in New Netherland, &c,, 

Resolution of the States-General thereupon, 

Letter of the States-General to the XIX. of the West India Company, 

Letter of the XIX of the West India Company to the States-General, approving the proposed Colonie 

on the South river, 

Agreement of the West India Company and the City of Amsterdam respecting a Colonie in New 

Netherland, , 

Conditions offered to all those who are to go to New Netherland to settle on the South River 

Resolution of the States-General, referring the foregoing papers to a committee, <t-c. 

Report of the committee of the States-General, recommending a ratification of the preceding conditions. 
Resolution of the States-General, ratifying and confirming the agreement and conditions made between 

the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company and the City of Amsterdam, &c, 

Memorial of Mr. van de Capelle to the States-General, asking for a commission for some proper person 

to be sent as commander by him to bis Colonie on Staten Island, in New Netherland 



Extract of a letter from Director Stuyvesant to Mr. van c 

of his Colonie on Staten Island 

Commission issued by the States-General to the command 



!■ Capelle, informing him of the destruction 
• of the Island of Tobago, <feo 



Resolution of the States-General, referring the foregoing papers to the Directors of the West Indif 
Company, &c , 



]xx CONTENTS. 

1656. Page. 

October 5. Extract from the proceedings of the XIX of the West India Company 640 

October 6. Resolution of the States-General upon the reply of the West India Company thereupon, &c., 641 

November 1. Report on garrisoning Fort Casimir on the South river, 641 

November 4. Resolution of the Common Council of Amsterdam, on the preceding report, 642 

November 8. Estimated expense of sending a colony of 150 persons to the Delaware river 643 

November 11. Resolution of the Common Council of Amsterdam, authorizing a loan for the Colonic on the South 

river , 645 

December 5. Commission of Captain Martyn Kryger to command a company at the Colonic on the South river, 

belonging to the City of Amsterdam, 646 

December 5. Commission of Ale.xander d'Hinojossa to be lieutenant of the same 646 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS 
I-VIII. 



Resolutions respecting Sir Thomas Dale. 
Resolution of the States General. 

[From the Eegister of Resolutions of the States General in the Eoyal ArchiTes at the Hague.] 

Friday the 1" August 1603. 
Folio 24T. On the recommendation of the King of France, Captain Dale is commissioned 

Captain Dale provisionally as Captain of the Infantry Company of Captain Condegrave, and 

the Secretary is ordered to issue a certificate thereof to him. 

Resolution of the States General. 

I From the Eegister of Resolutions of the States General in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Monday the 8"= December 1603. 
Folio 889. On Captain Thomas Dale's Petition it is granted that his Commission be 

captainDaie. expedited, and the desired deduction made after every due attention shall be 
paid to his complaint regarding the Eight Soldiers who, he says, were absent through 
sickness, with his Excellency's knowledge at the mustering of the Company on the 21" of 
October last. 

Vol. I. 1 



2 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Resolution of the Council of State of the United Netherlands. 

[ From the origioal Register of Eesolotioos ol the Coancil of Stale, in the Royal Archives at the Bagae. 1 

Wednesday Si"" December 1603. 
Thomas Dale. On the Petition of Thomas Dale, an English Captain, this deduction is properly 
made, inasmuch as the monies received by him in the Army, were given him on account. 



Memorandum that CajJtaitis Dale and Gates we^-e in garrison in Holland. 

i From the Original List in the File intituled Loopenda of Novemb : and Decemb 1606. in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

From a list of the stations of the Dutch Garrisons on the 15th November, 1606. 

From this List it most clearly appears that Thomas Dayl and S'' Thomas Gaels were in 
garrison together on the IS"' November 1606 in the City of Oudewater, which is a small City 
in South Holland situate on the River Yssel. 

In this list we read as follows : — 

{ " Thomas Dayl 
Oudewater j g, ^j^^,^^^ q^^^^„ 



Resolution of the States General granting leave of absence to Sir Thomas Gates. 

[ From the Register of Eesolations of the Slates General, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hagae. ] 

Thursday, the 24"' April 1608. 
Foiio6T. On the petition of Sir Thomas Gates, Captain of a Company of English Soldiers, 

ottes.'" ''°™'^ commissioned by the King of Great Britain to command with three other 
gentlemen in the country of Virginia in colonizing the said countries, the Petitioner is, 
therefore, allowed to be absent from his company for the space of one year, on condition that 
he supply his company with good Officers and Soldiers for the public service. 



Resohttion of the States General, granting leave of absence to Captain Dale. 

[ From the Register of Resolutions of the States General, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Thursday, 20"" January. 1611. 
Folio 23. On the writing presented by the Honorable Rudolph Winwood, Ambassador 

from the King of Great Britain, it is ordered as follows: — 

Captain Dale. TheStates General of the United Netherlands hereby consent and allow, on 

the recommendation of his Highness the Prince of Wales, that Captain Thomas Dale (destined 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: L 3 

by the King of Great Britain to be employed in Virgiuia in His Majestys Service) may absent 
himself from his company for the space of three years, and that his said company shall 
remain meanwhile vacant to be resumed by him if he think proper. It is understood that his 
pay as Captain shall cease during his absence. 



Further Resolution of the States General respecting Captain Dale. 

[ From the Register of the Kesolutiona of the Stales General, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hagne. ] 

Tuesday, the 25"" January, 1611. 
Folio 29. It is considerred at the further instance of the Hon"° Rudolph Winwood, 

captainDaie. Ambassador of the King of Great Britain, whether Captain Thomas Dale should 

be allowed to receive the payment of his salary as captain for the term of three years during 
which he is allowed to be absent from his Company, in the service of his Royal Majesty of 
England, in Virginia; But it is resolved, in view of the very prejudicial consequences resulting 
therefrom to the State, that the aforesaid Captain Dale shall have to be content with what 
has been granted him on the recommendation of the aforesaid Ambassador on behalf of his 
Highness the Prince of Wales. 



Further Resolution of the States General. 

[ From the Register of Resolutions of the States General in the Koyal Archiyes at the Hagne. ] 

Wednesday, the 9"" February, IGll. 
Foiio44. 'I"he Heer Joachimi reports that the Sir Winwood Ambassador of the King 

CaptainDaie of Great Britain, General Veer, Governor of Briel, and Conway his Lieutenant, 

have again very urgently recommended, on behalf of this Highness the Prince of Wales, the 
request of Captain Dale, proceeding for three years to Virginia, that his allowance as Captain 
may go on in the meanwhile. It is again resolved, that the aforesaid Captain shall have to 
be content with the resolution heretofore adopted in this case. 



Resolution of the States General respecting ships going on a Voyage of Discovery. 

[ From the Register of the Resolntlons of the States General in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Monday, the 21. February, 1611. 

Foiioss. Received and read a letter from the Commissioners of the Admiralty at 

foJerVoMheNonh Amsterdam, dated the 19'* Inst, wherein they advise that the Ships destined to 

passage. ]qq]. fpj. ^ Northern passage to China, are so nearly ready for the voyage that they 

are beginning to embark their crew. Requesting, inasmuch as it is important that the aforesaid 



4 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Ships should be provided with Letters from the Lords States General or His Excellency to the 
Princes or Kings of the countries at which they may arrive, written in such languages and 
characters as may be most useful, that their High Mightinesses would be pleased to have a 
draft made of such letters as their High Mightinesses shall think proper to give tiiem, together 
with proper Commissions for the captains who will be in command ; leaving the names of these 
The Ship ihe Little ^" blank ; the Ships being called the Little Fox and the Little Crane. 
^"'^ After deliberation it is ordered, that the required Letters be drawn up, and the 

draft sent to the aforesaid Commissioners, to have it translated in such languages, as they 
shall consider necessary: And it is further resolved that his Excellency be requested to issue 
as High Admiral the aforesaid Commissions for the Captains. 



Resolution on a Petition relative to a newly discovered Navigation. 

Copy of a Resolution of the States of Holland and Westvriesland, dated 7"" 
Septemb. 1611. 

PeHtion of divere '^^^ Petition presented by divers Merchants and Inhabitants, residing in the 
teo«&«.«)'nJ"rnin'g United Provinces, to this Assembly regarding certain newly discovered Navigation, 
cove^red Nlvigaifonl being read, the cities Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Hoorn and Enckhuysen request 
copy, which is delivered them, to communicate it to their constituents. 



Eelative to the Ee- 



Resolution in favor of those wlio discover Neto Countries. 

Copy of a Resolution of the States of Holland and Westvriesland dated 20"' 
March 1G14. 

On the Remonstrance of divers IMerchants wishing to discover New unknown 
i'TAdSsioSook Rivers, Countries and Places not sought for (nor resorted to) heretofore from these 
piace8"or""Trade° parts, it IS, after previous mature deliberation, resolved that the Generality 
not hitherto ex- shall accord and grant, that whoever shall resort to and discover such new 

plored or resorted to ^ 

from this couniry. Lg^ds and Places, shall alone be privileged to make four Voyages to such 
Lands and Places from these Countries, exclusive of every other person, until the aforesaid 
four Voyages shall have been completed ; it being well understood, that on the return of the 
first discovery or exploration, a pertinent Report shall be rendered to the Lords States General, 
in order that their High Mightinesses may then order and determine, according to the distance 
and circumstances of the Countries or Places, within what time the aforesaid four voyages must 
be concluded ; and also with this understanding, that whosoever shall find, discover and explore 
the same Countries and Places about the same time or season, shall be admitted, at the 
discretion and on the decision of the Lords States General, to prosecute the aforesaid voyages 
in company ; provided also that this concession shall not prejudice previous concessions 
or grants. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : L 5 

Resolution of the States General respecting newly discovered Countries. 

[ From the Register of the Resolutions of tlie Slates General in the Eoyal Arcliives at the Hague. ] 

Thursday the 27"- March 1614. 
Foiioss. Read the petition of divers Traders, inhabitants of the United Provinces, requesting 
liberty freely to make use of, for the first six Voyages, the passages, countries and islands, as 
yet undiscovered or unfrequented, and which shall through God's Mercy and help be discovered 
by them ; without any other person, except the Petitioners, having power to sail or resort thither 
from these United Provinces, either directly or indirectly before and until, they, the Petitioners, 
shall have fully completed and finished the aforesaid six Voyages, etc. 

After deliberation it is resolved and concluded, that this solicited charter or concession 
shall be, as it is hereby, granted to the Petitioners, for four voyages, on condition that the 
Petitioners having completed the first voyage, shall render a pertinent report to their High 
Mightinesses of their progress and discovery, in order that their High Mightinesses may then 
adjudge and declare in what time the four voyages shall be made. On condition also, that this 
concession shall not prejudice other their High Mightinesses' previous charters and concessions ; 
and provided, in case two or more Companies shall find out such lands or passage in one year, 
they shall then enjoy this benefit and privilege in common. And in case any difference hereupon, 
or otherwise, should occur, the same shall be left to the decision of their High Mightinesses. 

Those of Zealand declare, that they intend to refer this matter to their principals. 



General Charter for tfiose who Discover any New Passages^ Havens^ Countries 
or Places. 

, [ From the Act Booli of the States General in the Royal Archires at the Hague. ] 

Foiio54 The States General of the United Netherlands. To all those who shall see 

these presents or hear them read. Greeting. Be it Known, Whereas We understand it would 
be honorable, serviceable and profitable to this Country, and for the promotion of its prosperity, 
as well as for the maintenance of seafaring people, that the good Inhabitants should be excited 
and encouraged to employ and occupy themselves in seeking out and discovering Passages, 
Havens, Countries and places that have not before now been discovered nor frequented ; and 
being informed by some Traders that they intend, with God's merciful help, by diligence, labor, 
danger and expence, to employ themselves thereat, as they expect to derive a handsome profit 
therefrom, if it pleased Us to privilege, charter and favor them, that they alone might resort 
and sail to and frequent the passages, havens, countries and places to be by them newly found 
and discovered, for six voyages as a compensation for their outlays, trouble and risk, with 
interdiction to all, directly or indirectly to resort or sail to, or frequent the said passages, 
havens, countries or places, before and until the first discoverers and finders thereof shall 
have completed the aforesaid six voyages : Therefore, We having duly weighed the aforesaid 
matter and finding, as hereinbefore stated, the said undertaking to be laudable, honorable and 



6 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCPIPTS. 

serviceable for the prosperity of the United Provinces, And wishing that the experiment be free 
and open to ail and every of the Inhabitants of this country, have invited and do hereby 
invite, all and every of the Inhabitants of the United Netherlands to the aforesaid search, and, 
therefore, have granted and consented, grant and consent hereby that whosoever any new 
Passages, Havens, Countries or Places shall from now henceforward discover, shall alone resort 
to the same or cause them to be frequented for four voyages, without any other person directly 
or indirectly sailing, frequenting or resorting, from the United Netherlands, to the said newly 
discovered and found passages, havens, countries or places, until the first discoverer and finder 
shall have made, or cause to be made the said four voyages, on pain of confiscation of the 
goods and ships wherewith the contrary attempt shall be made, and a fine of Fifty thousand 
Netherlands Ducats, to the profit of the aforesaid finder or discoverer. Well understanding 
that the discover, on completion of the first voyage, shall be holden within fourteen days after 
his return from said Voyage, to render unto Us a pertinent Report of the aforesaid discoveries 
and adventures, in order, on hearing thereof We may adjudge and declare, according to 
circumstances and distance, within what time the aforesaid four voyages must be completed. 
Provided that We do not understand to prejudice hereby or in any way to diminish our former 
Charters and Concessions : And, if one or more Companies find and discover, in or about one 
time or one year, such new Passages, Countries, havens or Places, the same shall conjointly 
enjoy this Our Grant and Privilege; and in case any diH'erences or questions concerning these, 
or otherwise should arise or occur from this our Concession, the same shall be decided by Us, 
whereby each shall have to regulate himself. And in order that this Our Concession shall be 
made known equally to all. We have ordered that these be published and affixed at the usual 
places in the United Countries. Thus done at the Assembly of the Lords States General at the 
Hague the XXVII"" of March XVP and fourteen. Was parapheered — J. van Oldenbarnevelt*'. 
Under stood — By order of the Lords States General, 

Signed, C. Aerssen. 



Orga7iization of a Company to Trade in America^ c&c, proposed. 

Copy of a Resolution of the States of Holland and Westvriesland dated IS"" 
July 1614. 

EegardiDg the Ee- On the Remoustrance presented on the part of divers Traders of this country 

monstrance present- 
ed on behalf of bud- for the formation of a general Company for the promotion of the Commerce, 

dry MerchiinUs of o r J r ' 

ierningth-'Erec'ito'n Navigation and Interest of the Country, to carry on Trade on some Coasts of 
t'adi a*ilTn!vi'gate Africa and America where the same may be prosecuted according to the Truce, 
Africa anTAmerira. some from Dordrccht, Delft, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Hoorn and Enckhuyzen are 
appointed to examine the Remonstrance, to hear those who have sent it in, and the 
circumstances being well considered and deliberated on, to render a Report to the Assembly 

Which done, and the project being considered laudable and advantageous for the Country 
and Inhabitants, It is ordered that the matter be promoted in the General Assembly of the 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: I. 7 

States, in a Memorial from some thoroughly versed in the subject, on behalf of the Provinces 
of Holland and Westfriesland. 



Resolution of the States General on tJie proposed formation of a Commercial Company. 

[ From Ihe Register of Resolutions of the Stales General, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Monday, 21. June 1614. 

DiverlTraders. Read a Remonstrance of divers Traders of these Provinces in substance for the 

formation and erection in this country of a general Company for the West Indies, the coast 
weTindie^Afrka of Africa and through the Strait of Magellan, without prejudice to the East India 
Miigei'ian. ^'"" °^ Company or infraction of the Truce: Resolved, lliat the deputies present do 
advise with the principals on the aforesaid Remonstrance, in order that they may, on this day 
four weeks, send some of their Merchants hither, with whom their High Mightinesses may 
thoroughly examine the matter contained in the aforesaid Remonstrance. 



Resolution of the States General on the proposed formation of a West India Company. 

[ From the Register of the Resolutions of the States General in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Monday, 25'" August, 1614. 
Folio 229. Resolved, That the business of forming a General West India Company shall 

F.rectionofthcWest . ° , , . . 

India Company. be Undertaken tomorrow morning; moreover, that to this meeting may come 
those deputed from the Provinces, those who will request to promote this work, those who 
act on orders, as well those who appear and have seats in the Assembly and at Extraordinary 
Meetings of other Chambers, and at the meeting of their High Mightinesses. Aud for this 
And for this business are deputed Nicasius Kien and Wilhem Eusselincx. 



Further Resolutions concerning the formation of a West India 

[ From the Register of Resolutions of the Slates General, In the Royal Archives at the Hague ] 

Tuesday, 2""' September 1614. 

i 2Sr. Rpsnlvpd. that: 

Erection 



this afternoon. 



8 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Copy of a Resolution of the States of Holland and West Friesland dated 25"' 
August — 27"" Septemb"' 1614. 

Concerning the for- lu tlis matter of the plan for the erection of a General Company to navigate 
wes't'india comp'a- and trade on some coasts of Africa, Terra Australis, America and elsewhere, 
trade lo some ooasis gigg t^g Charter for said Company, some were anew appointed from the Lords 
traiu, America &c. ^^^^ Cities, to communicate on and further discuss the subject, to examine the 
draft of a Charter and its cons(^quences, and to render a report of the whole to the meeting; 
and they having first reported, that it was necessary for the promotion of the affair that the 
States General should pass an Act including the Trade to Guinea in the aforesaid Charter, 
the said Act is finally drawn up and concluded, as follows : — 

" The States General of the United Netherlands having understood the difficulty 

Act appertainmg a j 

thereunto suggestcd on the paragraph of the draft of a General Company for the Coasts 

of Africa and America where Trade and Navigation are free by the Truce — to wit, that 
it was feared that some may secretly endeavor under that cover to pursue trade to Guinea, 
with a General Company, and that it was desired to retain and continue to prosecute this, 
notwithstanding the Company and Trade should not prosper in the open parts of America, 
either because through some defect or impediment, it may not have been included, or being 
included, it may happen to cease tiirough want of good success and profits, or some other causes. 
" Therefore, We being desirous to afford sufficient security thereto, as we have proceeded 
herein only uprightly, sincerely and in good faith, did and do Declare hereby, that Our intention 
was none other than to proceed in good faith, and by means of the aforesaid General Company 
earnestly and zealously to cause Navigation and Commerce to be undertaken as well to the 
West Indies and the Coasts of Africa as to Guinea; consequently that the Charter which 
this General Company will obtain in this regard, shall not convey any power or clause to 
enable any person to take advantage thereof against others, in case Trade shall not be 
speedily undertaken and prosecuted by said Company as well in the other various Quarters as 
on the Guinea coasts, or in case the Trade to the other Countries should, through any 
impediment, by want of profit or through any other cause, happen to fail, be interrupted or 
cease ; but that in such case and then, the Guinea Trade shall be again free, common and open 
to every one as it has been to this day in every respect, as if no Charter had been granted ; 
And in order that those at present trading to Guinea may not be injured, it is our meaning, that 
those who have gone, or have been sent, to the Coasts of Guinea from this or other countries 
previous to the date hereof, or who shall proceed there within the present year 1614, shall 
continue their Trade to the sale of their goods and to their return to this country and no 
longer, provided that after the 1 January 1615, no person shall have liberty to send out any 
ships and goods ; Nevertheless, however, in case the sum of four, five or six Millions of guilders 
shall not be subscribed in the year 1615, by this General Company, before the 1st May, 
the Traders to Guinea shall have power to send out their ships for that year, and to continue 
trading until the aforesaid Capital or such Capital, as his Excellency [Prince Maurice] and 
the Lords States General shall declare sufficient to effectually put this project into operation, 
shall be subscribed, and until the sale of their goods. And for assurance of the aforesaid. We 
have have granted Our Acte to serve as may be necessary." 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : I. 9 

Eesnmpiion of the '^^^ resumption of the enacted Charter is further proceeded with, and some 
enacted Charter. difficulties are removed in the distribution of the Directors and Equipment 
among the Provinces, Quarters and Cities ; in the order of the Salt-traders ; the Limits on this 
side and through the Strait of Magellan, and the difficulties started thereupon by the East 
India Company, with whose Deputies communication has been had by Deputies on the part 
of the Lords States General ; and it is agreed in full Meeting, that this Matter should be 
examined at the first Meeting of the Seventeen Deputies, and for that and other considerations, 
the aforesaid business is holden for further deliberation and postponed. 



King James I. to the States General. 

[ From the Original in Royal ArchiTes at the Hague ; File entitled EnQdand. ] 

Date 19 August \ 

Rec" 30 Septemb' ) ^^^*" 

High and Mighty Lords, Our good friends and allies ! 

We cannot but acknowledge the favor, which through regard for Us, you have done to Sir 
Thomas Dale, Marshal of Virginia, by permitting him to absent himself for some time from 
your Service, to which he should have already returned, had not all of that Colony, where he 
has right worthily comported himself, perceiving the necessity of his remaining among them, 
to settle and give stability to that enterprize, supplicated Us to interpose again with you, 
and to request you to permit his absence for two or three years more, in order that he may 
complete the work, so well begun ; which, by his recal, cannot but run great risk of miscarriage. 
This We have right willingly undertaken for so good an object, and doubt not but you will 
consent with like promptness, not only in this case, but in all that depends on you for the 
advancement of so laudable an undertaking; the success of which, as in all probability it 
will be productive of advantage to our Realms, will, in like manner, not fail to communicate 
the like to your Provinces. Therefore We remain 

Your very affectionate Friend 
From Our Court at (signed) James R. 

Leicester, the 19"" of Aug" 1614 

(The Address.) 

To the High and Mighty Lords, 

The States General of the United Netherland Provinces. 



Resolution of the States General on the preceding Letter. 

[ From the Eeginter of the Resolutions of the States General, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Tuesday, the last of September 1614. 
Great Britain. ■ Rcccived and read a Letter from the King of Great Britain, dated at Leicester 

captn Dale. the 19"' of August Old Style, in favor of Captain Sir Thomas Dale, Marshal of 

Vol. L 2 



10 NE^A'-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Virginia, to tlie effect that tlieir High Mightinesses would please to give leave of Absence to 
the said Captain for two or tiiree years more, in order that he may continue his residence in 
Virginia meanwhile, to bring affairs there into tliorough security, for which he has laid good 
foundation, and commencement. After deliberation, and on the aforesaid high recommendation 
by his Majesty and the aforesaid Ambassador, their High Mightinesses have agreed and 
consented that the said Captain may continue his residence in Virginia, on the previous footing, 
until it shall be otherwise ordered by their High Mightinesses. 



Besolution of the States General on the Report of the Discovery of New Netherland. 

[ From the Register of the EesolQlions of the States General, in the Royal Archives al the Hagne. ] 

Present — President, Mr. Ghiessen. 

Mess" Biesmau, Westerholt, Brienen, Oldenbernevelt, Berckenrode, Driel, 
Teylingen, Magnus, Moesbergen, Ayloa, Hegemans. 

Saturday the 11"" October, 1614. 
Foiio263. Appeared at the Assembly the Deputies from the United Company of Merchants 

New Netherland. vvho have dlscovered and found New Netherland, situate in America between 
New France and Virginia, the sea coasts whereof lie in the Latitude of forty to forty five 
degrees. And who have rendered a Report of their said Discovery and finding, requesting, in 
consequence, the Grant promised by their High Mightinesses' published placard. Deliberation 
being had thereon, their High Miarhtinesses have granted and allowed, and 

Grant to the Mer- ^ ^ o <_> 

Netheriald"* t^^ hereby grant and allow, the Petitioners that they alone shall have the right to 
P""*" resort to, or cause to be frequented, the aforesaid newly discovered countries 

situate in America between New France and Virginia, the sea coasts whereof lie in the 
Latitude of from forty to forty five degrees, now named New Netherland, as is to be seen by 
a Figurative Map hereunto annexed ; and that for four Voyages within the term of three 
years commencing the first January XVl^ and fifteen next coming, or sooner, to the exclusion 
of all others, either directly or indirectly sailing, resorting to, or frequenting the said Newly 
discovered and found Countries, harbors or places, from these United Netherlands, within the 
said three years, on pain of Confiscation of the ships and goods wherewith the attempt shall 
be made contrary hereunto, and a fine of Fifty thousand Netherland Ducats for the benefit of 
the aforesaid discoverers or finders; provided, that their High Mightinesses do not hereby 
intend any prejudice or diminution to their previous Charters and Concessions; And their 
meaning also is, that in case any difference or misunderstanding happen to arise or proceed 
from this their Concession, the same shall then be decided by them. Therefore, they order 
and command &c. 



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HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: I. 11 

Grant of Exdusive Trade to Neio Netherland. 

[ From the Mioute on a half sheet of paper, in the Eoyal Arohieves in the Hague ; File, Loopende. ] 

The States General of tlie United Netherlands to all to whom these presents shall come, 
Greeting. Whereas Gerrit Jacobz Witssen, antient Burgomaster of the City Amsterdam, 
Jonas Witssen, Simon Morrissen, owners of the Ship named the Little Fox whereof Jan de 
With has been Skipper; Hiins Hongers, Paulas Pelgrom, Lambrecht van Tweenhiiyzen, 
owners of the two ships named the Tiger and the Fortune, whereof Aedriaen Block and 
Henrick Corstiaenssen were Skippers; Arnolt van Lybergen, Wessel Schenck, Hans Claessen 
and Berent Sweertssen, owners of the Ship named the Nightingale, whereof Thys Volckertssen 
was Skipper, Merchants of the aforesaid City Amstelredam, and Pieter Clementssen Brouwer, 
Jan Clementssen Kies, and Cornells Volckertssen, Merchants of the City of Hoorn, owners of 
the Ship named the Fortuyn, whereof Cornells Jacobssen May was Skipper, all now associated 
in one Company, have respectfully represented to us, that they, the petitioners, after great 
expenses and damages by loss of ships and other dangers, had, during the present year, 
discovered and found with the above named five ships, certain New Lands situate in America, 
between New F'rance and Virginia, the Sea coasts whereof lie between forty and forty five 
degrees of Latitude, and now called New Netherland: And whereas We did, in the month of 
March last, for the promotion and increase of Commerce, cause to be published a certain 
General Consent and Charter setting forth, that whosoever should thereafter discover new 
havens, lands, places or passages, might frequent, or cause to be frequented, for four voyages, such 
newly discovered and found places, passages, havens, or lands, to the exclusion of all others from 
visiting or frequenting the same from the United Netherlands, until the said first discoverers 
and fiuders shall, themselves, have completed the said four Voyages, or caused the same to be 
done within the time prescribed for that purpose, under the penalties expressed in the said 
Octroy &c. they request that we would accord to them due Act of the aforesaid Octroy in the 
usual form : 

Which being considered. We, therefore, in Our Assembly having heard the pertinent Report 
of the Petitioners, relative to the discoveries and finding of the said new Countries between 
the above named limits and degrees, and also of their adventures, have consented and granted, 
and by these presents do consent and grant, to the said Petitioners now united into one 
Company, that they shall be privileged exclusively to frequent or cause to be visited, the 
above newly discovered lands, situate in America between New France and Virginia, whereof 
the Sea coasts lie between the fortieth and forty fifth degrees of Latitude, now named New 
Netherland, as can be seen by a Figurative Map hereunto annexed, and that for four Voyages 
within the term of three Years, commencing the first of January, Sixteen hundred and fifteen 
next ensuing, or sooner, without it being permitted to any other person from the United 
Netherlands, to sail to, navigate or frequent the said newly discovered lands, havens or places, 
either directly or indirectly, within the said three Years, on pain of Confiscation of the vessel 
and Cargo wherewith infraction hereof shall be attempted, and a fine of P'ifty thousand 
Netherland Ducats for the benefit of said discoverers or finders; provided, nevertheless, that 
by these presents We do not intend to prejudice or diminish any of our former grants or 
Charters; And it is also Our intention, that if any disputes or differences arise from these Our 
Concessions, they shall be decided by Ourselves. 



12 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

We therefore expressly command all Governors, Justices, Officers, Magistrates and 
inhabitants of the aforesaid United Countries, that they allow the said Company peaceably 
and quietly to enjoy the whole benefit of this Our grant and consent, ceasing all contradictions 
and obstacles to the contrary. For such we have found to appertain to the public service. 
Given under Our Seal, paraph and signature of our Secretary at the Hague the xi*'' 
of October 1614. 



Charter for divers Traders who have discovered certain Nexo Countries, 
nth October, 1614. 

[ From the Act Book of the States Geaeral, id the Eoyal Archires at the Hague.] 
[ This being a Duplicate of the Document immediately preceding, is omitted. — Ed. ] 



Resolution of the States General on a Report of fiirtJier Discoveries i7i New NetTierland, 

[ From the Register of Resolutions of the State* General, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Thursday, the IS"" August 1616. 
Foiio2oi. Cornells Henricxs% Skipper, appears before the Assembly, assisted by Notary 

Carel van Geldre, on the behalf of Gerrit Jacob Witssen, Burgomaster at Amsterdam, 
Jonas Witssen, Lambrecht van Tweenhuyzen, Paulus Pelgrom cum suis, Directors of New 
New Neiheriand. Nctherlaud, extending from forty to five and forty degrees, situate in America 
between New France and Virginia, rendering a Report of the second Voyage, of the manner 
in which the aforesaid Skipper hath found and discovered a certain country, bay and three 
rivers, lying between the thirty eighth and the fortieth degree of Latitude (as is more fully to 
be seen by the Figurative Map;) in a small Yacht of about eight Lasts, named the Onrust 
(Restless.) Which little yacht they caused to be built in the aforesaid Country, where 
they employed the said Skipper in looking for new countries, havens, bays, rivers, &c. 
Requesting the privilege to trade exclusively to the aforesaid countries for the term of four 
years, according to their High Mightinesses' placard issued in March 1614. It is resolved, 
before determining herein, that the Comparants shall be ordered to render and transmit in 
writing the Report they have made. 










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HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: L 13 

Memorial of Gerrit Jacobsen Witsen and others. Head \^th August., 1616. 

[ From the Original in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague, in Ihe Loketkas of the Slates General ; attached to a Parchment Map of New Netherland 

Letter K., No. 23. ] 

To the High and Mighty Lords, the Lords States General &c. 

Respectfully represent Gerrit Jacob Witsen Burgomaster at Amsterdam, Jonas Witsen, 
Lambrecht van Tweenhuyzen, Paulus Pelgrom cum sociis, Directors of New Netherland, 
extending from 40 to 45 degrees, situate in America between New France and Virginia, that 
they have, at great and excessive expence, discovered and found a certain country, bay and 
three rivers situate in the Latitude of from 38 to 40 degrees, ( as is more fully to be seen by 
the Figurative Map hereunto annexed) in a small Yacht of about eight Lasts burthen, called the 
Restless, whereof Cornelis Henricksz" of Munnickendam is Skipper — Which little yacht they, 
the Petitioners, caused to be built in the country there, and employed the aforesaid Cornelis 
Hendricksz" in the aforesaid Countries during the space of three years, in the above mentioned 
little Yacht, looking for new countries, havens, bays and rivers. And whereas Your High and 
Mighty Lordships, did in March 1614, publish by Placard, that whosoever should discover any 
new countries, bays or rivers, the said finders and discoverers should enjoy for their discovery, 
the grants to trade and traffic exclusively for four Voyages to the aforesaid countries, on 
condition of making a Report thereof to Your High Mightinesses ; Therefore Your Petitioners 
turn to Your High Mightinesses, respectfully praying and requesting that You, High and 
Mighty Lords, may be pleased to hear the aforesaid Cornelis Hendrickxzen's Report, and to 
examine the aforesaid Map and Discovery, and to grant the Petitioners accordingly Charter of 
the exclusive trade to the aforesaid Countries, for the term of four years, according to the 
accompanying Placard [of the 27"" March 1614. ] 

Which doing etc. 

(Endorsed) Petition of Gerrit Jacob Witsen, Burgomaster at Amsterdam, 
Jonas Witsen, Lambrecht van Tweenhuyzen, Paulus Pelgrom 
cum sociis, Directors of New Netherland, etc. 1616. 



Captain HendricksenHs Report of his Discoveries in New Netherland. 

[ From the Original ia the Royal Archives at the Hague ; File entitled Loopende. ] 

Report of Captain Cornelis Hendricxz" of Munnickendam to the High and 
Mighty Lords States General of the Free, United Netherland Provinces, 
made on the xviii"" August A" J 616., of the countries, bay and three rivers 
situate in the Latitude from 38 to 40 degrees, by him discovered and 
found for and to the behoof of his Owners and Directors of New Netherland, 
by name Gerrit Jacob Witsen Burgomaster at Amsterdam, Jonas Witsen, 
Lambrecht van Tweenhuyzen, Paulus Pelgrom and othersof their Company. 

First, he hath discovered for his aforesaid Masters and Directors, certain lands, a bay and 
three rivers situate between 38 and 40 degrees. 



14 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

And did there trade with the Inhabitants; said trade consisting of Sables, Furs, Robes and 
other skins. 

He hath found the said Country full of trees, to wit: — Oaks, hickory and pines; which 
trees were, in some places, covered with vines. 

He hath seen, in the said country, Bucks and does, turkeys and partridges. 

He hath found the climate of the said Country very temperate, judging it to be as temperate 
as that of this country, Holland. 

He also traded for, and bought from the inhabitants, the Minquaes, three persons, being 
people belonging to this Company; which three persons were employed in the service of the 
Mohawks and Machicans; giving for them kettles, beads and merchandize. 

Read August 19, 1G16. 



Resolution of the States General on the ^'receding Meport. 

[ From the Register of the Resolutiona of the States General, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Friday the 19"" August, 1616. 
rono203. Read the Report rendered in writing by Captain Cornells Hendricksz. of 

Munnickendam, of the countries, bay and three rivers situate between 38 and 40 degrees 
of Latitude, by him found and discovered for and to the behoof of his Owners and Directors of 
New Netheriand. Nbw Ncthcrland, etc. Rcsolved, to make note thereof; then respecting the further 
request of a continuation of the Charter, the consideration thereof is postponed. 



Resolution of the States General on the Petition of Gerrit J. Witsen and others. 

[From the Register of the Resolutions of the States General, in the Royal Archives of the Hague.] 

Monday, the 12. September 1616. 
Folio 216. Read the Petition of Gerrit Jacob Witsen, antient Burgomaster of the City 

Amsterdam, Jonas Witsen, Lambrecht van Tweenhuyzen and Paulus Pelgrojn cum sociis, 
Directors of the Company of New Netheriand, requesting a Charter for 

Directors of New i J i o 

Netheriand. theiBselves, of the exclusive trade to those Lands from this country for four 

years, under the pains and penalties expressed in the aforesaid General Placard, but no final 
disposition was made thereof. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: I. 15 

Further Resolution of the States General on the Petition of Mr. Witsen. 

[ From the Kegiater of Eesolutions of the States O-eneral, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Thursday, the S-* of November 1616. 
Folio 272. Read the Petition of Gerrit Jacob Wittsen Burgomaster at Amsterdam, Jonas 

Wittsen, Lambrecht van Tweenhuysen, Pauwels Pelgrom and partners. Requesting, in as 
New Neiheriand. much as they have discovered by their Skipper Cornelis Henricxsen van 
jOTnTrieT."^""'"'" Mounickeudam, with a yacht of about Eight lasts, certain countries situate in 
Latitude thirty eight to forty degrees, between New France and Virginia, adjoining the 
country heretofore discovered by the Petitioners and by them called New Netherland, etc., that 
their High Mightinesses would be pleased to grant them the Charter they demand. But the 
disposal thereof is again postponed. 



Resolution of the States General on the petition of L. van Tweenhmjzen and others. 

[From the Register of Eesolutions of the States General, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Wednesday, 18"" January 1617. 
Divers Merchanis. Read the Petition of Lambert van Tweenhuyzen, Jacques Nicquet, Claes Jacobse 
Harencarspel, Pieter Evertse Hulft, and company, Merchants and Burghers of Amsterdam, 
requesting to be assisted by the State with a ship of war to realize some profit and advantage 
TerraNova. in the Celebrated and uscful trade and fishery of Terra Nova; but the disposal 

thereof was postponed. 



Interdict to print and publish a Journal of Voyages. 
Resolution of the States of Holland and Westfriesland, dated 29"" July, 1617. 



wiliemjanez.atihe On the pctitiou of the Directors of the Australian Company, it is ordered, and 
a letter is written to Willem Jansz. residing on the Water side at Amsterdam, 
to interdict him from proceeding any further with the composition and printing 
of the Journals, Maps and Charts of the Voyage lately made on the part of the 
aforesaid Company, from the North into the South Sea, but that he send over all 

the pieces, with declaration from whose hands he hath received them, or come over himself 

here with them, without leaving any of them behind or retaining them, on pain of other 

proceedings against his person. 



Bterdam, is inter. 
or printinpthe J( 



Australian Compa- 
ny Irom the Norlb 
into the South Sea. 



16 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Interdict to correct existing Maps. 
Resolution of the States of Holland and Westfriesland, dated S""* August, 1617. 



Map of ihe souih- Having seen the Answer of the Directors of the Australian or South Company 
em passage "' ' ' ^^ ^^^ Writing of Willem Jansz. regarding what he proposes to correct on the 
New Passage. Globc and to publlsh in the Map in relation to the new found Channel, Strait or 
Passage from the North into the South Sea; it is Resolved thereupon to notify the aforesaid 
Willem Jansz., that he shall not presume to correct the Globe, or the printed or written 
Map, nor in any other manner to publish or cause to be published the aforesaid discovered 
Strait, Water, Countries, Islands, or Coasts discovered there, but to keep himself strictly and 
specially holden as interdicted, as such is considered for the Public good; on pain of other 
proceedings being taken, as may be proper, against him, according as shall be determined 
against one who contemns the Supreme Authority's Commands and hath incurred its indignation. 



Address of Sir Dudley Carleton to the States General. 

[ From Ihe Original in tlie Eoyal Arctiives at tlie Hague ; File entilled Engeland.\ 

Messieurs! 

I have express Orders from the King my Master, to accompany the petition I hold here ready 
to present to Your Lordships, with his Majesty's serious recommendations; the petition is 
exhibited by Captain Thomas Dale, an English Knight, who having a Company of foot in 
Your Lordships' service, absented himself with Your permission granted at the instance of 
Henry, late Prince of Wales, of glorious memory, for the space of some years, having command 
and authority for planting a Colony of the English Nation in the Country of Virginia, whereof 
he hath acquitted himself with reputation and honor to himself, to his Majesty's satisfaction 
and to the publick advantage, in as much as by signal patience, diligence and valor, he 
overcame divers serious difficulties and dangers and finally established a good and permanent 
settlement all along a river navigable for seventy leagues into the interior ; and by that means 
hath preserved it to God, by the exercise of Religion which is introduced there, and to Man, 
by the augmentation of Commerce. 

Several of the nation, as well Lords as other Gentlemen of quality and honor, have 
considerably contributed to this design. But two of our Captains (Sir Thomas Gates and this 
one of whom I now speak,) have promoted it more than any other. 

Chevalier Gates found by the hearty welcome he experienced from Your Lordships on his 
return, by the present you made him of the entire amount of his pay during his absence, that 
his duties were agreeable to you. 

Your Lordships, on the testimony his Majesty bears of Chevalier Dale's good demeanor on 
that occasion, and on the recommendation He makes in his behalf, will, if it please You, be 
happy to receive his petition and, for. the reasons it contains, do him the same favor. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: I. 17 

Which his Majesty will take in very good part, as done out of respect for him, and will 
acknowledge with like regard all that will be recommended to him on Your side. 

Presented in the Assembly of the States General of the United Provinces, on the 
Se"- day of January 1618. 

(Signed) Dudley Carleton. 



M. Noel de Carcn to the States General. 

[ From the Origioal in the Royal Archives at the Hague ; File entitled Engeland. ] 

High and Mighty, Potent, Noble and right Discreet Lords. 

My Lords, 

Sir Thomas Dale has stated to me that he was permitted about five or six years ago by your 
Miglitinesses to proceed to Virginia, and had gone thither. He has returned here about a 
year ago : but, as he represents, has since been very sick and feeble, so that he could not 
before now present himself to Your iSlightinesses. He requests my letters to you, High and 
Mighty, and says he carries with him letters from his Majesty also, to Ambassador Carleton- 
He likewise says, he has been long in the public service ; so that [ consider Your Mightinesses 
should please to entertain the matter, inasmuch as his voyage was undertaken with Your 
Mightinesses' Consent and Knowledge for the space of five years, as he says. And, although I 
know his Majesty's letters are fully sufficient to promote his recommendation, yet being 
solicited by the Earl of Southampton and him, I could not refuse to accede to his Lordship's 
and his own request, well knowing that whatever is reasonable and just will be. done therein. 
And so these serve no other purpose. I shall pray God 

Higii, Mighty, Potent, Noble, Wise and right Discreet Lords, to maintain You in a prosperous 
government. 

Your High and Mighty Lordships' 
From South Lambeth Humble and obedient Servant, 

the ii. December 1617. Old Style. (Signed) Noel de Caron. 

Rec. 26 January 1618. 



Petition of Sir Thomas Dale^ and the Order thereupon. 

[ From the Original in the Eoyal ArchiTes at the Hague ; File entitled Zoopende. ] 

To the Noble, High and Mighty Lords, the Lords the States General of the United Netherlands. 

S'' Thomas Dad, Knight, Captain of a Company in Your High Mightinesses' service, most 
respectfully represents — That he, the Petitioner, having served this country about thirty 
Vol. I. 3 



18 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

years, first as a Soldier and last as Caplain, Henry Prince of Wales of glorious Memory, wrote 
some years ago both to Your Higli Mightinesses and to Ambassador Winwood,i to obtain leave 
of absence for the petitioner, which having obtained from Your High Mightinesses, he sailed, 
with Commission from the Most Noble Prince, to Virginia in the West Indies, to introduce and 
plant there the Christian Religion and God's Word, also to establish a firm market there for 
the benefit and increase of trade, he, the petitioner, leaving here his Company which be 
received when burdened with great debts and expenses, and departed in the firm confidence 
that he might pay some of those debts with his allowance during his absence. But the petitioner 
having continued some time in Virginia, in his aforesaid employment, intending to return 
here again to his service, the Most Noble Prince came to die. Whereupon his Royal iNIajesty 
himself, noting the petitioner's faithful duty performed in the aforesaid Country for the 
propagation of God's Word and the promotion of trade, wrote repeatedly to him, commanding 
that he should continue in his undertaken work until the last year, sixteen hundred and 
seventeen, wiien he, the petitioner, was first released with his Royal Majesty's consent, from 
his charge, and immediately repaired hither with letters of recommendation from his Royal 
Majesty to his Ambassador here, to be aiding to the petitioner in his request to your High 
Mightinesses. In conformity whereunto, the petitioner finding his Company still under the 
burden of the above named heavy debts, with which he first received it, and had at his departure 
left it, hereby turns to Your High Mightinesses, confidently requesting that, in your bounty, 
you would be pleased to make good his ordinary monthly allowance for the period of his 
absence, and grant him an Order for his pay, so that he may thereby have the means to relieve 
himself, at once, of his great indebtedness here, and to continue as a faithful Servant in Your 
High Mightinesses Service. 

(Signed) Thomas Dale. 

( At the side was:) 
Let this petition with the annexed recommendation of his Majesty the King of Great Britan's 
Ambassador, made by his Majesty's order, be placed in the hands of the Council of State, to 
communicate their advice thereupon to their High Mightinesses, in order to, etc. 
Done the xxvi January, 161S. 

( Signed ) C : Aerssens. 
1618. 

(And further.) 
The States General of the United Netherlands. Having heard the advice of the Council of 
State on the petitioner's request, contained in this petition, and having paid attention principally 
to the recommendation of Sir Carleton, the King of Great Britain's Ambassador, made by his 
Majesty's Order and presented in writing to their High Mightinesses, their High Mightinesses 
have granted and hereby do grant (without the same being drawn into precedent), that the 
petitioner shall be remunerated by the indemnity and payment of the half of his wages during 

' Sir Ralph Winwood was born about the year loGo, in Northamptonshire, and studied at Oxford. He was Ambassador 
successively to France and Holland, and Secretary of State from 1614 to his death in 1617. Memorials of Affairs of State in 
the Reigns of Elizabeth and James I, collected principally from his papers, have been published, in 3 volumes, folio, in 
1725, by Edmund Sawyer, Esq. — Ed. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: L 1§ 

the time of his absence, to wit, seven years, the resolution at the time of his leave of absence 
to the contrary notwithstanding. Done the vi. of February 161S. 
By Order of the aforesaid Lords States General. 

(Signed) C. Aerssens. 

(Endorsed) Petition for S"" Thomas Dael, Knight and Captain in the 
service of the High and jMighty Lords the States General of 
the United Netherlands. 26"' January 161S. 



Resolution of the States General^ referring Sir Thomas Dales Petition. 

[From the Kegisler of Keaolutions of the States General, in the Eoyal Archiycs at the Hague.] 



Friday, 26 January 1615 



Folio 18. 



Sir Carleton, Ambassador from the King of Great Britain, appeared in the 

Ambassador Carle- * 

'"I- Assembly, and by his Majesty's Order, first verbally and afterwards in writing 

Daei. inserted hereafter, very earnestly recommended the petition of Sir Thomas Duel, 

Knight, Captain in the public service, returned from Virginia, whither he was permitted by 
their High Mightinesses to proceed some years ago, on the serious recommendation of the 
Prince of Wales of glorious memory, in order that their High Mightinesses would be pleased 
to allow the Petitioner his ordinary allowance during the time of his absence, and to grant 
him an order for the payment, so that he may thereby discharge his debts. And upon 
deliberation it is resolved, before disposing thereof, to obtain the advice of the Council of State. 



Resolution of the Council of State of the United Netherlands. 

[ From the Register of Resolutions of the Council of State, in tho Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Monday, the xxix"" January 161S. 
Captain Daei. On the petition of Captain S" Thomas Dael, to advise the High and Mighty 

Lords States General, that it is the opinion of the Council, under correction, that the 
petitioner may for this once and without forming a precedent, be rewarded with the payment 
of half his wages during the time of his absence, being seven years, out of consideration of the 
favorable recommendation made and presented by Ambassador Carleton, by order of his Royal 
Majesty of Great Britain, in writing, in their High Mightinesses Assembly, and in regard 
that the petitioner is a resolute, serviceable person, and what he hath effected in Virginia, 
is very remarkable; unless their High Mightinesses may, on account of the aforesaid 
recommendation and for other causes, be pleased to take a more favorable view of this case. 



2Q NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Resolution of the States General on the Opinion of the Council of State. 

I From Ihe Register of Resolutions of the States General, in the Royal Archives, at the Hagae. ] 

Saturday, the S'' of February 161S. 
i'oiio28. Read the opinion of the Council of State, on the petition of Thomas Dael, 

captDaei. Knight, dated 30"" January last, purporting that, for reasons therein set forth, and 

especially out of regard for Ambassador Carleton's recommendation, made and presented to 
their High Mightinesses in writing on behalf, and by order, of his Royal Majesty of Great 
Britain, they consider that, although this matter is of evil consequence to the public in 
respect to all other Captains and officers in this country's service, yet the gratification of the 
petitioner somewhat on his request cannot be well avoided; and that it is, therefore, deemed 
advisable, for this once, and without its ever being drawn forward by any person as a precedent, 
that he may be gratified with the payment of the half of his, the petitioner's, wages during 
the long period of his absence, being seven years, unless their High Mightinesses may be 
pleased to take a more favorable view of the matter, by reason of the aforesaid recommendation 
and that the petitioner is a person of resolution and of use, and that it is also very remarkable 
what he hath effected in Virginia. But the final resolution thereupon is postponed until Monday. 



Resolution of the States General approving the Report of the Council of State. 

[ From the Register of Resol utions of the States General, in the Royal ArchiTes at the Hague. ] 

Tuesday, the C" February 1618. 
Folio 82. The opinion of the Council of State of the 30 January last, on the petition of 

Capt. Dael. Captain Thomas Dael, Knight, opened here on the 3"^ ins' being considered, their 

High Mightinesses for reasons therein contained, but principally out of respect for the strong 
recommendation of M. Carleton presented on the part, and by order, of his Royal Majesty of 
Great Britain to this Assembly, have approved that written opinion; and directed accordingly, 
that the Petitioner shall be gratified with the payment of half his wages for the time of his 
absence, namely, seven years, without it, however, being drawn into precedent. 



Further Resolution of tJie States General in the matter of Sir Thomas Dale. 

I From the EeEister of Resolutions of the States General, in the Royal Archives at the Hagno. ] 

Friday, the 9"' February 1G18. 
Fuiioss. -pi^g resolution of the G"- inst., adopted by their High Mightinesses on the petition 
CaptDaei. of Sir Thomas Dael, Knight, Captain of a Company in this country's service, 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: I. 21 

being reconsidered witli the previous opinion of the Council of State, and special attention being 
paid to the recommendation of M. Carleton, Ambassador from the King of Great Britain, 
made and presented in writing by his Majesty's Order to their High Mightinesses, also the 
relation which the service, performed by the petitioner in Virginia, hath with this country, 
their High Mightinesses have agreed and hereby consent that the petitioner shall be gratified 
by the payment of his full wages for the time of his absence, to wit, seven years, the 
resolution adopted at the time of his absence to the contrary notwithstanding, without, however, 
the same being drawn into precedent. Ordering; that for such purpose, this resolution shall 
be communicated to the Council of State for execution. 



Permission to William Jansen to piMish his Chart. 

Resolution of the Lords States of Holland and Westvriesland : dated 10 
August, 161S. 

Petition of ■wiiiem On the petition of Wiilem Jansz., Burgher at Amsterdam, complaining that he is 

Jansz. Burgher at^,.,, li-iii 

Araaierdam.iopub- torbidden to publish the chart of the new passaare discovered by the Australian 

lish a chart of the '^ fa J 

AuTtrS^" "com- Company, and that such was done here by others to his loss; it is concluded, 
■""'^' although it were preferable that the chart should not have been published, yet 

not to render the petitioner's case worse than others', he is allowed to publish the chart. 



Resolution of the States General on the trade to New Netherland. 

[ From the Register of Kesolutions of the Stales General, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Thursday, 4 October 16 J S. 
Folio 267. Read the petition of the Company trading to the island of New Netherland, 

New Netherland. requesting the continuance of their charter for some years longer to trade 
exclusively to the aforesaid Island. But it is resolved, before disposing thereof, first to see and 
reconsider the aforesaid petitioners' charter. 



Resolution of the States General on the Petition of Hendrich Elhins. 

[From the Register of Resolutions of the Slates General in the Royal Archives at the Hagne. ] 

Tuesday the 9"> October 1618. 
roiio272. Read the petition of Henrick Eelkins and Adriaen Jansse Engel cum sociis, all 

andcompany! '"' merchants residing at Amsterdam, associates and partners in what is called the 



22 * NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

New Netlierland Company, which their Higii Mightinesses have incorporated for the term of four 
successive years, whereof the fourth and last year hath expired in January last ; requesting 
that, in consequence of said expiration and of their, the petitioners', having already prepared 
A Shi to New ^ ®'i'P named the Schilt to proceed thither, their High Mightinesses would be 
Neiheriand. pjeased to grant them a favorable permission, in order that they may perform the 

aforesaid voyage without any opposition from their former partners. Their High Mightinesses 
have consented hereunto, because, and by reason, of the expiration of the charter granted to 
the petitioners, and therefore permit them to perform their intended voyage to New Netherland 
with their prepared ship herein mentioned. 



Resulution of the States General., on the Colonization of New Netherland. 

[ From the Register of Resolutions of the States General, in llie Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Wednesday, 12 February 1620. 
Folio 45. Read the petition of tlie Directors of the Company trading to New Netherland, 

New Netherland ^ r ./ o 

^.ompany. situate between i\ew France and Virginia, in thel atitude of from forty to forty- 

five degrees, that the aforesaid Island might be peopled under their High Mightinesses' 
protection and government, whereunto they request two ships of war. But it is resolved, 
before disposing thereof, to procure the opinion of the deputies from tiie Board of Admiralty 
who are invited here for the 15"" inst. 



Petition of the Directors of the New Netherland Compamj. 

[From the Original in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague; File entitled Admirritileit.'i 

To the Prince of Orange, &c. 

utie!"nueBoa?dor The Dircctors of the Company trading to New Netherland, situate in latitude 
4vited'herrf°r fhc ffom 40 to 45 dcgrecs, between New France and Virginia, reverently represent 
i2Fe™i62o. (Sign- that they, the petitioners, have, as discoverers and first finders of said countries, 



i62i». traded thither nov? several years, in virtue of a certain general Charter from the 

High and Mighty Lords States General, dated the lO"" March 1G14; that they, also, have 
delivered to their High Migiitinesses their written report, with a map of the situation and 
usefulness of said countries. And wiiereas the petitioners' Cliarter has expired, so that every 
one is now at liberty to trade there, they have again sent thither two ships, in order to 
preserve the reputation of said trade; some vessels liave been likewise sent by other traders 
exclusive of the Company. Now it happens, that there is residing at Leyden a certain English 
Preacher, versed in the Dutch language, who is well inclined to proceed thither to live, 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: I. 23 

assuring the petitioners tliat lie lias the means of inducing over four Iiundred families to 
accompany him thither, both out of this country and England, provided they would be 
guarded and preserved from all violence on the part of other potentates, by the authority and 
under the protection of your Princely Excellency and the High and Mighty Lords States 
General, in the propagation of the true, pure Christian religion, in the instruction of the Indians 
in that country in true learning, and in converting them to the Christian Faith, and thus, 
through the mercy of the Lord, to the greater glory of this country's government, to plant 
there a new Commonwealth, all under the order and command of your Princely Excellency 
and the High and Mighty Lords Stales General. And whereas they, the petitioners, have 
experienced that his Majesty of Great Britain would be disposed to people the aforesaid 
lands with the English nation, and by force to render fruitless their possession and discovery, 
and thus deprive this State of its right, and apparently with ease surprize the ships of this 
country which are there, and are ordered to remain there the whole year; wherefore, they, the 
petitioners, pray and request that your Princely Excellency may benignly please to take 
all the aforesaid into favorable consideration, so tliat, for the preservation of this country's 
rights, the aforesaid Minister and the four hundred families may be taken under the protection 
of this country, and that two ships of war may be provisionally despatched to secure to the 
state the aforesaid Countries, inasmuch as they would be of much importance, whenever 
the West India Company is established, in respect to the large abundance of timber fit for 
ship building &c., as may be seen by the accompanying report. On all which 

(Endorsed) Petition of the Directors of the Company 

trading to New Netherland. 12 February, 1620. 



Resolution of the States General on the Report of the Board of Admiralty respecting 
the foregoing Petition. 

[ From the Eegisler of Eesolutions of the States General, in the Archives at the Hague. ] 

Wednesday, the 26"" February 1620. 
Folio 63. The Deputies present from the Board of Admiralty have presented to their 

New''" Netheriand ^'§^^ Mightiuesses, iu Writing, its opinion on the petition presented by the 
Company. Dircctors of the Company trading to New Netherland, hereinbefore inserted ; and 

insoriion. ^i,g aforesaid opinion being read, and considered, it is resolved, before disposing 

thereof, that his Excellency shall be consulted and his opinion obtained. 



24 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Further Resolution of the States General on the preceding Petition. 

[ From Ihe Register of Eesolutions of the States General, ia the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Tuesday, the lO"" March, 1620. 
FoiioTs. Resolved, that the opinion of his Excellency shall be first obtained on the 

Company. Petition presented by the Directors of the Company trading to New Netherland, 

before acting on it and on the advice of the Deputies from the Board of Admiralty. 



Further lie-solution of the States General. 

[ From the Register of Eesolntions of the States General, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Friday, the 10'" of April, 1620. 
Folio iia Read the petition of the Directors of the Nevr Netherland Company, that their 

que 
opinion thereupon. 



Resolution of the States General on the Petition of the Neio Netherland Company. 

[From the Register of Resolutions of the States General, in the Royal Archives at the Hague.] 

Saturday, the 11 April, 1620. 
Foiioiis. The petition of tiie Directors of the New Netherland Company, that they. 

New Netherland . , ,. <■-,,,, , . , . , , . ,. 

Company. tor the peopuug of said Island, may be assisted with two ships of war, is 



again rejected. 



Resolution of the States General on further Petitions to trade to New Netherland. 

[ From the Register of Resolutions of the States General, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Saturday, 29"" August, 1620. 
Folio 263. Rgad the petition of the Joint Owners of the Ship named the Glad Tidings (de 

The owners of the '^ ^ ° ' 

di"n'''s """ *''"'' ^" ^h^^ bootsckapj whereof Cornells Jacobsen Mey of Hoorn is commander, who 
New found Country, having discovered some new Countries populous and fertile, abounding in all sorts 
of Timber and never discovered before, pray that their High Mightinesses maj' be pleased to hear 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: I. 25 

the Report of the Skipper who made the voyage, and allow the petitioners the benefit of 
their High Mightinesses' Charter, dated 27th March XVI"" xiv, and to declare, moreover, within 
what time they shall have to perform the four voyages therein mentioned. 

Item, another petition of Henrick Eeikens, Adriaen Janssen cum suis, Merchants at 
Chartered to New Amsterdam, having had a charter to trade exclusively to New Netherland, 
Netheriand. discovered by them, situate from the thirty-fourth to about the fiftieth degrees, 

requesting that their High Mightinesses would be pleased to reject and refuse all grants that 
may have been demanded, or still will be demanded of them, regarding the Trade on the Coasts, 
or any of the Rivers of New Netiieriand, and to allow the petitioners and other merchants of 
this Country to continue in the free trade they are pursuing there, and further to equip some 
ships which they have in a sufficient state of forwardness. 

The aforesaid Petitions having been read, both parties are called in, and having appeared 
with the respective Skippers who made the Voyages and being heard, it is, on question 
having been put, resolved, that parties shall consult together and see if they cannot agree 
in a friendly manner. 



Resolution of the States General refusing the Prayer of said Petitions. 

I From the Register of ResolutionB of the States General, in the Royal Arch'iTea at the Hague. ] 

Friday, the 6"' Novemb"' 1620. 

Folio 329. 

New Neiheriand. Mess" Pauw and Fervau reported their proceedings between both parties of 

the Merchants claiming New Netherland, endeavoring to reconcile them. But as that could 
not be done, it is, after consideration, resolved and concluded that the requested Charter shall 
be refused. 



Proceedings on the Petition of Traders to Virginia^ &c. 
Resolution of the States of Holland and Westvriesland, dated 13 Sept^ 1621. 
Petition of the gen- Read a petition from Gerrit van Schoudhoven and other Guinea Traders ; Item, 

eral Guinea and Vir- r ' 

q"e3ting"'''te' at slso, the petition of Traders to Virginia, requesting to be allowed to send out 
BhTpsto fet'ch'ihei? some ships to bring their returns thence to this Country, as the trade and 
Country hither. commerce thither are not to be lost before the West India Company be formed 
and ready. 

On consideration, it is unanimously resolved, that the aforesaid petitions shall be voted for 
and supported, on behalf of this Province, in the General Assembly, on condition that the 
petitioners pledge themselves to be back to this country before the 1" July next. 

Vol. I. 4 



26 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Resolation of the States General respecting New Virginia. 

[ From Ihe Register of Eesolatlons ol the Stales General, in the Eoyal Arcliives at the Hague. 1 

Tuesday, the 4"' September, 1621. 
Henrick AUartszzn Read the petition of Henrick Allartszzn' cum suis, in which they request 
vil^'inla. permission to send a ship to New Virginia to fetch" their people and property 

from there; but it is resolved, before disposing thereof, to hear the opinion of the Board of 
Admiralty in Zealand. 



Resolution of the States General permitting a ship to proceed to Virginia. 

[ From Ihe Ecgister of Resolutions of the States General, io the Koyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Wednesday, 15 September, 1621. 
Folio 8G3. On the petition of Henrick Elkens, Hans Jooris Houton and Adriaen Janssen, 

™m''6uis^. '^""'°' Engel cum sociis, merchants in Amsterdam, what follows is granted: — 

The States General, &c., having communication of the contents of this petition, have, for 
reasons submitted with the presentation thereof, granted, and do hereby grant, for disposition 
thereof, that the petitioners, according to their request, shall be at liberty to send their ship 
named the White Dove, burthen about forty lasts, whereof Wilhem Janssen Houton is 
Master, to Virginia, on condition that they shall have returned to this country before the first 
of July next, with their goods and ship. 



Resolution of the States General permitting another Ship to he sent to Virginia. 

I From the Kegister of Resolutions of the Stales General, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Friday, 24"- Septemb% 1621. 
Birck Toikertae. On the petition of Dierck Volckertse, Doctor Verus and Doctor Carbasius, 

eumsuis. residing at Hoorn, Pieter Nannincx, of Medenblik, Accountant, and Cornells 

Volckertse, together with Pieter Dircxzen Schoders, it is allowed as foUoweth: 

The States, etc., having communication of the contents of this petition, have, for reasons 
therein mentioned, allowed and hereby allow, for disposition thereof, and that the aforesaid 
Petitioners may, accordingly, for the purpose aforesaid, send to the Virginias, one ship, laden 
with all sorts of permitted merchandise, to trade with and profit by the same; and afterwards 
to bring over their cargoes, goods, clerks and seamen, to this country, provided that they 
shall have returned home before the first of July, sixteen hundred and twenty-two. 

■ Misspelt for " Henrich Elkens," see next resolution. — Ed. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : L 27 

Resolution of the States General lyermitting a Ship to he sent to Neio Netherland. 

[ From the Register of Eesolutiona of the Stales General, in the Roynl Archives at the Hague. ] 

Tuesday, 25"" September, 1621. 
Traders^'to New On the petition of Claes Jacobse Harincarspel, Councillor and antient Schepen 
Netherland. ^j. ^j^^ ^j^^ ^j- Amsterdam, Petrus Plancius, minister of the Holy Word, Lambrecht 

van Tweenhuyzen, Hans Claessen and company, trading to certain coasts, countries and rivers, 
by them discovered, lying between Virginia and New France, between the 40"" and 45"> 
degrees of latitude, called New Netherland; also, to a great river situate between the 
thirty-eighth and fortieth degrees, it is, after deliberation, allowed as foUoweth: 

The States General, etc., having considered the tenor of this petition, have, for reasons 
therein set forth, granted and do hereby grant, for disposition thereof, that the aforesaid 
petitioners, for the purpose aforesaid, may accordingly send to the above mentioned countries, 
coasts and rivers, by them discovered, lying between Virginia and New France, in the latitude 
of forty to forty-five degrees, called New Netherland, also to the adjoining countries and a 
great river lying between latitude thirty-eight and forty degrees, two ships laden with all sorts 
of permitted merchandize, the one to the aforesaid New Netherland, and the other to the 
aforesaid New River, lying in latitude between eight and thirty and forty degrees, and to 
the small rivers thereon depending, to trade away and dispose of their old stock which they 
have there, and afterwards to bring back into this country, their goods, cargoes, clerks and 
seamen, on condition that they must be home with their ships and goods before the first 
of July, 1622. 

1621. 
Memorandum. 
The proceedings of the States General in regard to the erection of a General West India Company, which they chartered 
this year, being very proli.\, and having relation principally to Brazil, it was not thought expedient to have transcripts 
thereof made, especially as the Original Octroy, together with all the amendments and additions, is contained in the " Gnot 
Placaat book" or Book of Resolutions and acta of the States, a copy of which, purchased by me under the direction of the 
Trustees, is now in the State Library. J. R. B. 



Resolution of the States General on a Communication from Sir Dudley Carleton. 

[ From the Kegister of Resolutions of the States General, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Wednesday, the le"- March, 1622. 
Foiio9i. Sir Carleton, Ambassador from the King of Great Britain, recommended that 

Great Brilam. . ° 

their High Mightinesses would adopt a resolution on his proposition relating to 
Virginia. Virginia. It is, thereupon, resolved to request Burgomaster Pauw that he would 

New Netherland. be plcased to Write to the partners in the trade to the Island of New Netherland, 
to the effect that their High Mightinesses desire to be informed of the state of the matter 
contained in the aforesaid proposition.' 

' For this proposition, see poat. III., 8. — Ed. 



^ NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Resolution of the States of Holland and Wesifriesland on a proposed plan of 
Emigration. 

[ From the printed Register. ] 

The'21 April, 1622. 
fe'^d'w'm^e^WMt The Directors of the West India Company report that they have examined 
^■"^'^'- the paper relative to the Families to be conveyed to the West Indies, and are of 

opinion, that it is very advantageous for the Company, and therefore that an effort ought to be 
made to promote it, with a promise that they should be employed ; and to postpone it until 
the Directors should be formed, if the Assembly thought proper that this promise should be 
made to them ; which, being considered by the Lords, gentlemen and cities, it is unanimously 
resolved and concluded, that the said promise shall be given with the knowledge of the 
Magistracy, and to proceed with it accordingly. 



Resolution of the States General on a Communication from Sir Dudley Carleton. 

[ From the Register of Resolutions of the States General, in Ihe Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Wednesday, 27"- April, 1622. 
Folio 150. Ambassador Carleton recommended that a resolution be passed on the 

Great Britain, 

communication he had made on the part of his Majesty, regarding the Island of 
Virginia. Virginia; and it is resolved, that the said communication shall be examined, 

together with what has been published in print at Amsterdam on this subject. 



Resolution of the States General on the Petition of the heir of Rev. Mr. Plancius. 

[From the Register of Resolutions of the States General, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Saturday, IS"" June, 1622. 
roiio23o. Read the petition of Claes Jacobsen Harinckcarspel, Schepen and Councillor of 

the city of Amsterdam, heir of the deceased Petrus Plancius minister of God's word, cum 
New Netheriand. suis, praying, for rcasons set forth in the petition, that the time allowed to them, 
the petitioners, to bring over their returns from New Netherland to this country, may be 
extended six months, but the resolution thereupon is postponed. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: L 29 

Resolution of the States General respecting the papers of the West India Company. 

[ From the Register of EesoIution» of the Slates General, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague.] 

Tuesday, the 29'^ November, 1622. 
•west^indir^com- Granted, that the papers of the West India Company remaining in the office 
P""''- of the General Assembly, shall be inventoried and handed to the Directors of 

said Company, on their receipt and promise of restitution. 



Secret Resolution of the States General on a proposed Union of the West India 
Companies. 

[ From the Register of Secret Eesolutions of the States General, in the Eoyal Archires at the Hague. ] 

Friday, the 22""J March, 1624. 
Folio 63. jjjg Excellency appearing in the Assembly, in his presence are read the points 

England. of the further instruction for the Ambassadors to England, left open on the 19"" 

February last, viz': the fourth, ?"■ and S"" points of said instruction; and, upon consideration, 
and vi^ith the advice of his illustrious Excellency, it is resolved and concluded ; first, on the 
Mutual cooperation fourth poiut, regarding the West India Company and the letter of the Lords of 

■West India Com- c i . • . , 

panics. Langeracq, of the 1" mstant, lately received, mentioning a West India Company 

begun to be formed in France, that copy and extract shall be sent to Mess" their High 
Mightinesses' deputies at present attending the meeting of the XIX of the West India Company at 
Amsterdam, to submit to the meeting, as matters are in such a condition in France and England 
at present, that probably a West India Company vpill be formed in one and the other kingdom, 
or else some expedition be undertaken, whether they vcill not embrace this occasion and 
consider if it would not be prudent to confer on a combination of the Companies, or of some 
other equipment to be sent, on both sides, to the West Indies, reflecting that this Company will 
not, of itself, be strong enough, without assistance and the aid and cooperation of others, to 
resist alone such a powerful force as is put to sea at present by Spain, to the number of fifty 
ships, for the purpose of crushing the Company in its infancy ; that it will also be useful to 
agree respecting the present and the future ; as the French and the English will not omit, 
when this Company shall have sustained the heaviest of the burthen, to frequent the places 
which may be incorporated by God's gracious help, and from which they cannot be excluded 
without falling into the same difficulty as the East India Company had with them, which 
can now be easier obviated, either by a combination of the companies or by some mutual 
equipment to be executed hereafter. 

On the V"- and Eighth points, it is deemed prudent first to wait for advices from England, 
of the success of the afl^air and resolution there, in order, when that is seen, to be able to 
resolve thereupon with better foundation. 

Presents to the Com- ■^"^ whercas his Excelleucy proposes that the Ambassadors ought necessarily 
missioners. y^^ authorized, in case any league be concluded, to make some present to Mess" 



30 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

His Majesty's Commissioners who shall be engaged in this league, as is usual in such contracts. 
It is resolved to wait the advice of the Ambassadors themselves as to what they should think 
best to be done in the case, whilst it is concluded that the gratuity ought to be regulated in 
proportion to the advantage and profit to be derived by this country from the league. 



Assembly of the XIX. of the West India Company to the States General. 

[ From the Original in Ihe Koyal Archives at the Hague ; File West Indif, 1623— 1C29. ] 

High and Mighty Lords, 

We transmit to you, herewith, High and Mighty, copy of a certain letter, sent to us from 
Hoorn, by some deputies of this Assembly. Your High Mightinesses will understand 
therefrom, that we (to our regret) are informed of the evil intentions and designs, maliciously 
undertaken, by a certain shipper and other persons there, directly contrary to the favorable 
charter and amplification granted by your High Mightinesses to this Company; and therefore, 
not only in opposition to your High Mightinesses' good intention and meaning, but also 
against the welfare and prosperity of this said Company, and consequently against your High 
Mightinesses' country and many of its good inhabitants. And whereas, it is of paramount 
necessity, for the maintenance of the aforesaid charter and its subsequent amplification, also, 
for the promotion of the Company's affairs, and especially for the removal and prevention of 
such evil designs and malversations, that provision be made, and such example at once 
determined, as will deter others from attempting the like for the future; We could not, 
therefore, refrain from communicating this to you. High and Mighty, in the form of a complaint, 
and requesting at the same time, that you. High and Mighty, would be pleased so to provide 
therein, and so to order, that not only the aforesaid ship should be forbidden and prevented 
undertaking its intended voyage, but that the Company may also be put beyond the risk of 
such evil practices being in future undertaken and attempted to its injury; and, likewise, to 
act further therein as your High Mightinesses shall consider necessary for the greatest 
advantage of this Company, and in keeping with your strong affection for its prosperity: And, 
whereas, the noble Mighty States of Holland are at present assembled, it is most humbly 
requested, that you, High and Mighty, would be pleased on the occasion, to order and direct, 
through those of the North Quarter, that the sails and guns be removed from the aforesaid 
ship; advising you. High and Mighty, moreover, that we also certainly understand that many 
are equipped in that Northern department for the West Indies; and we therefore request you, 
High and Mighty, to be pleased, through the said Lords of the North Quarter, also so to 
provide, for reasons aforesaid, that the same be prevented and abandoned. Which hoping 
we shall. 

High and Mighty Lords, commend you, High and Mighty, to the protection of the Most High. 
Your High Mightinesses most obedient servants, 

The Commissioners at the Assembly of the Nineteen of the 
Incorporated West India Company, now in session in Amsterdam. 

Amsterdam, this 30"" March, 1624. (Signed) Henr: Feith. 

Received 2 April. ' Jan Gysbreght. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: I. 31 

Agents of the West India Company at Hoorn, to the Assembly of the XIX. 

[ From the MS. received as an Appendix by the States General ; Royal Arcliivea, Hague. File Went Indie. ] 

Honorable, Worthy, Wise and right Prudent gentlemen and friends. 

Whereas we repaired tiiis morning to the meeting of the Directors of this city, and, after 
sundry conversations, explained to their Honors that we understood that a certain shi'p was 
fitting out here with design to go to the Virginias under French commission, intending to take 
along good carpenters and shipwrights to construct a store, houses and ships there in order to 
be employed elsewhere within the limits of the charter. This then appearing to be a matter 
of great consequence, we both deemed it proper to wait on the Magistrates of Hoorn, as we 
did forthwith, and after e.xplanatory introduction, requested them, as Judges and administrators 
of the laws, to maintain us against this contravention of the charter, and its amplification. 
Whereupon they answered, that we might certainly rely on them, and they resolved, with our 
previous advice, to summon the Skipper, who was busy taking out his ship, and about to sail 
forthwith, to demand of him an inventory thereof, and of all that is, or will be received on 
board. The Skipper appearing in our absence, refused to comply, saying he wishes to go to 
France, wanting to know who acted thus, threatening to complain, as if the King of France's 
crown were attacked. The Burgomasters finding him thus obstinate, said that he was then 
arrested until he should give satisfaction herein, against which he has protested, and demanded 
certificate of arrest. We thought proper that this should be done in the name and on behalf 
of the Assembly of the XIX., though we are not expressly authorized hereunto. We request 
your advice whether the arrest shall continue, and what further shall be done in the premises. 
You may be assured that a certain person of credit is here, who was lately offered a share of 
that ship, well knowing that some owners reside here and at Amsterdam : therefore, the matter 
ought, in our opinion, be prosecuted, for the sake of example, and thereby to discourage others, 
who are disposed to go the same road. Regarding our affairs, we have done nothing, except 
to make some preparatory arrangements to facilitate the business as much as possible, expecting 
to-day the Deputies of the respective cities. The Directors of Hoorn have informed us, that 
they authorized, or wrote to your Commissioners for the opening of their subscription to the 
capital, in the assurance that their petition shall be taken into consideration. What relates to 
it, your Honors will presently know. 

Herewith ending. (Under stood :) 

Honorable, worthy, wise, right, discreet gentlemen, praying the Almighty to keep you in 
his Holy protection. 

(Signed) Your Honors' dutiful Commissioners, 

Hoorn, the 29* March, 1624. Rogier Cobbert 

Received 2'' April, 1624. Blendricxs', 

Alb' Wifrinck. 

(At the side stood:) Post. After closing this, the arrested Skipper hath had an attachment 
served on us, and summoned us for the next day, which we shall endeavor to meet by 
exceptions, etc., until further instructions and advice will be received from your Honors. 

The address was : 

Right Honorable, worthy, wise and most prudent, 
the Commissioners at the Assembly of the Nineteen, 
on behalf of the West India Company, at Amsterdam. 



32 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

States General to the Assembly of the XIX. 

[ From the Minute in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague; File 7»e«( Indie, 1623 — 1624. ] 

The States. 
David Picters. Honorable : By the annexed petition, presented to us by Captain Bamd. Pieters, 

you will be able to learn what he hath communicated and requested on the part of his owners 
residing at RochcUe. 

And whereas we so regard the matter that the Incorporated JVest India Company ought not to 
enter, in the beginning, into a dispute with the subjects of neighboring Kings and Princes, but 
much rather observe good correspondence and friendship towards them. 

We have, therefore, deemed it proper and necessary to send Your Honors the aforesaid 
Petition, and reflecting on theconsequeuces which may arise to the injury of the Company by 
disputes with the French, hereby recommend you to endeavor that this matter be arranged 
by agreement; either that your Honors receive the ship and cargo by purchase from the 
Petitioner, or, should this not be effected, cause him to enter into bonds, that the ship will 
not go within the limits of your Charter; or that some other amicable arrangement may be 
discovered whereby both sides may be satisfied. Whereunto awaiting. 

Done the 6"- April, 1624. 



Secret Resolution of the States General on the iproposed Union of the West India 

Companies. 

[ From the Register of Secret Resolutions of the States General, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Tuesday, the 9"" of April, 1624. 
En xlT"^' Mess" van Zoelen, Duyck and Magnus have reported that they have, with 

Instruction for the his Excellency, reconsidered the resolution adopted on the 22"^ March last, on the 
Ambassadors. pojnts left opeu for the further Instruction for the Ambassadors to England, and 

Coalition of theWest '^ '^ , • i t • 

India Company. especially the 4"", V"" and S'*" points of the above mentioned Instructions concerning, 
^d'i'STc^lTwar! first: the West India Company; secondly: the aid that should be promised from 
uiiiiary aiTairs. fj^jg gj^jg {„ g^se the King go to war ; and, thirdly: if some regiments might be 
new soidtere." °' exchanged, new levies for old experienced soldiers; and, conformably to the 
advice of his Excellency, it is resolved, on the first point: That the declaration of the Assembly 
of the Nineteen on this matter must be waited for, to which purpose their High Mightinesses' 
Deputies now returning to that Assembly, are directed, moreover, to insist thereon by resolution, 
in order to send copy thereof to the Ambassadors. Regarding the second and third points, as 
there is no appearance that the King will be willing to bring a formal Army into the field, it 
is resolved, that it is, as yet, unnecessary to determine specially thereupon, but prudent to 
postpone it until it will be seen what his Majesty will please to resolve in the premises. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: I. 33 

Secret Resolution of the States General. 

[ From the E( gieter of Secret Kesolutions of States General, in the Rojral Archives at the IlagQe. ] 

Friday, the l?"- of May, 1624. 
Folio 65. jj^ being reported tiiat his Excellency has been pleased to write the letter 

^"" resolved on yesterday to the Ambassadors in France, in answer to their letter of 



the S'* instant, it is concluded to let it be sent, as here inserted : — 



The States General of the United Netherlands. 

Honorable, wise, right prudent Gentlemen: We duly received, on the 10"" inst., your 
despatches of the 27"" and last of April. In like manner, was handed to us, on the li"" 
following, that of the S'"" inst., which you sent express per Stevan van Groeningen; and the 
one and the other being considered by us. We find what you require our further resolution 
upon consists of the following points; first: of making no Treaty of peace or Truce, except, 
&c; 2": of the aid to be furnished by us according to the 4"" and S'*" articles of tiie Treaty of 
the year 1608; 3°: of the East and West India navigation ; 4°: of the breaking with those of 
Algiers; 5°: of the Judicature, &c. 

On the third point, speaking of the East and West India Company, you will, so far as relates 
To decline the East ^^ ^^^ East Indies, decline it, with the best reasons you can adduce; and finally* 
iDdiatraje. declare that nothing can be done therein without hearing the Company. And 

in case his Majesty should please to propose any thing, or make any overtures, in this regard, 
that after hearing it, the Company shall be asked to give his Majesty all possible satisfaction; 
Combination of the and as far as the West Indies is concerned, We have sent you, by Salais, the 

West India Compa- "^ •' 

»>'«>• declaration of the Nineteen, to which we refer, in order that you may treat 

accordingly. Herewith we send another copy thereof, in case the first should not have come 
to hand. 

Respecting the fourth point, you shall, etc. 



Extract from the Journal of the Dutch Amhas-sadors in England. 

[ From the Original in the Royal Archives, at the Hague. ] 

Extract of the Journal or Report of the Mess" Francis van Aerssen, Lord of 
Sommelsdyk, &c., and Albert Joachimi, Lord at Ostend in Oudekens- 
kercken. Ambassadors from the States General of the United Netherlands, 
near the King of Great Britain, from February to July, 1624. 

4 June, 1624. My lord, the Prince of Wales, sent Mr. Caer, first Lord of his Bedchamber, 
some days ago to us, and requested us, through him, that we would believe that Sir Ferdinand 
Georges, Governor of Portsmouth, is an honest and honorable gentleman, and that we should 

Vol. T. 5 



34 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

so consider him, in whatever he had to transact with us, without the above named Caer 
knowing any thing of what the above mentioned Sir Ferdinand had to do with us, or the 
purport of the aforesaid recommendation. 

4"'' June. The aforesaid Sir Ferdinand Georges, came to us and made known, that he and 
his being disposed to annoy the Spaniard, one of his sons who is in New England, proposes 
some notable enterprizes in the West Indies. And inasmuch as he, seeing the uncertainty 
of the resolutions in England, was afraid that his son, having performed the exploit and coming 
home, may be complained of in consequence to the King; he prayed that, in case the King 
of Great Britain remained in friendship with the King of Spain, his son may be guarantied 
by your High Mightinesses, and commission granted him to annoy the King of Spain, in your 
name. We praised his good disposition, and said that the exploit, when achieved, could be 
best avowed. That otherwise, when Naval commissions were issued by your High Mightinesses 
they were formally maintained. He said he made no difficulty as to that. And, afterwards, 
put his request in writing, which we have brought over to your High Mightinesses. 

We have heard, etc. 

Thus done and communicated by us, undersigned, 

(Signed) Francoys van Aerssen, 
Alb; Joachimi. 



Hesolution of tJie States General on tlie Report of the West India Company. 

[ From the Register of Eesoluiions of the States General, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Monday, the 14 Octob., 1624. 
Folio 429. Albert Koenraets and Philips Doublet, Directors of the West India Company, 

Report ft-iim Brazil, ' 

TirgiDiaand Guinea, appeared before the Assembly, and rendered a report of the present state of 
affairs, both in Africa and Brazil, relating that two ships have arrived from the coast of Guinea, 
bringing, in addition to their freight of 627 pounds of gold, 1S40 elephants' teeth, and 330 tons 
of pepper, news that the General there hath made an alliance and treaty with the King of 
Sabou and Acora, not to trade with any one except with those of the Company; and that he is 
engaged in a like negotiation with a third King. And that four ships have arrived from the 
Bay of All Saints, bringing the Vice Roy and his Son, and the Jesuits prisoners. That 
Admiral Willekes is gone to the West Indies with 12 Ships, and the Vice Admiral to Angola, 
with 5 ships. 

That one ship is arrived from Virginia, bringing some peltries with a number of other 
articles. Request their High Mightinesses' resolution on certain points delivered in writing by 
them, the disposal whereof is postponed to to-morrow. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: L 85 

Resolution of the States General admitting Mr. Schagen to his Seat. 

[ From Ihe Begister of Eesolalions of the Slates General, in the Eojal ArchiTcs, at the Hague. ] 

Tuesday, the 6'" May, 1625. 
Mr. pTschagen. Received a letter from the States of Holland and Westfriesland, of this day's 
date, wherein they advise that they have deputed Pieter Janssen Schagen, Councillor and 
Magistrate of the City of Alcmaer, to their High Mightinesses' Assembly, in the stead of 
the Mr. Albert Sonck, requesting that he may obtain admittance, which their High 
Mightinesses granted. 

113B133 



Effects of the West India Company^ 1626. 

[ From the Original in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague; File, West Indien. ] 

Two ships destined for the trade and settlement of the Colony in New Netherland. 

Effects of the IncorjJornled West India Company, as they are found at present, after it was 
determined, as it indeed is true, that the Sailors and Soldiers of the Fleets of General 
Boudewyn Hendrixsen, the Admiral t'Lam, be paid, and can be forthwith paid out of the 
Company's previous funds, and all moneys on interest be paid, which are very trifling. 
Estimated this 4"" Sept', 1626. 

9 ships from 150 to 200 @, 230 lasts, well equipped. 
3 large yachts. 

In all, 12 ships and yachts destined for the African trade in Guinea, Benin, 
Angola, Greyn, and Quaqua coasts, with the exported cargoes and 
expected returns, as more fully can be shewn, amount to, according 

to cost fl. 1,709,000 

1 ship of Dordrecht to Cape Verd, with cargo, 60,000 

1 ship ■) destined for the trade of the Amazon and the Coast of Guiana, 

2 yachts j with the cargoes, 80,000 

1 ship of about 130 lasts, ] well equipped, destined for the trade and 

1 yacht j colonization of New Netherland, estimated, 

at least, at 120,000 

Total, 18 ships and yachts trading to all quarters where the Company hath any 

free trade, amounting to 1,969,000 

9 large ships of 200 to 300 lasts, ] despatched in May, 1626, under 

5 large and small yachts, j Admiral Pieter Pieterzen Heyn, 

(whose plan promises to be successful) victualled for 18 months, 

having full 1800 men, furnished with metal and iron guns, amounting, 

with the equipage, to 700,000 



36" ' NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

8 ships and yachts oti divers expediiioiis, under Thomas Sickes flag, 

victualled for IS months, amounting to -. fl. l'00,000 

33 ships of 200, (a, 300, (aJ, 350 hists, including 9 or 10 big and little yachts 

— which the Company hath still lying here in port, provided with 

In all 73 metal and iron guns, and all sorts of supplies of ammunition of war, 

ships. powder, muskets, arms, sabres, and whatever may be necessary for 

the equipment, which can be fitted for sea at the fourth part of their 

former cost, estimated, as more fully can be seen, at 1,100,000 

The sugar prize lately by Thomas Sickes, and the goods freighted 
through the fleet by General Boudewyn Hendrixen, will amount 
fully to, 300,000 

The wages of the IGOO soldiers allowed to the Company by your High 
Mightinesses, and the expense incurred thereupon by the refusal to 
pay anything, 150,000 

That your High Mightinesses still owe, on the promised 1500"' guilders, 

to be paid before you can derive any advantage as partners 150,000 

These following moneys are still to be received in cash, which being 
in the Treasury, will be applied to keep the foregoing ships at sea, 
not only to injure the King of Spain, but also by God's blessing 
to do your High Mightinesses and the Company much service, and 
the Partners good profit : 

From the shareholders what is yet unpaid of the S"* installment; the 

third of the 3^ installment, estimated at 458,000 

From the shareholders for the 4"' installment, all which is forthcoming, 

amounting to 1,467,000 

Your High Mightinesses still remain indebted on the 1500" guilders, 

besides the 150"" guilders before slated, 750,000 

Total, fl. 7,304,000 

Further, 5 ships 

and 3 yachts which your High Mightinesses promised to indemnify the 

Company for in guns, powder, and other munitions of war ; as these 
are still wanting to complete the subsidy promised by the 40"" article 
of the Charter, and by divers acknowledgments made by your High 
Mightinesses, as to be seen in resolutions. 
It remains to be stated, that the valuation of the ships and necessaries 
of war hereinbefore entered in gross, is not taken at the highest 
value, but will doubtless bring more when minutely reexamined. 
Then, as to what relates to the state of the trade and the pay of 
shareholders, they think they are sufficiently well informed thereof. 

N. B. When the Assembly of the XIX. resolved to send the expedition under Admiral 
Willekens, the capital of the shareholders of all the chambers, added together, 
amounted to, fl, 4,300,000 

To which is added what your High Mightinesses promise by the Charter, 1,000,000 

In all, fl. 6,300,000 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : I. 37 

Thus, the Company's capital is greater at tliis time, by two millions, than it was at that 
period; besides, experience has given it more knowledge as to the condition of the places 
situate in the West Indies and tiie Brazils; what are useful or useless to the Company in that 
country; what can, and what cannot, be defended; all which is of great advantage to tlie 
Company and the country. 



lie-solution of the States General appointing Deputies to the Assembly of the XIX. 

[ From the Origiual Register in the Royal ArcbiveB at the Hague. ] 

Resolution of the States General of the lO"" October, 1626, appointing, as their 
High Mightinesses' Deputy in the Assembly of the XIX. of the West India 
Company, M' Pietcr Janss tichagen, the writer of the earliest information 
relative to the Colony of New Netherland, of the 7"" November, 1626. 

Saturday, the lO"" Octob--, 1626. 
Received from the Directors of the West India Company, Chamber at Amsterdam, a letter 
dated the 7"" inst., wherein they advise, that for divers weighty reasons and considerations, 
affecling the welfare and prosperity of the Company, they have summoned the Assembly of 
the XIX. for the l?"" inst., to proceed to business on Monday, the 19"", requesting their High 
Mightinesses would be pleased to send their Deputy thither for the said day, to assist said 
Assembly with their authority and wise council. Whereupon, deliberation being had, they 
thereunto commissioned Mess" Hendrick van Eck and Schagen. 



Mi: Peter Schagen to the States General; the Island of Manhattans purchased. 

[ From the Original in the Royal Archives at the Hague ; File, entitled TTes/ Indie. ] 

High and Mighty Lords: 

Yesterday, arrived here the Ship the Arms of Amsterdam, which sailed from New Netherland, 
out of the River Mauritius, on the 23"* September. They report that our people are in good 
heart and live in peace there; the Women also have borne some children there. They have 
purchased the Island Manhattes from the Indians for the value, of 60 guilders; 'tis 11,000 
morgens in size. They had all their grain sowed by the middle of May, and reaped by the 
middle of August. They send thence samples of summer grain ; such as wheat, rye, barley, 
oats, buckwheat, canary seed, beans and flax. 

The cargo of the aforesaid ship is : — 7246 Beaver skins. 
17Si Otter^^skins. 
675 Otter'skins. 
4S Minck skins. 
36 Wild cat skins. 

33 Mincks. 

34 Rat skins. 



88 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Considerable Oak timber and Hickory. 

Herewith, Higli and Mighty Lords, be commended to the mercy of the Almighty. 

In Amsterdam, the 5"" November, A'' 162G. Your High Mightinesses' obedient, 

Received 7"" November, 1626. (Signed) P. Schagen. 

The address was as follows : 
High and Mighty Lords, 
My Lords the States General 
at the Hague. 



Resolution of the States General. 

[ From the Register of Resolutions of tlie Stales General, in the Royal Archives at the Hagne. ] 

Saturday, the 7"" November, 1626. 
Folio ',77. Received a letter from Mr. Schagen, written at Amsterdam, the 5"" inst., 

Mr. Schagen. o ' 

Arrival of a Ship Containing advice of the arrival of a Ship from New Netherland, which requires 



The Assembly of the XIX. to the States General. 

[From the Original in the Eoyal Archives, at the Hague ; File West Indie. ] 

Extract. 

Exhibited the IG"- November, 1627. 

To the High and Mighty Lords States General of the United Netherlands. 

High and Mighty Lords. 

1. We have heretofore communicated to your High Mightinesses the exploits, &c. 
4. The last letters from New Netherland bring word, that the English of New Plymouth 
threaten to drive away those there, or to disturb them in their settlement and little colony, 
notwithstanding our's heretofore had tendered to them every good correspondence and 
friendship. They therefore request the aid of forty Soldiers for their defence. We would 
rather see it secured by friendly alliance. 

In March, last year, our yacht, the Sturgeon, was in the River Gambia. 
Your High Mightinesses' obedient 

The Committee of the Assembly of the XIX. 
(signed) Albert Kounraats, 
Michael Paauw, 

CORNELIS BiCKEK, 

C. Nicolay. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: L 

The Assembly of the XIX. to the States General 

[ From the Original in the Royal Archlvea at the Hcguo ; File, West Indie. ] 



Extract. 



High and Mighty Lords, 

We have heretofore represented, in writing, to your High Mightinesses, that our constituents, 
the respective Chambers of tlie Incorporated West India Company, think and fear that the utter 
ruin and dissolution of said Company will be the consequence of the present negotiaiion for a 
Trace with tiie Enemy, and have therefore with all submission besought you, High and Mighty, 
that you would be pleased to be careful that nothing may be done to the prejudice of its 
commenced proceedings, which have been of such benefit to this country ; but that the Company 
may, as heretofore, be also in future, strengthened and supported, and continue thus sustained, 
in order more and more to be of good service to this state and the stockholders. We have 
now considered it further necessary and useful to explain to you. High and Mighty, in all 
submission, the reasons of our fear, in order that your High Mightinesses being informed thereof, 
may more seriously consider the same; and to answer all such objections as may be brought 
forward to the contrary, so as to remove all arguments which may influence you. High and 
Mighty, to judge otherwise, of the importance of this matter. 

' Your High Mightinesses are aware, and it is not unknown to us, that this Company was in 
the commencement, designed principally to increase Trade and Commerce, without which the 
great multitude of seamen bestowed by God on this country cannot be employed, and all 
occupations maintained in continual action and prosperity; that, also, those who supposed 
themselves most conversant with this trade, were of opinion that the West India Countries 
were not so exposed to the attacks of our enemies the Spaniards and Portuguese, but that 
trade could be carried on with sundry nations and people; colonists transported, and plantations 
of various products promoted, from which advantages could be derived equal to those our 
aforesaid enemies have realized since many years, to the strengthening considerably of the 
King of Spain's finances. And in case of delay or ill success, it was expected to make good a 
portion of the loss, by going to Punta del Rey for salt; but in consequence of the tedious 
negotiations with the North quarter, we are entirely cut off by the enemy from the Salt Trade at 
the Punta; and as regards general trade, experience has now made us wiser, and shown, 
that the proposition is founded on grounds altogether too weak ; and that the trade with 
those nations and people, who still remain independent of the King of Spain, is very meager 
and trifling; and that the countries, yet uninvaded, are for the most part of little 
consequence and unproductive, or if good and fruitful, are very difficult of cultivation, especially 
for our people, who, being unaccustomed to so hot a climate, can with great difficulty 
betake themselves to agriculture; and being unprovided with slaves, and not used to the 
employment of them, cannot, like the Spaniards and Portuguese, supply through others, 
their own insufficiency. Moreover, the colonizing such wild and uncultivated countries, 
demands more inhabitants than we can well supply; not so much through lack of population, 
in which our provinces abound, as from the fact, that all who are inclined to do any sort of 
work here, procure enough to eat without any trouble; and are, therefore, unwilling to go far 
from home on an uncertainty; to this may be added, the doubt of being able to protect it, 



40 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

unless at greater and heavier expense than the returns are worth that may probably be derived 
from thence. But in order that you, High and Mighty, may be correctly informed herein, and 
understand tlie situation of the countries yet uniiivaded by our enemies, we shall explain to 
you more particularly the extent and condition thereof, from one end of our boundaries in 
West India to the other. 

The limits granted to us by Your High Mightinesses, start from, or begin on the iVorth at, 
Nova Francia, the bounds whereof were extended somewhat too far by the French ; so that 
they have even been inclined to dispute us Ni:w Nclherland, which is the first country occupied 
and possessed by our people; and the Company, on that account, have suffered, of late years, 
notorious damage by reprisals. Now, this district, which we have named New Nethcrland, 
although it ought to be, in point of climate, as warm and as well adapted for the cultivation of 
fruits at least, as the furthest frontiers of France towards Spain; yet it has been found much 
colder, and as much subject to frost and other inconveniences as these; nay, as more northern 
countries. The people conveyed by us thither, have, therefore, found but scanty means of 
livelihood up to the present time ; and have not been any profit, but a drawback, to this 
Company. The trade carried on there in peltries, is right advantageous; but one year with 
another, we can, at most, bring home only Fifty thousand guilders. Proceeding more 
southerly, next comes Virginia, possessed by the English ; and Florida, so far as it has 
commercial advantages, by the Spaniards. For, although Florida is extensive, the places 
occupied by the Spaniards are few, and the harbors, even for middling ships, so rare that there 
is but very small probability of being able to execute anything advantageously there. The 
large Islands are settled by the Spaniards, etc 

Exhibited 23'* October, 1629. 



Considerations in regard to the Truce with Spain. 

[ From the Origin.M in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague ; File, Weft Indie. ] 

Extract of the Reasons and Considerations submitted by the Directors of the 
Incorporated West India Company to their High Mightinesses, the Lords 
States, in the present deliberation regarding the truce with the King of Spain. 
Exhibited the 16 Novemb., 1629. 

High and Mighty Lords, 

Although we are confident that you. High and Mighty, can in your usual wisdom, and will, 
pursuant to your special regard and favor for us, consider that the security and welfare of our 
beloved Fatherland is most intimately connected with the preservation and prosperity of our 
Company, yet we have deemed it our duty to lay, with all submission, before you. High and 
Mighty, in a summary manner, the principal points which, in these parts, ought to be taken 
into consideration. 

First: it is to be considered with what longing the Company has been expected, for many 
years, by all good Patriots at home, and all good wishers of our state abroad ; and how slowly 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: L 41 

it has been brought to maturity, against numerous contradictions and countermines on the 
part of others. 

Secondly: that you, High and Mighty, have, of your own motion and unasl^ed, incorporated 
your subjects, and promised, in the form of a mutual contract and reciprocal connection, to 
afford them every help in case of war, and to maintain, in their integrity, all their contracts 
with foreigners. 

Thirdly : that thereupon, the Capital of this Company was wholly subscribed and sufficiently 
paid in, through the several efforts of the Directors appointed thereunto by you. High and 
Mighty, by such as you yourselves consider have most at lieart the maintenance of the true 
Reformed religion and the liberties of our beloved Fatherland ; so that many have contributed 
abundantly thereunto even out of their poverty. 

Fourthly: that by means of this Company, even from its very incipiency, a great number 
of ships were partly purchased and partly chartered, which otherwise must have lain idle in 
consequence of the dullness of trade. 

Fifthly: that by means of the same, many large and small vessels, and especially, very fine 
and fast sailing yachts have been built, to the great increase of Navigation. 

Sixthly: that the number of our vessels has, from time to time, so much increased, that we 
have at present over one hundred full rigged ships, of various burthens, at sea, mostly fitted 
for war. 

Seventhly: that we have employed, from time to time, in said ships, a great number of 
seamen and soldiers, so that we had last year 9,000 men, and now, at present, full 15,000 in 
our service; whereby the people were wonderfully benefited; many experienced pilots formed, 
and so many educated, that the country can always find fit persons to be employed on board 
its ships as chief and subordinate officers. 

Eighthly: that we have victualled the aforesaid ships, some for 12, some for 15, and even 
many for IS months and more. 

Ninthly: that we have provided our ships so well with heavy guns, that we had, last year, 
on board our marine, full 264 metal pieces, amongst which were many demi-carthouns ; and 
nearly 1400 heavy swivels (gotelingen), which number is much increased this year, so that 
we have at present over 400 metal pieces on board of our ships, and over 2000 swivels 
(gotelingen), besides pedereros to the number of far beyond 600. 

And finally: that we have provided them with a great quantity of powder, mostly 
manufactured in this country, so that we have expended, this year, on board our ships, over 
one hundred thousand pounds of powder. From all which it must at once be seen, what 
trade our equipments have created in this country; how many people we have employed, and 
with what a remarkable force we have increased Your High Mightinesses' navy, of which Your 
High Mightinesses can make use in time of need, as the Company's aid, without boasting, was 
particularly well timed in the last public difficulties. 

It is now to be further considered what wealth these, our ships, have brought into 
this country. 

First: omitting what has been imported these previous years in course of trade in gold, 
elephants' teeth, pepper, hides, peltries, timber, salt and such like; the silver, coined and 
in bars, received in the beginning of this year, in consequence of the capture of the fleet from 
New Spain, amounted to so great a treasure, that never did any fleet bring such a prize to this, 
or any other country. 

Vol. T. 6 



42 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Secondly: we have now, during some consecutive years, plundered the enemy and enriched 
this country with many large parcels of Indigo, so that over 4000 cases have been received at 
the close of the last, and the beginning of this year. 

Thirdly : a large quantity of Sugar, so that we have brought in, this year alone, three 
thousand chests. 

Fourthly : a wonderful large quantity of Raw hides, and have taken 36™ principally this year 
from the enemy. 

Fifthly : the handsomest lot of Cochineal that was ever brought into this country. 

Sixthly : a considerable quantity of Tobacco, which is now an important article of commerce. 

And finally, a vast amount of wealth in all sorts of precious stones, silk and silk goods, 

musk, amber, all sorts of drugs, Brazil and Log Wood and other wares, too numerous to 

mention here; so that we have already brought several millions into this country. All which 

wares, sold and distributed among the good inhabitants, were consumed here and conveyed 

elsewhere, and therefore enriched your High Mightinesses' subjects, and increased the revenue- 

The damage done thereby to our enemies, is easily estimated. We have, moreover, 

captured some even of the King of Spain's galeons, hitherto considered invincible, besides 

some other of his men of War, exclusive of more than two hundred ships and barks which 

we have taken from his subjects, and partly appropriated to our own use, and partly destroyed. 

Our ships and fleets also reduced, and for a time kept possession of, the rich and mighty city 

of St. Salvador, in Brazil ; sacked Porto Rico; pointed out the way to seize its exceedingly 

enclosed harbors, and have destroyed the castle of Margrita. 

By all which acts have we not only drained the King of Spain's treasury, but also further 
pursued him at considerable expense. 
We say, exhausted his treasury — 

First, by depriving him of so much silver, which was as blood from one of the arteries of 
his heart. 

Secondly, by &c. 

Your High Mightinesses' 

Humble Servants, 

The Deputies of the Chartered West India 
Company at the Assembly of the XIX. 
( Signed ) Ant' Godin, Symon van der Does. 

Marcus van Valckenburch, de Moor, 

Jo» DE Laet, Diederich Scherff, 

PiETERzoNS, Abraham Oyens, 

J. Van der Nyenbur«, Wefrinck.' 

' The above document will be found entire in Aitzema, Stoat en Oorhgh, folio, I., 902 ; 4to II., 912, -where it is signed by: 
Ketnibr Rkael, a. Pietersons, Didrich ScHEKr, 

Antoni Godin, Gerbit tan Ktburgb, Abraham Otens, 

I. DK Laet, Symon Verdoes, Albert Wtffbinck. 

Mabchs van Valckenburgh Johan de Moob, ' 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: L 43 

Patent to Messrs. Godyn and Blommaert for a Tract of land on Delaware Bay. 

[ From Ihe Original ; and from the Eecord in Book G G., in the office of Ihe Secretary of Slate, Albany, N.T. ] 

We, the Director and Council in New Netiierland, residing on the Island Manahatas and ia 
Fort Amsterdam, under the authority of their High Mightinesses the Lords States General of 
the United Netherlands, and of the Incorporated West India Company, Chamber at Amsterdam, 
hereby acknowledge and declare, that on this day, the date underwritten, came and appeared 
before us, in their proper persons, Queskakous and Eesanques Siconesius, and the inhabitants 
of their village, situate at the South cape of the Bay of the South River, and freely and 
voluntarily declared, by special authority of the rulers and consent of the Commonalty there, 
that they already, on the first day of the month of June of the past year, 1629, for and on 
account of certain parcels of cargoes, which they, previous to the passing hereof, acknowledged 
to have received and got into their hands and power, to their full satisfaction, have transported, 
ceded, given over and conveyed in just, true and free property, as they hereby transport, cede, 
give over and convey to, and for the behoof of, Mess" Samuel Godin and Samuel Blommart, 
absent; and for whom We, by virtue of our office, under proper stipulation, do accept the 
same, namely: the Land to them belonging, situate on the South side of the aforesaid Bay, 
by us called The Bay of the South River, extending in length from C. Hinlopen off unto 
the mouth of the aforesaid South River, about eight leagues (groole mylen), and half a league 
in breadth, into the interior, extending to a certain marsh (leegle) or valley, through which 
these limits can be clearly enough distinguished. And that with all the action, right and 
jurisdiction to them in the aforesaid quality, therein appertaining, constituting and surrogating 
the said Mess" Godin and Blommaert in their stead, state, real and actual possession thereof; 
and giving them, at the same time, full and irrevocable authority, power and special command, 
to hold in quiet possession, occupancy and use, tanquam Actores et Procuratores in rem 
propriam, the aforesaid land acquired by the above mentioned Mess" Godin and Blommaert, or 
those who may hereafter obtain their interest; also to do, barter, and dispose thereof, as they 
may do with their own well and lawfully acquired lands. Without they, the Grantors, having, 
reserving, or retaining for the future, any, the smallest part, right, action or authority, whether 
of property, command or jurisdiction therein; but now, hereby, for ever and a day desisting, 
retiring from, abandoning and renouncing the same for the behoof aforesaid ; promising further, 
not only to observe, fulfill and to hold fast, unbroken and irrevocable, this their conveyance, 
and whatever may be done in virtue thereof, but, also, the said parcel of land to maintain 
against every one and to deliver free of controversies, gainsays and contradictions, by 
whomsoever instituted against the same. All in good faith without guile or deceit. In 
Witness is this confirmed with our usual signature and with our seal dependant therefrom. 
Done on the aforesaid Island Manahatas, this fifteenth of July, XVP and thirty. 

(Signed) Peter Minuit, Director, 

PlETEK ByLVELT, ^^ 

Jacob Elbertsen Wissinck, 
Jan Jansen Brouwer, 
Symon Dircksen Pos, 
Reyner Harmensen. 

Jan Lampe, 
Sheriff. 



44 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Patent to Kiliaen Van Rensselaer for a Tract of Land on HudsorCs River. 

[ From the anlhentic Transcript in the Royal Ardiires at the Hagnc ; File, Vent Indie. ] 

Anno 1630, adi 13th of August. We, the Director and Council of New Netherland, residing 
on the Island Manhatas and in Fort Amsterdam, under the authority of their High Mightinesses 
the Lords States General of the United Netherlands and the Incorporated West India Company, 
Chamber at Amsterdam, do hereby acl^nowledge and declare, that on this day, the date 
under written, feefore us appeared and presented themselves in their proper persons : Kottomack, 
Nawanemit Albantzeene, Sagiskwa and Kanaomack, owners and proprietors of their respective 
parcels of land, extending up the River, South and North, from said Fort unto a little south of 
Moeneminnes Castle, to the aforesaid proprietors, belonging jointly and in common, and the 
aforesaid Nawanemit's particular land called Semesseerse, lying on the East Bank opposite 
Castle Island off unto the abovementioned Fort; Item, from Petanock, the Millstream, away 
North to Negagonse, in extent about three miles, and declared freely and advisedly for and on 
account of certain parcels of Cargoes, which they acknowledge to have received in their hands 
and power before the execution hereof, and, by virtue and bill of sale, to hereby transport, 
convey and make over to the Mr. Kiliaen van Rensselaer, absent, and for whom We, ex officio 
and with due stipulation, accept the same; namely: the respective parcels of land hereinbefore 
specified, with the timber, appendencies and dependencies thereof together with all the action, 
right and jurisdiction to them the grantors conjointly or severally belonging, constituting and 
surrogating the said Mr. Rensselaer in their stead, state and right, real and actual possession 
thereof, and at the same time giving him full, absolute and irrevocable power, authority and 
special command to hold, in quiet possession, cultivation, occupancy and use, tanquam actor et 
procurator in rem suam ac propriam, the land aforesaid, acquired by said Mr. Van Rensselaer, 
or those who may hereafter acquire his interest; also, to dispose of, do with and alienate it, as 
he or others should or might do with his other and own Lands and domains acquired by good 
and lawful title, without the grantors therein retaining, reserving or holding any, the smallest 
part, right, action or authority whether of property, command or jurisdiction, but rather, 
hereby, desisting, retiring and renouncing therefrom forever, for the behoof aforesaid ; further 
promising this their conveyance and whatever may by virtue thereof be done, not only forever 
to hold fast and irrevocable, to observe and to fultill, but also to give security for the surrender 
of the aforesaid land, obligans et renuncians a bona fide. In testimony is this confirmed by 
our usual signature, with the ordinary seal thereunto depending. Done at the aforesaid Island 
Manahatas and Fort Amsterdam, on the day and year aforesaid. Signed, Peter M:nuit, 
Director; Pieter Bylvelt, Jacob Elbertss. Wissinck, Jan Jassen Brouwer, Symon Dirckss. Pos, 
Reyner Harmensen, Jan Lampe, Sheriff. 

There was, besides: This Conveyance written with mine own hand is, in consequence of 
the Secretary's absence, executed in my presence on the thirteenth day of August, XVI'=, and 
thirty, as above. Signed, Lenart Cole, Deputy Secretary. 

After collating with the Original, dated, signed and sealed as above, this Copy is found to 
agree with it. Amsterdam, the 5"" September, 1672. 

In testimony, (Signed) Adriaen Lock, 

Notaris Publ. 
1672. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: I. 45 

Subjects for the Consideration of the AssemUy of the XIX. 

[ From the Original In the Royal Archives at the Hague ; File, TTasi IndU. ] 

Points for Consideration on which all the Chambers of the West India Company 
are convoked for the 20"" March, 1632, at Amsterdam ; from which is 
extracted so much as relates to New Netherland. 

14"- Point. 

And observing the misconstructions which occur in the Freedoms and Exemptions to the 
Colonists, the adjourned members shall therefore come to resume the same and bring with 
them the lists of their receipt, together with the names of those, who are admitted as Planters. 

Exhibited 19 March, 1632. 



Mr. van Arnhem to the States General. 

[ From the Original in the Royal Archives at the Hague ; File, Vest Indie. ] 

High and Mighty Lords. 

The Directors of the West India Company have informed us that one of their ships, named 
de Eendracht, coming from New Netherland and touching at Plymouth, in England, was seized 
there; first, on pretence that the cargo of the ship was procured in the English Colonies; next, 
tiiat the Company had appropriated some countries belonging to the English; notwithstanding 
said trade was prosecuted at such places in New Netherland; to wit, between the North 
and South Rivers; which have been always in the peaceable and uncontroverted possession of 
the Company; and those of said Company have never encroached on the English. Then, it is 
well to remark, that this intrigue was set on foot by the Spanish Ambassador in England; for, 
the Company is credibly informed, the said Ambassador will endeavor to lay claim to all their 
ships arriving there, in order thus by all possible means to obstruct said trade. Which cannot 
but cause great injury to the Company, and, consequently, to your High Mightinesses. 
Tlierefore, we cannot forbear hereby respectfully soliciting your High Mightinesses to be 
graciously pleased so to recommend these and similar matters which may occur in England, to 
your High Mightinesses' Ambassador and Delegate there, that they may afford the Company 
all favorable assistance herein; and, especially, in case the Earl of Carlisle (as he hath given 
out) may lay claim to the said Company's ships in regard to a certain Island of St. Martyn; 
maintaining that it was granted to him by the King, notwithstanding the aforesaid Earl never 
had any people there; but it was made use of by the Company. And here ending, we shall 
pray God to bless your High Mightinesses' government, and remain, 
High and Mighty Lords, 

Your High Mightinesses' humble Servants, 
From Amsterdam, the S"" April, 1632. (Signed) G. van Arnhem. 

Received, 7 April, 1632. 



46 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

As M' Olikan is not here, and this must be closed, it is not signed by him. 

The address was as follows: 
The High and Mighty, 
Lords States General, 
of the United Netherlands, 
in 
The Hague. 



Resolution of the States General to write to their Ambassador in England. 

[ From the Register of Eesolntions of the States General, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Wednesday, 7"" April, 1632. 
Polio 216. Received a letter from Mr. Arnhem, their High Mightinesses' associate Delegate 

to the Assembly of the XIX., M' Olican absent, written at Amsterdam the 5"" inst, and 
seconded by the verbal petition of Mr. Adriaen Pieterson, Director of the aforesaid Company, 
in order to obtain letters to Ambassador Joachimi and Deputy Govert Brasser, with a view 
Ship Unity. that, through their intercession, the Ship Emdrachl, coming from New Netherland 

and touching at Plymouth, in England, and there seized, should be again released and 
discharged ; which, being considered, it is hereby resolved and decided, to allow and grant the 
letters aforesaid in the best form. 



General to their Ambassadors in England. 

[ From the Minute in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague ; File, West Indie. ] 

To Mess" Joachimi and Brasser, their High Mightinesses' Ambassador and Deputy in 
England ; the 7"' April, 1632. 

The States, etc. 
Honorable. The Directors deputed to the Assembly of the XIX. of the West India 
Company, at Amsterdam, have represented to us that the Ship Eendrachl, on arriving at 
Plymouth, from New Netherland, was, by the Vice admiral and Captains of the Plymouth 
Castles, seized on the false information of the provost of said Ship, who was dissatisfied, 
because he could not have his earned wages paid to him there, (which he must first receive at 
Amsterdam) and of the Pilot, who, in opposition to the Director and Skipper, being on shore 
got married. But a settlement being had, with much difficulty, she was released again, and 
the aforesaid provost, having received his wages, went up to London, and before the ship 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : I. 47 

could depart, brought down a second arresl, in which the ship must remain and be yet detained 
with its freight, solely upon ao untrue representation that the Peltries were bought within the 
jurisdiction or district belonging to his Majesty of Great Britain, whereas they were, on the 
contrary, bartered in New Netherland, under our resort and within the limits of the above 
named Company's charter, on the South and North Rivers, where there are not any English 
Colonies or Trading Posts. And whereas, by such arrest and detention, in direct contravention 
of the Articles of the Fifteen Years' union, and especially of the Concession of freedoms 
granted by his said Majesty to the above Company's Ships, said Company is most deeply 
prejudiced, and put to excessively great expense, such as loss of wages and consumption of 
stores, amounting, daily, to a large sum, besides the loss of the season for the sale of 
peltries, which go mostly to Russia, and could otherwise have been sold with the peltries 
already advertised. And, moreover, the crew of the aforesaid ship had so much the more time 
afforded them to take away, in violation of their oath, great quantities of the peltries belonging 
to the Company, and to convey the same stealthily into the interior, or elsewhere. Therefore, 
we cannot, neither must we, neglect to request and solicit you hereby, to do the Company 
such good offices and kindnesses with the King of Great Britain and other persons, if necessary, 
to the end that not only the aforesaid ship and goods may be immediately released from arrest, 
free of costs and damages, but, also, that order may be given that hereafter such unfounded 
attachments and impediments may be avoided, and the Company freed from such inconveniences, 
troubles and annoyances. And in case the aforesaid, or any other ship, may, in consequence 
of the unfounded pretensions of the Earl of Carlisle, be troubled about a certain Island, St. 
Martin, claimed to have been given him by the King; where, nevertheless, the said Earl never 
had any people, but which has been made use of by the above mentioned Company, you will, 
on the contrary, allege such reasons as you will consider most applicable in the premises. 

Relying on which, we commend you to God's protection. 

At the Hague, the T"" April, 1G32. 



Messi's. Joachimi and Brasser to the States General. 

[ From the Original, remaining in tiie Royal ArctiiveB at tlie Hague ; File, Sngeland. ] 

High and Mighty Lords. 

My Lords. 

Let this despatch be Our last to your High Mightinesses, was of the SS"" of last month. Since then 
of "the Lorus of We havc complaiucd through the Lord High Treasurer, of the publication of the 

Heemstede and r D O ' r 

an^b"r™cu^i"im! ^ook On the cveuts at Amboina; and also, requested that his Lordship would 
?onfe?'wfth'hiVEi° prevent the exportation of warlike stores to the enemy ; setting forth the 
Md^o7epOT^I)'o°ae advantage which this kingdom might, in time and place, derive therefrom. His 
ed) coMt. kv'^B, Lordship said, he had not given any consent to have the book printed ; and that 
he well knew the Council had no knowledge of it. That the Bishop, or 
Secretaries, were in the habit of giving such licences; that he agreed with us, it were better 



48 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

omitted. But that such was permitted in the case of the East India Company, which is much 
dissatisfied, because it does not receive any satisfaction for the Amboiiia affair. And in regard 
to the export of warlilie stores, that the Council had requested his opinion thereupon, in 
connection with his Majesty's finances, and that he had then disapproved thereof. We, 
nevertheless, have been, afterwards, informed tiiat the exportation is permitted to Spain 
and Italy. His Lordship told us, among other things, that he had copy of the Instruction 
given to Don Gunsalva di Cordua, from Spain, to the effect that he should proceed quietly in 
all other matters, except in regard to the reconciliation of the King with his mother and brother; 
that he should therein proceed zealously and earnestly. 

He also said, he had advice from the English Ambassador, resident in France, that such 
was the case; and having received no satisfaction therein, he had refused to accept a costly 
rapier from the King, and a certain present from the Queen. And his Lordship added, 
moreover, that he thought the first news we should receive from Spain, would, also, bring 
intelligence that tiie Spaniards from Catalonia had fallen on France; for which purpose great 
Naval preparations were making in the Mediteranean. 

We likewise addressed ourselves to Mr. Secretary Kooke, whom we found much excited in 
the India affair; and soon observed, that he had consented to the publication of the Book. 
His Lordship was so violent in the matter, that, when we afterwards spoke to him of Captain 
le Clercq's trial, and the wrong suffered therein, he gave us for answer, Amboina. When he 
complained of the proceedings of the Admiralty at Rotterdam, in the case of the owners of the 
Ship the Kint, (the Child); we answered thereunto, that we should afford his Lordship good 
satisfaction, whenever the complaint was laid before us. His Lordship hath since received 
the Seals of the Foreign affairs; so that, hereafter, all these matters will pass through his 
hands. We have congratulated his Lordship, and expressed our satisfaction that his Majesty 
had been pleased to employ him therein, as we were well aware that his Lordship was 
always disposed to maintain good correspondence between this kingdom and the United 
Countries. Indeed, his Lordship is, also, well disposed towards the Reformed religion, and not 
favorable to Spain ; and labors strenuously to establish the English nation in trade and commerce. 
As all matters must henceforth pass through the hands of this gentleman, and the expeditions 
be advanced by him, your High Mightinesses will please to consider in your great wisdom, 
whether it would not be for your High Mightinesses' service to present him some token of 
courtesey on his entrance into office. Whatever your High Mightinesses resolve to apropriale 
thereto, may be paid here from the balance of the payment of 100,000 guilders which have 
begun to be disbursed, on account of the 650,000 for which Mr. Carleton signed; then, should 
there be a deficit of 3, 4 to 5, 1000 guilders, nothing, in our opinion, would be thought about 
it here. 

His Majesty being returned here on the first of April, we requested his answer to our 
proposals made at New Market, and, in addition, complained of the seizure since at Plymouth 
of a certain ship named the Ecndracht, belonging to the West India Company, and now coming 
from New Netherland, where your High Mightinesses' subjects have long peaceably traded, 
and, moreover, many years ago planted a colony on a certain island named Manathans, situate 
on the river also of the same name, which they purchased from the native inhabitants and 
paid for. That your High Mightinesses' said subjects had hitherto, in going and coming, 
peaceably made use of the harbors of England, without opposition from any quarter, and that 
a ship coming from thence, was now seized for having traded within his Majesty's territories. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: I. 49 

The King answered us distinctly on every particular; saying, that the affair of Captain le 
Clercq, was, in itself, a trifle; but that he, moreover, well knew that the matters were, in 
principle, of great importance. That he, therefore, will fully inform himself about the bringing 
in the prizes taken from our enemies, and give us an answer thereupon afterwards; that he 
should also take further information relative to the damage inflicted on us by our enemies, in 
his roads and harbors. That he had appointed Commissioners to confer with us on the subject 
of the published books. And, regarding the detention of the ship the Eendracht, that his 
governor at Plymouth had advised him of it, and that he was informed that your High 
Mightinesses had, heretofore, on his father's complaint, interdicted your inhabitants from 
trading to those parts. But he added, moreover, that he could not positively say what the 
circumstances of the case were. Then, that he should take further information thereon ; and 
as we urged the provisional release of the ship, his Majesty said, he could not do that so 
long as he was not certain of his right. Which answer of his INIajesty, though expressed in 
polite terms and with a friendly disposition, did not please us, because the subject of the free 
use of the harbors was thereby postponed to the great prejudice of your High Mightinesses and 
your inhabitants; also, because his Majesty had appointed Commissioners to speak with us about 
the publishing of the books on Amboina, which we could not but suspect was designedly done 
to bring up the Amboina question before us on that occasion, with a view to require satisfaction 
therefor, and meanwhile to keep everything in suspense. We were afterwards confirmed in 
this opinion, because the Lord High Treasurer pretended ignorance of the aforesaid seizure, 
which, however, was made by order of the Commissioners of the Admiralty, whereof his 
Lordship is the first : Moreover, being desirous to speak about it on another occasion to 
his Lordship, he let us know that Secretary Kooke had orders to give us an answer; coming to 
the said Kooke, we understood from him that he had heard nothing in the world about 
this matter. 

We cannot make up our minds to attend the meeting of the Commissioners, for we are not 
instructed, nor provided, for the Amboina affair, as we have stated at length in our previous 
letter to my Lord, the Prince of Orange. Meanwhile, we all foresee that the farther things 
go here, the worse they will become. 

A certain public officer here informed us, that, having understood the Council would meet 
on the 4"" inst., and intending to promote his own interest, he went to speak to one of the 
members about it; from whom he understood that his case would not be taken up, but that 
the Council would examine an important question, namely; whether the King of Great Britain 
had a right to forbid all foreigners to catch herring in his seas. We are not advised of the 
result of the consultation; but according to the information furnished us by the above mentioned 
gentleman, the Lord of the Council stated to him, at the same time, that his Majesty was of 
opinion he had the power and was at liberty to do so. All this is the eflfect of Spanish 
intrigue, which, we fear, will proceed further. We cannot perceive that his Majesty is 
indisposed towards us ; sed qui pro nobis intercedat nemo est, because we have neither Saints 
nor Festivals, wherein the Spanish nation is very superstitious. 

We are still awaiting the papers on Amboina, as well as those relating to the moneys voted 
by your High Mightinesses, which we heretofore most humbly requested might be sent to us. 

Your High Mightinesses will be pleased to send us, at the same time, everything in support 
of the right of Your High Mightinesses' inhabitants to trade in New Netherland, inasmuch as 

Vol. L 7 



50 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

that will, without doubt, be most sharply disputed here. The ship the Eendracht has over five 
tiiousand beaver skins on board. 

The Resident Carleton and M" Boshuii,' who is to reside near your High Mightinesses in the 
place of the former, have been to visit us, and notified us that they are about to take their 
departure, presenting their service. Finally, they requested that we should recommend your 
High Mightinesses to furnish the aforesaid Boshuil with a free house, and that your High 
Mightinesses would be pleased to interpose a word in favor of the aforenamed Carleton's 
family, that they may remain a month or more after May in the old house. The above named 
Boshuil hath the reputation here of being a very honest man, and, especially, that he is well 
inclined to maintain good correspondence between his Majesty and Your High Mightinesses. 
We submit to Your High Mightinesses' wisdom and discretion, whether or not you will furnish 
him with a free house. We shall merely observe thus much, that, if not done, it will again 
lay open the wound of the refused seat iu the Council, and be interpreted as having been done 
through disrespect for his Majesty, whose agents have, heretofore, been supplied by your High 
Mightinesses with a free house. 

Sir Bronckhorst has also waited on us, saying that he understood your High Mightinesses 
were making new levies. And as he had a commission to raise a regiment, he requested us, 
whenever your High Mightinesses were enlisting new forces, to acquaint your High 
Mightinesess of his offer to raise a regiment and to take it over at his own expense. 

We were afterwards informed that application would be made for permission to convey to 
Dunkirk a large quantity of Saltpeter, which has arrived from India. And herewith, 
commending ourselves, most respectfully, to your High Mightinesses' good graces, we shall 
continually pray Almighty God, High and Mighty Lords, that he may bless Your High 
Mightinesses' wise government more and more. 

Your High Mightinesses' 

Most humble and 
The lO"- April, 1632 ; Moat faithful servants, 

Stylo novo. In London. (Signed) Alb. Joachimi. 

Received 1 May, 163JJ. Govert Brasser. 



West India Company to the States General. 

[ From the Original in the Eoyal ArchiTes at the Hague ; f'ile, TI*«rt Indie. \ 

To the High and Mighty Lords States General of the United Netherlands. 

High and Mighty Lords. 

We have heretofore complained to your High Mightinesses that our ship the Eendracht, 
coming from New Netherland, laden with peltries, &c., was detained at Plymouth by his 
Majesty's command, under pretence that our people had traded in countries claimed to belong 
to his aforesaid Majesty. 

' Boswell. — Ed. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: I. 51 

Whereupon your High Mightinesses were pleased to instruct your Ambassador and 
Commissioner to prosecute, vigorously, the discharge of the said ship and goods. 

Now, we have received a letter signed by Your High Mightinesses' Ambassador and 
Commissioner, dated London the 10"' April, stil : nov:, by which we are advised as follows : 

On the third instant, Pieter Minuit of Wesel, Director on behalf of your Company in New 
Netherland and Jan Lampo of Cantelbergh, Sheriff on the Island Manhattes, came to us here 
and informed us that, on arriving with your siiip, named the Eendrack, in the port of 
Plymouth, were there arrested for having traded in countries under the King of Great Britain's 
jurisdiction. We thereupon complained to his Majesty; related the circumstances of the case, 
and requested that the aforesaid ship maybe provisionally released. His Majesty said, that he 
had been advised thereof by his governor of Plymouth, and had been informed that, on a former 
complaint, by his father, to their High Mightinesses, of their inhabitants having traded to 
those Countries, their High Mightiness had forbidden them so to do ; but he did not know 
precisely what the circumstances were, and would inform himself further of it; And, 
notwithstanding our repeated demand for the provisional release of tiie siiip, his Majesty was 
pleased, on the contrary, to persist, being first desirous to obtain information as to the nature 
of his right. We addressed ourselves, with a similar view, to some Lords of the Council, and 
received substantially the same answer. 

Wherefore, we have deemed it to be our duty to inform your High Mightinesses that, 
subsequent to the first discovery, by your subjects in the year 1609, of the North River, 
(commonly called the Manhattos, also Rio de Montaigne and North river,) and after some of 
your inhabitants had resorted thither, in the year 1610 and following years, your High 
Mightinesses had finally, in the year 1615, granted some of your inhabitants a charter to trade 
to those countries, to the exclusion of all other persons, and that they established a fort and 
garrison there, which were maintained until the charter granted to the West India 
Company included these and other countries. That in the year 1606, his Majesty of Great 
Britain granted to his subjects by special charter. South and North of this aforesaid river, 
under the names of New England and Virginia, on the express condition, that the respective 
incorporated parties should remain one hundred miles apart from each other, and leave so much 
between them both. 

Whereupon, the English began, about the year 1607, to settle by the river Sagadahoc, which 
settlement was again afterwards abandoned, and no new plantation undertaken by the English 
north of New Netherland, before the year 1620, when one, which they called New Plymouth, 
was commenced behind Cape Cod. 

The English themselves, according to their charter, place New England on the coast between 
the forty-first and forty-fifth degrees of latitude. 

But the English began in the year 1606, to resort to Virginia, which is South of our territory 
of New Netherland, and fix the boundaries, according to their charter, from the thirty-seventh 
to the thirty-ninth degree. 

So that our boundaries, according to their own shewing, should be from the thirty-ninth 
degree inclusive, to the forty-first degree, within which bounds we are not aware that they 
ever undertook any plantation. 



52 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

What boundaries your High Mightinesses have granted to your subjects, can be seen by the 
charter issued in the year 16J5, which your High Mightinesses will please cause to be 
lool^ed into. 

We have not the slightest knowledge of his Majesty's further allegation respecting the 
demand made by his father, and the result thereof.' 

In order to execute this business effectually, your High Mightinesses will be pleased to have 
this examined, and cause your High Mightinesses' Ambassador to be duly informed thereof, 
and to order the release of our ship and goods to be prosecuted and obtained. 

It is further to be remarked : tliat inasmuch as the inhabitants of those countries are freemen, 
and neither his Britannic Majesty's, nor your High Mightinesses' subjects, they are free to 
trade with whomsoever they please. 

That his Majesty may likewise, in all justice, grant his subjects by charter the right to 
trade with any people, to the exclusion of all others, his subjects, as your High Mightinesses 
have a right to do by yours. 

But, that it is directly contrary to all right and reason, for one potentate to prevent the 
subjects of another to trade in countries whereof his people have not taken, nor obtained 
actual possession from the right owners, either by contract or purchase. 

Much more, to lay claim to countries of which your High Mightinesses' subjects have 
acquired the property, partly by confederation with the owners of the lands, and partly 
by purchase. 

And many other reasons which your High Mightinesses' wisdom will better suggest, for the 
maintenance of your sovereignty and the freedom of trade by sea, and alliances with distant 
nations, who are not, naturally, the subjects, nor have become the property, of any other person, 
by conquest. 

Exhibited 5 May, 1632. 



Resolution of the States General on the preceding Letter. 

[ From the EegUter of the Eesolations of the States General, in the Eoyal Archive! at the Hague. ] 

Wednesday, the S*"" May, 1632. 
westln.ha^^"" C>" ^he complalnt of the West India Company, to the effect that their ship, the 

8hi"p'E"nrachL Eendmdd, coming from New Netherland, laden with peltries, &c., is seized at 
Plymouth by the King's command, and that his Majesty questioned the said Company's right 
to trade to the aforesaid New Netherland. It is, after previous deliberation, resolved and 
concluded, that Ambassador Joachimi and Deputy Brasser shall be written to, that they use 
and exert all possible means to have the aforesaid ship released from arrest, and the West India 
Company in future saved from all similar annoyances, and that the Deduction communicated 
by the Deputies of the abovementioned Company in attendance on their High Mightinesses, 
be sent to the said Ministers to justify the trade to the aforesaid New Netherland. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : L 53 

States General to their A7nhassado7\s in England. 

[ From the Minute iu the Eoyal Archires at the Hague ; File, Engeland. ] 

To Mess" Joachimi and Brasser, the S"" May, 1632. 

The States, etc. 
We are sorry to understand from the Directors of the West India Company, that the Ship 
Ship the Eendraoht the Ecndraclu, coming from New Nelherland, laden with peltries, etc. and seized 
'''.■"^- by the King's order, has not been yet released. And although we, in no wise, 

doubt your hearty zeal and duty, yet are we unwilling to stand idle; you are therefore again 
admonished to exert and exercise all possible means for the release of the aforesaid ship, and 
that the merchant-men of the West India Company may in future be saved from such like 
annoyances. And in justification of the trading of said Company to the aforesaid New 
Netherland, the said Directors have communicated to us the annexed Deduction, to which 
we have appended copy of a certain Charter, granted by us on the 14"" Octob. 1614, to some 
private inhabitants of this country, to resort to New Netherland. By all these we intend, that 
the right of the aforesaid Company to trade to New Netherland must be maintained. You will 
add thereunto such reasons and motives as you shall judge pertinent, according to circumstances. 

Done the S"- May, 1632. 



Messrs. JoacMmi and Brasser to the States General. 

[ From the Original, in the Royal Archives at the Hague ; File, Engdand. ] 

High and Mighty Lords. 

In our despatch of the 27"' April, My Lords, we gave your High Mightinesses communication 
of our transactions with his Majesty's Commissioners. Since then, we endeavored by all 
possible diligence, to obtain a written answer to our last proposal communicated to his Majesty, 
containing, in brief, the substance of both the preceding. Thereupon, the marked* writing 
annexed was brought to our house yesterday, by Mr. Secretary Kooke; notwithstanding we, a 
little while previously, had sent for it. The reasons for his handing it himself to us, were, we 
think, two. 

First, to understand, on this occasion, from us, what secret negotiations were going on with 
France; for he began his conversation with an expostulation, saying that we had, in appearance, 
fully communicated to his Majesty the subject of the embassy to France, but that we had 
carefully withheld the most essential point thereof from his Majesty; that all the world was 
aware, that greater matters had been treated of than had been communicated to his Majesty; 
that in the time of Queen Elizabeth, we would have been more careful, &c. We answered, 

' Aengeteyckende is the Dutch word; it is doubtless an error for ongeteeckend, unsigned, which is the word used in the 
Ambassador's next despatch. — Ed. 



54 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

that Mr. Vosbergen was not charged with what, report says, has since been negotiated with 
France; that we had no knowledge in the world of it; that being, apparently, matters 
concerning the direction of the war, his Majesty had no reason to take it ill, that it was kept 
secret until completed; with which answer the Secretary seemed somewhat satisfied. 

The second reason why he wished to speak to us on the delivery of the answer was, we 
think, to communicate to us, in addition, the internal meaning of the answer; namely, that 
the intent is, that like satisfaction shall be given by parties on both sides for everything; 
that is to say, satisfaction shall be given for what passed at Amboina; otherwise, we cannot 
expect that any regard will be paid to our complaints ; for, indeed, matters here are so situated 
that we are in great doubt whether or not we shall press for his Majesty's declaration, that 
your High Mightinesses' subjects shall be at liberty to bring their captured prizes in and out 
again of his Majesty's harbors; for we know, that so long as this stumbling block be not 
removed, every thing shall turn to our prejudice. 

Regarding the Amboina affair: whilst it pleased your High Mightinesses to commit the 
direction tliereof to his Lordship the Prince of Orange and some of the members of your High 
Mightinesses Assembly, we repeatedly wrote on the subject to the Prince and represented at 
full length and breadth, in what position the affair, in our judgment, stood here. Your High 
Mightinesses will please to remind the gentlemen to whom this affair was committed, to 
prosecute the aforesaid affair with all diligence; for otherwise, more or less danger is to be 
expected from this quarter. We send your High Mightinesses, herewith, copies of said 
proposal and answer. The aforesaid answer did not contain any mention of the trial of 
Captain le Clercq. Apparently from considerations before mentioned, this affair was dragging 
along to the exceeding great inconvenience of your High Mightinesses' subjects who, 
meanwhile, dare not approach his Majesty's harbors with their prizes; whereby many, either 
through stress of weather, have perished, or through inability to wait for a convoy, have fallen 
into the enemy's hands; as has happened, even within four days, to a certain privateer who 
had a good prize with him ; understanding, off Plymouth, that Captain le Clercq's ship lay there 
still seized, he dare not enter the harbor, and both ship and prize fell into the hands of 4 
Dunkirkers. These Dunkirkers, it is reported, are expressly instructed to keep themselves 
west of the needle, in order that our ships, not daring to enter the harbors here, might fall into 
their mouths. It is to be remarked, that the trial of Captain le Clercq is of great consequence, 
as 'twill be a beacon to all those who shall have made any prizes on the enemy, to determine 
whether or not they are to have the privilege of entering the harbors of this kingdom. We, 
therefore, requested your High Mightinesses heretofore, in our dispatches of the 25"" March 
and 17"" April last, to advise us how we should act in case judgment was rendered against the 
said Captain; requesting, also, most respectfully, that the aforesaid order might be sent over 
to us by the earliest opportunity. We apprehend another difficulty in this matter; namely, 
that the Captain's owners, weary of the long and useless proceeding, incline to settle with their 
adversaries; which, as regards your High Mightinesses, is almost as prejudicial as the loss of 
the suit; for your High Mightinesses' inhabitants understanding that, will not dare to 
enter the harbors. We do not fail to encourage the owners, and to dissuade them from that 
course; but do not know how far desperation may drive them. We have, therefore, 
concluded to suggest to your High Mightinesses, whether it were not better for the State 
to negotiate rather with the owners, and to assume the stock for the public, it being 
well understood, as 'tis said, that the owners cannot be any longer kept from agreeing with 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: L 55 

the opposite party. It is of tlie highest importance to our enemy that this matter be settled 
by arrangement, though their inhabitants should derive but little advantage thereby, for 
reasons already stated. The aforesaid owners are also much importuned thereunto. Your 
High Mightinesses, in your profound wisdom, will best understand what ought to be done in 
this matter. We shall most respectfully await your commands, and will most dutifully and 
faithfully obey them. 

Regarding the inquiry about the little ship taken near the Recolvers, we do not, and cannot 
think what is wanting. The long delay in sending that over, does your High Mightinesses' 
affairs here no good. 

Lieutenant Colonel Ashley has requested us to inform your High Mightinesses, that he has 
gone hence, by express orders from his Majesty, to the King of Sweden ; that if your High 
Mightinesses require him to join his regiment, he shall do so immediately; he intends to 
convey his Majesty's final resolution to his Ambassador, Lord Faen, and entertains no doubt 
but the subsidy of 100™ guilders a month will be paid from here to the King of Sweden. 

His Majesty seems resolved to dotate his niece, the Duke of Lenox's daughter, and to give 
her in marriage to the Lord High Treasurer's son, whose oldest sister is married to the Earl 
of Arundel's eldest son. The Treasurer will be not a little strengthened by this connexion with 
his Majesty's next of kin, and the friendship between him and the Earl of Arundel, which is 
considerable, will apparently be further increased. The aforesaid High Treasurer's son goes 
by the first opportunity to Savoy, with a message of condolence on the death of the late 
Duke; as the Earl of Lycester goes to the King of Denmark to condole on the death of his 
Majesty's wife's mother. 

And herewith, commending ourselves, most humbly, to Your High Mightinesses' good 
graces, we will pray God Almighty, High and Mighty Lords, that He may bless your High 
Mightinesses' wise government more and more. 

Your High Mightinesses 

Most obedient and 

Most faithful servants, 
In London, this 23^ May, 1632. (Signed) Alb: Joachimi. 

Stylo, novo. Govert Brassek. 



Remonstrance of the Ambassadors of the States General to King Charles I. 

[ From the MS. In the Eoyal Archives at the Hague ; File, entitled Engeland. 1682. ] 

To the Most Serene King of Great Britain, &c. 

Sire 

In the audience which it pleased Your Sacred Majesty to give us at Newmarket, we 
represented that their Lordships, the States General, our Masters, aware that the enemy 
labored to foment some misunderstanding between Your Sacred Majesty and their Lordships, 
endeavoring, for that purpose, to create a belief that their Lordships did not entertain the 
respect due to Your Sacred Majesty, and even that they leaned more towards some other Prince 



56 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

than towards Your Majesty, had deemed it necessary to send expressly to Your Sacred 
Majesty to assure you of their respect for Your person, and of the affection they bore Your 
Majesty's Sacred Person and State, and to pray you not to condescend to lend an ear to such 
like calumnies, which, tending only to disturb an existing union, they have the greater cause 
to fear. That, in confirmation of the respect our said Lords cherish for Your Sacred Majesty, 
they had been pleased to communicate to Your Majesty the subject of the embassy they had 
sent to France, and that they had, on the earliest notice, ordered that the vessel be sent back 
which their Captains had captured near Roculvers ; they pray the aflfection they entertain for 
Your Sacred Majesty may be measured by that they manifest towards your nearest of kin. 

We besougiit your Majesty, Sire, thereupon to be pleased to continue to our Masters the 
honor of Your good graces, and to treat them as good neighbors, friends and allies, by causing 
our enemies to give up the vessels they have captured, and especially that it please Your 
Majesty to put an end to all seizures and prohibitions against the prizes taken from our enemies 
at sea, being brought into your Majesty's harbors, such being contrary to the law of Nations 
and the universal law and practice of all the princes of Europe, and contrary even to the 
constitution of Your Kingdom and the practice of Your ancestors, and even of Your Majesty, 
and finally, to give order for the delivery to Captain le Clercq, of the prize he captured from 
our enemy fourteen months ago. 

We complained also, Sire, of the publication of two certain books, the tendency whereof is 
only to excite the temper of one people against the other, a result altogether contrary to that 
desired by our Masters. 

Your Majesty was pleased to defer an answer to the foregoing, until you should have 
returned to the city of London. Wherefore, Sire, we most respectfully approach Your Sacred 
person, that you may be pleased to give us such a reply as may contribute to a firm union 
between the two States, so profitable to both. The happy accession of Your Majesty to Your 
crown, which we this day celebrate, induces us to hope. Sire, that Your Majesty will render 
us this day happy, by the assurances to our Masters of your affection for them. We pray God 
that Your Majesty may see many returns of the same day. 

Moreover, Sire, we cannot conceal from Your Majesty that we are very sorry to hear that 
whilst we labor to cement the good correspondence between Your Sacred Majesty and their 
Lordships the States, your subjects, on the other hand, create new difficulties. 

Thus it is, that the subjects of their Lordships, the States, have, for a long time, traded in 
the river Manathans, now called Maurice, in the West Indies, having purchased from the native 
inhabitants and paid for a certain island called also Manathans, where they remain surrounded 
on all sides by the Natives of the country, and have, from all time, in coming and going, freely 
enjoyed your Majesty's ports and harbors without any objection. 

Now it has happened, that a vessel belonging to the West India Company, and coming from 
the said island, with quite a number of people, their wives and children on board, arrived at 
Plymouth harbor through stress of weather, where she has been seized with very great 
inconvenience to the said people. 

Wherefore, Sire, we most humbly pray your Majesty to be pleased to give order that the 
ship be released, so that the said people may terminate their voyage. 

[Found as an appendix to the despatch of Mess" Joachimi and Brasser, received 11"" 
June, 1633.] 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : L 57 

Answer to the Remonstrance of the Dutch Ambassadors. 

[ From the MS. in the Royal Archives at the Hague ; File entitled, Sn^jeland. 1682. ] 

Answer to the Remonstrance presented to the King and the Lords, his 
Commissioners, by their Lordships the Ambassador and Deputy of the 
Lords States General of the United Provinces, in April, 1G32. 

First: as regards the occasion of this Remonstrance, which is founded on the suspicion of 
some misunderstanding, it cannot but appear strange to his Majesty who could not imagine, 
by any indication, except by this Remonstrance, that there had been evil designed attempts 
made with a view to disunion, nor that offence had been taken to the respect shown by the 
said Lords the States to other princes. For although his Majesty might well claim for himself 
the preference in the balance of their esteem, he would not object to the good understanding 
they cultivate with their other friends, confident that they are in a position to weigh well in 
their prudence how much more advantageous is their union with him to that with others. 
Now, inasmuch as they have sent expressly to assure his Majesty of the respect and affection 
they bear him, the attention they have manifested therein is deserving all praise. These pains 
cannot indeed be too great to preserve such a treasure as they possess in the friendship of his 
Majesty and his subjects, their antient friends and good neighbors. And the consideration of 
that respect towards his Majesty, afforded by the communication of the contents of their last 
despatch to France, furnishes, indeed, an evidence of their confidence without, in the least, 
prejudicing their affairs; and were this frankness continued, it would, without doubt, have 
dissipated all those pretended clouds of disaffection and distrust. 

As regards the restoration which they have made of the vessel captured near Reculvers by 
one of their ships (mention whereof is made in the second Article) that also deserves praise, 
as the result of their justice, especially if the first delinquent had been punished and had 
made reparation for the losses and damages they have been always accustomed to demand and 
sue for in such case, which also should properly be made to prevent the recurrence of 
such depredations. 

In the third place: as regards the representation to his Majesty of the friendship they have 
manifested to his nearest relatives ; although these personally are well worthy thereof, and may 
well merit it, yet his Majesty always willingly shares and feels an interest in whatever concerns 
the beloved persons of his brother and sister, and hopes that the Lords States will not have 
cause to repent of the kind offices they have done them, which his Majesty acknowledges with 
thanks and a cordial affection towards them. 

Now, the object of this Remonstrance is to demand of his Majesty a continuation of his 
favor, and that particularly in the following points: 

1": To cause their enemies to restore, with reparation of damages, their vessels which 
they captured in his Majesty's ports and rivers specified, to the number of five. To this we 
are enabled to answer, that his Majesty's Agent has earnesly prosecuted this affair in their 
behalf, and has now rendered an account of his proceedings in that regard, communication 
whereof will be given them, in order that they may advise what will be necessary to be 
done therein. 

Vol. L 8 



58 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

2"* To release from seizure the prizes taken by tiieir people at sea from their enemies, and 
brought into our harbors. Herein, we confess that they presuppose many things which do not 
appear clear to us, particularly the allegation that this proceeding is contrary to the law of 
nations, which many learned jurisconsults do not hold, and there are few of the opposite 
opinion ; nay, even they, themselves, will confess that the decision of this point is not clear, 
as well as that wherein they say, that it is contrary to the practice of all other princes, which, 
nevertheless, is refuted by several instances. And although the puissant Kings of France 
and Spain have prided tiiemselves on this practice, their individual laws, however, do not 
constitute the public law^. As regards ours, our civilians are in doubt on the matter, and do 
not furnish an instance of this case wherein there is not some difference. Moreover, other 
considerations present tiiemselves in this connection, of such consequence, that though we 
would desire to hold the balance even, witliout prejudicing either the one or the other, yet the 
difficulty of the matter may excuse the postponement of the resolution in what relates to 
the interests of all our allies, and which must stand as a general and permanent rule. 

They require, lii^ewise, the suppression of two books, lately published to embitter, say they, 
the animosities between the subjects of the two states, contrary to what they deserved. To 
this it may be replied, that nothing save the balm of justice can heal ulcerated hearts. This 
his Majesty has waited for a long time with great patience, and should a denial or a delay of 
this be persisted in, not only will the King and people, but the whole world, complain 
of such misdeeds, and demand redress at their hands. 

In the fourth and last place, they demand the release of a vessel seized at Plymouth, returning 
from a certain plantation usurped by tiiem in the north parts of Virginia, whicii they say was 
acquired from the natives of the country. But, first, it is denied that the Indians were 
possessores bona: Jidei of those countries, so as to be able to dispose of them either by sale or 
donation, their residences being unsettled and uncertain, and only being in common ; and in the 
second place, it cannot be proved, de facto, that all the Natives of said country had contracted 
with them at the said pretended sale. 

And as to what they say in addition, that the said Natives have their residences around 
them, the truth is, that the English encompass them on the one side and on the other, as they 
well experienced heretofore when they attempted to maintain their right against them. But, 
moreover, the right his Majesty's subjects have in that country, is justified by first discovery, 
occupation and the possession which they have taken thereof, and by the concessions and 
letters patents they have had from our Sovereigns, who were, for the above reasons, the true 
and legitimate proprietors thereof in those parts, where their Lordships, the States, had not 
of themselves and did not assume, such pretension, and had not granted any patent thereof to 
their subjects, to give them any power or title thereunto. Which turned out to be the case 
(severifia), in the year 1621, when the late King of happy memory, on the complaint and 
remonstrance of the Earl of Arundel Sirs Fer. Gorges and Samuel Argal, and of Captain 
Mason, instructed his Ambassador to apply to the Lords States General to prevent the 
departure of certain ships that were preparing to go to the said country, and to forbid 
the intrusion of their subjects into that plantation ; for, then they answered, that they knew 
nothing of that enterprize, which was likewise very probable, because the said Ambassador after 
informing himself more particularly of the matter, certified his Majesty by those letters, that it 
was only two companies of Amsterdam merchants, who, whithout the knowledge or advice of the 
said Lords States, had begun to trade between the 40"' and 50"" degrees, within the limit of 
his Majesty's plantation in the said country of Virginia, and had given to those places the name 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : I. 59 

of New Netherland, Texel, Vlieland, and such like, and sent ships of 30 and 40 lasts to look for 
furs in those parts; but that he was not aware that they had begun or designed to establish 
a plantation there; and, moreover, tiiat a good number of families, inhabiting the United 
Provinces, were then soliciting him to procure them a place in the said country where they might 
settle among his Majesty's subjects, that if these who are now returned thence, and the others 
who have remained behind, wish to make a similar request and to submit themselves to his 
Majesty's government, as his subjects, it can be ascertained if he will be pleased to admit them 
in that quality, and thus permit them to leave with their ships and merchandise, or else to sell 
these here at the highest rate possible; on condition that the said Lords States promise to 
prevent them going any more to, or frequenting in any manner those parts. Should they not 
consent to that, his Majesty's interest will not permit him to suffer them to usurp and encroach 
on, in this manner, one of his Colonies of such importance, which he has great cause to cherish 
and maintain entire. 

By these answers to the said complaint, their Lordships, the States, may see what little 
cause they have of supposing, in his Majesty, any alienation towards his neighbours ; but we, 
on our side, make many complaints much more serious and more grave than those; the said 
Lords States having never offered suitable satisfaction, can well imagine that nothing but 
discontent can remain in his Majesty's breast. 

For, without mentioning the crying fact, which it is unnecessary to discuss further, the 
extreme injustice they have been guilty of in regard to the Tare had quasi banished all our 
trafic from their country, had not some moderation been obtained by the yielding and 
accommodation on our side, and not by any mitigation on their part, who retain always the 
power to extort hereafter, whatever they please in this regard. 

There also continues to be another great complaint with the Board for the depredation and 
destruction of his Majesty's subjects in Greenland; the reparation ordered by his late Majesty 
for that, remains always unfurnished. 

And to pass over all the other complaints, which daily increase, the course they have 
pursued in regard to this ship belonging to his Majesty's subjects, now detained by process at 
Rotterdam, exceeds all those that can justly be adduced against us, as will evidently be 
manifest to them by the relation of the fact, which will shortly be laid before them. In fine, 
this is the true statement of the complaints, presented on the one side and on the other. They 
complain of damages received from their enemies, the reparation whereof they demand of us; 
and of some trifling detentions at our hands which, we say and consider, are well founded; but 
we complain of their injustice, committed as well against the goods as against the lives of his 
Majesty's subjects; of having wronged us in our trade; of having dispossessed us of divers 
countries in the East and West Indies, where our right was indubitable. And if, in fine, in 
the excess of the evil, those violences explode, as they appear to apprehend, the remedy which 
ought to be applied, on the one side and on the other, is, first: to bring about a termination of 
those evils by a better administration of justice; and then, to reestablish by mutual good 
offices, that ancient friendship which augmented, and can preserve, both their commerce 
and security. 

As for us, we shall not fail to render therein all the best offices and services dependent on 
us. And as regards his Majesty, the good and gracious disposition of his heart is sufficiently 
notorious to them and to all the world. 

[Found as an appendix to the despatch of Mess" Joachimi and Brasser, of 23'' May, 1632.] 



6Q NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Messrs. JoacTiimi and Brasser to the States General. 

[ From the Original in tlie Royal Archives at the Hague ; PUe, Engeland. ] 

High and Mighty Lords. 

My Lords, 

This and the letter We Sent your High Mightinesses, on the 23"* inst., a certain unsigned ' writing. 

Sd, XeTiacerfn handed to us on the day before by Secretary Kooke. We have since addressed 

the hands of Mr. •' ■; ,„.„,. 

Tosbrreen, to ex- ^jjg ^^\^ Secretary and complained of the contents thereof, consisting of nothing 

tract the points ot -J ^ o o 

fn.mTnd'^to 'J^poH but retorts in place of satisfaction ; we also especially demanded that we should 
janM?;, 1682^ " receive an answer in the name of his Majesty, to whom we submited our 
m'S".'' 'i632?^°"" proposals, or that at least it might be expressly stated who those were who gave 
the answer, and that it might be signed by him as Principal Secretary of State. He evinced 
much scruple therein, not daring to take back with him the said writing to submit it to the 
Lords Commissioners, but requested us to speak to the Lord High Treasurer about it, as we 
have done. His Lordship told us that the writing was no answer, but only the first reply, in 
order thence to come into further conference ; all which tends to the agitation of the Amboina 
question. Your High Mightinesses know how ill instructed we are on that subject; we 
therefore request again, most humbly, that, pursuant to our previous despatches, we receive 
by the first opportunity further order on this subject. 

We particularly complained to the said Lord High Treasurer of the unreasonable and 
unheard of proceeding adopted towards the ship the Ecndracht, which arrived from New 
Netherland, and have finally so far influenced his Lordship that he promised us to give orders 
for the release of the aforesaid vessel, saving and without prejudice to his Majesty's right. 
We have advised the Agent of the West India Company hereof, so that he may retain on 
board the ship the crew he had orders to send over. 

Tiie said Lord Treasurer hath also informed us that the King hath postponed, until the 
next week, the consideration of Captain Daniel le Clercq's case, in consequence of the 
occurrence of divers important affairs here, which must be first disposed of. We have already 
written at large to your High Mightinesses on the subject of this trial and refer you thereunto. 

Yesterday evening the news came of the arrival of an extraordinary Ambassador from 
France, who had been excepted. 

And herewith commending ourselves, most humbly, to the good graces of your High 
Mightinesses, we shall pray Almighty God, High and Mighty Lords, that he may continue to 
bless your High Mightinesses' wise government more and more. 
Your High Mightinesses' 

Most dutiful and faithful Servants, 
In London, Alb. Joachimi. 

27"' May, 1632 ; new style. Covert Brasser. 

Received 11 June, 1632. 

' See note, supra p 63. — Ed. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: II. 61 

Subject for the Consideration of the AssemUy of the XIX. 1633. 

[ From the Original in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague ; File, We^ Ijidie.} 

Extract from the Points of Reference whereupon all the Chambers of the West 
India Company are summoned to Amsterdam, for the 1st April, 1633, so far 
as relates to the affairs of New Netherland. Exhibited SS"* March, 1633. 

le"- Point. 

And whereas there are some prizes at the islands of Fernando Norenho and St. Martin, it is 
to be considered whether the Commanders there, as well as those on the coast of Guinea, 
Africa and New Netherland, ought not be authorized by their High Mightinesses and the 
Prince of Orange, to adjudicate there, on said prizes; to declare them lawful, and to protect 
said prizes from seizure, in English or other harbors. 



ion of the States of Holland in regard to the Affairs of the West India Company. 

[ From the Register of Eesolutions of the States of Holland and Westfrlesland, in the Eoyal Archives' at the Hague. ] 

Resolution of the Noble, Great and Mighty Lords, the States of Holland and 
"West Friesland. The lO"" June, 1633. 

The Committee appointed to communicate with the Directors of the East and West India 
Companies on the subject of the present trade, so far as it concerns the said Companies, 
presented a report of the interview which took place this morning with the Directors of the 
West India Company; when it was proposed to them. Whether the truce to be concluded 
with the opposite party, would be advantageous or not to them. In case they were of opinion 
that the truce would be of advantage to them, the limits and whatever depended thereon must 
be taken into consideration: in case they should conclude it to be disadvantageous to them, it 
must be considered how the aforesaid Company could be best maintained. That the aforesaid 
Directors answered thereunto, that they had handed in their reasons in writing, to which they 
still adhered; and that the aforesaid Company could not exist, except by war. That the 
condition of the Company was such, that it improved from day to day, whereof they shortly 
expect intelligence; some of which they had communicated. The aforesaid Committee 
communicating their opinions further to the Assembly, were of opinion that the aforesaid 
Company could not be well maintained without a war. 



62 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Remonstrance of the West India Company against a Peace with Spain. 

[From Iha MS. in the Eoyal ArehiTes at the Hague; Lokelkas of the States General: Division, West Indischs CompagnU, No. 4.] 

To the Great and Mighty Lords, the States of Holland and Westfriesland. 

Great and Mighty Lords. 

Your Great Mightinesses were pleased to summon this day the Directors of the Incorporated 
West India Company; namely, those of the Chamber at Amsterdam; and to explain to them 
what was done, or would still likely be done, in this negotiation with the enemy concerning 
the Company, and to ask their opinion thereupon. We had truly wished that all the opinions 
of the respective Chambers in these United Netherlands, could be heard on this subject at the 
same time, and so considered by the High and Mighty Lords States General and his Highness 
the Prince of Orange, that both might thereby advance the interest of Fatherland and the 
prosperity of the Company; and that the Company might be maintained, as we heretofore 
have humbly set forth in divers Deductions and Remonstrances; and particularly in the year 
1629, when like deliberations were held. 

But as Your Great Mightinesses have been pleased to call on us specially on the subject, we 
shall not remain in default, but well and thoroughly inform your Great Mightiness of every thing 
that must be considered in this connection, for the interest of this State, according to our limited 
abilities and good disposition. 

And, lay before Your Great Mightinesses, first of all, the vast services this Company hath, 
from its inception until now, conferred on this State, and what it can further perform hereafter. 

For, howbeit, we trust that the enemy's persevering endeavors to be freed from the arms 
of this Company in the West Indies, is a clear and irrefragible argument of the service which 
it is daily conferring on this State, whilst the latter seems, nevertheless, not to greatly esteem 
or consider it ; yet the following Deduction will serve more strongly to confirm those who have 
duly comprehended the importance of the Company to this State, and aflford better information 
to those who may entertain a doubt thereupon. 

Brief deduction of the advantages the Commonwealth derives from the Company. 

First: As regards what it consumes. 

The Company hath yearly, on an average, one year with another, equipped, victualled and 
dispatched over fifty ships. 

Hath employed over six thousand, as well soldiers as seamen, and over eight or nine 
thousand during the last year. 

And for the support thereof, purchased and slaughtered a large quantity of cattle, made great 
store of biscuit, hard bread, flour, beans, peas, groats, dried codfish, butter and cheese, and 
such like supplies. 

Hath, also, sent large quantity of wines, brandies, oil, vinegar, and similar liquors. 

Item, a large amount of powder, lead, bullets, and other munitions of war. 

Secondly: Regarding duties. 

The Company imported an excessively large amount of costly wares, such as Cochineal, 
Silk, Indigo, an innumerable quantity of Sugars, Hides, Ginger and other spices. Cotton, 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : IL 63 

Elephants' teeth, Tobacco, Brazil and other woods, Salt, Gums, etc., from the exportation of 
which to other countries the State had the benefit of large duties. 

Thirdly: By the increase of the Trade and Wealth of the Commonalty. 

The said Company brought into the country a very large amount of gold and silver, both 
coined and uncoined; exported a vast quantity of all sorts of manufactures, most of which 
were made here ; for the Trade to Guinea alone requires, for all descriptions of manufactures, 
an annual outlay of above five tons of gold, and returns yearly into the country over ten tons 
of gold. 

In like manner, a large quantity of goods was shipped to other parts of Africa and America, 
in return for which many other goods were imported, whereby the inhabitants of this country 
obtained trade and employment. 

Fourthly: By strengthening the Country. 

The Company hath, at present, about one hundred and twenty well built ships, some of 400. 
and some of 300 lasts; several of 250 200 and 150 lasts and the remainder of smaller 
dimensions; all as well supplied with metal and iron pieces, and suitable ammunition, as any 
of the enemy's best and largest vessels. 

One-third, or in case of need, fully one-half of those can almost always be employed in the 
public service. 

The Company maintains and employs a large number of seamen, who, otherwise, would not 
find any work, and fits them for divers situations, even the highest in the State. 

Fifthly: Regarding the aid afilbrded to the Country. 

Particularly, wlien the enemy invaded the Veluwe, the Company supplied the common 
people with ammunition and provisions, so that its fleet, destined for Brazil, was thereby 
detained over three months, whilst it had to maintain above three thousand men abroad doing 
nothing, to the great damage and obstruction of its designs. 

The Company aided the State, in its necessity, with a handsome sum of ready money. 

And so strengthened it by the rich distribution of public and private wealth, that it became 
much better able to bear the public charges, and more promptly to discharge them. 

Sixthly: Seeing that it has inflicted such excessive damage on the enemy, and caused an 
indescribable diversion 

Laid waste Bahia, which, independent of the incurred damages, cost the King of Spain over 
ten millions to recover it; and, also, captured, plundered and destroyed Porto Rico, Margarita, 
Sancta Martha, St. Thomas, Guiana, and sundry other places; 

Took and retained Pernambuco and Tamarica, whereby the King of Spain hath lost over a 
million and a half of yearly revenue. 

Forced the said King to great expence of fleets, to be sent to Brazil, whence his sugars used 
heretofore to be brought home without any trouble, and whilst he lay asleep; and his revenue 
collected without any cost. 

Item. Prevented the Portuguese, by the continual cruizing of our ships on the coast of Brazil, 
from bringing over their sugars and other produce; twenty-three per cent of which, when 
imported, went to the King; and as much when exported, amounting together to forty-six per 
cent, nearly half the sugar; without the loss which is suffered in Brazil wood, from shrinkage. 

Also, captured his fleet from New Spain, and thrice made prize of the rich Honduras ships; 
took, moreover, in divers parts of Africa and America, over a hundred of his vessels, most of 
which had full freights, including several of his best galleons; and burnt and destroyed nearly 
as many, if not more, that had ran ashore. 



64 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Forced him to dispatch a greater number of galleons and armed ships, than he was formerly 
accustomed to send, to convey the fleet from Terra firma and New Spain. 

Obliged him to change his usual seasons, and to let his ships come over at unusual and 
unfavorable periods of the year, whereby a rich fleet from New Spain was, last year, almost 
entirely lost; and (as far as we can ascertain) his last year's fleet, which otherwise ought to 
have been in before the winter, hath not as yet arrived up to the present time; by all which 
his treasury is so exhausted, and his credit so damaged, that it can with difficulty be repaired; 
and he is, in consequence, obliged to apply to this country even for the Truce. 

It is also to be considered, that this State hath paid and still pays to foreign princes, heavy 
yearly subsidies, the money whereof goes and remains out of the country; and nothing was 
obtained in return, except what was effected this last year by the Company, who expend the 
subsidies in this country. 

From all this, and from what can be more fully set forth, if necessary, your Great 
Mightinesses will easily perceive what services the Company hath rendered this State, and 
what advantages the country hath derived from it. And more especially this province of 
Holland and Westfriesland, because thither flowed six-ninths of the Company's capital, and 
here most of the equipments were made; besides all that is above enumerated, the Company 
can hereafter effect still more for the public service, and to the enemy's prejudice. 

And that with greater ease and much more effectually than heretofore, first, because it now 
possesses, in Brazil, the most important points in that country, and the most convenient that 
could be selected in all America ; as the entire world, and even the enemy best knows. 

Secondly, because it has ascertained by great outlay and long experience, where the King's 
power in America is weakest, and how easily he can be deprived of the most valuable of 
his revenues. 

Whether these services which the Company can confer on the country, and which this State 
hath undoubtedly a right to expect for its preservation and for the humbling of the enemy, ought 
still be continued and encouraged ; or rather whether, on the contrary, such favorable advantages 
ought to be thrown away, are considerations which we leave to commend themselves to your 
Great Mightinesses' wise deliberations. 

For your Great Mightinesses will easily perceive the advantage the King of Spain hath to 
expect it the Company's Ships, and power be lifted off' his neck. And how soon he, 
unobstructed in the arrival of his fleets, will be able to recruit his battered finances and credit, 
and become, ere long, more formidable to this State and its Allies than he ever has been 
before ; and bow easily he will be able to fortify the places which now lie open to us, and to 
strengthen those already fortified, so that all our power and knowledge will hereafter profit 
us nothing. 

We can herein prescribe in no wise to your Great Mightinesses, nor be of use any longer 
than is agreeable to this State. 

But this we must, in virtue of our office, lay in all submission, before your Great 
Mightinesses, that the Company, so far as the interest of its stockholders is concerned, can 
without great loss, be easily brought to this negotiation, by money or goods for its contracts, 
such as the case deserves. That the Stockholders also would easily forget their losses, if the 
State might, by that means, be much benefitted ; but that the Company would thereby, in 
time, come to ruin, and be unable to do the State any further service. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IL 65 

For unless the war with the King of Spain continue, and liberal subsidies be received from 
the State, it can derive scarcely any benefit from the Company, even if any essential injury 
done tiie enemy; for, it will be of no consequence to this State, whether the Company, by 
negotiation, retain its possessions in Brazil, or restore Ihem to the King for a sum of money. 

We willingly acknowledge that this Company was, in the beginning, designed principally 
for the augmentation of trade and navigation, without which the great multitude of seafaring 
people, with which God has blessed this country, could not be employed, nor the several trades 
kept in continual action and prosperity. 

Also, that those who, in that operation, pretended to have been most clear sighted, were of 
the opinion that the countries of the West Indies were not so thickly settled and planted by our 
enemies, but that trade could be established with divers people and Nations ; colonies carried 
over, plantations of divers profitable products promoted, and emoluments derived therefrom 
similar to what our enemies have now for many years drawn from their's to the manifest 
strengthening of the King's finances ; and in case of delay or ill success, it was expected to 
make good a part of the loss, by return cargoes of salt ; but, in consequence of the tedious 
negotiations with those of the North Quarter, the enemy hath wholly destroyed our Salt Trade 
at Punta del Rey. 

And in regard to trade, experience hath by degrees, made us wiser, and taught us, that it is 
very meager and indifferent with the people and nations who are still independent of the King 
of Spain ; also, that the countries still unoccupied, are for the most part unproductive and of little 
value, and those which have been found good and productive, being greatly encumbered by 
timber, &c., are very difficult of cultivation, especially for our nation, who, being unaccustomed 
to so hot a climate, find it difficult to apply themselves to labor, and being unprovided with 
slaves and also not in the habit of making use of them, cannot supply their own inefficiency 
by the labor of others, as the Spaniards and Portuguese easily do by that of the Blacks 
and Indians. 

Moreover, the peopling of such wild and uncleared lands, demands more inhabitants than 
our country can supply; not so much for want of population, with which our provinces swarm, 
as because all those who will labor in any way here, can easily obtain support, and, therefore, 
are disinclined to go far from home on an uncertainty. 

To which can be added, the uncertainty of being able to protect themselves, unless at a 
greater expence than the apparent gains to be derived therefrom, seem to justify. But in 
order that your Great Mightinesses may be thoroughly informed herein, and understand the 
condition of the countries yet unoccupied by our enemies, we shall, with this view, explain 
to you. High and Mighty, more minutely our limits in the West Indies, together with the extent 
and condition thereof. 

The limits granted to us by your High Mightinesses begin, on the North, at New France, 
the bounds whereof were extended so very far by the French, that they would call in question 
our New Netherland, which is the first country occupied by our people. Though this district, 
in point of climate, ought to be as warm and suitable for fruit culture as the confines of France 
adjoining Spain, yet it was found to be nearly colder than the latter, yea, than more northerly 
countries. For this reason, then, the people conveyed thither by us have as yet been able to 
discover only scanty means of subsistence, and have been no advantage, but a drawback to 
this Company. The trade there in peltries is, indeed, very profitable, but one year with another 
only fifty thousand guilders, at most, can be brought home. South of this follow Virginia, 
Vol. I. 9 



96 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

settled by the English, and Florida, so far as it is adapted to trade, by the Spaniards. The 
large Islands are occupied by the Spaniards ; the small are difficult of access; their condition 
as yet but little known, and some of the best of all the roadsteads are in the possession of the 
French and English ; in addition to this, the English lay claim to all the Caribbean islands, by 
virtue of a certain grant made to the Earl of Carlisle. Moreover, from the Cape of Florida, 
which runs out opposite Cuba, to the beginning of New Spain, there is still more land adapted 
for settlement, and people to trade with. Now, from New Spain, Eastward, the whole coast 
of Incanata, Honduras and Terra Firma (as the Spaniards call it) to beyond Trinidad, and 
not only the coasts, but also the islands, are all settled by Spaniards; except next to these, the 
Guiana country, which we call the Wild coast; this Coast and divers rivers are inhabited by free 
Indians, and still unsettled ; in these countries are many products which might be advantageously 
brought hither ; but what of them ? Those people are so barbarous, and have so few wants 
(inasmuch as they feel no desire for clothing, and require no necessaries for their subsistence) 
that all the trade which exists there, can easily be carried on with two or three ships a year, 
and be maintained with trifling Capital. The country is bounded by the great river of the 
Amazons, which also, is not free from Spanish settlements, as our people have experienced to 
their damage. Next follows again, an extensive coast unto Ikazil, the greatest part of which 
possessing any capability of producing articles of trade or cultivation, is altogether settled by 
the Portuguese. Brazil, wholly settled by them, extends beyond the Tropic of Capricorn, 
and from thence onward to the straits of Magellan, and is of no value. 

Across the Strait, in the South sea, nothing remains unsettled, except the west part of 
Magellianica and a part of Chili, and finally, the isolated ( geunageneerde ) wealthy countries 
of Terra Australis. 

Thus your Great Mightinesses see what remains, within such great limits, in the West 
Indies, open to the Company for trade or cultivation; wherefore, from the commencement of 
our administration, we preferred to proceed in a warlike manner against the common enemy; 
the rather, because we found that even the few nations (whether situate far or near) who are 
independent of the King of Spain, could be brought to trade with us in no other way than by 
declaring themselves in our favor, and showing themselves to be, in fact, enemies of the 
Spaniards; but principally because we found that the expected service, for the welfare of our 
Fatherland and the destruction of our hereditary enemy, could not be accomplished by the 
trifling trade with the Indians, or the tardy cultivation of uninhabited regions; but, in reality, 
by acts of hostility against the ships and property of the King of Spain and of his subjects; 
surprizing his possessions and preserving them for the public service; which plan has been so 
graciously blessed by God, during these latter years, that great wealth has thereby been 
brought to this State, and the enemy's finances thrown into such arrears and confusion, that 
no improvement is to be expected therein, except from the cessation of our arms and retaining 
our fleets at home, out of those countries. But this prosecution of war, instead of commerce, 
has not been undertaken by us, of our own mere motion, but principally by the advice of the 
High and Mighty Lords States General, and the concurrence of his Serene Grace, the Prince 
of Orange; for your Great Mightinesses will well remember, that from the very inception of 
the Company, we have all been solicited by their High Mightinesses' Commissioners, not only 
to undertake some hostile expedition against the enemy, but even to dispatch our fleet to 
reinforce that which a short time before had been ordered out under the command of Admiral 
L' Hermite, and to send the ships we had then by us ready equipped in the Zuyder Zee, which 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IL 67 

from good motives and with their High Mightinesses' concurience, were dispatched to Bahia 
de Todos los Sanctos. From these beginnings have we proceeded farther and farther into 
war; and undertaken, with their High Mightinesses' advice and the approbation of iiis Serene 
Grace, divers expeditions which, to the astonishment of the universe, have been crowned, from 
time to time, with sucli success; and neglected to plant colonies and to settle countries, 
from which as great trade might have followed as we at present possess, or in all probability, 
could speedily establish; so that there remains only the trade to Guinea and Africa, which is 
trifling in comparison with the Company's large Capital, and had been already diverted and 
spoiled, by other nations; and, iu season of truce, still greater hazard is to be expected in that 
quarter. We, therefore, confidently, and of our certain knowledge, do assert, that the entering 
into a Truce, must be the ruin of this Company; and that your High Mightinesses will for 
ever lose the fortunate prop of this State, and the great decrease of your hereditary enemy's 
finances; for, let us by means of commerce be much greater than we can yet imagine, not a 
straw can the enemy be weakened thereby; nor can the sixth part of our ships be employed; 
and, consequently, only a small portion of the Seamen kept in service. We cannot oblige tiie 
Indians to trade with us; nor can we trade with them, without circumspection, if we show 
ourselves the friends of the Spaniards, and to have intimate relation with them. It were idle 
to court the Chilians and to spare the Spaniards. In fine, nothing will remain for us, save a 
meager scum of a well fed body; for the Company will be obliged to sell a great portion of 
their largest ships and many of their guns, at a heavy sacrifice, and to send the people away 
empty or sick; and then, nevertheless, to make further reductions. The stockholders will be 
discouraged; the shares will fall in value; many will sell out; as some have already 
done, and daily continue to do; even of those who, up to this time, have conferred lustre on 
this Company. 

We earnestly trust that neither their High Mightinesses, nor iiis Serene Grace, will suffer 
this, nor unnecessarily surrender so great an advantage to the enemy; but, rather, that they 
will adopt a laudable and firm resolution to maintain the Company in their Charter, and aid 
them in prosecuting the war; and that your Great Mightinesses will, herein, set them an 
example of zeal equal to what you formerly exhibited. 

For, as we have lately at some length submitted to their High Mightinesses, affairs in Brazil 
are so shaped that by sending a some what stronger force and an experienced chief thither (as 
we now propose to do, if properly encouraged) that place will not only be secured to this 
State, but rendered so profitable that its expenses will disappear, and it will produce great 
trade and prosperity to this country. 

Your Great Mightinesses can determine that the subsidies we have hereunto demanded are 
not so great as to embarrass this State; some provinces make no difficulty about them; but 
where those subsidies appear to be a little heavier than present circumstances can well justify, 
the profit to be reaped therefrom is also so great, and the security which this State will obtain 
thereby, so evident, that there ought not to be a moment's hesitation about it. 

Foreign princes, whose good successes were both to be desired and feared, were voted these 
past years heavier subsidies; these were not grudged to those from whom this State hath 
heretofore derived but little advantage, all for the purpose of creating a diversion, and 
weakening the enemy; with what excuse then will men be able to cover their neglect or 
disregard of a Company, which, out of its own private means, hath wrought such good for the 
commonwealth, and which nestles here under your Great Mightinesses' wings, and cannot be 
dreaded except by its enemies ? 



68 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

If your Great Mightinesses please to examine the deliberations previous to the compleat 
establishment of the Company; the Charter which their High Mightinesses offered, unsolicited 
hy their subjects; the circumstances which occurred in the course of the Administration, it is a 
very questionable point, whether the Directors are not better able to vindicate themselves 
before their stockholders for having expended their property so lavishly in the public service, 
than the rulers of this State to excuse themselves to posterity for having had such little regard 
for the services of the Company, which they had hitherto assisted, as to abandon it at last on 
the appearance of the enemy. 

It depends on the determination of the Lords to continue the war, or to terminate it by a 
peace, or even to suspend it for some years, by a truce. Whichever b(! resolved upon, the 
Company must necessarily come into consideration. The enemy who intrudes herein, seems 
not disposed to come to any conclusion, before and until the Company be taken off his neck, 
and the captured places restored on certain conditions. 

We are not afraid that their High Mightinesses will concur with the foe in this ; but, indeed, 
that those who most affect the truce, may charge us with being an obstruction to its full 
accomplishment. And, although it were in no wise to be tolerated, the consequence will be, 
that the resolution of subsidies will be passed late, and carried slowly into effect, so that, in 
conclusion, we shall have to pray your Great Mightinesses seriously to consider, first: whether 
this State hath to expect any notable relief and profit from the war which the Company is to 
continue in the countries of America; or, if it be better to oblige the King so far as to surrender 
such considerable advantages, obtained at so great an expense, and to abandon the Company. 

And. meanwhile, your Great Mightinesses are humbly requested to take into consideration 
the Charter the High and Mighty Lords States General have granted us, which attracted 
stockholders not only in this country, but also among many of the confederates, and how it will 
be possible to answer the one or the other before the world ; also, to pay due attention to the 
placards lately promulgated in Brazil, in the name of their High Mightinesses, according to 
which the natives and likewise some of the Portuguese, as we are informed, have already 
begun to regulate themselves, and cannot be abandoned without marked infamy and loss 
of credit. We pray God, that He be pleased to inspire your Great Mightinesses in such wise, 
as shall tend to the dissemination of His honor, and the prosperity of our fatherland. 



Subject for the Consideration of the Assembly of the XIX. 1634. 

[ From the Original In the Koyal Archivea at the H»gae : File, Vea Indie. ] 

Points of Reference on which all the Chambers of the West India Company are 
summoned to Amsterdam for the IS"" March, 1634, extracted as far as relates 
to New Netherland. 
e"- Point. 

Inasmuch as the differences with the proprietors of Colonies of New Netherland were 
postponed at the last meeting, the members shall be reminded to come with mature deliberation, 
in order to terminate this matter at once, according to the Resolution of the T"" and lO"" 
September, IG"" November, and 17"" and 21" December last. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : II. 69 

Resolution of (lie States General on the difficulties lelioeen the Company and the 

Patroons. 

[ From the Eegi»ter of Resolutions of the States General, In the Royal Archives at the Hagne. ] 

Saturday the IS"" May, 1634. 
Foiio403. Read a certain memorial presented to their High Mightinesses, setting forth 

West India Company ^ , ,.«, , ., ix-v «. 

aeainst that some ditierences liave arisen between the Directors of the West India 
New Nfiheriand. Company, on the one part, and the Patroons, Planters in New Netherland, on 
the other side; and that parties have, according to resolution of the Assembly of the XIX., 
recently held in Amsterdam, mutually referred the said question to their High Mightinesses, or 
their committee ; and that their High Mightinesses should therefore nominate some 
Commissioners from their body, before whom both parties may'submit and institute their suits, 
in order that, after hearing said parties, judgment may be rendered according to equity. Which 
being considered, it is hereby resolved and decided to request and appoint Mess" Arnhem, 
Herberts de Knuyt, Weede, Lecklama and Haersolte to hear and understand both sides, pro 
and con, respecting their differences; and afterwards to decide said differences as, by plurality 
of votes, shall be found most agreeable to justice; and in case of the absence of the one 
party or the other, their High Mightinesses' said Commissioners are empowered to transact 
business with the party present ; and those interested shall be summoned to appear here on 
the 21" inst., in order to proceed to business on the day following. 



General to the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company. 

[From the Minute In the Royal Archives at the Hague ; File, West Indie. ] 

To the Chamber of the West India Company at Amsterdam, as presiding Chamber. The 
13 May, 1634. 

The States. 
^'"'agllSt"'""'^ Whereas we have this day deputed some Lords from our Assembly, to hear and 
Nethlrrand"" '^^'^ cxamine you and the committee from the principal stockholders on the one side, 
and the Patroons, planters in New Netherland on the other side, respecting the differences 
which have arisen ; with authority afterwards to determine the said differences as they, by 
plurality of votes, shall find most agreeable to justice. And the 22'' instant having been fixed 
and appointed by our commissioners for that business; we have therefore resolved to notify you 
thereof, requesting that your delegates, together with the authorized principal stockholders, 
may be here at the Hague on the evening of the 21" instant, with full powers and instructions, 
in order to appear on the following day before our Commissioners above mentioned, who will 
then proceed to business. Wherein fail not. 

Done IS"- May, 1634. 



70 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

States General to the Patroons of JVew Netherland. 

[ From the Minute in the Royal Archives at the Hague ; File, Wmt Tndie. ] 

To Mr. Michiel Pauw, Lord of Achtienhoven, Co-Patroon ia New Netherland. The 
IS"" May, 1634. 

The States. 
'^^'' cTrnpany"'^'" Whereas we have this day deputed some Lords from our Assembly, to hear 
thePatrooMofNew and examine you and the other interested patroons, planters of the Colonies in 

Blommert, 

laSeurick utmei. differences which have arisen, with power afterwards to determine the said 
differences, as by plurality of votes they shall find equitable. And tlie 22'' instant having been 
fixed and appointed by the said Lords, our Deputies, as the day for the business; we have 
therefore resolved to notify you thereof, commanding you to attend here at the Hague, duly 
provided in all things, as the case requires, on the evening of the 21" instant, in order to appear 
on the next day, for the purposes aforesaid, before the above mentioned Lords, our deputies, 
who will then proceed to business. Wherein fail not; giving notice hereof to the other 
patroons, planters, who are also interested in the aforesaid diflTerences. 



Done 13 May, 1634. 



Resolution of the States General on a letter from the West India Company. 

[ From the EcgiEter of Eesolutions of the States General, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Monday, 22 May, 1634. 
Folio 480. Read a letter from the Directors of the West India Company at Amsterdam, 

West India Com- gf i|-|e gQ"' instaut, requesting, for reasons therein set forth, that the appearance 
Planters. before their High Mightinesses' Deputies, whereunto they are summoned for the 

22'* instant, may be postponed for eight days or more. Whereupon it is resolved, to hand 
the aforesaid letter to Messrs. Arnhem and others, their High Mightinesses' Deputies, who will 
fix another suitable day, and notify the aforesaid Directors, together with the masters of the 
Colonies in New Netherland, to appear as aforesaid. 



Mesolution of the States General fixing a day for hearing the Patroons, &c. 

[ From the Register of Kesolutions of the States General, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Saturday, 10 June, 1634. 
Folio 4S2. On motion of Mr. Arnhem, the Directors of the West India Company, and the 

Westlndia Company , »t . , i , ,, , i i i 

against Patroous, planters in New Netherland shall be summoned to be on the evening 

the Patroons plant- r *-* 

«"• of the 14"' instant at the tavern, in order to proceed to business next day on 

the difference between them respectively existing. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: II. 71 

States General to the Patroons of New Neiherland. 

[ From the Minute In the Royal Archives at the Hague. File, West Indie. ] 

To the Patroons, planters in New Netherland. The 10"" June, 1634. 
The States. 



differences existing with those of the West India Company, respecting the Colonies and their 
rights in New Netherland. And whereas the day must be postponed at the request of those of 
the West India Company, we have accordingly adjourned it until the 14"" instant, next ensuing, 
in the evening, at the tavern. Wherein fail not. 

Done lO"- June, 1634. 



States General to the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Compamj. 

[ From the Minute in the Eojral Archives at the Hogue. File, West Indie, ] 

To the Directors of the West India Company, in the Chamber at Amsterdam. The 10"" 
June 1634. 

The States. 
■West Indira Company ^6 notified you on the IS"" May last, to appear here on the evening of the 
Netherland! '" ^^'^ 21" then ncxt ensuing, on the subject of the differences with the Patroons, 
planters in New Netherland. And whereas the day must be postponed at your request, we have 
accordingly adjourned it until the 14"" instant next ensuing, at the tavern, in order to proceed 
to business on the following day. Wherein fail not. 

Done 10"- June, 1634. 



Mr. Joachimi to the States General. 

[ From the Original, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague ; File, Engelcmd. ] 

High and Mighty Lords. 

Mess" William Clobery, David Morehead and Johan de la Barre, merchants here in London, 
having fitted out a ship to trade on Hudson's river, as they call it, have been prevented to 
traffic there, and in that vicinity, by the Officers of the Dutch West India Company. Deeming 
themselves injured thereby, they pretend to demand reparation for their damages. Previous, 



72 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

however, to submitting their complaints to the King or to the Lords of his Majesty's Council, 
they concluded to speak to me and to place the information in my hands, to see if they could 
obtain satisfaction voluntarily for what they claim. Copy of the aforesaid information 
accompanies this. I have also sent a like copy to the Directors of the aforesaid Company. 
Parties have given nie tlie name of a person who offered them a good sum of money for the 
claim, in order, as they say, that these complaints may be added to the other grievances. For 
the Spanish Ambassador gathers together ail that can be collected against your High 
Mightinesses and your subjects, with a view to provoke and foster misunderstandings among 
this nation, against your High Mightinesses and the inhabitants of the United Netherlands. 
To this they seem to attach altogether too much credit. Some months ago, disputes about 
boundaries broke out here, in presence of the King and his Majesty's Council, between those 
who have the King's Charter for Virginia and those who sail to and colonize New England. 
A noble Lord, who regrets to perceive that there is any misunderstanding between the English 
and Dutch nations, has informed me, that the aforesaid disputes did not arise because the 
persons above mentioned were suffering any injury, the one from the other, but in order to 
pick a quarrel with the Dutch about the possession of New Netiierland. The aforesaid Lord 
was of opinion, that the disputes above mentioned, are forged in the Spanish forge. He asked, 
if the Dutch could not be disposed to pay the King of Great Britain some acknowledgment for 
what they occupy there? I cut him off from all hope of that. The intrigues of the Spaniards 
are many and palpable. They have great advantage, because your High Mightinesses' power 
at sea, is looked on with great jealousy here. I humbly crave your High Mightinesses to 
make such order, that I may know by the first opportunity, how I shall have to act further in 
this matter. The right way would be to leave these people to the law. But I fear, that this 
case would not be allowed to be tried in the ordinary manner; inasmuch as the question of the 
King's jurisdiction is mixed up with it. The merchant, or factor, of the ship in this case, is 
the same person that was factor to the French ship of Caen ; respecting which the Directors 
of the East India Company several years ago, had trouble. Your High Mightinesses' letter 
of the xvii March, with the M. Oxensterne's proposal, and the pieces thereunto belonging, and 
another of the xxi of the aforesaid month, respecting the two Scots skippers, arrived here only 
on the xvii instant, through want of conveyance from Zealand. Herewith I shall close this, 
commending myself respectfully to your High Mightinesses, and praying God, 

High and Mighty Lords, that He may bless your High Mightinesses' Government, more 
and more. 

In London, the xxvii May, 1634. Your High Mightinesses' 

most humble servant. 
Received IS"" June, 1634. (signed) Alb. Joachimi. 

1634. 



Appendix; Received 13. June, 1634. 
Pro magro Clobery 
et Alio. 

1 November 1633. 
1. Andrewe Hume of the precincte of Saincte Catherine, London marriner, aged about 32 
yeares, sworne before the Wor" William Sames, Doctor of Lawes, Surrogate to the righte 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IL 73 

Wor" Sir Henry Marten, knight judge of his Majesties highe Court of the Admiralltye. 
To the first interrye : hee sayeth, that the interr'= William Clobery, David Morehead and 
John Delabarr, in the monethes of November and December, Anno domini 1632 iaste paste, 
did freighte and victual! the interr'* Shippe, called the William of London (vyhereof William 
Trevore was Master) and did lade diverse goodes abord her, to be transported in the said 
Shippe to Hutsons baye, adioyninge unto Virginia. W'in his Mnjesties dominions there to 
be traded w"" and trucked awaye w"" the Natives of those countries for beaver skinnes and 
other skinnes or furrs; the premisses hee knoweth to be true, being m" mate of the said 
shippe the saide voyage. 

To the second hee sayeth, that the said shippe did arrive into Hutsons river upon or about 
the thirteenth day of Aprill last past ; and that the mouth or entrance of said river is 
about the latitude of ffourtye degrees and twentye minutes, and in longitude sixe and fourtye 
degrees or thereaboutes from England, accomptinge twentye leagues to a degree. And sayeth, 
that assoone as the said shippe came into harbor within the said river, the Dutch commanded 
all her compauye (excepte one boye) to leave the said shippe and to come to theirs forte. 
Where they were about halfe an houre, and then wente abord theirs shippe againe ; and 
afterwards wente about ffourtye leagues upp into the river. And there Jacob Jacobson Elkins, 
the merchants factor, and some others of the Companye wente on shoare and pitchte his tente 
and carryed divers goodes with them to trade with the natives of those places for beavers and 
other furrs. But the Dutch foUoweth them upp the said river, and would not suffer thsm to 
trads there; but went on shoare, and pulled downe ds said factors tent, and carried the goods 
and the said factor, and ths rest of the companye, which were on shoare abord the said shippe 
the William againe. And as they were carryinge of them abord, sounded theire trumpett in the 
boate, in disgrace of the Englishe, and beate twoe Indians, which came and broughte others 
with thsm to trade with the said Jacob Jacobson, beinge acquainted with him. And afterwards 
the Dutch goings abord the said shippe, they weighed her anchors and inforced her companye 
to depte with the said shippe out of the said river, and went downe the river with them to 
sea They should not trade there, and the said merchants factor (as he tould this exaidate 
and others of the said shipps' companye) desired a certificate from ths Dutch of their carriage 
towards the companye of the said shippe, and that they would not lett the englishe trads theire 
to shews it to his merchants, when hee came home; which the Dutch refused to give him, and 
further he cannot deposs. 

To the third interrye : hee sayeth, that by the injury and wrongs, done by the Dutch, as is 
aforesaid, the voyage of the said shippe the William was quite overthrowen, and the merchants 
that sett her forth, have thereby susteyned losse and dammage (as this deponent beleeveth ) 
to the value of foure thousand poundes sterlinge att the least with they meighte there have gott 
in trade with the natives in those places, if they had bine suffered to trade, and had trucked 
awaye all theirs godes, accordinge to the rate as they had trucked for some small quantitis of 
the said goodes, before the Dutch inforced them to depte from thence as aforesaid, and further 
he cannott depose. 

Dicto dis. 
2. William fforde of Lyraehouse in the countye of Midd. marriner, aged about 36 yeares, 
sworne as afore said. 

Vol. L 10 



74 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

To the ffirst interrye : he sayeth, that in or about the moneth of November Anno domini 
1632 last past the interr'^ William Clobery, David Morehead and John Delabarr of London 
merchants, did victuall and set forth the shippe, called the William of London (whereof 
William Trevore was Master) and did lade diverse goodes abord her, for a voyage to bee made 
by her to Hutson's river, adioyninge to Virginia and New England, within his Majesties 
dominions, there to trade and trucke awaye such goodes as shee carryed in her with the natives 
of those countryes for beaver skinnes and other furrs; the premisses he knoweth to bee true, 
being gunner of the said shippe the said voyage. 

To the second hee sayeth, that the said shippe the William arived and entred into Hutson's 
river in the moneth of Aprill last past, which is in the latitude of ffourtie degrees and twentye 
minutes or thereaboutes, and about three dayes after her arrivall there, the Dutch there 
inhabitinge send and commannded all her companye (excepte one boye) to come to their forte, 
where they stayed about twoe houres, and whilest they were there, the Governor commannded 
his gunner to make ready three peeces of ordnance and shott them off for the Prince of 
Orange and to spread the said Princes Colouers, whereupon Jacob Jacobson Elkins, the 
merchants factor of the said shippe, the William, commannded this deponent to goe abord 
the said shippe and spread her Colouers, and to shoote of theire peeces of ordnance for the 
honor of the Kinge of England. And afterwards the said shippe, goinge about three or fower 
and fourtie leagues higher upp in the said river, to trade a Spanishe carvell, manned with all 
Dutch, and a smacke followeth the said shippe; and after the said marchants factor, and this 
exaidate, and some other of the said shippers companye, had carryed divers goodes on shoare, 
and pitchte theire tent. And when the Indians or natives of those places came downe to trade 
with them, the Dutch did as much as they could disparidge the cloath and other comodities, 
that the Englishe did trucke away to the said Indians. But the said Jacob Jacobson Elkins, 
being very well acquainted with the said Indians, having often traded with them and speakinge 
theire language. The Indians were a greate deale more willinge to trade with them then with 
the Dutch, which the Dutch perceavinge they forbadd, and would not suffer the said Jacobson 
Elkins and the rest of the Companye of the said shippe the William to trade there any longer, 
but inforced her Companye to take theire goodes, which they had landed, to trucke awaye with 
the said Indians, and putt as manye of them as the shaloppe, belonging to the said shippe, would 
carrye abord that shalloppe, and therein so carryed them abord the said shippe, and the rest of 
the said goodes together with the said factor, and the rest of the said shippes Companye, which 
were on shoare. The Dutch carryed abord her in theire owne boate, and then weighed her 
anchors, and putt her under seale, and commannded the companye of the said shippe to come 
downe to theire lower forte. And the said Dutch smacke kepte them companye to see (as 
this deponent and the rest of the Englishe did conceave) that they should not trade by the 
waye. And hee also sayeth, that about three or foure dayes, before the Dutch carryed 
the Englishe and theire goodes abord theire shippe as aforesaid; this deponente beinge in a 
shalloppe, neere the upper forte, belonginge to the Dutch, in trade with the Indians for some 
fewe beaver skinnes and other furrs. The Dutch commannded him to bee goone from thence 
with the saide shalloppe unto the tent, where the rest of his Companye were. Whereuppon 
this deponent desired a note under the hand of the Governor of the said forte, that hee was 
forced to depte from thence with the said shalloppe. Otherwise (he tould them) the merchants 
would not give him his wages. And then the said Governor sett his hand to such a note as 
he desired; and then the said Governor and others of his companye came into the said 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IL 75 

shalloppe, and did stecke greene bowes about ber, and carryed a trumpetter with them, and 
rowed the said shallopp downe to the tent, where this exaidats coinpanye were. And by 
the waye the said trumpett was sounded, and the Dutche drancke a bottle of strongwaters 
of three or fower pints, and were very merrye. And further he cannott depose, savinge 
he sayeth, that the Governors name of the upper forte, belonginge to the Dutch, was one 
Master Huntum.^ 

To the third he sayeth, that by reason of the wrongs and injuries, donne by the Dutch unto 
the conipanye of the said shippe the William, the voyage of the said shippe was quite 
overthrowne, and the merchants which sett her forth and freighted her, have thereby susleyned 
dammage to the somme of foure thousand poundes sterlinge att the leaste (as bee verily 
beleeveth) for that theire was a greate quantitie of beaver skinnes and other furrs to be trade 
for there. And the natives of those places were a greate deale more willinge to trade with 
the English then with the Dutch, and sayeth, that if they had bine suffered to staye and trade 
there, and had trucked awaye all the goodes abord the said shippe, att the rate as they had 
for the goodes which they had trucked awaye before, the Dutch inforced them to depart from 
thence. They could not have made lesse of the said goodes in beaver skinnes and other furrs, 
then to the value of four thousand poundes. And this he affirmeth uppon his oath to be true. 

Dicto die. 

3'^ Richard Barnard of Hull, in the countye of Yorke, marriner, aged about 24 yeares 
sworne as aforesaid. 

Tho the ffirst interrye : bee sayeth, that the shippe the William of London ( whereof William 
Trevore was master) was victualled and sett forth by master Cloberye, master Morehead and 
master Delabarr, of London merchants, and they laded diverse goods abord her for a voyage, 
to be made by her to Hutsons river in America, betweene Virginia and New England, within 
the dominions of the King of England, to trucke awaye such goodes, as shee carryed with the 
natives of those places for beaver skinnes, furrs and other commodities. The premisses he 
knoweth to be true, beinge one of the companye of the said shippe, the said voyage. 

To the second he sayeth, that the said shippe the William, arrived into Hutsons river, righte 
againste the Dutch forte there, about the latter end of Aprill or begininge of May last past (: to 
his nowe beste remembrance:) and after her arrivall there, the Dutch inhabitinge in the said 
fforte, commannded all her companye (: except one boye:) to leave the said shippe, and to come 
on shoare att the said fforte. And whilest they were there, there were three peeces of 
ordnance shott off from the forte, for the Prince of Orange and his Colours were spred abrod 
upon the Castle. And the Governor of that fforte toulde the factor and the rest of the 
companye of the said shippe, that they should not trade there. But the said merchants factor, 
named Jacob Jacobson Elkins, tould the Governor of the said fforte, that that land was the 
King of Englands lande, and they (: meaning the companye of the said shippe) were subiects, 
and therefore would trade there. And after they had stayed three dayes by the said fforte by 
the commannde of the Governor, they weighed their anchors and wente further into the said 
river, to trade and trucke awaye the godes abord the said shippe. Whereuppon the Dutch 
manned out three vessells after them viz* a pinnace, a carvell and a hoye, which followeth the 
said shippe. And after the said factor had landed a good quantitie of goodes, and had erected 

■ Hans Jorrissen Houten, who traded to New Netherland in 1621, was Commissary or Vice-director at Fort Orange, at 
this time. — Ed. 



76 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

a tente, and traded with the Indians some fewe dayes; the Governor of the upper fforte, 
belonginge to the Dutch, cominge to the said tent with other Dutchmen with him, and 
perceivinge, tiiat tiie said Jacob Jacobson Eii\ins was very well aquainted with the Indians, 
and speake theire language very well, and was much beloved of them; and that they were a 
greate deale more willinge to trade with him then with the Dutch: the said Governor envied 
att the said merchants factor and the rest of the Englishe, and tould them, that they should 
not trade there any longer. But the said factor replyed, that they were the Kinge of Englands 
subiectes, and that that land was within the dominions of the Kinge of England. And 
therefore they would trade there. Whereuppon the Dutch pulled downe the said tent, 
and tooke all the goodes, which were in the said tent, and sente them, together with the factor 
and the rest of the Englishe, which were on shoare abord the said shippe the William, 
some in their owne boate and some in a shalloppe, belonginge to the said shippe the 
William. And then the said Dutch, goinge abord the said shippe, they weighed her anchors 
and commannded them to departe. And the foresaid carvell and twoe other small sloopes wente 
downe with them to the lower flTorte, to see that they did not trade by the waye; and further 
he cannott depose. 

To the third he sayeth, that by reason the Dutch would not suffer the Companye of the saide 
shippe to trade, as aforesaid, her voyage was quite overthrowne ; and that if the said Dutch 
had sustened them to trade freely there, and that they had trucked awaye all the goodes, 
which they carried thither, att the rate that they trucked awaye the rest they mighte have had 
in trucke for the said goodes, which they were inforced to bringe away from thence in beaver 
skinnes, furrs and other commodities, to the value of foure thousand poundes Sterlinge att the 
leaste ; and this hee sayeth is true, of vertue of his oath. 

Dicto die. 

4. Christopher Langham of Wappinge, in the countie of Middex, sayler, aged about 26 
yeares, sworne as aforesaid. 

To the fSrst interreye : he sayeth, that master Clobery, master Morehead and master Delabarr, 
of London merchantes, about a fortnighte or three weekes before Christmas laste paste, did 
victuall and sett forth the shippe the William (whereof William Trevore was master) and 
did lade diverse goodes abord her, to be transported to Hutsons river, betweene Virginia 
and New England, within the dominions of the Kinge of England, to bee traded and trucked 
awaye there with the natives of those places for beaver skinnes, and other furrs ; the premisses 
he knoweth to bee true, being one of the quartermasters of the said shippe, the said voyage. 

To the Second interroye : hee sayeth, that the said shippe arrived att Munhaddons fort in 
Hutsons river uppon or about the thirteenth day of Aprill last past, where all the said shippes 
Companye (excepte one boye) were commannded to come on shoare att the said fforte. And 
after the said shippe goinge further upp in the said river to trade with the natives of those 
places, for beaver and furrs. This exadiate and his precontest William Fford and some others 
of the said shippes Companye, beinge in trade with the Indians neere fort Oramia, another 
fort, belonging to the Dutch. They were by the Dutch forbidden to trade there ; and 
afterwards the Governor of the fort, named Master Huntum came accompanyed with other 
Dutch into the Challopp, belonginge to the William, and rowed the said shallopp upp to the 
place, where Jacob Elkins and otlier of the said shippes companye hat pitched theire tent, and 
were in trade with the Indians for beaver and furrs. And as they wente up in the saide 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : II. 77' 

shallopp, they sticked greene bowes all about her, and drancke strongwaters, and sounded 
theire trumpett in a triumphinge manner over the Engiishe. And when they came upp to the 
said tent, they would not suffer the said Jacob Elkins (whoe was well knowne both to the 
Dutch and to the Indians) to trade there; but pulled downe a part of his tente, and inforced 
the said factor to send part of the goodes, which he had landed for trade, in the said shalloppe 
abord the said shippe the William, and the rest of the said goodes together with the said 
factor; and the rest of the English, which were there on shoare. The Dutch carryed in theire 
owne boate, abord the said shippe (and as he hath heard) did beate some of the Indians for 
tradinge with the Engiishe; and hee also sayeth, that the said Dutch, goinge abord the said 
shippe the William, weighed her anchors, and commannded her Companye to departe from 
thence. Whereuppon the Companye of the said Shippe, to keepe her from drivinge on shoare, 
putt her under saile, and sailed downe the said river. And the said Dutch hoye sailed downe 
with her. And when the said shippe came to the lower forte, the said Jacob Elkins did 
demande a certificate from the Governor to shewe to his merchants of the behavio"' of the 
Dutch towards the Engiishe ; but whether that certificate were denyed or given him, he 
knoweth not; and further he cannott depose. 

To the third hee sayeth, that the voyage of the said shippe the William was quite overthrowne 
by reason that the Dutch would not suffer her Companye to trade as aforesaid And the 
merchants that sett her forth, are thereby dampnified to the some of foure thousand poundes 
sterlinge att the least, as hee verily beleeveth, for (hee sayeth) if they had traded for and 
trucked awaye all the goodes, which shee brought from thence unto those Indians, with 
whome they were in trade, they mighte have gayned in trucke for the saide goodes soe much 
beaver and furrs as would have bine worth foure thousand poundes and upwards ; and this 
he affirmeth uppon his oath to bee true. 



6 November 1633. 

5. William Deepinge of the Parishe of S' Mary Monthawe, London barber, Chirurgeon, 
aged about 27 yeares, sworne before the Wor" William Merricke, doctor of lawes, surrogate 
to the righte wor" Sir Henry Marten, knight judge of His Majesties highe court of the 
Admiralltye. 

To the ffirste interreye : hee sayeth, that in the monethes arrived the shippe the William of 
London (whereof William Trevore was master) was victualled and sett forth att the charges 
of William Cloberye, David Morehead and John Delabarr, of London raerchantes. And there 
were diverse goodes, laden abord by them, to be transported in the said shippe to Hutsons river 
which is scituate between Virginia and New England, within his Majesties dominions, there to 
bee traded with and trucked awaye to the natives of those countries for beaver and other 
skinnes and furrs ; the premisses he knoweth to bee true, beinge Chirurgeon of the said 
shippe, the said voyage. 

To the second interreye: he sayeth, that the said shippe arrived at the mouth of Hutsons 
river, uppon or about the twentieth day of Aprill laste paste. And when she came righte 
againste Manhuttons fort the in said river, which fort was commannded by the Dutch, This 
exaidate was sente to the said fort to intreate the Governor to come abord the said shippe. 
But the said Governor would not goe abord, but commannded that all the companye of the said 
shippe should come to the said fforte; wente accordinglye, and they all (excepte one boye) 



78 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

lefte theire shippe, and the Governor demannded theire merchante, wherefore they came thither. 
And he replyed, that they intended to goe upp further into the river, to trade with the natives 
of those places, as it was lawful! for them to doe, beinge the King of Englantes subiects. 
But the said Governor tould the saide factor, that hee could not suffer them to passe: for (as 
hee sayde) it was more then he could answere to his masters att home; and therefore he would 
take some time to advise with his counsell about it. And after the companye of the said shippe 
had stayed before the said forte five or sixe dayes, expectinge the Governor answere, whether 
he would suffer them to passe upp the said river, to trade there or not; and noe answere beinge 
broughte they weighed theire anchors, and wente upp the river. And after they had bine in 
trade there by the space of tenn dayes or thereabouts, there came upp an officer from the said 
fforte with twoe letters from the said Governor, and that officer did commannde them in the 
Governors name, to give over tradinge there, and to departe from thence. And presently 
thereuppon parte of the goodes, which the merchant and other of the companye had landed 
for to trade, were broughte abord the said shippe againe by her owne shallopp, and the saide 
merchants factor and the rest of the companye, which were there on shoare, and the rest of the 
said goodes were broughte abord her by the Dutch, in theire owne boate; and then the Dutch 
weighed the anchors of the said shippe the William, and broughte them abord her by the 
commannde of the said officer. Whereuppon her companye to keepe her from runninge on 
shoare, putt her under saile, and beinge forbidden to trade there, sailed downe the said river. 
And hee also sayeth that there was a note sett upp againste the gate of the cheife forte there, 
the effecte of which note (: as a fHemminge that belonged to that fforte tould this deponent :) was, 
that the Governor did thereby straightlye chardge and commannde all his people, that uppon 
paine of loosinge theire head and all theire wages, none of them should give any certificate to 
the Englishe, how they were used by the Dutch, and kepte from tradinge there: and further 
hee cannott depose. 

To the third he sayeth, that the voijage of the said shippe was overthrowne by the iniuries 
and wronges, done unto her Companye, in not sufferinge them to trade there; and the 
merchants that freighted and sett her forth, have bine thereby greatly dampnified ; and further 
hee cannott depose, savinge he sayeth, that whilest the said shippe was in trade in the said 
river, there came some Indians abord hir, which did tell this deponente (:as it was interpreted 
by a fHemminge, that belonged to a dutch pinnace) that, if the said shippe the William did staye 
there, but one moone longer a nation, called the Maques, would come downe, and bringe with 
them fower thousand beaver skinnes. And another nation, called the Mahiggins, would come 
downe thither with three hundred skinnes more, every merchantable beaver skinne, beinge 
worth twentye shillinges at the leaste. 

Dicto die. 

6. John Johson of the parishe of Saint Botolphes Algate, London cittizen, and cordwayner 
of London, aged about 4-5 yeares, sworne before the wor"" William James, doctor of lawes, 
surrogate to the righte wor"" Sir Henry Marten, Knight judge of his Majesties highe court of 
the Admiralltye. • 

To the ftirstinterreye: he sayeth, that about a moneth before Christmas laste past, the shippe 
the William of London (whereof William Trevore was master) was victualled and sett forth 
by master Cloberye, master Delabarr and master Morehead of London merchantes, on a voyage 
to Plymouth in New England, there to lande some passengers, and from thence to Hutsons 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IL 79 

river, betweene New England and Virginia, tliere to truclie awaye such goodes as shea carryed 
to the natives of those couutryes for beaver and other furrs; the premisses hee kaoweth to be 
true, beinge cooke of the said shippe, the said voyage. 

To the second he sayeth, that after the arrival! of the said shippe into Hutsons river, neere 
Manhattons forte (beinge inhabited by the Dutch ) the Governor comannded all her companye 
to leave their shippe, and to come uppe to the forte, where they stayed about an houre, and then 
returned abord theire shippe againe. And afterwards wente further upp into the river to trade, 
and there Jacob Jacobson Eikins, the factor of the said shippe (whoe was well knowne to the 
Dutch and also to the Indians) wente on shoare together with this deponente and some other 
of the said shippes companye, and landed diverse goodes to trucke with the Indians, and 
erected a tent for themselves to lodge in, and putt their goodes in, and after they had bine there 
in trade some fewe dayes, the Dutch came and pitched a tent there, likewise to hinder the 
trade of the Englishe. But yet notwithstandinge the Indians did soe well affecte the said Jacob 
Jacobson, that they did resorte unto him, and were more willinge to trade with him then with 
the Dutch ; which the Dutch perceavinge, there came about a dozen dutch men, with half pikes, 
swords, musketts and pistolls, and forbade the factor, and the rest of the companye of the 
William, to trade there any longer; but commannded them to departe and pulled downe their 
tent. Whereuppon the said factor and the rest of the Englishe were inforced to give over 
their tradinge, and sente parte of their goodes abord theire shippe againe in theire shallopp. And 
the Dutch would not stayetill the returne of the said shallopp, but took de rest of the Englishe 
goodes out of their tent, and carryed them together with the said factor and this deponente 
abord their shippe in a boate, belonging to the Dutch. And afterwards the Dutch weighed the 
said shippes anchors, and broughte them abord her, and commannded the companye of the said 
shippe to departe the said river; and further hee cannott depose. 

To the thirth hee sayeth, that by the injuries and wronges, done by the Dutch as aforesaid, 
the voyage of the said shippe the William was overthrowne ; and accordinge as the companye 
of the said shippe, after they were putt from theire tradinge, did cast upp the remainder of the 
goodes abord her. There were soe many goodes, remayninge abord her, of her outwards 
landinge, as would have yeelded, if they had bine trucked ani done awaye to the Indians, att 
the rate, they had trucked awaye parte of her outwards ladinge in beaver and other skinnes 
and furrs, to the value of fower thousand poundes sterlinge. And to that some ( as hee beleeveth) 
the merchants that sett forth the said shippe, have bine dampnified by reason of the premisses; 
and that hee affirmeth uppon his oath to be true. 

7 November 1633. 

7. Jacob Jacobson Eikins, of Amsterdam merchant, aged about 42 yeares, sworne before the 
wor"" William Merricke, doctor of lawes, surrogate to the righte wor"" Sir Henry Marten, 
Knight judge of his Majesties highe court off the Admiralltye. 

To the first interreye. hee sayeth, that within the time interrogate William Clobery, David 
Morehead and John de la Barr, of London merchants, att their owne proper costs and chardges 
did freighte, victuall and sett forth the interrogate shippe, the William of London (whereof 
William Trevore was master) and did lade diverse goodes abord her, with intent, that she 
sould goe to Hutsons river in New England, within the dominions of the Kingh of England, 
to trade and trucke away such goodes, as she carryed to the natives of those countries, for 
beaver skinnes and other skinnes and furrs; the premisses hee knoweth to bee true, for that hee 
was factor for the said merchants in that voyage. 



80 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

To the second hee sayeth, that the said shippe, the William arrived att the forte, called 
Manhatton, als Amsterdam, in the said Hutsons river, uppon the twelvth daye of Aprill, 
last past ; and sayeth, that the entrance of the said river is in the latitude of fourtie degrees 
and a halfe or thereaboutes, and in longitude aboud one and fortie degrees and a halfe. And 
after theire arrival! neere that forte, this deponente sente the Chirurgeon of the said shippe on 
shoare to the said forte, to intreate the Governor to come abord the said shippe the William. 
Where uppon the said Governor bad the chirurgeon to comannde the master of the said 
shippe ; and this axiadate beinge the factor to come on shoare to the fort, and to aske them, if 
they did knowe the Prince of Orange. And thereuppon this deponente vfith the chirurgeon 
and gunner of the said shippe went on shoare to the fort, where the said Governor and others 
were sittinge in counsell together. And the said Governor demannded his deponente, wherefore 
hee was come thither, and what his business was. And this deponente replyed : to trade with 
the natives there, as hee had formerly done, for beaver and otter skinnes, and other skinnes 
and furrs. And then the said Governor asked hira for his Commission, whereunto this 
deponente answered, that he was not bound to shewe it, for that he was then within the King 
of Englands dominions, and for that he was a servante to the subiectes of the said Kinge; and 
desired of them to see what Commission they had, to plante there, within the King of 
Englands dominions. And the said Governor replyed, that he had conferred with his 
counsell, and that hee found it not fittinge, that they should passe upp the said river for 
that that whole countrye did (as he said) belonge to the Prince of Orange, and not to the 
Kinge of England. And after the said shippe had stayed there Cve dayes before the said 
forte, this deponente wente to the forte, to speake with the Governor, to see if hee 
would suffer them in a friendly manner to passe up the said river ; and he tould the said 
Governor, if he would not give him his good will soe to doe, hee would goe upp the said river 
without it, although it cost him his life. Whereuppon the Governor commannded all the 
companye of the said shippe to come on shoare. And in the presence of them all, the said 
Governor commannded, that the Prince of Orange his flagge should bee putt upp in the forte, 
and three peeces of ordnance to bee shott off for the honor of the said Prince. And then 
this deponente comannjed the gunner of the said shippe the William, to goe abord and putt 
upp the englishe flagge, and to shoote of three peeces of ordnance for the honor of the King of 
England. And then the said Governor badd this deponente, take heede, that it did not cost 
him his necke, or his (:the said Governors). And after the premisses this deponente and the 
companye of the William wente upp the said river to trade, and comminge neere the fort, 
called Orange, the Governor of that forte would not suffer theire shallopp to come to the 
shoare, to trade there. Whereuppon this deponente wente a mile belowe that forte, and there 
sett upp a tent, and carryed all theire goodes on shoare, and was in trade with the Salvages. 
And the Dutch sett upp a tent by the said englishe tent, to hinder theire trade as .much as 
they could. But this deponente beinge well acquainted with the Salvages (havinge heretofore 
lived foure yeare with them) them all came to trade with him ; and after he hath bine there 
in trade about fourteene dayes, there came upp a pinnace from the lower fort, manned with 
the souldiers and seamen, to drive this exaidate and companye from tradinge there. And 
before the comminge of that pinnace, there were twoe other pinnace, lyinge neere the said 
shippe the William, to hinder her trade. And then there came souldiers from both the saide 
dutch forts with musketts, halfe pikes, swords and other weapons, and beate some Indians, 
which came to trade with this deponente, and commannded this exaidate and companye to 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: II. 81 

dep.irte from thence, sayinge that that land was theirs, they havinge boughte it of the Salvages. 
And then the Dutch pulled downe the tente of the Englishe, and sente theire goodes abord, 
some in a shalloppe, belonginge to the William, and some in a bonte, belonginge to the Dutch; 
and then the Dutch weighed the anchors of the William, and carryed them abord her. And 
afterwardes the said shippe goinge downe the said river againe, when she came to Manhatlon 
fort, this deponente beinge there on shoare. The Governor commannded him to sende all 
the beaver and other skinnes on shoare to the fort, which this deponente and companye had 
gott in trucks with the Salvages; which this deponente refusinge to doe, the Governor then 
demannded a particular of all the skinnes that were abord the said shippe. Which particuler 
this deponent gave him ; and he also sayeth, that hee this deponente demannded a certificate 
for certeyne Hollanders, inhabitinge neere the said fort, of the hehavio' of the Dutch towards 
the Englishe, and howe they had putt them from theire trade, as aforesaid. Which certificate 
was denyed him ; and the Governor caused a writinge, to be sett uppon the gate of that forte, 
thereby forbiddinge all his people uppon payne of death, to give any certificate to him or any 
of the Englishe, howe and in what manner they were used by the Dutch. And he also sayeth, 
that the names of some of the Dutch, which were principal! actors in doinge of the wronges 
and iniuries aforesaid ; were as followeth, viz' Walter Vertrill,i Governor of Amsterdam ffort, 
John van Remont,his Secretaiyr, Martyn Garetson, Courade Noteman^ Ahuddus,^ and Captaine 
Jacob Johnson Hesse, Counsellors of the said (Governor, and Hance Jorison Houten, Governor 
of the ft'ort of Orange ; and further hee cannott depose. 

To the third interreye: hee sayeth, that the voyage of the said shippe the William was 
overthrowne by the parties before mentioned, in not sufFeringe her companye to trade there, 
as aforesaid. And that there were soe nianye goodes, remayninge abord the said shippe, of 
her outwards ladinge ; when they were putt from theire trade, as would have purchased in 
trucke with the said Salvages (:att the rate as the rest of her goodes, which were trucked 
awaye, were alone awaye : ) five thousand beaver skinnes. And that hee is certeyne, hee should 
have had trucke for all the remainder of the said goodes, if the Dutch had suffered them to 
trade there; for that there are in the said river usually fifteene or sixteene thousand beaver 
skinnes yearly traded lor; and for that the Salvages would not trade with the Dutch, as longe 
as this deponente was there. But did all resorte unto him ; and for the reasons aforesaid, hee 
sayeth that the said master Clobery, master Morehead and master Delabarr, the merchants that 
sett forth the said shippe, have bine dampnified by the wronges and injuries, done by the 
Dutch, as is aforesaid, to the value of ffive thousand pounds sterlinge att the least. And this 
hee affirmeth uppon his oath to be true. 

' Wouter van Twiller. ' Notelman. 

' Andreas Hudde. He came to New Netherland in 1629, and after serving the government in various capacities for thirty- 
four years, died 4th November, 1663, at Appoquinimy, in the present State of Delaware, on his way to Maryland. — Ed. 



Vol. I. 



82 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Resolution of the States General referring tlie preceding Documents. 

[ From Ihe Eesister of Resolutions of the States General, in tlie Koyal Arcbives al llie Hague. ] 

Tuesday, 13 June, 1634. 
Folio 493. Received a letter from Mr. Joachimi, written at London on the 27"' May last, 

Messrs. Joachimi 

andBrasser. also a letter from the same and Mr. Brasser, written conjointly, as aforesaid, the 

3'' instant, and besides the said letters, divers appendices containing matters for reflection ; 
wliich, being considered, it is resolved and concluded, that both the aforesaid letters, with the 
appendices, be placed in the hands of the Mr. Vosbergen, to extract therefrom the points on 
which resolution is required. 



Resolution of ihe States General changing some of the Members of the Committee 
on the differences between the Company and ihe Patroons. 

[ From the Eegister of Eeaoliitions of the Stales General, in the Eoyal ArchiTes at the Hague. ] 

Thursday, IS"- June, 1634. 
F.,iio499. After deliberation, it is hereby resolved and concluded to substitute Mr. 

Beaumont in place of Mr. de Knuyt, and Mr. Staackmans in place of Mr. Lecklama, 
in consequence of the absence of both of them ; and that, for the purpose of aiding in the 
despatch of business, the other, their High Mightinesses' deputies iu the matter in difference 
West iniiia Company between the Directors of the West India Company on the one part, and the 
15* J''1"'T J °' Patroons, planters of New Netherland, on the other side. 

New Netherland. r ' 



Ttesolution of the States General on the Report on Mr. JoachimiUs last Despatch. 

[From the Eegister of Eesolutions of the States General, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague.] 

Tuesday, 20"' June, 1634. 
Foiiosie. jyjj.. Vosbergen reported that he hath, in virtue of their High Mightinesses' 

Joachim.. resolution of the 13"' instant, examined a certain letter from Mr. Joachimi, 

written in London on the 27* May last, and found that the said letter sets forth, among other 
Injured Englishmen thiugs, that Mess"'' William Clobery, David Morehead and John de la Barre, 
in New Nanerianj. njgrchants at Loudon aforesaid, having fitted out a ship to trade in Hudson's 
river (as they call it) were prevented trading there and thereabout, by the officers of the 
Wf8t India Com- Wcst India Company of this country, whereby they maintain to have been 
'"'°^' injured ; claiming damages for their loss. Which being taken into consideration. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : IL 83 

it is resolved and concluded, that this matter shall, by extract hereof, be communicated to the 
present Directors, deputies o( the aforesaid Company, in order that they cause information to be 
taken as to the true merits of this case, and instruct the said Mr. Joachimi accordingly, that he 
may know how to comport himself In the premises. 



Resolution of the States General respecting the Committee on the differences between 
the Company and the Patroons. 

[From the Register of Kesolutions of the States General, in the Royal Archives at the Hague.] 

Wednesday, 21" June, 1634. 
Folio 518. After deliberation, it is hereby resolved and concluded, to substitute Mr. 
Huygens, in place of Mr. Arnhem, (absent) to assist the other, their High Mightinesses' 
deputies, in investigating the questions and differences which have arisen between the 
Patroons, planters, on the one part, and the West India Company on the other; and further, 
to proceed according to the original Commission. 



Patroons of New Netherland to the States General. June, 1634. 

[From the Original, in the Royal Archives at the Hague, in the Loketkasof the States General; Division Wfst IndUche Compagnie. Loket K., 
Letter L., No. 6 ; part 5 of Bundle entitled " Stuklten raltende den Vryen handel op en in de Brazils. Ao 163S." ] 

High and Mighty Lords. 

Whereas, in pursuance of the resolution dated 27th March, 1634, adopted at the Assembly 
of the XIX., and the petition presented to your High Mightinesses and posliled {graixisiillecrt), 
the Patroons of New Netherland are, by their High Mightinesses' letters dated 13th May 
following, cited to appear at the Hague; the Patroons have deemed it expedient to submit to 
your High MiglUinesses: 

That your High Mightinesses, by Charter dated 3d June, 1621, granted to all inhabitants, 
stockholders in the within named Company exclusively, the navigation, peopling and trade to 
the West Indies, within the limits therein described, investing XIX. persons with the entire 
management thereof; expressly stipulating, that your High Mightinesses, on being required to 
prosecute the infraction and contravention of such public resolutions, shall cause the same 
to be repaired and maintained. 

But the principal stockholders having solicited your High Mightinesses for further 
satisfaction, your High Mightinesses, by amplification, agreed and approved that the first two 
vacancies in the Board of Directors at Amsterdam and Zealand ; item, the first in the 
Maese Chamber, should successively be supplied by the principal stockholders of the respective 



84 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Chambers, leaving them to protect whatever regarded lliem and their right, both in the 
Assembly of the XIX. and in tiie aforesaid Chambers. 

The Company, reduced to this firm order and government, took specially to heart your 
High Mightinesses' motives contained in the last part of the second capital article of the 
Charter, containing two subjects ; namely, contracting and forming alliances with princes and 
natives of the countries within their limits, or promoting the population of productive 
and uninhabited regions. 

E.xperience has shown that the prudent management of the Company did not attend the 
attempts to carry this out in divers quarters, both on the Wild coast and in New Nelheriand ; 
the conduct of the people was not regulated; the expenses were excessively high, and the want 
of success beyond expectation. The accounts having been frequently reviewed at the 
Assembly of the XIX.; the supfilies requisite for the planting having been compared with 
the returns received from the Colonies, it was finally decreed and enacted, at the Assembly 
of the XiX., on the 10"" March, 162S, in the presence of your High Mightinesses' deputies, the 
Directors delegated by the respective Chambers, the Directors and assessors from the principal 
stockholders, for the behoof of ail the stockholders in the said Company, by virtue of the 
Charter, to draw up Freedoms and Exemptions, for the benefit of the General West India 
Company, and advantage of the Patroons, masters and private persons. 

2(i February, 1629. Commissioners reported to the Assembly of the XIX., and it was 
resolved to make an Order, resuming the draft of the planters, at the next ensuing meeting; 
to consider the proposals of certain respectable principal stockholders, to draw out the 
differenlial points and refer them to the Chambers. 

IS April, 1629. Points of Reference were circulated; in article 2 of which, the respective 
Chambers were requested to appear fully instructed to conclude whether the articles of 
Freedoms and Exemptions submitted at various preceding Assemblies, with the annexed new 
articles, demanded by divers principal stockholders, might be amplified and amended according 
to circumstances. 

29 May, 1629. Commissioners are named, on resuming the Order in regard to Planters, to 
submit the draft to the x\ssembly of the XIX. 

7 June, 1629. The Freedoms are enacted in terms as hereunto annexed. 

Whereupon some Directors of the before named Company, in addition to the great interest 
they possessed with their next friends in the said Company, (who imported [to the value of] 
more than two tons of gold;) anim.ited with new zeal to carry out their High Mightinesses' 
intention, and hoping in consequence for God's blessing, preceded all the other stockholders by 
way of a good example, saving the aforesaid Company from expenses, troubles and heavy 
charges, and further involved themselves by undertaking divers Patroonships, the expenses 
whereof, incurred and laid out to this day, amount to not far from one ton of gold, cash down, 
and are yearly taxed, in addition, with at least 45 thousand guilders for the support of three of 
their Patroonships. 

The Patroons proceeding on daily, notwithstanding, bought and paid for not only the 
grounds belonging to the chiefs and natives of the lands in New Netherland, but also their 
rights of sovereignty (Jura Mujestatis) and such others as they exercised within the limits of 
the Patroons' purchased territories. 

So that on the 2S"' November, 1630, were read at the Assembly of the Directors, the deeds 
of conveyance of the lands and jurisdictions purchased from the Saccimaes, the Lords of the 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IL 85 

Country, executed for the behoof of the Patroons, their successors; and the new proprietors 
were accordingly thereupon congratulated. 

On the 2'' December, in tlie year aforesaid, the patents sent to the Patroons from New 
Netherland were in like manner also again read, recorded in the Company's Register, ordered 
by the Assembly to be ensealed with the seal of New Netherland ; the Patroons were again 
congratulated and handed their patents. 

IG"* ditto. The Patroons, on resolution of the Assembly, delivered to the Company's counsel, 
a perfect list of their undertaken patroonships. 

8"" January, 1G31. The Patroons' Colonies were ex supra abundanti confirmed, on submitting 
the question to the Assembly of the XIX., holden in Zealand. 

Confiding fully in the before related acts and solemnities, the Patroons would never have 
incurred any expense, had they ever imagined that the Freedoms and Exemptions, which were 
a mutual contract of profit and loss, agreed to by their High Mightinesses' Deputies, the 
Directors of the respective Chambers, the Directors and Assessors of the principal Stockholders, 
and accepted and entered on by the respective Patroons in all sincerity, would have been at 
any time questioned and pulled to pieces; but, on the contrary, they supposed and felt assured, 
that their High Mightinesses would, in course of time, maintain the Patroons, and, if necessary, 
when requested, provide them with greater privileges, as a reward for their exceeding zeal, in 
enlarging the boundaries of these countries and in consideration of the heavy outlays and 
perilous dangers which their people and property must experience, and have already sustained, 
both on land and water. 

But, alas! your High Mightinesses will remark what damage the change of persons and the 
unsteadiness of humors have brought on this praiseworthy Company and the good Patroons. 

The manifold occupations relating to the planting of Colonies, the articles of Exemptions 
and Freedoms, drawn up A" 1628; revised, enlarged and accepted by the Patroons in 1629; 
who, A° 1630, were congratulated thereupon; A° 1631, ex superabundanti confirmed, are 
secretly undermined on the 30"" October, 1631, when new articles were proposed, thereby the 
previous Freedoms and Exemptions were no longer obtainable ; the Patroons particularly 
commanded to perform things which experience taught them were impracticable: Yea, all the 
Exemptions were drawn into dispute. 

2S May, 1632. Some of the principal stockholders suggested to them to bring in gravamina 
against the amended freedoms. 

1 June, 1632, is drawn up and enacted a certain placard, purporting, as it appears, to be in 
favor of the Patroons, against private individuals carrying on the prohibited trade in peltries 
in New Netherland ; according to the copy hereunto annexed. 

But, converted, through evil council, by resolution of the IS'*" November, 1632, to the injury 
and prejudice of the Patroons, whereby the Exemptions and Freedoms, so solemnly enacted 
on the ?"■ June, 1629, on which the patroonships were registered, are, it is particularly to be 
remarked, disavowed. 

And, in order to deprive the Patroons altogether of the trade, the Director in New 
Netherland was ordered to appoint commissaries and assistants in all the patroonships, to 
affix the placard and in no wise to suffer any of the Patroons to interfere in the fur trade. 

The Director had no sooner arrived in New Netherland, than he proceeded against the 
Patroons pursuant to the orders given him. 



86 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Whereupon the Patroons were under the necessity of submitting their grievances to 
the Assembly of the XIX., and it was mutually agreed to refer all differences arising therefrom, 
to their High Mightinesses' decision. 

The Patroons have accordingly handed in, at the request of the committee of the Directors, 
the following points of their pretensions and well founded claim. 

Pretension and Claim of the Patroons of New Netherland, delivered to their 
High Mightinesses' Deputies on the IG"" June, 1634, against the Directors 
the Incorporated West India Company. 

1. 
That the Freedoms and Exemptions promised and granted to the Patroons and their people 
within the limits of New Netherland and the dependencies thereof, must be truly maintained 
and observed by the Incorporated West India Company, according to their tenor and 
contents; and are to be holden as a mutual contract, binding on both sides, whereby the 
Patroons were invited to send their people and goods thither; in consequence whereof, they 
claim to enjoy inviolate, the privileges contained therein. 



That the Company having up to the 19"^ December, 1633, repeatedly called in question the 
conceded Freedoms, are bound to make good the manifest damages caused thereby to 
the Patroons. 

3. 

That in the Exemptions and Freedoms, mention only was made of the property of those lands 
of which the Company could, by virtue of its charter, dispose; and such extension is considered 
as referring alone to the fertile and uninhabited lands, or lands on which settlements were 
found of particular Indians, having no chief, whom the Patroons were bound to satisfy for the 
soil : In addition to these, within the limits and extensions of the purchased patroonships, 
exist Lordships having their own rights and jurisdictions, which the chiefs of said nations have 
ceded to the Patroons, exclusive of the proprietorship of the soil, as can be seen by their deeds 
of concession and conveyance. The Patroons maintain that such prerogatives and advantages 
in that country, belong absolutely to them ; and that the Company hath no more power over the 
Patroons, as purchasers of such lands, than it had over the lords Sachems, the sellers, inasmuch 
as their High Mightinesses' intention by the charter notoriously was, not to abridge any person 
in what is his, and consequently cannot be burdened with the Venia testandi, justice and police 
which are repugnant to the right already acquired by the Patroons. 

4. 
That under the term goods, mentioned in Articles X., XIII. , XXVI., must necessarily be 
understood such merchandise, without which the permitted trade along the coast of Florida and 
Newfoundland, cannot be carried on, nor the soil of the Patroonships paid for. Item, shoes 
and stockings and other necessaries of the people, not in use among the natives of the country, 
ought to be among the indispensable articles for agriculture, of use only to the tenants of the 
Patroons; every description of which the Company has promised to convey over for nothing. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : II. 87 



That the Company not having ships, or room in their ships, for the use of the Patroons, 
cannot, conformably to tlie Xl"" Article, refuse or any longer withhold their written consent from 
the Patroons, officially demanding the same, whereby tiie latter would lose the season and 
voyage, from which the ruin of the Colonies, or at least great loss, would follow. 



That all places in New Netherland, the island of Manhattan excepted, are, by the XIl"" 
Article, free for the plantation of Colonies. 



That the Patroons may sail from the coast of Florida to Newfoundland, paying 5 per centum 
recognition; therefore the Patroons cannot be prevented sending ships or yachts, with all sorts 
of goods to New Netherland, without which the aforesaid coasts cannot be frequented, nor 
prizes taken from the enemy. Art. XIIL, XIV., XVL, XXIU. 



Whereas the Company, Art. XV., first absolutely, and afterwards by restriction, reserved the 
fur trade every where on the coast of New Netherland and tiie places circumjacent thereto, 
the Patroons say, that the inland trade, together with the territories of the patroonships, is 
not included therein; and, therefore, that the Patroons are not obligated to pay, within their 
limits, one guilder on each merchantable skin. Item, that the Patroons, on payment of one 
guilder for each merchantable beaver or otter skin, may procure in trade for goods obtained 
there, all sorts of furs, outside their Colonies, and every where about the coasts of New 
Netherland, and the places circumjacent thereto, where the Company had no commissaries at 
the time of granting the Freedoms. Item; Wampum being, in a manner, the currency of the 
country, with which the produce of the interior is paid for, must be considered as obtained 
goods, being the representative thereof. 

0. 
That the Company, pursuant to the tenor of Art. X. and XVL, is obliged here, and by its 
servants in New Netherland, to give seasonable notice to the Patroons and their commissaries, 
when requested, of the places which remain vacant in its ships, in order that they may 
regulate themselves in regard to their people, goods, cattle and implements; and having 
accommodation in their ships, it is not at liberty to refuse the Patroons the freighting thereof, 
nor charge more than the allowed freight. 

10. 
That the appeals to the Director and Council, reserved in civil actions of fifty guilders 
and upwards, do not prejudice in the least the higher jurisdictions and other privileges of 
the Patroons. 

11. • 

Whereas the Company, Art. XXV., hath promised to take all Colonists of New Netherland 
into its safe keeping, to assist in defending them, as well as possible, against all internal and 
foreign wars and violence, with the power it may have there; the Company, or its servants. 



88 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

failing so to do, are bound to make good the damage which the Patroons' people, cattle and 
goods there, have thereby suflTered and still sufler. 

12. 
That the Freedoms and Exemptions, are permanent for all partners, without the Company 
having the power to infringe or restrict them, to the prejudice of the Patroons. 

13. 
That the expenses of traveling, consultations, fees &c., incurred or to be incurred by the 
Patroons, for the maintenance and justification of the Freedoms and Exemptions, for the service 
of the Company and advantage of all partners, ought to be defrayed by the Incorporated West 
India Company. 

14. 
That the Company cannot affix, in the Patroons' Colonies, without their knowledge, and 
against their will, placards excluding every one from the entire fur trade, nor introduce 
Commissaries there to trade; nor constrain the Patroons' inhabitants, by an oath drawn up for 
that purpose, not to trade in peltries, wampum or maize. 

15. 
That the Patroons' Officers and Magistrates in New Netherland may oppose themselves 
thereto; and should the Company, at any time, enter by force of arms, and affix such placards, 
the Patroons' courts are at liberty to tear down the affixed placards, as being contrary to their 
freedoms. And on the Patroons' Superior Officers being arrested therefor, which we protest 
against, should it ever be adjudged that their Patroons have lost the granted Freedoms, such 
proceedings shall be declared null and void; the Company charged in future to abstain from 
such practices, and to make good the damage caused thereby. 

16. 
Finally, in case the Company seek, by direct or indirect means, to induce the Patroons to 
abandon their Colonies, it shall be declared bound to make good all incurred costs and 
damages vi'liich the Patroons, for causes aforementioned, should happen to experience or 
have experienced. 

(Signed), M. Paauw. 

S. Blommaert. 

KiLiAEN Van Rensselaer. 

Hendkick Hamel. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : U. 



Answer of the West India Company to the Patroons. 

[ From the Original in the Koyal ArchiTcs at Ihe Hagne ; Lok-etkm of the States General, Division West Tndische Compagnie ; Loket K., Letter L., 
No. 6, part 5 of tlie Bundle, entitled " Stukken rakende den Vryen handel oh en in de Brazils. Ao. 1638." ] 

Answer of the West India Company to, and against tlie Pretension and Claim of 
Michael Paauw, Kiliaen Van Renselaar and Samuel Biommaert, Patroons 
in New Netherland, handed in and delivered to tlieir High Mightinesses' 
Deputies. 

The Directors of the West India Company say, that heretofore eachPatroon of the Colonies 
in New Netherland, hath given in his separate remonstrance to the Assembly of the Nineteen, 
with request that the aforesaid Assembly dispose thereof; it can therefrom be seen that the 
pretensions of the aforesaid Patroons ditfer, and are even erected on different foundations, so 
that they cannot be well, nor speedily nor regularly arranged, much less treated of, in one 
suit in the name of all the Patroons. The Directors aforenamed, therefore, maintain that each 
of the said Patroons shall be bound to institute his suit separately, with vouchers, and therein 
set forth what he hath, both in general and in particular, against the Company, and afterwards 
draw pertinent conclusion. 

And in order that a termination be put at once to said differences, that the above mentioned 
Patroons be obliged to mention, in their respective demands all, as well general as particular, 
questions of which they have any knowledge, and on which they may intend to institute any 
action against the aforesaid Company, on pain, in default thereof, of their being and remaining 
nonsuited, as they might be, if the Directors had obtained a mandamus on the motions 
(vantisenj of the aforesaid Patroons, to have suit instituted, pursuant to the text in L diffamari 
C. de ingen. et manum. 

Nevertheless, if the aforesaid Patroons declare that they have no particular claim against the 
aforesaid Company, and will not institute any action on account thereof, and desire and expect 
only a decision on the general points which concern the aforesaid Patroons conjointly ; the 
Directors will not make any opposition to the examining and deciding the claim regarding 
the said general points by them conjointly instituted, saving the aforesaid Company's exception 
and defence to the contrary. 

(Signed), Albert Kounraut Burgh. 

Jacques van Horn. 
Exhibited, 22. June, 1634. 



Reply of the Patroons to the West India Company. 

[ From the Original In the Royal Archives at the Hagne ; Lokefk,aa of the States General, Division, West Indiachs Compagivie ; Loket K., Letter L., 
No. 6, part 5 of the Bundle. ] 

High and Mighty Lords. 

The Patroons of the Colonies in New Netherland having seen the writing delivered on 
behalf of the Directors of the West India Company, in opposition to the demand and claim of 
Vol. I. 12 



90 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

the said Patroons, communicated in writing to your High Migiitinesses, they say in reply to it : 
As the foundation of the suit which they may institute, in proper time, against the above named 
Directors, for indemnification of such damages and losses as they respectively shall happen 
to have suffered, because the aforesaid Directors have not allowed, nor suffered, them to 
realize the full effect of the granted Exemptions and Freedoms, mainly depends upon the 
force and tenor of said Exemptions and Freedoms ; and your High Mightinesses would 
be uselessly detained by the deduction of the damages and losses suffered by the Patroons 
in the planting and continuance of their respective Colonies, and the consequences thereof, 
in case the above named Directors are not bound to make good the aforesaid losses and 
damages, for having failed to carry out the aforesaid granted and accepted Exemptions and 
Freedoms ; therefore, in order that they may not rashly enetr into a dispute with the above 
named Directors, about the aforesaid indemnity, they have deemed it necessary and essential 
to the despatch of business, first and foremost, to request your High Mightinesses (to whom, by 
resolution of the 27"" March last, adopted in the Assembly of the XIX., the differences of parties 
on both sides are referred ) to determine the force and tenor of the aforesaid Exemptions ; as 
the Pretension and Claim of the Patroons is directed to that and to no other end; in order that 
such judgment being delivered, the act being one of wrong and affecting all the Patroons in 
common, then the Patroons will have to state their respective losses and damages, and adopt 
pertinent conclusion thereon; the rather as, after the rendition of the aforesaid judgment, 
they shall have conjointly to determine upon the continuation or abandonment of their Colonies, 
and as there is no reason for postponing the said judgment until the decision on the Patroons' 
respective losses, which by reason of instruction and the distance of place, will experience 
some delay; meanwhile the Patroons, in their view of the aforesaid Exemptions and Freedoms, 
remain injured and would be further damaged in their means. The aforesaid Patroons are 
content, on the rendition of the above mentioned judgment, respectively to deliver in their 
declaration of damages and losses, and to proceed further in the matter, by a certain 
reasonable time, to be afterwards fixed by your High Mightinesses, according to the 
circumstances of affairs and the distance of places. And for these reasons, rejecting 
the dilatory notice of the aforesaid Directors, the abovenamed Patroons respectfully request 
your High Mightinesses to be pleased to order the aforesaid Directors to answer, peremptorily, 
their aforesaid declaration; and in default thereof, that your High Mightinesses would be 
pleased to render your judgment on the articles contained in the aforesaid petition, in such 
wise as shall appertain to just equity and right, and to the public service. 

Which doing, etc. 

(Signed) M. Paauw, 

S. Blommaert, 

Exhibited 22d June, 1634, and furnished Henrick Hamel, 

to opposite party for replication. Kiliaen van Rensselaer. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IL 91 

Resolution of the States General postponing a Decision on the preceding Pleadings. 

[ From tho Register of Eeaolulioni of the States General, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Saturday, 24th June, 1634. 
Folio B29. Being heard, the report of Mess" Huygens and others, their High Mightinesses' 

Patroons Planters, deputies, who proceeded, pursuant to resolution, in the case of the Patroons, 
planters, of New Netherland against the West India Company. It is after previous 
deliberation, resolved and concluded, to postpone this mattter for tveelve days; and parties 
shall, in the meanwhile, endeavor to settle their differences by agreement and mutual accord ; 
and if not, their High Mightinesses will, at the end of the aforesaid time, have the said 
difference decided by their Deputies agreeably to the aforesaid resolution of authority 
thereunto granted. 



Subjects for the Consideration of the Assembly of the XIX, 1634. 

[From the Original in the Royal ArchiTes at the Hague ; File, TTmI Indie. ] 

Points of Reference, whereupon all the Chambers of the West India Company 
are summoned to Amsterdam on the 31 July, 1634; extracted as far as 
relates to the matters of New Netherland. Exhibited 18 July, 1634. 

S* Point. 

As Ambassador Joachimi hath advised the Company of the claims of Jacob Eelkens, who 
sailed from England, amounting to 40 (^ 50 thousand guilders, which he pretends to have lost 
in New Netherland, the members will be pleased to come prepared to resolve thereupon, 
according as it shall be most advantageous to the Company. 



The Assembly of the XIX. to the States General. 

[ From the Original in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague ; File, West Indie.^ 

To the High and Mighty Lords States General of the United Netherlands. 

High and Mighty Lords. 

The year 1634 approaches now to a close, and the West India Company hath not, up to the 
present time, received the vote of the subsidy demanded by the Council of State, many months 
since, for its support for that year. 

Notwithstanding the Deputies from the XIX. have, with such great persistence, applied to 
your High Mightinesses therefor, from time to time. 



92 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

And now clearly made manifest both to your High Mightinesses and to the respective 
provinces, that it is impossible for the Company to prosecute any longer the expensive war in 
Brazil, much less to accomplish any thing of advantage to this State. 

Unless your High Mightinesses continue to afford it liberal assistance, and not only promise 
the Company that, but also make them sensible of it. 

Meanwhile the Company abates nothing in the advancement of its affairs, but has done 
more than was expected from it. 

With what difficulty that was effected, your High Mightinesses can sufficiently understand, 
by comparing the heavy expenses of the war which it has now waged for so many years, with 
the subsidies voted us, and the trifling profits it has derived, up to this time, from the conquests. 

What the end of this is to be, we leave your High Mightinesses' prudent wisdom 
to consider. 

Of this we must, with all submission, warn your High Mightinesses; unless your High 
Mightinesses procure a vote of the required subsidies, and move the respective provinces, so 
that they will be received more promptly than heretofore, we see no prospect of meeting any 
longer the heavy expenses of the war. The great work in Brazil, which is now so far 
advanced, that an end to it is, in a manner, perceptible, will be interrupted and perhaps 
entirely fail, to the serious disgrace and injury of this State. 

Much more ought to have been done than the Company ever wished to solicit from your 
High Mightinesses, in order to accomplish an undertaking of such vast importance to the country, 
and not only to render that work secure, but to give the King of Spain employment elsewhere 
by way of diversion, so as advantageously to execute, meanwhile, the affair in Brazil and to 
allow this State to taste the fruits thereof. 

We have submitted to your High Mightinesses heretofore, many reasons which ought to 
move you hereunto, and could add others, were we not convinced that your High Mightinesses 
understand them better, and give them as deliberate consideration as they deserve. 

We shall, therefore, not detain your High Mightinesses with a longer deduction, but conclude 
this, our remonstrance, with an humble request: 

That your High Mightinesses, in consideration of the duties lately and still daily performed 
by the Company beyond its ability, and of the benefit this State derived therefrom. 

May be pleased so to influence the respective Provinces that, finally, the required vote of 
subsidies may be obtained, if not more, at least in the same form as was demanded by the 
Council, and the effect thereof be realized as promptly as necessity requires. 

So that we may prosecute with renewed courage, and complete, with God's blessing, 
successfully our begun work, for the benefit of this State, and the humiliation of the 
common enemy. 

The Deputies of the XIX. are also instructed to explain to your High Mightinesses, certain 
difficulties they experience in New Netherland, from the English ; whereof Mr. Joachimi, your 
High Mightinesses' Ambassador, hath advised us. 

As the matter consists of a long narrative, and many circumstances, which would detain 
your High Mightinesses' Assembly too long, they respectfully request your High Mightinesses 
to be pleased to appoint a committee from your midst, to whom we may communicate the 
said representation, and submit the means whereby further inconveniences may be avoided. 

Which doing, &c. 

Exhibited 24 October 1634. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IL 93 

Re-solution of the States General on the preceding Memorial. 

[ From Ihe Eegiatcr of ReaolutioDS of the States GeDeral, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Tuesday, 24'" October, 1634. 
Folio 878. Read the remonstrance of the attending Deputies of the Assembly of the XIX. 

WMt India Com- ^j. ^^^ West India Company, lately hoiden at Amsterdam, requesting, for the 
reasons therein set forth, that their High Mightinesses would be pleased so to influence 
the respective provinces, that the West India Company may finally obtain the desired votes of 
Subsidy. subsidy for this current year. 1634, as prayed for by the general petition of the 

Council of State, for the behoof of the aforesaid Company, so that the latter may, with renewed 
courage, prosecute, and with God's blessing, successfully complete its begun work, to the 
advantage of this state, and the humiliation of the general enemy. 

Secondly, the above named remonstrants are also instructed to explain to their High 
Difficulty with the Mightinesses certain difficulties which manifest themselves in New Netherland 

English in New ° 

Netherland. with the English. Whereupon deliberation being had, it is resolved and 

concluded, on the first point, that the respective Deputies going to the provinces, with their 
High Mightinesses' credentials, shall also be instructed, as they are hereby directed, to encourage 
not only the vote and furnishing of the subsidy for the West India Company'for the current year, 
to the amount expressed in the general petition of the Council of State, but also the extinction 
of the arrears which the aforesaid Company, by previous votes, and otherwise still owes the 
respective provinces, and to withdraw. For that purpose, extracts of said arrearages shall be 
handed to the Deputies. And as regard the second point in this case, Messrs. Arnhem, 
Herberts, Swartsenburch, Marienburch and Schaffer, are requested and appointed to hear the 
explanation of the above named remonstrants, and to report thereupon. 



The Assembly of the XIX. to the States General. 

[ From the Original In the Eoyal Archives at the Hague ; Tile, entitled Weat Indie. ] 

To the High and Mighty Lords States General of the United Netherlands. 

High and Mighty Lords. 

The Deputies of tlie Assembly of the XIX. are instructed to complain to your High 
Mightinesses, that one Jacob Jacobsen Elkens, having entered the service of Mr. William 
Klobery and his assistants, with the ship, the William, whereof William Trevor was master, 
did in the past year 1633, 

In the month of April, come to the North River, in New Netherland, [opposite the island] of 
the Manhattes, in order to exchange his [merchandise] up that river for peltries and 
other [products.] 

And that under the feigned pretense that said river and adjacent country were in, and of, 
the Domain of his Majesty of Great Britain. 



94 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Without, however, holding, as far as is known to us, or being willing to exhibit, when 
demanded, by our agents, his Majesty's Instruction or Commission, which he might have for 
that purpose. 

Nevertheless, it is sufficiently notorious to all the world, and he, Jacob Elkens himself 
knows best of all, having been employed, even before the year 1614, in the service of those 
who then had your High Mightinesses' grant to trade, exclusively, to that river and the 
surrounding places. 

That said river and adjacent countries had been discovered in the year 1609, at the cost of 
the East India Company, before any Christians had ever been up said river, as Hudson testified, 
who was then in the service of said Company, for the purpose of discovering the northwest 
passage to China. 

And that your High Mightinesses' grant hath conferred, from that time down, on divers 
merchants, the exclusive trade in peltries there. 

Likewise, that one or more little forts were built, also under your High Mightinesses' chief 
jurisdiction, even before the year 1614, and supplied with people for the security of the 
said trade ; 

Further, that after these countries had passed into the hands of the incorporated West India 
Company, not only were the above named forts renewed and enlarged, but said Company 
purchased from the Indians, who were the indubitable owners thereof, the Island of the 
Manhattes, situate at the entrance of the said river, and there laid the foundation of a city. 

As also, not only on that river, but likewise on the South river, and others lying to the east 
of the aforesaid North river, divers natives and inhabitants of these countries, by the 
assistance of said Company, planted sundry Colonies, for which purpose were also purchased 
from the chiefs of the Indians, the lands and soil, with their respective attributes and 
jurisdictions. 

As is to be seen by divers deeds of conveyance and cession, executed in favor of the 
Patroons of the Colonies by the Sachems and Chief Lords of the Indians, and those who had 
any thing to say therein. 

So that said Company had occupied, settled and cultivated those countries, and carried 
on trade there from the commencement of their charter, without any one having justly 
[complained] of them for so doing, or endeavored by to destroy their trade, except 

some [transported ] landers, and namely: Jacob Elkens, who least of all [should do 

so: who] lately by false [representations] sought to persuade his Majesty of Great Britain, that 
those countries of New Netherland were a part of his domains in that quarter of North America. 

And although our Governor and officers there advised the aforesaid Jacob Elkens, in a 
friendly manner, to refrain from trading within their jurisdiction, yet he went, notwithstanding, 
higher up the river, and having pitched his tent on the shore, begun to trade with the Indians, 
the Company's allies. 

So that our officers were obliged, after various negotiations and protests, as more fully may 
be seen by the writings and authentic copies thereof existing, to weigh said Elkens' anchor, 
and to expel him from said river. 

And although the Company hath by such arrival, suffered serious damage, and their trade 
has been thereby particularly spoiled. 

And injurious seeds of division sown between the Indians and our people, who had previously 
lived together in good union. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : 11. 95 

And other serious mischiefs have proceeded therefrom, such as killing of men and cattle 

Whereof we expect fuller information by the next ship, which is now soon expected. 

So that we have great cause of complaint against, and serious losses and damages to claim 
from, the employers of this Jacob Elkens, of which, on the contrary, they complain against us, 
and pretend their losses are very great. 

To escape from, and to avoid these difficulties the better in future, the Deputies of the XIX. 
submit to your High Mightinesses' wise consideration. 

Whether it would not be best to communicate this matter to the Mr. William Boswel, the 
King of Great Britain's agent. 

In order to discover means whereby, first, this question, which is reasonable, may, by the 
intervention of his Honor on the one side, and Ambassador Joachimi on the other, be settled in a 
friendly manner; inasmuch as no suit has, so far as we know, been entered, up to the present 
time, against the Company, or complaint been made to his Majesty on the subject. 

And, secondly, future mischiefs may be avoided by a proper boundary line between his 
Majesty's, and your High Mightinesses', subjects. 

Inasmuch as the welfare of both depends on mutual good understanding. 

And a contrary course will afford an opportunity, whereby not only the Indians will be 
emboldened anew to kill the Christians, as the English heretofore sorely experienced in 
Virginia, and to [slaughter] our people for a much slighter [cause], but also the King of Spain 
[will be encouraged in his efforts] to rivet his chains [on us], i which otherwise 

by degrees from 

Exhibited 25"' October, 1634. 



Mesolution of the States General on the difficulties with tlie English in New Netherland. 

[ From the Register of Resolutions of the States General, in the Royal ArchiTes at the Hague. ] 

Wednesday, 25"' October, 1634. 
roiio875. Mess" Arnhem and the other, their High Mightinesses' Deputies have reported 

that, pursuant to yesterday's resolution, they have heard and considered the state of the 
Difflcnity in New ^uestion and difference which arose in New Netherland between the English 
Netherland. ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^f ^^^ ^^^^ y^j^j^ Company of these United Netherlands, and 

have submitted herewith to their High Mightinesses certain Representation on said question, 
communicated by the Directors of the West India Company aforesaid. Whereupon, deliberation 
being had, it is resolved and concluded that this State cannot by any means interfere therein, 
but leave the aforesaid matter to take its course ; but their High Mightinesses permit the 
delegated Directors to speak and confer hereupon, on behalf of the Company in particular, 
with Mr. Boswell, the Resident of his Majesty the King of Great Britain. 

' The portions of the above within brackets or left blank, are not in the Dutch MS., the original of which is represented 
as worn or illegible in those parts — Ed. 



96 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

New Project of Freedoms and Exemptions. 

[ From the MS., wiihout date, in the Eoyal Arcliives at the Hague ; File, entitled We»t Indit, 1680—1635. ] 

Freedoms, Privileges and Exemptions, granted by the High and Mighty Lords 
States General, ex plenitudine potes/alis, to all persons of condition, inhabitants 
of these countries, to be qualified thereunto by their High Mightinesses, as 
Lords and Patroons of New Netherland, for the purpose of planting Colonies 
and introducing cattle there, all for the advancement of the Incorporated 
West India Company, and for the benefit of the inhabitants of these countries. 

Persons admissible thereunto by their High Mightinesses, being inclined to plant Colonies in 
New Netherland, shall be permitted to send thither, by all of the West India Company's ships 
and yachts going thither, three or four persons, to examine the state of things there, on condition 
of paying for board and passage out and home, six stuyvers a day, and those wishing to eat in 
the cabin, twelve stuyvers. 

2. 

And in case of offensive or defensive operations, they must lend assistance the same as others; 
and if any of the enemy's ships be captured, they shall also receive their share, pro rata, 
according to each person's quality; to wit, those not eating in the cabin the same as seamen, 
and those who board in the cabin, a share equal to that of the superior officers, calculated one 
with another. 

3. 

Herein shall be preferred such persons as shall be admitted first on their High Mightinesses' 
list. 

4. 

And for Lords and Patroons of New Netherland shall be acknowledged those who will, 
within six years from this time, (exclusive of the year of admission) undertake to plant in 
New Netherland a Colonic of forty-eight souls, on pain, in case of palpable neglect, of being 
deprived, at their High Mightinesses' discretion, of their acquired Freedoms, Privileges 
and Exemptions. 

5. 
No??-.-^'"'' J» But every one is notified that the Company reserves unto itself the Island of 

lUdiciJied must be •' *^ •' 

oo'mpany • ''^oth*! Mauhattcs, Fort, Orange, with the lands and islands appertaining thereunto, 
omftt«d.""° '"^"''' Slaten Island, the land of Achassemes, Arasick and Hobokina, together with the Colonic 
of Swanendale. 

6. 
And from the very moment that the Lords and Patroons of New Netherland have 
designated the places where they wish to plant their Colonies, and have obtained admission 
thereto from their High Mightinesses, they shall be preferred before all others, for such lands 
as they have selected. 

But if they are not afterwards pleased with the places, or be deceived in the selection of 
the land, they shall have another opportunity to make a selection. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IL 97 

8. 
And the Patroons of New Netherland may, by Deputy, at the places where they will plant 
their Colonies, extend their limits six miles along the sea coast or on both sides of a navigable 
river, and so deep landward in, as the Lords and Patroons shall demand, without any one 
approaching within seven or eight miles of them, against their will. 



And the first occupants shall not be prejudiced in their acquired right, but forever preserve 
the command over such bays, rivers and islands, as they shall have settled. 

10. 
And in propriety forever and always possess all the land situate within the Patroons' limits, 
together with all the fruits, superficies, minerals, rivers and fountains thereof, for them, their 
heirs or assigns, with high, middle and low jurisdiction, tenths, fishing, fowling, wind and 
[water] mills and all other privileges, preeminences and rights, to be holden as free, allodial 
and patrimonial property. 

11. 
And should the Patroons come to prosper in their Colonies, so far as to be able to found one 
or more towns or cities, they shall have authority to appoint officers and magistrates therein; 
enact laws and police, and make use of the titles and arms of their Colonies, according to their 
will and pleasure. 

12. 
The Patroons shall have the privilege of using for their own benefit, all adjoining lands, 
rivers and forests, until they shall be taken up by other Patroons. 

13. 

The Patroons shall provisionally furnish proper instructions to their Colonies, in order that 
they be ruled and appointed, both in police and justice, conformably to the mode of 
government observed here. 

14. 

And they are empowered to send in the Company's ships, all their people and property 
bound thither, on paying for board as is hereinbefore stated in Article 1"; for freight of the 
merchandise, 5 per 100 cash on what the said goods have cost in this country; not including 
herein, however, cattle and agricultural implements, which the Company shall convey over for 
nothing; wherefore they shall reserve the fourth part of all ships and yachts which will sail 
thither; but the Patroons shall appropriate such vacant places for their fodder, they providing 
every thing necessary for the maintenance of the cattle. 

15. 
And their High Mightinesses shall take care that a ship or yacht shall sail at least yearly 

from Amsterdam to New Netherland, about the month of so that 

the Patroons here, and their Colonies in New Netherland, may never be obstructed in the 
execution of their good intentions. 

Vol. L 13 



98 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

16. 
The Patroons shall, at all times, be privileged to send their own ships to New Netherland; 
and in going and returning, to attack, and conquer, offensively and defensively, the enemies of 
this state, and to secure thereby the same right as the Incorporated West India Company enjoys. 

17. 
The Patroons of New Netherland shall have the privilege of sailing and trading along the 
whole coast, from Florida unto Newfoundland, and to all the Wild islands of the West Indies. 

18. 
The Patroons shall likewise be at liberty, everywhere around the coasts of New Netherland 
and the places adjacent thereunto, to trade their acquired goods for all sorts of wares and 
merchandises to be had there, without any exception. 

19. 
On the arrival of such wares here in the ships of the West India Company, there shall be 
paid for the freight of each merchantable skin, whether otter or beaver, one guilder; and on 
all bulky articles, such as pitch, tar, ashes, timber, grain, fish, salt, rosin or such like, tea 
guilders per last (estimated at 4000 lbs.), on condition that the Company's seamen shall be 
obliged to wheel and bring the salt on ship board; with this understanding, that the Patroons' 
own ships shall be always preferred, and on coming to this country, shall enjoy all such 
benefits and Freedoms, as are granted to the Company. 

20. 
All wares not enumerated in the preceding article, and not being bulky articles (Inst waeren) 
shall pay for freight 1 guilder per hundred weight, and wines, brandies, vinegars, verjuice, 10 
guilders per barrel. 

21. 
Their High Mightinesses promise the Patroons not to impose on their Colonies, any Custom, 
Toil, Excise, Impost or other tax, but allow them to enjoy such Freedoms and Exemptions as 
are granted, or shall hereafter be granted by Charter to the Company. 

22. 
No person shall be at liberty to take from the service of the Patroons any of their Colonists, 
whether man, woman, son, daughter, maid-servant, or man-servant, even though solicited by 
the Colonists themselves to receive them (except by written consent of their Patroons), during 
the term of years for which they are bound to their Patroons; after the expiration of which 
time, the Patroons shall be at liberty to send back to this country the Colonists who leave 
their service, and then first discharge them ; and if any Colonist run away to another Patroon, 
or resume his freedom contrary to his contract, other Patroons of New Netherland shall be 
bound, and do promise their High Mightinesses, to cause him, as far as lies in his power, to 
be surrendered into the hands of his Patroon or his Commissary, in order that proceedings 
may be instituted against such Colonist, according to circumstances. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: II. 



23. 



The Patroons discovering shores, bays, or places adapted to Fishing, or the manufacture of 
Salt, may take possession of them, and have them worked in perfect property, to the exclusion 
of all others. 

24. 
They shall be privileged, also, to send their ships every v?here to fish, and so to go, with 
what has been caught, to all neutrals and friends of this State. 

25. 
And if any Colonist belonging to a Patroon happen to discover minerals, precious stones, 
crystals, marble, pearl fishery or such like, they shall remain the Patroon's property, provided 
he allow such discoverer, as a premium therefor, so much as the Patroon shall have stipulated 
for that purpose. 

26. 
Their High Mightinesses, together with the Incorporated West India Company, promise to 
assist the Patroons' Colonists against all foreign and domestic wars and violence, with whatever 
force they have in, and shall bring to. New Netherland. 

27. 
The Patroons of New Netherland, shall be bound to purchase from the Lords Sachems in 
New Netherland, the soil where they propose to plant their Colonies, and shall acquire such 
right thereunto as they will agree for with the said Sachems. 



The Patroons shall also particularly exert themselves to find speedy means to maintain a 
Clergyman and Schoolmaster, in order that Divine Service and zeal for religion may be planted 
in that country ; and send, at first, a Comforter of the sick thither. 

29. 
The respective Patroons shall be privileged to keep an agent at the Island Manhattes, who 
shall attend as a member of Council there, and have seat and vote at all the meetings and 
deliberations, in order thereby to be able to promote the necessary protection of the Colonies. 

30. 
Note. Vagabonds Their High Mightinesses shall exert themselves to provide the Patroons with 
five oS^afrnVand in persous bouud to service, who shall be obliged to serve out their bounden time, in 

idleness and crime, ' ° 

are hereby meant, all obedience, for their board and clothing only, which being done, on bringing 
to this country a certificate thereof from the Patroons or their Commissaries, such persons 
shall be here restored to their former state and freedom. 

31. 
In like manner, the Incorporated West India Company shall allot to each Patroon twelve 
Black men and women out of the prizes in which Negroes shall be found, for the advancement 
of the Colonies in New Netherland. 



300 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 



The Incorporated West India Company undertakes to maintain the fort and stronghold on 
the Island of Manhatten, in good defence and garrison, and to allow the Patroons to enjoy 
peaceably and quietly these Exemptions, Privileges and Freedoms. 

33. 

All private and poor people (onvermogen personen) are excluded from these Exemptions 
Privileges and Freedoms, and are not alloveed to purchase any lands or grounds from the 
Sachems or Indians in New Netherland, but must repair under the jurisdiction of the respective 
Lords Patroons. 

Thus done and enacted. 



/Subject for the Consideration of the Assembly of the XIX. 1636. 

[ From the Original in tlie Eoyal Archives at the Hague: File, West Indie. ] 

Points of Reference whereupon all the Chambers of the West India Company 
are summoned to Amsterdam on the 1" of June, 1636, extracted so far as 
relate to the affairs of New Netherland. Exhibited 24"" May, 1636. 
7"" Point. 

They shall also come prepared to resume and, if necessary, amend the order for the Director 
of New Netherland, Curasao, Cape de Verde, Senegal, Gambia, Sierra Leone, the Wild Coast, 
Fernando Noroncho and the Colonies planted here and there, and for this purpose each in his 
place shall bring with him all books and papers for information thereon. 



Resolution of the States General on the Petition of Lubbert Van Dindagen. 

[ From the Register of Resolutions of the Slates General, in the Koyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Saturday, 30"' August, 1636. 
New Serllid. Read the petition of Lubbert van Dinclagen, fiscal and sheriff of the General 
Lubbert van Dincia- Incorporated West India Company, in New Netherland, complaining of the wrong 
which, he maintains, has been done him in the service of the aforesaid Company, under the 
management of the Chamber residing at Amsterdam. Whereupon deliberation being had, it 
is resolved and concluded, that the aforesaid petition, with the papers annexed, be sent to 
the Directors in the aforesaid Chamber, in order to afford the petitioner satisfaction; or, in 
default thereof, to inform their High Mightinesses of the true circumstances and correct state 
of the petitioner's case, in order, on seeing it, that further proceedings be had thereon, as to 
the same shall appertain. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IL 101 

States General to the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company. 

[ From the Minute in Hie Eoyal Archives at the Hague ; File, Weet Indie. ] 

To the Directors of the Chamber of the West India Company, at Amsterdam. 

The States. 

LnbbertTanDinck- ^ou wlU 866 what Lubbert Van Dlncklagen, fiscal and sheriff in New 
lagen. Netherland, has represented to, and requested of us, by the accompanying 

petition and annexed papers, the original of which we have resolved to send you herewith; 
requesting that you will cause satisfaction to be given therein to the petitioner; or, in default 
thereof, inform us of the correct circumstances and true state of the petitioner's case; in order, 
on seeing it, that further proceedings be had thereon, as to the same shall appertain. 

Done 30th August, 163G. 



Resolution of the States General on another Petition of Mr. Van Dindagen. 

[ From the Kegister of Resolutions of the States General, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Monday, 6th October, 1636. 
Folio 774. On the further petition of Lubbertus van Dinclagen, late advocate-fiscal 

Dindagen.' ' and sheriff in New Netherland, It is, after previous deliberation, resolved and 
concluded that this petition shall be sent to the Chamber of the West India Company, at 
Amsterdam, in order that they may reply to the petitioner's foregoing request, within fourteen 
days after the receipt of the letter. 



States General to the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company. 

[From the Minute In the Eoyal Archives at the Hagne ; File, West Indie. ] 

The States. 

Dlncklagen. You Can 866 from the accompanying petition, which we have resolved to send 

you herewith, what Lubertus van Dincklagen, late advocate-fiscal and sheriff, hath further 
represented to and requested of us; desiring that you reply within fourteen days after the 
receipt hereof, to the petitioner's foregoing petition. Wherein fail not. 

Done, 6"- October, 1636. 



102 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Resolution of the States General on the Ansioer of the Amsterdam Chamber. 

[ From Ihe Kegister of Resolutions of the Slates General, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Monday, 20"' October, 1636. 
Foiio8i9. Received a letter from the Directors of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West 

West India Com- , , _ 

pany- India Company, in answer to their High Mightmesses' letter, written in the case 

of Lubbertus Van Dinclagen, late fiscal and sheriff in New Netherland. Whereupon 
deliberation being had, it is resolved and concluded that the aforesaid letter shall be handed to 
party, in order to say what he thinks proper thereupon. 



Subject for the Consideration of the Assembly of the XIX. 1636. 

[ From the Original in the Eoyal ArchiTes at the Hague. File, West Indie. ] 

Points of Reference whereupon all the Chambers of the West India Company 
are summoned to Amsterdam for the S"" December, 1636, extracted so far 
as relates to the affairs of New Netherland. Received 25 Nov. 1636. 

lO"" Point. 

They shall also come prepared to resume and amend if necessary, the order on the 
management of New Netherland, Cura9ao, Cape de Verd, Senegal, Sierre Leone, the Wild 
Coast, Fernando, Noronho, and the Colonies planted here and there. And for this purpose 
each, in his place, shall bring all books and papers for information thereon. 



Mr. Van Beveren to ihe States General. 

[ From the Original in the Royal Archives at the Hague ; File, West Indie. ] 

High and Mighty Lords. 

My last to your High Mightinesses is of the 27"" March. The letters &c. 

I fear the delay in terminating the Treaty with France has caused the granting of a certain 
patent to Captain Kercke and his associates : to wit, that his Majesty has given to the aforesaid 
Captain and Company a patent or charter for the term of twenty-one years, to equip eight fully 
armed ships, to erect some small forts in New England or Newfoundland, and to become master 
of the fishery of Newfoundland, New France and Virginia, and not to suffer any nation to 
come and fish there, except under his license and tribute, where notwithstanding the French 
from all remote time have fished and carried on a good trade. Your High Mightinesses can 
enquire if any of your subjects are in the habit of going thither with the same design. I have, 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IL 103 

in accordance with my duty advised the French Ambassador hereof, and also assured him that 
the aforesaid charter was passed. 
A certain Italian nobleman, etc. 

(Signed) C. Van Beveren. 
London, 3"* April, 1637. 



Resolution of the States General on a further Petition of Mr. Van DincMagen. 

[ From the Ecgister of Eesolulions of the Stales General, In the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Thursday, the 30"' April 1637. 
Folio 272. The further petition of LubbertVan Dincklagen, late fiscal of New Netherland 

Kecommendation.' being again read to the Assembly, It is, after previous deliberation resolved and 
concluded that the Assembly of the XIX. of the West India Company be seriously written to, 
to satisfy the Petitioner. And their High Mightinesses' deputies, going to the aforesaid 
Assembly, are requested to second their High Mightinesses' good disposition and intention 
herein with hearty zeal and earnestness. 



States General to the Assembly of the XIX. 

[ From the Minute In the Eoyal ArchiTes at the Hague ; File, Went Indie.] 

To the Assembly of the XIX. of the West India Company ; the SO"" April, 1637. 

The States. 
LubbertvanDinck- ^^ wrote you at three different times last year, 1636, to pay to Lubbert Van 
lagen. Dincklageu his three years salary, as Fiscal of New Netherland, with the costs 

thereon, or in case of refusal to show cause to the contrary. We have since received your 
letter, written there the 10"" October, in the aforesaid year, 1636, which, after previous reading 
and examination, we placed in the hands of the above named Dincklagen, to make his 
observations thereupon, and he, Dincklagen, hath represented to us this day, by petition, that 
he, having examined your letter, finds that it states: 

First, that he, the petitioner, returned from New Netherland uncalled for and without orders. 

Secondly, that on demanding his earned monthly wages, the Commissioners of New 
Netherland, who had previously thoroughly informed themselves of, and examined all the 
documents, allowed him all such sums of money as were afterwards tendered to him, without 
making any computation of the amount. 

Thirdly, that he, the petitioner, complaining to you, several persons were appointed from 
your body with the ordinary Commissioners, to review the whole matter, which was done in 
the presence of Mr. Garrard Van Arnhem, Lord of Zeventer, and that the said Mr. Arnhem, 



104 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

had informed the ordinary Commissioners, that in his opinion, he, the petitioner, had been 
more than satisfied by the allowance of the aforesaid small sum of money. 

To which three points, he, the petitioner, makes answer, by the aforesaid petition. 

First, that he did not return home without orders, or unrecalled ; but that he considers 
the forcible opposition in his office in New Netherland, his illegal removal from his said office, 
and other unbecoming proceedings of Wouter Van Tweyler, Director in New Netherland? 
together with his command and order to betake himself to Fatherland, as the aforesaid 
Dincklagen can prove, to be a recall and order to return home, as indeed it is. 

Secondly, that the sum tendered to him is no more than nine months of what is due him. 

Thirdly, that neither examination, nor revision, much less reconsideration of the matter has 
been made by the Commissioners, but on the contrary, that the petitioner's vouchers and 
papers were rejected, and not considered worthy either of perusal or examination by them. 

Wherefore, we having further examined the petitioner's case, find the same to be just, and 
therefore cannot and ought not omit hereby officially and earnestly to request, desire, and to 
exhort you once more for the third time, to cause, and let satisfaction be made him, after such 
long unfounded delays and postponements; and shall confidently rely on you no longer 
remaining in default herein, so that we may hereafter be freed and relieved from the petitioner's 
troublesome, but well founded, solicitations. And with this view, we have requested Messrs., 
our deputies, who are to go and preside over your present Assembly, in our behalf, earnestly 
to recommend and urge this matter on you, so that the Petitioner be deprived of cause 
of complaint. Done XXX"" April, 1637. 



Resolution of the States General to commission Willem Kieft, Director of New 

Netherland. 

[ From the Register of Eesolutloiis of the States Geoeral, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Wednesday, 2" September, 1637. 
Folio 433. Director Elias de Raet appeared in the Assembly, with credentials from the 

Directors of the West India [Company] Chamber at Amsterdam, of the first instant, and 
WiiiiimKiefi. prayed their High Mightinesses that Commission do issue, and the oath be 
New Netherland. entered of WiLLEM KiEFT, to go in the stead of Wouter Van Twyler, as Director 
of New Netherland. Which being granted by their High Mightinesses, the aforesaid 
Commission is ordered to be issued, and the aforesaid Willem Kieft was thereupon sworn. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IL 105 

Subject for Consideration by the A-s-semhly of the XIX. 1638. 

[ From the Original in the Eoyal Archives at the Ilagae ; File, TFes* Indi«. 1 

Points of Reference on which all the Chambers of the West India Company are 
summoned to Middelburg for the 25"" January, 1638; extracted so far as 
relates to the affairs of New Netherland. Received 19 January, 1638. 

17"" Point. 

They shall come also prepared to consider, and, if necessary, to improve the management of 
New Netherland, Curasao, Cape de Verd, Senegal, Sierre Leone, the Wild Coast, Fernando, 
Noronha, and tlie Colonies planted here and there ; and with this view, each in his place will 
bring all books and papers for information thereon. 



Resolution of the States General directing a Register of West India Affairs to be hept. 

[ From the Eeglet«r of the West India Affairs, 1633—1651, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Friday, 16 April, 1638. 
Folio 1. After deliberation, it is resolved and concluded, that henceforth all resolutions, 

letters or other writings, relating to the East India Company and also to the West India 
Company, shall be entered and arranged in a book apart from the others. 



Resolution of the States General on a Project for Colonizing Neio Netherland. 

[ From the Eegistor of the West India Affairs, 163S— 1651, in the Koyal Archives at the Hague.] 

Saturday, l?"- April, 1638. 
Folio 1. Read in the Assembly a certain remonstrance, presented to their High 

Partners and stoct- •' ' 

holders. Mightinesses in the name and on the behalf of divers partners and stockholders of 

NeSLd." ^^^ the West India Company ; also was exhibited, in addition, a certain Project 
regarding the planting of Colonies in New Netherland. Whereupon deliberation being had, 
it is resolved and concluded, that the aforesaid Remonstrance and Project be placed in 
the hands of their High Mightinesses' Deputies to the present Assembly of the XIX., here at the 
Hague, to be by them communicated to that Assembly, and further to manage and direct 
the affair there, so that proper resolution maybe taken thereupon, one way or the other, before the 
Assembly of the XIX. adjourn. 

Vol. I. 14 



106 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Hesolution of the States General urging the Colonization of Neio Netherland. 

I From the Register of the West India AITairs, 16:38-1651, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague ] 

Monday, 2G April, 1638. 
Folio 1. Whereas their Hifih Mightinesses learn that a sufficient number of good and 

Divine Worship in . , , , , , t-. i ■ i i i- i t i 

Brazil. pious clergymen have not been sent to L-xbor at Brazil in the harvest ot the Lord ; 

di3dpiinr " *° also that church discipline has not been duly introduced, much less practiced 
^outh^""" "' ""^ there, nor even order taken for the establishment of schools for the education of 
the rising youth, that they may be brought up in religion and piet)'. 
Colonies in New Secondly, their High Mightinesses receive additional information that the 

Netherland. •' ' o o 

Population. population in New Netherland does not only not increase as it ought, but even 

that the population which had been commenced is decreasing, and appears to be neglected by 
the West India Company, so that the inhabitants of foreign princes and potentates, are 
endeavoring to incorporate New Netherland, and if not seasonably attended to, will at once 
entirely overrun it. 

Therefore their High Mightinesses, after previous deliberation, have resolved and concluded 
on the first point, hereby to instruct and authorize their deputies to the Assembly of the XIX., 
that in conjunction with the present delegates from the respective Chambers to said Assembly, 
they assist in making and enacting such order, that Divine Worship in Brazil be duly attended 
to, church ordinance and discipline introduced and practiced, and the rising youth educated 
and brought up in the fear of the Lord and in the Christian Reformed religion. 

On the second point, their High Mightinesses have resolved and concluded, that before 
the present delegates from the respective Chambers to the aforesaid present Assembly of the 
XIX. adjourn, their High Mightinesses' deputies shall assist in making and enacting such 
effectual order regarding the population of New Netherland, and thereunto invite all good 
inhabitants of these Netherlands by such inducements and pre-eminences as, with the 
approbation of their High Mightinesses, they shall resolve to offer to all colonists, so that this 
State may not be deprived of the aforesaid New Netherland, by any indirect underhand dealing 
of some inhabitants of this country, and the intrusion and invasion of those of foreign princes 
and potentates. 



Report on the Condition of the Colony of New Netherland, in 1638. 

[ From the Original in the Koj-al A rchives at the Hague : Loketkas of the Stales General ; Division, Vest Indische Oompagnie, No. 8. ] 

leV^he^Aw^mbiy Whcreas the Lords States General obtain unreliable information on the 
h^beenVevS? affairs of New Netherland; that it is retrograding more and more, to the injury 
afore Jfd'to'ihe DiS of thls State and its inhabitants, it is demanded: 

paties Noortwvfe 
Uuyst van Voor 
hout, Tienhovei 
and &warzenberg. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : IL 107 

Their High Mightinesses granted, Anno 1614, to Jonas Witzen and Tweenhuyzen, by special 
charter, and on the expiration tliereof to the West India Company from Virginia to wit, from 
Ci9apoa,' along the sea coast to Newfoundland. 

2. Are these limits still in the possession, at the present time, of the West India 
Company, and the inliabitants of this country? 

We occupy Mauritius or the North River; where there are two forts, Orange and Amsterdam ; 
and there is, moreover, one House ^ built by the Company, and that is the most of the population. 

3. If not, what nations have seized them; and by what right and under what pretext? 
The right, is that of the strongest. 

The English extend from the northeast of New England unto the Fresh River. 

4. Can the Company retain the remaining territory; and by what means? 

If there be people, the remainder can be maintained; from the North river, men can go into 
the interior as far as they please. 

5. What Christian nations are neighbors, above and below? 

The English enclose us from Virginia unto New England; and as much farther as our's 
have been. 

6. Has the Company realized profit or loss, since the planting of New Netherland? 
Loss. But it could afford profit, principally from grain. 

7. And in case of loss, and tlieir High Mightinesses consider it advantageous to 
preserve the limits of New Netherland, and to establish the population on a better 
and surer footing — 

The Company cannot people it; because the Company cannot agree among themselves; but 
a plan of throwing it open, must be considered. 

8. Whether it would not, therefore, be expedient to place the district of New 
Netherland at the disposal of the States General? 

They have no intention so to do; unless they derived profit by it. 

But they hope, now that they have taken some order about Brazil, that it will prove a source 
of profit in time. 

They propose to surrender the trade with the Indians, or something else. Nothing comes 
from NeVY Netherland but beaver skins, mincks, and other furs; considerable grain could be 
raised there in course of time. 

Note. Tlie questions in the above paper were propounded by the States General, and the answers are by Mr. Rutger 
Huygens who, with seven other gentlemen, was appointed by the States General, on the 23d of February, 1638, to preside at 
the Assembly of the XIX. of the West India Company, at the Hague. 

" Chesapeake. " Meaning, probably, the House of Good Hope, on the Connecticut River; now, Hartford. — Ed. 



108 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Mr. Joacliimi to the States General. 

[ From tie Original in the Royal ArcliiTes at (he Ilagae ; File, Engdand. ] 

High and Mighty Lords! 

My Lords ! 

Your High Mightinesses will see, by the accompanying papers, the resolution of the Lords 
of the King's Council on my application to his Majesty respecting letters of reprisal granted to 
George Henley and his associates, also to Polhil, and regarding that of the intercourse. I have 
added thereunto copy of the answer of the Committee of the council of the ix March 1635. (that 
is, of the xix March 1636, new style) quoted by their Lordships in this resolution of the xxv 
April 1638, English style. I objected to the aforesaid answer before I went in the year 1636 to 
Netherland. On the xviii"" instant, I was told that vessels lay in the river ready to proceed 
to sea with letters of reprisal. On which advice I, the next day, requested audience of the 
King, and this being granted me on Thursday the xx"", I reminded his Majesty that last April 
I had spoken to him, and submitted divers reasons in opposition to the abovementioned 
reprisals, and that I had received a favorable answer. I further stated that the matter was 
afterwards brought before the Lords of the Council, and that it has come to my knowledge 
that ships are ready to proceed to sea, to put the aforesaid letters into execution, without 
further answer having been communicated to me. Fori had not seen the aforesaid resolution, 
though I knew its contents. And whereas your High Mightinesses' affairs would be incommoded 
by the execution thereof; friends scandalized, and the enemy be furnished with cause to rejoice. 
I prayed his majesty to order the letters to be annulled, and to consider whether the execution 
thereof would not be prejudicial to the affairs of the Elector Count Palatine. His Majesty 
immediately said, that he should have their execution stopped ; and as I urged him thereto, he 
added, that he would not allow the letters to be put in force without my being informed of the 
fact. As soon as I had taken my departure, the King spoke to Secretary Coke who was in the 
closet, and on next day, it being Whitsuntide, proceeded to the country, where I have waited 
on him and understood that he hath given orders to have the ships detained. I respectfully 
pray your High Mightinesses not to delay any longer your deliberations on the aforesaid matter, 
and to be pleased to communicate to me your resolutions thereupon. It is now reported here, 
that Polhil hath long since had two ships at sea to execute his letters of reprisal. It is to be 
observed on this point, as well as on the reasons on which the Lords of the Council seem to 
found their resolution : — 

That in the year 1633, William Clobery, David Morehead and John de la Barre cohiplained, 
that they were injured by some Dutchmen resident in New Netherland, who had obstructed 
them in their trade in those parts, as they represented. The aforesaid persons have demeaned 
themselves to this time very discreetly, and would not have voluntarily brought their complaints 
into court. In the following year, 1634, I wrote, and sent the depositions on this subject, to 
your High Mightinesses, as your High Mightinesses will please to observe by the copy of my 
letter accompanying this. For a good while I have not heard of this matter, and thought that 
it was abandoned or had died. On the xiii"" instant, two of the aforesaid persons came to me, 
and inquired what had they to expect in their case. From their language, I could infer that 
they had spoken with some Lords of Council. More than one suit will arise out of this, if the 
matter be not arranged. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IL 109 

The Irish Officer, whose house has been hired by Captain Jan Reierssen, has not come near 
me any more, since I wrote to your High Mightinesses. If he be in Holland and receive no 
satisfaction there, it will be very requisite to send over well verified excuses, or he will be 
able to obtain letters of reprisal with very little trouble. 

In my last of the xii instant, I wrote that a certain Judge had distinctly advised that, under 
present circumstances, the ship money may not be levied off the inhabitants of England, 
without consent of Parliament. It is since rumored, that a Divine, who hath a good prebend 
and visits the house of one of the aristocracy, had intruded into a chamber at Westminster 
where the Judges sat; among the rest Into his whose advice is mentioned above. And the 
aforesaid Divine there told the said Judge openly, that he had committed high treason. I 
have not since heard whether he hath made public in what the Judge's guilt consisted. The 
aforesaid Divine was thereupon arrested. A lord of the Council told me on the xx"" of this 
month, that the Scotch Lords, mentioned in a previous letter, have gone to Scotland with some 
Bishops, except the Marquess of Hamilton,^ who has remained here on account of the sickness of 
his wife, who died on the above mentioned day. The duchess of Chevreuse is still at Court, 
whither she was brought at the King's expense. The Landgrave John of Darmstadt, as I 
have it from source certain, has had no business here ; he came hither, fearing that an effort 
would be made to use him against the Duke of Wymar, his father fvetier), whom he respects. 
The Heer Roo^ proceeded hence to Gravesend on Friday, on his way to Hamburgh, and Sir 
Richard Keeff to Holland, with money, cannon, and munition of war for the Elector Count 
Palatine. Said Roo told me that he is well assured of the good intention of the King, his 
master, and that he hopes to make quick business if the other ambassadors are as willing and as 
fully authorized as he. There is not so much opposition here to the double toll or custom 
which the King of Denmark exacts in the Sound from those who frequent the Bailie, as to the 
toll on the Elbe at Glukstad. Of the first it is said, the King hath incurred expense, and that 
it is levied only once ; and of the toll on the Elbe, that it is not reasonable that the aforesaid 
King, because he hath built a town or. city, should shut up a free river, contrary to the 
constitutions of the Kingdom. From intercepted letters here, it is understood that Gallas hath 
instructions to occupy the forts he can take between the Weser and the Rhine, with a view 
to cut your High Mightinesses off' from Germany. The Spanish ambassador took his leave of 
the King to day. The Envoy from Morocco left London on Thursday last. The Lord High 
Admiral of England is very sick ; the virtuous wish he may recover. 

Herewith will this end and, after my humble salutations to your High Mightinesses, I 
pray God 

High and Mighty Lords, that He may bless your High Mightinesses' deliberations and 
government. 

Your Migh Mightinesses' 

Most obedient servant 
London, the xxii"" May, 163S. (Signed) Alb. Joachixmi 

Received, 14"" June, 1638. 1638. 

'James, 3d Marquess, and IstDuke, of Hamilton, and 5th Earl of Arran, K. G., was born in 1606 and succeeded to the 
title in 1623. He was created a Duke in 1643, and in 1648, had the command of an army that was raised and marched into 
England for the relief of Charles I., but was defeated at Preston, when his Grace was taken prisoner. He was beheaded on 
the 9th March, 1649, a few weeks after his Royal Master had suffered the same fate, and died with undaunted courage. — Ed. 

'Sir Thomas Roe. 



110 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Suhject of lieference for the Assembly of the XIX. 1638. 

[ From the Original in Ihe Royal Archives at the Hague ; File, West Itidie. ] 

Points of Reference on which all the Chambers of the West India Company are 
summoned to Middelburg for the 5"" July 1638 ; extracted so far as they 
relate to the a'fTairs of New Netherland. Exhibited 12"" June, 1638. 
IS'h Point. 

They shall come also prepared to consider, resume and if necessary improve the direction of 
New Netherland, Curasao, Cape de Verd, Senegal, Sierra Leone, the Wild Coast, Fernando, 
Noronho, and Colonies planted here and there. And for this purpose bring along all books 
and papers for information therein. 



Proposed Articles for the Colonization and Trade of Netv Netherland. 

[ From the Original in the Royal Archives, at the Hague ; File, West Indie. ] 

Exhibited 30"" August 1638. Articles and Conditions drawn up and 

Report 2 Septemb'' 163S. published by the Chamber of Amsterdam, with 

the approbation of their High Mightinesses, 
Referred to Mess" Arnhem Noortuyn, the States General of the United Netherlands, 
Noortwyck, Vosbergen, Weede, Priussen, in conformity to the authority of the XIX ; on 
Donkel and Coenders, to view, examine and which the respective Lands and Places in and 
report hereon. Their High Mightinesses' around New Netherland shall, from now 
deputies shall be empowered to proceed henceforward, be traded to, frequented and 
forthwith. Done SO"" August 1638. settled, according to such form of government 

Signed, Corn^ Musch 1638. and police as may at present, or shall hereafter, 

be established there by the Company or its 

agents. 

1. The Company hereby retains to itself, and to such officers to whom it shall commit the 
execution thereof, all high and low jurisdiction, together with the exercise of this and other 
appendages of public affairs ; in order that its Governors, officers and all others employed by it, 
may administer, regulate, manage and execute the same, under their High Mightinesses, 
according to the instructions to be given thereon from time to time, without it being permitted 
to any to oppose them directly or indirectly, on pain of correction according to circumstances, 
as violaters and disturbers of the public peace. 

2. And inasmuch as it is of the highest importance, that, in the Crst commencement and 
settlement of this population, proper arrangement be made for Divine worship, according to 
the practice established by the government of this country. Religion shall be taught and 
preached there according to the Confession and formularies of union here publicly accepted in 
the respective churches, with which everyone shall be satisfied and content, without, however, 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : IL 111 

it being inferred from this, that any person shall be hereby in any wise constrained or aggrieved 
in his conscience, but every man shall be free to live up to his own in peace and decorum ; 
provided he avoid frequenting any forbidden assemblies or conventicles, much less collect or get 
up any such ; and further abstain from all public scandals and offences, which the magistrate is 
charged to prevent by all fitting reproofs and admonitions, and if necessary, to advise the 
Company, from time to time, of what may occur there herein, so that confusions and 
misunderstandings may be timely obviated and prevented. 

3. The Company shall make arrangements through their agents, that all forts, strongholds, 
and public places which have been, or may be hereafter, built there, shall be properly 
maintained, preserved and improved to the best advantage of the commonalty, and that the 
general assessment to be paid for the erection and construction thereof, shall be levied and 
collected with the least inconvenience to the respective inhabitants, without it being in the 
power of the Director or his Council, to levy any tax before the Company be advised thereof, 
and its consent be obtained. Which assessment shall remain specially affected to such 
works and charges, for the maintenance whereof, they were at the commencement voted 
and granted. 

4. And in order that greater attention be paid to the cultivation and settlement of those 
countries, and that no one be excluded, by private possession and occupation, from the use of 
the public waters, creeks, bays and rivers, and from appropriating any islands, sandspits and 
dry marshes therein situate; all these shall belong first to the Company, which promises to 
make such arrangements, through the Director and Council there, touching the use thereofi 
that all the inhabitants of those parts shall derive therefrom the greatest possible profit and 
advantage, unless the Company may, by actual experience, deem it advisable to make other 
disposition therein, which resolution and disposition every one shall be bound to observe, 
without any trouble or opposition. And if, however, any one happen to contravene the same, 
he shall be corrected and brought to his duty by public authority. 

5. Equal justice shall be administered, in all civil and criminal matters, to all inhabitants 
and others who frequent that country, according to the form of procedure, and the laws and 
customs already made, or to be hereafter enacted. Expressly charging every officer to 
contribute actively and firmly hereunto in his station, as far as needs may be ; and that without 
any regard of person or persons, even though the matter be such as to concern the Company 
itself particularly; in which case the judges shall be specially bound to declare on oath, that 
they will not follow any other order or law, than such as all private persons are obliged to 
obey and respect. 

6. And whereas all the population cannot be settled on one place, but must be disposed 
according to the inclination of those going thither, and the circumstances of affairs there, each 
inhabitant shall be bound willingly to accept, and honestly and faithfully to discharge at his 
place of residence, according to his oath and troth and the instructions given concerning the 
same, all public burthens and duties, such as the office of magistrate and those of honor or 
authority; also, those in any way relating to works of piety, such as churches, without claiming 
any recompense or reward for so doing. But such charges and offices as are burdensome, and 
demand the occupation of the whole of a person's time, shall be remunerated at the discretion 



112 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

of the Director and his Council, on condition of giving the Company notification thereof, and 
obtaining its approbation therefor. 

7. No public servants, whether Director, councillors, military commanders, commissaries, 
skippers, nor any others in the receipt of ordinary wages from the Company, shall, unless 
permitted so to do, be at liberty to carry on any trade either for themselves, or as factors, or on 
commission for others, much less undertake any farms or bouweries ; but be content with 
their ordinary wages. And if they happen to transgress herein, they shall immediately be 
deprived of such offices and qualities as they may be invested with, and forfeit, moreover, their 
earned monthly wages and any purchased lands and goods which may be discovered contrary 
to this article in their possession, or the value thereof, should they have traded or conveyed 
those away; and the respective officers and justices are commanded to enforce the execution 
hereof, without any connivance. 

8. Each householder and inhabitant shall bear such tax and public charge as shall hereafter 
be considered proper for the maintenance of Clergymen, comforters of the sick, schoolmasters 
and such like necessary officers; and the Director and Council there shall be written to 
touching the form hereof, in order, on receiving further information hereupon, it be rendered 
the least onerous and vexatious. 

9. The inhabitants shall be at liberty to build there for themselves, or for such others as 
shall instruct or commission them thereunto, all descriptions of craft, either large or small, 
and with such vessels and no others, ascend and descend all rivers, and prosecute their 
their lawful trade and barter, as well as trade therewith along the entire coast, from Florida to 
Newfoundland. And in case they happen, in the course of such voyage, to take any of the 
enemy's ships, they shall bring such to the place of residence of the Director there, to be by him 
either distributed, or sent hither; one-third part for the benefit of the Company, and two-thirds 
for the captor, provided, if the prize come over here, the proper share for the Company shall 
be first deducted. 

10. And should any wares or merchandises from any neighboring place there, or from any 
other kingdom or country, be landed from any foreign ships on the coast of New Netherland 
and places circumjacent thereto, within the limits of our Charter and the Company's 
possessions, the said goods shall not be opened nor unloaded until they are duly entered, and 
the duties thereon paid; which, in consequence of the heavy expenses and charges the 
Company has to meet, and the great burdens lying on the inhabitants of this state, shall be 
reckoned at fifteen per cent on the estimated value of the said goods there; and thirty per cent 
on whatever shall be exported in said foreign vessels. 

11. The Company will take under its protection and safeguard, all those who resort to, or 
inhabit, said countries under the obedience of their High Mightinesses, the Lords States 
General; defend them against all assaults or attacks, coming either from within or without, 
with such force as it may at present have, or hereafter send, there: provided that every one, be 
he trader or inhabitant, who happens to be there, freely consent to be employed with others 
on such occasion for self defence, under command of the respective officers; and to this end, 
shall every male emigrant take with him, at his own cost, a musket and side arms, and be 
enrolled, in case of apparent danger, into companies or squads. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IL 113 

12. In case any person shall discover or find any minerals, vviietlier gold, silver or base 
metals, precious stones, crystals, marble, or such like, they shall, if discovered on the finder's 
own land, remain his property, on returning, after five years, one-fifth part of the proceeds, 
without deducting any of the expenses; and that, before such minerals or beforementioned 
specie shall profit him, or be removed from the place where they may be found; but for such 
as may be discovered on another man's property, or in the Company's domain, or on 
unappropriated land, the finder shall be rewarded according to the discretion of the Director 
and Council, unless they agree among themselves in a friendly manner; which agreement 
thus made, shall be observed. 

13. In addition to these general Articles, another shall be introduced, to obey and respect 
such instructions, manifestoes and commands as have already been, or shall hereafter be 
issued, with the approbation of their High Mightinesses, relative to the settlement of the lands 
and trade of the country. 

West I.ndia Co.mpaxy. 

Whereas the Directors of the Incorporated West India Company, Chamber at Amsterdam, 
are authorized by resolution of the XIX., to promote and improve the trade and population of 
New Netherland; they, therefore, with the approbation of their High Mightinesses, hereby 
make known to all and every the inhabitants of this state, or its allies and friends, who may 
be disposed to take up and cultivate any lands there, and to make use, for that purpose, of the 
harbors of these countries, that they may, henceforth, convey thither in the Company's ships, 
such cattle, merchandise and property as they siiall deem advisable; and receive the returns 
they or their agents may obtain therefor in those parts; on condition that all the goods 
shall first be brought to the Company's store, so as to be put on ship board all at once, in the 
best manner, on payment of the following duties and freights; and the Directors will take 
care that they shall be sent thither by the safest conveyance: — 

On all merchandises going thither, there shall be paid to the Company here, a duty of ten 
per cent in money, proportionably to their value; and on those coming thence hither, fifteen 
per cent there, in kind or money, at the choice of the Company or its agent; eighty-five 
remaining for the owner. And if any one happen to commit an error, in the valuation of his 
goods, the Company shall be at liberty to take such goods, paying one-sixth more than they 
are entered at; but all concealed and smuggled goods, either in this country or that, which 
may be discovered to have been brought on board the Company's ships, by secret plans or 
other cunning contrivances, shall be immediately forfeited and confiscated to the profit of the 
said Company, without any right of action accruing thereby. For the freight of cattle and 
goods, which will be sent hence there, or thence here, the owners or factors, at the respective 
places of loading, shall agree with the Company or their agents, according to the value and 
condition thereof, until a final arrangement and plan be established; and the freight must be 
paid in money, at the place of unloading; and no person shall be permitted to touch or remove 
them, before he makes it appear that both the duties and the freight are fully paid. And one 
per cent additional for every month that they remain after being discharged, in the Company's 
stores; for all which the aforesaid cattle and goods shall be summarily taken in execution, or 
the owners personally spoken to, according to the choice of the Directors or their agents. 

Vol. T. 1 -3 



114 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

And whereas it is the Company's intention to cause those countries to be peopled and 
brought into cultivation more and more, the Director and Council there shall be instructed to 
accommodate every one, according to his condition and means, with as much land as he can 
properly cultivate, either by himself or with his family. Which land, thus conceded to any 
person in the name of the Company, shall remain the property of him, his heirs or assigns, 
provided he shall pay to the Company, after it has been pastured or cultivated four years, the 
lawful tenths of all fruits, grain, seed, tobacco, cotton and such like, as well as of the increase 
of all sorts of cattle; of which property a proper deed shall be given, on condition that he 
truly undertake the cultivation or pasture thereof. Failing therein, he shall incur, in addition 
to the loss of such land, such penalties and fines as shall be rautually agreed on at the time 
of the grant. To which penalties and fines his successors and assigns shall be also bound. 
And in order to obviate all confusion and lasses, which have formerly arisen therefrom and are 
hereafter to be expected in a still graver degree, no one shall henceforward be allowed to 
possess or hold any lands or houses in those parts, that have not previously come through 
the hands of the Company. 

The Company, subject to the High and Mighty Lords States General, shall take care that 
the places and countries there shall be maintained in peace and quietness, in proper police and 
justice, under its ministers or their deputies, conformably to the regulations and instructions 
thereupon already established and issued, or to be hereafter enacted and given, upon a knowledge 
and experience of affairs. 

All those who will be inclined to go thither, to inhabit the country or to trade, shall severally 
declare under their signatures, that they will voluntarily submit to these regulations, and to 
the orders of the Company, and shall allow all questions and differences there arising to be 
decided by the ordinary courts of justice, which shall be established in that country, and freely 
suffer there the execution of the sentences and verdicts, w'itliout any further opposition. And 
shall pay, for passage and board in the state room, one guilder, in the cabin (huttc), twelve 
stivers, and between decks eight stivers, per diem. 



Resolution of the States General, referring the preceding Articles to a Committee. 

[ From the Eegister of West India Affairs, 163S— 1651, in llie Eoyal Archives at tlie Hague. ] 

Monday, 30"" August, 1638. 
aienr (Ui^iuli. Sicur Johan de Laet having presented and exhibited to the Assembly of their 
High Mightinesses the Articles and Conditions drawn up for their High Mightinesses' 
New Netheriand. approbation, whcreupoH the respective places and countries in and around New 
Netherland are, from now henceforth, to be traded to, frequented and settled. It is, after 
previous deliberation, resolved and concluded that the aforesaid Articles and Conditions be 
placed in the hands of Mess" Arnhem, Noortwyck, Vosbergen, Weede, Pruyssen, Donckel and 
Conders, to view and examine them and to report. The said Deputies of their High 
Mightinesses may proceed forthwith thereupon. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: II. 115 

Re-solution of the States General^ on the precedbig Articles and Conditions. 

[ From the Register of West India affairs, 163S— 1651, in the Koyal Archives at the Hague.] 

Thursday, 2 September, 1638. 
Foiio 9. Heard the report of Mess" Arnhem, Noortwyck, Vosbergen, Weede, Donckel 

and Conders ( M"' Pruyssen having gone away) who, pursuant to their High Mightinesses' 
Conditions and Ar- resolution of the SO"" of August last, viewed and examined the Articles and 

tides, according to 

which New Nether- Conditions agreed to by the Amsterdam Chamber, with the approbation of their 

land IS to be resort- o j ' r r 

®^"'- High Mightinesses, according to which the respective countries and places in New 

Netherland and its circumjacents should henceforth be traded to, frequented and inhabited. 
Also is submitted and exhibited to the Assembly another New Project,' likewise proposed on 
the aforesaid subject. Which being taken into deliberation, their High Mightinesses have 
resolved and concluded to hereby declare that the aforesaid Articles, drawn up by the Amsterdam 
Chamber, are, in their present form, not adapted to the service and promotion of the Colonies 
of New Netherland ; and their High Mightinesses, therefore, resolved that the said drafted 
Articles and Conditions be again returned to Sieur Johan de Laet, Director of the West India 
Company, to which is to be adjoined the aforesaid New Project, to be communicated to the 
Chamber of the West India Company at Amsterdam, and to tell it, on the part of their High 
Mightinesses, to send some deputies hither by Monday next, the vi"" instant, in order that the 
entire case of New Netherland may be further viewed and examined with their High 
Mightinesses' former deputies ; their joint considerations on the aforesaid subject then to be 
laid before their High Mightinesses' Assembly, to the end that such resolutions on the planting 
of Colonies and stocking Cattle in New Netherland, may be adopted as shall be found to be 
most for the service of this State and the advantage of the Company. 



Subject for the Consideration of the Assembly of the XIX., 1638. 

[ From the Original In the Royal Archives at the Hague. File Witt Indie. ] 

Points of Reference, whereon all the Chamber of the West India Company are 
summoned to Middleburg for the S?"" September, 1638 ; extracted so far as 
relate to the affairs of New Netherland. Exhibited, g"" September, 1638. 
17"> Point. 

They shall come prepared to attend to, resume, and if necessary amend, the management of 
New Netherland, Curasao, Cape de Verd, Senegal, Sierra Leone, the Wild Coast, Fernando 
Noronho, and Colonies planted here and there, and for that purpose, bring with them all books 
and papers for information. 

' See supra, p 90. — Ed. 



IIG NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Resolution of the States General, to ixiy Kiliaea Van liensselaer his Accoxmt. 

[ From the Register of ResolutionB of the States General, remaining in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Friday, 28"" January, 1639. 
Foi. 2s. Presented and read to the Assembly the account of Kiliaen Van Renselaer and 

cienck, George Everard Klenck, ordered by their High Mightinesses in February, 1637, 

to come hither, amounting to forty-three guilders and four stivers. After previous deliberation, 
it is resolved and concluded that an order for the aforesaid sura shall be issued on the 
above accoupt, 



Directors of the Enchhuyzen Chamber of the West India Company to the States General. 

[ From the Original in the Royal Archives at the Hague ; File, Wist Indie. ] 



High and Mighty Lords. 

Your High Mightinesses' letter, dated 31" December, 1638, with the annexed memorial of 
the Hon^'''= M'^ Spieringh, Resident of the Crown of Sweden, was handed to us on the 13"" 
instant, but the previous one, dated 25"' October, has not been received. As soon as we had 
seen the tenor of your High Mightinesses' said letter, we were prepared to obey your High 
Mightinesses' order and command, and with that view, sent an express immediately to 
Medenblick, which brings us the following information : 

That on the arrival of the ship there, our brother Director, wishing to attend to, and take 
care of, the import duty, granted and conveyed by your High Mightinesses to the Company, 
sent for the skipper of that ship; in whose absence the pilot appeared, and being asked. Where 
he came from and what his freight was? answered. From the West Indies, and the cargo, 
tobacco. Being further asked, respecting the quantity thereof, said thereunto, that he was not 
obliged to give that information, as he did not know who made the inquiry. The quality of 
our confrere being made known to hini; he persisted in his previous answer, adding, I am no 
skipper, and the ship is going home to Sweden, and had her Majesty's letters; which being 
demanded, were refused to be shown. Whereupon, the pilot having departed, he returned 
shortly after, saying, Our skipper has just arrived. Which skipper being sent for, he answered. 
Whoever wants to speak with, or has any thing to say to me, may come to me; so that the 
Director had the said skipper summoned by the city marshal to produce his commission ; this, 
however, he would not do, but again answered as above. Such being the case, the ship was 
placed under arrest. Notice having been given us thereof, we immediately sent one of our 
Chamber thither, who, with the Director at Medenblik, spoken to the skipper. He then 
exhibited his commission from the Crown of Sweden. This done, the arrest was at once 
removed and he was allowed to depart with the ship, as soon as he pleased ; whereupon, he 
took his departure without any discontent or verbal protest. This, High and Mighty Lords, is 
the true state and circumstances of the case regarding the above mentioned ship; whereby your 
High Mightinesses can perceive how honestly every thing was transacted, doubting not but, 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IL 117 

after this information, all cause of dissatisfaction will be removed from the Hon'''* Resident's 
mind ; which you, High and Mighty Lords, will please to promote to the best of your power. 
Herewith, High and Mighty Lords, we pray God, according to our humble supplication, to 
be pleased to grant your High Mightinesses, a prosperous government, for the welfare of our 
dear Fatherland. 

Your High Mightinesses' Humble Servants, 
The Directors of the West India Company, Chamber at Enchuyzen. 
(Signed,) Codde Van der Burgh. 

Enchuyzen, 17"" January, Anno 1639. Jacob Volckaerts z Sailmaker. 

Received, 3L January, 1639. 



Resolwtion of the States General on another Petition of Luhhert Van Dindagen. 

[ From the Register of West India affairs, 1638—1651, in the Royal Arcliives at the Hague. ] 

Wednesday, the IS"" May, 1639. 
Foiio27. The further remonstrance presented to their High Mightinesses by and on the 

Sage""^"" °'°' behalf of Lubbert Van Dinclageu, late fiscal in New Netherland, in order to 
obtain satisfaction from the West India Company, respecting his claims, being read ; It is, after 
previous deliberation, resolved and concluded, that this remonstrance be placed in the hands 
of their High Mightinesses' Deputies, who are to preside at the approaching Assembly of the 
XIX. of the above named Company, at Middelburg, in Zealand, to the end that the petitioner, 
by their means and intercession, may be aided in obtaining reasonable satisfaction from the 
above named Company, in regard of his aforesaid claims. 



Resolution of the States General, instructing their Deputies. 

[ From the Register of West India affairs, 1633—1651, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Tuesday, IS" March, 1640. 
Folio 80. The report being read of Mess" Arnhem, Noortwyck, Croock, Amerongen, Walta 

and Aldringa, (Mr. Ripperda absent) who viewed and examined, pursuant to their High 
Reference of the Mightinesscs' rcsolutiou of the 31" January last, the points of reference of the 
xlx. West India Company, sent over by the Chamber at Amsterdam to their High 

Mightinesses, to the end that the XIX. of the said Company should meet thereupon within 
said city. It is, after previous deliberation, resolved and concluded that their High 
Mightinesses' Deputies to the Assembly of the XIX., shall assist in deliberating, advising and 
concluding on the aforesaid points, as they shall find for the advantage of the country in 
general, and the West India Company in particular. But said Deputies are most especially 
enjoined to attend to the fifth point of the aforesaid reference, and to take care that no abuses 
be practiced under cover or occasion thereof, nor that any incovenience proceed from it ; also, 
that the affairs of New Netherland be not only preserved, but likewise promoted, and that New 
Netherland may, by the most favorable conditions, be rendered agreeable to the inhabitants of 



118 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

these countries. But as regards the trade of Guinea, no alteration shall be made therein, 
without their Higli Mightinesses' previous special consent. Further, their High Mightinesses 
have decided, in pursuance of their resolution of the 20"" September 1639, and the renewal 
thereof, v^hich follovped on the T"" November last, that the provinces of Guilderland, Zealand, 
Utrecht, Vriesland, and Overyssel, shall be again requested to consent to the augmentation of 
the capital which the States General invested in the aforesaid Company, and to introduce 
their resolution to that effect within the space of two months, or that their High Mightinesses 
shall then, after the aforesaid iterated request and prayer, be necessitated to allow the aforesaid 
capital to be increased by others, in order that the Company may be assisted by one or the 
other ; and the Deputies of the said Provinces have again undertaken to second, by their 
respective individual letters, their High Mightinesses' meaning and intention. 



Resolution of the States General relative to an offer to send People to Neto Netlierland. 

[ From the Register of West India affairs, 1633—1651, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Thursday, 31 May 1640. 
roiio 42. Mr. Van Reinswoude hath by express orders from the States of Utrecht dated 

Ke™tive°'™sendiD l^"" April last, represented to their High Mightinesses that the Count of Solma 
eTvaMlis' fo^Ne^t' 's Well disposed to send to New Netherland some of his vassals, who have been 
a cotony there.'""" driveu out of the county of Solms by the war, for the purpose of planting 
colonies there, relating besides the offers his Lordship had made to the West India Company and 
the result; that the aforesaid company had refused him wiiat it had already granted to divers 
private individuals, as well traders as others. Whereupon, after deliberation, it is resolved 
and concluded that their High Mightinesses' Deputies, who are to attend the present Assembly 
of the XIX, shall there propose and urge free access to New Netherland for the said Count of 
Solms and other inhabitants of these countries, and for that purpose, that they bring over 
the Conditions which they were heretofore ordered to enact, that they be approved and ratified 
by their High Mightinesses, or in default thereof, their High Mightinesses will themselves 
give appropriate orders thereupon. 



Hesolution of the States General on a New Draft of Freedoms and Exemptions. 

[ From the Register of West India affairs, 1633—1651, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Thursday, the 19 July, 1640. 
Folio 44. Elias de Raedt, Director of the Amsterdam Chamber, appeared in their High 

rreednras°an'd''Ex- Mightiuesses Assembly furnished with a letter of credence dated 17"" instant, 
Patro.™ relative to and hath, in virtue thereof, delivered to their High Mightinesses a draft of 
NewNliherland.™ Freedoms and Exemptions for all Patroons, masters or private persons who will 
introduce any colonies or cattle into New Netherland. Whereupon deliberation being had, 
the provinces requested copy thereof, which is granted. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : IL 119 

Proposed Freedoms and Exemptions for New Netlierland. 1640. 

[ From the Original, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague ; File, VTe^t Indie. ] 

Freedoms and Exemptions granted and accorded by the Directors of the General 
Incorporated West India Company at the Assembly of the XIX., with the 
approbation of the High and Mighty Lords States General of the free United 
Netherlands, to all Patroons, Masters, or Private persons who will plant any 
Colonies or introduce cattle in New Netherland. Exhibited ID"" July, 1640. 

All good inhabitants of the Netherlands and all others inclined to plant any Colonies in New 
Netherland shall be at liberty to send three or four persons in the Company's ships going thither, 
to examine the circumstances there, on condition that they swear to the articles, as well as the 
officers and seamen, as far as they relate to them, and pay for board and passage out and home, 
to wit, those who eat in the master's cabin, fifteen stivers per day, and those who go and eat 
in the orlop, shall have their board and passage gratis, and in case of an attack, offensive or 
defensive, they shall be obliged to lend a hand with the others, on condition of receiving, 
should any of the enemy's ships be overcome, their share of the booty pro rata, each according 
to his quality, to wit — the Colonists eating out of the Cabin shall be rated with the seamen, 
and those eating in the cabin with the Company's servants who board there and have the 
lowest rate of pay. 

In the selection of lands, those who shall have first notified and presented themselves 
to the Company, whether Patroons or private Colonists, shall be preferred to others who 
may follow. 

In case any one be deceived in selecting ground, or should the place by him chosen 
afterwards not please him, he will, upon previous representation to the Governor and Council 
then be at liberty to select another situation. 

For Patroons and Feudatories of New Netherland, shall be acknowledged all such as shall 
ship hence, and plant there a Colonic of fifty souls, above fifteen years of age, within the space 
of three years after having made a declaration and given notice thereof, to some Chamber of 
the Company here or to the Governor or Council there; namely, one-third part within the 
year, and so forth, from year to year, until the number be completed; on pain of losing, through 
notorious neglect, the obtained Freedoms and cattle. But they shall be warned that the 
Company reserves the Island Manhattes to itself. 

All Patroons and Feudatories shall, on requesting it, be granted Venia Testandi, or the power 
to dispose of, or bequeath, his fief by Will. 

For Masters or Colonists, shall be acknowledged, those who will remove to New Netherland 
with five souls above fifteen years; to all such, our Governor there shall grant in property one 
hundred morgens, Rhineland measure, of land, contiguous one to the other, wherever they 
please to select. 

And the Patroons, of themselves or by their agents, at the places where they will plant their 
Colonies, shall have the privilege to extend the latter one mile (consisting of, or estimated at, 



120 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

IGOO Rhineland perches) along the coast, bay, or a navigable river, and two contiguous miles 
landward in; it being well understood, that no two Patroonships shall be selected on both 
sides of a river or bay, right opposite to each other; and that the Company retains to itself the 
property of the lands lying between the limits of the Colonies, to dispose thereof hereafter 
according to its pleasure; and that the Patroons and Colonists shall be obliged to give each 
other an outlet and issue, (uytteweeghen ende uyttewateren) at the nearest place and at the 
smallest expense; and in case of disagreement, it shall be settled in the presence and by 
the decision of the Governor for the time being. 

The Patroons shall forever possess all the lands situate within their limits, together with 
the produce, superficies, minerals, rivers and fountains thereof, with high, low and middle 
jurisdiction, hunting, fishing, fowling and milling, the lands remaining allodial, but the jurisdiction 
as of a perpetual hereditary fief, devolvable by death as well to females as to males, and 
fealty and homage for which is to be rendered to the Company, on each of such occasions, 
with a pair of iron gauntlets, redeemable by twenty guilders within a year and six weeks, at 
the Assembly of the XIX., here, or before the Governor there; with this understanding, that 
in case of division of said fief or jurisdiction, be it high, middle or low, the parts shall be and 
remain of the same nature as was originally conferred on the whole, and fealty and homage 
must be rendered for each part thereof by a pair of iron gauntlets, redeemable by twenty 
guilders, as aforesaid. 

And should any Patroon, in course of time, happen to prosper in his Colonie to such a 
degree as to be able to found one or more towns, he shall have authority to appoint officers 
and magistrates there, and make use of the title of his Colonie, according to the pleasure and 
the quality of the persons, all saving the Company's regalia. 

And should it happen that the dwelling places of private Colonists become so numerous as 
to be accounted towns, villages or cities, the Company shall give orders respecting the 
subaltern government, magistrates and ministers of justice, who shall be nominated by the said 
towns and villages in a triple number of the best qualified, from which a choice and selection 
is to be made by the Governor and Council; and those shall determine all questions and suits 
within their district. 

The Patroons who will send Colonies thither, shall furnish them with due instruction 
agreeably to the mode of government both in police and justice established, or to be established, 
by the Assembly of the XIX., which they shall first exhibit to the Directors of the respective 
Chambers, and have approved by the Assembly of the XIX. 

The Patroons and Colonists shall have the privilege of sending their people and property 
there in the Company's ships, on condition of swearing allegiance, and paying to the Company 
for the conveyance of the people, as in the first article, and for freight of the goods 
requisite for their bouvvery, five per cent on the cost of the goods here, without, howevei-, 
including herein the cattle, on the freight of which the Company shall be liberal. 

But in case it should come to pass that the Company have no ships to dispatch, or that there 
be no room in the sailing vessels, in such a case the Patroons and Colonists can, upon 
previously communicating their determination to, and obtaining the consent of the Company 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IL 121 

in writing, send their own ships thither, provided, in going and returning, they shall not 
leave tlie ordinary track laid down, and take a supercargo, wiiose board shall be at the 
expense of the Patroons or Colonists, and whose wages shall be paid by the Company ; on 
pain, in case of contravention, of forfeiting their ship and goods to, and for the behalf of, the 
Company, it remaining optional with the Patroons, during the term of the current grant, 
and no longer, to convey over their cattle, wares and people in the Company's ships, in their 
own or in chartered vessels. 

And, whereas, it is the Company's intention first to settle the Island of the Manhattes, it 
shall provisionally be the staple of all produce and wares accruing on the North river and the 
country thereabout, before they can be sent further, except those which by nature itself are 
useless there, or cannot be brought there except with great loss to the owners, in which case 
the latter shall be bound to give timely notice of such inconvenience to the Company here, 
or to the Governor and Council there, that it be provided for, according as the circumstances 
sliall be found to require. 

All Patroons, Colonists and inhabitants there, as well as the stockholders in the Company 
here, shall be privileged to sail and trade to the entire coast, from Florida to Newfoundland, on 
the following conditions: 

First, that all goods which will be sent hence for sale there, whether freighted by the Company, 
or by Colonists, or the stockholders themselves, must be brought into the Company's stores for 
for inspection and payment of the proper duties, to wit: ten per cent on the cash cost of the 
article here, besides convoy-freight and average, an agreement being made for the freights of 
what may be sent in the Company's ships; and bulk will not be allowed to be broken any 
where except at the Manhattes, or such place as the Company here may order, so as to be at 
liberty, after proper inspection of their loading and the entry thereof, to depart to whatever 
place they think proper. 

And on the other wares which will be sent thence hither, shall be paid here, over and 
above the convoy duty granted by the State to the Company, five per cent, according to 
the valuation to be made here, on such penalty as aforesaid ; but an agreement must be made 
with the Governor and Council there, for the freight of any of the goods that are being sent 
from there in the Company's ships, as aforesaid ; and on all beavers, otters and other peltries, 
which will be sent from there here, shall be paid to the Governor and Council there, ten per 
cent, all in kind, and due receipt for the payment thereof, shall be brought along, on pain of 
confiscation of all the furs which will be found not to have paid anything for the behoof of the 
Company, and with that to be exempt from further duty. 

And in case said private ships, in going or coming, or in ranging along the coast from 
Florida to Newfoundland, happen to capture any prizes, they shall, in like manner be obliged 
to bring the same, or to cause the same to be brought, to the Governor and Council in New 
Netherland, or to the Chamber whence they respectively sailed, to be rewarded by them, and 
the third part thereof shall be retained for the Company, before deducting his Highness' and the 
State's portion, the two other third parts for themselves, in return for their incurred expenses 
and risk, all in pursuance of the Company's order. 

Vol. I. ] 6 



122 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

In like manner they shall not be at liberty to depart thence with their goods obtained in 
barter, without first returning to the said place, to enter their goods there and to obtain proper 
clearance, signed by the Governor and Council, and they shall be bound to return to this country, 
with their ships and yachts, to the place they sailed from, in order to discharge all their freight 
into the Company's stores, according to the register and clearance to be brought from thence, 
on pain of forfeiting their ship and goods for the Company's behoof, should they go and break, 
bulk elsewhere, or have any unregistered goods on board. 

The Company promises, during the continuance of the present charter and no longer, not to 
burden the Patroons and Colonists in that country, either with customs, toll, excise, imposts 
or any other contributions, and after the expiration hereof, at farthest, with no greater duty 
than is imposed on goods in this country. 

The Company shall not take from the service of the Patroons or Colonists, their man 
servants or maid servants, even though some person should solicit it; nor receive them, much 
less suffer them to go from their master's service to that of another, during the term of such 
years as they are bound for ; and if any man servant or maid servant run away, or take his 
freedom contrary to contract, the Company shall, according to its means, cause such to be 
delivered into the hands of their masters, to be proceeded against according to the circumstances 
of the case. 

From all definitive judgments pronounced by the Courts of the Patroons or Colonists, for 
an amount exceeding one hundred guilders, or from such as entail infamy, also from all 
sentences pronounced in matters criminal, on ordinary prosecution, conformable to the custom 
of this country, an appeal shall lie to the Governor and Council of the Company in 
New Netherland. 

All Patroons, Colonists and inhabitants are allowed free hunting and fishing, both by land 
and by water, generally in public woods and rivers in the extent of their lands, according to the 
order to be made thereupon by the Governor and Council ; and the Patroons exclusively within 
the limits of their Colonies, with the clear understanding that the Governor and Council shall 
not be excluded therefrom. 

All Patroons, inhabitants or Colonists, are also allowed to send ships along the coast of New 
Netherland and the countries circumjacent thereunto, to fish for Cod, &c., and to proceed with 
the catch straight to Italy or other neutral countries, on condition of paying to the Company 
for duty, in such case, six guilders per last, and on coming here with their freight, it shall be 
allowable and sufficient to pay the Company the custom dues alone, without conveying, under 
pretence of this consent, any other goods elsewhere, on pain of arbitrary punishment, it 
remaining at the pleasure of the Company to put a supercargo on board each ship, on such 
conditions and terms as hereinbefore set forth. 

If any Patroons, inhabitants or Colonists happen by their industry, diligence or otherwise to 
discover any minerals, precious stones, crystals, marbles, pearlfisheries or such like within the 
limits of their lands, all such Patroons and Colonists shall give one-fifth part of the nett proceeds 
to the Company, which for this purpose shall have the power to appoint one or more inspectors, 
at the charge of said mines and pearlfisheries ; but any one finding such without their limits, 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : H. 123 

the same shall belong to the Company on paying the discoverer such premium as the merits 
of the case shall demand. 

The Company shall take all Colonists, whether free or bound to service, under their 
protection, defend them as far as lies in their power with the force which it has there, against 
all domestic and foreign wars and violence, on condition that the Patroons and Colonists shall, 
in such case, put themselves in a suitable state of defence for which purpose each male 
emigrant shall be obliged to provide himself, at his own expense, with a gun or musket of the 
Company's regular calibre, or a cutlass and side arms. 

And no other Religion shall be publicly admitted in New Netherland except the Reformed, 
as it is at present preached and practiced by public authority in the United Netherlands ; and 
for this purpose the Company shall provide and maintain good and .suitable preachers, 
schoolmasters and comforters of the sick. 

The particular Colonies which happen to lie on the respective rivers, bays or islands shall 
have the privilege (to wit, each river or island for itself) of designating a deputy who shall 
give the Governor and Council of that country information respecting his Colonic, and promote 
its interests with the Council ; one of which deputies shall be changed every two years, and 
all the Colonies shall be obliged to communicate to the Governor and Council there a pertinent 
report, at least every twelve months, of their condition and of the lands in their vicinity. 

The Company shall exert itself to provide the Patroons and Colonists, on their order, with 
as many Blacks as possible, without however being further or longer obligated thereto than 
shall be agreeable. 

The Company reserves unto itself all large and small tythes, all waifs, the right of mintage, 
laying out highways, erecting forts, making war and peace, together with all wildernesses, 
founding of cities, towns and churches, retaining the supreme authority, sovereignty and 
supremacy, the interpretation of all obscurity which may arise out of this Grant, with such 
understanding, however, that nothing herein contained shall alter or diminish what has been 
granted heretofore to the Patroons in regard to high, middle and low jurisdiction. 

The Company shall, accordingly, appoint and keep there a Governor, competent Councillors, 
Officers and other Ministers of Justice for the protection of the good and the punishment of the 
wicked ; which Governor and Councillors, who are now, or may be hereafter, appointed by 
the Company, shall take cognizance, in the first instance, of matters appertaining to the freedom, 
supremacy, domain, finances and rights of the General West India Company ; of complaints 
which any one (whether stranger, neighbor or inhabitant of the aforesaid country) may 
may make in case of privilege, innovation, dissuetude, customs, usages, laws or pedigrees; 
declare the same corrupt or abolish them as bad, if circumstances so demand ; of the cases 
of minor children, widows, orphans and other unfortunate persons, regarding whom complaint 
shall first be made to the Council holding prerogative jurisdiction in order to obtain justice 
there; of all contracts or obligations ; of matters pertaining to possession of benefices, fiefs, 
cases of lesas majestatis, of religion and all criminal matters and excesses prescribed and 
unchallenged, and all persons by prevention may receive acquittance from matters there 
complained of; and generally take cognizance of, and administer law and justice in, all cases 
appertainining to the supremacy of the Company. 



124 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

liesolution of the States General empowering KiViaen Van Itens-selaer to dispose of 
Ids Colonie ly Will. 

[From the Register of West India affairs, 1033 — 1051, In the Eoyal Archives at the Hague.] 

Tuesday, S"" February 1641. 
Folio 43. Read iu the Assembly the petition presented to their High Mightinesses in the 

tseiaer. " name, and on the behalf of, Kiliaen Van Renselaer, Patroon of his Colonie called 
Rensselaerswyck, situate on the north river of New Netherland ; praying approval of a certain 
order entered by the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company on 14"" November 1639 
on the margin of the Petitioner's request, to be allowed accordingto article 7, to dispose of his, the 
Petitioner's, manor pr feudal estate referred to in the sixth article of the Freedoms granted to 
the Colonists in New Netherland. Whereupon after deliberation and consideration of the fifth 
article of the abovementioned Freedoms, their High Mightinesses instead of the aforesaid 
approbation by him prayed for, have granted and allowed the Petitioner Vcniam te&tandi, in 
order to enable him to dispose by last Will, according to his pleasure, of the aforesaid manor 
or feudal estate, whereof acte shall issue to the Petitioner in due form. 



Power to Kiliaen Van Rensselaer to devise his estate in New NeiJierland. 

[ From the AcU boek of the States General In the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Grant empowering Kiliaen Rensselaer to bequeath and dispose, by last will and 
testament, of his property situate in New Netherland. 

Folio 140. The States General of the United Netherlands. To all who shall see these or 

hear them read, Health. Be it Known, that on the humble petition of Kiliaen van 
Rensselaer, Patroon of his Colonie named Rensselaers-wyck, situate on the North river of 
New Netherland, within the limits of the General Incorporated West India Company of this 
country, and having referred to the o'"" Article of the Freedoms, granted by the Assembly of 
the XIX., of said Company, to all those who shall plant any Colonies in New Netherland 
aforesaid. We have given, granted, allowed and conceded, and do of Our Sovereign power, by 
this Our letter, give, grant, allow and concede unto him, the petitioner, authority to dispose of, 
bequeath, and give directions concerning the aforesaid his fief, named Rensselaers-wyck, either 
by form of testament and last will and codicil, before a notary and witnesses, superintendents 
and vassals of the manor where the said property is situate, or otherwise at his pleasure, for 
the behoof of his children, if any he hath, friends and relatives or others, strangers, as he shall 
please and think proper ; the aforesaid, his manorial estate to his children or other persons to 
give, transport, or leave in whole or in part; thereupon to assign rents hereditary, or for life, 
or even to give'any one the usufruct thereof, at his discretion and good pleasure. We have, 
moreover, given, and do hereby give, the petitioner permission, power, and leave his aforesaid 
testament and last will, which he will thus make, or hath previously made, to alter, 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IL 125 

enlarge, diminish and revoke by codicil, or other arrangement of last will, whenever and at all 
times that he shall please ; which testament, gift and order thus made, or to be made, by the 
petitioner. We now, for tiien, have confirmed and ratified, by tliis, Our letter, do confirm, 
ratify and will, that it be maintained and perfected, and be valid and of good effect forever, 
and that whomsoever the aforesaid petitioner hath given the said manor, or a portion 
thereof, or assigned any rents or usufruct thereon to, he shall use the same according to the 
laws, statutes and customs of the place wherein situate, in the same manner, and in all forms 
and ways, as if the said gifts or grants were made and executed before the General Company, 
or others, their agents, whom it may concern. Providtd, that to whomsoever the abovenamed 
petitioner shall give, order, or make over the aforesaid fief, whether man or woman, he shall 
be bound, within a year and six weeks after the death of the aforesaid petitioner, or his or her 
entrance into possession of the above described feudal estate, to do homage unto Us and to no one 
else, and pay the rights thereunto appertaining and belonging, all without fraud, guile or craft, 
Wherefore We do request and order the aforementioned General Incorporated West India 
Company, to instruct and command the Governors, or Commanders and Council, who now are, 
or shall hereafter be in New Netherland, and moreover, all others whom it may in any wise 
concern, conjointly and each in particular, as it may behoove him, to maintain and perfect the 
testament, order and last will of the abovenamed petitioner, as he will have made, or yet will 
make it, and as it now by Us is ratified and confirmed as aforesaid ; and whomsoever he, by 
his testament and last will, hath given and granted the aforesaid feudal estate, or shall have 
made, assigned, or yet may make, give or assign, any rents or usufructs to, the same to allow 
and permit the quiet and peaceable use and enjoyment thereof, without causing or allowing 
him at any time to experience any let, hindrance or molestation therein to the contrary. 
Given under Our seal, paraph, and the signature of Our Greffier, in the Hague, on the 5"> of 
February, 1641. 



Minutes of the AssemUy of XIX. respecting New Netherland. 

[ From the MS. Folio bound in Vellam, in tlie Eoyal Archives at the Hague, among the EeporU of the West India Company. ] 

Extract of a Report made to the States General, of the business transacted at 
the Assembly of the XIX. of the West India Company, at Amsterdam, 
in the year 1642. 

Monday, 3"* March, J 642. 

Is also opened a paket of letters received from Cura§ao, through New Netherland, wherein 
is one from Jan Claessen van Campen, Director at Curagao, without date or place, with 
some enclosures. 

One from Director William Kieft, from New Netherland, dated 7"" January, 1642. 

And another from John van der Hil,i from New Netherland, dated 6"" January, 1642. 

' Capt. John Underbill. —Ed. 



126 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

And they are referred to the Mess" Looten, de Raet, Loyssen, Halewyn, Loose and van 
Royen, to examine said letters and papers, as well as the whole state and condition of New 
Netherland, and to report thereon to the Assembly. 

Admonition being given, &c. 

Thursday, G"- March, 1642. 
Read a despatch from Ambassador Joachimi, dated Canterbury, 25th February, 1642, with 
certain appendices containing some declarations and complaints of the English in New 
England against our people in New Netherland; and placed the same in the hands of the 
Commissioners on the affairs of New Netherland. 

Friday, the T'" March, 1642. 
Read a petition of Cornells van Hoykens, fiscal in New Netherland, soliciting increase of 
salary, with good accommodation in his quarters. And resolved to place the same in the 
of the Commissioners on the affairs of New Netherland. 



Wednesday, 12"> March, 1642. 

The Commissioners on the affairs of New Netherland, having reported on the despatch of 
the ambassador Joachimi, and the complaints of the English, therein contained, It is resolved, 
to place the said despatch, with all papers and maps touching New Netherland, in the hands 
of the Advocate, to form a rescript for Mr. Joachimi. 

The Committee nominated on the S"* instant to examine the papers from New Netherland 
and Curagao, report that they are of opinion still to preserve the said places at the smallest 
expense possible, conforming to the letter of the Director there, dated 4"" July, the resolution 
of the XIX., and letter of the 20"" September, 1641, sent to the aforesaid Director by the ship 
the Brandaris, which the Assembly approves; and resolves, moreover, to postpone the sending 
of a Clergyman or Vicar. 



Resolution of the States General on a Petition of Fiscal Van Dindagen. 

[ From the Eegiater of West India affairs, 1C2S— 1651, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Wednesday, 2lst May, 1642. 
Folio 70. The further petition of Lubbert van Dincklagen, late fiscal of New Netherland, 

Lubbert van Dincli- • i .1 j- i 1 . /' • ti • n ^ 

lagcn. witn the appendix thereunto annexed, is, alter previous deliberation, referred to 

their High Migtinesses' deputies, actually presiding at the Assembly of the XIX. of the West 
India Company, at Amsterdam, in order that the petitioner may, by their direction and 
interposition, obtain his just arrears, which the said Company may owe him on his claims. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : II. 127 

Mr. Joachimi to the States General. 

[ From the Original in Hie Royal Archives at the Hague ; File, Engeland. ] 

High and Mighty Lords. 

My Lords, 

No notice has been taken in the House of Commons of what I communicated to some Lords 
on the xxii. and xxiii., from your High Mightinesses' letter of the twelfth instant, as I have 
understood from a Knight, a member of the same house, who is also of opinion that the alliance 
with Spain and the trade are wholly opposed to our proposal. 

Since my last of the xxv., some more cavalry have made their appearance here; and infantry 
are continued to be enlisted by beat of drum. Some of these have been sent to Hull. It was 
here considered certain that the King hath some force in the vicinity of this city, with a view 
to seize it; that they are not three thousand strong, and that they had burnt some mills in the 
neighborhood of the city; but that those inside have received three or four pieces of artillery 
and taken twelve or thirteen persons prisoners. The particulars are diversely related. 

On the xxvi., the votes and resolutions appeared in print, whereby it was determined to raise 
an army of which the Earl of Essex ' is to be General, the Earl of Bedford- to be General of 
the Cavalry, as your High Mightinesses will see in the printed paper sent herewith. I find 
that the little service I can perform here has been much curtailed by the publication of the 
aforesaid resolution. 

Letters are received from the Commissioners, who went on the part of both houses of 
Parliament to the King, that they had presented, on Saturday evening, the petition with which 
they had been dispatched, to his Majesty, who had taken it for examination. I have not yet 
learned the answer. 

If the Parliamentarians will be reconciled to the King, private complaints of the people 
against the Dutch, and petitions for the improvement of trade will undoubtedly be brought 
forward and examined in Parliament. It should therefore (under gracious correction) be 
seasonably considered, how the issue of letters of reprisal, or the passage of resolutions affecting 
the trade, is to be prevented ; from which serious inconveniences must arise. 

Among the English complainants, are the inhabitants of New England, as your High 
Mightinesses will be able to perceive from a Memorial hereunto annexed, handed me by my 
Lord Seie.^ The Earl of Warwick had already handed me a similar one in English. Some of 

' RoBEnT Devereux, 3(1 Earl of Essex, was appointed to the command of the army, against the Scotch Covenanters, in 
1639; afterwards Lord Chamberlain, and in 1641, Lieutenant of the Kingdom south of the Trent. In the following year he 
was dismissed from his office of Lord Chamberlain, whereupon the I'arliament appointed him to the command of their forces. 
He was then declared a traitor by the King, against whom he fought with various success, until the year 1645, when he 
resigned his commission. He died in September, 1646. 

' WiLLLOi Russell, 5th Earl, and 1st Duke of Bedford, K. G., was born in 1614 ; created Marquess of Tavistock and Duke 
of Bedford, 11th M.ay, 1649, and died 7 September, 1700. He was father of the celebrated Lord William Russel, who was 
beheaded in 1683. Bebrett. 

' William Fiennes, 4th Baron, was created in 1624 Viscount, Say and Sele. He was one of the original patentees of 
Connecticut After passing harmless through the troubles which at this period convulsed England, he became Lord Privy 
Seal after tlie Restoration, which he had been instrumental in bringing about, and died in 1662. Saybrook, in Connecticut, 
derives the first part of its name from this nobleman. The latter part from Lord Brook, afterwards a Parliamentary general, 
and killed at Litchfield in 1742. — Ed. 



128 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

the said complainants have spoken very menacingly and said : — If the matter be not arranged, 
our people will be, within the year, expelled from the quarter whence the complaints 
proceeded. The Directors of the West India Company have cognizance of the aforesaid 
complaints. On the xxiii. instant, I communicated to my Lord Seie above mentioned, information 
relative to the aforesaid memorial, copy whereof goes herewith. He requested that letters be 
written to the Dutch who are in New Netherland, to the end that our people, who have been 
complained of, may comport themselves in a peaceable and friendly manner with the English. 
I doubt if he hath correctly seized the meaning of the English. 

The Mayor of London is still in the Tower. He cannot be prevailed on to name a Deputy 
to fill his place in the City. It is said there is no precedent for the appointment of a Deputy to 
a Mayor, except he be sick, or not in his proper mind. 

Herewith commending myself humbly to your High Mightinesses, I pray God, 
High and Mighty Lords, that He may bless your High Mightinesses' government more 
and more. 

Your High Mightinesses' most humble servant, 
At London, the last of July, 1642. (Signed), Alb. Joachimi. 

Received, 9"" August, 1642. 



Appendix received from Mij Lord Saye. Read 9th August, 1642. 

[ From the Original in the Eoyal Archives at llie Hague ; File, West Indie.] 

Many of the English (his Majesty's Subjects) having been incorporated by his Majesty's 
letters patent and having, in order to obviate all difficulties, purchased the land from the 
natives, the acknowledged and right owners thereof, established divers factories on the river 
Coiicclecot, in New England, where they have experienced manifold molestations and insolences 
from the Dutch nation, who, having previously erected a small factory on the aforesaid river, 
claim, in virtue thereof, the right to the whole, and not only that, but to all the extent of 
country from Naragnnset Bay to Hudsons river, which they call by the name of New Netherland, 
although it had been granted by his Majesty to divers of his subjects, and is exclusively 
inhabited by the English, entered many protests against the peaceable proceedings of the 
English, towards whom they have transgressed in various manners and ways, adding thereunto 
sundry threats and haughty arguments. All which the English bore, and though no more 
than five or six Dutch, at most, reside on the aforesaid river Coaecticot, where there are 
exceeding two thousand English, yet the latter have not used any violence towards them, but 
treated them with all kindness; yea, have they been the means, under God, of saving 
their lives. 

The Dutch sometimes, 'tis true, aver that they purchased from the Pequot Indians, a piece 
of land lying on the aforesaid river, to which, in virtue of that purchase, they pretend a right. 
But if any such purchase has been effected, which has never been proved, it is very well known 
that the Pequots had no just, but an usurped, title. And herein is apparent the weakness of 
their claim : the English, by divers letters addressed to Governor Willem Kicfi, residing on 
Hudsons river, offered to refer the settlement of the aforesaid difference to disinterested 
arbitrators, but he would not accept it. 

It is requested that they be ordered to demean themselves, in the place they occupy, in 
a pcaceal)|p, neighborly manner, and be content with their own limits, or required to leave the 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: II. 129 

river; which would tend most to their masters' advantage; it being very probable that the 
returns have never repaid, or will never reimburse, their outlays. Moreover, they live there 
without rule, in a godless manner, beseeming in no wise the Gospel of Christ. Their abode 
there will never be productive of any other effect than expense to their masters, and trouble to 
the English.^ 



Resolution of the States General, referring the preceding Documents. 

[ From the Register of the West India affairs, 1633—1651, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Saturday, 9 August, 1642. 
Folio 76. Received a letter from Mr. Joachimi, their High Mightinesses' Ambassador in 

Heer Joachimi. England, Written at London the last of July; with an appendix containing 
complaints of several of the English against the Dutch people in New Netherland. Which 
Engush against the ^^Ging Considered, it is resolved and concluded that copy of the aforesaid 
S'S^wNetheSli! complaints of the English be sent to the presiding Chamber of the West India 
Company at Amsterdam, for information. 



States General to the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company. 

[ From the Minute in the Eoyal ArchlTes at the Hague ; File, West Indie.] 

To the presiding Chamber of the West India Company at Amsterdam, the 9"" August, 1642. 

The States, etc. 
Complaints of the you wiU Icam from the annexed papers we have resolved to send you herewith 
for information (which you will communicate to us with all speed), what Mr. Joachimi, our 
ordinary Ambassador in England, hath in his letter, dated last of July past, represented to us 
relative to complaints of many Englishmen against the Dutch people of New Netherland. 

Done 9 August, 1642. 

Mr. Joachimi to the States General. 

[ From the Original in the Eoyal Archive! at the Hague ; File, Engeland. ] 

High and Mighty Lords! 

My Lords! 

Your High Mightinesses have been able to gather from my despatch of the last of July, the 
latest information I possessed respecting the matter I had submitted to some Lords, in 

' Mr. de Zwaan says, of the Dutch M3. — " This piece ia evidently a translation from the English." — Ed. 
Vol. L 17 



130 NEAV-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

accordance with your High Mightinesses' letter of the xii"" preceding. On last Sunday, one 
of the best informed Lords, an Earl, came to me, who said a misfortune had occurred; that 
the Hollanders had captured and sent to Zealand twelve or thirteen ships that designed to enter 
Dunkirk under convoy of a ship of war, which the Earl of Warwick^ had granted them. And 
that the said Earl, without waiting the opinion of Parliament, had detained three Dutch 
merchant vessels, which were bound for the Mediterranean ; then, that he hoped the aforesaid 
three ships would be discharged the next day, and requested that I should represent this in most 
favorable terms beyond sea. Thereupon I said to the aforesaid Lord, that I was willing to do 
whatever might tend to the preservation of friendship between both States and Nations. But 
that I had received neither letter nor complaint respecting what precedes. On the following 
day, I acquainted another Lord of the Upper House of what the aforesaid Earl had 
communicated to, and requested of, me; and added thereto, that, with his Lordship's permission, 
1 should come at noon, or send to inquire what had been done regarding this affair. He 
said, I should send and he would communicate the resolution to me. I received the answer 
first on Tuesday; and he let me know by the person I had sent, that orders had been given 
the day before, without in any wise giving me to understand what had been ordered. I had 
dispatched an express to Dover, on Monday, to obtain information of the real state of the 
detention of abovementioned three Mediterranean traders, who brought me an answer in 
writing from Sieur Cornelis Bos, that twelve ships, mostly English, were taken to Zealand by 
Mr. Tromp; and that on the ii. of the month, five Dutch Mediterranean merchantmen were 
detained in the Downs; but that these were released on the evening of the fifth. He added, 
moreover, that their voyage was scarcely interrupted. No complaints have been presented to 
me from these ships, nor from those carried into Zealand. Since, a report has been rendered 
by the Commissioners, who had been to the King, at Beverly, from the Parliament, to propose 
terms of accommodation to His Majesty, whereby the danger of a civil war might be avoided; 
people have been continually occupied in enlisting and mustering troops, both foot and horse. 
The city of London will furnish, and maintain for some months, it is reported, five thousand 
men. The apprentices who volunteer with their masters' consent, and will be received into 
service, will, by their service, shorten their apprenticeship, and be for ever freemen of London. 
A great many more are presenting themselves than it is designed to accept. One of the 
Commissioners who had been to the King, told me, that Parliament had offered to place 
the city of Hull in His Majesty's hands; to restore the magazine that was there; to 
regulate the militia by bill ; to discharge the forces enlisted on both sides, at one and the same 
time. And he declared, moreover, that those of the Parliament will uphold the King in good 
faith, and sincerely in his prerogative, dignity and rank. On the other hand, his Majesty 
requires, first of all, that Hull and the magazine be restored. That those of the Parliament do 
first dismiss the force they have raised, and place the militia, as well as the fleet, at his 
disposal. Moreover, that the Parliament be adjourned, to meet in some other place besides 
Westminster or London. This being effected, his Majesty will consider what is necessary to 

■ Robert Rich, 2d Earl of Warwick, siicceecled lo his father's title on 24th March, 1618-19; he was a great friend of the 
Puritans, and High Admiral for the Long Parliament. After filling various offices, he died May 29, 1659. His nephew 
married Frances, youngest daughter of Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England. Collin^ Peerage. Ed. 1756. IL, 2S8. 
He was, says Clarendon, a man of pleasant and companionable wit and conversation ; of an universal jollity ; ani such a 
license in his words and actions, that a man of less virtue could not be found out. The Earl of Warwick -wa* president of 
the Council of Plymouth, under which the New England colonies were planted ; and his connexion with the Puritans, with 
whom he was very popular, may account for the character of the early emigration to those parts. — Ed. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: II. 131 

be done with Parliament, for the good of the nation. Some of the Commissioners' suite had 
heard some Cavaliers of the court wish the said Commissioners much bad luck, should they 
wait on the King for the purpose of malting peace. A printed copy of the King's answer 
accompanies this, by which your High Mightinesses will perceive, more clearly, the nature of 
his Majesty's demands, and that he hath required a full and positive answer thereunto by 
Wednesday, the xxvii. of July, old style. How it is received by the Houses of Parliament, I 
have not heard for certain. After the departure of the aforesaid Commissioners, the King 
went to Leicestershire, where, it is reported, a division has broken out among the people. 
And a committee of Parliament is engaged in putting into execution the militia law. The 
people had, moreover, refused to deliver up the magazine; but it is as yet scarcely possible to 
write with any certainty about such matters as transpire at a distance from here ; seeing, by 
daily experience, that things are printed here, under the eyes of Parliament, which have not 
the least semblance of truth. 

Your High Mightinesses' despatches of the xxvii. July, are delivered to me whilst I am 
engaged in writing this. I thank your High Mightinesses for the Rescript,' and I shall make 
use of it as occasion demands, and state decidedly every where, when the subject is mentioned, 
that your High Mightinesses will not meddle with the domestic difficulties of this kingdom, 
and that the government of the United Netherlands keeps itself neutral in this regard. I avoid 
as much as possible having any thing to do with the Parliament, and holding any conversation 
with the members thereof, in order not to excite any cause of jealousy. 

I mentioned in my last of the xxxi. July, that the English in New England complain of 
the Dutch in New Netherland, and that some of the English have spoken very boldly and said, 
if the affair were not settled, that the Dutch would, within a year, be out of those parts whence 
the complaints proceeded. Those who dare threaten in that manner, would perhaps also 
venture on putting threats into execution. 

What my Lord Seye requests, is ineffectual to keep the English back from New Netherland, 
should they design driving our people from their place. I have, therefore, bethought me to 
propose respectfully to your High Mightinesses, whether it would not be proper, in order 
to obviate inconveniences, that your High Mightinesses should write to the King and request 
his Majesty to be pleased to order the English in New England to leave the Dutch undisturbed 
in New Netherland and parts adjacent, where they had been before the English arrived in 
those countries. For such orders must proceed from his Majesty, who might take it ill that 
the Houses of Parliament were applied to for a remedy, whose orders probably would not be 
acknowledged in that far distant quarter. In considering the aforesaid point, it is ( with 
submission), to be borne in mind, that the winter will be soon at hand, and that opportunities 
to go, or to send letters to those parts, do not occur every day. 

The Portuguese agent, who remained here after the Ambassador's departure, spoke to me on 
Saturday last, to request Vice Admiral Tromp to assist two Commissioners of the King his 
master, who had arrived at Dover, in reaching the United Provinces in safety. They were 
sent, he said, to your High Mightinesses on business of importance, and which required 
despatch. I granted him his request; but I know not whether Mr. Tromp can accommodate 

' See Aitzema. Folio. II., 816, for the terras or basis of the Rescript. — Ed. 



132 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

him. The Earl of Leicester' left here last week for his government, in Ireland. Herewith 
ending, I commend myself respectfully to your High Mightinesses, and pray God, 

High and Mighty Lords, that He may bless your High Mightinesses' Government more 
and more. 

Your High Mightinesses' 
London, the eighth of August, 1642. most obedient servant. 

Received IG"" of August, 1642. (Signed) Alb. Joachimi. 

P. S. The letter was entirely written when 1 received the printed replies to the King's 
answer brought over lately by the Earl of Holland.^ A copy of said replies is hereunto annexed. 



New JSfeiherland. 1638 to 1642. 

In all the Points of Reference for the Assembly of the XIX. of the West India Company, received by the States General 
between 9 September, 1638, and 23d August, 1642, no mention is found of New Netherland, though all these points have 
been carefully examined twice. J. A. de Zwaan. 

March, 1843. 



Subject for the Consideration of tTie AssemUy of the XIX. 

[ From the Original in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague ; File, West Indie. ] 

Points whereupon all the Chambers of the West India Company are summoned 
to Amsterdam for the 15 Sepf 1642, extracted so far as relates to the 
affairs of New Netherland. Read 23 Aug. 1642. 
24"' Point. 

And in what way to devise an effectual and good plan for the places in New Netherland 
regarding the Freedoms and peopling thereof, and, generally, in what manner the aforesaid 
conquests shall be resorted to and traded with. 

■ Robert Sidney, 2d Earl of Leicester, and brother-in-law of the Earl of Northumberland, was a man of great parts, very 
conversant in books, and much addicted to the mathematics ; and though he had been a soldier, and commanded a regiment in 
the service of the United Provinces, and was afterwards employed in several embassies, as in Denmark and France, was in 
truth, rather a speculative than a practical man. He was, after the death of the Earl of Strafford, in 1641, called from the 
embassy in France to be Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and shortly after lost the King's favor and his office, without having 
gone to take possession of that government; after which he joined the Parliament, and Cromwell showed his sense of that 
step by appointing Lord Lisle, his eldest son, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1648. Clarendon. 

' Henry Rich, Ist Earl of Holland, K. G., was the second son of Robert, 1st Earl of Warwick, and brother of Robert, 
mentioned in n preceding note. He was created Knight of the Bath in 1611, and in 1618, Captain of the King's Guard; 
became Lord Kensington in 1623-4, and Eail of Holland in Lincolnshire, in 1623. He was sent ambassador to France, and 
afterwards to the United Provinces, in 162.5, in which country he had already made two or three campaigns, and in 1639, on 
the first insurrection of the Scots, was constituted General of the Horse in the expedition into that country. On the break- 
ing out of the Rebellion, he endeavored to accommodate matters, and with that view, accompanied the Earl of Bedford ( see 
supra, p. 127.) to the King at Oxford. But these efforts becoming fruitless, he took up arms in the Royal cause, was taken 
prisoner in July, 1648, condemned to death by the High Court of Justice, and beheaded on the 9th of March, 1649, before 
the gates of Westminster Hall. Collins. — Ed. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: II. 133 



Mr. Joachimi to the States General. 

[ From the Original in tlie Royal Archives at the Hague : File, EngeUmd. ] 

High and Mighty Lords ! 

My Lords, 

My servant, whom I sent on the iii. inst. to Holland with despatches to your High Mightinesses 
and his Highness, returned yesterday with a certificate, that he had duly delivered them, 
without bringing back any rescript from your High Mightinesses : I shall expect it shortly. I 
submitted to your High Mightinesses, in a despatch of the last of July, divers points to which 
(under correction) attention ought to be paid. Among the rest, to that of the complaint 
which the English of New England make against some of the Dutch Company in New 
Netherland. Were these to be once dislodged, they could not return there except with 
great difficulty. 

On the xviii. of August I also requested your High Mightinesses to be pleased to consider, 
in case the war proceed, whether the Ambassadors are at liberty to remain here, where the 
Parliament meets, or to repair to the King, without their Sovereigns and themselves being 
thereby understood to be compromised ; and what is best to be done at this conjuncture, so that 
neither your High Mightinesses nor the State, nor your High Mightinesses' servant may be put, 
on this account, to any inconvenience. The French Ambassador hath taken his leave of the 
King, and calculates to depart this week. He leaves only one person here, who will send him 
over an account of whatever transpires in this place. With my last of the xii., I sent your High 
Mightinesses the King's Message to both Houses of Parliament, brought over by the Earls of 
Dorset' and Southampton^ and their co-delegates, at the close of last August, with the answer 
of the aforesaid houses thereunto of the xxix. Another Message from his Majesty, or a reply 
to the aforesaid answer and the declaration made on the fifth of September thereon by the 
Lords and Commons in Parliament accompanies this despatch. Adjoined to them are two 
Journals of what had been done in the House of Commons during the week last past. In 
two or three days, we shall know what resolution the Lords of the Upper house will have 
adopted on the subject of the Episcopacy. Those of Scotland also desire that the Church 
government may be assimilated and rendered uniform in both Kingdoms. A Parliamentman 
told me to-day that the West Riding of Yorkshire hath pronounced for the Parliament, and that 
the two Serjeants major who were sent up from Boston with nine or ten Officers, are placed 
in separate prisons. News is received here of the siege of Sherborne [Castle] from which the 

' Edward Sackville, 4tli Earl of Dorset, K. G., was born in the year 1590. He represented the county of Sussex in the 
time of James I.; accompanied the forces sent in 1620, to the assistance of the King of Bohemia, and was engaged in 
the battle of the Prague. He was Ambassador to France in 1621, and succeeded to the title, on the death of his brother, 
in 1624. In the following year, he became one of the Lords of Trade ; in 1627 he was appointed one of the Commissioners 
to conclude an alliance with the States General, and in 1633 one of the Lords of the Admiralty. On the breaking out of 
the civil war he adhered to the King; superceded the Earl of Essex as Lord Chamberlain ; in 1646, he, with others of the 
Council, signed the capitulation for the surrender of Oxford, and in the following year retired into private life. He died on 
the 17th July, 1652. Collins. I., pt. ii., 768. —Ed. 

" Thomas Weiothesly, Earl of Southampton, K. G., Lord High Treasurer of En>,'land. The title became extinct on his 
death iu 1667. Debrett. — Ed. 



134 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Marquess of Hertford' fled. Some great men say, that those besieged have slain between two 
and three hundred of the Parliamentarians. From the South we hear, that those who invest 
Portsmouth, have captured a fort wherein they have got thirty pieces of cannon. It will 
probably follow from this, that this place will surrender to them. 

Herewith humbly commending myself to your High Mightinesses, I shall conclude and pray 
God, High and Mighty Lords, that he may preserve and protect Fatherland. 

Your High Mightiness' 
London, the 17"' September, 1642. most humble servant. 

Received 27"' September, 1642. (Signed) Alb. Joachimi. 

1642. 

P. S. News arrived, after this was written, that Portsmouth has surrendered to the Parliament. 
The conditions have not been yet received. Dated as above. 



Mr. Joachimi to the States General. 

[ From the Original in the Royal Archives at the Hague ; File, Engdand. ] 

High and Mighty Lords! 

My Lords ! 

Your High Mightinesses could have seen from my last, of the ix. instant, what has been said 
here of tlie rencontre which occurred on the previous Saturday, near Worcester, between the 
Cavaliers under Prince Robert and some Companies of the Parliamentarians. Your High 
Mightinesses will receive herewith the information communicated thereby to the King, and a 
book containing an agreement between the nobility and gentry of Yorkshire, mutually pledging 
themselves to remain neuter and to abstain, in the aforesaid County, from the proceedings 
and quarters of both sides. Against this the Parliament hath published a declaration, which 
is attached to the aforesaid agreement, commencing "fourteen articles of peace." Private 
letters have also been received from Lancaster stating that six standards have been presented 
to the King which were taken, in the rencontre above mentioned, from the Parliamentarians ; 
and it is reported that some thousands of the latter have been slain. 

A Parliamentman of quality told me, on Saturday last, that the Earl of Essex was with 
the army within twelve miles of Shrewsbury ; that place has been fortified by the King, who 
keeps his main force there. It is believed that My Lord Strange, now Earl of Derby,^ by the 

' William SETiionE, Earl of Hertford, K. G., succeeded to the title on the death of his grandfather in 1621, and was 
advanced to the dignity of Marquess on the 3d of June, 1640, and constituted Governor of the Prince of Wales. On the 
breaking out of the rebellion, he was made Lieutenant-General of all the King's forces in the counties of Wilts, Southampton, 
Dorset, etc., and in 1643 Groom of the Stole. On the Restoration, he succeeded in being acknowledged as Duke of Somerset, 
which title was forfeited by the attainder of his grandfather, in the reign of Edward VI., and died on the 24th October, 1660. 
His second wife was sister of the Earl of Essex. ( Supra, p. 127.) Collins. I., pt i., 188. 

" James Stanley, 7th Earl of Derby, was summoned to Parliament by the title of Lord Strange, 13th February, 1628, and 
succeeded to the Earldom on the death of his father, 29 September, 1642. His Lordship was highly accomplished with 
learning, prudence, loyalty and true valor, whereof he gave signal proofs, on several occasions, in the Civil Wars of England. 
On the loss of the battle of Worcester, he was taken prisoner and condemned to die, notwithstanding his plea that, on being 
taken prisoner, quarter for life had been granted him. He was beheaded at Bolton on the 15th of October, 1651. The 
particulars of his death are very fully det.ailed in Collins, IF., H4. — En. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : IL 135 

death of his father, has been before Manchester with about three thousand men to invest 
the place; and that he hath suffered some loss from those occupying that post. If this siege 
should continue I cannot write anything as certain. 

Of the Marquess of Hertford it is stated that he has succeeded in getting into one of the Castles 
at Falmouth. I have not heard whether the petition, which the Parliament recommended to 
the Earl of Essex, is sent to the King. Something has been done here in Church matters. 
It is currently reported that the Queen has gone to France, and an ofldcer of the King 
hath informed me that his Majesty has sent off two Lords to convey her Majesty thither. 
Your High Mightinesses can best tell how much truth is in it. Your High Mightinesses will 
please to find, in the accompanying Journals, what has occurred here during the past week. 
Towards the end of the aforesaid week, the Duke of Soubisse died here. A distinguished 
Knight, who sold his property above eight or nine years ago and removed the proceeds, as 
well as his sons, to New England, yesterday renewed to me the complaints against some of 
our nation belonging to New Netherland, relative to which I have heretofore written to your 
High Mightinesses. It will be necessary seasonably to consider the means of preventing an 
attack being attempted on our people. Herewith, commending myself to your High 
Mightinesses, I pray God, High and Mighty Lords, to prosper the State and to bless your 
High Mightinesses' Government. 

Your High Mightinesses' 
London, the xvii. October, 1642. Most humble Servant, 

Received 25"^ October, 1642. ( Signed ) Alb : Joachimi. 



Resolution of the States General on the preceding Despatches. 

[ From the Register of 'West India Affairs, 1633—1651, in the Royal ArchiTes at the Hague. ] 

Saturday, 25"- October, 1642. 

Folio 80. r. • 3 1 

Heer Joachimi. Rcceived a letter and appendix from Mr. Joachimi, their High Mightinesses' 

ordinary Ambassador in England, written at London the 18"" inst.; the aforesaid letter 
New Netherland Containing, among the rest, a notice of affairs that occurred in New Netherland ; 
*''^^'"' which, being taken into consideration, it is resolved and concluded, that the 

retro-acta relating hereunto shall be examined. 



Subjects for the Consideration of the Assembly of the XIX. 1643. 

[ From the Original, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague ; File, West Indie. ] 

Points on which all the Chambers of the West India Company are summoned 
to Amsterdam for the 21 February, 1643 ; extracted so far as they relate to 
the affairs of New Netherland. Read 2 February, 1643. 

IS"" Point. 

It being found that New Netherland hath been hitherto of great expense and small profit to 
the Company, and that the plan of opening the trade to said place, produces no true effect 



136 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

according to the intent, inasmuch as many will go thither to trade without acquiring a domicile 
there ; and therefore, population scarcely increases there, whilst trade is seriously ruined. 
Therefore, the members are recommended to consider whether the internal trade there ought 
not to be confined to the inhabitants of that country. And in order to induce a greater number 
to repair thither, and to encourage the people there to the culture of the soil, grain and the 
fisheries, whether it would not be well to open to the inhabitants who have a permanent domicile, 
and oblige themselves to remain there, the trade from that country to Brazil, under proper 
orders and duties, for the benefit of the Company; and vice versa, that from Brazil back to 
New Netherland. 
19. 

In like manner, as a supply not only of all sorts of animals and cattle, but especially of salt, 
is necessary for that country; and the islands of Curasao, Bonaire, Aruba particularly, furnish 
no other supplies, the settlement and cultivation of said islands by private individuals, under 
conditions to be thereunto agreed on, shall also have to be considered; permitting the trade 
between them, New Netherland and Brazil, and vice versa as above, in the Company's 
unarmed ships. 
20. 

Moreover, that all the Chambers that trade exclusively to one quarter or the other, shall 
bring the account thereof with them, in order to determine, after examination of the same, if 
it be expedient to continue that course, or to open the trade. 



Stibject for the Consideration of the Asseinhly of the XIX. 1643. 

[ From the Original in the Eoyal Archives of the Hague ; Pile, Weit Indie. ] 

Points on which all the Chambers of the West India Company are summoned 
to Amsterdam for the 11 July, 1643 ; extracted so far as relates to the 
affairs of New Netherland. Received 19 June, 1643. 
g'l" Point. 

Proper enquiry shall, moreover, be made, and order also given as to the trade which some 
Chambers separately carry on to one quarter or the other, especially how, in accordance with 
the IS"" and ig"" points of reference of the last Assembly, the island of Curagao and New 
Netherland can best be benefitted; and, in the meantime, to resume the papers lately received 
from thence. 



Resolution of the States General on a Petition from Fiscal Van Dindagen. 

[Frcm the Register of West India Affairs, 163S— 1661, In the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Tuesday, 28 July, 1643. 
Foiio99. The petition with the appendix presented to their High Mightinesses by and 

ciagen. (,„ the behalf of Lubbert Van Dincklagen, late fiscal of New Netherland, being 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : II. 137 

read to the Assembly, complaining that he, the petitioner, hath not been able as yet to obtain 
from the West India Company, payment of his three years' services and other claims. After 
previous deliberation, it is resolved and concluded, to refer the petitioner hereby to the Courts 
of Justice. 



States General to the Assembly of the XIX. 

[ From the Minute In the Eoyal Archives at the Hague ; File, West Indie. ] 

To the Assembly of the XIX. of the West India Company, the SO"" August, 1643. 

The States, &c. 
Complaints o( ihe Whercas [complaints have] come now and again before us from the English 
ES|iand. '" '" residing in New England, against the Dutch settled in New Netherland; Therefore, 
we have resolved and concluded hereby to request and require you to take care that no acts 
of hostility do arise [on any pretence] between the English and Dutch nations; but on the 
contrary, that good friendship and harmony be maintained with the English. Expecting which. 

Done 20* August, 1643. 

The words within brackets, in the above letter, are supplied, as the MS. is imperfect, in consequence of the original being, 
as it is stated, partially illegible, from damp. — En. 



Resolution of the States General on a Report of the Proceedings of the XIX. 

[From the Register of West India affairs, 1638— 1651, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague.] 

Saturday, 7th November, 1643. 
Folio 106. The report being heard of Mess" van der Cappelle tho Ryssel and Hogendorp, 

sided'at'thl xix?" (Mr. Bickcr being absent) who by virtue of their High Mightinesses' Copimission, 
presided at the Assembly of the West India Company holden at Amsterdam, in September and 
Eeport,ctc. Octobcr last ; and the said report being exhibited and submitted in writing; It is 

upon previous deliberation, resolved and concluded, etc. 

Lubbert Tan ^"^^ ^^ *° ^h^t regards the case of Lubbert van Dingslagen, the retroacta shall 

Dingsiagen. ^g examined, in order that they be placed together with the petitioner's request, 

in the hands of their High Mightinesses' Commissioners. Finally, the Lords of Holland are, at 
their request, granted a copy of the aforesaid written report; with recommendation that they 
assist in forwarding the mattter therein set forth, so far as their Province is concerned. 

Vol. I. 18 



138 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Resolution of the States Genei'ol. 

[ From the Register or West India affairs, 1638—1651, In the Royal Archires at the Hague. ] 

Tuesday, 24th November, 1643. 
FoiioioT. Deliberation being had, it is hereby resolved and concluded to delegate Mr. 

LabbertTanDinsia- ^^^^g^^ j^ the matter of Lubbertus vau Dinslaken, late fiscal of New Netherland, 
in the stead of Mr. Bommel, (in consequence of the latter's departure). 



Subject for the Consideration of the Assembly of the XIX. 1643. 

[ From the Original, in the Royal Archives, at the Hague. File, Weit Indie. ] 

Points whereon all the Chambers of the West India Company are summoned 
to Amsterdam, for the 12"" December, 1643; extracted so far as relates to 
the affairs of New Netherland. Received 2 December, 1643. 

lO"" Point. 

Item. Due inquiry ought to be again made and order also given respecting the trade 
which some Chambers carry on separately to one quarter and another; whether it can be best 
promoted by trading conjointly to several places, or otherwise, each independently; first of all, 
praying strict attention to the Island of Cura9ao and New Netherland; both of which cost the 
Company considerable annually, without affording any profit or return. 



Resolution of the States General in the matter of Fiscal van Dinclagen. 

[ From the Register of 'West India Affairs, 1638—1651, in the Koyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Friday, n December, 1643. 
Folio io« Having heard the report of Mr. Arnhem and other their High Mightinesses' 
Deputies, in virtue of their respective resolutions of the T^ and 24"" November last, and having 
viewed and examined the petitions and appendices heretofore presented to their High 
Lubbert van Dine Mightinesses by and on behalf of Lubbert van Dincklagen, late Advocate fiscal 
'*^^°' and Sheriff of New Netherland, instituting complaint of and against the West 

India Company of these parts, in order to receive from it payment of his three years' service 
and other claims, which he maintains to be due him from the above named Company. It 
is, after previous deliberation, and after examining their High Mightinesses' resolution of 
the 28"" July hereupon, in conformity thereunto, hereby again resolved and concluded, to 
refer the Petitioner to the Courts of Justice. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IL 139 

Resolution of the States Geiieral in the matter of Fiscal van Dindagen. 

[ From the Eogister of Wisl India Affairs, 16S8— 1661, lu Ihe Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Wednesday, 16 December, 1643. 
Folio 109. f i-,g further petition of Lubbert van Dinckxlaeen, late Fiscal and Sheriff in New 

Lubbert van Dine- '^ ° 

lagen. Nethcrland, with the vouchers thereunto annexed, are, after previous deliberation, 

placed in the hands of their High Mightinesses' Deputies going to preside at the next Assembly 
of the XIX. of the West India Company, in order to urge and endeavor that the petitioner 
may be deprived of complaint; and their High Mightinesses' resolutions of the SS"" of last 
July and xi. instant, respectively adopted in the Petitioner's case, are, in consequence, 
hereby altered. 



Memorial of the Eight Men at the Manhattans to the States General. 

[ From the authenticated copy in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague J File, Wat Indie. ] 

Noble, High and Mighty Lords, the Noble Lords the States General of the United 
Netlierland Provinces. 

Noble, High and Mighty Lords. 

As no sacrifice is more acceptable to our God than an humble spirit and a contrite heart, so 
nothing should, in like manner, be more pleasing to all Christian princes and magistrates, than 
to lend an ear to their complaining, and to extend their hand to their distressed, subjects. 

It is then so that we poor inhabitants of New Netherland were here in the Spring pursued by 
these wild Heathens and barbarous Savages with fire and sword; daily in our houses and 
fields have they cruelly murdered men and women; and with hatchets and tomahawks struck 
little children dead in their parents' arms or before their doors ; or carried them away into 
bondage ; the houses and grain-barracks are burnt with the produce; cattle, of all descriptions, 
are slain and destroyed, and such as remain must perish this approaching Winter for the want 
of fodder. 

Almost every place is abandoned. We, wretched people, must skulk, with wives and little 
ones that still survive, in poverty together, in and around the fort at the Manahatas where we 
are not safe even for an hour; whilst the Indians daily threaten to overwhelm us with it. 
Very little can be planted this autumn, and much less in the spring; so that it will come to 
pass that all of us who will yet save our lives, must of necessity perish next year of hunger 
and sorrow, with our wives and children, unless our God have pity on us. 

We are all here, from the smallest to the greatest, devoid of counsel and means, wholly 
powerless. The enemy meets with scarce any resistance. The garrison consists of but 50 
@^60 soldiers unprovided with ammunition. Fort Amsterdam, utterly defenceless, stands 
open to the enemy night and day. The Company hath few or no effects here (as the Director 
hath informed us); were it not for this, there would have been still time to receive assistance 



140 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

from the English at the East (ere all had gone to ruin); and we wretched settlers, whilst we 
must abandon all our substance, are exceedingly poor. 

These heathens are strong in might; they have formed an alliance with seven other nations; 
are well provided with guns, powder and lead, which they purchased for beaver from the 
private traders who have had, for a long time, free range here; the rest they take from our 
fellow countrymen whom they murder. 

In fine, we experience here the greatest misery, which must astonish a Christian heart to 
see or to hear. 

We turn then, in a body, to you. High and Mighty Lords, acknowledging you as our 
Sovereigns and the Fathers of Fatherland. We supplicate, for God's sake, and for the love 
your High Mightinesses bear your poor and desolate subjects here in New Netherland, that your 
High Mightinesses would take pity on us, your poor people, and encourage the Company 
thereunto, and command tiiem (to whom we also hereby make known our necessity) to 
forward us, by the earliest opportunity, such assistance as your High Mightinesses will deem 
most proper, in order that we, poor forlorn people, may not be left all at once a prey, with 
wives and children, to these cruel heathens. And should suitable assistance not speedily 
arrive (contrary to our expectations), we shall, through necessity, in order to save the lives of 
those who remain, be obliged to betake ourselves to the English at the East, who would like 
nothing better than to possess this place. And that an account of the superior convenience of 
sea coasts, bays, and large rivers, besides the great fertility of this place : yea, which alone 
could of itself provision and supply yearly 20, 25@^30 ships from Brazil or the West Indies 
with all necessaries. 

(Was underwritten :) Remaining, as we are, your High Mightinesses' faithful servants and 
subjects, lawfully chosen and authorized by the Hon*"'^ Director and Council and the entire 
Commonalty of New Netherland, 

(Signed) Coornelis Melyn, JA^ Evertse Boudt, 

ToMAS Hal, Gerrit Wolphertse, 

IsAK Alleeton, Barent Dirckse, 

Abraham Pieterse, Jochem Pietekse Kuyter. 

Dated Manahatan, in New Netherland, this 3'^ November, 1643 ; Stil : Rom°. 

This is found, ou collating, to agree with the Minute. 

(Signed) Cornelis van Tienhoven, Sec'. 



Resolution of the States General referring the 'preceding Memorial. 

[ From the Register of West India Affairs, 1653—1651, In the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Tuesday, 5 April, 1644. 
FoHoiis. Read in the Assembly a certain Remonstrance presented to their High 

Commonatly of New ,, _ i \ -it. t- \ • /~i ^ n t^j 

Neiheriaod. Mightiuesses iH the name and on behalf of the entire Commonalty oi New 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : II. 141 

Netherland, containing divers complaints respecting tlie inconveniences to which they are there 
exposed. Whereupon, deliberation being had, it is resolved and concluded, that copy of the 
aforesaid Remonstrance be sent to the Assembly of the XIX. of the West India Company, so 
that prompt order may be taken on said Complaints, and for the removal of the aforesaid 
inconveniences. 

[ Here follo-ws a fragment of the letter of the States General to the Assembly of the XIX., transmitting the foregoing 
RcsoIutioD, bnt it is, for the most part, unintelligible. — Eb.] 



Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company to the States General. 

I From the Original in tho Royal Archives at the Hague. File, West Indie. ] 

High and Mighty Lords. 

Your High Mightinesses' letter dated the 5"" April, is duly come to hand. Though addressed 
to the Assembly of the XIX., we have opened it here at our private meeting, and read it with 
particularly grateful acceptance, in regard of your High Mightinesses' paternal and gracious 
care for the wretched Commonalty of New Netherland; we have also attentively examined the 
petition of the said Commonalty presented to your High Mightinesses. We have resolved, to 
write to your High Mightinesses in answer to tiie one and the other, that jointly and 
individually, we sensibly feel in the inmost recesses of our hearts^the miserable and desolate 
condition of the poor people there, the rather as we find ourselves in such inability that we 
not only cannot supply the requisite means to bring this Colony, which is a source of so much 
expense for the West India Company, to such a state that we might in time realize the long 
looked for fruits thereof; but cannot, at present, even furnish those poor people who have left 
their Fatherland, in the hope of obtaining, with their wives and children in that country, an 
honest livelihood, with such supplies as are most urgently required for their support and 
protection against the barbarous inhabitants of those parts. And we are truly of opinion that 
greater and greater difficulties are to be expected from long delays. In order [to prevent] 
which, as well in New Netherland as in other distant places where the Company, and 
consequently this State, have to fear no less dangers, through the scarcity of divers required 
necessary provisions, ammunition, goods, &c., we are obliged respectfully to submit to your High 
Mightinesses, that the Company is fallen into both such inability and discredit that it is out of 
its power, any longer, without considerable aid from the State, to supply any distant places, 
or to continue any further the necessary daily payments in this country. We most humbly 
request Your High Mightinesses, therefore, to be pleased to take these untoward circumstances 
into such consideration as the constitution of the Company for the welfare of this State 
most seriously demands. 

High and Mighty Lords, let not the good and willing stockholders who have contributed 
such large subscriptions for the advancement of the prosperity of this State, and have already 
provisionally adopted an eflectual and advantageous resolution with the East India Company; 
let tiiem not be discouraged or dismayed in contributing to such a beneficial work as the 
combination of these two notable Companies would prove for this State. The vigorous 



142 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

continuance of the Company's maritime affairs, and at least of its daily occurring disbursements 
here, would contribute a little to that [prosperity]; and with an immediate grant of about a 
million, it can be placed in good, prosperous and profitable condition. We also respectfully 
request you, High and Mighty, to be pleased to receive further information from our Deputies, 
who will present this to your High Mightinesses, and therein to vouchsafe them favorable 
audience and full credit. Thereupon awaiting your High Mightinesses' favorable resolution, 
which is most necessary, we shall meanwhile. High and Mighty Lords, pray God for the 
continual success of your High Mightinesses' prosperous government. 

Your High Mightinesses most humble Servants, 

The Directors of the West India Company at Amsterdam, 

Amsterdam, this 23 April, 1644. (Signed) Jacob Hamel. 

Received 27"' April, 1G44. Marcus de Vogelaer. 



Resolution of the States General, referring the preceding Letter. 

[ From the Kegisler of West India affairs, 1633 — 1651, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Wednesday, 27 April 1644. 
Folio 116. Appeared in the Assembly some Directors from divers Chambers of the West 

compalf/.^'""""' India Company, and by the moutii of one of the Advocates of said Company 
proposed to their High Mightinesses, and subsequently submitted in writing, what is 
Proposal. substantially se't forth in the proposition hereinafter inserted. And the aforesaid 

Directors also delivered, besides, to their High Mightinesses a certain letter from the Directors 
of the abovenamed West India Company, Chamber at Amsterdam, written there the 23^ 
instant, being an answer to their High Mightinesses' despatch of the S"" of the present month, 
Affairs of New respecting the affairs of New Netherland ; which being considered, the Provinces 
Neiheriand. dcsired copy of the aforesaid proposition, as well as of the said letter which was 

granted them. 



Report of the Deputies from the States General to the Asseiyibly of the XIX. 

[ From the Original In the Eoyal Archires at the Hague ; File, West Indie. ] 

Extract of the Report of Henrick van der Capelle toe Ryssel, Daniel Hoogendorp 
Gaio Nauta, Gerrit van Santen, their High Mightinesses' deputies to the 
Assembly of the XIX. of the West India Company at Amsterdam in April, 
1644. E.xhibited 1" October, 1644. 

High and Mighty Lords. 

The deputies to this Assembly have found great discord and mutual distrust prevailing 
among the Chambers ; and the Brazils with the coasts of Guinea, Angola, etc., were in 
consequence, not provided with what those coasts required for support and trade for this State. 

Those from Zealand, etc 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IL 143 

Mr. Spieringh to the States General. 

[ From the Original in the Eoyal Archives at tlie Hague: File, DuittcMand. ] 

High and Mighty Lords. 

Whereas her Royal Majesty's sliip, the Fame, coming from Nova Succia, her Royal Majesty's 
possession, freighted with some peltries and tobacco, has arrived in tiiis country, and I, desiring 
to have said freight discharged here, gave notice, in the ordinary course of trade, of said cargo 
at the customs through my agent at Amsterdam, who apphed for a permit to unload ; but this 
was refused him, and he was referred from there to tlie West India Company ; this astonished 
me not a little, as I do not know wherefore he is referred from one to the other when the 
customs and duties thereof are offered to be paid. Therefore I would hereby request your High 
Mightinesses to be pleased to give such orders and instruction to whomsoever has charge and 
authority over the customs and duties that they will no longer refuse to allow this her Royal 
Majesty's ship to be unloaded and discharged in due course of trade, but that such be done 
without hindrance, lest the perishable goods remain on board to their damage ; expecting 
which speedily from your High Mightinesses, 

I wish you from Almighty God a prosperous government, remaining 
High and Mighty Lords, 

Your High Mightinesses' 

Friend and dutiful 
Hfigue, 8"" October, 1644. (Signed) Peter Spieringh Silvercroen, 

hereditary Proprietor of North Holm. 
[op Norshollem (r/gesetten.'] 



Resolution of the States General on a further Memorial of the Swedish Residtnt. 

[From the Register of Eetolutions relating to West India affairs in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Saturday, 15"" October, 1644. 
The shi°' rime Read to the Assembly a certain additional Memorial presented to their High 

dii* aldVper^centl Mightincssses by and on behalf of Resident Spieringh, stating in substance, that 
he hath seen that their High Mightnesses have been pleased to resolve that copy of his 
previous Memorial to their High Mightinesses, presented the 8"" instant, respecting the 
discharging her Royal Majesty's ship the Fame, be referred to the present delegated Directors 
of the West India Company, in order to furnish their High Mightinesses, at their earliest 
convenience, with information regarding this affair. Mr. Spieringh being now aware of the 
object of this reference, which can no otherwise be interpreted than as tending to the disrespect 
and disparagement of her Royal Majesty, cannot therefore accept such resolution nor send it 
it to her Royal Majesty (unless on refusal of any other) as it will surprise her to learn that a 
remonstrance from one Sovereign to another should be referred to private individuals, or to a 
private Company or Board, or whatever else it may be called, totally unknown, in these 
premises, to her Royal Majesty. Their High Mightinesses have placed Mr. Spieringh's aforesaid 



144 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Memorial in tiie hands of such as they pleased, but he expects an answer and resolution from 
none but their High Mightinesses ; and that speedily, according to the urgency of the case, in 
order to discharge the aforesaid ship, after satisfying the customs, according to the usage of 
trade in regard to other foreign independent sovereigns ; or that their High Mightinesses will 
be pleased to communicate to him the reasons why he has been detained ; referred from one 
to the other to the serious damage of the perishable wares which are lying on ship board, and 
of others now bearing a high price. Which being considered, it is resolved and concluded, 
that the cargo of the said ship the Fame shall be regulated as regards the duties, in the same 
way as those of tlie PVench, English, Danish and other foreign nations that bring and 
discharge such or similar cargoes here ; to wit, the ordinary import duties, and in addition 
eight per cent, both made over among other things to the West India Company of these ports, 
in place of subsidies; all in conformity to the S"" Article of their High Mightinesses' regulation 
of the 16"" October, 1637, and their confirmatory resolution of the 24"" July 1641 following 
thereupon. 



Resolution of the States General on a letter from the Patroon of Staten Island. 

[ From the Register of TVeat India Affairs, 1633—1651, in the Koyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Thursday, 20"' October, 1644. 
Folio 181. The letter of Cornelis Melyn, styling himself Patroon at Staten Island, without 

Staten Island. (Jato or place, addressed to Mr. van Nederhorst ; also, a certain petition of the 
same, dated Manahattas, 6"" August last, regarding the distressed condition of affairs there, is, 
after previous consideration, placed in the hands of Messrs. van der Capellen, and other their 
High Mightinesses' Deputies to the Assembly of the XIX. of the West India Company, with 
power to inform themselves of, and investigate the real merits and state of the aforesaid 
representation, and afterwards assist in making such order therein as the interests of the 
country in general, and those of the said Company in particular, shall require. 



Resolution of the States General to inquire into the affairs of New Netherland. 

[ From the Register of West India Affairs, 1633—1651, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Saturday, 22 October, 1644. 
Folio 131. Messrs. van der Capelle tho Ryssel and other their High Mightinesses' Deputies 

Bembiy'^of "the xix have represented to the Assembly that they have determined and resolved to 
Departure. procccd hencc to Amsterdam on Monday next, in order to preside, by virtue 

of their High Mightinesses' Commission and authority, at the Assembly of the XIX. of the 
West India Company which will meet in the beginning of the next week, requesting to know 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : H. 145 

Abuaea. if their High Mightinesses have any further commands for them ; which, being 

considered, their High Mightinesses wished the said Lords a favorable journey; recommended 
to them the interests of the Country in general and of the aforesaid West India Company in 
particular; and requested them to use all due diligence, to the end that the business mentioned 
in the report be accomplished, which the aforesaid, their High Mightinesses' Deputies, had 
made verbally on the first of this month, and afterwards delivered in writing; whereunto, for 
brevity sake, reference is had. Ilem, that generally all abuses and excesses at present prevailing 
be remedied and repaired, and specially that, pursuant to their High Mightinesses' resolution 
of the 20"" instant, they inform themselves and investigate the true circumstances and 
condition of the state of affairs in New Netherland, and assist in making such order as the interest 
of the Country in general and those of the above mentioned Company in particular shall 
require. Their High Mightinesses further deputed Mr. Viersen in the place of Mr. Nauta (in 
consequence of the latter's absence) to accompany and assist them in presiding in the aforesaid 
Assembly of the XIX. with and in addition to the aforesaid Mr. van der Capelle and others 
their High Mightinesses' deputies. 



Mr. Spieringh to the States General. 

[ From the Original in the Koyal Archivea at the Hague ; File, Weet Indi6.'\ 

Mr. Peter Spiring Silvercroon, hereditary proprietor of North Holm, Councillor of Finance 
to her Royal Majesty of Sweden, and her Resident near your High Mightinesses, being, at his 
request, in conference on the 26"" October with some of your High Mightinesses' Deputies, 
proposed that he, the Resident, be furnished with a copy of your High Mightinesses' resolution 
of the IS"" October, in answer to the Memorial he presented relative to the discharging of her 
Majesty's Ship the Fame, which, coming from New Sweden, had run in to these parts; stating, in 
substance, that your High Mightinesses declared the cargo of the above named ship, the 
Fame, should be regulated in regard to duties, the same as the ships of the French, English, 
Danish and other foreign nations that bring and discharge such or similar loading here, to wit : 
the ordinary import duty, and in addition 8 percent, both made over, among other things, to the 
West India Company of this Country, in conformity to your High Mightinesses' resolution in 
this regard. To which, your High Mightinesses' resolution, he, the Resident, submitted, that 
whatever the French, English, Danish and other foreign nations gave or did not give, was not 
binding on him as he was suffering on his own merits and demerits, which remained unaffected 
and undiminished. Moreover, few or no such examples could be produced ; and even if they 
were, they should not be obligations on her Royal Majesty, or even otherwise be drawn into 
precedent; that, on examination of their nature and circumstances, it might be found that 
such French, English and Danes were mere private persons, and then, still, mere inhabitants 
of these countries, who, in comparison with her Royal Majesty's ship, her Royal Majesty's 
property, could not come into any consideration or be cited as precedent; and with the same 
readiness that Frenchmen and Englishmen are instanced in opposition to her Royal Majesty 
can Swedes be equally cited against others. 
Vol. T. 19 



146 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

The proposition of your High Mightinesses' Deputies, that her Royal Majesty should pay 
the same as other inhabitants of these countries, the Resident would consider very strange, as 
an attempt to place a Sovereign and Crowned head on a level with inhabitants of this State ; 
the Resident expected greater respect would be paid her Royal Majesty than to place her on 
an equality with private individuals. If this State, either by its Ambassadors or others, had 
made or submitted any request to her Majesty, he, the Resident, was convinced that in such 
or like cases, it would be treated with much greater respect. Moreover, the aforesaid 
proposition was altogether different in character, inasmuch as its object was to impose subsidies 
and contributions on her Royal Majesty and thereby tax her for the benefit of some private 
inhabitants of this State; inasmuch as these duties were not contributed to the State, but to 
private persons who were simply authorized thereunto, and who were furnished by the State 
with a paper cloak; and therefore, if her Majesty is to be treated in all cases in the same 
manner as the inhabitants of these countries (none of whom is understood to be exempt), 
then her Royal Majesty must even so be released from such duty, or must be acknowledged, 
not only to be exempt from, but even must appropriate, such impost, the same as the West India 
Company, which consists merely of private individuals. Moreover, your High Mightinesses 
had no more right to declare that this her Royal Majesty's ship should pay duty to a West 
India Board, than to an East India or a Greenland Company, or any other set of individals, 
which would be without end; and levied and extorted with, certainly, as little justice. 

Regarding the S per cent in addition to the Import duty : although he, tiie Resident, did not 
agree to it, he nevertheless proposed this question ; whether it had reference to the principal, 
the risk, the profit, the entire, or what else; also, if the valuation of the goods was to apply to 
the place where they were procured, here where they were bought, or there, where they would 
be consumed ; your High Mightinesses will be pleased to weigh all the points and justly to 
examine this case; and should the West India Company, according to its pleasure and 
resolution, increase the value and duty, your High Mightinesses will please to bear in mind, 
what, under similar circumstances, had heretofore occurred in Prussia, with her Royal Majesty, 
in regard to the licenses, when your High Mightinesses' Ambassadors argued and maintained 
that her Royal Majesty could not levy any tolls there, notwithstanding her Royal Majesty had 
won those countries by the sword ; and had, moreover, in this instance, especial treaties in 
her favor. Although it was then pretended that no duty was imposed on the goods except 
according to the entry of the merchant and the place where they were loaded and purchased ; 
for if the goods were rated too high, her Royal Majesty must be obliged to take them at that 
appraisal, and add as much more thereto for the protection of the merchant; it will now, 
on the contrary, be claimed with indeed, less justice, that the West India Company is at 
liberty to value the goods as high as it chooses, taking the payment in money or in kind, when 
the best would be selected ; whereby all would be converted and drawn to its own profit. 
Besides, the West India Company could, with so much the less grace claim any duty, 
inasmuch as it had, heretofore, under grant from her Royal Majesty, a share in this Swedish 
Company, having also acknowledged it for an absolute and free Company; and, then, ships 
from the Kingdom, from New Sweden, having sailed and been loaded and discharged here, ofi' 
and on, were never subjected to, much less paid such duty ; and hence, so far from there being 
any right and equity for such imposition, it ought, on the contrary, now to be considered in 
direct opposition to all right and equity, after the West India Company had surrendered its 
shares, and her Royal Majesty had bought it out and exclusively acquired those shares herself; 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IL .147 

wherefore nothing similar could now be levied by virtue, and in regard of said purchase: And still 
so much the less so, inasmuch as this, her Royal Majesty's ship had traded to, and came from, 
a country wliich her Royal Majesty had rightfully imrchuscd, and obtained possession of, from the right 
owners; where, previously, her Royal Majesty had found neither ships, commerce, nor trade, 
but had established them, and had erected her arms there, and thus had, first, reduced every 
thing to order; and, accordingly, no person there was a subject, nor could any duty reasonably 
or rightfully be claimed ; further, this Royal ship ran in here for no other purpose than solely 
with the intention to revictual, and to sail to the Kingdom, when fully loaded, but in consequence 
of the trouble and war which has arisen between the Swedes and Danes, she must remain 
here, and is unable to complete her voyage because your High Mightinesses did not observe, 
according to the letter and meaning, the well established alliance, the purport of which was 
to maintain, against all force, reciprocally and on both sides, the freedom of navigation and 
commerce in the East and North seas ; and because your High Mightinesses had acted so 
partially herein. 

Further, he the Resident had seen by a sealed Acte of the IS"* October ( being your High 
Mightinesses' abovementioned resolution of the 15"") which was published by the West India 
Company, that the latter had, in quality of sovereign, presumed to place two of its people as 
keepers on board the Royal ship, and he therefore desires to know from your High Mightinesses, 
whether or not that was done by your High Mightinesses' order and knowledge ; if not, if the 
West India Company could of its own authority, will and pleasure hostilely usurp such 
pretension, power and jurisdiction, it could not be considered other than an arrogance and 
insolence, disrespectful in the highest degree to her Royal Majesty ; if, indeed, it were done 
by order, and with the knowledge, of your High Mightinesses (which is scarcely credible) your 
High mightinesses will please to consider with what great respect your High Mightinesses' 
ships have ever been treated in her Royal Majesty's kingdom and within her jurisdiction ; and 
that her Royal Majesty never expected different treatment from your High Mightinesses; that 
the ships which had heretofore conveyed your High Mightinesses' Ambassadors to Prussia were 
not once inspected, nor detained, nor any people placed on board of them, although they 
were laden with merchandise; that even the ships, which went to fetch, or bring, the 
Ambassadors back, were not examined ; such ships and goods were also passed free as 
the Ambassadors on their voyage requested ; and that from no other motive or view, than simply 
out of the respect entertained for your High Mightinesses' Ambassadors and this State ; contrary 
to which, this disrespect is now exhibited towards this her Royal Majesty's ship, carrying only 
royal freight. But should your High Mightiness entertain no such regard, he, the Resident 
nevertheless requests, that those two persons may be again removed from the vessel, so that no 
further inconvenience or mischief may accrue to her Majesty's dignity from such prejudicial 
acts and hostilities of which, by this remonstrance, he, the Resident, will then be blameless; 
and as a further security that no fraud shall be committed on the cargo, he, the Resident, as 
her Majesty's Minuter, assures your High Mightinesses that a list thereof shall be delivered in, 
if your High Mightinesses require it. Provided, nevertheless, in all things that he the Resident, 
be not understood as paying any, even the smallest duty from this her Royal Majesty's 
ship, as well for reasons above recited, as because it is prejudicial to her Majesty's dignity ; 
contrary to the alliance and opposed to the intimacy and friendship which were therein to 
continue between her Royal Majesty and your High Mightinesses ; and therefore expects from 



148 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

your High Mightinesses a resolution and good conclusion on this, his Remonstrance. Wishing 
you from God Almighty a long and prosperous government. 

(Signed) Peter Spieringh Silvercroon, 

Done at the Hague on the above day A°, 1644. hereditary Proprietor of North Holm. 

Exhibited 29 October, 1614. 



Repwt of their Deputies of the States General on New Netherland. 

[ From the Original in the Eoyal Archires, at the Hague ; File, West IndUche Compagnie. ] 

Extract of the Report of Henrick van der Capellen toe Ryssell, Viersen, Gerrit 
van Santen their High Mightinesses' late Deputies to the Assembly of the 
West India Company at Amsterdam, holden in October 1644. Exhibited 
28"- December 1644. 

High and Mighty Lords, 

The delegates did, on the fl October etc. 
In New Netherland. We repeatedly brought before the Assembly the complaint which was made to 
your High Mightinesses respecting the cruel massacre perpetrated on the Indians, so that it 
may be provided against, and the punishment for blood unlawfully shed, may be warded ofT 
this State. And it was finally resolved, that all papers relating to this matter, be placed in the 
hands of the Board of Accounts {Reken Jcamer) to extract therefrom, by the next Assembly, 
■what ought to be redressed, as is to be seen, No. 7. It was moreover resolved, to recall the 
Director in order that he defend himself, and to send back in his stead with a temporary 
commission, Lubbert van Dinslaken who has been formerly there as fiscal, and who is a favorite 
with the Indians. 

Minerals of copper, iron and lead have been discovered in those countries, particulars of 
which are given to this Director, to inform himself thereof, and to send hither the real ore to 
be tested. A private individual has brought with him copper ore that is very rich, and hath 
also some silver in it; orders have been given to test and investigate it further. 

Afpcndix No. 7. Extract from the Minutes of the Nineteen. Received 2Sth December, 1644. 

15 December, 1644. 
Pursuant to their High Mightinesses' order. Mess" van der Capellen toe Ryssel and van 
Santen, informed the Assembly that they had repeatedly requested that the business respecting 
New Netherland may be dispatched, which not being done, they had spoken this morning to 
the Commissioners thereunto named on the 10"' December last, and were of opinion that the 
papers and documents having reference to New Netherland, should be placed in the hands of 
the Company's Board of Accounts, to examine the whole subject, to draw up a report and to 
submit to the Assembly their opinion, how the decay there shall be remedied ; the population 
increased ; agriculture advanced, and that country thoroughly improved for the advantage of 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : 11. 149 

the Company, with authority ; that in the meanwhile this Assembly, on its part, shall represent 
to the Amsterdam Chamber, what persons, in addition to the Director, ought to be recalled ; 
and that Lubbertus van Dincklagen, may be provisionally sent thither in the said Director's 
place, with such order and instruction as they shall judge to be provisionally for the best 
advantage of affairs there. 

Whereupon question being put, the Deputies from Amsterdam declared, relative to the 
examination of the matter, and the same to serve for advice, that they would agree to the 
proposition, but could not vote to the prejudice of their Chamber; and regarding the person, 
Dincklagen, they will endeavor to make him acceptable to their Chamber. Then the members 
confirmed the proposition, and consent that Dincklagen shall be furnished with provisional 
commission as Director. 



Rejyort of the Board of Accounts on Neio Netlierland. 1644. 

[ From a MS. in the Royal Archires at the Hague ; in the Loketkas of the States General ; Rubric, West Indische Oompagnie, No 80. 1st Dlrislon.] 

Report and Advice on the Condition of New Netherland, drawn up from 
documents and papers placed by commission of the Assembly of the XIX., 
dated IS"" Dec' 164:4, in the hands of the General Board of Accounts, to 
examine the same, to make a digest thereof, and to advise the Assembly 
how the decay there can be prevented, population increased, agriculture 
advanced, and that country wholly improved for the Company's benefit. 

New Netherland, situate in America, between English Virginia and New England, 
extending from the South river, lying in 34J degrees, to Cape Malabar, in the latitude of 41i 
degrees, was first frequented by the inhabitants of this country in the year 1598, and especially 
by those of the Greenland Company, but without making any fixed settlements, only as a 
shelter in the winter. For which purpose they erected on the North and South Rivers there, 
two little forts against the incursions of the Indians. A charter was afterwards, on the ll"" 
October, 1614, granted by their High Mightinesses to Gerrit Jacobsz. Witsen, antient 
burgomaster of the city of Amsterdam, Jonas Witsz, Symon Morrisen, Lambert van 
Tweenhuyzen, Wessel Schenck and associates, all inhabitants of these parts, to trade 
exclusively to the newly discovered countries, situate in America, between New France and 
Virginia, and now called New Netherland, to resort thither exclusively for the term of 
three years, without any other persons being able, during that time, to frequent that place 
from this country, on pain of confiscation of ships and goods, and a fine of fifty thousand 
Netherland ducats. 

In the years 1622 and 1623, the West India Company took possession, by virtue of their 
charter, of the said country, and conveyed thither, in their ship, the New Netherland, divers 
Colonists under the direction of Cornells Jacobsz. Mey, and Adriaen Jorissz. Tienpoint, which 
Directors, in the year 1624, built Fort Orange on the North River, and Fort Nassau on the 
South River, and after that, in 1626, Fort Amsterdam on the Manhattes. In all which, 
garrisons were continually maintained, and trade was carried on in those several districts with 



150 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

yachts, sloops and other craft. And in the year 1G29, the Freedoms and Exemptions conceded 
by the Hon''''' Assembly of the XlX. were published, with their High Mightinesses' approbation. 
Thereupon divers Patroons and Colonists resorted thither and endeavored to advance 
agriculture and population. For further security, Fort Good Hope was also erected in 1633, 
on the Fresh river. But said population did not experience any special impulse until the 
year 1639, when the Fur trade with the Indians, which had been previously reserved to 
the Company, was thrown free and open to every body; at which time not only the inhabitants 
there residing spread themselves far and wide, but even new Colonists came thither 
from Fatherland; and the neighboring English, both from Virginia and New England repaired 
to us. So that in place of seven Bouweries, full thirty were planted and full one hundred 
more expected in a short time from the plantations which were taken up ; insomuch that there 
was every appearance that provisions might be furnished in two or three years for ten 
thousand men. 

Although the hope was now entertained that the country would by such means arrive at a 
flourishing pass, yet it afterwards appeared that the abuses attendant on the free trade was the 
cause of its ruin — 

First: because the Colonists, each with a view to advance his own interest, separated 
themselves from one another, and settled far in the interior of the Country, the better to trade 
with the Indians, whom they then sought to allure to their houses by excessive familiarity and 
treating. By this course they brought themselves into disrepute with the Indians, who, not 
having been always treated alike, made this the cause of enmity. 

Secondly: in consequence of the proximity to the Indians, whose lands lay un fenced, the 
cattle belonging to our people, straying without herdsmen, seriously damaged their corn or 
maize. This occasioned much complaint, and no redress following, they revenged themselves, 
killing both the cattle and horses. 

Thirdly: not only the Colonists, but also the free traders proceeding from this country, sold 
for furs in consequence of the great profit, fire-arms to the Mohawks for full 400 men, with 
powder and lead; which, being refused to the other tribes when demanded, increased the 
hatred and enmity of the latter. 

Fourthly: It happened, in addition to this, that the Director had, a few years after, imposed 
a contribution of maize on the Indians, whereby they were totally estranged from our people. 

Hence arose divers threats and injurious occurrences, which finally broke out into acts of 
hostility, so that, first : the Raritan Indians attempted to make away with one of our sloops, 
and afterwards killed some hogs on Staten Island. Whereupon the Director dispatched eighty 
soldiers thither to avenge the act, who burnt their corn and killed three or four of their people. 
Both sides then desisted from further proceedings. 

Next it happened that a Wechquaeskeck Indian' murdered, about the year 1640, an old 
man in his own house with an axe, for which no satisfaction having been afforded by the tribe, 
12 men, chosen from the Commonalty, afterwards resolved, in the year 1642, to revenge the 
murder by open war ; but nothing was done at that time in consequence of missing the enemy, 
who, observing what was designed against them, sued for peace. 

Some time afterwards the Hackingsack Indians designedly shot, with an arrow, a Dutchman, 
who sat thatching a house. The Commonalty were very much troubled at this, dreading the 

' A Wfcstcheater tribe. — Ed. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : IL 151 

recurrence of other such acts. And while tlie Director was seei^ing in vain for satisfaction, 
God seemed to have taken vengeance on those of Witqueschaclc, through the Mahikan 
Indians, who surprizing, slew full 70 of them and led many women and children away into 
captivity. This obliged the remainder to fly to our people at the Manhattans, where they 
were received into the houses, and fed by the Director during fourteen days. Shortly after 
this, seized with another panic, they fled with the Hackingsacx, fully a thousand strong, to the 
vicinity of the fort, and over the river of Povonia. Some of the 12 men perceiving this, 
the Director, on the petition of three of them, namely, Jan Janse Damen, Abraham Plangh and 
Maryn Adriaense who signed in the name of the entire body, authorized an attack on the 
abovementioned Indians, in the course of the night between the 27"" and 28"" of February, 1643, 
by a party of soldiers and burghers, who, with cruel tyranny, slew 80 of them, and took 30 
prisoners. And although the Commonalty protested against the Director and the aforesaid 
three persons, on account of these hasty and severe proceedings, as having taken place without 
their knowledge or consent, they were obliged, notwithstanding, to declare open war against 
full eleven tribes of Indians, who rose in arms on that account. The consequence was, that 
about one thousand of these, and many soldiers and colonists belonging to us, were killed. 
Almost all the bouweries were also destroyed, so that only three remained on the Manhattes, 
and two on Staten Island, and the greater part of the cattle were destroyed. Whatever 
remained of these, had to be kept in a very small enclosure, except in Rensselaers Colonic, 
lying on the North river, in the neighborhood of Fort Orange, which experienced no trouble 
and enjoyed peace, because they continued to sell fire arms and powder to the Indians even 
during the war against our people. 

The Company thus experienced the greatest destruction and damage, as well by the 
consumption of their ammunition and the ready money expended in purchasing this at a high 
rate, as by reinforcing the garrison, by the enlisting of as many Englishmen as could be hired 
in that country ; fifty of whom the Colonists solemnly engaged to pay, but the payment not 
having followed, remained as a charge upon the Company. Those indebted to the Company 
were hereby finally reduced to such a state that they had no means to pay their debts. 

To remedy this great decay, various suggestions were made by the Director and 
the Commonalty. 

First, that to restore peace and quiet throughout the land, the Indians who had waged war 
against us, should be wholly destroyed and exterminated. The Director demanded, for that 
purpose, one hundred and fifty soldiers, armed with muskets and coats of mail, and provided 
with sufficient munitions of war; inasmuch as he estimated the number of the Indians, our 
enemies, not to be above three hundred strong. The Commonalty, maintaining that they were 
some thousands strong, considered the accomplishment of such a proposal impossible; they 
were of opinion that it would be better to secure public tranquillity by a general peace. 
They have little hope of this, so long as the present rulers remain there; because the Indians 
are in no way to be pacified (as they themselves declare to our's) until the Director is removed 
thence, calling daily for Wouter, Wouter — meaning Wouter van Twiller. 

Secondly, in order to prevent war in future, the Colonists ought to settle nearer each other, on 
suitable places, with a view of being thus formed into villages and towns, to be the better 
able to protect each other in time of need. Being separated from the Natives, will prevent 
the cattle damaging the corn belonging to the Indians, which, added to excessive familiarity 
In associating with them, was the cause of many difficulties. The employment of Indians as 
domestic servants will, thus, also be put an end to. 



152 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Thirdly, for better security against enemies, and to ensure respect from neighbors, it would 
be advisable immediately to construct Fort Amsterdam of stone; for it is now in such ruin that 
men pass into it, over the walls, without making use of the gate ; this, according to the 
calculation of the Director, would cost only 20 to 25 thousand guilders. 

Fovrihly, the settlement of the boundaries between the English and our people by the Crown 
of England and this State, ought to be urged in every way, in order to prevent all difficulties 
with that nation, inasmuch as they have begun, since the year 1633, to usurp the Fresh River, 
notwithstanding the Company had previously taken entire possession of it; and, on the S"" 
June, Anno 1633 (before any Englishmen had ever been on, or near that river) purchased 
land from the Indians twenty miles up the same, and built fort Good Hope thereupon and kept 
possession thereof with our people. After which time, namely, on 16"' September, the English 
first arrived from New Plaimouth and Mathuses bay, before that fort, and declared that they 
wished to erect a lodge three miles above it; which the Commissary residing there, opposed 
as long as he could; but was necessitated to permit it under protest, according to instructions. 
Meanwhile, divers letters, protests and notices were exchanged between their Governor and 
our Director. And it finally came to pass that they came, in the year 1635 and 1636, up the 
aforesaid river with sundry families and cattle ; settling themselves down there, far and near ; 
even on the land situate around and by our fort, and the property of which belonged to us. 
Which land they have parcelled among themselves, endeavoring to prescribe unto us laws ; 
because, having built a house or two at the mouth of the river, they pretend thereby to have 
the key thereof. 

Fifthly, it would be advisable, for the benefit of that country, first of all, to facilitate 
emigration to New Netherland, as had been done a long time since ; or at least to credit the 
passengers for a time, in order to allure Colonists thither, and afterward to introduce a goodly 
portion of farm servants and negroes into that country. By whose labor, agriculture would 
be so much promoted, that a great quantity of provisions could be exported thence to Brazil. 

Sixthly, the rendezvous of vessels of war could be established in New Netherland, and it is 
better adapted than the Island of Curasao, in consequence of its abundance of provisions and of 
building timber, and because all parts of the West Indies are safer and easier of access from 
that quarter, and the designs against the enemy can be kept better concealed. 

Seventhly, it would be advantageous for the Company to keep a well supplied store and cellar 
there, in order to accommodate the inhabitants, at a certain reasonable price, either for money 
or produce, which will otherwise be overvalued or monopolized by private traders. But if 
private individuals are allowed to continue trading, a fixed price ought to be placed on their 
imported wares. The system of giving credit ought also be abolished, as the Company suffers 
great loss therefrom, and their servants ought to be promptly paid their board money and 
monthly wages. 

Finally, 'tis proposed that the Council consist of four or five persons for the maintenance of 
justice and the authority of the Company, as well as the respect of the neighboring Colonies. 

From all this, it is to be seen into what confusion and ruin New Netherland has at present 
fallen, all caused by the rash undertaking of so unnecessary a war, without the knowledge, 
much less the order of the XIX., and against the will of the Commonalty there ; and what 
excessive expenditure is now required from the Company, both for succor and redress; no 
apparent profits can be expected there for some years ; but, on the contrary, it is found from 
the Company's books in the Amsterdam Chamber, that the district of New Netherland, instead 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: II. 153 

of being a source of profit, has cost the Company, from the year 1626 to the year 1644 
inclusive, over 550,000 guilders, deducting the returns received therefrom. It would, therefore, 
be worth considering if it would not be better for the Company, by abandoning New 
Netherland, to rid itself of such heavy expenses altogether, than by retaining it to 
continue them. 

But inasmuch as the Company has, by its conceded Freedoms, promised to take all Colonists, 
as well freemen as servants, under its protection, and to aid in defending them against all 
foreign and domestic wars; and as the improvement of affairs by good orders from here, and 
better government there, is not altogether hopeless ; so that this place may be preserved, in the 
first instance, with small profits, or at least without loss; we are, therefore, of opinion, under 
correction, that the Company cannot decently or consistently abandon it. 

With a view to come at such orders and redress, we submit to the Honorable Assembly the 
following points : — 

Boundary. First the bouudary : An agreement ought speedily, and first of all, be made 

with the English hereupon, as it is found that, in consequence of their great population, 
they daily encroach more and more on our territory. That being fixed, it ought to be 
conditioned, that the English who may find themselves within our district, or should desire to 
come into it, shall be amenable to our government and acknowledged only as original subjects. 
Reconciliation «ith Secondly: the country ought, in every respect, be again reduced to peace and 
thBindmns. quietness, and the advice of the present Director, utterly to exterminate all 

enemies by force, be, by no means, adopted ; not only because it is impossible and 
unchristianlike so to do, but it would not be advantageous to the Company to incur so great 
an expense as it requires on so uncertain a result and so small an appearance of profit. And, 
therefore, they should not deem it impolitic to adopt the advice of the Commonalty, and to 
endeavor, by all possible means, to conciliate and to satisfy the Indians by recalling tlie Director 
and Council, who are responsible for that bloody proceeding of the 2S"' February, 1643, that 
they may justify and vindicate their government before the Hon*"'* Assembly of the XIX., in 
whose stead a person ought to be sent thither as Director, endowed with sufficient qualities to 
promote, on the one side, the interests of the Company and the welfare of the Commonalty, and 
to maintain, on the other, good correspondence with the neighboring people, and especially 
with the Indians. 

Beitiement of Colo- Thirdly: it would be advisable to carry out and put into practice the plan of 
mats together. ^j^^ Director, already alluded to, that the Colonists should settle, a certain 
number of families together, on some of the most suitable places, in the form of hamlets, towns 
and villages, as the English are wont to do, who thereby live more securely ; and such was the 
Company's intention in the granting of the printed Freedoms and amplification thereof. 
Eepair of the fort Fourthly: it will, first of all, be necessary to hasten the repair of fort Amsterdam. 
And we are of opinion that this will be effected in a proper and in the cheapest manner, with 
good clay and firm sods. The soldiers, by some presents, could be encouraged thereunto and 
obliged to keep it, for the future, in good repair. The Director ought to be particularly 
commanded to pay strict attention thereto. 

Esiabiuhment. Fifthly: we are of opinion, under correction, that for the security of the aforesaid 

fort, and of such other place as might require it, the persons specified in the annexed list 
would be sufficient, on such allowances as are thereunto adjoined. Superadding, that the 
Vol. I. 20 



154 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Colonists and their servants should, under certain penalties, be obliged to provide themselves 
with good firelocks and other weapons for their own defence. Also, for the purpose of securing 
themselves, in time of need, with the assistance of the garrison, against a general attack, 
without the Director, Colonists, or any person whatsoever, having the power to enlist any 
soldiers, be they few or many, at the Company's expense. 

GoTernment. Sixt/ihj : a Council ought be established there to consist of three persons, 

namely, the Director as President, the Vice and the Fiscal, as assistants. By which Council 
shall be treated and decided all cases relating to tlie police, justice, dignity and rights of tiie 
Company. With this understanding, however, that in criminal cases the Commander shall 
take the place of the Fiscal, with the addition, also, of two capable members of the 
Commonalty. Further, as the respective Colonies are allowed by the 28"" article of 
the Freedoms to delegate one or two persons to report their state and condition to the Director 
and Council, at least once a year, so are we of opinion that the said delegates should, moreover, 
assemble every six months, at the summons of the Director and Council, for mutual good 
understanding and the general advancement of the public welfare, to aid in advising them, 
besides, upon all affairs relating to the prosperity of their Colonies, the conciliation of the 
Indians and neighbors, the maintenance of the Freedoms and Privileges, the removal of all 
abuses and the support of the laws and statutes. Also, to observe that the Amsterdam 
measure, ell and weight shall be used throughout the entire country. 

Population and ag- Seventhly: Particular provision must be made for the vigorous encouragement 
ricuiiure. ^^ ^|^g population and cultivation of the soil. It will be promoting this object 

to afford as many facilities as possible to emigrating Colonists and freemen, who are inclined to 
go thither ; and to cause them to settle down first on the Island of Manhattes. Allowing 
them as much land as they will be able to cultivate, whether in raising tobacco, whereunto 
that Island, on account of its great fertility, is considered well adapted ; or grain and other 
crops from which they will expect to derive the greatest profit. 

And for the advancement of the cultivation of the land there, it would not be unwise to 
allow, at the request of the Patroons, Colonists and other farmers, the introduction, from 
Brazil there, of as many Negroes as they would be disposed to pay for at a fair price ; which 
Negroes would accomplish more work for their masters, and at a less expense, than farm 
servants, who must be bribed to go thither by a great deal of money and promises. 
T'-aJ''. Eighthly: in order to encourage population still more, we would advise that it 

were best to confine the trade with the Indians exclusively to the Patroons, Colonists and free 
people who reside there, without permitting any commission merchants (commissie vaerders) to 
traffic in any manner with the Indians ; but to be satisfied with the exchange of their cargoes 
for the peltries, tobacco, wheat and other country produce of the free inhabitants. 

But it should be absolutely forbidden that either freemen should sell to the Indians, or 
commission merchants to freemen, any arms or munitions of war, on a certain heavy penalty 
to be thereunto enacted, lest the Indians, deriving strength from such a trade, may, in course 
of time, be encouraged to do us more harm than they can now, in their impotency, inflict. 
But it will suffice that each of the free inhabitants shall be provided with a good gun and side 
arms, for self-defence, as hereinbefore laid down in the 5"" point ; which arms ought to be 
inspected by the Director every six months. 

And for the greater encouragement of the good people of New Netherland, it is submitted 
that the Hon-'^ Assembly take into consideration whether it would not tend to the advantage 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : IL 155 

of those possessions to allow all resident Patroons and Colonists to export their produce to 
Brazil, under proper duty and toll, as flour, oatmeal, peas, beans, pipe staves, planks, square 
and other timber, fit for the building of ships and houses, abound there. Also, for the 
encouragement of the fislieries there, that they and none otiier be allowed to sell at the Recief,' 
the fish and caviare which are caught, cured and packed in that country. And that those of 
New Netherland shall also be permitted to take salt on the coast of Brazil, in the vicinity 
of Siara, or in the West Indies, for the purpose of salting green or dry fish. Also to erect pans 
in New Netherland to refine salt, and adapt it for use with fish and meat, as fine salt. And on 
arriving in Brazil, they shall be bound to deliver every thing into the Company's store, and 
on payment of the proper duty and toll, whether in money or kind, to dispose of the same; 
without exporting any money thence, but taking, as a return cargo, staves, sugar, confectionary, 
ginger, tobacco, cotton and other produce of the country, with proper entries thereof, both as 
to quality and quantity; and therewith to sail direct to New Netherland, without touching at 
any port on the way, to sell or barter any part thereof, under any pretence whatsoever. 
Wiierefore they should receive a supercargo on the part of the Company to make a report of 
the whole to it, and to return in the next ship from New Netherland to Brazil. And for the 
prevention of all further smuggling, the skippers must be obligated, on pain of loss of the ship 
and cargo, to touch at Paraiba, after being inspected at the Recief, in order to be again visited 
there on the Company's behalf. 

Which trade being thus adjusted, it will not be necessary for the Company to be burdened 
with any further equipments or the purchase of cargoes; it will be, moreover, relieved from 
numerous servants required therefor. The garrison being to be rationed at their own expense, 
will be amply supplied for that purpose with necessaries by the freemen and inhabitants there. 

But in order to meet the expenses which the Company has to incur, for the support of the 
garrison and the other servants, it will be necessary to keep a sharp eye on the receipt of 
the duties, tolls and other dues, already imposed and yet to be imposed on the exported and 
imported goods. From which, we are of opinion, that the expenses to be incurred by the 
Company can be fully defrayed, with the hope of greater and more ample profit, by the increase 
of the population. 

Estimate of the expenses which the Company would have to bear in New 
Netherland for the following persons to be rationed at their own expense. 

1 Director, whose monthly salary should be fl. 250, to board himself, is yearly fl. 3,000 

1 Second, and factor and receiver, at fl. 120 per month, as above, 1,440 

1 Fiscal, (IL fl. 60 per month, as above 720 

1 Secretary, who is also to keep the book of monthly wages, per month fl.60, 720 

1 Commissary of the merchandise and store goods @. fl. 60 per month, 720 

1 Assistant of the merchandise and store goods, @. fl. 2-5 per month, 300 

1 Clergyman, (aX fl. 120 per month, 1,440 

1 Schoolmaster, precentor and sexton, @, fl. 30, 360 

1 Gunner, (|, 20, 240 

1 Provost or Marshal, (S, fl. 15, 180 

' Nearly south of the city of Pernambuco, between the river Bibiribe and the sea, is a small tongue of land on which 
stood a village called the Reciffe, where all goods were shipped and discharged. De Laef. Verliael van West Indien, 191. 



156 NEW-YOEK COLONIAL IktAJTUSCRIPTS. 

1 Corporal, with a soldier to clean the arms, being also a smith, (a^fl. 15 per month, fl. ISO 

1 Commander, (a. fl. 60 per month, 720 

1 Ensign, (a. fl. 4-5 -540 

2 Serjeants, (3. fl. 2-5 each, 600 

2 Corporals, (a. fl. IS each 432 

1 Drummer, (S. fl. 13, 156 

4 Cadets, (a. fl- 15 each, 720 

40 Soldiers, (a^ fl. 13 each, 6,240 

1 Surgeon for the soldiers, (a, fl. 25 300 

1 .Skipper on tlie sloop, (1. fl. 25, 300 

4 Matrosses, (a. fl. 13 per month each, 624 

1 Boy, d- fl. 9 per month, lOS 

69 persons, amount yearly to, fl. 20,040 

The mills there must be leased. 

These officers and servants would be sufficient for the business; and carpenters, masons, 
smiths and such like ought all to be discharged, and left to work for whomsoever will 
pav them. 



Tie States General to the A-ssemlly of the XIX. 

r From Uie SCnnle to Ihe Eoyil ArchiTes at the Hagne : Tae, WVji Indit. ] 

To the Assembly of the XIX. of the West India Company, the 21^ of April, 1645. 

The States, etc. 
Two 5»e.iiah swpe. The representations and complaint to us of 3/r. Spieringh iho Norsholm, the 
Queen of Sweden's resident here, relative to your proceedings in the matter of interfering with 
the cargo of the Royal ships the Calmer sleutd and Fuma, coming from Nora Sutcia, a district 
in the possession of her Royal Majesty, which vessels ran in here and broke bulk, you will 
be able to see from the annexed papers, copies of the said Mr. Spieringh's memorial and of 
the pieces thereunto appended, this day presented to us, which we have hereby resolved to 
send to you, desiring and requesting that the said laden goods and merchandise of the aforesaid 
two ships, may be discharged without making any further difficulty therein; our previously 
repeated resolution and order remaining in force and effect, respecting the eight per cent in 
question, hereinbefore imposed and exacted on all other such wares and merchandise for the 
benefit of your Company. Whereupon, relying, etc. 
Done 21« of April, 1645. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : IIL 157 

Report on tlie Proceedings of the Assembly of the XIX. 1645. 

[ From the Original In the Boyal Archives at the Hagne ; File, Tr««< Indie. \ 

Summary Report rendered by Mess" Van der Capellen toe Ryssel, Herbers and 
Nykerk, of the principal matters that occurred in the Assembly of the 
Nineteen, at Amsterdam, since March, 1645. Exhibited IS"" of July, 1645. 

1. Order was introduced last December, in the respective possessions of Brazil, Guinea, 
Angola, the island of St. Thomas, New Netherland, and answers thereto have been received 
by the ships which arrived in June, 1645. Every thing is, by God's blessing, in a good 
condition; and in consequence of the employment of the negroes, which were from time to 
time introduced from Angola into Brazil, in planting grain, flour is produced in such quantity 
that what used to always cost S to 10 guilders, still contintes to be sold at the low rate of six 
stivers, wherefore the Supreme Council now have written to send from here half as much flour 
as used heretofore to have been conveyed thither. 

2. Orders have been made by this Assembly for the aforesaid possessions of the Company; 
letters have now been sent over to the Directors in those countries on the subject. 

3. Propositions have been made by Directors and principal stockholders of the Amsterdam 
Chamber for the opening of the Angola trade to all, to which the other Chambers are 
strongly opposed. 

It was to be expected that this would create some difference between this Amsterdam 
Chamber and the others, to the loss and discredit of the West India Company; which was 
prevented by good reasons. 

The trade principally to Guinea and Angola, is the life of the Company; and the ruin of the 
latter would follow the deduction or diminution thereof. 

The Company can neither exist or flourish without commerce ; even though all the public 
subsidies were promptly paid. 

The receipts herefrom still keep the Company alive, and furnish means for the equipments 
and cargoes for these and other coasts. 

4. At the request of your High Mightinesses' delegates, something has been proposed by the 
General Board of Accounts for the support of the Company; namely, 10'= 63 M. guilders 
yearly ; out of which, they say, the six per cent per annum can be paid. 

The Chambers have taken the proposition with them in order to resolve thereupon at the 
next Assembly of the XIX., in Zealand. (No. 1.) 

5. Those responsible to the Company for the domains, provisions, ammunition, will not keep 
their accounts henceforward according to the Italian mode, but according to order; the public 
receivers and clerks shall account to the Council of state. 

6. Something has been done respecting the supreme government in Brazil, agreeably to the 
resolutions of the 14''" of December, 1644, and 14"" of April, 1645, Nos. 2 and 3. 

Four Councillors have been nominated to the supreme government of Brazil; but they have 
given in some considerations whereon they demand explanation. 

The nomination and proposing of the President also remain unsettled; all these, as well 
as the establishment of the Board of accounts in Brazil, and the departure of the delegates to 
the supreme government, will be arranged at the first meeting of the Assembly of the Nineteen, 
at Zealand. 



158 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

7. The promised subsidies of the state are most necessary for the support of the West India 
Company, in this its backward and feeble condition. 

The Company's shares had been down to 43 and 44, when your High Mightinesses first 
commenced the reform of its abuses in August, 1G44. 

And when the Merchants and stockholders perceived the commencement of the reform, the 
shares advanced to 5S. 

The opponents of the Company brought the shares down again ; namely, to 44 and 45, 
when your High Mightinesses extended, in May of this year, the Charters of the East and 
West India Companies ; these opponents misrepresenting and giving a false coloring to your 
High Mightinesses favor, by reporting at Amsterdam that your High Mightinesses will not 
contribute any more to the support of the West India Company ; that such was evident from 
the fact that your High Mightinesses had extended both Charters, notwithstanding the 
Directors of the West India Company had been so long at the Hague, soliciting the means 
of subsistence from your High Mightinesses. 

8. Some steps have been taken in New Netherland, to conciliate the Indians, by means of 
our forts and Colonies. The trade will now be open to all the Chambers in common ; and to all 
the inhabitants of the United Netherlands. Some proposals have been submitted to make use 
of Curasao for the improvement of the slave trade from Angola to Curasao. 

9. The Chambers intend to fit out some ships for the respective coasts; six to Brazil; two 
to Guinea, including the cargoes for St. Thomas; three to Angola; one or two to New 
Netherland ; and the Chambers have promised to complete the appointed rotations [tourbeurten), 
to the respective possessions, when your High Mightinesses assist them with a liberal portion 
of the promised subsidies. 

Vessels are expected from Brazil and the other coasts; namely, seven from Brazil, one 
from Guinea. 

The Hague, the Y July, 1G45. 

Extract of Appendix. Exhibited 12''' of July, 1645. 
Considerations of the General Chamber of Accounts, delivered in the SS""" of 
June, 1645, to the Hon''''' Assembly of the XIX. as to what might be saved 
yearlj' here as well as at Brazil and in the other of the Company's possessions. 
First: The Company should by reducing the Train bands in Brazil, etc. 
But the chiefest of all is the saving in the equipment of the ships, for if the Chambers retain 
for themselves only eighteen first class ships, being two for each I, and charter the remainder, 
a profit will be realized on each ship of at least 1200 guilders a month. 
The ships which are yearly required in the Company's possessions are, 

For Guinea, 4 

Argyn, Cape Verd, River Gambia, Sierra Leone and the Bight, 4 

St. Thomas, 2 

Loando, 12 

New Netherland and Cura9ao, 2 

Brazil, 24 

48 
Deduct ships retained, 18 

Remain ships to be chartered........ 30 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : IIL 159 

each of which, as above mentioned, will cost the Company 1200 guilders per month less than 
those they now fit out, and thus it will derive a profit, in the year, of fl. 432,000. 

With which, in our opinion, the six per cent might be yearly divided, or employed in the 
purchase of shares, in order to reduce the immense capital or to pay off some of the Company's 
liabilities. 

(Signed) Abraham Trouwers. 

and Gerrit Janssen de Vry. 



Mr. Spieringh to the States General. 

t From Ihe Original in the Eoyal Archives a' Ihe Hague ; File, TTijs* Indie. ] 

High and Mighty Lords. 

On the 27"" instant I represented to your High Mightinesses that my factor at Harlingea 
was called on by the Board of Admiralty at that place to pay the import duties (convoij) on the 
freights of the royal ships the Cahncrslcutcl and Fama, which I have already once paid to 
the West India Company at Amsterdam, as appears by the annexed authenticated copy, the 
original whereof remains with me; and as my said factor at Harlingen still remains impeded, 
and what has once been paid cannot again be craved, I have to request your High Mightinesses 
to be pleased to cause the said Board of Admiralty at Harlingen to be forthwith notified to 
desist from this or farther pretences, and not to give my factor any further trouble or 
inconvenience in this matter. Which expecting, 

I wish God Almighty to grant you a long and prosperous reign, remaining. 
High and Mighty Lords, 

Your High Mightinesses' affectionate 

The Hague, (Signed) Peter Spieringh Silvercroon, 

31'' of July, 1045. hereditary proprietor of North Holm. 

Copy. A-ppendix. Received 3V* of Jtdy, 16i5. 

5"" of July, 1645, at Amsterdam. 
Sieur Lucas Arentsz, Agent of Resident Spierinck, received here the following parcels of 
Tobacco and Beavers which were brought in the subjoined two Swedish ships from the limits 
of the Incorporated West India Company in those countries, to wit: 

In the Ship the Fame. 
10 cases containing 2137 piecesof Beavers, which valued at 7 guilders, amount to, fl. 14,959 



Whereof the import duty is 2 stivers on every six guilders' value,. 

Item, 105 tubs of leaf tobacco, weighing, together, gross 2S,319 lbs. 
Whereof deduct, for tare, being 69 lbs. per tub, 6,300 lbs. 

Remains, 22,019 lbs. 



160 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

And from the Ship the Calmersleulcl. 

783 rolls, 53,100 lbs. 

For sticks off, estimated at 6 pounds per roll, 4,698 lbs. 

nett, 48,402 lbs. 

Total, 70,421 lbs. 

Whereof the customs amount to 1^ stiv. per pound, fi. 4,401 6 

fl. 4,650 12 



Thus done, counted and settled with Sieur Lucas Arentsz, above named, in the presence 
of and before the undersigned Directors of the Chamber at Amsterdam and North quarter in 
Amsterdam, the 5"" of July, of the year 1645. 

(Signed) Marcus de Vogelaar, 
Flooris Huych, 
Lucas Arentsz. 

The four thousand six hundred and fifty guilders twelve stivers, contained in the present 
account, are received by us undersigned in our aforementioned quality for the said West India 
Company from the hands of Sieur Lucas Arentsz, aforesaid, in the name as above; promising 
to guarantee and release him herein from all demands under bond of the property and effects 
of the aforesaid Company. 

In witness whereof is this signed, in Amsterdam, the 5"" day of July, 1645, and was 
subscribed, 

Marcus Vogelaar, 
Flooris Huych. 

Agrees, after collation, with its Original, dated and subscribed as above. 

(Signed) J. Havelaar, 

Notary public. 
Done at the Hague the xxix July, XVI. hundred five and forty. 1645 i^ 



Insiricction-s to the Director General and Council of Neio Neiherland. 

[ From the Commitait-loek of the Stales General, in Ihe Royal Archives at the Hagne. ] 

Instruction of the Deputies to the Assembly of the XIX. of the General 
Incorporated West India Company, for the Director and Council of New 
Netherland, according to which, they are provisionally, and until further 
order, to regulate themselves. 

Folio 197. The supreme government in the countries of New Netherland, shall consist of 

three persons, namely : the Director as President, his Vice and the Fiscal, by whom occuring 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IIL 161 

matters appertaining to the police, justice, militia, dignity and rights of the Company, shall be 
treated and decided, each, nevertheless, being bound to vindicate his own commission. 

With this understanding, however, that in all cases wherein the Advocate fiscal shall be bound 
to prosecute, whether civilly or criminally, for the preservation of the right of the supreme 
government or the Company, the military command shall succeed to his place, and in criminal 
cases, two capable persons from the Commonalty shall, moreover, be joined from the district 
or Colonie where the crime or deed was committed. 

Regarding the prosecution of the settlement of the limits between New Netherland and the 
English, it is not yet determined to proceed therein; but the Director and Council are enjoined 
to see that the English do not incroach further on the Company's lands. Meanwhile, they 
are to try if the settlement of the limits cannot be arranged yonder with the aforesaid English, 
and if these are found so inclined, advice thereof shall be sent here by the first opportunity, 
together with pertinent information what extent of the Company's lands the English possess, in 
order to be instructed thereupon, when seen; all, with this understanding however, that the 
aforesaid English who are at present and have settled, within the Company's district, or who 
will be disposed to come and settle therein, must be subject to the Company's government 
there, and to that end take the oath of fidelity to the High and Mighty Lords States General 
and the West India Cfimpany, and consequently be, at the same time, accounted in no other 
wise than as original subjects. 

In order to reestablish peace and quietness, in the country, they shall endeavor, by all 
possible means to pacify and give satisfaction to the Indians : and the Director and Council are 
enjoined to promote, on the one side, the Company's interest and the welfare of the Commonalty, 
and on the other hand, to maintain good correspondence with the neighbors, and especially 
with the Indians. 

They shall endeavor as much as possible, that the colonists settle themselves with a certain 
number of families on some of the most suitable places, in the manner of villages, towns and 
hamlets, as the English are in the habit of doing, who thereby live more securely; this was 
also the Company's intention when it granted the heretofore printed Freedoms, and the 
amplification thereof. 

The aforesaid Director and Council shall speedily advance the repairs of Fort Amsterdam, 
for which purpose it is thought to be best, and least expensive to the Company, to have it 
repaired with clay, earth and firm sods, and that efforts be made, by some presents, to 
encourage the soldiers thereto, and to oblige them to keep it in permanent repair. Also, as it 
is of the highest importance to the colonists to have a good and safe retreat in case of necessity 
(which God forbid), they ought to be induced, for this once, to assist the work; and the 
Director is commanded to pay strict attention in future to the ordinary repairs. 

The persons hereinafter specified, shall be maintained for garrisoning the fort, at such 
allowance as shall be most advantageous to the Company, and for greater security, the 
Colonists and their servants shall be bound under certain penalty, to provide themselves with 
good guns and other arms for their defence, in order to be, with the garrison in time of need, 
a watch against any general attack, without the Director, colonists or any other person 
whatsoever, having the power of enlisting any soldiers, be they few or many, at the 
Company's expense. 

Vol. I. 21 



162 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Further, inasmuch as tlie respective colonies were allowed by the Freedoms, to commission 
one or two persons, to inform the Director and Council, at least every twelve months, of the 
state and condition of their Colonies, the same is again confirmed. 

The Director and Council shall cause the Colonists and freemen to settle, first of all, on the 
Island Manhattes and point out to them as much land as they shall be able to cultivate, either 
in planting tobacco or grain or any other crops to which the soil is adapted, and from which 
they will expect to be able to derive the largest profit. 

And for the promotion of agriculture there, it is deemed proper to permit, at the request of 
the Patroons, colonists and other farmers, the conveyance thither of as many Negroes as they 
are willing to purchase at a fair price ; and the Director and Council shall notify the Assembly 
hereof every year, when further order shall be taken regarding the transport of Negroes thither. 

And although it is proposed, for the greater encouragement of the population, to reserve the 
trade with the Indians exclusively to the Patroons, Colonists and free farmers resident there, 
without permitting any import merchants {pcrmissie merders) to carry on any interior trade with 
said Indians, it is, nevertheless, resolved, as regards this, to adhere to the existing practice, 
but the Director and Council shall take information hereupon, to serve as advice to the 
Assembly. 

The aforesaid Director and Council shall pay strict regard that no arms or munitions of war 
shall be sold by the freemen to the Indians, nor by the import merchants to the freemen or 
Indians upon certain heavy penalties to be thereon enacted, but the freemen who shall require 
any thing of the sort, shall be at liberty to procure them from the Company's store, on the order 
of the Directors and Council. 

And whereas the Company hath now resolved to throw open to private persons the trade 
which it hath exclusively carried on with New Nertherland, and to empower the respective 
Chambers of the Company to give permission to all private inhabitants of these countries to sail 
with their own ships to New Netherland, the Virginias, the Swedish, English and French 
colonies, the Bermudas or any other places situate thereabouts, according to the drafted 
regulation, they shall, therefore, strictly observe and cause to be obsered, that the contents 
thereof shall be attended to, as much as is in their pov^-er, proceeding against the contraveners, 
agreeably to the first article of the charter, and the tenor of the regulation already enacted, or 
to be hereafter made, and regarding the receipts of duties, tolls, and other customs already, or to 
be hereafter, imposed as well on exported, as on imported, goods, for so much thereof as 
shall have to be paid in that, and not in this, country. 

All which Points and Articles the Director and Council shall be bound to observe and to 
follow, as closely as possible, regulating themselves further according to the Instructions 
heretofore given for the government of those countries, so far as they are not by these presents 
altered, or may not be hereafter changed, which power this Assembly reserves unto itself. 

Thus done and resolved in the Assembly of the XIX. of the General Incorporated West India 
Company in Amsterdam, in the year IG4o, the 7"" of July. Was paraphed. Hern van der 
Capellen toe Ryssel. Under — By order of the same. 

(Signed) Gysbert Rxidolpht. 
Enregistered in the Acte-hock of the States General, on the 26 July, 1646. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: III. 168 

Subjects for the Consideration of the Assemlly of the XIX. 1645. 

[ From the Original in ll>s Eojal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Points whereupon all the Chambers of the West India Company are summoned 
to meet at Middelburg on the 2""* of September 1645, extracted so far as 
relates to the affairs of New Netherland. Read the lo'"" of August, 1645. 
IS"- Point. 

The Chambers will be pleased to instruct their deputies regarding the affairs of New 
Netherland, in order to resume the business of the 6"" and 7"" of July, and to resolve afterwards 
as shall be most serviceable and most advantageous for the Company. 

14'\ 

What shall be done respecting the island of Cura9ao ; for it is certainly to be presumed that to 
maintain it as has been previously done, is too great a tax on the Company. And the 
Amsterdam Chamber which hath hitherto had the direction thereof, is requested to send its 
deputies prepared to give full explanation to serve for instruction in the resolution. 



Proceedings of the Assembly of the XIX. in regard to JVew, Netherland. 1645. 

[ From the Copy In the Eoyal Archives at the Hagne ; Loketkaa of the States General ; Division, West Indische Compagnie, No. 17.] 

Extracts from the Resolutions of the Assembly of the XIX. of the West India 
Company, holden at Middelburg, from the Q"" of September to the 16"" of 
October, 1645, as far as tliey relate to the affairs of New Netherland. 

Tuesday, the 21^' September, 1G45. 

The opinion of the before mentioned deputies being heard, it is, after divers discourses 
between the members from Amsterdam and other Chambers, concluded and resolved, inasmuch 
as some Clergymen are about to return home from Brazil, that they be permitted to return, and 
that the number of those who shall remain there be limited to nine persons, to wit: one for 
each ninth part, to be distributed by the President and Supreme Council among the principal 
places where the hearers are most numerous, and their services shall be most advantageous. 

And that the smaller places shall be served by precentors, comforters of the sick, and 
schoolmasters who shall offer up public prayers, read aloud from the old and new testament, 
from printed sermons, and tune the psalms. 

But inasmuch as the Amsterdam Ciiamber maintains, at its charge, seven of the aforesaid 
clergymen, besides one in Curagao, one in New Netherland and one in Loando, making 10 in 
all; on the other hand, Zealand and the Maese have only one; Zealand and North Holland 
is to send one, and Stadt en Landen^ hath sent one by the last ship; it is resolved that the 

' In 1594, Prince Maurice reduced the city of Groningen and united the Ommelanden, or surrounding rural districts, to it 
aa one province. Martinet. Beschryving der Nederlanden, II., 148. The province of Groningen was hence aometimee called 
Btadt en Landen ; city and country. — Ed. 



164 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Supreme government in Brazil shall be bound herein to make an equal repartition of those 
who are to remain in the service or are sent out, in order that thus the nine parts hereafter to 
be borne by the members, be equally charged. 

The Commissioners named on the 9"" instant, etc. 

Read a remonstrance from Director Petrus Stuyvesandt, containing divers considerations 
relative to the island of Curacao and New Netherland ; also, read the 13"" and 14"' points of 
reference, both regarding the aforesaid countries; question having been put, it is resolved to 
refer the received remonstrance to the Commissioners who shall examine it, and advise the 
Assembly on the points of reference, and thereunto are appointed Mess" Van Hecke, de Laet, 
Hamel, Haelewyn, Huigh and Iddekinghe. 

Tue.'sday, the SG"- of Sept% 1645. 

Read a letter from Willem Kieft, Director of New Netherland, written the 2"^ of August, 

1645, from fort New Amsterdam to the Amsterdam Chamber, and it is resolved to place it in 

the hands of the Committee on the 13"" and 14"' points of reference, to be made use of 

in their business. 

Wednesday, the 11"- of October, 1645. 
The Commissaries named on the 22-* instant' to examine the 12"" point of reference, speaking 
of the Yachts at present within the charter, and which are yet to be dispatched, have found 
that, of those sent by the Amsterdam Chamber to the respective places within the Charter, 
the following are still in the public service: 

The Santvoort, Spreeuw, Gulderee, on the coast of Brazil. 

Sloterdyk, Reyger, Heemstee, Vlug, on the coast of Angola. 
Reael, Fortuyntjen, on the coast of Guinea. 
Neptuynis, Cat, Parquit, in the West Indies. 
From Zealand, the Yachts, etc. 

Tuesday, the 12"' of October, 1645. 
The Commissioners being again assembled on the 13"" and 14"" points of reference, pursuant 
to the resolution of the 11"" instant, report, that before they can determine to express their 
opinion, the Chambers ought categorically to declare whether they will obey and execute the 
resolutions adopted on the 5"" and 7"" of July last respecting New Netherland; whereupon, 
question being put, the deputies from the Chamber of Zealand declared, that they are instructed 
not to consent to the contribution of any money for the benefit of the aforesaid New Netherland ; 
but it may be inquired how such might be eflected on certain conditions to be considered; the 
Company reserving to itself the supreme authority. Those of Amsterdam, Maese and the North 
Quarter declare, that their Chambers are ready to and will execute the resolutions of the 5"" 
and 7"" of July aforesaid; those of the city of Groeningen and Ommelanden (say) the 
circumstances of their Chambers do not admit of furnishing any money at present for New 
Netherland, but that their intention would truly agree with that of Zealand. The 
Commissioners having heard this declaration, further report that they are of opinion, that 
the dissenting (dificulterende) Chambers shall declare whether they will abstain from all 
interference with New Netherland, and leave the management, on such plan as they may 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IIL 165 

determine to enact, to those who shall carry out the resolutions, without meddling with that 
country again in case the condition of affairs there may hereafter improve. The deputies 
from Zealand, being requested, have undertaken to communicate further with their principals 
hereupon, in order to be prepared to-morrow, and those of Stadl en Landen will inform the 
Amsterdam Chamber within the space of one month, or sooner if possible. 

Friday, the IS"" of October, 1645. 

Regarding New Netherland: the gentlemen of Zealand being asked, pursuant to yesterday's 
resolution, declared their instructions to be, as before stated ; that they cannot resolve to 
contribute any thing to New Netherland ; whereupon, the other Chambers in all cases decide 
that Zealand is bound to execute the resolution of the previous XiX; and they persisting, it 
is resolved and concluded, that the equipment for New Netherland shall be completed according 
to the resolution of the previous Assembly, on condition, if any members fail to pay their 
contingent to the Amsterdam Chamber, the supreme government in Brazil shall be notified to 
charge the deficiency to the account of the Chambers, and to make good the same in sugar, 
to Amsterdam. 

On the petition of Albert Adriaense Van der Wielen, etc. 

It being stated that one Laurents Cornelisen, being banished from New Netherland, requests 
permission to be at liberty to go thither whenever the new Director proceeds there, and to 
pursue in peace, without being troubled by justice, some other business than that which he 
followed when he was banished ; on hearing further explanation of the circumstances of the 
case, it is resolved to leave the convict (gesenlentieerde) as he is, and that the petition lie on 
the table. 

Saturday, the 14"' of October, 1645. 
On resuming, the Chamber of Zealand adhering to its declaration rendered yesterday, and 
the other Chambers to the resolution, the proposal of the commissioners named on the la"" of 
September, and whose report was made on the 10"" of this current month, relative to the 14"" 
and 13"" points of reference respecting Curasao and New Netherland, was consequently 
confirmed, reading, word for word, as follows : 

Project how Cura§ao can best be kept under the Director of New Netherland, 
and the old people be brought thence. 

There were on the aforesaid island, on th% 1"' of September, 1644, in officers, train and 

military persons Heads, 116 

The ship Swol, carrying 22 guns, 76 

yacht Cat, do 14 do 50 

Neptuynis, do 10 do 46 

Paroquit, do 5 do 30 

Heads, 318 



166 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

The aforesaid place might be henceforth garrisoned with 116 men, whose pay for a year 
would amount to 

1 Commandant with a lieutenant, per month, fl- 60 

1 Ensign, 36 

1 Comforter of the sick, 30 

1 Superintendent of the store with an auditor, 22 

1 Clerk, 14 

2 Serjeants at fl. 18, 36 

1 Smith and 1 corporal of the armory, 20 

2 Mason and carpenter @. fl. 22, 44 

1 Barber (surgeon), 24 

1 Barber's mate, 12 

1 Baker, 18 

I Baker's man, 12 

1 Gunner, IS 

2 Corporals@, fl. 12, 24 

60 Soldiers(a fl. 8, 480 

12 Troopers (a, fl. 12, 144 

8 Hands for the sloop per month, fl. 10, 80 

The yacht, the Paroquit, requires further : 

1 Skipper per month, 45 

1 Pilot, 28 

1 Supercargo, 16 

1 Chief boatswain, 18 

1 Gunner, 16 

15 Sailors, 130 

116 persons cost per month, the sum of fl. 1,327 

And the pay for 12 months, amounts to fl. 15,900. 

For maintenance of the garrison, also for the Indians, it is necessary to send from Fatherland 
in provisions, stores, merchandize, etc., to the amount, as per list N" , about the sura 
of fl 18,356. 

A first class ship and flyboat will have to be sent from Fatherland with 70 soldiers and 20 
seamen, for the purpose of conveying the people, provisions, etc., to Curagao, and relieving 
the old garrison, on the calculation that 26 men can be selected from the old hands, which 
would then make up the 116 persons, as hereinbefore stated. 

Which aforesaid ship and flyboat will have to carry out from Fatherland all the necessaries, 
agreeably to list number 1, already enumerated, together with the necessaries, according to lists 
Nos. ^, 3 and 4. 

Having arrived at Cura§ao and landed the people, the first class ship should retain the 
necessaries in list No. 2, which amount to the sum of fl. 6,698.14. 

And there embark 130 of the old forces, and deliver to the Cat the necessaries in list 
No. 3, fl. 3,999.4. 

The aforesaid yacht, the Cat, to be manned with 60 of the old forces at Curasao. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : III. 167 

And also to deliver over to the yacht Ncptmjnis, the like necessaries, according to list No. 3, 
amounting to fl. 3,999.4. 

The aforesaid Nepfuynis to be, in like manner, manned with 60 of the old forces. 

In the aforesaid first class ship and two yachts, ought to be laden the 2700 first quality 
hides, lying there; and thus return home after cruising together through the West Indies, as 
long as their provisions permit. 

The flyboat and the ship Swol, ought to take on board all the old iron, unnecessary 
ordinance and other useless stores, along with as many horses, and as much salt and dried 
codfish, as can be stored therein; with which the Director and the remainder of the old forces, 
being about 60 persons, should proceed to New Netherland, taking with him the stores, as per 
list No. 4, amounting to fl. 779.5. 

On arriving in New Netherland, the ship Swol, being old, ought to be sold,' together with 
the horses, the salt and old iron ; the soldiers who are to be brought along, should be retained 
in garrison there; and the flyboat, with the guns from Curasao, the dried codfish and the New 
Netherland soldiers, sent home, with intelligence whether peace has been concluded with the 
Indians. If so, it will be necessary to send a fast sailing frigate or boat, to be dispatched 
from New Netherland with provisions to Curagao ; to return thence with horses and salt, 
which can be sold in New Netherland, especially the horses, at a high price. 

Were Cura9ao also placed under the government of New Netherland, the garrison could 
be maintained at little expense, and the poor people preserved from the dreadful famine to 
which they have sometimes been subject. 

It had been much more advantageous for the Company to abandon the island of Curasao; 
but this cannot be effected without the coi'iperation of their High Mightinesses and his 
Highness; and although it could be accomplished, yet we are obliged to incur the greater part 
of the aforesaid expense to bring the people thence. 

Meanwhile, their High Mightinesses and his Highness, will be informed of the situation of 
the aforesaid Island ; and that, in New Netherland, we can possess all the advantages over 
the enemy, except the great quantity of horses, which can be taken from Curagao to the 
Continent ; and thus the aforesaid Island must be provided with the said garrison until their 
Mightinesses, upon application, shall resolve to abandon it. 

List of the provisions, stores and merchandise required for the Island Cura9ao, 
including the bark Paroquit, the sloop and large boat, in all 116 persons, 
as well marines as train bands, for one year. 

25 barrels of beef @, fl. 90 the bbl., fl. 2,250 

19 barrels of pork @, fl. 62^ the bbl., 1,187 10 

10 cans of oil (a, fl. 80, 800 

12 hogsheads of vinegar @^ fl. 20, 240 

3G barrels of groats, , 864 

26 barrels of beans @, fl. 13, 14 stiv., 336 

14 ditto, grey peas, (a, 19, 4 stiv., 268 16 

14 ditto, white peas, (a, 19, 4, 268 16 

' This vesB«l was sold, in September, 1647, to Mr. Goodyear, deputy governor of New Hayen. 



]68 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

7,200 lbs. dried codfish @, fl. 9, per 100 lbs., 648 

3,600 lbs. bread at same price, 324 

20,000 lbs. meal (a|. fl. 5 per 100 lbs., ■ 1,000 

3,000 lbs. cheese (a, fl. 17 per 100 lbs., 510 

2 barrels butter (a, fl. S3 per bbl., 166 

9 casks Spanish wine (& fl. 70 ea., 630 

3 ditto, French wine (^ fl. 40 ea., 120 

Spices, mace, nutmegs, pepper, ginger, cloves, sugar and prunes, 

for the sick, 250 

10,123 6 

Stores for the ship Paroquit, sloop, and jolly boat. 

2 bales of canvas (a fl. 150 ea., fl. 300 

100 lbs. of best bolt rope come to 16 

30 lbs. of sail yarn @^ 9 stiv. per lb., 12 

12 bundles of assorted thread, 13 12 

45 bundles of marline @^ 4 stiv. ea., 9 

40 bundles of huisingh (ax 6 stiv., 12 

43 bundles of twine @^ 5 stiv., 5 15 

600 lbs. light running line, 96 

8 tons of tar (a. fl. 12 the ton, 96 

2 barrels of pitch @, fl. 12, 24 

3 barrels of rosin (S. fl. 30, 90 

60 clew lines {douivens werck), @^ 6 St., IS 

1 prince's flag, for the fort, 33 

100 boards, 200 

9 hamburg planks, 63 

70 boat planks, 1 11 

500 norway deals, 225 

50 sawed boards, 30 

1,000 assorted spikes, 160 

1 hide of pump leather, 12 10 

100 lbs. suet, 25 

100 lbs. tallow, 24 

300 lbs. double medium nails, 48 

1,596 17 



Ammunition for fort Amsterdam and the yacht Paroquit. 

1200 lbs. new powder, fl. 405 

50 fivelb.balls, ..' 15 

600 lbs. of musket balls, 90 

600 lbs. pig lead, 60 

4 reams cartridge paper, 60 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : III. 169 

20 lbs. cartridge thread, 20 

10 kegs of black, 

1 keg of red, 

1 keg of white, \ paint, 80 

1 keg of red, 

1 ditto of yellow,; 

1 small barrel of linseed oil, 36 



Materials for the use of the Salt manufacture and agriculture. 

30 barrows for unloading salt (ai 25 stiv., ea, fl- 73 

60 bound shovels, (^ 18 stiv., 5-1 

40 hollow ditto, @, 8 stiv., 16 

100 axes, @. 15 stiv., 90 

100 chopping knives, @^ 18 stiv., 90 

3 chaldrons of smith's coals, @. fl. 22, 66 

2 seins,@,fl.66, 132 



Cargoes for distribution among the Indians and Negroes, for clothi 

600 ells of white linen, 12 (aX 14 stiv. the ell., fl. 360 

300 pairs of shoes, from 7 to 10 sizes, @. 28 stiv., 420 

400 ells coarse linen @^ 6 stiv., 120 

30 lbs. gray yarn, 30 

150 packs linen clothes, 300 



1,230 



For the office. 

5 reams of paper, fl. 25 

6 blank books, 42 

6 penknives, 3 

20 bundles of quilis; 9 

Ink powder, 4 

83 

One medicine chest, well supplied with good and fresh medicines. 

Invoice of merchandise necessary to be distributed to the garrisons in part 
payment of their monthly wages. 

3 ps. of colored everlasting, fl- 96 

3 ps. of muslin, 60 

3 ps. of colored coarse camlet, 102 

3 ps. of colored camlet, 90 

Vol. I. 22 



170 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

4 ps. of Haerlem narrow stuff, 36 

500 prs. of shoes @^ 5 stiv. the pair, 750 

2 ps. of mixed cloth, 300 

1 pc. of red , 100 

900 ells of linen cloth @. 15 stiv., 675 

300 ells (a. 25 stiv. per ell, 375 

600 ells unbleached linen @. 8 stiv., 240 

silk thread, assorted balls, 200 

a tin service (a. 230 lbs. tin, 149 10 

3 doz. napkins, 36 

1 doz. towels, 10 

6 tablecloths 24 

2,985 10 

fl. 17,675 13 

The ship that carries the provisions thither, being to be manned with 130 hands, 
and cruising through the West Indies on her return home, requires provisions 
as follows : — 

16 barrels of Beef@,fl. 90 the bbl., fl. 1,440 

15 ditto of Pork @, fl. 62J " " 937 10 

5J awms of Oil @. fl.80 " awm, 440 

5 hogsheads Vinegar @^ fl. 25 ea., 125 

18 barrels white peas (S, fl. 19 the bbl., 342 

10 barrels grey peas " " 190 

6 ditto beans @, fl. 13 14 stiv., " 79 4 

18 ditto groats @, fl. 24, " " 432 

5000 lbs, dried codfish @, fl. 9 per 100, 450 

15000 " bread @, fl. 9 " 100, 1,350 

300 Cheeses, being 3000 lbs. (a, fl. 17 the 100, 410 

4 casks of Spanish wine, 360 

1 ditto Brandy, 100 

1 case J wax candles, 50 

fl. 6,698 14 



List of the Provisions for the Yacht the Neptuynis, having a crew of 60 persons, 
to return to Fatherland with them after cruising through the West Indies ; 
requires therefor the following provisions, stores, and munitions of War. 

7 bbls. of Beef d, fl. 90 per bbl., fl. 630 

6 ditto of Pork (a fl. 62J " 375 

2 J awms of Oil (3. fl. 80 per awm, 200 

2 half casks of Vinegar (3, fl. 32, 64 

8 bbls. white peas (a, fl. 19 4 St. per bbl., 153 12 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : IIL 171 

6 bbls. grey peas @, fl. 19 4 st. per bbl., 96 

4 ditto beans (a, fl. 12 14 St., •' 54 16 

8 ditto groats @, fl. 24 " " 192 

2,000 lbs. dried codfisii @, fl. 9 per 100, 180 

6,000 lbs. biscuit @,fl. 9 per 100 540 

130 Cheeses, being 1,300 lbs., @, fl. 17 per 100, 221 

3 casks Spanish wine, 270 

1 ditto Brandy, 100 

i awm Train oil, 27 

1 cask i wax i tallow candles, 50 

Total of the provisions, fl. 3,150 8 

1 bale of canvas, 170 

100 lbs. of bolt rope, 16 

20 lbs. sail yarn @. 10 stiv. per lb, 10 

li ton of Tar @, fl. 12 the ton, 18 

1 ton of pitch, 12 

1 bbl. of rosin 30 

40 clew lines @. 6 stiv., 12 

400 lbs. running line, fl. 16 the 100, 64 

10 ps. linen @. fl. 1 J the pc, 15 

20 bundles marline @^ 4 stiv. the bundle, 4 

20 bundles huysingh @^ 6 stiv. the bundle, 6 

20 bundles hording (S. 5 stiv. the bundle, 6 

6 tar brushes (3. 6 stiv. the ps., 1 16 

1 prince's flag, 33 

10 boat plank @i 5 stiv. the ps., 15 

4 hamburg planks @^ fl. 7, 28 

60 norway deals, 20 

300 lbs. assorted nails @, fl. 15 the 100, 45 

100 lbs. tallow, 20 

1 hide pumpleather 12 

flatheads and pump nails for, 6 

fl.542 16 

Ammunition. 

1 ream cartridge paper, fl. 12 

4 lbs. cartridge, 4 

500 lbs. good powder, 200 

fl. 216 



172 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

The ammunition, fl. 216 

The stores, 542 1 G 

The provisions, 3,150 8 

Total of the required necessaries, 3,909 4 

And as much for the Yacht the Cat, manned with 60 hands. 

The Ship the Swol requires one month's provisions in order, with 60 hands, to convey some 
horses, salt and other effects from Cura9ao to New Netherland : 

1 barrel of beef, fl. 90 

1 ditto pork, 02 10 

3 ditto vegetables, 60 

300 lbs. dried codfish, 27 

900 lbs. bread, 82 

60 cheeses, 102 

fl. 423 10 

Oil, Vinegar, wine, will be had from the other ships. 

Stores. 

I J bale of canvas for a new mainsail and further repairs of other sails, fl.247 

100 lbs. coarse bolt rope, 16 

15 lbs. sail yarn, 7 10 

8 bundles of assorted line, 12 

15 bundles huysingh, 3 

15 bundles marline, 3 15 

15 bundles boards, 3 

2 tons tar, 24 

1 ton pitch, 12 

i barrel of rosin, 15 

1 hide pump leather, 12 10 

Stores amount to, 355 15 

Provisions, 423 10 

fl. 779 5 



The Commissioners appointed on 21" of September on the 13"" point of reference, relating 
to the resolution of the XIX., adopted the G"" and 7"" of July last, have, after consultation, and 
after having deliberated on the aforesaid resolution, resolved to submit to the Assembly their 
considerations on said resolutions, and first, on that of the G"" of July, contained in 5 distinct 
articles. 

On the first, which reads thus: That the enactment of the 4"" of May previous, shall be 
entered by form of Instruction to be given provisionally to the Director going thither. Said 
Instruction to be confirmed except this Assembly find it expedient to add thereunto by form 
of amplification. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: III. 173 

On the second, which reads: That the Company shall open the trade and.commerce to New 
Netheriand, wiiicii they had exclusively retained and prosecuted themselves, allowing individuals 
to sail thither with their own ships, or freight, &c. The Commissioners judge that this opening 
and permission, as far as relates to New Netheriand, ought not to be extended farther than to 
the Patroons of Colonies and all Colonists having and holding a dwelling in yonder country, 
without giving it to those who merely go over and hither, spoil the trade, threaten the Company 
on all occasions, and rob both here and there, and by smuggling of contraband goods strengthen 
the Company's enemies, and by conveying strong liquors, debauch the Colonists and inhabitants. 

To leave unaltered the remainder regarding the Virginias, the Swedish Colony, the 
Bermudas, &c. To consider only whether the Assembly should not resolve that one or two 
cargoes be sent alternately by the respective Chambers, in the manner as used heretofore to 
be done. 

Leaving the third point untouched, as it stands, we should only enlarge it with this addition: 
That all the goods sent to iVew Netheriand, or parts thereabout, must first and foremost come 
to Fort New Amsterdam, before being exported elsewhere, for the purpose of having their permits 
exhibited there, to be entered and that the ships may be visited, in order to see that they have 
no prohibited or unentered goods on board. In like manner, the return cargoes shall have to 
be entered at the same place ; and it must be declared for what ports in this country they are 
destined, with the restriction, that the duties and other imposts shall have to be paid into the 
Chamber from which they obtained the permit, and they shall be cleared thence for Fort New 
Amsterdam : further, they shall be bound to return direct to Fatherland, without being at 
liberty to touch at any trading places, on pain of forfeiture of ship and goods, should they 
act otherwise. 

Finally, leaving the remaining points as they are, also the instruction to be amplified by 
new additions of what this Assembly may determine further to resolve on the suggestion of 
Director Stuyvesant. 

Monday, IG"" of October, 1645. 
The presiding Chamber of Zealand, with those of the General Board of Accounts, is 
deputed and authorized to execute the resolution adopted by this Assembly, so far as authorized 
thereunto by instruction. 



2'he Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company to the States General. 

[ From Ihe Original in Ihe Eoyal Archives at tlie Hague ; File, West Indie. ] 

High and Mighty Lords. 

We have duly received you High Mightinesses' postile, of the IS"" of April last, inscribed on 
the margin of a certain petition presented to your High Mightinesses in the name, and on the 
behalf, of Simon Janssen, of Durgerdam, late skipper of the ship named St. Peter, acting as 
agent for his late owners ; the aforesaid postile importing, that we should also communicate 
our remarks on the aforesaid petitioner's request presented to your High Mightinesses on the 
3'<' of November, of the past year, and sent to the Assembly of the XIX., in Zealand. 



174 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

It will serve foi; fulfillment of said order, that a written agreement and contract was made, 
on the IS"* of August, of the year 1644, with the aforesaid Simon Janssen, that he should be 
at liberty to sail with the aforesaid ship St. Peter, from this city, Amsterdam, to New 
Netherland, situate within the limits of our Charter; on condition that he, before loading his 
goods, should be bound to bring the same into the Company's warehouses, in order to be 
conveyed on board, when inspected and stamped with the Company's mark; and to cause to 
be paid thereon the duty of sixteen per cent, in addition to the permits and convoys; also, that 
he should not, whilst on the way between this city and the fort Manhattes, in New Netherland, 
touch at any other places; but be obligated to discharge his laden merchandise at, and as far 
as possible to be of service to, the aforesaid fort; all on pain of forfeiting the aforesaid ship 
and property; and although he, Simon Janssen, ought accordingly to have fulfilled the 
aforesaid contract according to its tenor, and to regulate himself in conformity to its contents, 
yet he is found, in truth, to have violated it in divers instances. 

First : having set sail from here and arrived about Durgerdam, without, yea, against our 
consent, he received and took on board the ship a quantity of gunpowder, notwithstanding 
private individuals are not permitted to trade in that article. 

Secondly : he did not proceed from this country to New Netherland, but to the Bermudas, 
and there broke bulk ; and trucked, or sold, the greater part of his goods for, or against, West 
India hides, and a good many pieces of eight. 

Thirdly: on arriving afterwards in New Netherland, it was discovered that he had brought 
with him divers contraband and prohibited goods; though it was impossible to make so 
thorough an examination, because the said Simon Janssen had sailed from the Texel without 
taking with him any invoice from the Company. All which, coming to the knowledge of 
Cornells van der Hoyckens, the Fiscal, he prosecuted the said Skipper before the Director and 
Council. Duly instituting his action, agreeably to the signed contract, and concluding that the 
aforesaid ship and property should be declared forfeited and confiscated to the profit of 
the Company; the aforesaid Skipper answered thereto, and the Fiscal replied. Finally, the 
Fiscal's demand and conclusion were allowed by judgment of the aforesaid Director and 
Council, except the goods which belonged to the sailors, and paid the duties here. And 
whereas, your High Mightinesses can, from what precedes, sufficiently infer that the said 
Simon Janssen complains unjustly of those of the Company, and that the case of said ship, as 
between him and the aforesaid Fiscal, has been now already examined, in New Netherland, 
and decided by the definitive judgment of the Director General and Council; we, therefore, 
humbly pray you. High and Mighty, to be pleased to dismiss the request contained in the 
petition of the aforesaid Simon Janssen, and to order him not to trouble us any more touching 
the matter aforesaid. Wherewith ending 

We shall pray God for the continued success of your High Mightinesses' prosperous 
government and remain 

High and Mighty Lords, 

Your High Mightinesses' humble servants. 
The Directors of the West India Company, Chamber at Amsterdam. 

Amsterdam the 26"" of May, 1646. (Signed) Jacob Pergens. 

Received 29"" May, 1646. Joannes Ryckaekt. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: HI. 175 

West India Company to the States General. 

[ From the Original in the Royal Archiyea at the Hague ; File, West Indie. ] 

To the High and Mighty Lords States General of the United Netherlands. 

High and Mighty Lords. 

The Directors of the Incorporated West India Company, supplicate, with all reverence, that 
your High Mightinesses he pleased to cause to be issued the commission of Petrus Stuyvesant, 
Director of New Netherland, a form whereof is hereunto annexed. 
Which doing, &c. 

(Endorsed) Memorial on behalf the West India Company, in favor 
of the Director to New Netherland. 13 July, 1646, 



Resolution of the States General on the preceding Letter. 

[From the Register of West India affairs, 1638—1651, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Friday, 13"" of July, 1646. 
Folio S07. Read in the Assembly a certain memorial presented to their High Mightinesses 

in the name and on behalf of the Directors of the Incorporated West India Company of this 
country, requesting that their High Mightinesses would he pleased to cause to be dispatched 
BtuyvesanL » commission for Petrus Stuyvesant, Director of New Netherland, according to 

New Netherland. ^j^g formula exhibited and submitted to the Assembly with the aforesaid 
memorial. Whereupon, deliberation being had, it is resolved and concluded, before proceeding 
herein, that inquiry be made what order and plan are generally adopted on such and similar 
occasions, and what disposition the above named Directors of the West India Company have 
Complaints of the ^^^^^ 0^ '■^e complaluts presented heretofore to their High Mightinesses, in the 
inhabitants thereof. ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^f ^j^^ inhabitants of New Netherland aforesaid, and what 
has been done therefor in their High Mightinesses' Assembly, in order that further disposition 
be made therein, as shall be deemed meet. 



West India Company to the States General. 

[ From the Original in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague ; File, Weet Indie. ] 

To the High and Mighty Lords States General of the United Netherlands. 

High and Mighty Lords. 

The Directors of the Incorporated West India Company had, some days since, respectfully 
requested of your High Mightinesses, a patent of commission for the Director Petrus 



176 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Stuyvesant, for New Netherland, according to tlie annexed draft, whereunto, pursuant to your 
High Mightinesses' then order, Secretary Mus liath looked up the commissions issued iieretofore 
by your High Mightinesses. Therefore the above named Directors supplicate your High 
Mightinesses with all due reverence, to be pleased to cause to be issued the commission 
aforesaid, inasmuch as two ships lie in the Texel ready to sail at the moment your High 
Mightinesses' patent shall be sent on board for the above named Petrus Stuyvesant. 
Which doing, etc. 

(Endorsed) Memorial on behalf of the West India Company. 24 July, 1646. 



Resolution of the States General on the preceding Memorial. 

[From the Eegister of West India affairs, 163S— 1651, in the Uoyal Archives at the Hague.] 

Tuesday, 24"' of July, 1646. 
A certain memorial, presented to their High Mightinesses by and on behalf of 
the West India Company of this country, for a commission for Petrus Stuyvesande 
New Netherland. as Director of New Netherland, being read in the Assembly; it is, previous to 
proceeding further herein, resolved and concluded, that their High Mightinesses' resolution 
concerning New Netherland, adopted on the 13"" instant, and the other thereunto relating, shall 
be looked up and examined, in order to take further action according as it shall appertain. 



Folio 207 
Stuivesant, 



West India Company to the States General. 

[ From the Original in the F.oyal Archives at the Hague ; File, West Indie. ] 

Noble, High and Mighty President. 

May it please your Honor to know, in regard to the application of the Directors of the West 
India Company for a commission for the Director of New Netherland, the retro acta have been 
lying, for the last 10 or 12 days, in the office of Your High Mightinesses' Secretary, pursuant to 
your High Mightinesses' order. We pray your High Mightinesses to cause the patent to be 
dispatched, inasmuch as 2 ships are waiting at the Texel only for that, in order to set sail. 
Which doing, &c. 

(Endorsed) Memorial on behalf of the West India Company, 26"" of July, 1646. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : IIL 177 

Resolution of the States General on the preceding Memorial. 

[ From the Register of West India Affairs, 1638—1651, in the Royal Archives at the Hague.] 

Thursday, 26"' July, 1646. 
Folio 208. ^ certain memorial, presented to their High Mightinesses by and on behalf of 

Director going to , .^. ^ t /-, n a o j 

New Netheriaud. the West India Company for a patent of Commission for the Director going to 
New Netherland, being read to the Assembly ; it is, after previous deliberation, resolved and 
concluded, before proceeding thereupon, that the above named West India Company shall 
exhibit to their High Mightinesses an authentic copy of the Instruction for the above mentioned 
Director, according to which he will have to regulate himself. 



Resolution of the States General approving the Commission of Director Stuyvesant. 

[ From the Register of West India affairs, 1638—1651, in the Royal Archires at the Hague. ] 

Saturday, 25"" July, 1646. 
stuiveLm! ^°^' T'^^ ^'■^^'' '^^ ^^^ commission made out for Petrus Stuivesant, as Director of 

New'sSheriand. New Netherland as well as of Curasao and some other Islands, being read in the 
Assembly; it is, after previous deliberation, considered as enacted, and further ordered, that 
said commission be issued without reconsideration, inasmuch as the aforesaid Director is very 
urgent to depart. 



Minute of Peter Stuyvesant having been sworn in as Director of New Netherland. 

[ From the Register of West India Affairs, 16S8— 1651, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Resolution of the States General. 



Folio 208. 
Stuivesant. 



Saturday, the 28"" July, 1646. 
Petrus Stuivesant appeared before the Assembly as Director of New Netherland 
and Directorof Cura9ao, and some other islands mentioned in his commission, and 
New Netherland. took, according to a Certain formulary, the proper oath, and amongst other things, 
swore specially that he would conform to his Instruction given him by the Assembly of the 
West India Company, which Instruction is, pursuant to their High Mightinesses' order dated 
the 26"" instant, exhibited at their High Mightinesses' Assembly, and a copy thereof 
enregistered in the Act Book. 



Vol. I. 



178 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Commission of Peter Stuyvesant as Director General of New Netherland. 

[ From the Commiasieioeh of the States General in the Koyal Archires at the Hague. ] 

Commission for Petrus Stuyvesant as Director on the Coast of New Netherland 
as well as the Island of Curasao and the places thereupon depending. 

Folio 201. The States General of the United Netherlands to all those to whom these 

Presents shall come, or who shall hear them read, Health. Be it Known : Whereas We 
have deemed it advisable for the advancement of the aifairs of the General Incorporated West 
India Company not only to maintaia the trade and population on the Coast of New Netherland 
and the places situate thereabout; also, the Islands Curasao, Buenaire, Aruba and their 
dependencies, which have hitherto been encouraged thither from this country, but also to make 
new treaties and alliances with foreign princes and to inflict as much injury as possible on the 
enemy in his forts and strongholds as well by sea as by land ; for which purposes it becomes 
necessary to appoint a person Director; We, therefore, confiding in the probity and experience 
of Petrus Stuyvesant, formerly entrusted with Our affairs in, and the government of, the 
aforesaid Island of Curasao and the places thereon depending, We, being well pleased with 
his services there, have commissioned and appointed, and by these presents do commission and 
appoint the said Petrus Stuyvesant, Director in the aforesaid countries of New Netherland, 
and the places thereunto adjoining, together with the aforementioned Islands of Curasao, 
Beunaire, Aruba, and their dependencies ; to administer, with the Council as well now as 
hereafter appointed with him, the said office of Director, both on water and on land, and in 
said quality, to attend carefully to the advancement, promotion and preservation of friendship, 
alliances, trade and commerce ; to direct all matters appertaining to traffic and war, and to 
maintain, in all things there, good order for the service of the United Netherlands and the 
General West India Company ; to establish regularity for the safeguard of the places and forts 
therein ; to administer law and justice as well civil as criminal ; and, moreover, to perform 
all that concerns his office and duties in accordance with the Charter, and the general and 
particular instructions herewith given, and to be hereafter given him, as a good and faithful 
Director is bound and obliged, by his oath in Our hands to do ; Which done, We, therefore, 
order and command all other officers, common soldiers, together with the inhabitants and 
natives residing in the aforesaid places as subjects, and all whom it may concern, to 
acknowledge, respect and obey the said Petrus Stuyvesant as Our Director in the countries and 
places of New Netherland, and in the Islands of Cura§ao, Beunaire, Aruba, and their 
dependencies, and to afford all help, countenance and assistance in the performance of these 
things, as We have found the same to be for the advantage of the Company. Done in Our 
Assembly at the Hague, on the xxviii. July, 1646. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IH. 179 

Resolution of the States General. 

[ From the EegiBt«r of West India affairs, 1638 — 16B1, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Saturday, 28"' July, 1646. 
Folio soa £)r Lubbertus van Dinclaeen appeared in the Assembly as Second, and first 

Dr. Lobbertus van u i i j 

Dinciagen. Councillor of the Director of New Netherland, and hath sworn that he will observe 

ulwNetheriand. the Commission given him by those of the Asssembly of the West India Company, 
on the S"" May 1646, as well as the Instruction which has been furnished him on the behalf as 
aforesaid, dated 7"' July of the present year ; whereupon he withdrew. 



Certificate that Luhhertus van Dinciagen has taken the Oath of Office. 

[ From Commiseie^oeh of the States General, in the Bojal ArchiTea at the Hagne. ] 

Folio 202. This day the xxviii. July XVI."= and six and forty D"' Lubbertus van Dinciagen 

hath, as Vice-governor and first councillor of the Director in New Netherland, taken the proper 
oath at the hands of the President of their High iMightinesses' Assembly that he will strictly 
conduct himself agreeably to his commission and the Instruction furnished him on the part of 
the Assembly of the XIX, and dated 7"" July, 1645. 



JOURNAL OF NEW NETHERLAND ; 
Written in the years 1641, 1642, 1643, 1644, 1645 and 1646. 

[From a Mannscript In the Eoyal Library at the Hagne. ] 

Brief Description of New Netherland. 

New Netherland, so called because it was first frequented and peopled by the free 
Netherlanders, is a province in the most northerly part of America, situate between N. England 
(which bounds it on the N. E. side) and Virginia, lying to the S. W. Its entire length is 
washed by the ocean and has a clean sandy beach resembling very much that of Flanders or 
Holland, having, except the rivers, few bays or harbors for ships. The air is very temperate, 
inclining to dryness, healthy, little subject to sickness. The four seasons of the year are about 
as in France or the Netherlands; the difference being, the spring is shorter, because it begins 
later; the summer is hotter, because it comes on more suddenly; the autumn is long and very 
pleasant; the winter cold and liable to much snow. Two winds ordinarily prevail, the N. W. 
in winter, and the S. W. in summer; the other winds are not common; the N. W. corresponds 
with our N. E., because it blows across the country from the cold point, like our N. E. The 



180 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

S. W. is dry and hot like our S. E., because it comes from the warm countries; the N. E. is 
cold and wet lii^e our S. W., for similar reasons. The aspect of the country is very like that 
of France; the land is reasonably high and level, to wit, along the coast, broken by small hills 
which are rocky and unfit for cultivation ; further in the interior are pretty high mountains, 
exhibiting generally strong indications of minerals ; between those mountains flow a great 
number of small streams; there are even in places, some, but not many, lofty mountains of 
extraordinary height; in fertility, the country falls behind no province in Europe both as to 
excellence and cleanness of fruits and seeds. There are three principal rivers, namely : the 
Fresh, the Mauritius, and the South rivers; all three reasonably wide and deep, adapted to 
the navigation of large ships twenty-five leagues up, and of common sloops even unto the 
falls; a canal extends from the river Mauritius to beyond the Fresh river, and forms an island 
forty leagues in length, called Long Island. This is the ordinary passage from N. England to 
Virginia, having on both sides many harbors for anchorage, so that people make no difficulty 
about navigating it in winter. The country is for the most part covered with trees, except a 
few valleys and some large flats, seven or eight leagues and less in extent; the trees consist as 
in Europe, of oak, hickory, chestnut, vines. The animals also are of the same species as ours, 
except lions and some other strange beasts ; many bears, abundance of wolves, which harm 
nothing but small cattle. Elks and deer in vast numbers, foxes, beavers, otters, minx, and such 
like. The fowls which are natural to the country, are turkeys, like ours, swans, geese of 
three sorts, ducks, teals, cranes, herons, bitterns; two sorts of partridges, four sorts of heath 
fowl or pheasants. The river fish is like that of Europe, namely : carp, sturgeon, salmon, 
pike, perch, roach, eel, etc. In the salt waters are found cod, shellfish, herring, and so 
forth ; also abundance of oysters and muscles. 

The Indians are of ordinary stature, strong and broad shouldered ; olive color, light and 
nimble of foot, subtle in disposition, of few words, which they previously well consider; 
hypocritical, treacherous, vindictive, brave and pertinacious in self defence ; in time of need, 
resolute to die. They seem to despise all the torments that can be inflicted on them, and do 
not utter a single moan, they go almost naked, except a flap which hangs before their 
nakedness, and on their shoulders a deer skin, or a mantle, a fathom square, of woven turkey 
feathers, or of peltries sewed together ; they make use now generally of blue or red (duflfels), 
in consequence of the frequent visits of the Christians. In winter they make shoes of deer 
skin, manufactured after their fashion. Except their chiefs, they have generally but one wife 
whom they frequently change according to caprice; she must do all the work, plant corn and 
cut wood, and attend to whatever else is to be done. The Indians are divided into various 
nations. They differ even in language, which would be altogether too long to be related in 
this brief space. They dwell together, mostly from friendship, in tribes commanded by a 
chief, who is the General, and usually called Sackema ; he does not possess much authority 
and but little distinction, unless in their dances and other ceremonies. They have hardly any 
knowledge of God; no Divine Worship, no law, no justice; the strongest does what he 
pleases, and the young men are masters. Their weapons are the bow and arrow, in the use of 
which they are wonderful adepts. Hunting and fishing, in addition to the maize which the 
women plant, furnish them food. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IIL 181 



By Whom and How New Netherland was Peopled. 

The subjects of the Lords States General, had frequented this country a long time ago, 
solely for the purpose of the fur trade. Since the year 1623, the Incorporated West India 
Company caused four forts to be erected, two on the River Mauritius, and one on each of the 
others; the largest, which their Honors named New Amsterdam, stands on the point formed 
by the Mauritius and the other river already mentioned ; six and thirty miles higher up, is 
another fort called Orange ; that on the south river is named Nassauw, and that on the Fresh 
river, the Good Hope, in which the Company hath since continually maintained garrisons. In 
the beginning, their Honors sent thither a certain number of settlers, and caused to be erected 
at great expense, three saw mills, which never realized any profit of consequence, on account 
of their great charge ; a great deal of money was also expended for the advancement of the 
country, but it never began to be settled until every one was permitted to trade with 
the Indians, inasmuch as, up to that time, no one calculated to remain there longer than the 
expiration of his bounden time, and therefore did not apply himself to agriculture ; yea, even 
the Colonie of Renselaerswyck was of little consequence. But as soon as the trade was opened, 
many servants who had prospered under the Company applied for their discharge, built houses 
and formed plantations, spread themselves far and wide, each seeking the best land, and to be 
nearest to the Indians, in order thus to trade with them advantageously ; others bought sloops 
with which to sell goods at the north and at the south, and as the Directors gave free passage 
from Holland thither, that also caused many to come. On the other hand, the English came 
both from Virginia and N. England, on account of the good opportunity to plant tobacco here; 
first, divers servants, whose time had expired; afterwards, families, and finally, entire colonies, 
having been forced to quit that place, in order to enjoy freedom of conscience, and to escape 
from the insupportable government of New England, and because many more commodities 
were to be obtained here than there, so that in place of seven boiiweries and two @ three 
plantations which were here, thirty bouweries were to be seen as well cultivated and stocked as in 
Europe, [and] one hundred plantations which, in two or three [years] would become regular 
bouweries, for after the tobacco was out of the ground, corn was planted there without 
ploughing, and the winter was employed preparing new lands. The English colonies had 
settled under us by patent on equal terms with the others. Each of these was in appearance 
not less than one hundred families strong, exclusive of the Colonie of Rensselaerswyck, which 
is prospering, with that of Myndert Meyndertsz and Cornells Melyn, who began first. Also the 
Village of N. Amsterdam around the fort, one hundred families, so that there was appearance 
of producing supplies in a year for fourteen thousand souls, without straightening the country, 
and had there not been a want of laborers or farm servants, twice as much could be raised, 
considering that fifty lasts of rye and fifty lasts of peas were still remaining around the fort, 
after a large quantity had been burnt and destroyed by the Indians, who in a short time 
quickly brought this country to nought and had well nigh destroyed this bright hope, in the 
manner following. 

The Causes and Consequence of the New Netherland War. 

We have already stated that the Liberty to trade with the Indians was the cause of the 
increase of population in N. Netherland. We shall now show that it also is the cause of Its 



182 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS, 

ruin; producing two opposite effects, and that not without reason as will appear from 
what follows. 

This Liberty, then, which in every respect was most gratefully received ; which should have 
been used like a precious gift, was very soon perverted to a great abuse. For every one 
thought that now was the acceptable time to make his fortune ; withdrew himself from his 
fellow, as if deeming him suspected and the enemy of his desire, sought communication with 
the Indians from whom it appeared his profit was to be derived, all contrary to their High 
Mightinesses' motto.' That created first, a division of power of dangerous consequence; then 
produced altogether too much familiarity with the Indians, which in a short time brought forth 
contempt, usually the Father of Hate. For, not satisfied with merely taking them into their 
houses in the customary manner, they attracted them by extraordinary attention, such as 
admitting them to Table, laying napkins before them, presenting Wine to them and more of 
that kind of thing, which they did not receive like Esop's man, but as their due and desert, 
insomuch that they were not content, but began to hate, when such civilities were not shown 
them. To this familiarity and freedom succeeded another Evil: as the cattle usually roamed 
through the Woods without a Herdsman, they frequently came among the corn of the Indians 
which was unfenced on ail sides, committing great damage there; this led to frequent complaints 
on the part of the latter, and, finally, to revenge on the cattle, without sparing even the horses 
which were valuable in the country. Moreover, many of our's took the Indians into their 
employ, making use of them in their house work ; thus exposing to them our entire 
circumstances ; soon becoming weary of work, the Indians took leg-bail and stole much more 
than the amount of their wages. This Liberty caused still greater mischief: for the inhabitants 
of Renselaerswyck, who were as many traders as persons, perceiving that the Mohawks were 
craving for guns, which some of them had already received from the English, paying for each 
as many as Twenty Beavers and for a pound of powder as many as Ten to Twelve guilders, 
came down in greater numbers than usual where guns were plenty, purchasing them at a 
fair price, realizing in this way considerable profit ; they afterwards obtained some from their 
Patroon for self defence, in time of need, as we suppose. This extraordinary gain was not 
long kept secret, the traders coming from Holland soon got scent of it, and from time to time 
brought over great quantities, so that the Mohawks in a short time were seen with fire locks ; 
powder and lead in proportion. Four hundred armed men knew how to make use of their 
advantage, especially against their enemies, dwelling along the River of Canada, against whom 
they have now achieved many profitable forays where before they had but little advantage ; 
this caused them also to be respected by the surrounding Indians even as far as the Sea coast, 
who must generally pay them tribute, whereas, on the contrary, they were formerly obliged to 
contribute to these. On this account the Indians endeavored no less to procure Guns, and 
through the familiarity which existed between them and our people, began to solicit the latter 
for Guns and powder, but as such was forbidden on pain of Death, and could not remain secret 
in consequence of the general conversation, they could not be obtained. This, added to the 
previous contempt, greatly augmented the hatred which stimulated them to conspire against us, 
beginning first with insults which they everywhere indiscreetly uttered, railing at us as Materiotty^ 
(that is to say) cowards — that we might, indeed be something on water, but of no account on 
land, and that we had neither a great Sachem nor Chiefs. [ Here two •pages are ivanting.'\ 

' Eendraoht maatt macht — Union is etrcngtU. — Ed. 

' Apparently compounded of the Delaware words Malhah, "no;" "without;" and Olee, "Heart" or courage — a Coward. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: III. 183 

he of Witqueschreek, living N. E. of the Island Manhattan, perpetrated another murder in the 
house of an old man, a wheelwright, with whom he was acquainted (having been in his son's 
service) ; being well received and suppled with food, and pretending a desire to buy something, 
whilst the old man was talking from the chest the cloth the Indian wanted, the latter took up 
an axe and cut his head off; moreover, plundering the house, and then ran away. This outrage 
obliged the Director to demand satisfaction from the Sachem who refused it, saying. That he 

* Note A. was sorry twenty Christians had not been murdered * and that this Indian had 
2i'Aug!"/6«.'°"°'^' only avenged the death of his Uncle who had been slain over one and twenty 
years previously by the Dutch. Whereupon, the Commonalty were called together by the 
Director to consider this affair; who all appeared and presently twelve men delegated from 

tNoteB. among them, t answered the propositions, and resolved at once on war, should 
resoiution"""daied the murderer be refused ; that the attack should be made in the harvest 
August 29, 1641. ^[^gjj ji^g Indians were hunting; meanwhile, an effort should be again made by 
kindness to obtain justice, which was accordingly several times sought for but in vain. 

The time being come, many obstacles arose and operations were postponed until the year 
1642, when it was resolved to avenge the perpetrated outrage. Thereupon spies looked up 
the Indians who lay in their village suspecting nothing, and eighty men were detailed and sent 
thither under the command of Ensign Hendrick van Dyck. The guide being come with the 
troops in the neighborhood of the Indian wigwams, lost his way in consequence of the darkness 
of the night. The Ensign became impatient and turned back without having accomplished 
any thing. The journey, however, was not without effect, for the Indians, who remarked by 
the trail made by our people in marching, that they had narrowly escaped discovery, sued for 
peace, which was granted them on condition that they should either deliver up the murderer 
or inflict justice themselves. This they promised, but did not keep their word. 

Some weeks after this, Miantenimo, principal Sachem of Sloops Bay, came here with one 
Engiiaif "Manifest, '^'"'^'^''^•^ '"6"' P^ssing through all the Indian Villages | soliciting them to a 

page 2. 

§Note D. 
Capl. Patricx letter, 
dated 2 Jan'y, 1C42. 

or to enchant him by their devilry, as their ill will was afterwards made manifest as well in 
fact as by report. Those of Hackingsack, otherwise called Achter Col, had, with their 
neighbors, killed an Englishman, a servant of one David Pietersz., and a few days after shot 
dead, in an equally treacherous manner, a Dutchman who sat roofing a house in the Colonic 
[Note E. of Myndert Meyndertz,|| having settled there agaiiist the advice of the Director and the 
Sede°osUionYhl?i "^^^^ "f ^^'^ I'ldiaus, and had caused, by the continual damage the cattle committed, 
"P™- no little dissatisfaction to the Indians, and contributed greatly to the War. The 

Commonalty began then to be afraid, and not without reason, having the Indians daily in their 
houses. The murderers were frequently demanded, either living or dead, even with a promise 
of reward; a scoffing answer was always returned by the Indians, who laughed at us. Finally, 
the Commonalty, seriously distrusting the Director, suspecting him of conniving with the 
iNoteF. Indians, that an attempt was making to sell Christian blood^f and resolvedt 
deiegate»°dated 21 that the will of the entire Commonalty was surrendered to him, inasmuch as he 
anuary, . would not aveugc blood, they would do it, be the consequence what it may 
The Director hereupon advised Pacham, the Sachem, who interested himself in this matter, 
warning him that we would wait no longer, inasmuch as satisfaction had not been given. 



184 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Meanwhile God wreaked vengeance on those of Witquescheck without our knowledge 
through the Mahicanders dwelling below Fort Orange, who slew seventeen of them and made 
prisoners of many women and children ; the remainder fled through a deep snow to the houses 
of the Christians on and around the Island Manhatens. They were most humanely received, 
being half dead of cold and hunger, and supported for fourteen days; even some of the 
Director's corn was sent to them. A short time after, another panic seized the Indians, which 
caused them to fly to divers places in the vicinity of the Dutch. This opportunity to wreak 
vengeance for the innocent blood, induced some of the Twelve men to represent to the Director 
that the time was now come ; whereupon, they received for answer, that they should put their 
*NoteG. request in writing: which was done, by three, in the name of all,* in a petition 

Their prluion, dated 1 O ' J ' r 

24Feb.,iM3. to be allowed to attack those of Hackingsack, lying in two divisions — on the 

Manhatens and at Pavonia. This was granted after a protracted discussion, too long to be 
reported here, so that the design was executed that same night; the Burghers attacked those 
who lay a short mile from the fort, and the Soldiers those of Pavonia ; at which two places 
about eighty Indians were killed, and thirty were taken prisoners. Next morning, before the 
return of the troops, a man and woman were shot at Pavonia, who had come either through 
curiosity to look at, or to plunder the dead; the soldiers rescued a young child, which the 
woman had in her arms. 

Thei/peuiiOT' and The Christians residing on Long Island also requested by petitiont to be 
Febr Jrry"2f, lewf** allowcd to attack and slay the Indians thereabout, which was refused; as these 
especially had done us no harm and showed us every friendship. (Yea, had even voluntarily 
killed some of the Raritans, our enemies, hereinbefore mentioned). Yet, notwithstanding,! 
♦ Nnfii. some Christians attempted, secretly with two wagons, to steal maize from 

See the information , -, i- i • i i • • i i i i 

thereupon. thcsc Indians ; which, they perceiving, endeavored to prevent; thereupon three 

Indians were shot dead ; two houses standing opposite the fort, were in return forthwith set 
on fire. The Director knowing nought of this, sent at once some persons to inquire the 
reason. The Indians showing themselves afar ofT, called out — Be ye our friends? Ye are 
mere corn stealers — making them also parties. This induced one of the proprietors of the burnt 
houses to upbraid, therewith, one Maryn Adriaenzen, who, at his own request, had led the 
freemen in the attack on the Indians, and who, being reinforced by an English troop, had 
afterwards undertaken two bootless expeditions in the open field. Imagining that the Director 
had accused him, being one of the signers of the petition, he determined to revenge himself. 
sNoteK With § this resolution he proceeded to the Director's house, armed with a pistol, 
His trial therefor, ig^ded and cockcd, and a hanger by his side ; coming unawares into the Director's 
room, he presents his pistol at him, saying. What devilish lies art thou reporting of me? but 
by the promptness of one of the bystanders, the shot was prevented, and he arrested. A short 
time after. Marine's man and another entered the fort, each carrying a loaded gun and pistol — 
the first fired at the Director, who having had notice, withdrew to his house, the bullets passed 
into the walls along side the door behind him ; the sentinel firing immediately at the fellow 
who had discharged his gun, brought him down. Shortly afterwards, some of the Commonalty 
collected before the Director, riotously demanding the prisoner; they were answered, that 
their request should be presented in order and in writing; which was done by about 25 men, 
who asked the Director to pardon the criminal. The matter was referred to them to decide 
conscientiously thereupon ; in such wise, that they immediately went forth ; without hearing 
parties or seeing any complaints or documents, they condemn him in a fine of five hundred guilders. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IIL 185 

and to remain three months awaij from the Mmihalens ; but on account of the importance of the 
affair, and some considerations, it was resolved to send the criminal, with his trial, to Holland, 
which 

The winter passed in this confusion, mingled with great terror; the season came for driving 
out the cattle, which obliged many to desire peace. On the other hand, the Indians seeing 
also that it was time to plant maize, were not less solicitous for a cessation of hostilities; so 
after some negotiation, peace was concluded in May, A° 1G43, rather in consequence of the 
importunity of some, than of the opinion entertained by others, that it would be durable. 

The Indians kept still after this peace, associating daily with our people; yea, even the 
greatest chiefs came to visit the Director. Meanwhile Pacham, a crafty man, ran through all 
the villages urging the Indians to a general massacre. Thereupon it happened that certain 
Indians called Wappingers, dwelling sixteeM leagues up the river, with whom we never had the 
least trouble, seized a boat coming from Fort Orange, wherein were only two men, and full 
*NoteM. four hundred beavers. This great booty stimulated others* to follow the 

Their acknowledg- o •' 

the"' Rngirshl'*'^°i6 ^xamplc; SO that they seized two boats more, intending to overhaul the fourth 
Engiisifkyie. ^^*^' also J ffom which they were driven, with loss of six Indians. Nine Christians, 
including two women, were murdered in these captured barks; one woman and two children 
remaining prisoners. The rest of the Indians, as soon as their maize was ripe, followed this 
example; and through semblance of selling beavers, killed an old man and woman, leaving 
another man with five wounds, who, however, fled to the fort, in a boat, with a little child in 
his arms, which, in the first outbreak, had lost father and mother, and now grandfather and 
grandmother ; being thus twice rescued, through God's merciful blessing, from the hands of the 
Indians; first, when two years old. Nothing was now heard but murders; most of which 
were committed under pretense of coming to put Christians on their guard. 

Finally, the Indians took the field and attacked the bouweries at Pavonia. Two ships of war 
and a privateer, were here at the time, and saved considerable cattle and grain. Probably it 
was not possible to prevent the destruction of four bouweries on Pavonia, which were burnt; 
not by open violence, but by stealthily creeping through the bush with fire in hand, and in this 
way igniting the roofs, which are all either of reed or straw ; one covered with plank, was 
preserved at the time. 

The Commonalty were called together, who were sore distressed. They chose Eight,t 
tNnteN. in the stead of the previous Twelve, persons to aid in advising what was best; 
1643. but occupied as each one was, in taking care of his own, nothing beneficial was 

adopted at that time; nevertheless, it was resolved that as many Englishmen as were in the 
country, should be enlisted, who were, indeed, now proposing to depart; the third part of 
these were to be paid by the Commonalty, who so promised, but the pay did not follow. 
On thieihocwber. Terror increasing all over the land, the Eight men assembled, drew upf a 
*"^" proposal in writing wherein they demanded : that delegates should be sent to our 

English neighbors, at the North, to request an auxiliary force of one hundred and fifty men, 
for whose pay a bill of Exchange should be given for twenty-five thousand guilders; that N. 
Netherland should be mortgaged to the English as security for the payment thereof, (one of 
Dated gih" Mkrch, the uiost iofl ucutial amoug the Eight men had, by letter, <^ enforced by precedents, 
^^^' previously endeavored to persuade the Director to this course; as they had 

In thir'^R^so^ve of Tcsolved to do a few days before ||) that the provisions destined for Curiigao 
:643. ^^P"^""""^' should be discharged from the vessels and the major part of the men belonging 
Vol. I. 24 



186 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

to them detained, and that the ships be sent away thus empty. This was not agreed to, 
nor deemed expedient by the Director. \_ Here four 'pages are wanting. '^ 

[An expedition was despatched consisting of soldiers] under the command of the 

Sergeant; XL. Burghers under Jochem Pietersen, their Captain; XXXV. Englishmen under 
Lieutenant Backster ; but to prevent all confusion, Councillor La Montague was appointed 
General. Coming to Staten Island, they marched the whole night ; the huts were found 
empty and abandoned by the Indians; they got 5 or 6 hundred skepels of corn and burnt the 
remainder without accomplishing anything else. 

Mayane, a Sachem, residing eight miles N. E. of us, between Greenwich (that lies within 
our jurisdiction) and Stamford, which is English, a fierce Indian who, alone, dared to attack 
with bow and arrows, three Christians armed with guns, one of whom he shot dead ; was, 
whilst engaged with the other, killed by the third Christian and his head brought hither. It 
was then known and understood, for the first time, that he and his Indians had done us much 
injury, though we never had any difference with him. Understanding further that they lay in 
their houses very quiet and without suspicion in the neighborhood of the English, it was 
determined to hunt them up and attack them. One hundred and twenty men were sent thither 
under the preceding command. The people landed at Greenwich in the evening from three 
yachts, marched the entire night but could not find the Indians, either because the guide had 
given warning, or had himself gone astray. Retreat was made to the yachts in order to 
depart as secretly as possible; passing through Stantford some Englishmen were encountered 
who offered to lead ours to the place where some Indians were ; thereupon four scouts were 
sent in divers directions to make a discovery, who, on returning, reported that the Indians 
had some notice of our people from the salute the Englishmen fired, but without any certainty; 
whereupon five and twenty of the bravest men were at once commanded to proceed thither to 
the nearest village with great diligence. They made the journey, killing eighteen or twenty 
Indians, capturing an old man, two women and some children to exchange tor ours. The other 
troops, on reaching the place immediately in the yachts, found the huts empty. 

The old Indian, captured above, having promised to lead us to Wetquescheck, which 
consisted of three Castles, sixty-five men were dispatched under Baxter and Peter Cock, who 
found them empty, though thirty Indians could have stood against Two Hundred soldiers, 
inasmuch as the castles were constructed of plank five inches thick, nine feet high, and braced 
around with thick plank studded with port holes. Our people burnt two, reserving the third 
for a retreat. Marching 8 or 9 leagues further, they discovered nothing but a few huts, which 
they could not surprize as they were discovered. They returned, having killed only one or 
two Indians, taken some women and children prisoners and burnt some corn. Meanwhile, we 
were advised that Pennewitz, one of the oldest and most experienced Indians in the country, 
and who, in the first conspiracy, had given the most dangerous counsel, to wit: that they 
should wait and not attack the Dutch until all suspicion had been lulled, and then divide 
themselves equally through the houses of the Christians and slaughter all of them in one 
night; was secretly waging war against us with his tribe who killed some of our people and 
set fire to the houses. It was, therefore, resolved to send thither a troop of one hundred 
and twenty men, the Burghers in their Company, the English under Sergeant Major van der 
Hyl' (who, a few days previously, had offered his services and was accepted), the old soldiers 

' Capt Jno. Underbill ; for en account of whom, see Thompson't Hiitory of Long Island, 2d ed., IL — Ed. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : III. 187 

under Peter Cock, all commanded by Mr. La Montagne, to proceed hence in three Yachts, land 
in Scout's Bay on Long Island, march towards Heemstede, where there is an English Colonic 
dependent on us. Some who had been sent forward in advance, dexterously killed an Indian 
who was out as a spy. Our force formed themselves Into two divisions, Van der Hil with 
fourteen English towards the smallest, and Eighty men towards the largest village, named 
Matsepe ; both were very successful, killing about one hundred and twenty men; one man of 
ours remained on the field and three were wounded. 

Our forces being returned from this expedition, Captain van der Hil was dispatched to Stantfort 
to get some information there of the Indians. He reported that the guide who had formerly 
served us and had gone astray in the night, was now in great danger of his life from the 
Indians, of whom there were about five hundred together, and offered to lead us there to prove 
that the former mischance was not his fault One hundred and thirty men were accordingly 
dispatched under the aforesaid Gen' van der Hil and Ensign Hendrick van Dyck. They 
embarked in three yachts, landed at Greenwich, where they were obliged to pass the night 
by reason of the great Snow and Storm ; in the morning they marched N. W. up over Stony 
Hills, over which some were obliged to creep. In the evening, about eight o'clock, they came 
within a league of the Indians, and inasmuch as they should have arrived too early and had to 
cross two Rivers, one of two hundred feet wide and three deep, and that the men could not 
afterwards rest in consequence of the cold, it was determined to remain there until about ten 
o'clock. Orders having been given as to the mode to be observed in attacking the Indians, the 
men marched forward towards the huts, which were set up in three rows, street fashion, each 
Eighty paces in length, in a low recess of the mountain, affording complete shelter from the 
N. W. wind. The moon was then at the full and threw a strong light against the mountain, so 
that many winters' days were not clearer than it then was. On arriving, the enemy were found 
on the alert and on their guard, so that our people determined to charge and surround the 
huts, sword in hand. The Indians behaved like soldiers, deployed in small bands, so that we 
had in a short time one dead and twelve wounded. They were likewise so hard pressed that 
it was impossible for one to escape. In a brief space of time, one hundred and eighty were 
counted dead outside the houses. Presently none durst come forth, keeping themselves within 
the houses, discharging arrows through the holes. Tiie General seeing that nothing else was 
to be done, resolved, with Serjeant Major Van der Hil, to set fire to the huts; whereupon the 
Indians tried every way to escape, not succeeding in which they returned back to the flames, 
preferring to perish by fire than to die by our hands. What was most wonderful is, that 
among this vast collection of Men, Women and Children, not one was heard to cry or to 
scream. According to the report of the Indians themselves, the number then destroyed 
exceeded five hundred. Some say, full 700, among whom were also 25 Wappingers, our God 
having collected together there the greater number of our enemies, to celebrate one of their 
festivals; no more than eight men in all escaped, of whom even three were severely wounded. 
The fight ended, several fires were built in consequence of the great cold ; the wounded 
fifteen in number, were dressed and sentinels having been posted by the General, the troops 
bivouacked there for the remainder of the night. On the next day, the party set out much 
refreshed in good order, so as to arrive at Stantfort in the evening. They marched with great 
courage over that wearisome mountain, God affording extraordinary strength to the wounded 
some of whom were badly hurt ; and came in the afternoon to Stantfort after a march of two 
days and one night, with little rest. The English received our people in a very friendly manner, 



188 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

affording them every comfort. In two days they reached here. A thanksgiving was proclaimed 
on their arrival. [ The remainder is wuniing.'j 



Resolution of the States General. 

[From the Register of Weat India Affairs, 1G33— 1651, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hagoe.] 

Tuesday, T^ January 1648. 
Folio 804. Received a leter from Peter Stuyvesant written in New Amsterdam in New 

p. stuyvesaui. Netherland the 6"" October 1647, and with it some enclosures respecting the 
condition and state of affairs there. Which being considered, it is resolved and concluded 
hereby to request the Mess" van der Capellen tho Ryssel and the other their High Mightinesses' 
Deputies in the matter of the reform of the direction and management of the affairs relating to 
the West India Company, with what appertains to, and depends on, them, to inspect and 
examine the same and report thereupon. 



Resolution of the States General on a Petition from New Netherland. 

[Frcm the Register of Weal India Affairs, 1638—1651, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Saturday, 11"" January 1648. 
Folio 806. I"'^^ petition presented to their High Mightinesses in the name and on the 

cm't'rand''comen" behalf of Jochcm Pietersen Cuyter and Cornelis Melyn, inhabitants of New 
"°'^°" Netherland is, after consideration, placed, with the papers thereunto anne.xed, in 

the hands of the Mess" van der Capellen tho Ryssel and others their High Mightinesses' deputies 
in the matters concerning the Redress of the decline of the West India Company, for inspection 
and examination, to look into what has been done thereupon, to hear the Directors of the 
aforesaid Company, and to make a report of the whole. 



PAPERS RELATING TO THE CONDITION OF NEW NETHERLAND, 

And, the -proceedings against Cornelius MJyn and his adherents; marked from letter A. to letter R., 

1643—1647. 

[ From .the anlhenticatcd Copy in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague ; Loketkas of the States General ; Division Wea IndUche Compagnie, No. 25. ] 

Excise Law of 1644. 

A. Whereas, the General war which we have been forced to wage against the 

surrounding Savages hath obliged us, in order to preserve the country, to employ an 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : III. 189 

extraordinary number of soldiers, who must necessarily be paid, as well as other heavy 
expenses caused by the war; to accomplish which we have spared none of the available 
means of the Honorable the West India Company, but have, in addition, been obliged to raise 
as much money as we could obtain on bills of exchange, drawn on the Hon'''' the Directors; 
and Whereas, we are now devoid of all means, and despair of immediately receiving any 
assistance from Holland, in this our necessity; therefore we are constrained to find out some 
plan to pay the soldiers, or else must dismiss them, which according to all appearances, will lead 
to the utter ruin of the country, especially as the harvest is at hand whereby people must live 
and fodder be procured for the remaining cattle; for neither grain nor hay can be cut without 
soldiers. These matters being maturely considered, and all things being duly weighed with 
the advice of the Eight men chosen by the Commonalty, no better nor more suitable means 
can be found in the premises, than to impose some duties on those articles from which the good 
inhabitants will experience least inconvenience, as the scarcity of money is sufficiently general. 
We have, therefore, enacted and ordained, and do hereby enact and ordain, that there shall 
be paid on each half barrel of beer tapt by the tavern keepers, two guilders, one-half 
payable by the brewer and one half by the tapster ; the burgher who does not retail it, to pay 
half as much ; on each quart of Spanish wine and brandy, four stivers; French wine, two 
stivers, to be paid by the tapsters. On each merchantable beaver purchased within our limits 
and brought here to the fort, one guilder; the three-quarters and halves in proportion. All on 
pain of forfeiture of the goods, to be prosecuted by the officer or the collector, to be thereunto 
appointed ; one-third for the informer, one-third for the officer, and the remainder for the 
Hon"' Company. All this provisionally, until the good God grant us peace, or we receive 
sufficient succor from Holland. Ady 21 June. A» 1644, in New Netherland. 

The above copy written by the Director, is collated and found to agree with the original. 
Done, Manahatas, this 2S"' June, A" 1644. 

Copy. 

From each merchantable beaver purchased within our limits and brought here to the fort, 
fifteen stivers, the small in proportion, which shall be immediately marked, and those that will 
be found unmarked, shall be forthwith confiscated; and all who have beavers in their 
possession, are hereby notified to come to the Receiver of the Company's customs, thereunto 
appointed, and to have them marked, or agree upon a commutation, all on pain of confiscation. 
Let every one be hereby warned, and protect himself from loss. 24 June, 1644. 

The above copy written by the Director, is collated and found to agree with the original. 
Done Manahatas, this 28 June, 1644. 

(Signed) Jochum Pietersen Kuiter, 
the mark p. of Ment Dirks.^ 
made by himself. 

' Sie. Intended for Barent Direks. — Ed. 



190 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

The Eight Men to the Assembly of the XIX. 

B, Honorable, Wise, prudent Gentlemen of the XIX. of the General Incorporated 

West India Company at the Chamber in Amsterdam. 

Honorable Gentlemen ! 

Rightly hath one of the ancients said, that there is no misery on earth however great that 
does not manifest itself in time of war. We, poor inhabitants of New Netherland, now complain 
that having enjoyed for a long time an indifferent peace with the heathen, Almighty God finally, 
through his righteous judgment, hath in this current year kindled around us the fire of an Indian 
war in which not only numbers of innocent people, men, women and children, have been 
murdered in their houses and at their work, and swept into captivity (whereby this place with 
all its inhabitants is come to the greatest ruin); but all the Bouweries and Plantations at 
Pavonia, with 25 lasts ' of grain and other produce are burnt and the cattle in part destroyed by 
the Indians. 

Coming next to Long Island : It also is stripped of people and cattle, except a few insignificant 
places, over against the main, which are about to be abandoned. The English who have 
settled among us have not escaped. They too. except at one place, are all murdered and burnt. 
Slaten Island, where Cornells Melyn settled, is unattacked as yet, but stands hourly expecting 
an assault. On the Island of the Manachatas, from the north even unto the Fresh Water, there 
are no more than five or six spots inhabited at this date. These are threatened by the Indians 
every night with fire, and by day with the slaughter of both people and cattle. Achter Col 
where the Honb'' Mr. Van der Horst founded a Colonic, is altogether ruined, so that we have 
no other place of shelter remaining for ourselves, our wives and children, than around and 
adjoining Fort Amsterdam at the Manahactas. The enemy experiences no resistance, through 
want of men, arms, and ammunition with which this place is very poorly supplied. The Fort 
is defenceless and entirely out of order, and resembles (with submission) rather a molehill 
than a fort against an enemy. These Indians are, on the contrary, strong and mighty ; have, 
one with the other, made alliances with more than seven different tribes well supplied with 
guns, powder and ball, which they to their hearts' content have procured and still daily receive 
from private traders in exchange for beavers, and with which they murder our people. The 
woods and thickets are now very useful to them; they have removed all their women, children 
and old men into the interior, the rest of the most expert warriors hang daily on our necks, 
with fire and sword, and threaten to attack the Fort with all their force, which now consists 
of about 1500 men ; this we hourly expect, for all the outside places are mostly in their power. 
It is owing entirely to their pleasure if any cattle are found alive throughout the entire country. 

Your Honors can easily conceive how wretchedly it fares with us, distressed people, and the 
whole country, for the growth and prosperity thereof consists chiefly in men, cattle and houses, 
in which we, jointly and severally, have exhausted all the means we have been able to realize. 
The population is composed mainly of women and children; the freemen (exclusive of the 
English) are about 200 strong, who must protect by force their families now skulking in straw 
huts outside the Fort; the cattle are partly burnt and killed, what remains has been conveyed 
to the Fort on the Manahates, where for want of food they must starve this coming winter, if 

' A lasl is equal to SO English bushels. Holtrop's Dutch Dictionary/. — Ed. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : IIL 191 

not immediately slaughtered. The most of the houses have been fired and destroyed, those 
still standing are in danger of being also burnt. It is likewise to be apprehended that this will 
be but the beginning of our troubles, for, as these Indians with their weapons kill our people, 
one after another [it is to be feared] that they will next with guns destroy us, our wives and 
children, while the men are ruined, the grain and other produce burnt, very little saved, not 
even a plough can be put in the ground this fall, so that not 100 skepels will be sown in this 
neighborhood, and consequently much less in the spring, and were any provisions to be obtained 
from the English, in the East, we know not wherewith we, poor people, will pay for them, 
whilst the private traders have by their unnatural extortions for the last three or four years, 
utterly drained us, and impoverished this country ; for such must be the result so long as 
industry is obliged to stand still in the land. 

Cattle destroyed, houses burnt ; the mouths of women and children must remain shut. We 
speak not now of other necessaries, such as clothing, shirts, shoes and stockings, In fine, it is 
like to happen, that it will be with us, according to the words of the Prophet, Whoso draweth 
the sword, shall perish of hunger and cold. 

We turn, then, to your Honors; we humbly pray and beseech you to be pleased to help us 
in this distressed plight, and with the first opportunity to assist us with such aid as your Honors 
may, in your wisdom, consider best, as we have also by this opportunity set forth in a 
Remonstrance and petition to their High Mightinesses' ; so that this place, and all of us, with 
wives and children, may not be delivered over a prey to these cruel heathen, whereupon we 
rely. Underneath was written. We remain your Honors' faithful subjects, lawfully elected 
and authorized by the Hon'''^ the Director and Council, and the entire Commonalty of New 
Netherland. 

(Signed) Cornklis Melyn, Gerrit Wolphertsen, 

Abraham Pietersen, Isack Allerton, 

Done Manahatas this 24"" October Thomas Hal, Jan Evertse Bout, 

in New Netherland, Anno 1643. Barent Dircksen, Jochem Pietersen. 



Resolution adopted by the Commonalty of the Manhattans. 

C. We, the undersigned, having appeared at the Fort at the request of the Hon'''' 

Director and Council, to express our opinions on their proposition, they have required us to elect 
five or six persons from among ourselves to weigh maturely the articles laid before us ; wherefore 
have we considered it wise on so doing to leave to the Director and Council the execution 
thereof; namely, the selection of those persons, provided that we shall be at liberty to reject 
the person or persons against whom there may be anything to object, and who are not 
agreeable to us. 

CoRNELis Melyn, Pieter Linde, 

This is the mark /) of Wolphert Gerrits, 



4 



This is the mark p of Bakent Dircksen, 
Jan Snedeker, Sibert Clasen, 

Abram Planck, Cornelis Wiletnsen, 

This is the mark f of Louis Grain,' 

' See cnpra, p. 189. — Ed. 



192 



NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 



This is tiie mark 


z 


of Cornelis Lambertsen Cool, 


This is the mark 


+ 


of Cornelis Jacobsen Stille, 


This is the mark 


4' 


of Abraham Jacobse, 


PlETER COLET, 


Abraham Pietersen, 


Jan Jansen Damen, 


Heindrick Heindricksen Kvpe, 


CORNELIS VOLCKERS, 


GOVERT LOOCKEMANS, 


IsACK DE Forest, 


IsACK AlLERTON, 


This is the mark 


^ 


of Claes Caerlessen, 


This is the mark 


•X, 


of Claes Montelaar, 
Jacob Couwenhoven, 


This is the mark 


■^ 


of Gerrit Wolpherts, 


Barent Jansen 




WiLLEM AdrIAENSEN, 


Thomas Hall, 




Claes Jansen Ruter, 


WiLHEIM GaULDERS, 


Jan Verbauge, 


Tliis is the mark 


X 


of George Hans [Holmes?] 




by me 


1, Cornelis Dircksen Hoochlant, 


This is the mark 


H 


of Hans Hansen, 


This is the mark 


Xi 


of Thomas Sandersen, 


This is the mark 


A 


of Ambrosius Loman, 


This is the mark 


T 


of Jan Picces, 


Benjamin Pawley, 


Richard, 


This is the mark 


7^ 


of Pieter Adriaensen, 


This is the mark 


P 


of RiTCHERT COLFECX, 


This is the mark 


H 


of Hevndrick Heyndricksen, 
CoKNELis Twits, ^ 


This is the mark 


G 


of Lawrens Pietersen, 


Tiiis is the mark 


X 


of Cornelis Souleman, 


Jan Pathaway 




P. R. GlCHHOUS. 



Certificate of the Election of the Eight Men. 

D* We, the undersigned, do declare that we have elected Joachim Pietersen, Jan 

Damen, Barent Dircksen, Abraham Pietersen, Isack Allerton, Thomas Hal, Gerrit Wolphertsen 
and Cornelis Melyn, to consult on and maturely to consider the propositions submitted to us 
by the Director and Council of New Netherland, approving hereby what the aforesaid persons 
shall treat and determine in the premises. 

Phlipe Grave, 
This is the mark A of Ambrosius Lonnen, 

This is the mark -f of Cornelis Swilwan, 

Benjamyn Pawley, William Goulder, 



In the next document this name is Tcunis Cray. 



Qa J Swits. — Ed. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: III. 193 

This is the mark p of Laurens Pietersen, 

This is the mark jg of Jan Haer, 

This is the mark X ^ of Thomas Sanderson, 

This is the mark ^^ of Isack de Forest, 

Albert Jansen, Peter Colet, 

This is the mark T of Tevnis Cray, 

This is the mark O" — r f,of Jacob Stoffelsen, 

CoRNELis Willemsen, Pieter Linde, 



This is the mark (S« of Claes Carstersen, 

John Pathaway, Ritchert Gebbers, 

This is the mark ^ of Piccis, 

This is the mark ^ of Abraham Jacobsen, 

Jacob Couwenhoven, Reiner Jansen, 

Jan Verbrugh, 
This is the mark ^ of Wolphert Gerritsen, 

Covert Loockemans, Willem Adriaensen, 

This is the mark B of Goris Bastelaer, 

This is the mark ^ t -^ of Egbert Woutersen, 



-h 



And whereas, the aforesaid elected men have unanimously resolved, for certain reasons them 
thereunto moving, to exclude Jan Damen, they have unanimously determined to choose, as 
they do hereby choose, Jan Evertsen Bout to consult with them, in the stead of the said Jan 
Damen, upon what they will deem to appertain to the public service. 

Petition for leave to attack the Indians. 

E. To the Honorable William Kieft, Director General of New Netherland, and 

his Hon'''' Council. 

The whole of the freemen respectfully represent, that though heretofore much innocent 

blood was spilled by the Savages without having had any reason or cause therefor, yet your 

Honors made peace on condition that the chiefs should deliver the murderer into our hands, 

(either dead or alive,) wherein they have failed, up to the present time; the reputation which 

our nation hath in other countries, has thus been diminished, even, notwithstanding innocent 

blood calleth aloud to God for vengeance ; we therefore request your Honors to be pleased to 

authorize us to attack the Indians as enemies, whilst God hathfuUy delivered them into our 

hands, for which purpose we offer our persons. This can be effected, at the one place by the 

freemen, and at the other by the soldiers. Lower was written : Your Hono" subjects, and 

was subscribed, 

Maetn Adriaensen, 
Jan Jansen Dames, and 
Abraham Planck. 
Lower stood: By their authority, (Signed) Cornelis van Tenhoven, Secretary. 
Vol. T. 2^ 



194 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Commission to Manjn Adriaenseyi to attack the Indians at Corlaer's Hook. 

F. Whereas the good inhabitants here are obliged to reside on their properties up 

to the present time in great alarm, and cultivate with caution the soil through dread of the 
Indians who now and again have in a cowardly manner murdered some of our nation (without 
having any reason therefor), and we cannot obtain any satisfaction for the blood by peaceable 
means; therefore arms must be had recourse to, in order to vindicate the justice of our cause, 
so that we may live in peace here, with full confidence that God will give a blessing to our 
resolution, the rather, as the good Commonalty themselves solicit its execution ; wherefore we 
hereby authorize and empower, as we do hereby authorize and empower at his request, Maryn 
Adriaensen and associates, to attack, a party of Indians lying behind Corlaer's plantation, 
and to act with them as they think proper, and time and circumstances will permit. The 25"" 
February, 1643. 

(Signed) Willem Kieft. 
Agrees with the original, (Signed) Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary. 

Sundry DeclaratioTis respecting Conversations with Director Kieft, 

G-. Before me Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary of New Netherland, appeared 

Jan Evertsen Bout, aged about forty years, who at the request of Cornelis Leendertsen, 
deposes, testifies and declares, as he doth hereby testify and declare in the place, and with the 
promise, of a solemn oath if necessary and so required; that it is true, that on Wednesday, 
being the first day, he, the deponent, heard the Director Kieft say, whilst sitting on a gun at 
the bastion of the fort where the flag staff" stands: "Jan Eversen, how d'ye do?" To 
which the deponent answered. "Well, but weak in heart and courage." The Director 
replied, " I have wherewith to defend my conscience, namely Maryn Adriaensen, Jan Damen 
and the man over there, your neighbor," and divers other remarks, all which the deponent 
declares to be true; also, that he hath done this to bear testimony to the truth, through love 
or hatred of no man. Done the S?"" March, 1643, in New Netherland, on the Island Manhatans. 

Jan Evertsen Bout. 
To my knowledge: Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary. 

H. Before me Cornelis Van Tienhoven, Secretary of New Netherland, appeared 

Jacob Stoffelsen, aged about 42 years, who at the request of Cornelis Leendersen, deposes and 
declares as he hereby doth, that it is true that he, the deponent, coming in the forenoon of the 
day after the attack on the Indians, in company with Gerrit Dircksen and Cornelis Arensen, 
across the bastion of the fort, this deponent said to Director Kieft : "You have done fine 
work;" the Director gave for answer, "you must blame the freemen." All which he, the 
deponent, declares to be fiict and truth; and that he hath done this to give evidence of 
the truth, for love or hatred of no man, solely because he hath been requested; thereunto the 
deponent adheres. Done the 27"' March, 1643, in New Netherland, on the Island Manhatans. 

This Q I ■ is the mark of Jacob Stoffelsen. 
To my knowledge, Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IIL 195 

I. Before me Cornelia van Tienhoven, Secretary of New Netherland, appeared 

Cornells Arissen, aged about 36 years, who, at the request of Cornells Leendersen, deposes, 
testifies and declares, in the place, and with the promise of solemn oath, if necessary, that it is 
true that he accompanied Jacob Stoffelsen and Gerrit Dyrcksen into the fort on the day after 
the attack on the Indians, and there heard the Director say: " 'Tis the fault of the freemen 
that the Indians were attacked — but your neighbor, Abraham Planck, was well aware of it, 
who might have warned you." All which deponent declares to be fact and truth. Done in 
fort Amsterdam, the 28"" March, 1643, in New Netherland. 

This X P-7 is the mark of 

>| CoRNELis Arissen. 
To my knowledge, (Signed) Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary. 



K. Before me Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary of New Netherland, appeared 

Pieter Cornelissen, aged about 36 years, who, at the request of Cornelis Leendersen, deposes, 
testifies and declares, as he doth hereby in place, and with promise of a solemn oath, if necessary, 
that it is true that Peter Cornelissen, aforesaid, had a conversation with the Director, respecting 
what occurred between our Nation and the Indians. The deponent inquired : " How it 
occurred ?" The Director answered : " It was petitioned for in the name of the Commonalty, 
by three persons, (without naming any one) being three of the Twelve elected men." To 
which this deponent replied — "Your Honor had forbidden them to meet on pain of corporal 
punishment; how came it, then?" The Director rejoined — "It is probably so." Which 
the deponent declares to be true. Done, the 28"" March, A° 1643, in fort Amsterdam. 

(Signed) Pieter Cornelissen. 
To my knowledge, (Signed) Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary. 

Jj. Before me Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary of New Netherland, appeared 

Gerrit Dircksen Blauw, who at the request of Cornelis Leendersen, deposes, testifies and 
declares in the place, and with promise of a solemn oath, if necessary and required ; that it is 
true that he, with Cornelis Arissen and Jacob Stoffelsen, met the Director in the fort, the day 
after the Indians were attacked, when he, the deponent, addressed his Honor, saying: "You 
have now done fine work, in causing the murder of Christian blood;" alluding to his stepson, 
who had been killed by the Indians. The Director gave for answer — "You must put 
the blame on the freemen, of whom your neighbor Abraham Planck is one." Which the 
deponent declares to be true. Done the 28"" March, A" 1643, in New Netherland. 

(Signed) Gerrit Dircksen Blauw. 
To my knowledge, (Signed) Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary. 

Interrogalo7'ies to be proposed to Fiscal Heindrick van Dijck. 

Article 1. 
IM. Is he not well aware that the late Director General Kieft, did, on the night 

between the 24"" and 25"" February, in the year 1643, send a party of Soldiers over to Pavonia 
by the bouwery of Jan Evertzoon, and behind Curler's plantation on the Island of Manhatans 
and cause them to kill a party of Indians, with women and children, who lay there? 



195 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

2. 
Did Mr. Kieft previously propose this expedition to the Council, and subsequently 
communicate it to him as Officer of the Soldiers, which he then was; and did he vote for it? 

3. 
Were not the Indians much embittered by this act; and did not the general war between 
our Christians and these Americans follow the next day, and date its commencement from 
that time ? 

4. 
Is it not also true, that all those Indians had fled to the above described place some days 
before, through dread of the Maicanders ; in the hope of being protected by our people from 
their enemies? 

5. 
Did not we, the Dutch, in this country, live in peace with these Indians before and until 
this cruel deed had been wrought on them over at Pavonia and on the Island Manhatans? 

Interrogatories to he proposed to Mr. Cornells van der Hoykins. 

Article 1. 
Did he approve the levying of the contributions which the late Director General Kieft 
imposed on those Americans in the year 1639? 

2. 
Was it ever before proposed in Council by the said Kieft, and was it approved by that body? 

3. 
Did not he (the witness) well remark that this tax had in general excited great animosity 
among those natives, so that the Raritans shortly after killed four of our people on Staten 
Island ? 

4. 
Did not Mr. Kieft on the night of the 24th February, 1643, cause a party of Indians, our 
friends, to be massacred with women and children in their sleep, over at Pavonia and behind 
Corker's plantation ? 

5. 
Did Mr. Kieft previously propose this expedition to the Council, and was it approved by 
■witness, as fiscal at that time, and by the other members of the Council ? 

6. 
Is it not true that the Indians were much exasperated against us on account of this murder, 
so that the general war between them and our people followed on the next day ? 

7. 
Did not the Dutch nation in this country live in peace with those Indians before this cruel 
deed had been committed against them ? 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: III. 197 



Did not those Indians fly to those two places above named through fear of their enemies, in 
full confidence of hiding among, and of being protected by, us ? 

Interrogatories to be proposed to Dr. Johannes dt la Montaigne. 

Article 1. 
Did he vote for, and approve of, the maize tax in the year 1639 ? 

2. 
Was it ever before proposed in their Council, and now when Mr. Kieft had imposed 
contributions on those natives, did he (La M.) not say in the presence of several persons : — that 
by those proceedings, a Bridge had been built, over which War would soon stalk through the 
country ? 

3. 

Does he know from what cause originated the first trouble between our people and the 
Raritan Indians ? 

4. 

Was not that difficulty with the Raritans, as well as the one with these of Wicguaesgeck 
again settled, and peace made in the beginning of the year 1642? 



Were not we, the Dutch, then living in peace with all those surrounding Indians, the 
Yaccinsack murderer excepted ? 

6. 

Is it to his knowledge that Jan Clasen Daem, Maryn Adriaensen and Abram Planck presented 
a petition to the late Director General Kieft, and did he approve of the answer thereto? 



Did he not at that time object to the petitioners these and similar considerations — namely, 
that such an important matter ought to be more deliberately weighed before it should be 
determined on. Also, that the peculiarity of places should be considered ; whether we could 
extricate our people who had settled at a far distance ; also, the question of force and munitions 
of war ; whether we could indeed defend ourselves and continue the war ? 



Is it true that Director Kieft made answer to this in his room, in the presence of Jan Claesen 
Daem, Abraham Planck, and Maryn Adriaensen, who had already obtained his written reply 
to the petition — " The word has gone forth ; it must remain out?" 

9. 
By whose order were the Indians, with their wives and children, killed over at Pavonia, and 
behind Corlaer's hook on the Island of Manhatans, between the 24"" and 25"' February, 1643 ? 

10. 
Did he vote for it and was it subsequently resolved in the lawful Council ? 



198 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

11. 
Were not our surrounding Indians and neiglibors very much exasperated against us on account 
of this murder, so that the general war broke out the next day? 

12. 
Did we not, up to this time, before this deed was committed, live in peace with all those 
Americans, the Haccinsack murderer excepted ? 

13. 
Is it not true, that all those Indians had Had to the two places abovementioned, through fear 
of the Mahicanders, in the hope of being protected by our people from their enemies? 

Interrogatories to be proposed to Secretary Cornells van Tienhoven. 

Article 1. 
Can he, the Secretary, not fluently speak the Manhatans language, which was used by the 
Indians hereabout? 

2. 

Did he not, therefore, act as interpreter to the late Director General Kieft, with those Indians? 



In what year was he sent to those Natives to collect the contribution of maize from them ; 
if he was not employed, who then was? 

4. 

To how many tribes was this done ; and how are they named? 

5. 
Did those Indians willingly consent to this contribution ; or did they then protest 
against it ; and what were their debates about it ? 

6. 
Can he report in writing — if not, verbally — the result of this mission, which Mr. Kieft 
entrusted to him ? 

7. 
In what terms did he endeavor to persuade the Indians to consent to the contribution? 



In what year was he, deponent, sent by Mr. Kieft to the Raritanus ; and did he not go 
there with a party of armed soldiers and sailors under the command of Heindrich, captain of 
the Neptunus? 

9. 
What order did the Director give him, the Secretary, particularly in this case; and how 
did he execute it? 

10. 

Did Mr. Kieft give any different orders to the soldiers generally, when they stood in front of 
the Director's house, previous to setting out? 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IIL 199 

11. 
Were not similar expeditions sent out in the same year against the Raritans; and does he 
know what was the reason and object of them; and what was then accomplished? 



Did not the Raritans revenge themselves the next year; killing four Christians, on Staten 
Island ; and did they not afterwards destroy the houses of David Pietersen ? 

13. 
Was not that difficulty sometime after entirely settled with the Raritans; so that they have 
remained quiet, on their side, to the present time ? 

14. 
In what year did he, the Secretary, make the peace with the Wicquaesgeckers, at the 
house of the late Jonas Bronck? 

15. 
After the difficulty with the Raritans and with the Wicquaesgeckers had been arranged and 
peace concluded, did not our people live in peace, in the year 1642, with all those surrounding 
Natives, the Hackinsack murderer exccepted ? 



Did he, the Secretary, not write a petition, on 24"' February, 1643, on the subject of this 
war with those Natives for Maryn Adriaensen, Jan, Claesen Daem and Abram Planck; and 
by whose order, or at whose request, was it sent? 

17. 

Did he copy the aforesaid petition from another's draft, or did he draw it up himself; was it 
conceived by himself, or did he, in accordance with his duty, first submit the draft to the 
Director before it was signed? 

18. 

For what reason, and by whose authority did he, the Secretary, insert the words — "the 
whole of the Commonalty or free people and by their order" — in the petition, when he, 
indeed, well knew that no person either without, or on, the Manhatans had any knowledge of 
it except Director Kieft, he, the Secretary, and those three petitioners ; also, that he should 
have considered that an affair of such importance, so productive of heavy loss to the Hon'''' 
Company and the inhabitants in this country, ought not to have been undertaken on the 
simple representation of those three men. 

19. 
Was not he, the Secretary, sent by Mr. Kieft, on the 24th February, in the year 1643, with 
one Corporal Hans Steen, over to Pavonia, to the Indians who lay near Jan Evertsen 
Bout's bouwery ? 

20. 
For what purpose and with what instructions did they go there? 



200 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS, 

21. 
Did they faithfully report at that time to Mr. Keift, how many different tribes of Indians 
were then together there ; and can he enumerate them ? 

22. 
Did not these Indians fly thither through dread of the Maykanders, who were at that time 
their enemies, in the hope of being protected by our people? 

23. 
Is it not true, that a troop of armed soldiers were sent by order of Mr. Kieft, on the next 
night to the aforesaid place, and a party of freemen behind Corlear's plantation on the 
Manhatans, who slew a large number of these Indian refugees, and afterwards burnt all 
their huts ? 

24. 

Is it not true also, that the general war between us, the Dutch, and those Americans, here 
around the Manhatans, first originated from this offense? 

25. 
Does he, the deponent, also know whether the scheme of the contributions and of this 
expedition was ever approved and set on foot in the regular Council ? 



Interrogatories for the Reverend Everardus Bogardus, Minister of the flock of Jesus Christ here on 

the Manhatans. 

Article 1. 
Was not your Reverence in the room with the late Director General Kieft when the three 
men, namely, Maryn, Adriaensen, Jan Claessen Daem, and Abram Planck, presented their 
petition respecting the demand for the war against the Natives ? 

2. 
Is the conversation between Mr. Kieft and the three men on that occasion still fresh in your 
Reverence's memory ? 

3. 

Can he, the witness, conscientiously and solemnly declare before God, verbally or in writing, 
all that then transpired in the room, between these five persons, respecting the War? 

Interrogatories for Jan Claessen Daem and Abram Planck, freemen at the Manhatans. 

Article 1. 
Did not they, the witnesses, in company with one Maryn Adriaensen, present to Mr. Kieft, 
in February, 1643, a certain petition respecting the war against our Americans ? 

2. 

By whose order and by what authority did they do so, and who prompted them thereunto, 
that they inserted in the petition the words — Of the whole of the freemen. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : III. 201 

3. 
Was there any other person in the room with Mr. Kieft when they presented the aforesaid 
petition? 

4. 
By whom was the petition drawn, or did they request the writer to doit; or was he 
authorized by any person to that effect ? 

5. 
Do they, the witnesses, likewise know that the aforesaid petition was copied by another, or 
did the writer draw it up of himself? 

6. 
Did they, the witnesses, get an answer from Mr. Kieft on the same day, or was it when 
Councillor Johan de la Montaigne came from his bouwery to Mr. Kieft? 

7. 
Did not Councillor de la Montaigne remark, on their petition, that they ought to reflect 
well before beginning the war, whether we could undertake by ourselves to protect those who 
were dwelling afar off; also, if we had men and ammunition enough to defend ourselves, and 
to continue until help be received from Holland ? 



Also, is it not true, that Mr. Kieft replied to this — " The word has gone forth; it must 
remain so" — and had they not then already obtained in writing Mr. Kieft's answer to the 
petition? 

Petition of the Twelve Men and the Answer thereto. 

TotheHouM'^Willem Kieft, Director General 
and the Council residing in New 
N. Netherland on the behalf of the General 
Incorporated West India Company. 

i. 1. 

We, the undersigned. Selectmen on behalf Orders shall be issued for an Annual muster, 

of the Commonalty of New Netherland, for which a plan was agreed on long ago ; but 

respectfully represent that it is highly necessary J pound of powder to each man can be ill 

that your Honors do order a general Muster to afforded, as provision must be made for the 

take place once every year, under arms, on day of need, for which we must, above all 

condition that at the muster half a pound of things, prepare. Each Fatroon's establishment 

powder shall be given each man on the part must provide for its own defence. 
of the Company. 



The petitioners respectfully request that Weshould willingly consent, but it is indirect 
every freeman be at liberty, once for all, opposition to superior orders, as many of the 
Vol. T. 26 



202 



NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 



without any one's consent, to visit, on their 
arrival, all sliips, yachts and sloops, coming 
here from sea, vrhether they be Dutch, 
English or French, &c., after the fiscal shall 
have been on board, according to the custom 
in Holland. 

3. 
Also, that the Council of New Netherland 
shall from this time be rendered complete in 
members, especially as tiie council of a small 
village in Fatherland consists of five @^ seven 
Schepens ; also, that from now henceforth the 
Director and Council do not try any criminals 
unless five councillors be present, inasmuch 
as the Commonalty talk considerably about it. 



Also if your Honors please to choose four 
persons who shall have access to the Council 
here, as your Honors formerly proposed, we 
should be much gratified, so that taxes may 
not be imposed on the country in the absence 
of the Twelve. 



Also that every inhabitant of New 
Netherland, be he who he may, shall be 
henceforward at liberty to resort, go to and 
return from all places in this neighborhood 
and to our friends, and allies without notifying 
or asking any one ; and to repair to all such 
places as he shall derive most advantage from, 
on condition of first receiving a regular pass 
and clearance from your Honors and paying 
therefor all such duties as to the Hon*"'" 
Company shall appertain. 

In case your Honors choose four of the fittest 
to appear in your Council, as stated, it remains 
to be noted that two of the four retire every 
year and two others be chosen in their stead 
out of the 12. 



Company's ships will probably come here with 
prizes, and it would create great disorder. If 
application for the purpose be made, once for 
all, to the Director or Fiscal, permission will 
be granted unless weighty objections exist. 



Letters have been sent to Holland, so that we 
expect to receive some persons of rank by the 
first ships, and thus have a complete Council. 

That the Commonalty should comment 
considerably on the smallness of the Council 
can well be, but we wish very much to know 
whether any one has cause tocomplain of unjust 
decisions, and who those are who talk 
considerably thereof? 

We are fully satisfied to choose 4 persons, 
to assist in maintaining the Commonalty in their 
right, and whom we will invite to our Council, 
when necessity requires ; also to fix upon 
certain periods of the year to meet together on 
public business and to conclude on some 
articles as to the extent of their powers. As 
regards the 12 men, we are not aware that 
they received fuller powers from the 
Commonalty than simply to give their advice 
respecting the murder of the late Claes Swits. 

Granted, provided the Hon'''' Company 
receive their dues and that the goods be not 
sent to an enemy. 



We are fully content that two of the four 
be annually changed. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : IlL 203 

Likewise, as we all aim at and expect, with We shall prevent, as much as possible, the 
God's blessing, the increase of the cattle, so it sale here of any English cows or goats, 
is, that heretofore the English have sold cows, 
bulls and goats, whereby ours have fallen into 
disrepute and are not as much valued as 
formerly. It is therefore solicited that 
henceforth no cows or goats be sold here by 
the English ; only oxen and he goats. 

Also, that the value of money be raised in We shall raise the currency ; the placards 
order that it be retained here and not exported are prepared for that purpose, 
hence by foreign nations. All which we the 
petitioners pray may be duly considered by 
your Honors, and trust that herein shall be 
done what will be most beneficial for the 
Inhabitants. Done the 21 January, 1642. 
Was subscribed by divers persons. 



Order dissolving the Board of Twelve Men. 



And whereas the Commonalty at our request appointed and instructed these 12 men to 
communicate their good counsel and advice on the subject of the murder of the late Claes 
Cornelissen Swits, which was committed by the Indians; this being now completed by them, 
we do hereby thank them for the trouble they have taken, and shall, with God's help, make 
use of their rendered written advice in its own time. The said Twelve men shall now, 
henceforth hold no further meeting, as the same tends to a dangerous consequence, and to the 
great injury both of the country and of our authority. We therefore, hereby forbid them 
calling any manner of assemblage or meeting, except by our express order, on pain of being 
punished as disobedient subjects. Done in fort Amsterdam, this eighth of February, 1642, in 
New Netherland. 

By order of the Hon*"'* Director and Council of New Netherland, 

(Signed) Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary. 



Ex-Director Kieft to Director Stuyvesant. 

To Myn Heer General and the Hon"^ Council. 

O. Hon""^ gentlemen. Whereas Jochem Pietersen and Cornelis Melyn have sent some 
letters to Holland to the Directors, in the name of the Eight men ; amongst others, one dated 
28"- October, 1644, containing nothing but libels and lies. To point out all these here, would 
take up too much space. I shall enumerate only some few: 

1. 
First: they say, we could bring into the field 400 men on the arrival of the Blue Cock, and 
that we neglected the opportunity to attack the Indians. 



204 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

2. 
Secondly: that they have not been able to obtain a single man for defence. 

3. 
That no care is taken any more of the country. 

4. 
That princely power was usurped. 

5. 

That the Eight men received foul taunts and reproaches when assembled, and that they 
scarcely dare open their mouths. 

6. 

That they conceded our proposal of the excise. 

7. 
That the little Book treating of the war, contained as many lies as lines. 



That the Indians were previously like lambs, and that men were seized with a rash hankering 
for war, and by an accursed act had murdered the Indians. 

9. 
That 2,500 pounds of powder had been received in store, and not 500 pounds used against 
the Indians. 

10. 
That skipper Laurens could not defend his case, in consequence of the Director's authority, etc. 

We are prepared to prove that these are all false calumnies and lies. Your Hon" can well 
infer what the rest are. We have, in the writing hereunto annexed, answered in all respects 
these two fine gentlemen of whom the Directors have warned us, according to their letters 
exhibited to your Honors. 

They dispatched in an irregular manner and clandestinely sent off, that libellous letter; 
deceived the good people whose names they used; who, according to their own declarations, 
were not aware that it contained such scandalous things. Jacob Stoffelse and Jsack Allerton 
principally implored the people to sign — yea, even after the letter was off to Holland, they 
suborned, according to Melyn's own acknowledgment, the Secretary's clerk, and caused him 
also to sign, thus abusing our Lords Patroons, making them believe that the original letter was 
subscribed by the Eight men, cheating the good people, and endeavoring with false and bitter 
poison, to calumniate their magistrates and to bring them into difficulty; wherefore we demand 
justice, in order that our innocence may be known both here and in Holland, and their 
falsehood punished, that the Fiscal may prosecute them according to the heinousness of 
their crimes; also, that they be required to prove said letter, and to exhibit the copy of it 
which they sent off by the Blue Cock, and to which the Directors refer. Which hoping. Ady 
IS"" June, 1647, New Amsterdam. 

Your Hon" ever ready servant, 

(Signed) Willem Kieft. 

This is found, on collating, to agree with the original, the 19'*' June, Anno, 1647. 

(Signed) Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: III. 205 

Messrs. Jochem Piclerscn Kuyter and Cornells Mclijn to Director Sluijvesavt. 

P, To the Hon'''^ Peter Stuyvesant, Director General of New Netherland, Cura9ao 

and the Islands thereabout, and to the Hon"* Council. 

Hon"' Gentlemen ! 

The written demand of the late Director General Kieft was sent to us by the Court messenger 
about 9 o'clock 5n the 19"" June of this year, 1644, with express orders to answer thereunto 
within twice 24 hours. Coming then to the point — 

Mr. Kieft says in his first statement that Jochem Pietersen and Cornells Melyn sent some 
letters to the Honorable Directors in Holland in the name of the Eight men, containing nothing 
but libels and lies, etc. 

It was not under, nor in the name of the Eight men, but by their previously determined 
counsel and resolution, word for word, conjointly approved and signed by them. We shall, 
therefore, without any glossing or circumlocution, simply answer according to our ability his 
Hon" proposed articles. 

1. Your Honors will please to know, as regards the 400 men who could be brought into the 
field on the arrival of the Blue Cock, that we doubt not but we were informed of it by his 
Honor himself and Captain de Vries told us so. They admit first, that 130 soldiers had come 
in the Blue Cock, commanded by the aforesaid Captain. 2°. There were yet also at that 
time between 40 and 50 old soldiers, exclusive of the English who, according to our best 
judgment, were full 50 strong. There were, likewise, at this time, between 50 and 60 sailors 
or seafaring people, who were willing to, as they sometime afterwards did, serve the 
commonwealth. We do not include the crew of the Blue Cock. 3°. The Hon"* Mr. Kieft 
also allowed, in two places, as is to be seen in Carta A. B., for two hundred freemen and 
Company's servants, and thus, whenever a calculation in gross is made from what we have 
enumerated, it will, without making a very strict examination, be found that probably between 
3 and 400 men could be brought before many days into the field against the enemy, as stated 
in the letter; and yet they could miss the few opportunities which they still possessed to 
restore, through God's mercy, a desirable peace to this country; as Mr. Kieft himself hath 
written in a letter of the 21 July, 1644, (marked C.) And whilst that was neglected, our 
people were killed and murdered within a few weeks, at divers places without the Fort, by the 
Indians who, for all that, gathered in safety their maize and other necessaries in the meantime. 
We, on the other hand, continued in the greatest terror, with the cattle which still remained ; 
and in the heat of the war complained, and do still complain, to our Lords Patroons, to wit: 
to the Noble Lords Majors, but not to foreigners, nor to the enemies of the United Netherlands. 

2. Your Honors will please to observe in the two remonstrances or protests of Thomas Hall 
and the late Barent Dircksen, what defence or assistance was furnished to any of ours at 
that time. 

3. The piles of ashes from the burnt houses, barns, barracks and other buildings, and the 
bones of the cattle, more than sufficiently demonstrate the ordinary care that was bestowed 
on the country, God help it, particularly during the war. We respectfully request your Honors 
to institute a rigid inquiry into this matter : How many first class Bouweries and plantations 
were abandoned in the war by our Dutch and English, whose houses were burnt, as has been 



206 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

stated, and what number of cattle lias eacli individually lost? It is our opinion those will 
amount to between 40 and 50, and had they been all preserved, might have been doubled at 
this day, and the cattle quadrupled, so that a considerable tenth would yearly accrue to the 
Hon"^ Company, and ourselves obtain annually overflowing returns of produce, with which not 
only the Hon"' Company's ships — yea, were the whole fleet to amount 30 to 40 in number — 
but also the Islands in the West Indies and the Brazil, could be supplied with grain, flour, peas, 
pork, beef and other necessaries, which now must be had from the English at the North at a 
great expense. , 

4. That relative to princely power is questioned. Thereunto we say, that Mr. Arent van Curler 
verbally communicated that information to us as worthy of belief; and that the aforesaid 
Curler declared, at the house of the Minister, Everhardus Bogardus, in the presence of Captain 
de Vries, that he had heard Mons"' de la Montaigne complain in the tavern to Martin Krygier, 
that Mr. Kieft's power in this country was greater and more extensive, as regards his 
commission, than was that of his Highness of Orange in the Netherlands ; and thougii, through 
lapse of time, it being some years ago, it has slipped our memory who were the others 
present when this argument occurred, yet we think that he named, among the rest, Willem de 
Key, Jan Jansen Daem, who also should have heard it. Therefore, we respectfully request 
your Honors to be pleased to take the trouble to examine the Minister aforesaid. Captain de 
Vries, and the other persons, touching this matter. 3. This assertion can also be somewhat 
corroborated by the certificate. Carta, D.; also, by the fact itself, that his Honor commenced 
this bloody and disastrous war of his own authority, independent of his Council. 

5. That the Eight men were treated with contempt and disregard, we, the undersigned 
experienced in company with Thomas Hall. On the last of June, 1644, Mr. Kieft sent for us 
on the subject of the demanded toll, and left us sitting in the room from eight o'clock until 
noon, without asking us a question notwithstanding we frequently notified him by the 
messenger of our arrival and of our being there in waiting to hear what his Honor would 
please to submit to us, but not a word in explanation did his Honor send us, and leaving the 
business unfinished we were under the necessity of returning as wise as we went. Was not 
this, now mocking and scoffing them ? Be it borne in mind that his Honor had sent for us by 
his messenger. We thus consider our statement uncontradicted. It is also corroborated in 
Carta, D., the 8"' June, 1644. 

6. The agreeing to the Excise is seen by 3 letters, E. F. G.; by the Acts of the IS, 21, 22 
June, 1644, and therefore no further declaration is necessary. 

7. The misstatements of the Little Book on the subject of the war, which are referred to in 
the letter. We wish, in regard to Mr. Kieft, that we had committed an error on this point 
in our communication; but 'tis to be feared that, when compared with other declarations, 
something strange will be found in it. But we leave this on one side, and refer to our Minister 
and Cornells van Tienhoven, the Secretary, both of whom read it for the purpose of punctuating 
it, and who flung it from the table on account of the nonsense they found in it in regard to 
the war, so that your Honors will please to hear the Minister aforesaid and Secretary van 
Tienhoven hereupon. Also, if his Honor please, this Little Book must be produced in order 
to look in it for what, through lapse of time, has been forgotten. 

8. It is chiefly manifest from their own act, that the Indians conducted themselves like lambs, 
before the melancholy spectacle of which they were the victims in the year 1643 over at 
Pavonia and on the Island Manhatas. Be it remarked, that they allowed themselves, their 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : III. 207 

wives and children to be slaughtered at that time like sheep, and came (so to speak) like lambs 
to lie in our arms. We appeal in this case to the entire Commonalty and to each member of 
it individually, who hath survived that time, to say how murderously the Indians were then 
treated. Would to God we may be found to be liars on this point. But the truth thereof shall 
be more than sufficiently established hereafter before their High Mightinesses. 

9. That there was at the time a supply of 2,500 pounds of powder. We shall not assert 
precisely if there were 2 or 300 pounds more or less, but merely say, that there ought to 
have been a good portion according to Monsieur la Montaigne's own acknowledgment 
which he made on the 19 F'ebruary 1645, in presence of Mr. Kieft and Captain de Vries. So 
that de la Montaigne, and the Captain will be able to furnish full explanation why and wherefore 
there was a conversation at that time about powder. Mr. Kieft also knows how much powder 
was seized from Peter Wynkoop, and how much received from the Seven Stars and 
elsewhere. 

10. That Skipper Laurens Cornelissen could not defend his case in consequence of Director 
Kieft's authority. On this point, the above named Skipper complained in presence of divers 
persons ; to wit, that he would indeed have obtained declarations from some persons in his suit 
regarding pearls, but, through fear and in consequence of the high station of Mr. Kieft, they 
dare not give them except two, who, however, had made so bold and gave him a certificate. 
We do not corroborate the whole of this matter in our letters; we merely say, that we believe 
it. 2. As this point has no relation to the general affairs of the country, but merely regards the 
difficulty between Mr. Kieft and the above named skipper, we shall therefore refrain from it 
and pass to the conclusion. 

His Honor says, first, that all these points of our letter are false libels and lies ; also, that 
he hath replied to all the other contents of the letter. We, therefore, respectfully request to 
be furnished with a copy thereof; Item, he hath warned the Directors of the above named five 
gentlemen; we wish also to see that letter. We cannot comprehend how we ever deceived the 
Directors by impertinent papers ; on the contrary we show that we have been esteemed and 
respected by them in consequence of the large cargo of live stock which, with the Directors, 
we brought hither to New Netherland in the ship the Brant van Troycn; Wherefore, they most 
particularly instructed Mr. Kieft (to use their own words) to treat us well .in order the better 
to encourage others. Item. They, especially Jacob Stoffelsen and Isack Allerton, cheated the 
good people whose names they dishonestly made use of, and whom they imploringly besought 
to sign, thus deceiving the Lords Patroons, inducing them to believe that the original letter was 
signed by the Eight men. This appears, indeed, clear, be it remarked, that when the letter 
was exhibited to them they acknowledged here before your Honors in Council that they signed. 
Item. They threatened the good people and sought with bitter poison to calumniate their 
magistrates, wherefore his Honor demands justice, so that his innocence may be known both 
here and in Holland, etc" 

We have already answered in the S"* article and again repeat, that as respects Mr. Kieft we 
heartily wish his Honor may establish his innocence before their High Mightinesses touching 
this war with the Americans. We are content to be, then, esteemed such as his Honor described 
us in his letter, and shall willingly suffer and take it with an honest face; for the wisest man 
teaches that the feeble must not speak evil, as anger is not excited against the silent man. 
It is said that Diogenes was once asked how he could contrive to live so many years at court? 
To which the philosopher answered : I had to bear and endure much injury at court from the 



208 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

King, and I always in return said, Thanl^ you. We willingly confess that we have not 
experienced what the philosopher here represents, for not an unkind word was exchanged 
between us and Mr. Kieft in our intercourse with that gentleman. 

His Honor must prove that the Eight chosen men, who were elected by the Commonalty 
and approved and authorized by his Honor and his Council, acted unlawfully in communicating 
to their High Mightinesses and Lords Majors, the general ruin and necessity of the country, in 
order thereby to obtain earlier aid and assistance, as is, God be praised ! now evident. Were 
this true, as we trust it is, we think, under correction, that we have not injured Mr. Kieft 
in general nor in particular ; and that his Honor ought not so sharply and so severely censure 
and reprimand us ; for the ancient Sage was of opinion that a person high in station could not 
commit a graver fault than to insult those who durst not answer him. But it had been better 
that this matter had been referred to those by whom it could have been brought to a final decision ; 
for it Mr. Kieft has yet to prove that his Honor lawfully and of a necessity, commenced the war 
in question against those Natives. If lawfully, his Honor will rejoice, and we, on the other hand, 
shall remain in shame and disgrace ; if the contrary be established, to wit, that it was urged 
forward through his own fancy, let us then once see what the law of nations thinks of it; for 
in the exacting of punishment, this law must first of alt be observed, so that no war be ever 
again undertaken, unless men are stronger than the opposite party. For not only doth prudence, 
or the love of one's own, but even frequently those also who administer justice, demand that 
people abstain from a hazardous war, as, from the nature of government, the sovereign is 
bound by justice to care for the subject, no less than the subject to obey; so that even a 
King, who undertakes a war for a trifling cause, or to exact unnecessary punishment, which 
is very hazardous, is bound to indemnify the subject for all damage incurred thereby ; having, 
by that means, done him wrong and, for insufficient cause, brought down on him such serious 
difficulties. For this reason Linius says — " That is a just war, which is a necessary one." 
James, King of Great Britain, in his lifetime admitted this; and Propertius says — " A soldier 
must bear arms in order thereby to control arms." 

Moreover, even just cause, does not oblige rulers to undertake war for their subjects, except 
it can be done without damage to all, or the majority of them. For the office of governor 
extends rather over the whole, than over a part ; and where a part is greater, there it 
approximates more closely to the nature of the whole; and in regard to Christ's precept, which 
wills that we be ready to lay aside all contention and discord ; consequently, still more does it 
discountenance war ; and, therefore, says Ambrose — " It is not only generosity in a prudent man 
to desist somewhat from his right ; but it is also profitable and advantageous." In like manner 
Aristides — " Men must quietly yield and grant a little, for those are prized who will rather 
suffer wrong than contention." Xenophon : — •' It becometh even the wise not to commence 
a war for a great cause." From all that has been here stated on the subject of war, it can 
readily be concluded how prudently we must proceed in the matter; and how hazardous it is 
to engage in it, especially with so rude and barbarous a people as these Indians are. 

This being now laid aside, let us conclude. 

As regards the letter to the XIX. by the Blue Cock, we cannot produce it, inasmuch as we 
sent it by Govert Loockemans to Holland, enclosed to a person whose name we, for cause, 
would not willingly disclose ; we cannot for certainty say whether Andries Hudden, who drew 
up that letter and who also subscribed it with his own hand, still retains the draft or minute 
of it. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : III. 209 

It appears, then, from what we have answered in this our declaration, that we did not act 
as Mr. Kieft is pleased to lay to our charge; hut submit all this to the discretion of your 
Honors' wise and mature judgment. It is remarked, that Mr. Kieft demands in his declaration, 
which was read to us in your Honor's court on the 1S"» instant, that we be sent to Holland as 
pests and seditious persons. We, therefore, respectfully request of your Honors that it be 
granted to us, not to go as pestilent and seditious persons, as his Honor represents, but as good 
patriots and proprietors of New Netherland ; this, it is manifest we are, from what we have 
expended in the country ; and which, in this war, was in a moment laid in ashes, whereby we 
have lost ail our property. Whereunto we call God, the Lords Majors and the entire 
Commonalty, to witness. Also, that the other four out of the Eight chosen men, may be 
likewise sent with us, in order that they may acknowledge their signatures before their High 
Mightinesses; moreover, that all who are on their interrogatories may be summoned before 
your Honors for the 13"' instant. 

Finally and lastly, we respectfully pray the General and Council to be pleased to legally call 
together, before the departure of the Princess, all the freemen and Company's servants, who 
have survived the war, and ask them conjointly the following question, to wit: If we did not 
live in peace with these surrounding Indians before they were slaughtered, in February, 1643, 
on Jan de Lacher's hook, near Jan Evertsen's bouwery at Pavonia, and behind Curler's 
plantation on the Island of Manhattans ; also, whether each of them, individually, could not 
at the time, uninterruptedly pursue their outdoor labor in the bush, as well as in the field, and 
live safely in their houses with their wives and children, without any fear of the Indians. 
Expecting this, &c., remaining your Hon" faithful inhabitants of New Netherland. 

(Signed) Jochiem Piet : Cuyter, 
Done at the Manhatans, Ady, this 22'' June, 1647. Cornelis Melyn. 



The Eight Men to the Amsterdam Chamber of ike West India Comyany. 

Q. To the Honorable, Wise, Prudent General Directors of the Incorporated West India 
Company, Chamber at Amsterdam. 

Honorable Sirs. 

We gratefully learned by your letters per the Macht van Enckhuijzeii, your Honors' disposition 
to extend assistance to us in this our truly most unfortunate plight ; we also trust and pray to 
God that it be done by the earliest opportunity. 

We afterwards again respectfully dispatched by the ship Blue Cock, our general necessity to 
the Hon*'"' XIX. We hope your Honors will have favorably regarded the contents thereof, in 
which we, in a superficial manner, briefly yet truly, submitted the first origin whence this war 
arose, to our universal ruin. Would to God it had not been meddled with. 

We were greatly rejoiced at the miraculous arrival of the Blue Cock here with so many of 
the Company's people, and therefore hoped that the field would be taken with between three 
and four hundred men, (not including the sailors and settlers,) divided into three companies of 
one hundred and thirty men each, and by this force, the neighboring savages for 15 (al 20 miles 
around, would have had their crops destroyed, and themselves stripped of all their support for 
the winter, whereby great injury might have been inflicted on the enemy, in order with a view 

Vol. I. 27 



210 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

to their easier reduction hereafter to terms. But nothing in the least has been done therein. 
In ail that time, scarce a foot has been moved in the matter, nor an oar laid in the water. 

The captured Indians who might have been of considerable use to us as guides, have been 
given to the soldiers as presents, and allowed to go to Holland ; the others have been sent ofT 
to the Bermudas as a present to the English governor. The oldest and most experienced 
soldiers, who for several years were acquainted with all the paths here, have obtained their 
passport and been allowed to return home. In the meanwhile the Indians secreted without 
molestation their fish caught this last summer on the river, of which they had uninterrupted 
use at their pleasure. 

Our fields lie fallow and waste; our dwellings and other buildings are burnt; not a handful 
can be planted or sown this fall on all the abandoned places. The crop, which God the Lord 
permitted to come forth during the past summer, remains on the field, as well as the hay, 
standing and rotting in divers places ; whilst we poor people have not been able to obtain a 
single man for our defence. We are burdened with heavy families ; have no means to provide 
necessaries any longer for our wives or children. We are seated here in the midst of 
thousands of Indians and barbarians, from whom is to be experienced neither peace nor 
pity. We have left our Fatherland, and had not the Lord our God been our comfort, must 
have perished in our wretchedness. 

There are amongst us, who by the sweat and labor of their hands, have been endeavoring 
at great expense, to improve their lands and gardens; others with their own capital, have 
equipped with every necessary their own ships, which have been captured by the enemy in 
coming hither, though they have continued the voyage with equal zeal, and at considerable 
cost. Some, again, independent of tiie Company, have brought hither large numbers of 
families in vessels of as great burden, freighted with a large stock of cattle, and have erected 
handsome buildings on the spots selected for their people ; cleared the forest and the 
wilderness, enclosed and brought their plantations under the plough, so as to be an ornament 
to the country and a profit to the proprietors, after their long laborious toil. 

All these are now laid in ashes through a foolish hankering after war ; for it is known to all 
right thinking men here, that these Indians have lived as lambs among us until a few years 
ago, injuring no one, affording every assistance to our nation, and had in Director van Twiller's 
time (when supplies had not been sent for several months), furnished provisions to several 
of the Company's servants, as they state, until supplies were received. The Director hath, by 
various uncalled for proceedings, from time to time so estranged them from us, and so 
embittered them against the Dutch nation, that we do not believe any thing will bring them 
back, unless the Lord God, who bends all men's hearts to his will, propitiate them. Thus 
hath the Antient very truly observed : "Any man can create turmoil, and set the people one 
against the other; but to establish harmony again, is in the power of God alone." 

A semblance of peace was attempted to be patched up last spring with one or two tribes of 
Savages towards the North by a foreigner ' whom we, for cause, shall not now name, without 
one of the Company's servants having been present, whilst our principal enemies are left 
unmolested. This place hath borne little fruit for the Commonwealth and our Lords' reputation, 
and we now daily experience what we observed in the 5"" article of our previous letter to the 
Hon*"" XiX. For these savages had no sooner their maize in pits but they began to murder 

' Capt John Underbill — Ed. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : IIL 211 

our people in various directions. They continually rove around in parties, night and day, on 
the Island of Manhattans, killing our people not a thousand paces from the Fort ; and things 
have now arrived at such a pass, that no one dare move a foot to fetch a stick of fire wood 
without an escort. 

The two bouweries in the Bay, and the three on this Island, one of which belongs to the 
Hon*"'' Company, are in great danger of being burnt this winter, for never have these tSavages 
shown themselves so bold and insolent. The cause of this is, that they have not experienced 
any opposition from us this summer, nor lost any of their crops. And, thus, have they 
circumvented us by a strategem under pretense of peace. Had diligence which is most 
necessary in time of war, been used, as we requested, with the force of the Blue Cock, during 
this season, the Indians would, beyond a peradventure, have made advances themselves, and 
some hope would exist of enjoying, against the arrival of a new Governor, a general peace. 

But to this very little attention has been paid. The favorable season has been allowed to 
go by, and people have busied themselves with private quarrels and law suits, with this one 
and that, especially about sending pearls by Louwrens Cornelissen, skipper of the Maccht vnn 
Enckhuyze7i, which lasted six weeks, and who on that account has been banished. Through 
respect for the Director, we shall not rightly speak of the matter which finally appertains to the 
Lords only to pass on, but so much is said and heard here, and it is our opinion, that had it 
not been for the authority of the Director the poor skipper might have fortified himself with 
divers most respectable certificates ; not only with those which were sent with him but 
also with divers others. 

Two guides have recently been called from the North with whom Captain De Vries was 
sent, on the 22'' instant, with a party on an expedition in that direction. They killed eight* 
but as the saying is — 

" Whenever we lay one enemy low. 
On the morrow another returns the blow." 

With those raw and naked soldiers who have resided for so many years in warm climates, we 
shall have to wade in frost and snow through rivers and creeks ; but shall probably survive 
this and sneak back again into our shells from the winter. 

We are again in want of powder. Including that of Peter Wynkoop, it is estimated that 
2500 weight was received in the cellar up to this date, five hundred pounds of which have not 
been used in that period, against the enemy. 

The country here is no longer of any or much account. Every place is going to ruin ; 
neither counsel nor advice is taken ; the only talk here is of princely power and sovereignty, 
about which La Montaigne argued a few days ago in the tavern, maintaining that the power of 
the Director here was greater, as regards his office and commission, than that of his Highness 
of Orange in the Netherlands. 

For the sake of appearances, Twelve men were called together here, in November, 1642^ 
pn the subject of the murder of Claes, the wheelwright; the Director submitted to them 
whether the blood of the aforesaid wheelwright should not be avenged? Whereupon divers 
debates arose on the one side and the other, as the document will show; for at this time a 
hankering after war had wholly seized on the Director. But the aforesaid 12 men could 
not continue to meet any longer than the 8"" of February following; for such was forbidden 
on pain of corporal punishment. Shortly after, he commenced the war against those of 
Wesquecqueck, on his own mere motion, as appears by the petition of the Twelve men. 



212 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

At the request of the Director, the Commonalty again elected 8 men, in September, 1643; 
but this was 6 @^ 7 months after the Director had authorized the execution of the cruel deed 
over at Pavonia. They did, indeed, draw up some good and suitable regulations; forbidding 
taverns and all other improprieties ; appointed a week's preaching instead, as can be seen by 
the order; but it was not executed by the officer. 

These Eight men, aforesaid, were never called together again on public business, from the 
4" November, 1643, to the IS"" June, 1644; though in that period many things occurred. It 
was, indeed, sufficiently manifest how little were these Eight men respected, for no sooner did 
they open their mouths to propose anything tending in their judgment to the public good, than 
the Director met them with sundry biting and scoffing taunts ; and sometimes had them 
summoned, without asking them a question, thus obliging them to return amidst jeers and 
sneers, as wise as they went. 

We were finally again convoked, on the IS"" June, 1644, as above stated, when the Director 
demanded that some new taxes and excise should be imposed on the Commonalty, or he should 
discharge the English soldiers. Whereupon we remonstrated, that it was impossible for us to 
raise means from the people, as those outside (de huyten huys luyden) were reduced to the 
extremest necessity by this war; and we did not conceive that our powers extended so far as 
to impose new taxes ; but that such must first be considered by a higher authority (to wit, by 
the Lords Majors). 

Hereat the Director became much enraged, and with an altered mien said to us, in presence 
of the Fiscal and Montaigne: I have more power here than the Company; therefore I may do 
whatever I please. He further added : for I have my commission not from the Company, but 
from the Lords the States: as by the certificate further can be seen. 

We nevertheless consented to the Director's proposition ; but submitted to his Honor that 
there was a more suitable means devisable, by which the poor Commonalty could be spared 
(to wit), that the private traders, who had drawn excessive profits from the country, by their 
injurious usury, should contribute something to the public service. And what further followed 
is seen in two different Remonstrances; but the Director was pleased to disregard this; 
rejected it, as utterly unworthy, and allowed Gerrit Vastrick to depart with some thousand 
skins, without taking a penny from him ; from what motive is unknown to us. 

With all that, the Director, a few days before the Blue Cock sailed, had a placard published 
without our knowledge, wherein the aforesaid duty was demanded from others, and laid at 15 
stuyvers per beaver ; and 2 guilders for every tun of beer, from the brewers as well as from 
the tapsters; but the former were allowed in return to charge the burgher a guilder more; 
and the tapster to charge one stiver (more) per pot ; so that this will probably have to be 
paid by the poor, who are unable to procure beer for the sick and wounded, except by the can. 
We understand here, that the Director sent to the Lords, by the Blue Cock, a Book 
ornamented with various pictures in water colors, in which he dilates at length on the origin 
of the war. On that subject it contains as many lies as lines ; as we are informed by the 
Minister and others who have read it; and from our time to his, as few facts as leaves. It is 
to be embellished with an oil painting. We shall not question what sort of birds are in the 
woods, nor what species offish resort the rivers here; nor the length and breadth of the land. 
All tins is more copy, and has been long ago described by others. It may, indeed, be asked, 
how it comes that the Director can so aptly describe all localities and the nature of the 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: III. 213 

animals, since his Honor in the six or seven years he has been residing at the Manhatans, has 
never been, in this country, farther from his iiitchen and bedchamber than half way up the 
aforesaid Island. 

But laying all the preceding aside, we shall still have to inquire, namely — Were we not at 
peace with all those surrounding Indians on the 24"" February, 1643, at the time, we say, 
when the Director kept Shrovetide with three of his cronies at one of their houses, on which 
occasion Jan Dam proposed a mysterious toast, and a few days after which, this accursed deed 
was executed by the murder of so many innocent Indians at Pavonia and at the Manatans. 
Should we relate all the circumstances that have occurred in this country in six (^ seven years, 
time would fail us, and the perusal would fatigue your Honors. But with your permission we 
shall postpone it to a more appropriate time. 

Honored Lords ! This is what we have, in the sorrow of our hearts, to complain of; that 
one man, who has been sent out, sworn and instructed by his Lords and masters, to whom he 
is responsible, should dispose here of our lives and properties at his will and pleasure, in a 
manner so arbitrary that a King dare not legally do the like. 

We shall terminate here, and commit the matter wholly to our God ; who, we pray and 
heartily trust, will move your hearts and bless your deliberations, so that one of these two 
things may happen ; that a Governor may be speedily sent with a beloved peace to us ; or, that 
your Honors will be pleased to permit us to return, with wives and children to our dear 
Fatherland. For it is impossible ever to settle this country until a different system be 
introduced here, and a new Governor sent out with more people, who will settle in suitable 
places, one near the other, in the form of villages or hamlets, and elect from among themselves 
a Bailiff or Schout and Schepens, who will be empowered to send their deputies and give their 
votes on public affairs with the Director and Council ; so that the entire country may not be 
hereafter, at the whim of one man, again reduced to similar danger. So long as this is not 
done, we say, the rural districts can never be cultivated. We respectfully request that the 
aforesaid may be taken into consideration. We remain, as we are, your Honors' faithful, poor 
and distressed inhabitants of New Netherland. 

Done Manatans this 28"" October, A" 1644. 

We should have postponed these our multitudinous complaints were we assured that our 
previous letter to the Hon*"'' the XIX., by the Blue Cock, had safely arrived. 

(Signed) Jochem P" Cuyter, The mark O f " f of 

IsACK Allerton, Jacob Stoffelsen, 

This is the mark ~~j y of Thomas Hall, 

Gerrit Wolffersen, Jan Evertsen Bout, 

made by himself. The mark p of 

CoRNELis Melyn, Barent Dikcksen, 

made by himself. 

Judgment pronounced hy Director Stmjvesant on Jochem Pietersen Kmjter. 

It. 1647. The 10 August this was sent to my house by the clerk, Jacob Kieft. 

Whereas, Jochim Pietersen Kuyter, aged 50 years, a native of Ditmersen, hath presumed 
and undertaken to threaten with the finger the Hon'''" Director, his Chief, here in the meeting 



214 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

of the Eight men, who were assembled as a Board, and to say — When he had doffed the coat 
with which his Lords and Masters had cloathed him, he will then certainly have him: witness 
his own confession dated IG"" July last, when he said, in Our court, that he gave some 
explanations to this effect: That this could happen only when Mynheer had taken off the coat 
his Lords and Masters had put on him ; and the abovenamed Jochem Pietersen, in company 
with one Cornelis Melyn, drew up, prepared and wrote a false and libelous letter, dated 27 
October, 1G44, which he signed with Melyn and sent over in the name of the Eight chosen 
men, to the Hon'"''' Directors of the General Incorporated West India Company, Chamber at 
Amsterdam, wherein they clandestinely and most scandalously accuse, injure, criminate and 
charge the late Director Kieft, then their lawful Governor and Chief, with divers criminal 
misdeeds as is and can still be more fully seen and read in the original and authentic 
copy thereof. We and Our Council having inquired and taken testimony as to the truth thereof, 
at the request of said Director Kieft, it is, accordingly, found that such libelous letter is in 
many parts, false, lying and defamatory, as appears and is proved by experience and by the 
evidence of others heard to the number of fifteen ; also, by the confession and answers of 
the co-signers ; Therefore, the Fiscal instituting criminal suit and process, accuses and 
convicts the aforesaid Jochem Pietersen of having offended against the Director's quality 
and falsely injured him in writing. All which being fully examined, weighed and every thing 
being maturely observed and considered by the Hon Director General and Council, the 
aforesaid perpetrated offence is found to be of great and serious importance, and not to be 
tolerated or endured in a well ordered and governed Republic, it being a matter of very evil 
consequence. Therefore the Hon''''' Director General Petrus Sluyvesant, with the advice of 
his Hon"' Council, administering justice in the name of their High Mightinesses, the Lords 
Slates General, his Serene Highness, the Hon'''' Directors of the Incorporated West India 
Company, hath condemned, as he hereby doth condemn, the abovenamed Jochem Pietersen, 
to a banishment of three consecutive years, and to depart with the earliest opportunity, and in 
addition, to pay a fine of one hundred and fifty guilders, to be applied one-third for the Fisc, 
one-third for the Church, and one-third for the Poor. Dismissing the Fiscal's further demand. 
Thus done and enacted at the Court in fort Amsterdam, in New Netherland, the 25"' July, 
1647. 

Agrees with the Book of Resolutions. 

(Signed) Cornelis van Tienhoven, Secretary. 

All the abovewritten Letters, Declarations, &c., are, after due, careful collation, found to 
agree with the Originals and principals. At the Hague, the 17"" February, 1650. 

To my knowledge, (Signed) M. Beeckman, Notary Public. 



Resolutions of the States General on the opening of Trade in New Netherland. 

[ From the Ecgiater of West India Affairs, 1638—1651, in the Eoyal ArcliiTea al the Hague. ] 

Saturday, IS"" January, 1648. 
The seventh am 

New Netherland ; 
how to frequent 
Difference belw 
the Chambers there- 



Foiio324. rphe seventh and last section of the Management of the Company which treats 

; to frequent it. Qf ]\jg^ Netherlaud, is taken up, and resolved to open the trade to that quarter, 

and to permit individuals to export thence in their own ships, their country 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IIL 215 

produce, grain, flour, fish, and other supplies. But inasmuch as some discrepancy exists 
between the members, as to whether this exportation shall be granted alone to Brazil, or 
indeed to all of the Company's districts, except Guinea and St. Thomas, they are requested to 
consider the same until next Monday, and to come to a mutual understanding. 

Monday, 20 January, 1648. 
Folio su. Again the seventh section of the Management is taken into consideration, and 






export*' t'ire?r'°co'un^ it is rcsoIvcd that private inhabitants of New Netherland shall be allowed to 

Iry produce to Bra- ,. _ - .,,,.,. , i.. 

zii and Angola. export their country produce under suitable duty, in their own or chartered ships, 
to Brazil and Angola, on these following conditions: first, that the aforesaid ships, when in 
Brazil, shall not be at liberty to return back, with sugars to New Netherland aforesaid, but shall 
let themselves be chartered directly hither. Secondly, that the permit to proceed to Angola 
above mentioned, shall only be provisionally granted, and that for the time that the 
dispensation shall continue in regard to the exportation of Slaves, which was accorded on 
Thursday last. Thirdly, that those willing to go to Angola, shall, previous to their departure 
from New Netherland, take out commission and permit from here, and also give security, 
similar to all other persons trading from this country. Mr. Mortamer alone requested, that 
before the passing of this resolution, he may communicate its contents to his Chamber, and 
learn their opinion thereon. 

Wednesday, 5 February, 1648. 
Folio 827. Mr. Mortamer being called on respecting the business of New Netherland, 

sp!ctin"''""™New hath declared, that he consents to the resolution adopted on the 20"" 

Netherland, ap- _ , 

proved by Zealand. January last. 



Resolution of the States General on Complaints against Directors Kieft and 
St'uyvesant. 

[ From the Eegister of West India Affairs, 1638—1651, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague.] 

Friday, ?"■ February, 1648. 
Priva^°"c°orpiaint8 ^^^^ two petitions of Jochem "Pieters' C. Melyn, and Michiel Bucquet, 
ofNewNet^Miand! Complaining of the Directors Kieft and Stuyvesant, in New Netherland, which 
are referred to the Directors [of the West India Company,] to give information thereon. 



jResolution of the States General on the opening of Trade in New Netherland. 

[ From the Eegister of West India Affairs, 1688— 1661, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Monday, 10 February, 1648. 
Folio 836. The considerations of the Directors and principal partners of the Zealand 

Chamber of the West India Company, being now submitted to their High Mightinesses, 



216 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTa 

pursuant to their High Mightinesses' order and letters dated xxx. March, 1647, on the subject 
of the redress, management and trade of the Directors, for the preservation and maintenance of 
the aforesaid Company. With a view to grant the said Company, with the newly conceded 
ciiarter, the following to be executed and maintained according to order. And first the most 
principal work, etc 

Folia 339. It should bc also understood, that individuals shall be at liberty to export to 

New Netheriand. Brazil, in their own ships, fish, flour and country produce, the growth of that 
country and no other, in the manner and form granted in the next preceding article, as 
stipulated of wines and oil, on such duty as is paid in the country to the Company on the 
exportation thereof, on condition that the ships from Brazil must not return to New Netheriand 
with any cargo, but come directly hither with their freight; all with this understanding, that 
rotation shall be observed among the respective Chambers in the fitting out for the places 
within the Company's charter: whereunto proper rules shall be also enacted here to the 
satisfaction of the members. 



Monday, 10 February, 164S. 
Kegniation reapect- ^^w Netheriand Can never be a source of profit for the Company, until the 
Kfiheriand' '" ^"'^ population from our country be encouraged more than it has hitherto been, which 
can be effected by allowing them, in addition to their present privilege, to export their fish, 
flour and produce, the growth of that couutry and no other, to Brazil, in private or the 
Company's ships, under the supervision of a commissary, to be placed by the Company on board 
the ships, on the usual Brazilian duty payable at the Reciff to those of the Company who are 
to be ordered to allow the said goods to be disposed of there, and in return to export, at 
certain duty, from Brazil to New Netheriand and not elsewhere, as much merchandise, such as 
Slaves, by direction of the government, so that the sugar trade may not, by that means, be 
diverted, it being well understood that in loading and unloading, they shall be bound to bring 
the goods to the Company's store. 



Report on the Affairs of the West India Company. 

[ From Ihe Register of West India Affairs, 1633—1651, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Summary Report of what has been done for the improvement of the declining 
affairs of the West India Company in January 1648. 

Folio 815. Messrs. van der Capellen tho Ryssel, Beveren, Bruininx, Vett, van der Hoolck, 

d'r?.s"of"''the''Ve!i Audree, appointed in the place of Mr. Houbois, van der Eyben, 

ompany. Coui missiouers on the Redress of the declining affairs of the West India Company, 
have reported in virtue of, and pursuant to your High Mightinesses' resolution of the SS* March 
1647, adopted before granting the Charter of the West India Company, and made on your High 
Mightinesses' letters to the respective Chambers dated W December 1647, to send their respective 
deputies to the Hague by the 7"" January, in order to make a beginning of the aforesaid Redress ; 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : III. 217 

commenced the conference on the 9"^ of January with the Directors, and demanded of their 
deputies the condition of the Company, as well in receipts as disbursements, with their respective 
opinions upon the reparation of the decline experienced therein ; and thereupon the five 
Chambers of Amsterdam, Zealand, Maaze, North Quarter and Groeningen delivered in their 
respective opinions, but they said that the pertinent statement of the receipts and expenditure 
of the Company, both domestic and foreign, was not ready. 

And thereupon we requested the deputed Accountants Bloemert and Altingh to make up the 
Company's aforesaid statement, and, meanwhile, the said opinions of the respective Chambers 
were read. 

On the 4"" February the Accountant Altingh delivered in a statement of the Company's 
expenditures and income in Brazil from January 1647 to January 1648, from which it appears 
that the Company's expenses for that year were Eleven to Twelve Tons of Gold,^ and the 
income, on the other hand, from an uncertain source is provisionally estimated at four tons of 
Gold N" 1 ; from which the total ruin and decline of the Company is to be expected, if prompt 
provision be not immediately made against it. 

And whereas the present statement was made up at the time of the Portuguese rebellion in 
Brazil, in the lowest condition of that conquest, your High Mightinesses' Commissioners also 
requested of the Accountants the statement of the Company's receipts and expenditure in Brazil, 
previous to the rebellion, in order to ascertain whether, in case of the re-establishment of 
Brazil, means are to be found for the support of the Military, which are needed for the 
preservation of that conquest, and the annexed statement No. 2, was delivered in by 
the Accountants. It appears therefrom, that the public expenses for the re-establishment of 
Brazil were not incurred in vain ; especially as that statement does not include considerable 
returns yet to arrive from Angola, Guinea, and St. Thomas, if these coasts are properly traded. 

Besides that, the Provinces have no better guarantee for the maintenance of peace with the 
King of Spain, than in the preservatipn of the conquests in Brazil ; because, from that point can 
be invaded and ravaged the King of Spain's possessions in the West Indies and South Sea, 
from whence he yearly derives his greatest supplies of Gold and Silver; so that he could not 
have sufficient power to molest or endanger these United Provinces with a numerous army. 

Your High Mightinesses' Commissioners have held divers Conferences on the subject of the 
redress of the decline and the arrest of the farther decay, and thereunto examined the 
management of the Company in the matter of 

1« Trade. 

2""* Retrenchment. 

S'^ Support, or regular finance of receipts and expenses for subsistence. 

4"' Government, foreign and domestic, for the establishment of a good police, and a regular 
force by land and water. 

And, hereupon, were divers good opinions brought in, as is to be seen from the report 
(No. 3) of the business transacted thereupon, from the 9 January to the ll"" February; the 
opinions of the five Chambers of Amsterdam, Zealand, Maaze, North Quarter and Groningen 
No. 4 : with, likewise, the general report ( No. 5 ) drawn up from the aforesaid opinions of the 
five Chambers, and of the delegates from Holland, with the considerations of the actual 

' A ton of gold is equal to one hundred thousand guilders ( $40,000 ) — Sewall. 
Vol. L 28 



218 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

deputed Directors (No. 6) entered in the margin thereof, and the opinion of the Company's 
Chamber of Accounts, No. 7. 

But inasmuch as the execution of the orders in said relation contained, requires length or 
lapse of time, your High Mightinesses' Commissioners therefore would submit whether some 
prompt means ought not to be provided, in consequence of this unfavorable condition of 
Brazil, to prevent the further unnecessary and unprofitable decline of the Company. 

And in order that the Military, which have now been sent out at great public expense 
for the recovery of Brazil, may have the means of maintaining their lives, and thus be the 
more encouraged and strengthened, in order, with the help of God the Lord, bravely to execute, 
with the old soldiery, what they are sent out for. 

And your High Mightinesses' Commissioners hereunto would propose, as prompt means: — 

1° A reduction of expenses both at home and abroad, and with this view, the stoppage 
and cessation of the yearly allowance of Eighty-eight Directors and their attendants (suppoosteii), 
which amounts to about one hundred and fifty thousand guilders, according to the return of 
the Accountants General, No. 8. 

And in order that the Company may not remain, in the meanwhile, without a government, 
the places of the Accountants ought to be increased (suppleren) to six in number, agreeably 
to the plan. No. 9, of an honorable Patriot who has long served the Company as Director and 
is well acquainted with its condition. 

And to carry out the said plan it will be necessary to depute, in place of twelve, nineteen 
Directors, to whom, with the six accountants, the management should be provisionally 
committed for a year or two, with such instruction as will be found necessary for the redress 
and removal of abuses and the maintenance of order. 

And hereunto might be appointed, from the Amsterdam Chamber, six Directors, including 
two from the outside chambers. 

From the Zealand Chamber, four Directors; three from that of Maaze; three from the North 
quarter, and three from Groeningen. 

The Amsterdam Chamber ought to have the Advocate with two clerks, one porter and two 
messengers. 

Each of the other Chambers might have one clerk, acting also as Book-keeper, one porter 
and one messenger, the expense of which would amount yearly, according to the rate of pay 
now given, as by the specification. No. 8, is to be seen. 

Tiiese six Accountants and nineteen Directors should have the management and control in 
matters of trade, finance, returns, munitions of war and stores, etc., and be bound to render 
an account always to your High Mightinesses, or the Commissioner whom your High 
Mightinesses, from time to time, may nominate thereunto, of their Administration as well as 
of what may be further commanded them. 

Of the lesser number of Nineteen Directors, six ought to reside at the Hague for the space 
of three months, and then six others, which Directors shall have to communicate and deliberate 
with your High Mightinesses' Commissioners upon all that is resolved to repair the Company's 
decay, so that by the continual suggestions of the six Directors, the power of the country may 
be used in execution of all that is concluded for the Company's advantage. 

But if the continued residence of the Directors should not be found necessary, they could 
be notified thereof. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: III. 219 

And when deliberating on future important affiiirs, the aforesaid nineteen Directors could be 
Bummoned to the Hague, in order provisionally for one, two or three years to do the business 
which the Assembly of the Nineteen is wont to transact. 

The reduction of the Company's foreign expenses in Brazil and other countries, could be 
effected according as your High Mightinesses shall resolve upon the preceding advice of these 
Accountants and Directors, and hereunto appertains the plan, No. 10, laid by the Chamber 
of Accounts in June, 1G4-5, before the Assembly of the Nineteen at Amsterdam. It appears, 
therefrom, that the Company at home and abroad might save yearly Ten tons of Gold. 

And in the matter of the reduction of unnecessary foreign expenses, the plan is important 
which Director Morthamer submitted at the request of your High Mightinesses' Commissioners, 
whereby the Company could effect a yearly saving of ninety-nine thousand guilders by the 
discharge of useless servants in Brazil. 

The best and greatest oeconomy consists in rendering the Company's servants, high and low, 
accountable for their respective offices, so that they shall be bound to vindicate the same, and 
to send over to the Chamber of Accounts their written return within one month after the 
expiration of the year, to be examined, balanced and corrected, according to their respective 
commissions, for the settlement of the same ; which, up to the present time, has not been 
done either at home or abroad according to order. Thereby has the Company got into this 
desolate condition. 

2° The second means is, that the Chambers be disposed to forthwith undertake their eighteen 
turns a year, according to the regulation of the 29"" April, 1G38, lying in your High Mightinesses' 
office, and send to Brazil the ships thereunto required ; and this in conformity to the agreement 
entered into between the Chambers, at the Hague, on the sixth July, 1647. 

And the better to attract provisions and other necessaries to Brazil, the freights ought to be 
reduced one-third for the first two months, and afterwards one-fourth for the two succeeding 
months. 

The duties on the goods might be left provisionally, at their present rates. 

It is necessary that there be added to the turns in rotation, two Galiots at Land's end, to 
convey hither the advices respecting, and from, Brazil during the employment of the Military 
for the recovery of that place. 

3. The third means is, that an effort be made to promote trade to the Caribbean islands, 
according to the regulation concluded thereupon, and as it is hoped three or four tons of gold 
will be yearly realized from such trade, that the proceeds be applied to the interest of the 
principal and obligations which have been raised in ready money for the Company. In this 
way new credit is established for the Company, and in consideration of payment of the 
interest, no pledges of wares, salaries, &c., of whatever description will follow. The 
Accountant ought to make distinct lists of all those obligations. 

4. The fourth means: It will contribute essentially to the support of the Company to create 
a commercial stock, in conformity with your High Mightinesses' resolution of the 27"" February 
1637; whereunto the partners ought to be invited to subscribe the sum of Ten hundred 
thousand guilders, for the purpose of trading to the coast of Guinea, St. Thomas, and the north 
coast of Africa, both in consideration of the return which, through God's blessing, is to be 
expected, whenever [means] are employed according to the annexed plan of the Directors 
No. 12, and in regard of the great assistance afforded by your High Mightinesses for the 
restoration of Brazil. 



220 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

The trade and commerce to Angola is with the special permission of the Chambers, laid open 
pursuant to a certain regulation, for two years. From this source a good return may also be 
expected for the support of the Company. 

The trade to New Netherland is in like manner opened, in order that the grain and produce 
of that country may be exported to other places ; the regulation whereof, as well as of the trade 
to Angola, is contained in the general advice of the respective Chambers under No. 4. 

5. The fifth means is : Assisting the Company in supporting the expenses of the war in Brazil 
for one, two, or three years. For this purpose, it would be expedient to invite the Provinces 
to aid the Company in this difficulty and dilemma, and for that purpose to cause, through the 
Council of State, the Military to be paid from the subsidies which your High Mightinesses 
promised the Company to defray the heavy war expenses both by land and water; and which 
are still in arrears, according to the statement (No. 13) delivered in by the Accountants, to the 
amount of seventy-four tons of gold, and fifty-one thousand six hundred and fifty-nine guilders ; 
on which promise, the capital was increased by the stockholders. 

And this will not fall so heavily on the Provinces as did the million of money which was 
paid in various years for the execution of the designs of the army. 

And the aforesaid subsidies would tend to the recovery and preservation of a mighty Kingdom, 
to the security of this state against all hostile machinations, and to the enlarging of a wished 
for trade in sugars, Brazil wood and other costly wares. 

Which Military could afterwards, when Brazil, through the blessing of God the Lord, shall be 
reduced, be paid out of the tenths and the proceeds from the farming of the revenues accruing 
in Brazil, as is to be seen by the balance sheet of the Brazil receipts and expenses for the 
year 1643, No. 2, previously mentioned. From which balance sheet it is to be seen that 
the revenue of Brazil was eight tons of gold and sixty thousand guilders, more than the 
expenses of that year. 

6. The sixth means is : The collection which the Directors have to make from time to time, 
of the Company's old outstanding debts in Brazil; these, by rough computation of the 
Chambers, should amount to between sixty and seventy tons of gold ; and by the extract of 
Pieter van der Hagen, late councillor in Brazil, were estimated at seventy-nine tons of gold 
(No. 14). The Accountants can inquire into, and make pertinent report hereupon, according to 
the evidence of those who are acquainted therewith, so that such collection may be made from 
time to time, when Brazil is restored, and further abuses therein be prevented at the right time. 

The required indemnity for damages committed in Brazil by the Portuguese and Rebel 
inhabitants in sugars, houses, mills, gold, silver, cattle, etc., since the year 1645, estimated 
by the Directors in the conference with the Ambassador of Portugal, at over one hundred 
tons of gold, will also help, in its time, as far as its amount goes, to the diminution of the 
Company's burdens. 

And the undertaken recovery of Brazil being successful, a portion of the Company's old debt 
could be paid from this income. 

But in order to maintain the Company's credit by some provisional payment of the more 
urgent debts, those of the Provinces might demand five tons of gold in diminution of the 
arrears of the aforesaid promised subsidy, mentioned. No. 13. 

And from the stockholders might, also, be demanded a like five tons of gold ; which aforesaid 
five tons of gold, with the ten before mentioned for the trade, might be raised by an installment 
from the stockholders of nine per cent. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : III. 221 

7. The seventh means is: The prosecution of the Salt trade at Punto del Rey, which might 
by inductive means, be facilitated by the Spanish plenipotentiaries before the ratification, by 
our plenipotentiaries, of the Treaty of Peace at Munster ; the rather, as the inhabitants of 
Spain do not draw any salt from Punto del Rey. 

It is necessary that the cultivation of wheat and other produce be promoted for the support 
of the inhabitants and soldiers of Brazil, as soon as any provinces shall be reduced ; and it will 
be expedient that the Supreme Council be written to immediately on the subject, so as to 
advance, as much as possible, the cultivation of the soil, according to the previous resolution 
of the XIX. 

In like manner, the Directors ought now and again pay attention that agriculture and 
population be, from time to time, encouraged in New Netherland as well as in Brazil; pursuant 
to the resolution of the Assembly of the XIX., as the same will tend to the public advantage, 
and special prevention of the decay of the Company, and relieve the latter from sending 
over provisions. 

The Commissioners, with this report, deliver the papers therein mentioned, with the 
commissions from the respective Chambers, to the deputed Directors with whom they have 
acted, as is to be seen by the annexed register. 

Eesoiutiod of states Whlch being taken into consideration, their High Mightinesses have thanked 

General on Ihe pre- ° o o 

ceding Keporu the above mentioned, their Commissioners, for and on account of the trouble 
taken in the aforesaid business, and the Deputies of the respective Provinces have requested 
copy of the foregoing Report and papers thereunto appertaining, which is hereby accorded ; 
and it is unanimously recommended in an especial manner, that they take the trouble to 
exert themselves and use all their influence, either verbally, or in writing, with the Lords 
their respective principals, in order most speedily to effect the same and to receive favorable 
provincial opinions from their respective principals. 

Inventory of the Papers delivered in with the Report on the redress of the West 
India Company. ( Thus * marked, have not been copied.) 

N' 1.* Balance sheet for Brazil, from the year 1647, to the year 1648. 

N" 2.* Statement of the year 1643, in Brazil. 

N° 3.* Report of the business from the 9"" January, to the 11"" February. 

N" 4.* Opinion of five Chambers, to wit, Amsterdam, N° 1 ; Zealand, 2 ; the Maaze, 3 ; North 
Quarter, 4; Groningen, 5. 

N° 5. General Report drawn up from the aforesaid opinions of the five Chambers. 

N" 6. Advice of the Lords of Holland, with remarks of the respective Chambers in the margin. 

N" 7. Advice of the Company's Chamber of Accounts, 

N" 8.* Statement of the Chamber of Accounts, respecting the salaries of Directors and 
their attendants. 

N" 9.* Plan of an honorable Patriot on the reduction of the Directors. 

N" 10.* Plan of the Chamber of Accounts for the saving of ten tons of gold ; rendered in 
June, 1645. 

N° 11.* Plan of Director Morthamer, for saving ninety-nine thousand guilders, in unnecessary 
services in Brazil. 

N" 12.* Plan of the Directors for the trade to Guinea, St. Thomas and the North coast of Africa. 

N° 13.* Statement of the Arrears of the subsidies amounting to seventy-four tons of gold and 
fifty-one thousand, six hundred and fifty-nine guilders. 



222 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

N° 14.* Extract of Pieter van der Hagen's account of debts due the Company, to the amount 
of seventy-nine tons of gold. 

N° 15.* Commissions of the respective Chambers for the business respecting the redress of 
the West India Company. 

(No. 5.) Memoir to serve for a general Report of the Directors deputed by the respective 
Chambers of the West India Company, in the matter of Superintendence, 
Retrenchment, Reform and Support of said Company, compiled from the 
special opinions rendered by said Chambers, and some resolutions adopted 
since the delivery of the same. 

Folio 863. The business transacted and returned by the aforesaid respective Chambers, 

General Report. jg founded On a Certain letter of the High and Mighty Lords States General, 
dated S"* March, 1847, and referring, according to the tenor thereof, to three points especially: 
superintendency, First poiut. Of superiutcndance ; second point. Of retrenchment and reform; 

ccoDomy and re- , . , . ^ ^ 

tmm. third point, Oi support. 

First point — Of Superintendenck. 

What relates to superintendence. It was heretofore considered, that it had reference 
particularly and exclusively to the the trade and commerce prosecuted by the Company, or by 
individuals with the Company's permission, within the limits and districts of the charter, 
whence have arisen a great many disputes up to this time among the Chambers ; but such 
order has at present been provisionally made therein, as can be deduced from the following. 

The principal place of trade is Brazil, respecting which, the deputed Directors resolved on 
the G"* July, 1647, that said coast shall continue to be frequented and traded to, in the manner 
and order heretofore in force, to wit : that the trade shall be free and open to all, on condition, 
however, that all wares and merchandises shall have to be brought into the Company's stores, 
and exported in ships owned or chartered by the Company, subject to the duties and freights 
thereon, all by the respective Chambers in rotation ; it is, however, to be here observed, that 
the Chamber of Westfriesland and North Quarter submitted divers sound considerations on 
this point, which can be further examined at a proper time, and also be taken up and put into 
practice according to circumstances. 

Order and Regulation of the General Incorporated West India Company, made 
at the Assembly of the XIX., with the approbation of the High and Mighty 
Lords States General of the United Netherlands, by and pursuant to which 
each and every of the inhabitants of the United Provinces shall be at 
liberty to trade to certain parts hereinafter mentioned, within the limits of 
the above named Company's charter, whether to attack or injure the 
enemy, or to export salt, timber, tobacco, cotton, &c., as well as other wares 
or merchandises, the growth thereof. 

1. 
folio 866. First, we hereby declare that we annul and quash all former orders and 

wlJt inTa compa- rcgulatious, by and pursuant to which all ships in the respective provinces, 
of the trade. ^"'"^ whether armed or unarmed, offensive or defensive, or engaged in private trade, 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: III. 223 

carrying timber, salt, tobacco, cotton or other fruits and wares, the growth thereof, were 
empowered to resort to certain parts within the charter of the West India Company, howsoever, 
and at whatever time they might have been enacted, published and executed ; and do enact, 
decree and ordain anew, that the ships of the aforesaid inhabitants shall be at liberty 
henceforth to sail in the West Indies, to wit, from the River Oronoco, westward along the coast 
of Paria, Cumana, Venezuela, Carthagena, Porto Bello, Honduras, Campeachy, the Gulf of 
Mexico and the coast of Florida ; also, between and around all the Islands situate within the 
said district, even to Curasao, Buenaire and Aruba, without being at liberty to go further 
eastward on the Wild Coast, much less to the Amasons or Maraigum, nor more northerly than 
Cape Florida, nor for any cause or in any wise, to be at liberty to resort to the Virginias» 
New Netherland, New France, and other places lying thereabout, or to be able to go to or on 
the coasts of Africa, Brazil or elsewhere, wheresoever it may be, where the Company trades, 
under a penalty, for whomsoever shall infringe or act contrary to the same, of forfeiting ship 
and goods, which everywhere, even without previous prosecution, shall be seized and held as 
forfeit for the Company's behoof; and in case such ships or goods be sold, or run into other 
countries or harbors, the skippers, owners or charter-party, shall have execution issue against 
them for the value of said ships and goods, according to the first article of the charter. 

2. 

The ships which will repair to the before mentioned permitted parts within the charter, must 
be provided with clearance and authority from the General Incorporated West India Company, 
at the Assembly of the XIX, which shall be issued to the skippers, owners or charter-party, in 
the Chamber from which they shall conclude to send out their respective ships, under the 
penalty that those who let their ship or ships sail without the aforesaid clearance and authority, 
shall fall within the meaning of the first article of the charter granted to the West India 
Company, and be accordingly forthwith treated as contraveners; and, also, before obtaining 
such permit, a pertinent return must be made of the name of the captain or skipper, also the 
name and tonnage of the ships, with their guns and men ; and as it is not intended to license 
the ship or ships, returned in rnanner as aforesaid, merely to trade in or carry timber, salt, 
tobacco or cotton, and all other wares and merchandises, the growth of the aforesaid limits, 
but it is, also, designed to commit offensively and defensively, every hostility and damage on 
the King of Castile's subjects, they shall be also obliged to take with them a commission from 
his Highness the Lord Prince of Orange, as Captain Admiral General together with the permit 
of the General Incorporated West India Company, and for further security of their precise 
observance of the tenor of the obtained commission and of this regulation, they shall be 
bound, in addition to the obligation stated in the preceding article, to enter sufficient bail 
at the Chamber where they will receive the permit in the prescribed form, on pain, if found 
neglecting so to do, of being debarred from all license, in the same manner as if none had ever 
been granted them, and of being subject to the fine and forfeit hereinbefore mentioned. 

3. 
And the aforesaid ships shall be bound to take on board one Supercargo to whom, pursuant 
to the resolution of the XIX. adopted the 4 October 1643, shall be given instruction and 

commission at the Chamber where the aforesaid ships who shall have his berth 

and table in the cabin, at the expense of the ship and her owners, his monthly wages being 



224 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

paid by the Company, and the aforesaid Supercargo shall be treated with due respect and 
propriety as well by the skippers as their officers and crew; and if any ill treat him in 
any wise either by word or deed, the skippers and their officers promise to be aiding unto him 
for his protection. 

4. 

The skippers being desirous to take with them, in the outward voyage, any goods, wares or 
merchandise in the aforesaid ships, whether as their own freight, or on commission, shall make 
true entry thereof to the Company by notice under their hand, and afterwards break bulk in 
their stores, that such goods may be inspected and marked with the Company's mark, and pay 
therefor the amount of the public convoy according to the list, before they can take such goods 
on ship board. 

5. 

The aforesaid ships, on perceiving or meeting any vessels belonging to the King of Castile's 
subjects and adherents, may attack and master them either offensively or defensively, 
but shall not be at liberty to attack or injure any of the Allies, or Inhabitants of the United 
Provinces ; they shall be obliged to observe strictly their aforesaid Commissions from the Lord 
Prince of Orange, as they are especially bound, in the aforesaid bailbonds to do. 

6. 

They shall be also bound to strike on meeting with the West India Company's ships, and 
to exliibit their permit, authority, and commission, and as long as they remain with the latter 
they must submit to the flag, without setting up any claim to either part or portion of the 
prizes which may be captured in their presence, unless they be, by the Admiral General or 
Commander of the said Company's ships, expressly requested to assist, in which case the prizes 
which shall have been captured by the Company's ships and them conjointly, shall be equally 
divided according to the ship's equipment, guns and force, and from their portion shall moreover 
be paid the Company's share, according to the rate of profit they shall happen to derive from 
such prizes, as hereinafter according to Articles ten and twelve. 



And in case any of the Company's ships propose to make an attack on any of the enemy's 
places or ships, and find some privateers also desirous to make the attempt, the said privateers 
must desist and permit the Company's ships to proceed uninterrupted with their expedition ; 
or if acting contrary, shall be subject to a forfeit of ship and goods, to be confiscated for the 
Company's benefit. 

8. 

Item ; the aforesaid ships will be at liberty to sell and dispose, within the before described 
limits of the charter, the goods, wares and merchandise they take with them, and in return to 
buy, obtain and take in others such as Timber, Salt, Tobacco, Cotton, Hides etc., the produce 
of those parts, either on their own account, or as freight or on commission, and bring them 
over here in their ships. 

9. 

Further, the skippers, or in their stead the owners and freighters, shall be bound, at the 
time of the return of the ships, before they break bulk, to address the Directors at the Chamber 
or place from which they sailed, and by manifest under their signature must correctly return 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : III. 225 

the quantity or quality of the prizes or goods, wares and merchandises which they will have taken, 
traded, or received on charter during the voyage, and then with the consent of said Directors 
discharge the aforesaid goods and bring them into the Company's stores to be inspected, 
computed and weighed, and shall not be at liberty to remove them thence before the duties 
and other the Company's dues shall be satisfied in kind or money, at the choice of the Company, 
on pain, if failing herein, to be treated according to the tenor of the first article. 

10, 
From all prizes they will have captured from the enemy. South or North of the Tropic of 
Cancer, either in their voyage out or home, which shall be declared good prizes by the Court 
of Admiralty, and that as well in ships, cannon, as in goods, without any exception, they shall 
pay, as a recognition, to the Company, in addition to his Highness' right, twenty per cent, 
besides all rights to which the same shall be bound and rated as Company's prizes, and that 
from the nett proceeds to be realized by sale, without deducting any expenses of equipment 
or otherwise ; and the sale of the captured property, munitions of war, with their appurtenances, 
as well as of the cargo, must be effected at the privateer's expense. 

11. 

On the cargo, whether purchased on their own account, taken on freight, or on commission, 
there shall, in addition to the right of convoy granted by the public to tiie Company, be paid 
in kind or money at the Company's choice at the Chamber or place as aforesaid from which 
they cleared, as stated hereinbefore in article ten. 

And on all sorts of Red dyewood. Dried Codfish, Campeachy wood, ten per centum. 

Brazil wood, seven and a half per cent. 

Lignum vitas, yellow wood, five per cent. 

On Sugars, one-third part shall be paid in kind. 

Imported tobacco shall not pay for convoy and recognition any more than sixty stivers per 
hundred pounds, from which one-fourth shall be deducted as allowance for stems, rottenness, 
dampness or other damage ; but the foreign tobacco of Marocive shall pay twenty guilders per 
pound, with like allowance. 

12. 

On Salt no more shall be paid than is granted to all inhabitants of this province by agreement 
entered into (respecting the difference) between some cities of the North Quarter and the 
Company, with this understanding, that they shall pay on the Salt taken from places where 
the Company hath establishments, according to the order already made and hereafter to be 
concluded thereupon. 

13. 

Cotton, Hides, and all other wares and produce, the growth of the West Indies, eight per cent. 

14. 
And in order that the Inhabitants of these United Countries may be at liberty to trade and 
sail with strange and foreign ships, so shall, likewise, all strange and foreign vessels bringing 
into these countries Timber, Salt, Tobacco, and all other the aforesaid wares, fruits and 
merchandises from the West Indies or the Limits of the Charter granted to the Company, 
whether on their own account, on freight or on commission, convey and bring the same into 
Vol. L 29 



226 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

the Company's stores in manner as in article ten is iiereinbefore recited, and accordingly 
pay the above named Company the convoy and such other duties as the Inhabitants and ships 
of these countries are bound to do, whether such foreign and strange ships come direct to this 
country from the West Indies and limits of the charter in order that their freight may be 
brought to other countries or kingdoms, from what cause soever that may happen, unless the 
goods were obtained in exchange from the owner where they grew, and had paid the duty 
there imposed ; which any one alleging, he shall be bound sufficiently to prove on the 
importation of the goods, in order that the intention of the State and the Company may not 
be frustrated herein. 

15. 
All skippers, owners and freighters of ships belonging to these countries trading to the 
aforesaid permitted Limits of the Charter, shall be bound to return with their ships and all 
their cargo, and captured prizes or prize goods, to this country to the Chamber whence they 
sailed, under the penalty of the ship and goods, or the value thereof, to be recovered as in 
Articles one and two, without being allowed to discharge, diminish, trade or barter by the way 
any of the freighted or captured goods, wares or merchandises, much less to bring them over 
as freight for others to any where else than this country. 

16. 
It is further resolved, that the respective Chambers, each among themselves, shall be at 
liberty to commission one or more persons to visit and search the outgoing and incoming 
vessels ; for which visit and search the general Inspectors in the public service, and each and 
every of them, shall be also qualified, on application to the Company, and are hereby qualified, 
with authority on finding any unentered goods, to send them up to be declared seized or 
confiscated by the respective Magistrates of the Cities, or the Court of Admiralty for the 
benefit of the Company. 

17. 
Which aforesaid deputies shall have power to search any ship or ships entering any of the 
ports in this country, to place on board at least two trust-worthy persons as watchmen, so that 
the Company may not be defrauded on the way between the aforesaid ports and the destined 
places of unloading, and the skippers, officers or crew shall not embarrass the aforesaid 
watchmen either by word or deed, nor obstruct them in the proper discharge of their duty, 
under a penalty of ^50 flemish, to be received, one half by the officer of the place who shall 
levy execution, and the other half by the injured watchman, and the skipper shall be 
responsible for his men. 

18. 
And in order that each and every one shall receive information and notice hereof, we have 
resolved to cause the same to be notified by handbills affixed at every place interested therein, 
and to have the skippers, owners or freighters furnished, for their information, with a printed 
copy of this Regulation, signed by the Directors, together with the Company's permit and 
authority, at the Chamber, where the latter are obtained, receipt whereof the skippers, owners 
or freigliters shall acknowledge on the Bailbond, also under their signature. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: III. 227 



On the return of the ships from the voyage, the skipper, owner or freighter shall be hound 
to surrender the permit or authority obtained from the said Incorporated West India Company, 
together with the commission of his Highness, the Prince of Orange, if any he has had, back 
to the Chamber whence it was received within the space of six days, on pain, in case of failing 
herein, of paying a sum of three hundred guilders of XL. groots for the benefit of the poor. 

20. 

Moreover, in order that this Regulation be observed and enforced by those of the West 
India Company, and that no license or authority to trade within the limits of the Charter be 
granted except by those of the General Incorporated West India Company at the Assembly of the 
XIX., it is expressly declared, that all those who shall sail with their authority to the permitted 
Limits of the Charter, shall be instructed and authorized to demand from all ships belonging 
to this country, which will be met with, in those parts, their license and commission, and 
finding them without that of the General Company to be furnished at the Assembly of the 
XIX., the ships provided therewith shall be empowered to drive them from the loading or 
trading places, in addition to the penalty incurred by them for the Company's benefit, which 
the skippers, owners or freighters thereof shall be empowered to demand again from those 
by whom such were licensed and commissioned. 

Thus provisionally enacted and resolved by the General Incorporated West India Company 
at the Assembly of the XIX., with the approbation of the High and Mighty Lords States 
General of the United Netherlands, at Middelburgh, in Zealand, the 14"" October, 1645. 

Free Trade, 7. The scvcnth and last place is New Netherland, which the majority consider 

will be best benefited by granting individuals there the liberty to convey, in their own ships, 
their country produce, grain, flour, fish and other provisions, from thence to other places situate 
within the Company's Charter, on proper recognitions ; which liberty some members restrict 
to Brazil, others to all the places of the Charter, except Guinea and St. Thomas. 

Second point — Of Retrenchment and Reform. 
Reform. "™ ° In treating of the second point, the Chambers unanimously declare they are 
not aware but this has been studied as much as possible; yet should your High Mightinesses 
be conscious of any thing to the contrary, they are most willing to submit to your High 
Mightinesses' discretion. In order, however, to afford some opportunity for such action, these 
following points were, by one and the other Chamber, submitted for consideration : 

1. Whether the Company's own large ships ought not to be sold, or only a certain number 
of them retained ? 

2. Ought not the Company disembarrass itself of the large quantity of cannon, &c., which 
is still here and there among the Chambers ? 

3. Ought not the dock yards, rope-walks and drug stores be sold? 

4. Could not the number of Directors be reduced ; or salaries which they receive, diminished ? 

5. Ought not the Provincial and City Directors be domiciled at the place where the 
Chambers to which they belong are located ? 

6. Could not the Assembly of the XIX. be held less frequently ; and would it not be better 
attended here in the Hague than at Amsterdam and Zealand '? 



228 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

7. Ought it not be resolved that all goods be sold for current silver money? 

8. Can any better order be made for increasing the gold from Guinea? 

9. Must the defective Chambers supply their lists? 

10. Ought not equalization be introduced between the respective Chambers? 

The third 'point — Of Ways and Means. 
Subsistence. In Order to allow the Company to recuperate, and to subsist for the future, the 

respective Chambers consider these two means necessary. 

1. First, that the Brazilian conquests be purged at the public charge and by the public force; 
the petition for six thousand men is to that effect. 

2. Secondly, that it ought to receive the East India Company's duties to the amount of 
fifteen hundred thousand guilders, pursuant to your High Mightinesses' resolution. In addition 
to these general means, the majority of the Chambers add some special means as follows: — 
oq recnnsWeratioD, 3. Those of Zealand — that the public ought to pay the arrears of the subsidy 
ze'aian!u''"8ay, ih" amounting to about seventy tons of gold. 

said supplies only 4. And votc a ucw additional supply of seven hundred thousand guilders yearly 

until ihe Company rv J a J J 

can subsist i.yiueif. fg^ the term of ths new charter. 

5. Amsterdam. — That the State ought to be solicited to assume the responsibility of the 
Company's obligations. 

6. Maaze — That in addition to the two general means, the State ought to be requested to 
aid the Company with a yearly subsidy of three hundred and fifty thousand guilders for the 
new Charter, on account of the old subsidies; and these three means being realized, 
the stockholders ought to be persuaded to advance ten per cent in order to pay the old debts 
and to have a trading fund. 

7. West Friesland and the North Quarter are of opinion, if aflfairs be redressed and brought 
in train according to their advice, that the Company will be sufficiently able to exist of itself. 

8. Stadt en Land' requires only payment of the subsidies in arrear, in addition to the 
general means hereinbefore mentioned. 

These are, in fact, three points whereupon run the opinions of the respective Chambers each 
in an especial manner; except that the Zealand Chamber gave, in addition, its opinion on 
the articles of the old Charter, as they ought, in their estimation, be altered and improved. 

Advice of the Deputies of Holland, with the opinions of the several Chambers. 
N" 6. Advice of the Deputies of Holland. 

Redress, Retrenchment, Subsistence 
and Trade. 

To the Noble, Great and Mighty Lords, the 
States of Holland and Westfriesland. 

Noble, great and Mighty Lords ! 
1. 
The Members deputed at the Meeting of your The present deputed Directors of the 
Great Mightinesses by your resolution of the respective Chambers of the West India 

' See Note, mpra, p. 103. — Ed. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IIL 



229 



1" July, 1647, to attend to the establishment Company, having pursuant to the order of the 
of good and proper order in the government of deputies of the High and Mighty Lords States 



the Incorporated West India Company, and 
the redress of all such matters and abuses as 
might have been found to exist to the prejudice 
of said Company, having heard the verbal 
information of the present deputed Directors 
of the aforesaid Company, and read and 
examined the vpritten remonstrance to them 
delivered — Item, the respective written 
opinions of each of the five Chambers of said 
Company in particular, and of all its Chambers 
conjointly or in common; also of the deputies 
of the General Chamber of accounts of the 
abovementioned Company, all delivered in to 
the High and Mighty Lords States General of 
these United Netherlands in pursuance of their 
High Mightinesses' order and letter of the 30"" 
March, 1647; Find, that for the restoration of 
the West India Company, three chief points 
are principally to be considered, to vpit. First, 
the Management in regard to Navigation 
and Trade. 



General, examined the annexed advice, have 
adjoined thereunto, as their opinions, vphat 
stands noted in the margin on each point 
thereof. 



2. 

Secondly, Retrenchment and redress; and 
Thirdly, Means of support; and that upon all 
these points very good suggestions have been 
made in the vs^ritten Memoir of the aforesaid 
joint or general advice of the deputed Directors 
of the respective Companies whereunto they 
refer, except that certain articles relating to 
hostility or enmity shall cease in time of peace. 



But, under correction of your Great 
Mightinesses, they are moreover of opinion, 
that the following would be also beneficial and 
advantageous to the aforesaid Direction : That 
individuals trading to Brazil shall cause the 
duties, freights and convoys to be paid in 
Brazil to six Commissaries to be appointed 
by the respective Chambers, with certain 
instruction to be drawn up for said Commis- 
saries, and on the plan more fully detailed in 



230 



NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 



the advice of the Chamber of Westfriesland 
and North Quarter. 



Which Commissaries shall pay the Military 
in Brazil on the footing, and according to the 
regulation, laid down in the aforesaid advice 
of the Chamber of Westfriesland and North 
Quarter, out of the duties, freights and 
convoys; also, out of about three hundred 
thousand guilders to be sent them from 
Fatherland, in flour and other dry goods ; 
out of the recognitions and convoys of the 
country produce exported by permission in 
private vessels from New Netherland to Brazil, 
and out of the Spanish wines and oils imported 
from the Islands, also out of the three per cent 
on the goods from Angola, sent from thence 
to Brazil, in consequence of want of sale, and 
from the 30 and 50 florins per head, on each 
slave respectively. 



Your Great Mightinesses' deputies being of 
opinion that for the tenths of the sugars, duty, 
freight and convoy, the Chambers in this 
country shall receive, at the lowest calculation, 
one half in kind ; that is, of two chests, one. 



Also, that no wet wares shall be sent on the 
Company's account, but only flour, beef, pork, 
oil, butter, dried codfish and cheese, leaving the 
aforesaid wet goods exclusively to individuals 
who will be at liberty, on permission, or on 
excusable reasons and immediate notice, to 
export from the Islands aforesaid, Spanish 
wines and oils in their own or private ships, 
on paying the duty and convoy in Brazil to 
the aforesaid Commissaries of the respective 
Chambers. 



7. 



That the Slave trade at Ardra and Calbraye, The Directors are of opinion, that the trade 
ought to be reserved to the aforesaid Company, here mentioned, ought to be pursued on a plan 
on the regulation made thereupon. there laid down. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS! III. 



231 



8. 
That the north coast of Africa can be 
resorted to by the joint vessels bringing the 
proceeds of their trade to tbe Castle Del Mina, 
in order that it may come pro rata to the 
respective Chambers. 



The coast of Guinea ought, according to the 
enacted regulation, be frequented in turns by 
the respective Chambers, but what regards the 
remainder of the north coast, the management 
thereof shall remain provisionally as it is. 



That the inhabitants of New Netherland The trade of the inhabitants of New 

only, ought to be at liberty to export the Netherland ought to be permitted to Brazil and 

produce growing there to all the Company's Angola, in manner as mentioned on the 

conquests, except Guinea and St. Thomas, and opposite side, 
that on payment of the duty and convoy in 
manner as before mentioned. 



10. 
ThatnoChambernor anyindividual Director 
shall have power to reduce any duty, nor to 
rate any goods at less than laid down in the 
general list thereof, under the penalty, for the 
Directors so doing, of making good the same 
themselves, and of being, moreover, removed 
from their employment. 



The order and penalty enacted on the other 
side, ought to be observed; 



That the Directors of the respective Cham- As well as what is here enacted, 
bers shall not, either directly nor indirectly, 
endeavor to overreach one another with the 
crew, nor seek to draw trade away from one 
city to the other. 

12. 
That their High Mightinesses' approval And the approval of the regulation respecting 
ought to be requested for the regulation more the Caribbean traders, which is requested, 
fully contained in the aforesaid Memoir, 
respecting the Caribbean Traders. 



13. 

What now regards the aforesaid second point, 
of retrenchment and redress, the aforesaid, 
your Great Mightinesses' deputies are, with 
submission, of opinion that all old, unserviceable, 
unnecessary vessels and yachts, together with 
the heavy guns, also the Company's store- 
houses, ship yards, rope walks and drug 
stores, ought to be sold and got rid of for its 
advantage. 



The unnecessary ships, yachts and guns, are, 
for the most part, already sold ; but what 
regards the disposing of the store-houses, ship 
yards, rope walks and drug stores, that concerns 
exclusively the Amsterdam Chamber, which 
hath promised to examine into and give orders 
respecting the same. 



NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 



14. 

Also, that all the Company's unnecessary The respective Chambers undertake to 
servants; both in this country and abroad, dismiss all useless servants, 
ought to be dismissed. 



15. 
That, in like manner, the factors vphom 
the outer Chambers have introduced into 
Amsterdam, contrary to the 26"" Article of the 
Charter, ought to be dispensed with, because 
they draw wages from said Chambers, and pay 
separate store rent; and there ought to be such 
good correspondence between the respective 
Chambers and Directors, that the one transact 
the other's business, as is the case with the 
East India Company. 



In like manner no more factors shall be 
employed at Amsterdam by the Chambers, 
except by Zealand and Siadt en Lande, on 
account of the distance of their places. 



16. 
That no moneys shall be borrowed on The adjoining article ouglit to be, in future, 
interest for the West India Company, except enforced, 
with the knowledge and consent of the 
Nineteen. 

17. 
That in matters of taxation, &c., conflicting In the matter of the plurality voting, the 
with the Charter, there shall be no plurality tenor of the charter ought to be observed, 
voting. 



18. 
That the aforesaid XIX. shall assemble 
ordinarily but once a year, and if necessity 
require, shall hold an extraordinary meeting 
within the City of Amsterdam if accommoda- 
tion only can be obtained. 



The place of meeting of the XIX. shall be 
as heretofore, and must not be as stated in the 
annexed article. 



19. 
Moreover, said Assembly of the XIX., at its 
adjournment, shall appoint certain Commis- 
sioners from among the Directors, each in the 
city where his Chamber is established, which 
Commissioners shall, each in his place, take 
care and see that the resolutions of the XIX. 
shall be well and punctually executed and 
obeyed, and this without expense to the 
Company, except their boat and carriage hire, 
which shall be charged to the said Company. 



The Commissioners ought indeed be appoint- 
ed by the Assembly of the XIX., but in regard 
to, and in correspondence with, the general 
Board of accounts, to which alone, and accor- 
ding to their instruction, belongs the superin- 
tendence here mentioned. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: III. 



233 



Resolution hereupon ought to be requested 
from their High Mightinesses. 



That the Commissioners who appear in the 
Assembly of the XIX., on behalf of their High 
Mightinesses, shall henceforth travel, board, 
and attend at the expense of the State, and 
not of the Company. 

21. 
That the Military or soldiers in the Com- The annexed article is found very useful, 
pany's service shall be paid in money in this but is as yet impracticable in consequence of 
manner, to wit: of each year on foreign the unfavorable condition of the Company, 
service, six months shall be retained ; two for 
the wives and children, and the remaining 
four months shall remain until the return of 
the aforesaid men ; but those who have neither 
wives nor children, shall be at liberty to 
dispose of the aforesaid two months' pay for 
the benefit of such other persons as they shall 
think proper, and this for the term of three 
years, according to the articles of enlistment. 



The Commissioners have no objection to the 
diminution of the Directors, and hereby leave 
this to the discretion of the Board. 



As well as the order which ought to be 
enacted respecting these two points. 



22. 
That the number in the Board of Directors 
ought to be reduced on the occasion of death 
and of the change which must take place 
according to the Charter ; and that to such 
amount as the members of the Board shall 
agree upon among themselves. 

23. 
And that each of said Directors shall 
henceforth serve nine years instead of six. 

24. 
And be obliged continually to reside within 
the cities where their Chambers are estab- 
lished. 

25. 

And as regards the premised Chief point 
respecting the aforesaid means of subsistence, 
your great Mightinesses' Commissioners are, 
under correction, of opinion — 

26. 
That besides the provisional aid required fl. 7,500" to wit: fl. 6,300" of money bor- 
for the Company, and what is connected rowed on interest, and fl. 1,500" of current and 
Vol. I. 30 



284 



NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 



therewith, the aforesaid general Board of 
Accounts ought to prepare and deliver in ajust, 
subscribed statement of debits and credits ; 
also.oflhe effects which the Company I 
at home and abroad. 



27. 



accruing debts; the credits in the country, 
independent of the property in storehouses, 
yards, ships and cannon, are few or none. 
Those of Brazil were included in them. 



And the deputed Members submit to your Yes ; the Board ought to be requested to 

Great Mightinesses, whether the Board ought consider how the Company shall best be 

not seasonably to consider how and in what relieved of its debts, 
manner its debts shall best be paid. 



28. 
And moreover, a pertinent statement ought 
to be prepared and exhibited by their High 
Mightinesses' Secretary and by the aforesaid 
General Board of accounts; also by all the Cham- 
bers of the West India Company, respectively, 
of the subsidies voted the aforesaid Company 
by the Provinces, and of the sum paid thereon, 
and consequently of the amount of subsidies 
still due by the State or the Provinces. 

29. 
That further efforts ought to be made in The Company in general ought to request 
order that tiie provinces, in consequence of simply to be relieved from all money taken d 
their neglect to pay respectively the aforesaid deposito. 
voted subsidies, may undertake to discharge or 
relieve the Company from the moneys borrowed 
on interest on their account. 



The votes of subsidies ought to be taken 
according to the estimate of the increase and 
the petitions of the Council of State consequent 
thereupon, that is up to the close and last of 
the year of the old Charter, being in ten years 
7,000' guilders ; what portion thereof has been 
paid by the one or the other province can be 
seen by the last statement of the General Board 
of Accounts. 



30. 

That in the foregoing required statement 
ought to be noted, what provinces have not 
thus far voted subsidies for the Company, nor 
paid these when voted as Holland has done; 
and the provinces in arrears ought then to be 
admonished, to clear up their deficiency so far 
as to be on a par, in votes and payments, with 
Holland and Westfriesland. 



The first part of the annexed article has been 
complied with, and what regards the remainder 
the Board will act as it deems most proper. 



That further the Provinces all together ought Instead of the proposed new subsidy of 

to be requested, by petition, to continue hence- fl. 700" a year as long as the war in Brazil 

forward the votes and payments of the subsidy continues, the State ought to be requested to 

of seven hundred thousand guilders a year for support the entire army there and to pay its 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : III. 



the Company so long as the war in Brazil 
shall last, and until the Company's affairs 
there shall be reestablished, and that such 
order be given in the province that the moneys 
of each voted instalment be as promptly 
furnished. 



wages and food until it can be paid fror 
tenths and other revenues there. 



235 

I the 



32. 
That finally, the stockholders of the West The Directors trust that on the adoption of 
India Company ought to be required and a resolution to the effect aforesaid by the Board, 
obliged to increase their stock in said Company for the advantage of the Company, the worthy 
twelveper cent ; one-third part of said increase Stockholders will be disposed to add a new 
payable six weeks after having received notice clause for the negotiation and contents hereof, 
so to do; the second instalment in six months 
afterwards, and the last instalment six months 
Bubsequently. 

33. 
That one-half the proceeds of this increase 
shall be applied to the trade or commerce of 
said Company. 

34. 
Your Great Mightinesses' Commissioners are 
further of opinion that the Plenipotentiaries 
deputed from this State to negotiate the peace, 

ought to be instructed to urge, when opportu- ^ 

nity offers, on the Spanish Plenipotentiaries, 
for the benefit of the West India Company of 
this country, the free trade to Ponto del Rey, 
or the Salt point, according to said Company's 
Charter. 



Advice of the Chamber of Accounts of the West India Company. 

Considerations of the Board of Audit of the West India Company regarding 
the reform of said Company, drawn up pursuant to the order of the High 
and Mighty Lords States General of the United Netherlands and delivered 
to their High Mightinesses' Commissioners at the Hague, the 27 May, 1647. 

chkmbetofAocounto ^he decHue of the Company's affairs and the difficulty in which they are at 
Eedresa. present placed, arise on the one hand from divers disorders in this country and bad 

management in the foreign conquests (which have for a longtime past impaired the Company), 
and on the other, from some unfortunate occurrences in Brazil, Angola and elsewhere, which have 
completely prostrated and ruined it. Two-fold means of redress must consequently be 



236 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

discovered and applied. First : to reestablish the Company in its lost or disturbed possessions. 
Secondly : to enact such firm and good orders that the Company will not only be maintained 
in its ordinary course, and continue to subsist, but may in time be brought to a flourishing state. 

In regard to the recovery of the conquest of Brazil, we see no other means of accomplishing 
that, than what has lately been submitted by the committee of the Directors of the respective 
Ciiambers to your High Mightinesses at the Hague, to wit : that in addition to the aid 
already dispatched, (which was not found sufficient against such a united body of Portuguese 
rebels,) a competent and combined military force be voted anew by the State, and conveyed 
to Brazil with ships, ammunition and other necessaries, not only to recover and clear our 
frontiers, but also to prosecute further designs either against Bahia, as the chief seat of the 
war and of the piratical practices of the Portuguese, or elsewhere. Tiie Company, once 
relieved by these means, of its treacherous neighbors, could disembarrass itself of the onerous 
charge of the military, and of the support of several fortresses; the freemen would be induced 
to establish themselves peaceably in said conquests, without fearing to be again stripped of their 
plantations (ingenhos) and goods, and by the increase of population and agriculture, the 
Company would be at once set on its legs. Short of this, we see no remedy for the reparation 
of the damages the Company has already suffered, except by indemnifying ourselves with the 
enemy's full and flourishing plantations fwio-e^jAosJ and lands; inasmuch as it is to be feared 
that our entire and wasted district, if not soon redressed, will not supply as much produce and 
revenue as will equal the Company's expenses. 

Respecting Angola: it must be borne in mind that our people do no not fare much better 
there than in Brazil, inasmuch as we are advised by the latest letters, dated last May, that the 
Portuguese in the interiorhaving received a great accession of force, had, after a victory 
obtained over the Queen Donna Anna Ciuga, united with some tribes of Blacks, to drive our 
people wholly from that country. Our folks in Loando are too weak to act in company with 
them ; and are very poorly supplied with provisions, and especially munitions of war, none of 
which has been now sent them for over a year. Cut off, also, on the land side, and blockaded in 
their forts and in the city of Loando, they probably can not make a long stand, but will at last 
be forced either to treat with the enemy, or indeed wholly to abandon the country, (as was 
the case with Maranhao in the year 1644.) unless they receive prompt succor in provisions and 
other necessaries, in order temporarily to maintain these conquests. A plan could be considered, 
and arrangements made to dislodge the Portuguese governor, Sotto Mayor, with his troops 
either by stratagem or force; for which purpose three or four hundred men ought to be 
transported from Brazil after they had completed their designs there. 

The recovery of both these conquests is particularly important, as they are partially the 
foundation on which the Company must hereafter rest; the commerce with Guinea, St. Thomas 
and adjoining trading places, not being sufficient to feed so huge a body. Moreover, they 
have cost the Company and individuals so many millions, and can contribute so essentially to 
the damage of the general enemy and the security of this State, that your High Mightinesses 
will be induced in your wisdom and generosity to contribute further aid, and to vote for a short 
period, the oft requested succor, which indeed ought to be done early, if possible, considering 
that the number of soldiers and sailors already in Brazil, at great expense to the Company, 
will otherwise remain useless and ineffective, and the most favorable season and opportunity 
for the execution of any thing worth mentioning, would have passed away, not to be afterwards 
retrieved, except at double the outlay. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IlL 237 

Tlie aforesaid conquests being thus, with the assistance of God, recovered, further means of 
redress, in the matter of superintendence, retrenchment and trade of said Company, could be 
taken in hand and promoted as follows: — 

First. — Respecting Superintendence. 
Buperintcndcnoe. The government of the Company consists as well in supervision by the Directors 

in this country, as in the good order and administration to be maintained by the officers and 
servants in foreign conquests. 

In this country we must treat, first. Of the election of the Board of Directors; secondly, Of 
their management and administration. As Directors, ought to be chosen not only men 
conversant, active and vigilant in business, but also those who can properly attend to it, and 
are not too much engaged in private trade, by means whereof it happens that they frequently 
absent themselves from ordinary meetings, and, excusing themselves from duty, the burthen 
devolves on some few persons. 

Amsterdam,.... 27 Ilercupon it is to be duly considered, that the number of Directors, which with 
mmz",.'. ■.■.■■.■.■.". 17 the Supernumeraries, consists at present of 89 persons, could be diminished at 

Korth Quarter, .14 

Groeningen 14 least one-third, and reduced to two-thirds without prejudice to the business to be 

^ transacted by the Company, provided that the Supernumeraries be obliged to 
remove their domicil to the place where the Chambers are established, and render effectual 
service like the rest, and this particularly, with a view to furnish their respective superiors 
and stockholders with information and a knowledge of the Company's condition. And this 
reduction should be effected, not only because the great number of Directors frequently produces 
confusion and lack of zeal among themselves, but also to save a portion of the salaries received 
by the Directors, which, likewise, according to the present condition of the Company, can be 
lessened, as will hereafter be stated in the section on Retrenchment. It could be gradually 
introduced and put into practice according as the Directors retire, on the expiration of their 
term, or upon their death, provided no new ones be chosen in their places, until reduced to 
the appointed number. 

In order to encourage the Directors the more in their duties in this regard, and that the 
Company may not experience any inconvenience from the too rapid change thereof, the term 
of their office ought to be extended somewhat longer than by the old charter; or the retiring 
Directors ought to be at least reeligible after the expiration of their term, the same as if they 
were nominated anew by the chief stockholders, in addition to those whom they by triple 
number may put on the ticket; this would have a tendency to excite the vigilance and zeal 
of the good, which on the other hand oftentimes becomes faint towards the close of their term. 

The administrjition of the Board of Directors consists either in particular Chambers, or in 
the general meeting of the entire, or of the half, of the Nineteen. 

The Charter fixes the number of Chambers at five ; of these Amsterdam hath the management 
of four-ninth parts; Zealand, of two; and Maaze, North Quarter and Groeningen, each of \ 
part. Again, the Maaze Chamber is divided, after the three cities,^ into three Boards; those 
of the North Quarter into two;^ each of which, as well as each Chamber, of 4, 2, and -J-, has 
its separate government, with little direct communication with the others; each in particular 
hath, also, its own Bookkeepers, Cashiers, storekeepers, houses, yards, stores and whatever 

' Rotterdam, DorJreetit, Delft. " Hoorn, Enekliiivzen, — En. 



238 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

e]se appertains thereunto, not without confusion and burthensomeness to the Company. 
Therefore, it would be well, if the three cities were thereunto disposed, that the three Boards 
of the Maaze were united into one, and the two of the North Quarter brought into one 
Chamber, which should be ambulatory in their respective districts according to the years the 
Charter is continued. For example, residing alternately in each of the three cities on the Maaze 
for the term of four years, and each term would come around twice ; and alternating in like 
manner every four years in the two cities of the North Qurter, so that each city would have 
to arrange its turn by lot or otliervcise ; and when the Chamber resides in the one city for 
four years, the Bookkeeper, clerks, storekeeper, with all the adjuncts, must live there ; and 
the Directors of the cities in which the Chamber was not, at the then present time established, 
or at least some of them, must also remove their residence thither, on condition that such 
Directors receive a larger stipend than their associates who do not change residence; and the 
others must attend as often as summoned by the Chambers. The ships should also be 
equipped and fitted out during the aforesaid term of four years, in that city where the Chamber 
resides ; but the purchase of the cargoes and necessaries, as far as it could be effected 
advantageously for the Company, might be ordered to be done in the cities where the 
remaining Directors reside. And on the expiration of the first four years, they should remove, 
with all the attendants, to the second place; in the same manner as the Board of Admiralty 
is in the habit of doing in the two cities of Hoorn and Enckhuyzen. 

Moreover, the Directors must be obliged'4o attend the weekly meeting, on pain of a 
reasonable fine, or the deduction of so much of their salary as that day shall amount to, 
inasmuch as it has otherwise occurred that they frequently absent themselves, according to their 
own convenience; acquiring no thorough nor connected knowledge of affairs, nor being able to 
advise fundamentally on any business that may arise. The details of each Chamber may 
be distributed within itself, among different Commissaries, to wit: to take charge of accounts 
and the office, the cash; the merchandise; the stores; the wet and dry provisions. In regard 
to their administration, they ought to keep a register and books, in order to render an account 
at the Assembly, and to furnish at all times a statement without hiring bookkeepers and clerks, 
particularly for that purpose, or increasing unnecessarily the number of dependents. This will 
be also referred to in the section — Of Retrenchment. 

In order that one Commissary may have a knowledge of the other's work, and a thorough 
acquaintance with the Company's affairs, it would be useful to change the clerks, sometimes; 
nay, without giving notice, in order that the one may not conceal any thing from the other, but 
that it may lie plain and open before every one of the Directors. The trouble and commission 
imposed on each by his Chamber, especially such as being deputed by the general vote of the 
Board to repair to the XIX., or beyond the city, ought to be undertaken and attended to by 
every one, without exception, so that each work may be performed by those who are 
considered best adapted for it; should such be declined, without sufficient cause, the person so 
declining ought, in like manner be mulcted in a portion of his salary, which shall be 
appropriated to the benefit of such other as executes his commission ; on returning home, each 
ought to render a report in writing of what he hath done, in order that it may always be seen 
in what condition the matter stands, so as to be regulated accordingly in the sequel of the 
affair. These and similar regulations, which are enforced in the beginning, and afterwards 
fallen into desuetude, ought to be introduced and kept up in each Chamber according to the 
constitution and administration it may have, so that all may be henceforth directed therein, 
with increased knowledge and order. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: III. 239 

The Assembly of the XIX., wherein all matters appertaining to the Company must be 
treated and concluded, has not for a considerable time, had such speedy despatch and expedition 
as the Company's service indeed required ; for, first, the points of reference being drawn up 
according to the resolution of a Chamber, which temporarily presides, and frequently not 
including all the important points, the members, do not always come instructed thereupon 
with thorough knowledge of affairs, nor provided with complete directions from their Board, 
and do not appear at the appointed time ; but leave the one waiting in vain for the other, to 
the injury and great expense of the Company. On proceeding to business, the points are not 
finally disposed of, but frequently referred to the next meeting; incidental matters and mutual 
disputes consume the mostof tiie time; and what has been resolved on there, with the general 
advice of the members, is frequently, through particular interest or inability of the one or the 
other Chamber, neither attended to nor executed. 

In order to remedy and prevent these disorders in part, there was established by the XIX., 
in the year 1643, at the instance of their High Mightinesses' deputies, a Board of Accounts, 
composed of six persons ; to wit, two from the Amsterdam Chamber, and one from each of 
the other Cliambers, who were to prepare and report all the matters to be transacted by the 
XIX. against the meeting of that body ; further, keep accounts with all the Chambers in this 
country, as well as with the foreign conquests ; and compile from these, general books which 
would show the condition of the Company at all times; they were to make a repartition of 
receipts and expenses, and decide the disputes arising therefrom, with a view to maintain 
equality and proportion as well as good correspondence between the Chambers; also, to attend 
to the execution of the resolves of the XIX., as is more fully to be seen by the instruction of 
the aforesaid Board of Accounts. But that Board having experienced divers obstacles from its 
beginning to the present time, and not being clothed with sufficient authority to hold the 
Chambers to their duty ; and the various papers and documents not being even submitted to 
it from the respective Chambers, tiie essential knowledge of their administration could not 
be obtained. 

Nevertheless, we cannot yet see any fitter means of keeping in order the entire body of the 
Company and each Chamber in particular, than the establishment of such a general and 
permanent body, on a plan similar to that of said Board of Accounts, but furnished with greater 
authority for the execution of its office ; which Board must possess, in the absence of the 
XIX., the direction and disposition of all ordinary affairs ; the execution punctually at their 
time of all incidental matters, not admitting of delay, until further orders from the XIX.; 
sending orders thereupon, as well to Brazil as to the respective Chambers; pointing out 
the means, how and whereby the Chambers respectively can execute the same. To 
which end, the respective Chambers must also be bound to furnish and send over to the 
said Board, from time to time, a pertinent statement of their condition, in order that it 
regulate itself accordingly; and in case of non-compliance with any of these orders, the 
aforesaid Board must be authorized to impose a fine on those Chambers for such failure and 
neglect, (unless it appear that they were prevented by potent and unexpected accidents), 
and cause their accounts here, or in Brazil, or other places, to be charged with such fine, and 
allow them to receive so much the less returns; or, on the commission of grave faults 
and negligences, to speak personally to the Directors, who are guilty thereof; which Board, 
as possessing constant knowledge of the affiiirs, must also summon the Assembly of the XIX., 
on points to be drawn up by it, giving timely notice thereof both to the presiding and other 



240 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Chambers, in order to receive their opinions and embody these in the points of reference, if 
necessary, that all the members may be notified and instructed thereupon, so as to afford 
satisfaction to others, without referring to, or delaying for, their Chamber, whereby many 
good things are left unexecuted. 

In like manner, in order to dispose more promptly of the business of the XIX., two persons, 
members of the Board, ought to appear at each meeting of the Assembly of the XIX. with 
mere advisory voice, for the purpose of reporting to, and advising the XIX. on what passes ; 
to obviate stindry disputes between the Chambers and the better to have the orders and 
resolutions to be adopted by the XIX. executed conformably to their intention. By this means 
frequent and lengthy sessions of the XIX., at vast expense to the Company, might be dispensed 
with, and these need not be held more than once, or at most, twice a year, for which time all 
business should be prepared by the aforesaid permanent Board, and full information and 
explanation given of the circumstances of the foreign conquests, as well as of the state of the 
receipts and expenses, and the entire condition as well of the general Company as of each 
particular Chamber. Thus all inequality and disproportion between these is remedied, and 
principally the troubles and canker of jealousy among the Chambers removed or diminished ; 
inasmuch as those proceed mainly from the fact, that the one Chamber does its business 
without communicating with the other; each pays more attention to his own Chamber's profit 
than to that of the general body; yea, endeavors to defraud the latter. In which case, this 
Board, being general and impartial, would study the common interest of the Company and 
hold such balance between the Chambers as that the one would not be wronged or oppressed 
by the other. 

snperintendence in Thus much of the Superintendence in this country. 

ihu country. rp|^g government of Brazil being after mature deliberation, recently composed 

of one president and four supreme councillors, a Court of justice and Board of Finance, with 
other additional high and low officers in the Company's employment, although it costs, on 
account of their wages and salaries a considerable sum, yet no fundamental reform can be 
introduced therein until it be seen how far the lost conquests will be recovered, and with what 
number of officers and servants the business there can be carried on. And especially when 
population increases and Brazil becomes inhabited by Netherlanders, many suitable persons 
from the Commonalty should be employed at a small stipend in the Company's service. 
Meanwhile, the supreme government in Brazil ought to be seriously notified to reduce to the 
lowest point the Company's servants and train bands there, in proportion to the low state of 
affairs and the condition of trade, and in all things to study Retrenchment, whereof we shall 
now accordingly treat. 

Second point — Of Retrenchment. 
EetreDchment. This point embraces the entire administration of the Company, both in this 

country and abroad. 

And, first, respecting Retrenchment in this country. It has been heretofore proposed that, 
by reducing the number of the Directors to two-thirds, one-third of their salaries could be 
saved and the allowances to those still employed, or in lieu thereof the existing pay, be so 
modified, according to the present condition of the Company that, they being satisfied with a 
tantum to be fixed by your High Mightinesses until the Company's revenues should sensibly 
increase, something additional might be again allowed them. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : IIL 241 

la like manner the employes of the respective Chambers, such as store-keepers, ship- 
carpenters, cashiers, bookkeepers, clerks, doorkeepers, laborers, and more of the same 
description, who draw yearly wages from the Company, can, also, be considerably decreased, 
according as the business and administration of each Chamber may be thought to require. In 
all cases, in order to prevent excess, a certain reasonable sum should be allowed for each ninth 
part, not to be exceeded in any instance. The attention of the Chambers ought also be 
directed to the expenses of house rent, fire, light, office and similar minutias, which amount in 
the year to a considerable sum. When better order is introduced, a large amount can also be 
saved in clerkhire, traveling expenses, deputations to the Nineteen ; frequent and unnecessary 
Assemblies of the XIX., especially, could be dispensed with, in case a general and permanent 
Board (whereof mention has been already made) were established, whose expenses would be 
sufficiently and abundantly economized, were it only in the matter of multitudinous deputations 
and fruitless meetings. 

The Company will be principally obliged to get rid of a portion of its ships, which, including 
cannon, stores, and appurtenances, amount to much more than chartered vessels; and in our 
opinion the Chambers would be sufficiently provided, were each ninth part to maintain two of 
its own ships and a yacht, and to hire the remainder at a fitting season. In this way, also, 
ship yards, rope walks, and other appendages which drain several thousands yearly, could be 
got rid of. When, even on the other hand, the Company requires some first class ships, it will 
not be necessary that it should build them ; it can contract for them on suitable charter at the 
cheapest rate, and have the old ones repaired and fixed in the same way that private merchants 
are in the habit of doing. 

The factors introduced at Amsterdam by the outer Chambers, contrary to the 26"" article of 
the Charter, might be also dispensed with, as they draw salaries from those Chambers and 
pay private storage when the Company's stores at Amsterdam are large enough to accommodate 
their goods. Sufficient good understanding ought to exist among the respective Chambers 
and Directors to induce the one to attend to the business of the other, as is customary with 
the East India Company. More precise recommendations on the point of Retrenchment in the 
several Chambers could be submitted, had they condescended to send us, pursuant to the order 
of the XIX. and to our letters, the ordinary and extraordinary expenses each has to bear in its 
own department ; but having never been able to prevail on the Chambers to furnish us with 
a correct account, we hope that each now feeling its own sore, will in future take better care 
to relieve itself from all unnecessary expense. 

In addition to the excessive salaries of some superior officers, which alone amount, according 
to a certain list, to more than ten thousand guilders per month, the Company is mainly 
burthened in Brazil by the great number of military, who on account of the rations they draw, in 
addition to their pay, are twice as expensive as soldiers in this country. There are a number 
of commissaries, assistants and other followers, hired and employed in disbursing the weekly 
rations and pay in divers garrisons, who by their frauds, estimates of leakage, and other sinister 
practices, swindle the Company of a considerable amount. The greater part of this could be 
saved, were the soldiers there paid in money, as we have more fully submitted to the XIX., 
and as would have been put into practice had not it been for the revolt and the cessation 
of the Company's incomes and domains in Brazil. But should the soldiers' wages and board 
be embodied in one sum, this could, in time, be diminished, and the soldiers receiving their 

Vol. T. 31 



242 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

pay in cash, could go at their pleasure, to market, in the cheapest manner, and have less to 
complain of than now. 

What farther relates to Retrenchment in Brazil and the other conquests, must be particularly 
recommended to and enjoined on the supreme government and the directors of said districts, 
who, being on the spot, can attend better to all such matters which they ought, of themselves, 
to introduce, as by instruction they are obliged to do, and are personally bound to answer 
specially for all that is intrusted to them. 

Third jjoiiit — Of the Trade. 
Trade. Comiug HOW to the third point of trade and commerce ; the Company ought 

either to carry it on itself or allow private persons to prosecute it, since serious and lengthy 
disputes have arisen on the subject among the Chambers to the sensible deterioration of the 
Company. 'Twere well an end were at once put to these disputes, yet with such 
circumspection that, the trade being regulated for the present according to the actual condition 
of the conquests, might, in case of essential change therein, be hereafter modified according to 
the urgency of affairs. 

If now your High Mightinesses have to learn distinctly from the respective opinions of each 
Chamber, the reasons they will produce in support of their pretension, nevertheless, to express 
our opinions in general terms and without prejudice to any Chamber, it appears to us, under 
correction, that exclusive of the West India islands and continent, which, up to the present 
time, have been always frequented by private traders according to certain regulations from your 
High Mightinesses and the commission of the respective Chambers granted for that purpose ; 
the remaining places within the Charter where the Company maintains government, forts or 
quarters, ought to be considered under two divisions, some being of a nature not to demand 
any cultivation or population, affording simply trade ; others again, where the lands must 
necessarily be first improved by agriculture and population if they are to render any return 
of moment. 

The first division includes all the places situate on the North Coast of Africa, from Cape 
Verde south unto Cape Lopes Gonsalvo, where hides, gum, wax, elephants' teeth, grains of 
paradise and chiefly Guinea gold are obtained in trade ; which wares are brought by Blacks 
from a distance in the interior, without the aid of cultivation, and trucked with a few 
commissaries stationed at posts and in vessels here and there. The Company can prosecute 
this trade as well as, yea, better than individuals (who injure each other by misrepresentations), 
especially were a certain capital or fund of money employed in it; were the cargoes bought 
in good order and sent off in due season, and the greatest economy observed in the fitting out 
of the ships. The XIX. adopted, heretofore, right good resolutions and orders on this subject 
and on that of the trade to the coast of Guinea, but owing either to inability or jealousy of 
the Chambers, they were not observed. That coast is, in consequence, much resorted to by 
foreign nations, so that if other arrangements be not, in a short time, adopted in the premises, 
it runs great risk of being wholly filched, or at least rendered unproductive for the Company. 

There is no other way to prevent this than to appropriate a certain cash capital and fund 
sufficient to carry on the trade, which ought to remain specially applied thereunto in the hands 
of certain commissaries, or separate accounts kept of it, and all the profit of the trade divided 
among the Chambers, and the capital remain always undiminished. By this means the trade 
would be quickly reestablished and again attain vigor. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IlL 243 

Respecting the separate trading posts at Argyn, Senegal, Cape Verde, Rio Gamliia and 
Sierra Leone, to wJTicli eacii Chamber now independentlyresorts with its own stores and ships, 
it has been, heretofore, sufficiently demonstrated to the XIX. that all those places had much 
better been combined and visited annually by a first class ship, in rotation, or otherwise, and 
at joint profit. By this means, a part of the unnecessary outfit can be dispensed with, 
and much jealousy obviated among the Chambers which do not participate in the separate trade. 

The Island of St. Thomas is indeed of a nature to derive more benefit from cultivation and 
raising of produce. Free access and unrestricted trade are considered suitable means to 
that end, although our people will not easily settle there on account of the insalubrity of the 
climate, and because the best and most productive spots are already sufficiently peopled and 
cultivated by Portuguese; so that nothing more remains than to take the sugars and other 
produce of these people and to supply them, in return, with all sorts of goods and necessaries, 
which do not yearly exceed one hundred thousand guilders. We should, therefore, be of 
opinion, that the trade may be properly carried on by the Company, the rather as the four 
ships going in turns from Guinea to St. Thomas could easily make the whole of their equipment 
with the sugar freights ; yet, in order not to constrain the inhabitants of said Island to give 
their sugars exclusively to the Company, and to take goods in return in payment, they could 
be allowed to consign the sugars, cottons, ginger, &c., to private merchants in this country, and 
to order goods from them in exchange upon Brazilian duties and freights ; but that must be 
done exclusively in the Company's vessels for reasons before mentioned. 

Much question obtains just now as to whether the Angola trade ought to be reserved to the 
Company or thrown open to individuals. This is, in our opinion, as yet, premature, and 
cannot be absolutely decided at present, partly because it is not yet known, with certainty, 
what is the condition of things there at this moment, and whether the inland trade through 
the Portuguese is not altogether closed to private persons as well as to the Company. Secondly : 
because Brazil is not yet recovered and reduced to order; according to the condition of which 
this entire trade must be mainly arranged. 

Brazil being, with God's help, first recovered, and the cultivation of the soil, together with 
the establislimeut of so many ruined plantations (ingenhos) commenced, a large number of 
slaves would doubtless be immediately required there, especially as the Company, by success 
of arms, may yet reduce some of the Southern Captaincies of Brazil beyond the frontiers ; 
particular attention must then be paid that slaves be obtained at a reasonable price, otherwise 
the Seigniors of the plantations (ingenhos) and freemen might not be able to pay the cost of 
those they may require for farm work. 

Here it must now be taken into consideration, whether the Company itself ought to furnish 
all the slaves in Brazil, either selling them for cash for as much as they may be worth, or giving 
them on credit to the inhabitants at a regular rate, payable in produce and sugar. Experience 
teaches that slaves, in consequence of the scarcity of money in Brazil, do not fetch as much 
cash as the Company expends in goods, outfit and freight inclusive; so that the maintenance 
of the garrisons in Angola is mostly become a charge to the Company, and in consequence of 
giving credit for the slaves, without getting prompt payment in sugars or other returns from 
Brazil, the Chambers have very suddenly ceased and abandoned the sending of new cargoes; 
for nofc-a ship has been sent thither by any of the Chambers now within the space of eighteen 
months. And though new capital were furnished for the purpose, there is no certainty that the 
Company would fare better in future, except yearly cargoes be again provided to be bartered 



244 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

in Guinea for two to three thousand slaves to be sold on their own account. The next means 
would be to open the Angola slave trade to individuals on these or similar conditions, to wit ; 
that they convey cargoes in their own ships to Loando St. Paulo, there to be exclianged for 
slaves either by their own factors or by the Portuguese traders who may resort thither under 
our obedience, and export those slaves with the Director's knowledge, upon certain duty and 
toll in their own ships to Brazil and even elsewhere, to be sold or credited there to the Seigniors 
of plantations. 

And were this means deemed useful not alone to relieve the Company henceforth from this 
disbursement and risk, but also to induce private individuals anew to hazard some more capital 
for the advancement of agriculture, and by the benefiting of one country through means of the 
other, furnisii the inhabitants and Traders with greater hope of profit; it is apparent that 
a greater number of slaves will be introduced by individual traders, who will spread themselves 
far and near, than has been as yet done by the Company, which has received only as many as 
the Blackamoors (Mouhierse) and the Portuguese brought them from Massangano, on which no 
certain calculation can be made ; consequently the duties and tolls for the support of the garrisons 
in Angola would produce more than the profit the Company could calculate on from so small 
a number of slaves as hath been traded for some time past. 

The slave trade to Brazil being opened with the approbation of the Chambers, it is to be 
further considered, as slaves during the revolt in Brazil cannot command any especial sale there, 
whether it would not be better to permit their exportation directly from Angola or at least from 
Brazil, to other places on double duty. But besides other difficulties which manifest themselves 
in this point, it must be borne in mind, that in case a way be once opened for slaves, where 
greater profits would be realized than in Brazil, then private traders will mostly take that 
course, and Brazil thus remain deprived of a due supply of slave labor on the abundance of 
which, however, the cultivation and prosperity of our conquest must depend. Also, whenever 
private traders could raise the price of slaves elsewhere, the merchants in Angola would begin 
to compete among each other and run up the price, and thus ruin all at once the trade at Brazil. 

In order to contrive a middle course herein, it is submitted, whether the business could not 
be so regulated that the slave staple be provisionally established at Brazil, so that all private 
traders from Angola must first touch there, without being able to go directly elsewhere ; expose 
the slaves to sale at the Recifl^, or barter them with the Seigniors of the Plantations (Ingenios) 
and not be at liberty to export them so long as each slave, one with another, is worth twenty 
milreas or one hundred and fifty guilders cash, or so much more or less as the traders might 
with a reasonable profit be able to obtain ; acting thus, traders would, in the first place, have 
no inducement to enhance the market for slaves in Angola relying upon what tiiey should be 
able to sell them for in Brazil ; secondly, the inhabitants of Brazil would not be imposed on in 
the price, especially if such order were made in Brazil that Jobbers and Jews, who buy up the 
slaves for cash, should not sell thera on credit at a higher rate than one per cent a month, 
the slaves being hypothecated to them for the full amount. But whenever Brazil is supplied 
with slaves, or otherwise has no need of them, the remainder might be allowed, with the 
permission of the supreme government there, and on paying a reasonable toll, to be exported 
farther. By this means the slave trade which hath so long lain dormant, to the great damage 
of the Company, might by degrees be again revived ; Angola, independent of the Company's 
supplies, would be somewhat assisted by the trade of individual merchants ; the country be 
cultivated by freemen, who will settle there for the purpose of raising provisions and necessaries, 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : IIL 245 

and the tolls and duty on the slaves, can contribute somewhat to lessen the burthen of our 
Military there. Such at least might be allowed provisionally for some time, until the condition 
of affairs, whether in Brazil or elsewhere, otherwise demand. 

Coming now to the conquests of Brazil and New Netherland, it is notorious that all their profit 
and prosperity must proceed exclusively from the cultivation of the soil, and this cannot be 
better promoted than by population. It is, indeed, true that the supply and abundance of slaves, 
by whom the tillage of the soil must be accomplished, obviates the necessity of a great number 
of people who would otherwise be required for Agriculture. Nevertheless, if slaves are to be 
properly treated, they must have their particular owners, each of whom undertakes colonies, 
plantations and farms according to his circumstances and means, and endeavors by slave labor 
to derive therefrom, either for immediate support or for exportation, whatever can be a source 
of profit. 

Population in Brazil can be promoted not only by pointing out for its support lands fit for 
cultivation, but the common people be induced to settle there especially, provided all necessaries 
which do not grow there, and must absolutely be brought from Fatherland, can be procured at 
a cheap rate there. Moreover, those who have any means to establish plantations and colonies 
[^Inge?ihos'] must be encouraged as well by the concession of privileges for the Seigniors of the 
colonies llngen/ios], exemption from tolls for some time, and other advantages, as, mainly, by 
the hope of profit they will realize by the improvement and barter of their products. Free trade 
will contribute, it is supposed, more to this end than exclusive commerce, especially as the 
former is regulated according to the merchant's greatest supply, and burthened with less charges 
than the Company's circumstances can at any time justify. The order hitherto observed in 
loading the goods of private traders in the Company's ships, hath given them occasion 
frequently to complain ; because several Chambers laying on three ships probably each time, 
which do not sail before they are full, (a thing that sometimes takes a long while) merchants 
cannot make any calculation respecting the arrival of their goods at Brazil ; moreover, the 
Chambers whose turn it is to fit out ships, have frequently rejected goods of the greatest bulk 
and lowest duty, or left them lying a long time in store to the injury of the merchants, and 
sometimes the goods are not accommodated with storage, etc., in the Company's ships to the 
satisfaction of the merchants. But the excessive freights of exported merchandise and 
particularly imported sugars, have so burthened goods, that not only the inhabitants of Brazil 
must pay the highest price for every thing, but the traders of this country, unable to compete 
with other nations, are wholly excluded from the trade. 

These inconveniences ought by all means be remedied either by issuing an order that the 
ships taking turns (tourschepen), must hereafter be put up for a time certain ; for example, 
three to four weeks; and not being full in that time, must complete their loading with the 
Company's goods, and proceed to sea with the earliest fair wind ; no distinction being made 
in receiving and accommodating goods, on condition that the receipt of the recognitions 
be equalized among, and effectively paid to, the other Chambers ; that the freights be 
proportionably reduced to what the Company might take them in chartered ships. Otherwise, 
and if no better order be introduced among the alternating ships than has prevailed hitherto, 
private traders ought be allowed to prosecute the trade in their vessels, on a regulated plan, as 
proposed by the principal stockholders of Amsterdam and Zealand ; if, indeed, it is desirable 
that any merchant continue longer to trade to Brazil, when it is notorious, that the Company 
is not in a condition to supply of itself all the Brazilian necessaries for the support of so 
many thousand people in addition to those going to keep plantations (Ingenhos). 



246 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Should this throwing open the trade to private vessels be distasteful to some Chambers, in 
the supposition that the free course of trade which tends more to one place than to another, 
would prove prejudicial to their Chambers and cities and diminish their freights, it is 
submitted wliether, in such case, those Chambers would not be satisfied by allowing them to 
send more vessels to other districts, so that each member may enjoy its proper management, 
and the provinces the benefit of the trade which was allowed them respectively on the 
establishment of the Company. 

Respecting New Netherland : That country is considered to be the most fruitful of all within 
your High Mightinesses' jurisdiction, and the best adapted to raise all sorts of this country 
produce, such as rye, wheat, barley, peas, beans, etc., and cattle; and that in more 
abundance than can be done here, were it suitably peopled and cultivated. The granting of 
Freedoms and Privileges, hath indeed induced some Patroons and Colonists to undertake 
agriculture there ; but as the produce cannot be sold any where except in the adjacent places 
belonging to the English, who are themselves sufficiently supplied, those planters have not 
received a return for their labor and outlay. With a view, then, to give greater encouragement 
to agriculture, and consequently to population, we should consider it highly advantageous that 
a way be opened to allow them to export their produce even to Brazil, in their own vessels, 
under certain duties, and subject to the supervision both of the Director in New Netherland, 
and the Supreme Council in Brazil ; and to trade it off* there, and to carry slaves back in 
return; which privilege of sailing with their own ships from New Netherland to Brazil, should 
be exclusively allowed to Patroons and Colonists, who promote the population in New 
Netherland, and not to the interlopers, who only carry goods to and fro, without attending to 
agriculture. By this means not only would Brazil be supplied with provisions at a cheaper 
rate, but New Netherland would by slave labor, be more extensively cultivated than it has 
hitherto been, because the agricultural laborers, who are conveyed thither at great expense to 
the Colonists, sooner or later apply themselves to trade, and neglect agriculture altogether. 
Slaves, on the other hand, being brought and maintained there at a cheap rate, various other 
descriptions of produce would be raised, and by their abundance be reduced in price, so as to 
allow, when occasion would offer, of their advantageous exportation hither and to other parts 
of Europe. 

Thus having now treated of the three points of reform in the Company, referred to us by 
your High Mightinesses, to wit. Superintendence, Retrenchment and Trade, we shall add a 
few words on the subject of the Company's finances, or means of support; as without 
amendment herein, the preceding points can never be thoroughly introduced, nor put into 
practice by the respective Chambers; it being notorious, that a great portion of the abuses or 
•disorders in the Company, principally In the department of trade, proceeds from the want of 
means and scarcity of cash ; because each Chamber is under greater necessity to extricate itself 
from embarrassment than to pay attention to the general interest. By this means the 
conquests of Guinea, St. Thomas and Angola, were not, sometimes since, properly supplied; 
yea more, they have been rather a burthen than a profit to the Company. 

The decline in the Company's finances is caused, among other things, by the heavy military 
force in Brazil ; especially during the war with the Portuguese. For this reason, the 
government of this country promised the Company, at the last augmentation of its capital, and 
on the issue of the Charter, to pay a yearly subsidy of seven tons of gold. But Its payment 
not being forthcoming as promptly as the Company's circumstances demanded, the latter was 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: III. 247 

obliged to borrow a considerable sum, the interest whereof it must now daily pay, to its 
serious embarrassment. It has happened, moreover, that since the outbreak in Brazil, all 
the Tenths, Excise, Revenue and other Domains and Receipts, which might be applicable to the 
lessening of this charge, have wholly ceased, and few returns coming over, the current debts 
are also remarkably increased by the respective Chambers, so that it is impossible to continue 
business any longer in that country; much less to attend to the preservation and trade of the 
foreign possessions, unless the Company be succored by prompt means in cash. 

The stockholders, to all appearance, will not be induced to subscribe any thing additional 
before Brazil be recovered, and, as already stated, placed in its previous condition ; because 
it is the principal pledge on which their money has been invested ; and even though restored, 
no assurance can be given them, that the ancient difficulty would not hereafter return, so long 
as the burthen of the military continues to hang around their neck ; therefore, your High 
Mightinesses ought, above all things, vote the extraordinary aid for Brazil, as requested and 
already consented to by some provinces; and, consequently, after the accomplishment of the 
principal design in Brazil, reduce the military which are required there for the defence 
and maintenance of the garrisons in that quarter, to a smaller number, to be continued and 
supported at the public expense, at least until Brazil again recovers itself, and the excise 
and tenths and similar public revenues, produce sufficient to defray the military expenses. 

Should the inhabitants of Brazil, considered as the subjects of this State, receive in this way 
that protection and benefit from your High Mightinesses which they might enjoy in this 
country, freemen would be encouraged to settle down there quietly under your High 
Mightinesses' guardianship, and Brazil being riveted to this country, might not only afford trade 
and support for many thousand people in time of peace, but serve as a bulwark for the 
security of this State in time of war, and as a point from which the enemy in the vicinity 
of his West Indies could be harrassed and kept always more effectually in check. 

The fifteen tons of gold receivable from the East India Company would serve to stock 
Brazil and Angola with provisions, munitions of war, stores and general supplies, and lit out 
ships and yachts both for the conveyance thereof and the defence of the coasts. 

For the payment of the salaries of the superior officers in Brazil, which amount, as before 
stated, to over ten thousand guilders per month, and of other additional officers in the 
respective Colonies, who might be placed to the account of the General Company, the 
Commissioners recently at the Hague voted and applied on the tenth of December, the revenue 
and duty from privateers and private jmerchantmen trading within the limits of the charter; 
with orders that the moneys received be consigned to this Board of Accounts, and that the 
preceding salaries be paid therefrom. But in consequence of divers obstacles on the part of 
some Chambers which would not willingly surrender the aforesaid revenue, wherewith they 
Endeavor to defray their particular expenses, the said order has not been yet obeyed, and thus 
the Board of Accounts is unable to satisfy the aforesaid superior officers, who will now transmit 
their bills by the first ships. It would therefore be highly necessary that your High Mightinesses 
issue orders for the prompt execution of the resolutions adopted by the Chambers, so that the 
General Company may experience the benefit thereof, in the lessening of their common burthens. 

As regards the remaining charges, such as the current debts of the respective Chambers, the 
yearly interest of money in deposit, the accounts payable to those returning home from all 
quarters, and other expenses accruing in this country, we see no means applicable thereunto, 
as the Company's effects are very few, or none, and the respective conquests are destroyed, or so 



248 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

reduced in matter of trade that little or no returns are to be expected from them. In addition 
to this, new capital is demanded for the reestablishment of and trading to the North coast of 
Africa, St. Thomas, and adjacent commercial posts, on the supposition that Angola be thrown 
open to private traders, which otherwise would require a heavy capital. Before being 
encouraged by the vigorous aid of the government, it ought to be determined whether the 
stockholders could not be disposed to do something on their part, and to furnish a new 
subscription or capital loan of ten (^ twelve per cent, payable periodically or in instalments. 
Of this loan a million ought to be voted and appropriated to the aforesaid trade to Guinea, St. 
Thomas and adjacent places, in order first, to provide these posts with all sorts of cargoes, 
and to exclude therefrom the English and foreign nations, and, further, to defray out of that 
fund the provisioning and establishment of the coast and the outfit of the ships. Whatever 
may remain from the aforesaid new subscription, ought to be applied to the liquidation of the 
most urgent debts and incumbrances, which cannot be "deferred. In case the Company be 
further aided by a subsidy, and somewhat relieved by your High Mightinesses, at least until its 
returns produce sufficient for the payment of the interest of the moneys on deposit, which, as 
above stated, were taken up in consequence of the subsidy in arrear, 'tis confidently to be 
hoped that affairs, both at home and abroad, may, through (Jod's blessing, he again established, 
and the respective conquests brought by degrees into a flourishing condition, in order that they 
may be able hereafter, not only materially to reduce the Company's yearly incumbrances, but 
bring forth some fruit to the stockholders, to indemnify them for so much sunk capital. 

Thus done and drawn up by the Commissioners in the Board of Accounts of the General 
Incorporated West India Company at Amsterdam, this 19"" April, Sixteen hundred and 
forty-seven. 

(Signed) J. Blommaekt 
M. Alttngh. 



Resolution of the States General, referring the precedi7ig Papers. 

[ From the Register of West India affairs, 1633 — 1651, in the Koyal Archives at the Hague.] 

Thursday, ix"" April, 1648. 
jochu^''" ^iMeters "^'^^ additional petition presented, with divers papers annexed, to their High 
cuyte^r and Cornelia Mightinesses, in the name and on behalf of Jochum Pieters' Cuyter and Cornells 
Melyn is, after previous consideration, placed in the hands of the Mess" van der Capelle the 
Ryssel, and others their High Mightinesses' Deputies for the affairs concerning the Redress of 
the Decline of the West India Company, to inspect, examine and to look into the past 
proceedings thereupon, and to report on the whole with power to their High Mightinesses' 
Deputies who may be present, to proceed to business in the absence of one or the other of the 
committee ; to progress therein and to terminate the same. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: IIL 249 

Resolution of the States General permitting Messrs. Cuyter and Melyn to return to 
New Netherland. 

[From the Register of West India Affairs, 168S— 1651, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague.] 

Tuesday, 2S* April, 1648. 
jochinTpeterss, Cay- '^^^ Fcport of Mess" van A&Y Capelle tho Ryssel and the other their High 
Melyn.*'"' ^^"""""^ iV'ightlnesses' Deputies, who, pursuant to their High Mightinesses' resolutions of 
the 11 January last, and the 9"" instant, inspected and examined the respective petitions 
presented to their High Mightinesses in the name and on the behalf of Jochim Pieters' Cuyter 
and Cornelis Melyn, together with the papers thereunto annexed, being heard: It is after 
previous deliberation, resolved and concluded to grant the petitioners, hereby, provisional 
appeal, with the clause suspending the respective sentences pronouced against them on 25th 
Pr stuyvesant. July, of the year 1647, by Peter Stuyvesant, Director of New Netherland, in the 
Mandamus. West Indies, with the advice of his Council ; and the petitioners are further 

allowed and granted liberty to return to New Netherland aforesaid, and free and unmolested 
to use and enjoy their property there, the same as other Colonists and inhabitants, pending 
the case in appeal; and letters shall be addressed to the present commander and mutatis 
mutandis, to the government there, that they leave the parties unmolested and in the enjoyment 
of their High Mightinesses' resolution ; with this understanding that this shall not be drawn 
into precedent, to the prejudice of the charter granted to the West India Company of 
this country. 



States General to Director Stuyvesant. 

[From the BegUter of TJUgegant Brieven of the States 0eneral, in the Royal Archives at the Hague.] 

To the Director in New Netherland, 28"" April, 1648, and mutatis mutandis to the 
government in New Netherland. 

The States General, &c. 
Folio 88. Honorable, &c. We have this day heard and considered the report of Mess" our 

Deputies, who, pursuant to our previous resolutions of the xi January last, and of the 9"" instant, 
have investigated and examined the several petitions presented unto us, in the name and on the 
Cuyter and Melyn. behalf of Jochum Pieters Cuyter and Cornelis Melyn ; also the papers thereunto 
annexed; and after previous deliberation have, consequently, granted the petitioners provision 
of appeal, with the clause suspending the respective sentences pronounced against them, on the 
24 July, of the year 1647, with the advice of his Council, by Peter Stuyvesant, Director of 
New Netherland, within the limits of the West India Company ; and We have, moreover, 
granted to and allowed the petitioners liberty, pending the case in appeal, to return hence to 
New Netherland aforesaid, and free and unmolested to enjoy and use their property there, the 
same as other Colonists and inhabitants ; of all which We have resolved hereby to advise 

Vol. T. 32 



250 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

you, and to order and charge you, that you shall allow the aforesaid petitioners to act 
unmolested and peaceably to enjoy the full effect of these, Our good designs and intentions, 
without failing in any way therein. Done 28"" April, 1648. 



Mandamus in Case of the Appeal of Messrs. Ciiyter and Alelyn. 

[From the AcU-boek of the States General, In the Eoyal Archirea at the Hague. ] 

Mandamus in case of appeal with suspensory clause for Jochem Pietersz Cuyter 
and Cornells Melyn, inhabitants of New Netherland. 

Folio 574. The States General of the United Netherlands to the first marshal or messenger 

hereunto requested, who is qualified to act. Health. Know Ye, that We have received the 
humble petition presented unto Us, by and on behalf of Jochim Pietersz Cuyter and Cornells 
Melyn, setting forth that they, the petitioners, had, by permission and leave of the Assembly 
of the Nineteen, of the General West India Company, transported themselves in the year One 
thousand six hundred and thirty-nine, with wives and children, and the means of private 
citizens, besides a large stock of cattle from this country into New Netherland, so that they, 
the petitioners, had in the year 1643, after a heavy outlay, much trouble and indescribable 
labor, brought into good order their lands, houses and other improvements, which they were 
obliged to abandon in the year aforesaid, in consequence of the war that Director Kieft 
illegally and contrary to all public Law, had commenced against the Indians or inhabitants of 
New Netherland, and have accordingly lost all their property; wherefore the petitioners, 
together with the other six chosen men resolved, in the name of the unanimous Commonalty 
in New Netherland, and sent over by the Blue Cock in the year 1644, their complaints on this 
point in two letters to the Assembly of the Nineteen, and to the Directors in Amsterdam. The 
mischiefs which followed this deed of murder, massacre and other additional abominations, 
that Director Kieft, of his own motion, permitted at the time to be perpetrated on the innocent 
and guiltless Indians, which must startle the Christian heart that hears of them, may be fully 
seen in the original letter to the Nineteen.' The Eight chosen men were not aware that they 
had, in thus acting, committed any offence, but hoped that the most favorable construction 
would be placed on it by the Directors, who, however, the petitioners find did, on the contrary, 
take the letter in the worst part, and accordingly sent it by the new Director Stuyvesant, back 
to New Netherland to Director Kieft. The consequence of this was, that the aforesaid Kieft 
determined to proceed very severely against the Eight chosen men, especially against both the 
Petitioners, and had them prosecuted by the Fiscal, so that Director Stuyvesant, to gratify 
the aforesaid Kieft, hath banished the petitioners for some years from the country as they 
would not contradict the truth, and persisted in their previous writings. The Petitioners then 
turned unto Us, requesting, imploring, praying, for God's sake, that We would please to protect 
them in their rights, that they may be able to return to their poor, desolate wives and 
children, and be established in their previous condition on their lands, and in case the 

'Supra, p. 100. — Ed. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : IIL 251 

Petitioners have given offence by any improper papers, tending to injure New Netheriand or 
tiie pulilic vpeal (wiiich they in no way desired), they submit themselves here to such 
punishment as We shall find appropriate; but it will appear, on the contrary, that the 
Petitioners had no other aim in their writings than the promotion of the public good and 
the wished for peace in New Netheriand, and the removal of the inhuman cruelties, tyranny and 
misgovernment which the servants of the West India Company, and especially Director Kieft, 
inflicted from time to time on the Natives of New Netheriand; the consequence whereof is, 
that by these barbarous proceedings, the country is wholly prostrate, the settlers hunted, their 
lands laid waste, the bouweries and plantations, to the number of 50 or 60 burnt and laid in 
ashes, and what is worst of all, the Dutch name is through those cruel acts, despised to a most 
sovereign degree, by the Heathens of those parts: And whenever the poor inhabitants 
complained to the supreme government of these harsh doings, they were so persecuted by the 
Directors there, that the Dutch, in course of time, abandoned the country, and little more than 
one hundred men, besides private traders, are found there at this day. It is therefore much to 
be apprehended, that the English will endeavor in time, to become masters of it, for they, of 
late years, have come near unto the Dutch, and within fifteen years have increased in New 
England to fifty or sixty thousand souls, who have now already got a smack of the productiveness 
and of the convenient navigable rivers of Our New Netheriand. The Petitioners, then, earnestly 
imploring that this, their humble petition, may by Us be taken into consideration, and they be 
granted their reasonable and fair request, which, also, the Assembly of the Nineteen itself 
promisedin their charter of 1630, to all Patroons and free inhabitants: seeing which, We, 
therefore, request and command you, who are hereby deputed hereunto, to summon, in Our 
name, at the request of the aforesaid Petitioners, the above named Director Stuyvesant, and 
those of the government in New Netheriand aforesaid, with all others required, to come 
and appear, or send attorneys, on a suitable day, to sustain and defend the aforesaid sentences 
and the tenor thereof before Us, here at the Hague, or to renounce the same if they think proper ; 
to see and hear the same adjudged null, void, and of no effect, and accordingly, legally to amend 
and correct them according to law, if such be right, on such application as the Petitioners, on 
the day appointed, shall present, in order, parties being heard, the Petitioners may by Us, be 
provided with such remedy of justice, and also of grace if necessary, as shall be found pertinent 
and applicable to the case. Moreover, right stricly forbidding and commanding in Our behalf, 
on certain heavy penalties, the aforesaid defendants, and all others whom it may concern, that 
pending the matter in appeal, they neither do attempt, nor innovate any thing against the 
aforesaid Appellants, but, on the contrary, if any thing be done, attempted or innovated, that 
they immediately and without hesitation repair it, and place it in its first and proper position. 
Leaving copy hereof and of your summons for the behoof of the Defendants, and reporting to 
Us, on the day aforesaid, what you shall have done herein. Given in the Hague, on the 
twenty-eighth day of April, XVI' and forty-eight. 



252 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Resolution of the States General approving the preceding Mandamus. 

[ From the Kegister of West India Affairs, 1688—165), in the Royal Archives at the Hagne. ] 

Thursday, 30'" April, 1648. 
cuyier and Meiyn. The draft of the Maiidamus in the case of appeal prepared by order of their 
High Mightinesses in behalf of Jochum Pieters' Cuyter and Cornells Melyn being read to the 
Assembly, it is, after previous deliberation, held as enacted, and it is further ordered to be 
dispatched and issued. 



Mesolution of the States General to grant Safeguard to Messrs. Cuyter and 

[From the Register of West India Affairs, 1633—1651, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Wednesday, 6"" May, 1648. 
A certain other petition presented to their High Mightinesses in the name and 
Cuyter and Cornells Melyn, their High 
Mightinesses' subjects and inhabitants in New Netherland, is read to the Assembly, 
Mandamus. Setting forth, that their High Mightinesses were pleased on the 28"" April last, to 

grant them, the petitioners, a Mandamus in case of appeal, with the clause suspending the 
sentence which Peter Stuyvesant, Director of New Netherland under the West India Company, 
with the advice of his Council, pronounced against them on the 25"" July, 1647, and that their 
High Mightinesses, in addition, have granted them, the petitioners, liberty, pending the case in 
appeal, to return hence to New Netherland aforesaid, and use and enjoy their property there 
free and unmolested, the same as other colonists and inhabitants. They, the Petitioners, 
praying their High Mightinesses to be pleased to extend their favor further, so far as to advise 
the Assembly of the XIX. thereof, or in its absence, the presiding Chamber of the West India 
Company; and further, to grant them, the petitioners, Acte ad omnes Populos, and particularly 
to those directly or indirectly under the jurisdiction of this State, so that tliey, the Petitioners 
may, with the one and the other, enjoy the effect of their High Mightinesses' kindness and 
favorable resolution. Whereupon deliberation being had, it is resolved and concluded, that 
agreeably to the Petitioners' request the aforesaid concession shall be notified to the aforesaid 
Assembly of the Nineteen, or in their absence to the presiding Chamber of the said 
Company; and to them, the Petitioners, shall be forthwith issued, Acte ad omnes Populos, and 
particularly to all those who, directly or indirectly, are under the jurisdiction of this State; 
so that the aforementioned Petitioners, both one and the other, may enjoy the effect of their 
High Mightinesses' resolution and concession aforesaid. And the aforesaid Mandamus shall be 
enlarged, as it is hereby enlarged thus far, to wit: that the said Mandamus shall be served not 
only by a messenger, marshal or notary, but by such other person, whether public or private, 
as they, the Petitioners, jointly or severally may accept and empower. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS: III. 253 

Passport to Messrs. Cuyter and Melyn to return to New Neiherland. 

[ From the Acte-ioek of the States General, in the Eoyal Arcfaires at the Hagne. ] 

Act ad omnes Populos for Jocheni Pietersz Cuyter and Cornelis Melyn, inhabitants 
of New Netherland. 

Folio 277. Tlie States General of the United Netherlands. To all those who shall see or 

hear these read, Health : Be it Known, Whereas, We, on the 28"" April last, did grant unto 
Joachim Pietersz Cuyter and Cornelis Melyn provision of appeal with the clause of inhibition 
(according to the Letters thereof issued) from the respective sentences which Peter Stuyvesant, 
Director of New Netherland, in the West Indies, with the advice of his Council, pronounced 
against them on the 25"" July, of the year 1647 ; and have, moreover, accorded and granted 
liberty to the Petitioners, pending the case in appeal, to return to New Netherland aforesaid, 
and there enjoy and make use of their property free and unmolested, the same as other 
Colonists and inhabitants ; We, therefore, request all Kings, Princes, Potentates, Republics, 
Parliaments, States and Deputies, being with Us and these United Netherlands in friendship, 
alliance and neutrality; also, their admirals, lieutenants and vice admirals, captains and 
commanders to allow said Joachim Pietersz Cuyter and Cornelis Melyn to prosecute their 
voyage to New Netherland aforesaid, they being inhabitants and subjects of this State, and We 
shall on that account be and remain at all times, disposed, such to reciprocate towards the 
illustrious Kings, Princes, Potentates, the high and honored Republics, Parliaments, States and 
Deputies and to acknowledge towards the aforesaid their admirals, lieutenants and vice-admirals, 
and captains, and likewise towards their inhabitants and subjects on all occurring occasions. 
We further charge and command all admirals, lieutenants and vice-admirals, captains, 
lieutenants, commanders and common soldiers and sailors, being directly in Our service, and 
in that of the General Incorporated West India Company of this country to afford and lend to 
the afore-named Joachim Pietersz. Cuyter and Cornelis Melyn in the prosecution of their 
aforesaid voyage to New Netherland, all help, assistance and address, and to this end to convey 
and transport them as passengers, and at their own cost, in the respective ships under their 
comnaand, if by them thereunto requested; also, to land them whereseover the aforesaid ships 
shall have designed to go and their voyage lies, on pain, of acting contrariwise, of incurring 
Our highest indignation, for such We have found expedient. Given at the Hague in Our 
Assembly, under Our Seal, paraph and the Signature of our Greffier, on the vi. May, 164S. 



Resolution of the States General on the Treaties, cfec, entered into ly the West 
India Company. 

[ From the Begiater of Weit India affain, 163S — 1651, in the Bojral Archives at the Hague. ] 

Thursday, 27"» August, 1648. 
Folio 424. In fulfillment of their High Mightinesses' resolution of the 14"" instant, and the 

letters of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company consequent thereupon, 



254 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Copies of autheniio Directof de Laet delivered unto the Assembly authentic copies of such treaties, 

treaties, ponlracts, 

Princes^and Pmelf' contracts and capitulations as the said West India Company hath made and 
^^^'- concluded with the Kings, Princes and Potentates within the limits of their 

Charter. Whereupon deliberation being had, it is resolved and concluded that the aforesaid 
authentic copies be locked up and preserved. 



Resolution of the States General on the Petition of the Guardians of Johannes 
van Rensselaer. 

[ From the Register of West India affairs, 1C85— 1651, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague.] 

Wednesday, 21=' October, 1648. 
Folio 481. 'Yhe, petition of the guardians of Johan van Renselaer, minor son of Kiliaen 

^an^jjinseiaer'!"''^'' vau Reuselaer, being read to the Assembly. It is, after previous deliberation, 
resolved and concluded that it be placed, with the papers annexed, in the hands of the Mr. van 
Renswoude, to inspect, examine and report thereupon; and this resolution shall be made public 
without reconsideration. 



Resolution of the States General on the Report in the case of Johannes van Rensselaer. 

[ From the Register of West India affairs, 1633—1651, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hagae.] 

Thursday, 22 October, 1648. 
Folio 431. Having heard the report of Mr. van Reinswoude who, in virtue of their "High 

Mightinesses' order yesterday, inspected and examined the petition, with the papers thereunto 
annexed, presented on the same day to their High Mightinesses, in the name and on behalf of 
Ta"nEenseia"°''^° ^^^ guardians of Johan van Renselaer, minor son of deceased Kiliaen van 
Eenseiaors Wyck. Reuselaer, for Letters of Investiture of High, Middle and Low Jurisdiction over 
the Colonic situate in New Netherland and called Renselaers Wyck. It is, after previous 
deliberation, resolved and concluded to hereby thank the said Mr. van Reinswoude for and on 
account of the trouble taken by him in the aforesaid ; but before proceeding finally in the 
matter, it is resolved and determined that copy of the aforesaid petition, as well as of 
the papers thereunto annexed, be transmitted to the Assembly of the XIX. of the West 
India Company, at present convened in Amsterdam, in order to understand from it, without 
delay, whether it have any valid objections against the aforesaid investiture, and to 
communicate the same to them in the speediest manner. And the petitioners are, meanwhile, 
esteemed diligent. 



HOLLAND DOCUMENTS : IIL 255 

Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company to the S'ates General. 

[ From the Original, in Ihe Koyal ArchiTes at the Hagae ; File, West Indit,'] 

To the High and Mighty Lords States General of the United Netherlands. 

High and Mighty Lords. 

The Directors of the Incorporated West India Company at the Amsterdam Chamber having 
received your High Mightinesses' letter of the SO"" October last with the copy of the petition 
presented on the same day to your High Mightinesses, by or on behalf of Jacob Tafyn, they 
state for information thereupon, that they have received advices by letter from Director Petrus 
Stuvesant, written in Fort Amsterdam in New Netherland, on the 5"" of August last, that a 
Spanish bark, burthen about 70 to 80 lasts, had been sent in there, laden with hides, and 
captured by the yacht the Cat conveying some horses from the Island of Cura9ao to the 
Caribbean Islands, a portion of which aforesaid hides the said Director had sold there, and 
would send the remainder, amounting to about 2000, to this country, as was subsequently 
done. And as the aforesaid prize, according to the law of Nations and the treaty of peace 
concluded between this State and the King of Spain, is without any gainsay, well and duly 
sent in ; without the Company being able, or bound, to know whose property any of the 
freighted goods were which, however, by means of that prohibited ship also were rendered 
contraband. The above named Directors, pursuant to the Company's order, therefore 
considered themselves to be warranted to take the benefit of, and to sell the aforesaid goods 
sent over to this country. Then having remarked by the aforesaid letter that your High 
Mightinesses had provisionally staid the aforesaid sale, we have deemed it expedient, in addition 
to the present information and in consideration thereof, humbly to solicit your High 
Mightinesses, that we be at liberty to proceed, on the day appointed by the notices and of 
which the merchants are now advised, with the aforesaid sale, and to benefit the most 
advantageously by the goods; the rather, inasmuch as the said Tafyn or any one else who 
might pretend a claim thereupon, which however cannot be, can and shall retain as much 
right to the moneys proceeding from the aforesaid sale, as he hath had to the aforesaid property. 
Which doing, etc. 

Presented in the name of the Directors of the West India Company at Amsterdam, 
the 6"> November, 1648. 

( Signed ) Gvsbert Rudolpht. 



Resolution of the States General on the petition of Mr. Blommaert and others. 

[ From the Eegtster of West India affairs, 1G38— 1651, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hagae.] 

Friday, 20"" November, 1648. 
Folio 4«. The petition of Samuel Blommaert, Johannes de Laet, Margriete Reinst, 

Samuel Blommart ■ i j- r 

cum sociia. widow of Adam Bessels and Toussaint Muyssart, on and against the guardians ot 

Colonie in New . « _^ , , . ^_ , . • r^ \ • c i^-r 

Netherland. the miuor son of Kiliaen van Renselaer, relative to certain Colonie oi New 

Netherland [being read] ; copy thereof is, after previous deliberation, placed in the hands of 
said guardians, for the purpose of commenting thereupon in writing. 



256 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Resolutions of the States General in the matter of Johannes van Rensselaer^ et al. 

[From the Register of West India affaire, 1633—1651, in the Eoyal ArchlreE at the Hague.] 

Monday, Se"- April, 1649. 
Folio 457. Read to the Assembly the petition presented to their High Mightinesses in the 

^aTEiuBeiae?."''" name, and on the behalf of the guardians of Johan van Renselaer, the son of 
stuiresant. KIHaeD Van Renselaer, complaining of Petrus Stuivesant, the West India 

Company's Director in Fort Amsterdam, situate at the Manathes in Nevs^ Netherland. 
Whereupon, deliberation being had, it is, previous to proceeding further herein, resolved and 
concluded, that the aforesaid petition shall be sent to the presiding Chamber of the aforesaid 
Company resident at Amsterdam for information. 

Resolution of the States General. 

Monday, 26 April, 1649. 
Folio 457. The answer of Johan van Weely and Wouter van Twiller, guardians of Joban 

Johan van Weely ■' ^ 

and 'Woulcr Tan 



Twyller. 



van Renselaer, son of Kiliaen van Renselaer, to the petition heretofore presented 
and'partnlrs"'"""' to their High Mightluesses by Samuel Bloemert and partners. Is, after previous 
deliberation, handed to parties to reply thereunto, within the time of fourteen days after 
service hereof. 



Resolution of the States General. 

Tuesday, 1 June, 1649. 
Folio 461. The reply of Samuel Blommaert and associates, partners in the Colonie of 

pir"«r' "'' New Netherland, to and against Jan van Wely and Wouter van Twiller, 
as guardians of Johan van Renselaer, Is, after previous consideration, handed to Mess" 
Huygens, Vett and van der Hoolck, to inspect and examine the same, and report thereon ; and 
with this exception, parties shall be at liberty meanwhile to rejoin. 

Resolution of the States General. 

Friday, 4 June, 1649. 
Folio 462. On consideration, it is hereby resolved and decided, to enlarge their High 
Mightinesses' order of the 31" May last, placed in the margin of the answer presented on the 
Samuel^ B^ommert game day to