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1833 01150 7750 















Tlicsc Documents liuvc been published under the direclion of tlie Governor, Secretary of State, 
and CoMrxRoLLER of the State of New- York, in virtue of an Act of the Legislature of the said Stale, 
entitled "An Act to Provide for the Publishing of certain Documents, relating to the Colonial History 
of the State," passed M:ir(h :^Oth, l'>19. 

The documents in Dutch and French were translated by E. B. O'Cai.laghan, M. D., who was 
employed by the State Otlicers above named for that purpose, and to superintend the publication 








The commencement of this office in England is lost in remote antiquity ; and as its incumbent was 
originally appointed by the mere delivery of the King's Signet, there is no existing record of the 
succession of the older Secretaries of State. 

To the Secretary of State is delegated the authority of the Crown throughout the Colonies ; to him 
is entrusted the appointment of Ambassadors and other diplomatic functionaries, and the general 
superintendence and management of the relations with foreign countries ; and it likewise belongs to him 
to exercise the duties of a minister of police, to superintend the domestic and internal government of 
the country, and to regulate the administration of justice. The Secretary of State is always a Privy 
Councillor, member of the Cabinet, and of Parliament. 

It is evident, then, that the office naturally divides itself into a triple arrangement, viz : the Ho7ne, 
Foreign and Colonial departments. Each of these is, now, entrusted to different individuals, and may be 
considered a distinct branch of the executive government; yet, in theory, whatever may be the number 
of the Secretaries of State, they constitute but one officer, and are co-ordinate, and equal in rank and 
authority. Each is competent to execute any part of the duties of Secretary of State ; the ordinary 
division of these duties between them being merely matter of arrangement for the more convenient 
despatch of business. No exchange of departments among the three is considered as a new acceptance 
of office under the Crown ; and consequently, does not unseat such Secretaries of State as are members of 

The Secretaries are still constituted, as in ancient times, by the delivery to them of the seals of office ; 
but in addition to this, they have always, in modern times, received a patent under the Great Seal. The 
first patent enrolled at the Record Office, Rolls House, London, is that of Sir Thomas Smith, which 
bears date 15th September, 1572. 

Since the reign of Henry VIII. there have never been fewer than two Secretaries. Soon after the 
union with Scotland, the number was professedly increased to three; and, on the 3d February, 1708, 
Queen Anne ordered the appointment of a third Secretary, when James, Duke of Queensbury, was 
sworn in. He and his successors were esteemed Secretaries of State for Scottish affairs ; but this officer 
was discontinued in 1746, when John, Marquis of Tweeddale, resigned the seal. After this, there were 
only two Secretaries, until the 20th of January, 1768, when William, Earl of Shelburne, being Secretary 
of State, and the Hon. H. S. Conway having resigned, Thomas, Viscount Weymouth, and Wills, Earl 
of Hillsborough, were sworn Secretaries of State : the latter becoming a third Secretary, and being 
destined to act for the Colonies. 

But, by the statute, 22 Geo. III. c. 82 (1782), " the office commonly called or known by the name of 
third Secretary of State, or Secretary of State for the Colonies," was suppressed and abolished ; and there 
remained but two Secretaries, until, on the 11th July, 1794, a third Secretary was again appointed ; 


from which time there have never been less than three, viz : one for the Home department, one for Foreign 
affair?, and one for the Colonies. 

From an early period till the year 176S, it was the practice to distingnish the two departments as 
the Northern and the Southern. 

The Secretary for the Southern department attended to the afiairs of the Colonies, until the appointment 
of Lord HiLLSBOROuoii, as Colonial Secretary, on 20th January, 1768. This office, as it has been already 
stated, was abolished by Act of Parliament in the year 1782 ; and about that period, the terms 
"Northern" and "Southern" were discontinued, and the departments were styled "Home" and 
" Foreign," the former of which attended to Colonial affairs, until the revival of the third Secretaryship 
in 1794, when the superintendence of the Colonies was taken from the Home Secretary, and conducted 
by the new officer. 

Each department now includes an extensive establishment of Under-Secretaries and Clerks. The 
business of the Homo department is conducted in Whitehall ; while the Colonial and Foreign offices are 
in Downing street. 

There are, altogether, six Under-Secretaries of State — two for each department. One of these two is 
generally a member of Parliament, and is appointed or resigns with the political party of which he is a 
member. The other Under-Secretary in each office is unaffected by political or ministerial changes ; and, 
in the absence of the Principal Secretary, he is the Official representative, just as his political colleague is 
the Parliamentary organ of the department to which he belongs. 

Presuming that an accurate list of the English Secretaries of State, from the time of Queen Elizabeth 
to the end of the American revolution, is a desideratum to the American historian, I have taken great 
pains to prepare one, which, though it may not perhaps be confidently affirmed to be correct in every 
instance, is, at any rate, believed to be the most complete and perfect now in existence. There does not 
appear to be any accurate official list printed ; at all events, I have not been able to find any ; and I was 
obliged to collect my information from various sources, official and unofficial. In the following list, the 
names of the Secretaries, opposite to which an asterisk ( * ) is set, are taken from the Register of Inrolments 
at the Record Office, in the Rolls House, Chancery Lane, which I have carefully examined ; and the 
dates are those of the respective patents as enrolled. The authority upon which the other names and 
dates are inserted is less satisfactory. 

I have also appended a list of the under-secretaries from 1680 to 1782. 



1558, 17th November-24th March, 1G03. 

1558. Sir William Cecil, afterwards Lord Burleigh. 

Sir William Petrie : died in 1571. 

Sir Nicholas Throckmorton. 
*1572 September 15. Sir Tho.mas Sjiith. 

*1573 February 5. Sir Thomas Walsingham : died April 6, 1590. 

*1577. Dr. Thomas Wilson. 

William Davidson. 
1596. Sir Robert Cecil, afterwards Earl of Salisbury. 



1603, 24th ]\rARCH-27TH March, 1625. 

*1609 August 1. 
*1612 September 29 
*1616 January 8. 
*1616 January 9. 

*161J January 8. 
*161| February 16. 

*1625 January 30. 

Sir Robert Cecil. 

Sir Alexander Hay. 

Thomas Hamilton. 

Sir Ralph Wlnwood : died October 1, 1617. 

Sir Thomas Lake. 

Sir John Herbert, vice Winwood. 

Sir Robert Naunton, vice Herbert. 

Sir George Calvert, afterwards Lord Baltimore, 

vice Lake : resigned 9tli February, 1624. 
Sir Edward Conway, vice Naunton. 

4625 May 25. 
4625 April 9. 
4625 November 1 

4632 June 21. 
464i January 5. 

162-5, 27th March- 30th January, 1649. 

Edward, Lord Conway. 

Sir Albertus Morton, vice Calvert. 

Sir John Coke, vice Morton. 

Sir Dudley Carleton, afterwards Viscount Dorchester, 

vice Conway. 
Francis, Lord Cottington, vice Dorchester. 
Sir Henry Vane, vice Coke. 
Sir Francis Windebank, vice Lord Cottington. 
Sir Edward Nicholas, vice Windebank. 
Lucius, Viscount Falkland, vice Vane. 
George, Lord Digby, vice Falkland. 

[no record of secretaries.] 

Acc. 164f. January 30; Rest. 1660. May 29; Dem. 16S-5. February 6. 

4660 June 1. 
4660 June 30. 

1668 December 9. 
4672 July 18. 

4674 May 11 (Patent, September 24). 
4678 February 9 (Patent, February 20). 

4680 April 14 (Patent, May 21). 

4681 March 9. 
4683 March 6. 

Sir Edward Nicholas. 
Sir William Morrice. 
Sir Henry Bennet, created E. of Arlington March 14,166|, 

vice Nicholas. 
Sir John Trevor, vice Morrice. 
Henry Coventry, vice Trevor. 
Sir Joseph Williamson, vice Lord Arlington. 
Robert, Earl of Sunderland, vice Willi 
Sir Leoline Jenkins, vice Coventry. 
Edward, Lord Conway, vice Sunderland. 
Robert, Eail of Sunderland, vice Conway. 


from wliicli time there have never been less iban tliree, viz : one for the Home department, one for Foreign 
affair?, and one for the Colonies. 

From an early period till the year 17GS, it was the practice to distinguish the two departments as 
the Northern and the Southern. 

The Secretary for the Southern department attended to the aflairs of the Colonies, until the ajipointment 
of Lord HiLLSBOROuon, as Colonial Secretary, on 20th January, 1768. This office, as it has been already 
stated, was abolished by Act of Parliament in the year 1782 ; and about that period, the terms 
"Northern" and "Southern" were discontinued, and the departments were styled "Home" and 
" Foreign," the former of which attended to Colonial affairs, until the revival of the third Secretaryship 
in 1794, when the superintendence of the Colonies was taken from the Home Secretary, and conducted 
by the new officer. 

Each department now includes an extensive establishment of Under-Secretaries and Clerks. The 
business of the Home department is conducted in Whitehall ; while the Colonial and Foreign offices are 
in Downing street. 

There are, altogether, six Under-Secretaries of State — two for each department. One of these two is 
generally a member of Farliament, and is appointed or resigns with the political party of which he is a 
member. The other Under-Secretary in each office is unaffected by political or ministerial changes ; and, 
in the absence of the Principal Secretai'y, he is the Official representative, just as his political colleague is 
the Parliamentary organ of the department to which he belongs. 

Presuming thai; an accurate list of the English Secretaries of State, from the time of Queen Elizabeth 
to the end of the American revolution, is a desideratum to the American historian, I have taken great 
pains to prepare one, which, though it may not perhaps be confidently affirmed to be correct in every 
instance, is, at any rate, believed to be the most complete and perfect now in existence. There does not 
appear to be any accurate official list printed ; at all events, I have not been able to find any ; and I was 
obliged to collect my information from various sources, official and unofficial. In the following list, the 
names of the Secretaries, opposite to which an asterisk (*) is set, are taken from the Register of Inrolments 
at the Record Office, in the Rolls House, Chancery Lane, which I have carefully examined; and the 
dates are those of the respective patents as enrolled. The authority upon which the other names and 
dates are inserted is less satisfactory. 

I have also appended a list of the under-secretarics from ICSO to 1782. 



1558, 17th November-24th JMarch, 1G03. 

.553. Sir William Cecil, afterwards Lord Burleigh. 

Sir William Petrie : died in 1571. 

Sir Nicholas Tiikockmouton. 
■1572 September 15, Sir Thomas Smith. 

'1573 February 5. Sir Thomas Walsingham : died April 6, 1590. 

*1577. Dr. Thomas Wilson. 

William Davidson. 
1596. Sir Robert Cecil, afterwards Earl of Salisbury. 


*1609 August 1. 
•^1612 September 29. 
''1616 January 8. 
•■1616 January 9. 

•^leij January 8. 
*161| February 16. 

*162§ January 30. 

1603, 24th March-27th March, 1625. 

Sir Robert Cecil. 

Sir Alexander Hay. 

Thomas Hamilton. 

Sir Ralph Winwood : died October 1, 1617. 

Sir Thomas Lake. 

Sir John Herbert, vice Winwood. 

Sir Robert Naunton, vice Herbert. 

Sir George Calvert, afterwards Lord Baltimore, 

vice Lake: resigned 9tli February, 162|. 
Sir Edward Conway, vice Naunton. 

fl625 May 25. 
*1625 April 9. 
^^1625 November ' 

n6.32 June 21. 
*164i January 5. 


1625, 27th March- 30th JA^aTARY, 1649. 

Edward, Lord Conway. 

Sir Albertus Morton, vice Calvert. 

Sir John Coke, vice Morton. 

Sir Dudley Carleton, afterwards Viscount Dorchester, 

vice Conway. 
Francis, Lord Cottington, vice Dorchester. 
Sir Henry Vane, vice Coke. 
Sir Francis Windebank, vice Lord Cottington. 
Sir Edward Nicholas, vice Windebank. 
Lucius, Viscount Falkland, N-ice Vane. 
George, Lord Digby, vice Falkland. 


[no record of SECRETARIES.] 

Ace. 164^ January 30; Rest. 1660. May 29; Dem. 16S5. February 6. 

*1660 June 1. 
*1660 June 30. 
*1663 December 22. 

1668 December 9. 
*1672 July 18. 

*1674 May 11 (Patent, September 24). 
*1678 February 9 (Patent, February 20). 
*1680 April 14 (Patent, May 21). 
*16S1 March 9. 
*1683 March 6. 

Sir Edward Nicholas. 
Sir William Morrice. 
Sir Henry Bennet, created E. of Arlington March 14, 166^ 

vice Nicholas. 
Sir John Trevor, vice Morrice. 
Henry Coventry, vice Trevor. 
Sir Joseph Williamson, vice Lord Arlington. 
Robert, Earl of Sunderland, vice Williamson. 
Sir Leoline Jenkins, vice Coventry. 
Edward, Lord Conway, vice Sunderland. 
Robert, Earl of Sunderland, vice Conway. 


•lOsi April II (Piiteiil, Mu 
'108 1 Scplembcr 25. 

^ID^■I;Y CioDoi.piii 
Charles, Eail ol' 


1, vice Godolphin. 

'1GS5 March 13. 
'lGS6 0tU.ber 2S. 

liurAuv- I Itii December, 16S8. 

Iu)iii;uT, Earl of Sunderland, continued. 
RiciiAiti), Viscount Preston, vice Middleton. 


IGOO December 26 

•1691 March 15. 
•1C9G May 9. 
•1G97 December IS, 
•1700 May 2G. 
•1700 November 22 
•1701 January 4. 

16S9, 13th FEBKrARY-Sni March, 1702. 

Charles, Earl of Shrewsbury. 

Daniel, Earl of Nottingham. 

Henrv, Viscount Sidney, vice Shrewsbury. 

Sir John Trencuard, vice Sidney. 

Charles, Earl of Shrewsbury, vice Nottingham. 

Sir WiLLLAM Trumbull, vice Trenchard. 

James Vernon, Esq., vice Trumbull. 

Edward, Earl of Jersey, vice Shrewsbury. 

Sir Charles Hedges, vice Vernon. 

Charles, Earl of Manchester, vice Jersey. 


March -1st August, 1714. 

S»170- May 1.0. 
N'1702 May 22. 
S^1701 May 20. 

S 1707. 
•1708 February 3. 

N'1710 June M. 
S 1710 September. 

N 1713. 


> Ihc SfcruUirj- llio joulLcni, N. llic Secretary the Nortlieru, Department- ] 

Daniel, Earl of Nottingham, vice Manchester. 
Sir Charles Hedges, continued. 

Robert Harley, afterwards Earl of Oxford, vice 
* Charles, Earl of Sunderland, vice Hedges. 

Henry Boyle, afterwards Lord Carleton, vice Harley. 
James, Duke of Quecnsbury; a new appointment for 

William, Lord Dartmouth, vice Sunderland. 
Henry St. John, afterwards Lord Bolingbroke, vice 

John, Earl of Mar, vice Duke ol' Queensbury. 
William Bromlev, vice Lord Dartmouth. 

S*1711 .'^epiembcr 17. 
N'1714 September 27. 

1st .\ugust-11th June, 1727. 

Charles, Viscount Townshend, vice Bolingbroke. 
James Stanhope, afterwards Earl Stanhope, vice 



«1714 October 8. 
N*1716 June 23. 

*1717 January 4. 
N*1717 April 16. 
S *1717 April 16. 
S*1718 March 14. 
N*1718 March 18. 
N*1721 February 10. 
S*1721 March 4 (Patent, March 13). 

N*1723 May 29. 

S*1724 April 1 (Patent, April 14). 

James, Duke of Montrose, vice Earl of Mar. 
Paul Methuen, in the absence of Lord Stanhope. 
John, Duke of Roxburgh, vice Duke of Montrose. 
Charles, Earl of Sunderland, vice Lord Stanhope. 
Joseph Addison, vice Lord Townshend. 
James Craggs, vice Addison. 
James, Earl Stanhope, vice Lord Sunderland. 
Charles, Viscount Townshend, vice Lord Stanhope. 
John, Lord Carteret, afterwards Earl Glanville, vice 

Robert Walpole, vice Lord Tovs-nshend. 
Thomas Holles, Duke of Newcastle, vice Lord Cartarct. 

1727, llTH June-25th October, 1760. 

S*1727 July 27. 
N*1727 July 27. 
N*1730 May 8 (Patent, June 27). 

N*1742 February 12 (Patent, February 15). 
*1742 February 20. 

N*1744 November 24. 
N*1746 February 10. 
S*1746 February 14. 

N*1746 February 14. 

N*1746 November 4. 

N*1748 February 13. 

N*1751 June 26. 

S *1754 April 6 (Patent, April 15). 

S *1755 November 25. 
S *1756 December 14. 

Thomas Holles, Duke of Newcastle, continued. 
Charles, Viscount Townshend, vice Walpole. 
WiLLL\M, Lord Hanington, vice Lord To\vnshend. 
Charles, Earl of Selkirk, vice Duke of Roxburgh. 
John, Lord Cai-taret, vice Lord Harrington. 
John, Marquis of Tweeddale, vice Earl of Selkirk: 

resigned 1746, and the office of Scotch secretary 

William, Earl of Harrington, vice Lord Cartaret. 
John, Earl Granville, vice Lord Harrington. 
Thomas Holles, Duke of Newcastle, vice Lord 

Harrington, who took, the same day. Lord 

Granville's department. 
William, Earl of Harrington, vice Lord Granville. 
Philip, Earl of Chesterfield, vice Lord Harrington. 
John, Duke of Bedford, vice Lord Chesterfield. 
Robert, Earl of Holderness, vice Duke of Bedford. 
Sir Thomas Robinson, afterwards Lord Grantham, vice 

Duke of Newcastle. 
Henry Fox, afterwards Lord Holland, vice Robinson. 
William Pitt, afterwards Lord Chatham, vice Fox: 

resigned April, 1757. 
William Pitt, reappointed. 


1760, 25th October -29th January, 1820. 

N*1761 March 25 (Patent, April 13). John, Earl of Bute, vice Lord Holderness. 

S *1761 October 9 (Patent, October 23). Charles, Earl of Egremont, vice William Pitt. 

N*1762 May 29 (Patent, June 19). Hon. George Grenville, vice Lord Bute. 

N*1763 September 9 (Patent, September 23). John, Earl of Sandwdch, vice Grenville. 

S*1763 September 5 (Patent, November 15). George, Earl of Halifax, vice Lord Egremont. 

Vol. III. B 


N«17G5 July 12 (Paloiit, July !«). 
S&:N» 17C5 July 12 (Patorit, July 19). 
S •17G0 May 23 (Patent, Juno 3). 

S'lTCG August 2 (Patent, August 18). 
N*17tJS January 20 (Patent, Feluuary 5). 
C*17G"S January 20 (Patent, February 27). 
S 'HGS October 21 (Patent, November 11). 

AuficsTus Henry, Duke of Grafton, vice Lord Sandwich, 
lion. He.vrv Skvmour Conway, vice Lord Halifax., Duke of Riclimond, vice Conway, wlio took 

the Northern Department. 
William, Earl of Shelburne, vice Duke of liichmond. 
Thomas, Viscount Weymouth, vice Conway: resigned. 
Wills, Earl of Hillsborough, apiiointed Colonial Secretary. 
William Henry, Earl of Rochford, vice Lord Shelburne. 
N*1770 December 19 (Patent, Jan. 7, 1772). John, Earl of Sandwich, vice Lord AVeymouth. 
N*1771 January 22 (Patent, Feb. 11, 1772). Georc:e, Earl of Halifax, vice Lord Sandwich. 
N*1771 June 12 (Patent, July 27, 1772). He.vry, Earl of Sufl'olk, vice Lord Halifax. 

('•1772 August 1-1 (Patent, August 27). AV^illiam, Earl of Dartmouth, Colonial Secretary, vice 

Lord Hillsborough. 
C'177.0 November 10 (Patent, Jan. 25, 177G). Lord George Sackville Germain, afterwards Viscount 

Sackville, Colonial Secretary, vice Lord Dartmouth. 
S •177.') November 10 (Patent, Nov. 21, 1776). Tho.mas, Viscount Weymouth, vice Lord Rochford. 
N*I779 October 27 (Patent, November 30). David, Viscount Stormont, vice Lord Suffolk. 
.S*1779 November 21 (Patent, Jan. 19, 1780). Wills, Earl of Hillsborough, vice Lord Weymouth. 
C*17S2 February 11 (Patent, March S). Rt. Hon. Welrore Ellis, Colonial Secretary, vice Lord 

George Germain. 
Iiolislicd by act of rarliamont, this year.] 

[ This otVicc Wi 

F'17b2 March 27 (Patent, April V.i). 
H*17S2 March 27 (Patent. April la). 
F»17S2 July 13 (Patent, Octolxr ,1). 

1I»17S2 .Tuly 17 (Patent, November 1). 
F*17S.3 April 2 (Patent, April 10). 
HM7S3 April 2 (Patent, IS). 

Charles James Fos, vice Lord Hillsborough [Foreign]. 
William, Earl of Shelburne, vice LordSlormont [Home]. 
Rt. Hon. Tiio.mas Townshend, afterwards Viscount 

Sidney, vice Fox [Foreign]. 
Thomas, Lord Grantham, vice Lord Shelburne [Home]. 
Charles James Fox, vice Townshend [Foreign]. 
Frederick, Lord North, vice Lord Grantham [Home]. 


1G80 M April. 
1G80 2G April. 
1CS2 2S.Ianuary. 

John Cooke. 

Francis Ciwynn. 

William Bridgeman, vice Gwyi 

I Warr. 

1G09 R.,bertYard. 
Matthew Prioi 


1G92 William IJridgcman. 

.Tames A^ernon. 
1G97 Thomas Hopkins, vice Vernon. 

John Ellis. 

1700 John Turkei 
Join, Ellis. 

• ^» 


1702 Richard Warr. 

William Aglionby. 
1704 John Isham, vice Aglionby. 

1707 John Tucker. 

Joseph Addison. 
1710 Thomas Hopkins. 

Robert Pringle. 
1714 Robert Pringle. 

Charles Stanhope. 

1717 Temple Stranian. 
Thomas Tickell. 

1718 Corbiere. 
Cliarles de la Faye. 

1724 Charles de la Faye. 
Temple Stranian. 

1735 John Courand, vice Stranian. 

1736 Andrew Stone, vice de la Faye. 


1743 Thomas Ramsden, vice Courand. 


1748 Richard Nevill Aldvrorth. 
John Potter. 

Hon. R. L. Gower, vice Potter. 

1751 Claudius Amyand; 
Richard Pottinger. 

1754 Claudius Amyand. 
James Rivers. 

1755 Claudius Amyand. 
Henry Uigby. 
James Rivers. 

1756 Robert Wood. 
James Rivers. 


( Continued.) 

1704 Richard Warr. 
Erasmus Lev?is. 

1710 George Tilson. 

Horatio Walpole. 

1717 George Tilson. 

Charles de la Faye. 


1724 George Tilson. 

Thomas Townshend. 
1730 George Tilson. 

Edvyard Weston. 


1740 Thomas Stanhope, vice Tilson. 
1742 Edward Weston. 


1745 Edward Weston. 


1746 Chetwynd. 

John Potter. 

1748 Andrew Stone. 

Thomas Ramsden. 

1750 Claudius Amyand. 

Hugh V. Jones, vice Ramsden. 

1751 James Wallace, vice Amyand. 
Andrew Stone. 

1754 Richard Pottinger. 
James Wallis. 


Michael Peter Morin. 
William Frazer. 
Rt. Hon. Edward Weston. 
Charles Jenkinson. 


17G2 E.lwani Sc.lgwick. 
Lovel Slauhope. 


170.'. William Bmke. 

Mirhacl Peter Morii 
John Charles Kobeit 

17CS Kolicrt Wood. 
William Frascr. 

I7G9 n. .Sutton. 

Staiiier Porten. 


Francis Willis, vice Sutton. 

Sir Stanier Porten. 

Sir Antliony Clianicr, vice W'illis. 

Sir Stanier Porten. 

Robert Bell, vice Clianicr, tleccascd. 

17G3 Rt. Hon. Edward Weston. 

Edward Sedgwick, and 

Level Stanhope, vice Weston. 
1763 Richard Phelps. 

James Rivers. 
17G5 Richard Stonehaven. 

William Frazer. 

17GG William Burke. 

William Frazer. 
17CS David Hume, vice Burke. 

Robert W^ood, 

William Eraser. 

Richard Phelps. 

William Eraser. 

Edward Sedgwick. 

Lovel Stanhope. 

William Eden. 

William Eraser. 

Thomas AVliatley. 

W^illiam Fraser. 

William Eden, vice Whatley. 

( Conti7uu'd.) 

1779 Benjamin L'Anglo 
William Frascr. 

ThoiniLS Ordc. 
Evan Nepean. 
Evan Nepean. 
Henry Strachcy. 
Hon. G. North. 
Evan Nepean. 


R. B. Sheridan. 
William Fraser. 
William Fraser. 
George Maddison. 
Andrew St. John. 
AVilliam Fraser. 

17GS Rlrhard I'hilip: 
.ImIu, Pnwnall. 

1772 John Pownall. 
William Rnox, 

X„T.- _WiIli„,„ Kn„: 

ror.nxiAL dei'ai;t:men'i 
177G C 

e Philips, 
iiliriuiil iiiiilisturl 

an D'Oyly, vice Pownall. 
1778 Thomas de Groy, junior, vice D'Oyly. 
17S0 Benjamin Thompson, vice do Grey. 



As the supervision and management of the British Colonies in America was origi.ially entrusted to 
several Lords of the Privy Council who were constituted, by Royal Commission, "A Committee for 
Trade and Plantations," and subsequently, and until a late period, to a Board of " Commissioners for Trade 
and Plantations," it is presumed that the following account (which is believed to be more full and 
accurate than any hitherto prepared) may not be without value to the American historian. 

1660 July 4. By an order in Council dated this day. 

The Lord Chamberlain, Mr. Denzell Holles, 
Earl of Southampton, Secretary Nicholas, 

Earl of Leicester, Secretary Morrice, 

Lord Viscount Say and Seale, Arthur Annesley, and 

Lord Roberts, Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, 

or any three or more of them, were appointed to meet and sit as a committee, to receive, hear, examine, 
and deliberate upon any petitions, memorials, or other papers presented by any persons, respecting the 
Plantations in America, and to report their proceedings to the Council, from time to time. 

Council of Trade. 
1660 November 7. By patent, bearing date this day, a Standing "Councell of Trade was established 
to take into their consideration the Trade and Navigation of this Kingdome, and what manner and by 
what ways and means the same may be encouraged," &c. 

Council for Foreign Plantations. 
1660 December 1. By Royal Commission, bearing date this day, 

Edward, Lord Hyde, the Lord Chancellor, Earl of Lincoln, 

Thomas, Earl of Southampton, the Treasurer, Earl of Clare, 

Edward, Earl of Manchester, Earl of Marlborough, 

and forty-two other noblemen and gentlemen, were appointed a Standing Council, any five of them having 
full power and authority to take into consideration and conduct the present and future state of the 
"Foreign Plantations" of England, with instructions (dated same day) to correspond with the several 
Governors, &c.; to take measures to bring the several Colonies, &c., into a more certain form of 
Government; and to propagate the Gospel among them; and in general to dispose of all matters relating 
to the good government and improvement of the Foreign Plantations, &c.' 

1670 July 30. By Royal Commission dated this day, 

Edward, Earl of Sandwich, Sir Humphrey Winch, 

Richard, Lord Gorges, Sir John Finch, 

William, Lord Allington, Edmund Waller, 

Thomas Grey, Henry SLiNGSsy and 

Henry Bouncker, Silas Titus, 

were appointed a Council for Foreign Plantations (the Earl of Sandwich at a salary of c£700, and the 
others of oCoOO, per annum) ; the Chancellor and other officers of state were to attend the said Council, 
and give such opinion and advice therein as they shall think fit. 

' The Council organized itself at the Star Chamber, 10th December, 1660, and appointed Mr. Philip Feowde their 
Secretarj-. — J E. B. 


1671 March 20. 26tli May. By Royal Commission dated this day, 

The Duke of York, James, Duke of Ormonde, 

Prince Rupert, John, Earl of Lauderdaill, and 

George, Duke of Buckingham, Thomas, Lord Culpej^per, 

were named additional membei's of the above mentioned Council, with the same powers as those granted 
to the Lord Keeper in the last commission ; also, John Evelyn an additional member, with the same 
powers, as the Earl of Sandwich, &c., and a salary of .£500 per annum. 

1672 September 87. By Royal Commission dated this day, the King constituted Anthony, Earl 
of Shaftesbury, and others, to be a Council for all the affairs which concern Trade, and Foreign 
Plantations, &c. 

1674 December 21. By Royal Commission dated this day, the King revoked the above commission 
of 2Sth September, 1672, and dissolved the Council of Trade and Plantations, therein constituted ; 
and also directed Benjamin Worsley, Esq., the Secretary of the late Council, to deliver their books and 
papers to the Clerk of the Privy Council, &c. 

1675 March 12. By order in Council of this date, whatever matters relating to Trade and 
Plantations, that had been under the cognizance of the late Council of Trade and Foreign Plantations, 
were refen-ed to a committee of the Privy Council, consisting of 

The Lord Treasurer, The Duke of Lauderdaill, 

Lord Privy Seal, Duke of Ormonde, 

and 17 others ; and directing them to meet once a week, and report to the King in Council from time to 
time their proceedings. And also that Sir Robert Southwell do constantly attend this committee.' 


The affairs of the Plantations continued to be managed by a similar committee in this reign, and the 
province of New York, having devolved to the crown, 6 February 16S5, was placed under the supervision 
of the committee for Plantation affairs. 


16S9 February 16. By order in Council of this date, the King appointed 

The Lord President, The Viscount Fauconbero, 
Lord Privy Seal, Viscount Mordant, 

Lord Steward, Lord Bishop of London, 

Earl of Shrewsbury, Sir Henry Copel, 

Earl of Bath, Mr. Powle and 

Earl of Nottingham, Mr. Russell," 

or any three of them, to be a Committee of the Privy Council for Trade and Foreign Plantations, &c. 

Fcrmavcnt EsUihlisIniwiit of the Board of Trade. 

The aff"airs of the Plantations continued under the management of a committee, similar to the last 
mentioned, until, 

' Chalmers, in liis Political Annals, says that John Locke was the first Secretary of this committee. — J. E. B. 



1G96 May 15. By Royal Commission under the Privy Seal, dated this day. 

The Lord Privy Seal, 
Lord Treasurer, 
Lord High Admiral, 

the principal Secretaries of State, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer for the time being, and also, 

John Pollexfex, 
John Locke, 

The Keeper of the Great Seal, or 
Lord President, 

John, Earl of Bridgewater, 
Ford, Earl of Tankerville, 

Sir Phillip Meadows, 
William Blathwayte, 

Abraham Hill, and, 
John JNIethuen, 

or any three or more of them, were appointed Commissioners during the Royal Pleasure, for promoting 
the trade of the Kingdom and for inspecting and improving the Plantations in America and elsewhere. 

This Board vras required and empowered to examine into the general condition of the trade of 
England and of Foreign parts, &c., and to make representations to the King thereupon ; to take into 
their custody all records and papers belonging to the Plantation office ; to inquire into the condition of 
the Plantations ; to examine into the instructions of the Governors, &c., and represent their conduct to 
the King ; to present the names of persons proper for Governors and Secretaries, &c., in the Colonies, 
to the King in Council ; to examine into and consider the acts passed in the Colonies ; to hear complaints 
and make representations thereupon, &c., and with power to send for persons and papers, &c.' 

1697 July 6. 

1699 June 9. 


of 15th May revoked 
Stepney, vice Methuen. 

Board reappointed, except George 

Same Board, except Thomas, Earl of Stamford, vice Bridgewater ; and Robert, 
Lord Lexington, vice Tankerville. 

1700 June 11. Same Board, except Mathew Prior, vice 

1702 January S. Same Board, except Robert Cecil, vice 

1702 March 8. Late Board continued by Proclamation on the accession of Queen Anne. 

1705. A new Board, consisting of 

Thomas, Earl of Stamford, 
Thomas, Viscount Weymouth, 
William, Lord Dartmouth, 
Sir Philip Meadows, 

William Blathwayt, 
John Pollexfen, 
George Stepney, 
Mathew Prior, 

A new Board, consisting of 

Thomas, Earl of Stamford, 
William, Lord Dartmouth, 
Henry, Lord Herbert, 

Robert Monckton. 

Sir Philip Meadows, 
George Stepney, 
John Pulteney, 

' The great officers of State, for the time being, mentioned ab( 
dissolution in 1782. Royal commissions were issued from time to tim 
substituting new members in place of old. — J. E. B. 

vo, continued members of the Board, till its final 
: of the same tenor as the one of loth ilay, 1696, only 


1707. A new Board, consisting of 

Thomas, Earl of Stamfoitl, Robert Monckton, 

William, Lord Dartmouth, John Pulteney, 

Henry, Lord Herbert, of Clierbury, Sir Charles Turner, 
John Locke. 

1710. A new Board, consisting of 

Thomas, Earl of Stamford, John Pulteney, 

William, Lord Dartmouth, Robert Monckton, 

Sir Philip Meadows, Sir Charles Turner, 

George Baillie. 

1710 October 4. Same Board, with tlio addition of Arthur Moore. 

1711 June 12. Charles, Earl of Winchelsea, Francis Gwynn, and the rest of the former board. 

1713 September 15. 

Francis, Lord Guilford, Sir John Hinde Cotton, 

Sir Philip Meadows, John Sharpe, 

Robert Monckton, Samuel Pitts, 

Arthur Moore, Thomas Vernon. 

1714. Same Board, with the addition of Archibald Hutchinson. 


1714 September. A now Board, consisting of 

William, Lord Berkeley, of Stratton, Archibald Hutchinson, 

Sir Jacob Astley, John Chetwynd, 

Robert Molesworth, Charles Cooke, 

John Cockburn, Paul Dominique. 

1715. Henry, Earl of Suffolk, vice Lord Berkely, and the rest of the last Board. 

1715. Rt. Hon. Joseph Addison, vice Hutchinson ; John Molesworth, vice Robert 


1717 July 13. Same Board, except Thomas Peliiam, vice Astley; Daniel Pulteney, vice 

Cockburn ; Martin Bladen, vice Addison. 

1718 January 31. Same Board cxccjit Robert, Earl of Holdernesse, vice Lord Suffolk. 

1719 May 11. Thomas, Earl of Westmoreland, vice Lord Holdernesse : rest of the Board same 

as the last. 

1720 June 24. 

Thomas, Earl of Westmoreland, Thomas Pelham, 

John Chetwynd, Daniel Pulteney, 

Sir Charles Cooke, Martin Bladen, 

Paul Dominique, Edward Ashe, vice Molesworth. 

1721 September 4. Same Board, with the addition of Richard Plumer. 
1721 October 4. Sir John Hobart, vice Cooke. 



1727 August 8. Same Board, except Sir Orlando Bridgeman, vice Plumer; and Walter 

Carey, vice Hobart. 

1728 June 1. Same Board, except Sir Thomas Frankland, vice Chetvvynd. 

1730 -May 13. Same Board, except Hon. James Brudenell, vice Frankland; and Sir Archer 

Croft, vice Carey. 

1735. Benjamin Mildmat, Lord Fitzvvalter, Edward Ashe, 

vice Lord Westmoreland, Sir Orlando Bridgeman, 

Thomas Pelham, Hon. James Brudenell, 

Martin Bladen, _ Sir Archer Croft, 

Richard Plumer, vice Dominique. 

1737 June. Same Board, except John, Lord Mason, vice Lord Fitzvvalter. 

1742 February. Same Board, except Hon. Robert Herbert, vice Pelham; Sir Charles Gilmour, 

vice Bridgeman ; and Benjamin Keene, vice Croft. 

1744 December 25. Same Board, except Sir John Phillips, vice Gilmour; John Pitt, vice Keene. 

1745 May 7. Same Board, except Hon. Baptist L. Gower, vice Phillips. 

1746 February. Same Board, except Hon. James Grenville, vice Bladen. 

1746 November. Same Board, except Thomas, Viscount Dupplin, vice Brudenell ; Francis Fane, 
vice Gower. 

1748 November 1. 

George Dunk, Earl of Halifax, John Pitt, 

vice Lord Monson, Hon. James Grenville, 

Richard Plumer, Viscount Dupplin, 

Hon. Robert Herbert, Francis Fane, and 

Sir Thomas Robinson, vice Ashe. 

1749 November. Hon. Charles Townshend, vice Plumer ; Andrew Stone, vice Sir T. Robinson. 
1751 December James Oswald, vice Herbert. 

1754 April 6. Hon. Richard Edgecumbe, vice Dupplin ; Thomas Pelham, vice Townshend. 

1755 December 23. Hon. John Talbot, vice Pitt ; Soame Jentns, vice Grenville ; Richard 

RiGBY, vice Edgecumbe. 

1756 April 24. William G. Hamilton, vice Fane. 
1756 December 11. William Sloper, vice Talbot. 

1759 December 24. Edward Bacon, vice Oswald. 

1760 January. Edward Elliott, vice Rigby. 

Vol. m. c 



1761 March 21. 

Samuel, Lord Sandys, vice Lord Halifax, Edward Bacon, 

Andrew Stone, Hon. John Yorke, vice Pelliain, 

SoAME Jenyns, Sir Edward Thomas, vice Hamilton. 

Edward Elliott, George Rice, vice Sloper. 

1761 October 23. John Roberts, vice Stone. 

1762 December 28. Francis, Lord Orwell, vice Roberts. 

1763 March 1. Hon. Charles Townshend, vice Lord Sandys. 

1763 April 20. William, Earl of Shelljurne, vice Townshend; Jeremiah Dyson, vice Yorke; 

Bamber Gascoyne, vice Thomas. 

1763 September 9. 

Wills, Earl of Hillsborough, vice Lord Shelburne, George Rice, 
Soame Jenyns, Francis, Lord Orwell, 

Edward Elliott, Jeremiah Dyson, 

Edward Bacon, Bamber Gascoyne. 

1765 July 20. William, Earl of Dartmouth, vice Lord Hillsborough ; Hon. John Yorke, 

vice Lord Orwell ; John Roberts, vice Gascoyne ; William Fitzherbert, 
vice Bacon. 

1765 December. Henry, Viscount Palmcrston, vice Yorke. 

1766 August 16. Wills, Earl of Hillsborough, vice Lord Dartmouth. 

1766 October 11. Hon. Thomas Robinson, vice Lord Palmcrston. 

1766 December. Robert Nugent, vice Lord Hillsborough.i 

1768 January 20. 

Wills, Earl of Hillsborough, John Roberts, 

Soame Jenyns, William Fitzherbert, 

Edward Elliott, Hon. Thomas Robinson, 

George Rice, Wilmot, Viscount Lisburne. 

1770 April 12. George, Lord Greville, vice Robinson. 
April 16. William Northey, vice Lord Lisburne. 
May 16. Bamber Gascoyne, vice Rice. 

1771 January 16. Thomas Whately, vice Northey. 

1772 February 11. William Joliffe, vice Fitzherbert. 

1772 August 27. William, Earl of Dartmouth, vice Lord Hillsborough ; Lord Robert Spencer, 
vice Roberts ; Lord Garlies, Earl of Galloway, vice Whately. 

' On 20th January 1768, Lord Hiimbokough -vvaa appointed Secretary of State for the Colonies. — J. R. B. 


1774 January 25. 

William, Earl of Dartmouth, William Jolliffe, 

SoAME Jenyns, Lord Robert Spencer, 

Edward Elliott, Lord Elliott, Hon. Charles Greville, vice Lord Greville, 

Bamber Gascoyne, Whitehead Keene, vice Lord Galloway. 

1775 November 10. Lord George Sackville Germain, vice Lord Dartmouth. 

1776 March 9. William Eden, vice Elliott. 

1777 June 5. Thomas De Grey, vice Keene. 

1779 July 6. Andrew Stuart, vice Gascoyne ; Edward Gibbon, vice Jolliffe. 

1779 November 6. Frederick, Earl of Carlisle, vice Lord George Germain. 

1780 September 6. 

Frederick, Earl of Carlisle, Andrew Stuart, 

Lord Robert Spencer, Edward Gibbon, 

William Eden, Hans Sloane, vice Jenyns, 

Hon. Thomas DeGrey, now Lord Walsingham, Benjamin L'Anglois, vice Greville. 

1780 December 9. Thomas, Lord Grantham, vice Lord Carlisle. 

1781. The same Board, except William Eden; Sir Adam Ferguson, vice Lord 

Walsingham ; Anthony Storer, vice L'Anglois. 

1781 December 22. 

Thomas, Lord Grantham, Hans Sloane, 

Rt. Hon. William Eden, Sir Adam Ferguson, 

Andrew Stuart, Anthony Storer, 

Edward Gibbon, John Chetwtnd Talbot, vice LordR. Spencer. 

The office of Trade and Plantations was suppressed by Act of Parliament, in July, 1782, and the 
business transferred to the Secretaries of State. 


For a long time, there was no certain depository for the official papers of the Secretaries of State. Each 
Secretary had them in his own custody, and their future destination dejsonded, in a great measure, upon 
accident. Even in the office of the Privy Council (the office in which, until the time of the Revolution, 
all the affairs of the Realm were debated and decided upon), no written record of the proceedings was 
preserved until 1540, when it was ordered that a Register should be kept, which commences on the 18th 
of August of that year. 

The necessity of a repository for state papers was then felt ; and in 1578, an office for keeping papers 
and records concerning matters of state and council was established. Before this time, numerous papers 
of great importance, were entirely lost ; and others fell into the possession of private persons. Sir 
Robert Cotton, in the reign of James I., and Sir Joseph Williamson, in the reign of Charles II., 
were most assiduous and successful collectors of these papers. The collections of the former now form 


a portion of the library of the British Museum. Sir Josepu Williamson placed his collections in the 
State Paper Office, where they still remain. 

In the reign of James I. considerable attention appears to have been paid to this office, and the papers 
which had hitherto been kept in chests, were reduced into the form of a library ; and the King assigned 
certain apartments in his palace at Whitehall for their reception. The events of the succeeding reign, 
however, were adverse to the preservation of the public archives. Secretary Windebank's papers, as 
well as those of Sir Edward Nicholas, were seized by the " Rebels " and dispersed. Some of them 
made their way back to the State Paper Office, but probably in an imperfect condition. Many of the 
state papers were designedly burnt by Secretary Nicholas, at the surrender at Oxford, to prevent them 
falling into the hands of the Parliamentarians. Besides this destruction, and much more which must 
have occurred during the civil war, the office is said to have suffered spoliation from papers liaving been 
taken from it, particularly by Bradshaw, Secretary Thurloe, Milton, and others. Much pains, 
however, were taken, after the Restoration, to recover the missing documents ; and a large portion was 
secured, and is now lodged in the office. 

Since the time of Queen Anne, there have been several removals of the office from place to place ; 
which must undoubtedly, have led to loss and injury of the papers. In 1830, however, a new fire-proof 
building, admirably adapted to its purposes, was erected in St. James' Park, and to this the pajiers were 
soon afterwards removed. 

The custody and arrangement of the state papers are entrusted to a keeper, who has under him a 
deputy keeper, and other subordinates. This office being strictly a government one and in fact forming 
part of the Queen's Private Library, is not considered as upon the same footing as the manuscript 
department of the British Museum, or other institutions of alike character. No person is allowed access 
to the State Paper Office, unless he first obtains a formal order from one of the Secretaries of State, who 
alone has the right of granting the priviledge. This order usually specifies the particular books or series 
of papers to which the visitor is to have access ; and the directions of the order are strictly and 
scrupulously followed by the keeper. 

The office is open to persons having the requisite permission, every day of the week, except holidays, 
from 11 to 3 o'clock. It is a standing general regulation that the volumes or papers consulted, are to be 
examined in the presence of one of the officers, who is constantly in attendance for the purpose. 

In addition to the papers from the offices of Secretaries of State (among which is to be found a very 
voluminous correspondence with the governors and military commanders in the American colonies), the 
State Paper Office received a very large accession in the month of March, 1842 ; when the whole of the 
records of the Board of Trade down to its dissolution in 1782, were transferred to it by order of the 
British Government. Upwards of two thousand large folio volumes, relating chiefly to the American 
Colonies, were thus added, in one mass, to this invaluable repository of historical wealth. 

London, September, 1843. 

John Romeyn Brodhead. 


1614. ^^^^ 

January 2. Letter of the Privy ConncQ to Sir Thomas Smith, respecting complaints made by the French ambassador 

against Captain Argall, <te ^ 

January 23. Extract of the reply of the Privy Council to the complaint of the French ambassador. They have 

received no information from the Virginia Company about Capt. ArgaU's affair, <fcc 2 

March 3. Petition of the Adventiu-ers for settling the northern part of Virginia; terms of the New-England 

patent, &c. 2 

July 23. Warrant of the Privy Council to Sir Thomas Coventrie, Solicitor-General, to prepare the patent for 

New-England, <fec •* 


June 1 8. Order in Council respecting the mutual right of fislii ng, &e., within the two Colonies, &c 4 

September 28. Order in Council to the mayors of Bristol, <tc., to prevent private persons, ic, trading to New- 
England, ite ^ 

December 15. Order in Council to Sir Dudley Carleton, ambassador at the Hague, respecting the Dutch in the north 

of Vii-ginia, itc 

December 15. Letter of the Privy Council to Sh- Dudley Carleton, respecting tlie Dutch intruding into the north of 

Virginia, .fee. 

February _§_ Letter of Sir Dudley Carleton to the Council, in reply. He has had an audience with the States-General, 

on the subject of New-Netherland, itc '? 

January 30. Copy of Sir Dudley Carleton's memorial to the States-General, on the subject of the Dutch intrusion 

February 9. into the north of Virginia, &c., 8 

Petition to Sir Dudley Carleton, of certain Walloons, <fee., who are desirous to go to Virginia, &c., 9 

February 1. Letter of Mr. Secretary Calvert to Sir Dudley Carleton— Hollanders in Virginia, &c 10 

March -9- Extract of a dispatch from Sir Dudley Carleton to Secretary Calvert. The States-General have returned 
^ * no answer as yet to his memorial about the Dutch in Virginia. The matter is before the Provincial 

States of Holland, 11 

October 23. Order in Cormcil for a proclamation against irregular traders to New-England, <tc H 

January 28. Letter of the Council, to Sir John Elyot, Ac, to arrest a Dutch ship from Amsterdam at Plymouth, 

bound to New-Netherland, &c '"-^ 


September 5. Order in CouncU in favor of the ships of the Dutch West Lidia Company, <te 12 

March 13. Commission from Governor Pott, of Virginia, to William Clayborne, to make discoveries, &c., north of 


March 8. Commission from Governor Harvey, of Virginia, authorizing William Clayborne to go into the adjoimng 

Dutch Plantations, <fec., ^^ 

May 16. Patent from King Charles L, authorizing WiUiam Clayborne to trade in America, 15 


AprU 2. Letter of Captain John Mason to Secretary Coke, relative to the Dutch in New-Netherland, 16 

AprU 6. Letter of Sir Ferdinando Gorges to Captain John Mason— Dutch Plantation, 17 


16S3. ^■"-"^^ 

September 23. Letter of Gaulter of TwiUor, Governor of tlic Puteli PlaDtation, to the Governor of the English 
October 4. Colony .it Massachusetts Bay, respecting the differences abont the Dutch settlement on the 

Connecticut Kiver 1* 

March 20. Letter of the Coimcil, to the Earl of Portland, to prevent English subjects going in a Dutch ship, lying 

at the Cowes, to the Hollander's Plantation on the Hudson's River, &e., ' 19 

May 8. Letter of Jerome Hawle}', Treasurer of Virginia, to Mr. Secretary Windebanke— Arrival of a Dutch 

ship from Sweden, for the purpose of making a Plantation at the Delaware Bay, <to., 20 

June 12. Release of lands on Long Island, by James Farrett, on beh.alf of the Earl of Sterling, to Edward 

Howell, Ac, 21 

Aurjust 20. The Earl of Sterling's confirmation of Farret's release of lands, &c 22 

10." 0. A declaration, showing the illegality and unlawful proceedings of the Patent of Maryland 23 

May 3. Articles of agreement and union between East Hampton and Connecticut, 27 


July 4. Order in Council, appointing a Committee for Plantation affairs, &c., 30 

November T. Patent of King Charles II., constituting a standing Council of Trade, &c 30 

Decembir 1. Patent of King Charles IL, constituting a standing Council for the care and conduct of Foreign 

Plantations, itc, 32 

December 1. Instructions for the Council appointed for Foreign Plantations, 34 

December 10. Orders and proceedings at His Majesty's Council for Foreign Plantations, 36 

February JL An act of the States-General, permitting all oppressed Christian people in England or elsewhere, to 
^ ^ erect a Colonic in America, under the jurisdiction of Peter Stuyvesant, upon conditions offered by 

the "West India Company, 37 

February JL Conditions and privileges granted by the West India Company to all such people as shall be disposed 

^ * to take up their abode in New-Netherland, 37 

February -±- Summary advertisements concerning the above mentioned Company, 38 

March 1 1. Narrative and deposition of Capt. Thomas Breedon, before the Coimcil for Foreign Plantations, of the 

state of the several Colonies of New-England, &c., 39 

May V. Letter of Governor Endicott of Massachusetts to Governor Stuyvesant of New-Netherland, &c., asking 

him to deliver up the regicides, Whalley and Goffe, ifcc 41 

May 31. Petition of the Earl of Sterling to the King, respecting the Dutch intrusion on Long Island 42 

1662. Reasons to prove that if the Dutch be admitted to trade to Virginia, it will be a great loss and 

prejudice to the King, &c., 43 

August 25. Minute of the Council for Foreign Plantations, respecting a secret trade between the Dutch and English 

Plantations, &c., 44 

June 24. Minute of a letter of the Coimcil to the several Plantations in America, about executing the navigation 

act, <fec., 45 

July 6. Minute of the Council for Foreign Plantations respecting Capt. Seott's complaint against the Dutch 

intruding into New-England, and settling on the Manhatoes, Long Island, &a 46 

December 7. Minute of the Council for Foreign Plantations, upon complaint of the Farmers of the Customs of an 

illicit trade between the Dutch and English Plantations in America, <fec., 47 

December 14. Letter of John Scott to Joseph Williamson, Esq., Under Secretary of State — the English on Long Island 

enslaved by the Dutch, " their cruel and rapacious neighbors," 47 

December 16. Minute of the Council for Foreign Plantations — Farmers of the Customs to draw up model of 

instructions, itc., respecting iUieit trade with the Dutch in America, ifec, 48 

January 19. Minute of the Council for Foreign Plantations, upon the model of instructions, Ac, proposed by the 

Farmers, Ac, 49 

February 16. Minute of the Council for Foreign Plantations, with the model proposed, itc 50 

April 23. Instructions from King Charles IL, to Colonel Richard NicoUs, Sir Robert Carre, George Cartwright, 
Esq., and Samuel Maverick, Esq., commissioners appointed to visit Massachusetts, and to reduce the 
Dutch in New-Netherland into subjection to the English, Ac., 51 

CONTENTS. xxiii 

1664. Page. 

April 23. Instructions from King Charles 11., to Nicolls, Ac, commissioners to Connecticut, 65 

April 23. Private instructions from King Charles 11., to NicoUs, and the other Commissioners sent to America, to 

be communicated only between themselves, 51 

April 23. Letter of King Charles II., to the Governor and Council of Massachusetts, 61 

April 25. Commission from King Charles II., to Nicolls, and the other Commissioners 64 

July 20. Letter from Mr. Maverick to Captain Breedon, at Boston — arrival at Piscataqua, Ac, 65 

July 21. Letter from Mr. Maverick to Hon. William Coventry — particulars of his voyage, &c., 65 

July 23. Letter of Messrs. Carr and Maverick, to Mr. PackbeU, to announce their arrival, &c 66 

[July.] Letter of Col. Nicolls to the Governor and Council of Massachusetts — seizure of Dutch ships, &c., 67 

September 24. Articles made and agreed upon, in Fort Albany, betiveen Ohgehando, and other Indians, and Col. George 

Cartwright, on behalf of Col. Nicolls, &c., 67 

October. Letter of Col. Nicolls to the Secretary of State — Dutch on Delaware Bay, 68 

September 3. Commission from Col. Nicolls, <fce., to Sir Robert Carr, to reduce the Dutch on Delaware Bay, &c., 70 

October 1. Articles of agreement between Sir Bobert Carr, and the Dutch and Swedes on Delaware Bay 71 

October 10. Sir Robert Carr's grant of lands on the Delaware, to Captains Hyde and Morley, 72 

October 13. Letter of Sir Robert Carr to Col. Nicolls — details of his proceedings in reducing the Dutch and Swedes 

on the Delaware, &c., 'J3 

October 21. Alphabetical Catalogue of the names of such inhabitants of New-York, ifec, as took the oath to be 

true subjects of His Majesty, October 21, 22, 23, 24 and 26, 1664, 74 

November 7. Letter of Mr. van Gogh, Dutch Ambassador at London, to the States-General — his audience with King 

Charles H., about the conquest of New-Netherland, A'C, 77 

November 14. Letter of Ambassador van Gogh to the States-General — his second audience with the King about New- 
Netherland— Embargo, <fcc., 80 

December 20. Letter of William Jones to Col. Nicolls — wrongs that the colony at New-Haven has suflfered from the 

Dutch, <fec., 82 

Letter of Alexander d' Hinojossa, late Director on the Delaware, to Colonel Richard NieoUs, 82 

January 16. Letter of George Cartwright, Esq., to Sir Henry Bennet, Secretary of State— Dutch projects against New- 

Tork, &c., 83 

January 25. Letter of Col. Cartwright to Col. Nicolls — state of affairs in New-England — sentiments and conduct of 

the people, <fee., 84 

January 28. Letter of King Charles H., to CoL Nicolls and the other Commissioners — precautions to be taken against 

the Dutch, &c., 85 

February 1. Letter of the Governor and Council of Connecticut to Col. Nicolls, 86 

February 4. Letter of Col. Cartwright to Col. Nicolls — sentiments of the people in the New-England Colonies — 

Carr and Maverick concur in sentiment with him, &c 87 

February 4. Letter of Mr. Maverick to Col. Nicolls respecting his visit to Massachusetts 88 

February 7. Letter of Col. Cartwright to Sir Henry Bennet, Secretary of • State— Proceedings of the Commissioners, 89 

February 25. Mr. Secretary Morrice's answer to the petition of New-England, 80 

March 1. Declaration of the Deputies from the towns on Long Island, to the Duke of York, 91 

March 5. Letter of Lord Chancellor Clarendon to Mr. Maverick, 92 

March 5. Letter of Mr. Maverick to Col. Nicolls — Rhode Island affairs, &e., 93 

April 19. Letter of Col. Cartwright to Col. Nicolls— Dutch projects— difficulties of the Commissioners— sentiments 

of the people, <fec., 93 

May 23. Declaration of the General Court of Massachusetts, 95 

May 24. Reply of the Commissioners thereto, 96 

May 27. Letter of Messrs. Carr, Cartwright, and Maverick to Sir Henry Bennet, Secretary of State — proceedings 

of the Commissioners, • 96 

July 12. Prohibition of the CouncU of Massachusetts to the constable of Portsmouth, 98 

Letter of the Governor and Council of Massachusetts to the Commissioners, 98 

July 1 6. Reply of the Commissioners thereto, <te., 99 

July 26. Letter of Messrs. Carr, Cartwright, and Maverick, to the Secretary of State— affairs in New-England, A-e., 101 
July 31. Letter of Col. Nicolls to the Secretary of State (Lord Arlington, late Sir Henry Bennet),— affairs iu 

New-York, and in Delaware Bay — necessity of supplies, Ac 103 

November. Draft of a Letter from Col. Nicolls, to the Duke of York — present condition of things in New- York, Ac, 104 
Fragment of a letter from Col. Nicolls to the Duke of York— Berkley and Carterett's patent— Captain 

Scott — Albany and New-York named, Ac, Ac, 105 







































November 6. 

November ^ 






























Fragment of a letter from Col. Nicolls to the Duke of York — West India Company of Amsterdam — 

New-England, &c., lOG 

Letter of Messrs. Carr and Maverick, to the Secretary of State — affairs in New-England — doings of 

the Commissioners, <fec., 106 

Letter of Sir Robert Carr to the Secretary of State — grant of lands to him, &c. 109 

Report of the Commissioners, concerning Massachusetts, <fce., , 110 

Letter of Col. NicoUs to Lord Arlington — conflicting patents on the Delaware — Dutch inhabitants — 

pride of Massachusetts — want of supplies, <Src 113 

Letter of Col. Nicolls to Lord Arlington — grants to Carr and Stock, &c., 115 

Letter of Lord Chancellor Clarendon to Col. Nicolls — supplies for New-York — conduct of Massachu- 
setts, A'c, 116 

Letter of Col. Nicolls to the Commissaries at Albany — instructions, 117 

A Relation of the march of the Governor of Canada, with 600 men, into the territories of His Royal 

Highness, &e 118 

Letter of Col. Nicolls to the Council of Massachusetts — French movements, &c., 120 

Letter of Samuel Willis, in behalf of the Colony of Connecticut, to Col. Nicolls — intrigues, Ac, of the 

French — Mohawks, &c., 120 

Articles of peace, and treaty, between M. Tracy, Governor of Canada, and the Iroquois, cfec, 121 

Ratification of the same by the Seneoas, 125 

Ratification of the same by the Oneidas and Mohawks, 126 

Letter of M. de Courcelles, Governor of Canada, to Surgeon D'Hinse, Albany, 127 

Letter of M. Madey to M. D'Hinse, surgeon, in New- York, 128 

Letter of M. Tracy to the Commissaries at Albany, 129 

Letter of G. Fruioue to M. D'Hinse, at Albany, 130 

Letter of M. Tracy to the Commissaries at Albany, 131 

Letter of M. Hertel, to M. D'Hinse, at Albany 132 

Letter of Col. Nicolls to M. Ti-acy— M. de Courcelles' invasion of New- York, in February last, &c., 133 

Letter of the Commissaries at Albany to M. de Tracy 134 

French act of possession, &c., of Forts, Ac, among the Iroquois, &c 135 

Letter of Col. Nicolls to Mr. Secretary Morrice — Captain Scott — conduct of Massachusetts Colony — 

embargo proposed, its effects, &c 136 

Letter of Governor Winthrop to Lord Arlington — measures against the French, <SiC 137 

Letter from Mr. Samuel Nadhorth [qu. Hathorne ?] to Mr. Secretary Morrice — Massachusetts affairs — 

conduct of the Commissioners, &c 138 

Letter of Col. Nicolls to the Commissaries at Albany — instructions, <fec., 143 

Letter of Col. Nicolls to Mi-. Rensselaer — advises him not to grasp at too much, &c., 143 

Letter of Col. Nicolls to the Commissaries at Albany, 144 

Letter of Col. Nicolls to Schout Swart at Albany 145 

Letter of Col. Nicolls to Mr. Van Curler — precautions against the French, 145 

Letter of Col. Nicolls to the Commissaries at Albany — French affairs, 146 

Letter of Col. Nicolls to Mr. Van Curler — French affairs 147 

Letter of Col. Nicolls to Captain Baker — French affairs, &e 148 

Private instructions from Col. NicoUs to Messrs. Needham, Delavall, and Van Ruyven, Commissioners 

to go to Esopus to examine into the cases of Fisher and Brodhead, &c 149 

Letter of M. Tracy to the Commissaries at Albany, 1 60 

Letter of M. Tracy to M. Van Curler — invites him to come to Canada, ifec, 151 

Letter of M. Tracy to Col. Nicolls — explaining M. de Courcelles' march, tfec 152 

Letter of Governor Winthrop to Lord Ai-lington — state of the Colonies, Ac, 154 

Letter of Col. Nicolls to M. Tracy — in answer to his of 30th April 156 

Letter of Col. Nicolls to the Justices, &c., on Long Island — mOitia arrangements, 157 

Letter of Col. NicoUs to Governor Winthrop— factions, <te., in New-England, Ac, 158 

Letter of Mr. Maverick to the Secretary of State — wants of the Colonies, <fec,, 160 



October 16. Letter of Mr. Maverick to Col. Cartwright— general intelligence^reat hurricane in Vii'ginia, in 

August, Ac. 161 

October 20. Letter of Col. Nicolls to Rev. Father Pierron, missionary to the Mohawks, 162 

October. Proposals to his Royal Highness, the Duke of York, by Peter Stuyvesant, late Governor of ]S"e-sv- 

K"etherlanc3, ic, — liberty of trade, &c., 163 

October. Petition of Peter Stuyvesant to the King and Lords of the Privy Council, for fi-ee trade, <ke., 164 

October l"?. Report of the Committee of Council, upon Stuyvesant's petition, &c 165 

October 23. Order in Council upon the petition of P. Stuyvesant, <tc. — permission given to the Dutch to trade to 

New-Tork for seven years, with three ships yearly, <te 166 

November 12. Letter of Col. Nieolls to Lord Ai-lington — military arrangements in the Colonies, &c., 167 

November 22. Declaration of William Weexe, about the Indians seizing a vessel, &c., 168 


January 3. Letter of Col. NicoUs to Mr. Mayhew, respecting the seizure of the above vessel, 169 

June 12. Letter of CoL Nicolls to the Governor and assistants of Massachusetts— remarks on theu- conduct, 170 

July 30. Letter.of CoL Nicolls to the General Court at Boston — farewell letter, 172 

August 25. Letter of Mr. Maverick to Lord Arlington — Massachusetts affairs — Berkley and Carterett's patent 

prejudicial to New-York — Col. Nicolls about to return to England— his good character and 

management ia the government of New- York, &e. 1 1 3 

August 28. Letter of Francis Lovelace, Governor of New- York, to Lord ArUngton — he has arrived, and assumed 

the government, itc, • l'?-t 

November. Report of the Council of Trade to the King, advising a modification of the order in Council of October 

23d, 1667, in favor of the Dutch trade to New-York, <te 175 

November 18. Order in Council upon the foregoing report, recalling the order of October 23d, (fee, 177 

December 11. Petition of Oliver Stuyvesant Van Cortlant and others to the King, to allow their ship to go to New- 
York, &c., 1''8 

December 11. Order in ComicU upon the foregoing petition, allowing the ship to go to New-York, cfec 179 


AprQ 6. Order in Council, allowing two Scotch ships to go to New-York, &c., ISO 

April 21. Petition of the Farmers of the Customs to the King, upon the foregoing order, praying His Majesty to 

revoke the same, &e., ISO 

April. Reply to the petition of the Farmers of the Customs— the Duke of York's designs explained— New-York 

settled with Dutch, Swedes, <fec.— British subjects ought to be encours^ed to emigrate, &q., ISl 

July 5. Letter of Mr. Maverick to Col. Nicolls— affairs in New-York since he left— whales in New-York 

harbor — Nutt Island, by planting trees, made a pleasant place, ic, 1S2 

October 15. Letter of Mr. Maverick to Col. Nicolls — private affairs and intelligence, 185 

December 31. Letter of Matthias Nicolls to Col. Nicolls — proposed insurrection of the Finns on the Delaware 

frustrated, ic 1 S6 

Petition of the Mayor, &e., of New-York, to the Duke of York, for free trade with Holland, etc., 187 

Answers to several Queries relating to the planters in the territories of His Royal Highness, the Duke 

of York, in America, 18S 

June 28. Declaration of Governor Lovelace, upon the request of the Elders and Deacons of the Dutch church, 

that if a minister shall come to them from Holland he shall have a proper salary, Ac. 189 

October 3. Letter of Governor Lovelace to Mr. Secretary Williamson — intrigues of the French among the 

Iroquois, <Src., 189 

March 20. Warrant of King Charles H., to the Attorney-General, to prepare a patent for the enlarging, &e., the 

Coimcil for Foreign Plantations, &c., 190 

October 1. Jom-nal and Relation of a new discovery made behind the Apuleian mountains, to the west of Virginia, 193 

July 3. Order in Council, referring to the Council for Plantations, <fee., the petition of inhabitants of villages on 

the east eSi of Long Island, to be continued under the government of Connecticut, <tc. 197 

July 31. Letter of Governor Lovelace to Governor Winthrop— Dutch capture of New-York, 198 

August 3. Lett^ of Edward Palmes to Governor Leverett— Dutch have taken New- York, Ac, 199 

August 6. Robert Hodge's accomit of the taking of New-York by the Dutch 199 

August 8. InteUigenco from New- York ; talien before Nathan Gold 200 

Vol. III. D 


1673. Page. 

August 14. Proclamation of Evertsen and Biukes, the commanders of the Dutch forces, 202 

August 8. Letter of Nathan Gold to Governor Winthrop— news from New-York, <te., 203 

August 2. Letter of Thomas Ludwell, Secretary of Virginia, to Lord Arlington — Dutch fleet at Virginia, 204 

September 1. Letter of John Leverett to Lord Aldington — surrender of New-Yoi-k and Albany to the Dutch — 

Lovelace arrested for debt, &e., 205 

September 3. Extract of a letter from Boston to Mr. Harwood — circumstances of the capture of New- York — folt fired 

four guns, &c 205 

September 20. Letter of Wm. Dervell to R. "Wooly — loss of estate by capture of New-York, &v., 206 

October 22. A memorial concerning New- York and the adjacent English plantations, 207 

October 27. Mr. Dyer's project for reducing New- York, ifec, 207 

October 29. Letter of Sir John Knight to the Earl of Shaftesbury— proposals for reconquest of New-York, 209 

November 15. Report of the Council of Trade, ifec, to the King, upon the subject of retaking New- York, 211 

December 2. Affidavit of W. Hayes, concerning the taking of New- York by the Dutcb, ifec, 213 

June 6. Warrant of the Duke of York to Sir Allen Apsley, his treasurer and receiver-general, to pay £1,300 to 

Major Andros, for the service of New-York, ifec, 214 

July 1. Commission from the Duke of York to Major Edmund Andros, for the government of New-York 215 

July 1. Instructions from the Duke of York to Major Andros, for the government of New-York, 216 

July 1. Commission to Major Andros, as captain of a company of foot in New-York, Ac, 219 

July 1. An establishment of pay for the officers and soldiers in New- York, Ac., 220 

July 2. Commission to Anthony Brockholes, to be first lieutenant of the company at New-York, 220 

July 2. Commission to Christopher Billop, to be a lieutenant of the company at New-York, 221 

July 2. Commission to Cffisar Knapton, to be ensign of the company at New-York, 221 

July 2. Commission to AVilliam Dyre, to be collector at New-York 221 

Jul}' 2. Instructions for "Wm. Dyre, collector at New- York 222 

July 23. Warrant to the Attorney-General, to prepare a grant of lands from the Duke of York, to Sir George 

Carteret, 223 

Petition of the proprietors of Renselaerswyek to the Duke of York, 224 

July 23. Order referring said Petition to Governor Andros 225 

July 23. Letter of the Duke of York to Major Andros, recommending Nichalaus Van Renselaer, ifec, 225 

July 30. The Duke of York's warrant to his Attorney-General, <tc., to prepare a grant for the Earl of Sterling's 

annuity, &c., 225 

August 6. Warrant to Major Andros to seize the estate of Francis Lovelace, late Governor of New-York, for the 

use of the Duke of York to whom he is indebted £7,000, 226 

August 6. Warrant to Major Andros, to put the Duke's laws in execution, <tc 226 

November 9. Proclamation of Governor Andros, respecting rights of property, laws in force, etc., 227 

December 21. King Charles II.'s letters patent, revoking the commission of 27th September, 1672, for establishing a 

standing Council of Trade, &a,, and ordering their papers, &e., to be delivered up, 228 


February 13. Letter of Sir John Werden, Seoretaiy to the Duke of York, to Major Andros 228 

March 12. Order in Council, referring all matters lately under the charge of the Council of Trade, to a committee 

of the Privy Council, &e., 229 

April C. Letter of the Duke of York, to Major Andros — General Assemblies — Coining money — boundaries — 

customs, &c. 230 

August 11. Letter of the committee of Privy Council, to the Colonies, itc, in America 231 

September 15. Letter of Sir John Werden to Major Andros — his proceedings commended — Indian afl'airs — trade, &c., 232 

January 28. Letter of the Duke of York to Major Andros — Connecticut boundary — the uselessness of Assemblies — 

revenue, *c., 235 

January 28. Letter of Sir John Werden to Major Andros — navigation act — Connecticut — compilaints of the Dutch 

in New- York — the Duke's instructions, &c., 236 

January 31. Letter of Sir John Werden to Major Andi'os — vessels trading to Albany, Ac 238 

August 31. Letter of Sir John Werden to Major Andros — Indian affairs — Dutch — revenue — Delaware — New- 
Jersey, Ac 238 

October 12. ExU-acts from the report of Edmund Randolph, to the Council of Tra.le, &,-.. i-espeoting the N,.'W- 

Eu-Iajid colonies, Ac, 240 

CONTENTS. • xxvii 

1676. P.\GE. 

November 30. Letter of Sir John 'Werilen to Major Andros, 245 

November 30. Extract of letter from Sir John Werden to Mr. Dyi-c 245 

May Y. Letter of the Duke of York to Major Andros — rates of dnties continued — permission to return to 

England for a time, ite 24G 

May 1. Letter of Sir John Werden to Major Andros — custom accounts — boundary with Connecticut — Dela- 
ware, <tc., 24G 

June 13. Governor Andros' instructions to Brockholes, Knapton, and Nicholls, sent to Pemaquid, &c., 24S 

July 14. Observations of Weutworth Greenhalgh, in a journey from Albany to the Indians westward, begim 

May 27th, 1677, and ended July 14, following, 250 

July 17. Memorial of the Bishop of London, about the abuses in the churches in the Plantations, 253 

November. A short account of the general concerns of New- York, from October, 1074, to November, 1077, by 

Governor Andros, 254 


April 8. Minute of Sir Edmund Andros' attendance before the committee of Privy Council, <fec. 257 

April 9. Petition of Sir E. Andros to the Eing, for an enquiry into the truth of the complaints of Massachusetts, <fcc., 25S 

April 9. Order in Council upon Sir E. Andros' petition, that the Massachusetts agents answer it, <fec., 259 

April 16. Answers of Sir E. Andros to the enquiries of the committee of Privy Coimcil respecting New- 
York, (fee 260 

April 16. Answers of Sir E. Andros to the enquiries of the committee respecting New-England, &a 262 

April 18. A short account of New-York's assistance to New-England — presented by Sir E. Andros, 204 

April 24. Answer of WiUiam Stoughton and Peter Bulkley, agents of Massachusetts, to the petition of Sir E. 

Andros 266 

April 24. Order in council upon the foregoing answer of tlie Massachusetts agents, 267 

May 18. The Duke of York's warrant to Sir Allen Apsley, his treasurer, to pay £1,100 to Sir E. Andros, who is 

about to return to New-York 267 

May 18. The Duke of York's instructions to Sir E. Andros, to increase the duties on rum, &a. 268 

May 20. The Duke of York's warrant to Sir E. Andros, to appoint a Judge of Admiralty, ifec 208 

June 4. Report of council to the Duke of York, in favor of a grant of Rensselaerswyck, <te 269 

June 7. Warrant of the Duke of York to Sir E. Andros, to pass a patent for Rensselaerswyck, <fec 269 

August Sir Robert Southwell's memorandum of Captain Breedon's statements about New-England, 270 

September 16. Letter of Sir E. Andros to Mr. Blathwayte — his arrival on the 7th — aflfairs in New-York, Maryland, <fec., 271 

October 12. Letter of Sir E. Andros to Mr. Blathwayte — French and Indian troubles, &c., 272 

September 6. Letter of the commissioners of the United Colonies to Sir E. Andros 273 

September 10. Answer of Sir E. Andros to the commissioners, 274 

September 14. Reply of the commissioners to Sir E. Andros, 274 

September 18. Governor Leet to Sir E. Andros, 275 

September 25. Letter of Sir E. Andros to the commissioners, 27 5 

September 28. Letter of Sir E. Andros to Governor Leet, 276 


March 10. Letter of Sir John Werrlen to Sir E. Andros— Captain Billop's ease, 27 6 

March 25. Letter of Sir E. Andros to Mr. Blathwayte— Indian troubles— aflfairs of the colonies, &c., 277 

June 19. Certificate of His Majesty's allowance of £1,000 for the garrison of New-York, ifee 278 

May 24. Commission of the Duke of York, appointing John Lewen his agent to proceed to New- York, to enquire 

into its condition, <fce., 279 

May 24. The Duke of York's instructions to John Lewen, his agent, &c., 279 

May 24. Letter of the Duke of York to Sir E. Andros— Mr. Lewen's appointment— Sir E. Andros to come to 

England upon his arrival, leaving the Government to Lieut. Brockholes, <fec., 283 

May 24. Letter of Sir John Werden to Sir E. Andros — reasons for his recall, <tc 283 

July 1. Letter of Sir John Werden to Sir E. Andros — to enable Mr. Lewen to administer oaths, &c 284 

August 6. Memorandum of Release to Mr. Billings and others, of West New Jersey, and the right of Customs by 

the Duke of York 284 

July 28. Opinion of Sir Wm. Jones, adverse to the Duke of York's claim of Customs from New Jersey 285 

September 6. Warrant to Sir John Churchill, &c., to prepare a release to Sir George Carterett, Ac 285 

November 6. Letter of Sir John Werden to Sir E. Andros — releases of New-Jersey, &c. 286 


May 12. Letter of Sir John Werden to Sir E. Aiuiros — revenue — New-Jersej^ — Pennsylvania, cfee 2S6 

July 1. Letter from the Court of Assizes at New-York, to the Seeretary of State, about the case of Captain 

"Wm. Dyre, collector of Nev-Tork, 28'7 

July 2. Minutes of the proceedings in the case of William Dyre 288 

July 16. Letter of Sir John Werden to Mr. Penn — boimdaries of Pennsylvania, &c., 290 

July 30. Warrant to Sir E. Andros, to release Col. Lovelace's houses to Mrs. Ogle, Ac, 291 

August 8. Letter of Sir John Werden to Sir Allen Apsley — revenue of jSTew-York, 291 

August 8. Letter from the Duke of York to Lieutenant Brockholes — customs, <fec., 292 

November 2. Proceedings of the Governor, Council, and Assembly in New-Jersey, at Elizabethtown, from 19th 

October to 2d November, 293 

Statement and brief for defendant, in the case of Milbourne vs. Andros 300 

Report of Mr. John Lewin to the Duke of York, on the state, &c., of New-York 302 

December 31. Answer of Sir Edmund Andros to Mr. Lewin's report, &c., 303 

1G82. E,eport of the Duke's Attorney-General (Churchill) to the Commissioners, upon Mr. Lewin's report on 

New-York affairs, 314 

February 11. Letter of Sir John Werden to Lieut. Brockholes — the Duke may perhaps grant a charter to New- York, 

provided the inhabitants raise money to pay debts and a gan-ison, &e SH 

March 28. Letter of the Duke of York to Lieutenant Brockholes — his intention to grant an assembly, Ac, 317 

June 29. Petition of William Dyre, collector at New- York, to the King, 318 

June 29. Order in Council, referring Dyre's petition to the committee for trade, &c., 319 

August 3. Order in Council, approving the report of the committee of trade, <fec., on Dyre's ease, 320 

September 30. Eeport of the committee of trade in favor of releasing Dyre's bond for his appearance, &e., 321 

August 13. Proceedings at Albany between the Indians and the agents of Virginia and Maryland.. 321 

September 30. Commission from the Duke of York to Colonel Thomas Dongan to be Governor of New-York, 328 

December 21. Extract of a letter from the Register of Scotland to Sir John Werden, respecting East New Jersey, 329 

January 4. Letter of Sir John Werden, in reply to a letter of the Register of Scotland, respecting East New 

Jersey, &e., 330 

January 4. Letter of Sir John Werden to Lieutenant Brockholes — Colonel Dongan's appointment, 330 

January 2Y. Instructions from the Duke of York to Colonel Dongan, Governor of New- York, 331 

February 17. Commission of Lucas Santen as collector at New-York, S35 

April 28. Instructions for Lucas Santen as collector at New-York 335 

November 9. Petition of the Mayor, itc, of New- York to Colonel Dongan, for a charter for that city, and 

memorandum thereupon, 337 

December 7. Letter of Lord Baltimore to Mr. Blathwayte — his right to Delaware, &c. 339 

March 10. Letter of Sir John Werden to Colonel Dongan — Rhode Island — customs in New- York — French in 

Canada, Ac, 340 

May 12. Relation of Mr. Gerrit Van Sweeringen, of the city of St. Maries, concerning his knowledge of the 

seating of Delaware Bay and River, to the southward of the 40th degree northern latitude, by the 

Dutch and Swedes, Ac, 342 

August 2. Abstract of the proposals of the Onondaga and Cayuga Sachems, 347 

August 22. Letter of the Earl of Perth and others to Colonel Dongan — East Jersey patent, Ac, 348 

August 26. Letter of the Duke of York to Colonel Dongan — franchises, Ac, for New-York — customs — trade with 

the Indians, Ac, 348 

August 27. Letter of Sir John Werden to Colonel Dongan — fisheries — emigrants — proposed post-offices along the 

coast from Carolina to Nova Scotia — Mint — Indian trade on the Susquehannali, 349 

November 1. Letter of Sir John Werden to Colonel Dongan — quit rents — Indian trade, Ac 851 

December 4. Letter of Sir John Werden to Colonel Dongan — French and Indian affairs, Ac 353 


February 13. Letter of Colonel Dongan to the Earl of Perth — ^East Jersey affairs, Ac, 353 

February 17. Memorandum of the receipt, by the committee of trade, Ac, of certain books and papers relating to the 

province of New-York, from Sir John Werden, in consequence of its devolving to the Crown, by 

the accession of King James II., 354 

February 18. Letter from Colonel Dongan to bir John Werden — passenger ship — post-offices — Staten Island — 

mint, Ac, 355 

• I 

CONTENTS. 3^^ix 

1685. r.UiE. 
March 3. Veto bj- King James II., of an Act entitled, The Charter of tlie Province of Xow-York ; ami an OiJ.-i-, 

directing letters to be addressed to Colonel Dongan, respecting the government of the province, and 

the proclamation of His Majesty in Neiv-Tork, &c 357 

March 3. Observations npon the proposed Charter of the province of New-York, read in Council, &c 357 

March 5. Memorandum of the devolution of New- York to the Crown upon the death of King Charles H, on 6th 

February, and letter of the Privy Council to Colonel Dongan, 359 

March 5. Letter from King James 11. to Colonel Dongan — powers and instructions, &c., SCO 

July 15. Letter from the Mayor, <S:e., of New-York, to Sir John Werden, upon the accession of King 

James U., &e., 301 

July IV. Order in Council approving report of the committee of trade, &c., in favor of Quo warrantos against 

Connecticut, Rhode Island, <fee., 362 

August 11. Letter of Governor Dongan to Mr. Blathwayt — French and Indian affairs, <to 363 

September IS. Letter of Colonel Dongan to tlie Lord President — government of New-York — character of the people 

of Boston and New-York — a new seal, 364 

December 23. Captain BUlop's petition to the King for an appeal to the Privy Council from a judgment in 

New-York, etc 365 

December 23. Order in Council admitting Captain Billop's appeal, <S;c., 366 


May 23. His Majesty's order that Colonel Dongan's salary be fixed at .£600, <te 367 

May 27. Letter of Mr. Randolph to the colony of Connecticut — Qtto warranto, &c., 368 

May 29. Instructions from King James XL to Colonel Dongan for the government of the province of 

New-York, &c., 369 

June 3. Order of the committee of Privy Council to Colonel Dongan, Ac. — to send journals, Ac, 375 

June 10. Letter of the committee to the Secretary of New- York to send accounts, <tc 376 

June 10. Commission constituting Thomas Dongan, Esquire, Captain General and Governor-in-Chief of New- 
York, 377 

June 20. Instructions to Governor Dongan, as to acts of trade and navigation, &q 382 

June 14. Letter of R. Treat, Governor of Connecticut, to Governor Dongan, 385 

July 3. Letter of Governor Treat to Governor Dongan, 386 

August 5. Letter of Governor Treat to Governor Dongan 387 

October 27. Order in Council, directing the ecclesiastical jurisdiction in the Plantations to be exercised by the 

commissioners, <tc., in the diocese of London, 388 

December 26. Letter of the Privy Council to Governor Dongan, to publish and execute the treaty of neutrality, 

concluded at London, between France and England, 388 

February 22. Answers of Governor Dongan to the heads of inquiry of Uie committee for Trade and Plantations, 

respecting New- York, <fec., 389 

August 2. Propositions, <tc., of the Onondagas and Cayugas, at Albany, to Lord E ffi ngham and Governor 

Dongan 417 

1686. Petition of the Commissaries of tlie town of Albany to Governor Dongan, 418 

1687. Petition of the French Protestants to Governor Dongan, 419 

February 22. Letter of Governor Dongan to the Lord President — council at New-York, <tc., 420 

February 23. Letter of Governor Dongan to the Lord President — Collector Santen sent a prisoner to Eng- 
land, Ac, 421 

March 2. Letter of Governor Dongan to the King — ^Mr. Penn's enmity — revenue, <fcc, 422 

March 2. Letter of Governor Dongan to the Lord President — his rumored recall, &c 423 

Address of the Mayor and Common Council of New- York to the King, 424 

July 16. Letter of Mr. Graham to Mr. Spragg — French attack on the Senecas, Ac, 426 

July 19. Letter of the CouncD to Governor Dongan, in favor of the French Protestants, &c 426 

August 14. Warrant to Governor Dongan to use a new seal of New- York, <fcc., 427 

August 14. Order of Council permitting ships bound to East Jersey to go directly there, without touching at 

New-York, Ac 428 

September 8. Letter of Governor Dongan to the Lord President — French invasion of the Seneca country — 

encroachments — measures proposed, <fec., 428 

August 31. Examination of Kakarriel, an Indian prisoner from Canada, 431 


168*7. Page. 

September 1. E.\amination of AdancIiJaglita, another Indian prisoner, 433 

September 7. luformations given upon oath, by Xanniug Ilarmentse and others, about tlie French and Indians, 436 

August 5. Propositions of Governor Dongan to the Five Nations of Indians at Albany, 438 

August 6. Answers of the Five iS"ations to Governor Dongan's propositions, ifee 441 

August 6. Information given to Governor Dongan by several Indians, about the French, A'c., 444 

1684. Letter of Governor Dongan to M. de la Barre, Governor of Canada, 44*7 

June 15. Letter of M. de la Barre to Colonel Dongan 447 

June 24. Letter of Governor Dongan to M. de la Barre, 448 

July 5. Letter of Governor Dongan to M. de la Barre 440 

July 2.5. Letter of M. de la Barre to Governor Dongan 450 

July 25. M. de la Barre's instructions to M. de Salvaye, sent to New-York, ifec, 450 

Governor Dongan's answer to M. de la Barre's message by M. de Salvaye, 452 


September 10. Letter of Father Lamberville to Governor Dongan 453 

Letter of Father Dablon to Governor Dongan 454 


August 18. Letter of M. Bruey to Major Baxter, 465 


May 22. Letter of Governor Dongan to M. de Denonville, Governor of Canada, 453 

June 5. Letter of M. de Denonville to Governor Dongan, 456 

June 20. Letter of M. de Denonville to Governor Dongan 468 

July 26. Letter of Governor Dongan to M. de Denonville 460 

October 1. Letter of M. de Denonville to Governor Dongan 461 

December 1. Letter of Governor Dongan to M. de Denonville 462 


Slay 20. Letter of Governor Dongan to Father Lamberville, 464 

June 20. Letter of Governor Dongan to M. de Denonville 465 

August 21. Letter of M. de Denonville to Governor Dongan 466 

August 22. Remarks of M. de Denonville on Governor Dongan's letter, dated 20th June 469 

September 9. Letter of Governor Dongan to M. de Denonville, 472 

September 8. Governor Dongan's instructions to Captain Palmer, on his going to England 476 

September 12. Letter of Governor Dongan to the Lord President — about going to Albany — French and Indian 

affairs, &c 477 

September 2. Letter of Mr. P. Schuyler to Governor Dongan— French and Indian news, 478 

September 2. Letter of Mr. R. Livingston to Governor Dongan — ^French and Indian news, 480 

September 5. Letter of Mr. Livingston to Governor Dongan — Indian affairs, 481 

September 7. Letter of Mr. Schuyler to Governor Dongan — French and Indian news, 482 

September 9. Propositions made by the Mohawks to the Mayor, &e., of Albany, 483 

September 14. Propositions made by the Onondagas, Ac., to the Mayor, &c., of Albany, 485 

September 15. Examination of Anthony I'Espinard, before Nicholas Bayard, Mayor, &c., 487 


November 4. Letter of Father Lamberville to Father Bruyas [intercepted], 488 

November 4. Letter of Father Lamberville to Anthony I'Espinard, 490 


October 13. Letter of the King to Governor Dongan, to be vigilant in prosecuting pirates, &c., 490 

OetoVier 22. Letter of the King to Governor Dongan, respecting the Admiralty's share of wrecks, &c., 491 

October 24. Letter of Governor Dongan to the King — about his recall, &e. 492 

Abstract of Mr. Santen's memoranda for a charge against Governor Dongan, and of Governor Dongan's 

answer, 493 

November. Abstract of articles against Mr. Santen, -with the proofs, and Mr. Santen's answers, 495 

November 4. Commission to Mathew Plowman, to be collector, (fee, at New-York, vice Santen, 600 

December 13. Instructions to Mr. Plowman, appointed collector, itc, at New-Y^ork, 501 

November 10. Letter of the King to Governor Dongan, upon Indian and French affairs — the Governor of Canada to 
be notified that the Five Nations are owned as British subjects, and under the protection of 

England, ifec 603 



168S. Page. 

January 22. Order of the King to Governor Dongan for a cessation of hostilities, and to encourage a good 

correspondence with the French, &c 504 


December _L Instrument signed this day, between the Englisla and French commissioners, 505 

NoTcmber. Memorandum or protocol of conferences between the English and French comniissiouors, on the subject 

of the Indians, and the boundaries in North America, ttc, 606 

February 19. Letter of Governor Dongan to the Lord President — French and Indian affairs 510 


October 2. Letter of M. dei Denonville to Governor Dongan, 512 

October 25. Letter of Governor Dongan to M. de Denonville 513 

October 31. Letter of Governor Dongan to IL de Denonville, 515 

December 28. Letter of M. de Denonville to Governor Dongan, 517 


February 17. Letter of Governor Dongan to the Governor of Canada, 519 

February 3. Governor Dongan's first demand presented to the French agents, 520 

February ^^ Answers of the French agents to Governor Dongan's first demand 521 

February. Governor Dongan's second paper to the French agents, 522 

February. Answer of the French agents to Governor Dongan's second paper, 522 

February. Governor Dongan's third paper to the French agents, 625 

February jg- Answer of the French agents to Governor Dongan's third paper, 526 

February. Governor Dongan's fourth paper to the French agents, 523 

February ^i Answer of the French agents to Governor Dongan's fourth paper, 529 

February. Governor Dongan's last paper to the French agents 531 

February 8. Governor Dongan's propositions to the Six Nations of Indians, 533 

February 13. Answer of the Si.x Nations to Governor Dongan, 634 

February 13. Governor Dongan's reply to the Si-x Nations, 635 

February 1 6. Propositions of the Six Nations to Governor Dongan, 536 

April 7. Memoranda of commissions passing to Sir E. Andros and Captain Nicholson, 536 

April 7. Commission of King James II., appointing Sir Edmund Andros, Kt., Captain General and Governor-in- 

Chief of the Massachusetts Bay, New-Plymouth, New-Hampsliire, Maine, the Narraganset country, 
Khode Island, Connecticut, New-York and East and West Jersey, and of all the continent of 
America, from 40" north latitude to the Kiver St. Croix ( Pennsylvania and Delaware excepted), 

by the name, as formerly, of New-England 537 

April 16. Instructions from the King to Sir K Andros, for the government of New-England, 543 

April 22. Order of the King to Governor Dongan, requiring him to resign the government of New-York to Sir 

E. Andros, on his arrival, and to return to England, &c., 650 

August 31. Letter of Captain F. Nicholson to Mr. Povey — narrative of affairs in New England 550 

October 4. Letter of Sir E. Andros to the committee of Privy Council — ^his arrival in New-York on the 11th of 

August — state of affairs, &c., 654 

August 11. Letter of Sir E. Andros to the Governor of Canada 655 

August 20. Letter of M. de Denonville to Governor Dongan 556 

September 19. Letter of Sir E. Andros to the Governor of Canada, 557 

September 18. Proceedings between Sir E. Andros, and the Five Nations of Indians at Albany 557 

September 15. Examination of an Indian named Magsipen, at Albany, before S. Cortland, 561 

September 26. Examination of John Rosie, at Albany, before Mayor Schuyler, 563 

September 25. Examination of Derrick Wessells, Recorder of Albany, before Mayor Schuyler, 564 

September 29. Information from Canada, given by four Mohawk Indians , 665 

October 1. Letter of Sir E. Andross to the Governor of Canada 666 

October 2. Letter of Colonel Dongan to Sir E. Andros and the Council — ^his accounts, 566 

October 9. Letter of Mr. Randolph to the committee of Privy Council — Sir E. Andros' proceedings 567 

October 23. Letter of M. de Denonville to Sir E. Andi'os, 569 

February 16. Order in Council, appointing a committee for trade and foreign plantations, and directing the proclama- 
tion of King WiUiam and Queen Mary, &c 672 

May 2. Order in Council upon the report of the coramiltec for trade, Ac, rcspoeting the state of the plantations, &e., 573 




June 5. 

June 7. 

June 11. 

June 26. 

July 9. 

July 2.3. 

July 5. 

July 29. 

July 30. 


August 5. 

August 5. 

August 5. 

August 13. 

August 20. 

August 81. 

Septerabcr 2. 
September 5. 
September 23. 

November 14. 
November 16. 
November 16. 
Deeember 10. 
December 10. 
December 10. 
December 13. 

December 13. 

December 19. 
December 30. 

Letter from F. Nicholson, Lieutenant Governor, and the Council at New-York, to the committee — state 

of affairs, &c., 

Declaration of the freeholders, Ac., of Suffolk county, L. L 

Mr. Edward Randolph's report to the committee of trade, &c., of the state, Ac, of New England, 

Address of the militia, Ac, of New-York to Kin;; "William and Queen Mary, 

Letter from the Council of New- York to the Earl of Shrewsbury— overthrow of the government in 

New- York — Captain Leisler — Nicholson going to England, Ac, 

Deposition of John Dischington, about his interview with Leisler, Ac, 

Deposition of Philip Fi-ench, about his capture and interview with Leisler, Ac, 

Certificate of the clergy of New-York in favor of Messrs. Cortland and Bayard, 

Letter of advice, by N. Gold and James Fitch, Deputies of Connecticut, to Captain Leisler, 

Letter of Mr. S. Van Cortland to Sir E. Audros — narrative of affairs in New-York, Ac, 

Letter of Colonel Bayard to Captain Nicholson — affairs in New- York and Albany 

Abstract of the journal kept by Colonel Bayard, since the 11th of June, 1689, in New-York 

Order in Council to the Commander-in-chief; Ac, at New- York to proclaim the King and Queen, 

Letter of the King to Lieutenant Governor Nicholson, and in his absence to, Ac. — to take upon himself 

the government, Ac, » 

Order in Council, approving the report of the committee of trade, Ac, upon the Earl of Sterling's 

pension claim 

Letter of Messrs. Flypse and Van Cortland to Mr. Blathwayte, 

Letter of Stephen Van Cortland to Captain Nicholson — Leisler's proceedings — Lidians — Boston, Ac, 

Letter of Colonel Bayard to Captain Nicholson — Indian and French news 

Letter of Captain MeKenzie to Captain Nicholson — Leisler, Andros, Ac, 

Letter of Captain Leisler to the King and Queen — account of his proceedings, 

Letter of Mr. John Tuder to Captain Nicholson — Leisler's proceedings, Ac, 

Memorandum of the committee of Privy Council, to move the King that a Governor be appointed for 

New-York, and that presents be sent to the Indians, and two companies of foot raised, Ac, 

Orders in CouncU for raising two companies for New- York, and for Indian presents, Ac, 

Letter of Lord Effingham to the Earl of Sunderland — French and Indian affairs, 

Extract of a letter of Colonel Bayard, about the Five Nations and the French in Canada, 

Reasons offered by Colonel Sloughter to the committee of Privy Council, for the settlement, Ac, of the 

government of New-York, 

Draft of a commission to Henry Sloughter, Esq., to be Governor, Ac, of New- York, 

Report of Joost Stol, on behalf of the militia, Ac, of New-York, to the Earl of Shrewsbury 

Account of the proceedings of ensign Joost Stoll, Ac, 

Letter of Col. Bayard to Captain Nicholson — conduct of Leisler, Ac, 

Letter of Colonel Bayard to Lord Shrewsbiiry — Leisler's conduct, Ac, 

Letter of Colonel Bayard to Sir Edmund Andros, 

Narrative of the chief occurrences, abuses, Ac, committed by Jacob Leisler and several of his 

associates, at New- York, since the 2'7th day of April, , 

Messrs. Flypse and Van Cortland's certifieate of Captain Leisler's taking a packet of despatches, Ac, 

from Riggs 

Letter of Mr. Van Cortland to Sir E. Andros — wishes to be made collector, Ac, 

Letter of P. Reverdye to the Bishop of London — Frencli families in New-York 

Petition to the King, of merchants trading to New-York, for forces to be sent to New-York to defend 

it from the Fiench 

Reasons in support of the preceding petition 












Letter of Captain Leisler to the King— account of his proceedings 

Letter of Leisler and his Council to the Bishop of Sahsbmy — account of the 
New-York, Ac 



Colonel Bayard's orders to Captain Abram Depcyster, Ac 658 

Affidavits concerning agreement of Sir E. Andros with certain Indians to attack New- York, Ac 659 

Deposition of Audiics Greveract and George Brewerton, about their interview with Captain Nicholson 

on 5th February, 1689, 660 

CONTENTS. s^-iii 

1690. ■ Page. 

January 14. Letter of Colonel Bayard to Mr. John West, at Boston [ interceptod ] (ji;i 

January 14. Letter of W. Ifichols to Mr. Geoi^e Farewell [ intercepted ], 602 


December 2S. Letter of Edward Kandolph to Major Brocklioles at New- York [ intercepted ] 6G-i 

January 21. " A modest and impartial narrative of several grievances and great oppressions that the peaceable 
inhabitants of New-Tork lie under, by the extravagant and arbitrary proceedings of Jacob Leysler 

and his associates." [ Printed at New-York, and reprinted at London, 1690.] 665 

January 31. Instructions to Henry Sloughter, Esq., appointed Governor of New- York, &c, 685 

March 13. Warrant to pay a chaplain and other officers for the two foot companies at New-York, <fec 691 

March 12. Memorial of Robert Livingston, and Gerrit Teunise, agents from Albany, and Thomas Garton, from 

Ulster, to the Governor and Council of Connecticut, 692 

March 22. Memorial of Messrs. Livingston, Teunise, and Garton, to the Governor, CouncU and Representation of 

Massachusetts 695 

March 27. Letter of Mr. Livingston to Mr. Ferguson — affairs in New-York, i-c. 698 

March • 31. Letter of Lieutenant Governor Leisler to the King, asking encoviragement, <tc., '700 

March 31. Letter of Lieutenant Governor Leisler to the Bishop of Salisbury — attack and burning of Schenectady — 

Indians — neighboring colonies — New-York affairs, <fec., TOO 

March 4. Commission of Milbourne, Ac, to proceed to Albany, and superintend affairs there, 702 

April 11. Memorial of Mr. Livingston to the Governor, ifcc, of Connecticut, for assistance against the French, 

and their proceedings thereupon 703 

April 14. Letter of Mr. Livingston to Sir Edmund Andros — French and Indian news, <fcc., 708 

April 17. Minute of the board, ic, about New- York records at Boston, 710 

April 26. Order in Council, for the delivery of a sloop built in New-England, to Governor Sloughter, itc 711 

April 30. Order of the King to the government of Massachusetts, thereupon, 711 

May 3 Proceedings between Leisler's eomnussioners at Albany and the Five Nations 711 

May 6. Letter from Father LambeiwiUe to Father MOet, 714 

May 19. Letter of Mr. Van Cortland to Sir E. Andros — Leisler — Schenectady — New-York, and the other 

colonies, <fec., 715 

May 16. Letter of Mr. Thomas Newton to Captain Nicholson — Port Royal — ^Albany, &c 720 

May 27. Report to the committee of ti-ade, &c., by Sir Edmund Andros, of his administration of New 

England, <fec., 722 

May 31. Warrant to Governor Sloughter to use the seal of New-York, <tc. 726 

June 7. Letter of Mr. Livingston to Lieutenant Governor Nicholson — MUbourne's proceedings, (fee., 727 

May 9. Letter of Mr. Livingston to the Governor, <fee., of Connecticut, 728 

May 13. Letter of Mr. Livingston to the Governor, Ac, of Connecticut, 730 

Jime 23. Letter of Leisler, <tc., to the Earl of Shrewsbury — ^French and Indian affairs, &e., 731 

June 15. Instructions of the Governor of Canada to Chevalier d'Eau, going to the Iroquois 733 

June 15. Message of Oreaoue, the Cayuga chie^ by the persons he sent to the Iroquois, 735 

June 23. Petition of Captain Benjamin Blagge, on behalf of Lieutenant Governor Leisler, <fec., to the King, 737 

A memorial of what has occurred in New- York since the news of their Majesties' happy arrival in 

England, 738 

Jime 6. Depositions of several pereons about a riot at New-York, &c., 741 

Depositions to prove that Robert Livingston was a Jacobite 747 

Deposition to prove that James Emott took the oath allegiance to King James before Father Smith 747 

Letter of WUliam Nicolls to Lieutenant Governor Leisler, 747 

May 19. The humble address of the merchants, <fec., of New- York to the King, complaining of Leisler's 

proceedings, &c. 748 

June 23. Petition of Lieutenant Governor Leisler and others to the King 750 

October 17. Letter of Privy Council to Governor Sloughter, enclosing the preceding papers, with directions to 

examine into them, <fee 750 

October 20. Letter of Lieutenant Governor Leisler and others to the King, imploring countenance, <tc., 751 

October 20. Letter of Lieutenant Governor Leisler and others to the Earl of Shrewsbury — account of New- York 

affairs, &c., since the 1st of May, 751 

November 7. Letter of John Clapp to the Secretary of State in behalf of the freeholders, &c., of Long-Island — 

usurpations and tyrannical proceedings of Jacob Leisler and his accomplices, tfec, 754 

Vol. hi. e 














































September 4. 










• 30. 










Letter of Governor Slougbter to the Earl of Nottingham— his arrival at New-York— state of affairs 

tliore, etc 756 

Letter of Mr. C. Brooke to Sir Robert Southwell — ^his arrival at New-York in January — Leisler's 

proceedings, &c. 7.57 

Letter of Governor Sloughter to the Earl of Nottingham — aiiairs in New-York and the other eolouies — 

Leisler's condemnation, Ac, 759 

Letter of Governor Sloughter to the committee of trade, ifce., 7G2 

Answer to the memorial presented by Captain Benjamin Blagge to the King 763 

Letter of Governor Slougbter to the committee — account of his voyage and arrival — New-York 

affairs, Ac., 766 

Letter of Governor Sloughter to the Duke of Bolton — military affairs, &c., 768 

Letter of Governor Bradstreet, in behalf of the council of Massachusetts, to Lord Nottingham — New- 
York records, sloop, ifec, 769 

Propositions of the Praying Indians, or Christian Mohawks, to Governor Sloughter, at Albany, 771 

Governor Sloughter's answer to the preceding propositions, 772 

Governor Sloughter's propositions to the Five Nations at Albany, ■. . 773 

Answer of the Five Nations to Governor Sloughter's propositions 774 

Propositions of the Mohawks and other Indians to Governor Sloughter at Albany, and his replies,. . . . 777 

Letter of Mr. Livingston to Governor Sloughter — French and Indian affairs, &o., 781 

Examination of two Moliawk Indians arrived from Canada, 782 

Letter of Mr. Livingston to Governor Sloughter — Indian and Canadian affairs 783 

Circular letter of Governor Sloughter to the neighboring colonies, ifee 784 

Letter of the Governor, ifec, of Connecticut to Governor Sloughter in reply, 786 

Letter of the committee in Maryland to Governor Sloughter in reply, 788 

Intended letter of Governor Sloughter to Mr. Blathwayt — narrative of affairs in New- York — Leisler's 

execution, <fee. 789 

Letter of R. Ingoldsby, Commander-in-Chief, &o., to the committee of trade, <fec. — death of Governor 

Sloughter — affairs in New-York, &c., 791 

Letter of the Commander-in-Chief and Council, <fce., at New-York, to Mr. Blathwayt — narrative of 

affairs in New-York, since 19th of March last 794 

Address of the Governor, 4c., of New-York to the King — account of affairs in New-York, &c., 796 

A modest and true relation of the sundry accidents h.appening to Major Schuylei', and the party of Chris- 
tians and Indians under his command, in their expedition to Canada, 21 June to 9 August, 1691, . . . 800 

Propositions of the Senecas, Oneidas and Mohawks, at Albany, and answers thereto 805 

Memorial of William Van Breen, and others, residents at the Hague, respecting the occurrences in 

New- York, in 1690 and 1691, 809 

Letter of the Commander-in-Chief and Council at New- York to Lord Nottingham — frontier affairs, Ac, . 812 

Letter of Council at New-York to Mr. Blathwayt— Military affairs, Ac, 813 

Letter of the officers at Albany to Major Ingoldsby — Indian and French affairs, Ac, 814 

Letter of Dirck Wessels aad L. Van Schaiek to the Speaker— French and Indian affairs, 817 

, Instructions for Benjamin Fletcher, Esq., appointed Governor, Ac, of New- York 818 

Petition of Jacob Leisler, son of Lieutenant Governor Leisler, to the King, 825 

. Order in Cormcil approving the report of the committee for trade, Ac, upon the petition of Jacob 

Leisler, Ac, 827 

, Commission to Benjamin Fletcher, Esq., to be Governor, Ac, of New-York, 827 

. Letter of Major Ingoldsby to the Duke of Bolton — estate of the Provinoe, Ac, 833 

;, Order in Council amending Governor Fletcher's commission for the govermnent of Pennsylvania, Ac,.. 835 

I. Letter of the Coimoil at New-York to Sir. Blathwayt — account of New-York affairs, Ac, 836 

Representation of the proprietors of East Jersey to the committee for trade, Ac-r-militia forces — 

assistance to New-York, Ac 838 

. Letter of the jM'opietors of West Jersey to Governor Fletcher-^— assistance to New-York, Ac, 838 

Instructions from the governor and proprietore of West Jersey, to their Deputy Governor, concerning 

the militia, Ac, 839 


1692. Page. 

June 6. Propositions of Major Ingoldsby to tlie Five Nations, at Albany, with their answers thereto, 840 

June 22. Letter of Major Ingoldsby to the Duke of Bolton — affairs in New-York, &c 845 

September 10. Letter of Governor Fletcher to Mr. Blathwayt — his arrival at New-York on August 28 — proceedings, <te., 846 

September 10. Letter of Governor Fletcher to the Earl of Nottingham — affairs in New-York, 847 

September 10. Letter of Governor Fletcher to [Mr. Blathwayt] — state of the province — French affairs — frontiers, <tc., 848 
September 16. Some objections against the present pretended government in Connecticut, humbly tendered to 

[Governor Fletcher's] consideration, by Edward Palms, 'William Rosewell, and Greshem Bulkeley. . 849 

September 23. Letter of Governor to the Earl of Nottingham 854 

September 23. Examination of three prisoners, and two French renegades fi-om Canada, 855 

October 11. Tlie Queen's letter to Sir William Phipps, to assist New-York, <fec., 855 

October 21. Draft of commission to Benjamin Fletcher, Esq., for the government of Pennsylvania, itc., 856 

October 28. Instructions to Benjamin Fletcher, Esq., for the government of Pennsylvania, <te., 861 


Order in Council respecting certain complaints against Capt. Argall^ c&c. 

[ Council Register, Jac. I., E. 1613-1614, I. 116.] 

At the Court at Whitehall the 2 of January 1613 being Sunday before noone 

Present. — Lo. Archbp. of Cant. E. of Pembroke 

Lo. Chancellor Lo. Zouche 

Lo. Privie Seale Lo. Knollis 

Lo. Chamberlaine Lo. Stanhope 

E. of Worcester S'' Jul : Ccesar 

Lo. Chiefe Justice. • ■ 

A Letter to S'' Thomas Smith. 

Wee have latelie received divers compl'' exhibited by the French ambassador on the behalfe of 
certaine Frenchmen of Rochelle, St. John de Luz, and others, some of them conceminge 
outi-ages committed upon them, (as is alleged) on the coast of Canada by Cap™ Argall employed 
for Virginia, others on their fishing voyage towards Groenlands by one Cap™ Benjamon 
Joseph, who commanding a ship of the Moscovie companie this last summer, found some of 
those Frenchmen in those pt" and tooke from them a great quantitie of Traine and whale bones, 
wherewith they had laden their Shipp, and sent them away emptie, as appeareth by the memo- 
rialls presented by the French ambassador, which we send you herewithall. 

Forasmuche as it wall be expected that His Ma"^ should forthvrith give some satisfaction to 
the said Ambassador, touchinge both compl'" we have thought good first to require you to 
acquainte some of the councell of Virginia herewithall, as also some of the Moscovie companie 
so far as it concemes eyther of them respectively and to retume us their severall and particular 
answers unto eache of them with all expedition, that the ambassador may likewise receive his 
answer from his Ma"* or his Boord. 


Answer to the 2:>reced}ng Order. 

[ Council Eofisl.T, Jac. I., E. 1C13 - 1014, I. 121. ] 

At Whitehall the 23 of January 1613, beinge Sonday auernoon 

Present. — Lo. Archb. of Cant. Lo. Knollys 

- Lo. Chancellor Lo. Wotton 

•*' Lo. Pr. Seale Lo. Stanhope 

Lo. Chaniberlahie S'' Jul: Ctesar. 

The answer of the Lds. of His Ma'" Privie Councill unto tlie complajaits exhibited by the 
Lo. Embassador of France touchinge spoyles and other violence's supposed to be committed by 
His Ma'" subjects of Great Brittaine upon the subjects of France on the coast of Greeneland 
and Cannada. [Pw/Y rduiing to Greenland omitted.^ 

For the matter of Cannada, their Ldri" having required the Tre^ and Councell of Virginia, 
whom it concernes, to make answer thereimto, they say, that since the month of June, they 
have not received any shipp or ad\ace from Virginia, whereby they cannot be informed of any 
such misdemeanors, but upon Cap'" Argalls returae which they expect about the beginning of 
the Spring, or upon any other notice of the fact, (whereof they will seeke to be informed by all 
the nieanes they may,) they will certifie their Ld?", whereupon such course shall be taken for 
restitution and punishment of the offenders as shall be to the good satisfaction of the sayd Lo. 
Embassador, and the parties interested. 

Petition of Adi'enturers for settling Colonies in Virginia; 3 March., 1620. 

[ Trade Tapers, Stale Paper Office, V. 55. ] 

The most huml)le peticon of 3'o'' Ma"''' counsell for the second colonie, and other 
the adventurers in the Western partes of England for the plantacon in the 
North Partes of Mrginia in America. 

Maije it please yo'' most Excellent Majestic, 

Whereas it pleased yo"' Ma"' by yo'' most gratious L''" patentes bearing date the of 

Aprill in the fowerth yeare of yo'' Mat'" most blessed raigne to give lycence for the estabhshinge 
of two Colonies in Virginie in America, the one caled the First Colonie undertaken by certaine 
noble men knightes and merchants about London ; the other caled the Second Colonie likewise 
undertaken by certaine knights gentlemen and merchants of the Western partes; by vertue 
whereof some of the Western partes hath at their greate charg and extreme hazard continewed 
to endeavour to descov"" a place fitt to entertaine such a designe, as also to find the meanes to 
bring to passe see noble a worke : in the constant pursuite whereof it hath pleased God to ayde 


thena w*"" his blessing soe far as, in the confidence of the continewance of His Grace, they are 
resolved to pursue the same with all the power and meanes they are able to make, to His 
glorie, yo"" Ma"""" honour and the publique good of the couutrye. 

And as it pleased yo'' Ma'^' to be gratious to those of the first colonic in enlarginge of the first 
patent two seav'"all times with many privileges & imnmnities according to yo'' princely bountye, 
whereby they have bin incouraged in their proceedinges : Yo"' Peticoners doe in all ImmilHtie 
desire that yo'' Ma"" will voutchsafe unto them the like, that they maye w"' more boldues goe 
on as they have begmi, to the satisfaction of yo'' Ma''" most religious expectacon, w"" the 
alteracon onely of some few things & the additions here insueing. 

First, that the territories where yo'' peticoners makes their plautacon may be caled (as by the 
Prince His Highnes it hath bin named) New England, that the boundes thereof may be setled 
from 40 to 45 degrees of Northerly latitude & soe from sea to sea through the maine as the 
coast lyeth, & that yo'' Ma'" counsel] residing here in England for that plantacon may consist of 
a President, Vicpresident, Treasurer, Secretary & other their associates, to be chosen out of 
the noble men & Ivuights adventurers home about London, & others the adventurers both 
knightes gentlemen and merchants in the western couutryes ; Soe as the said couusell doe not 
exceede the number of 40, who as one incorporate bodye maye as often as neede requires be 
assembled when and where the P'sident or Vicp'sident, w"" the Treasm-er and Secretary or 
any two of them, to be assisted w"" five or three others of the counsell shall think most conve- 
nient for that service ; wherby yo'' Ma*^ most hmnble peticoners doth verily hope, by Gods holy 
assistance to settle their plantacon to the imployeing of many of yo'' Ma" Subjects and the content 
of all that are well disposed to the prosperitie of y"" Ma'" most happie raigne. 

And soe yo'' Ma'' most humble peticoners shalbe bownd (as in duty they are) 
to pray for all increase of glory & perpetuall happiness to yo'' Ma'^« blessed 
posteritie for ever. 

March 3, 1619. Upon readeinge of this peticon, their Lips, did order that the Lo. Duke of 
Lenox, Lo. Steward of his Ma'" Household, and the Earle of Arundell shall take notice of the 
peticon, consider of the demands for priviledges, and thereupon certefie their opinions to their' 
Lips, that such further order may be taken as shalbe meete. 

(Signed) C. Edxiondes. 

Waiv^ant to prepare a Patent for the Northern Company of Virginia. 

[ Council Eegister, Jac. I., E. ICIS - 1620, IV. 676. ] '^ 

At Whitehall the 23 July 1620. 

Pkesext. — Lo. Chancellor Lo. Digby 

Lo. Privy Scale M'' Comptroler 

E. of Amndell M'' Sec^ Naunton 

E. of Southampton M'^ Sec^ Calvert 

Lo. Bp of Winton M-- of the Roles 
M'' of the Wardes. 


A Let'' to S'' Thomas Covoitrie, K/iig//t, his majes Solicitor General. 
Whereas it is thought fitt that a Patent of Incorporation be granted to the Adventurers of 
the Northern coUonye in Virginia to containe the like liberties pri\'iledges, power, authorities, 
Landes, and all other thinges within their Ipnitts viz' betweene the degrees of 40 and 4S 
as were heretofore granted to the companie of Virginia, Excepting only that whereas the 
said companie have a freedom of custome and subsidie for xxi j^eares, and of impositions for ever, 
this new companie is to be free of custome and subsidie for the like term of yeares, and of 
Impositions for so long tyme as his Ma"' shall be pleased to grant unto them. These shal be 
therefore to will and require you to prepare a Patent readie for his ma'" royall signature, to 
the purpose aforesaid, lea\ange a blanke for the tyme of freedom from Impositions to be 
supplied and put in by his Ma"'' and for which this shall be your Warrant. Dated, &c. 

Order in Council on ilie difference between the Korthern and Scntthern Plantations. 

I Council Register, Jac. I., E. V. 5S. ] 

Att Whitehall the 18th of June 1621. 

Present. — Lo. Archbishopp of Canterburie. 

Lo. Treasurer Lo. Vic. Falkland 

Lo. Privie Scale Lo. Carew 

Lo. Steward Mr Sec^ Calvert 

Lo. Admirall M"' Ch'' of y' Excq' 

Lo. Chamberlains M"' of the Rolles 

Ea. of Arundell M'' of the Wardes 

Lo. Vic. Doncaster M'' Deane of Westminster 

Whereas there was a Petition exhibited unto his Majestie in the name of the Patentees and 
Adventurers in the Plantation of New England concerning some difference betweene the 
southeme and northerne colonies, the w*" Petition was by his Ma''' refen-ed to the consideration 
of the Lords, Their Lopp" upon the hearing and debating of the matter at large, and by the 
consent of both Colonies, did establish and confirm two former orders, the one bearing date the 
16th of Slarch 1619, agi'eed upon by the Duke of Lenox and the Earle of Arundell, (to whome 
the business was referred by the Board) the other of the 21st of July 1620, ordered by the 
Board, whereby it was thought fitt that the said Colonies should fish att and within the 
limitts and bounds of each other reciprocully, v/ith this limitation, that it bee only for the 
sustentation of the people of the Colonies there, and for the transportation of people into either 
colony (as by the said order more att large appeareth). And further it was ordered att this 
present by their Lopps. that they should have freedome of the shore for drying of their netts, 
and taking and sa\ang of their fish, and to have v^^ood for their necessary uses, by the assigmnent 
of the Governers att reasonable rates. Lastly, that the pattent of the northerne Plantation shall be 
renewed according to the premises, And those of the southeme Plantation to have a sight 
thereof before it bee engrossed, And the former patent to be delivered into the hands of the 


Order in CGuncil relative to encroachments- on the grant to the New England Company. 

I Council Eegrister, Jac I., E. V. 143. ] 

At Hampton Court the 2Sth September 1621. 

Present. — Lo. Archbishop of Canterbm-ie, 

Lo. Keeper Lo. Brooke 

Lo. Treasurer Lo. Cranfield 

Lo. Stewarde M"" Sec^ Calvert 

E. Marshall ]VP of the Roles 

Lo. Vic. Falkland Sir Rich. Weston. 
Lo. Ep Wiuton 

A Letter to the Maxjors of Bristoll Exon. Plymouth, Dartmouth, Barnstable, arid Waymouth, and to 
each of them, and to all Merchants, oivners of Shipps and other His Ma*^ subjects to ivhom it shall 
or may appe)-taiiie. 

Whereas wee have been informed on the behalfe of the President and Councill of New 
England, that although they by their ordinances estabhshed by the authoritie of his Ma""" letters 
patents have freely given way to divers Marchants or others to become Adventurers with them 
in their trade and Plantation in those parts, soe as they submitt themselves to such convenient 
orders as shall be sett do^vne for the advancement of that plantation, and more regular and 
free increase of Publick Trade, notwithstandinge there are some what have akeadie attempted, 
and are in further preparation to assume a libeitie to themselves to trade to the prejudice of the 
said Plantation, without resort to the said Government or orders established for the publick 
good, Which, if it should bee tollerated in them, would not only bee a prejudice to the Plantation 
adventm-ers, who by theii- Industrie have discovered those remoate places, and with the hazard of 
the lives of their people and expense of their Estates have layd the first foundation of soe 
honorable an entei-prise, but would alsoe bringe a confusion to the said Plantation and an 
overthrowe imtoe that Trade, and bee likewise an utter discouragement to all future endeavours 
of the Hke kinds. Wee have therefore thought fitt hereby to left you knowe and doe require 
you to siguifie as mucli unto such of his fila"" subjects inhabitinge neere unto that Coast whom 
the same may conceme, That if anie person shall presume to attempt, or doe anie thing in 
that behalfe contrary to his Ma'''" said Graunt, hee is to expect noe less than the due execution 
thereof, and such further pimishment as is fitt to be inflicted upon those that shall contemne his 
Ma'^" Royall authoritie. Neverthelesse it is hereby intended and soe ordered, that the agreement 
made by order of this Board betweene them of New England and Virginia shall in all respects 
be duly observed by either partie. And soe &c. &c. 


Order against the Dutch trading to New England. 

[Council P.egister, Jac. I., E. 1620-1C23, V. 209.] 

At Whitehall, the IS'* of December 1621 

Present — Lo. Treasurer Lo. Steward 

Lo. President E. Marshall 

Lo. Privie Seals Lo. Digbie 

W Sec5- Calvert. 

A Letler to Sir Dudley Carlcton, K' His Maj^"^ Amhassador resident icith the Slates of' 
the United Provinces. 
Whereas, his Ma'" Subjects have many yeares since taken possession of the whole precinct, 
and inhabited some parts of the North of Virginia, (by us called New-England) of all which 
countries His Ma'^ hath in like manner, some yeares since by Patent granted the quiet and full 
possession unto particular persons, Neverthelesse wee miderstand that the yeare past the 
Hollanders have entered upon some parte thereof, and have left a Colonic and given new 
names to the severall ports appertaining to that part of the Countrie, and are now in readinesse 
to send for their supply six or eight shipps, whereof His Ma'"" being advertised, wee have 
received his royall commandment to signifie his pleasure that you should represent these things 
unto the States Generall in his Ma'' name (who jure primas occupationis hath good and sufficient 
title to those parts) and require of them that as well those shipps as their further prosecution of 
that plantation, may be presently stayed. And soe, not doubting your best endeav"^ herein 
wee, &c. 

Privy Council to Sir Dudley Carleton. 

[Stale Paper Office ; nolland, 1621. ] 

After o'' verie heartie comendacons to Yo'' Lopp. Whereas His l\la" subjectes have many 
yeares since taken possession of the whole precinct and inhabited some partes of the Nortli of 
Virginia (by us called New-England) of all wh'^'' countries His Ma'"^ hath in like manner 
some yeares since by patent granted the quiet and full possession unto particular persons ; 
Neverthelesse wee understand that the yeare past the Hollanders have entered upon some 
partes thereof and there left a Colonie and given new names to the severall portes appertaining 
to that part of the countrie, and are now in readiness to send for their supply six or eight shipps. 
Whereof His Ma"^ being advertised, wee have received his royall comandement to signifie his 
pleasure that yow should represent these thinges unto the States Generall in His Ma" name 
(who jure primal occupationis hath a good and sufficient title to those parts) and requii-e of them 
that aswell those shipps as their further prosecution of that plantation may be presently stayed. 


And soe, not doubting of yo' Lopps. best ondeavo" herein Wee bid yow verie bartely farewell. 
From Whitehall the 15"' December 1G21 

Yd'' Lopps. verie loving friendes 
L. Craxfeild. H. JIandeville. 

E. Worcester 
Aruxdell & Surrey. • 


Geo. Calvert 

To o' verie good Lord S'' Dudley Carlton Kn' 
His Ma'' Ambassdo'', Resident w"" the States 
of the United Prvoinces. 

S'' Dudley Cadeton Anibassador at The Hague., to the Lords of the Cou7icil. 

[ Trade Papers, State Paper Office. VI. 19.] 

May it please yo'' Lip' 

Ha^'ing received yo'' Lips Ires of the lo"" of December touching the Hollanders entering a 
year since and planting a colonic upon some parts of the North of Virginia w"'in the precinct of 
vr'^ his Ma'y had formerly graunted by his patent, the quiet and full possession unto particular 
persons, w"" commandement from his Ma'^ to move the States Generall, not only to make stay of 
such shipps as are here prepared for that voj^age, but likewise to prohibit the fmlher prosequution 
of that plantation ; I tooke the liberty w'^'" the season gave me (all the country shipps being 
then, as they still are, bound in with yce) to enforme my selfe of the state of the business before 
I would appeare in their assembly ; & could not fynd eyther by such merchants w"" whome I 
have aquaintance at Amsterdam, or by the Prince of Orange & some of the States of whome I 
made enquirie, any more in the matter, but that about fower or five years since two particular 
companies of Amsterdam merchants, began a trade into those parts betwi.xt 40 and 45 degi-ees, 
to w'='' after their manner they gave their own names of New Netherlands a south & a north 
sea, a Texel, a \lieland, & the like ; whither they have ever since continued to send shipps of 
30 and 40 lasts at the most to fetch frnxes, w'='' is all their trade ; for the providing of W'' they 
have certaine factors there continually resident trading w"" savages, and at this present there is 
a ship at Amsterdam bound for those parts ; but I cannot leame of anie Colonie eyther ahready 
planted there by these people, or so much as intended ; & I have this further reason to beheve 
there is none, because w'Mn these few months divers inhabitants of this country to a considerable 
number of familyes have bene suters unto me, to procure them a place of habitation amongst 
his Ma"^' subjects in those parts ; w"^ by his Ma"" order was made knowni to the Directo" of the 
plantacon, and yf these countrey men were in an}' such way themselves, there is small 
apparence they would desire to mingle w"* strangers & be subject to their government. 
Nevertheles because more may be kuowne to yo'' Lip' then I can learae here, I have not fayled 
of my duty in demaunding audience of the States & saying to them what I was commaunded ; 
the effect whereof (as the use here is being so required) I gave them in writing according to the 


copie I send yo'' Lip' herewith ; w''*' those of Holland demaunded of the asserablie, whereby to 
take information of the business (of which they pretended ignorance) therenpon to frame an 
answeare to His Ma''" W"" when I shall receave I will not fayle to advertise yo' Llp\ .So I most 
humbly take leave. From the Hagh the 5"» of February 1621. 

Y-^ LlP' 

most humbly to be conuumded 

(Signed) Dudley Carletox. 

Sir Dudley Carletons Memorial to the States Gemral. 



I have received express orders from the King my master to present to your L'd'shps 
additional complaints in regard to Maritime affairs caused by the subjects of these United 
Provinces, especially by the Hollanders, and to request you, in his name to apply a remedy 
to them by your authority. 

Several of his English subjects, Lords and other persons of station and quality having a long 
time ago taken possession of all the precincts of Virginia, and planted their settlement in 
certain parts of the northern quarter of said country, which takes its name (Nova Anglia) 
therefrom. His Majesty desiring the successful issue of so sacred and useful an enterprize, 
which tends to the advancement of the Christian Religion and the increase of Trade, granted 
several years ago, as is notorious to every one, by his Letters patent, quiet and full possession of 
the whole of the said country to several private indiWduals. 

Notwithstanding which he is informed that some Hollanders have last year landed in some 
parts of said country and there planted a Colony, altering the names of the ports and harbom-s 
and baptizing them anew after their fashion, intending to send thither other ships for the 
continuance of said plantation, and that in fact they have now six or eight vessels all ready to 
sail thither. 

Now H. M. having incontestably the right to the said country {jure jvimce occvpationis) has 
commanded me to represent to you the state of said affair and to request you in his name, not 
only that the ships already equipped for said voyage may, by your authority, be stopped, but 
also that the ulterior prosecution of said plantation may be expressly forbidden. 

Which, gentlemen, you will take, if you please, into prompt deliberation, communicating to 
me, at the earliest, the answer which I am to make His Majesty on your part. 

Exhibited in writing in the Assembly of the States General the 9"" of 
February 1622, and Signed 

Dudley Carle ton. 
(Endorsed by Carleton) 

" Minute of my P'position presented 
" in writing to y* States General 
• V' 9"" Feb>' 1622." 


Petition of the Walloons and French to Sir Dudley Carhton. [ 5 Feb. ] 1622. 

[State Paper Office; HoUand, 1622. ] 

My Lord the Ambassador of the Most Serene Khig 
of Great Britain is most humbly supplicated to 
advise and reply to us on the following articles. 

I. Firstly, will his Majesty be pleased to penult fifty or sixty families, as well Walloons as 
French, all of the reformed religion, to settle in Virginia, a countiy under his obedience, and 
will he be pleased to protect and defend them from and against all, and maintain them in their 

II. And as said families may consist of nearly three hundred persons, they would also wish to 
take with them a quantity of cattle as well for purposes of husbandry as for their support, and 
would therefore require more than one ship ; would not his Majesty then accommodate them 
with one, supplied and eqiiipped with cannon and other arms, on board of which they could 
make their voyage with whatever they might themselves be able to furnish, retmii in search of 
commodities for the places conceded by his said Majesty and at the same time export those of 
the country. 

III. When arrived in said country, would he not please pemiit them to select a spot fit for 
their settlement, from the places not yet cultivated by those whom his said INIajesty hath been 
pleased to send thither. 

IV. Might they not erect a town for their security in said selected places, provide it with 
necessary fortifications, elect therein a Govenaor & Magistrates for the administration both of 
pohce and justice under the ftmdamental laws wiiich it shall please his said Majesty to estabhsh 
in said comitries. 

V. Would his said Majesty please to furnish cannon and ammiition for the presen'ation of 
said place, & grant them, in case of necessity, the right to make powder, run bullets and cast 
cannon under his said Majesty's arms and escutcheon. 

VI. Would he not grant them a banlieu or territory of eight English miles all round, i.e., 
sixteen miles in diameter, which they might cultivate as fields, meadows, \nneyards and in other 
ways ; which temtory they should hold from his said Majesty, either conjointly or severally, in 
such fealty as his said Majesty may deem reasonable, without any other person being able to 
reside there imless by taking a patent (lettre de haUlette) of the land therein contained, in which 
would be reserved Inferior Seigniorial Rights ; and whether those amongst them who could 
live as nobles would not be pennitted to declare themselves such. 

Vn. Whether they might not hunt in said countries all game whether furred or feathered, 
( a poll et a jjluiiie ) fish in the seas and rivers, cut trees of lofty and other gi'owth both for 
navigation and other pm-poses according to their pleasm-e ; in fine, make use of everv- thing 
under and above groimd at their pleasure and will, (royalties excepted) and trade in all with 
those permitted them. 

Which privileges would extend solely to the said families and their's, without any new 
comers being able to avail themselves of them ; which means, that tliey would concede to them 
according to and not beyond their power, were his said Majesty not to concede to them anew. 
Vol. I. 2 


And as they miderstood that his said Majesty hath establislied a public warehouse in London, 
in which and not elsewhere are to he unloaded the merchandizes coming from said countries, 
and considering that it is only reasonable that those who by their labour and industry have 
procured for the public the enjoyment of this country, should receive the first fmits thereof, they 
will submit to the constitutions established there, for that purpose, which for their better 
observance shall be communicated to them. 

Under which conditions and privileges they would promise fealty and obedience such as 
faithful and obedient subjects owe their King and Sovereign Lord, submitting themselves, with 
all their power, to the laws generally established in said countries. 

My lord Ambassador vdll, if he please, give information on the preceding ; likewise if it would 
be his pleasure to expedite said prixalege in due form as soon as possible, in consequence of the 
shortness of the time to collect whatever is necessary from now to March, which is the convenient 
season for embarking. This doing he will oblige his servants to pray God for the realization of 
liis lioly designs and for liealih and long life. 

(Signed) Jose de Forest. 

( Endorsed by Sir Dudley Carleton) 

" Supplicaon of certaine 
" Walloons & French 
" who are desirous to 
" goe into Virginia." 

Secretary Calvert to Sir Dudley Carleton. 

[ statu Paper Office ; Holland, 16'22. ] 

In the conclusion of yo' last Ire, yow write unto me that you will treat v\-ith the States 
concerning the new I'lantation of the Hollanders in \'irginea as soone as you can take informacon 
of the state of the businesse, w"" w* yon would have bene glad the Lordes of the Councell had 
bene pleased to accompany their commaimdm'* ; I doe not know what it meanes, for from my 
self I doe not remember you had any direcon to treat with the States about such a plantation. 
Onelie I doe well call to minde that there were certaine Wallons that offered themselves and to 
caiTy w"" them threescore families, soe as they might have a porcon allotted imto them in that 
country to build a towne upon, with priviledges &c. w"'"' ofler you sent unto me, and I 
acquainting His Ma"'' with it, he was pleased to refen-e it unto the consideracon of the company 
of Virginea here, to whom he had formerlie given all power by his Lres Patenttes to admitt or 
exclude whom they pleased in that plantacon. And thereupon the company were contented to 
receive them upon certaine condicous, w'^'" I sent luito yow to impart unto them. Synce that 
tyme I heard nothing of it nor medled in it. If yo'' Lopp have had any further onler to treat 
with the States about it, I would be verie glad to understand it by yo'' next letter. 

And soe w"" my best wishes for yo"' health and welfare, I rest 

Yo'' Lopp" ailectionate 
S' Martins Lane ; friend to do you service, 

7. Feb''. 1621. j For Yo'' Lopp. Geo. Calvert. 


S'' Dudley Carhton to Secretary Cedvert. Extkact. 

[ state Paper Office ; Holland, 1C22. ] 

" As }^et I have no answeare to the complaint I made by order from my LI*"' of the councell 
in His Ma'*" name, touching the new plantacon of the HoUanders in the North of Virginia, of 
w'^'" I gave their LIp'' an accomit by letters I sent y"' Hon"' with my last dispatch ; hut I find they 
have the business in hand before the States of Holland which are now assembled. " 
So humbly take my leave. Hagh the 9"" of March 1621. 

Yoiu: H" 

most fa3'thfully to be 

Dudley Carletox. 
For Y^ H^ 

Oreler proJiibiting all 2^6^'^on^ to resort to New England contrarie to His Majesty's Grant. 

[Pri\T CouncU Register, Jac, I., E. V. 49S.] 

At Whitehall the 23 of October 1622. 

Present. — Lo. Archbp. of Cant. Lo. Vise. Grandison 

Lo. Treasurer Lo. Carewe 

Lo. President M'' Treasurer 

Lo. Privie Seale M'' Comptroler 

,. . _ Lo. Steward "SV Sec>- Calvert 

Lo. Marquisse Hamilton M"" Ch'' of y' Exch' 

E. Marshall W of the Roles 

E. of Kellie Sir Edward Conwej' 

The Councill forthe affaires of New England presentinge their hmnble petition this day unto 
the Board and shewing that whereas his Ma''" by his Letters patents hath been pleased to 
gi-aunt mito them the managing of the afiairs of New England, prohibiting all other his subjects 
not adventurers or Planters to frequent those coasts, and that letters were wTitten from the 
Board to severall To^^^les of the west partes of the Kingdome to confonne themselves unto his 
Ma"'' said Royall Graunt, neverthelesse, sundrie irregular persons, ( contrarie to the tenor of the 
said letters patents, and the said letters written from the Board. ) have this last yeare sent and 
gone unto those parts, and dispossessed some of the shipps and Planters of their proper places, 
and committed other outi-ages tending to the hinderance and greate prejudice of the Plantation, 
as in their said petition more at large is expressed, t'pon this their infonnation it was this day 
ordered by their Lordshipps that M' Attorney General should make readle a proclamation fitt 
forhis i\Ia''" Signature, prohibiting all persons to resort unto the coasts of New England contrarie 
to his Ma''""' said Royall grant. 


t/n/rr fnr lh< ,iiq>.avaun- l„forr. II. M. Onniril of ilu- Cnpf. of a Ihitrh Ship. 

At Wliilrhall Ilu> L-> of'.l;uiuarit> UVJl. 

PuKSKN T. — Lo. AiTlibip. Lo. Chichester 

Lo. President M"" Treasurer 

Lo. \"\r CriiiHlison, M' Sec>' Conway 

I,<). Carcwo 

A Iclfrr dinrfrd lo Sir John E/ijnt knisht, vin: iijmimi! of Devon, The Mayor of Plijmmit/t, 
' .S"- Fcrdimindo (inrrrrs, 8cr, 

Whereas wee hav(; received information that there is now a Dutch shipp ryding in the haven 
at Plymouth called tlie Orange Tree of Amsterdam, being of the burthen of one hundred and 
fifty tunes, or thereabouts, and bound to a place in America which is comprehended in a grant 
made Ity his Ma'''' upon just consideration to divers of his subjects, Wee do therefore hereby 
will and reipiire you to take order that the Captaine or maister of the said shipp be presently 
sent up hither with his commission and the plat which he hath, that upon his appearance and 
hearing, and examining the cause wee may determine what wee shall further thinke fitt to bee 
done. And wee doe likewise will and require you to make stay of the shipp unlill you shall 
receive other directions. And, Sec. (x:c. 

Ordfir gii'iiKj thr Diifrh WeH India Compavu the Ixneft of the Treat 1/ of Savthampfon. 

M Whitehall •V'' of September 1G27. 

Presknt. — Lo. Keeper Ea. of Kelly 

Lo. Treasurer IVP Pecy Coke 

Lo. President M' Ch"- ofy^ Ex^ 

F- of l)ors<'l, M'-C'ii'-ofy^Dutchy. 

Whereas tiic coinpanic of the West Indies in the united Provinces hath made humble suite 
unto his Ma"' tliat their siiipps employed thither either in trade of merchandize or on warfare 
for the weakening of the conunon enemy, might quietly pass on their intended voyages, both 
ouiward and homeward i)oun(i, without any molestation, .stay, or hinderance by his Ma''" own 
shipps or of his .subjects employed with 1" of nianjue to the southwards or elsev^'here. It 
pleased his Ma'"' thereupon to declare that his Poyall will and pleasure is, the said West India 
Companie, their Caj)" Masters, Mariners, shipps, and prizes, by them taken or to be taken 
herealter uponllic said enemy, and all their goods and other tilings whatsoever to them belonging. 



shall have free ingi'esse, egresse, and regresse mto and out of all his Ma''" ports, havens, roads, 
and creekes as by the Articles of the Treaty made at Southampton the 7"> of September 1(')25 
more at large appeareth, \-iz' : 

15. That the ports shall be open, and free for the subjects of both parties, as well merchants, 
as men of Warre, to pursue and take their enemies in any place of each others temtories, 
respectively, and to cany them away, papng the customs and duties and obsening the Lawes 
of the place. 

16. If the merchants shipps belonging to the subjects of either side shall be forced bj- tempest, 
pursuite of Pirates, or anie other casualtie to take shelter in anie of the ports belonging to his 
Ma'''= or the States, respectively, that they shall depart at their pleasure, without being 
constrained to land, sell, or barter their commodities, or pay anie customs for them. 

17. The Cap°*' of shipps of warre of either p^= sent to sea with private commissions may 
likewise securely bring into the Ports & Roades of either p*'^, respectively. And carry away 
such prizes as they shall take from the common enemie, -nithout gi^'ing anie notice or pajnng 
anie customs to the officers of the place ( provided that they show their commissions if they be 

IS. That all wracks happening upon the coasts of his ma'"'' or the States, respectively, may 
be claymed within a yeare by the owners, ortheir assigns, and shall be restored without anie 
suite, payin according to the customes and duties of the places. 

19. That ail suites arising betwixt the subjects of either parties, upon these, or the like 
occasions, shall have summarie proceeding. 

23. That there shall be a freedome of Trade and Commerce in the Kingdome or Territories of 
y* Allies, and of Princes or friends newtrall without interruption. 

24. That y^ subjects of his Ma*'^ or the States, may furnish themselves, in each others 
countrie, with all manner of muntions of armes cordage, saj'-les, and \-ictuals for the provision 
of their shipps, not paying anie greater price for the same than the natives. 

All which sayd articles, and eveiy clause and point therein contapied, or anie other mentioned 
in the said Treatie. Itis his Ma"" express will and pleasure, shall be punctually observed, 
kept, and fulfilled by his ministers and officers. And he doth therefore hereby will and 
command all Admiralls, vice Admiralls, Cap""% or Commanders of his castles or forts. Judges, 
Mayors, Sheriffs, BaliflTs, Constables, &c, Cap"" and Masters of his shipps at sea, and of those 
of his subjects employed on warfare, or with Let" of iNIarque, and all others, his ]Ma''''= Officers 
Ministers, and lo\'ing subjects, whome in anie sorte it may concerne, to see this his Princely 
Declaration and pleasiu-e, carefulty, truly, and diligently put in execution, as they tender his 
Royall ser^ace, and will answer the contrary at their perills. And .urther, that those of the 
said companie be treated with that respect and courtesie as is fitting to be used towards the 
subjects of a state with whome his ]Ma"^ is in firm and ancient amitie : Provided that the 
said companie, or those whom they do or shall employ, carrie themselves as they ought to doe, 
and not abuse this his Ma""^ Rovall favor. 



Commission from Govern'' Pott to W'" Clayhorne. 

[Virginia. 11. 13'2.] 

By the Goverm'' axd Captaixe 
Generall of Virginia 

To all to whome these psents shall come, I John Pott 
Esq. Governo'' nnd Captaine Generall of Virginia send 
Greeting in our Lord God Everlasting. Whereas there 
remaine dyvers places and partes of this kingdome of 
Virginia not yett discovered since the beginning of this 
Colony, by the search and discovery whereof the boundes 
and lymittes of this plantacon may he farr augmented and 
such other comodities found out as may bee for the 
benefitt and good of the people inhabiting the same. 
Now know yee that I the said John Pott, out of the 
good opinion I conceive of the sufficiency and experience of William Claybonie Esq'' who 
intendeth this somer to imploy hiraselfe w"' a sufficient company of men, a shipp, and other 
necessary provisions requisite for such a voyage to discover the partes & territories of this 
Colony scituate and lying to tlie Southward of this place, as alsoe of some pticuler places to the 
Northward and in tlie Bay of Chesepeiacke ; and greatly favouring the Psecution of such 
enterprises, tending soe much to the inlardgm' and welfiire of this Colony, doe by these Psents 
give full power and authority unto him the said William Claybome to goe and make his 
voyage and saile into any the ryvers creekes portes and havens within the said Bay of Chesepeiacke 
or into any other part or partes of this country within the degrees of 34 and 41, and there 
to trade and trucke with the Indians for furres skins come or any other comodities of what 
nature or quality soever they bee. Wilhng and requiring him the said William Clayhorne w"' all 
diligence and circumspeccon to be careful! in the guard of himselfe and company against the 
treacherous plotts of tlie salvages that soe such as bee oiu- enemies may bee prevented in 
any evill w"^'' they shall imagine or practize, and such of them as remaine and bee in tennes of 
amytie and freindshipp receave noe just cause of distast or wrong. And for the better mannadging 
and execution of all matters and occurrences and repressing of all disorders and mutinies incident 
and happening in his said voyage; I doe hereby give and gramit unto the said William 
Claybome full power and authority to goveme correct and punishe such of his said company as 
shall in any wise bee delinquent or obstinate to his authority and command, according to the 
lawes and customes of the seas and as hee in his best discretion shaU think fitt, hfe only excepted. 
By these psentes walling and requii-ing all and every pson & psons accompanying him in this 
his said voyage, willingly and readily to obey and execute to their best power all such 
commands and direccons as they shall at any time receive or bee required to doe by the said 
William Claybome. And this Commission shall continew in force for and during the terme of 
six monethes next after the date hereof. Gyven at James Citty under my hand and the Seale 
of the Colony the thirteenth dale of March in the fourth yeare of the raigne of o"" Soveraigne 
Lord King Charles of England k" Annoque Domini 1 fi2S. 

(Signed) Johx Pott. 


Coyntni^sion from Governor Harvey to TF"' Clayborne. 

[ Virginia Tupers, To B. 13ii. ] 

To all to whom these presents shall come, 

I. Sir John Harvey, Knight, Governor and Captain General of Virginia, send Greeting 
in our Lord God Everlasting. Whereas my trusty and well beloved friend William Cleybonie, 
Esquire, and one of the Comicil of State forthis Colony, hath desired for increase of trade, to 
obtain this my commission to sail and traffick into the adjoining plantations of the Dutch, seated 
upon this territory of America ; which may tend to an inteniational benefit, wherein we may 
be useful to one another: Now Know Ye, that I, the said Sir John Harvey, out of the good 
opinion I conceive of the discretion and understanding of the said Captain William Cleybome, 
do, by these presents, with the consent of the Coimcil of State, authorize him, with the 
first convenience of wind and weather, to set sayle from hence in such barques and pinnaces, 
and with such companies of men as shall willingly accompanie him to go into the said 
Plantations of the Dutch, or into any English plantation, or to such other harbors, rivers, 
and places, as he shall find occasions, praying all Governors Captains and Commanders to 
aflbrd him and them all lawlid favor and respect, they behaving themselves fairly and honestly 
in all things : Giving, and by these presents granting unto him, the said Captain William 
Cleybome, full power and authority to direct and govena such persons as shall accompany him 
in his said voyage. 

Given at James City, the S"' of March, A. D. after the computation of the Church of England, 
1631, and in the five and twentieth year of this southern colony of Virginia. 

.loiiN Harvey. 

Grant of Trading Privilege to Cap* Clayhorne. 

[ Virginia. U. 161. ] 

Charles R. 
Charles by the grace of God King of England Scottland Fraimce and Ireland Defender of y' 
Faith &c. Whereas om- trustie and welbeloved William Clayhoume one of y* couucell and 
Secretary of State for our Colony of Virginia and some other adventurers with him have 
condescended with our tmstie and welbeloved Coimcellor of both the kingdomes Sir Will™ 
Allexander Kn' our Principal Secretary for our kingdome of Scotland, and others of om- loveing 
subjects whoe have charge over our Colonies of New England and New Scotland, to keepe a 
coiu-se for interchange of trade among them as they shall have occasion, as allso to make 
discovery for increase of trade in those parts ; and because wee doe veiy much approve of all 
such worthie intencons and are desireous to give good incouragem' to their proceedinges therein, 
being for the releeife and comfort of those om- subjects and inlargm" of our dominions, these are 
to licence and authorize y^ said Wilham Claybourne his associates and company freely w"'out 


iiiterrupcuii from time tu time, to trade ami traliique for eonie furres or any other commodities 
wliatsoever w"" their sliipps men boates and merchaudize in all seas coastes rivers creekes 
harbours lands and territories in neere or about those partes of America, for which there is not 
allready a Patent gramited to others for sole trade ; and to that effect Wee require and command 
you and every one of you pticularly our trusty and welbeloved Sir John Harvey Kn' Govemour 
and y^ rest of our Councell of and for our Colonic of Virginia to pmitt and sufter him and them 
w"" their said sliipps, boates, merchauudizes, cattell, mariners, servauntes and such as shall 
willinglie accompany or bee imployed by them from time to time freely to repaire and trade to 
and agen in all y" aforesaid partes and places, as they shall thinke fitt and their occasions shall 
require, without any stopp arrest search hindrance or molestacon whatsoever, as yow and every 
of yow will answer the contrary at yo"' perilles ; giveing and by these presentes grarmting unto the 
said W" Clayboume full power to direct and goveme correct and punish such of our subjects as 
shall bee under his command in his voyages and discoveryes, and for soe doing these psentes 
shalbee a sufficient warrant. tJiven at our Manuour of East Greenwache the IG"" day of May 
in y" seventh yeare of our raigne 1G31. 

To our trusty and welI)elo\'ed our C;ov''nor and Councell of 
Mrginia and to all our Lieutenants of Provinces and 
countries in America, Gov''nors and others haveing any 
charge of Colonies of any of our subjects, and to all 
Cap'^ «& Masters of shipps and general!}- to all our .subjects 
whatsoever whonie these psents doe or may concerne. 

Cap' M/s-on to [Jf Seen far 1/ C<>hfif'\ 

[Trade Papc-rs, State Paper Office, X. 1.] 

Right Honorable 

In y^ yeare of o'' Lord God 1621. or thereabouts certaine Hollanders were upon the coast of 
New England trading w* y' Indians betwixt Cape Codd and Bay de la Warre in 40. degrees of 
Northerly latitude, being a parte of that country which was granted to Sir Walter Rawleigh by 
Queene Elizabeth in Anno 15S4. and afterwards to diverse of her subjects under y'' title of 
Virginia ; which countrey was divided bj^ agreement of y" Virginia company and the North 
East parte thereof confirmed afterward by King James in Anno 1G06 to y"= President and 
Counsell for y' Plantations there, which have beene settled in Virginia on y' one hand to the 
Westwards, now about fortie j-eares ; and in New England on the other hand to y'' Eastward 
above 25 yeares since. The sayd Hollanders as Literlopers fell into y* middle betwixt the sayd 
plantacons, and at their returne of their voyage aforesayd, published a Mapp in y Low 
Countries of y'^ sayd sea coaste comphended betwixt Virginia and Cape Codd, und"' y* tytle of 
New Netherlands, giving y'' name of y" Prince of Aurange to y" countrie and river of Manahata, 
where y* Dutch are now planted, (w'^'' sayd countrey was many yeares before discovered by the 
Englishmen in their voyages to Virginia ) and giveing other Dutch names to other places to y° 

Those Ires of yo 
Lords do beare 
date the 15 of 
December 1621. 


Eastward of y* sayd Manahata river as fan- as Cape Codd: all w"^ had beene formerly 

discovered and traded unto diverse tynies by sev''all Englishmen, as may be proved. And S'' 

Samuell Argall Kn' w"* many English planters were ppareing to goe and sitt downe in his lott of 

land upon y^ sayd JIanahata river at the same tyme when the Dutch intruded, w'^'' caused a 

DemmTe in their pceding mitill King James, upon complaint of my Lord of Anmdell w"^ S' 

Ferdinando Gorges Kn' and the said S' Samuell Argall (fomi''ly GoV of Virginia) and Cap' 

John Mason) of y^ sayd Dutch Intmders in An" 1621 had, by his Ma''" order a Ire 

to y= Lord of Dorchester their Ambassado"' at y" Hague, questioned the States of 

y" Low Countries for that matter. Which y'= Lords y*^ States by answer (as I 

take it) of their ambassado"" Sir Nowell Carronne did disclayme, disavowing any 

such act that was done by their people w"' their authority: W^"" my Lord of Aiimdell and I 

Ihinke y' Lord Baltimore (then Secretaiy of State) doe remember, and S"" Ferdinando Gorges 

and Captaine Mason can witnesse y" same. Neverthelesse y^ yeare follo\\-ing, w'^'" (as I take it) 

was 1622, the sa}'d Dutch imder a pretended authoritj- from y^ West India Company of Holland, 

maintayned as they sayd by commission from y'' said Prince of Aurange did retume to y« foresayd 

river, of Manahata and made plantation there, fortifying themselves there in two severall places, 

and have built shipps there, whereof one was sent into Holland of 600 timnes or thereabouts. 

And albeit they were warned by y^ English plantation at New Pljanmouth to forbeare trade and 

not to make any settlement in those partes, lettuig them know that they were the territories of y* 

King of England, yett neve''theless with proude and contumacious answers ( saying they had 

commission to fight against such as should distm-be their settlement ) they did persist to plant and 

trade, vilefying o' Nation to the Indians and extolling their owne people and countrye of Holland, 

and have made simdry good retumes of commodities from thence into Holland ; especially this 

yeare they have returned ( as it is reported ) 1-5000 Beaver Skjmnes, besides other commodities. 

Aprill 2 ) ro"" Ho" humble Sen'ant 

1632 5 (signed) Jhox Mason-. 

(Indorsed by Sir John Coke, SeC of State) 

" Cap : Mason conceniing 

" the Hollanders in Virginia." 

Sir Ferdinando Gorges to Cap* Mason about an Expedition on the Dutch. 

[Trade Papers, State Paper Office. X. 2.] 


On Thursday night I receaved yours of the 30"" of March, by W^*" I understand howe you 
have pceeded against those of the Dutch plantacou. I am glade the business is before the Lords. 
I hope they will not bee over hasty in concluding a busines of that nature, considering howe 
much it concemes both the honor of the Kinge and State to make good the interest they have 
therein. You shalbee assured I will- not ptract any time of my coming upp, butt I must acquaint 
you with an unhappy accident that befell mee the same day I receaved yours. For haveing 
bene w"" my Lord Pawlett and di-\-ers others of my private friends att a horse race, I tooke a 
Vol. III. 3 


fall from my horse, and am now in soe much extremerie of paine, as I am not able to move or 
stirr, but as 1 am helped by maine strength of my s-'vauutes ; not\v"'standing, by Gods favo"' I 
hope to bee w^ you in very shorte time, what shifte soever I make to ti-avell. I am sory to heere 
you are soe poorely seconded in a matter soe just and hon'''". I conceive you may have from 
M'' Shirly a coppy of that w* came to my hands from those of New Plymoutli, w"" more 
pticulers than came to mee. Itt may please you that hee may bee spoken w"- about it. I doubt 
not but att my coniinge, I shalbee able to give both his Ma'''^ and the Lords sufficient satisfaccon 
for to fortifie the justefyinge (not the stay of the shipp onely) but to prosecute their displanting 
from thence. And that w"'' is now to bee desired is, that wee may bee heard to speake before 
ought bee done for the shipps dispatch. I hope you will make some shifte to sende away the 
horses I sent you before the receipte of M"' Eyres to the contrary for I knowe they wilbee of 
more service and worth then any you will serve yoiu- selves w^'all att the Islands : besides heere 
is noe shipping that goes from hence till towards the winter quarter; but what you doe 
betweene you, shall please mee, thoughe I desire exti-eamely they may goe att this present, 
thoughe it were wholly on my owme accompte for their transportacon w"" the horses. Lett this 
suffice I pray you for this present, for that my paine will suffer mee to say noe more att this 
time, save only I beseech you to remember my humble service to my Lord Marshall and to lett 
his bono"' knowe the misfortune that retaj-nes mee from attending His Lopp : soe soone as my 
harte desires, and soe much you may bee pleased to lett my Lord of Warwick knowe in like 
manner, w"" the remembrance of my service to his Lopp. beseeching him not to bee slacks 
wherein you knowe his helpe may further the best wee shall gaiue thereby wilbee the 
knowledge of what may bee expected from him hereafter ; and so I comitt you to God and rest 

Yo'" assured loveing friend 
Bristoll the G"" ) (Signed) Ferd. Gorges. 

Aprill HJo2. \ 

To his assured loveing freind 

Captaine John Mason att his 

house att Debtford. pscnt theise. 

Gaulter of Tiviller Gov'' of Keiv Netherlands to the Gov^ of New England. 

[Trade Papers, State Paper Omco. S. 83.] 


That which you alleadge concerning the use of the River w"^'' you instance the Kinge of 
England hath graunted to his subjects and therefore itt seemes strange unto yow that wee 
have taken possession thereof; It seemes very straimge unto mee, who for my ownie paret 
coulde wishe that his Ma"' of England and the Lords of the States Generall concemeing the 
limitts and parting of theis quarters, would agi-ee. And as good neighbors wee might live in 
these heathenishe countryes. And therefore I desire yow soe longe to deferr yo"' ptence or 
claim of the said River untill the Kinge of England and our superior Magistrates or goveraours 
bee (as concemeing the same) agreed. I have in the name of the Lords the States Generall and 
the authorized West India Company taken possession of the forementioned River, and for 
testimony thereof have sett upp an bowse on the North side of the said River, with intent to 


plant &c. Itt's not the intent of the States to take the laud from the poore Natives, as the 
Kinge of Spaine hath done by the Pope's Donation, but rather to take itt from the said Natives 
att some reasonable and convenient price, w*^"" God be praysed wee have done hitherto. In this 
parte of the world are divers heathen lands that are emptye of inhabitants, soe that of a litle 
parte or portion thereof there needes not any question. I should bee very sonye that wee 
should bee occation that the Kinges i\ra"* of England and the Lords the States Generall should 
fall into anye contention. Wherewith ending, I comitt you w'* yo"' wholl family unto the 
protection of Almightye God, being and restinge 

Yo"' true freinde 

Gai'lter of Twiller. 
Written in the Fort Amsterdam 
in New Netherland i October 
new Style 1633. 

This letter was sent from the Governo'' of the 
Dutch Plantation to the Govemo"' of the Enghshe 
Collonye att the Massachusetts Baye, and 
there translated out of Dutch ; whereof this is the coppie. 

The Privy Coioivyil to the Earl of Portland. 

[ Privy Council Eeg. Chas. I. X. 494. ] 

At Whitehall the 20"^ of March 1634 

Present. — Lord Arch Bp. of Canterbury his Grace 

Lo. Keeper Lo. Cottington 

Lo. Arch Bp. of York Lo. Newbm-gh 

Lo. Pri\de Scale W Trer"' 

Lo. Vise' Wimb : M'' Sec. Windebank. 

A Ire to the Earle of Portland. 
Whereas we are informed that there lyeth now a ship of Holland of foure hundreth tuns, at the 
Cowes, bound for the Hollanders plantation in Hudson's River, the Officers of which ship seeke 
to drawe as many of His Majest" subjectes as they can to goe w*'" them, by oiFring them large 
conditions. For the preventing of so prejudiciall a course wee have therefore thought fit 
hereby to pray and require your Lp. to take speedy and efiectuall order that all the English as 
well in that ship lying there at this tyme as in any other that shall hereafter come thither or into 
any of His Ma'" portes \\'ithin yom- jm-isdiction may be stayed and none of His Ma" subjects 
suffered to ser\-e any foreine Prince or State ^\^thout licence from His jNIa''' or this Board ; w''' 
wee earnestly recommend to your Lp" especiall care. And soe &c. (Signed) 

Lo. Archb. of Cant. Lo. Chamb. of H M» Household 

Lo. Keeper Lo. Vise Wimbledon 

Lo. Arch Bp of Yorke Lo. CoTTiNGTor* 

Lo. High. Chamb. M' Trer. 

M"' Secretarie Windebaxke. 


M*^ Jerome Haivley to M'' Sec. Windebanhe. 

[Trade Papers, State Paper Office. SIII. 4. ] 

Right. Hon"° 

Uppon the 20th of March last I took the boulclness to psent you w"" my letters, wherein I 
gave only a tuch of the business of our Assembly, referring yo"" Hono"' to the generall letters 
sent by AP Kemp from the Govern'' and Councell. Since w"^^ tyine heare anived a Dutch shipp 
w"» comission from the youg Queene of Sweaden and signed by eight of the Cheife Lordes 
of Sweden, the coppe whereof I would have taken to send to yo"' Hono'' but the Captayne would 
not pmitt me to take any coppe thereof, except bee might have free trade for tobacco to cany to 
Sweaden, w'^'' being contrary to his Ma'^ instructions, the Govern'' excused himselfe therof. 
The shipp remayned heare about 10 dayes to refresh w"" wood and water, during w'^'' tyme 
the M'' of the said shipp made knowne that bothe himselfe and another shipp of his company 
were bound for Delaware Baye, W^"* is the confines of Virginea and New England, and there 
they ptend to make a plantation and to plant tobacco, w* the Dutch do allso already in 
Hudsons River, w* is the very next river Northard from Delaware Baye. All w"^"^ being His 
JNIa" teiTitorys, I hmnbly offer the consideration thereof unto yo'' Hono'' and yf His Ma''^ shalbe 
pleased to thinke uppon any course either for removing them and pventiug others from seating 
upon His Ma" teiTetorys, I humbly conceive it may be done by his Ma" subjects of these parts 
making use only of some English ships that resort heather for trade yearly, and be no charge 
at all to His Ma"'. 

I am not yet able to give yo'' Hono'' so good an accompt of the estate of His Ma""^ revenewe 
heare as I desire, in regard it was late in the yeare before I arrived, and the business of our 
Assembly hathe taken up all my tyme hetherto, but by the next retume of shipping I shall 
endeavor to bring things into better order then heretofore they have bein, and by that tyme I 
hoape to make it appeare that yo'' bono'' hathe done His Ma"' service in giveing him notice of the 
estate of his revenue in these parts ; w'''' although I cannot now saye it wilbe great, yet I psume 
it is so farr considerable as that His Ma"' will not thinke it fitt to be lost : for I doubt not but it 
will serve to defray the pention w'='' His Ma"' is pleased to allowe the Govern'' yearly, w'"" is 
^1000 pr ann : yf His Ma" be pleased to imploye itt that waye, and I hoape to improve it dajdy, 
as new comers doe encrease the plantation, besides His Ma'^ customes from hence wilbe much 
better understood then heretofore they have bein. 

Since my coming to the place of Treasurer, I have decerned some under hand oppositions 
made against me, but littell hathe appeared in publick, therefore I can not particularly laye it to 
any man's charge. And because I fiude that it chiefly aymes at the hindering me in making any 
benefitte of my place ( whereof I assure yo'' Hono'' I have not yet made the value of five pound 
towards my charges ) I doe therfore make it my humble sute unto yo'' Hono'' that you wilbe 
pleased to move the King in my behalfe and pcuer His INIa" warrant for my fees, to the efi:ect of 
this I send enclosed, v,''='' being added to yC fonner favom-s, will much encrease my obligations 
to yo'' HonC and I shall still remayne 

Yo'' Hono''s much devoted servant 

James Towne in \ Jero.m Hawley. 

Vh-ginia, 8 May 163S 

To the Right Hon'''' S"' Francis 
Wiudebanke K' Princepall 
Secretary to his Ma" : — p''sent thes 


[ Inclosed is the draft of a warrant from the King granting to Jerome Hawley Treasurer of 
Virginia power to appoint deputies for viewing tobacco and to receive as his lawful fee, " one 
" pound of tobacco for each hundred weight of tobacco so ^dewed by him or by his deputy or 
" deputys. " ] 

Conveyance of lands on Long Island by James Farret Deputy of the 
Earl of Stirling. 

[New-York papers, III. A. 26, 27. ] 

I^ow all men whom this present writing may concern that I, James Farret of Long Island 
Gent : Deputy to the Right Hon*"'* the Earle of Stirling Secretarie for the Kingdom of Scotland 
do by these presents in the name and behalf of the said Earle of Stirling and in my own name 
as doth or may conceme myself give up all Rights, Titles, Claims and Demands of and from all 
Patent Right, of all those lands lying and being bounded between Peacooeck and the eastenuost 
point- of long Island with the whole breadth of the said Island from sea to sea with all lands and 
premises contained within the said limits, excepting those lands akeady granted unto any 
person by me, the said Farrett imder my hand and seale unto Edward Howell, Daniel How, 
Job Sayer, and their associates heires and successors both now and for ever against the claymes 
of any person or persons whatsoever clayming by from or under the said Earle of Starling, and 
do in His Lop' name and in my own name as it doth concerne myself in consideration of Barge 
Hire besides they being di'ove off by the Dutch from the place where they were by me planted 
to their great damage by and with a competent summe of money in hand paid before the 
sealing and delivering of these presents all amounting unto four hmidred pomids sterl^^ the 
Receipt thereof and of every part thereof I acknowledge by these presents, doe acquit discharge 
and exonerate the said Edward Howell Daniel How Job Sayer and their associates Heires and 
successors for ever giving up unto the said parties Heires successors as absolute a right title and 
propriety as the said Earle received of the Coi-poration for new England incorporated by King 
James, the eighteenth year of His Reign over England Scotland France and Ireland And that I 
the said James Faixett having myself fidl power to make over the Patent all or part in his Lop' 
name and for his Lop" use by vertue of my letters of Attorney bearing date 1637 by vertue of 
which Agencie I have made a sale of the same for his Lop' use received the summe aforesaid of 
the said Edward Howell Daniel How Job Sayer and their Associates and that the same paities 
Heires and successors have as absolute power to erect wholesome laws and ordinances among 
themselves as the Eai-le of Starling had conveyed to him by the Corporation aforesaid, the said 
Edward Howell Daniel Howe Job Sayer and Successors owing Allegiance to the Crown of 
England and papng the fith part of gold and silver ore to His Majesty with what Royalties 
belongeth to the said Corporation their Heires and Successors shall be likewise paid upon demand 
as is expi'est in his Lop' Patent. Lastly I promise in His Lop' name that his Lop His Heires 
and sucessors shall maintaine the said Edward Howell Daniel Howe Job Sayer their Heires and 


successors in the peaceable enjopnent of the premises against all persons whatsoever In witnesse 
hereof I have hereunto set my hand and seale the 12"- of June 1639. 

James Farrett. 
Witnesse jNIathew Sunderland 
Rob' Sinckly 

Thom : T Cooper 
A true Copie compared 
Henry Pearson, Reg' 
May the 6'" 1671 

Lord Sterling's Confirmation of the sale of Long Island. 

I William Earle of Sterline doe make knowne to all men to whom it doth or may eonceme, 
that whereas James Farret Gent, my lawfull Agent upon Long Island &c in America hath 
disposed by sale of divers lands in my name and for my use upon the said Island and Islands 
adjacent within my pattent according to the power given him by myselfe Aprill 1637. unto 
Edward Howell, Daniel Howe, and their heires and successours for ever as from Peaconnet 
to y' easterraost poyTite of y^ said Long Island ; and unto John Thomas and Edward Farington 
and successively to the longest liver of them and to his heires and assignes for ever ; and 
unto Mathew Sunderland and his heires and assignes for ever : I say whatsoever bargaine 
contract and conclusion the above named parties (for themselves heires and assignes for 
ever) have made w"" I\r Faret, according to the custome of New England, I the said W™ Earle 
of Sterline ratifie and hold of value in law ; and doe upon the request of my said Agent James 
Faret by these presentes bind my selfe heires and assignes to doe any finther act or thing 
whereby or wherewith y= titles of y* above named parties (viz') Howell, How, Farringtones, 
Sunderland, and their heires and successo''' for ever, may be strengthened, w"''' they have under 
the hand and seale of my foresaid Ageiit James Farret, of w'^'' I am by him fully satisfied ; and 
that he hath in full satisfaction for the said lands for my use received a competent sum of money, 
in consideracon of w"^*" money I doe acquitt all right, title, interest and demand of and to y' s'' 
lands and patent right for ever. Witness my hand and seale this twentieth day of August, 
one thousand six hundred thirty-nine. 

( Signed ) Sterline. 

In the presence of 

James Ramsey 

John Johnson. 
Vera Copia. 


A Declaration shelving the illegality and unlawfull proceedings of the Patent of 


In the yeare 1607. divers preceding discoveryes haveing confiniied an opinion that the Countrie 
of Virginia was fitt for plantation, it pleased God to affect the minds of verie nianie worthiely 
disposed noblemen gentlemen and others, to conceave it as a matter of gi'eat religion and honor 
to undertake the worke of perfecting a Christian plantation in those parts ; whereupon King 
James was pleased to become the first founder of this noble work, and by his Letters Pattents 
from time to time renewed and enlarged, granted all ample privileges & immimities both to those 
that mannaged the business in England and to those that went to inhabite there : which gave soe 
great an incouragement that 50 Earles and Barons 350 Knights and 600 gentlemen and 
merchants of primest ranke became incorporated and were originally named in the Letters 
Pattents by the name of The Company of \'ii-ginia, being a greater union of nobles and commons 
than ever concuiTed in that kingdonie to such an imdertaking. But neverthelesse partly by 
the natm-all difficultyes incident to all new plantations, but chiefly through the unnaturall and 
faulty impediments arising by the crosse agitations of two powerfull factions in the Company, the 
worke went heavely on for the first 12 yeares, appearing desperat in the severall ill successes 
thereof. And though afterwards some what advanced and prosperous, yett in the yeare 1621. by 
the fatall blow of a massaker, it was almost shattered to pieces and brought to a calamitous 
condition ; which occasion, the coutrarie faction presently tooke hold of, in soe much that they 
exceedingly scandalized action, and cared not to cast an aspersion on the countrie and on the 
whole managem' by that affaire ; and then strongly possessed and advised the then Kinge 
against the fbmie of the Companyes govenmient as consisting of an excessive number of 
Counsellers and a confused popularity, as being a nurse of parliamentaiy spirits and obnoxious 
to monarchicall govemm'. Hereupon an order was made the S"" October 162-3 at the Couusell 
Table, whereby the Company were moved to give their assents for surrending their Pattent and 
altering their fonne of goverment, and a new one was proposed wherein the right and interests 
of all men should be preserved, w"^"" order the Company not submitting unto, a Quo Warranto 
was directed for the calling in of their Pattent and an advantage being taken upon their 
mispleading, the Pattent was condemned in Trinity Temie following but for manie yeares after 
noe judgment entered, and to this time not vacated upon the Record of the Office of the Rolls, 
whereby some that sought the overthrow of the Lord Baltimores pattent for Maryland in the 
begining of the parlament in Anno 1640 tooke out the Virginia Pattent agaiue under the Broad 
Seale of England ; therefore thought by prime lawyers now to be unquestionably in force, and 
that of Maryland inconsistent and void. Thus in breife was the late Company dissolved and a 
c6mission.^ven to divers Lords and others for present direction and ordering the affaires of 
Virginia, and that they should advise touching a better fonne of government for advansing & 
establishing the Colony. Then issued also severall proclamations and severall orders of the 
Counsell Table, w"" great asshurances under the Broad Seale and Privy Seale that all men w"" the 
Adventurers and Planters should be asshured that theire rights and interests should be conser\'ed 
and enlarged, onely alteration made in point of goverment ; but both that comission and the 
renewing of the Companyes charter expired, and all those proceedinges were delayed by reason of 
the death of King James, w"""" then suddenly ensued. The principall scope of that Comission 
was, that they should found a better forme of goverment for the Plantations advancement, and 


therein was especially promised the conservation of every man's right : intentions worthy the 
wisdome of soe great a Prince. But nothinge was done by those Comissionerstouchinge either 
of those ends, nor by those whose prosecution these things happined, who having attained theire 
private ends of spleene and prottit, upon the changes and revolutions of enshuing times, deserted 
the iiUeri'st of the Colony and left her weltring in her bloud, unsupplied w"" amunition and 
amies, in the heate of a dilHcult warr with the Indians, the burthen and charge whereof was 
oncly undergon by the remajiiiug planters, who thus forsaken by her former friends, were 
constrained both to fight and worke for their lives and subsistauce, and thereby preserved the 
Colony from desertion, and at last restored her to peace and plentie. And then about the years 
1633 the Lord Baltimore pretending, though not traelie that the gi-eatest part of the coimtrie was 
unplanted, procured that the aforesaid judgement soe longe delaj-ed was entered, and obtayned a 
Pattent for that parte now called IMaryland w"^ hee hath since held with a few people and small 
adventurers, debarring those to whome it justlie belonged, from planting it destroying and 
ruynating those formerlie seated under Virginia at the He of Kent, and interdicting traide w"" 
the Indians for furrs, discovered and begun by them, W^"" since by that meanes is injoyed by the 
Sweeds and Dutch, and doth bring them in yearely manie thousand pounds, which trade niought 
have bin solie in the English nations hands, had not the Lord of Baltimore interdicted it, seased 
all vessells and displanted theire plantations; w"='' Sweeths and Dutch doe trade for great quantities 
of gunns, powder and shot w"^ our Indians, to the totall indangering this Colony if not timely 
prevented. Such a grounde worke had the Pattent of Maryland upon the rightes and labors of 
others & as unreasonable have been the whole proceedings & management of theire Colony and 
interests : at theire first arrivall surprizing and confiscating many vessells w"" the goods of divers 
that they found trading w"" the natives imder the cdmissions of Virginia & professing an 
establishment of the Romish relligion onely, they suppressed the poore protestants amongst them, 
and carried on the whole frame of theire goverment in the Lord I'roprietors name, all their 
proceedings judicature tryalls and warrants in his name, power & dignity and from him onely; 
not the least mention of a King in all theire goverment, to that purpose forcedly imposing oathes 
of fidelity & to mainetaine his regall jurisdictions and prerogatives & dominion, to protect clieiflly 
the Romane Catholiche religion in the free exercise thereof; and all done by yearelie instructions 
from him out of England, as if hee had been absolute Prince and King. By all which it is 
easily evident that the pattent of Maryland was gr-ounded on noe good foundation, the King 
beeing misinfonned, when in noe thinge more deeply and directlye could the honour and justice 
of his throne be concerned then in conferming and consenting the interest of soe great a 
conjunct)ire of nobles knights and gentlemen, and merchants of primest ranck, wlio soe piously 
and wortliily adventured theire moneys and expended theire estates and paines, whose rights and 
interests though theire Pattent were called in for the time, yett had received the most soleme 
declarations of asshurances under the Broad Seale and Privy Signette, orders of Counsell, letters 
to the Colony and by generall proclamation there and here in England, that it w«-e impious 
to thincke that eitiier the then Kinge or Kinge James, being rightlie informed, woidd ever have 
granted such a ]iatteiit as this of Mar}-land is, being nere two third parts of the better territory 
of Virginia, and as non way consistent w"' equity and the honor and publique faith of the 
kingdome, soe was no waie in the absolute and regall powers asshumed and executed by him, 
agreeable to the late Monarchicall Government or the present authoritie of the Commune-Wealth 
of England, and most injurious to the rights and interests of the noble Adventurers and the 
paineful and iiidifaticablc planters who had soe longe consen-ed her from totall ruine. 


A shorte and successive uarration of the moste of the afforsaid publique assurances followes, 

1. First by an order of the Counsell S Octob. 1623 (before the Law Warrants) brought to 
amie the niindes of the Adventurers and Planters against any mistaken feare and apprehension, 
as if their estates should receive prejudice. 

2. And whereas the Lords of the Counsell were inforiiied that the intended change of 
the goverment had begott a general! discoui-agment among the Adventurers, notw^'standing 
sundrie other declarations made at the Board viva voce, and that former act of Counsell, their 
LoPP' were pleased by an order of the 20''' Octob. 1623 to declare againe that there was no other 
intention, but onely and meerelie the reforming and change of y* present goverment and that no 
man should receive any prejudice but have his estate fullie and whollie confermed, and if in 
any thinge it were found defective, better to be secured. Which order by their Lopp* comand 
was sent over and published in Vii-ginia and theire Generail Assembly, for encouragment 
of the Planters. 

1624. 3. Kinge James was allso pleased to expresse the same in his coraission to sundry of 
his owne Privy Counsell and other Comissioners for the time being, for the aifajres of Virginia 
lo"" July 1624 that his intention was to alter the Letters Patents as to the forme of goverment, 
but w"" presei-vation of the interests of every Adventurer and Planter. 

1624. 4. And the like declaration of the Kings intention was expressed in the comission 
imder the Broad Seale then sent to S' Francis Wyatt and the Counsell then appopited by his 
Ma''* to goveme and direct the affaires and people in Virginia ; and the like hath bin inserted 
in all King Charles comissions that have bin given to all the Governors of ^^irginia that have 
been since that time to this present. Neither was there any alteration of the orders and 
instructions formerly given by the Company for the govennent of the Colony, but rather a 
confermation and approbation of them, that they stand in force to this dale ; soe that in no point 
were they ever taxed for misgovennent. 

1625. 5. Alsoe then King Charles ly his Proclamation IS"" I\Iay anno 1° declared that 
vid. Eym. Feed, ^is aime was oucly to reduce the goverment into such a right course as might best 
Bub Anno 1625. ^ ^ih ^^|^g forme held in the rest of his monarchy, and not intended to impeach 
the interest of any Adventurer or Planter. 

1625. 6. The Lords of the Counsell by their letters dated Octob. 24"' 1625. signify that the 
Kings pleasure was to preserve every mans perticuler right and the Planters to injoye theire 
former pri\dledges, w"" addition of other requisite immunities, encoiu-aging also the Planters to 
discoveryes by sea and land and to perfect the trade of furrs. Which letter according to their 
LoPP^ comand therein expressed, was published in Virginia for their encouragment. 

1628. 7. The King also for the encouragment of the Planters by his royal letters 12"" 
Septemb. 1628 was pleased to promise thereby to renew and conferme unto the Colony, under 
the Great Seale of England, theire lands and priviledges formerly granted them. 

1634. 8. And when the Generail Assembly consisting of the Governor Counsell and Burgesses 
of the whole Colony complained to the Lords of the Counsell of the interuption of theire trade 
by the Lord Baltimores Deputyes, their Loi'dshipes were pleased by theire letters of the 22"" 
July 1634. to signifie that the Plantation of Virginia should enjoy theire estates and trades with 
the same freedomes & priviledges as they did before the recalling of their pattent. 

By all which it appeares that howsoever the goverment could not be reduced from that 
popular forme of the Company in England but by revocation of the Patent itselfe ; yett in 
Vol. ni. 4 


respect of both the Kings declarntions and the Lords order, the Adventurers & Planters of 
Virginia, as to theire rights and priviledges according to the nde of equitie, remaine in the same 
condition as if noe such judgiuent had bin given 

Obj : But they often answere hereunto to this effect, though not truely neither : — That the 
Lord Baltimores Patent takes in noe part that the Virginians had then planted, and soe the 
interest of all men is preserved, and that INIaryland is noe other than as a perticuler plantation, 
as the Company used to grant to divers Adventurers and Planters, and that the Kinge might 
doe as much as the Company while they stood. 

Ans"" 1. Wee replie that the Adventurers and Planters were encom-aged to expend their 
estates in soe vast a proportion and to hazard theire lives in all extremityes, allwayes 
accompanying new beginnings in hope that theire shares upon y"" di\asion of the lands (being 
200 miles along the seashore and into the land from sea to sea) would recompence them and 
theire heires. This interest, by this Patent of the Lord of Baltimores, comprehending two 
degrees W^"" is sixscore miles, is wholly taken from them, and scarce is their any roome for any 
Adventurers to take up any land due unto them. 

2"^'5' All Adventurers of the Company were Tenants in connnon to all the land which was 
not actually devided and sett out, and theire claime cannot justly be wipt out thus; and yett 
theire interests sayed to be reserved 

S^'iy That the Lord of Baltimore might have as large a proportion of land as ever was granted 
to any by the Company ; but wee thincke agreeing to reason that hee should people it, and 
either showe his right to it by the adventure of people sent over to plant it ; w'^'' was by the 
Company appojnated to bee -50 acres to evrie person transported thither, or els to have soe 
manie shares of land as hee can showe right to, by the adventure of money in the old stocke. 
Otherwise how imreasonable is it he should possess two third partes of the Bay of Virginia, w"''" 
male truely be sayd to be as bigg as the Ivingdome of England & Scotland and yet now in 
seventeue yeares, have not more men there, except such as have gone from Virginia, then can or 
doe plant three or fower hvmdred acres, and those cheifly imployed in tobacco, and the great 
name of Maryland is in effect made but a factorie for trade, a nurseiy of Jesuites, and a barre to 
keepe off other planters from the best and temperatest partes of the countrey, w*^"" being further 
remoate from the sea, and more northward, are tliought somewhat healthfuller than the lower 
parts of Virginia. 

4tMy \ygg gr^y (-]-|f^|- after wee had discovered & brought the Indians of those partes of Maryland 
to a trade of come and bever, by vertue of the Kings instructions under the Broad Seale w"" 
expence of our blouds and estates, and exercised annuall entercourse w"" them above eight and 
Iwentie yeares, how can it be said that our interests are preserved, when wee are interdicted the 
trade, our vessells & goods seized, our persons imprisoned and men slaine, and the whole trade 
assumed only to the Lord Baltimores use. 

5'y Wee clearely claime right by possession, ha\ing planted tlie Isle of Kent almost three yeares 
before ever the name of Maryland was heard of, & Burgesses for that place setting in the 
Assemblyes of Virginia ; whereby it is evident that the Lord of Baltimores suggestion to the 
King that those parts were uncultivated and unplanted, unlesse by barbarous people not having 
knowledge of God, was a misiufonuation, and by it that Patent appeares illegally gotten. And 
if the Lord of Baltimore takes awaie those lands (who have also purchased the interest of the 
natives, a right not inconsiderable) and seize theire goods, and that in an hostile manner, as hee 
hath done. How can it be said those mens rights and interests are presen'ed, they being the 


first discoverers of that Hand by vertue of the Kmgs Comission and planted there mider the 
goveniient of \'irginia, on the confidence they apprehended from the former asshurances, and 
there begann in great parte the trade of furres, w"^ is now usurped by the Dutch & Sweeds, the 
Lord Baltimore not beeing able to manage it liimselfe. 

How unjust an intrusion then will the Lord of Baltimores patent appeare, w"^ overtbrowes 
the interest of soe many noblemen gentlemen and poore planters (for the Company of Mrginia 
were of a nature divei'sified from other Companyes) w"='' if it had not been founded on soe good 
gromids, yett theire zeale and pious indeavors to propagate the true Christian reUigion, to enlarge 
the English Dominions and to encrease the trade and strength of shipping and considerably the 
customes, doth deserve justice w"" addition of a reward for soe hon*"'" and good intentions. 


Union bet'ween Connecticut and the town of East Hampton. 

[ Xew England, L 96. ] 

Hartford the S-* day of May 1658. 

Whereas formerly some overtiires have passed betwixt the Generall Court of Cotineeticutt 
and some of the plantation of East Hampton upon Long Island concerning union into one body 
and government, whereby the said towne might be interested in the generall combination of the 
miited Collonies ; and whereas the said towne of East Hampton was by the said Court 
entertained and accepted at a session thereof on the seaventh day of November 1649. and have 
after divers yeares of further consideration againe renewed their desires to bee under the said 
Government of Connecticutt, and for prosecution and issuing thereof have by the major vote of 
their said towne chosen and appointed Leiftenent Lyon Gardiner, Thomas Baker and John 
Hand, and given them full power and authority from them and in their name to settle and 
confinne them mider the said Govemm'. It is concluded and agreed betweene the said 
Jurisdiction of Connecticutt and the said parties, and the said towne of East Hampton doe by 
their said Deputies for themselves and their successo" associate and jopie themselves to the 
jurisdiction of Connecticutt to bee subject to all the lawes there established, according to the 
Word of God and right reason, w"" such exceptions and limitations as are hereafter expressed. 

The towne of East Hampton, by reason of their passage by sea, being under more diflaculties 
and uncertaintyes of repairing to the severall Courts held for the jurisdiction of Connecticutt 
upon the maine land whereby they may bee constrained to bee absent both at the times of election 
of Magistrates and other occasions, w'^'' may prove prejudicial! to them ; for preventing whereof 
it is agreed for the present mitill more plantations bee settled neare the towaie of East Hampton 
w^"" may be helpfull each to other in publicke occasions and that by mutuall agi-eeni' betwixt the 
said townes and the Generall Court for thejui-isdiction of Connecticutt it bee otherwise ordered, 
there shall bee yearly chosen two Magistrates inhabiting withm the said towne or liberties of 
East Hampton who shall have the same power with the particular Com-ts upon the river of 
Connecticutt, though no other Magistrates of the jurisdiction bee present, for the administration 
of justice and other occasions w'^'' may conceme the welfare of the said towne ; offences only 


which concerne life or hmbe excepted, w""" always shall be tiyed by a Court of Magistrates to 
bee held at the River's mouth. Vv"^ said Magistrates for the towne aforesaid shall be chosen 
in manner following. 

The towne of East Hampton by the freemen thereof shall j'early present to some Generall 
Court for the Jiu-isdiction of Connecticutt or to the Goveno"' thereof before the Court of Election, 
which is the third Thursday in May, the names of three of their Members of the said Towne 
and such as are freemen thereof, whom they nominate for Magistrates the yeare ensuing ; out 
of w''' the generall Court for the jurisdiction shall choose two, who, upon oath taken before one 
or both of the Magistrates for the precedent yeare at East Hampton, for the due execution of 
their place, shall have as full power to pceed therein, as if they had bene swonie before the 
Govemo'' att Connecticutt. 

Itt is also provided that the Freemen of the said towne of East Hampton shall have liberty 
to vote in the Courts of Election for the Jurisdiction of Connecticutt ( in regard of the distance 
of the place ) by proxie ; but in case the towne of East Hampton shall by any extraordinary 
hand of Providence be hindered from sending the names of the three persons to bee in election 
for Magistrates unto the Generall Court in May, or ha\nng sent, the same doe miscarry; it is in 
such case then pvided and agreed that the two Magistrates for the precedent yeare shall supply 
the place untill the next Generall Court for election. 

Its agreed and concluded that if upon view of such ord" as are already estabhshed by the 
Generall Court for the Jurisdiction of Connecticutt, there bee found any difference therein from 
such as are also for the present settled in the towne of East Hampton ; the said towne shall have 
liberty to regulate themselves according as may bee most suitable to theire owne comforts and 
conveniencies, in their owne judgement; pvided those orders made by them concerne themselves 
only and intrench not upon the interests of others or the generall combination of the united 
Collonies & are not crosse to the rule of righteousnesse. The like power is also reserved unto 
themselves for the future, for making of such orders as may concerne their Towne occasions. 

It is agreed and concluded that if any party find himself agrieved by any sentence or judgm' 
passed by the magistrates residing at East Hampton, hee may appeale to some perticular or 
Generall Comt upon the River, pvided hee put in security to the satisfaction of one or both of 
the Magistrates at East Hampton, speedily to prosecute his said appeale, and to auswere such 
costs and dammages as shall bee thought meet by the Court to v/"^ he appeales, in case there be 
foimd noe just cause for his appeale. 

It is agreed and concluded that the said To\^^le of East Hampton shall only beare theire owne 
charges in such fortifications as are necessary for their ovsme defence, maintaining their owne 
officers and all other things that concerne themselves, not being lyable to bee taxed for 
fortifications or other expeuces that only appertain to the plantations upon the River or 
elsewhere. But in such expeuces as are of mutuall and common concernm', both the one and 
the other shall beare an equall share, in such pportion as is agreed by the united Colonies 
(viz') according to the nmuber of males in each plantation from 16 to CO years of age. 

The Oath to he taken at East Hampton. 

I. A. B. being an Inhabitant of East Hampton, by the pvidence of God combined with the 

Jurisdiction of Connecticutt, doe acknowledge my selfe to bee subject to the govemm' thereof 

and doe sweare by the great and dreadfull Name of the Everliving God, to bee true and faithfull 

to the same and to submit both my person and estate thereunto, according to all the wholesome 


lawes and orders that are or hereafter shall bee made and established by lawful authority, w"" 
such limitations and exceptions as are expressed in the combination of this To\\Tie w"" the 
aforesaid Jurisdiction, and that I ^v^ll neither plott nor practise any evill against the same, nor 
consent to any that shall so doe, but will timely discover it to law-full authority there estabhshed, 
and that I wall, as I am in duty bound, maintaine the lionno'' of the same and of the lawfuU 
Magistrates thereof; pmoting the publicke good of it whilst I shall continue an inhabitant there, 
and whensoever I shall give my vote or suffrage touching any matter w^"* concemes this 
Common-wealth, being called thereunto, I will give it as in my conscience I shall judge may 
conduce to the best good of the same, without respect of persons or favo"' of any man. So 
help mee God, in the Lord Jesus Christ. 

The forementioned Agreements were concluded the day and yeare above written betweene 
the Jurisdiction of Connecticutt and the Townie of East Hampton w"" reference to the approbation 
of the Comission''' for the United Collonies, w''*' being obtained the said agreeem" are to bee 
attended and observed according to the true intent and purpose thereof; or otherwise to be 
voyde and of noe effect. And in Testimony thereof the parties have interchangably set hereimto 
their hands 

Subscribed in the behalf of the Colony 
of Connecticut by order of y' Gen' Court, 
held at Hartford May 21. '53. 

By me Daxiell Clarke, 


The Court doth alsoe order and hereby doe signify the same, that the power of any particuler 
Magistrate and alsoe of any Magistrate residing in any place upon Long Island belonging to 
this Jm-isdiction shall extend itself to al and any persons in this Colony ; and that those of 
Southampton and East Hampton shall joyne together in y^ exercise of judicature amongst them, 
and to summon juries from either place, and that they have liberty to repaire to New London to 
any court kept there for help in any controversy. 

Subscribed by me 
Daxiell Clarke, 



Order appointing a Committee for Plantation affairs. 

[ CciuucU F.ogisler. C. R. II. I. G3. ] 

At the Court at Wliitcliall the 1"' July JC-GO. 

PiiEbE.xT — Tlie Kings most Excellent Ma''« 

His Royall Higliness His Royal Highness 

y^ Duke of York. y" Duke of Gloucester 

Lord Chancellor Lord Steward 

Lord Generall Moncke Lord Great Chamberlin 

Lord Chamberlaine Earle of Leicester 

Earle of Southampton Lord Vise' Saye & Scale 

Earle of Berks Lord Roberts 

Lord ^Ventworth Lord Gen" IMomitague 

Lord Seymour M"" Sec^ Nicholas 

M" Denzill Holies W Artliui- Annesley 

M"' Sec'' Morris S'' Anthony Ashley Cooper 

Comittce appointed for Plantation affairs. 
Upon a Petition presented to his Ma"^ by divers merchants and others interested in, and 
tradinge to the English Plantations in America expressinge the good behaviour and great meritt 
of Coll. James Russell, ( late Gov' of the Island of Nevis in the West Indies ) and humbly 
beseechinge his ]Ma''^ to grant his comission for contynuance of him the said Coll. Russell in the 
Govenmient of the said Island, His Ma""" this day sittinge in Councill hath appointed the Lord 
Chamberlin, the Earle of Southampton, the Earle of Leicester, the Lord Viscount Saye and 
Seale, the Lord Roberts, M" Denzill Holies, W Secretary Nicholas, M' Secretary Morice, M"' 
Arthur Annesley, & Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper or any three ormore of them to meet and 
sitt as a Comittee every IMunday & Thursday at three of the Clocke in the afternoone, to 
receive, hear, examine and deliberate upon any petitions, propositions, Memorialls or other 
addresses which shall be presented or brought in by any person or persons concerning the 
Plantations as well in the Continent as Islands of America ; And from tyme to tyme make 
their Report to this Board of their Proceedings. 

Patent of King Charles II. constituting a Council for Trade. 

[Tr.i.|p Papers, Slate Paper Office. XV. Vi. ] 

Charles the Second hy the Grace of God, of England Scotland France and Ireland King, 
Defender of the Faith &c. Whereas by the good providence of God wee and our kingdomes 
are restored to peace and settlement after the unhappy revolutions of many yeares, wherein the 
greatest concemment of our Crowne and of our good people have many wayes suffered, and 
whereby evills and inconveniences have growne upp, especially in matters of trade manufactures 
and navigation, in W^'' these kingdomes have been famous in all ages; Wee have taken into 


our princely consideracon the present state of afFayres in relacon to the trade and comerce 
of our owne kingdomes aswell as of other Nations & Governments, well weighing how 
considerable a part of our Crownae and Government doth arise from forraigne & domestick 
trade, and that they are the cheife implo}anent and maintenance of om- people ; Nature by a 
happie scituation and by a bountifull accoraodacon of ports and other extraordinary assistances 
having easily given us many eminent advantages above other nations. Wee therefore resolve 
upon most mature deliberation by all wayes possible to restore & advance the honour and 
interests of our severall dominions and to give the utmost encouragement and meanes to the 
Industrie invencon and adventure of all our lovinge subjectes, and to those good ends and purposes 
wee shall not only bend our earnest aflections and consultations in our o\\nie royall person, wee 
havinge had many extraordinary opertimities to informe ourselfe in matters of this nature, but 
shall very effectually recomend them to our Privie Councell and all our Ministers of State, 
that in all treaties and leagues with foiTaigne Princes and allies the securitie & prosperitie of 
trade & comerce shall be tenderly considered and provided for. And because eveiy mistery or 
difEcultye may bee the more easily discerned and encoimtered, and that every interest may bee 
righted, wee have thought fitt to erect and establish a Counsell of Thade consisting of the 
persons hereafter named, who being diversly quallified and fitted thereunto, wdll wee doubt not 
consult and propose such things as may tend to the rectifying those errors which the corruption 
of late tymes have introduced. It is therefore our will and pleasure and wee doe hereby of 
our especiall grace certyne knowledge and mere motion, authorize appoint constitute and 
ordayne our right trustie and right welbeloved Coimcellor Edward Lord Hide Lord Chancellor 
of England, our right trustie and right welbeloved Cousin and Councellor Thomas Earle of 
Southampton Lord Treasurer of England, our right trustie and intirely beloved Cousin and 
Councellor George Duke of Albemarle, our right trustie and welbeloved Cousin and Councellor 
Edvvard Earle of Manchester Charaberlayne of our Howshold, oiu- right trustie and right 
welbeloved Cousins Philipp Earle of Pembroke and Montgomery, James Earle of Marlborough, 
Jerome Earle of Portland, George Earle of Norwich and Edward Earle of Sandvsach, our right 
trustie and welbeloved Comicellor John Lord Roberts our right trustie and welbeloved William 
Lord Vise' Brounker, Francis Lord Willoughbie of Parhara, Jolui Lord Culpeper, John Lord 
Berkley of Strayton, our right trustie and welbeloved Councellors Denzill Hollis Esq' Sir 
George Carterett our Vice ChamberlajTie Sir Edward Nicholas and S'' William Morris Kn'S our 
principall Secretaries of State, Arthur Annesley Esq"" Sir Anthony Asheley Cooper Kn' & 
Baronett, our trustie and welbeloved William Coventrey Esq'', our trustie and welbeloved Sir 
Ralph Freeman Kn' one of the Masters of our Requests, S'' Sackvill Crow Kn' & Baronett, 
S"' Robert Abdie Kn' & Baronett, S'' Charles Harbord Kn' our Surveyor Generall, Sir John 
Wolstenholme Kn', Daniell Oneale Esq' Sir Thomas Ingram, S' Nicholas Crispe, S' William 
Thomson, S"" Richard Ford, S' Thomas Chamberla}'Tie, S' Andrew Richaut, S' George 
Downeinge, Sir John Shawe, Sir Joseph Ash, S' James Draix, Knights, Henry Hide, Edward 
Waller, Thomas Povey and Hemy Slingesbie Esq", and our trustie and welbeloved William 
Bounkley, Edward Diggs, Martin Noell, WiUiam Allen, Arthur Ingi-am, Christopher Boone, Robert 
Richbell, Richard Chiverton, Richard Kinge, Wilham Williams, George Toriano, William Fisher, 
John Parker, Thomas Tite, John Jolliffe, William Walker, Samuel Mico, Thomas Kendall, John 
Colleton, Giles LidcotU and John Lewis, marchants, to bee a standing Councell of Trade, to 
take into their consideracon the Trade & Navigacon of rhis kingdome, and what manner and by 
what ways and meanes the same may bee encouraged regulated & improved, and they are 


hereby authorized to receave and prosecute all such propositions and overture for the regulacon 
and beuefitt of Trade and Navigacon as shalbe offered to them by any other person or persons, 
and to view all such books records or other writings of publique use as they shall hold necessary 
for their better information and to send for any person or persons whom they shall think to bee 
of experience and abilitye or otherwise capable to bee advised with in any thing that tends to 
the prosecution of this our Comission. And wee hereby require all officers and ministers 
whatsoever or any other of our lovinge subjectes who shalbee desired or shall receave any 
order or other summons from the said Councell of Trade, soe constiUited by us, to advise or 
otherwise infonue or assist the sayd Councell for the better understandinge and discovery of the 
matters comitted to their care, enquirie, and prudence, that every such person or persons doe 
yield a ready conformitie thereunto as they tender our displeasure for their disobedience unto 
us and the authoritie derived from us. And when the said Councell shall have drawne their 
consultacons and debates into any resolution or proposition W^'' they shall judge to bee for the 
regulacon and advancement of trade manufactures navigacon or any other publique good relateing 
thereunto, they may and are hereby directed and required to p-'sent and certifie the same their 
opinion and advice to us for our futher consideracou and determinacon. And because soe good 
and laudable sen-ice may the more effectually be carried on, Wee doe hereby authorize our said 
Comra" to nominate and appoint such a Secretary, Clarks, Messengers or other usefuU attendants 
and to pay unto every such person as they the sayd Councell shall assigne thereunto out of our 
Exchequer by warrant irom our High Treasurer for the time beinge, such reasonable sallaries or 
allowances as to them shall seeme meet and expedient. Provided that all such payments or 
other incident ciiarges relateing to the sayd Councell or the service thereof, shall not in the whole 
exceed the sunime of one thousand pounds yearely. And wee doe hereby further require the 
sayd Comissioners to meet and sitt at Mercer's Hall in our Cittie of London on Thursday the 
eight day of this instant November, and wee doe give them power to adjourne to any other 
place that shall to them appeare to be more convenient. And wee doe lastly appoint and 
ordaine that the persons above named or any seaven of them shalbe a sufficient quorum to all 
the intents and purposes of this our comission and the instruccons therein conteyned, or w""*" are 
annexed thereunto, or any further instruccons W^^ shall from tyme to tyme be given to them by 
us. In Witness whereof wee have caused these our letters to be made patents ; Witness 
Our selfe att Westminister the seaventh day of November in the Twelveth yeare of our raigne. 

?■■ ipsum Regem, 
[1660.] Barker. 

///.v' Majt.siif.^t Commission for a Coiincil for Foreign Plantations. 

Charles the Second by the Grace of God of England Scotland France and Ireland, King, 
Defender of the Faith &c. To our right trusty and right welbeloved Cowncellour Edward Lord 
Hyde our Chancello'' of England, and to our right trusty and right welbeloved Cozens and 
C()inisi>llo" Thomas Earii' of Soutliamptou our High Treasurer of England and Edward Earle of 


Manchester our Chamberlain of our Howsehold, and to our right trutie & right welbeloved 
Cousins Theophilus Earle of Lincohi, John Earle of Clare, James Earle Marlborough and 
Jerora Earle of Portland, and to our right trustie and welbeloved William Viscount Say and 
Seale, Francis Lord Dacre, Thomas Lord Winsor, Francis Lord Willoughby of Parham, John 
Lord Roberts and John Lord Berkely ; and to om- right trusty and welbeloved Councello" S"" 
George Carteret Kn' our Vice Chamberlaine of our Howsehold, Denzill Hollis Esq. S'' Edward 
Nicholas and S"' WiUiam Morris, Knights, our Principall Secretaries of State, Arthur Annesley 
Esquire and S'' Anthony Ashley Cooper Knight ; and to our trusty and welbeloved Robert 
Boyle Esquire, William Coventry Esquire, S" William Berkeley Knight, S"" Peter Leere Kn' 
and Bai'onett, Sir John Mennes Kn' Sir Nicholas Crispe Kn' S"' Andrew Riccard Kn' Sir James 
Drax Knight, S"" John Shaw Kn' Daniel O'Neille Esquire John Denham Esquire, Edward 
Waller Esquire, Edward Vemou Esq. Robert Venables Esquire, Charles Pjnn Esquire Thomas 
Povey Esq. John Limberey ^Merchant, Edw"* Diggs jNIerchant John Colliton merchant, Edward 
Waldrond Esquire, Martin Noell Esquire, WUliam Williams merch' Thomas Kendall merchant 
John Lewis merchant, Thomas Middleton merch' John Jefferyes merchant, William Gascock 
one of the Masters of the Chancery, William Watts merchant and Alexander Howe merchant. 
Greeting: — Having taken into our princely consideracon and provided for the generall state and 
condicon of the Trade Navigation and Forraigne commerce of our severall kingdomes and 
dominions, Wee are not without a perticuler eye and regard to the many Colonies and 
Forraigne Plantacons which have beene setled and carried on by the Comissions and 
encouragements of our Royall predecessors : Wee have thought fitt therefore to di'awe those our 
distant dominions and the severall interests and governments thereof into a nearer prospect and 
consultacon, haveing to our abundant satisfaccon observed that the Industrie and adventures of 
our good subjects w"' the suppHes and assistances W^"" have beene dra\^me from hence, have verie 
much enlarged the power gi-owth and improvementes thereof, they being now become a gi-eate 
and numerous people whose plentifull trade and comerce verie much imployes and increascth 
the navigacon and expends the mauufactm-es of om- other dominions and exchanges them for 
comodities of necessary use, and bring a good accesse of treasure to our Excheq"' for customs 
and other duties. Li consideracon whereof and for divers other causes us thereunto moving ; 
Wee have judged it meete and necessary that soe many remote Colonies and Governments, soe 
many wayes considerable to our crox^me and dignitie and to W^"" wee doe beare soe good an 
esteeme and affection, should now no longer remaine in a loose and scattered but should be 
collected and brought under such an uniforme inspeccon and conduct that Wee may the better 
apply our royall councells to their future regulacon securitie and improvem'. And that as many 
as are concerned in Forraigne Plantacons may comfortably procede in their affaires relating 
thereunto and know whence to expect and receive direccon coimtenance and encom-agem'. 
Wee therefore out of our tendemesse and care to our said Forraigne Plantacons and of our 
certaine knowledge, especiall grace, and mere mocon, doe by this our Comission under our 
Create Seale appoint constitute and ordaine you to be a Standing Councill, hereby giveing 
and granting unto you or any five or more of you full power and anthoritie to take into yo"' 
consideracon care and conduct the present and futiu-e state and condicon of our severall 
FoiTaigne Plantacons, and to consult and procede therein according to the powers conteined in 
this our comission and such other Listinaccons as are hereunto annexed, or according to any 
further instruccons which you shall from time to time receive from us. And j^ou are hereby 
further required and impowered to receive and prosecute all such proposicons and overtures as 
Vol. m. 6 


shalbe offered unto you by any other persons and as you shall judge to be for the benefitt or 
improvm' of any of our said Forraine Plantacons. And to view and to make use of all such books 
records or other writings of publique conceminent, without any fee or reward, as you shall hold 
necessary for yo^ better informacon herein. And to send for any person or persons whome you 
shall thiiike to be of experience and abilitie or otherwise titt to he advised with any thing that 
tends to the prosecucon of this our coniission and Instruccons. And wee doe hereby require all 
and everie o' Governo" or any other person or persons that by vertue of any coniission or 
graunt from us or any of ourroyaU predecesso" doth doe or shall exercise any power jurisdiccon 
or authority upon any of our said Forraine Plantacons, and all and everie our officers and 
ministers whatsoever and all merchants planters masters of shipps mariners and all other our 
loveing subjects who shall receive any summons order or other direccon or appointm' from the 
said Councill of Forraigne Plantacons soe constituted by us w"*" shalbe in prosecucon of this our 
coniission and instruccons, that they doe forthwith yeild a ready conformity thereunto, as they 
tender our displeasure for their disobedience to us and to the authoritie derived fi-om Us. And 
because soe publique and necessary a service may the more effectually be carried on Wee 
doe hereby further authorize and impower you the said Councill of Fon-aigne Plantacons to 
appoint such Clerkes messengers or other usefull attendants and to pay unto evrie such person 
such reasonable salaries or allowances as to you shall seeme nieete or convenient W^"" said 
salaries and all other contingent charges relateing to the said Councill or the service thereof 
Wee doe hereby order and require shall bee payd unto such person as they the said Councill 
shall asssigne thereunto, out of our Exchequer by warrant from our High Treasurer tor the 
time being. Provided that such payments shall not exceede in the whole, the suninie of three 
hundred pounds yearely. And wee doe hereby further appoint and require you the said 
Comicill of Forraigne Plantacons to meete and sitt at the Star Chamber at Westminster on 
Monday the tenth of this instant December. And wee doe hereby give you power to adjoume 
to any other place that to you shall appeare to bee more convenient. I?f Witness whereof 
wee have caused these our Letters to be made Patents and to have continuance dm-eing our 
pleasure. Witness om- sehe at Westminster the first day of December in the twelfth yeare of 
our Raigne 

F' ipsum Regem 


Instructions for the Councill appointed for Forraigne Plantacdns 1 Dec. 1660. 

1 You shall infornie yourselves by the best wayes and meanes you can of the state and 
condicon of all Forraigne Plantacons, and by what comissions or authorities they are and have 
bene governed and disposed of; and are to procure either from such persons as have any 
graunts thereof from the Crowii, or from the records themselves, the copies of all such comissions 
or graunts, to be transcribed and registered in a booke provided for that purpose, that you may 
be the better able to miderstaud judge and administer such affaires, as by yo-- coniission and 
instruccons are intrusted to yo"' care and managem'. 


2 You shall forthwith write letters to e^Tie of our Govemo" for the time being of all our 
English Plantacons and to evi-ie such person or persons who by any Letters Pattents from us or 
any of our predecesso"'' doe claime or exercise a right of govemem' in any of the said plantacons ; 
in w'^'' Ires you are to informe them of our gratious care and provision in their behahe both in 
erecting a Gen""all Councill of Trade wherein their concemm'" are mingled and pro\ided for with 
the rest of our dominions and especially of this pticular Councell w"^ is applyed only to the 
inspeccon care and conduct of Forraigne Plantacons. 

3. You are in the said letters to require the said Govemo" and persons abovemeconed, to 
send unto you in wi-iteing w»'' the advice of the Councell of e\Tie of the said plantacons 
respectively, perticuler and exact accompt of the state of their affaires; of the nature and 
constitucon of their lawes and govemem' and in what modell and frame they move and are 
disposed ; what numbers of men ; what fortifications and other strengths and defences are upon 
the place, and how fm-nished and provided for. j "|^ '-spj'^ ^f) 

4. You aie to order and settle such a contiuuall correspondencie that you may be able, as often 
as you are required thereimto, to give up to us an accompt of the Govemm' of each Colonic ; 
of their complaints, their wants, their abimdance ; of their severall growths and comodities of 
every shipp tradeing there and its ladeing and whither consigned and what the proceeds of that 
place have beene in the late yeares ; that thereby the intrinsick value and the true condicon of 
each part & of the whole may be thoroughly imderstood ; whereby a more steady judgem' 
and ballauce may be made for the better ordering and disposing of trade & of the proceede 
and improvem'" of the Plantacons ; that soe each place vrithin it sehe, and all of them being 
collected into one viewe and managem' here, may be regidated and ordered upon common and 
equall gi-ound & principles. 

5. You are to applie yoiu* selves to all prudentiall meanes for the rendering those dominions 
useful! to England, and England helpfull to them, and for the bringing the severall Colonies 
and Plantacons, within themselves, into a more certaine civill and imifonue of govemem' and 
for the better ordering and disti'ibuteing of publique justice among them. 

6 You are to enquire diligently into the severall govemm'^ and Coimcells of Colonies 
Plantacons and distant Dominions, belonging to other Princes or States, and to examine by 
what conduct and pollicies they governe or benefit them ; and you are to consult and pro\ide 
that if such councells be good wholsome and practicable, they may be applied to the use of our 
Plantacons ; or if they tend or were designed to the prejudice or disadvantage thereof or of any 
of our subjects or of trade or comerce, how then they may be ballanced or turned back upon 

7 You are to call to yo' assistance from time to time as often as the matter in cousideracon 
shall require any well experienced persons, whether merchants, planters, seamen, artificers &c. 

8. You are to take especiall care and enquire into the strict execucon of the late Act of 
Parliament entituled An Act for the encouragem' & increasing of Shipping and Navigacon, that 
asmuch as in you lyes none of those good ends and purposes may be disappointed for w'^'" the 
said Act was intended and designed. 

9. You are to take into yo'' cousideracon how our severall Plantacons may be best suppUed 
with sei-vauts, that neither our CoUonies, especially such as are imediately under our comissions, 
may be unpro\'ided in so essentiall an assistance, nor any of our good subjects may be forced or 
inticed away by any unlawfull or indirect way ; and that such as are willing to be transported 
thither to seeke better fortunes than they can meete wdth at home, may be encouraged thereunto ; 


and how such a course may be legally settled for the future that vagrantes and others who 
reraaine here noxious and unprofitable, may be soe transplanted to the generall advantage 
of the publique aswell as the particuler commoditie of our Forraine Pantacons. 

10. You are most especially to take an efFectuall care of the propogacon of the Gospell in the 
seA'erall Forraine Plantacons, by provideing that there be good encouragem' settled for the invitacon 
and maintenance of lemed and orthodox ministers, and by sending strict orders and injunccons for 
the regulating and refonning the debaucheries of planters and servants, whose ill example doth 
bring scandall upon Christiauitie, and deterr such as yet are not admitted thereunto, from affecting 
or esteeming it. And you are to consider how such of the Natives or such as are purchased by 
you from other parts to be ser\'ants or slaves may be best invited to the Christian Faith, and be 
made capable of being baptized theremito ; it being to the bono' of our Crownie and of the 
Protestant Religion that all persons in any of our Dominions should be taught the knowledge of 
God, andbe made acquainted with the misteries of Salvation. 

11. You are lastly required and impowered to advise order settle and dispose of all matters 
relating to the good governm' improvement and management of our Fon-aine Plantacons or any 
of them, with your utmost skill direccon and prudence. And in all cases wherein you shall judge 
that further powers and assistants shall be necessary, you are to addresse your selves to us [or ] 
our Privy Councill for our further pleasm'e resolucon and direccons therein. 

Orders and Proceedings at His Md^ Coimsell for Forraigne Plantac6ns. 

[ New England, I. 124. ] 

. . The Star Chamber, Westminster 

_ ^■- Die Lunae X"" die Decembris Anno Regni Dni 

Regis nunc Caroli Secimdi, duodecimo. 

Many of the said Counsell viz' Jerom Earle of Portland Lord President ( pro tempore ) 
Theophilus Earl of Lincolne, James Earle of Marleborough, William Viscount Say and Seale, 
Francis Lord Dacre, Francis Lord Willoughby of Parham, John Lord Roberts, John Lord 
Berkely, Denzill Hollis Esq. Robert Boyle Esq. William Willoughby* Esq. Sir John ^lennes K"' 
S'' Nicholas Crispe Kn' Sir James Drax K"' Daniel O'Neile Esq. John Denham Esq. Edward 
Waller Esq. Robert Venables Esq. Charles Pymm Esq. Thomas Povey Esq. Edwai-d Diggs 
merchant, John Colliton merchant, Martin Noel Esq. Thomas Kendall merchant, John Lewis 
merchant, William Glascock one of the IMasters of the Chancery and William Watts merchant; 
being met in the Star Chamber at Westminster on the day above said, by vertue of His Ma" 
comission w"" Listruccons thereunto annexed under the Create Seale of England bearing date 
the first day of this instant December to them and Edward Lord Hyde Lord Chaucello"' of 
England, Thomas Earle of Southampton Lord High Treasurer of England, Edward Earle of 
Manchester Chamberlin of His Ma*" Howsehold, John Earle of Clare, Sir George Carterett Kn' 
Vice Chamberlin of His Ma" Howsehold, Sir Edward Nicholas and S'' William Morris Kn" 

* It is rera-wkable this name docs uot occui- in the oomniission. — R. L. 


Principall Secretaries of State, Arthur Annesley Esq"' S"' Anthony Ashley Cooper I"ui' S'' Peter 
Leere Kn' and Baronett, Sir Andrew Riccard Kn' Sir Jolm Shavve Kn' Edward Vernon Esq. 
John Limbrey merchant, Edward Waldrond Esq WiUiam WiUiams merchant, Thomas INIidleton 
merchant, John Jefleryes merchant, and Alexander Howe merchant, directed ; giveing to them 
or any five or more of them power to enquire of and into and to regulate all His Ma" Plantacons 
in forraigne parts according to the iustruccons aforesaid. 

The said Commission and Instruccons were then and there read, and the said Comissioners 
then present imediately adjourned into the Liner Starchamber. 

Eodem die '■ «*' 

The Lmer Star Chamber. 

Ordered. That AP Phillip Frowde who is recomended by his Ma"^ be and shalbe Gierke or 
Secretary of this Coimsell. The noniinacon of other Officers and consideracon of charges is 
referred till iNIonday next at three of the clock in the after noone in the Inner Star Chamber, to 
w'''' time and place this Counsell (haveing first ordered all their members to have notice thereof, 

Act of the States General and Conditions offered hj the Dutch West India Gomp' 
to Settlers in JSfeio Netherlands. 

[ state Paper Office ; Holland. 1661.] 

The States Generall of the United Provinces, 

To all to whom these p''sentes shall see or heard read, doe make knowne ; that wee have 
condiscended and permitted as wee doe by these condiscend & permitt all Christian people of 
tender conscience in England or elsewhere, oppressed, full liberty to erect a Colony in the West 
Indies between New England and Virginea in America, now within the jurisdiction of Peter 
Stivazent the States Generall's Governor for the West India Company, on the conditions & 
priviledges graunted by the Committees of the respective chambers representing the Assembly 
of the XIX. doe therefore order charge and command all and every one whom these may 
concerne, that they shall not in any wise hinder the said people nor any of them or any whom 
they shall or might send with knowledge of the said Company ; but contrarywise afibrd unto 
any and all of them all favorable helpe and assistance, where it shall be needfull ; for wee 
have found it to bee good for the Company. Given att the Hage under our Scale paraphura, 
and signed by our Griffier the 14"' day of February Anno Domini 1661. 

The Copie of the Conditions Sf Priviledges graunted bij the West India Company 

unto all such people that shall he disposed to tahe up their abode in those parts 

vizt in tlie New Netherlands. 

The West India Company being assembled do grauut and condiscend unto all such people 

as above mentioned of what nation soever, fifteen leagues of land in breadth along the sea 

side and as farr in depth in the Continent as any plantation hath or may bee setled in the 


New Netherlands, with jurisdiction of all bayes and rivers comprehended within the bounds 

The free projiriety for ever of the said Colony with the appiutenances and dependencyes of 
the same & with power to dispose thereof for ever either by will contract bond or otherwise. 

That they and their associates may and shall establish their high, middle, and low Jurisdiction ; 
the better to maintej-ne their authority. 

Thev shall be free from payinge head money, for the space of twenty yeers. 

That they shall have the propriety of any mines of gould and silver (if any found) and all 
other mineralls whatsoever or christolls, costly stones, marble saltpeter, pearle fishing, with 
exemption of all dutyes and recognizances, for the tjme of twenty yeere and of and 

other taxation for the tjone of tenne yeere. 

They shall be free for tenn yeere of any recognizance for all such goods as shalbee transported 
into the said Colony for traffique with the Natives or otherwise. 

They shall bee free for the tyme of tenn yeere for paying the Company their right of furrs, 
dyes, and any gi'oth and all merchandize that shalbee exported, none excepted. 

These inhabitants shall and may make use of their owue fraited or hired shipps for the 
transportation of their ownie goods and merchandizes for ever, without rendering or giveing any 
accoimt imto the said West India Company. 

The said inhabitants shall and may freely erect and establish within their Colony the fishing 
trade, and transport the same into Spaine the .Streights or elcewhere, free from any recognition, 
during the terme of twenty yeere. 

The said inhabitants shall have full liberty after they have planted their Colony in case of 
difference with the aforesaid Peter Stivazant or any that shall survive him as Governo'' by 
appointment of tiie States of the Netherlands, to chuse a Director or Cheife ; only they shall 
issue out all writts, of what nature soever, in the name of the States Generall of the United 

Summary advertisements concerning the above mentioned, Colony. 
Tliat the tract of land lying & being scittuated as abovementioned, is not above six weekes 
sayle from Holland, there is divers places within the said bounds, strong by nature, w"^"" may be 
easily fortefied against any enemye and as yett uninhabited ; it's under the best clymate in the 
whole worid, it lying betweene 39 & 40 degrees and soe farther Northward ; seed may bee 
thrown into tiie ground, except six weekes, all the yere long; there are five sorts of grape w'^'' are 
very good and grow heere naturally, with diverse other excellent fmits extraordinary good, and 
y' fruits transi^lanted from Europe far surpasseth any there ; as apples pears, peaches, melons, 
&c. the land very fertile, produceth a great increase of wheat and all other grane whatsoever ; 
heere groweth tobacco very good, it naturally aboimds, with severall sorts of dyes, fm-rs of all 
sorts may bee had of the natives very reasonable ; store of saltpeter ; marvelous plenty in all 
kinds of food, excellent veneson, elkes very great and large ; all kind of land and sea foule that 
are naturally in Europe are heere in great plenty, with severall other sorte, y' Europe doth not 
enjoy ; the sea and rivers abounding with excellent fat and wholesome fish w-^" are heere in 
great jjlenty ; the part of tlie country stored with severall sorts of mineralls ; 
great profit to bee derived from tratlique with the natives (who are naturally a mild people, very 
capabh; (and by the Grace of God) to be drawne out of their blind ignorance to the saving light 
by Jesus Christ. Heere may likewise bee great profitt made by fishing, whereby abundance of 


people may bee imployed wath great and notable advantages, since the same shall bee free of 
all duty for the teraie of twenty yeere. Therefore if any of the English, good Christians (who 
may bee certefied of the advantages to mankind, of plantations in these latitudes from others 
more southerly) and shalbee rationally disposed to transport themselves to the said place imder 
the conduct of the United States, shall have full libeity to hve in y^ feare of tlie Lord, and upon 
the aforesaid good conditions shalbee likewise curteously used. 

Therfore all those that shall desire to jopre their Stock to bee of the association, may (if 
they please) on the back of this paper expresse the somme, and such signature not to bee 
obligatory before such tyme as there shalbee a Contract made betweenp. them and the said 
States. But if any people that desire to transport themselves, without jojTiing in Company, 
they shall have their full free and absolute liberty to all inteute and purposes whatsoever 

In fidem hujus signavi requisitus 
. . G"'' Le CoEUT Not"" Pub-". 

Narrative and Dejjos^ition of Ca^t. Bredon. 

My Lords and Gentlemen. 

Ha\'ing received a summon to appear before yo'' Hono" of his Ma" Councill for FoiTeign 
Plantations, this day, being y= 11th of March 1660. to give infoiination of the present state 
condition and govenim' of y* severall Colonyes of New England : I do here in y^ 1*' place 
present y"* w"" y^ Book of Laws for Massachusetts Colony whereby yo"' Hon" may understand 
y' Govemm' thereof better than my selfe, which Govemm' they assert to be by patent from y" 
King, w''*' patent I never saw, therefore camiot tell how agreeable to their patent they act. 
What laws are not mentioned in this Book are in y® Magistrates brests to be understood, the 
distinction of freemen and non freemen, members & non members, is as famous as Cavalers & 
Roundheads was in England, and will shortly become as odious, and I hope abandoned. The 
greivances of y^ non members who are really for the King, and also of some of y'' ^lembers are 
very many, which I refer you to others more able than my self to relate y". And since His 
Ma"«^ hath granted a generall pardon, it will not become me to say they had so much as a 
stinking breath, altho' they apprehended a gentleman not many years agoe (supposing him to 
be y' King) resolving to send him for England, had not Sir Henry Moody & others better 
known His Ma''^. It is not rmknown to you that they look on themselves as a free State, and 
how they sate in Councill in December last, a week, before they could agi'ee in wi-iting to His 
Ma"= there being so many against owning the King, or their having any dependance on EngP. 
Their pet° I have not seen but by information understand they acknowledge their allegiance to 
His Ma'y. Upon w''' I quere (l^"'') Why do they not proclaim His Ma'^^ ? (2""^) Why doe they not 
act in His Ma'" name ? (3'^) Why doe they not give y Oath of Allegiance to His Ma'y but instead 
thereof force an Oath of Fidelity to themselves & their Govemm'? as in y^ Book of Laws page 
62. 68. 63. and 84. At the arrivall of Whally & GofFee, who came to New England under y* 
names of Richardson & Stephenson, I knowing y" commanded y°" before y* Governor & 


acquainted him they were two of y= Kings Judges, declared traitors and murderers, & therefore 
advised him to secure y" ; who answered without a Coramiss" from Eng** none should medle 
^^th ym_ poi- niy service herein I was abused by many, by calling me malignant, and y° 
Marshall Gen" of y^ Country coming to me before severall in Court time, used these expressions, 
gi-inning in my face, "Speake ag'' Whally & Goffe if you dare, if you dare, if you dare." 
Afterwards came to my hands y^ Act of Parliam' and y'^ King's Proclamation, w'^'' some vilifyed 
and said they are more malignant pamphlets I had pickt up. Hereupon I wrote a letter to y' 
Dep. Governor, a copy whereof I humbly present yo'' Honors, sent it by my man, who is able 
to testify it, & to that purpose brought him over w"" me : The Dep^ asked him whether it was 
my \^Titing : he answered it was, & y' I ordered him to bring his answer : who bad him be 
gone, told him he had nothing farther to say to him. By the Book of Laws you may understand 
that none but freemen, who will take y^ Oath of Fidelity, are capable of bearing office in 
Military or Civill affaires, and tho' the officers are freemen, yet 2 thirds of y^ soldjers are 
non freemen, who tho' at present they obey the command of their Officers, would, I am confident, 
be o-lad to have officers by the King's Commission, and do desire and expect a Governor to be 
sent from the King : others fear it, and say they will dye before they loose their liberties & 
priviledges ; by which it may appeare how difficult it is to reconcile monarchy and independency. 
There's many also desires His JNIa"' may be proclamed there, and to be governed by y' laws of 
Eno-F ; but in y^ Book of Laws page y"' Q"" is enacted that whosoever shall treacherously or 
perfidiously endeavor the alterations and subvertion of their frame of policy or government 
fundamentally, shall be put to death ; and if any speake for the King's interest, they are 
esteemed as ag"' their frame of policy or governm' and as mutiners : under which pressures 
many groaned at my coming away, being as I may say debarred of their allegiance by a law 
wherein their laws are contrary to the laws of England. I leave to Yo"' Hon"'" to judge of how 
great concernment it is that there should be a speedy course taken for setling and estabhshing 
this country in due obedience & subjection to His ]\La"^ may appeare, by the two hectors 
Whally and Gott"e, dayly bussing in their ears a change of governm' in Engl'' and also by the 
multitudes of discontented persons of their gang, going and sending their estates thither. What 
the ettects will be is easy to be feared, unless a speedy course be taken ; they being the key to 
the Indies, without which Jamaica, Barbadoes and y' Charibby Islands are not able to subsist, 
thei-e being many thousand tunns of provisions, as beefe, porke, pease, biskett, butter, fish, 
carried to Spaine Portugall and the Indies every year, besides sufficient for the countreys use. 
I doe farther assert that the French and Dutch trading into the English Plantations in America, 
is very much to the prejudice of Engl'' and to the loss of His Ma'>', in respect to customs, many 
thousand pounds yearly. Now whereas there are many ships and persons bound for New 
England suddainly upon account of hberty and to secure estates, I leave it to Your Hon" 
wisdome, whether it may 'not be requisite that the merchants of England that trade thither, and 
those of New England, should not give security for their freinds allegiances in New England ; 
or els whether it may not be expedient to lay an imbargo on all shipping bound thither, untill 
His Ma'y shall conclude of sending over for establishing and setling that country in firme peace 
and due obedience. 

What I have here declared, I have done out of my duty to His Ma'" and my love and respects 
I beare to them of New England in generall ; having received many common favours from them, 
as to my personall affaires, and as few in respect of His Ma''" interest. 

This was given in ) , - . 

by Capt Tho Breedon ) 


Thomas Breedon of the City of Dublin Esq. maketh oath that hee doth well remember that 
not long after His Majesties most happy Restoration to his government, hee, the sayd Thomas 
Breedon did deliver in to His Ma"" Comicell for the Plantacons a paper, whereof the writing 
herein contepied is a true coppy as he beleiveth, and that y<= contents therein conteyned were 

Jurat coram me 17 die Octob. 
( Signed ) Tho : Breedon. 1678°. 

( Signed ) Jo. Topham. 

Gov" Endecott to Gov'' Stuivessayit of New Netherlands. 

[Trade Papers, State Paper Office. XV. 30. ] 

The Govemo'' of the Massachusetts Jurisdiction in New England having receaved a letter 
from his most Excellent Ma"' Charles the Second by the Grace of God King of England Scotland 
Fraunce and Ireland &c bearing date the fifth of jNIarch 1660 directed to the Govern'' or Cheife 
Magistrate or Magistrates of his plantation of New England requiring the diligent searching for & 
apprehending of Colonell Edward Whalley and Colonell William Goffe &c: — Haveing sent for 
the i\Iagistrates adjopiing & proceeded to make choice of & send M''Thomas Kirke & M" Thomas 
Kelond (& John Chapin as their guide to attend on them) as meete messeng" to carry not only 
true copies of His ]Ma*5"' letter to the Govern"' of Conecticott Dep' Govern"" of New Haven & 
also to the Gov"" of the Manhatoes or New Netherlands w"" particular letters to each of them, for 
the best, most speedie and faithfull executing of His iMa** comands and gave the said messengers 
severall letters instructions and directions to attayne the end, & are as followeth : — 

To y" Gov'' of Conecticott Dcp. Gov. Neiv Haven & Gov. of PUmouth mutatis mutandis. 

Having receaved a letter from the Kings Ma'^ our gracious Soveraigne, a true copie whereof 
I have heere enclosed, finding by the supscription thereof that it is of equall concemem' to 
yo'self & such of the Magistrates as are assisting to you, as it is to us or any heere, and at 
present more, because the Gent^° rendered in his Ma"*' letter guilty of so execrable a murther 
hath some whiles since departed this jurisdiction, wee have not beene wanting to ourselves in 
endeavouring the apprehending of them, by an order of our Councill which hath bin issued out 
a two moneths since, & now after my ad\'ising w"^ our Magistrates as many as such a time 
would permitt, I thought it meete in discharge of our duty to His Ma'^ by these bearers to send 
the same to yow, not doubting of your faithfull effectuall & speedy discharge of your duty to 
His Ma'y as is desired & therein required, not els, but my due respects to yo''self & not doubting 
of yo"" readiness to comply w* so just & necessary a comand, remaine. Sir 

Yo'' assured lovinge friend 

Boston 7 May 1661. John Endecott. 


Having receaved a letter from the Kings Ma"' our gracious Soveraigne, a ti'ue copie whereof I 
have heere inclosed to yoiu-self, and judge it no lesse then my duty by these bearers, gent*" of 
Vol. m. 6 


knownc creditt and fidellity to his Maj''' & unto us, to desire in case that Colonell Whalley and 

Colonel! Golie be come into your parts, as wee understand they are, fled from hence especially 

from the justice of the English Nation, thinking to shroude themselves in these remote parts ; 

that you would be pleased to deliver them to these bearers w"- meete helpe to convey them out 

of yC limitts into the English jurisdiction, to be conveyed to Boston to be sent as by his Maj'^ 

is required. In doing whereof you will not only doe an act worthy the amity and coiTespondency 

that is betweene our Nation & yours, but such as you shall finde us ready on the like occasion 

to serve, and he 


Boston 7 Mav 1061. You'' thankfull & much 

obliged Sen'ant 

John Endecott Gov'■n^ 
To the much honnored Peter Stuivessant Esq. 
Go''u'' of the New Netherlands, these. 

That this is a true copy compared with the Original, attests 

Edward Rawson, Secret'. 

Petition of the Earl of Sterling against the Dutch intruding on Long Island. 

[Nl-w England, I. 134.] 

To THE KiXGs Most Excellent Ma''" 

The humble peticon of Henry Earle of Sterlyne Sheweth. 
That yo'' Ma" royall Grandfather King James of happy menjory by his Letters Pattents under 
the Create Scale of England dated 3° Novemb"' in the eighteenth yeare of his raigne over England 
&c did gi-ant unto the then Dukes of Lenox and Buckingham & other persons of bono'' and 
their successo'' all that continent in America lyeing betweene the degrees 40 and 48 of Northerly 
latitude, and called it New England, and incoi-porated them by y" name of y" Councell for the 
affaires of New England, gi-anting imto them a Common Scale. 

That that Councill by their deede under their Common Seale dated 22 April in the eleaventh 
yeare of the raigne of your Ma" royall Father of blessed memory did graunt imto William 
Earle of Sterlyne your petitioners Grandfather and his heires, part of New England and an 
Island adjacent called Long Island with power of judicature, saveing to that Councill the Oyer 
and Terminer of Appeales ; to be held of that Councill per Gladium Comitatus, and yielding the 
fifth part of all of oare of gold and silver. 

That yo"' Peticoners Grandfather, and father, and himselfe their heire, have respectively 
enjoyed the same and have at their gi-eate costs planted many places of that Island ; but of late 
divers Dutch have inti-uded on severall parts thereof, not acknowledging themselves within Your 
Ma" allegiance, to Your Ma" disherison and your Peticoners prejudice. 

May Yo'' Majestic be pleased to confinne unto your Peticoner his said inheritance 
to be held immediately of your Crowne of England, and that in any future 


ti'eaty betweene your roj^all selfe and the Dutch, such provision may be, as 
that the Dutch there may submitt themselves to your ^Sla'^ govemera" or 
depart those parts. 

And yo"" Peticoner shall ever pray &c. 

At the Court at Whitehall the last of May 1661. 

His Ma'-" pleasure is, That this peticon be referred to the consideracon and exaniinacou of the 
Comissioners & Councell of Plantacons, who are thereupon to certifie tlieir opinion what is fitt 
to be done for the Peticoners satisfaccon, in order to the good of His ]Ma'^ senice in that Island. 

Edw. Nicholas. 

Certats^e heasoxs, to prme if the Ducli^ hee admitted trade in Virginia^ it wilbe 
greate lo-sse^ to the Kings Md" and prejudice to the Plantacon. 

[Trade Papers, LVII. 90.] 

1. First it wilbe a losse unto his Ma''= in regard there is noe custome paid for there Commoditie 
as the Kings subjets doe. 

2. To trade w* the Duch in those parts, wilbe much prejudice, to his IMa"'' in his customes, in 
regard here is not sale in this Kingdome to vent that gi'eat quantitie the plantation afordeth, soe 
that if the Duch furnish there one markets, our Marchants must of force to there greate hiuderance 
suffer there commoditie to lie in there warhouses beinge disabled by there trade to pay such 
custome and impost as is due to His ]Mat'^. 

3. If the Duch be admitted trade in Virginia it wilbe a meanes that the Kinge shall receave 
noe benefitt from that plantation. 

4. There trade will disable our Marchants to supph^ the Plantacon w'^'' wilbe to y^ prejudice 
& ruine thereof, for if thay be not continually supplied, the people there ai'e not able to subsist. 

5. It is to be doubted in short time thay will over throwe his ^Nla'"''' Plantacon, if thay 
continue trade there, for thay have already incroacht very neere oiu- Plantacon, to our greate 
prejudice of trade, w"'' the Natives of that Coimtrey, and doe call there plantacon, by the name 
of the New Netherlands denyiuge his Jla"^^ right & title in those parts. 

6. There is now two shipps going from Zeland to trade there W^*" if thay be admitted it wilbe 
losse to his Ma"^ at least 4000" w^"" by your Lordshipps wisdome may be prevented. 

This out of dutie to His Ma**^ I present unto yom- Lordshipps wisdomes and consideracon. 


Minute of Council on secret trade ivith the Dutch. 

[ Xew England, I. 117. ] 

At His Ma''" Coiincill for Forraign Plantations Lunaj XXV" die Aiigusti 1662 

■ S' John Shawe M-- Noell 

S' Will : Berkley M^ Kendall • 

M"- P3nn M' Diggs 
AP Povey 

Consideracon being had of a secret trade driven by and with the Dutch, for Tobacco of the 
growth of the English Plantacons, to the defrauding His Ma''^ of his Customs and contrary to 
the intent of the Act of Navigacon, as namely by delivering the same at sea, by carrying the 
same to New England and other Plantacons and thence shipping the same in Dutch bottoms, 
and also by rolling the same to the plantacons of the Dutch lyeing contiguous to Delewar Bay 
and the Manahtoes ; and my Lord Baltimore being made acquainted therewith by this 
Councill and consulted therein, hath now^ promised that he will doe his best to prevent the 
same, and will write to his Deputy in Maryland so to doe, and to make seizure of all such 
tobacco. But that an effective & speedie com-se be taken herein ; it is this day ordered by this 
Councill that M'' Pym and M' Povey doe draw up some heads of remedies for the said abuses, 
and bring the same to this Councill on Monday next to be considered of and presented to His 

Ordei' to enforce the British Navigation Act in the PT.mitations. 

[ CouncU Register, Ch. II. R. III. 450. ] 

At the Court at Whitehall, the S-i"" of June 1663. 

Present — The Kings Most Excellent Ma''= 

H. R. H. The Duke of York Earle of Carbery 

Lord Chancellor Lord B? of London 

Duke of Albemarle Lord Seymour 

Marques of Dorchester Lord Hatton 

L^ Great Chamberlain Lord Berkley 

Earle of Sandmch Lord Holies 

Earle of Carlisle M"' Treasurer 

Earle of Middleton M' Vice Chamberlain 

M'' Sec'' Bennett M' Sec' Morrice. 


A minute of letters to the severall Gov''' of hU Ma"'' Plantations in Ameiica viz' 

S'' William Berkeley 
Philip Calvert, Esq' 
Lord Willoughby of Parham 
Col. William Watts 
Col. James Russell 
Col. Roger Osborne 
John Bunckley, Esq' 
Col. William Byam 
S"" Charles Littleton 




S« Christophers 






New England. 

Whereas by a late Act of Parhament entitled an act for encouraging and increasing of 
Shipping & Navigation, all foiTain Trade is prohibited to any of liis Ma"" Plantations & all 
those of his Ma«" subjects that sayle imto any of them are required to give security to retume 
w'' their lading for England, Ireland, Principality of Wales, or To^vne of Berwicke upon 
Tweed, as in the said act is expressed, w"" strict command unto the Governors of y^ said 
Plantations to see y= same performed accordingly, w*" gi-eat penalties upon such Governors as 
connive or neglect putting y^ said act in execution, who are enjoined also to take oath that y« 
said Act be punctually obsen'ed, Yet, being informed by INIasters of Ships and others trading 
to Virginia, Maryland, and other his Ma''^' Plantations, of many neglects or ratlier contempts of 
his Ma"" commands for y' true obsei-vance of the said Act, (which so highly concerns y^ increase 
of shipping and y^ regular trade of his Ma"^= Plantations, together w"" his revenue that proceeds 
from thence ) through the dayly practices & designes sett on foote by trading into forrain parts 
from Virginia, Mariland and other his Ma"" Plantations, both by land and sea as well imto y' 
MoNADOs and other Plantations of y^ Hollanders, as unto Spaine Venice, & Holland, occasioned 
through the neglect of those Governors m not taking a view of all forrain built ships which come 
into their Plantations whether they have a Certificate of their being made free according to y« 
act, as also in not duly taking Bond, (before any ship be pennitted to lade) that whatever 
comodities they shall take in at any of his Ma"" Plantations, the same shall be carried into some 
other of his Ma"" Plantations, or into England, Ireland, Wales, or Towne of Berwick upon 
Tweed, which Bonds are to be returned twice every yeare unto y^ officers of y' Custom House 
in London, but hitherto it hath not been done, of which neglect and contempt his Ma""^ is sensible, 
and therefore doth require and command you that for y= time to come a perfect account be kept 
by you in that Plantation of all ships that shall bade there, and return y'= names both of y^ masters 
and y' ships, together w'" true copies of all such Bonds as shall be taken by you there twice in 
every yeare unto y' offices of y^ Custom House in London as aforesaid ; which if you shall 
forbeare to do, upon infonnation thereof and that any ships freighted there shall contrary to 
y« law trade into forrain parts, his Ma"' will interpret it a very greate neglect in you, forwhich 
he is resolved to cause the breach of y*^ said act to be prosecuted according to y» tenour thereof, 
and discharge you from that employment, It being his pleasure that the said Law be veiy 
strictly observed in regard it much concemeth y= Trade of this Kingdome. All which wee have 
thought goode to lett you knowe, that you may not pretend ignorance, but obseiTe all such 


orders as aredirectod by y'^' said act, whereof you may not fayle as you will answer y'' contrary 

at your perill, and so. lVc. Dated, 24° Jimij 1G6:J. [Signed] 

Lord Chancellor, Earle oFMiddleton Lord Hollis 

Marq of Dorchester Earle of Carberry M'' Treasurer 

Lord Create Chamberlain L"* B'' of London M"' Vice Chamberlain 

Lord Chamberlain Lord Seymour M"' Sec^ Morrice 

Ea. of Sandwich Lord Hatton M"" Sec" Bennett. 

Complaint of the intrusion of the Dutch into Mcaihattoe-s. 

[ New En;;lan.l. I. U». ] 

At His Ma" Couucill for Forraine Plantacons, Anno R. R-' Caroli Scdi XV" Luna? ^'1'° die 
Julij IGGo. 

Lord Berkeley Tremhnt 
Sir Jo. Colleton S' Martin Nowell 

M'' Kendall INP Digges. 

Upon complaint lately made, to this Comicill by Captaine Scott that the Dutch have of late 
yeares unjustly intruded upon and possessed themselves of certaine places on the maine land of 
New England and some Islands adjacent, as in perticuler on the Manahtoes and Long Island (being 
the true and undoubted inheritance of His Ma"" ) and that they doe still keepe the possession 
thereof without giveing obedience to His Ma"'' and the lawes of this kingdome ; and upon reading 
of My Lord Sterhns Peticou to His Ma'"= ( to that purpose ) hither referred, and hearing the 
attestacons of divers persons now present, ofFerring proofe thereof: it being also intimated by 
some of this Councill now present that the good intencon of the late Act of Navigacou is in 
great part frustrated by their practices ( being so contiguous to the English plantacons ) and His 
Ma"" defrauded of his customs : It is this day ordered that the said Capt. Scott and IM"" IMaverick 
and JMr Baxter doe drawe up a briefe narrative of and touching these peiticulars following ( viz') 
1" Of the title of His Ma"" to the premisses. 2"'^ Of the Dutch intrusion. 3'"^ Of their deportment 
since and Jiianagem' of that possession, and of their strength, trade, and goveram' there, 
and 4"^y and lastly of the meanes to make them acknowledge and submitt to His Ma'' govemm' 
or by force to compell them thereunto or expulse them. And to bring in such their draught 
or paper to this Councill on this day seavenight, that this Couucill may humbly make report to 
His Ma"" touching the whole matter, as they shall see cause, and in the interim the members 
thereof to be sunmioned. 


Complmnt of Trade carried on ivitJi the Dutch. 

[New England, I. 119.] 

At His Ma"" Councill for Forraine Plantacous. Luna; Septimo die Decemb. 1663. 

Lord Ashley President 

Ld Berkely M' Boyle 

M^ O Neile ]\P Waller 

S'' Nicholas Crispe S'' John Shawe 

S"" John ColUton S' :Martin Noell 

M"' Digges. ]VP Jefleries. 

LTpon complaint now made to this Councill by the Farmers of His Ma'' Customs, of greate 
abuses comitted and done aswell by the lahitants and Planters on, as by the Masters, mariners, 
and traders, to Virginia, New England, Maryland, Long Island &c. who under pretence of 
foi-nishing some of those plantacons & other His M'* dominions, doe both by land and water 
cany and convey greate quantities of tobacco to the Dutch, whose plantacons are contiguous, 
the custome whereof would amoimt to tenne thousand poimds per annmn or upwards, thereby 
eluding the late Act of Navigacon and defrauding His iMa''". For redi'esse whereof they praj'ed 
the ad\ice and assistance of this Councill. Now upon consideracou and debate thereof had, it 
is thought fitt and ordered that the said Farmers of His jNIa'^ Customs, some whereof were now 
present & of this Coimcill, ( taking unto them JNP Digges and ^P Jefleries t^vo members of this 
Coimcill likewise who know those parts and trade) doe draw up the forme of a letter (as from 
His I\Ia"'^ ) to be dii'ected to the respective Govemo"'^ of y' severall plantacons aforesaid, therein 
layeiug downe such niles and iustruccous by them to be observed and put in practice, as in their 
judgem'* may most availe to the refonnacon of those abuses ; & to bring the same into this 
Councill on Saturday next by three of the clock in the afternoone, to be by them perused and 
presented to His Ma"'' that they may be speedily dispatched and sent, as the necessitie of the 
time and affaire doth require. 

Ca^ytain John Scott to Under Secr'^ WilUammn. 

[ Plant GenL Miscell. Handle. State Paper Office. ] 

Hartford in New England Dec' 14. 1663. 

The many obhgatious (I have had noe small moment) in a continued stream from your 
influence on publick aflaires, besides the perticuler tie of Freindshippe, distant from my too 
familiare convers with Generall transactions ingageth mee to kiss yom- hand ( at this distance 
by proxie ) and to let you know, that I doe not forget yom- task w* when perfonned is but the 
interest of my debt, your curteous reception of the tender of my endeavours to your service, 
hath made me presume, that your goodness will mantaine your first favoure w"" a second, which 


emboldens me at this time to desire a small division from j-our important affaires, to view this 
short relation of the present state of the English on the west end of Long Island on the maine, 
adjacent for many yeares ( as I have formerly given you an accoumpt) having been inslaved by 
the Dutch their cruell and rapatious neighbours, have at last asserted the Kings Royall interrest 
to his just rights in themselves ettc, though to their utter ruin, had not the Gentlemen of 
Connecticut, by their the said peoples earnest solicitation, stept in and demonstrated themselves a 
people jealouse of His Maj"« concerues then lyeing at the stake, a peice of acceptable service I 
doubt not, to our most deare Sovaraigne, whose honour if culpable of suffering, by such phebian 
and drossie spirits was then concerned, but knoweing this service may be blasted, by wronge 
measure from the Dutch agent or his emissaries, without some care, and knoweing your power 
and wilhngness to improve it, doe, in behalfe of the Gent" releiving and persons in distresse, 
onely as a spectator, or at most a moderator in the premised affaire, I beseach you to caveat any 
addresse being fully heard imtil some person commissioned from this Countrey be their to 
confront the sayd Dutch or their comphces. Sir if occasion serve to mention my desires to those 
Noble Gent" in conjunction with you, from whome I cannot despaire of a favourable aspect, being 
represented by soe happy a medium as your selfe, but I should be too injurious to the publike 
good, to detein you longer from your more noble imployements ; I shall therefore onely begg 
the happynesse of a roome in your memorie, in qualitie of Sir, your most hmnble servant. 

Jo. Scott. 

Post script, my humble service to the honoured Sir Georg Cartwright to whome I entreat 
you to communicate this business with the inclosed letter, which is from a Committee of the 
said, now releived but formerly distressed subjects of His Maj''" (enslaved by the Dutch) — my 
service to noble M'' Chiffinch ettc. 

To the Hon'''" Joseph Williamson Esq" at his office at Whitehall — Westminster, tliis ddl. 
or at S"" Henry Bennits 
at Whitehall this dd. 

Order for the Farmers of the Customs to draw vp a forvr. 

[New England, I. 120.] 

At His Ma" Councill for Forraigne Plantacons. Mercurij XVI'" die Decembris 1663. 

Lord Ashley 

L-^ Berkley IsV Boyle 

M"' Coventry Sir Nich Crispe 

]\r Povey Sir RL^rtin Nowell 

Coll : Middleton M-- Howe. 

Further consideracon being now had of the abuses complained of by the Farmers of His 
Ma" Customs, (done by the Planters on and Traders to Virginia, New England, Maryland, 
Long Island &c. by selling and conveighing tobacco to the Dutch, thereby defrauding His Ma"« 
of his customs and frustrating the intent of the Act of Navigacon ) and of a remedie for those 


evills : It is this day ordered that tlie said Farmers of His Ma" Customs ( who propose to send 
officers to the severall places aforesaid, for the preventing of those abuses and better managing of 
that affaire for the futui-e ) be desired to drawe up a model! or forme ( such as they shall thinke 
fitt ) to be used and practised by their said officers, and how farre they would have the aide and 
assistance of the respective Goveruo"'^ of the said severall places to be applied to the carrj^eing 
on of the said worke ; and would bring in the same to this Councill to morrow sevenight being 
the 24"" instant at three of the clock in the aftemoone, to be by them approved of and then 
presented to His Ma"^ to be established by the authoritie of His said Ma"'' and his Councill, if 
they shall thinke fitt. 

Approval of the Model proposed hy the Farmers of the Customs. 

I New England, I. 120. ] I '■ » ' 

At His Ma'"'"' Councill for Forraigne Plantacons. Martis XIX° die Januarij 1663. 

Earle of Anglesey, icZ PrMJrffnr. . , ,. ■ ., .• 

Lord Ashley M"' Boyle ,,^ . . 

Sir Nicholas Crispe M'' Waller - . 

Sir John CoUiton , , M"' Povey 

Coll. Vernon Sir Martin No well 

M' Kendall, M' Digges. 

The Farmers of His Ma'^ Customes haveing this day brought into this Councill a modell or 
forme by them, according to order of this Councell, drawne up to be put in practice by their 
officers, w'^'' they at their owne charge propose to send to Virginia, New England Mar34and 
Long Island and other His Ma'" Plantacons, where it shalbe necessary for the preventing of 
selling and conveighing of tobacco or other comodities to the Dutch and of defrauding His 
Ma"^ of his customs; the same was read, and debate being thereon had, it is now ordered that 
S' Nicholas Crispe, S"' John Colliton, S' Martin Nowell and Mr. Kendall now present, or any 
two of them, doe contract the same into as fewe & as briefe heads as they can, and adde 
thereunto the Proviso now drawne up by the Earle of Anglesey, limiting the actings and 
proceedings of such officers, by the late Acts of Na\igac6n : and to bring the same in to this 
Councill on Monday next at three of the clock in the afternoone, that this Councill may doe 
therein, what shalbe fitt. 

Vol. III. 


Modell projm.sed hy the Farmers of the Custorn-9. 

[ Xew Engl,™.I, I. 12n. ] 

At His Ma" Councill for Forraigne PlantacL.ns. Liinffi Primo die Fehruarij 1663. 

Earle of Liucoln, President. 
M'' Bo_vle S'' John Colliton 

W Pvin ]M' Kendall. 

The 3Iodell of the Fanners of His Ma'^ Customs proposalls ( being contracted and abreviated 
according to order of this Conncill of the nyneteenth of January last ) and now brought in by 
M'' Kendall & here read and amendem" made therein, is ordered to be entered and the said 
Farmers are left at libertie if tliey please to have another day to have the same farther 
considered and debated of. 

The Modell of the Froposath. 
May it please yottr ^Lv'"" 

Your Ma" Councill of Plantacons have taken into their consideracon the two actes of 
Parliam', the one entituled an Act for the encouraging and increasing of Shipping & Navigacon 
and another intituled an Act for encouragem' of Trade, by w'^ it is provided that the growth 
and production of yo'' Ma" Plantacons shall be brought by English shipps into England, Ireland, 
or into some other of yo"' Ma*" Plantacons, and that bonds shall be given and certificates retomed 
of the same : and noe goods to be carryed to the said Plantacons but what are loaden in England 
and Ireland &c as by the acts doth appeare. 

Yo"" Ma" Councill of Plantacons being informed that the said Acts of Parliament in some parts 
are not duely put in execution, and forasmuch as yo"' Ma" Farmers of yo"' Customes have made 
complaint thereof and have proposed to this Councill, at their owne costs and charges to send 
able and sufficient persons to Yo" Ma" severall Plantacons to discover the fraude and to acquaint 
the severall Govemours therewith, and to call on tiiem to doe their duties in putting the said 
severall Acts in execution in all points as they are required by the said Acts. 

For prevention of all neglects, and putting the said acts in execution for the future Your Ma" 
said Councill doe humbly offer this remedie : that Y''o'' Ma''" be graciously pleased to give the 
persons soe employed by Y'o'' Fanners of Y'o'' Ma" Custom Howse, letters to the severall Govemo" 
requireing tiiem to receive informacon from such of the said Farmers officers, and carefully to 
put in execucon the said severall acts in all perticulers. 

With signification that the persons soe employed shall be at the cost and charges of the said 
Famie" and that noe delay nor charge not warranted by Act or Acts of Parhament shall be by 
pretence thereof put upon any planter merchant or comander of shipps. 

All which neverthelesse is liumbly 
submitted to Yo'' Ma" gi-eate wisedome. 


Instructions to the King's Commin-siAjiiers to Ilassaelmsetts. 

[Trade Papers, state Paper Office. XVI. CO; New England Papers, I. IS;. ] 

Instructions to our trusty and well beloAed Colonel Richard Nicolls, Sir Robert 
Carre, George Cartwrigbt Esq. & Samuel IMaverick Esq, our commissioners 
imployed by us to \isite cm- Colony of y* Massachusetts in our Plantation 
in Aew England in America and to proceed there according to our said 
Charles R. 
1 As soone as you shall arrive you shall repaire to the Govemour of the Colony and deliver 
our letter to him, and you shall then desire him to call y* Comicell together to tlie end that ye 
may produce y^ Comm" to them ; att w^"" tjTne you shall let them knowe y^ kindnesse wee 
have for them and y^ extreme desire wee are possessed w"" to advance that plantacon w*""" hath 
given so good an example of sobriety & industiy to all other Plantacons : that wee are soe farr 
from any thought of abridging or restraineing them from any priviledges or liberties gi-anted by 
our Royall Father of blessed memory to them, in his Charter, that wee are very ready to enlarge 
those concess"" or to make any other alteracons, w'^'" upon their experience soe many yeares of 
that climate & countrey they finde necessary for the good & prosperity of the Colony. That 
y= principall end of yo'' journey is to remove all jealousies and misunderstandings w"^'' might 
arise in Us of y^ loyalty and affection of our good subjects in those parts towardes Us, or in them, 
of OUT good opinion and confidence in them & consequently of our protection over them ; both 
w'^'' is and \vill be enough endeavoured in both places, by insinuacons and representacons of 
those whose businesse it is to foment jealousies and improve misunderstandings in order to widen 
those breaches w* by God's blessing are well made up, and to bring y= Nacon agaiue into y' 
confusion from w^^ by his wonderfull providence it is so newly recovered. That yow are confident 
by y^ manifestacon yow shall give them of our tendemesse care and affection towards them and 
by y^ faithfull representacon you shall make to Us, of the temper duty & alleagiance, you shall 
shall disappoint all y^ designes of such wicked & seditious persons, and that such a foundacon 
of mutuall confidence & satisfaction will thereby be laid, that wee shall looke hereafter upon 
our Colony of y« Massachusetts as v\athin the same limitts of affection duty and obedience to 
our person & government as if it were as near us at Kent or Yorkshire, and they againe w"" the 
same confidence of our care and protection as the other doe ; soe that you doubt not they shall 
have all great reason to acknowledge our singular afifection in our \asiteing them by tins our 
Comm" & by the good effects w^"" w"" God's blessing wiU arise from it. That Wee had once a 
thought of inserting the names & joyning w"" you in Comiss" some principall persons of that 
Colony, but there being so few of the very names of any of om* subjects in those parts knowTie 
to Us, and for y^ avoidmg of jealousies w"-'"" might arise by useing some & leaving out others ; 
Wee at last resolved to employ you, who are persons well knowne to us, & the rather for that 
being strang^'s, and wti^out any interest or depend<=^ there & therefore w^'out any other designe 
then to advance our service in y* good of that Plantacon, and leaving behinde you y* memoiy 
& reputacon of having discharged yo"" trust like honest men. And that by how much y* more 
ignorant you are of that chmate, of y* temper and disposicon of y^ people and of y^ constitucon 
of affaires there, the more wary you will be in giving credit to fame, even to yo' owne 
observ-acon, and the more solicitous to receive hiformation counsell & advise from them : and 


W^" you hope & (U'sire tliey will be ready to c;ive you w"' great freedome, and the rather 
because you resolve to conclude nothing of nionieut or Importance between yo'.selves, w"'out 
first infbrnieing them of all yo"' mocons, and receiving their ojiinions and advice thereupon, w'^'' 
they shall finde upon all yo'' peeedings. 

2. You shall after all ceremonies are performed & in the first place of all businesse & before 
you enter upon any other particular, discourse att large & w"> confidence to them, all that Wee 
our selfe have discoursed to you, of reduceing the Dutch in or neare Long Island or any where 
within y^ limitts of our o\^iie dominions to an entire obedience to our government. They will 
be easily informed of y' consequence of such neighbourhood, if they be longer suflered to raise 
a government of their owne. That besides there being a constant receptacle and sanctuary 
for all discontented mutinous or seditious persons, who flying from our justice as malefactors, 
or who run from their masters to avoid paying their debts, or who have any other wicked 
designe assoon as they shall grow to any strength or power. Their businesse is to oppresse their 
neighbours & to engrosse the whole trade to themselves, by how indirect, unlawfull or foule 
meanes soever, witnesse their inhuman proceedings at Amboyna, in a time of full peace & all 
profess"' of particular love and freindshipp ; and therefore 'tis high time to put them out of a 
capacitie of doeing the same mischeife here & reduceing them to j" same rules & obedience w"" ■ 
oui- owne subjects there ; w''' you are to let them know is all Wee aime at, w'l'out any purpose 
of useing other violence upon or towardes them, then are necessary to those ends, and that no 
man shall be disturbed or removed from what he possesseth, who will peld obedience to Us, & 
live in y"= same subjection & upon enjoying y^ same privileges w"" our other subjects. And in 
order to this good end of so gi'eat «& imediate concernments to y™ you shall desire their advice 
and concurrence, and that they will assist you w"" such a number of men & all other things as 
are nece.ssary thereunto, and you shall thereupon proceed in such manner as you shall thinke 
fitt, either by building forts above them or by using such force as canot be avoided for their 
reduction ; they having no kinde of right to hold what they are in possess" of, in our 
unquestionable territories then that they are possessed of it by an invasion of Us., 

3. You shall desire them that they will assone as by their custome & constitucou they can do 
it, & in the same forme they are accustomed to, call & sumou a Generall Councell & Assembly, 
to appeare & meet together, to y" ende that you may t^ them, as you have to y* Governo'' and 
Councell declare our kindnesse & affliction to them and the motives Wee had to send you 
thither, you shall deliver to them y'' coppy of y^ addresse wee had formerly from them w"" our 
answer thereunto and the reply wee since received, and like-wdse copies of whatsoever you have 
delivered since your arrivall to y' Governour & Councell, & made the like pfessious and desires 
to them for their assistance & councell in all things. 

4. You shall )iiaki< any addresses or proposicons to the Governour & standing Councell or to 
the Generall Coiniccll, as you shall be advised or in yo'' judgement upon the place you shall 
thinke most (■i)ii\ciiiriit & that may administer least cause of jealousey or disturbance in the 
service you goe about ; and you shall desire them as soone as conveniently you can that they 
deliver to you a draught or mapp of their limitts & jurisdiction they lay claime to, and that they 
inform you what pretences or titles any of their neighbours lay thereunto ; to y"^ end that you 
UKiy 111!' l)r(l(T uudei-stand all y'' p''tences before you visite the other Colonies, & foresee what 
lucllHid llirn to olisiTM' for y" hearing their severall claimes & delerminacon thereof; in w"^ 
you shall usi> all piTsnasions to agree all parties \- make no judgem' of yo'' owne as finall, upon 
the hounds aud limitts of y"" severall Colonies, except by consent of parties, or that the right 


appeares by j^ bounds & limitts p''scribed in the Charter or some grant by Us under our Great 
Seale of England, w*out any contradiction by some other Grant from Us likewise under our 
Great Seale, & some possess" accordingly, or by some mutuall agi'eement between y' persons 
interessed imd'' their hands and according to y" custome used there in matters of y' nature. In 
all matters of y^ bounds & limitts W^ have difficulty in them & doe not fall under y' rules 
aforesaid : you shall reserve y* judgement to om- selfe, makeing only such a present temporary 
settlement as may p'serve y^ peace of y^ country till our farther judgem* & determinacon shall 
be made knowne unto them ; towards the formmg of w"* you will state y^ case & difierence as 
clear as may bee. 

5. You shall informe yo"' selfes of all y^ wayes & meanes you can use, of y' state and 
condicon of y^ neighbour Kings & Princes or y^ other Natives adjoyning and shall enquire 
what treaties or contracts have been made between them & any of our subjects, & how y^ same 
have been observed & performed on the part and behalfe of our said subjects : and if you fiude 
that there have been any failer therein, that you take eflectuall coiu-se that the same bee 
punctually performed or full reparation & satisfaction to be made for any damage that hath been 
sustained contrary to promise & agreem' ; since any -violacon in that kinde will discredit & call 
in question y" faith of Christianity, and disapoint or obstruct om- great end of y^ conversion of 
infidells in those parts. And you shall use all y" wayes you can to let those Princes and other 
Indians Imow of y" charge wee have given in this particular & of yo"" readynesse to redresse any 
thing that hath been done towards them, ag"' y'' right rules of justice and good neighbourhood, 
& if there be opportimity or occasion you shall yo' selves, or one or more of you as you shall 
tMnke fitt, visitt or receive any of those Princes or great men, & assure them of as much in our 
name, & enter into such fiu-ther treaties w"" them as you shall judge convenient. 

6. You shall make due enquiry what progresse hath been towards y'^ foimdacon & maintenance 
of any College or schools for y" educacon of youth, and in order to y' conversion of y^ infidells, 
& what successe hath attended their pious endeavours of that kinde ; Wee having received 
abimdant satisfaction & content in y^ accompt wee have received of their designes herein, w"""" 
wee doubt not will draw a blessing upon all their other imdertakings, & wherein thej' shall 
receive all coimtenance proteccon & assistance from Us. 

7. Since it canot be supposed that any Gov' can be so settled but that the Govern" vn.\l be 
attended with malice & envy enough, & discontented or unlucky men will be forward to traduce 
or accuse those who are in authority or in a better condicon, as they thinke, then themselves ; 
you shall not give too easy an eare to clamours & accusacons ag*' those who are or have been 
in place of government, except y^ informacon be seconded & owned by men of equall condicon, 
and then you shall proceed in examinacon & determinacon of it, according to y* rules of Justice, 
w^out any respect to persons or opinions. 

8. You shall not receive any complaint of any thing done amisse by any Magistrate, except it 
appeares to be ag*' their Charter, w'^'' is to regulate & bomid all their actions ; nor shall you 
interrupt y" proceedings in justice, by takeing upon you y'= hearing and determining any 
particular i-ight between party and party, but shall leave all matters of that nature to y*" usuall 
proceedings in y"" severall judicatories of y'= coimtry ; except those proceedings be expressly 
contrary to y^ rules p'scribed by the Charter, or that the matters in difierence doe arise from 
some expressions or clauses conteined in some grant under our Great Seale of England : in all 
W^ you are to proceed according to justice, after a due examinacon of all matters and 


9. You shall in due season and after you have entred into a good eouversacoii & acquaintance 
w"" y» principal persons there, & passed through those atikyres w'^'' have more ditticulty & w'^'' 
require a union & consent between all interests, take a view of our Ire of the 28 of June 1662 
& examine how all those particulars therein injoyned by us & W^"" ought by their Charter to be 
obsen-ed, have been or are put in practize, as, that persons take y"= Oath of Alleagiance, that all 
processe & the administracon of justice be performed iu our name, that such who desire to use 
y^Book ofCoraon Prayer may be penaitted soe to doe w"'out incumng any penalty reproach or 
disadvantage in his interest, it being very scandalous that any man should be debarred y* 
exercise of his religion, according to y^ laws & custome of England, by those who by y* 
indulgence granted have liberty left to be of what profess" in religion they please : iu a word, 
that persons of good & honest conversation who have lived long there may enjoy all y'^ 
priviledges ecclesiasticall & civill W^"" are due to them, and w"^ are enjoyed by oth", as to 
choose and be chosen into places of government & the Hke ; and that differences iu opinion doe 
not lessen their charity to each other, since charity is a fundamental in all reHgiou. 

10. You shall make due enquiry, whether any persons who stand attainted here in Parliam' 
of High Treason, have transported themselves thither, & doe now inhabite or recyde or are 
sheltered there, and if any such persons are there, you shall cause them to be apprehended and 
to be put on shipboard and sent hither ; to y'= end that they may be proceded w"' according to 
law. And you shall liRewise examine whether any such persons have been entertained & 
received there since our retume into England, & what is become of them, & by whom they 
were received & entertained there ; to y' end & for no other ( for wee will not sutler y' Act of 
Indempnity to be in any degree violated ) that those persons may be taken y«^ more notice of, 
& may hold themselves to take y' more care for their future behaviour. 

11. You shall take care that such ord"" be established there that the Act of Navigation be 
punctually obsei-ved, and that an entry be duely made of all ships fraighted from thence, and 
once every yeare there be a list returned to our Farmers or Officers of y" Customs, of all such 
ships w"' y^ burthen, y^ Masters' names', & y^ true «Sc exact bills of ladeing. 

12. You shall before y^ conclusion of your imployment, thoroughly informe yo''selves of y' 
whole frame & constitucon of y" government there, botli civill and ecclesiasticall, of y^ yearly 
taxes and imposicinis upon our people and how y" same is issued out, of y" number of y" 
shipping belonging to y' Colony, & the severall ranks thereof, and of y'= number of y'' militia 
both horse & foote, and of y" walled or fortified townes and forts ; & of all other particulars w'"" 
may enable you to give Us an accompt of y' state of our good subjects, & y' government of that 
our Colony. 

Of all which, and your proceedings in the execution of our Commission, you shall, from time 
to time, (as you have opportunity) give an accomit unto us by the hands of one of our 
Prinripall .Secretaries of State. 

Given at our Court at Whitehall 
the 2S"' of Aprill 1G6-4, iu the 
Sixteenth yeare of our Reigne. 
C. R. 

By his Ma"" Command 

Henry Bennet. 


Ithst ructions to Col. JVlcolls dec. CommiS'Sioners to Connecticut. 

[ New England, I. 191. ] 

Instructions to our trusty and wellbeloved Coll. Ricliard Nicolls S'' Robert Carre 
Kn', George Cartwright Esq'' & Samuell Maverick Esq. our Commissioners 
for y^ visitation of our Colony of Conecticott. 
Charles R. 

1. You shall apply the first article of your Instructions to tlie Massachusetts & whatsoever 
else occurs to you as proper to be used, both to those of Couecticot and of the other Provinces, 
as your perticular directions to them ; our care and afiection being alike for all ; and you will 
therefore fitt your expressions of our grace and favour accordingly. 

2. You shall take the best meanes you can to informe yo''selves of the temper of those of 
Connecticott both before you goe to them, and after ; that you may know the full difference 
between them and the Massachusetts, both in their Civill and Ecclesiasticall estate. Wee 
conceive those of Conecticott to contrive themselves imder the most rigid Presbiterian 
Government, soe that you will find their neighbors free enough of their censures of them : 
all of which you will make noe other use of then for your owne information how to govern 
yo'selves ; makeing the same declaration to them and to all y^ rest, of your finne resolution to 
defend and maintain their Charter, without the least restraining them in the free exercise of 
their religion, but insisting with them, as with the rest, that all the rest who dissent from them, 
may have the like liberty without undergoing any disadvantages with reference to their civill 
interest but that they enjoy the same priviledges with the rest. 

3. You shall putt M' Winthropp (if hee be still Governor there, of whome wee have had a 
good opinion) in mind of the differences which were on foot here, upon the pretences of those of 
Rhode Island, when he sollicited the dispatch of their Charter, and the severall debates which 
arose thereupon before our Chancellor of England & before persons appointed by liim to 
accommodate the same, and that the said Charter afterward passed our Great Scale, rather upon 
the good opinion and confidence wee had in the said M'' Winthropp, then that the differences 
were composed upon the Boundaries and limmits of the severall Colonies, and some expressions 
in the said Charter ; Wee then declareing that since there was a difference in matter of fact, 
between the relators, we could make noe cleare determination of the right, but that wee resolved 
to send Commissioners into those parts, who upon the place should settle all differences and 
pretences upon the Bounds and Limmits of each Colonie, and the said M' Winthropp then 
promising that we should find the same submission to any alteration at that tyme, and upon 
such a visitation, as if no Charter were then passed to them ; which wee cannot but expect at 
their hands. 

4. You shall use all possible endeavours, first by private enquiry and then by publick 
examination, to informe yourselves of what was heretofore done about the year 1644. from the 
Cheife Sachim & other the Princes of a large tract of groimd about the Narragansett Bay, who 
as we are informed did about that t)'me by a formall instrmnent under their hands and scales, 
ti-ansferre that their Countrey to our Royall Father, for his protection, and became his subjects ; 
which authentick instrument remains still in the hands of Samuell Gorton, John Wicks and 
Randall Houlden, who inhabite at or neare Warwicke in Road Island. If upon examination you 
find this information wee have received to bee rrue and that we have indeed a good title to that 


territory ; \\m shall liiid some way to It'tt those Sacliims or their heires know, that wee have given 
you speciall direction to examine any injuries done to them by our subjects, and that you are 
ready to receive any informacon they shall give you to tliat purpose, and thereupon to doe them 
justice, and that wee will always protect them from any oppression; & if j^ou have cleare proofe 
tliat in truth these territoryes are transferred to us, you shall seize upon the same in our Name, 
and the same tract of land shall bee hereafter called the King's Province, and all persons who 
are possessed of any habitations therein shall continue in the same without any disturbance, 
upon the annual payment of such small acknowledgement as may entitle them to hold of us as 
our teunauts. And wee doe authorize you to grant the same estates they now hold, under sucn 
small resen-acons and acknowledgements and in such formes as they desire ; wee not haveing 
the least purpose to question or take advantage of their title, whatsoever our right shall fall 
out to bee. 

5. You shall informe yourselves in this, as well as in all the other Colonies (for as wee told 
you before whatsoever instruction is given you with reference to one Colony and is applicable 
by y' same reason to the rest, you shall persue the same) what encroachments are made by any 
forreigners French Dutch, or of any other nation, of any tracts of land, within the circuits 
possessed by us or oiu- subjects by any grant from us, to the end that wee may give speedy 
orders for reduceing them to om- obedience as our subjects, or removing them out of those places 
they injuriously possesse ; and you shall present to us (upon conference and advice with our 
Govemom- and Coimcill there) what are the best and most eflectuall wayes to bring that our 
resolution to passe, if you are not able to effect y^ same before you returne, which wee hope you 
will doe and that om- good subjects of that and our other Colonies will give you their utmost 
assistance to that good end and purpose. 

6. You shall make diligent enquiry what Letters Patents have at any tpne been granted by 
our Grandfather King James, our Father of blessed memory or our selfe, of any lands in any of 
y'' Colonies there to perticular persons and to there owne perticular benefit, and how the lauds 
soe granted to them are possessed and cultivated ; to the end that if they have not persued y« 
intention of the said grants, wee may avoyde the same : it being our piu-pose not only for the 
future to grant noe such grants of more lands then the person to wliome the same is granted 
can in due time cultivate and plant, but legally to avoid and repeale such grants which prove so 
prejudicial! and inconvenient to our subjects there and to our service in hindering the Plantation. 

7. You shall informe yourselves in that and the other Colonies, what iron workes are already 
erected there and what conveniences there are to erect otliers in convenient places, what the 
oare is, and whether the iron and Steele there bee of good temper for shipps and such uses, 
whether y'' timber of those parts be good for that purpose & growes neare the sea where proper 
docks may be made that soe upon a true representation to us thereof wee shall take such further 
resolution as may bee fitt for oiir service and for the advancement of those our Plantations. 

S. You shall informe yourselves in thatand y" other Provinces, whether there have been at any 
tyme or yet are, any mines of Gold or Silver discovered & workeing there, and what hath 
arisen from thence ; to the end that wee may receive an accompt of the fifth part thereof, which 
by their Charter is reserved to us. 

Given at our Court at Whitehall the 
23'' day of A prill U'AM. in the sixteenth 
yeare of our Reigne. 

By His ]\Ia"" connnand 

IlEXnY l)E\?CEtT. 


Private Instructions to Coll. R. Nicolls &c. 

[ New England, I. 156. ] 

Instructions to our trusty and welbeloved Coll. Richard Nicolls S"" Robert Carre 
Kn' George Cartwright Esq'' and Samuell Mavericke Esq. Commissioners 
employed by us to our Plantations in America in and about New England to 
be considered and communicated only betweene themselves. 
Charles R. 
1 Though the maine end and drift of yo"" employm' is to infomie yourselves and us of the 
true and whole state of those several! Colonies and by insinuateing yourselves by all kind and 
dextrous carriage into the good opinion of y^ principall persons there, that soe you mav ( after 
a full observation of the humour and interest both of those in goveiTim' and those of the best 
quality out of govemm' and, generally, of the people themselves) lead and dispose them to 
desire to renew their Charters and to make such alterations as will appeare necessary for their 
owne benefit : — Yet you may informe all men that a great end of your designe is the possessing 
Long Island, and reduceing that people to an entjTe submission and obedience to us & our 
govemement, now vested by our gi-ant and Commission in our Brother the Duke of Yorke, and 
by raising forts or any other way you shall judge most convenient or necessary^ soe to secure 
that whole trade to our subjects, that the Dutch may noe longer ingrosse and exercise that 
trade which they have wrongfully possessed themselves of ; that whole territory being in our 
possession before they, as private persons and v^athout any authority from their superiors and 
against y'' lawe of Nations and the good intelligence and allyance between us and their superiors, 
invaded and have since wrongfully obtejmed the same, to the prejudice of our Crowne and 
Dignity, and therefore ought in justice to be resumed by us, except they will entpely submitt 
to our goverment and live there as our good subjects under it; and in that case you shall lett 
them knowe both by private signitications and treatyes or by any publicke declaration sett out 
by you in our name, — That wee will take them into our protection, and that they shall continue 
to enjoy all their possessions ( Forts only excepted ) and the same freedome in trade with our 
other good subjects in those parts. And as you will need the assistance of our other colonies 
towards this reduction, soe wee conceave they will all for their owne interest bee ready to 
engage with you herein. 

2. This being the case, and the prosecution of that designe being not absolutely in your owne 
power in respect of wind and weather, wee leave it entirely to your discretion whether you 
choose to goe first upon Long Island, which seems most reasonable to designe in respect of the 
troops you carry, or to New England, resolveing to approve of what you doe in that perticular, 
lett the successe bee what it will, and if it please God you have the successe wee hope for upon 
Long Island; you will improve the consideration of the benefit thereof to all the Colonies, and 
how much happier they are by our care in the removeing such ill neighbours from them, at our 
owne cost and charges. 

3. You are to use great diUigence together in the careful and exact perusall of the first and 
second Charter, granted by our Royall Father for the undertaking and settling those plantations, 
and any other Charters which have been granted to any perticular Colonies by our father and 
ourselfe, or the late usurping powers ; to the end that upon the full consideration thereof, & if 

Vol. m. 8 


any difficultys arise upon doiibtfull or coiitnidictory expressions, you may eytlier by resorting to 
our Council! at Lawe in some points, and to our Secretary of State in other, receave lull and 
cleare information & directions, and you must bee the more conversant and fully infonned of all 
contained in the said Charters (of which you ought to carry authentick Coppyes with you) 
because y'' ground and foundation of your employment is the exact observation of the Charters 
and reduceing to that rule whatsoever hath swerved from it. Besides you will thereby observe 
all those clauses in the severall Charters which are either too short and restrained & the 
enlargeing thereof would bee for the pubhck benefit of the plantacon ; or such other inconvenient 
ones, as for our dignity and authority should bee altered by a generall consent and desire. 
Amongst which it were to bee wished that y"" severall Govemours should hold their places three 
or five yeares and that before the midle of the last yeare three names should be sent over and 
presented to us, that one of them might be chosen by us for the next Goveniour which we 
should as well approve and would be more easily consented to, then the remitting the entyre 
choice to us. 

4. You are Vi'illi the like dilligence and care to peruse the collection of the lawes published in 
those Colonies during the late usurping Government, or at any tyme before or since ; to the end 
that upon examination thereof you may discenie both the indecent expressions and materiall 
and important points and detenninations in them, which are contrary to our dignity and to the 
lawes and customes of this realme, and to the justice thereof; all which they have obliged 
themselves to cancell and repeale ; and if the same bee not already done, you are in the first 
place to cause it to be done, especially and perticularly that the oaths enjoyned by the severall 
Charters be taken, and the administration of justice be perfonned in our name. 

5. Since the gi'eat and principall ends of all those who first engaged themselves in those 
Plantacous in which they have spent much tyme and money, was liberty of concience, and the 
same is expressely provided for in the first and subsequent Charters as they could desire to be 
done, and the obsen'ation and preservation thereof is our very hearty purpose and determination : 
You are to bee very carefull amongst yourselves and with all persons who have any relation to, 
or dependance upon any of you, that nothing be said or done, from or by which the people there 
may thinke or imagine that there is any purpose in us to make any alteration in the Church 
Goverment or to introduce any other forme of worshipp among them then what they have 
chosen : all our exception in that particular being that they doe in truth denj^ that liberty of 
conscience to each other, which is equally provided for and granted to everj' one of them by 
their charter : all which you will find wee have more at large taken notice of in our letter of 
the 2S"' June 1G62, a coppy whereof is delivered to you, and of which you shall in due season, 
and when you are well acquainted with them, dexterously take notice, and presse the execution 
and observacon of the same, according to the Charter. And that you may not give any umbrage 
or jealousy to them in matters of religion, as if you were at least enimyes to formes observed 
amongst them, you shall do well to frequent their churches and to be present at their devotion, 
though wee doe suppose and thinke it very fitt that you carry with you some learned and 
discreet Chaplaine, orthodox in his judgement and practice, who in your owne familyes will 
reade the Booke of Common Prayer & perfornie your devotion according to y'^ fonne established 
in the Church of England, excepting only in wearing the surplesse which haveing never bin seen 
in those countryes, may conveniently be forborne att this t3-me, when the principall busynesse 
is, by all good expedients, to unite and reconcile persons of very difierent judgements and 
practice in all things, at least which concenie the peace & prosperity of those people and their 
joint submission and olicdienci^ to us and our goverment. 


6. Since it is veiy notorious that tliere are uot onh^ very gi-eat factious and animosityes in one 
Colony against the otlier, but in one aud y^ same Colon}' betwene persons of difterent opinions 
iu religion, so that it is very probable all discontented persons Avill make application to you 
according to their severall humours and interest ; it will concerne you to be very wary in your 
conversation, that being sent as persous equall to detennine coutroversyes amongst them, you 
may not bee thought to enchme to a party, or to bee yourselves engaged in tlseir passions and 
appetite, and you must principally guard yourselves against two sorts of people (till upon the 
severall im'brmations you shall receive, and by j-our own observation and experience you can 
make some judgement of their sincerity) that is not to seeme too forward in concumng with 
them in whatsoever they propose. The first is, they that pretend to have a great prejudice 
against the forme of Religion thei-e professed, and as great a zeale for the establishing the Booke 
of Common Prayer, and it may bee the Episcopacy itselfe, aud the whole discipline of the 
Church of England. 

The second is, they who will appeare soliciteous to advance om- proffit and to settle a present 
revenue upon the Crowne; which they will suppose may bee looked upon as such an 
unquestionable instance of their affection to us and our service, that it yvill give them credit and 
advantages iu all their pretences. 

To the first of these, after you have used them with kiudnesse aud encouragement to bee 
present when they please at your private devotions, you shall let them know that you have 
noe order from us, ( for many of those overtures may be made onl)' for discovery of your 
intentions) to make the least attempt, or to encom-age alteration in the way thej^ profiesse of 
religion ; for though nobody can doubt but that wee could looke upon it as the greatest blessing 
God Almighty can conferre upon us iu this world that Hee would reduce all om- subjects in 
all our dominions to one faith and one way of worship with us ; yet wee could uot imagine it 
probable that a confederate number of persons, who separated themselves from their owne 
countrey and the religion established, principally ( if not only ) that they might enjoy another 
way of worship, presented or declared unto them by theire owne consciences, could in soe short 
a tyme be willing to retume to that fonne of sei-vice they had forsaken ; and therefore that 
wee had been soe farre from giveing you any direction to promote or countenance any alteration 
in the rehgion practised there, that you have expresse order to the contrary. But if they only 
insisted upon the liberty granted them by their Charter, and that they would provide peaceably 
for the exercise of their religion in the forme they best liked, without troubling or reproaching 
those who dissent from them, and only desire that this libertie of conscience might produce noe 
prejudice to them in their ci\'ill interests or relation to the Government: — You may lett them 
know that it is no more than what wee have already recommended to the Govemour and 
Councill by our former letters, and wherein you will doe them all the offices within your power. 

Butt even iu this point wee conceive you should proceed very warily and not enter upon it, till 
you have made some progresse in your lesse difficult busjmesse ; aud indeed you should rather 
advise those who seeme to bee serious aud hearty iu that desire that they cause it to be first 
proposed and sett on foot in the Generall Assembly that shall bee called, then any way touched 
upon, before the present Govemour & Comicill, and promise them your utmost assistance there, 
in the promoteing any thing for their ease which will not evidently disturbe the peace of the 

To the second sort of people which will be active in many projects for our proffit and 
benifitt, you must not bee forwards too much, since most overtmres of that kind are but ayrey 


imaginations, & cannot bee put in practise by our owne imediate power and authority, without 
manifest violation of their Charter which wee resolve to keep observe and maintaine. 

Upon those discourses therefore you shall declare that you have uo direccon to make any 
attempt of that kind, without there appeare a good & voluntary inclination to that purpose in the 
Generall Assembly, which probably may find it convenient to make some newe desires and 
proposicons to us tor their benefitt, and in lieu thereof may make some grants and concessions to 
us : and in truth it will not be rationall for you to appeare solicitous to make any change in the 
matters of Religion, or to make any attempt to bring any change to that people, except both 
arise amongst themselves in the Gen" Assembly, and then you shall give such countenance to it 
as you shall judge necessary for our service. 

7. You shall as soon as you are arrived and have delivered our letters to tlie Governour and 
Councill presse them that a Generall Assembly may be convened as soon as may be according 
to our letter to them. 

And because much of the good wee expected from your journey depends upon the wisdome 
and fidelity of that Assembly, you shall use your utmost endeavours privately, and by those 
means which are most proper and without ofience, to gett men of the best reputation and 
most peaceably inchned, to be chosen into that Assembly, and then according to the interest 
and credit you have, give them all advice and encouragem' to promote our service, and then you 
shall informe them of the great affection wee have for them, and that wee looke upon them with 
the same fatherly care as if they lived in the centre of eyther of our kingdomes. 

You shall shew them the coppy of the letter and addresse made to us by the Governour and 
Councill after our happy retunie into England, and of our answer to that Addresse, as likewise 
what wee have now writ to y' Governour and Councill there ; all which wee directed you to 
communicate, to the end that wee may receive their advice and information how wee may advance 
the happpiess of that our people. And in order hereunto you are ready to conferre with them 
upon all perticulars relateing to your negotiation or to the end thereof, and soe you are to 
behave yourselves towards them as you find may most conduce to the end of your employment. 

S. Besides the generall disposeing that people to an entyre submission and obedience to our 
governm' which is their owne greatest security in respect of their neighbours and leading them 
to a desire to renew their Charters, which in many respects ought to bee desired by tjjem ; there 
are two points wee could heartily wish should be gained upon them. 

The first that wee may have ( as wee expressed before ) the nomination of the Governour, or 

The other, that the Militia should bee putt under an ollicer nominated or recommended bv us ; 
and it may bee, if they will consider their Charter, they will not find that they liave in truth, 
the disposall of their owne Militia as they imagine. 

But how to approach to those two points wee cannot tell, butt must leave it to your skill & 
dexterity, after you have enough conversed with them and know the principall leading men of 
the severall partyes. In the meane tyme wee should looke upon it as a good omen, if they might 
bee soe wrought upon at y'= Generall Assembly as that Coll. NicoUs might bee chosen by 
themselves for their present Governour and Collouell Cartwright for their Major General). 

All designes of proffit for the present seeme unseasonable and may possibly obstruct the 
more necessary designe upon their obedience and loyalty, if they shall apprehend that it cost 
them money ; soe that it should not be afiected farther ( except the Generall Assembly appeare 


to have other franknesse then wee can reasonably expect ) then to settle some annuall tribute 
of y^ growth of that country, as masts, come, and fish, to bee presented to us, as was intimated, 
by the two messengers emploj'ed hither, to bee their purpose to doe. 

9. In the last place, Wee doe enjoyne & command you, as you will answer to the contrary, 
to live with entp-e confidence and kiudnesse in and towards each other, which can only support 
the credit and reputation of your trust & employment. That you constantly communicate 
together what eyther of you hath collected upon private intercourses or information from 
perticuler persons, and that thereupon in all your Coimcills you acquiesse with the judgement 
of the major part (except it bee expressely contrary to our Instructions, and in which wee have 
not left you a latitude to doe according to your discretion) and pursue it accordingly, and that 
you are not transported by any private consideration of proffit or friendship to swerve from the 
right rule of advanceing our service. And wee shall be more sensible of any error of this kind, 
then of any other misfortune that may bring inconvenience to our service in your employment. 

Our other Instructions for your procedings in the severall Colonies you shall communicate as 
you see cause, and as you enter upon the severall perticulars, as at your first audience you 
shall doe well to tell them, that instead of entertaining them of any discourse of your owne, 
you will deliver them the copy of your first Instructions, and shall deliver it them accordingly. 

Given at our Court at Whitehall this 
■jjp., ■ 23''dayofAprilll664inthel6i''3'eareof 

our Reigne. 

By His Ma"" command 

Hexry Bennett. 

• ' Cliarle-s lid. to the Governor & Coiincil of the Massachusetts. 

[ Trade Papers, State Paper Office, SVI. T ; New England Papers, I. 196. ] 

To the Governo"' and Councel of the Massacheusets in New England. 

Trusty &''. We greet you well. Having taken very much to heart the welfare and advancement 
of those our plantations in America and particularly that of New England which in truth hath 
given a good example of industry and sobriety to all the rest, whereby God hath blessed it 
above the rest ; and having in our royall breast a tender impatience to make use of God's 
extraordinary blessing upon it and our subjects in those parts, by the improving the knowledg of 
Him and of his holy name, in the conversion of infidels and pagans (which ought to be the 
chief end of all christian plantations) wee have thought fitt, since we cannot in person visit those 
our so farr distant dominions, the good government whereof and the due administration of Justice 
wherein, we do notwithstanding know to be as much our duty as that which concemes om- 
nearest kingdom, to send such Commissioners thither as may in our name visit the same, and 
after having taken a view of the good government there and received full information of the 
true state and condition of that our plantation and of their neighbors on all sides, and a due 
consideration of what farther addition of happinesse may be made by our royall grace and favour 
to those our people, may represent the same at their retume to us, in such a manner as wee 
may in a manner even behold and take a view our selfe of those our dominions and our good 
subjects there, and thereby make the better judgment what we are to do, either for the better 


reparing of any thing tliat is aniisse, or the better improving and encouragement of what is good. 
And as wee have had tiiis resolution and purpose ever since our iirst arrivall in England to send 
Commissioners thitlier, as is well kno\\^l to the Commissioners that came from thence to us, 
so we have Jiad many reasons occurrent since to confirme us in that resolution and to hasten 
this execution thereof, some of which we think fitt to mention to yow. 

1 To discountenance and, as much as in us lyes, to suppresse and utterly extinguish those 
unreasonable jealousys and malicious calumnies, which wicked and unquiet spirits perpetually 
labour to infuse into the miuds of men, that our subjects in those parts do not submitt to our 
government but look upon themselves as independent upon us and our laws, and that we have 
no confidence in their ati(3ctions and obedience to us : all which lewd aspersions must vanish 
upon this our extraordinary and fatherly care towards those our subjects manifested in the 
severall instructions given to our Commissioners, which shall by them be communicated unto 
you, and which will exceedingly advance the reputation and security of our plantations there, 
and our good subjects thereof with all forreigne Princes and States, when they shall hereby 
plainly discerne that we do look upon any injury done to them as done to our selfe, and upon 
any invasion of our dominion in those parts, or of the priviledges of our subjects thereof, and 
that we will resent & vindicate the same accordingly. 

2. That all our good subjects there may know, as we have formerly assured them by our 
gracious letters, how farr we are from the least intentions or thoughts of \'iolating or in the least 
degree infringing y^ charter heretofore granted by our Royal Father, or restraining the liberty 
of conscience thereby allowed ; which as we do acknowledg to be granted by our said Royall 
Father of blessed memory, with great wisdome and upon full deliberation, so we have great 
reason to believe and to bee assm-ed that the support and maintenance thereof is at present as 
necessary as ever. And therefore that (as we have formerly expressed to you) we are very 
willing to confirme or renew the said Charter, and to enlarge the same with such otlier & fuller 
concessions as (upon experience you have had and observation you have made) you judge 
necessary or convenient for the good and benefit of that our Plantation. 

3. Tliat all difi'erences may be composed which are risen betwixt our severall CoUouies upon 
the bounds and limits of 3 severall Provinces ; and upon the exercise of their 3 severall 
jurisdictions, wherof we have i-eceived much information and severall complaints, it being as 
much in our desire to preserve and improve a good intelligence and correspondence between all 
our good subjects of those severall Colonies and Provinces between and towards each other, 
as to unite them all in a joynt depeudance and firme loyalty to our selfe ; which will be best 
done by a full and clear determination of the extent and bounds of each Province and their 
jurisdiction, in which some confusion hath fallen out as we are informed, by some contradictions 
or doubtfuU expressions in severall letters patents, upon the wrong information or unskilfuU 
description of places by persons concerned there to prosecute such grants, which mistakes and 
errors could not be discovered here : all which will be easily reconciled by our Commissioners 
upon the place, either by and with the consent of all partys or by a just determination upon 
the matter of right or representation to us in cases of uillicully. 

4. That we may receive full and particular information of the state and condition of the 
neighbor J'rince.s to our sr\{Tall Colonies, Ironi some of whom we have received addresses of 
great respect and civility nut without some couijdaint, or at least insinuation of some injustice 
or hard measure exercised towards them from our Colonies : To which Princes we have 
appointed some of our Commissioners, if upon infornuition or advice there they shall find it 


necessaiy for the advancement of oui* service and the benefit of our said plantation, to repairs in 
person in our name and to assure them of all friendship from us, and that we will protect them 
from injustice and oppression. 

5. That we may protect our subjects of our severall plantations from the invasions of their 
neighbours and provide that no subjects of our neighbour nations, how allied soever with us, 
may possess themselves of any lands or rivers within our territoryes & dominions, as we are 
informed the Dutch have lately done, to the prejudice of om- good subjects of those our 
plantations and to the obstructions of the trade, which in time may prove very mischievous 
to our good subjects there. And therefore we cannot but be confident that when our 
Commissioners have imparted imto you our pleasure in this particular and the benefit & 
advantage which with God's blessing must accrew to your selves from the same besides the 
preventing many growing inconveniencies to your peace and prosperity, you will joyn and 
assist them vigorously in recovering our right in those places now possessed by the Dutch and 
reducing them to an entire obedience & submission to our Government. In which case our 
desire and pleasure is that they should be treated as neighbours & fellow subjects, and enjoy 
quietly what they are possest of by their honest industry. 

6. Lastly we thought it better that Commissioners should confer with you upon the matter 
of our former letter of Jime 22. 1662. and your answer theremito of the 25"» of November 
following, then to enlarge our selfe upon our exceptions thereunto, of w'''' we shall only say 
that the same did not answer our expectations, nor the professions made by your said Messengers : 
but we make no doubt but that, when our Conim" shall confer at large with you upon those 
particulars, you will give us satisfaction in all we look for at your hands which is nothing but 
what your Charter obliges j'ou to do, and which is most necessary for the support of our 
government there and consequently for the welfare and happinesse of those Colonies. 

Having now imparted to j-ou the most important reasons which prevailed with us to be at 
this extraordinary charge in sending Commissioners to visite those Colonies and having chosen 
persons of knovra affection to our service and of long experience, to be our Commissioners, to 
the ends aforesaid ; we do not doubt at all but you will receive and treat them in such a manner 
and with such respect as is due to persons so imploy'd by us, and that you will freely communicate 
all things to them which shall be necessary for the better carrying on our service, and that you 
will give them your best counsail and assistance for the better bringing those things to passe 
which we have recommended to them. And to that purpose and that the clear end and 
intention in sending those our Commissioners may speedily appear and be made manifest to all 
our subjects in those parts, our pleasure is that this om* letter be forthwith upon the receipt 
thereof communicated to our Councell there, and that within 20 days or sooner if it may be, a 
Generall Assembly be called and this our letter read to them, and to the end our Commissioners 
may recive their information and advice in many things. And so expecting a full compliance 
to all those our desires wherein the happiness of that our Colonie is so much concerned, Wee 
bid you farewell Given &■= the 23'' April 1664. 
To the Governour of the Colonie 

of the Mattacheusetts to be com- ' ■» 

municatpd to the Councell there. 


Commission to Coll. Nicolls & others to visit the Colonies and determine Complaints. 

Charles the Second b}' the Grace of God King of England Scotland France and Ireland, 
Defender of the Faith &c. To all to whome these presents shall come Greeting. Whereas wee 
have received severall Addresses from our subjects of severall CoUonies in New England, all full 
of duty and affection, and expressions of loyalty and allegiance to us, with their humble desires 
that wee would renewe their severall Charters and receive them into om- favourable opinion 
and protection, & severall of our Colonies there and other our loveing subjects have likewise 
complayned of differences and disputes arisen upon the lymmitts and bounds of their severall 
Charters and Jurisdictions, whereby unneighbourly and unbrotherly contentions have and may 
arise, to the dammage and discredit of the English interests, and that all our good subjects 
resideing there and being planters within the severall Colonies doe not enjoy the libertyes and 
priviledges granted to them by our severall Charters upon confidence and assurance of which 
they transported themselves and their Estates into those parts. And wee having received 
some addresses from the Greate Men & Natives of those Countryes, in which they complaine of 
breach or faith and of acts of violence and injustice which they have been forced to undergoe 
from our subjects ; whereby not only our governement is traduced, but the reputation and credit 
of Christian Religion brought into prejudice and reproach with the Gentiles & inhabitants of 
those countries who know not God, the reduction of whome to the true knowledge and feare of 
God, is the most worthy and glorious end of all those Plantations. Upon all which motives 
and as an evidence and manifestation of our fatherly affection towards all our subjects in 
those severall Colonies of New England (that is to say) of the Massachusets, Conecticot, New 
Plymouth, Road Island and the Providence plantation, and all other plantacons within that tract 
of land knowne under the appellation of New England. And to the end that wee may bee 
truly informed of the state and condition of our good subjects there, that soe wee may the 
better know how to contribute to the further improvement of their happ3Tiesse and prosperity : 
KxowE YEE THEREFORE tluit wce reposciug especiall trust and confidence in the fidelity 
wisdome and circumspection of our trusty and wellbeloved Coll. Richard Nicolls, S" Robert 
Carre Kn' George Cartwright Esq"' and Samuell Maverick Esq'' of our especiall grace, certaine 
knowledge and meer motion have made ordained constituted and appointed, and by these 
presents doe make ordayne, constitute and appoint the said Coll. Richard Nicolls, Sir Robert 
Carre, George Cartwright and Samuell Maverick our Commissioners. And doe hereby give 
and grant unto them or any three or two of them, or of y^ survivors of them (of whom wee 
will the said Coll. Richard Nicolls during his life shall bee alwayes one, and upon equall 
division of opinions to have y'^ casting and decisive voyce) in our name to visite all and every 
the severall Colonies aforesaid and also full power and authority to heare & receive and to 
examine and determine all complaints and appeals in all cases and matters as well miHtary as 
criminall and civill, and proceed in all things for the pro-videing for and settling the peace 
and security of the said country, according to their good and sound discretion, and to such 
instractions as they or the survivors of them have or shall from t}mie to tyme receive from us in 
that behalfe, and from tyme to tyme as they shall find expedient to certify us or our Privy 
Councill of their actings and proceedings touching the premises. And for the doing tliereof or 
any other matter or thing relateing theremrto, these presents or the im-ollement thereof shall be 


unto them and every of them a sufficieut warrant and discharge in that behaUe. Ix Witxesse 
whereof wee have caused these our letters to be made Patents. Witnesse OurseUe at 
Westminster the So"" day of Aprill in the sixteenth yeare of our Reigue 


M)'. Mavericke to Captain Breedon. 

[ New Turk Papers, Board of Trade. I. 8. ] 

Capt° Breedon, 

It hath pleased God, (after a tedious voyage of neare ten weekes time) That two of our ships 
arrived here this afternoon at Pascataway where wee hourely expect our other two. The Guiney 
comanded hj Capt" Hyde wee lost this day se'night, and Capt" Hill with the Elyas ou Sunday 

It hapned, that as wee were ready to come in, There went out from hence a Piuck, taken as 
a prize by a ship of Jamaica, but by authority from the Governo"' of the Messachusetts, the prize 
was as I imderstand seized upon and those that first tooke her, secured as prisoners by Capt" 
Oliver, & carryed for Boston. I shall desire you to repaire to the Gov"' & Councell, and advise 
them to take care how they dispose of such things as may bee out of their bomids, and not fit 
for them to take cognisance of his INIajestyes Commissioners being at length come into these 
parts (of whom you know mee to be one). I cannot now tell you the time and place, I long to 
see you at, our stay here being only for a little water & our other shipps, which if they come 
not in time, we must go to our appointed port in Long Island, from whence you shalbee sm'e 
to heare further from 

S"' your very lovinge friend 
Pascataway Samuel Mavericke. 

July 20, 1664. 
To Capt. Thomas Breedon 
at Boston. 

A letter at the same time was sent to ^P Jordan from >P Mavericke, only intimating his 
arrivall, & desire to see him with the first opportunity. 

Another to Major Gen" Denison to the same effect, ' ~ ' * 

I have not the copy of these. 

Mr. Mavericke to the Hon. William Coventy., Esq. .^ » . 

[ New York Papers, Board of Trade. I. 8. ] 


Arriving here yesterday, I was willing to embrace this first oppertunity to present my humble 

service to you, & acquaint you with the particulars of our voyage hither. S^ its almost ten 

weekes, since wee came out of Portsmouth Roade, for the first fifteene or sixteene dayes, wee 

had as good wind & weather, as could bee desired ; Ever since which time, wee have not only 

Vol. III. a 


met with crosse winds, but very bad weather ; yet fdl our sliips Icept company till the 13"" day 
of this month, when by reason of very great Foggs wee lost company of the Guiney, & since 
the IG"' day wee have not seen the Elyas. Contrary winds driving us upon these Coasts, wee 
were willing to put in here, as well to recruite ourselves with water (which wee begun much 
to want) as in expectacon to meete or hears of the rest of our Fleete, who probably will come 
in to this harbo', yet if they come not suddenly, our stay here wilbee but litle, but shall hasten 
for Long Island. f^% I have more then hopes, all things in these parts will prove very 
sucessfull for His Maj"^ & His Royall Hignesses service & interest of which, I have already 
received great testymonyes, for their continuall prosperity and happiness, My prayers and 
utmost endeavours shall never bee wantinge. 

I shall not presume to give you further trouble at this time but to subscribe 

S' Your most humble Servant 

Samuel Mavericke. 
July 21. 1664. 

These to the Hon'"^ William Coventy Esq" 


Mr. Carr and Mr. Mavericke to Mr. John Richhdl. 

[New-Tork Papers, Board of Trade. I. i. ] 

Mr Rickbell. 

Wee shall desire you to make all convenient haste to your habitacon in Long Island & by 
the way as you passe through the Countrey and wdien you come hither, that you acquaint such 
as you thinke the King's Comission" wilbee welcome to & are afiected for his Majestyes service, 
that some of us are arrived here, & shall all suddenly bee in Long Island where wee hope they 
wilbee ready as in other places to promote his Maj'J' interest, their readines & affection shalbee 
much taken notice of, and your care and Ineouragement bee acknowledged by 

Your very lonuge friends 

Robert Carr 
Pascataway Samuel Maverick. 

July 23" 1664. 

to M' John Rickbell, these. 
A waiTant under the same hands to presse a horse for M' Rickbell if occasion should bee, hee 
paying for the hire. 


Col. Nicolls to the Governor and Council of Boston. 

[ New England, I. 204. ] 

To the Govern'' and Councill of Boston. 

I have herewith sent yow a copy of a Comission from the L**' Commissioners of Prizes 
wherein I am empowered as one of the Sub-Comissioners for New England whilst His ^Ia'>' shall 
be in hostility with the Dutch. In prosecution of the trust reposed in mee as Sub-Comissioner 
I am oblig'd to give yow advertisement hereof, and that yow will please to give strict oixler in all 
your ports from time to time that seizure be made of all and every Dutch ship vessell or goods 
belonging to the States of the United Provinces of the Netherlands their subjects or inhabitants 
within any of their dominions, as also if any prizes shall be brought into any of your ports by 
any persons comissionated thereunto by his R. H' the Duke of Yorke, that yow will please to 
cause the same to be preserv'd entire without imbezlement, with all their papers, bills of lading 
or other writinges, uutill such a legall prosecution can be made as is directed by His ^la"" 
authority to the L""' Comissioners, and given at large in their L?^ instructions to mee and Capt. 
Phillip Carteret, as Sub-Comissioners in N. England ; wherein your assistance and concurrence 
is requisite for His Ma"" service, as also that some able and fitting persons be chosen in your 
Colony to sitt as a Court of Admiralty when occasion presents. Be pleased also to remitt unto 
me Yo' proceedings herein, accoi"ding to the resolutions yow shall take ; and if in this or any 
other quaUty I can render myselfe serviceable to yourselves you may comand mee as 

[ About July, ] 1664. Yo^ afT'^ humble Servant 

. _ . , ; ^ R. Nicolls. 

Articles hetween Col. Carticright and tlie New Yorh Indians. 

* [ New England, I. 20T. ] 

Articles made and agi'eed upon the 24"' day of September 1664 in Fort Albany 
between Ohgehando, Shanarage, Soachoeuighta, Sachamackas of y^ Maques ; 
Anaweed Conkeeherat Tewasserany, Aschanoondah, Sachamakas of the 
Synicks, on the one part ; and Colonell George Cartwright, in the behalf of 
Colonell Nicolls Governour under his Royall Highnesse the Duke of Yorke 
of all his territoryes in America, on the other part, as followeth, viz' — 

1 Imprimis. It is agreed that the Indian Princes above named and their subjects, shall have all 
such wares and commodities from the English for the future, as heretofore they had from the Dutch. 

2. That if any English Dutch or Indian ( under the proteccon of the English ) do any wrong 
injury or violence to any of y'' said Princes or their subjects in any sort whatever, if they 
complaine to the Govemo'' at NewYorke, or to the Officer in Cheife at Albany, if the person 
so offending can be discovered, that person shall receive condigne puuishm' and all due satisfaccon 
shall be given; and the like shall be done for all other English Plantations. 

3. That if any Indian belonging to any of the Sachims aforesaid do any wrong injury or 
damage to the English, Dutch, or Indians under the protection of the English, if complaint be 



made to v"^ Sacliims and the person be discovered who did the injury, then tlie person so 
offending shall be punished and all just satisfoccon shall be given to any of His :Ma"^' subjects in 
any Colony or other English Plantacon in America. 

4. The Indians at Wamping and Espachomy and all below the Manhatans, as also all those 
that have submitted themselves under the proteccon of His Ma"" are included in these Articles 
of Agreement and Peace ; 

In confirmacon whereof the partyes above menconed have hereunto sett their hands the day 
and yeare above written 

In the presence of 

George Cartwright 



T. Willett 
John Manning 
Tho. Breedon 
Dan. Broadliead 

^ Smith John 
I his niarke 

C Stephen an Indian 
i his marks 

These Articles following wer likewise proposed by the same Indian Princes 
& consented to by Colonell Cartwright in behalfe of Colonell Nicolls the 25"^ 
day of September 16G4. 

1 That the English do not assist the three Nations of the Ondiakes Pinnekooks and 
Pacamtekookes, who murdered one of the Princes of the JMaques, when he brought ransomes & 
presents to them upon a treaty of peace. 

2. That the English do make peace for the Indian Princes, with the Nations down the River. 

3. That they may have free trade, as formeily. 

4. That they may be lodged in houses, as formerl}-. 

5. That if they be beaten by the three Nations above menconed, they may receive 
accommodacon from y'' English. 

..^ Col. Nicolls to the Secretary of State. 

[Slate Paper Office, Trade Pajiers. XVI. -12.] 

Fort .lames in New Yorkc 
this day of October 1G64. 
Riglit Hon"^ 

Since my last by Capt. Hill and Capt. Groves here is arrived Capt. Hyde, to whose moi-e ample 
relation of the reducing Delaware Bay, I must referre my selfe. My instructions to Sir Rob' 
Carr tooke the effect which was design'd, for by a distinct treaty and agreement with the 


Sweeds first and then with the Dutch planters and Burgers to secure their estates and hbertyes, 
the Governoiir was disarmed of their assistance and left to defend his inconsiderable fort with 
less than 50 men, and though he was peremptory upon as good if not better articles then were 
granted here, yet his defence was not the same, for the foot company being landed under the 
comand of Lieu' Carr and Ensigne Stocke without demurring upon any difficulty Stonn'd the 
fort and gain'd it without the losse of a man though the Dutch fired three volleys upon them ; 
of the Dutch only thirteen were woimded and three since dead. Within the fort a considerable 
cargo is found and some part plunder'd, but I feare the rest is in hucksters hands, for though 
S"" Robert Carr stayed aboard the Guinney whilst his Souldy" tooke the fort, he came early 
enough to the pillage and sayes tis his owue, being wonn by the sword ; but by his favour I 
know such accompts must not bee given to His Majestic, and I shall this weeke make a journey 
hither, to dispose thereof to his Ma'>'" service and not to private uses. And I cannot but looke 
upon it as a gi'eat presumption in S"" Robert Carr who acted there, or at least ought to have 
done, as a private Captain to assume to himself the power not onely of appropriating the prize 
to himselfe, but of disposing the confiscations of houses farmes and stocks to whom hee doth 
thinke fitt, not converting them to the maintenance of the souldyers, whose necessityes there 
are so great that many of them are ruun from him into Maryland ; to which inconveniencies 
some speedy remedy must bee given. Besides that by S"" Robert Carr's absence His Maj"" 
comission cannot bee pursued in the severall Colonyes of Aew England, unless I should leave 
New Yorke and thereby put to hazard the secmity of all at once, conti-ary to the opinions of 
Collonel Cartwright M"" Maverick and all the reason which God hath given me. For wee doe 
concurre that wee came to serve His Maj'y and not oxvc owne ends. The better to explaine the 
authority which S'' Robert Carr doth usurpe, I have enclosed the comission wee gave him, and 
a grant which hee hath made to Cap' Hyde. I do most humbly recomend to your consideration 
how few hands wee have to justify what wee have gain'd to His Maj'''" obedience, and no 
present maintenance either to officer or souldyer, but such as I either take upon creditt or pay 
for out of my o-mie moneyes, which I brought out of England for my private use and benefitt. 

By this expresse sent with Capt. Hyde it will appeare that I had a just confidence in my last 
of the successe against the Dutch in Delaware Bay, wherein Capt. Hj^de had a considerable 
share and is best able to make the narrative, or resolve such questions as shall bee offer'd, 
necessary to the settlement thereof. 

In discharge of my duty I cannot but repeat over againe the importance of employing 
merchants shipps vsith a great proportion of merchandize suitable to the trade with the Natives 
and both English Dutch and Sweedes inhabitants of New Yorke and Delaware Bay, other\^'ise 
His Ma'y" expences in reducing them will not tume to any account, only that the Dutch have 
lost their former trade, by which also many thousands of His Ma^" subjectes in Virginia 
Maryland and New England were furnisht with necessaryes, and will not know how to live 
without speedy care be taken from England. It is a businesse of gi-eat concerne to His Ma'^ 
that some considerable merchants shoidd joyne their stocks and dispatch ships, that they may 
arrive here in March or April at the furthest. For the loss of Delaware falls upon the to^^^le of 
Amsterdam, who bought the plantation from the West Indya Company and being proud and 
powerfull may probably joyne with the same Company next Spring to recover what they have 
lost this Autumne, which is the whole trade of Tobacco ; whereat our neighbours of Maryland 
are ill pleased, whose affections are much brib'd by their trade with the Dutch and indeed in 
some sort overawed with so powerfull a neighbour as the towne of Amsterdam would have 


proved in a short time; whicli was the great motive of the resolution to reduce Delaware, 
therebv to assure this place for His Royall Highnesse. I take it for granted that ni}' Lord 
Baltimore will much more sollicite His Ma'*' to give up Delaware into his Lordr?' hands then hee 
was solicitous to take it from the Dutch, and that his Lopp will make a faire pretence to it by 
his pattent : But I hope that His JNIa^ will either looke upon his pattent for Governour as 
forfeited by act of Parliament for trading with the Dutcli, or at least so much of his pattent as 
hath beene reduc'd at His Majesty's charge. All which considerations are humbly submitted to 
His Ma'*'" wisedome, as also that in case (whether Iiy iuvason or insurrection) the Dutch may 
hereafter attempt to recover either New Yorke or Delavs-are from His Ma'>" obedience, that His 
Ma''' will enjoyne all his Colonyes none excepted, under severe penaltyes, to resist and expell 
all such foreigners out of these His IMajesty's territoryes. The very repute of such a comand 
from His Ma'-'' will deterre the Dutch from designes of that nature, or at worst render them 

With the advice of Colonell Cartwright and M'' Maverick I shall depute Capt. Robert Needhara 
to comand at Delaware Bay, till His Ma'^" pleasure is further knowne, hoping that His Ma''' 
will approve of wliat is done here, as so many efiects of the loyalty and obedience of 

Honour'd Sir 

Yo' most humble Servant 

Richard Xicolls. 

Commission to Sir Robert Carr to reduce tJte Dutch. 

[Trade Papers, state rapcr Office. XVI. 32.] 

Whereas we are euforiued that the Dutch have seated tliemselves at Delavi-are Bay on His 
Ma'y of Great Brittaines territoryes, without his knowledge and consent, and that they have 
fortifyed themselves there and drawme a great trade thither; and being assured that if they be 
permitted to goe on, the gaining of this place will be of small advantage to His Rlajesty ; wee 
His Majesties Commissioners by vertue of His Ma'''' Comission and Instructions to us given, 
have advised and determined to endeavour to bring that place and all strangers thereabout in 
obedience to His INIajesty, and by these do order and appoint that His Ma''' frygotts the Guinney 
and the William & Nicolas, and all the souldyers which are not in the fort, shall with what 
speed they conveniently can, goe thither under the comand of S'' Robert Carr to reduce the 
same: — Willing and commanding all officers at sea and land and all soldyers to obey the said 
S'' Robert Carr during this expedition. Given under our hands and scales at the fort in New 
York upon the Isle of iManliatans the •3'' day of September 1GG4 

Rich: Nicolls 
George Cartwright 
Samuel Maverick. 


Agreement between Sir Robert Carr and the Butch and Swedes on Delaware Elver. 

[ Xew-York Tapers, 1. 1G9. ] 

Articles of Agreement between the bono'''' Sir Robert Carr Kn' on the behalfe 
of his Maj"' of Great Britame, and the Burgomasters on the behalfe of 
themselves and all the Dutch and Swedes inhabiteing in Delaware Bay and 
Delaware River. 

1. That all the Burgers and Planters will submitt themselves to his Maj''" authority without 
making any resistance. 

2. That whoever of what nation soever doth submitt to his Maj''" authority shall be protected 
in their Estates reall & personall whatsoever by his Maj"" Lawes and Justice. 

3. That the present Magistrates shall be continued in their offices and Jurisdiccons to exercise 
their Civill power as formerly. 

4. That if any Dutchman or other person shall desire to depart from this River, that it shall 
be lawfuU for him soe to doe with his goods within six moneths after the date of these Articles. 

5. That the jNIagistrates and all the Inhabitants who are included in these articles shall take 
the Oathes of Allegiance to his IMaj"" and of fidelity to the present Government. 

6. That all people shall enjoy the liberty of their Conscience in Church Discipline as 

7. That whoever shall take the Oathes is from that time a free Denizen and shall enjoy all the 
Privileges of Trading into any of his Rlaj"^'' Dominions as freely as any Englishman, and may 
require a Certificate for soe doing. 

8. That the Scoute, the Burgomasters, Sheriffe, and other inferiour Magistrates shall use 
and exercise their Customary Power in adnrton of Justice within their Precincts for Six 
Moneths or untill his Maj''=' pleasure is further known. 

The Oath. 
I doe sweare by the Almighty God that I will beare faith and allegiance to his Maj"^ of great 
Brittaine, and that I will obey all such comands as I shall receive from the Governo% Deputy 
Governo'' or other officers appointed by his Maj"" authority soe long as I live in these or any other 
His Maj"" Territoryes. 

Given under our hands _ Given under my hand and 

& Scales in the behalfe of Scale this first day of October 

ourselves and the rest of in the yeare of our Lord God 

the Inhabitants the first ' 1664 Robert Carr. 

day of October in the yeare 
• of our L" God 1664. • 


-Gerret Saunders van tiel. Lucas Peterson 
Hans Block. Henry Cousturier. 


Sir Rohert Carres grant io Capt. Hyde and Cajjt. Morleij. 

[ stale Paper OOJco, Traile Papers. XVI. .)-'. ] 

This Indenture made the 10* day of Octob' in tlie 14"" yeare of the reigne of our Soveraigne 
Lord King Charles the second by the Grace of God of England Scotland France and Ireland, 
Defender of the Faith &c. Betweene Sir Robert Carr Kn' of the one party and Hugh Hyde 
Esq"" and Thomas Morley, Gent, of the other party, Wituesseth, that whereas His IMajesty of 
Great Brittaine by his letters Pattents granted unto Richard Nicolls Esq' Sir Robert CaiT Kn' 
George Cartwright and Saniucll Maverick Esq" for y" settling His ]Ma''" alfayres in New 
England, as also for the reducing the Isle of Manhatans and other adjacent places under the 
coniand of the Dutch in America imto His Ma''" obedience ; and whereas the said Richard 
Nicolls, George Cartwright and Samuell Rlaverick in pursuance of His Ma"" instructions have 
nominated and appointed S'' Robert Carr Ku' to bee sole and clieife comander & disposer of the 
affayres in the behalfe of His Ma'^' of Great Brittaine, of Delaware Bay and Delaware River 
with all the lauds thereunto belonging : Now the said S"' Robert Carr Kn' having reduced the 
said place & places by force, with the assistance of the said Capt. Hugh Hyde Esq. and Capt. 
Thomas Morley, and for divers other good causes and considerations done and performed by the 
said Hugh Hyde and Thomas Morley, have granted and confirmed & by these presents doe give 
grant and confirnie unto the aforesaid Hugh Hyde and Thomas Morley their heyres and assignes 
for ever all that tract of land with the appurtenances whatsoever thereunto belonging or 
appertaining knowne or called by the ludyan name of Chipussen and now called by the name 
of the maunoiu" of Grimstead, situated near the head of the said River of Delaware in America. 
To have and to hold for them and their heyres for ever, and also for the said Hugh Hyde to 
have full power for to erect and establish a Court Leete and himselfe to bee Lord of y^ same 
manuo'' & court, with all rights priviledges and profitts and freedomes whatsoever to a Lord of 
a Manuo' may or can properly belong (Roy all mines excepted) The said Hugh Hyde and 
Thomas Morley for themselves their heyres execute""* Administrate" and assignes doth promise 
covenant to and with the said S' Robert Carr Kn' his successo' or successo" that they for them 
their heyres or assignes shall not act doe suffer or permitt to bee acted or done any thing contrary 
to the customary lawes of this place aforesaid. And the said Hugh Hyde and Thomas Morley 
each one for tliemselves doe promise covenant and agree to and with the said S' Robert Carr 
Kn' that they or either of them their heyres or assignes shall and will plant and stock the said 
manno' or cause the same to be planted or stocked within six yeares following the date of these 
presents. And the said S' Robert Carr Kn' doth further covenant to and with the said Hugh 
Hyde and Thomas Morley, that hee the said S' Robert Carr Kn' will from time to time and at 
all times within the space of six years following the date of these premises make such lett, grant, 
assurance and assurances, conveyance or conveyances, pattent or pattents whatsoever shall 'bee 
thought fitt by coun.sell learned in the law ; Provided allwayes notwithstanding at their owne 
proper costs & charges, and that the said Hugh Hyde and Thomas Morley shall pay due and true 
respects and services unto His Ma''" Deputy Governo"' or Govenio"''' which are or shall be according 
to the law and custome of the place aforesaid. And the said S"" Robert Carr Kn' doth further promise 
and covenant to and with the said Hugh Hyde and Thomas Morley that their heyres and assignes 
shall quietly possesse and enjoy all y' abovementioned premises. And further it is covenanted 
and concluded that if the said land be not stocked and inhabited in whole or in part within the 


space of six yeares, that then it shall be law'fuU for the said S'' Robert Carr Kn' his successor or 
successo" to reenter into tlie said land or premises thus granted ; provided allvvayes that His 
Ma''^' royall assent bee procured by y'= said Hugh Hyde and Thomas iNIorley to confirme these 
presents. In witness whereof the partyes abovenientioned have interchangeably sett their hands 
and seales the day and yeare first above said. 

Robert Cark. 
Sealed and delivered by the 

within named S"' Robert Carr 
in the presence of us 

JoHx Carr 

Geo. Colt 

Arthur Stock. 

Sir Bohert Carr to Colonel Nicolls. 

[ ITew Englr.n<l. I. 210. ] 

Hon^'^ Sir. 

After a long and troublesom passage, p'longed by y^ ignorance of y^ pylates and sholeness of 
water, we arrived the last day of September att Dellawarr, passing by y= fort w*''out takeing 
notice each of the others, the better to sattisfie the Sweede, who, notwithstanding the Dutches 
pswasions to y^ contrary, were soone our frinds. Afterwards I held a parley w"" y'= Dutch 
Burgurs and Governo"' ; the Burgurs & townesmen after almost three dayes parley, consented to 
my demands ; but y* Governo'' and soldiery altogether refused my pposicons. Whereuppon I 
landed my soldiers on Sonday morning following & comanded y^ shipps to fall downe before y' 
Fort w"'in muskett shott, w"* directions to fire two broade-sides apeace uppon y^ Fort, then my 
soldiers to fall on. Which done, the soldiers neaver stoping untill they stormed y= fort, and soe 
consequently to plundering; the seamen, noe less given to that sporte, were quickly w^'in, & have 
gotten good store of booty ; soe that in such a noise and confusion noe worde of comand could 
be heard for sometyme ; but for as many goods as I could preserve, I still keepe intire. The 
losse on our part was none ; the Dutch had tenn wounded and 3 killed. The fort is not tenable 
although 14 gunns, and w"'out a greate charge w"""" unevitably must be expended, here wilbee 
noe staying, we not being able to keepe itt. Therefore what I have or can gett shalbee layed 
out upon y^ strengthning of the Fort. W'Mn these 2 dayes Ensigiie Stock fell sick soe that I 
could not send him to you to perticulerise all things, but on his recovery I wall send him to you. 
If Providence had not soe ruled that wee had not came in as we did. we had been necessitated 
to acquitt y'= place in lesse then a moneth, there being nothing to bee had, but what must be 
purchased from other places w"" traide of good accompt, of w''"' for y" p'^sent wee have to sattisfie 
our wants I have already sent into IMen-yland some Neegars W^"" did belong to y* late Goverao"' 
att his plantation above, for beefe, pork, corne and salt, & for some other small conveniences, 
w^"" this place affordeth not. The cause of my not sending all this tyme to gyve notice of our 
success was the falling of y^ Indians from theire former civillity, they abuseing messengers that 
ti-avell by land, since our arrivall here, though noe wayes incensed by us, but exaspirated by 
some Dutch and there own inclinacons, that 80 of them came from y° other side, where they 
inhabitt, and soe strong they are there that noe christian yett dare venter to plant on that side ; 
Vol. ni. 10 



w'^ beloiigcs to y" Duke of Yorke. They stayed here 3 nights ; wee used them civilly, they 
ptending they here came to settle, but since are returned w"'out doeing any hurte. Wee beg 
yo' endeavou" to assist uss in y^ reconciliacon of y^ Indians called Syuekees at y^ Fort Feri'ania,' 
and y'' Huskchanoes^ here, they comeing and doeing vyolence both to heathen and Christian, 
and leave these Indians to be blamed for itt : in see much that w"=in lesse than 6 weekes severall 
murtliers liave bin comitted and done by those people upon y* Dutch and Sweedes here. Lett 
mee begg y" favor of you to send Mr. Allison and Tliomi)Son, the one for y' reedifying of y^ 
Fort, y' other to lix our armes, there being not any but what is broake or imfixed. Yo'' Hono' 
shall have a fiirthcr accompt by y'' next, untill W^"" tyme and ever after I remayne 

Yo' I'aithfull and obliged i^erv' 

KoBERT Carr. 
Dellawarr Fort } 
Octob-' y*^ l;i"' l(i(i4 5 

Coll. iXicolls. 

Names of the Dutch who s-wore AUegianee after the surrender of Xew- Yoi'h. 

[New-York Papers, I. 5.] 

A Catalogue Alphabeticall of y* Names of such Inhabitants of New Yorke fe' 

as tooke the Oath to bee true subjects, to His Majestic, October the 21*', SS""*, 

24'\ and SG"- dayes lGG-4. 

I sweare by the name of Almighty God, that I will bee a true subject, to the King of Great 

Brittaine, and will obey all such commands, as I shall receive from His Majcstie, His Royall 

Highnesse James Duke of Yorke, and such Governors and Officers, as from time to time are 

appointed over me, by His authority, and none other, whilst I live in any of his IMaj"" territoryes ; 


AxTHoxY AUarJ 

Arianzen Jan 

Andrizen Andries 

Adamzen Abraham 

Assuerus Hendrick 

Abrahamzen Izaac 

Abrahamzen Willem van der Borden 

Arenzen Frederic 

Andriezen Lucas 

Andriezen Paulu.s 

Adamzen Jan 

Andriezen Ariaan 

Appell Arien 

Albertzen Egbert ( \an Amsterdam.) 

Aldricks Peter 

Ascen Jan 

Briell Toussciu 

Barentzen van der Kuyl Cornelius 

Bos Hendrick 

Bartelzen Jonas 

Beeckman Joghim 

Blanck Jurieu 

Backer Claes Janssen 

Backer Reinier Willemzen 

Barrenzen Meindert 

Benaat Garrit 

Barentzen Simon 

Bogardus Willem 

Beakman William ( of Esopies ) 

Bedlow Isaac 

Boon Francis 

Bayard Nicholas 



Backer Jacob 
C. Cregier Martin 
Cousseau Jacques 
Cossar Jacob 
Course Barren 
Claerhoudt Walraven 
Coninck Thomas 
Cray Teunis 
Claesen Sibout 
Clock Abraham 
Coninck Aldert 
Carelzen Joost 
Claesen Andries 
Coster Jan 
Chambers Thomas 
Costm-ier Jacques 
D. Drisius Samuel 
De Meyer Nicolaus 
Dopzen Joris 
Danielzen Jacob 
Dupuis Nicholaus 
De Milt Anthony 
De Honde Coutrie Daniel 
David James 
Douzen Herman 
Duyckings Evert 
Doeckles William 
Dirckzen Meyer Jau 
Desille Lourens 
De Wiit Johannes 
Dircksen Lucas 
De Hayen Isaac 
De Weerhem Ambrosius 
Dydelofzen Claes 

Dela INIontagne Johann' ^ ^p ^jbany. 
Dela Montague William 5 

E. EBBiNXii Jeronimus 
Evertzen Dirck 
Eyck ten Coenraut 
Elsland van, Claes, d' oude 
Etsal Samuel 

Ebell Peter 

F. Forrest de Isaac 
Fulwevez Gerrit 
Filipzen Frederick 

Fries Jan 
Fell Simon 
Fedder Hamian 
G. Gabry Timotheus 
Goderus Joost 
Guindan Estienne 
Gerritzen Jan van Buytenhuysen 
Gysbertzen Frederick van den Bergh 
Goukes Reinier 
Grevenraat Isaac 
H. HuYBERTZEN Mol Lambert 
Hardenbroeck Abell 
Hendrickzen Jan van Bomniel 
Hermzeu Pieter 
Haart de Balthazar 
Huges Jacob 
Honneur, de Guillaume 
Hoist Barent 
Hendrickzen Lambert van Campen 

Hendrickzen varetanger Jacob 

Hendrickzen Hendrick van Iriand 

Hermel Abraham 

Hagener Jeremias Janssen 

Harderbroeck Johannes 

Hall Thomas 

Hendrickzen Gerrit van Amsterdam 

Hendrickzen Hubert van Ceulen 

Hendrickzen Frederic 

Hoogheland Christoffle 

Heinse Jacob 
J. JoGKiMZEN Andries 

Janzen Pieter 

Jelezen Kock Jan 

Janzen Jan van Brestec 

Janzen Cors 

Janzen Jan van Langedick 

Isaackzen Arent 

Israel Jacob 

Janzen Galma Sibrant 

Janzen Abraham 

Janzen Claes 

Jacobs Grains " 

Janzen Sick 

Janzen Cornells van Hoorn 



Janzen Heiidrick van tier Vin 

Joosten Jan 

Janzeu Claes van Langendick 

Janzen Jurien 

Janzen Roeloff van Meppelen 
— Janzen Eoos Gerrit 

Jacobzen Kool Barrent 

Isaackzen Denys 

Jacobzen Still Cornel_ys 

Janzen Pieter van de Langestraet 

Janzen Frans van Hooghten 

Janzen Romein Simon 

Janzen Backer, Hendrick 

Janzell Stoll Pieter 

Jurianzen Lantsman Arent 

Joosten Jacob 
K. Kipp Hendrick d'oude 

Knoesvelt Bay 

Keuninck Albert 

Keeren Jacob 

Kipp Isaac 

Kierstede Hans 

Kipp Jacob 
L. Leendertzen Paulus van der Grist 

Loockemians Govert 

La Plaine, de iMcolas 

Levi Asser 

Laurens Thomas 

Lawrenzen Arien 

Laurens Jan 

Luyck Egidius 

Leisler Jacob 

Leunizen Jacob 
M. Megapolensis Samuel d. 

Megapolensis Johannes d. 

Moesmans Arent Janssen 

Mens Jacob 

Merrit William 

Mo}"er Thomas 

Moesman Jacob Janssen 

Meindertzen Jan 

Mens Johannes 

Molengraaff' Thomas 

Maan Bartholdus 

Meet Pieter 

IMigkielzen Stoftell 

Mindertse Egbert 

Meindertzen Jan 
N. Nevius Johannes 

Nys Pieter 
O. Onckbauck Adam 

Obe Hendrick 
P. Peister de Johannes 

Pieters Eeintse van Bolsart 

Pos Lodowick 

Pieterzen Nathanael 

Pieterzen Albert Trompetter 

Pieter Abraham 

Pauluzen Claes 

Provost Johannes of Albany 

Pluvier Cornelius 

Peterson Philip van Schuiller 

Peterson Jacob 
R. Reixoutzex Reinout 

Roelofzen Jan 


Roelofzen Boele 

Rees Andries 

Reinier Pieter 

Reycken Reinier 

Richard Paulus 

Renzlaer Jeremias 

Renzlaer Richard 
S. Stuyvesant Pieter G. 

Steenwick Cornelius B. 

Stevenzen Oloffe van Cortland 

Sanderzen Thomas 

Schaafbanck Pieter 

Stoutenburg Pieter 

Simkam Pieter 

Schivelbergh Johannes 

Sticken Dirck 

Spygelaar Jan 

Scruyver Jan 

Stacts Abraham 

Slictenhorst Gerrit 
T. Tonneman Pieter 

Teunizen Jan 

Tades Mighiel 

Thomazen Quick Teunis 



Tyler William 
Tyler Andries 
V. Van RuYVEN Cornelius 
Van Brugh Johannes 
Verplank Abraham 
Videt Jan 
Van Brugh Carel 
Van Gelder Jan 
Van Tricht Gerrit 
Vincent Adrian 
Van Dyck Hendrick 
Vennoon Jacob 
Van Elsland Claes de Jonge 
Vis Jacob 
Verveel Daniel 
Van Laar Arien 
Ving Jan 

Van der Cleffe, Dirck 
Van de Water, Hendrick 
Van Couwenhoven Johannes 

Van Haerlem Jan 

Van Brussum Egbert 

Van der Schuyren Willem 

Van Bommel Hendrick 

Van Laar StofFell 
W. Wessell Waniar 

Winster Pieter 

Wouterzen Jan 

Wesselzen David 

Witthart Johannes 

Willemzen Ratger 

Waldron Resolveert 

Wessels Herman 

Wouterzen Willem 

Wouterzen Egbert 

Wanshaer Jan Van S' Aubin 
Y. Yanzen Martin 

Yanzen Clopper Cornells 

Yanzen Gerrit Stavast. 

Ambassador Van Gogh to tlie Secretary of the States General. 

t State Paper Office ; Holland. 1604.] 

My Lo" 

Upon the 5"" of Novenib. St. No. 1664. I rec"" the packett with the severall letters & other 
enclosures from the State, viz' the Copies of Ires & resolucons of the 21"' of Octob. as also of 
the 24"" & SI"" dito. all W"" doe complaine of the taking of Cabo Corso aswell as of New 
Netherland &"= Amongst w'"" also there was [a] Justificatoir, upon His Ma'J"^ supposicon concern - 
ing the infraction of the 14"" Arcle of the Treaty, written in Dutch, whereof also I am promised 
a copie in French by the next. 

In pursuance of the said orders I did at my audience, w'^'' was yesterday towards the evening 
about 4 of the clocke deduce at large againe those greivances of the injuries violences & outrages 
committed by the English against the subjects of this State, as also of the other inconveniences 
& wrong interpretacons w"='' His Ma'^ had made of the words of their H. M' orders &c To w"'' 
His Ma'y answered that he had well observed perused & examined all the reasons and arguments 
transmitted in writing by their H. M' as also what had bin at large by me deduced thereupon, 
and that he had already given order for answers to be drawne to them all, but that by reason 
the s'' reasons & arguments were so copious and voluminous, the s"* answers could not hitherto 
be gott ready and perfected; yet nevertheles that they would be ready very suddainly & that 
then they should be sent me. 


And forasmoch also as I propounded to His Ma'>' the 2 last points recomeuded by their H. 
M' about Cabo Corso and New Netherlands being taken in an hostile manner by the English 
from the West India Comp" His Ma'^ said tliat he had had both in writing & by word of mouth 
a full and large relacon of all, but that the matter was so prolix that all could not be well 
remembred, but that he would summarily answer by word of mouth these 3 points, viz* that 
w""" hath bin formerly complajmed of about Cabo Verd, that he had formerly declared that that 
action was done beyond his knowledge, that he would infonne himselfe thereof, and that then 
according to the merite of the case he would cause such redresse & justice to be done therein, as 
should appertaine ; with which provisionall answere their H. jNP ought also to have taken 
privisionall satisfaction, that he could not doe otherwise, nor could there be done more according 
to the order and rules of justice, especially in such a case as this, that he doth graunt that the 
s*" action, as it was done without his knowledge & order, ought to be looked upon as an evill 
action in itselfe and to meritt addresse & correction ; but yet that his people ought also to be 
heard, tliat so it may be knowaie what reasons had moved them to doe the same, and then to 
doe justice thereupon, according to the exigence of the case. 

That in order thereunto Cap' Holmes had bin expected at hoitie about 2 months since, and 
that he could not imagine what may be the cause of his so long stay, fearing that some disaster 
or other is befallen him at sea, w'^'' he should be sony for, both for this & severall other reasons. 
And His Maj"'' added these words somewhat resolutely and eagerly — " but I cannot admitt that any 
hodij els shall undertalcc to doc justice over my subjects or to carve out their oime redresse as I see their H. iW*. 
have u)idertake/i to doe by their instructions given to the Comander in Chcife cf the jlcete bound J'or Guiny": 
repeating the very words of the s** instruction. Which being by me answered in the best manner 
and forme with reasons & arguments from myselfe, aswell according to the Justificatoir afores"* &,'=. 
His Ma'>" w-as pleased further to declare that he could not understand the s"* words to be any 
otherwise then afores'' but yet that he would (breaking off" from all other reasons) give his 
answere to all particulars in writing, as is said before, w'^'' he would suddainly send me. And 
as to what was insisted upon by me concerning Cabo Corso, His Ma'*' said that it was done 
witli his knowledge & by his order, as being a business w'^'" properly belongs to the Enghsh, and 
that the ground was theirs, & that they had also built upon the same, and that the same was 
afterwards taken from the English by the Netheriands West India Comp^ and by them only 
something more built upon the same ; that they had not had possession thereof much above four 
yeares, & tliat the English will justify and demonstrate their right to all this. Whereupon I 
having rcplycd (h:it tliis (iiiiilcr favoure) was not the right way even by His Maj"^' owne wordes 
as abiiw, to ciiu, out tlii-ir owne redresse, and that also it is directly contrary to the treaty made 
&'' to w'"'" His ^laj''' returned severall reasons againe too long to set down here. And so His 
Alaj'y declared upon the memoriall afores'' (breaking of, as it were from further reasons) that he 
would answere it by writing. And as to what concernes the Remonstrance of the business of 
New Netherland, he said also that those lands belonged to his jurisdiction, and that they lay 
amongst the rest of his other lands in those parts, and so have also from the beginning bin 
occupied by the English, & the Netherlands nation were only admitted to come live and settle 
tliemselves there, without that ever there was any authority or power given or graunted to the 
NetheHand's West India Comp" or any other. Whereupon I having also replyed, even as of 
Cabo Corso as above, that the Netheriand's nation having now for 50 years together had had 
quiet possession in those parts, that the same cannot nor ought not in cequity or reason, to be 
tni^en from them, tliat therefore His Maj'^ would please to examine this matter rightly and justly, 


& accordingly make due redresse for the same ; as their H. M'. according to his known and 
renowned justice could expect uoe lesse. To w'''' His Ma/'-' returned again as before " / shall 
cause an atisivere of all to be meidc in tvriting z«'* shalbe suddainhj given you." Whereupon I tooke an 
occasion to say (seeing that His Maj''' was desirous wath this to hreake off from this discourse) 
that these actions would turne to uoe other end but a widening of the breach betweene both 
Nations, & that it was to be feared further mischeifes would arise thence. His Maj'^ was pleased 
to fall into the reasons formerly by me menconed, saying that this business (meaning the 
equippages under Opdam aswell as those dessigned for Guiny) was not first begim by him, but 
by the Netherlanders (saying " Hollanders") that he ever had bin a lover of peace, nor that he yet 
desired a warre ; yet nevertheles that he could not omitt to defend and maintaine his subjects in 
their rights : saying moreover that he could not tell what more to say than to referre himselfe 
wholely to the answere promised as above and y' if their H. M" had any thing to desire further of 
him, that he would be ready at all times to take and receave any papers they shall have to offer. 
After w'='' w"" my due compliment & promising to cause the s"* Justificatoir to be delivered to 
his hands, and praying that it might be by him rightly apprehended, I tooke my leave of His 

I was once thinking to have then and there delivered the s'^ Justificatoir, as it was, but in 
regard that the French translation was not yet come & that there hath bin noe time to doe it here, 
& for that I am promised the same thence with the first, I thought best to make rise of the s^ 
provisionall promise ; assuring their H. IVP. that I shall not bee wanting in my endeavours to 
execute their further commands both as to this and all other matters. 

H. ^P. resolucon of the 31"^ of Octob'' last, these are not only sent by the Ordinary Post, but 
also by an expresse, as also (God willing) I intend to send His INIaj"''" answere in writing, so 
soone as I shall have receaved the same. 

As to the ordinary newes, there is at present but litle, only that the fleete under Prins Robert 
lyes wind bound still at Portsmouth, from whence he is fully resolved to sett sayle assoone as the 
wind shall serve, in prosecution of his voyage (notwithstanding that there is some discontent 
amongst the people about bad and decayed provisions w'='' his fleete is served with, and that also 
they are not well pleased with the service, especially those w* are boimd for Guiny ; but having 
altered some of the provisions and punished some that were refractory, all is reduced to good 
order againe.) I cannot therefore, for want of time, enlarge any more, refening myself to their 
H. RP. Ire, wherein according to order I have sett downe the constitution of the shipping here, 
and all that depends thereon. Herewith &■=. 

IM. Van Gogh. 
Chelsey the 7"> of Novemb'' 1664. 

P. S. The pressing of men here for their ships is growne to such a heighth, that beyond all 
order and custome, they presse the very prentices & handycrafts men, as they have begun now 
with those of the shoe-makers. 


Amhasmdor Van Gogh to Secretary of tJie States General. 

[State Paper Office; IIollan<l. 1C04.] 

My Lo" 

My last unto Yo'' Loi' was of the 10"' Instant, accompanied with a triplicate of the Ires sent 
hence the V"* dito by the ordinary post aswell as by an e.xpresse. Since I have receaved the 
duplicates of their H. RP Ires & resolucons of the 24"^ of Octob. taken upon the first remonstrance 
of the Directors of the West India Comp" complayning of the actions used by the English by 
the taking in and making themselves masters of New Netherlands ; w'='^ were sent me only 
for my intbrmacon. There was also another duplicate of the Ires & resolucon with some other 
papers of the 31"^ of Octob. afores"" upon the said complaints ; also another duplicate of the Ire 
& resolucon of the 3i"> dito, with an authentycq copie in Dutch of the Justificatoir made, 
whereunto is annexed a copie in French to be delivered to his Rlnj'-^. 

In pursuance of the s'' last resolucon (since that His Maj'J' had already been spoken of this 
affaire, as I wrote in my s** Ire of the 7"' instant,) having desired Audience with His Maj'>' (w''' 
was appointed yesterday in the evening about 4 of the clocke ) I did againe at my introduction 
make a repeticon of my former arguments at my last audience w'^'' were chiefly concerning the 
taking of Cabo Corso and New Netherland and to desire redresse for the same, as also repeating 
the amicable & reasonable ofiers made on the part of their H. M" towards the reparacon and 
satisfaction of the damages pretended by the English forasmuch as they may be found to be just 
and reasonable ; in which they have endeavoured to come up to His Ma'^ in all respects, so 
farre as in reason can be expected of them, for the conservacon of the good amity and 
correspondence and the due observance of the last treaty made, w'^'" their H. M" ever will 
remayne by, as they have sufficiently made it appeare ; and that their H. M' being informed 
that His jMaj'y seemed to have taken some discontent concerning some words sett downe in the 
Instructions given to the Comander in Cheife of the ships designed for Guiny, as if the same 
should have bin contrary to the s"* treaty, that notwithstanding all this had bin fully answered 
by me, in coniidence tliat thereby satisfaction might be taken, that yet nevertheles His Maj'^ 
beyond all expectation did seenie to remayne by his (bmier opinion ; that therefore their H. 
M' had thought litt to make a concept of a Justificatoir to be delivered to His Maj'^ not 
doubting but that His Maj'-*" would have given place to and taken satisfaction from the s*" reasons 
accoi-ding to his usuall discretion. And after that the contents of the s"* Justificatoir was by me 
verbally deduced, and having added what els was needful (at the same time delivering over the 
same w"^ then was also by His Maj*>' accepted) he said as foUoweth : — " I know verj' well 
" what satisfaction could hitherto ever be obtained there and what hath bin oftred towards the 
" same, but the eftects thereof could never yet be seene ; yet they declare they will stand by the 
" Treaty, and yet they doe quite contrary, as by giving orders w'^'' are repugnant to the same, 
" as I have said before, & as shalbe more clearly demonstrated by my answere w"^ I have 
" ordered to be drawne up in writing and w'^'' shall in a few dayes be delivered unto you. In the 
" meane time 'tis observed that still more and more shipping are making ready to putt to sea, so 
" soone as the wind shall serve. But be it knowne that if they doe, that my fleete shall not 
" stay at home, nor thence " (speaking of the ships bound for Guiny.) All w"^"" being by me 
answered with such fitt reasons as were fitting. His IMa'^' did somewhat eagerly & interrupting 
me of my discourse, say, " I cannot make any other interpretacOn of the words in tlie orders 


" afores'' than what I have formerly said " (falling upon the discourse of the Netherlands 
equipages) "viz'.I couldhave alsohavebroughtagreater number of ships to sea" (naming40saile) 
" if that I would have followed the desires of the people ; but I have bin willing to shew myselfe 
" inclinable to peace in all respects." To w"^ I having againe replyed in due forme, and having 
laid before His Maj''' the said effects of the senister rencounters w''' are to be feared and the bad 
consequences thereof w* ought with all care and circumspection to be prevented, to avoid all 
further breaches betweene both nations : His Maj'^ was pleased to retume againe as before, that 
he was not the occasion thereof, as not having first begun this worke. And forasmuch as I 
perceive that all former reasons of discontent were repeated, ex abrupto, as it were, & that all 
the arguments I alleadged there against, seemed to have noe place, I did once more assure His 
]Maj'-^ of their H. M^ speciall & intire inclination for the continuance of the mutuall good 
corrrespondence, w'^'' since the reducement and establishm* of this State hath ever, and without 
any interruption, betweene both Nations bin maintapied, and whereof also the good fruits on 
both sides have abmidantly hitherto bin enjoyed; (w"^"" matter I did extend to the most highest 
praise of the English Nation) and that therefore and for many other reasons, all possible meanes 
ought to used, whereby the differences betweene both nations might be removed and all further 
breaches prevented ; whereunto as His Maj'^ is prayed most earnestly to contribute all on his 
parte that so their H. Mk also are absolutely enclined to declare their good inclinations towards 
the same. To w""*" His Maj'^ (as seeming to make some diversion of discourse) said, that he 
knew not what to say more hereunto then what he had said before, & that he had caused his 
answere to be drawne up \n writing w"^"" should be sent me in a few dayes, and that if in case 
their H. M". had any thing to propound to him, that he would be allwaies ready to heare them. 
Whereupon I perceiving that His Maj'^ seemed willing to leave ofl' from all other discourse, I 
did, after due compliment and earnest recommendacons that His Ma'^ would please to apprehend 
all things rightly, take my leave of His JMaj'^. 

There were many other discourses repeated there w'^'" still tended to the same effect as I have 
wrote fonnerly w"^'' therefore I shall omitt to sett downe here, but His Maj''' still seemed to 
remayne dissatisfyed in so much that I could not perceave that His Maj'-" was pleased to take 
any content in all what was said, but in generall referred all to the answere w"='' is to be given 
me in writing. Herewith &"=. _ 

• M. Van Gogh. 

Chelsey the 14"^ of ) 
Novemb-- A" 1664 ) 

P. S. Just now- I understand that there is a generall stop to be made upon all shipping 
throughout all the ports of England, whereby they may be the better able to get men to man 
their ships of warre, from w"^ embargo the East India ships and those w^*" are bound for the 
Streights with fish, are only to be exempted. 

Vol. HT. 


Mr. William Jones to Colonel Nicolls. 

[ New EnglanJ Papers, 1. 1U. ] 

Right Hon'"<- 

Att a gen" meeting of Deputies from y'' severall Plantacous of this Colony it was agreed y' a 
letter should be p''pared and sent to informe Yo'' Hono"' of y' great wrong and injury this Colony 
have suffered from y"" Dutch at Delaware Bay, about 14 yeares agoe, being violently repulsed 
w"" great damage out of theire just purchase and possession there ; for we had purchased a great 
tract of land on y"^ one and y'^ other side of y= Bay or River and a plantacon begun by sundry 
psons, & a trading house set up ; w''' y"" Dutch pillaged and burnt and soe wholly destroid y' 
desigue at y' tynie. Two or 3 yeares afterwards a new attempt was made and a vessell sent, 
w^"" was then alsoe stopt at the JManhatoes, and sundry of y^ priucipall psons imprisoned by the 
Dutch Governo'' soe y' nothing y' way hath ever bin attempted since, althoiigh y^ Indians of 
whome we purchased y'= land, doe still owne our right & much desire y* coming of the English. 
But thus much only to acquaint Yo'' Houo' w' is further intended, upon a further search of o'' 
records, to be improved by Yo' Houo'' as yo"" wisdom shall think fit ; humbly desiring alsoe that 
0'' just claime to y= pmisses, w" more fully psecuted, may be admitted. Thus craving Yo' 
Hono" pdon for this boldness with humble service p'sented, rests, 

Yo' Hono" humble Serv' 
20 Dec 1GG4 W" Jones. 

( Indorsed by Col. Nicolls ) 

" W™ Joanes 

" from New Haven." 

Alexander d'' Hinjossa, late Governor at the Delaware., to Governor Nicolls. 

[New-Tork Papers, I. 115. ] 

Right Hon*"^ Sir 


Your Hon" very agreeable answer to our letter came safel}^ here to hand & I leanr from it 
that Your Honor is sorry for my loss. 

If Your Hon"" would please to console me therein, it can be done by the restitution of my 
lost Estate, and could I get it back, I am resolved to live under Your Honor's Government ; 
yea, on the same conditions that I had from the city of Amsterdam — to cultivate the land in 
company for our mutual profit, should this be more advantageous to Your Hono' and more 
serviceable for the South river than that I should now quit. 

Meanwhile should Your Hon' incline theremito, the answer should be sent me to Capt 
Thomas Houwel's in Marryland where I shall still remain 2 or 3 months. Should these not be 
accepted by Your Hono' I would hereby respectfully request you to send me a letter under Your 


Hon" hand to his Highness the Duke of York, in order that I may take occasion to apply in 
London to his Higlmess aforesaid on the subject. Herewith I shall remain Right Honorable Sir, 

Sint JNIerry's at Capt Thomas 
Houwel's house 

( Superscribed ) Hooch Edle gebooren heer 
Myn Heer Richart Nickles 
Gouverneur van Nieu Jork 
en N; Engelant present 

Your obedient Servant 

Alexander d' Hinoyossa 

Colonel George Cartioriglit to the Secret anj of State. 

[ stale Paper Office, Trade Papers. XVI. 49. ] 

I am heartily sorry that I cannot give you a further account of His Majesties affaires here, then 
what I hope you have received by Captain Hugh Hyde from Coll. Nicolls. Since all the 
plantations both of the Dutch and Swedes upon the South River were reduced under the 
obedience of His Majestie in October last, Mr. Maverick and my selfe have had nothing to doe 
but to observe His Majesties commands in visiting the English Colonies ; but we have not had 
power to doe anything ; for together he and J cannot act without a third man though each of us, 
single, may act with Colonel Nicolls ; but he is detained at New York with the affaires of his 
government, and S"' Robert Carre cannot be perswaded to leave Delaware as yet. And if they 
should not be spared from their governments the next spring (W'' I fear they cannot) we shall 
be in a great straight. We shall soon have spent that little which His IMajestie hath allowed us, 
and as to my own particular I have neither credit here to take up money nor an estate in 
England to repay it with. If the Dutch will doe anything to regain those places w'^'' we have 
taken from them, it is much more probable that they will attempt it in the Spring then this 
winter. The probability that they may do so, will be an argument strong enough to make that 
seem reasonable w'^'' I fear. Our greatest work, lyes in this jurisdiction which is 300 miles from 
New York, and Delaware above 100 miles away beyond that, w'^'' is too great a distance for any 
to be at from their charge in time of danger. 

Sir, it is my duty to acquaint you with this and to acquiesse in what shall be retunaed 
to. Sir, 

Your most humble Sei-vant 

George Cartwright. 
From Capt Thomas Breedon's 
hous in Boston in New 
England. January 16. 1664 

To the Right Honorable Sir Henry 
Bennet K* Principall Secretary of 
State. At Whitehall. 


Colonel George Cartwrigld to Colonel Kicolls. 

[New England, I. 210.] 


I have delivered your letters to Mr. George Tyte, the master of the Successe, who is this day- 
gone to Nantasquet. I have written by him to S'' Henry Bennet and M"' Marick to my Lord 
Chancellor. The day before I gott hither Capt. Breedon had sent you some letters brought 
by ^V Winder and Captain Scarlet, out of England, w"^"" the Dep. Governor and the Major Gen" 
refused to send. Of the messenger that went we have not yet heard, though he went from 
hence Dec 13"' The Pilotts who went with us to the Manhatans are none of them payd : 2 of 
them have received some fayr words, but Coles, (who came from Piscatoque with Cap. Hill) an 
absolute denyall, becaus he was not pressed by their authority : to whom, ( in his great necessity, 
having lately lost his vessell by storm ) 1 have payed .£10, upon the account of being pilott. 
I hear tiiut Major Gen" Leveret hath received £34 from the country for the charges he was at 
in entertaining you at Boston, and the country is made to Ijelieve that we have put them to 
£300 charge already, & that we entend to exact la"" for every acre of land, and £3000 a year 
besides, and to abridge them of their greatest priviledges, liberty of their consciences, and many 
such ; w'^^ M'' Maverick heard of amongst his friends, in every place where he hath been in this 
jurisdiction. They have admitted for freemen three or four men who are not members of their 
Ciuu-ch, that by it they might evade the King's letter in that poynt. Their underhand dealing to 
get petitions made to themselves for mayntaining the government as it is at present established, 
and tlieir private solliciting for voyces against the next election, give me just cans to be jealous 
of tlieir loyalty. But till 3^ou or S' Robert Carre come, here can be nothing done. This day 
Cap' Hudson and others here in Boston petitioned to us to write to the Governor of Road 
Island ; w""'' we have done ; and by their messenger venture this, w"^ perchance from thence or 
by Conecticote may find a passage. Tliey lay claim to some land in the Narraganset country, 
and have set up a hous. Those belonging to Road Island have pull'd it do^^^l, as they did once 
before, and one of these men told us that if we did not determine it next .spring, he verily 
thought it would cost much blood before next summer was ended. 

If this letter speed well and meet not with a frozen passage, I hope it may prevayl with you 
to come to Ifoad Island, as early as the season of the year will permitt, where we shall have 
much businesse, as to be here in a convenient time before the Generall Assembly ; and after 
that we may, with the least inconvenience goe into the Eastern parts to determine the limits of 
those Patents. M" Maverick and myselfe are both of the opinion that this will be the best way 
for the doing of that w"^ we are entrusted with, and the rediest way to dispatch that w'''' we 
can doe. 

It is most rationall that you may be better spared from New York before May, then after ; 
for if tiie Dutch should have any designe either to regain or to devast that place, they cannot 
well be expected sooner then May ; or if they should have no such desine, w'^'" I verily beleeve, 
yet prudence should provide ibr the, by taking the probablest way. Unless you come 
yourself, I pray you to send with S"' Robert Carr all those papers that may be used by us ; the 
copyes of the Patents «S:c. 

This day we have certain newes tluit the Indians upon Nantucquet Isle, nun'dered and pillaged 
the saylcrs belonging to a bark w^"" was by storm driven upon it ; but fearing it may be stale 


newes before this may come to 3'our hands ; going with so great uncertainties I \^-iIl trouble you 
no fmther but to wish you all prosperity and rest, sir 

Your affectionate servant 

George Cartwkight 
Cap' Breedons ) 
Janu : 25"' 1664 j ' 

Coll Nicolls. 

King Charles ILs Order to seize all Dutch ships. 

Charles R. 
Trusty and wellbeloved, Wee greet you well. x\lthough Wee cannot doubt but that upon 
the knowledge you have of the many wrongs and injiiryes which Wee and our subjects have 
suffered from those of the United Provinces and the constant e^■ill mind they have bom to the 
wellfare and prosperity of our plantations abroad, you have been soe carefull of those under 
your command or care, as to put them into a more then ordinary posture of defence ; yet 
because the indignities, spoyles and affronts they have done us have encreased lately to such a 
height as leave Us (after soe many demands and frequent instances made by us unto the States 
Generall for satisfaction) without hope of other redresse or reparacon then what wee can acquire 
by the law of amies ; which they have soe notoriously begmi upon us on the coast of Guinny, 
De Ruither being sent thither with twelve shipps of warre to destroy all our interest in those 
parts, and (as Wee have cause to suspect) in his retume to invade all our shipping hee can meet 
with and assault our Islands and Plantacons in New England and all other our Plantacons and 
Colonies. And miderstanding further that a considerable number of private men of Warre are 
now preparing in Holland to bee sent towards our s"* Plantacons, to seize and doe all the violence 
they can there ; Wee have thought fit, out of our princely care and regard to the safety of that 
and those other places soe remote from us, to require you to use all possible diligence for their 
security, by causing forts to bee built in all necessary places, & by all other means which you 
shall find most expedient ; and because some skillfull persons here have represented to us the 
necessity of merchant shipps to bee haled near the shoare and fasts carried to the shoare from 
whence forts and small shot may easily defend them^and likewise that all such shipps which 
shall come thence bee enjoyned to sayle in considerable numbers for their common security and 
that then and even dming their stay there it will bee fit some of the most experienced Officers 
have authoiity given them to command the rest ; Wee have thought fit hereby to authorize and 
impower you to doe therein what according to this or any other emergencies shall appear to 
you to bee most for the safety of our Islands and navigacon of our merchants. Further, that in 
other matters relating to the jurisdiccons of our most dear brother the Duke of Yorke our High 
Admirall &"", you observe such orders and direccons as you shall from time to time receive from 
him, whom Wee have commissionated to grant letters of Marque and generall Reprizall against the 
shipps goods and subjects of the States of the United Provinces ; conformable to which our will 
and pleasure is that you take and seize the shipps vessells and goods belonging to the s"* States or 


any their subjects or iiilmbitants within an_v tlieir territories, and to bring the same to judgement 
and condemnacon according to tlie course of the Admiralty, and Laws of IVacons. And these our 
letters that you communicate to all our Forreigne Plantacons next adjacent to you, by sending 
copies to the i-espective Covernours thereof, to whom wee have also written to the same effect, 
our pleasure being that ^vith all care and applicacon possible, they arme themselves against the 
dangers which threaten them in this conjuncture from such an enemy, and proceed according to 
these cm- direccons and such as they shall receive from om- s*" most deare brother. Assuring them 
and all our loving subjects in those parts, that Wee shall not be wanting on our part on all 
occasions to help and succour them to the utmost of our power and to contribute all possible 
means for the security and improvement of their trade and Coraerce in all our Plantacons. And 
soe wee bid you farewell. Given at our Court at Whiteliall the 28'^ day of January 1661 in the 
16"" year of our Reigne 

By His Ma"''' Command 

(signed) Henry Bennet. 
To our trusty and wellbelovod 1 
Coll. Kicliard ><icolls & the rest I 
of the Commissioners for visiting j 
our Colony of New England J 

Mr. AUi/n, Secretary of Connecticut., to Colonel Nicolls. 

[ New England. I. 21T. ) 

Hartford Feb, 1^' 1C64 
Right Honorable 

Wee are informed that M"' John Scott according to his wonted course is agayne makeing 
disturbance amongst the people of Setawkett, by labouring to deprive the people of [that] place, of 
the land expedient for theire subsistance. Seeing Your Honour was pleased to determine, when 
o'' Governoure was last at New Yorke, that what had bin formerly setled and determined by 
Connecticutt upon Long Island, was so to continue ; upon which we thought meet to acquaintc 
Your Honour that what land M" Scott claymed (as Setawkett men informed M"' Allyn and 
M'' Willys) by purchase of the Indians, if he should iujoye, would be destructive to that 
plantation. Your Honour may allso please to understand that by the established oi-der of this 
Colony (of which Setawkett was a member severall yeares, by theire owne desires) no land was 
to be purchased to the perticuler use of any person, without the consent of o"" Generall Courte, 
and all such purchases to be null in lawe ; so that if such iugrossings of land (to private uses) 
from Indians should be tolerated it would be found destructive to whole townships and much 
obstruct the peopling of His IMajesties dominions in these partes. S'' we doubt not of Your 
Honours readinesse to favoure tiie sayd people of Setav^'kett that they may not be molested or 
disturbed in the enjoyement of theire just rightes. Not haveing els, w"" our service to your 
Honour we take leave and rest 

Your Honours humble Servants, the 

Goveruour and Councill of the Colony 

of Conecticott, signed pr. their order 

Coll. Mcolls pr me John Allyn Secref. 


Colonel George Cartwriglit to Colonel Nicolls. 

[ New England, I. 222. ] 


This day Sir Robert Carre delivered me your letter, for v^"^ I thank you, and shall (to the 
uttennost of my power in order to all my obligations those of discretion as well as those of' 
loyalty ) endeavour to observe all His Majesties instructions. Here we find a great probability 
of obstruction (of w"='' I gave you information before but fearing it may have miscarryed, shall 
tell you them again) It is reported here that we have already cost this country ,£300. Major 
Gen" Leverett( I am told ) hath received £34 for his e.xpences e.xtraordinary in entertaining you. 
It is reported also that we are to demand 12"* for each acre of ground improved, and £3000 a 
year besides ; that we are to infringe the discipline of the Chiu-ch by compelling children to be 
baptized, and that we interrupt their form of government by our admitting of appeales. Here 
are also severall whisperings & laying of wagers, that we shall never sit here as Commissioners, 
and it is certain that these people have twice sent letters to my L"* Chancelor, since August 
last. Upon these considerations I doe think it will be better to beginne at Conecticote, 
and to dispatch the other 3 Colonies before this ; for if we have good successe there it 
will be a strong inducement to these to submitt also to His Majesties Commission ; and if 
these should any way oppose us it would be an ill precedent to the other. Then the 
difference betwixt M"' Gorge's Patent and this, does seeme by the Kings letter to be reserved 
to himselfe, but those that are concerned in it, hope before May to have letters and orders 
to referre it to us, and it is probable y' by that time we also may have letters for our further 
instructions, and this Colony, being both the richest, greatest, most populous, and inclinable 
to a Commonwealth, we ought to have the greatest circumspection about it. I cannot 
conceive how it is possible for us to get a good election made for the next Generall Assembly, 
seeing none can elect nor be elected but such as are Church-members, and of them there is 
never a barrel better herrin. I think it will be the best therefore for us to take all the best 
cources we can, & I know none yet besides writing to severall friends to desire all the countiy 
to come in at the next Court of Election, w'^'' will be in the beginning of May, that we may 
communicate to them yhat tlie King hath given us in command, and then to deal with them as 
wel as we may. I hope I shall prevayle with S' Robert Carre and INP Maverick that we may 
be at Road Island before the first of March at the furthest. I have seen all the papers w'^'' j^ou 
have sent, but have not perused them yet, & therefore do not understand how we can be both 
Judges & Solicitors in Duke Hamilton's and M'' Mason's cases, but I hope when I have read & 
considered y™ that difficulty may be resolved. Here is now a Court sitting in Boston and M' 
Winder hath had a gi'eat tryall gone against him : he had many substantiall men and merchants 
that gave evidence for him upon their oathes ; the other party had but one witness sworn, yet 
himselfe being a Church member carryed the caus, hard bom. I am very glad that M"" Willet 
entends to goe immediatly to you (by whom I hope this letter will come safe to your hands ) I 
believe him both a very honest and an able gentleman, and y' he will serve you both for a Mayor 
and a Councelor. I will onely say, that the Fort is not to be kept 2 dayes longer nor 2 bowers, 
by having the walls raysed higher, in my opinion, and therefore a battery upon the point would 
be of- greater advantage and more considerable than the Fort itselfe, if ever the town be 
foitifyed : The same materialls will serve in both places. Major General Leveret is making such 
a work under the Fort Hill, and removes great stones of ten tun weight or more. The Dutch 


expect the Englisli lawes at their six mnntlis end, and it is probable they wil ratlier take that 
for oppression, W^'' sliall be imposed on tlieni afterwards, then, for the present, acknowledge j^onr 
indulgence in letting them for a while longer use their own lavves. But your o\mi convenience 
in this is the greatest consideration. Here is another vessel goes for England about 14 dayes 
hence. Against May I pray you send me order where & how I may receive the remainder of 
the ^250. I have not gone to dinner with any to\^nisman since I came, suspecting them to be, 
as I fear they are ; yet all such as come to see me, and those are very few, I use as civilly as I 
canne. The saving of a little expence shall not be an occasion in me of hindering his Majesties 
sen-icp. So much I have considered these peoples temper, with His Majesties caution, that all 
designes of protitt for the present seem unreasonable and nui}' possibly ol)Struct the more 
necessary designe upon their obedience and loyalty. They have altered the law for freemen, 
w'^'' I send you enclosed. I like it not ; the reason is so visible I vril not trouble you with it, 
but with my hearty wishes for your prosperity and succcsse there and for your company and 
assistance here, rest 

Your nuist affectionate Servant 

( signed ) Geokge Cartwright. 

Cap' Breedons ) 
Feb 4. lGG-4. f 


We have perused the lynes above ; we know all to be truth. We earnestly desire your 
presence heare if possible by the 20"" of Aprill, the day of election being the 3"^ of May. In 
the meane tyme we shall doe what we can by way of p'paration ; and desiringe to heare from 
you by all conveyances we remayne 

Yo"' most assured freinds 

and humble servants 
(signed) Samuel Maverick. (signd) I?obert Carr 

Samuel Maverick Esq. to Colonel Nicolls. 


Yo" of the 24"" of January p'' S" Rob' I received, and heartily thanke you for yo"" good advise 
in it, and also for yo"' writing to Capt. Breedon to advise me. I pceive you have heard some 
fake reportes. Coll. Cartwright hath written at large to you, in w'^'' we all concur. He hath 
beene to retired : I hope I have not beene over sociable. I spent three weekes in visitinge my 
friendes in severall of the cheifest townes in this Governm' and I am deceived if in that journey I 
did not undeceive both Majestrates, IMinisters and other considerable psons. It cost me 
unavoydably 10^. 

We intend, God willinge, to be at Road Island about the first of March, & shall much desire 
yo' psence, when and where we may sett the boundes to Road Island, both East and West. Be 


pleased to be referred to the Coll' letters ; and S' be assured I shall use my utmost indeavour 
faithfully to serve His Ma''^ and shall ever remayne 


Boston Feb 4, 64. Yo" assured freinde and Serv' 

. . - . . Samuell Maverick 

Coll. JVicolls. .. - 

Cohml George CartwrigJU to the Secretary of State. 

[ state Paper Office, Trade Papers. XTI. 53. ] 

Sir . 

By the same justice I complained of S'' Robert Caix's absence, I am bound to give an account 
of his being here. He came hither Feb. 4. and on the sixt we sent to Plymouth to desire that a 
Generall Assembly might be convened on the 20''' whither we entend presently to goe. We have 
not had conveniences yet to deliver His Majesties letters to them and Road Island, wherefore 
we chuse to visit them first, and the rather becaus we hope for a better complyance from those 
then from these of Boston, who by severall circumstances, as sending a petition about to begge 
hands of all sorts to maintain the government as it is now established, by reporting that we are 
to demand IS* for every acre of improved ground, and 5000^ a year besides for the King, and 
that we are to straighten them in the exercise of their discipline and civille priviledges, and by 
some publick mutinous speeches, which have not been punished, and such like ; have given us 
some ground to fear that the phancy of a commonwealth is yet in some of their braines. But 
we hope the loyalty of the other Colonies and their complyance with us may be both an 
example to these and an argument of the necessity of their submission to His Majestic, when 
they shall have no hopes left of making them of their confederacy. 

We hope to have finished all by Midsommer, for we will use all diligence and circumspection, 
and by all opportunities you shall have an account of our successe from, Sir 

Yom' humble Servant 

George Cartwright. 
From Cap' Breedon's hous ) 
in Boston Feb. 7'" 16G4 > 

To the Right Honorable Sir , - 

Henry Bennet Kn' Principall ' ■ ':■ 

Secretary of State, at Whitehall 

Vol. m. 


Mr. Sea-efanj Morrices Aihiu-ev to the Petitum. of Xew England. 

[ Xi-w England, I. 220. ] 

His Ma"''^ Iiatli heard tliis Poticon read to liim, and hath well weighed all the expressions 
therein and the temper and spirit of those who framed it, and does not impute the same to his 
Colony of the Massachusetts, amongst whome he knowes much the major part consists of men 
well affected to his service and obedient to his govemm' ; but he hath commanded me to let 
you know that lie is not pleased with this Petition and lookes upon it as the contrivance of a few- 
persons who have had too long authority there, and who use all the artifices they can to infuse 
jealousies into his good subjects there, and apprehensions as if their Charter was in danger, 
when it is not possible for His Ma'"^ to do more for tlie secureing it, or to give his subjects there 
more assurance that it shall not in any degree l)e infringed, then he hath already done, even by 
his late Commission and his Commissioners sent hither, who are so far from having the least 
authority to infringe any clause in the said Charter, that it is the principall end of their journey, 
so chargable to His Ma"% to see that the Charter be fully & punctually observed, and His ^Nla'^ 
did expect thanks and acknowledgm' from that his Colony, of his fatherly care in sending his 
Commissioners thither, and which he doubts not he shall receive from the rest of his Colonies in 
those parts, and not such unreasonable and groundlesse complaint as is contained in your 
Petition, as if he had thereby intended to take away your priviledges and to drive you from 
your habitations without the least mention of any misdemeanour or miscariage in any one of 
the said Commissioners, or in any one particular ; nor can His Ma'^ comprehend (except you 
believe that by granting your Charter he hath parted with his sovereign power over subjects 
there) how he could proceed more graciously or indeed any other way upon so many complaints 
presented to him, by particular persons, of injustice done them contrary to the Constitution of 
that government ; from the other Colonies for the oppression they pretend to undergoe by the 
power of that of the Massachusetts, by extending their bounds and their jurisdiction further than 
they ought to do as they pretend ; from the Natives for the breach of faith & intolierable 
pressures layd upon them as they alleage, contrary to all kind of justice and even to the 
dishonour of the English Nacon and Christian Faith, if all they alleage be true : I say His Ma"" 
cannot comprehend how he could apply proper remedies to these evills, if they are reall, or how 
he could satishe himselfe whether they are reall or no, by any other way or meanes then by 
sending Commissioners thither to examine the trueth and grounds of all the allegations, & for 
y present to compose all ditlerences the best they can untill upon a full and cleare representation 
thereof to his Ma'-'' wlio cannot but expect the same from them. His Ma"" owne finall judgment 
and determination may be had ; and it hath pleased God so farr already to blesse that service, 
that it is no small benefitt His Ma'^ & his English Colonies in those parts have already received 
by the said Commissioners in the removall of so inconvenient neighbours as the Dutch have 
been for these late yeares, and which would have been a more spreading and growing mischiefe 
in a short time, if it had not been removed. To conclude I am connnanded by His Ma'^' to 
assure you againe of your full and peaceable enjoyment of all your priviledges and liberties 
granted to you by his Charter, which he hath heretofore and doth now againe offer to renew to 
you, if you shall desire it ; and that you may further promise your selves all the protection 
countenance and encouragement that the best subjects ever received from the most gracious 
Prince ; in retume whereof he doth not only expect that duty and cheerfuU obedience that is due 


to him, and that it may not be in the power of an}' malitions person to make you miserable by 
entertaining unnecessary and unreasonable jealousies that there is a purpose to make you so; 
and since His ^Ma''" hath too much reason to suspect that M'' Endicott, who hath dining all the 
late revolutions continued the govermnent there, is not a person well affected to His Ma'^'" 
person and Government, His Ma'^ will take it very well, if at the next election, any other person 
of good reputation be chosen in the place, and that he may no longer exercise that charge. This 
is all I have to signifie unto you from His Ma'"', and remaine 

Yom- very humble Serv' 

William Moreis 
Whitehall Feb. 25, 1C64. 

Declaration of the Deputies of Long Island. 

[ New- York, I. 129. ] 

Wee the Deputies duely elected from y^ severall townes upon L. Island being assembled at 
Hempsteed in a Generall Meeting by authority derived from yourR. H' unto the hou'''^ Collonel 
R. Nicolls as deputy Governour, doe most humbly and thankfully acknowledge to y"' R. H' the great 
honour and satisfaction wee receive in our dependance upon Your Royall Higlmes according 
to the tenour of his sacred Ma*'" Patent graunted to y"' R. H' bearing Date the 12 day of March 
1664 in the 16"" yeare of his Ma'"''* Raigne, wherein wee acknowledge ourselves, our heires 
and successors for ever to be comprized to all Intents and purposes therein more at large exprest, 
And wee doe publikely and unanimously declare our cheerfull submission to all such Lawes, 
Statutes and Ordinances which are or shall be made by \'irtue of Authority from y' R. H= your 
heires and successors forever. As also that we will maintaine, uphold & defend to the utmost 
[of our] power and perill of us our heires & successors forever all the right, title & interest 
graunted by his sacred Ma*'^ to y'' R. H" yom- heires and successors for ever, against all 
pretensions or Invasions forraigne or domesticke, wee being allready well assured that in soe 
doing wee performe our duty of allegeance to his Ma"^ as free borne Subjects of the Kingdome 
of England inhabiting in these his Maiesties dominions. Wee doe fm-ther beseech Your R. H. 
to accept of this address as the first fniits in this Generall meeting for a memoriall and record 
against us, our heires and successors when wee or any of them shall faile in our duties. Lastly 
we most humbly beseech y'" R. H' to take om- Poverties and necessities in this Wilderness Land 
into speedy consideration, whereof the Governour will more particularly informe y'' R. H' 
and that by constant supplyes of trade, and Your R. H. his more particular countenance of 
grace to us and protection of us, we may daity more and more be encouraged to bestow our 
Labours to the Improvement of these his Ma"" westerne dominions under yo"' R. H' for whose 
health, long life & etemall happiness we shall ever pray as in duty bound. 

[ 1st. March, 1665. ] 


Lord Cliancellor Clarendon to Mr. Maverick. 

[ Xew England, I. 225. ] 

Good ISr Maverick 

I presume 3-011 have lieard before this time that Captain Hills ship ( however he escaped ) 
was cast away, so tliat all the letters committed to his care were lost ; but I received that you 
sent by Captain Hyde, and your last of the 20"^ of January. Concerning your owme particular, 
you will shortly receive a supply ; the King haveing directed it with reference to all the 
Commissioners. I am very heartily sorry that S"' Robert Carr's carriage hath not been answerable 
to the King's e.xpectacon, and that there should want a Commissioner at Boston where the scene 
is for most of your business and where I doubt you'l find more ill humour then in any of the 
other Provinces. I do believe M" Nicolls can hardly be spared from his government, where he 
must e.Kpect all the raischeif the Dutch can do him ; of which I advertized him by letter about 
six weekes since, which I hope came safe to his hands ; and since you are not, I doubt, like to 
have his presence, you shall do very well to correspond very punctually with him and receive 
his advice in all things of importance. And I write not now to him because I presume he is not 
with you ; but if S"' Robert Carr be absent he is very unexcusable. This letter is like to come 
to your hands by a poore man, who (if all he says be tree) hath been very barbarously used in 
that Colony, and hath a particular reference from the King and the Councell to His Majesties 
Commissioners there, who I presume upon examination of the whole matter will do him what 
justice you can. I find by an Address we have lately received from Boston that the Governor 
& Councell there are not at all pleased with y"' Commission, and that they will needs believe all 
their priveledges are to be destroyed ; but I suppose they are better informed since, and that the 
answer they have received from the King to their address, will dispose them to a better temper, 
and that the discretion & wisdom of the Commissioners will make them see how much they 
are mistaken in their apprehensions. I must tell you they seeme most offended and troubled 
that you, whom they looke upon as their enemy, should have any autliority over them ; but I 
am very confident the knowledge you have of their prejudice towards j'ou, will make you much 
the more carefuU and watchfull in your owne carriage, that they may have no just exception 
against anything you doe, & that they may plainly disceme that you are quite an other man in 
a publick trust then what they tooke you to be as a neighbour, and that you have wiped out of 
your memory all impressions which ill treatment heretofore might have made in you. For if 
you should reveng any old discourtesies, at the King's charge, and as his Commissioner should 
do anything upon the memory of past injuries, the King would take it very ill, and do himself 
justice accordingly. But I am confident I have not beene so much mistaken in the observacon 
I could make of your nature and disposition, that you can bee lyable to any of these reproaches : 
however, the advertisement I am sure can do you no harme, and proceeds from much kindness. 
Remember me very kindly to Colonel Cartwright and I am very glad your success hath been so 
good in the other Provinces. I hope that of the Massachusetts will not deserve a worse report. 
I wish you all happyness, and am ^^^^^ ^^, Maverick 

Worcester House \ Your afiectionat Serv' 

5 March 1G64 j Claeexdox. 

I remember honest D' Gatford committed a son of his to your care when you left this 
kingdom ; I pray you be kinde to him that his friends may have cause to thanks you upon your 



Mr. Maverick to Colonel EicJiard NicoUs. 

[New England, I. 229.] 

Honorable Sir. 

Arivinge heare on Roade Island last night, I this mominge heard of this convayance and 
could not lett it pass. "We have beene 16 dayes now from Boston, and in o" way gave the 
goverment of Plymouth a visitt. The Governor & Major Winslow are now heare w"" us. We 
yesterday began to make an agreem' betweeue Pljmiouth and this Gover' as to their boundes; 
possibly to-morrow an ende may be made. What is done about it yo" shall be informed by the 
next convej-ance. 

Some tyme this weke the p'tended Pprj-ators to a great parte of the Nan'agansett cuntrey 
will meete us there to see if it may be determined who hath most right to it ; either they, 
Conecticott, or Roade Island ; all three clayminge a propriety in it. 

I have used my utmost indeavour in the Massachusett govemi' to undeceive y"" decieved, and 
to p'pare them for y' election w"='' will be on the 3'^ of May, at w'^'" tyme I hope we shall have 
the happines to enjoy your presence. 

By all couvaj-ances I shall give account of what passeth. M"" Winder intends err long to be 
w"" yo", w"' sacke, brandy, and other lumber. S"' I cannot enlarge, the bearer beinge just now 
goinge away. 

We have had no newes from Boston since we came from thence ; of frost and snow we had 
enough. S"" I must ende, ever remayninge 

Yo"' assured freinde & 
hmnble Serv' 

March. 5. 64. Samuell Mavericke. 

I pray S' be pleased to rememb' me to Cap' Nedeham, IM" Delancie, M"' Nicholes, and the rest 
of o'' freinds. 

• Colonel George Cartwriglit to Colonel Nicolls. 

[New EngLmd, I. 2.32. ] 


I never sayd nor thought y' you had not work enough : the bare hearing of impertinences 
w"''out the framing of lawes, the ordering of the soldiers, the gaining of the Dutch, the governing 
of the English, the regulating of the trade, and the providing of necessaries) is more then enough 
to tyre one ; then all these and the suting of them together (with many other accidents w'^'' must 
be supposed to happen though they cannot be foreseen) must needs be thought by all men, 
work enough for any one man. The eaniestnesse of my desire to have your direction and 
assistance here (of w'^'' I stand in extraordinary need) I hope did not transport me so far beyond 
my reason, as to write any thing by w"""" I might be thought to think y' you had not trouble 
enough there. I confesse I did think 3'ou might have spared w'''out gi-eat hazzard IS daj-es 


from New York (7 daves here & 1 1 to goe and coim- iu) w'^ would have been sufficieut to have 
helped us over all those diihculties W^^ here I expect. When I sayd y' something must be put 
to hazzard, 1 did not entcnd tlie losing of that place. I cannot beleeve the Dutch are so potent 
now, having had the plague long raging in their country, as to spare 4 or 5 ships hither, to 
regain a place w"'' never yielded them profit, whilst they have warre with England, or if they 
were, if they arrive not \\itliin the first 12 dayes after your comniing from thence, the hazzard 
is not dangerous. 1 cannot deny the reducing of the Dutch and visiting the English Colonies 
to be 2 distinct things, and the first to be of the greatest consequence ; yet in visiting these 
Colonies our greatest businesse is to be managed here, and by how much these people are more 
richer, more proud and factious then the other, by so much the more difficulties we shall find 
and the more stand in ueed of your help. That you wei'e much mistaken when you writ you 
should adde little to the weight, onely to the number the Commissioners, is so plain I need say 
nothing to it. And though they should refuse all us 3, having a prejudice against us, you, whom 
they respect and honor, might be prevalent with them becaus acceptable to them. This day a 
Quaker (my country woman) told me before Capt. Breedon, y' she had heard severall say y' I 
was a papist and y' S"' Rob. Carr kept a naughty woman, and examined her if I had not kept 
one too, or if she knew me not to be a papist. RP Maverick they declare to be their prolt^st 
enemy. i\Iany factious speeches fly up & down. This day (they say) here is a secret councel 
& y' all the ministers within 20 miles are called to it. If these men will rebell I can as easily 
tell the King so, as y' they are his good subjects, and perchance shall sooner be believed by 
some in that, then in this. I am sure you know in w' condition I am in ; though you seem to 
deny mo your assistance, yet let me have your })itty, and I will doe my utmost. M"' Winthrop 
sayes he will take care y' nothing be donue to the prejudice of the Dukes territories, and y' he 
never heard of that report you mentioned, but beleeves it to be a mistake. Whereupon, not 
going to Hartford and having none but Willys with him, we only told him our opinions but 
writ nothing. If I live to goe for England I will take care of it there. I will not trouble you 
with repeating w' I writ to you before concerning my brother Beresford and RP Bowles, but 
shall expect them about Midsommer, if they entend to goe back with me ; if not, I will make 
good what I promised. 

I came to Boston on the lo"" IVP Maverick on the 14"' your letter on the 17"^ S"' Robert Carr 
is not yet yet come ; he went to see some friends ; but that he hath all the papers with him in 
the box, though I have the key, I would have given you a short account of a businesse in W'' 
M'" Willet is concerned ; you may expect it by the next. M' Willet sayes he will goe henCfc 
tomorrow, therefore I close up my letter to night. I am sorry to hear of any different 
betwixt the soldiers & townsmen of Sopes and Albany. All prosperity & successe imaginable 
is heartily wish' you by, 6'' 

Your most aifectionate Serv' 
f J George Cartwright. 

From Capt. Breedon's } * 

Aprill 1<). IGGo 5 


Declaration of tlie General Court of 2Ia-ssacht(^-€tts. 

[ Trade Papers, State Paper Office. XVI. 72. ] 

A Declaracon of the Gen" Court of His Ma"^' Colony in the Massachusets 
in New England, held in Boston the 23"* of May 1665. 

Whereas in the debate and conferrences had betwene the Court and Colonel Richard Nicolls 
Esq"' S'' Robert Carr Kn' Colonel George Cartwright and Samuel Maverick Esq" His ]Ma"" Hon"" 
Commissioners, Wee have pleaded onely the maintenance of His Ma"" authority in the governm' 
of the people of this Colony, according to the rules and prescriptions of his royall Charter under 
the Great Seale of England, the full and peaceable enjoym' whereof His Ma'''' hath given good 
assurance to all his loyall subjects of this place, giveing speciall charge to the abovenamed 
Gentlemen not to disturb us therein. Yet accounting it our duty to God & His Ma"* by all 
lawiull ways and means to give full satisfaction to His Ma'"" touching all such causes and complaints 
against us, as in his wisdom and prudence he shall see reason to take cognizance of, We have sundry 
times in our conferrences both by word and writeings tendered to the abovesaid Gentlemen our 
readpiess to present unto them a full and cleare account of our proceedings in any case, matter 
or complaint, that themselves should see meet to inquire into ; whereby they maye bee enabled 
to present the matter truely to His Ma"* His Ma"« letter to this Colony of April 23. 1604 and 
by his hon'"* Secretary Sir William Morrice Feb 25. 16G4. expressly declaring this to bee the 
principall end of sending hither the abovesaid Gentlemen in such a capacity & for such pious 
and good intentions as therein is more particularly declared, and not in the least thereby intending 
to infring our Charter, or any the priveledges thereof. All this notwithstanding the abovesaid 
Gentlemen not receiveing satisfaction with these our tender & proposalls made unto them, 
wherein we have indeavoured to answer His Ma"" just expectations, conti-ary to the express 
charge of His Ma"* unto them they have, by warrant under three of their hands, given protection 
to John Porter junior, an high offender against God, His Ma"" authority and lawes, and the 
peace of his good subjects here ; who breaking prison made his escape out of the hands of 
justice here ; and that before any signification unto the govemm' of this place of any complaint 
made against them, their sentence, or proceedings against the said Porter ; and requireing all 
officers aswell military as civill to be observant to them herein — And although this Coiu-t hath 
expressed their sence of this act (in conjunction with some other of their proposalls) to be an 
infringement of our priviledges, granted to Us by His Ma"" Royall Charter, yet they have not 
withdrawn their protection of the said Porter, but have proceeded to summons as well the 
Governor and Company of His Ma"" Colony as also particular persons, to appear before them to 
answer to the complaint of Thomas Deane and others, for injustice done unto them. The 
submission unto which proceedings of theirs, being, as we apprehend inconsistent with the 
maintenance of the laws and authority here so long injoyed and orderly established under the 
warrant of His Ma"" Royall Charter, the uphoulding whereof being absolutel}- necessaiy for the 
peace and well being of His Ma"" good subjects here. This Court doth therefore in His 
Ma"" name and by the authority to us committed by his Royall Charter, Declare to all the people 
of this Colony, that in observance of our duty to God & His Ma"* and the trust committed to 
us by His Ma"*' good subjects in this Colony, wee cannot consent unto or give our approbation 
of the proceedings of the aforesaid Gentlemen, neither can it consist with our allegiance that 


we owe to His Ma"'' to countenance any that shall in so high a manner go cross unto His Ma}'" 
direct charge or shall be their abettors or consent thereunto. God save the Kixg. 

This Declaration was published the 21* of May 1GG5, by fip'Oliver Purchas one 
of the Deputies of the Court, (being by them thereunto commanded) with 
sound of trumpet in the Market place in Boston below the Comt House, and 
at the Dock head, and at the cross-way by Capt Breedous. 

Hephj of the King's Commissioners to the 2Iassachiisetts Declaration. 


Wee thought when we received our C omission and instructions that the King & his Councel 
knew what was gi-anted to you in your charter, and what right His Ma''^ had to give us such 
commission and commands : and we thought the King, his Chancellor, and his Secretary had 
sufficiently convinced you that this commission did not infring your Charter. But since you 
will needs misconstrue all those Ires & endeavours, and that you will make use of that authority 
which he hath given you, to oppose that soveraiguty which he hath over you ; we shall 
not loose more of our labours upon you, but referr it to His Ma"^'' wisdom, who is of power 
enough to make himself to be obedyed in all his dominions ; and doe assure you that we shall 
not represent your denying of his commission in any other words then yourselves have expressed 
it in your severall papers under your Secretarie's hand. But for the better manifestation of the 
transactions between us, & for the satisfoction of all concerned in these parts, we desire you will 
cause His Majesties Comission to Us, His Ma''" letters of June 28 — G-i, of Feb^ 25 — 64, by 
Secretary Morrice, of Aprill 23 — C4, and all those papers we have given in to the Court, and 
yours also, may be printed and published. May 24. 1664. 


Ro Carr. 
To the Generall Court of \ Georg Cartwright 

His Maj'" Colony of the >- Samuel Maverick. 

Massachusetts. ) 

Messrs. Carr, Cartivright, and Maverick., to Sir Henry Bennet^ Secretary of State. 

[ Trade Tapers, State Paper Office. XVI, 74. ] 


The last account we gave you was of om- eutentions to begin early to visit the other Colonies 
and of our reasons why we chose rather to begin with them, than this : we shall now give you 
a breife account of our successe. 

Wee begun at Plymouth (as we resolv'd Feb. 20.) and thence we went to Road Island 
and so to Conecticot, in all w'^'' we found bitter cold wether, but were welcomed with gi'eat 
expressions of loyalty and joy y' His Majesty would vouchsafe them that honor, & testify that 


care of them as to send Comissioners to them, as well to regulate what was amisse, as to assure 
them of His Majestie's favor & protetioii. lu Plymouth we heard of few complaints, and 
those trifles too. It is certainly by much the poorest colony. Though in Road-island we had 
more complaints, yet they freely and redily submitted (even tiie Governor himselfe) to be tryed 
by us. Some we ended, some we put to arbitration, some we referred to the General Court, 
to the general! satisfaction of them all : some of which they have returned again to us to be 
determined. At New Loudon we had heard W™ Morton's case, if he had been at home, but 
M' Winthrop (who is here) hath promised to give us such an account of it, as shall be most 
satisfactory to His Majesties expectation. In all these Colonies they freely consented, that all 
administration of justice shall be in the King's name ; that all householders shall take the oath 
of Allegiance ; that Church-membership shall not be considered in making freemen ; that all 
persons of civill lives shall have liberty of conscience so y' they deny not their shai-es 
of mayntenance to the publick Minister fairly chosen by plm-ality of voyces : that all lawes and 
expressions in lawes derogatory to the King (if any such have been made) shalbe repealed and 
altered : as it will appear by the severall papers we are promised from each of those Colonies ; 
one promisse of W'' we have here sent enclosed. 

From Couecticot we came through the Narrhyganset country, where finding y' one of those 
Sachims who had submitted y' country to K. Ch. I. of blessed memory, was yet ahve, and he now 
acknowledging the same, & giving us that very deed made above 20 yeares agoe, and personally, 
with some ceremony, giving up himselfe and country into the King's protection, we received him 
and his into the King's protection and nam'd the country the King's Province, according to His 
Majestie's command, though it be the only ground upon the main laud belonging to the Colony of 
Road Island. To prevent all differences, untill His Majesty hath had a full account of it, we have 
made those who were Magistrates in the Colony, Justices of the Peace in the King's Province. 
The coates w'^'' we presented the Sachims from His Majesty were kindly taken, and they also have 
sent His ISIa'^ some presents as tokens of their surrender, W^ Colonel Cartwright (we hope) will 
ere long deliver, with a more large and satisfactory relation. Having had successe in these 
Colonies to the full of our expectations, and hearing in every one of them some complaints 
against theMassachusets, and having intelligence of their actings and designes, & being as willing 
to use all means and helps to speed wel at Boston, as we were ambitious to have given His 
Majesty a good account of our whole employment, we did at the last by frequent and importunate 
letters prevayl with Colonel Nicolls to come to Boston to our assistance, w'^'' he did, just the 
day before the Generall Court mett. But our successe here not being auswearable to that we 
had in the other Colonies, we shall give an account of it by it selfe ; and subscribe ourselves 

Right Honorable 

Your most humble Servants 

Robert Carr 
Boston May ) George Cartwright 

27* 16G-5. ) Sajiuel Mavericke. 

To the Right Honorable 

S"- Henry Bennet Kn'. 

Principall Secretary of State. 

These humbly present. 

Vol. HI. 


Governor and Council of to the Constable of Portsmouth. 

[ TraJe Papers, Plate Paper Office. XVI. SI. ] 

Whereas informacon is given that contrary to the laws of this jurisdiction the inhahitants of 
your towne are summoned to meet together on the 13"" of this instant at eight of the clock in 
the morning These are in His jMa''*"' name to require you to wame all persons so assembling 
to depart home to their respective places, and in case any shall refuse or neglect obedience 
hereunto, the names of such persons you are to returne, with what else you shall do, under your 
hand, as you will answer the contrary at your perill. Dated in Boston July 12. 1G65. 
These for the Constable | 
of Portsmouth. f 

Governor and Council of Massachusetts to the King's Conun.issioners. 

[Trade Papers, Slate Offiee. XVI. SL] 


When you departed hence refusing to treat furtlier with the Gen' Court of this Colony, it 
was expected that according to your owne words, you would have ceased any further actings in 
this Colony, saying your business was done here, and that you would render an accoumpt to His 
Ma"^ of your negotiation with the Gen" Court, but contrary thereunto you have since been 
pleased not onely to give interruption unto the ordinary proceedings of the Court of Justice in 
Yorkshire, against the express command of His Ma"^ but also unto the people have reproached 
His Ma""^'' authoritie here settled, thereby stirring them up not onely to neglect thereof, but to 
actings against the same, contrary to their oathes and wholsom lawes here established. 

Wee have also seen your warrant dated the 10"" of this instant, directed to y* Constable of 
Portsmouth for the caUing of the people together. If yourselves please to peruse the letter 
lately come from His Ma"'= directed to Col. Nicolls and yourselves, you will find you are directed 
by His Ma''"" in a more orderly method then this that you observe, if that His Ma"" wisdom 
may be judge. 

Wee cannot but declare our sence of these your irregular proceedings and shall account 
ourselves bound to provide for the peace of His Ma"'^' subjects, against such unreasonable 
mandates, expecting tiiat His Ma"" tender care of the peace of his good subjects in this Colony 
will be attended by yow : remain. Gentlemen, 

Yo'' humble Servant 

Edwd Raw.son Secret. 
To the Hon"i^ Sir Rob'CarrKii'. ^ !„ ji^g ,,„„^^. „„a by order of 

(Jeorg. Cartwright, & |^ the Gov^ & Councel 

Samuel Mavericke Esq" 
His Ma"" Commissioners. 


Tli€ King's Commissioners to the Governor and Council of JIassachvsetts. 

[Trade Papers, State Paper Office. X\^. SI.] 


We have received a letter by your IMarshall subscribed by your Secretary-, so full of untruth 
& in some places wanting grammer construction, that we are unwilling to beleive it was peu'd 
with the knowlege and approbacon, though in the name and by the order (as is said) of the 
Governor and Comicel. 

Though it was great reason and high time for us to give over treating in privat with those 
who by sound of trumpet denied that authority which the King had over them, and by which 
we were to act ; yet neither that denying nor anything they can doe, can enervate the King's 
comission, or hinder us from obeying the King's comandes, as neare as we can. 

The fi.xing, nameing, and owning a Bound-house 3 large miles north from IMen-imack River 
about 12 j^eai-es together by the Corporacon of the Massachusets (alter the fixing of which 
Bound-house manj^ other patents were granted by the Council of I'lymouth & by the King) 
must necessarily determin the limitts of the said Corporacon, and answer all the false and 
fraudelent expositions of their Charter. Wee now let you know our judgments that you may 
see how much those that pen'd that letter were mistaken, though for some reasons we will not 
publish it as our decree. The last letter wee received from his Majestie was the ground of that 
warrant we sent to Portsmouth and of those we sent to severall other townes. His j\Ia''^' 
comands are and shall be our directions ; when we are convinc'd of an errour we shall be ready 
to acknowledg & mend it ; but shall not conceme our selves with your sence in this, who have 
already palpably (and we feare wilfully) misconstrued too many of His Ma'"''' gracious letters 

The duty which we owe to God, to the King, and to all his subjects, constrains us to perswade 
you not to sutfer yourselves to be so much mislead by the spirit of independency. The King 
did not grant away his Soveraigntie over you when he made you a Corporation. When His 
Ma"'' gave you power to make wholesome lawes and to administer Justice by them, he parted 
not with his right of judging whether those laws were wholesom, or whether justice was 
administred accordingly or no. When His Majesty gave 5'ou authoritie over such of his 
subjects as lived within the limits of your jurisdiction, he made them not your subjects nor 
you their supream authority. That prerogative certainly His Ma''"" reserved for himself and 
this certainly you might have seen, if ambition and covetousness or something as ill, had not 
darkened both your eyes. 

Remember we pray you seriously that the pardon you so much pretend to from His Ma"'' 
clemency (in his letter of June 16G2) was promised to you on condicon of being for the future 
his good subjects, which must necessarily imply obedience. Striveing to grasp too much, may 
make you hold but a little. 'Tis possible that the Charter which you so much idolize may be 
forfeited, and it may probably be supposed that it hath been many waj-s forfeited ; untill you 
have cleared yourselves of those many injustices, oppressions, violences, and bloud for which 
you are complained against, to which complaints you have refused to answer ; or untill you have 
His Ma"'' pardon, which can neither be obteiued by nor bee effectuall to those who deny the 
King's supremacy. 

The deserved punishm' and destruction of some, those who of late made use of the King's 
authority to oppose His Ma"" power, and raised armes and fouglit against His Ma"' and yet 


pretended the defence &- safety of the King, we tliink might deterr all from hroaching or acting 
according to such illusive and destructive sophismes. 

Many of your actions, and the warrant sent to the Constahle of Portsmouth July 12. 1605. 
give us just grounds to feare that, if you iiad power, you would try your success the same way. 

Gentlemen. Remember we pray you that you profess yourselves to be Christians and 
pretend to be of tlie best sort. Pray make it appeare that you are so, by your obedience to the 
Kings authoritv, by your peaceableness towards your neighbours, and by your justice amongst 
yourselves ; wiiich are Christian virtues ; that men may see your good workes, and then &'c. 

The other Colonies have set you so many good examples, even that of Road-Island, one whom 
you have so long despised and disowned, and now lately derided for their submission to His 
Ma''". The dangerousness of those wayes you are in hath extorted thus much from us at 
present, for caution : but the particulars of that letter we reserve to be examined in an other 
place. In fine, we desire and in His Ma"" name require you, not to contradict those orders 
which we make by vertue of His Ma'"" Comission, nor to disturb the peace and quiet of those 
whom we have taken under His Ma"" government, nor to molest those who, in obedience to 
His ^la""' authority, have observed any warrants made by us ; and we assure you that as you 
approve yourselves His Ma"''' good subjects, we shall approve ourselves your reall friends, ready 
to serve vou. 

R. C. 

From Piscataquay River ) G. C. 

Julij 1G° 16G5. j S. M. 

Upon receipt of this reply their Councell sent out warrants to 
several} townes in the Eastward parts, of the tenor of this 
following Copy. 

To the Constable of 

You are hereby required in His Ma"""' name forthwith to sumon your Deputy or Deputies 
already chosen tor the year, or in case they luu-e none, to assemble the freemen of your towne 
together and require them, by vertue of an order of the Councell dated 21"' instant, to choose 
and send their Deputy or Deputies to assemble at Boston on the 1" of August next at eight of 
the clock in the morning, to consult in Generall Court with the Magistrates, about the waighty 
occasions of the Colony. Hereof not to faile makeing your returne. Dated in Boston 21 
Julij 1065. 

By the Councell 

Edw. Rawson Sec^ 
As also to speed away the warrant 

annexed, to the Constable of 

Hast post hast 

Edw. Rawsox Secref 


3Ie-ssrs. Carr, Cartwriglit, and Mavericke to Sir Henry Bennet^ Secretary of State. 

[ Trade Papers, State Paper Office. XVI. SI. ] 


After the Court at Boston was ended (of which we sent you an account before) we went to visit 
the Eastern parts ; and first we past a tract of land laid claime to by Mr. Mason, who petitioned 
His Ma"= about it. His Ma""" referr'd it to S"' Robert jNIason and others, who made their report to 
the King ; all which Mr. Mason sent to Colonell Nicolls, whom he made his Attorney. This 
Province reaches from 3 miles north of Merrimack River to Piscataquay River, and 60 miles 
into the country. We find many small patents in it, & the whole Province to be now imder 
the usurpation of the Massachusets who once set up a bound-house 3 larg miles north of 
Merrimacke and owned it for above 12 yeares, 3'et since claimes all this and 60 miles more to 
the North to be within their patent. Col. Nicolls being bound to attend De Ruiters attempt 
against New Yorke and not being here, we left them as we found them, under the Massachusets 
government, though they were very earnest to be taken under His Maj"^^ government, as will 
appeare by their petitions which we have sent herewith. From Piscataquay eastward to 
Sagadahock and 120 miles into the country is another Province called Yorkshire now, by the 
IMassachusets under whose government we found it, formerh^ called the Province of Maine in 
the King's Charter by which it was granted to Sir Ferdiuando Gorges. The hihabitants of this 
Province were much troubled by the contests of the Massachusets and the Commissioners of 
Mr. Gorges, and being weary of the unjust and partiall actings of the Massachusets, & fearefull 
of the proceedings of the other, generally petitioned us to take them into His Ma''" more 
immediate government : which we did do, and appointing some to act as Justices of the Peace 
and to hold Sessions, wee discharged both the other from exercising any authority, untill His 
Ma"^' pleasure be further knowne, This hath already given such satisfaction to the people that 
they have petitioned His Ma"^ that they may for ever be governed by his commands, as will 
appeare by their petition, which also we have sent herewith. And thus we did, being assured 
that it was the best expedient we could use, both to procure the peace & quiet of that Province, 
and to end the difterences betwixt the two pretending partes, for the present ; leaving the fiuall 
determination to His Ma"^' wisdom. In this Province are 5 townes, Kittery, York, Wells, 
Scarborough and Falmouth. They build all by the sea side. Their townes are 5 or 6 miles 
long at tiie least, though they have but 30 houses in them, and those very mean ones too. If there 
be not better government established amongst them & more care taken of them, that Province 
will never be either well peopled or well cultivated. The places beyond Sagadahock were 
given to His Royall Highness by His ]Ma"' yet as Col. Nicolls desired, who could not attend to 
go himself, we have appointed some to govenie them for the present, as there was great need. 
Upon 3 Rivers, the east of Kennebeck, Shipscot, and Pemaquid, there are 3 plantacuns, the 
greater hath not over 20 houses, & they are inhabited by the worst of men. They have had 
hitherto noe govemm' and are made up of such as to avoid paying of debts and being punished 
have fled thither : for the most part they are fishermen, and share in their wives as they do in 
their boats. 

Wee were up within Piscataquay River July the 9"" when we received His Ma"" Ire of 
January 2S"'. There being an excellent harbour, larg & safe, and 7 or S ships in it, and gi-eat 
store of masts, we sent warrants to 4 towns upon that River, with an intent to have gotten that 


harbour fortilird hv tlifiii ; but the Massachusels sent a proliibitiou to them ami a letter to us, 
by their Marshall, which put a stop to our endeavours. This place we thinl-L deserves tbrtiiieiug 
as much as any place in New England. 

We are tould by some of themselves that they liave appointed a Generall Court to be on 
Auii-ust 1*' to consider iiow to niannag tlieir opiiosition, for that they intend to maintain the 
bounds of their patent as far as tliey have strt'atcht tiiem, and to suil'er none to make warrants 
or orders within the same but themselves, and to justifie their own wayes for admitting Church 
members, and free men, though the King write never so often to the contrary. Some few 
exceptions the}' make, as acts of their favor, to gain some to their partie, and to serve to delude 
the King with a show of complyance ; for if writeing will serve the tume ( as they suppose it 
will ) they can keep the business in agitation, imtill the King and all his Secretaries there and 
all his good subjects here, be weary of it ; If nothing of greater consequence make them to let it 
fall, which they hope may happen ; and that, if His Ma"^ do not take some speedy cource, 
they who have declared their judgments against them will be undone ; as also all those who 
have petitioned for any redress ; and that it is the case of the loyall party here, as not long ago 
it was in England, though they be two for one, yet they are so overawed that they cannot help 
themselves ; that both the readiest and surest way is, for His Ma"'^ to take away their Ciiarter, 
which they have severall ways forfeited, which King Charles 1"' was about to do a little before 
the Scotish war in 1636 or 1637. And if His Ma"' will assure the people they shall not be tyed to 
religious ceremonys, the generallity of them will be well contented : but this without a visible force 
will not be effected. This advice we have had from them, and this indeed is our owne opinion. 
We have heard severall say, though they do wish that the government was otherwise, yet they 
had rather suffer as they doe then to take up amies against them. And indeed without this 
course it will be impossible for the King ever to attain those two ends mentioned in our private 
instructions. If His Ma'""' should now let these people rest, haveing so much declared tiiemselves 
against his authority over them, those that are well affected will never dare hereafter to declare 
themselves ; besides all the otiier ill consequences which must necessarily follow. Those who 
have declared themselves loyall, are very much threatened, and in great feare, and have 
earnestly prest us to sollicit His Ma"'' for their speedy defence and safety, that they ma}' not be 
afflicted or ruined for shewing their loyalty. We therefore earnestly desire you to acquaint His 
Ma"'= with tlieir desires in this, as also of haveing their children baptized and themselves 
admitted to tlie Lord's Supper. If anything be here wanting, we hope it may be supjilyed by 
Col. Cartwri^hts relation ; and subscribe ourselves 




•JC)" KiOo 

•' A CO 

|,y of 

a letter sent 1 

.y til 

V" Col. 


vvriii-ht went f^ 

or Ki 

i(. c. 
G. C. 

S. M. 

Coiiiiii" to iNf Secretarv Benet, 


Colonel Nicolls to the Secretary of State. 

[ Trade Papers, Slate Taper Office. XVI. SI. ] 

New Yorke July the 31« — 65 
Right Hon"'^ 

I should be very sorry to give y"' L'^p the least cause of offence for any neglect of mine ; I could 
not foresee nor prevent the losse of my letters in the Elias. The Martin carried the full accounts 
to my Lord Chancellour and M'' Coventry of all matters contained in mine to yo' L"*? except 
onely those inclosed papers, the originalls whereof were then remitted to y' Lp wherein yo"' Lp 
will finde by w* degrees and steps the business of the surrender was managed, how farre I was 
single in the treaty, and the conclusion thereof managed by the Commissioners appointed. The 
reason whj^ those of Boston and Conecticot were join'd in the treaty was because those two 
Colonies should hold themselves the more engaged with us, if the Dutch had beene over 
confident of their strength, and if upon their conclusions I comitted an errour iu consenting, I 
hope it is very pardonable. Since the Guyney fregatt I have wrote one more to yo' L"*?, but, in 
earnest, the uncertaine conveyances of letters, first from hence to Virginia or Boston and thence 
by strange hands into England, gives me much discouragement. This runns the same adventure, 
for we have had no ship or the least supplies directly out of England, since the surrender, 
which hath brought the souldiers and planters into very great wants of meane necessaries : 
though I will still have hopes that a place of this importance will fall into due consideration 
witli His Ma'y and R. ff. I hope the first ship of supplies will be accompanied with His jNIa"''' 
commands also relating to Delaware : 'tis pitty that place should be neglected, for the trade 
will be quite lost, and all the planters upon the River goe naked if not supplyed. At present all 
their provisions and maintenance for a foot Company are sent upon my accompt ; Sir R. Can- 
was persuaded iu the beginning of February, to remove thence, and hath ever since followed 
His Ma"^^ Comission, whereof, and of the whole transactions in the Colonies an accompt is sent 
to y"' L""? by Coll. Cartwright, who I suppose may be now at sea. I have, according to His 
]^[f^ties comand sent a copy of his Ma''^' letter to each Colony^ ; they have much lesse cause to 
apprehend De Ruyter than the privateers, and this place doth not apprehend either or both ; 
for we have no ships to loose, no goods to plunder but a ragged sort of a fort put into the best 
posture of defence possible, well fitted with cannon, no want of ammunition for the present, 
and as many souldiers as will not loose His Ma"" interest but with their owne lives. 

This being the present state of our condition, give me leave now to congratulate the long 
merited honour which report sayes His Ma'^ hath lately conferred ;* no servant y"" Lp hath in 
the world can more truly rejoyce at any promotion which can befall you than 

My Lord 
- .^; ■ • . ■ . Y"' L'^P" most obedient 

and ever aff'* servant 

R. Nicolls. 

Y-- Lp= of the 20"" of Jan. came to my hands the 22'^ of June ; 'twas sent from Capt. Carteret 
then at Virginia, but is here aiTived the ag"" of July. 

' 24. .Tune 1603 is the date of Gov. NiooUs' letters to the several Governors of N. England, for -nhieh see Gaieral Entries, 
I., 129, in Secretary's Office, Albany. — Ed. 

* Sir Henry Bennet was created Baron Arlington, 1-t March, 1664-5, which is probably the honor alluded to.— R. Le 


Colonel NicoUs to the Dulce of Yorh 

t New- York Papers, Board of Trade. I. 6. ] 

May it please y' K. Hi* 

That I Illlike this single address to youi- Royall hands by way of narrative of the present 
condition of these parts. Since your R' H* his most gracious letter of the ll"" February came 
to my hands I have not beene sparing either of Toyle or charges to put these parts into a posture 
of defence against the Dutch though at the same time I was engag'd in troubles with the 
Iftdyaus also att Fort Albany, insomuch that I found it necessar}^ to augment the number of my 
souldiers, and consequently many incident charges have arisen this summer, with all which I 
have strugled even to the utmost of my own monies and credit in the Country still depending 
on the promised supplies till now, that the winter is come and no ships appeare, the want 
whereof is a generall Calamity, but it falls most heavy upon me in particular who am not able 
to support so heavy a burden any longer. I doe not value the sight of my owne mine in point 
of fortune, but my reputation lyes at stake to the Country having so often ( in confidence of a 
supply ) assured the Inhabitants of the care which was taken for their releife ; who depending 
thereupon are now left naked to the rigour of the winter ; The whole trade, both inwards & 
outwards is lost for want of shipping, but the charge of foure Garrisons with all their fortifications 
and supplies falls upon mee. I most humbly therfore beseech Your R. H" to dispatch a speedy 
supply hither before we fall into extremities. Wee heare that Coll. Cartwright is taken at sea 
in his returne ibr England, by whom Your R. IP would have received full information of the 
present state & condition of these parts : I know his returne into N. England is very uncertaine, 
therefore I beseech Your R. H' to consider of some fitt person to succeed mee in this Govenimeut, 
knowing that men are mortall, neither is there any person qualified for such an employ heere to 
carry on the publick affaires when I am dead or recalled, if I were worthy to propose a person, 
it should be Harry Norwood, ' whose temper would be acceptable both, to the Souldiers and 
Country. My endeavours have not beene wanting to put the whole Government into one frame 
and policy, and now the most refractory Republicans cannot but acknowledge themselves fully 
satisfied with the method and way they are in. RIy resolutions are to send over to Your R' H' 
this winter a Copy of the Lawes as they now stand with the alterations made at the last 
Generall assizes, which if your R' H' shall be pleasd to confirme and cause them to be printed 
at London, the whole Country will be infinitely obliged to Your R' H" — We have had a Generall 
Joy and thankesgiving in these parts not onely for the signall victory over the Dutch, but for the 
preservation of your R' H' his person, to whose wisedome & courage the victory is attributed : 
the very newes whereof hath revived our spirits and is antidote both against hunger and cold, 
untill such time as your R' H' shall thinke us worthy of a neerer consideration to the releife and 
support of all your poore servants in which number I may truely ranke myselfe being 

Your R' ff 

his most dutifuU sen-ant 

November G5. 

' Tliis gentleman served under NioolU at the reduction of Xew Amsterdam, after which he returned to England. His 
leave to return is in General Entries, I., 62, and bears date 23d Xov. 1664. — Ed. 


Colonel yicolls to the Duke of York. 

[ New York Papers, Board of Trade. I. 7. ] 

\_Fraginent.'\ I must now descend to the particular occasion of giving Your R' H' this trouble, 
wherein My L'' Berkely and S'' G. Carterett are concern'd, who, (I know also) will be so just to 
mee as to have mee excus'd for manifesting cleerly my knowledge to Your R' H'. About 10 
dales past Cap : Bollen shews mee a letter from my L** Berkeley and S'' G. Carterett and therewith 
a gi-ant from Your R' H" to them for all the lands to the West of the Hudsons River as more fully 
may appeare in the said graunt, wherein is comprehended all the improoveable part of Your R' 
H' his Pattent and capable to receive twenty times more people than Long Island and all the 
remaining Tracts in Your R' H" his patent in respect not onely to the quantity of the Land but 
to the sea Coast and Delaware River the fertility of the soyle the neighbourhood to Hudsons 
River, and lastly the faire hopes of Rich mines, to the utter discouragement of any that shall 
desire to live under Your R' H' his protection. In short, I hold myself oblig'd to give Your R' 
H= this accoimt upon certaine knowledge having exactly considered and preferred the advance of 
Your R' H' his reputation and interest in those parts above all considerations or obligations 
whatsoever, and for my boldnesse I can at last but begg pardon. Neither can I suppose that 
My Lord Berkeley or Sir G. Carterett know how prejudicial! such a graunt would proove to Your 
R' H% but I must charge it upon Cap' Scott who was borne to worke mischeife as farre as hee is 
credited or his parts serve him. This Scot (it seems) aim'd at the same patent which Your R' 
H* hath, and hath since given words out that hee had injury done him by Your R. HS whereupon 
he contriv'd and betrayed my L"* Berkeley and Sir G. Carterett into a designe (contrary to their 
knowledge) of ruining all the hopes of increase in this Your R. H' his territory, which hee hath 
fully compleated, unless Your R' H" take farther order herein. Upon this tract of land several 
new purchases are made from the Indians since my coming, and three Townes beginning ; I 
gave it the name of Albania, lying to the west of Hudsons River, and to long Island the name 
of Yorkesh"' as to this place, the name of N. Yorke to comprehend all the titles of Yoiu- R' H'. 
Farre be it from mee to aggravate any thing beyond the bounds of a faithfull servant, for when 
it may conduce most to Your R. H. his service, I shall as freely surrender up all parts to Your 
R. H= his pleasure as it becomes mee to doe. I presume farther to propose a better and a more 
entire tract of Land worthy of great consideration to My L** Berkeley and Sir G. Carterett, 
which is that part of Delaware River, which is reduct from the Dutch, if it is not already disposd, 
if soe than that my L"* B. & S"' G. C. may have a hundred thousand acres all along the sea coast, 
which is a most noble Tract of land, but it will cost them 20000'" before it will yield a penny, 
and their childrens children may reap the profitt, great have beene the abuses of false reports, 
whereof I am now fully satisfied, and yet I hope to render a satisfactory account to Your R. H' 
by word of mouth, when it shall please Your R. H' to give mee Liberty, and that your affaires 
heere are upon such a foundation as will not be shaken by my absence, for the present so it is 
that every short removall of mine produces ill Effects, and in plaine words the Towne & Country 
cry out they will leave their dwellings if they can not stay mee from going to Boston, such are 
their apprehensions of a Dutch invasion. 

Vol. hi. 


Colonel KicoJls to the Duhe of York 

[ Fragment.'] Notwithstanding the higli and mighty tin-eats sent hither from the W. I. Company 
of Amsterdam, who doe not live in so much apprehension of the Dutch as wee doe in hopes of 
the arrivall at this Port of some English ships to the supply of Trade to the Country and to 
the releife of the necessities both of Officers and Souldiers, for whose accommodations in all 
places where they remaine in Garrison, I have beene more industrious than in all the other 
actions of my life to this day ; and what I have done towards the settlement of Lawes in the 
Government Mr. Coventry will shew your R. W. 

I jiave formerly rendred account of the decision and settlement of bounds betweene Your 
R. H' and the Patent of Conecticot made by His Maj"" Commissioners, and the Governour & 
Councell of Conecticott, wherein five Towues were relinquisht to Conecticott by virtue of 
their prsecedent graunt from His Ma"^ although the same tracts of land were given to Your R. H'. 
to the utter ruine of that Colony and a manifest breach of their late patent, which determination 
was a leading case of aequall Justice and of great good consequence in all the Colonies, and 
therefore wee were assured would be an acceptable service to Your R. H* though to the 
diminution of your bounds ; so that to the East of N. Yorke and Hudsons River nothing 
considerable remaines to Your R. H" except Long Island and about twenty miles from any part 
of Hudsons River ; I looke therefore upon all the rest as onely empty names and places possesst 
forty yeares by former graunts and of no consequence to Your R. H= except all N. England could be 
brought to submitt to Your R. H' his patent. The people of L. Island are very poor and labour 
onely to get bread and clothing, without hopes of ever seeing a penny of monies. From this Town 
is the great hopes of all the benefitt which can arise to Your R. Hs and if my former proposalls 
of encouragement meet wath a good answer, I may without boasting assure Your R. H" that 
within five yeares the staple of America will be drawne hither of which the brethren of Boston 
are very sensible but yet such is the meane condition of this Towne which I am sure is the best 
of all His Maj"" Townes in America, that not one souldier hath to this day since I brought 
them out of England been in a paire of sheets or upon any sort of bed but Canvass and straw, 
which I humbly beseech your R. H' will cause to be supplyd out of the King's stores in like 
manner as Dunkerque was or Tangier is. 

Messrs. Carr and Maverick to the Seoretary of State. 

[ Tra.Ie Papers, State P.-iper Offlee. XVI. 10.3. ] 


It being here rumored tliat Col. Cartwright is taken by a Dutch privateer hath put us into no 
litle confusion and rendred us incapable to give you so full an account of all our transactions 
in these parts, as we had done by him, by reason ( that if he be taken the originall papers of 
our transactions in these parts are, we feare, lost, together with many materiall petitions of 
severall persons to His Ma''"" and to ourselves ; Other writeings of concernment, & the maps of 


the severall colonies. Wee have made use of all opportunities to give from time to time, 
accounts of our proceedings ; but fearing miscarriage we hereby give you the trouble of perusing 
the inclosed papers, and this cursory recapitulation of what is in our present possession. 

You formerly had account given of vehat was done in the three Southern Colonies and ( we 
hope also you have rec'' one ) of what was acted with the Gen" Court of the Massachusets 
in Boston after our arrivall in these parts, till May 30"' for we sent you it by Capt. Harrison. 
Wee shall send you by the next opportunity the copies of all other that are wanting of our 
transactions with them: we have them not here, for we sent them to New York to Col. Nicolls. 

Here inclosed, amongst others, you will find a copy of our report to His Ma"'' concerning 
Duke Hamilton's patent ; of which, if by reason of Col. Cartwright's surprisall you have not 
the originall, you may please acquaint His Ma"'= 

When we were in the Southern parts at Warwick, John Porter presented us with a petition, 
( the copy whereof is amongst the others inclosed ) signifying his greivance ; whereupon we 
ordered him to make proof of his complaints, and gave him His Ma"" protection, till liis cause 
was heard by us &" We came from these parts to Boston, & stayed there till the accustomed time 
of their Gen" Court came ; at which time Coll. Nicolls haply came, together with us, to treat 
w"" them, concerning the conteints of His Ma"''* comissiou and privat instructions to us. 
We foimd them presumptions & refractory & could obtein nothing from them that might be 
satisfactory to His Ma"''' desires ; and their answers to the instructions of His Ma"* to us ( of 
which we gave them copies ) were delaytory and impertinent. Whereupon we of necessity ( as 
a Court of Appealls ) summoned the Governor and Company to answer to the action of M'' 
Thom: Dean & others ( according to His Ala"'* instructions) in the case of the ship Charles of 
Olleroon ; to which they not only refused to appear, but sent to us this inclos'd declaration, upon 
May 24"" 1665. by eight of the clock in the morning, an hower before we intended to have sate ; 
and proclamed it by sound of trumpet imder Col. Cartwrights chamber window, he being then 
lame of the gout at Captain Bredons, where we intended to have sit. A copy of our answer 
or conclusion with them you will see annexed to the same coppy of their declaration. 

At this Gen"" Court June 2"* they commissionated M' Simmonds and M'' Danforth to go into 
the Eastern parts and to oppose us in our proceedings in what we were injoyned to act ; as j'ou 
will see by the inclosed copy of their comission, a copy of which was given by them, directed to 
S' Rob' Carr, wee being in those parts, when they came to put ft in execution. Where being, a 
letter from His Ma"" came to our hands, signifying the war with the Dutch, & injoyning us to 
looke after the fortification of these parts against them. Whereupon we sent out our warrants to 
Portsmouth and other places in those Eastern parts, to that end and purpose. The Governor 
and Councell at Boston haveing notice by some one of their intelligencers, sent to the Constable 
of Portsmouth a proliibition of the people's meeting, and to us a letter ; copies whereof and of 
our reply, here inclosed you will find, as also a copy of their warrant to summons a speciall 
Gen°" Court thereupon to be held Aug : 1'' Thus far was sent by Col. Cartwright an exact 
account of all proceedings with the Massachusets & the other Colonies ; as you may please to 
see by the inclosed copy of the letter we sent by him to your honour. 

Since that time, be pleased S' to take notice 'that at the Gen"" Court then held, a warrant 
was sent by them to the Constables of Kittery in the Province of Mayne, a copy of which you 
have herewith. Wee haveing then setled the Eastern parts beyond Pascataquay River under 
His Ma"" immediate government till his pleasure was further knowne (by reason as you will find 
hereby of their disquiet and unsettled condicon otherwise) the Massachusets (still reteining their 


wonted opposition) commissionated INI"' Thomas Danforth, M" Eliaz Lusher, and M'' John 
Leveret to go thither and reduce them to their government. The inhabitants there having 
notice thereof, sent to us a letter (tlie copy whereof you will receive hereby) under the hands of 
Captain Champernown, M' Rish worth and M" Johnson, signifying their fear of them and 
desiring our direction what to do in the case. Whereupon S'' Robert Carr went thither waiting 
till they should come to exercise such their comission. In the mean time the Gentlemen in thg 
Eastward parts made preparations for their comming, as the copy of the letter herein inclosed 
fi-om INI'' Rishworth will give you to understand. These Comissioners came as far as Portsmouth, 
and S'' Robert Carr, being then at Kittery, hearing thereof, sent them a letter, a copy whereof 
is inclosed ; yet notwithstanding, they sent their peremptory summons dated Octob"" 10''' to one 
Abraham Corbett to appeare at their next Gen^" Court which fell out the next day being 11"" of 
Octob'' last, to answer a contempt (as they please to call it) for in a disorderly manner stirring up 
sundry of the inhabitants to signe a peticon or remonstrance against His Ma"" authority there 
setled &'. From hence they went to Dover to keep Court. The Eastern people were informed 
they would come in an hostile manner and therefor met at Kittery to have opposed them if 
they came over the River ; which was supposed one cause of their speedy return towards Boston, 
they going that night to Salisbury, being 22 miles thence. 

This being all for the present that we can infonue you of, we desire (if it have pleased God 
that Colonell Cartwriglit have escapt with his life & be in health) your Honor vvnll please shew 
him this account, and the inclosed papers ; that what is wanting, he calling it to mind, may give 
j^ou further infomiacon thereof. 

Before this could be dispatched, the Marshalls of Dover and Portsmouth brought M' Corbett 
hither a prisoner, having apprehended him by order of a warrant to them directed from the 
Gen"" Court sitting last October, and carried him before the Governour, who immediatly 
committed him to prison, there to continue to the next Gen^ Court, unless he procured bayle 
&■= as by the copies inclosed you may see. Several! sufficient Gentlemen were proposed for it, 
and by them refused. The person still remains confined, and we can receive no satisfactory 
answer, for present, why. Wee committ it to your judgment what to thinke of the matter, 
& hope you will signifie it to His Ma"'' remaining 


Your humble Servants 
(signed) Robert Carr 

Boston November ) Samuell Mavericke 

20. 10(55. j 

To yo'" Honorable Self. 


Sir Robert Carr to the Secretary of State. 

[ Trade Papers, State Paper Office. XVI. 105. ] 


Upon the report of Colonel Cartwriglits being taken by a Dutch privateer, I take the boldness 
againe to trouble you with a short account of what as concerning my owne business I wrote to 
you more largely by him, least that should not come to your hands. Which was, besides the 
generall account which with the other Comissioners I had given you, I gave you one of myselfe, 
to this purpose. There is a tract of land lying from Cowessit, South & South West, to a river 
called Sagatucket running into the sea about Point Judith in the Narraganset country, which I 
desire to setle upon. You know the King's promise to me, and his command that I should 
acquaint you with my Desire, and your token was that I should put you in mind that the King 
spoke to you, for me, in your owne house, at a private musicke. That litle which I had gotten 
at Delaware, & for which I had hazarded my life, I am told is given away, and one is now 
come to take possession of it. Wherefore I humbly pray you to assist my sonne that I may 
have this land above mentioned, granted to me by patent. If His Majesty have not disposed of 
Delaware and if he please to keep it in his owne hands, it will make a very convenient place of 
tradeing for the use of the King's Province, as also the Eastern parts, being under His Ma''" 
owne governm' will be very beneficiall in a short time, in regard it is well stored with the best 
masts and ship timber ; which otherwise will be destroyed ; and if the King would satisfie the 
pretenders to the severall small patents therein, some other wayes, as it is the only desire of the 
people to be freed from them and to be under His Ma'"''^ imediate goverimi' as will appear by 
their peticon sent by Colonel Cartwright. iVlso the people in the Eastern parts were very 
desirous that I should be their Governour, and would have altered their peticon to the King, 
but Col. Cartwright could not stay, who can give you a further account then I can by writing. 
If the King will take these Provinces imder his owne governm' I shall serve His Ma''' as 
faithfully as any he shall set over them ; and I hope you will acquaint His Ma"' with it, & 
stand my friend at this distance. 

Sir, after we from hence had dispatched a letter to you by Capt. Thirston dated of Nov"' y' 
20"" last conteining many copys of transactions here &■= came the inclosed copy of the peticon 
of Wells Court, to my hands, the originall whereof, as I remember, was sent by Colonel 
Cartwright. Also I going to visit M"' Corbet in the prison of this towne, about his bailement, 
was presented with a peticon from one Hoare, the which is here inclosed. So that by this you 
may in part see the greivances of His Ma''" subjects here. If it have pleased God that Colonel 
Cartwright did arrive safe, he can let you heare of more of the like nature. I wish that His 
Ma"' would take some speedy course for the redresse of these and the like innormities, and for 
the suppression of the insolencies of these persons here. 

Be pleased Sir to be a friend to me concerning the conteints of the inclosed to Colonel 
Cartwright, which I have left open tb your perusall. The reason is something hath been ( as I 
am informed ) maliciously reported concerning me, which hath come to His Ma"'' hearing & 
rendered His Ma"' displeased with me ; the which I doubt not but to cleare myself of, and thereupon 
have presmned to be so far bold & troublesome to His Ma"' as to send a letter to be presented 
unto him about it ; the inclosed is a copy of it. If it have pleased God that Col. Cartwright be 


taken, and you please to pardon nie for the giving you the trouble of presenting the inclosed (in 
his stead ) to His ISIa"^ you will inlinitely ingage me in thorough performance of what is my 
duty and service to His Ma'"" and by some reall service acknowledg my selfe. 


Your honours faithfull Servant 
Boston Decenib. ] Robert Carr. 

5. IGGo. j" 

Sir. Although in the letter abovementioned sent to you by Thirston, I, with iSr ^lavericke 
gave you a particular account of what was acted by us since the time of the Massachusets Gen=" 
Courts proclamation by sound of Trumpet to that present time ; by sending you thereinclosed 
the severall copies of materiall concerns ; notwithstanding I thought it not amiss to send you 
here inclosed the origiuall letters from some of the Gentlemen in the Eastern parts, together 
with one that came to my hands since we sent the afore mentioned letter, that you may see in 
part what we more fully therein mentioned, concerning the precipitate actions of the Gentlemen 
of the Bay of the Massachusets government. I shall need say no more in this postcript at 
present then I have said above, but that I am 

Your Honours 

Faithfull Servant 

Robert Carr. 

Hf'poii of the I\inij\s' Commissioners concerning 3Iassac7iusefts, d\ 

The Colony of y'' Massachusetts was the last and hardlyest perswaded to use His Ma"" name 
in their forms of Justice. 

In this Colony, at the first coming over of y" Comissioners, were many untruths raised and 
sent into other Colonies, as that y* King had sent to raise 5000i£ yearly for His Ma''" use, &'' 
Whereupon Major Hathorne made a seditious speech at the head of his Company, and the late 
Governour another at their Meeting house in Boston, but neither of them were so much as 
questioned for it, by any of their Magistrates. 

The Comiss" visited all other Colonies before this, hopeing both that y* submission & 
condescention of y"" other Colonies to His Ma"*"" desires would have abated the refractoriness of 
this Colony, which they much feared ; and that y^ assistance of Colonell Nicholls (whom they 
expected ) w^ould have prevailed much. But neither examples nor reason could prevaile with 
them, to let y* Comiss" hear and detennine so much as those particular causes ( M"' Deane's 
and y' Indian Sachims ) which y'' King had coraanded them to take care of, and to do justice 
in, & though y' Comiss" ( who never desired that they should apjjcar as delinquents but as 
Defendants either by themselves or by their Attorneys) assured them that if they had been 
unjustly complayned of to His Ma"'' their false accusers should be severely punished and their 
just dealing make knowne to His Ma""" and to all the world ; yet they proclaymed by sound of 
trumpet, y» y" Generall Court was the Supreamest Judicatory in that Province, that y° 



Comiss" pretending to hear appeales was a breach of their priviledges, granted them by the 
Kings royall father & confirm'd to them by His Ma"" owne letter, and tliat they could not permit 
it. By which they have for the present silenc't about thirty petitions which desired justice 
against them, and were all lost at sea. 

To elude His Ma"" desire of their admitting men civill and of competent estates to be free-men, 
the}^ have made an Act whereby he that is 24 yeares old, a housekeeper, and brings one certificate 
of his civill life, another of his being orthodox in matters of faith, and a third of his paying ten 
shillings (besides head-money) at a single rate, may then have liberty to malie his desire known 
to y" Court, and it shall be put to y* vote. 

The Comiss" examin'd many townshipps & found that scarce three in a hundred pay 10' at a 
single rate ; yet if this rate was generall it would be just ; but he y' is a Church-Member, 
though he be a servant and pay not 2'' may be a Freeman. 

They will not admit any who is not a member of their Church, to y'= Comunion, nor their 
children to baptisme yet they will marry their children to those whom they will not 
admitt to baptisme, if they be rich. They did imprison and barbarously use M'' Jourdain for 
baptizing children ; as himself complain'd in his petition to y* Comiss". Those whom they 
will not admit to y= Comunion they compell to come to their sermons by forcing from them 
five shillings for every neglect ; yet these men thought their ovsti paying of one shilling, for not 
coming to prayers in England was an insupportable tyranny. 

They have put many Quakers to death, of other Provinces, (for which also they are petitioned 
against.) First they banish't them as Quakers upon pain of death, and then executed them for 
returning. They have beaten some to jelly, and been (other ways) exceeding cruell to others ; 
and they say the King allowes it in his letters to them. Indeed they have misconstrued all the 
King's letters to their owne sence. They yet pray constantly for their persecuted bretheren in 

They have many things in their lawes derogatory to His Ma"" honour ; of which y'= Com" 
made a breviat and desired that they might be altered ; but they have yet done nothing in it. 
Amongst others, who ever keeps Christmas Day is to pay Five Pounds. 

They caused at length a Mapp of their Territories to be made, but it was made in a chamber 
by direction and guess. lu it they claime Fort Albany, and beyond it all the lands to the South 
Sea. By their South line they intrench upon the Colonies of new Plymouth, Rode Island, and 
Conecticot ; and on the East they have usurped Captain Mason's and S"' Ferdinand Gorges 
patents & said that y= Comiss" had nothing to doe betwixt them and M"^ Gorge, because His 
Ma"^ comanded them either to deliver possession to M' Gorge or to give His Ma"^ reasons why 
they did not. 

The Comiss" being at Piscatoquay when they receaved His Ma"" letter which comanded 
them to see the Harbours fortified &'' sent their warrants to fower towns upon that river, 
requiring them to meet at such a time and place to heare His Ma"" letter read ; one of these 
warrants was sent post to Boston, from whence two Marshalls are sent by the Governor and 
Councell with another warrant to forbid the townes either to meet or to do anything comanded 
them by the Com" at their utmost perills, and withall sent an unbeseeming letter to y' Comiss", 
both w'^'" letter and warrant were lost at sea. 

Colonell Whalley and Goff were entertained by the Magistrates with great solemnitv and 
feasted in every place ; after, they were told they were Traytors, and ought to be apprehended. 
They made their abode at Cambridge untill they were fumisht with horses and a guide, and 


sent awav to Newhaven for their more security. Captain Daniell Gooking is reported to have 
brought over, & to manage their estates ; and the Comiss" being informed that he had many 
cattle at his fanne in y* King's Province, which w^ere suspected to be Whalleys or Goffs, caused 
them to be seized for His Ma"*" use, till further orders. But Capt. Gooking standing upon the 
priviledge of their f'liarter niid refusing to answer before y^ Comiss" as so, there was no more 
done in it. C'ajit. J'icrce, who transported Whalley and Gofi'into New-England, may probably 
say something to tlieir estate. 

They of this Colony say that king Charles y'' First gave them power to make lawes and 
execute them, & granted them a Charter as a warrant against himself & his successors, and that 
so long as they pay the fifth part of all gold and silver oar which they shall get, they are free to 
use their priviledges granted them, & that they are not obliged to the King, but by civihty. 

They hope, by writing, to tire the King, the Lord Chancellor and y'^ secretaries too ; seven 
yeares the)' can easily spin out by writing, and before that time a change may come. Nay, 
some have dared to say, who knowes what y'' event of this Dutch warr may be ? 

This Colony furnished Cromwell with many instruments out of their Corporation and their 
Colledge ; and those y' have retreated thither since His Ma'"" happy returne, are much respected 
and many advanced to be Magistrates. They did solicit Cromwell by one M"' Weusloe to be 
declared a Free State, and many times in their lawes stile themselves this State, this 
CoMON- WEALTH, & now belcivc themselves to be so. 

They demand what taxes they please, but their accompts could never yet be seen. Some 
few soldiers they keep at their Castle. The Governor hath a hundred pound yearly, every 
Magistrate i'30. ^"^ 

They convert Indians by hiring them to come & lieare sermons, by teaching them not to 
obey their heathen Sachims, and by appointing rulers amongst them, over tenns, twenties, 
fifties &■=. The lives, manners, & habits, of those whom tJiey say are converted cannot be 
distinguished from those who are not, except it be by being hired to heare sermons, which the 
more generous natives scorne. 

This Colony which hath engrossed the whole trade of New England, and is therefore the 
richest, hath many towns, but not one regularly built within its just limits ; w'^'' y^ Comiss" find 
to be Seconnet Brook on y* South \¥est and Merrimack River on the North East, and two right 
lines drawn from each of those two places till they come within twenty miles of Hudsous River ; 
for that is already planted and given to His Royall Highness. Boston is y" cheif towne in it, 
seated upon a Peninsula in the bottom of a Bay, which is a good harbour and full of fish. It 
was fortified this yeare 1665 with two Block houses. They had before a castle upon an Island 
in the roade, where shipps must pass about five or six miles from the towme. Their houses are 
generally wooden their streets crooked, with little decency & no imiformity and there neither 
dayes, months, seasons of the yeare, churches nor inns are known by their Englisli names. At 
Cambridg they have a wooden coUedg, and in y* yard a brick pile of two bayes, for the Indians, 
where y' Comiss" saw but one. They said they had three or four more at schole. It may be 
feared y' this colledge may afford as many schismaticks to y' Church, and y" Corporation as 
many rebells to y= King, as formerly they have done, if not timely prevented. 

In this Colony too, the King hath very many loyall subjects, who petition'd their Generall 
Court, at His Ma"" first coming in, for the owning of His Ma"° and now lately for complying 
with His INIa"" Comiss" but have had neither answer nor good look since. They are sorry that 
so few ( for there are scarce above eight of the most factious ) should carry on so strong a 


faction, yet they are so overawed that they can do nothing to remedy it. They only say, that 
it is now with them as it was with the King's party in Cromwell's time. One of these was 
derided for being so civill as to accompany one of the Comiss" from y* town where he lived to 
Boston, and others of Boston derided those of Rode Island for having yeilded so much to y^ 
Comiss"'^ In Boston lyes ten iron guns brought from y' French fort taken in Cromwells time, 
which would do well at Piscatoquay to defend the mouth of that River where the masts are 
laden, if they be the Kings. 

On September 10. 1661 they published by order of Court, a paper to deter and affi-ighten all 
from making any complaints to the Comiss" 

The comodities of y* Countrey are fish w'^'' is sent into France Spaine and y^ Streights, 
pipe-staves, masts, firr-boards, some pitch and tarr, pork, beif, horses and come ; which they 
send to Virginia, Barbados &'' and take tobacco and sugar for payment, which they (after) Send 
for England. There is good store of iron made in this Province. Their way of goverment is 
Common-wealth-like ; their w^ay of worship is rude and called Congregationall ; they are zealous 
in it, for they persecute all other formes. . 

Colonel KicoUs to Lord Arlington. 

[ New England, I. SST. ] 

My Lord. 

After a long expectation of His Ma^" further directions towards the settlement of Delaware 
River for which I heare not of any patent yet graunted, till w'^'" time it must and hath remained 
under my care and to my great charge with all the inconveniences which usually attend on the 
want of necessaryes to souldjers & the little probability of paying the arrears to all the poore 
othcers and souldy" in this expedition, after the full performance of the worke to which they were 
implored, unlesse His Ma"^ will most gratiously looke up [on] us as men devoted to act & suffer 
whatever is possible for his service, in wliich wee have now spent two full yeares. This expresse 
will come to your Lop= hands by M"' Stocke, to whom, as recomended first by j'our selfe, I gave 
a colours, & next for his owne meritts I have made him Comissary, in both which capacityes 
bee hath served His Ma"^ faithfully & prudently ; to whose report I may referre your Lo? and 
shorten my discorse of the scituation & interest of that River, well knowing that my Lord 
Baltimore can never make good his pretences within twenty miles of any part of the River by the 
lines mentioned in his patent ; and that His Lo^ may not mislead His ]Ma"= with many and faire 
wordes, I take the boldnesse to offer that in all patents where the variation of the compasse in 
point of latitude is not expres't, a reall and strict difference may bee justly argued and proov'd 
to the variation of a degree & a halfe in these parts from England. My Lord it hath pleased 
His Roy all Highnesse to grant by indenture to my Lord Berkeley and S'' George Carteret 
(amongst other tracts of inevitable prejudice to this Colony) all the East side of Delaware 
River. My humble conception & certaine knowledge directs me to informe IV Lo? that by the 
unskillfullnesse of the informers the West side of Delaware River now seated with Sweeds, 
Finns, and Dutch, is so crush'd between the Lord Baltimore's Patent on y' West side, and the 
Lord Berkeley's indenture on the East, that the present inhabitants cannot possibly subsist in 
Vol. ni. 15 


so narrow a conipasse. In discharge of my duty to His Ma"' I cannot but informc Yo'' Lop that 
it' some course bee not taken to rectify these great, IS'ew Yorke, Delaware and the 
Lord Berkeley's interest will destroy each other ; but if His INIa"' & His Royall Highnesse shall 
thinke titt to graunt to the Lord Berkeley S" George Carteret and their associates all that tract 
of land to the West side and East side of Delaware River which was recovered to His Ma}'" 
dominions from the hands ol' the Burgemasters of Amsterdam, which was twenty miles distance 
from each side of the River, I make no doubt but that all interests will bee fully preserved, and 
both planters and trade flourish in that & this Colony. 

My Lord as to the general! interest of this His Royall Highnesse his Colony, I have wrote to 
His Royall Highnesse, my Lord Chancello'' and M" Coventry; yet in regard the inhabitants (at 
least three parts of foure) being Dutch, (though now His Mti''" subjects as native English) have 
beene seated here divers yeares as a factory, and their estates as well as relations interwoven 
with their correspondents and friends in Holland, unlesse His Ma*'' pleaseth to graunt them 
some extraordinary infranchisement, the sudden interruption of their factory w"" Holland will 
absolutely destroy all the present inhabitants, who (setting aside the innate love to their country 
in this time of warre after so sudden a change) will proove better subjects then wee have found 
in some of the other Colonyes, and with a moderate permission both for time and trade, vAnll 
support this government better then can be reasonably expected from new comers of o" owne 
nation, who at first (as wee find by experience) are blowne up wdth large designes, but not 
knowing the knacke of trading here to difl'er from most other places, they meet with 
discouragements and stay not to become wiser. My Lord by these enclosed papers the copyes 
of our transactions at Boston, the originalls whereof were sent and taken with Colonell George 
Cartwright, His Ma"' will read the sophistry of the Massachusetts, untill such time as wee did 
presse them to a positive obedience, and then they do unmaske themselves. Wee did parcell 
out His Ma"" instructions to gaine one point after another from them, & did deliver them in 
writing, with a promise from them to cause the whole to be printed for the information of the 
people; but they neither have or will publish any parts of the whole, except their furious 
Proclamation. They & all the other Colonies are at a stand to see what reproofe His Ma"' 
will send over, for we heare that Colonell Cartwright was put ashore in Spaine and I hope 
hath beene so happy as to give His Ma"' a particular verball account, for bee is well able to 
make an exact relation, Sir Robert Carr is now here and transmitts divers other papers, of later 
transactions, to Yo' Lop. M'' Mavericke is still at Boston with some few of his old friends. 
Though Sir Robert Carr for private ends did not answer the just expectation from him, yet hee 
hath upon better consideration serv'd His Ma"' in following his comission ever since to the best 
of his skill and faculties ; whereof Colonell Cartwright hath had experience. 

I dare not presume to find out a way to bring dovpne the pride of the Massachusetts, because 
the matter is long since before His Ma"' yet to mee it is evident that the scituation of this place 
(with the premises thereunto relating considered) will withdraw in short time most of their 
trade hither, where I have begun to sett up a schoole of better religion & obedience to God & 
the King, from which small beginnings a reformation may proceed, if it shall please God to 
blesse my endeavo". 

My Lord I must heartily begg yo"' favo"" that a speedy consideration bee taken of the necessityes 
both of the sould" and countrey. For myselfe I am utterly ruin'd in my small estate and creditt, 
&, which is worse, without very great supplyes I shall not bee able to secure or make an honest 
defence of His Ma"'" interest, should wee bee attack't by a forain force. In which case I tooke 


so much tryall the last yeare, of our neighbo" of Conecticott, that I cannot depend upon any 
better hands than those few which I brought with mee, who are also dispers't into foure garrisons, 
the nearest is a hundred miles distant from the center, the second a hundred and fifty miles, the 
furthest two hundred & fifty miles. My ignorance made mee bold to undertake so great % 
charge, which will become a much wiser man and of a more plentifull fortune. To this 
discourse I shall onely adde that the Comissioners have neither money nor creditt left to follow 
the trust reposed in them, from place to place, but now ride at anchor till the storme of their 
necessities is blowne over by His Ma''" favourable supply. 

INIy Lord I heare that the Privateers of Jamaica have taken severall islands from the Dutch, 
which are open and not defensible places, and afforded them good store of booty, but they have 
left a piece of service of the greatest consequence and difficulty, which is Curazaw, and if His 
Ma"' should not cause that place to bee taken, the thome will bee still left in the foot of all those 
Leward Islands, which may, by His Ma''" positive order either to my Lord Willoughby or the 
Governo'' of Jamaica, he remoov'd. To that Island all the negroes from Guiuny are brought, 
and sold to the Genoveses who are facto"^ for the Spanish Merchants. Were y' Dutch driven 
from thence, their trade in Guinny would not bee halfe so considerable as it is, and the 
Spanyards would soone court the Royall Company with pieces of Eight. 

I hope IV LoP will give a favourable interpretation to my good meaning for the informations 
of some may bee byassed w"" private interest ; mine are merely to serve His INIa"', wherein the 
performance of my duty will excuse my weaknesse : all w""*" is long knowne to Yo'' Lop however 
you have beene pleas'd to place me in a quality (wherein I shaU endeavour to remaine) of being 

My Lord 
Aprill the 9"' [1666.] ) Yo-- Lo?' most humble 

New Yorke. j and most faithfull servant, 

To the Lord Ariington. R. Nicolls. 

Colonel JSficolls to Lord Arlington. 

[New England, I. 295.] 

Right Hon"!' 

In consideracon of the good ser\ice done by Sir Rob' Carr, Capt. John Carr, and Ensigne 
Arthur Stock in reducing Deleware from the Dutch to His Ma"" obedience, the Commission"'' 
did thinke it reasonable (as far as in them lay) to conferre on them the houses and lands 
belonging to the Dutch principall Officers. I do therefore recommend unto you, by M'' Stock, 
that you would please to procure unto them a gi-aunt and confirmacon of the severall plantacons 
and lands heretofore in y' possession of those officers, that is to say, the Govemour Inniosa's 
Island to S"' Robert Carr, the Scout's House and land to Capt. Carr, and the Dutch Ensignes 
Peter Aldricks land to M' Stock ; of w"" they have had possession ever since the taking of the 
place. As to particulars I referr you to him for farther information, and remaine 

Right Hon"'' 

Your most humble Servant 
Fort James in New York ] Richard Nicolls. 

the 10'* day of April 1666 J To the Lord Arlington 


Lord Chancellor Clarendon to Colonel Nicolls. 

[New England, I. 341. ] 


I have never omitted any oportunity that hath been oifered me to write to you, and yet 
I have cause to beHeve by what I liave seen of yo" to other men, that many of mine have 
miscarried. 1 hope Colonel Cartret hath given you an accompt of all that hath passed since his 
arrivall, & how long it was before he arrived after many misfortunes, and then you will 
find that your friends here have not been umnindfall of you — I know not whether this letter 
will come to yo'' hands by a shipp to which the Duke hath given a passe and which is bound to 
go to JVew Yorke, or wiiether it will come by another shipp fraighted by some merchants with 
a good cargo, upon the Dukes desire, in which there will be some comodities sent upon the 
Dukes accompt for the benefitt of the soldiers, according to the advice wee have received from 
Colonell Cartret of what will be most wanted. I know not what to say to the demeanour of 
the Massachusetts Colony, only that I am very glad that the other Colonies beliave themselves so 
dutifully ; for which they will receive thanks from the King ; and what sense His Ma''^ hath of 
the behaviour of those of Boston you will find by tlie inclosed, whereof I suppose JVP Secretary 
INIorrice hath sent you the originall to be sent to those of Boston, one or two more being sent 
thither by other conveyances that they may be sure to have notice. And if they do not give 
obedience to it, wee shall give them cause to repent it. For His Ma''' will not sett downe by 
the affronts which he hath received. Though His Ma'>' thinks fitt to recall his Com" who have 
in truth done all they ought to doe, at least as mucli as ihey are suffered to do, yet it is not 
his purpose to recall any body whose businesse or inclination makes it convenient for them to 
recyde there ; and I lieare M'' Maverick resolves to sta}^ in tiiose parts. It will be necessary 
that some of you be here, when those of that Province from Boston shall arrive. I hope 
Colonell Cartret will be here, and then His Ma'^ will be able to put an end to all disputes. I 
suppose the same ship which brings this to you, will likewise carry what is sent by His Ma'^ for 
the use of the Commissioners in such comodities as upon advice with Colonel Cartret are thought 
most proper. I find your friends of Rowhampton believe that you have travelled long enough 
and that you intend shortly to returne home, and then I hope some others will receive 
encouragement by yo'' example to looke a little abroad, and imploy themselves in doing good for 
their Country. I wish you all happynesse and am very heartily 


Your affectionate Serv' 
(signed) Clarexdon. C. 

Worcester House 1 

13. Apr. 1G66. j 

Coll. Nicolls. 


Colonel Nicolls to the Commissaries at Albany. ' . • 

[ New York Papers, I. 85. ] 


Yo" of the IS"" Currant is receiu'd, the particulars whereof are taken into consideration-, to 
tlie first point I hope you will have no cause to be jealous that the Souldiers should disturbe the 
Trade with the Indyans, but your memory does faile you of w' past the last yeare for I was 
praesent and you cannot but know that all the trading was done and the whole Troopes marcht 
away before that two or three drunken Rascalls took two or three guns from the Indyans which 
were immediately restored. You need not to doubt of Capt. Bakers care to obserue my orders 
for the freedome of the Trade &'' and I wish you would doe the hke amongst the Burgers to the 

I am and euer was of opinion that every inhabitant ought to exercise his trade without 
molestation and whereas you are appointed to make such orders as conduce to the benefitt of 
the Inhabitants, it depends upon you to regulate the number of Bakers without excluding such 
as are already priviledgt, and yet it is worthy y" consideration to direct that all Bakers so 
priviledgt by j'ou should be constant Bakers, for the supply of the Towne in the winter as 
well as for the Trade in the summer, so that I referre the Request of Gerret Lansinck and Jan 
Jansen Vanderkell back to your discretions. 
To the 3" 

I perceiue you haue demurred the execution of my order against Cobus the Loper till he gaue 
you a particular new occasion, I expect your more ready complyance with my directions and 
that you doe not over much relye upon your owme sense and Judgements hereafter, except in 
cases wholly left to yourseules. 
To the 4"' 

Euery souldier ought to haue a blanket and som had bedding, for I cause them to be delivered 
for their use but if any haue imbezeld their accommodations it is a kind action of any Burger to 
helpe their necessities and I hope no such great burden as to become a grieuance of the 
Inhabitants howeuer your Intelligence from N. Yorke is mistaken for their are no souldiers 
quartered and accomodated in the Towne ; besides that the TowTie paies 200 guilder a weeke 
to the easing of those upon whom souldiers are quartered. I referr you to my last by Capt. 
Abraham in matters relating to the french. 
To the 5' . 

I t.aue newly receiued a Letter from Goveraour Winthropp who giues me hopes that by his 
and the Magistrates mediation with the Northern Indians, the Peace with the Maquais will be 
facilitated, some Mahicanders are at Hertford in consultation with others the Rivers & Northern 

Lastly I must tell you that some priuiledges which I gaue you when I was at Albany are 
either undervalued or not understood by yow, for beer is a Burger of this Towne who did profler 
50 Schepills of wheat to obtain liberty from mee to trade in Sewant and bread this sumer at 
Albany. This is all at present from 

Y-- aff'^ freind 
22"' June ) ..:... 

fort James j • ,. ^ 

To the Comissaries at Albany. 


Relation of the March of the Governor of Canada into New-Yorh. 

[ New-Tork Papers, I. 123. ] 

A Relation of the Governo'' of Canada his March with 600 volunteirs into y 
tcrritoryes of his Royall Highnes the Dulie of Yorke in America. 

Upon the 29"' X'"'"' last, Monsier Coarsell the Governour of Canada in Nova ffraucia hegun 
his march with neare GOO men, to seeke out their inveterate ennemyes called the Maliauke 
Indians in their owue country and forts, there to take reuenge upon them for the seuerall 
murthers and Spoyles which the Barbarians had for many yeares exercised in Cannada upon the 
French, and the Lidians of those parts even to the ruine of most, but to the insufferable 
discouragement of all those Inhabittants, who being taken alive were usually tortured and eaten, 
or burnt by the mauhaukes ; If not taken yet liv'' in perpetuall alarums to see their dvi'elling 
bowses burnt, their Cattell and come destroyed. All which powerfull arguments fm-nish't y'' 
french with heate enough to march over the ffrozen lake of Canada, lying in the 60"" degree of 
northerne latitude, and taking their tyme that the snow upon the ground was hard frozen (though 
in most places 4 foote deepe) made use of Indian snow shooes w"^*" hath the very forme of a Rackett 
tyed to each foote, wherby y*" body and feet are kept from sincking into the snow, and because 
it was not possible for horses to pass, or subsist in the snow, or for the soldiers to carry their 
necessary provisions on their backes, and had lesse expectation to meete w"" any releife in the 
vast wilderness, the Goueruo"" caused slight sledges to bee made in good number, laying 
provisions upon them, drew them over the snow with mastiff doggs, all these difficultyes put 
together impeded his march, and by the mistake of his guides hapued to fall short of the castles 
of the mauhaukes, and to take up his quarters or rather incamp upon the 9"" of February within 
2 myles of a small Village called Schonectade, lying w'^n the woods beyand fort Albany in y' 
territoryes of his Royall Highness, and 3 dayes march from the first castle of the Mahaukes. 

The French suposed they were then come to their designed place, and the rather because y' 
evening they did rancounter w"" a party of the Mohaukes who made appearance of retreating 
from the French," whereupon a party of 60 of their best Fusileers after them, but that small 
party drew the French into an Ambuscade of neare 200 Mohaukes planted behind trees, (who 
taking their advantage as it fell into their hands,) at one valley slew Eleauen French men whereof 
one was a Lieuten' wounded divers others, the french party made an hono'"able retreit to their 
body, w* was marching after them close at hand, w"^*" gave the Mohaukes tyme & opportunity 
to march offw"" the loss of only 3 slaine upon the place, & 6 wounded, the report whereof was 
soone brought to Schonecktade by those Indians, with the heads of 4 of the ffrench to the 
comissary of the village who imediately dispatcht the newes to Fort Albany from whence the 
next day 3 of the principle inhabitants were sent to Monsieur Coursell the Governo'' of Cannada 
to inquire of his intentions to bring such a body of armed men into the dominions of his Ma''= 
of Great Brittaine w>''out accquainting the Governo-- of these parts w"" his designes. The 
Governo^ reply" that he came to seek out and destroy his Enemyes the Mohaukes, without 
intention of visiting their plantations, or else molest any of his Ma'^'^' subjects and that had not 
heard of the reducing those parts to his Ma"" obedience, but desired that bee and his soldiers 
might bee supplied with provisions for their money, and that his wounded men might be 
sucoured, and taken care for in Albany ; To all which the Emissaryes freely consented & made 


a small but acceptable present of wine and provisions to liim, furtlier offering the best 
accomodations y"" poore \illage afforded, w"^ was civilly refiis'd in regard there was not 
accomodacon for his soldyers, with whom hee had marcht and campt under the blew canopye of 
the heavens full six weekes, but he prudently foresaw a greater inconvenience, if hee had 
brought his weary & halfe starv'd people within the smell of a chimney corner, whom hee now 
cold keepe from stragling or running away, not knowing whither to runn for feare of y* Indians ; 
The next day Monsieur Corsell sent his men to the village where they were carefully drest and 
sent to Albany, being seaven in number, the Dutch bores carryed to the camp such provisions as 
they had, and were too well payd for it. Especially peaz & bread, of w'^'' a good quantity was 
bought : y^ Mohaukes were all gone to their castles, with resolution to fight it out against the 
french, who being refresht and supplyed w"" the aforesaid provisions made a shew of marching 
towards the Mohaukes castles, but with faces about & great sylence & dilligence retura'd 
towards Cannada. 

Upon the IS"" of February, whether a Panick feare, some mutiny, or y' probabillity of the 
thawing of y^ lake, caus'd this suddein (w'='' the Indians call a dishono''able retreit) I cannot 
leame, but surely soe bould and hardy an attempt ( circumstances considered ) hath not hapned 
in any age. All w"^ vanisht like false fyer, & hath given new courage to their old enemyes y*" 
Mauhauks who by tlieir spyes hearing of y^ retreat of y'^ French pursued them back to the Lake, 
but the French making more speed to them from Canada, the Mohaukes did noe considerable 
prejudice to them onely tooke 3 one of w'^'" at his owti request they slew, not being able to 
march, the other they kept prisoners, they found 5 others dead in the way vdth hunger & cold, 
but according to their manner brought the crownes of their heads away, those who observed 
the words and countenance of Monsieur Coursell, saw him disturbed in minde that the King 
was Master of these parts of the country, where hee expected to have found the Dutch interest 
upennost saying that the King of England did graspe at all America, but hee did not beleive to 
see the Dutch the blasters ere long ; he enquired what Garrison or what Fort was at Albany, 
'twas told him a Captain and GO English soldyers with 9 peece of ordinance in a small fort of 
foure Bastions, and that the Cap' thereof Cap' Baker had sent for 20 men from another Garrison 
of the Kings at the Sopes, who probably might be arrived at Albany the same bower, thus finding 
his men tyr'd, the Mohaukes resolute, and something doubtfull, without tryall of the good will 
of the English Garrison, because y^ reports were strong that y^ French King & states of 
Holland were united against His Ma''" of England. Monsieur Coursell found it reasonable to 
returne home nothing effected, the 2 Prisoners taken by the Mohaukes in the retreat, tell them 
y' this summer another attempt will be made upon their Country with a greater force and 
supplyes of men, the truth or success of which I shall not now discourse upon having given y^ 
trew relation of what past from the 29"" of Decemb'. to the 12"' of February. 


" A Relation of the Governor 

of Cannada his March, with 

600 voluntiers, into the Ter- ' - ■ 

ritorys of his Highnesse the 

Duke of Yorke, in America " 


Colonel Nicolls to the Council of Massachusetts. 

I New England, I. 343. ] 


I have lately heard that His Ma^'" hath authorizd and required yow to reduce Canada to His 
Ma"" obedience ; therefore I thinke it my duty ( for severall respects ) to give yow advertisement 
of an opportunity which presents itselfe towards the facilitating if not wholly efliecting the 
worke at once ; for I i-eceived letters yesterday that the French were marching ( in number 
according to the Indians computation about 700 men) towards Albany. I presume they will not 
openly profess themselves enemies to us till they have either vanquisht the Mohawks or made 
peace with them. However I have strengthen'd my garrison in the Fort, to withstand their 
attempts. Hereof I liave also sent Govemour Winthrop an account & cannot imagine any 
reason to the contrary why so faire an advantage against the French, should be let slip, since 
His ftla''" directions therein are so positive ; & truly if from your Colony a speedy force of 
horse and dragoons not exceeding 150 would march and joine with a proportionable number of 
Conecticott Colony ; in all probability few of the French could retume to Canada, whose whole 
strength is now so farr ingaged from home, and by consequence the rest of the French will not 
be able to make any considerable resistance. The necessity of your speedy determination 
herein is so evident, that I shall not make use of other arguments ; onely assuring yow of my 
utmost endeavours to serve His Ma"* upon this occasion in the defence of his dominions ; not 
doubting but that the common safety is pretious to yow, although the danger at present more 
innnediately threatens this Colony. I remitt the consideration of the premises to your serious 
tlioughts, and remaine 

Your very aff "^ freind & servant 
July the 6"= 66 ] Richard Nicolls. 

Fort James in N. Yorke j 


Samuel Willis to Colonel Nicolls. 

[ New England, I. 345. ] 

Hartford July ll'^ 1666. 
Right Honourable 

Yours to our Govern'' dated .July S"" hath been by him imparted to us the tenth of this instant, 
& upon much debate and serious consideration of the case, we thought good to returne as 
followeth. Yo'' Hono''' consideration of o"^ multiplicity of occasions at this season is very 
certaine, our want of servants and help to inn our harvest is great, that all hands are fully 
improved ; so that we shall be attended with nmch difficulty to spare any men from our 
businesse ; yet wee shall study the publique safety ; but therein as the case is circumstanced wee 
finde noe small difficulty, viz' because the Mohawkes upon whome the French are now warring, 
have bin a long season inveterate enemies to the Indians round about us, which will in reason 
engage them w"" the French ( whoe are their great freinds ) against the Mowhawkes, and against 


us allso, if wee should warr w"" the French. Aud your Honour well knowes the hazzard of an 
intestine enemie. Your Honour allso ( as you writte ) hath so farr engaged w"' the Mohawkes, 
as to encourage them in the warr against the French, and notwithstandinge those treaties that 
have hin with the Mowhawkes for peace with the Indians about us, they yet with great force 
manage their warr with the sayd Indians, and they have very lately killed and taken nine or 
tenn of the sayd Indians, and yesterday there was a party of the Mowhawkes at Podunck ( a 
place between this towne and Whidsor ) whoe were discovered by the Indians, and as sone as 
discovered they fled. These things considered, (w"" the number of Indians that are round 
about us) makes it difficult to us to part with any of our strength from hence, untill there could 
be an agreement or at least a cessation of warr for som sett time concluded upon, between the 
Mowhawkes and our Indians. However for our owne and the pubHque safety, wee se we are 
called to sett ourselves in a posture of defence, and in order thereunto shall send forth our speciall 
order to require our millitary men in there respective townes to see their armes fitted for service, 
both horss and foot, & in readinesse for any spetiall occation. We are informed that it will be 
very difficult to pass to Fort Albany w"" a troope, the way is so bad ; but if we have occation 
we must pass as we may. Sir we are glad to hear of your Honours care for the supply and 
strengthening of your garrison at Albany it being the frontier. Yet we hope they will be in no 
danger of the French as long as the INIowhawks stand ; and propound whether it may not be 
good to let the French and Mowhawks try it out awhile, and if the Dutch can be kept from 
supplyeing of them, their necessities with the opposition of the Mowhawkes, will much weaken 
them & put them into so bad a condition that they may be farr easier dealt w"'all. We hope 
all the Colonies will be ready to attend their duty ; and w-e have this day sent to the 
Govemour and Couucill of the jNIassachusets to informe them of the motion of the French and 
to desire them to impower some in their tovsnies above us to joyne w"' us, if need require, both 
in Councill and assistance against a forraigne enemie ; they being in as great hazzard as your 
Hono" towne or ours ; they lyeing next Fort Albany. We have not farther to add but w"" the 
presentation and tender of our service to your Hono"' we take leave to subscribe our selves. 
Your Honours assured freinds and Hmnble Servants 

Samuel Willis 
■" r In the name of the Govern' 

CoU. NicoUs. and Assistants. 

Treaty of Peace between the Iroquois and Governor de Tracy. 

[ New-York Papers UI. A. 28. ] 

Articles of Peace demanded by Six Iroquois Ambassadors, Garakontie, Annonhouaraton, 
Gatienonties, Hotreoti, Hasendaientak and Gannontie of the Onnontague tribe as well in the name 
of the said Tribe as in that of the two superior Cayugas and Senecas, conjointly with Achinnhara 
of the Oneida Tribe in whose behalf, after he had adjoined himself to the Ambassadors, it was 
stipulated aud granted in the name and on the behalf of the Most Christian King by Messire 
Alexander de Prou\alle, Chevalier Seigneur de Tracy, Councilor of the King in his Councils, 
Vol. III. 16 


Lieutenant General of His Majesty's Arms both in tlie Islands and Continent of South and North 
America as well by sea as by land, hereunto sutHciently authorized and empowered by Letters 
patents granted to him by his Majesty in date the .... in presence of and assisted by 
Messire Daniel de Courcelles Councilor of the King in his Councils, Lieutenant General of his 
Majesty's Armies and Governor of Acadia, the Island of Newfoundland and of Canada and by 
Mtre Jean Talon, likewise His Majesty's Councilor and Intendant of Justice, Police and Finance 
of New France : — 

In the Name of God, the Creator of all, be it known to the whole Universe that tho' the 
former most Christian Kings of Glorious Memory had frequently with danger, trouble and 
expense sent their subjects to discover unknown Countries occupied by Savage Nations, 
Barbarians and Infidels yet with so little success that until the reign of the Most High, Most 
Excellent and Most puissant prince, Louis the fourteenth by the Grace of God, Most Christian 
King of Fi-ance and Navarre, their Majesty's Arms were carried only to the Island of Montreal, 
in the great river St Laurence ; but that God, in the reign of the said Lord the King, Louis the 
Fourteenth, sustaining by his mercy His Majesty's pious designs, strengthening his generous 
undertakings and blessing his Anns elsewhere victorious, opened to the French, his subjects, the 
road to the four upper Iroquois Nations and introduced into the Countries bordering on Lake 
Ontario the said French, as well to establish the name of Christ there as to subject to the 
dominion of the French the Indian tribes there inhabiting; the above named Ambassadors are 
not come to demand a new peace, not pretending that the first union of the Iroquois with the 
French is broken or interrupted, but only to supplicate the confirmation of the former by 
granting them the continuance of the same protection that they fonnerly received from his 
Majesty's Arms and from his subjects who have resided at Onontague for several years ; 
Whereupon it has been concluded and agreed upon as follows : — 


That in as much as the four nations of Onnontague, Cayuga, Seneca and Oneida most humbly 
supplicate the said Lord the King to bury, with the massacred French, the memory of all the 
wrongs, excesses, injuries, and violences which they perpetrated in war against them ; protesting 
that they did not want to employ their arms and turn their hatchets against them ; that they are 
even sorry for, and sensibly regret having done so, though they intended only to destroy the 
Algonquins and Hurons their mortal enemies, protected by the French arms ; the said Lord the 
King leaning much more to the side of clemency than to that of the punishment due to his just 
resentments, forgets and pardons the said Iroquois the said wrongs, excesses, injuries and 
violences ; And those Iroquois also forgive on their side the checks and offences they experienced, 
whether from the Hurons or Algonquins, subjects of the said Lord the King, or living under his 
protection, through infraction of the Treaties of peace formerly made between them, the 
massacre of their Ambassadors or by the retention of their presents without returning others of 
a like sort. 


That the Hurons and Algonquins dwelling to the north of the River Saint Laurence, from 
the Esquimaux & Bertiamistes in going up, even to the Great Lake Huron or Mer douce and to 
the north of Lake Ontario, shall not be henceforth disturbed in the- chase by the four Iroquois 
nations or troubled in their commerce going down to trade at Montreal, Three Rivers, Quebec 


or any where else, either by land in the woods, or by water in their canoes, on any pretext 
whatsoever ; the said Lord the King declaring from this moment that he holds them all not 
only under his protection but also as his proper subjects having been once acquired by his 
Majesty by right of subjection and vassalage ; so on the contrary, the said Iroquois Nations shall 
be obliged to assist them in all their wants, whether in hunting, in peace or in war ; and that 
the difierences and enmities which have existed between the said Algonquins and Hurons and 
between the Iroquois ceasing by the present treaty, there shall be a mutual friendship and 
assistance between all the said tribes who shall live fraternally for their mutual defence under 
the common protection of the said Lord the King. 

That the said Iroquois Nations having testified the respect and high consideration they 
entertained for the French name in the person of the man named Le Moyne, inhabitant of 
Montreal, subject of the said Lord the King, captured by them in War, whom they have carefully 
preserved and returned with the same care and in the same condition to his proper abode with 
another Frenchman their prisoner ; the said Lord the King will restore to them an Iroquois 
Woman, a captive of the Algonquins, who resides at Three Rivers, as he now does a Huron 
woman belonging to a refugee family at Seneca actually a Captive in the Huron fort at Quebec. 

That agreeably to their desires and ^amest prayers, two Black gowns (that is to say, two 
Jesuit Fathers) shall be granted them, one of whom shall succeed to the Charitable Charge 
which the late Father Le Moyne took of their Listruction ; that the said Iroquois shall in return 
entertain towards the said two Black Gowns the like sentiments of gratitude they testified 
towards the memory of said deceased Father, whose death they declared to have learned 
passing Three Rivers, wath great grief having even made a present to resuscitate him. 
Likewise that an Armorer be sent them next spring to repair their arms broken against their 
enemies, and a Surgeon to attend to their sick & wounded which they particularly desire and 
which the said Lord the King willingly gi-ants to testify to them not only his zeal for the 
advancement of Christianity & the Establishment of the faith, amongst them as well as their 
salvation by having them instructed in the principles and mysteries of our Religion, but also the 
benevolence and charity that induce his Majesty to furnish them temporal assistance so 
and useful to them against diseases, their domestic enemies and foreign attacks. 

That inasmuch as the four Iroquois Nations acknowledge the advantages they have derived 
from the union with the French and from the communication they had vdth them, when they 
had them in their habitations, and in expectation of the like they ask the said Lord the King to 
cause some French families to remove to Onontague, Cayuga and Seneca to settle ia their 
country, oflTering to aid them in their establishment and to sustain them with their power 
against those Tribes that would wish to oppose or retard it, his Majesty engages to send some 
thither next Spring along with the Ambassadors who are to bring back the ratification of the 
present treaty by the four nations, on condition that in each of these, fields shall be granted 
suitable for the erection of Cabins to shelter said families and to plant some Indian corn, to be 
furnished for seed, in exchange for such their provisions as shall be transported for that purpose 


by the French who will furnish the Iroquois tribes with some of these supplies ; that hunting 
and fishing shall be common to the French families, who besides are to expect from the Iroquois 
all the favorable aid and assistance that true brethren must render the one to the other. 


That in order to render the desired union of the Iroquois and French Nations the stronger and 
more stable ; peace the more firm and enduring and correspondence the more easy, there shall 
be sent from each of the four Upper Nations to Montreal, Three Rivers and Quebec two of the 
principal Iroquois families to whom fields, grain and Indian corn shall be furnished besides the 
privilege of hunting and fishing in conmion, which shall be granted them, and that for the 
purpose of cementing and more strongly confirming tliat peace often made and as often broken, 
and the better to engage the said Lord the King to continue his protection to the whole nation 
in general, to which this opportunity is presented to manifest its good intentions to hold the 
French not merely by the hem and the fringe of the garment, but to clasp them cordially around 
the waist. 


That upon the assurance given in the name of the four nations that they will not commit any 
acts of hostility on the Algouquins and Hurons, the hatchet of the said French, Algonquins and 
Hurons respectively will remain suspended as regards the said Iroquois Nation until tlie return 
of the Ambassadors with the ratification of the present treaty, it being well understood that as 
there are hunting and war parties of the Oneidas and Mohawks abroad, should tliese by 
accident or design attack the French, Algonquins and Hurons ( which God forbid ) the latter are 
permitted to repel force by force, and to have recourse to arms for the preservation of their 
lives without having their justifiable resistance ascribed to an inlraction of the treaty in 
consequence of the death or defeat of said parties. 


That as the ignorance of the Mohawks respecting the arrival of the French is inexcusable, 
the forts constructed and set out on the Richelieu river and in the vicinity of the said Mohawks 
settlement, being sufficient to apprize them thereof, they are also without excuse for not having 
sent Ambassadors to sue for peace, like the other Upper Nations ; that therefore this tribe alone 
siiall be excluded for tiie present from this treaty, the said Lord the King reserving to himself to 
include them should he think proper, when they will send on their part to sue for peace & his 

9th and last. 

That this present treaty of peace may continue sure, firm and inviolable and be fulfilled in 
all the parts and articles contained, treated, granted and stipulated therein, between JNIessire 
Alexander de Prouville, in presence of and assisted by as above, and the Six Iroquois Ambassadors 
aforesaid, it shall, after having been read in the Iroquois tongue, be respectively signed on the one 
side and the other to remain authentic and to be referred to in case of need; and its ratification 
on the part of the four Upper Nations shall be communicated within four Moons by the return of 
the same Ambassadors who being unable to sign have voluntarily pledged themselves to affix 
the distinctive mark of their tribes — The Bear,' the Wolf and the Tortoise, in presence of 

' The word " Bear " is omitted in the London, but inserted in the French copy, {Paris Doc. I.) which in many respects is 
the most correct. — Ed. 


Francois Le Mercier, Member, Priest and Superior of the Society of Jesus at Quebec, of Joseph 
Marie Chaumonnot also priest and member of the said Society, and of Charles Le Moyne 
inhabitant of Montreal, all Interpreters of the Iroquois & Huron tongues, who have signed as 

Done at Quebec the thirteenth December, One thousand Six hundred and Sixty five. 

Ratification Inj the Senecas of the preceding Treaty. 


On the twenty second of the month of May of the Year 1666, the Iroquois of the Seneca 
Nation beyond Onnondaga, having come down to Quebec to sue there for peace through ten of 
their Ambassadors named Garonhieguera, Sagaouichirtonk, Osendout, Gacliioguentiaxa, Hotigue- 
rion, Ondegouronton, Souendaouannen, Tchaougouechaouenion Honaquetati, Tehonneritaguenti, 
Tsohiahien, who after having communicated through the mouth of the Orator Garonhiaguera, 
their Chief, the subject of their embassy by thirty words expressed by as many presents, have 
unanimously demanded that having been always imder the protection of the most High, 
most Excellent & most puissant Prince, Louis the fourteenth by the Grace of God most 
Christian King of France and Navarre, since the French -discovered their Country, it might 
please his Majesty to continue it to them and to receive them in the number of his faithful 
Subjects, demanding that the treaty concluded as well for the Onnondaga Nation as for their's may 
have full force and entire effect for them, ratifying it on their part in all its points and articles, 
which were read to them in the Iroquois Tongue by Joseph Marie Chaumonnot, Priest and 
member of the Society of Jesus, named in the Huron language Hecton, adding, moreover, 
to all their said Articles that they protest to perfonn in good faith what they have proposed by 
their said presents, especially to send some of their families to Quebec, Three Rivers and 
Montreal to serve by their persons and wills as a more intimate bond under the orders of those 
who hold authority in this Country from the Said Lord the King, whom they acknowledge 
henceforth as their Sovereign ; Reciprocally demanding among other things that there be sent 
to their Country some french families and some Black gowns — that is, some Jesuits to preach 
the Gospel to them and to make known to them the God of the French, whom they promise to 
love and adore, with assurance that they would not only prepare Cabins in which to lodge them, 
but that they would moreover aid to construct forts to shelter them against the incursions of 
their common Enemies, the Andastaeronnons ^ and others ; And, that the present treaty 
concluded on their part in ratification of the preceding, may be stable and notorious, they have 
signed it with the differential & distinctive mark of their tribes after the said Lord the King had 
granted them their requests thro' Messire Alexander de Prouville, Chevalier, Seigneur de Tracy 
Councilor of the King in his Councils, Lieutenant General of his Majesty's Armies both on the 

> The Andastes, called also Guyandots, were seated (as ire learn from Gallatin, Syn. Ind. Tr. T3,) on the Alleghany river, 
and extended to the Ohio. Their chief town is supposed to have been near Pittsburgh. The war between them and the 
Iroquois continued from 1656 to 1672, when they were destroyed. They have left their name to the Great and Little 
Guyandotte, two tributaries, in the S. W. of Virginia, to the Ohio. — ^Ed. 


Islands and IMaiuland of North and South America, whether on sea or on land, in virtue of the 
power granted him whereof mention is made in the preceding Treaty, in presence of and 
assisted by Messire Daniel de Remy Seigneur de Courcelle Councilor of the King in his 
Councils, Lieut. General of his Majesty's Armies and Governor of Acadie, the Island of Newfound- 
land and of Canada; and of Messire Jean Talon also His Majesty's Councilor and Intendant of 
Justice, Police & Finance of New France, who have Signed with the said Lord de Tracy, and 
as witnesses Frangois le Mercier, Priest, Member & Superior of the Society of Jesus,' Interpreter 
of the Iroquois and Huron languages. Done at Quebec the 25 of May 1666. 

Hatification of the preceding Treaty hy the Oneidas and Mo/iawJcs. 


On the 7"' of the month of July of the year 1666, the Iroquois of the Oneida Nation, having 
learned from the Mohawks, their neighbours and allies, and from the Dutch of Fort Orange that the 
troops of Louis the fourteenth by the grace of God Most Christian King of France and 
Navarre, had in the month of February of the said year carried his Majesty's arms, over the 
snow and ice near unto Fort Orange in New Netherland, under the command of Messire Daniel 
de Courcelle, Lieutenant General of his armies, pursuant to orders which they received from 
Messire Alexander de Prouville knight, Lord de Tracy, member of his Majesty's Councils and 
Lieutenant General of his armies, both in the Islands and mainland of South and North America, 
as well by sea as by land, to fight and destroy the Mohawks, which probably they would have 
accomplished, had not the mistake of their guides caused them to take one road for the other, 
came do\^ni to Quebec to solicit peace as well in their own name as in that of the Mohawks by ten 
of their Ambassadors, by name Soenres, Tsoenserouanne, Gannoukouenioton, Asaregouenioton, 
Asaregouaune, Tsendiagou, Achinnhara, Togoukouaras, Oskaraquets, Akouehen, And after 
having communicated by the mouth of their Orator and Chief Soenres, the object of their 
Embassy by ten talks expressed by as many presents, and having handed to us the letters from the 
officers of New Netherland, have unanimously requested, acknowledging the force of his 
Majesty's arms and their weakness and the condition of the forts advanced towards them, and 
moreover aware that the three upper Iroquois Nations have always experienced great benefit 
irom the protection which they formerly received from the said Lord the King, that his Majesty 
would be pleased to extend to them the same favour by granting them the same protection, and 
receiving them among the number of his true subjects, demanding that the Treaties formerly 
made as well by the said Nations as by theirs, have the same force and validity for that of the 
Mohawks, who have required them to solicit this of us with great importunity, as they should 
have themselves done by means of their Ambassadors had they not been apprehensive of bad 
treatment at our hands, ratifying on their part all the said Treaties in all their points and articles, 
which have been read to them in the Iroquois tongue by Joseph Marie Chaumonnot, priest, 
member of the Society of Jesus ; adding, moreover, to all the said articles, which they protest 
tlicy execute in good iiiith, what they ottered by their said presents, especially to restore all the 

' ■•Aiul <,f Joseiih Marie Cliaunioiinot, likewise Priest of the said Sooictr."— Pnm Doc. I. 147. 


Frenchmen, Algouquins, and Hurons whom they hold prisoners among them of what condition and 
quahty they may be, and as long as any are detained there, even on the part of the Mohawks, to 
send families from among themselves to serve, like those of other nations, as the most strict hostages 
for their persons and dispositions to the orders of those who shall in this Country have authority 
from the said Lord the King whom they acknowledge ii-om this time as their Sovereign; 
demanding reciprocally among all other things the restoration to them in good faith, of all those 
of their Nation who are prisoners at Quebec, Montreal, and Three Rivers, that French families 
and some Black gowns, that is Jesuits, be sent them, to preach the Gospel to them and to make 
known to them the God of the French whom they promise to love and adore; also that trade 
and commerce be open to them with New France, by the Lake du Saint Sacrement, [L. George] 
with the assurance on their part that they will provide in their country, a sure retreat as well to 
the said famiUes as to the trading merchants, not only by preparing cabins to lodge them in, but 
also by assisting to erect forts to shelter them from their common enemies the Andastaeronnons 
and others. And that the present Treaty, made on their part in ratification of the preceding, 
may be stable and known unto all, they have signed it with the separate and distinctive marks 
of their Tribes, after which what they solicited from the said Lord the King was granted to 
them in his name by Messire Alexander de Prouville, Knight, Lord de Tracy member of the 
King's Councils, Lieutenant General of His Majesty's armies both in the Islands and Continent 
of South & Nortli America, both by land & sea, by virtue of the power given him mention 
whereof is made in the preceding treaties, in presence and with the assistance of Messire Daniel 
de Remy Seigneur de Comxelles Comicilor of the King in his Councils Lieutenant General of His 
JMajesty's armies Govemo'' of I'Accadie the Island of Newfoundland and Canada and of Messire 
Jean Talon also His Majesty's Councilor and Intendant of Justice, Police, Finances of New 
France who have signed with the said Lord de Tracy, and as witnessess Francois le Mercier 
Priest, Member & Superior of the Society of Jesus at Quebec and Joseph Marie Chaumonnot 
also Priest and Member of said Society, Interpreters of the Iroquois & Huiron Tongues. Dane 
at Quebec the 12* July, 1666. 

I Mr. Cotircelles to Mr. D''Hinse, Surgeon at Albany. 

[ New -York Papers, I. 12. ] 


I have received what you wrote me on the seventeenth of March from which I learn the care 
you took of the seven soldiers I left you when I departed. You also inform me that the 
Iroquois Ambassadors all evince a favorable disposition for peace. The assurance thereof given 
M. de Tracy by Mess" your directors ^ in their letters, and Christian Charity have caused us 
to adopt the resolution to listen to them and to treat them as favorably as possible — even to 
grant them the Rev. Father Beschefer accompanied by three other persons whom they desired, 
in order that you and their nation may know that they have been most benignly listened to, and 

' The CommisBaries, or Magistrates of Albany. — Ed. 


to assure the Moliawks that the}^ may come in all safety. You will not have much diffculty in 
believing that the letters they brought were of considerable service, M. Tracy being always 
disposed to respect whatever your directors interest themselves in. This truth is sufficiently 
confirmed seeing our present posture here with a very considerable body of troops, which is the 
true way to bring them to reason. Nevertheless, the parties commanded to go on war excursions 
have received counter orders. 

I am very a:lad, Sir, that your governor general has selected Mons' Corlart to come hither. 
That affords me great joy because I shall be very glad to see him, and he endorsing what the 
Mohawks will tell us, we shall attach credit more willingly to it, being assured of his probity. 

The Ambassadors have demanded forty days to come hither, I believe it is as much time as 
will be necessary. 

I cannot satisfv your curiosity regarding the ne\\-s from Europe you ask for, our vessels not 
having yet arrived. We have been only advised by the Savages come from L'acadie that four 
French Ships had arrived at Gaspe and that eiglit others were expected, and as the wind for 
coming here has been alwaj's unfavorable it has caused M. de Tracy to adopt the resolution 
that M. le Chevalier de Grand Fontaine, Captain in the Carignan Regiment, should embark in 
a frigate & go in quest of all the letters brought us from France. You cannot leam any news 
except on the return of M. Corlart, should he come here. 

I request you to send back the seven soldiers if they are cured ; and as regards the eleven 
which were unable to follow^ as you advise me, I beg of you to arrange with those on whom it 
depends, that they may return with M. Corlart if they be yet vvith you ; and if an opportunity 
offers I shall seize it to be serviceable to them and to you, also, of whom I am 

Very affectionately 


Castle of Qubecq this twelfth July, ] 
One thousand Six hundred & Sixty six j 

You will assure ^Ir Corlart and Mr. Rinselart that I thank them for their remembrance. 

Mr. Madey to Mi: D'^Hinse, Surgeon at Alhany. 

Quebec, 12 July 1666. 

[ New-Tork Papers, I. 14. ] 


This is to thank you for the kindness my brother in law and I experienced from you. We 
are under like obligations to you and I beg of you to continue your friendship to me which I 
greatly esteem, and shall every where cherish. I pray God that some occasion may present 
for me to serve you ; it would be to me a day when I could oblige a person to whom I am 
under so many obligations that he can not confer additional ones on me. 

There is nothing new, except that there are four Ships in the river which [will arrive] here 
soon with troops. We expect this year eleven or twelve vessels with a large number of 


Soldiers, for [last] year seven ships came [and we are] ten and eight [months] without people 
from France. 

I believe Monseigneur de Tracy will leave to visit yom- Indians for he is strongly 

determined and I hope to have the honour to accompany him, and if the opportunit}^ then offers 
I shall have the honour of visiting you at 3^our residence in order the more fully to thank you, 
and to request you, after having Saluted both you and INIadamoizel yom- wife to beheve me, 
all my life. 

Sir Your Sei^vant, 
A Monsieur. Madey. 

Monsieur dains 

Chirurgien en la Noule holande. 

Governor Tracy to the Commissaries at Albany. 

[New-Tork Papers, I. 10. 


In answer to your's of the 26"" ^Nlarch which was handed me by the Oneidas only on the 6"" 
instant, I shall say that in consideration of the public good and particularly on your account I 
shall willingly accede to a reasonable peace with the whole of their nation, but on such 
conditions as we shall consider just between us, when you will have taken the trouble of 
repairing hither by order and authority of 3'our Goveruo"' General. 

But as said Iroquois have always forfeited their word and made use of so many extraordinary 
cruelties it would not be prudent to lose the opportunity of destroying them when we have a 
considerable body of troops. Every time you shall seriously reflect on their conduct, I am 
persuaded you will be of the same opinion, since they fail not, after the obligations they owe us, 
to exercise many acts of hostility towards the people under our government. And in order that 
you should understand with how much confidence I act towards you I have given orders to two 
detachments, each of two hundred men, whom I sent out from the forts, to return to their 
quarters till further orders, though I have reason to fear that the complaisance I feel for what 
you seem to desire will cost the lives of some poor people who may be killed by four parties 
that the Iroquois have despatched beyond their country. However, I prefer, this time, the 
hazard of recei\ing this rebuff for the sake of the general tranquillity, than to be reproached 
with having prevented it on account of the forces I command and which I presently expect, 
having intelligence that of the twelve Ships the King has destined for this country', four are 
already in the neighbourhood of Isle Per<;ee and Gaspe. 

And in order that you may be persuaded that I always continue as well and as sincerely 
disposed as when I acted in the Islands of America with my Lord Vuillingbye ' and those of the 
Flemish Nation, I requested the Rev"* Father Superior of the Jesuits to pennit the Rev. Father 
Bechefer to repair to your quarters, with three other persons in order that he may give spiritual 

' Qu. 8 Willoughby.— Kd. 

Vol. m. 17 


aid to tliose soldiers left there by Mous'' de Courcelle, Governor General of Canada, in ease any 
were in danger of death. And as he is a person of great merit whom I should have exempted 
from a fatigue so wearisome had I not tliought that the Iroquois, naturally distrustful, might 
feel safe (as they certainly are) when they will perceive that the said Father will serve them as 
an escort on their return. You can place entire confidence in whatever he will tell you. And as 
you may yourselves have reason to censure my actions should i lose time in useless conferences, 
I have granted the Iroquois only forty days from the date of this letter to repair to this City. 
I should be very glad were this tenu abridged still further by your interference. I am 

Quebec this 14* July 1(566. Your affectionate friend 


G. Fruioue to Mr. D''Hime. 

[Xew-Tork Papers, I. IG.] 

Quebec, 14"> July 1666. 

1 did not like to miss this opportunity to write you these lines to testify to you the affection I 
feel, to offer you my very humble services in these parts and to say to you that when the French 
returned hither and I spoke to Sieur Banchaud, he told me that he saw and spoke to you without 
mentioning me. I am very sorry for it, as I should have been greatly delighted had he presented 
mv respects to you and even submitted one thing to you, which I do that is — whether we 
could have permission to sail to your colony. I'll acquaint you that I came here last Year when 
I had the honour to see Mdlle. Cousseau at Rochelle, and being here t married her. Therefore I 
e.xpect to remain. This is the reason I much desire to arrange so with you as to be able to have 
a permit to go in a bark to visit you in your parts. Therefore I request you to look to it and to 
send me one by this same opportunity, that there may be every assurance for me and for 
whatever I carry — also the suitable articles for your country and their prices — also what 
we can obtain from you, such as Wampum, whether black or white, etc. & the price, and if you 
like, when I shall be with you, we shall trade together. I hope we may be able to make some 
barter. I expect that from your friendship. 

As for news there is no other e.xcept that we expect a vessel every day and have been advised 
that ten or twelve are coming, and even that there are four towards Isle pergee. By these we 
shall have every intelligence. If we have letters I shall communicate the news to you and you 
will do the same on your side. 

I request you to inform me of every thing that will occur between the Iroquois and our 
French. Awaiting the honour of Yours I am. Sir, 

Your very humble & very affectionate 

G. Fruioue. 

With your permission, Sir, Mademoizelle your Wife and family will receive my most humble 
respects and those of my ^^listrcss and you particularly. I pray you on receipt of this letter not 


to fail to send that of AP Cousseau in order to have an answer hy the same opportunity. If the 
Rev. Father hand you the letter I request you very humbly to aid him all you can, and j'ou will 
have conferred as great an obligation as if it were for me. Also, as regards the cattle you have, 
oxen, cows, horses and others with their price 
A Monsieur 

Monsieur Dainse 

at Orange. ' " • > 

Governor Tracy to the Commissaries of Albaiiy. 


[ New-Torfc Papers, I. 18. ] 


You will see by the letter I wrote you, the 14 of this month, the favorable disposition I had 
for peace with the Iroquois, in order that as many as there are of us Europeans in this comitry, 
may enjoy it. I even countermanded two detachments of two hundred men each, as you will 
see by my preceding despatch and as one of the Oueidas whom I sent will be able to tell you. 
Yet, after the assurances you gave me in writing that they should commit no act of hostility 
they have assassinated seven of my young men, amongst whom were four gentlemen who 
went hunting confiding in what you had written nie. 

The very moment I received the news of a proceeding of this nature which is so opposed to 
the laws of nations, I ordered the Rev'' Father Beschefer to return with the other persons I had 
sent. I have also given orders that the aforesaid Oneidas should be seized at Three Rivers and 
brought to me at this place with the exception of him who goes to you accompanied by a 
French man who will hand you my first and this last letter, in order that you nia}^ yourselves 
consider the enormity of an act so rarely practised among European Christians, and to tell you, 
as God is judge of my frankness and sincerity on this occasion, that I feel exculpated before 
Him should I exercise the severest rigor upon the afoi'esaid Oneidas — which I should have 
already executed without consideration — being certain that in addition to conscience 
disapproving so black a transaction, honour will engage you to cause me to be aflbrded, as 
much as lies in your power, all the satisfaction I have a right to expect. Failing this, I am 
determined to abandon to the mercy of the Algonquins the said Oneidas who are aware in what 
manner they are usually treated, and who oppose here as much as possible the conclusion of the 
peace ; reserving to myself, besides, to make known to all Europe that my good faith has been 
surprized thro' the assurances you gave me that no hostile act should be committed whilst we 
were negotiating with the aforesaid Oneidas. 

All I request of you is to detain the bearer hereof only so long as shall be necessary to 
bring me back your intelligence, and to send him back in safety as far as our forts, with the 
Resolution you shall consider it your duty to adopt in this present exigency. I am, Gentlemen, 

Your affectionate friend 
Endorsed, Mons. de Tracy his letter to Tracy. 

the Commissaries of Albany, 
the 22"> of July 1666. 


31/: Hertel to Mr. D'Hinse. 

[ New-York Papers, I. 21. ] 


I retrret being obliged to write to you because I hoped to tell j'ou verbally more than I can 
by writing. 

M. de Trasi and the Governor [Courcelle] did me the honour to select me to visit you, but 
the last blow struck by the Mohawks has stopped our journey. I am sorry for it. I confess to 
vou that I experienced much fatigue during the war last winter. I arrived in alarm 4 or 5 hours 
after the governor retired. It was with regret that I learned from several of our French that 
they had seen you and even that you had the goodness to enquire for me, I acknowledge to you 
that it was a misfortune not to have the happiness to see you that I might thank you once 
more for the good treatment you gave me without having ever deserved it. But I hope that 
Heaven will some day afford me an opportunity to revenge myself not perhaps so abundantly, 
but at least with a good heart. 

I will not give you here a long detail of my voyage ; I shall merely tell 3'ou that on quitting 
iNIanate I travelled full 100 leagues by canoe. There we found a ship which brought us to 
Boston. When we were S days in our vessel from there, we came to a place called Cape Sable 
— thence to a place called Port Royal, which is a French settlement where I wintered. In 
the Spring an English pinnace left Boston for Quebec. I embarked on board her, w-e arrived in 
Quebec, thank God, in good health. 

As for news regarding myself, I shall inform you that I've got married since I was with you, 
and have a big boy, who will be soon able to go and see you ; only let him have 14 or 15 
years more and the one he has, that would be IG. 

I shall not trouble you any further except to beg of you to believe me the person who the 
most in the world desires to testify to you that I am heartily and affectionately 


Your very humble. 
And very obliged Servant, 

Three Rivers Hertel. 

the 25"' July 1666. 

I beg you to salute in my behalf all my good friends yonder ; especially ^r Montagne, 
jMr Corlart, M. the Minister and all the family, particularly Mile, his daughter & Mr Rinzelar. 
I pray you to remember me to all whose names I gave you also those whose names I do not 
know. You know lietter than I those who were friends of mine. Salute then, if you please, 
Fcllepi" .Tan Rent Folcro M'" Abram M'' Tonnel, Jan M'' Montague's Son, Cornell Bogardus 
J:in Man Aiidre Martin and liis Brother without forgetting M"' labatit. In fine every body. 

J request you to assure Madame Dinsse of my very humble submissions and that I shall 
remember all my life the kindness she had for me. I beg you to assure her of my very dutiful 
regards and thanks for the pains she took for a person who did not deserve it. But God will 


be her reward. My good father and mother salute j-ou and Mad^ Dinsse. My wife embraces 
you and Mde Dinsse also, and thanks you for the good treatment you gave me. Adieu. 
I forgot my best fi.-iends Ganatoc and his brother. 

A Monsieur 

Monsieur Dinsse residing \ 

at fort Orange in New holand 
at fort Orange. 

Colonel Nicolls to Governor Tracy. 

[ Xew-Tork Papers, I. S. ] 


I was in some measure surpris'd in february last with the newes of so considerable a force of 
forreiners mider the comand of Monsieur de Courcelle so farre advanct into these His Ma"" 
Dominions without my knowledge and Consent, or the least notice given of y"" intentions to any 
of His Ma''" Colonies then in amity \\ath the French Nation : Although y'' proceedings heerin 
were not conformable to the practise in Europe, yet all my Officers both Military and Civill 
soone resolu'd to succour and releiue your Campe with such meane provisions as the country 
affords, from a small village could bee expected and as they have in all former times been 
very affectionate with Christian Charity to ransome or by any other meanes to convey divers 
French prisoners out of the hands of their barbarous Enemies so also theii- sincere Intentions 
towards you is manifest in their letter of the 26"" of March last wherein their purpose was to 
give you a speedy notice that the ^Nlaquaes were at last wrought upon to treat of peace if you on 
your parts were so dispos'd but it seems (by a sad Accident inten-ening) you are pleas'd to lay 
a greater burden upon them than they deserve after their sincere affections to your peace. To 
both y'' Letters directed to the Captain and Comissaries at Albany themselves will retume 
answer but hearing that you had Emploid Le S"' Couture with y' letters I took a suddaine 
Resolution to have discourse with him to w""" purpose I came hither but find that he is return'd 
without the knowledge of the Capt. or Commissarie. I could have wisht that hee had staid 
for mee or that I could wait his coming for I now want the opportunity of enlarging myself to 
him and by him to y'' selfe with how much Integrity I shall constantly attend the Europjean 
Interest amidst the heathen in America as becomes a good Christian, provided that the bounds 
and limitts of these His Majesties of England's dominions be not invaded or the Peace and 
safety of his subjects interrupted, In all other points I shall be found to entertaine y' 
correspondence with mutuall Ci\dlity & respect the rather because the Reputation of y'' honour 
hath spread itself in all these parts of the world, as well as it is known in Europe, whereof I 
can beare some Testimony, when I had the honour to attend my master his R. H. the Duke of 
York & Albany a few yeares in the french army, and now that I serve the same Master in his 
interest in this part of the world, I should count my selfe very fortunate in an opportunity at 
least to acknowledge some part of y'' great civilities to my blaster and all his servants in their 


low estate & condition of Exile, The meniorv whereof obligeth me (a seasonable time and 
good occasion concurring) to give you certain proole with how much truth I am, Sir, 

Your most afl''^ Servant 

Richard Nicolls. 

20<'' of Aug : St : ^'et : ] 
In fort Albany, 10G6. ) 

A IMonsieur, Monsieur Le Chevalier 1 
et Seigneur de Tracy L' Generall I 
Du Roy tres Chrestien dans toute | 
L' Amerique. A Quebec. J 

CommU'sarie-s of ATbanij to Governor Tracy. 

[ New-Tork rapcrs, I. 23. ] 

INIy Lord. 

Yo'' welcome Letters one of the 14"" of July last, «fc the other wkhout date, were safely delivered 
to us by Yo'' Envoy ( Mens"' Cousture ). By the first of them we with joye read Tiint to preserve 
Peace on all hands you have countermanded two parties (eacb of 200 men ) who had order to 
fall upon the Irocquois Indians & to destroy them, tbe which you did in consideration ( as you 
are pleased to tell us ) of a letter, which at the Request of those Indians, wee tooke the 
boldnesse to write unto you ( bearing date the SG"" of March last ). 

Wee are exceedingly obliged to you for the Complacency you e.xpresse to have had for us in 
yo"" foniier letter. But are also very much troubled that in yo'' latter you seeme to taxe us as if wee 
were guilty of holding Intelligence w"" those Barbarians, Complaining that these asseurances 
wee gave you in our said letter, that the Irocquois Indians should not comit any Act of hostility so 
long as you should bee in treaty with them had abused yo'' credulity, & was the cause that seven 
young men were massacred ; To which ( My Lord, ) wee shall returne you this answer, That if 
you'l take y" paines to review our letter (of which here is a Copie enclosed) you'l not find at all 
that we did oblige ourselves to answer for the Actions of those Indians ; But you'l well perceive 
that wee did admonish, nay enjoined them ( as farre as wee had power over them ) tiiat they 
should live quietly with the French, And wee were only induced to it by a Cliristian Charity, 
being touched to the heart with Compassion, for the euill usage yo'" nation hath receiued on 
divers occasions from their cruelty ; Severall flfrench men tliat wee have redeemed, can confirme 
this Truth to you, as also with what Tendernesse & aftection they have been received amongst 
us; Upon which ( ISIy Lord) neitlier our Consciences nor Hono'' can any way bee found stained 
with such evill Intents. Having rendred too many proofes how farre wee are & have beene 
sensible of the misfortune which befell tliose young gentlemen (as Mess""' Cousture & Le Rolle 
can acquaint you ) our Intentions being to confirme it to you upon all occasions that shall 
present. And wee beg of you that you'l bee assured of it, by so nmch the rather for that it is My 
Lord our Gencralls order that wee write this to you, Hee having also comanded us to tell you, that 



since you have not well comprehended nor rightly explained our good Intents, W ee shall not for 
the future intermedle with your affaires, which Comand wee shall obey, & Remaine, Mv Lord, 

Your thrice humble & thrice affectionate Servant 
[August 20, 166G.] T„j, Cap' & Comissaries at Albaxy. 

Acte of Possession by Sieiw du Bois in tlie name of tJve King of France of the 
Forts taken from the Iroquois. 

t [ New-York Papers, III. A. 29. ] 

In the year 1666, the 17"" day of Octob., the King's troops commanded by ]Messire Alexander de 
Prouville, Knight, Lord de Tracy Lieut. General of His Ma"" Naval armies both in the Islands 
and Continent of Soutii and North America as well by sea as by land, aided by Messire Daniel de 
Remy, Knight, Seigneur de Courcelles, Governor and Lieut. General for the King in New France, 
being drawn up in battle array before the Fort of Andaraque, Jean Baptiste du Bois Esq' Sieur 
de Cocreaumont and de St. Morice, Commandant of the Artillery of the Army, presented 
himself at the head of the ArmJ' by order of Mons. Lord de Tracy, and deputed by M. Jean 
Talon, King's Councilor in his State and Privy Councils, Intendant General of Justice, Police, 
and Finance in New France, for the inspection and direction of the supplies of the Troops, who 
declared and said that at the request of Mons"" de Talon lie took possession of said Fort and of all 
the lands in the neighborhood as far and in as great a quantity as they may extend, and of the 
other four forts which have been conquered from the Iroquois in the name of the King, and in 
token thereof hath planted a Cross before the doors of said forts, and near this hath erected a 
post and to these hath affixed the King's arms, and caused the cry of Vive Lc Roy to be 
repeated three times, of which and of all the above the said Sieur de Bois has required Acte of 
the undersigned Royal Notary commanded in the said aniiy for His Majesty's service. Done at 
the aforesaid Fort of Audarague the day and year above written, in presence of Messire 
Alexander de Chaumont, Knight Seigneur of said place. Aid de Camp of His IMajesty's armies, 
and of Hector d'Andigny, Chevalier de Grande Fontaine, Captain of a Company of Infantry in the 
Carignan Regiment, of the Nobleman Autoine de Contrecour Cap" of a Company of Infantry 
in said Regiment, of Francois Masse, Sieur de Wally, Jean du Gal Esq'' Sieur du Fresne Major 
of Canada, Jean Louis Chevalier du Glas Lieut of a Company said Regim', Rene Louis 
Chartier, Esq'', Sieur de Lobiniere Lieuteuant of a Militia Company of Quebec, Dominique 
le Feure Esq'' Sieur de Quesquelin Lieutenant in said Regiment, undersigned Witnesses with 
the said Seigneur du Bois and the Notary. Signed, Chaumont, le Chevalier de Grand Fontain, 
de Contrecour, du Gal, Wally, Chev"" du Glas, du Guesclin, Rene Louis Chartier Lobiniere, 
du Bois, and du Guet, Royal Notary. 


Colonel Xicollv to JL: Secretary Morrice. 

I New-York ra|»crs, I. 23. ] 

Kiglit Ilon""^ S-- 

Being obliged to reniaine in tlie service of His Royal Highiies in America ; I must by this 
particular addresse acknowledge in the first place his Ma^" gracious favour to me as a 
Comissiouer in approving the Endeavo" which have by us all beene used in his Ma"" service, 
wherein though the successe in the Massachusett Colony hath not answered Expectations, yet 
his ]\Ia''' is gratiously pleased to conferr 200" upon mee at a time when Money can bee least 
spared ; the which I have received & most humbly begg the honour of you to present my 
dutifull acknowledgements to his Ma""' in whose semce I shall never fayle or grow weary to the 
last period of my life. I attend onely His Royall Highnesse his Comands before I returne into 
England, finding that his IMa"'' is pleased to leave mee at my Liberty, which I doe most gladly 
en)brace with most humble thankes for the obliging expressions in yo" of IS"" of Aprill 1G6G. 
1 thinke it my duty to informe you that the copy of his INIa"^' signification to the Massachusett 
Colony was surreptitiously convey'd over to them by some unknowne hand, before the Originall 
came to Boston, and formerly the very Originall of M'' Maverick's peticon to the King & 
Councell (concerning the Massachussett Colony) was stolen out of the Lord Arlington's Office 
in Whitehall by one Captaine John Scott and delivered to Governo"' and Councell at Boston ; 
This I affirme positively to bee true, though when I question'd ^cott upon the matter, bee said 
a Clarke of M" Williamsons gaue it him. This same Scott by a pretended scale affixed to 
a writing in which was the King's picture drawne with a pen or black lead, with his Ma''" hand 
Charles R. and subsign'd Henry Bennet, hath horribly abus'd His Ma''" honor in these parts, 
and fledd out of the Countrey to Barbadoes, My Lord Willoughby sent me word that bee 
would send the said Scott prisoner into England upon this account and thei^efore I thought fitt 
to give you this information against him, that such fellowes may have some marke of Infamy 
put upon them. 

The Massachusett Colony persist or rather fly higher in contempt of His Ma"" Authority. 
The Generall Court have resolu'd to send no man out of the Colony according to His Ma"" 
sumons, but their false Sophistry in construing His Ma"" letters to what sense they please 
will easily appear to the world. Seuerall considerable men both of the Councell and Deputies 
in the Generall Court haue cutrcd their Protest against the Resolution then taken. iNIost of the 
considerable Merchants & men of estates in the countrey petitioned the generall Court to comply 
with His Ma"" commands, but they are now to be question'd before another Court as seditious 
Persons. I make this Narrative the shorter because M"' Mavericke will attend you with more 
full Particulars in another shipp, but whether with the ffleet which is now ready I cannot justly 
say. The eyes and observations of all the other Colonies are bent upon this strange Deportment 
ot the Massachusetts. His ^L^"'= is wise and may easily chastise their undutifullnesse, not by 
lorcc, which might frighten the innocent as well as nocent, but by a Temporary Embargo upon 
their Trade, till such and such persons are deliuered into the hands of Justice : The numerous 
well affected people in that and other Colonies, would soone giue up the Ringleaders at His 
Ma"" disposall. Neither would His Ma"^ loose any of his Customes by that Embargo, for if 
strict care >ere taken to send a convenient number of ships with goods suitable to this port, 
all the Trade of Boston would bee brought hither, & from hence carryed into England : In 


which Case a ffregott of Countenance for Convoy or any emergent occasion Nvoiild bee necessary, 
if possibly to bee spared out of His Ma"'^ more immediate service ; Indeed in the posture wee 
are, every small Picai'oon of the Enemies is master of all our Harbo" & Riuers from the Capes 
of Virginia to Piscataway. 

I humbly craue pardon for the Impertinencies of these many lines, and subscribe myselfe 

Right hon'"<^ Sir 

Yo'' most humble Servant 


fFort James. Octob. y= 24"' 16G6 

Endorsed ,, From Coll. Nicholls to ) 

M'' Sec"7 Morice. \ 

Governor Wi)ithrop to Secretary Arlington. 

[ Trade Papers, State Paper Office. XVII. 3S. ] 

Right Hono''able 

]\Iay it please yo"' Lordship. His Majestyes royall letter of the 22"' Febru : 1666. subscribed 
by yo'' L''ship was received in July last by the Councell of his Majestyes colony of Conecticott 
and my selfe, to whom it was directed, together w"' his Majestyes declaration of warre against 
the French, w''' according to his Majestyes order was forth'*"' published at Hartford, New 
London, and other places of the Colony. I caled also the Generall Assembly of that Colony 
together, who after much & serious consideracon of those and other comands in his Majestyes 
letter about the reduceing to his Majesties obedience the plantacons' of Canada, belonging to the 
French, they thought it necessar}' that I should goe downe to Boston to consult w"" the Govern'' 
& Councell of his Majestyes CoUony of Massachusett concerning that affaire ; whose helpe 
could not be wanting in a businesse of that nature ; there being the greatest strength of this 
country, & likelyest oportmiity of shipping; as also to consult w"' S' Thomas Temple Govern'' 
of his Majestyes Colony of Nova Scotia (resideing at p''sent at Boston) being directed thereto 
also by the intimation in His Majestyes letter of his comands to him to correspond and assist 
therein. I attended their directions therein with all possible e.xpedition, though detained a 
while from that journey by a matter of great concemement, w'^'' was the diverting a gi-eat body 
of Indians from joj-neing w"* the French of Canada, of W^*" I had intelligence both from Capt 
Baker, comaunder of Fort Albany, and from divers cheife Indians, that it was designed & 
endeavoured by the French to draw those people into a confederacy w"' them, upon p''tence w"^'' 
the said French declared to them, that their intent was to make warre against the jNIohaques 
and other nation of the heathen, who were already in warre w"" those other Indians ; and these 
seemed very joyfuU of the opertunity of the French to jo}Tie w"' them ; who sent them word 
they were upon their march w"" many hundred soldiers, & expected to meet them at a place 
apointed, upon w'^'' there were many hundred of the Indians gone forth already upon their 
march towards y™. Thereupon I used all possible endeavo'' to stay the further progi-ess of that 
designe, w"^'' was accordingly in a short time eifected, haveing spoken w* some of their cheife 
Vol. ni. 18 


Sachems (so they call their Trinces) they were so well i/swaded by such reasons as were used to 
them, that they l)^';ently sent to other their confederates, already upon their march, upon w"^"- they 
returned at that time. 1 sent also at the same time, some few horse, accompanyed w"' as many 
from the Massachusetts Colony, as well to discover the way toward Canada, whether passable for 
liorse, as also to gett good intelligence of the motion of the French Army. Of whom both by 
intellio-euce from Collonell Richard Mcholls Governo'' of New Yorke, & from the comaunder of 
Albany, as also divers of the most credible Indians, it was reported they were upon their march 
towards the parts about Albany p''tending against the Mohaques whose forts are about forty miles 
above that place. These horse passed w"^ much difficulty about one hundred and twenty miles 
from Hartford, & returning, brought intelligence that the French were then newly upon a treaty 
of Peace w"' those Indians their enemyes, and thereupon proceeded no further then the Lake 
Hiracoies.' I came then imediately to Boston & had conference w"" S"" Thomas Temple, & the 
Governo'' & Counct'll there, about those his Majestyes comaunds ; & upon severall consideracons, 
as of the apparent necessity of good figotts or ships for that undertaking, w"^ are here wanting, 
the French haveing considerable forces there as we have intelligence & divers great ships, as also 
considering the difficulty of passeing so long a march over-land, through such an uninhabited 
mountainous wildernes, and the multitude of barbarous heathen that may be feared to be 
treacherous & many of them unknowne to the English & acquainted with the French ; as also it 
being late in the summer before we had His Majestyes letters, and too late to make p'parations 
fitting for that designe ; it is the unanimous apprehensions of us all that at p''sent there could be 
no thing done by these Colonyes in reduceing those places at or about Canada: concerning w"^*" 
I humbly beseech yo'' Lordsliips favourable rep''sentations to the King of these considerations, 
w"" the enclosed abbreviate thereof to his most Excellent Majesty presented by 

Yo'' most humble and 
Boston in New England ) obedient servant 

Octob. 2-5. 16GC. i (signed) John Wixtiirop. 

For the Right Honorable the Lord 

Arlington Secretary of State 

to his Majesty. 

Samuel Nadhorth to Mr. Secretary Momce. 

[ New England, I. SBC. ] 

From y^ Massachusets Colony in 

New England' Oct. 26. 1666. 
Right Honourable 

The good character from sundry hands received of you, doth embolden to give you the trouble 

of these following lines, although not so meetly digested and disposed as becomes your dignity 

& honour, yet hoping it may be a service to His INIa'"' I shall venture y-^ bearing of your just 

censure for my folly & ignorance ; being here resident for some yeares past & diligently 



observing y'' guise & temper of all sorts of people, I shall brielly give you this following account. 
And whereas by a copy of the signification tiiat came to your hands, of y' Gov' and .Mag'* of this 
place ( as I am enformed) referring to their actings with y« Com" sent over to them by His Ma'^ 
y'' last year, they are charged with denying His Ma"" jurisdiccon over them ; the account of 
their actings with y* said Comiss being b}^ y"" Geu" Court at large sent over to Eng'' and (as it is 
here said) lies on file w"" my Lord Chauncellor, I shall not now insist on y^ particulars thereof: 
yet this 1 assuredly know y' y' Com" had more kindness and respect shewed them by y^ j)eople 
and Gov"' of this place then from any other ; Nay, I may truly say than from all y'' rest of His 
Ma"" Colonyes in Xew EngP This Colony being, for their eutertaiiim' and raising of souldiers 
for their assistance in reducing the Manhatoes, at a very considerable charge, and would Col. 
Cartvvright speak his conscience, he very well knows it was the countenance tiiis Colony gave 
y™ and y^ assistance of their messingers in treating with y- Dutch, y' did greatly eleviat y' 
undertaking. And as y' charge of denying y* King his jurisdiccon over them, I shall briefly 
acquaint y' Hono'' w"" y*' more generall answer of y' people thereto, viz' they thus sa}-, that they 
left their native countrey and deare relacons there, not with any dislike of His Ma'*' then reigning 
or of monarchical! power, for the\' esteem it y" best of Gov'* and y'' lawes of y*^ land they highly 
honour and esteem ; but it was y' they might, without offence to any, worship y'= Lord according 
to his owu iustitucons, not being able to beare y'' yoke imposed upon them by the then 
prevailing Hierarchy. For y*" orderly effecting whereof they obteined of y" Kinges ^Nla"^ a 
royall Charter for this place, His Ma"" therein giving them liberty to transplant themselves 
families and substance, & for their encouragem' in this their undertaking gave them full power 
to elect all their own officers for rule and gov"' from y= least to the greatest, to make their own 
lawes, not repugnant to y" laws of England, and absolute power of ruling & governing all y® 
people of this place, & all this with sundry other imunities & priviledges to them granted, is 
confirmed to them & their heires for ever, under y" Broad Seale of England. In confidence 
whereof they hither came to a wast and howling wildernes, where they have conflicted with 
difficulties & sorrows of all sorts, they finding both y" French & Dutch nations possessed North 
& South of their patent bounds, & with whom they had some scuffling at tlieir first entrance 
on this place, and y" wild natives, whom they found to be very numerous being for some time 
pricks on their sides and thonies in their eyes, and when weak made a pray of their lives and 
estates, sundry of them loosing their dear relacons, to this very day y'^ salvage tortures & crueties 
that sundry of them suffred, being cruelly murthered, not being forgotten by the survivours. 
The extremity of y" sumer heat & winter cold, & barrenues of the land discouraging some others, 
causing them to repent their designe and desert y'' place, aird those y' remained having by the 
blessing of God on their undefatigable labours, accompanied with many wants & streits, wrestled 
through y" difficulties of their first plantings, & here sown y' seed of man & beast, so that now 
they are grown up to a considerable body of people, and some small beginnings of a conmion 
weale, and all this at their own proper charges, not one penny being disbursed out of His Ma""' 
Exchequer. Now thus tliey reason with themselves, viz' that whiles they own His jMaj* Charter 
w"*" comprehends y" condicons on w""* they transplanted themselves, they cannot justly be 
charged with denying his jurisdiction over them, for thereby they acknowledge themselves to 
be His Maj leige subj* their power of governm' executive & legislative proceeding from & is 
according to His Maj'^ appointment, and all Courts of Justice constituted by his authority & 
appointment, their writts and processe of law going forth in His ^Li"""' name. Now while they 
thus act, they apprehend they cannot justly be charged with denying his authority and 


jurisdiccon over tliem. And in case they may not be confident in tliis their Roj'all Grant, so orderly 
obtained, so long enjoyed and often confirmed, they apprehend they can have no certainty of 
their lives estates, houses and lands, and much lesse of tiiat liberty which hitherto they have had, 
in y' free passage of y' gospell, for dearer to them then all their other comforts whither natural! or 
civill ; they well knowing y' if y'' wall of y'' civill government be pulled down, y= wild boar will 
soon destroy y' Lords vineyard, & that it is impossible for y"" to keep y-^ waters of y' Sanctuary 
when y' Veuice-glasse which holds them is broken in pieces ; they not wanting many sectaries 
& prophane persons that are sprung up among themselves, who do long for such an opportunity. 
And whereas they are charged with denying His jNIaj. jurisdicon because they refused to submit 
to y" mandates of his Comissioners, requiring the Gen: Court of this Colony to answer at their 
tribuuall : to this they answer as foUoweth viz' That y"" Comiss" by interpreting of & acting . 
upon colour of their comission contrary to y^ Charter granted by His Ma''=, as it was a great 
abuse of His Ma''" power granted unto them, so also an injury to his subjects, thereby violating 
their liberty, and was repugnant to y* instruccons given them by His Ma''^ to y^ due observance 
whereof the power granted them by their Comission is expressly limited; and had y^ people 
here submitted to them therein, they had destroyed themselves by their voluntary acting to y' 
utter ruine of their goverum' & liberties, so legally secured to them by Cliarter, confirmed by 
His jNIa"" letters and indemnifyed from y' power of the said Comissioners by His Maj' speciall 
instruccons given as aboves"* All w"^ will fully appeare, reference to the said comission & their 
instruccons from His ]Maj : being had & perused. This people here planted having purchased 
their liberty at so dear a rate, & being in so orderly a way remooved from their native country, 
thereby loosing y' benefit of those priviledges in y*" Parliam' of Engl : and lawes under which 
they and their fathers were born, all that they crave of His Maj : is, that they may stand 
among the rest of His Maj : dominions and plantacons as the shrub among the Cedars, growing 
upon their own root, & not be forced to be the slaves of rulers imposed upon them contrary to 
the rule of their Charter. Honoured Sir, I may not further enlarge, lest I, should too much abuse 
your patience ; bat y'= truth is, it is a great pitty that so hopefull a plantacon should be now lost 
through y^ malice of those whose desigue is to beget a misunderstanding in His Maj. of this 
people. It is in his Maj. power easily to crush them by the very bi-eath of his nostrils ; their 
best weapons are prayers and teares, they are afraid to multiply their supplications to His Maj. 
lest they should thereby further provoke ; their hope is in God, Who hath y^ hearts of Kings 
in his hand. They have long been labouring how they might expresse their duty of good 
affection & loyalty to His Maj''^ at last have ordered a present of masts of large dimensions, such 
as no other of His Ma"" dominions can produce, to be presented to His Ma"^ They are not 
without hope of a favourable acceptance, which will be to their soules as a cloud of latter rain. 
This I cleerly see, that y'^ body of y'' people have a higher esteem of their liberties, sacred and 
civill, then of their lives ; they well know they are such twins, as God & not nature have joyned 
together & are resolved to bury their estates & liberties in y' same grave. Should y'' Lord be 
pleased to move the heart of y'' King (of his gracious disposition & clemency) to smile upon them 
& speak comfortably to them, as I have reason to be confident, His Maj. hath no subjects more 
faithfull to him in all his dominions, so he will still gain more & more of their hearts & 
affections towards him. And this poore Colony, if it may be accounted any small addicon to 
his Maj. dominions, by y' blessing of God upon their endeavours, will be daily encreased, & His 
Ma"" interest here, by them maintained, to y' great advance of His Maj : customes which have 
already by that Colony been considerably augmented, the whole product of their manufacture 


by land and trading by sea being so improved, as y» it is constantly returned to England. 
Whereas on y^ other hand, should the malicious accusations of their adversaries prevaile with 
His Maj : to impose hard measure upon them, as their dwellings are not desirable for luxurous 
minds, so they would not be long inhabited by them, y^ countrey being large and wide : And what 
great pitty is it that a hopefull plantacon so suddenly raised ^vithout any expence to His Maj : 
should now be made a prey to forreign enemies, y^ French waiting for such an opportimity, and 
are much fleshed by their prevailing in Christopher's Island ; and y' French King (as is here 
reported by some Rochellers) designing to secure these parts of America for himself, & for that 
purpose in 65, as also this last summer, hath sent sundry ships with souldiers to a considerable 
number, that he may thereby strengthen his interest here, who arriving in Canada, from thence 
y= last winter took y= advantage of y^ frost and travailled cross y' Great Lake, quite cross this 
Mattachusets patent as farre as Fort Albany formerly in y" possession of y' Dutch and now under 
His Highnes y^ Duke of Yorke : the more particular account whereof I doubt not but His 
Highness have received from Col. Nicolls. It is credibly reported by y^ Indians that about 700 
French men are building and fortifying on this side y^ Lake above our Plantacons, & have 
already built 2 forts, intending there to settle some plantacons of their owne, their further designe 
being to y' people here unknown. The English of this Colony in their frontier towns more 
remote from Boston have already been so alarmed by y^ reports of neighboming Lidians so as 
that they were forced to stand upon their watch this last sumer, although disabled from giving 
them any offence, by reason of their great distance from these parts, & y^ unpassableness through 
y*^ Countrey for any considerable force as also want of powder and ammunition, & how acceptable 
will it be to French and Dutch to see this people frowned on by their King, your Hotf may easily 
judg; The thoughts whereof I do undoubtedly believe would be an utter abhorrency to all, 
good & bad. But what extremity may force them to, that God only knows, who is wonderfull 
in counsel & mighty in working, whose thoughts are not as man's, & his cqimsel only shall 

The present of masts above mentioned, conteining two great ones, now aboard Capt Pierce, 
fitting to accommodate y= building another Prince Royall & a ship-load conteining 2S larg masts 
in dimension from 26 to 3S inches, which they have now bargained for, that they may be 
prepared for His Maj : service against next year ; may I tell you with w' difficulty this small 
business of masts is by y' poor planters here eifected (for although some few merchants and 
traders among them have acquired to themselves considerable estates) yet I can assure you for 
the generality of y' people, 'tis all (if not more than all) that they can do, by hard labour & 
great prudence in y^ improvem' of y^ sumer season to get bread & cloathing for y^ necessary 
supply & relief in y'= winter season. True it is, every man generally hath a little house & small 
parcell of land with some few cattell, but all will not purchase £5. worth of clothing in England ; 
and for sundry yeares past God hath much frowned on their crops, so that for attaining this small 
present for His Ma''= they are forced to take up money at interest, & for y^ payment thereof 
particular persons stand obliged ; yet may it find acceptance with His Maj : they will be more 
refreshed at y^ newes thereof then at y* reaping of a plentifull harvest. 

Hon"* Sir : my intent is only to enfonne ; assuring you these foregoing lines are words of truth 
& such as I shall not be ashamed of when I shall stand before y'' judgment seat of Him who 
judgeth not by y'^ seeing of y^ eye, (as to y^ verity thereof I mean.) 

There came to y* hands of y^ Gov. & Gene rail Court here assembled here this winter, a 
writing being a copy of a Signification from His Maj : requiring y* Gov' & some others to 



appear in England. But y"^ very trutli is, y" Cov^ is au ancient gentleman neare SO yeares old & is 
attended with many infirmities of age, often incapacitating him to y*^ publick service of y" country, 
as stone-cliolicks, deafnes &c so that to have exposed him to sucli an undertaking had been 
extream cruelty. And for the further deviating, please to be euformed that y^ writing which 
came to their hands, was neither originall nor duplicate, but only a copy without any seal or 
notification that lii.s ^Maj : had appointed y"' exhibition thereof to y^ Colony. Also the answer 
of y" General! Court to the mandates of the Comissioners by them denyed to be observed, 
beiu"- fully & at large sent over last year & is on file as they are enformed, & no particulars 
nominated to w"^ they are to answer. All these abovesaid considerations put together, y'' Gen. 
Court and people here do generally hope that His Maj : will favourably interpret them herein. 

Honoured Sir. How can your unfeined loyalty to His Ma''^ better appear, then by your love 
to the peace of his subjects wherever scattered, although in the remotest of his dominions. I 
need not tell your Hon" y'' meaning of these lines ; what you do for y"" interest of God's people, 
God himself will own, & Jesus Christ his sonne will own you for it, when he shall appear in 
in all his glory with his Saints and holy angels to judge y'' world. If in your wisedom you shall 
perceive it will do no good to this people, yoiu- declaring y'' contents hereof, I do humbly, for 
Christ's sake, beg that favour of your Hon"" that it may not be improoved to any provocation ; 
this being privately done by my own hand, without the privity of y'' authority or advise of any 
other person whatsoever, against whom, whiles I have been here resident, I see no just ground 
of complaint. 

The truth is, y" actings of the late Comissioners in this place, putting their spurrs too hard to 
y*' horse sides before they were got into y" sadle, Sc there being added thereto the rigorous 
dealing of L"* Willoughby on Barbadoes Island, so uncivilly & inhumanely carrying it towards 
sundry gentlemen of his Councell & cruelly towards all sorts, have greatly alarmed the people 
here, makeing y" name of a Comissioner odious to them. And whereas the Comissioners have 
informed His Rlnj : that the obstruction given them here was by the Magistrates & leading men 
& not y^ people. Your Hon'' may easily take a demonstration of y'' falsenes thereof. The Gov"' 
being popular, & election of all publicke officers, Governour & iNIagistrates being annually made 
by the people, were they diversely minded from their rulers, they have advantage enough to 
attain their desires ; and had the Governour and all the leading men of the Colony adhered to the 
Comissioners mandates, the people were so resolved, that they would for y' generality of them 
(some discontents, Quakers, and others, excepted) have utterly protested against their cancession. 

Honoured S"" I take leave, and am 
Your humble Servant 

Sajiuel Aadhorth. 

To M' Secr^ Morice. 


Colonel JSleoU-s to the Commissioners of Albany. 

[Xew York Papers, I. 3].] 


Yo'' of the 26"" October is receiud, and in answer theremito 1*' I doe confirnie the persons 
nominated for this Ensuing Yeare to be Comissaries, 

Capt. Abraham Staets Aron Van Curler 

Philip Pieter Schuyler Richard Renzlaer 

Theunis Cornells Spitsenbergh, and that Schout Swart continue in his OflSce till further 
order. I suppose my letters to you may by chance be broken up, but not purposely by Capt. 
Baker, howeuer since Complaint is made I shall prjevent the like in the futm-e. 

In my last letter I sent you full directions for y"" safety in case the french doe attempt to doe 
you further praejudice. In regard tis uucertaine w^hether the River will be open before the Time 
prasfixt by the Court of Assizes for bringing in your Ground Breifes under a Penalty in y' 
favour I shall suspend the paenalty exprest for the space of one moneth Extraordinary. 

I could wish that all tlie land betweene the Fort and Towne lay in Common so that the 
people who lost their houses may be recompenct upon the hill with accomodation. I know 
that you onely are authorized to give billets for the quartering of Souldiers, and none exempted 
where you shall place them, but if you Exempt by favour the chiefest men, the comon people will 
cry out against you. I doubt the River will be shortly frozen and therefore doe earnestly require 
and desire you to be carefuU of the Publick Peace and safety, and that amongst yourselues no 
quarrells or disputes may arise, and to the end that English and Dutch may live as brothers 
keep a strict hand upon the authors or reporters of strange newes which comonly tends to the 
dividing of mens hearts, and if any Newes happens this winter be it good or bad you shall haue 
the truth from mee. Thus wishing you health and peace I remaiue 

. - ■ ■ - Y"' aff" ireind 

' ■■ ■ ' ■ R. NiCOLLS. 

Colonel NicolU to Mr. Menzdaer. 

[ New-Tork Papers, I. 83. ] 

Monsieur Renzelaer 

By the date of y"' letter from Renzelaer\^acke in Albany October the 25"' I perceiue that you 
conclude the TowTie of Albany to be part of Renzelaerwick ; I giue you freindly aduice not to 
grasp at too much authority, and you may probably obtaine the post more to y"" profitt. I haue 
lately returud answer to His R. H' his last letters, and doubt not of his finall determination of 
all matters relating to this Jurisdiction in May next ; if you imagine there is pleasure in titles 
of Goverment I wish that I could serue your appetite, for I haue found onely trouble. You 
seeme to plead for a succession to y"' brother Baptista as of right belonging to you, I will make 
answer in a Latine verse which in some sort you may apply 

Filiua ante diem Patrios inqairit in annos. 


Let there be no Controuersies of this nature betweeue you and mee who will in all 
reasonable things serve you. Sett y'' hearth therefore at rest to bee contented with the profitt 
not the government of a Colony, till we heare from His Royall Highness. In my letter to the 
Comissaries you will find Theunis Cornells Spitsenbergh confirmed. My service to y wife, y 
Brother and Mons'' Curler 

I am. y alT"" freind 

J. 9 ber IQQQ^ 

Colonel JMeolls to the Commissaries at Albany. 

[New England, I. OGi). ] 


Y" of -x\ of Q^" as also of the it"" of 10''"' with the inclosed propositions from & answers to 
the Maquaes and y"' resolutions, are all well received ; wherein I find good cause to returne yow 
thankes for y"' care in the preservation as well of His Ma"" as of y' owne true interest in these 
times of difficulty with the ambitious French. Neither have I been unraindfull to praepare the 
English in the north to y'' succour, in case the French should disturbe y^ peace. All the 
souldiers at the Sopes shall be ready upon an houres warning, & further I have wrote to the 
richout and Schepens there, to be ready for y' assistance with as many men as they can possibly 
spare, of the Burgers, for I know well how impossible it is to send any from hence in the winter. 
I may well hope that the French are not onely weary of their two fruitlesse voyages, but that 
most of their souldiers, commanded away with the Viceroy into the West Indies, and now that 
the warr between Spaine and France is renewd in probability the French, will find worke enough 
at home. These last are but speculations and feed my hopes that yow may live in peace 
hereafter, though y'' circumspection ought not to be the lesse. I may not forgett to tell you with 
how much satisfaction to mee all the letters from Albany this winter, are received, in regard no 
complaints are made one of another, but a generall complyance to peace and friendshipp w"""" is 
very agreeable to my disposition. Therefore I should returne yow a complement, but I chuse 
rather to expect a time wherein I may more emphatically doe yow a service, unto w'^'' I am 
most heartily inclin'd being, 

Y'' aff'^ freind 

R. N. 
7 of Jan 16G6. ] 

Fort James, j 


Colonel NicoUs to Mr. Arendt Van Curler. 

Yo" of the A"" of 9''"' and of the if"' lO''^'' with the account of the affaires under y'' care are 
kindly received, and will be soe acknowledged when opportunity presents. 

I perceive my former instructions are observed, and I hope by that unanimous resolution 
taken the French will be discouraged from attempting to disturbe yow, and the Maquaes, for 
ever obliged by the kindness and protection show'd to them in their necessity. 

I would gladly heare of the demolishing of that fort mentioned in yo", and that the Paper 
could be found. Yow have not forgott y'' promise to perfect the Cart of the Lake, with the 
French forts, & how it borders upon the Maquais River. S"' I am so abundantly satj-sfied 
with y'' care and conduct in these troubles, that I shall now only desire yow to continue in 
well doing, wherby you have and will extremely oblige 

Y'' very aff'* freind 
7'" January 1G66 ] R. N. 

P'ort James. j 

Colonel Nicolls to Mr. Gerard Swart, Sheriff of Albany. 


Yours of the if"" 10''" is received ; the messenger made no great haste, and I hope you will 
have no extraordinary occasion to send another before the River opens. I am very glad to 
heare that all affaires are carried with so much discretion, that not one complaint is made ; 
which is Wellcome tydinges to mee, and shews that every man walkes in his owne station. It 
remaines that 1 retunie y''selfe and all the officers particular thankes for the care taken in y'' 
defence against any nation that may disturbe yow assuring yow that on my part nothing shall 
be wanting to prasserve yow all in peace or promote y' wellfare. 

I am 

Y"' aff'* freind 

R. N. 

( Endorsed ) 

AF Ryvan. Be pleased to translate these -3 letters into Dutch, as soone as 
yow cann conveniently. 
The 1*' to the Comissaries at Albany. 
The 2<i to M' Curler 
The 2.^ to Schout Swart 

Y' aff'^ fi-eiud 

Jan : the 5' ( R- Nicoll. 

Fort James. J 

Vol. in. 19 


CohniA XicoJh in the Captain, and Conimismries at Albany. 

[ Xciv-Yurk r:Li.ir3, I. i'.K ] 


My answer to v" of tlie ^t U)l)er was gone lience befo)-e y" of the 29"" of 10''" arriued. In 
which )'ou referrd mee to tlie relation of Sniits Jan couceniiug the french, hut it seemes he wa^ 
weary of the \'oyage and came no further than the Sopes, but sent the letters by another Indian 
the bearer of these so that I doe very much want his information w' termes the french doe propose 
to the Maquaes or wliat probability of bringing the Treaty to a Peace. Howeuer to the tJiree 
points in y" letter relating to ray advice and direction I shall briefly say. 1=' That you will doe very 
well to give the Maquaes councell that one Article of the peace may oblige the french to quitt and 
demolish all their new advanct forts upon the Lake, that the Maquaes may not line in jelousy 
of the french that hunting may not bee interrupted or any numbers of ami'd men under any 
pretence come into the Plantations of either side without iVotice first given. To the 2'"' I cannot 
imagine that the Maquaes will ensist upon the proposall of setling ueare Albany if this Treaty 
of peace goes forwards, tor tlieir own country is much more comodious for them and lesse 
pra-judiciall to you, you know iiow to sweeten any dcniall you make them ^^^th such reasons as 
you thiidic liest ; To the ;3'' point It is fitt that mine and y"' former letters to the Vice Roy 
bee sent by Sniits Jan, wherein as you know the \'ice IJoy will read that you will not ingage 
further in the Treaty but stand indifti?rent. Consider well the advantage or disadvantage which 
may befall y^ trade if you lay not hold of this Opportunity to give the Maquaes Councell to make 
an honorable peace for themselves in the words which you shall direct them, whereby you may 
for the future have the benefitt of this Treaty, and not openly apjieare to be concernd for the 
present in it. If such proposalls bee refused by the French they will soone discover the truth 
of their designes to ingross the whole of the beauer Trade for they see plainly their attempts upon 
the Maquaes will fiiile whenever the Maquaes can haue an houres warning of their coming, so 
that the advancing of so much forts furnisht with considerable numbers of Souldiers shewes 
manifestly that when their designe is ripe euery place or nation is the object of their Ambition 
as nnich as the Maquaes are now of their Revenge. Therefore, though the Treaty should 
never come to effect, yet is wisdome to keep it on foote and to oblige Smits Jan to giue you 
certain notice of whatever proposalls are made by the french which may shorten y'' Interest, or 
what other designes the french may haue in hande. I mention Smits Jan because he is reported 
to loue both English and Dutch ; I see no present reason to recall my former directions, but 
conclude with thankes to you all for your care and circumspection in the whole, and particularly 
for y'" resolutions of defending his Ma"" interest and your owne against the Comou enemy. 
Y(ni shall neither want any i)ossihle assistance nor my prayers for y'' Peace & prosperity- I am 

V very aft''" freind. 

]{. N. 

W'licn you liaiic aiiv trutli of tlie frenches march towards you send speed}- notice to Capt. 


Colonel Nicvlls to Mr. A rend t Van Curler. 

[ New- York Papers, I. 40. ] 

Mons. Curler 

Y" of the 29''' 10''" is receiud but not by the hand of Smits Jan who staid in Esopus so that 
I am disappointed of all the intelligence he might have giuen mee ; bee pleased when you see 
Smits Jan to take in writing from his mouth whateuer he can inform you worth the WTiting, 
and send it mee by the next opportunity. By circumstances in letters and the Passeport to the 
Indians I make my guessing that the french will not trouble y'' Parts this winter. I haue wi-ot 
at large to the Comissaries therefore shall not say more to you not doubting of the continuance of 
your care and paines in this publike conceme. Smits Jan must carry mine and the Comissaries 
former letters to the Vice Roy at Canada. I haue inclosed sent you all the french letters back 
again, for my part I understand well Banchot's meaning, w-^i" is to lett you know how little good 
will Mons'' de Tracy hath for the Dutch and when time serves he will make use of those prtEtences 
to colour his ambition of Ingrossing the Beaver trade by destroying and interrupting ours at 
Albany. In returue of those novelles W"" he sent you pray send him these two Copies one 
relates to the fight in June the other relates to the Enterprise of Schelling Island, after the defeat 
given the Dutch Fleet upon the 25"' of August ; and let Mons. Banchot hear we haue later 
inteUigence than himselfe, and probabh' he knows not that tlie Warr is lately begunn between 
France & Spaine. I hope the publike and y'' private alFaires will permitt you in the Spring to 
visitt these Parts which you have not done since I came into the Country. 

Mons'' Le RoUe and Mons"' de Ville haue wrote to I^Ions'' fountaiue to retume to Canada with 
Smits Jan as also that the french would not loose this Opportunity : Mons"" fountaine hath 
kept his Christmas with Cap' Caiterett in New Jersey and cannot stir thence this moneth but if 
he could 'tis impossible for him to march from hence to Canada through the snow a foot. All 
the french souldiers except one thats lame and in service with a french man upon Staten Island 
are gone to Boston to seeke a passage thence, by the helpe of y^ Alinconguins. I haue no more 
at present but to assure you that I am 

¥"■ very afl""" freiud to serue you 

R. N. 
ll'^of Jan 1666 ] 

fort James C 


Colonel Kicolls to Ca-pfaln John Baher. 

[ Xew-York Papers, I. 50. ] 

Capt Baker. 

Y" of the 20"" of lO""" which should liaue come by Smits Jan is brought by another Indian 
wlio calls himselfe W Thomas. So that I want all the infomation which hee could giue mee. 
In another of this date to the Cap' c& Comissaries at Albany I have sent the best advice and 
direction w^"" my knowledge of the present affaires could collect out of the seuerall letters ; but 
I referr the management thereof for the best to the discretion of y'' selfe & Comissaries 
whose former letter with mine to the Viceroy of Canada must be sent by Smits Jan. The relation 
you made mee is sent to IM" Winthrop and Capt. Pinchen. I collect from the letters and from 
the Viceroy his passeport to the Indians, that we are not much to feare their attempts this winter 
yet such collections may faile and not much to be relyed upon, for the french forts are too neare 
neighbours and can poure forth men before we are aware, if we be not alwaies watchfull. I 
doe not see cause to change my former directions but because the Maquaes desire my advice 
it is that they make a good peace or none with the french, such as may bring in beaver to 
Albany, and leave them without feare or of the French, one point will be necessary 
that the Maquaes should declare to the French that the King of England is the Great King of 
all their Country and parts adjacent, and unto him they are subordinate, living in peace and 
trading with all his subjects, and now they are willing to make peace with the french and will 
resolue to keep it if the French will demolish their torts and bring no more troopes of Souldiers 
into the King of England's country or their Plantation. 

To this purpose you may take seuerall opportunities of instructing not onely Smitts Jan but 
the INIaquaes Sagamores, shewing them that it is their Interest to make an honourable mention 
of the King of England, what numbers of English there are round about and all the Country over, 
how considerable a force from all the adiacent colonies are come to Albany in 3 or 4 dales, and 
with what freindship the English, Dutch and Maquaes line together in all points except wan- 
with Christians. Such language or the like you may make use of to the Maquaes, Sachems and 
Smits Jan, some Dutch here are persuaded that Smits Jan hath receiued so much kindness from 
the French that hee is turned French man, but hee hath drawne so much blood from the French 
that he cannot be so foolish as to thinke that they haue good intentions for him onely to serue 
their present Ends. 

Wee have no late newes from any Parts being shut up with a hard winter. I had almost 
forgot a short passage in a French letter to Mons"' La tbuntaine from a freind of his -at Quebec 
where speaking how kind the Vice Roy is to him, sales that the Viceroy intended to have 
releiued him at any hazard, upon which subject he would have write more if he thought the 
letter should passe directly to Mons"' fountaine's hand, further that they had found an easy and 
Admirable meanes to transport their men upon all occasions, therefore it is necessary to inquire 
of Smits Jan what new passage or Inventions they haue found. This is all at present, from 

Y' atl^"^ freind 

[t'ni.t. Bakf.1i wn> ny.pnint.Ml " Cliiof Military Offii-er at Allinny, " Ih Sept., Ifififi. Hie Comtiiission nnd Instr 
Hook i,f /'u/tiUs, .Sooi-olnrv's Otfii-e, .MKanv, I. lai, lUa. — Eixl 



Private Iiwtr act ions to the CommissioneTS to jEsapu-^. 

[PlauUition General Papera, III. 260.] 

Private Instructioxs to W iVeedham, M"' De la Vail & W Van Ruj-\-en. 

1 . You w-ill doe well in the first place before you arriue at the Sopes to looke upon the papers 
of Complaints and make choice out of them what are most Notorious, waving the Rest to avoid 
expeuce of time and trouble. 

2. When you come to the Sopes cause the Commission to be read in the hearing of all the 
people, a file of souldiers attending upon you, and I think you will doe best at that time 
onely to publish what complaint you will first heare and in my opinion W™ ffisher is to be first 
tryed because a man is kill'd in w'^'" case you will doe well to heare patiently the witnesses and 
the evidences alsoe w"^ ffisher can produce, particularly whether there was nialice or former 
grudges, if not then what provocation ; whether kniues were drawne against him or to w' End 
& purpose the Light was put out when the quarrel began, if no other notorious circumstances 
appeare in full euidence against ffisher than is already alleadged, considering the Testimonies 
of the Doctor and Chirurgeons I conceiue you will conclude him guiltj' of manslaughter and 
yow will doe well to make people know that the laws of England directs yow so, and the like 
case hath been already tiy'd at the Assizes, if it appeare that the Dutchman rann upon the 
sword to assault ffisher I conceiue it may have hapned in his owne defence. 

3. When yow examine the rising in Armes begin with the first occasion and yow will find that 
Broadhead did onely offi^r to fling a dish at the brewer but did not, that he ofter'd to drawe his 
sword but neither did nor could, yow will find also that the Brewer presently ran in upon him, 
made the first assault, gave the first blow, after w'^'' many abuses follow'd, upon w''"' beginning 
of the quaiTell yow are to declare that the King's officer is not of so meane a quality to be 
struck by a Burger, and further enlarge y"" discourse as yoW shall find fitt. 

Having proceeded thus farre yow are to call the cheife and others the most violent Actors and 
promoters of the Ryott before yow, in the first place open the case of rising in armes against an 
Establisht GaiTison of his Ma"''" which unlawful! Assembly of anned Men is by the lawes of 
England no lesse than Treason, you are to admitt of no reasonings or praetences for their soe 
doing, but then yow are to tell them that 1 did once forgiue some of the Inhabitants the same 
crime, and their names are upon Record, the Original is in the towne booke. A copy, though 
tome, yow carry with yow, by which yow will doe well to governe Y"" selues & call these double 
offenders to an account for all the rest, and according to the Euidence brought in against 
them who appeared the most Notorious reducing the number to a few not exceeding sixe, yow 
may conclude them by sentence in writing to be guilty of a treasonable and malitious Ryott, 
that yow remitt the finall sentence of Punishment to niee, whereupon yow are to send them 
with a guard of Musquetiers to the Redout Prisoners and bringe them in the sloope \^ntli yow. 

4"' You will find Broadhead hath broken my Instructions severall times, but to ease y"' selves 
of more clamours and complaints of the same nature to receiue them but to proceed onely 
against him, yow will doe well to suspend him from his Employment for that only fault of 
sending and keeper the Brewer in prison after the Schout and Commissaries sent to Broadhead 
to release him, which being done you will more easily answer the number of complaints that 
Broadhead hath part of his punishment already the post [rest ?] will be committed to mee. 



gih i^jr iS'eedlmm may beste speak whateuer deserues to he sliarply resented against the 
Souldiers, and W Dela Vail and \'an Ruyvens to the Burgers. 

V"" Albert Heymans and Anthony D. Elba haue spoken most nialitious words, and I looke 
upon them as great incendiaries and disaft'ected persons, if their wordes be proued they shall not 
be suffer'd to line in this Giouernment, if they haue been actors in this late Ryott, Pitch upon 
them two for Ringleaders and gine order to inuentory and secure their Estates by the Schout 
and Comissaries. 

The Lieutenant headed the Men, he cannot be excused. 

8"" When you have taken a view of the Instructions which I formerly gaue to Broauhead as 
also to the iSchout and Comissaries yow will easily discern what bounds and limitts each of them 
had allow'd. And if yow find just cause to adde or alter any part of them I leaue it to y 
discretion, because the alteration of mens humours may require some alterations of Instructions 
whereunto for tlie future they must all conformc. 

11"' As little as may be engage ¥■■ selues in slight matters which are numerous and of little 
weight, discourage not the souldiers too muche in publicke least the Boores insult oner them, 
appear favourable to the most of the Boores but seuere against the principall Incendiaries, and 
in generall yow may tell them freely that I will proceed against euery man that shall lift amies 
against his Ma"^' Garrison as rebellious subjects and comon enemies. 

10. In regard yow are not ty'd to carry on a Comission by Jury I thiuke that yow will avoid 
much trouble by admitting very few into the room where you shall sitt, and to call in or 
discharge witnesses as yow find cause. Two witnesses to any one matter are as good as twenty. 

11"' It being impossible for me to direct and advize yow in many things w''' may be 
represented to Y' Judgements upou the place be pleased to make use of such latitudes in Y"" 
resolutions as in discretion and good conscience yow doe find necessary for the punishment of 
faults or crimes committed, with such Expedients for the future as may pra?serue peace and good 
government in the Place. 

li"" Yow are to gouerne y' selves in the management of this Comission by the jNIain Vote, 
whereunto the third dissenting is to acquiesce. 

[The riols b.-twcen Uie Military and the luhabitanls at Esoihip, al:>ove retVi-ri'd to, terminated in tlie deatli of Hendkick 
CoRNEUssEN, a Curgcr, at the hands of a Soldier named Wii.uam Fisher. The Commission of Messrs. Needium, Del.u-al, etc., 
is dated IGth April, 1667, and h in Book of Potent^ 1. M.",. The evidence an<l result will be found in .Voc- lort- fWo«(W 
Jf<m»sc•,v>^s XXII. 20. — Ei..] 

(r'orernor Tracy to ike (Jomriusmrie''i of Albany. 

[New -Turk Papers, I. 41 . } 


I haue giuen so lull an answer to yo'' Couenio^ (!en" as to eury article mentioned in the letter 
hee was pleased to write nice, as also to yours, that it will not bee necessary to make repetition 

F shall ouely tell you that I giue you thankes for the ciuill Respect you seeme to beare mee 
which I shall eiideauour to acknowledge as occasion shall present, as Carr as the King's seruice 


will permitt mee : I should bee sorry that any such thouglits should reniaine iu you that I could 
beleeve you had either directly or indirectly a hand in the death of those gentlemen that were 
murdred by the INIaques. This Declaraeon together with what I write to your Goueraour 
Gen" upon that subject ought absolutely to ease your Minde of the trouble you had in that 
Regard ; I must likewise confesse that the freuch who haue liued in your parts, haue been 
obliged to the Dutch for ha\nng withdrawne many of them out of Indyans hands after they 
were taken, But they owe us alsoe that just acknowledgement (which is very well knowne) 
That by our Authority wee haue hindi'ed y^ Algonquins from making warre upon them. 

Since Your Governo'' Gen" doth order you not to interpose in Our Aflayres with the Maquaes, 
you'l doe prudently to obey him with Respect ; I could also haue desired that you had neuer 
made any proposition to us on that subject, you had then beene less sensible of the displeasure I 
receiued by the death of those gentlemen : The Dutch Bastard hath no Commission further 
from mee, than to deliuer these to your hands ; I am, Gentlemen, 

Your thrice Aftt;ctionate Servant 

Quebec the 30"" Aprill ') 
lGf.7. I" 

Governor Tracy to Mr. Arendt Yan. Curler. 

[ New-Tork Papers, I. 43. ] 

Quebec, 30"> April 1667. 

I received your letter of the 14th Feb'' with those of your Governor General and Commissaries 
and send you the answers I make them. I should be very glad to have the opportimity 
properly to entertain those whom j'ou recommend to me. The Dutch Bastard will be able to 
assm'e you of this truth. 

Were the ships we shortly expect arrived, I should send you whatever news we might have 
from Europe. The newspapers you received and which assured us of the great Victory the 
Dutch gained over the English, are confirmed. It was from Amsterdam and the letter from 
Flemingue.' You know that in those quarters they do not puff up victories of smoke or wind. 
The first news you receive, will confimi this truth. 

I have gi-anted Conditions so reasonable to the INIohawks and to all their tribes that I doubt 
not they will accept peace. I have not given them time at the farthest than till the twenty-fifth 
or 26"" June, new stile, to bring me their final resolution. The Dutch bastard is to return. I 
shall always treat him favorably out of consideration for you. I can even assure you that I 
entertain friendship for him. I had him accompanied by Frenchmen of consideration to the 
head of Lake Champlain. He also has my passport for the whole of the month of June ne.\t, 
which will serve him and those he will bring with him to go and return. 

Fleeeingue? i. e. Flushing. — En. 



I am obliged to Your Govenio"' General and to you for the kindness you had for W des 

If you feel inclined to come hither this summer, as you gave me to expect, you shall be most 

welcome, and entertained with all my power, having great esteem for you, though I am not 

acquainted with your person. Believe this truth and that I am Sir, Your aifectionate & assured 



The Dutch bastard told me he made some presents which were not responded to. As I 
cannot tell if it be true or not, as I did not enquire of Father Chamonot who is at Quebec, you 
can tell the Mohawks that they will be responded to on their return, and that they shall receive 

all sorts of satisfaction on this head. 

Montreal 12 May 1667. 

Governor Tracy to Colonel Nicolls. 

[ Ncw-Vurk Papers, I. 5:3. ] 


In answer to Yo'' letter of the 31"= of August I shall tell you that Mons'' de Courcelle, Governo' 
Generall of this Countrey signifying to mee that hee had a desire to make inroad upon the 
Maquaes, to put a stopp to their bai'barons Insolencies ; I gave my consent to further the design, 
That hee might take with him so many Officers and Souldiers as hee thought fitt, either of his 
Ma''" Companyes, or those of y* Conutrej^ Whereupon hee advanced within ffifteene or twenty 
leagues of the Milages of y*^ Annies.^ But fortunately for them his Guides conducting him a 
wrong way. Hee did not meete with them, till hee came neare the Village which you name in 
yo'' Letter, Neither had hee known there was any of them there, untill hee had siirpriz'd all 
the Indyans that were in two small Hutts at some distance from that place. This truth is 
sufficiently convincing, to justify Mons"' de Courcelle, that hee had no intention to infringe the 
Peace that was then betweene us, for that he thought himselfe in the Maques land. The 
Moderacon which he used in the said hutts (although the Persons under his command were 
driven to the uttermost extremity, for want of Provisions) hath sufficiently manifested the 
cousideracon wee have alwayes had for our allyes (for untill then wee had no Intelligence, that 
New Holland was under any other Dominion then that of the States of the United Belgick 
Provinces) and understanding that hee was upon the Lauds belonging to the Dutch, hee tooke 
great care to hinder his Companyes from falling into tiie Village, by which meanes alone the 
Maquaes that were there saved themselves. 

Hee also had soe much care and Authority as to hinder the souldiers from killing the Poultry, 
and taking away Pro\isions that were in the said hutts, to satisfy their hunger. Thus farr, I 
ought to vindicate the truth upon this subject. 

Till' llVeueh Nation is too much inclined to acknowledge Courtesies, not to Confesse thai the 

' Tli./ Fi'ouch nnme for the Molinwks ; called by the Diiteli, Maqiiaas. — En. 


Dutch have_had very much charity for the flreuch, who have beeue Prisoners with the Maques, 
and that they have redeemed divers, who had been bum't w"'out their succour ; They ought also 
to bee assui-'d of our gi-atitude towards them, and to any others who shall exercise such Christian 
Deedes, as they have done. 

I am also persuaded that they had a sincere intention for the Conclusion of a finne peace 
between us and the Maques, They ought in Uke manner to beleive, that wee have alwayes 
expressly forbid y= Algougins to make warr upon or kill them. 

Since the Dutch Gent, did send you y^ Lres which I writt unto them, you have knowne the 
candour of my thoughts, and the confidence which I had in their ffriendship, by that of the Id"* 
July 1666 as also by the Request I made to the Reverend ffather Bechefer (who is a person 
of great meritt) accompauyed with three considerable persons, to transport himself upon the 
place, to conclude a peace, thereby to ease them of the trouble of coming to Quebec. 

Its true the Displeasure I received by the death of some Gentmeu, who went a fowling upon 
confidence of that Article w"^*" is in the same letter those Gent'men sent mee, the second time, 
dated the 26"" INIarch 1666 the which I had publish't in our Garrisons [wee have acquainted the 
Maques, that they are to forbeare all Acts of Hostillity, during the time that the Messenger shall 
bee absent which they have promis'd to observe] did give mee a justgriefe, and a great deale of 
discontent, It being evident that those Gent'men, had not put themselves upon that hazard, 
without that assurance : w"""" would have served amongst Europeans as well as the most 
authenticke Passeport that could bee had, the which also wee had caus'd the Algonquins to 

Such an unexpected misfortune oblig'd mee to chang the desigue I had of adventuring the 
person of the reverend ffather Bechefer, and the rest that accompanj-ed him. And I resolu'd to 
send onely the Sieur Cousture (who had been a Prisoner among the Maques) w"" a Letter to the 
Dutch Gent, of the 22"' of July 1666. The said Cousture having no other employ then what 
was in his Instruction, which hath or might have beene seeue since I gave him leave to shew it. 

I had never the thought of accusing those Dutch Gent'men either directly or indirectly, nor 
any other person, of holding intelligence with the Maques in so foule an action as was committed 
by them ; But writt onely to oblige them, and those other Gent'men who serve under yo"" 
command at Albany, (for we were then in peace,) to Councell the Maques, as Neighbours to 
deliver up into our power, the Actors of that murder, w^"" was a satisfaction that with reason I 
might promise myselfe in that occasion. 

My Lre of the 22"' July to those Gent'men at Albany, might have inform'd you what the S' 
Cousture was ; ffor it had not beene prudent after the death of those Gent'men, to hazard a 
person of quahtj-. And I am veiy sorry that you tooke the paines to leave the place of 
yo' usuall residence, to make a Voyage to Albany, to have discourse with an ordinary messenger 
who had nothing of Trust committed to him. 

The intention you signify to have of Embracing allwayes the Interest of Europe, against the 
barbarous ludyans of America, is very commendable and befitting a person of your Quality, 
and a good Christian : That Passion which you likewise expresse, for the interest of His Ma'^ 
of Great Brittaine, is to bee esteemed, and there is no man of reason, who doth not approve Yo"' 
Judgm' therein, and that hath not the like for his Prince. 

I retume you thankes in particular for those obliging tennes you are pleas'd to use on my 
behalfe, as also for the assurances you give mee of a desire to hold a mutuall Correspondence 
of civility and respect with mee to y* end before proposed : If I was particularly knowne to 
Vol. IIL 20 


you, I might feare you would alter your opinion of mee, for that Reputacon dotli very often 
give lis advantages, which wee do not deserve. 

I had the hono' to serve the King in Germany, in the most considerable commands of his 
Army, at the time when my son (that was hee and not mee) was knowne unto you, in tliose 
which served in fflanders, where hee commanded His Ma"''-' Cavalry of Strangers : Hee had a 
very particular respect for the person, and for the great meritt of his Royall Highnesse the 
Duke of Yorke, who set'mi'd to he well pleased with his respectfull carriage towards him : You 
have no reason to expect lesse services from mee, that you might have received from my son, 
upon all occasions where those of the King will permitt mee to render them. 

It cannot bee hut you must have heard from divers of your nation that have beene in the 
Islands of America, how I have done them courtesyes with passion, and with as much civility 
as may bee ; I have cause enough to complaine that the same hath not been practised towards 
mee; ffor that a vessell which went out of Boston, tooke in the Gulfe of St. Lawrence, towards 
the latter end of June or the beginning of July IGGo, (neare upon five moneths before the 
declaracon of the warre) a barque of betweene 25 and 30 tunne, w"''' belonged to mee, being 
laden with a good quantity of Strong Waters, and other refreshments which come from France : 
But as I know no other Interest than that of the Service of his Ma"'' who bestowes many benefitts 
upon mee, I shall Easily forgett that Losse, 'till the conclusion of a Peace ; you may also beleive 
that I am w"' a great deale of esteeme, 

S' Your thrice affectionate 

and humble Serv' 
Quebec ) , Tracy. 

Apr. 30"^ 1GG7 ) 

Governor WintJirojj to Secretary Arlington. 

[Tr.iilc Papers, State Paper Ofllce. XVU. 53. ] 

Right Honorable 

May it please your Lordship. According to his Ma'-''" conanaunds in his letter of tlie 22 of 
February 1665. I had consultacon with the Governor & Councell of his Ma''" Colony of 
Massachusets & S"" Thomas Temple of w'''' I gave an account by Capt. Christopher Clarke, 
whose shipp sayled hence before winter & Ilieare as safely arrived in England, for as I have not 
to doubt but th:it those letters ar come to your Lordships liands I have allso now received his 
Ma''" gratious letter of the 2s'i' of August last directed to the Gov"' & Councell of his Ma'''" 
Colony of Conecticott, as allso your Lordships letter of the same date where with the favour of 
a double of his Ma"" fonner letter befoi-e mentioned, & the true & perfect narrative of the 
greate & signall successe of a part of his INIa''" fleete. The ship by which these were sent did 
not arrive at Boston (the port towne of Massachusets) till March last & thence were sent by the 
Gov to my selfe with all possible expedition. Thereupon I did repayre to Boston with 
M'' Willis one of the Councell of the Colony of Connecticott, by the directions of that Councell. 
& have had conference with the Gov"- & Councell of the Colony of ?»Iassachusets, according to 
his Ma"''" connnands in that letter. Wee should all be unanimously willing to relieve our deare 


countr3Tnan of those Careebee Islands if wee had abihty and meanes to doe it, beeing very 
sencible (to our greate sorrow) of there suffrings & danger & of the augmentation of hazard to 
these his Ma"" Colonyes if those our common enemyes should further p^-ayle there. But wee 
see a gi-eate necessity of all our endeavours, & the best strength wee cann make here to be ready 
for the security of these his Ma"" Colonyes. For, besydes what enemies from remoter parts may 
intend agaynst us, wee are surrounded by greate nations of the heathen, in respect of whome 
we must alwayes be uppon o' guard, though they be not in open hostillity agaynst us, & the 
French wee heare are in amies uppon the Lakes behind us. Wee are informed by letters from 
Collonell Richard Nicholls Gov' of New Yorke that the French have a considerable number of 
veterane souldiers at Canada, that they have built forts all along the Lake for garrisons and 
magazeens to facilitate there attempts, that they have by good computation 2500 men, and 
credible Indians report that they had scene 3000 souldiers in Quebeck & other garrisons. He 
writes allso that there wei'e in the winter 5 French & 2 Dutch ships of force, W^'' he supposed 
would be imployed in the Spring, at sea, to infest the Coasts of the English plantations, & 
mentions these as matters worthy consideration to all the Colonies, that they may not iiold 
tiiemselves secure. V/ee know the pretence of those Fi-ench forces uppon tlie lake behind us, is 
against a nation of the Indians called the RIohaukes, with whome they have v.-arr ; but wee have 
good cause to be jealous of there greater dcsignes, & wee may well suspect the attempts of the 
French & Dutch allso, by sea ; and the danger of the Plantations is the greater in respect of the 
multitude of the Indians wlio are enemies, and have had warr many yeares with the same 
Indians who ar enemies to the French, & uppon that account wee may doubt they may 
confasderate with the French, not only aga}Tist those other heathen, but agaynst the English 
allso ; v,'"^ wee labor to prevent with all possible endeavors. But tliere are multitudes not 
knowne to us, & those w"' whome wee are acquajmted manj' of them woe cannot soe far trust 
them as to be secm-e, otherwise then by due watchflillnes & r-ediness, withall wee have, to resist 
& defend ourselves agaynst there attempts, if they should rise agayne in hostilitj^ agaynst the 
English, as fomierly some of them have done. But if wee had any forces to spare from such 
our necessary defence, j'et wee know not of shipping to be had for there safe transportation. 
There hath beene allso for severall j-eares, & especially this last yeare, such a generall blast 
uppon the corne besydes greate destruction by wormes in many places whiles it was greene, y* 
it hath caused very greate scarcity, & come is not only the provision for subsistence, but that 
w'^'' is in use amongst us for paym'^ in steed of mony. I wish allso that wee could say that wee 
had ammunition to spare, or knew how to supply our selves with more. I beseech yo"" 
Lordships favour to represent to his IMa"' the condition of these his plantations in reference to 
what shall appeare uppon the reasons before mentioned, of the incapacity of his people heere to 
send forces to those Careebee Islands. His Ma"" speciall grace to his poore subjects in this 
remote world in giving them such timely notice of there danger by there enemies, & commands 
of defending themselves agaynst there assaults, is humbly acknowledged b}' them, & doe ^^-ish 
all abounding prosperity to his most Excellent iMa'^ w"^^ is there coutinuall & unanimous 
supplication to Heaven. I have only (my Lord) to add the humble acknowledgem' of the favour 


of your Lordships letter to the Coiincell of Connecticott Colony, & to p-'sent most humble duty 
to your Lordship from them and from 

Right Honorable 

Your Lordships most humble 

& dutyful servant 
Boston in New England i (signed) Johx Winthrop. 

May 7. 10(37. J 

For the Right Honorable the Lord Arlington 
Principall Secretary of State to his Ma"" 
and one of his Ma"" most honourable Privy > 
Councell, these humbly present 

At White-Hall. 

Colonel Nicolh to Governor Tracy. 

[ New England, 1. 371. ] 

May the 25'" 1667. N. Yorke. 

Because Mons"' Curler iiuth been long importuned by divers of his freinds at Quebec to give 
them a visitt, and being ambitious to kisse your hands, he hath intreated my passe and liberty 
to conduct and accompany a young gentleman Mons'' Fountaine, who unfortunately fell into the 
barbarous hands of his enemies, and by the meanes of Mons"' Curler obtaind his liberty.' 

Mon.s'' de Fountaine hath of late had a youthful! zeale and impatience of returning to Canada, 
and probably was ill satisfied that I would not lett him depart untill I might assure his returne ; 
to which purpose I have attended this occasion. 

This present letter in answer to y" of the %f^ Aprill will be the shorter for that Mons" Curler 
can beare mee witness how much I was troubled & ofitjuded that any paisants of that village 
(unto which Mons' de Courzelle was misguided) should have exacted any pay for such meane 
provisions which they could afford to y'' officers and souldiers in distresse. 

The report yow are pleased to send mee of that whole enterprize of Mons' de Courzelle 
is well knovrae amongst us, and that the Reverend Father Boschefet was designd to have 
concluded a peace ; but in truth I am stille of the opinion that the words of the Capt' and 
Comissaries letter will not beare such a large exposition in Europe, however those unfortunate 

' Akest Van Cuiiler, iillu.lod to in tlio above paragr-iph, canio to this country in 1G30, as the manager or director of the 
Colonic of Rensselaerwiek. lie miirricd Aktonh Slaghboom, widow of Jonas Bronck, who has left his name to one of the 
i-ivcrs in Westchester county. Mr. Van Curler was the principal leader in the founding of Schenectady in 1661-2, and 
was so highly regarded by the Indians, that in his honor they gave the name of "Corlaer" to the Gorernors of New-York. 
The "pass" referred to above, as well as that to Monsieur Fontaine, is in the Secretary's Office, (Orders, Warrants, and 
Letters, ii. 159.) He set out in the course of the summer on his visit to the Governor of Canada ; but having been overtaken 
by a squall on Lake Champlain, he was unfortunately drowned (says the Relation of 1667 -8, p. 18,) " in crossing o great bay. " 
In an old map of the Northern Department of North America, in the Surveyor-General's Office, what is now the Bay of 
I'erou, Essex county, is called Corlaer's Bay. — Ed. 



gentlemen might be transported by their contempt of danger to hazard their hves for the 
pleasure of hunting ; w'^'' hath many times happed. 

The voyage I made to meet with le Sieur de Cousture was of no great consequence ; it was 
intended most to give him a quick dispatch, and our rivers are pleasant enough at that season 
of the yeare. 

It appeares by your letter that by y'' authority the Algonquins have been forbidden to make 
warr upon us; for which we owe yow a gratefull acknowledgment, although their evill 
intentions towards us was never kiiowne to us before. 

I shall ever retaine that intention w* yow are pleased to cherish, and the same passion which 
becomes all honest men. It was a pardonable mistake in mee to write to the father of a son so 
highly esteemed by all who had the good fortune to knowe or heare of him) in terms so suitable 
to y' quality and reputation in the world. It may be my weaknesse but not my fault that I 
cannot fashion my words into a style more proportionable to y"' meritt and my owne sincere 
meaning ; yet when a good time and occasion presents (which I pra^sume is not farre remote) 
yow shall find all that profession of my respects towards y'' son, converted to y'^ service and 
satisfaction ; in which I shall not doubt of my master's good approbation. 

I was wholly ignorant (till now) that any barque of yours had been seized or made prize, but 
shall make further enquiry thereinto ; being appointed by His Ma"^ to have an inspection over 
all his affaires and concernes in N. England, of w** one point is, that his allies suffer no 

Divers of y"" souldiers in despaire of returning to Canada from Boston, and indeed lying under 
some suspition (how unreasonable soever it was) were transported at the country charge, in 
English vessells thence into England, with certificates to returne into France. Mons' Curler 
can informe yow at large in these particulars, although he hath no employ from mee, more than to 
gratify his owne desire with leave to kisse y'' hands, to conduct Mons"" Fountaine and visitt some 
of his freinds, who seeme so earnestly to desire it ; not doubting of y' safe passeport or w' else 
is necessary to his returne. 

I shall esteeme myselfe very happy if yow please to ranke mee in the quality of being 

¥■■ most aff"'^ & most humble Servant 

' '■ ■ R. NiCOLLS. 

A Mons"" de Tracy ] ' ' ' ' • 
A Quebec. f > - ■■ 

Colonel Nicolls to the Magistrates^ Sc, of the Eastern Parts of Long Island. 

[ New-York Papers, I. ST. ] 


I haue not giuen yow the trouble of Alarums to interrupt y' private occasions, but the noise 
of Warrs sounds from farr in other Plantations, and therefore it becomes netessary at present in 
his Ma"" name to direct and require you, that for the comon safety in this time of danger your 
Militia be put into the following wayes of defence and readiness to comply with these my 
present directions 'till further order. 


1" That one third of the :Militia ^yhich are now in foot companies doe fitt themselues with 
horses, saddles & such amies (eitlier Pistolls, Carabines or Musketts) as they haue, which third 
part of the INIilitia are to be ready at an houres warning witli their horses and amies to answer 
all true alarums of an Enemy and my orders when I appoint them a Randevouz. 

ondiy That the other two parts of the Militia remaine in or about their Plantations for the 
security of their Estates and families as much as may bee. 

grdiy ^']i^t if any Towne be in more danger than another the Neiglibouriug Towues shall upon 
notice send releife to them. 

4twy xhat the horsemen of each Towne haue liberty to clioose a Corporall of their owne to 
conduct them upon all occasions or to the Reudevous when appointed and the there whole Body 
shall elect and make choice of their Cap', Lieutenant and Coraett. 

Lastly The Justices of the Peace, the Constables, the Overseers and iNIilitary Officers are 
required upon their allegiance to promote this his Mn.''" speciall service strenuously and 
dilligently lor the prcE'servation of the peace of these his Ma"" Dominions. For acting and 
doing wherein what is necessary this shall be their especiall Warrant. Given at N. Yorke this 
1 II"' (l;i y of .July 1667. fort James. 

To the Justices of the peace, Constables and Overseers of Southhampton, Easthampton, 
Southold, Seatalcot, Huntington, Oyster Pay, Hemsteed. 

Colonel jMcoUs to Governor Winthrop^ <£'C. 

[Xew England, I. 375.] 

Honoured Sir 

Y" of the sixt of May 1667. in answer to a letter from Sir R. Carr, M'' S. .Mavericke and 
niyselfe bearing date the 20"' of 9'^" 1666 hath remained in my hands in liopes that I might 
liave heard from M'" INLaverick whose advice I have sought in the matter, but not yet attain'd. 
However another occasion now jjresenting, I shall take the liberty of offering my explanations 
and advice in the qiuTstions w'^ yow seeme to desire may be reconciled. 

Be pleas'd to take notice that His Ma"" Comiss" reflecting upon the shortness of the time 
graunted in their warrant bearing date the 4"' of Aprill 1665. at Warwick, requiring the 
remoovall of several! inhabitants out of the Kings Province and seasonably forseeing that His 
Ma"" determination could not be obtained before the end of 7*"^'' made a second order, the copy 
whereof I now send, unto w"^" I did also concurr as yow will find by the origiuall remaining in 
yo"' hands. After which, ujjon the address of Roger Plaistead, we wrote againe to yow and gave 
yow the reasons of our actings, in ours of the 20"" of 9''", so that yow may plainly see that the 
first order made attJVarwick, was made void by the 2S dated the IS"' of 7"" and particularly 
explained in our last of the 20"' of 9"" 66. so that to mee nothing is more cleere than the nullity 
of the 1« order made at Warwick. 


I will not excuse Sir R. Carr's hastiness unseasonably putting Plaistead into possession, yet I 
heare that he received some extraordinary provocations upon the place. It had beene more 
regular and methodical] that the Justices had sent forth their orders, but filings are naturall 
infirmities. Thus farr in answer to yours received. 

Though I write not now as a Comissiouer because I am not singly qualified to act, but in 
Company, yet I hope that what I have or shall write further, will have some weight and 
impression upon your thoughts according to the meiTitt and justice of the matter. It is well 
kuowue to yow that His Ma''" Comissiouers being at Rhode Island, found a controversy of title 
to land, between W™ Harris and John Harwood which had so long depended and with too 
much heate beene so farre prosecuted, as that many considerable persons became ingaged as 
parties and adherents to the cause, on both sides. This mooved his Ma''" Comissioners to 
incline to have the hearing of the matter, but His Ma'"** more weighty aflhires required their 
attendance at Boston, from whence they sent directions to yow, to heare and determine the 
case w'"" by your Generall Com-t in 1G66 was accordingly determined and execution graunted to 
M" Harris ; which hath layen so long dormant in the Seijeants hands, that y"' late Gen" Court 
in July hath beene pleased to put a staiue and blemish upon the former resolutions of the Gen" 
Court in .66 and wholly defeated their act, which was grounded upon all the formalities of th.e 
law, from verdict to judgment and execution : Which at this distance savours of some partiality. 
If you thinke mee worthy to propose an expedient consonant to Justice, it should be that some 
of y'' neighbours of Plymouth Colony were invited and desired, as a juiy or as arbitrators, to hear 
impartially both sides and decide the whole controvers}' ; for I feare that too many of y'' Colony 
are totally ingaged on the one side or the other. 

M"' Harris further complaines that being an assistant together with INP Carpenter at a towne 
election of officers, they mett with some disorders & thereupon enter'd a complaint m the 
King's behalfe against M"" Fenner. The Court saw cause to acquitt M'' Fenner and to fine M"" 
Harris fifty pound. Yow will not find in any one law booke of England, a praesident for so 
doing, but the contrary ; for whoever sues for the King, though he does not make out the fidl 
matter and evidence, is defended by the lawes from suffering a fine in that respect. 

I hope you will reflect seasonably upon these things, w"^ with greife and trouble I now write ; 
my onely designe therein is to contribute my hearty neighbourly and freindly advice to your 
peace and prosperity ; \\'^ yow cannot expect till you have purged away the leaven of factious 
interests in y' Courts and country, that with brotherly love and unity, y'' afliiires may be carried 
on in the sight of God and all good men. 

I am 
'V : -, ... - Honoured S'' and Gentlemen 

. . ~ Y' very aff '" servant 

■ R. NlCOLLS. 

2-4'" of July 1G67. | 
Fort James in New Yorke \ 


Mr. Maverlch to the Secretanj of State. 

[ New-York Miscellany Bundle, State Paper OIHce. ] 

Right Honourable. 

May it please your Lordship. lu August last was twelve month by Collonel Cartwright I 
presumed to send you a letter and coppies of several other letters formerly sent and other papers 
which were all lost, I therefore by all conveyances since have presumed to trouble you with 
more copies, some wee knowe are lost, some wee hope are come to hand, hearing the Bearers 
are arrived in England. In October last being at New Yorke, S' Robert Carre being then 
sicke and not in a capacity to goe for England, and I resolved to goe, to have given as ample an 
account as I could, but before the Ship sailed being frozen in, a long time, I was taken sicke, 
but sent two packetts, which I brought from Collonell Nicolls under a covert to the Honb'= Sir 
William Coventry one by Captain Gilhams Ship, the other by Cap'" Avis, who wee feare is 
lost, the other wee heare is arrived ; I sent allsoe in the same fleete by one Capt. Proute as by 
the other two, letters to your Lord?, Sir William IMorris, Sir William Coventry and Collonell 
Cartwright, informing as well as I could, how things stood here at that tyme, resolving, if I 
recovered in any measure to goe myselfe in a single ship left behind the Fleete ; but in the 
interim. Sir Robert being well recovered, it was resolved that bee should goe and I remayne here : 
I furnished him with all the materiall papers I had of actings iu his absence and tymes of 
sicknes and by him wrote to your Lord? Sir W" Morrice and Sir W" Coventry. I hope 
that bee and all hee carried is ere this safely arrived in Engl"*, bee setting saile from hence on 
the 20"' of March in one Capt" Martin, bound for Pristoll. I shall not trouble you with the 
relation of the contest that fell out between him and the reputed Gov"' & Councill and the issue, 
if hee [ be ] not arrived, Capt" Bredin intends to give your Lord? an account of it by this 

Since Sir Roberts departure, there hath been but little action, only on the 15"" of this instant, 
was the day of election, where was a small appearance, they chose M"' Belliugham Governor 
and Hauthorne and all the rest of the Magistrates that were last yeere and added no more to 
them. The first act they did was the expelling Capt" Appleton of Ipswich who was chosen 
Deputy for that Towne ; the crime laid to his charge was the subscription that Loyall Peticuii 
picsciitcd to the last Court of which coppies have been sent to your Lord'' It is nowe commonly 
reported about the Country, that the signification of his Maj'^" pleasure, which in September 
last I gave in Court to the Gov"" and Councell was never signed by His Maj''', but that it was 
forged by mee to them, and that when their letter directed from them to the Hon'''' Sir William 
Morrice was by one Harwood living at Bednall Greene delivered, and hee brought to the 
King's presence, his Maj"" tould him hee never ordered any such thing to bee sent : and 
commended the Gov" & Councell for not submitting unto it or the contents of it ; these things 
and rumours spread abroad exceedingly dishearten and discourage the loyall party as by frequent 
letters and messages from all parts I am informed ; I do what I can to hearten them by letters 
and now and then by visits. 

(jood my Lord I most humbly beseech you bee pleased to procure, some speedy order may 
be taken for a full settlement of His Ma'''' Colonies in New England entirely under his obedience 
which will give greate satisfaction to all well affected people, & prevent all inconveniences which 
otherwise will in tyme appeare ; I have presiuned formerly humbly to present unto your Lordi", 



111}' appreliensions how this worke may bee done with least cliarge to His Maj''' and most 
satisfaction to the iuiioceut. 

I this weeke receved a lettre from Coll : NicoUs, all is well there, only they want money or 
goods, for certaiue hee is engaged on his owne credit for goods and money taken up heare to 
carry on the worke above one thousand pounds ; In letters dated in January and since in Marcli 
p Sir Robert Carre I gave unto the Hon^'^ Sir W" Coventry an account how all things stood 
there ; I suppose hee shewed it to your Lord?. Good My Lord pardon niee for giving you so 
much trouble, from tyme to tyme there have been such losses and miscarriages of letters and 
papers of late that I dare not let any opportunity pass \\itiiout writing. I shall end for this tyme 
humbly craving the Countenance of j-our wonted favour to raee who am and shall ever remayne, 
Right Hon"^ Sir 

Your most obliged humble servant. 

This above is a coppie of a letter sent in June another coppie I sent with some addition by one 
Randall of Plymouth before which time wee had certaine newes that Sir Kob' Carr dyed in 
Bristoll and never got to London, but hope the papers hee received came safe ; since which time 
wee have not heard from England, nor much from any other place only this ; the Plantations at 
Cape Feare are diserted, the inhabitants are since come hither, some to Virginia ; at Burmudoes 
there hath been such a drought as the fruites of the earth are all destroyed, and in Virginia on 
the 23'''* of August there was such a dreadfull haracana as blew up all the rootes that was on 
the ground, overturned many houses and abundance of Trees, and drove up some vessels of 
burthen above high water marke many foote, and about tyme they report, the Lord Baltaniores 
Sonne GoV of Virginia died : Good fily Lord pardon me for being so ti'oublesome, I shall and 
remaine, R' Hon''''' Sir Your most obliged humble servant 

Samuell Mavericke 

[Boston, October 16, 1667.] 

Mr. Maverick to Colonel Cartwright. 

[ Xcw-Tork Miscellany Bundle, State Paper Office. ] 

Ever honored Sir, 

I have not lett passe any opportunitie of writing unto you ; my last unto you was by one M' 
Randall ; the letters committed to the care of one Zacheus Sedgwicke who lived with Capt" 
Breedon ; in that as in all others I gave you an account of all that had passed, to the tyme the 
letters were written in. In my last was inclosed a letter to My Lord Chancellor which I left 
unclosed that you might see the contence of it, and then desired you to scale it and deliver it 
to my Lord if in beinge, or else to my Lord Arlington. I send another coppie inclosed in this 
open it, that you may see the contence, and then deliver as aforesaid. 

There is nothing since worth relation, only M' Wilson is dead, and they have given M'' 
Davenport of New Haven a call to suckseed him, but whither he will barken to it, wee know 

Sargant Exton who Col : Nicoll sett out to see what he could doe against the French, two 
Vol. III. 21 


(laves since arrived lieare, and liatli taken two Forts, ])urnt tiiem and brought away as many 
gunns & other plunder, as his vessel can carry no more. In Barmodas there hath beene such 
an extreanie dronght as hath destroyed all the liutes of tiie earth, and in Virginia in August was 
such a haracana as l)lew all downe before it, the like was never knowne, and they report that 
at that tyme young lialtimore dyed. 

From Newfoundland we heare, that the Dutch landed on the isle of Tenett' burnt several of 
the Royall sliippes and carryed away the Cliarles, on which they say the Duke of Albemarle 
was made hi'di Constable of England and Ireland, that he had displaced the Duke of Ormond, 
and Casheired 153 ofHcers in Ireland. In England, that he had committed to the Tower the 
I/' Chancellor, and several Bishops, this is pleasing newes to some heare wdio believe it to be 

Sir I hopt> my last to you (written Sept : 1:2. sent by Zacheus Sedgwicks in a shipp of 
IMvniouth) will come safe to your hand which was more larg then this is. I am just now come 
froii) Siileni and further east and finding the shipp setting sayle, I caimot enlarge, nor is there tyme 
to get tills transcribed ; very many of your friends present theire best respects, to you, and much 
di'sire yoiu- company liere again, pray if there be any thinge to be gotten for me, lett me heare 
from you ; however, I shall be glad to see a few lynes under your hand. Good Sir, excuse this 
scribliuge, if the shipp stay till tomorrow you shall have it in a better manner. I sliall ever 


Sir, Your most aflectionate freinde & servant 
[ r.oston, October Iti, L(ji',7. ] Samuel Maveiucke. 

(y<mel XIroJh- to the BeVinnd Father Piei-ron. 

[ New- York Papers, I. 03. ] 

fort Albany f 2"' October 1(3G7 

Having seen your very agi-eable letter to Madame de Corlart of the IS"" 7*" and also another 
to Mr Hains, I feel very glad to be here to communicate briefly my sentiments to you thereon ; 
but seeing by the commencement of yours to Madame de Corlart that you have thoroughly 
learned the English language, I dare no longer hazard my bad French style, fearing to appear 
very ignorant before you, as I am in fact of your tongue. Therefore it is,^ I now beginn in 
plaine English to let you know that if you please to give mee a Meeting at Schonestade I shall 
bee glad to see you and to serue you in what you seeme to desire towards your Winters 

Wee have lately receiu'd newes from Bilboe fyall and other places that the peace is concluded 
between the Crownes of England and france, although I have yet no expresse letters from his 
Majesty of England to that purpose and wee doe confidently beleeue those warrs are ended as 
also that the french army hath taken severall Townes in Flanders which news I perceiue you 
haue also met w"'all. 

' Isle of Thiinet, Eiiglaii.l. — En. 5 The preooiliiig part of the MS. is in Freneh. — Ed. 


Howeiier to a person of y'' profession and meritt I sliould at any Time willingly accept an 
Enterview -nnthout eutring into discourse of Politique Affaires. Therefore this present letter is 
expressly sent in Place of a Passeport to giue you full assurance of y'' freedome to come 
to Schoneistade and to returne at y"' Liberty and if you please to bring one more in y"' Company 
upon the same termes I shall endeavour to answer you y"' desires. Be pleasd to come with 
all Expedition as I haue but a Httle time to spend in the and you will find mee next 

Munday and till Tuesday att noone in Schoneistade attending y'' answer ; you may easily and 
with the most Expedition make the voyage in a Canoe down the river othei-wise I would liave 
sent horses for y"" accomodation. If you cannot lay hold of this present opportunity the Liberty 
I haue now given will neither serue you nor mee to those civill purposes whereunto in person I 
am now ready to comply, bee pleasd to send mee your speedy answer by this bearer in case 
you are not disposed to take so suddain a Voyage. 

I am, Your very humble Servant, 

11. Nicoi.i.s. 
A Monsieur, Monsieur le Reverend Pere Jean Pierron 
an Chasteau Tionnontogon,' 

soit donne. 

Governor Stuyve-sant to €ie Diih- of Yorl-. 

[New-York Papers, I. 125. ] 

Severall Proposalls humbly to be tendred to his Royall Highnes from Peter 
Stuyvesant, the late Govenio'' of New Netherlands, in the behalfe of himselfe, 
& the Dutch Inhabitants there. 

First That his Royall Highnes would be graciously pleased, to ratify & confirme all such 
articles of Agreem' as were concluded betwixt Coll. Nicolls, (authorized by His Royal Highnes) 
and the said Peter Stuyvesant for the welfare and mutual benefit of both nations. As by the 
Articles themselves more at large may appeare. 

That amongst the severall Articles, conducing to the benefit of the Inhabitants, it was there 
concluded that the Dutch nation (now his Royall Highesse most faithfull and obedient subjects) 
should have liberty to Trade with their owne Correspondents in Holland, and have free leave to 
send thither what goods they please, and have returnes from thence in shipps of their owne 
Country, As by the sixth Article it more largely appeares. 

That if this Article be not observed, or in some measure indulg'd, All the Dutch inhabitants 
of New Yorke must inevitably be brought to rayne, and consequently that hopefull Colony to 
extreame penury and want, ffor the confuTxiation of which hee humbly tenders these ensuing 

1 Tionnontoguen was the capital of the entire Mohawk country, which nation Father Pierron risited this year. (Relation, 
1G67-8, pp. 14, 42.) It was situate on a hill, on the north bank of the Mohawk River, from which it was distant a bow 
shot, {GremhalgKs Report, post. Anno 16'7'7.) and was fovir leagues from GaudaoTiagu6, represented as the nearest village to 
the enemy's (or Mohegan) coimtry. {Relation 1(569 -70. Ill, 112.) In 1689, it was removed an English mile higher up. {New- 
York Documentary History, 8vo. ii. 87. — Ed. 


V That, since the most considerable Inliabitants of those parts (being composed of the Dutch 
nation) allwayes kept a Correspondence with their ffreinds in their own native Countryes, and 
having- received constant supplyes from them, at farr easyer rates than from any other parts, 
They will not onely be deprived of see great advantages, but even Comerce itselfe since at 
present they have not had an opportunity to fix tlieir Correspondence elsewhere. 

2<"y Since their manner of agriculture is wholly diffijreut from that way practised by the 
English nation there, and therefore cannot possibly expect a supply from England of those 
utensills relating to the cultivating of their Land, but of necessity must expect them from their 
owne Countrey. 

3'"5' Since the Trade of Beaver, (the most desirable comodity for Europe) hath allwayes been 
purchased from the Indyans, by the Comodities brought from Holland as Camper, Duffles, 
Hatchetts, and other Iron worke made at L'trick &■= much esteemed of by the Natives, It is to be 
fear'd that if those Comodities should fail them, the very Trade itself would fall, and the fl'rench 
of Canida, who are now incroach'd to be too ueare Neighbours unto us (as but halfe a days 
journey from the Mohawkes) making use of their Necessities and supplying them, they will in 
time totally divert the Beaver Trade, and then the miserable consequence that will ensue, wee 
shall not have one shipp from Europe to Trade with us. 

^tbiy That it being most certainely evident noe shipps from England are resolv'd to visit those 
parts this season, soe that unlesse the Inhabitants be supply'd before spring with all necessaryes 
from Holland, It will be not ouely impossible for them to subsist, but they must be constrained 
to forsake their Tillage and seeke out a Livelyhood elsewhere. 

But if his Royall Highnes out of his tender care and compassion to his distressed subjects 
there, will procure liberty for one or two small Dutch vessells (by name the Crosse Heart and 
the Indian) the one of Two hundred tonn, the other of one hundred & twentj^ to goe from 
thence to New Yorke, Hee will undertake to satisfie the necessities both of the Marchant and 
Husbandman, with all things necessary. And soe the Inhabitants being plentifully supply'd, maj' 
chearfully follow their Vocations, and blesse God for the opportunity of Injoyment of all peace 
& plenty under the Auspicious wings of Your Ifoyall Highnesse paternall care and protection. 

Petition of Peter Stuyvesant to the King etnd Privy Council. 

[ New-York Papers, I. 04. ] 

To y"^ Kings mo-st Excell' Ma"'' & to y"" R' ho"^ y' Lords of his RIa" most ho'''" 
Priuie Councell. 

The humble Peticon of Peter StuAwesant late Govorno"' of y^ Citty and ffbrt called Amsterdam 
and Generall of y'' New Netherlands, for and in behalfe of himselfe, and the Dutch Nacon, now 
Yo'" Ma'" subjects in New Yorke. 


That yo'' Pef after a solenni Treaty upon certaine Artickles bearing date y'^ 29"" of August : 
G4 : did surrender the Towne and ffort called Amsterdam into y^ hands of Coll : Richard 



Nicolls, and did thereupon acknowledge all due obedience, and sweare faith and true allegiance, 
to yo"' most Excell' Ma""*. That amongst other Artickles of that Treaty, that of number y" G"' for 
a free Trade, was esteemed to bee of most considerable importance, w^'' according to y" originall 
hath these words following ; \-iz' It is consented to that any people may come from y' 
Netherlands and Plant in this Country and that Dutch Vessells may freely come hither and any 
of y' Dutch may freely returne home, or send any Merchandize home in vessells of their owne 

May it therefore please yo" Ma"'' and y'= R' ho'''^ Board to take y'^ premisses into yo'' serious 
consideracou and that the Treat}' entred into bj' y"" Mediacon of ISP Winthrop then Governo"' 
of y^ Collony of Harford in New England, and signed by Coll. Nicholls (as may appeare by his 
direccons to JNI'' Winthrop und"' his owne hand may be ratified and confirmed, according to y* 
Law of Nations in such Cases, That so yo'' Ma*'" Dutch Subjects in those parts, may be allowed 
y' benefitt of a free trade, as hath been graunted them by y^ 6"= Article whereby y^ Planters may 
be furnished w* some necessaries, not to bee bad from other parts. And that in Ord'' to a more 
amicable correspondence betweene and Joynt endeavour for yo'' Ma*'''" service, by yo"" Ma"" 
Subjects of both Nacons 

INIore particularly Yo'' Pef humbly Beggs that according to his annexed passe and Repasse 
from Coll. Nicholls, Yo'' Ma"'' will gratiously bee pleased to grant him the liberty of Returning 
tliither in y^ same shipp named therein y^ Crost heart, or of any other from any Porte of Holland 
he shall thinke Convenient. 

And yo'" Pef shall ever pray &'' 

" The Peticon of Peter Stup'esant «&:'' New York. 
Read and ordered SG"" October. 67." 

Meport of the Committee of the Council on the p'eceding Petition. 

[ New-York Papers, I. 63. ] 

Whitehall 17"' October 1667. 

Present — Earle of Bridgewater Earle of Laytherdaill, 

Earle of Crauen Lord Berkely 

M'' Vice chamberlain. 

The Committee of Councill appointed by yom- Ma'^ examined the Petition of Peter 
Stuyvesant late Gouuemeur of the New Netherlands, and the Articles theremito annexed. 

Uppon due Consideration had thereuppon. 

Wee doe (in regard of the necessity of a present trade in those parts which cannott at this 
time bee supplied from hence) Humbly offer to Your Ma'^. 

That a temporary Permission for seauen yeares bee graunted to the Dutch to trade freely 
with the Inhabitants of the lands lately reduced from the Dutch into the obedience of your ]\Ia'y. 


The sayil Dutch Inliahitaiits, heinge nowe becoine your Ma"" subjects, haimig taken the Oatli 
of Alleagiauce, and their agent the sayd Peter Stuyvesant being present hath fully consented 

And wee doe also humbly offer it as our opinion. That (according to the Petitioner's desire) 
your Ma'^ doe graunt him your Passe, pursuant to the Passeport bee bath from Coll : NichoUs, 
for his safe returne from Holand into those parts. 


Report From the Committee for forraigne Plantations, l?"- Octob-- 1667. 

Head in Councell 23'-'' Octob"- 1GG7. Concerning New Yorke. 

OrJir of tlie Kuuj In Council on the Petition of Peter Stuyvesant. 

[ New-Tork Papers, I. 71. ] 

Order on y" Peticon of Peter Stuyvesant 23"" of October 1667. 

I'liESENT — Hts Ma"* E. of Anglesey. 

Duke of Yorke. E. of Carlisle. 

ArchbPP of Cant. E. of Crauen. 

L"* Keeper. E. of Lauderdaill. 

L"* Privy Seale. E. of Middleton. 

D. Buckingham. E. of Carbery. 
L"" great cbamVlain. Vise' Fitzharding. 
L"* Chamberlain. L** Berkeley. 
Earle Bridgewater. L"* Holies. 

E. Berkshire. M'' Sec'"'' Morrice. 

M-- Cb : of y* Dutchy. 

The Pet" of Peter Stu}'\'esant late Governour of the Citty and Foit called Amsterdam, & 
Generall of the New Netberiands, tor & on the behalfe of himself & the Dutch Nation (now liis 
Ma*' subjects in New Yorke) being this day Read at the Board, shewing. That the Pef after a 
solemne Treaty, upon Articles dated the 29"= of August 1664, did surrender the Towne and 
fort called Amsterdam into tlie hands of Coll. Richard Nicholls, & did thereupon acknowledge 
all due obedience, & swcare faith and true Allegiance to his Ma"' That by the sixt Article : It 
was consented to that any people may come from the Netberiands, & plant in that country, and 
that Dutch vessells may freely come thither, & any of the Dutch may freely returne home, or 
send any Merchandize home in Vessells of their owne Countrye, and praying that a free Trade 
may accordinly be allowed. Upon serious consideracon of the present necessity of Trade & 
comerce to be supported & encouraged in those parts for the comon benefitt, w-^"" cannot at this 
time be sujiplyed from hence, and the Dutch Inhabitants in New Yorke beinge now b.ecome his 
.Ma'>"» subjects (as aloresaid) It was this day ordered (his Ma"'= present in Councill) that a 
temporary permission for seven yeares, with three shipps onely, be given and hereby is granted 


unto the Dutch freely to trade with the Inhabitants of the Lands lately reduced from the Dutch 
into the obedience of his Ma"'" ; And that hereafter no passe h'ceuce or permission be at any 
time given to any greater nmnber of shipps to trade as aforesaid ; And hereof as well his Ma" 
Govorno"'" in tiiose parts as all other Officers and persons concerned are required to take notice 
and yeild due obedience accordingly. 

2:3'" Oct. 1667 

It was this day ordered by his Ma''* in Councell That his Royall H" the Duke of Yorke Lord 
High Adm" of England be and hereby he is authorized to graunt his Passe and Lycence 
unto Heere Peter Stuyuesant, late Generall of the New Netherlands to returne to the place 
formerly called the New Netherlands, and now called New Yorke, pursuant to the Passport he 
had and received from Colonel Nicolls for his safe goeingfor Holland & returne into those Parts. 

Colonel Nicolls to Secretary Arlington. 

[ Trade Papers, State Taper Office. XVH. So. ] 

IS'" of Q^" 67. Fort James 
in N. Yorke. 
My Lord. 

Since my last by S'' W*" Davison's ship the Orange Tree, wee have neither scene or lieard 
of any ship bound to this port nor any place of New England, insomuch that all people are 
under a discouragement of sending into England until they receive more certain intelligence how 
the affaires stand, for if creditt were to be given to severall flying reports, we must conclude that 
the whole nation is more than distresst with forreine and civill warrs. We live in a gi-eat 
scarcity of all necessaries and the want of ships this whole summer gives great latitude to our 
apprehensions of some extraordinary disaster fallen his Majesty. In earnest I knew not what 
to beleeve nor what to write, but I coimt it my duty to slip noe becoming opportimity through yo' 
Lp' favour that his Sacred Majesty may know that all the coasts of New England have enjoyed 
peace to this day, however through negligence and ill conduct a gi-eat part of the Virginia fleet 
were taken and destroyed shamefully in June last. 

To prevent the incursions of the French from Canada into these parts, I have turned one 
third of the country militia into horse and dragoones ; the like is done in Conecticot Colony, but 
the grandees of Boston are too proud to be dealt with, sapng that his*Majesty is well satisfied 
\\'ith their loyalty, & hath recalled both his Commission and disgrac'd his Comissioners. My 
Lord, the foresaid discouragements fall heavy upon us poore mortalls that know no interest but 
his Ma"''" and are ready every hoiu-e to sacrifize our lives for his honour and service. When His 
Ma''" is ti'uly inform'd how advantagiously wee are posted by scituation to bridle his enemies and 
secure all his good subjects, I humbly pra^sume to thinke that his Ma'"' would afibrd much of 
countenance and regard unto us notwithstanding that his INIa'"" hath graunted the whole tract to 
his R. H'. I beseech y'' L? to pardon my impertinencies in oflering considerations of such 
consequence, but being upon the place I may pretend to some knowledge which I leave to better 


judtrements. I wish y I.'' all health and happpiness and shall ever depend upon y^ old freindship 
wherehy 1 shall staml ohliged most faithfully to continue and assert that I am 

My Lord 

most all' "■ humble Servant 

(signed) K. Nicholls. 

To the Kight Hon'''" the Lord 
Arlington Trineipall Secretary 
of State to his Majesty. 

at Whitehall. 
p''sent these. 

Stattment respecting the Seizure of a Vessel lnj the Indians. 

[ Xew-York Papers, I. 73. ] 

A true declaration of the Carriadge of the Indians about the Vessell lost. 

One Mcnulave night the IS — 1GG~ about 2 or 3 a clock in the morning, by reason of the 
violence of the wind, my aucho" remaining home, my vessell droue a shoare in the harbo"' at 
the west end of that Hand next to quickshole,' my selfe & company then went to warme o'' 
selues at an Indian howse, the Indians saied the vessell and the goods were theirs, wee answered 
noe, they had noe right to it, they sent to the Sackym «& to the other Indians who all came 
together, and while they were consulting about the vessell & goods they bid us to goe to the 
other howse ; wee answered noe, they need not turne us out of tlie howse wee did not hinder 
them : then the Indians went out of the howse to the next howse & wee went aboard, & 
abowt an bower &: lialfe after wee being returned to the howse the Indians came thither also, 
and toU'd us they had determined all together wee should neither haue o'' vessell o"' goods they 
would take them. 

I desired my chest of them, some of them answered noe there was such cloth in it & they 
woulld haue it, I desired my weareing cloathes w"'' they graunted and some prouisions to cate 
while wee were there w^"" they graunted, they tooke away a suite of cloathes from me, 2 
pre of shooes, all my tooles, the sachim had my saw in his hand w^"^ I would haue had, but he 
woulld not gyue it me, nor my axe. They tooke away a new hatt and a new paire of shooes 
from my sonne ; the par^-culers lost are my vessell of 15 tunns w"" all due furniture belonging 
to it, and a foresaile to spare, my Cables and aucho" I desired of them but they woulld not 
gyue them unto mee, my vessell was not scene to be staued when we veiwed hir at low water, 
onely the back of hir rudder In-oken of ; My freight aboard was 48" Indian come, fower barrells 
of pork, 4 iiydes, 1 Urkin of l)uter, 1 smale caske of suett about 4o'' one barrell of tobacco, 
about '-'A or -•>■".' cotton wool; 2G bushells meale 8 bushells of it wheate meale, the rest IJye 
of Indiun nieak', 1 bushell wheate, 1 bushell of Rye, 2 bushells turnepps, one bushells of 
liuDus, lied cloth G yards, 3 or 4 yards peraistoue, My leade & lyne with diuerse other things out 

' A jmss l.,,two,.n two of Uie Elizabeth IslnnJs, south of New Bedford, Mnssaehnsetts. — Ed. 


of my Chest and vessell ; shooes, one payre womens shooes, two Iron potts, 3 paire Chilldrens 
sliooes, 2 paire new Russett shooes : 40' tallow, 2 gnnns, a greens blankett, a womans cloake 
from goody doggett, this is the truthe of the case at the present to o'' best remembraimce. 

This declaration aboue written was attested upon oathe by William Weexe the master of 
saied vessell, and by his son WiUiam and by thomas the Indian who was seaman in the vessell. 

goody doggett testyfyes that the Indyans did take awaye & w'^'oUd the vessell & goods from 
the master and shee did intreate them to lett him haue his vessell againe but they would not, 
but they allso denied the meale and meate and fetcht it away,. all these were taken uppon oathe 
22 nouember 1667 upon the Vynyard. 

This is the Coppy of what is under oathe 

Thomas Mayhew. 


" 22 Novemb-- 1667 
a Declaracon of the 
Carriage of y^ Indians 
about a Vessell taken 
by them. " 

Endorsed further down 

" A declaration about a vessel! 
of Will Weexes taken by Indians 
at one of the Elyzabethes Isles : No''" 1667. " 

Colonel jSficolls to Mi: MayTiew. 

' . ■ - [ New England, I. 367. ] 

Jan. the Z^ 1667. Fort James. 
jNP Mayhew. 

Yo" of the 26"" of No' with the inclosed attestations relating the disaster befallen a vessell 
and goods driven upon one of the Elizabeth Isles, is brought to me by John Dixey who was 
able to give me an exact confirmation thereof, because he brought the deponents with his sloop, 
out of their bondage. This is the second \'iolence which the Indians of y'' parts IiaA'e committed 
upon Christians since my arrivall in this country. This latter (though without bloodshed) 
appeares to mee of as ill example and consequence as the fomier ; therefore I see it is high 
time for mee to put forth my authority to strengthen your hands by a speciall comissiou in this 
case, and allso to give yow some generall heads of directions and ad\'ice how to beginn with 
those Indians and how farr to proceed ; for they shall not be suffisrd to prastend to such a 
prasrogative, much lesse to exercise such barbarisme. Therefore 1" send messengers to the 
Sachems and acquaint them that I have heard of their insolency and doe demand of them and 
their people full satisfaction for the dammage sustain'd, that one or both of the Sachems 
personally appeare before yow upon Martin's Vineyard to answer their crime. If one or both 
Vol. III. 22 


iippcare upon the summons, be not sparing to threaten and terrify them for what is past or maj' 
liappen hereafter. If yow find them willing to comply to satisfaction, then allow them time for 
payment of the principall and the charges. If neither of them appeare at the first summons, 
send yet a second, peremptorily to comand them and satisfaction also ; giving them a short time to 
make answer. I hope you may find hands and hearts enough either upon Martin's Vineyard or 
the neighbours of Plimouth in such like cases, to reduce these Indians to better obedience ; and 
further let those Indians know that if they force me to send souldiers amongst them from these 
parts and garrisons, it will bring so great a charge upon their heads that perpetually slavery will 
be their end. You will doe very well to desire Governour Prince and the Assistants of 
Plymouth to put forth some order to their Indians, manifesting their displeasure against the 
authors of this late action, or any that shall assist them ; by which means I prcEsume yow will 
bring those Indians to an easier complyauce ; whereof, or in case of greater difficulty, I desire 
yow will give me notice, for I assure yow this matter shall not fiill to the ground. I have not been 
forward in triviall cases to contest for my master's bounds, knowing however that all the Islands 
except Block Island from Cape Codd to Cape May, are included in my master's patent. The 
iirst scruples will be soone remooved ; however in cases of this consequence I must declare my 
selfe both in point of power and readiness to protect and defend mj^ master's honour and interest. 

John Dixey tells me that those Indians are not necessitous, for that they have great store of 
hogs which may yield satisfaction ; though I am apt to beleeve much of the goods, (liquors 
excepted) will be found amongst them. 

It is not possible for me to give full advice at this distance, therefore I must leave very mucii 
to y'' prudence and the dictates of a good conscience ; which two ingredients are proper in all 
matters of great consequence. 

What I wrote concerning Tallman yow may peruse as well as himselfe if yow have my letter 
by yow. No more at present but that I am 

S'' Yo'' very afF'" friend 


I have in the Comissiou, left you the latitude to make choice of two able men to assist yow ; 
for I prgesume it will be acceptable to you that such a weighty affaire remaine not upon your 
shoulders onely. Your inserting their names will be sufficient. 

To M'' Mayhew. 

Colo)iel Kicolls to the Council of Masmchusetta. 

[ New England, I. SlU). ] 

Worthy Gentlemen. 

I was for some time past very imwdlling to beleeve that yow vpould reassume a power of 
government in the Province of Maine or Yorkeshire, the absolute decision whereof is lodg'd 
with His Ma'''= ; and surely it will appeare an open breache of duty that any of His INIa"''' 
inferiour Courts should usurpe a power over townes and persons after that it hath pleased His 
Ma'"' to signifie his pleasure to yo' selves in these following words ; — " And for the better 


prsevention of all differences and disputes upon the bounds and limitts of the severall Colonies His 
Ma.''^' pleasure is that all determinations made by His Ma''" Comissioners with reference to" the 
s** bounds and limitts, may still continue and be observed till upon a full representation of all 
prajtences His Ma"'= shall make his owne finall determination, " &"' — Which very words yow 
will find in y' owne letter from His Ma''^ concluding thus: — " And His Ma"= expects that full 
obedience be given to this signification of his pleasure in all particulars. Given at the Court at 
Whitehall the lO"" day of Aprill 1666 in the eighteenthe of His Ma"" reigne : by His ISIa"" 
command. W" Morrice. " But I have now seene the order of y"' last Gen" Court in answer 
to the petition of some restless and unquiett spiritts wherein yo'' resolution is already taken to 
send Commissioners to keepe a Courte and to exercise justice &'^ as under y' government. I 
know yow have force enough to compell most of y"' neighbours to submitt to y' government, but 
if yow thinke that His Ma''"'' arme will never be strecht forth to defend his subjects from 
usurpation, yow may attempt any thing imder the notion of setling peace and order. I dare 
not be silent in a matter so expressly contradictory to His INI a''" signification dated the 10"" of 
Aprill 1666. for though some of y' great people have spread a report that the s'' signification was 
never knowne to or own'd by His Ma"° and probably for that reason the Generall Court was 
induced to issue forth the fores'" order, yet yow are to expect that His Ma'" will owne his hand, 
and S"" W™ Morrice will require satisfaction for such scandalous aspersions upon him being 
Principall Secretary of State. In short yow will find that Province already settled by His 
Ma*'^^ Comissioners in peace and order except some few turbulent spiritts. You may read His 
Ma"" hath made a temporary confirmation thereof; why then are yow so hasty to enter upon 
a thing of this nature, or how can yow say that yow have heard nothing since that might 
discourage or weaken your title to the s* government. I am necessitated to write in these plaine 
and large terms, because the shortness of my time in these parts will not perniitt me to give yow 
a visitt ; but I will tell yow my feares, that if yow proceed to compell au alteration of 
government in the Province of Maine by subverting their present establishment as it now stands 
circumstanced, in all likelyhood yow may cause blood to be shed ; for it is both naturall and 
lawfull for men to defend their just rights against all invaders. Gentlemen. I shall send a 
copy of this my letter, with au originall of His Ma'"' fors* signification to those gentlemen of 
the s* province, and there leave the decision betwixt God and your selves. My hearty wishes 
and prayers shall be to the Almighty that yow may be indued with the spiritt of obedience, 
charity, meekeness, and brotherly love ; holding y'' selves within these bounds yow may be 
happy upon all the points of the compasse, and I am sm-e no man can wish yow better than 

Your aif '" hmnble servant 


June the 12"' 68. ] 
Fort James in N. Yorke j 

To the Goveruour and Assistants 
of His Ma"« Colony of the 
Massachusetts in Boston. 


Colonel Xleolls to the General Court at Boston. 

[ New EDglanrl, I. SOS. ] 

July the 30"' GS. 
Fort James in N. Yorke. 
Worthy Gentlemen. 

Yo" of the S"" of July gives me occasion to reply to some particulars, and I am sorry yow 
will not see or understand that His Majesty hath already signified his pleasure to yow that what 
settlement of bounds»his Comissioners had made, should remaine till His Majestie had leisure 
to take them into further consideration. At the same time His Ma"^ commanded the Governour 
with others to appeare before him and Councell, to the end that all yo"' bounds and priviledges 
nii'dit have a finall determination. Yow have lately invaded his pleasure amply signified, (so 
you thinke fitt to tenne His Ma'''^" displeasure) and how yow have complyed w"" His iNIa*'" 
comands, every man sees. I confess that I was not concernd in that affaire, but yow must not 
thinke it strange that (now at my departure as yow are pleased to say) I should animadvert so 
sharply upon yow in that matter. Truly Gentlemen I hold myselfe concern'd during life, in tl,e 
affaires of N. England, and 'tis no such wonder that I should admonish yow from incurring His 
lilajesties displeasure by invading the temporary bomids ordained by His Ma"" to whom appeales 
in those cases are most proper. 

I know the regulation of affaires towards Indians or rather between them hath great difficulty ; 
wherein I have lately expresst my selfe unto yow, and therefore shall trouble yow no farther, but 
leave yow to yo'' owne better judgments. Yow know that my station hath been a frontier place 
towards the Indians, who had too much influence upon the spiritts of the Dutch in former times, 
but are now in a competent measure reduc'd to a better complyance in their behaviours towards 
us, and have given me sonre testimonies of their desires to live in peace with our A'ation ; for 
they have made me a present of two youths, which have been their prisoners a few yeares ; they 
were taken in Maryland. Also they have promist to bring me another young man remaining 
with them : so that though they have a warr with the English iu Maryland because the English 
there doe take part with their Indians, j'ett yow may guesse these heathens are yet desirous of 
peace with the English, of which I have long since advertised the Governour of Maryland, 
without any success. To conclude, I doe say again that in all points of yo'' true interest yow 
may certainly find me. Worthy Sirs 

Your very faithfull Servant 
R. N. 
To the General Court \ 
At Boston. I 


Mr. Maverick to Secretary Arlington. 

I Trade Papers, State Paper Office. XTHI. 20. ] 

... . , New Yorke in America 

August S-S"" 1668. 
Right Hon"^ 

May it please yo'' Lordship to give mee leave briefly to give you an Accompt of what hath 
passed in the Northern parts of New England since August 1666. 

On the 6"" of that month there arrived a shipp at Boston in the government of the 
Massachusetts, the Master whereof brought a pacquett from the Hon'''^ Sir William Morice 
directed to S'' Robert Carr and the rest of his Ma"" Commissioners in New England. In it 
were inclosed letters from his Ma"* to the Governours of the 3 Collonyes which had freely 
submitted to his government soon after the Commissioners arrival]. In it also was inclosed a 
signification of his 3Ia"" pleasure concerning the Massachusetts Colony which had refused to 
submitt ; commanding the Governor M" Richard Belliugham and Major Hathorae on their 
allegiance to repair to England by y" first opportunity. S"' William Slorice sent two of these 
signed and sealed ; Ordered one of them to be delivered to the Govemour & Counsell, the other 
to be reserved. The next day I told the Governour that it was his Ma"" will and pleasure that 
hee should call his Counsell together, unto whom (when mett) there was a message to be delivered 
to them from his Ma"^ It was six weeks ere they were assembled, unto whom I delivered the 
signification, and shortly after in a Generall Court it was voted that the persons sent for should 
not goe : which when known, many of the cousiderablest persons within the government (some 
of them Deputyes of that Court and Captaines of Companyes) petitioned to the Court that his 
IMa"''^ command might be obeyed ; but in stead of granting their request they summoned them 
to appeare before them, where they receiv'd a sharp reproofe for their presumption as they 
termed it ; and when the day of election came, made choice of the aforesaid Bellingham for 
Governour and Hathorne for a Councellor, and soe they remaine to this day. 

In the afore mentioned signification his ]Ma"'^ declared that hee was well pleased with the 
actings of his Commissioners, aud expressl)' commaunded that noe alteration should be made in 
what they had done, as to Bounds between Colon3'es or otherwise, untill his pleasure were 
further luiowne ; and in particular the Province of Mayne is named, which y'= Commissioners 
on good gi-oimds had taken from the Massachusetts, it being above twenty miles beyond their 
North Bounds by their patent, and themselves rested satisfyed with, for above twenty years. 
They also freed the inhabitants from y" command and government of y* Massachusetts, and 
appointed certaine Justices of the Peace, and other officers, both civill and military, for the 
governing of that Pi'OA^ince, imtill his Ma"" pleasure were further luiowne. 

Notwithstanding all this, at a Generall Court begun at Boston on the SQ"" of Aprill last they 
a second time chose INP Belhngham Governour, and one of the first things hee did was the 
granting a commission (under his hand and the Scale of the Colony affixed) under I\Iajor Jn" 
Leverett and others to goe unto y' Province of JNIaine, and to tume out of office there those 
appointed by the Commissioners, and to hold a Comt at Yorke in that Pi'ovince in the name 
and by authority of the Massachusetts, and accordingly they went, took with them both horse 
and foote and two Marshalls, seized forcibly on the records which have been well & exactly 
there kept, imder four changes of government, for neare thirty yeares, committed the Marshall 
to prison, and appointed their old Marshall to officiate. It came very neare to shedding of bloud ; 


but on consideration the Justices drew up and published a Protest against their proceedings and 
soe remaine subject to y" government of the JNIassachusetts their professed eueniyes, uutill his 
Majestie shall be graciously pleased to relieve them ; for which they have by this conveyance 
humbly and earnestly petitioned. 

May it please yo-" Lord'' to give mee leave to trouble you a little further. Shortly after y' 
reduceing of these parts from under the Dutch to his Ma"" obedience, the Lord Jn" Berkley and 
Sir George Carterett sent over hither to take possession of a certain tract of land granted to them 
by His Royal Highness out of his patent, which hath proved very prejudiciall to this place and 
government. Their Bounds reach from the East side of Delaware River to the West side of 
Hudsons River includeing a vast tract of the most improveablest land within His Royall Highnes 
his patent. It hath taken away some Dutch villages formerly belonging to this place and not 
above three or foure miles from it; the Duke hath left of his patent nothing to the West of New 
Yorke, and to the East upon the Ma3rQe about sixten miles only, from Hudsons River whereon is 
but one poore village. Long Island is very poore and inconsiderable, and beside the Citty there 
are but two Dutch townes more, Sopus and Albany, which lye up North on Hudsons river. I 
suppose when y'^ Lord Berkley had that grant, it was not thought he should come so neare 
this place, nor were y= iuconveniencyes of it known or considered. 

I shall not trouble yo'' LordP with further relation of matters here, since Coll Nicolls can give 
you full and particular satisfaction both in this or any thing else relateing to these parts. 

After his abode here foure yeares (where hee hath lived with great reputation and honour) bee 
is now returning home. I must needs accompany him with this character, that hee hath done his 
Ma"^ & his Royall Highnes very considerable service in these parts, haveing by his prudent 
manao-ement of affaires kept persons of different judgments and of diverse nations in peace and 
quietnes, dureing a time when a great part of the world was in warrs. And as to the severall 
Nations of the Indyans, they were never brought into such a peaceable posture & faire 
correspondence, as by his means they now are. 

I feare I prove to tedious in relateing these matters, I humbly crave your excuse, soe shall 
conclude and take leave to subscribe 

Your LordsP' 

Most humble servant 
(signed) Samuel jMavericke. 

Governor Lovelace to Lord Arlington. 

[ Trade Tapers, XV. 7G. ] 

Right Honora"'" 

It has been a very great affliction to mee that at my departure from England I had not the 
opportunety to waite on your L'' and receave your directions and instructions, for these parts of 
America, but the indisposition of your Lqp' person, having receaved a bruise by a fall in your 
Coach, was the cheife argmnent that restreind mee. I have since happely accomplisht my 
Toyadge and am now invested in the charge of his Royall Highnes teritoiys, beeing the middle 
position of the two distinct factions, the Papist and I'uritane. I should esteeme it as most 


singular favour, if your L? would voutsafe to send mee somme instructions liow I might steere my 
course, as would most advance the interest of His Ma*^* and service of His Royall Highnes my 
most gracious master. Preparatory to which, I have receaved from my worthey predecessor 
Colonell Nicholls the character that was fixt betwixt you, and if you please but to coramaund one 
of your L' Secretaries to corespond with mee, I shall not faile to give your L? an exact accompt 
(so farre as I can reach) of these parts of the world. Thus praying your L? to forgive this 
confident adresse, and further begging to bee taken into the number of your Lp sincere servants, 
I shall allways remaine 

^ Your L' most humble 

Fort Jeames in ] and obedient Sei-vant 

New Yorke August 28. j ■ (signed) Francis Lovelace. 

For the Right Honorable the L"* 
Arlington, Principall Secretary . ;' 

to His Ma'-^ these, humbly. ' .! 

(Endorsed) Coll. Lovelace. 

Aug 2S. 68. 
New Yorke. 

The Board of Trade to the King. 

[ New-Tork Papers, I. 77. ] 

May it Please Y'^ Maj^'' 

The Councell for Trade appojaited by Y'' Ma''' takeing into Consideration, according 
to your ]Ma'5''=^ Instructions, the Conditions of your Maj'^^' Plantations abroad, 
in order to the improuem* of Trade and increase of Navigation, and for the 
further encouragement of all yo'' Maj'^'^^ Subjects in their Trade and Comerce 
both at home and abroad, haue receiued diverse great complaints of M''chants 
& others tradeing to yo"' Maj"°' Plantations, and more particularly 
That of New Yorke, where, upon Examination wee find your said ISPchants altogether 
discouraged and withdrawing their respective Estates. 

Neither doth the afores*^ Complaint relate to New Yorke alone, but to Yo"' Maj''" other 
Plantations of Virginia, Barbadoes and other Islands, where wee haue reason to beleeue it will 
haue the like unhappy influence. 

Which complaint is gi-ounted upon a Report Comou among the Merchants, That by vertue of 
an order of Your Maj'? in Councell of the 23 of Octob"- 1667 and Passes thereupon granted by 
His Royall highnes seurall ships belonging to the Dutch viz' Three or more are Authorized to 
trade from Holland to New Yorke for seven years, which hath been practised for one yeare 
allready, and now in a large degree are preparing for a second voyage. 

By which means if but 3 ships be permitted (though more are makeing ready for that ti'ade) 
Yet those three may cany as much linnen, Shooes, Stocking, Cloathes and other Comodities, 
comonly carryed out of England with great advantage to this nation) as will not only suply the 


Consumption of Your Waj"" afores'' Plantation of New York, but Virginia, Barbadoes and New 
England, in a gi-eat measure ; which, if suffred, not only a great part of Your INIaj"" Customes 
but indeed the principle part of the plantation trade will in a short time be lost. Which Trade 
so granted the Dutch to New Yorke is said to be grounded upon certain Articles for the reduction 
of New Yorke to Your IMaj"'. 

And particularly the o"' and 7"' ^Articles upon wiiich your Maj'^^^ [Councell] of Trade haue 
examined the said vj"' and vij"" Articles and tliat Treaty, and doe not find that your Maj'^ 

hath any longer obligation by the said Articles, or any of them, beyond the first six months 
after the rendition of the place to grant Freedom oi' Trade to the Dutch or any other Nation 
with your subjects of New Yorke. 

Neither doe wee finde that the Petition of Peter Stuivesant on behalfe of himselfe and the 
rest of Your Maj'^" subjects there (as the said Petition is recited in the said order) doth so much 
as desire it for the Dutch nation. 

Howeuer upon that Petition an order is made that the Dutch shall haue freedom of Trade 
with your Maj"'" subjects of New Yorke for three shipps for seven years as aforesaid ; upon 
serious Consideration whereof, and the dangerous consequence that must necessarily follow to 
the Trade of England now in great measure upheld by Yom- Maj"" Plantations (and that your 
Maj'y stands not obliged by the said Articles to grant any such freedome of Trade but 

That it appears to us rather a mistake in the drawing of the said order made on the 
aforesaid Petition, which only praying Trade for Your Maj"" subjects of New Yorke, gains an 
order thereupon for the Dutch with three Ships freely to trade with them for seven years. 

Wee your Maj"^' Councell of Trade in all duty present unto your most Excellent Maj'y our 
humble opinion and advise. That for the reasons afores"* for the encouragem* of your English 
subjects tradeing to New Yorke and the rest of Your Maj"^" Plantations, and for the keeping up 
the Manafactures here in England and Ireland (all which must necessarily miscarry and bee 
lost if present remedy be not giuen to so great and growing a mischief. And for that the Dutch 
in no termes will admitt any of Your Maj''" subjects to trade with any of their plantations or 
shipps for which any such Passes haue been giuen or granted be already prepared in Holland 
for that trade, Yet if such Ship or shipps shall not be laden and dispatchd before the 10"' of this 
Instant, That then no Passe or other Licences so granted, or to be granted shall be of force 
after that day. 

And if any shall presume from any country whatsoeuer to trade with Your ]Maj''" said 
Plantation of New Yorke, or any other Contrary to the Acts for Navigation and encouragement 
of trade, upon any license or Pass whatsoeuer, hee or they so trading may finde no protection, 
but be dealt with as by the said Laws is enacted and declared. 

All which wee most humbly submitt to Your Maj'^ 

Ashley. Carlisle W. Couenete 

Tho : Grey. G. Downing T. Osborne. 

Tho Littleton. B. Worsley Henry' Blount 

Beniamin Albyn. J. Titus. John Shorter. 

W™ Love. John Paige. And. Riccard. 

John Birch. Tho. Papillon. 


Order in Council prohibiting Dutch ShijJS to trade to New- Yorh. 

[ Privy CouncU EegUter, C. E. II. VIII. Hi. ] 

At the Court at Whitehall, the IS"- of November, 1668. .,.,., 

Presext — The King's Most Excellext Ma'^^ 

His Royal Highess y" Duke of Yorke, Earle of Carlisle 

His Highness Prince Rupert, Earle of Craven 

Lord ArcliP of Canterbury Earle of Lauderdaile 

Lord Keeper Earle of Carberry 

Lord Privy Seale L** B? of London 

Duke of Buckingham Lord Arlington 

Duke of Albemarle Lord Newport 

Duke of Ormonde Lord Berkley 

Marques of Dorchester Lord Holies 

L** Great Chamberlain Lord Ashley 

Lord Chamberlain M"' Sec^ Trevor 

Earle of Bridgewater M'' Ch"" of y*" Dutchy "", 

Earle of Bathe S'' WiUiam Coventry 

S'' John Duncombe. , . . 

Passes for Dutch shipi)s to trade to New YorJce revoked. 

Whereas the Councill of Trade have represented to bis Ma'-'' that the Merchants are mucii 
discouraged in their Trade to New Yorke, and are withdrawing their Estates thence, by reason 
of an indulgence granted to the Dutch by an Order in Councill of the 23'* of October 1667, to 
trade thither with three Shipps for seaven years, and passes obtayned for that purpose accordingly, 
alleaging that the same will have an unhappy influence by opening a way for forrainers to trade 
with the rest of his Ma.^^ Plantations, and preventing the exportation of the manufactures of 
England, and thereby destroy his Ma'-^' Customs and the trade of this Kingdom which is in a 
great measure upheld by the Plantations, And Whereas they further represent that his Majesty 
is not obliged thereunto by the articles for y= surrender of New Yorke upon which the said 
indulgence seems to be grounded, the said Articles importing only a liberty for the first six 
months after the Rendition of that Plantation, And do therefore desire that the said Order of 
Councill and passes thereupon granted may be revoked — Upon Serious Consideration His Ma'>' 
approving of the advice and Desires of the Councill of Trade expressed in the said Representation 
for securing the Trade of the Plantations according to the Acts for navigation & encouragement 
of Trade, Was pleased, this day to order and Command that the said order of this Board of the 
23'' of October 1667, and all passes gi-anted by virtue thereof to any Dutch Shipps or Vessells 
to trade from Holland to New Yorke, be, and they are hereby recalled and annulled — Yet His 
Ma"' out of his Princely regard to his subjects in New Y'orke who may be brought to some 
distresse for want of necessarys which probably may not be supplied them out of England this 
yeare And reflecting with some clemency upon those who imder the promise of the said passes 
may have been put to charge in making ready their ships, was pleased to Order that one ship 
of those now preparing in Holland for New Yorke (such as His Royall Highness the Duke of 
Vol. m. 23 


Yorke, Lord High Adniirall of England shall appoint,) shall have leave to make one voyage 
thither this yeare ; And that besides the said Shipp authorized for this one Voyage, no other 
forraine shipp or shipps whatsoever shall henceforth be permitted to trade into or with the said 
Plantation at New Yorke otherwise than according to the Articles for Surrender tliereof, The 
said order of Councill of 23"^ of October 1667, or any passe or Passes thereupon granted to the 
contrary notwithstanding. And it was further ordered that the Governor of New Yorke and all 
other his Majesty's officers whom it may concei-ne do take notice hereof and cause the same to be 
duly observed. And it was further ordered that immediate notice be given hereof to S' William 
Temple his Ma''^' Ambassador in Holland, to the end that he may take care to have this, his 
Ma'y'' pleasure signified to all such as are there preparing to send shipps or goods into New 
Yorke, that upon presumption of their Passes they do not proceed in their Voyage to New Yorke 
otherwise than as is herein expressed. 

Petition, of Olive Stuyvesant Van Cortlandt, and other.s. 

i Xew-York Papers, I. SO. ] 

To the King's Most Excellext Majesty 

The liiuiible Petition of Olive Stuyvesant Van Cortlant, Gerritt Slicktenhorst, 
Jac(]iR's Cousseau, Mathew Stembergen, Nicholas de Meyer, Leysbert 
Blankerts, Stoffell Jansen, John Jansen, Koster Van Aken, Jacob Schermer- 
horn, John V^an Balen, Herman ^'ed(ler, John Martens, Adrian Van Ilpendon, 
Jeronymus Ebbing, Margarita Phillipps and Janneti de Witt, Your Ma" 
sworne subjects of the Dutch Nation Inhabitants of New Yorke in America 
in behalfe of themselves, and many more your Ma" Loyall subjects now 
resideing in New Yorke. 
Hnmhhj Shcwctti 

That upon confidence of the gi'acious continuation of Your Ma" Royall Graunt bearing date the 
23"" of October 1667 for three Dutch Shipps yearely to Trade and Trafficke to and from New 
i'orke with us Your Ma" subjects in those parts ; Wee did transport ourselves into Holland this 
last summer upon noe other designe then the setling of our ibnner Accompts and propagating 
the Trade of those Your Ma" dominions ; and to that purpose have freighted a Shipp called 
the King Charles and have shipped our goods therein, which s** shipp and marriners are now in 
Pay and were ready to set saile. But haueing to our unspeakable Greife and damage Received 
by order from his 11" Highnes a copy of Your Ma" Result in Counsell, bearing date the IS"" of 
November 1668 Recalling Your Ma" gracious permission aforesaid and Restrayning the number 
to one only shipp for this yeare. Wee most humbly represent to Your sacred Ma'^ That one 
of the 3 permitted shipps was gone to sea before y" signification of Your Ma" pleasure arrived 
in Amsterdam ; And that the shipp King Charles with all her loading, hath layn in the Texell 
many dayes ready to sett saile and now lyes upon great hasard (the season of y"" yeare considered) 
to come to damage the shipps voyage being stopt in obedience to your Ma" commands 

Wherefore wee most humbly supplicate Your gracious Ma'^ to take our ruinous condition into 
yo'' princely consideration, upon w'^' depends y' Welfare or Destruction at once of us, our 


Wives and Children, and that your Ma'> will be pleased to permitt the s-^ shipp y"^ King Charles 
with her Goods and Cargoe fitted for that country already bought and laden to enjoy the Privilege 
formerly Granted for this yeare, Notwithstanding Yo'' M="' late signification of yo-- Royall 
Pleasure to y^ Contrary 

And Yo' Petition" shall Pray &'' - . .- 

Endorsed • _^ 

" Petition of Oliver Stuyvesant, Van Cortlant & others ' , ' 

concerning sending a shipp to New Yorke. " ' ,^" ' 

" Read in Councill ll"" D' 1668" . ■ ^ ** 

" ordered " • -f. 


Order in Council on the ])receding Petition. ^ 

[ CouncU Register, C. E. 11. YIII. 140. ] 

At the Court at Whitehall the ll'i' December 166S. ,. ■*.. 

Present — The King's Most Excellent Ma"* - ••%, 

In Council. ■ 

Upon reading this day at the Board the humble petition of Oliver Stuyvesant, Van Cortland, 
Gerrit Sliktenhorst, Jaques Couseau, and divers others, his Ma"" sworn subjects of the Dutch 
nation, inhabitants of New Yorke, in America, in behalfe of themselves and many more, hi.s 
Ma'''''' Loyal subjects now residing in New Yorke, setting forth that upon confidence of the 
continuation of his Ma'^" order in Councill of the 23'''' of October 1667, for liberty for three 
ships yearly to trade to New Yorke w'' the Pef* his Ma'J"^ subjects in those parts, the Peti°" 
transported themselves to Holland this last summer upon noe other design than the settling 
their former accompts, and propagating the Trade of those his Ma''" dominions, to which end 
they freighted a ship called the King Charles, which hath laine in the Texell manjr days read}' 
to sett saile. But the Pef' having received by order from his Royal Highness a copy of his 
]\Ia"" result in Councill of the 18"" of November last, for recaUing his Ma"""' permission and 
restraining the number to one shipp this yeare, the said shipp the King Charles, was in 
obedience to his Maty' Commands stopt, to the great damage of the Pet''^ And one of the three 
shipps permitted to trade as aforesaid being gone before the signification of his Ma'^' pleasure 
arrived at Amsterdam, the Petio'''' most humbly prayed That their said Shipp witli her 
goods and Cargo fitted for the voyage aforesaid may enjoy the priviledge of his Ma'''" said 
gracious indulgence, His Ma'^ upon consideration thereof was pleased to Order in Council, 
that His Royall Highness the Duke of Yorke, Lord High Admirall of England, be and he is 
hereby authorized and desired to grant his Passe for the said Shipp the King Charles to make 
one voyage and no more to New Yorke this yeare only, and to returne againe without any 
hinderance or molestation, notwithstanding the said order of this Board of the 1 S"" of November 
last, or any clause therein to the Contrary. And it was further Ordered by his Ma'^, that His 
Royall Highness do not for the future grant any other Passe or Passes to any Dutch Shipp or 
Shipps whatsoever to trade to New Yorke. 


Or<ler in Council permittiiKj two Scotch Ships to go to Xtiv-Yorl\ 

[ Xew-Yorl; I'arers, I. Ull. ] 

-j° April : 1GG9. 

Whereas liis R. Highnes the Duke of Yorke Lord High Admirall of England did this day 
propose to his I\raj'>' in Councell that hee would bee pleased to glue liberty that such of His 
Majesties subjects in Scotland as shalbee induced to take condicons as Planters at New Yorke 
may bee permitted to transport themselves thither in vessells from Scotland and bee allowed to 
make their voyages and returne in a way of Trade or to reraaine at New Yorke, upon the 
Accd' (if V'' ifishiug Trade or transporting the groweth & Manufacture of New Yorke, to the 
I'.cihardocs or other his Maj"^' Plantacons in America; It was upon consideracon thereof 
ordered by His IMaj"'' in Councell That his R. Highnes the Duke of Yorke Lo : High Admirall 
of England, bee & hee is hereby authorized and desired to grant Passes for two Scotch Shipjis, 
the one called of about 500 tun, y^ other y"" of about 2-50 tun to passe from 

Scotland to New Yorke w"" such persons as shall desire to plant there, & to trade between the 
said places as they shall haue occasion, or to remaine at New Yorke upon the Acco' of the 
ffishiug trade, or for transporting the groweth & Manufacture of that place, to any his Maj''""* 
Plantacons in America w"'out any let, hinderance or molestacon. 

Prouided that the said ships or either of them soe to bee licensed doe not by pretence hereof 
carry the Comodities of the groweth or Manafacture of New Yorke or of his Maj''" Plantacons 
in an place or Territory belonginge to any fTorreigne prence or state whatsoever but to his 
Maj"" Plantacons & dominions aforesaid. 


" Fann"'" of y' Customes touching y'^ 2 Scotch 
ships permitted to Trade for New Yorke." 

" Read in Councill 16'" Aprill 1GG9." 

" Read in Councill 23'' Aprill 1GG9." 

I'etitioih of the Fcvrmers of his Majesty's Oustoms. 

[ New York Papers, I. 94. ] 

The humble peticon of y"" ft'arme" of his Ma'*' Customes. 

That they having taken notice of an order of Yo'' INIa"' in Councill, ^\'*'' giues Liberty to two 
Scotch Shipps without name one of y'' Purtlien of 500 and y^ other of 250 Tun to passe from 
Scotland to New Yorke w"" such persons as shall desire to plant there, or to trade betweene y" 
said places, or to remaine at New Yorke upon y'' account of y' ffishing Trade k," By which 
tliey do apprehend that it is Yo'' Ma" intention that these ships shall not enjoy any priviledge 


contrary to the law, further then to convey Passengers from Scotland to y^ Plantacons, and there 
to enterte}Tie an Intercourse of Trade amongst y* said Plaiatacons. But finding some Ambiguous 
words, especially y' last clause which instead of a Provisoe of Restraint seemes to interpret y^ 
meaning of y= ord"' to be that they may not onely trade with y^ Plantacions, but with any other 
His Ma'* dominions not excepting Scotland, And having also further Cause to beleive that 
though their pretensions be very smooth & innocent, yet the end thereof is to settle a Trade 
betwixt y' Plantations & Scotland, and that it wilbe in the power of such tvi^o ships und'' 
pretext of this Order to withrawe from y^ Revenue of y'= Customes in England aboue 7000" per 
annum, & deface three Acts of Parliament made in direct opposition to it. 

They therefore humbly supplicate Yo'' Ma'y to revoke y^ said ord" But if it be yo'' 
Ma" pleasure to suffer such ships to go thither, that then it may be with this 
condicon. That they first touch in some port of England, and there pay 
custome for what goods they carry out, & enter into bond with good security, 
as y* Law hath directed, not to carry any goods to any other place than 
England or y^ plantations aforesaid, for otherwise they will bee in a more 
free & unlimited Condicon, than any free built shipp of England, and out of 
y« reach of any English Law, x\nd they shall humbly pray &■= 


Richard Browne. 

" Read 21"' of Aprill 1669 " . _ 

" Read in Councell 23 Aprill. 1669." ■; ' . ^ 

Hephj to the Petition of tlie Farmers of tlie Cu-storn-s. 

[ New-Tork Papers I. 92. ] . , 

Th Reply to the Peticon of the Farm" of Yo"" Ma"^' Customes. 

That the whole designe of his Royall Highnesse in proposing and obtaining from Yo" Ma*'^ in 
Councill a permission for two Scotch Shipps to Trade to New Yorke and transport Planters 
thither, is meerly for the generall good of those Yo" Ma"" late acquired Dominions, however Yo" 
Ma"" ffarmers of the Customes pretend they may bee dampnifyed Seaven thousand poundes a 
a yeare, and the breach of three Acts of Parliament. 

Wee acknowledge that by those Acts English built shipps only are pennitted to trade in yo" 
Ma"'' plantacons, Yet in a Provisoe of the Act for Encouragement of Trade, certain merchandize 
from Scotland and Ireland are tollerated and may be shipt in either Kingdorae in English built 
ships soe that the niaine obstacle and objection lyes upon the ships being Scotch shipps, and not 
upon the voyage. Passengers or Planters as Scotchmen, nor upon such accomodation of severall 
sorts of necessaryes for the use of any number of considerable planters. 

Wee deny the pretended damage, for much lesse principall in goods will yearly drive and 
carry on the Trade in those Parts, and that the farmers themselves with time may be convinct 
of om- just intentions, if Yo" Ma"' see cause to ordaine wee will (as they desire) give securitie 


according to Law, not to carry or return with any goods to any other place than England or the 
riautacons aforesaid paying the Customes as the law directs. 

Your Ma"'= well knowes that some of yo"' ports in Scotland lye more comodioas for such 
Voyage to the West, than most of Yo'' ports in the Chaunell, soe that noe Scotch Shipp can 
possibly (without ruyne to the Adventurers) engage in her outward bound Voyage, to touch in 
an English port, because the Passengers, Planters and freight of Shipp will necessarily Eate up 
all the proffitt, if not wholly destroy the Voyage by demurrage upon contrary wiudes or other 
accedentall Impediments. 

As to the burtlien of the shipps wee represent to Yo'' Ma'"' the smaller sliipps will be of noe 
great use to a plantacon which atibrds Horses, Deale Boards, Pipe Staves, Timber firames, 
Houses, all sort of prouisions being bulky goods for Trade to Barbados, with the rest of Yo'' 
Ma''" Leward Islands, besides that the returne of such shipps into the Ports of England will 
be more acceptable (if laden) to the ffiirmer than smaller shipps. 

Your Ma''^' Royall Progenitors and Yo'' selfe have to other plantacons given temporary 
Exemptions from customs, by which those Plantacons are become great and plentifull, and wee 
humbly represent that New Yorke w"" its dependencyes stand in as much neede of the like 
grace from Yo'' Ma''^ and yet wee only importune Yo'' Ma'"'' to continue the priviledge for those 
two Scotch Shipps, to make their Voyage without touching in England, outward bound, when 
brought into any English Port will not yeild to the ffarmers any considerable prolHtt worthy the 
naming, all necessaryes to planters being noe wise lyable to pay Customes. 

Lastly wee propose to yo'' Ma''° for the security and welfaire of those Plantacons in great 
measure seated with Dutch, Swedes and ffemis that such of Yo'' Ma"" borne subjects as desire 
to be transpoi'ted thither may not want Yo"' Royall encouragement, by which meanes the 
numbers of Yo"' ffbrraigne subjects, may in a short time be ballanced, if not exceeded by Yo'' 
native subjects. 

Mr. Maverick to Colonel ISftcolls. 

I have lately written to you by way of Boston and Virginia, giveing you an accompt brieflj' 
how things stand in y"^ northern parts, as how those of y*' Massachusetts have unranckled all 
that was done in the Province of Maine ; although His Ma"'^ expressly commanded that nothing 
should be altered untill his pleasure were further known. They have further proceeded in 
committing Major I'hillips and others to prison for receiving commissions from y' Comissioners 
to be Jiistices of y"" Peace and Military Officers. They have given out that if they could take 
any of those that had signed those commissions they would punish them severely ; soe that as 
the case stands at present it will not be safe for mee to goe thither. Not long since they sent a 
party of horse to demand tribute of the Naragausett Sachems, but they payed them not, telling 
them they would pay King Charles and none else. 

Now give mee leave to acquaint you a little how things goe heere at Yorke. Tryalls have 
been made several! times this spring for cod fish, w"" very good success ; a small ketch sent out 


by y^ Governour hath found severall good fishing bancks ; amongst y^ rest one not above 2 or 
3 leagues from Sandy Hook on which in a few houres i men took 11 or 12 hundred excellent 
good Codd the last time they were out, and most of y^ vessells that goe to and from Virginia 
take good quantityes. That vessell is to goe from Newfound Land to gett fishermen Hues 
hookes and other necessaryes for fishing : I doubt not but this Coast will afibrd fish iu 

On y' East end of Long Island there were 12 or 13 whales taken before y" end of March, and 
what since wee heare not ; here are dayly some seen iu the very harbour, sometimes within 
Nutt Island. Out of the Pinnace the other week they struck two, but lost both, the iron broke 
in one, the other broke the warpe. The Governour hath encouraged some to follow this desigue. 
Two shallops made for itt, but as yett wee doe not heare of any they have gotten. 

The Governour with some Partners is building a ship of 120 tunn, by Thomas Hall's house ; 
she is well onward and may be finished in August ; another of 60 or 70 tunn is building at 

Nutt Island, by y* makeing of a garden and planting of severall walkes of fruite trees on it, 
is made a very pleasant place. 

The Old House is pulling dov^me, w'^'" prooves soe exceedingly defective above what could be 
imagined, that I thinke it must down to the bottome, and will proove a tedious and chargeable 
piece of worke. 

There is good correspondence kept between the English and Dutch, and to keep it the 
closer, sixteen (ten Dutch and 6 English) have had a constant meetting at each others houses in 
turnes, twice every week in winter, and now iu summer once ; they meet at six at night and 
part about eight or nine. 

There are severall people in and about Boston w""" have inclination to come hither and live ; 
one came hither this winter and hath bought five houses, and I have been desired to look out 
for some houses for some friends. 

New England men have found the way hither againe from Virginia. This week past were 
here at one time nine vessells, which brought tobacco and sold it here ; some of them are 
returned to Virginia for more, others gone and goeing to Boston with corne, besides severall 
Dutch sloops gone there also and more to goe. 

Sir. I have, I am afraid, been over tedious, which I pray excuse. I shall ever remaine 

Your affectionate Friend & Servant 

Samuell Mavericke. 

This is a copy of what I wrote to you by way of Holland in Aprill. 

By this you may please to take notice that M' Laurence is arrived here and hath not brought 
one line from you ; which is very strange to mee, who have fonnerly had y= happiness soe 
frequently to heare from you in writeing. 

By letters lately received from Boston I am informed how exceedingly they boast of the 
gratious letters they have received from His Ma'*' and of his kinde acceptance of the Masts they 
sent him, as also of the provision they sent to the Fleet at Barbados. I am sure you know 
that the masts and provision were paid for by a rate made and levyed on all the inhabitants, 
of w'^'' eight parts in ten are His Ma"" loyall subjects and would voluntarily have done twice as 


much had those which were sent for been gone for England. That loyall partye, which groanes 
under the burthen of the ISIassachusett's government, now despaire of reliefe, as by frequent 
letters from all parts I am informed. 

Those in the Province of Mayne since they seized on their records and taken them againe 
under their government, are in exceeding bondage, and most earnestly desire you to endeavour 
to purchase their freedorae. 

How they have lately acted in y^ King's Province you will see by a letter I lately received 
from M"' Gorton which I send herein enclosed. 

S"' It grieves mee exceedingly to see that I should live to see His Ma'''^^ loyall subjects and 
my ancient friends enslaved, as now they are ; my whole aime was (in expending soe much time 
and money) only to have procured for them some freedome ; but now they are left in a farr 
worse condition then wee found them. I doubt not but tliey have by way of Boston, petitioned 
to His Ma''^ and craved your assistance, and I in their behalfe humbly begg it of you. This 
may come to yo'' hands if not intercepted. 

The shipp in building goes on slowly, soe doth the House ; one third of y* old House is left 
out & yett the rest not mounted iiigher then the second fioore. I wish your advice had been 
attended unto. 

Many from Barmoodas and Barbadoes intend to remove hither ; some are come as Agents & 
have already bought some houses and plantations. M' Davenport hath made such a rent in the 
Church of Boston as will never be reconciled ; another great church is erecting for the 
Dissenters, and some will remoove. 

S'' I hope in y* middest of multiplicity of business you will not forgett what I have desired you 
to doe for me. I assure you since I came over in this imploy I never receiv'd or gott, directly 
or indirectly to y* valine of sixpence, one horse excepted, w"^"" M'' Winthrop presented mee w"" 
amongst y'= rest. And what I had by His Ma"" order, I have spent as much since I came over, 
and foure hundred pounds besides in England in prosecution of this designe. I leave it to you 
not doubting of your care for mee. If any course be taken for reducement of the Massachusetts, 
I hope you will not leave mee out, as one (though unworthy) that may be employed in that 
designe. I have bene over tedious w"''' I pray excuse, and be assured I am and ever shall 

Your affectionate Friend 
& Servant 

Samuell Mavericke. 

New Yorke July -5"' l(3Gi). 

For Coll. Richard Niccolls one 

of the Groomes of His Royall * ^ 

Highness' Bed-Chamber, these, J^ 

Whitehall. • ' ' .^ • * 



Mr. Maverich to Colond XicoUs. 

[ New England, I. 399. ] 

Ever honored Sir. 

May it please yow to take notice that yo" of 12"" July I receaved, for w"^ I liumbly thauke 
yow as alsoe for the favo"' yo\y have beene pleased to show me in procuring for me from His 
Royall Highnesse the guift of the house in the Broadway. I beseech yow wiien yow see a fitt 
opportunity p'sent my most humble service to His Royall Highnes with many thanks for that 
his favor towards me, and I assure it wilbe a greate rejoycing to me if (yett before I die) I may 
be any wayes servisable to His Ma""" or his Royall Highnes in these p''ts, or any where else. 

Yow were pleased to informe me that yow have made some progresse tending to the releife 
of 0"' poore freinds in N. Engl"* but cannot yet bring it to issue soe much desired by yo"' selfe & 
them. In their behalfe I humblie beseech yow to proceed in it, and am verry sorrie y' Coll : 
Cartwrite cannot be with yow to assist in it. I have sent coppies of some p't of yo'' letter to 
keepe up what may be theire drooping spiiitts for the p'"sent, the sad complaints w'^'' freequently 
come from them to mee I shall not trouble yow with repeating now. Yow know well in what 
bondage they live, and it greeves me to the hart to consider that they should be now in a farr 
worse condition then wee fomid them in. What yow writ conseming John Scot I beleeve 
every perticular. 

The ship was launched 14 dayes since and i.s a verry stronge and handsome vessell, but costly ; 
she is named the Good Fame, of New Yorke. The house is come to covering ; it is a handsome 
fabricke and wel contrived, but mens wages soe high as that it cannot be exspected it should 
come of cheape. The flux, agues, and fevers, have much rained, both in cittie and country, & 
many dead, but not yett soe many as last yeare. The like is all N. Engl"* over, espetially about 
Boston, where have dyed verry many and amongst the rest three very spetiall freinds of mine, 
well wishers to N. Yorke, M"" Downe my landlord, M'' Boyse, JN? Tobias Payne, and whoe else 
since I know not. S' I shall omit noe oportunity of writing to yow, and I beseech yow be 
assured y* I shall ever endeavo"' to approve myselfe to be 

Yo"" affectionate freind & servant 

Samuell Mavericke. 
N. Yorke l-S"- Octo"" 69. 


Sen-etary XiayJls- to Colonel Xicolli. 

[ New- York Papers, I. 06. ] 

New Yorke on Maiiliatans Island 
in America Dec. 31. 16G9. 
Hon'''" Sir 

Tiiere goeing a vessell directly from this Port bound for England and so for Holland I thought 
it my duty to pay you my acknowledgment in a line or two. It is but two or three dayes since 
]\r Boone arrived by the way of Virginia who made us all glad in bringing the good newes of 
yo" health & welfare ; The Scotch shipp wee haue so long expected, & that you please to 
mention, is not yet arrived, but probably will not bee much longer from us, if it please God shea 
be safe. 

Here is nothing of newes worthy the imparting to yo'' honor, all things are quiet, onely there 
was a silly intention of an Insurrection amongst the Finns at Delaware, but the Ringleaders 
being surprized by the officers there, tiieir designe was broken ; They pretended an Expectacon 
of some Swedish Ships to come and reduce that place. It was the Governors pleasure to send 
mee there to make Enquiry into the Matter, from whence I returned the beginning of Christmas 
weeke, some fewe days before I came to Delaware M' White the Surveyor Gen" of Maryland 
had beene there to lay clayme to all the West side of Delaware River as belonging to the Lord 
Baltimore, They had sent persons also to exercise their Jurisdiction at the Hoare Kill, but 
none either tliere or in Delaware River will submitt to it, untill the matter be decided in 
England, which you are pleased to intimate will bee in some short Tyme. The Governo'' hath 
sent the Originall Clayme made by M" White now for England & by the next intends to remitt 
the whole proceeding about the Finns. 

S'' if my last letter came to Yo"' Hono" hands wlierein I did beg a boone, I humbly beseech 
you to put the best construction upon it. If you sliall please to judge my request reasonable, as 
you haue been my kind master and patron ever since f had the happinesse to haue relacon to 
you, so will you lay a further obligacon, w'^'" shall alwayes be returned with gratefull 
acknowledgm'% as long as I Hue ; Howeuer if it bee not thought fitt for mee I shall rest 
contented, if you please in some measure to continue mee in y'' good grace, w''' I shall bono' 
& cherish, while I am with affectionate Respect, Hon'''"' Sir, 

Your ever faithfull 

& most humble Servant 

Matthias Nicolls. 

To Richard Nicolls Esq' one of the Groomes of the 

Bedchamber to liis R. H' the Duke of Yorke ^ 



Petition of tJie Common Covncil of Kew - Yorh 

i New-York Papers, I. 127. ] 

To his R. H' James Duke of Yorke Sc'- 

The Humble petition of tlie ^Maior and Aldermen of New Vorke, in bebalfe of 
themselves and the Rest of the Inhabitants of this place. 

Humbly Shewcth 

That your petitioners being for the most part Dutch borne (but now His i\Ia'''' faithful! 
and loyal subjects) upon the surrender by the Articles of agreem' were promised free 
trafBcque and equall priuiledge as any of y'' ]Ma^'" subjects, and some yeares since the 
surrender wee haue had a free trade for holland payeinge the Customes as formerlye which did 
encouradge most of y^ dutch nation to remaine, and uppon the happy peace betweene his Ma"** 
and the states of holland it was in the Articles specified in point of trade accordinge to the Acts 
of parliament and other denomination, and fearinge those Articles might putt in question the 
freedome of trade here did make addresse that wee might haue three permissionary shipps to 
trade from Holland to this place (payenge his Ma''" customes) for seuen yeares, which was 
gramited by his Ma"^ and his hono"^ Counsell and wee did enjoy the benefitt that yeare to 
the great encouragment of the place, and paid some considerable valine in customes towards 
the defrayeiuge the charge of the Garrison, but since by what information wee know not the three 
permission shipps are forbidden by his Ma"* and his hono'''* Counsell w'''' wee most wiUing 
submitt unto 

Our humble request to y'' R. H' that wee may haue a free trade from this porte to holland 
and from holland to this accordinge to seuerall acts of parliam' w'^'' is not denied to any of his 
Ma''" Subjects, touchinge in some porte in England as they come from Holland, and payenge 
his Ma"" Customes there as also touchinge in England as they goe for holland, and that we 
may bring the comodities of holland for y'= trade of y* indians, which cannot be so well made 
in England, and if prohibited w"'out doubt in a short time, will cause all the trade for Cannada, 
where they wilbe furnished w* these dutch duffles, and blancoates w'''' are scrupled to be 
brought into England sayenge it is cloath and consequently forbidden to come from holland. 

May it please Y'' R. H. it cannot be called cloath, it is worse than a sorte called wadmoll w'*' 
daily comes from some part of holland, and not euer wome by an Christians only by the Indians, 
soe that if the fanners of his Ma"" Customes may but haue an order to receaue y*" Customes at 
valine it would keepe y'' trade w"'in yo'' R. H" territories and releiue yo"' petitioners. 


" Coppy of y' ffarmer's letter to y' Collector at Ports"""" " 


Hqmi on the Sfafe of the Province of Xew - Yorl: 

[ Xuw-Tork rapora, I. 3ll. ] 

Answers to llie sc.verall Queeries relating to the Planters in the Territories of liis 
R. Il's the Duke of Yorke in America. 

1" The Governour and Councell with the High Sherifitj & the Justices of the Peace in the 
Court of the Generall Assizes haue the supreame Power of making, altering, and abolishing 
any Laws in this Government. The Country Sessions are held by Justices upon the bench, 
Particular Town Courts by a Constable and Eight Overseers, The City Court of i\. Yorke by a 
Mayor and Aldermen. All causes tried by Juries. 

2nd rpjjg if^j^j ig naturally apt to produce Come & Cattle so that the severall proportions or 
dividents of Land are alwaies allowed with respect to the numbers of the planters, what they 
are able to manage, and in w' time to accomplishtheir undertaking, the feed of Cattell is free in 
Commonage to all Towneships, The Lots of meadow or Corne Ground are peculiar to each 

S"* The Tenure of Lands is derived from his R. H' who gives and gi'aunts lands to Planters 
as their freehold for ever, they paying the customary Rates and Duties w'ith others towards the 
defraying of Publique Chai'ges. The highest Rent or acknowledgment of his R. H* will be one 
penny p'' acre for Lands purchased by his R. H% the least two shillings sixepence for each 
hundred acres, whereof the Planters themselves are purchasers from the ludyans. 

4 The Governour gives liberty to Planters to find out and buy lands from the Indians where 
it pleaseth best the Planters but the seating of Towns together is necessary in these parts of 
America, especially upon the Maine Laud. 

5. Liberty of Conscience is grauuted and assured with the same Provisoe exprest in the 

G. Liberty of ffishing & fowling is free to all by the Patent. 

7. All Causes are tried by Juries, no Lawes contrary to the Lawes of England. Souldyers 
onely are tryable by a Court Marshall, and none others except in Cases of suddain invasion, 
mutiny or Rebellion, as his Ma"''* Lieutenants in any of his Countries of England may or ought 
to exercise. 

8"" As to this point there is no taxe, toledge. Impost or Custome payable upon the Planters 
upon Corne or Ciittle : the country at present hath little other product, the Rate for Publicke 
charges was agreed unto iu a generall Assembly, and is now managed by the Governour his 
Councell & the Justices in the Court of assizes to that onely behoofe. 

9"» The obtaining all these Priviledges is long since recomended to his R. H' as the most 
necessary encouragement to these his Territories whereof a good answer is expected. 

lO"" Every man who desires to trade for flurrs, at his request hath liberty so to doe. 


Governor Lovelace^ -s Gvurantee of a Salary for a Minister. 

[New-Tork Papers, I. 95.] 

Whereas the Mayo' & Aldermen of this Citty Received a Petition from y'^ Elders and 
Deacons of y'' church wherein they desire that some care may be taken for y* supplye of this 
place, w"" an able and Orthodox Minister, of \v'='' tliey are at present wholly destitute, 
Whereupon they made their Addresses unto me by way of Request, That for y* better 
Encouragem' of such a person to come out of Holland to resyde here I would vouchsafe on y'' 
behalfe of myselfe & successo'' y* Gouerno"' of theise His Royall Highnesse Territorj^s to promise 
That such Minisf shall receive a Competent Sallary or Allowance for his Exercising y' 
Ministeriall function, They y'= said Mayo'' & Aldermen hauing engaged to cause the said Sallary 
to be raysed & levyed annually upon y^ Inhabitants of y'^ Citty and parts adjacent w"'in their 
libertyes. Upon y^ Request & Conditions aforemenconed I doe by this Publique Act manifest & 
declare That whensoeuer such a JNIinister shall come ouer to this Citty & undertake the charge 
aforementioned I shall take care that there shall be duely and justly paid unto y' said Minisf 
or his ord'' y* valine of one thousand Guild"" Hollands Money each yeare, & likewise that he shall 
haue y* accommodation of a Convenient dwelling house Rent free, together with his provision 
of ffire wood gratis. — Given und"" my hand & Sealed w"" y^ seale of y^ Province at iFort James 
in New Yorke this SS"" day of June 1670. 

This is a Duplicate of y'= Originall taken out of y^ Records 

Feancis Louelace. 

Examined by me 

Matthias Nicolls Secr^ 

Governor Lovelace to Secretary Williamson. 

[ New-York Miscellany Bundle, Slate Paper Office. ] 

Deai-e Sir, 

If to bee ingratefull for reall favour receaved had beene always accompted a high Crime, the 
not accnowledging of them, must needes bee greater, since the latter depends on our owne 
wills, the former oftentymes on fortune. Perhaps I may have suffered in your good opinion, 
that I have not with that zeale mentaind our correspondency, as you friendly invited mee too, 
but when you shall understand, how slow our Conveighance is like the production of Ellephats 
once allmost in 2 yeares, it will not then seeme strange you have not all this while recaved a 
letter from mee, though I must constantly averre I sent 2 but the uncertainety of our vessells 
touching in theire most convenient port makes letters oftenly to become abortive. 

I cannot but acknowledge your high ci\'ilety to mee, for a remembrance, to affourd us, what 
is acted on the stage of Brittany, if you did but know in what darkness wee live, as if wee 
had as well crost Lethe, as the Athlantiq occean, so that the effects are commonly past with you, 
before the causes arrive us, you could not but take compassion on us, and at your leisure (which 


if any) solace us, with what newes is stirring, for wee love the sound of Greeke though wee 
understand it not; and yet I must blame myself, so confidently, to beg that of you, wliich I 
cannot hope of a repayment again ; if a disorderd dreame would serve the turne, I could then 
tell you (and truly too) that an Indian King Agapou by name (and of power enough) 
taking the aire in his Gundelo, (but with us knowne by the name of a Canoe) little more than 
his length, and not halfe his breath, with his cargo of about 2 pecks of Oysters, was intercepted 
by a strono- party of the Enemy ; in Europe it would have beene called 7 thousand, but here it 
goes but for 4 men, 2 weomen and a boy, scares on this Monarch brings him to theire Castle, 
first bites of all his nailes, next his eares, and then torter him to death with those exquesite 
torments that Plalacis' invention was but a fleabite to it, 4 dayes bee was a dying, yet as long 
as bee had breath w^ould call for a pipe, and threaten a revenge, this hapned about G. weekes 
since ; but that which comes neare to us is the incroachment of the French in Canada, His 
Catholique IMaj'^ most profusely sends legionary Souldiers theather, 500 annually is an ordinary 
recruite, so that it is feard when bee feels a pertinent opportunety, he will attempt to disturbe 
His Majv^ Plantations heere, to which his souldiers, will bee easely invited out of hopes to bee 
in the simshine, they being lockt up generally for 3 quarters of the yeare ; it ware well to have 
an eye over theire motion in Europe. By the next I shall informe you more having some 
spies amongst them, a small party of Jesuites consisting of 4 besides theire sen-ants, in all 11. 
have settled themselves on this side the Lake of Irecoies, they pretent it is no more but to 
advance the Kingdom of Christ, when it is to bee suspected, it is rather the Kingdome of his 
Most Christian Maj"n I shall do all heere to discover his designes, and it ware necessary to 
have an inspection over him at home. This at present is all, worthey your knowledge when 
any further opportunety will open the dore to you, shall not faile to enter it, and further 
demonstrate the sinceare service and affection I owe to, 

Your most obleiged humble servant 


Fort James on the Island of Mawhacaus 
30 of October 1G70. 

His Majesty's Warrant for enlarging the Council of Plantation. 

[ Trade Papers, Stale Paper Office. XIX. 86. ] 

Charles R. 

Our Will and pleasure it that you forthwith prepare a Bill fitt for our Royall Signature 
in these words following viz' Charles the .Second by the Grace of God, King of England 
Scotland France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith &c To our most deare and entirely 
beloved brother James Duke of Yorke oure High Admirall of England, our deare and 
entirely beloved cosin Prince Rupert, our right trusty & right well beloved cosin and 
Counceller George Duke of Buckingham Master of our Horse, our right trusty and well 


beloved cosiii & Counceller James Duke of Ormoiid Lord Steward of our Household, our right 
trusty and welbeloved cosin & councellor Jolin Earle of Landerdaill sole Secretary of State for 
our kingdom of Scotland, & to our Right trusty & well beloved Thomas Lord Culpeper, and to 
our trusty and well beloved John Evelyn, Esq"' Greeting : — Whereas Wee by our commission 
inider the Great Seale of Englaud bearing date the 30"" day of July in the 22"' yeare of Our 
Reign did thereby constitute and appoint our right trusty and right welbeloved cosin & 
counciller Edward Earle of Sandwich, our right trust and well beloved Richard Lord Gorges 
and William Lord Allingtou our trusty and well beloved Thomas Grey and Henry Brouncker 
Esq" Sir Humphrey Winch Ku' & Baronet, Sir John Finch Kn' Edmond Waller, Henry 
Slingsby, and Silas Titus Esq" to be our Councell for Foreign Plantacons, And whereas We 
did in & by our said Commission declare that for the better assistance of our said Councell in 
all their debates and that the resolucons thereof might be of greater weight & esteem when 
tiiey should come to be published, that it should & might be lawfnll to & ibr the Chancellor 
or Keeper of our Great Seale of England for the time being, the Lord Treasurer or Commissioners 
of oiu- Treasury for the time being, the Chancellor of our Exchequer for the time being, our 
Principall Secretaries of State for the time being, or any of them Irom time to time, and at all 
times then after as often as they should please to enter into the said Councell, and to be present 
at all the debates thereof and to give such vote and opinion in all the matters to be then & there 
propounded as they should think fitt, & to be most conducing to our service. And whereas We 
did thereby further grant declare and ordain, that the proceedings of our said Councell might 
receive no delay by the absence of any of the members thereof, that any five of the said 
Councell should be a quorum, whereof the President or Secretary should alwaies be one unless 
the Lord Keeper, Lord Treasurer, Commissioners of the Treasury or Chancellor of the 
Exchequer or the Principall Secretaries of State for the time being or some one of them should 
be present ; in which case they or any one of them together with four others of the said 
Councell are thereby declared to be a Quorum in the absence of the said President & Secretary 
or of any other members of the said Councell.* And We did further in and by our said 
Commission declare that no person should be admitted to sit and vote in our said Councell 
untill he had taken the Oath in the said Commission menconed ; as in & by the said Commission 
amongst diverse other things therein contained, more at large may appeare. Know yee that 
Wee for divers great & weighty causes & consideracons Us hereunto especially moving & for 
the better dispatch of the affaires of our said Councell doe hereby declare our will & pleasure to 
bee, that it shall and may be lawful to & for you our most deare Brother the Duke of Yorke, 
Prince Rupert, George Duke of Buckingham, James Duke of Ormond, John Earle of 
Lauderdaill, Thomas Lord Culpeper or any of you from time to time and at all times hereafter 
as often as you shall please to enter into the said Councell of Plantacons and to be present at 
all the debates thereof, and to give such vote and opinion in all the matters to be then & there 
propounded as you shall think fitt and to be most conducing to our service. And Wee doe 
hereby further declai'e that if it shall happen that you our said most deare Brother, Prince 
Rupert, George Duke of Buckingham, James Duke of Ormond or the said John Earle of 
Lauderdaill Thomas Lord Culpeper, or some or one of you shall be present, then you or anj'^ 
of you together with foure others of the said Councell shall be and are hereby declared to bee 
a Quorum ; and if none of you shall be present then any five of the members of the said 
Councell shall be and are hereby declared to be a Quorum, any thing in the before recited 
Comission or in these presents contained to the contrary notwithstanding. And our further will 


and pleasure is, that the Oath in & hy the said recited Commission to be given to all persons 
before they bee admitted to sit in the said Councell of Plantations shall not be tendered to you 
our said dearest Brother, nor to Prince Rupert, but the same Oath shall be tendred to and taken 
by you the said George Duke of Buckingham, James Duke of Ormond & John Earle of 
Lauderdaill & Thomas Lord Culpeper, before you or any of you be admitted to have any vote 
in our said Councell of Foreign Plantacon. And Wee doe hereby further declare, that you and 
every of you shall have the same powers priviledges & authorities to all intents & purposes 
whatsoever as were either granted or intended to be gi-anted by the said recited Commission to 
the said Lord Keeper or Lord Treasurer or Commissioners of our Treasury, or the Chancellor of 
our Exchequer or our Principall Secretaries of State for the time being, or to any or either of them. 
And further Know Yee that Wee reposing speciall trust & confidence in the ability industry 
fidelity and prudent circumspection of you the said John Evelyn have constituted established and 
appointed and by these presents doe constitute establish and appoint you the said John Evelyn 
to be one of our standing Councell for all the affaires w"''' doe or may concern any of our Foreign 
Plantations Colonies or Dominions scituate lying and being in any part of America or in the 
Ocean lying between this and the mayne land of America, or in any part of the Bay of Mexico or 
upon the Coast of Guiana or within any of that circuit of the globe that is generally knowne or 
called by the name of the West Indies, whether the said plantations, countries, & territories be 
immediately held by Us or held by any other of Us, by vertue of any charters graunts or letters 
Patents thereof already made or granted, and of all other our Forreign Plantations Colonies & 
Dominions (our town citty and garrison of Tangier only excepted) And Wee doe hereby further 
grant unto you the said John Evelyn all such powers priviledges liberties and authorities as in & 
by the said recited Commission are particularly menconed to be granted to the said Edward Earle 
of Sandwich, Richard Lord Gorges, William Lord Allington Thomas Grey Henry Brouncker Sir 
Humphrey Winch S' John Finch, Edmund Waller Henry Slingesby & Silas Titus and in as 
large and ample manner to all intents & purposes whatsoever. And whereas Wee by our 
letters patents under our Great Scale of England, bearing date the day of in the 22"" 

year of our reigne for the consideracons therein menconed did give and grant unto the said 
Edward Earle of Sandwich as President of our said Councell the j'early surae of seaven 
hundred pounds per annum, and to every member of the said Councell the severall yearly sume 
of five hundred pounds apiece to be quarterly paid out of our Exchequer during such time as 
they & every of them should continue to serve us in our said Councell as in and by the said 
letters patents whereunto reference being had may more at large appeare, Know Yee that Wee 
for & in consideracon of the good & faithfuU services heretofore done and hereafter to be done 
by you the said John Evelyn and for diverse other good causes and consideracons Us hereunto 
especially moveing, of our speciall grace certain knowledge & meer niocon have given and 
granted and by these presents for us our heires & successors doe give and grant unto you the 
said John Evelyn the yearly sume of five hundred pounds to bee from time to time paid out of 
such of our treasure as shall from time to time be remaining in the receipt of our Exchequer, 
To have hold enjoy & yearly to receive and perceive the said allowance or sallary of five 
hvmdred pounds per Amuun unto the said John Evelyn and liis assignes during such time as he 
shall continue to serve us as a member of our said Councell out of the treasure of Us, our 
heires & successors at the receipt of our Exchequer at Westminster by the hands of our Lords 
Commissioners of our Treasury Treasurer Chancellor Under Treasurer Chamberlaines Barons 
and other the officers & ministers of I's our heires & successors there for the time being at the 


foure most usuall Feasts in the yeare, tliat is to say, at the Feasts of the Aunimciacon of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, St John the Baptist, S' Michaell the Archangell, and the Birth of our 
Lord God, by even & equall porcons quarterly to be paid, the first payment to commence and 
be accounted from the Feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the year of our 
Lord God one thousand six hundred and seaventy one. And Wee doe hereby for Us our 
heires and successors require command and authorize the Lords Commissioners of our Treasury, 
Treasurer Chancellor Under Treasurer Chamberlaines & Barons and all other the officers 
& ministers of our said Exchequer and of the Receipt there for the time being to it shall 
or may appertaine to pay and deliver or cause to be paid and delivered unto the said John 
Evelyn or his assignes the said sume of five hundred pounds per annum so as aforesaid hereby 
granted, and also to give full allowance thereof according to the true meaning of these presents. 
i\.nd these our Letters Patents or the enrollement thereof shall be unto all & every the officers 
of our said Exchequer respectively for the doing and performing of all and singular the premisses 
as aforesaid, according to the true intent and meaning of these presents a good and suiheient 
Warrant & discharge, any order direction command or restriction to the contrary notwithstanding 
Allthough express mention Sz." Given at Our Court at Vv'hitehall the 20"' day of March 1670. 

By His Ma"" Command 


To Our Attorney Generall. .. ". - - 

Journal ami Relation of a Keiv DU-covery in Western Virginia. ' 

[ Plantations General Papers, I. 21. ] r . _ . . 

The Journal & Relation of a New Discovery made behind the Apuleian 
Mountains to the West of Virginia. 

A Commission being granted by the Hon'''' Mayor Gen' Wood for y" findeing out of the 
Ebbing and flowing of y' water behinde the Moimtains in order to the Discovery of the South 

Thomas Batts,' Thomas Woods, Robert Fallam accompanied with Perecute a great Man of 
the Apomatock Indians,^ and Jack Nesan formerly servant to IMaj"' General Wood's w"" 5 horses 
sett forward from the Apomatock Town in Virginia about Eight of the clock in the morning, 
being Fry day Sep" 1" 1671, that day they travelled about 40 miles, tooke up their quarters and 
found they had travelled from the Okenechee path'' due West. 

' There is a brief account of this Tour in Beverly's History of Virginia, London, 1722, p. 62, wherein the Commander of 
the party is called Captain Henry Batt. — Ed. 

' A tribe inhabiting the south side of James Rirer, where it has left its name to a tributary of the latter, called the 
Appomatox. Their country is represented to have come to King Powdaitan by inheritance. They numbered 50 warriors 
in 1669, but became extinct in or about 1720. (Captain S7>iith's True Travels, Richmond, 1819, i, 142 ; Beverly's History of 
Virginia, p. 199; Jefferson's Notes, Boston, 1801, Table, pp. 138, 139.) — Ed. 

^ This path led from Petersburgh, A'irginia, to Augusta, Georgia. It is laid down on 3IitihelVs Map, London. 1755. 
Lawson, Surveyor-General of North Carolina, who was afterwards murdered by the Tuscaroras, travelled it in 1701 from the 
Santee to the Pamlico River, and has described the country and its Indian inhabitants, in his Journal. (Lawson's History of 
CacoKna, London, 1714.) — Ed. 

Vol. m. 25 ' 


Sep*"" 2'^ That day they travelled about -io miles and came to their quarters at Sunset and 
found they were to the Nore of y" West. 

Sep'"' 3'' Thev traveled a W and by S. course and ahout 3 of the Clock came to a great 
Swamp a mile and a liahi' or two miles over and very dilKcult to pass, they led their horses over, 
and waded twice throuiili a nui emptying itselfe into Roanoke River, after they were over they 
went N. W. and so came round, and tooke up their quarters W. tliis day they went 40miles good. 

Sep'"' 4"' About 2 of the Clock they arrived at the Sapong Town,' they traveled S. and by 
W. course till about noon and came to the Sapong's W : here they were very joyfull, and 
kindly entertained, received with fireing of Guns and plenty of provision. Here they hired a 
Sapong Indian for their guide a nearer way than usual towards the Tolera Indian Town. 

Sep'"' o"- Just as tliey were ready to take horse being about 7 of the clock in the morning 
they heard some Guns goe olf from the other side of the River, they were 7 Apomatock Indians 
sent to accompany them in their Travels, one of their horses being tired they sent him back, 
and about 11 of the Clock sett forward, and reached y' night to the Hanohaskie Indian Town 
2-5 miles from the Sapongs, where they were likewise kindly entertained, the town lyes W. and 
by X. in an Island of the Sapong River Richland. 

Sep'"' G"' Aljout 11 of the Clock they left tlie Hanohaskies and JVP Thomas Wood at the 
Town dangerously sick of a fflux, his horse likewise was seized with the Stagers, and a failing 
in his liinder parts ; their course was this day W. and by S. they tooke up their quarters W 
about -20 miles from the Town, this afternoon y'' Indians killed them a dear, in the night 2 of 
tlieir horses straied away from y" about 10 of the clock. 

Sep'"' y" 7"= About 3 of the clock they had sight of the Mountains, they traveled 2-5 miles 
over very hilly and stony ground, their course Westerly. 

Sep'"' y^ S"" Tliey began their journy about Sun Rise and traveled all day a W. and b_y N. 
course, about 1 of the clock they came to a tree mark'd in the path with a coals M A N i 
about four of the clock they came to the foot of the 1*' Mountain, went to the top, y" came to 
a small descent, y" rose again, when they came almost to the bottom there was a steep descent, 
they traveled all day over a very stoney ground with many rocks and after having journey'd 30 
miles tliey tooke up their quarters at y' foot of a Mountain due W. they passed the Sapong River 
twice this day. 

Sep'"' 9"> They were stiring with the sun, traveling West, and sliortly came again to the 
Sapong River, where it was very narrow, they ascended y* 2'' Mountain w'^'' wound up W. and 
by S. w"" several risings and fallings, after w'^'" they came to a steep descent, at y"" foot whereof 
was a lovely descending valley about G miles over, w"" curious small risings, sometimes 
indifferent good way, their course over it was S : W : after they came over that they had a 
steep descent, at the foot whereof stood the Tolera' Indian Town, in a very rich swamp between 

' Tlu. Siii.onas, here supposed to be alluded to, were found by Lawson oh tlie head watei's of the Great Pedee. {Lawson, 
Journal 46. Gallatin Synop. Ind. Tr. 85, 86.) — Ed. 

° The Toteros, says Lawson, were " tall, likely men, having great plenty of Bufl'aloes, Elks and Bears, with other sort of 
Deer among them." They are represented in this MS. as a mountain tribe, but Gallatin {Op. Sup. Cit.) says, they were 
driven thither from the '^Vest. The Totteroy, or Great Sandy Creek, below the Great Kanhawa, would indicate that they 
once lived in the Ohio Valley. See Enans Analysis, 29 ; intchell's and Pownars Maps, for the location of the Totteroy 
Creek. — Ed. 


a Breach and the main River of Roanoke circled about with Mountains; they got thither about 
3 of the Clock, after 25 miles travel. Here they were exceeding civilly entertained, and rested 
themselves y" i-est of y* Saturday Evening, Sunday and Monday. Perecute being seized w"' an 
Ague & Feavor every afternoon 

Sep'"' 12"' They set forvpard about 9 of the Clock a foot, leaveing their horses at the Tolera 
Town, and traveled something Southerdly, something Northerdly as the path went, over several 
high Mountains and Deep descending valleys, crossing several branches, and likewise the body 
of the Roanoke River several times, all exceeding Stoney ground ; about 4 of the Clock 
Perecute's ague and their own weariness made y™ take up tiieir quarters by the side of Roanoke 
River, very nigh the head thereof, it was at the foot of a very great mountain, they had traveled 
about 25 miles, a W. and by Nore course. 

Sep*"" l-S"" After a miles Travel they came to y* foot of a very high Mountain whose ascent 
was very steep so that they could scearce keep themselves from slideing down again, this 
continuing for 3 miles with small intermission of better way, being got to the top of the 
mountain and set down to i-est themselves, being very weary, they saw a Ridge of Mountains 
lyeing N. & S. as far as they could discerne, their course up the Mountains was W and by N, a 
very small descent on the other side, the Valleys tending westwardly, they had here a pleasing 
but dreadful Sight to see Mountains and Hills piled one upon another ; after they had traveled 
about 3 miles from the Mountains easily descending ground, they came to two trees mark'd as 
before w"" a coale M A N I y* other cut in with M A and severall other Scrablem" 
hard by a pretty swift small current, tending West, sometimes Northerdly, w"" curious 
meadows on each side, y'' ground as they past was rich but stoney, pleasant riseing hills, and 
all along brave rich meadows, w"" grass above man's hight, many rivers running W. N. W and 
many small streams from the Southerdly Mountains, which they saw as they marched 
tending Northerdly to empty themselves into the great River.^ After having traveled about 7 
miles they came to a very steep descent where they found a great current y' emptied itselfe as 
they suppose into the Great River Northerdly their course being as the path went W. S. W. 
then they set forward W. & had not gone far but met again w"" the current y' emptied itselfe 
Northerdly into the gi-eat River w*^"" was much broader than it was where they saw it before, 
tliis great River ran there W. and by N. having passed the current they marched about (3 miles 
N. W. and by N. and came to y^ River again where it was broader still, and ran W. and by S. 
and so as they suppose tended W : here they took up their quarters, after they had waded over 
the soyle, the further they past the richer, and stony, full of brave meadows and old feilds, the 
course W. 

Sep'"' 14"' They set forward before Sun Riseing, their provision being all spent, traveled as 
the path went, sometimes Southerdly, sometimes Northerdly, over good Ground but Stoney, 
sometimes riseing hills and then steep descending Valleys. In a clear place on the top of a 
hill they saw over against y"" to the S. W. a curious prospect of hills like waves raised by a 
gentle brize riseing one behind another, M"' Batts supposed he saw houses, but M' Fallam 
rather tooke them to be white clitfs, they marched about 20 miles this day, tooke up their 
quarters about 3 of the clock, to see if their Indians could kill them some Dear, having gone W. 

' Great Kanhawa. — Ed. . • ' 



and by N. they were very weary and hungry, & Terucute continued very ill, yet desirous to goe 
forward, they past this day several brave brookes or small Rivelets. 

Sep'"' 15"' Yesterday in the afternoon and this day they lived a dogg's life, hunger and ease, 
the Indians haveing done their best coidd kill y" noe meat, the Dear they said were in such 
heards, and the ground drye, y' by the rattleing of the leaves they easely espied y" yet still 
they ventured forward, and about one o'Clock began to march, and went over some exceeding 
good, some stony ground, a W. and by N. course, 'till they came to a large current y' emptied itself 
W. and by i\. as they supposed into a great River, as they passed they met w"" some wilde 
goose baryes, and exceeding large Haws, w"" w"^"* they were forced to fill themselves, feeding on 
these and y'' hopes of better successe on the morrow. They had hired an Indian guide from 
the Tolera who goeing to kill y" some dear lost them. 

Sep'"' 16"" Their Indians went a ranging betimes one whereof came in and told them he 
heard a Drum and a Gunn goe off to the Northward, the rest brought some exceeding good 
grapes, and kill'd two turkyes w"^"" was very welcum, and where w"" they feasted. 

About 10 of the Clock they set forward and after they had travild about 10 miles one of their 
Indians kill'd a dear, presently after they had a sight of a curious River like the Thames ag' 
Chelcej', but had a fall ' y' made a great noise whose course was there N. and so as they 
supposed ran W. about certain pleasant mountains, v;'^ they saw to the Westward, here they 
took up their quarters, and found their course had been W. and by N. Here they found Indian 
Feilds w"" corne stalks in them, and understood afterward the Mohetans had lived there not 
long before 

Sep'"' I?"' Early in the morning they went to seeke some trees to marke, the Indians being 
impatient of longer Stay, by reason it was like to be bad weather, and that it was soe difficult 
to get provision they found four trees exceeding litt for their purpose, y' had been half bark'd 
by the Indians, standing after one another. Then they had this ceremony to proclaime the 
King in these words. 

Long live K'nig Charles y" 2'^ King of England, Scotland, France, Ireland and Virginia and all 
the tcnlorycs thereunto belonging ; deffcnder of ifffuith. 


Fired Gunns and mnrk'd the 1"' Tree thus C R w"" a paire of marking Irons for his 
Sacred Majesty, the next thus W B for the Governor Sir William Berkley, the 3"^ Tree 
w"' AA^ for the Rlajor General Abraham Wood the last tree thus TbR H tor themselves. 

P for Perecuto who said he would be an English man 

And on another Tree stands these letters for y'' rest one under another 

IN.TT. NP. V. ER. 

After this they left the Indians there and went themselves down to the River side, but w"" 
much difficulty, it being a peice of very rich ground, whereon y^ INIohetons had foniierly lived, 
and grown up with weeds & small prickly Locust bushes and thistles. 

^Vi)en they came to y« River side they found it better and broader than expected, full as 
broad as the Thames over ag' Waping, y^ falls, much like the Falls of .lames River in Virghiia, 
and imagined by the Water Marks it flowed tii.Tc about :) fbot. It was then Ebbing Water, 
they set up a stick by the Water side but found it ebb very slowly. 

' The Groat falls of the Kauhawa, 90 miles above the moiitli. JriTersnii's Nntrx on v.n 


The Indians kept such a hallowing for them that they durst stay no longer to make further 
tryall least they should leave y" 

They then returned homewards again but when they were on the Top of the Hill they 
took a prospect as far as they could view, and saw westerdly over certain delightfull hills a 
fogg arise and a glimmering light as from water, and suppose there may be some great Bog. 

They came to the Toleras on Tuesday night, where they found a Mohetan Indian, haveing 
Intelligence of their comeing were afraid they were come to fight with them about which he 
was sent to enquire. They gave him satisfaction to the contrary and in assurance of friendship 
presented him w"" three or four Shots of powder, y* Mohetan y° informed them that they had 
been from the mountains half way to the place where they now lived, and y* y' next town beyond 
them lived on a plain levell from whence came abundance of Salt. 

But that he could informe them no further being y' if any Indians went down they never 
returned, and that there were a very great company of Indians lived upon the Great Water. 

Sep'"' 2V- Having been kindly entertained they departed from the Toleras and on the 24th 
came to the Hanahaskies where they found M' Wood was dead and buried, and his horse 
likewise dead. 

After civil treatment with firing of gunns at parting (w'"'' is not usual) the 25"" they came in 
the morning left y" and reached y^ Sapongs that night where they stayed 'till the 27"" finding 
curteous Entertainment, at night they came to the Apomatocks Town, and on Sunday Morning 
being October y^ 1=' they arrived safe at Fort Henry. Christo duce et auspice Christo. 

Order in Council on a Petition from the Eastern Towns of Long Island. 

[ Pri\-y Council Eegister, C. E. H. X. 2T3. ] 

At the Court at Whitehall, the Q^ of July, 1G72. " _ •- ^ ' . ■ ,, '' . "" ' . 

Present — The King's Most Excellent Ma'^ 

in Councill. 

Upon reading this day at the Boord the humble petition of his Mat'" Subjects in three vallages 
at the East End of Long Island in America, called Easthampton, Southampton, and Southwold, 
setting forth that they have spent much time and paines and the greatest part of their Estates 
in settling the trade of Whale fishing in the adjacent seas, having endeavoured it above these 
twenty yeares, but could not bring it to any perfection till within these 2 or 3 yeares last past, 
And it being now a hopeful! trade at New Yorke in America the Governor and the Dutch there 
do require y= Petitioners to come under their patent, and lay very heavy taxes upon them 
beyond any of his Ma"" subjects in New England, and will not permit the petitioners to have 
any deputys in Com-t, but being chiefe, do impose what Laws they please upon them, and 
insulting very much over the Petitioners threaten to cut down their timber, which is but little 
they have to Casks for oyle, Altho' the Pef' purchased their landes of the Lord Sterling's deputy, 
above 30 yeares since, and have been till now under the Government and Patent of M"^ 


Winthrop, belonging to Conitycot Patent, which lyeth flir more convenient for y= Petitioners 
assistance in the aforesaid Trade. And tlierefore most humbly praying that they may be 
continued under the Government and Patent of M"" Winthrop, or else that they may be 
a free Corporation as his Ma''" subjects for y^ further encouraging them in their said Trade, 
otherwise they must be forced to remove, to their great undoing, and damage of sundry 
Merchants to whom they stand indebted for their Trade. It was Ordered, by his Ma"' 
in Councill, That it be, and it is hereby referred to the R' Hon'"' his Ma""' Council for 
fbrraine Plantations to consider of the said Petition, and report their opinion to his Ma"' thereupon 
with all convenient speed. And the said Councill is desired to give notice of this Petition to his 
Royall Highness the Duke of York's Commissioners that they may attend when y' same shall 
be under consideration. 

Governor Lovelace to Governor Wintlirop. 

[ New-York Papers, I. 142. ] 

An Extract of a Letter from Coll : Louelace directed to Gouern""' Winthrop 
dated Thursday being ten a dock the 31 of JuJij as ffolloweth. 

Deare S"" 

At newhaven I receiued an unwellcome news of the Dutch approach before New Yorke, I 
call it unwellcome in regard I was not in the place, they appeared att first w"" ten sayle 
afterwards with seauenteene, yesterday about five or Six of the Clock they stormed it, a hot 
dispute it seems it was, how the success was I canot as yet learne, they I understand haue 
breake-fasted on all my Sheepe and Cattell on Staten Island, I am hastening as fast as I can to 
make on, God spare me but to get in, and I doubt not but to giue an good account of it. Yo'' 
Gentlemen haue formed a post from M'' Richbells to you I pray you let it be continued for 
intelligence, it will be necessary to forme a militia, for if it should miscarry they must not 
radicate longe, I am yet out of theire power & am hastening now ouer to Long Island to raise 
the Militia there, you shall heare of my motion, I pray dispatch away to Boston, I have noe 
more God Allmighty preserue you and send us a happy meeting if not heare yet hereafter, 
which is much better. I am, 

Yo'' aftt'ctiouate ftreinde 

FFRANCis Louelace 


m:- ■ 

Edicard Palmes to Governor Leverett. : , . ■ 

[ Xc-w York Papers, I. U2. ] 

New London August the 3'' 1673. 
Much Hon'''' Sir 

Since the packet to yo' selfe was sealed they had intelligence from Hartford to Millford that 
New Yorke was taken Wednesday last w"" the loss of one man on each side, the ffleete consisting 
of twenty ships & a galliot, The army landed were about eight hundred men, it is said they 
gaue good quarters but what particulars not yet knowne. 

S'' I had order to informe Yo'' Hono"' of this last Intelligence which is what time will permit 
from, Hon^* S'' 

Yo'' Hono''' humble seruant 

EdW* Palmes. 


To the Hon'*''' John Leueritt, Esq'' Gouern" of his Majesties Colony of the 
Massachusetts Post hast for his Majesties speciall Seruice. 

■ jRohtrt Hodges Account of tlie Capture of Xew-Yorh. 

[ New-York Papers I. 124. ] 

The Relation of Robert Hodge that came from the towne of South hold upon 
longe Hand. August 6"- 1673. 

Saith that Isaac Arundell of South hold behig at New Yorke when it was suiTendred unto 
the Dutch being then in the fort did declare unto one there that on the aS* of July last the 
Dutch ffleete consisting of twelue saile of men of warr and tewlue prizes came in at Sandy 
Hooke & that day came up as far as Staten Hand where haueing a contrary winde they tarried 
uutill the SO"" of the same, seuerall of the Dutch of longe Hand in that time goeing on board 
the ships informed them in what condition the ffort was &that the Gouem'"' and principall men 
were out of the ffort on the 30"" day hauing a faire wind they came up before the ffort 
and then Capt. Manning went on board of the Generall and asked them what theyr 
intents were, theyr answer was they came to take the place, which they said was theyr 
owne and theyr owne they would liaue, the said Manning desired some time to make 
themselue ready, the Generall tould him he would giue him halfe an houre's time, when the 
halfe houre was out the Generall fired his broadside and the rest after him, Whereuppon the 
ffort fired uppon them againe and shott the Generalls shipp through and through, all the damage 
they in the ffort receiued was the killing of one man fflourishing his sw^ord upon the wall whose 
head was shott : the ffort held out about the space of four bowers which was as longe as they 
had any Carthrages and then they struck their fflagg by Cap' Manning's order, upon which 
Cap' Manning & Doctor Tayler opened the gates & lead in the Dutch at home the Souldiers 


\voukl liave fired but they ordered to tlie contrary, tlien the Dutch drew the Englisli souldiers 
into a ringe and comanded them to lay down tlieir amies which when they had done they tooke 
and carried prisoners on board theyr sliips ; ffurther lie relateth that they tooke two sliips at 
New Yorke one loading and the loaden one of them being 500 tunns w"" 3-5 guns and the other 
ship about one Inindred tuns they plundered Cap' Deleuall's house, the Gouerno''S and Cap' 
^Manning's (whom they suffer to weare a sword) & all mene in place except M'' Lawrences whose 
house they saued upon tiie request of the Dutch liueing there : ffurther he relateth that they 
haue seuerall sloops in the sound, what their intent is they know not, ffurther he saith that they 
sent to seuerall English towns on the maine that tlieir intent was not to doe them any spoyle 
but only to get their owne which they would haue, & that they intended to send two shipps to 
range about the Gayhead & the coasts of longe Hand, there was about sixty men : ffurther he 
saith that the longe Ilanders could make no resistance for want of powder they had not so much 
as to make two rounds, although they were forced to pay for the building of theyr ffort & other 
charges : he saith also that some of the longe Ilanders intend to send to this Governi' or to 
Conecticot for supply of Amunition which if they haue they will not yeild to the Dutch, 
ffurther he saith that the Dutch Generall was slaine at Virginia 

Taken at Boston 

August the ll"" 1673. 

Katlian GouhT-i' Accoiud of the Capture of JSfeir-Yorh. 

[ Xc«- Englau.l, I. lil. ] 

Intelligence from New Yorke by one fi-om Stanford. 

August 8. This messenger reports as ffolloweth, viz. that at Stanford on the S"" of this instant 
there came thither 4 men from New Yorke, two of them were taken at Virginia and came in the 
flleete to New Yorke, from whence they made their escape & afhrmed that the English ffleete 
at Virginia saw the Dutcii flleete rideing at the mouth of their Bay and supposed them to be a 
ffleete from England come to conuey them home uppon which they came to the Dutch ffleete 
which ffleete tooke Eight of them and burnt fine, the rest escaped from them into Crakes and 
by places as they could. Also that the Sloope wherein were Cap' James Cartwright & his wife 
were set ashoare in Virginia, But they brought M'' Hopkins w"" the Sloope to the Manhatoos. 
Moreouer this man saith that he stood at the Cabbin doore & heard the General! demand of the 
M'' of the Sloope Samuell Dauis by name what force they had at New Yorke & tould him if he 
would deale ffaithfuUy w"' him he would giue him his sloope and Cargo againe ; the said Sloopes 
Master replyed that in the space of three hours the Governo'" Louelace could raise fine thousand 
men & one hundred & fifty peice of Ordinance mounted fit for seruice upon the wall, upon this 
the Dutch Generall said if this be true I will giue you yo'' sloope & cargo & neuer see them. 
Then they enquired of one M'' Hopkins who tould them he thought there might bee betweene 
Sixty and Eighty men in the ffort, and in three or foure dayes time it was possible they might 
raise three or foure hundred men, & that there was thirty or thirty six peice of ordinance uppon 
the wall that a shot or two would shake them out of their Carriages then all theyr cry was for 


New Yorke, to which place they came, and this Captiue stood tlieu on tlie Deck and saw them 
laud by the Governor's Orchard about six hundred men as nere as he could conjecture & of 
these six hundred he thought they had not aboue four hundred gunns, some had pistolls, some 
had swordes, some halfe Pickes & he was very confident there could not be above twelue hundred 
fighting men in the whole fSeete not aboue sixteene hundred in all, there were but seueu ships 
that came from Holland the rest prizes they had taken and two Geueralls, one weares the fliag 
eight dayes, and then tiie other wears it Eight dayes, they are not priuateers but Comission'd 
by the state to make spoyle where they could they brought one hundred French men of from 
Surinam & burnt it & left none there. 

One other of the aboue said foure men reports that when Cap' Berry came to the ffort uppou 
the Account of sm-reuder M"" Hopkins tould him that his bussiness was done ; Also one of theise 
four saw that on Saturday last August the S"" about one of the Clocke he saw one of the 
Generalls goe ouer to long Hand w"" his longe boate w"' his orange fflagg & trumpet to Gouerno"' 
Louelace & Capt. IS'ichoUs went with the Dutch Generall (not through the towne) straite into 
the Castle — Soi'ther this man saith that ^P John Sellick goeing from Stanford to long Hand for 
boards in a small Catch was taken in the way by the Dutch. 

There arriued heare at ffarfeild this 6"" of August 1G7-3 a sloop w"" eleuen English men, some of 
the men being examined saith that the vessell they are now in was taken by the Dutch on 
Saturday last, and she being left at anchor the Sabbath day following the present company now 
in her tooke her and found two English men in her and fforthw"' brought her away. 

The relation of one of the corporalls of the garrison concerning the takeing of New Yorke, 
which is as followeth, viz. On the last Munday was seuen night the Dutch fileete appeared 
about Sandy Hooke On tuesday they came to an anchor under Staten Hand on the Wednesday 
the flfleet came up into Hudson's Riuer & Ankored before the ffbrt, not a Musquet Shot before 
the fort, before the}' came to an anchor at the tl'ort while they were at Staten Hand the flieete 
sent a trumpeter to the ffort and demanded it for the Prince of Orange, and what answer was 
returned the Corporall knows not. After the fileete was at an anchor by the ffort they did not 
shoot a gunn for the space of halfe an howr then the ffleete dischardged their broad sides at the 
ffort and the ffort shoot att them while the Dutch were placing their great gunns, they landed 
their men in Hutson's Riuer aboue the Gouerno"' Orchard. This Corporall saith that 
immediatly the Iflag of the fibrt was taken downe, & he canot certainly say who did it, the 
Souldiers of the enemy came downe the broad wa}^ and entred in at the ffort gate, it being open, 
whereuppon the beseiged souldiers marched forth w"" their amies and colours fflyiug & laid them 
downe when they came for then they were comanded into the ffort againe & comitted to prison 
in the Church, and so sent afterward aboard the ships. The above said Corporall also saith 
that he see Generall Lovelace at Justice Comwalls on longe Hand with Cap' Nicolls who tould 
him he would goe to the ffort on Saturday last in the mourning. He also saith that there were 
but seauen men of warr that came out of London (scil) three Amsterdam men and four 
Zealanders, the rest of the fHeete were prizes they had taken in the Indies & Virginia c& he 
esteems theire is about sixteene hundred men of them. 

The Relation of the Boatswaine of M"' Mullins ship lately taken by the Dutch, viz. That on 
the last day of July last past they were taken by two pinaces & about forty men, hee affirmes he 
was kept on board the Admirall 24 howres to giue an accompt of what was in the said ship, and 
Vol. HL ofi 


soone after got ashore to Yorke the said ship was taken about the two Brotle.' The said 
Boat swaine saith that on Saturday last he saw Gouernor Louelace and Capt NichoUs land out 
of the Admirall's pinnace and saw them both goe into the fort ; the said Boatswaine saith that 
the ffleet consists of three Amsterdam men & four Zealanders & a small frigott of six gunns 
the rest of the ffleete are merchant men prizes & he conceiues they canot haue more then 
sixteene hundred men of all sorts ; and on munday last they intended to goe up to fort Albany 
w"" the small frigott & two pennaces and about two hundred menn & saith that he heard a boy 
about nineteene yeares of age whom he was acquainted w'^all say that the sloope he belonged to 
was pressed to come alonge and plunder the English but as yet he can heare of none plundered 
but Cap« Deleuall & M' Rider 

These examinations were taken before me the date aboue said 

Nathan Gould. 

Proclamatio7i of Commanders Evertsen and Benches. 

[ New-York Papers, I. 124. ] 

The Comanders and Honourable Court Marshall of the Squadron of Ships of 
Warre in the seruice of the high and Mighty Lords the States Generall 
of the united provinces & his serene Highness the Lord Prince of Orange. 

Whereas the ffbrt and City on the Hand Monhatons have surrendred themselves without 
any capitulation or Articles under the High and Mighty Lords the States Generall of the united 
provinces and his serene Highness the Prince of Orange ; yet notwithstanding wee doe hereby 
declare that o'' intention is no wise to hurt or spoile any of the good inhabitants but to tlie 
contrary to gouerne them as true and ftaithful subjects, prouided they doe undertake nothing in 
prejudice of the Gouennent. 

Wee haue therefore thought fit to manifest & declare our said resolutions in generall unto 
all the English Towns upon longe Hand & in perticular unto the towne of Southampton to 
the end each towne should make a choice and send unto us here two Deputies w"" their letters 
of Authorization for to take the oath of allegiance, as also to bringe with them the Constables 
Staffes and Colours, wee being intended instead of the same to furnish them with colours of 
the Prince of Orange whei'euppon they shall be considered & governed w"'out respect of nations 
as good and ftaithful Subjects. And the Constables of the respectiue Towns on long Hand are 
heare by strickely charged and required flbrthwith to cause this o'' Order to be manifested and 
declared from towne to towne to the end the said Deputies do all make theire appearances 
and addresses heare unto us on IMonday next being the ll"" or 2V^ of this instant month of 
August if possible or otherwise two or three dayes afterwards, or by refusall or default thereof 
we shall be necessitated to meet them with such a force of amies, by whom we assured to 
subdue them thereunto, when these conditions now tendred shall not be granted unto them. 

Cornelius Euerson 
Dated at ftbrt William ffi-ederick. l Jacob Binkes. 

the 14 August. 73. | 

' Two Broth.n-s — a couple of islands in the East River immediately south of Westchester. — En. 


,' Nathan Gould to Governor Winthrop. 

[ New-Tork Papers, I. 124. ] 

Right Worshipfull 

The messeuger that I sent for intelligence is newly returned & there is one M'' Gibbs that 
lines at yorke is come to o' Towue he came from York the last Wedensday about y* middle 
of the day who brings intelligence that on Tuesday last there was a report at the ffort that 
there were seeue twelue ships at the mouth of the Harbour whereuppon y' souldiers were 
comanded into the ffort & the sea men to their ships they sent down a pinnace to Enquire the 
truth which was not returned before he came away ; he also saith that there was some come 
from Grauesend & they say they saw noe shipps, what the truth is I know not, M' Gibbs was 
in the ffort all the time of the Engagem', a true relation of the Managem' of that affaire this 
bearer ftp Sellick can giue you a perticular ace' who hath fully spoken and heard M"' Gibbs 
relation Also its certaine that they haue sumoned the Hand in, to bring in their Colours & 
Constables staffes by the second day next, the East end of y° Hand have three days longer, if 
they come not in they threaten they will reduce them by a preveiling power M' Gibbs saith 
they plunder nou in I'orke there is a souldier to be executed for plundering ci'oss to order. 
Its informed that Authur Cull M'' Cartwright's party hath all ready complyed & the other party 
is sumoned to appeare next Tuesday, This for substance is the truth of the present intelligence 
there be diuers others perticulars IVP Sellick being in hast I shall refere yo' worshipp to his 
relation who can fully iufonne you, I shall still make it 'my care to gaine what intelligence I 
can and I shall be still giuing you an ace" not else at present I rest 

Yo' hiunble Seruant 

ftarfield 8"" August 1673. Nathan Gold. 

M'' gibbs also agrees in his relation w"" the fomier intelligence y' there is most not aboue 
sixteene hundred seamen and Souldiers, M"" gibbs saith Cap' Carr is fled the Generall Louelace 
is at Yorke and hath free egress & regress. 

The names of the Dutch Generalls are Jacob Binkes. Cornelius Euerson de younger 

They haue sent 150 Souldiers for fort Albany about Tuesday last. 


To the right worshipfull John Winthrop Esq'' Gouernor of his Ma''" Colony of 
Conecticot hast hast post hast for his Majesties speciall seruice. 

[ The preceding papers, relative to the capture of New-York by the Dutch, were included in a despatch addressed ] 


The Right Honorable the Lord Arlington One of His Majesties Privy Councell, principal! 
Secretary of State. 

These present at Whitehall. 

tii-om New England for his Majesties speciall Service, 
hast, hast, post hast. London 

Rochell the if of October 1673 
Receiued the ft & sent forward 
By Yd"' honours most hum'^'" Serv" 

Andrew Stucket & C". 


3Ir. Ludwell., Secret anj of Virginia., to Secr-etary ArUngto 

Right Hono''" 

I liave here inclosed our last lawes and leavies, and would have troubled j-o'' Honor in these 
husie times uoe further then w"" the evidences of y^ respect I owe you, did not our being lately 
invaded w"> eight Holland & Flushing men of waiT from 30 to 46 gunns a ship, with one 
fireship Commanded by Jacob Binkes for Holland and Cornelius Evertson for Flushing, who 
(notwithstanding our convoy of two men of warr did w"" extraordinary resolution fight them 
above fower howers) tooke from us and burnt eleven shipps w'^'" ran on gi'ownd before they could 
get under the protection of any of our forts where all the rest were saved, enforce me in this 
sad conjuncture to implore yo'' Lordships assistance towards His JMa''^ when our declarations 
shall'be p''sented to the Councell table, that the true state of our p''sent condicon being waighed 
and our inabillity to defend our selves considered and the consequence of saucing soe 
considerable a plantacon, w'^'' imployes soe many shipps, spends soe much of the manufacture of 
England, and brings soe great a revenue to the Crowne being duely valewed, His Ma"'' may be 
graciously pleased to aiford us that protection w"^ wee cannot give our selves. And here I 
would have given your Honnor the particulars both of our losse and inabillity to p''vent it, but 
that I feare it would be too troublesome to you, who I know might be continually imployd at 
those Councells, w'''' I doubt not will steer our greater concernes into a good port, and therefore 
doe begg yo"' Lordp' pardon if I referre you to our declaration for them. Your Lord? can p''serve 
us if you please, and therefore I doe most humbly begg it for a poor distressed people, who if 
they can never make you any other acknowledgem' will yet pray for your prosperity. 

My Lord, this Gent" who brings this to your hands is a nephew to S' Herbert Price and 
Leit' to one of the men of warr here, in which he behaved himselfe w"' extraordinary 
courage, and therefore I could not denye him the justice of giving yo'" Honnor that caracter of 
liini, and though I cannot in reason hope such an intrest in yo"" Lord''' favor as may incline 
you to looke on him, yet I hope his owne merritts may, and I should conclude it a great omen 
of my future happynesse if any thing I could wright should cause soe great a person as yo"" 
Lord'' to favour M'' I'rice for whose vertue and gallantry I liave a perticular esteeme. God of 
Heaven p''serve your Lord'' in health and honnor and continue me in your liivour, w''" is the 
greatest happinesse hoped for by, Right Hono''''' 

Yo"" Honnors most humble and 
most faythfull Serv' 

Tho : Ludwell. 
Mrg" August 2. 1G73 


Governor Leverett to Secretary Arlington. 

[ Ncw-Tork Papers. I. 141. ] 

My Lord 

The inclosed gives an account of the Intelligence I haue received b}- several] vvayes, of the 
unexpected and unhappy loss of New Yorke, & that Country ; whither by treachery or 
negligence I haue not to resolue uiyselfe in, but doubt something of both : I haue further to 
acquaint your Lordship, that since the receipt of the inclosed I haue certain intelligence that 
Albany is surrendered upon the same termes witli New Yorke namely at mercy. It was 
expected that Coll. Louelace would haue kept hiniselfe out of the Enemies hand though hee 
liad not kept the fort, that thereby the country might have been emproved (who as I hear was 
ready to rise for the reduceing the place), but by one of their Dutch Domines hee was 
collogued with, whereby they got him in for three dayes, and before those were out the 
Inhabitants laide Arrests upon him for debts due to them, soe that time lapsed the Dutch 
C;.ptains declared that hee bad liberty (paying his debts) within six weekes to depart the Countr}', 
they haveing seized his Estate before, soe that they keepe him & it is said intend him for 
Holland. Seuerall of the towns on long Hand & of Governor Cartwrights Goverment are 
come into them : They are at worke to repaire the defects of carriages and platfomis (too much 
neglected before) Expecting recruits from Europe to theire setling, if not prevented. This in 
faithfullness to his Majesty & his Roj'all Highnesse The Duke of Yorke, I have adventured to 
giue yo'' Lordship trouble with, rather then to lye under the blame of neglect of informeing 
about soe great a concern, however the Intelligence may bee unwelcome as to the loss sustained. 
Craving yo"' lordship's pardon I make bold to subscribe myselfe 

Y'o'' lordship's ffaithfuU & humble servant, 

Dated in Boston, New England, | 
September first 1673. j 

Duplicate of one of the 31"" August 1673. 

John Leverett. 

Extract of a Letter to Mr. Harwood. 

[ New-Tork Papers, I. 100. ] 

Boston in New England Septb'' 3^ 1673, 
Deare Brother, it hath pleased the Lord to suffer y^ Dutch with 7 or 8 men of Warr whoe 
in July last went to Virginia & great spoyle to y'' Virginia fleete, haveing taken and bunit 13 
sayle of ships, when they done there standing along y^ shoare intending onely to waf and soe 
to goe away : but when they came upp as farr as Delaware to poynt comfort, a Dutcli sloope 
from New York met them, and went on board of them, and inform'' them of y« state of New 
Y'ork, & of the absence of y^ Governour, & how weekly man'' y' ffort was, & y= carriages of 
their great gmis out of repaire, & rotten & noe plattforms to play y^ gunns upon, which did 


imbolden them to come \v"> their fReete up to New York : & on the 31" day of July put their 
ffleet into a halfe moon before y^ Sort & not one gun fired upon them, then y*^ ffleet let flye all 
their broad sides & in y'' smoake landed 500 men, y'' flbrt fired but 4 gunus att the shipps all y= 
Tyme, and upon a sudden opened y'' gates and lett them all in and surrendered up the fibrt 
without any farther dispute, yeilding themselves to their mercy, W'' is a shame and derision to 
our English Nation, as hath not been heard of: for such a place y' was so well fitted & able to 
defend themselves & oflend their Enemy : as to open their gates to let in their Enemyes as if 
our English men had lost all their spirits, soe y'= neare approaching of soe Potent ann enemy 
hath alann"" y"" whole countrey, whatt will be done y'' Lord onely knows, our fears are many 
but we putting our selves into a posture, as to be I'eady to defend y^ countrey : but we are in noe 
capacity to send shiping, for we have them not y' is able to reduce it by sea ; nor have they 
done any injury to any of our Plantations y' is adjacent to them, nor taken away any of our 
vessells ; The united Collonyes have all agreed ass one man, and doe resolve, if they doe offer 
any abuse to any of us, they will have reparation ; We have not heard w" is done there as yet, 
wee doe not heare of any English men Estates sequester'd as yet, but Delavalls and Lovelace's, 
who was then both absent, but many men will be greate sufferers & wee must expect to share 
among other, not else, but refer you to the next, soe take leave and rest : 

M>'. William Dervell to Jlr. R. Woolly. 

[ New-York Papers, I. 102. ] 

Boston in N : E: y^ 20"> of SeptemV 1673. 

I haue now to advice you that New Yorke is taken by y^ absence of Coll : Lovelace y' last 
Governo'' thereof, through who's neglect & y" treachery of Capt. Manning who was left 
comander in cheif, delivered up y' place unto Comelious Everson & Jacob Binkes w"'out 
articles, as appeares for most English lost all only some few that take their Oathes that are 
Inhabitants to be true to y^ states of Holland, All my father in law's Estate and mine seized 
on and made prizes ofl', The reason they give is my Father is y'= Duke of York's Auditor, and 
mine is lost because I lived in this CoUony, The loss my father and I have sustain'd is so 
considerable that I dare not, nor really yett know y^ value. They haue already carryed away 
of mine for Holland or Spain which I haue an ace" of IGO hhds of Tobacco, 30 Tun of 
Logwood, 14 tuns of Brazeletta, and 70 barr"" of oyle. My father in Law is going home 
ohoui 2000 li. a prisoner for Holland in Everson's shipp. Hee has lost all, God giue us patience. 
] hope if he come home some Address may be to haue our Estates again. Questioning not 
but if His Koyall Highness demands it from y' Dutch it will be restored. 

I am, Yo'' SorrowfuU Friend, 

W" Dervell. 

To I\f R' Woolly 
in London. 

Pead in a Com"" of v' Councill. 7° Nov. 73. 


Memorial urging the Recovery of Xeio - YorJc. 

[ Trade Papers. State Paper Office. XS. 54. ] 

A Memoriall concerning New York and the adjacent English Plantations 
in America. 

After the Dutch men of War (in July last 1G73) had taken and burned severall shipps in 
Virginia, they sayled to JNew York which they soone became Masters of, and (as it is credibly 
informed) all or most of them remaine there. New Yorke beeing (or may easily be made) too apt 
a station from whence they may at pleasure and at all times soe infest all the adjacent Colonies 
that his Ma''" subjects inhabiting in and trading to New England, Virginia, and Maryland 
(New Yorke being scituated in the center of them) cannot reasonably promise to themselves (or 
hope for) any security untill his Ma"'' shall be pleased againe to reduce New York under 
his obedience, and by a competent strength of shipps & men of War protect the merchaunts 
shipps tradeing there and supplying his Ma''" subjects inhabiting those Colonies without which 
protection, both the Colonies and traders will probably suffer frequent losses, to their great 
impoverishment, if not to their utter ruine ; and his Ma"^ \^^ll loose a considerable part of his 
customes : and it is credibly informed from Holland that the Dutch will send six men of warre 
more as soone as they can, with more men to fortify themselves in those parts, soe as unless 
some speedy course be taken for prevention thereof, it will in a shorte time be more difficult to 
reduce that place : all which is humbly submitted to his Ma''** consideration 


" About New Yorke &c 
" R. Oc'. 22. 73." 

Mr. Dyer''s Project for reducing Neio - York 

[ Kew-Tork Papers, I. lOG. ] 

Whereas severall Dutch privateers under conduct of Cap' Everson haue certainely taken from 
his Ma'"''' Dominions y= iBourishing province of New York, a place of too much eminence, worth, 
and Benefit to be deserted, in regard y' Enemy thereby has so commodious an oppertunity ffor 
devastating y* Countery, spoylling and destroying y' Trade, making y* Town and port of New 
York a Receptacle for their Booties and principal Seat of their fforces ; ffrom whence they may 
w"" expedition and Convenience, anoy all his Ma""' shiping, plantations, and subjects in 
America ; to y' exceeding prejudice and Damage of his Ma"' and inevitable Ruine of y' adjacent 
colonies, as those of New England, New Jersey, Carolina, but more especially Virginia and 
Maryland, whose annuall production is so beneficiall a part of the Royall Revenue, as y' y= 
obstruction and deprivation thereof will be extremely ffelt in this kingdome as well by the 
publique as private Concerns. 

And seeing y= great motiues which at first induced his Sacred Ma"' to subdue and driue out y« 
usurping Dutch ffrom them parts, was y' true sense his Ma'^ had of the exceeding injury he 


sustaiu'd in y' act of Trade and Navigation, and of how ill a consequence y' intrusions of y' 
Dutch nation has euer proved in y^ Territories of other princes ; as also the mischief which 
might ensue to all y English Colonys on y' Contenant, if the hollanders were permitted 
to continue and strengthen them selves in the heart of his ma"« precincts, they being then 
Masters of one of the most Comodious ports and Rivers in America, W^" they haue now 
Repossest them selues off. 

Whereof it cannot be thought less Expedient y' a sudden course be taken llbr their second 

New York being the center of his INIa"" Western Dominions, and llurnishecr.vith so Excellent 
a harbour to secure shiping, Also a pleasant Town and pleantifull Countery Round a bout, Ihtt to 
receiue Succor and releiue sea men and Sovddiers, which gives advantage and incoragement ffbr 
y* enemy to settle and rendezvous there, from whence they may at pleasure send out more or 
lesse of their private men of warre to infest the Coasts, distroying all shipps bound into 
Virginia, alarming y* inhabitants, hindering their occasions, soon Reducinge them to Exlrer.m 
necessity and poverty ; also the enemy may conveniently run into y' Caribbee Islands, burning 
shipps, disturbing y= people, and so obstruct all commerce there ; Retiring w"" what purchase 
and prizes they get to New York, where in y= meane time otheres may be made Ready to 
saly out and do y^ like Damage in New England, and by this means ffinally subvert y' 
American Trathck to y'= vast prejudice off his Ma"" interest both at home and a broad, if some 
speedy care be not taken for prevention of y" dangerous events which y' delay of Recovering y' 
place will certainly produce. 

And in regard his Ma''" affairs at this Juncture of Time can ill spare any great number of ships 
or Quantityes of men to Reduce y'= place, I humbly propose a ffacil expedition to effect y^ same, 
Craving of his Ma"' only a considerable fforce of firigotts with what ffire ships shall be 
necessary for the design, man'd sufficiently for defence till they arriue in New Engld where men 
may be had to supply his Ma''" occasions ; who being acquainted with the Counter}^ and ttresli 
ffbr seruice, one may be capable to perform as much as two Tyered w"* a long Voyage. 

Therefore to raise men I presume this course would be proper ; ffirst having ample power 
and instructions ffrom his Ma"^ so to doe, proclaim y' it is his Ma"'*"* Royall pleasure to will and 
require all bis Louing Subjects, of their volentary motions to demonstrat their obedience by 
Lending speedy aid and assistance ffor y*' Retrivall of New York. 

So composing a small land army of about 2000 men horse and ftbot and w"" them beseisje the 
town, thereby debaring y"' Enemy of all supplys out of y*' Countery, and then immediatly Block 
up y' harbour w"" y* ships of warre, w'^'' will unavoydably compell the Dutch to surrender, or 
else expose them selves to the inconvenience and Terrour of ffire and sword, w"'' must be 
executed by storming the Town, and Burning their ships in the Rhoad. 

If the premises be speedily undertaken they may Easily be accomplished, but if deferr'd will 
proue more difficult, and in all probability the benefitt accrewing flrom y*" prizes to be taken in 
y' port, will defray y= charg and bring some money into his Ma'^'" coffers, also the same 
adventure gluing safe conduct to the Virginia ffleet out and home. 


Sir Jolin Kniglit to the Ecui of Shaftesbwry. .,. . , 

[ New-York Papers, I. lOS. ] '• ■ . : 

Proposalls of Sir John Knight touching New Yorke. 
Right honno"' 

I humbly make bould to acquaint yo"' Lordship that the taking of New Yorke by Evertson is 
confirmed, and that he doetli there winter witli his ships and forces, and soe it might consequently 
be judged that he will there make use of his time, and get what other plantations he can Lying 
neare to that place from His Majesty, to preuent which mischeife and to secure Virginia and the 
Plantations neare thereunto, and for to recover New Yorke, and preserue the merchant ships 
nowe bound to Virginia from Evertson's ships, I humbly conceaue there is a necessity to 
dispatch and send away with all speed, Tenne of His Majesties ships that are nowe ready for 
the winter guard, and about fine hundred land souldiers with as nuich priuacy and secrecy as 
may be that the Dutch may not knowe thereof. 

2'y That some store of Armes and Ammunition be alsoe forthwith sent by the said ships to 
arme his Majesties subiects that liue neare to New Yorke to asist his Majesties ships in the 
recouery of it, and to beate out the Dutch before thej' strengthen themselues with new suplies 
and fortifications. 

3'y That a full and sufficient power may be giuen to such persons as His Ma'>' shall thinke 
fitt to raise such forces in New England and Virginia as shall be needful and alsoe to take up 
soe many merchants ships as are fitt for warr, that shall be at Virginia this yeare to joyne 
with his Maiesties ships, or otherwise to defend the ports and ships trading this yeare in 
Virginia from the Enimy and to giue such persons full power to comissionate Captains and 
Impress seamen for that seruice as need shall require for that the want of such a power the last 
yeare was the cheife cause that the last shpis were burnt and taken at Virginia by the Dutch. 

4'>' That some forts may be forth\vith ordered to be made neare the sea coasts and harbours 
of Virginia under which the merchants ships may defend themselues from the Enimy, and the 
planters may thereby be secured from reuolting to the Dutch, as it is much to be feared they 
will, if some better gouernment there then formerly be not kept over them. 

And to make it out that there is a necessity that somewhat of this nature must be speedily 
done, I humbly present your Lordship with these Reasons, first that because New- Yorke doth 
border upon and Lye betweene Virginia and New England, and there are not any forts in 
Virginia nor ammunition for the planters to defend themselues and preuent the Inuasion of the 
Enimy, and they did not there this last yeare when the Dutch was on the Coasts make any 
Resistance, but did suftijr the Enimy to land and come on shoare, and some of the Enimies 
men of warre, did there lye a shoare three or fower dayes togeather, and it is said that the 
planters there doe generally desire a trade with the D^ch & all other nations & would not be 
singly bound to the trade of England, and speake openly there that they are in the nature of slaues 
soe that the hearts of the greatest part of them are taken away from his Majesty *& consequently 
his Majesties best, greatest and richest plantation is in danger with the planters consents to fall 
into the Enimies hands, if not timely preuented. 

2'y this plantation of Virginia doth pay his Majesty ISOOOO'' per annum euen or thereabout by 
the customes of tobacco Lnported from thence into his Kingdome, and probably in fewe yeares 
it would haue improued to 250000" per annum soe that Virginia is of as great importance to 
Vol. in. 27 


liis Maiesty, as the Spanish Indias are to Spaine, and doetli Tmploy more ships & breede more 
seamen for iiis Maiesties seruice than any other trade of Enghmd doeth. 

3'y this plantation cannot subsist except an yearely releife by way of trade be sent oner of 
JNIaterialls to cloath and preserue the Planters and to carry away the growth produce of die 
country for the doeing whereof about 24 saile of good ships are now goeing from Bristoll and 
great numbers from London and other places with goods to suply and releaue them of the 
growth and manufacture of this nation which ships if they come holme in safety may bring to 
his Maiesty 140000" and the enimy being nowe on that coast to intercept them I doe not see 
howe they can escape and soe consequently by such a surprize the planters will be in Extreame 
want, and by it be brought without fighting to deliuer their country to the Enimy and I 
cannot find upon the best relation that they can make up aboue 13000 men in Virginia; & these 
lye scattered abroade in plantations far distant one from another & not easily brought togeather 

4ti.iy 'pi^g Dutch at New Yorke will be bad neighbours to New England and destroy their 
trade but these can make an army of 50,000 men & haue their frequent musters in New 
England, and though they be fractious, yet if they be made sensible, they may easily bring an 
army and fall upon New Yorke by Land, and beate the Dutch from hence whiles his maiesties 
ships doe fall upon Evertson by sea, and thereby the plantations may be preserued & New 
Yorke be recouered from the Enimy. 

Stilly jf 'pgj^ shipps be forthwith dispatched away the}^ may there not onely meete with and 
destroy Evertson, but may preserue the rest of the plantations, and retunie back with the 
Virginia fleet by the 20"' of April!, and bring holme in them 140000" that will be due for 
Customes, and the seamen to help mann the Naujr for the next yeare and the ships may alsoe 
be made ready to serue in the nauy, all which I humbly submitt to your Lordships consideration, 
and doe beseech your Lordship for the good of his Majesty & his kingdome to be a meanes that 
some ships may be speedily sent away with Armes Ammunition and Materialls for warre, to haue 
the plantations which is in great danger to be lost, and the very customes that will be due to his 
Majesty at the Returne of the merchants Ships will pay the charge of his undertaking with an 
ouerplus which ships will alsoe be in danger to be lost, and soe begging yo"' Lordships pardon, 
I remayne, Right honno''''' 

Yo' Lordships most humble seruant, 

John Knight. 

Westminster ) 

the SQ"" S*-" 1673 j 

To the Right honno"^ Anthony 
Earle of Shatftsbury Lord 
Chanceller of England, these. 


Reioort of the Coiincil of Trade^ c&c, respecting the Recapture of Netv-Yorl\ 

[ Board Journals, CXXII. 65. ] 

To THE Kixg's Most Excellent Majesty 

The Opinion & humble Advice of yo'' Ma''*' Councell fox Trade and Forreigne 

May it jttetisc yo'' Ma"-' 

The Earle of Shaftesbury President of this your Ma"" Councell iiaving some time since 
acquainted us with y' loss of New Yorke, w"" an intimacon how well it would become our 
duties to inform ourselves more particulerly of y* state and strength of that place, and what 
might be fitt for us humbly to offer to yo' Ma'^ for y* reducing und"" yo"' Ma"''' Obedience a 
Plautacon of so high concernm' to y^ rest of j'o'' Dominions in America ; The Earle of Arlington 
(one of yo'' Ma"" Principall Secretaries of State) having also comunicated to us severall letters 
concerning y* taking of New York by the Dutch, in y* later end of July last, & incouraged us, 
to enquire farther into y" Posture of yo"' Ma"" affaires in those parts relating thereunto, Wee upon 
y* best informacon wee can gett, & upon consideration of y*' whole matter, crave leave humbly 
to represent unto yo'' Ma'^ 

1" That New York being a very good & y* only fortified Harbo'' in all y* Northern Plantacons 
of America, & bordering upon Virginia & Mary : Land will not only bee a safe retreate for the 
Dutch in those parts, but give them an oppurtunity to have w"" great ease, Men of Warr, & 
Capers cruising constantly before y' Capes of Virginia, & intercept all English Vessells trading 
thither. By w'^'' meanes yo'' Ma"" Customes (w'^'' now by y* trade of those places amount yearly 
to six or seaven score thousand pounds) will not be only lost. But the plantations themselves 
being hindred from venting their Tobacco, & receivhig supplies of cloathing, tooles and servants 
wilbe in great danger utterly to be rained. To w'^'' y'= oppurtunity y" Dutch will have of giving 
them constant alarmes, & making frequent inroads upon them, will not a little contribute, The 
Inhabitants there by their scatter'd way of living and want of fortresses in a Country that hath 
so many great and open rivers, being rendred utterly incapable of making resistance, against 
sudden iucurcons, where they will be lyable to be harrassed out, or made a prey to y° 
neighbouring Enemy. 

a'y Though New England bordering on y' other hand of New York by their number of 
people & planting in townes & situacon of y* country, be more capable of making resistance, & 
therefore not so likely to be ruined by y^ Dutch, yett there is noe less danger to yo'' Ma"" 
affaires on that side, if y^ Dutch shall continue to be their Neighbours, Since y^ Inhabitants of 
New England, being more intent, upon y^ advancem' of their owne private trade, then y' 
publique Interest of yo'' JNIa"" crowne and Governm' may if y* Dutch continue a quiett possession 
there, enter into comerce w"" them, whereby it is to be feared, they will at pi-esent divert a 
great part of y*" Trade of England into those Countries, & lay a foundation for such an Union 
hereaff between them & Holland as will be very prejudiciall to all yo'' Ma"" Plantations, if not 
terrible to England ittselfe. 

3'y It is very probable that y" English Inhabitants w"^"" possess y' Eastern part of Long Island, 
& are farr y* greater number have not yett submitted to y' Dutch, nor will y' Enemy be in a 



condicon to reduce them, till they have reeeived new vecraites from Europe, And therefore, if 
force be speedily sent from hence, before they have yeilded themselves, they will bee ready, 
& in a good posture to assist in y" retaking New York. 

-t'-' That Barbados & y" rest of yo' M''" Plantations in y" Carribee Islands depending upon 
these Northern Plantacons for y^ greatest part of their provisions, whereof uoe small quantities 
came from New York itselfe, nmst, if y"^ Dutch keep Masters of those seas either be reduced to 
extremity; or else all that Trade come into New Englandmeu's hands by y^ connivance & 
confederacy of y' Dutch, which would be of as ill consequence. 

Wherefore wee yo"' Ma"" Coimcell for Trade & Forraign Plantations are humbly of an 
opinion. That y"^ speedy reducing of New York is of great importance to yo"" Ma"" Aflaires, To 
w"^*" purpose One S* rate. One 4>'' rate, two 5"' rates, w"" 3 hired Merchant shipps each whereof 
should carry upwards of 40 Gunns, -3 fireshipps, & COO Foote Souldiers are absolutely necessary. 

That the 3 hired Merchant shipps should have their complem' made up in good part of Land 
men, that so as few Seamen as possible may be taken from yo'' Ma"" service in other places. 

That y' 600 foote should be distributed into such Merchant Shipps as are going to Virginia, 
to some of w'=^ itt may bee convenient that yo'' Ma'^ should lend some great gunns, by w"^ meanes 
y'' Fleet will not be onely streugthene'd, but yo' Ma"" Forces more comodiously transported, 
& y"" ^lerchante ships y*" better secured. 

That in order hereunto an Imbargo be presently laid upon all ships prepareing for Virginia, 
Mary Land, & y'= rest of y' Northern Plantations, That none be suffered to goe before this 
convoy, and none then but strong and serviceable vessells, & that all such Merchant shipps as 
goe w"" this convoy be oblidged to follow your Ma"" shipps & to receive orders from them, as 
if they were actually in yo'' Ma"" pay till this service bee over. And that y'' Comanders & Officers 
of yo'' jNLa"" shipps and P'orces traine and exercise by y" way (such servants and passengers as 
are going to Virginia in y" INIerchant shipps w'''' usually are a considerable number and may by 
this meanes prove a good addition of strength to yo'' Ma"" forces. 

That y^ men of Warr carry w"' them such Stores of powder & other anu'uiicon & provisions 
as out of them y'= Forts in New York & Albany when taken may be supply'd w"" all necessaries 
for their defente. 

That for the better concealing of this design (y" secresy whereof wee humbly conceive to bee 
of great moment to y" success) noe more of y" shipps sent by yo'' Ma'^ upon this Expedicon saile 
w'h y"' Virginia P'leete out of y" Thames then would serve for an ordinary convoy, but that the 
rest of y'' men of Warr, and y" 600 foote Souldiers be in a readiness at Plymouth or some other 
convenient Port hi y" West to joyue w"" y'= Virginia Fleete, where y^ Comander in cheife is to 
open his Comission and Listruccons for this service & not before. 

That all preparations for this Expedition be forth w"' taken in hand, that y" Fleete may be 
going so sooae as possible, that they saile directly to New York, and when they come w"'in a 
convenient distance of that coast, they dispatch one of their smallest vessells to Road Island, & 
another to y" Eastern part of Long Island w"" such orders as yo'' Ma'^ shall think fit to send for 
y'' raising of Forces in New England & Long Island to assist in this designe. 

That yo'' Ma'>' would be pleased to send order. That if it shall please God to bless yo'' Ma"" 
Amies with success, (w'^'' from such a force wee have no reason but to expect,) and that New- 
York be reduced under yo'' Ma"" Obedience, y'' Dutch w"^"" shall remain in that Colony be 
removed farther up into y"^ Country from y" Sea side, at least as farr as Albany, their inhabiting 


y^ towne of iVew-Yorke being a great cause of y^ loss of both Towne & Castle now, and as long 
as they shall staj- there, there will be y^ like danger upon any occasion for y'' future. 
All w'^'' wee in all humility submitt 

to yo'' Ma"" great Wisdoms. 
Arlington Shaftesbury Presid' 

Rich Gorges T Culpeper vice presid' 
G. Carterett William Hickman 

Ed : Waller H. Slingesby 
Delivered by y"" Secretary 
to y'' R' bono''''' y^ Earle of 

Arlington y' lo"" Novemb"' ^ ; \ , 

11573. ' . ■ ■ ■ 

William Hai/es' Affidavit about tlie taking of New-Yorh 

[ New-Tork Papers, I. 114. ] 

Affidavit of ^V W" Hayes concerning y'= taking of New York. 

This 2^ of December 167-3 W"° Hayes of Loudon Merchant personally appeared before me, 
& being by me examined, did declare that he the said Hayes being a prisoner in Virginia, on 
board the Dutch Admirall Euertson of Zeeland in Company w"" Binkhurst Admirall of 
Amsterdam in company w"" fine other frigotts & a fire ship, who had taken eight Virginia 
Merchant ships, & sunke fine after a hott dispute, cSc the saide Duttch fleete w"" their prizes 
being goeing out of James River mett w"" a Sloope then come from New Yorke which sloope 
they tooke & Examined the Master in vvhat condicon the said New Yorke was as to Itt's defence, 
& promised the said Master by name Samuell Dauis to giue him his sloope againe & all that 
they had taken from him iff he would tell them the true state of that place, who told them in 
y« heareing of this Examinant that New Yorke was in a very good condicon, & in all respects 
able to defend itselfe hauing receiued a good supply of amies & ammunicon from his Royall 
Highness the Duke of Yorke w"" aduice of their designe on that place w'*" made them resolue 
to steere another course, & not goe to New Yorke, when one Samuell Hopkins a passenger in 
y^ said sloope, & Inhabitant at Arthur Call in New England, ^ & a professor there did voluntarily 
declare to y^ Dutch that what the said Dauis had infonued was alltogether false, that New Yorke 
was in no condicion to defend itselfe ag' the Dutch, that they had few canons moimted and those 
that were upon such rotten cariages that one discharge would shake them to peeces & dismount 
the Canon ; that there were but few men in armes in the fibrt, that any considerable number 
could not be easily drawne together, that the Govemo"' was absent, being gone to Canedicott to 
visitt Governo"' Winthorpe all w"='' encouraged the Dutch to visitt that place, w"''" was presently 
taken by them : Where the said Hopkins yet continues, & had encouraged the Dutch to 
proceede to the takeing of Arthur Cull haueing discovered to them allso the weakenes of that 

' Ac-liter Col in New-Jersey. Hopkins was a resident of EUzabethtown, and was appointed Clerk of the Court at that 
place by Colve. Nevi-York Colonin! Manuscripts, XNTTT., 48 ; Albany Records, XXIII., 305. — Ed. 


place : And this Examinant saith that the said Hopkins had formerly made liis aboade u 
Cap' James Cartrett, & farther saith not. 

This Exaniinacon was taken the daj' and 
3'eare abonesaid. pme. 

Edwyn Stede. 

Warrant of the Buhe of Yorl' to Sir Alien. Apsley. 

[ New-York Entries, CLI. 1. ] 

James Duke of York and Albany Earle of Ulster &'' 

Whereas I have thought fit to direct y^ laying out of severall sums of money in all to the 
value of iCl-SOO sterling for the carrying on of my service at New York in America in manner 
foil : viz' To buy Cloaths for one hund"* sold" and officers according to the directions of Major 
Andros, which afterwards he is to take care to discount to Me out of the said sold" and officers 
pay ; To give the sum of =£40 as Bounty money from me to y'' Sold" y' came from New York 
and have layen expecting an opportunity to retorne thither till now ; To buy a Chyrurgions 
chest and other necessaries and for incident charges in raising and shipping the sold" & such like ; 
y" remainder of the said .£1300 to be laid out in buying a fitting cargo of goods such as may 
best turne to ace' in New York by tradeing there, which is to be laden on board the ship Castle 
Frig' now fitting for that voyage, and consigned to the care of Major Andros and M"' Dyre for 
my owne use and benefit to be employed as shall seeme best to them. And all the said goods 
as well for the sold" cloaths &'^ as for the cargo are to be brought here by the assistance and 
with the advice of Rich'' Downes Esq"' who hath formerly been employed by Me in the like 
nature. Now these are to will and require you to pay the said severall sums above mentioned 
be they more or less, not exceeding y" sume of £1300 in the whole unto the said Major Andros 
or Rich'' Downes, Esq"" respectively, according as they shall require the same to be by them 
employed for my use as aforesaid and no otherwise ; for which this with their Rec" shalbe your 
sufficient discharge. Given und'' my hand at Windsor this fi"" day of June 1G74 

To S'' Allen Apsley Kn' my ] 

Trer and Rec"" Generall I 


Commission of Major Edmund Andro-ss to he Governor of New York 

I New-York Papers, I. 171. ] 

James Duke of Yorke aud Albany, Earle of Ulster, iSc*^ Whereas it hatli pleased y' King's 
most Excellent Ma'^ my Soveraigne Lord and brother by his Lett" Patents to give and grant 
unto Mee and my heyres and assignes all that part of y^ Maine Laud of New England begining 
at a certaine place called or knovvne by y^ name of S' Croix next adjoyneing to New Scotland 
in America and from tlience extending along y^ sea Coast unto a certaine place called Pemaquin 
or Pemaquid and soe up the River thereof to y"" furthest head of the same, as it tendeth 
Northwards and extending from thence to the River Kinebequi and soe iipwards by y' shortest 
course to y'^ River Canada northwards. And also all that Island or Islands comonly called or 
knowne by y'= severall names of Matowacks or Long Island scituate lying and being towards y" 
West of Cape Codd and y' Narrow Higansetts abutting upon y" maine land betweene y^ two 
rivers there called or knowne by y* severall names of Conecticut and Hudsons River together 
also w"" y^ said river called Hudsons River and all y'' land from y^ West side of Conecticut 
river to y' East side of Delaware Bay, and also all those severall Islands called or knowne by 
y name of Martine Vynyards and Nantukes otherwise Nantukett, together with all the Lands 
islands soiles rivers harbours mines mineralls quarryes woods marshes waters lakes fishings 
hawking hunting and fowling aud all royaltyes and proffitts comodityes and hereditaments to y* 
said severall islands lands and premisses, belonging and apperteyneing with their and every of 
their appurtenancies : To hold y* same to my owne proper use and behoofe w"" power to 
correct punish pardon govern and rule y^ inhabitants thereof by my selfe or such deputyes 
Comiss" or officers as I shall think fitt to appoint, as by his Ma"" said Letters Pattents may 
more fully appeare. And whereas I have conceived a good opinion of the integrity prudence 
ability and fittnesse of Major Edmund Andros to be employed as my Lieutenant there, I have 
therefore thought fitt to constitute and appoint him y« said Major Edmund Andros to bee my 
Lieut' and Governour within y' lands islands and places aforesaid to performe and execute all 
and every y'' powers w^*" are by y^ said letters Patents graunted unto Mee to be executed by 
Me my Deputy Agent or Assignes To have and to hold y= said place of Lieutennant and 
Governour unto him y* said Edmund Andros Esq' but dureing my will and pleasure only, 
Hereby willing and requireing all and every y^ inhabitants of y^ said lands islands and places 
to give obedience unto him y' said Edmund Andros Esq"" in all things according to y^ tenure of 
His Ma'= Letters Patents. And y^ said Edmund Andros Esq"' to observe follow and execute 
such orders and directions as he shall from time to time receive from myselfe. Given under 
my hand and scale at Windsor this first of July 1674. 

By command of His 

Roy" Highness 

Jo : Werden. 



I)hiti'itvtioi)s for Governor Andros.s: 

[ Xi-w-Ynrk Enlries, (LI. 4. ] 

Instruc'C'ons for EdnV' Aiulros Esq'' m_y L' Govern'' of Long Island, New York and 
my adjac' territories in America. 

1. You shall together with these Instructions receive a copie of His INIa'" Patent for granting 
unto Mee Long Island and some part of y" Continent adjacent by w* you will see how far y^ 
territory doth extend w''*' is comitted to j'our chardge ; besides such other accessions as have 
been gained by armes w"""" are not agreed by Treaty to be surrendered. 

2. When you shalbe arrived at New Yorke you shall take possession thereof in my name from 
those Dutch who have lately seated themselves there and are oblidged by y<' Article of His 
Ma'^ last Treaty of Peace w*"" y^ States Generall of y" United Provinces to surrender it in y*' same 
condicou that it was at y« time of y^ publication of y^ said Treaty. 

3. Being possessed of New York (and in vertue thereof, of y"" territoryes thereunto belonging) 
you shall by all possible meanes satisfy y'' inhabitants, as well Natives as Straungers as English 
that your intention is not to disturbe them in their possessions, but on y'= contrary that yo' 
comeing is for their proteccon and benefitt, for y'' encouragement of Planters and Plantations 
and y*' improvement of trade and comerce, and for y<" preservacon of religion justice and equity 
amongst you. 

4. And .y' better to perswade y* Inhabitants of y*" sincerity of yo'' intencons herein, j'ou are 
in y* first place to take care y' a strict discipline be kept among y" Sold''" and Officers und'" yo"" 
Comand, severely punishing any disorderly or debauced proceedings among them, thereby to 
avoyd all cause of Complaints from y'' Inhabitants and at y'' same time to invite y'" by yo'' 
example to live soberly and discreetly in theire severall vocacons. 

-5. You are not to molest or vex any person of y'' Inhabitants there, upon pretence of their 
haveing lately dealt treacherously in assisting Eveson or his party in takeing y^ Fort or in 
giveing him intelligence of y= condicon thereof, thereby to invite him to the attempt (except such 
person haveing offended shall prove to be an Englishman, in w'^'' case onely you are to proceed 
against him to y'= forfeiture of his estate, or as y'' law shall determine) But if you shall find any 
of y" Dutch (or other forreigners) inhabitants have been active in y" matter, you shall take care 
to observe them more circumspectly hereafter, and if they be posted in any place of strength 
where the continuance of persons of doubtfull affections may be dangerous, you shall by all 
lawfuU means induce them to remove to other places as beneficiall to them but less hazardous 
to y" publick safety. 

6. You are to dispose of y sold'^' und' 3'o'' comand according as you judge fittest for y^ security 
of yo'' govemmS takeing speciall care of y'' Forts of New York and New Albany as being places 
upon w"""" (in a manner) wholely depend y" safety and trade of y' whole country. 

7. You shall give all manner of encouragement to planters of all Nations, but especially to 
Englishmen, to come and settle und'' Yo'' governm', and you shall assigne them lands, either of 
the unplanted or of such planted lands as shalbe confiscated from time to time, by the crimes 
and convictions of the former possessors, or shall escheate to Me ; makeing this difference, that 
such as shalbe settled in lands formerly planted, be obliged to certaine services (gratis) for y" ease 
of y"" governm', beyond what y*' others are oblidged to, and if you can reserve out of y'= confiscated 


lands and others, sufficient for y*" maintenance of y" governem', you shall doe good service in 
applying the rents of them to that use. 

S. Your next care must be to settle y'' Publique Paym'' and impositions, and the course of 
justice for determining all diflerences amongst the Inhabitants and others nnd' yo"' jurisdiction. 
For y"' Publique Payments in reguard upon y^ best enquiry that can be made here into y' state 
of trade in those countryes and y^ causes y' may have been most efficient in y'= delay of those 
improvem"' w'''' it hath been long hoped might be made therein ; it seemes necessary to make 
some abatem'^ in y" customes, aswell to encourage those who are already settled there, as to 
invite others (especially His Ma'* subjects) to trafficke and inhabitt w"" you ; therefore it will be 
convenient that you have these Rules following : — 

Ita/cs established for if Customes at New York. 

Forraigue Goods imported to New York are to pay as foUoweth, viz' 

cSstomefatN^'w'^York ^- ^11 Goods (except such as are here particularly rated) shipped in Engl"* or 
in any of the English Plantations when imported into New York, are to pay 
Two p'' Cent ad valorem ; but if it shall appeare that any ship came from any other country to 
England w"" a cargo of goods and paying her Customes there, proceed thence for New Y'ork w"" 
y' said cargo, y™ the goods of such cargo to pay Ten p'' cent ad valorem. 

All those goods goeing up Hudson's River to pay Three p'' Cent ad valorem over and above 
y"" Two p'' cent at importacon to New York. 
™hKne"bk.tte(fout 2. Salt (except it be for y'' fishery) at importacon to New York to pay Three 
OTd"r ^ to'th^'lISf !di V Cent ad valorem anfl nothing more at goeing up y'' River 
^on^t°°other goods 3. Wiucs from any Port to pay Ten shillings p'' Butt or Pipe, 
ad vsi;— " ' ' Brandy and other Spiritts to pay fifteene shillings p"' Hogshead. 
Rum to pay six shillings p"" Hogshead. 
All those liquors goeing up Hudson's River to pay y' same rates againe at goeing up y= 
River as they paid at comeing into New York. 

Goods of the Country comeing into New York are to pay as followeth viz' 

1. Beaver p"" merchandable skin to pay one shilling three pence p"' skin. All other furrs skins 
and Peltry to pay propornationably to Beaver. 

2. Tobacco of y^ growth of y"^ place if it goes for England to pay two shill. p"" Hogshead ; 
but Tobacco of y' place, if it doe not give bond to come for Eng* according to y^ Stat, of 25 
Rs. Car. 2. is to pay in Tobacco, one peny p'' weight. 

3. All goods, both of y^ country and forreigne goods to be und"' y'' same regulacon and paym" 
in Delaware River as in Hudson's River. 

Lastly. These Rates to hold good for three yeares to comence from y'' arrivall and publication 
of y" at New York. 

Provided, neverthelesse, y« all utensills such as spades, axes, plowshares, shovells, and such 
Uke as shalbe necessary and imployed about y' improvem' of Plantacons shalbe exempt from y^ 
paying of three p"' Cent ad valorem at their going up the River. 

In what relates to other payments of Publique nature, such as are excise, beuefitts from a 
pubhque Weigh-house, merketts, portduties, pilotage, fines, ameraciam" &"= or soe many of 
Vol. III. 28 


them, or such hke as upon enquiry you slmll find liave been used and gathered by Coll. Nicholls 
and Coll. Lovelace, you are by some temporary ord' to continue for six or twelve mouths, 
which you may afterwards renue for 6 or 12 months more (if in y'' interim you shall not 
have received ord" from me therein, declareing y' yo'' intention is to send to me ; but in y* mean 
time it is of necessity y' they continue their paym*' and by y' means it is probable they will more 
cheerfully submitt to any part w'^'' shall seeme greivous to y™ whereby you will have y"' more 
time to settle all things. 

As to y" course of Justice you are to take care y' it be administered w"" all possible equallity 
w"'out regard to Dutch or English in their private concernes, it being my desire as much as 
may be, that such as live under your governm' may have as much satisfaction in their condicon 
as is possible, and y' w*out y"" least appearance of partiallity, they may see their just rights 
preserved to y™ inviolably. 

And as to y'' formes of Justice, I tliinke it best for you to put in execution such lawes rules 
and ord" as vou find have been established by Coll. Nicholls and Coll. Lovelace, and not to 
vary from them but u[)on emergent necessities, and y'' advice of yo'' Councell and the gravest 
& experienced persons there ; and if any such alteracon be made, that it be only temporary for 
a yeare, and if it be not confirmed by me within that time, then to be utterly voyd at y^ end of 
that yeare and of noe force at all, as if such alteracon or new law never had been p''mitted. I 
therefore recomend to you to continue y'' Courts of Justice, as they have been established and 
used hitherto. And as to y"" choice of INIagistrates and Officers of Justice, I must referr y' to 
yo'' prudence, w"'' when you shalbe upon y'' place, will best direct you to those persons w"''' 
have most reputacon both for their abilities and integrity, and for those reasons most acceptable 
to y Inhabitants. But you are not to make any ofhcer for above one yeare or otherwise y" 
during pleasure. 

9. You shall not lett to tarme any part of y"" publique impositions or revenue for above one 
yeare, if it shalbe found fitt to farme it ; of w'='' as yett can be made noe judgment. 

10. For your better prosecuteing these Instruccons and better advanceing y'^ good of y'' place 
& territory w'''' I have comitted to yo'' trust and care, you shall choose to yo'' selfe of y*^ most 
prudent persons inhabiting w"'iu yo' governm' a Councell consisting of such a number as you 
siiall find convenient, not exceeding the number of Ten, w"' whom you shall consult upon all 
extraordinary occasions relateing to my service and y'' good of y"" country ; who shall hold their 
respective places dureing my pleasure, (unless they shall forfeit y'' same by some crime 
rendering them unworthy thereof) w"^ Councello"'" as allsoe y' Magistrates and all persons in 
places of benefitt, before they enter upon y"" execucon of their offices, shall take y*^ Oath of 
Allegiance to His Majesty and of that fidelity to my selfe, as alsoe y' peculiar to his office. 

11. You shall permitt all persons of what Religion soever, quietly to inhabitt w"'in y« 
precincts of yo'' jurisdiccon, w"'out giveing y"' any disturbance or disquiet whatsoever, for or by 
reason of their differring opinions in matter of Religion : Provided they give noe disturbance 
to y*' publique peace, nor doe molest or disquiet others in y'' free exercize of their religion. 

12. In assigneing lands to new Planters you shall as nere as you can observe the rules and 
propositions given to planters by those of New England and Maryland, that soe at y'' least 
Planters may have equall encouragem' to plant w'Hn yo'' precincts as in any other neighboring 
colony ; in w'"^ you are to reserve some rent to Me, y" proporcon whereof must be left to 
yo'' discretion upon the place and discourse with y'' Planters. And you shall take what care you 
can to settle a good correspondence w"" y" neighboring English Plantacons as well those of New 
England as those of Maryland. 


13. You are to seud me by the first opportunity a Map w"' y" exact description of y^ whole 
territory und'^ yo"' governm' w"" y' severall Plantacons upon it, and also y*" Fortifications where 
any be. And you are likewise to send Me a list of all y' officers employed under you in y^ 
governm' together with all publique chardges and y' present revenues, w"' y* probability of y= 
increase or diminucon thereof und'' every head or article of yo'' list. 

14. You are to take y*^ best advice you can, and to transmitt an Account to Me of y" most 
easy and speediest meanes to lessen y" chardge of y" governm' w'^out weakening it or hazarding 
it ; that soe by degrees I may reape from thence some advantages, in returue for y' great 
expence and trouble I have been at in protecting that Colony. 

15. When opportunities shall offer themselfes (as I am informed they frequently doe) for 
purchaseing great tracts of land for Me from y'= Indians, for small sumes ; you being upon y^ 
place can best judge of y* convenience or prejudice may arise to Me, either in embraceing or 
declineing those opportunities : and therefore I referr y= particular wholely to yo'' discretion w"" 
y advice of yo'' Councell. 

16. In case of your death (w"'' God forbidd) my will and pleasure is, that Leiu' Anthony 
Brockholes shall succeed you in y*" governm' of New Yorke Long Island and y'' rest of y* lands 
und'' yo'' trust and care, and y' he put in execucon these iustruccons in y"" same manner as yo' 
selfe might or ought to doe. 

17. Lastly ; notwithstanding any clause or article in y^ body of y'= laws of New Yorke, to y= 
contrary. All Warr'S writs, executions, &'= shalbe continued to run in y'' Kings name, as bath 
been practized by Coll. Nicholls and Coll. liovelace. 

Given under my hand and Scale at Windsor y' 1" day of July 1674. 

Commission of Major Andros to he Captain of a Conqxnuj of Foot. 

[ New-York Entries, CLI. 3. ] 

To Major Edm"* Andros. 

Whereas the King my soveraigne Loi'd & Brother batli been pleased to permitt the raising of 
a Company of Foot to be transported unto New Yorke in America w'^'' His Rla'y hath been 
pleased to grant unto Mee by Letters Patents. And whereas out of y' good opinion I conceive 
of you I have thought fitt to constitute and appoint you to be Captaine of y" said Company of 
Foot Soldiers consisting of one hundred men besides Officers These are therefore to will and 
require you to take into your charge and comand the said Company as Captaine accordingly 
and duely to exercise the said Officers and soldiers thereof in armes and to [use] your best care 
and endeavours to keepe y"" in good ord" and discipline. Hereby willing and commanding them 
to obey you in all things as their Captaine. And you likewise to observe and follow such ord' 
and directions as you shall from time to time receive from my selfe. And for soe doing this 
yo' Warr' Given und"" my band and Seale at Windsor y' first of July 1674. 



EstaUishment of Pinj for the Military at New- Yorl\ 

[ New- York Entries, CLI. 10. ] 

An Estal)li.slmi' of Pay for y^ Officers and Sold" of my Colony of New York in 
America, to conience from y'' time y* Sold" come on board, and to be paid at 
New York, and estimated after y« Rate of Beaver tliere. 

Two LeiYts. at -U eacli 

An Ensiirno 

Three Serjts. at l.s 6</ eaeli. . 
Four CorporaEs at Is each. . 

Two Dnimes at \s eaoh 

One C. Private Soldrs. at %d 

A Master Gunner 

4 Matrosses at Is 

A Chirurgeon 

A Clmiaaine 

A«"re Keeper 

Given und'' my hand at Windsor this first day of July 1674. 

Commission of Anthony BroclJioIes to he first Lieutenant of JIaJor Andros' 
Company of Foot. 

[ Ncw-Tork Entries, CLI. 3. ] 

To L' Antli : Brockholes 1"' L' to jNIajor Andros Esq'' C of a Company of 
Foot Sold" raised for y* defence of New York in America. 

Whereas I have thought fitt out of y"" good opinion I have conceived of yon to appoint j'ou 
to be first Leiuten' of y" Company abovementioned These are therefore to will and require you 
forthw"' to take upon you y* Comand of first Leiuten' of y' said Company accordingly and duely to 
exercise y" officers and sold" of y'' same in Amies according to y'^ direccons of yo'' Captains, and 
to use yo"' best care and endeavour to keepe them in good ord"' and discipline. Hereby 
commanding them to obey you as their first Leiueten' And you likewise to obey and follow 
sucli ord" and direccons as you shall from time to time receive from myselfe or yo'' said Captaine 
according to y^ discipline of war and y'' trust reposed in you. For w'^'' this shalbe yo'' Warr' 
Given uud"" my hand and scale at Windsor y'' 2'' day of July 1674. 


Commission of Christopher BiJlop to he Lieutenant of 3Iajor Andros'' Company. 

[New-York Entries, CLI. 3. ] 

To Christopher Fillopp L' to Edm<* Andros Esq' &= 

Whereas I have thought fitt out of the good opinion I have conceived of you to appoint 
you to be Leiu' of y'= Company abovementioned. These are to will authorize and require you 
forthw*'' to take upon you y"" Comand of Lieu' of y' said Company accordingly and duely to 
exercise y^ officers and sold''" of y" same in Armes according to y^ direccons of your Cap' and to 
use yo' best care and endeavour to keepe them in good ord'' and discipline. Hereby comanding 
them to obey you as their Lieu' and you likewise to obey & follow such ord''' and direccons 
as you shall from time to time receive from niyselfe or yo"' said Cap' according to y'^ discipline of 
War and y" trust reposed in you. For w'^'' this shalbe yo"' Warr' Given uud'' my hand and 
seale at Windsor the 2^ of July 1674. 

Commission of Ctesar iLnapton to he Ensign in Major Andros-' Company. 

[ Sew^York Entries, CLI. 4. ] 

Whereas I have thought fitt out of y^ good opinion I have conceived of you to appoint you 
to be Ensigne of y' Company whereof Major Andros is Cap". These are to will authorize and 
require you forthw"^ to take upon you y^ Comand of Ensigne accordingly, and duely to exercise 
y^ officers and sold" of y* same in armes according to y^ direccons of yo"' Cap' or other superior 
Officers and to use your best care and endeavour to keepe them in good ord"' and discipline : 
Hereby comanding them to obey you as their Ensigne, and you likewise to obey and follow 
such ord"' and direccons as you shall from time to time receive from myselfe, your said Cap' or 
any other yo'' superior officers according to y" discipline of Warr and y^ trust reposed in you. 
For w""" this shalbe yoiu- Warr' Given under my hand and seale at Windsor 2*- July 1674. 

Commission of William Dyer to he Collector at Kew-YorTc. 

[ New-York Entries, CLI. 4. ] 

To W"" Dyre, gent: hereby appointed my Cheif Custom"' or Collecf of my 
Customes at my Collony of New York and my other Territories in America. 

Whereas the King my Soveraigne Lord and Brother hath been pleased by His Ma'" Letters 
Patents und'' y= Great Seale of England to give and graunt unto me and to my heires and assignes 
All that Island or Islands comonly called by y' name of Matowacks or Long Island together 
w"" New York and severall other territoryes thereunto adjacent and elsewhere in America as 


iu and by y^ said Letters Patents may more at large appeare And whereas I have thought fitt 
to establish several! rates for y" Custoraes of such goods merchandizes and comodityes aswell 
forreigne goods imported to, as goods of y'' country comeing to New Yorke, I have thought fitt 
out of y" good opinion I conceive of your integrity ability and fittness for that service to appoint 
and constitute you, and I doe hereby appoint constitute authorize and impower you y^ said 
Will™ Dj're Gentleman to be my Customer or Collecf of my Customes to levy collect and 
receive all and all manner of duties dues and revenues as shall accrew and arise from my 
Customes of Long Island New Yorke and my other territories abovementioned according to y^ 
iustruccons as you shall herew"" i-eceive To hold y"" said place dureing my pleasure only, w"" 
such fees perquisites and emoluments as are thereunto properly belonging and appertaineinge 
and have been heretofore usually allowed. For w"^ this shalbe your \Varr' Given under my 
hand at Windsor y-^ 2-^ of July (74) 

In^fnirflons for Mi: D>j,i\ tie Cullccfor at X,w-Yorl: 

t Xi'W-Tork Elitrks, Cl.I. 11. ] 

Instructions for Will'" Dyre gent, appointed Cheife Custom"' or Collecf of my 
Customes at my Colony of New York and my other Territories in America. 

1" You shall from time to time soe long as you shall continue and be employed by Me in y« 
said Office, well and truely collect, and receive all Rates Dues and Duties ariseing and payable 
unto me for my Customes at New York fc"^ and to y' end you are to make entries of all goods 
imported and exported and to keep exact accounts of all moneys by you received or goods in lieu 
thereof, and make distinct and perfect entries into a Booke to be provided and kept, of the 
Customes you shall receive of all goods and merchandizes as well forreigne goods imported to 
Newlork as goods of the Country comeing thither, together w"" y'' names of y" respective 
persons from whom you receave y' same w"* y= ships names and masters names. 

2. You shall not give creditt or trust to any merchant or other person in y'^ forbearance of 
ready money or goods in lieu thereof, in paym' of their Customes, but shall receave all customes, 
upon passing entries, unless in such cases where you receive positive direccous from my Leiu' 
Governour in y' l)ehalfe, and you are to take especiall care that all y'' s'> Customes both in & 
out be received in money or goods ad valorem as formerly hath been accustomed. 

3. You sliall dureing y'' time aforesaid make and give to my Leiu' Cover'' at New York a true 
and just ace' of all such duties dues or moneys or goods soe by you to be received, whether it 
be from y'^ Merch' at New York, or sent you by y" Customr^ of y" other ports of my said Colony, 
as often as he shall thinke fitt to demand y* same ; and well and truly to pay or cause to be 
paid into my said Leiu' Gov"" all and every y^ said sume and sumes of money, as you shall 
receive y same ; takeing care to dispose of y'' said goods soe as may be best for my advantage, 
by y" direccon of my said Leiu' Cover'' 

4. \ou shall at y^ Feast of the Anunciation of our Lady in every yeare, or w"'in ten days 
after, fully pay in and clear yo'' accounts w"" my said Leiu' Gov'' of all y'^ moneys or goods by 


you collected or due to me for y' yeare ending at y= Feast aforesaid As alsoe you shall call for 
and state y* accounts of y' other officers appointed by my said Leiu' Gov'' to collect my 
Customes in all other ports of my said Colony that they may be delivered in and cleared once 
every yeare together w"" yo' owne. 

5. You shall not directly nor indirectly either in your ovnie name or y^ name or names of any 
other person or persons or in Company or Partnership w^'' any other, trade as a merchant for yo'' 
selfe, or as a factor or Agent for any other, in or for an}' goods wares or merchandizes ; unles 
by y° especiall licence orp''mission of my said Leiu' Cover'' 

G. You shall graunt noe Bill of sight or sufferance for y'' landing of any goods or merchandizes, 
but only to such persons who shall make oath before my said Leiu' Cover'" or whom he shall 
appoint to receive y° same, that they have neither invoice letf or other ad\ace whereby to make 
knowne y* true contents of such goods for w"^"" they desire such Bill of sight or sufferance ; unless 
all y" goods shalbe brought into y' King's Warehouse. 

7. In case of any difference arizeing 'twixt yo'' selfe or other inferior Officer, and the ]\Ierchant 
or Trader, upon account of collecting my customes or estimateing y^ value thereof, such 
difference shalbe determined by y' ordinary Magistrates of the place, or otlierwise as hath 
been hitherto accustomed. 

Lastly, and in regard it may soe happen y' there ma}' be some things omitted w* cannot be 
soe well foreseen here, as observed by my Leiu' Cover"' when he shalbe upon y" place ; you 
are therefore to observe and follow such further rules and direccons as you shall from time to 
time receave from him for y' manageing and collecting of my said Customes. Given und"" my 
hand at Windsor y^ 2^ day of July 1674. 

WaiTant to prejxwe a Patent for Sir George Carteret for East Jersey. 

[ Xew-Tork Entries, CXI. 13. ] 

Whereas the King my Soveraigne Lord and Brother hath heene pleased by his letters 
Patents under the Great Seal of England to give and graunt to me and my heires All that 
part of the main laud of New England in America now called by the name of New York 
together with Long Island and severall lands and territories in the said Lres Patents more at 
large expressed : And Whereas I have thought fit to give and conferr upon Sir George Carteret 
Yice-Chamberlaine of His Ma" Household and his heires, All that tract of land adjac' to New 
England and lyeing and being to y' Westwards of Long Island and Manhatans Island, and 
bounded on the East part by the maine Sea, and part by Hudson's River, and extends 
Southwards as farr as a certaine Creeke called Bamegat, being about y'= middle betweene Sandy 
Poynt and Cape ISIay, and bounded on the W^est in a streight lyne from the said Creeke called 
Barnegat to a certaine Creeke in Delaware River next adjoyning to and below a certaine creeke 
in Delaware River called Rankokus Kill, ^ and from thence up the said Delaware River to y« 
Northermost branch thereof which is in 41 Degrees and 40 minutes of Lat. and on the North 

1 " A stream south of Bui'lington." Whitehead's Fast Jersey under the Proprietors, 65. — Ed. 


crosseth over thence in a streiglit lyne to Hudson's River iu 41 Degrees of Latitude : These 
are to will and require you forthwith to prepare a bill to passe my signature conteyning a grauut 
of y* aforesaid lands to the said Sir George Carteret and his heires, reserving the annuall rent 
of Twenty Nobles to me and my heires ; and you are to insert such apt clauses as may make 
my said grauut effectuall in law to the said Sir George Carteret and his heires. Provided that 
this Warr' be first entered with my Audif and for so doing this shalbe your Warr' Given und'' 
my hand at VVydnsor this 23'" of July 1674. 

To S'" Francis Wynningtou Knt : my 

Attorney Gen" or Sir John Churchill 

my Soil'' Cienerall. J 4ni 

J^efifioit. of the Propridors of Bem-dair-sirych to tlte Duke of Yorl: 

The humble Peticon of y'' Patron & Proprietors of y"" Colony called Renselaerswick 
in New Albany. 


Wheueas New York and Albauj' by y'' last Treaty concluded between His Ma''"" of Great 
Britaiue &'' and y^ States General! of y^ United Provinces, is to be restored unto His Sacred 
Ma'-' ; the Petitioners most humbly doe make their addresse unto yo"" Roy" High'' und" whose 
imediate jurisdiccnn and coniand y'^ said Colony of Renslerswick is scituated, most humbly 
craveing y' the said Colony w"^ the neighborhood called y'' Fuijck \\'^ according to y'' ancient 
priviledges and prerogatives hath been comprehended w"'in y^ jurisdiccon and limitts of y' said 
Colony, as yo" petioners have enjoyed from y" foundation of y* Colony, as they are ready to 
make good by authentike and sealed letters Patents and Bonds, unto yo" Roy" High'' or such 
Com" as yo" Roy" High" shalbe pleased to appoint unto yo" Petioners, most humbly craveing 
y' y' same priviledges prerogatives and possession may be continued unto y" and y' yo" Roy" 
High" may be pleased to comand his Govern" Major Andros y' his Worship being arrived at 
New Yorke may informe himself of y^ antient rights jurisdiccon and priviledges of y' 
abovementioned Colony of Renselaerswick, -^n"^ y" L" Patron and Propriators by y" severall 
Govern" have enjoyed many yeares, and y* y* said Major Andros may give yo" Roy" High" a 
full account and information of it, to y= end y' yo" Roy" High" graciously may be pleased to 
grant unto yo" petitioners such Letters Patents as yo" Roy" High" according to his princely 
wisdome and favour shall thinke fitt. 


Order referring the preceding Petition to Governor Andros. - «' 

[ New- York Entries, CLI. U. ] _ ' 

Whereas it appears by this herafter mentioned petition y' y' family of y' Renselaers doe 
pretend to divers priviledges imunities and rights w"'in certaine hinds of my Colony of New 
Albany in America, y* particulars whereof cannot welbe deduced here, nor y' proofes soe 
clearly made out as upon y'^ place itselfe ; I doe therefore hereby referr to you the said petit" w"> 
y= whole matter contained therein; recjuireing you as soon as conveniently you can afteryour 
arrivall in those parts to hear and examine what shalbe offered unto you by y^ several! parties 
concerned, and to make yo' Report unto me thereupon, as favourably for y" as justice and y« 
laws will allow. For w'^'' y' shalbe yo"' Warr" Given und'' my hand and seale at Windsor y^ 
23. day of July 1674. 

To Major Edmund Andros my Leiu' ) 
and Govern"' of New York &"= j 

Biike of York to Governor Andros in favor of the Rev. Mr. Van Rcmelaer. 

[ New-York Entries, CLI. 16. ] 

Major Andros 

Nichalaus Van Renseslaer having made his humble request unto me, that I would recomend 
him to be Minister of one of the Dutch churches in New York or New Albany when a vacancy 
shall happen ; whereunto I have consented. I do hereby desire j'ou to signify the same unto 
the Parishioners at y' [place] wherein I shall looke upon their compliance as a mark of their 
respect and good inclinations towards me. I am &■=. 

23 July 1674. 

Warrant to prepare a Grant for an Amiuity to the Earl of Sterling. 

[ New-York Entries, CLI. 14. \ 

Whereas I have thought fitt to give unto Henry Earle of Sterline an Anuity of y* terme of 

his naturall life of .£300 p' ann : payable halfe yearly and issueing out of y= 

of^er'unedrdSiree'jt clear remainder of y* revenue of my colony of New York in America after all 

if by the Dukes favour ri- , j , ,. J J 

"r^ountonanceherehe puDlique chardgcs there nrst paid, The first paym' to commence from y^ time 

bH^n'toyentevSue; y' "^ °°^ L^^^' Govcru'' Major Audros shalbe quietly possessed of y= said 

tr^ld^T^^^- Colony in my name : These are therefore to require you forthw'" to prepare 

Sed) J. w. a grant or other fitting instrument for my signature, inserting therein all such 
Vol. III. 29 


clauses and provisoes as are proper and usuall in such cases and \v""'> may secure y" s"* Anuity 
to y'^ s"* Earle as abovemenconed. For which y' shalbe yo'' Warr' and it is to be entered 
w"" my Audif w^Hn one month after its date. Given und'' my hand at Windsor y' 30 day of 
July 1674. 

To S" Francis Winnington Kn' my Attorney Gen" ) 
or to S" John Churchill Kn' my Solicit' Gen" j 

Warrant authorizing Governor Andro-s to S'eize Colonel Lovelace's Estate. 

[ New- York Entries, CLI. 15. ] 

Whereas it appeares by the accounts of Francis Lovelace Esq'' my late L' Govern'' of New 
York, stated and audited by Thomas Delavall Esq'' my late Audif there, that there is due unto 
me from y* said Francis Lovelace a considerable sume of money amounting to y'= sume of about 
seaven thousand pounds ; and being informed y' y"" said Francis Lovelace hath some estate in 
lands and houses by w'^'' I may in some measure be reimbursed my said debt; These are to 
will authorize and require you imediately after your arrivall at New Yorke w"" out losse of time, 
fully to infonne yourselfe what estate reall or personall y'^ said Francis Lovelace hath at that 
place, which haveing done you are by due course of law to possess your selfe thereof in my 
name and to my use, and to receave y^ rents issues and proffitts thereof untill I shalbe satisfyed 
such sume and sumes of money as shall appear to you to be due and oweing unto me by y* said 
Francis Lovelace. And for soe doing this shalbe yo"" Warr' Given under my hand at Windsor 
y e"" day of Aug" 1674. 

To Major Andros my L' and ] 
Govern'' of New York. f 

Order to pat tite DukeJs Laivs in force in Neio-Yorh. 

[ New-Tork Entries, CLI. l.'j. ] 

Whereas there are hereunto annexed certaine Laws established by authority of His Ma" 
Lres Pattents graunted to me and digested into one volume for y^ publique use of all y"" 
territories in America und'' my governm' collected out of y^ severall laws in other His Ma" 
American Colonies and Plantacons, upon perusall and consideracon of vi^^ it appeares y' there 
may be an occasion to make some alteracon or amendm" in some particular clauses thereof; 
These are therefore to authorize and require you to put in execucon y^ said laws, except such as 
shall have apparent inconveniences in them ; and after your settlem' at New York, w"" y" 
advice and helpe of your Councell carefiiUy to peruse and consider y^ same, and if you finde it 


necessary for y' ease and benefitt of y^ people and y' good of my service to make any 
alteracons, addicons or ameudm'" in y= said laws, you are w"" y^ first opportunity to represent y* 
same unto me, to y* end you may receave from me such ord" and direccons as shalbe necessary 
for authorizeing you to put y^ same in execucon. And for soe doeing y' shalbe your Wan-' 
Giveu und"" my hand at Windsor y' 6. day of August 1674. 

To Major Andros my L' and | 
Govem"' of New York. f 

ProcUimation of Governor Awlros. 

[Xew-York, C. D. C. 72.] 

The first Proclamacon Confirming Rights & Propertys. 
By the Governour 

Whereas it hath pleased his Majesty and his Royall Highnesse to send me with authority to 
receive this place and Government from the Dutch and to continue in the command thereof 
under his royall Highnesse who hath not only taken care for our future safety and defence but 
alsoe given me his commands for securing the rights and propertys of the inhabitants and that I 
should endeavour by all fitting means the good and welfare of this Province and dependencys 
under his government, That I may not be wanting in any thing that may conduce thereunto 
and for the saving of the trouble and charge of any coming heither for the satisfying themselves 
in such doubts as might arise concerning their rights and propertys upon this change of 
government and wholly to settle the minds of all in Gen" I have thought fitt to publish and 
declare. That all former grants priviledges or concessions heretofore granted and all estates 
legally possessed by any under his Royall Highnesse before the late Dutch government, As 
also all legall, judiciall proceedings during that government to my arrivall in these parts are 
hereby confirmed ; And the possessors by virtue thereof to remain in quiet possession of their 
rights. It is hereby further declared that the known Book of Laws formerly establisht and in 
force under his royall highnesse government is now again confirmed by his Royall Highnesse 
the which are to be observed and practised together with the manner and time of holding 
Courts therein menconed as heretofore. And all Magistrates and Civill Officers belonging 
thereunto to be chosen and establisht accordingly. — Given under my hand in New York this 
ninth day of November in the twenty sixth year of his Majesties reign annoq ; Domini 1674. 

E Andros 
Secryes Office Province of New Yorke 

This is a true copy taken from the record of the book of entiys begunn October the SI"" 
1674 pag. 13"" at the request of the Mayor & Aldermen of New York, this seventh day of July 
169S :, Exaiat & comparat p 

(Signed) DA^^D Jamison Secry. 


Co)nmi-ssion di-s-!olcin<j tlit late Council for Trade and Plantations. 

[ Board of Trade Journals, I. 1. ] 

Charles the Second, by the grace of God King of England Scotland France and Ireland, 
Defender of the Faith, <&"''', To all to whom these presents shall come Greeting : Whereas 
Wee by Commission or Letters Patents under the great seal of England, bearing date at 
Westminster the seaven and twentieth day of September in the four and twentieth year of our 
Keigu did constitute and appoint Anthony Earle of Shaftesbury and others, to be our Standing 
Couucill for all the affairs that concern the Navigation, Commerce and Trade Domestiq and 
Forraine of our Kingdomes, And also of all our Forraine Plantations, (except Tangier,) with 
severall powers aud authorities in the said Commission or Letters Patents mentioned, as thereby 
may more fully and at large appear. Now Know Yee that Wee lor certaine reasons and 
considerations us thereunto moving, have thought fit to Revoke and Detemiine, the said 
Commission, And Wee Do, accordingly, by these Presents, revoke, make voyd and determine 
the same, and all and every the powers priviledges and authorities thereby granted ; Aud we 
do also will and strictly charge and command all and every person and persons Nominated 
or any ways concerned in the said Commission to forbeare to act or intenneddle in any the 
affaires matters or things aforesaid by virtue or colour thereof: And W^ee do hereby authorize, 
direct and appoint Benjamin Woi'sley, Esquire, Secretary to the said Councill, and all the other 
person and persons who have or shall have any Books, Papers, or writings touching any matter 
or thing acted or done by virtue or in pursuance of the said Commission or any way in debate 
or cousideracon before them, forthwith to deliver or cause the same to be delivered to the 
Gierke of our Privy Councill attending, whose receipt shall be a sufficient discharge without 
any further or other warrant or direction whatsoever. 

In witness whereof Wee have caused these our Letters to be made Patents : Witness 
Ourselfe at Westminster, the one and twentieth day of December, in the six and twentieth 
yeare of our Raigne. 


Sir Jo''<q>li IVerden., Secretary to tlie I)nhe of Yorl\ to Governor Andros. 

[New-T.irk Knlries, CLI. U. ] 

We have not as yett rec'' any letter from you since your arrivall at New Yorke, but y"^ news 
of y' is come to us severall wayes by y*' exchange news and particularly by W De la ViM whose 
correspondents in y* parts adjacent to you have found wayes to inform him of most y' hath 
happened about y'' time you arrived there. 

I write y' cheifely not to loose y"= opportunity of a ship's passage thither w"^ is now in y'= 
Downes or Dover Road to pay her h Custome, but moreover I will acknowledge to you y' I'me 
und"' some impatience to hear from you what sort of conmutacon may be made of your future 
felicities in a place w"^"" I find represented here under many differing characters ; but most 
especially I would faine know how far y' publique revenues are likely to support y publicke 


chardge, what effects you find from our late moderateing y« customes, what likelyhood there 
is of drawing more English to inhabitt in your governm' thereby to compensate the discouragem" 
we give y= Dutch, and lastly whether y^ having obtained licences for a few ships to goe and 
come directly 'twixt Holland and New Yorke was heretofore y' great secret to rayse y'' Customes 
whereby to maintaine y^ guarrison, and is still of y' indispensable necessity (w'^'' M' Delavall 
positively asserts) as y* w"'out it y* guarison cannot subsist. The Customes as now rated, in 
M"" Delaval's opinion (who really is a very knowing man) not being likely to amount to neer soe 
much as shall defray y*^ charge of y" governm' 

I have ventured to give you these hints afresh, but I make noe doubt yo' owne observacou 
there and experience will suggest to you many of greater weight ; and I hope you will not faile 
by every opportunity to transmit them hither to 

Sir, &' 
S' James's ] J. W. 

Feb^ y" IS"- 167i j 

P. S. I had alhnost forgott to tell you y' we have as yet done nothing towards y" 
adjusting Sir George Carterett's pretentions in New Jersey, where I presume you will take care 
to keep all things in y^ same posture (as to y' Dukes prerogatives & proffitts) as they were in 
your predecessors time untill you shall hear of some alteracons agreed to here. 

Orde?' referring all afairs of Plantations ci^c. to a Committee of the Privy Council. 

[ Privy Council liogister, C. E. II. XI. .596. ] 

Whitehall, y'' 12"> of March, 167i. 

Present, — Lo. Keeper Earle of Carbery 

Ea : of Bridgewater Lord Maynard 

Earle of Craven Lord Berkely 
AP Sec>' Williamson 

Commhtee of Trade and Forraine Plantations to have the IntcnJencij of all affairs formerly under 
y' care cf y" CouncUl of Trade. 

The Right Hono''''' The Lord Keeper of y* Create Scale of England this day acquainted y* 
Board by his Ma'''=" Command, that his Ma''"' haveing been pleased to dissolve & Extinguish his 
late Councill of Trade & Forraine Plantations whereby all matters under their cognizance are 
left loose and at large. Had thought fit to commit what was under their inspection and 
management to the Committee of this Board appointed for matters relating to Trade and his 
Foreign Plantations, viz' The Lord Treasurer, Lord Privie Seale, Duke of Lauderdale, Duke of 
Ormonde, Marquesse of Worcester, Earle of Ossory, Lord Chamberlain, Earle of Bridgewater, 
Earle of Essex, Earle of Carlisle, Earle of Craven, Viscount Fauconburg, Viscount Halj^ax, 
Lord Berkeley, Lord Holies, M"' Vice Chamberlain, M"' Secretary Coventry, M' Sec^ Williamson, 
M' Chancellor of y' Exchequer, M' Chancellor of y* Dutchy, & M' Speaker; and did 


piirticularl}' order that y"^ Lord Privie Seale, the Earle of Bridgewater, Earle of Carlisle, Earle 
of Craven, Viscount Fauconherg, Viscount Halytax, Lord Berkeley, M'' Vice Chamberlain, and 
M"' Chancellor of y^ Exchecquer should have y"^ immediate care & intendency of those aifairs, in 
regard they had been formerly conversant and acquainted therewith, And therefore that any 
five of the last named Lords should he a quorum of y'' said committee, And that their 
Lordshipps meet constantly at least once a weeke, and make report to His Ma'^ in Councill of 
their results and Proceedings from time to time. And that they have power to send for all Bookes, 
papers & other writings concerning any of his Ma'^^ said Plantations, in whosesoever Custody 
tliey shall be informed the same do remayne ; And his LordP further signifyed his Ma'^'" pleasure 
that Sir Robert Southwell do constantly attend y" said Committee. 

J. Nicholas. 

Thili-e of Yoil' to Gorfriior Amlro-s: 

^lajor Andros 

Tliere being a ship in y Downes bound for yo'' parts (or Boston) I make use of y'' opportunity 
to tell you I have rec" yo' letter to my selfe and paused yo" to my Secretary dated 20 Nov"' and 
y'' 4"" and 17"" Dec' last past and I give you these following answers to y'' particulars in those 
letters w'^'" desire y" 

First y", touching Generall Assemblyes w'^ y* people there seeme desirous of in imitacon of 
their neighbour Colonies, I tliinke you have done well to discourage any mocon of y' kind, both 
as being not at all comprehended in yo' Instructions nor indeed consistent w"" y* forme of 
governm' already established, nor necessary for y° ease or redresse of any greivance y' may 
happen, since y' may be as easily obtained, by any peticon or other addresse to you at their 
Generall Assizes (w^'' is once a yeare) where the same persons (as Justices) are usually present, 
who in all probability would be theire Representatives if another constitucon were allowed. 

Next I approve of yo' haveing bespoke a Scale and Mace for y' Citty of New Yorke, y^ chardge 
whereof wilbe allowed you upon Ace' and it is well that you have y* other Seale for y'' Province. 
As to y' want of money for ordinary commerce w'^'' you complaine of, there appeares not any 
present remedy for y' inconvenience, unless I should be at y" chardge of coyneing soe many 
thousand pounds as 'tis not Convenient for me at present to lay out, but indeed if money 
were coyned, imless of a lower rate y" that of your neighbours (w"^*" would y" impoverish yo' 
country) it would soone be carryed away againe from you. My Secretary tells me y' upon 
discourse with some merchants on y' head, he hath mett w"" a project menconed by y" viz' to 
send .£10000 in money, provided it should be taken of only in Beaver, in specie, at such value 
as may compensate y^ hazard they run and y<= advantage that hath about y'= comodityes w-^*" you 
usually barter tor. But y' is (as I have said) only a notion as yett, and I thinke unless you 
propose some way from thence how to effect y^ thing, it will have but little life from hence. 

Touching y<= Boundryes of your governm' towards Connectecut you are in y^ right y' they 
were settled by Comm" in 1667. but truly y' papers of those transactions not being now present 
w"" me (perhaps you have entryes of y" at New Yorke) I can only repeate to you what M' 


Delavall hath told my Secretary viz' y' y* bounds of those of Connecticut are to be on y" edo-e 
next y" of y* river Marrinac' northwards as far as they please, provided they leave y' river 
vs^here it inclines Westerly, soe as at noe time to approach neerer y" 20 miles to any part of 
Hudson's river (or New York River) And y' (he sayth) was agreed y" by y'' Com". But 
whether it were or noe my opinion is 'tis best only to make accomodations of y^ kind temporary, 
soe if possible to preserve y" utmost limitts for me y' my Patent gives me a title to. 

The next particular is about Salt, and I thinks y' 'tis w"'out doubt when y" clause touching 
y' Comodity in y*" rates of the Customes was alltered, it was intended y' all Salt used about 
fishing should pay nothing, and y° rest for comon uses to pay 2 p' Cent as other things doe ; but 
in regard you have, by advise of )^our Councell, left it wholly out y^ rates you have published, 
and y' appeares, besides what may be applyed to y* fishery (w'^'' you will doe well to encourage 
by all means imaginable) y^ rest spent in j-o"' territoryes wilbe inconsiderable, I willingly approve 
of yo' leaving Salt wholly free. 

Lastly I shall left j'ou know that I am well satisfyed with your proceedings hitherto and y' 
you are in quiet possession of y' place, but more especially at yo"^ conduct in reduceing to 
obedience those 3 factious townes at y^ East end of Long Island ; hopeing you will take care to 
see y" by degrees soe settled w"" y' rest und'' yo' governm' y' y" people may be w"'out 
appreiiensions of any injustice towards y™ and yC selfe secure in their willing compliance to y' 
laws established. To w'"" end I referr it to you (w"" fitting cautions) to recompense or discourage 
an}' whom you shall judge to have been instrumentall or y' ma}' be obstructers in your 
perfecting soe good a worke. 

Finally I recomend to yom- especiall care (as my Secretary hath done in his letters) y' you 
will, w"" all y* speed and certainty you can, send me an estimate of all y^ publique chardge and 
revenue fixt or accidentall, y' by a just ballance thereof I may take those measures here y' 
shalbe for my owne advantage and most for His Ma" service. 

I am k," 

S' James's | . - 

6 Aprill 1675 J 

Committee of His Majesty's Council for Plantation Affairs to tlie Colonies. 

[ Plantations General Entries, XXXII. 9. ] 

After our very hearty commendations to you His Majesty having in his wisdome thought fit 
to supercede the Commission by which his Council of Trade and Plantations lately Acted and 
thereby restoring all the business of that nature to its accustomed channel of a Committee of 
His Privy Council. And his Majesty having more especially committed to a select number of 
the Board whereof we are, the care & mannagement of things relating to his Plantations We have 
therefore thought it convenient to give you advertisment thereof, and as we are by his Majesty's 
command possest of all the books and papers of proceedings of the said Council so that we may 
bee able to carry on Our observations and knowledge of what concerns that (Island or Plantation) 


and bee still in a capacity to ixh'v liis Majet^ty an account of the same. We shall expect from 
VGU a clear Sc full acconipt in writing of the estate and condition in which you found, and 
entered upon that (Mnul or Flnnfation) as to the description of the country & commodities 
thereof the laws and rules of government. The Officers civill and Sc Eclesiasticall and Military. 
His IMajesty's Revenue, The effective force of his Majesty's pay, the number of Planters and 
People, & how many of them are men able to bare arms, the way of trade carryed on both 
outward & inward & in the Country. The condition of the neighbouring Countries, and places, 
and upon what terms you live with each other, and generally of all things which you in your 
discretion whom His Majesty hath trusted with a place of that importance shall judge necessary 
lor our full information. And also wee pray and desire of you to transmitt unto us a Journal 
of all things which have passed since your arrival there, and from tyme to tyme of what shall 
occurre for the future in relation to and upon the distinct heads aforesaid And so not doubting 
of yo'' care to advise us in all things that may conduce to His IMajesty's service and our better 
discharge of the trust reposed in us, wee bid you very heartily farewell. 

Your very loveing Friends 
From the Court at Whitehall 
the 11 day of Aug : 1(17-5. 

Sir John, Wen/c^u, Secrttary to the Dide of Yorl^ to GoveDior Andros. 

[ New- York Entries, CLI. W. ] 


I am in debt to you for two former of yo" of y"' 15"" and 26"" of February, as also for your last 
of y'' 20"' of Aprill w"" y'' papers enclosed w"^'' I reC* by Capt. Burton to which I have not beene 
able before now to returne you an answer. I formei'ly acquainted His Roy" H. w"" yo'' designe 
of loadeing y* Castle frigott w"* timber from New Yorke, upon yo"' being satisfyed by intelligence 
from New England and Virginia of y'= impossibility of having her freighted from either of those 
places. His R. H. seemes very well satisfyed w"" what you have done in y' particular, especially 
it haveing beene undertaken by soe good advice and effected w"" soe great care and prudence 
by you for y' best advantage of His R. H. interest. 

The ship is safely arrived and y" timber and planke unloaded in His Ma'* yard at Deptford ; it 
is very good of its kind and comes seasonably for His Ma'" service and soe consequently we 
hope it is come to a good nrarkett, for y' quantity, although y^ product of it and y* benefitt of 
y' freight will not upon y^ best calculation wee can make countervale halfe y^ charge His R. H. 
nnist be at in paym' of y" seamen's wages, besides y^ victualling of y*' ship. 

And now I am upon y" article it falls in my way to acquainte you w"' a paper I met w"' 
amongst those you sent me, purposeing a protest ag" Capt. Burton &"= At first I did not know 
well what it meant, you haveing said nothing of it particularly in your Lre, but finding y' it 
contained a complainte both ag*' y^ Capt. and M% I did not thinke it proper for me to keep it from 
His R. H. knowledge. After I had done y', I endeavoured to learne y^ true stowage of y* ship, 
and sent to y" Masf Attend' and M'' Shipwright of his Ma" yard, desireing them diligently to 
survey y" ship from time to time as she was unloading ; who haveing done it w"- all manner of 


care, they have restored [returned ?] a Certificate y' she was full and advautageously stored. I 
have seene y' ace' transmitted hither of y* charge of y° cargo, for \\"^ y* Duke seemes charged 
w"" y* pay"" for it, after y' rate of sterling money ; soe y' I presume it is intended his R. H. 
shall have creditt given him for y^ profitts of y^ goods it was bought w"" at y^ same rate. 

His R. H. has fully considered of y' reasons and grounds w""*" induced you to p'^mitt y= Dutch 
ship (mentioned in yo'' Ire of y'= 26"' of Feb^ 1674) to pass w* her ladeing of y^ plt-nke and 
pipe staves ; and is ■ very well satisfyed w"» your care to comply punctually w"" y= Acts of 
Navigation. You doe very prudently in all matters of difficulty (as in this) to take y* advice of 
your Councell both for your owne safety and y' good of His R. H. Colony. 

I have comunicated to his R. H. your Ire of the 20"" of Aprill 1675. w"' y" copies of y^ 
proceedings menconed in y'' 3'''' paragraph of it, relateing to y' tumultuous meetings of some of 
y= cheife of y' Dutch in y' city' ; and his R. H. seems very well satisfyed w' yo'' care and 
prudence in quelling and composeing those disorders w"" soe much calmeness. 

He would have you endeavour upon all occasions to keepe y* people in due obedience and 
subjection, and all inclinations towards mutiny severely supprest, but relyes wholely upon your 
directions not to impost any thing that's hard & severe upon y™ ; and therefore doubtless you 
did very well to p''mitt y= person y' soe earnestly peticoned for it, to be admitted to be swome 
upon his submission, and I hope y*" rest will follow by his example. 

I have shewed his R. H. y"" Maliakes proposition at Albany, who wishes your endeavours may 
well succeed at your goeing up thither to settle matt" betweene y" and y* French. It will be 
of good use to us as well as y". if you can bring to pass y* good understanding betweene y" as 
yt ye French may not come on y" side y* Lake or River Canada to divert y= trade or anoy the 
Mahakes and his R. H. desires you will employ your best care and conduct in the well 
management of an affaire of soe great importance to his service. 

His R. H. has taken notice of y^ stricter peace you have concluded with the three Southern 
Indian Nacons, and as to y* murther of D"" Reed^ and his serv' he leaves it wholely to you to 
deale w' y"" Indians for satisfaction against tlie malefacto" in such maner as may best stand w' 
y* bono'' and safety of your government. 

The last clause in yo"' Ire of the 20"" of Aprill touching y' Salt is long before y' answered to 
you in his R. H. Ire of y^ 6"" of y° same month ; where you have his ord"' for leaveing it 
wholely out of y^ booke of Rates. 

The controversie touching j" Boston ship arrested by M'' Dyre seemeing to have in it matter 
of difficulty, I thought it most adviseable for me to have y* opinion of y^ Judge of y* Admiralty 
who haveing fully considered y^ state of y^ case as you have represented it in your Ire of 15"" 
of Feb^ 167t hath declared his opinion to be, that y* said ship if it came into y' possession of 
y' Dutch at any time by any maner of means dureing y^ hostility, w^as well judged to be a prize 
by Govern"' Calue, and y' y^ Mayor & Aldermen did justly in affirming his judgement, and that 
you and your Councell cannot reverse it, y" possession of y* Dutch vesting in y™ an absolute 
property of all y*^ moveables they tooke from us dureing y' late warr. This Sir Leolin Jenkins 
saith to be soe, both by y' generall law of Nacons and by y* 4"" article of y° treaty at Breda 'w'='' 

1 Their names were, CoRNELins Steenwvck, Johannes Van Beugh, Johannes de Peystek, Nichoias Bayard, Egidics Luyck, 
WiLLUM Beeckman, Jacob Kip, and Antonio de Mill. Their offense consisted in petitioning that they may not be obliged to 
take the Oath of AUegiauce, nor bear arms against Holland. The proceedings against them will be found at length in iVVw- 
York Council Minutes, III., Part ii. ; KevyYork Colonial Manuscripts, XXXIV., XXXV. — Ed. 

' " Dr. RoADES. " See, Governor Andeos' letter to Captain Cantwell, in Warrants, Orders, dc, (in Secretary's Office,) 
III., 34.— Ed. 

Vol. III. 30 


was confirmed by y' of Westminster y'= 19"' of February 167^. But as to y' moveables, I doe 
not know but y"^ Ire sent from y= Dutch Admirall Evertson to y' Mayor and Aldermen of New 
Yorke before y* rendition of y' place (promiseing to all men their estates and liberties) may 
make an alteracon in the Case, they haveing had upon y' (it seemes) all their estates secured 
to y". 

I have likewise received Sir Leolin Jenkins' opinion as to y^ other poynt touching Calue's 
judiciall proceedings, who sayes that they are not to be questioned either as voyd or unjust, 
dureing his power there, nor is it to be inquired into what comission he had to erect Courts of 
Justice or execute y^ will of his superiors (or his owne) dureing his possession of y' place, 'tis 
sufficient for him and bindeing for us y' his supei-iors doe owne y^ haveing placed him there 
jure belli. If he hath done us wrong (though ags' articles) while we were under his govemm"^ 
wee are now without remedy (imless it be from the mere bounty and generosity of y' States 
General!) the peace haveing established an amnestic as extinguishes all right and pretence of 
accon or peticon or redress on either party. These points being thus stated and resolved by 
S'' Leolin Jenkins, I doubt not but you will thereby be able to kuowe how to governe yo"" selfe 
as to those particulars ; or if for other reasons you thinke it expedient to be slow in detennining 
things of y* nature, y' you will then use such fitting cautions as at last may not leave you lyable 
to censure, and without plausible reasons to justify your doubting and delayes in matf* of soe 
great difficulty. 

As to what you propose about peeces of -f to be marked by you to pass for such a value as 
you shall put upon y™, I'me informed that they may be current money any where, according to 
their true value (as now in England) but noe proclamacon by y' Duke ought to make y" soe 
without y^ Kings express authority to him under y'^ Great Scale for y' purpose ; y' like also for 
putting any stamp or marke upon y™ ; soe as it is not worthy your further thoughts what proffitt 
will result from these things before we goe about to gett the King's grant to y' effect. 

I'me also told that noe law prohibitts y^ sending our brass farthings tiiither if it be worth y^ 
while to carry y™ thither. 

His R. H. is well pleased to hear y' you have probable hopes of setling y' fishing trade, and 
desires you will not be wanting to employ all your care and industry towards y' advancement of 
it, he lookeing upon y' fishery as y'= most likely thing to produce wealth and power at sea for 
yo"' plantacon, and now you are at liberty to dispense with y= clause about Salt I hope you will 
not find much difficulty y'' next season in y' undertaking and proceeding in it.' 

Capt. Salisbury is arrived, and as soon as I have y' opinion of his R. H. Com''^ and his owne 
commands upon y« severall particulars of y^ letters Capt. Salisbury brought to us, I shall not 
faile to send you a full and clear ace' of all. In the interim I take an opportunity that now 
offers to present my service to yo'' selfe and Lady and to assure you y' I am 

Sir, Yours &'' 

J. W. 
S' James's ) 
IS"- Sepf 1675. j 

' A Company was authorized to be formed in New-York, January 8tli, 1675, " for Settleing a Fishery in tliese parts" ; the 
shares were fixed at ten pounds each, and tlio Stoeliliolders were to meet on the 2d of February following, to elect officers, Ac. 
Kew-York Council Minutes, III., Part ii., 10. This is believed to be the first Joint Stock Company incorporated within the 
limits of this State, for comuiereial imri.oses. — Ei.. 


Dtike of Yorh to Goveriwr Andros. 

[ New-York Entries, CLI. 20. ] " 

Major Andros. 

I have considered of w' you have written hy Capt. Salisbury touching yo' demand of all the 
land on the West side of Conecticut River, as being comprized within my Patent, W^"" demand 
I approve well of in order to preserve that title entire, w"^"* the King hath conveyed to me. 
But at the present for other reasons I am not willing you should proceed further in regard I 
hope for hereafter more convenient means of adjusting the Boundaryes in those parts, and 
in the interim though the agreeni' by the Comm" in 1664 were never confirmed by me, I soe 
far approve of the prudence of Coll. NichoUs at that time, as to admitt by noe meanes of any 
neerer accesse of those of Connecticut then to the mouth of Marinac (or JNIamaronocke) River 
and along the edge of it : provided they come to noe place within twenty miles distance of 
Hudsons River. But this I hint to you only for the present, not intending thereby to conclude 
my selfe as to the right of the Case. 

I have formerly writt to you touching Assemblyes in those conntreys and have since observed 
what severall of your lattest letters hint about that matter. But unless you had offered what 
qualificacons are usuall and proper to such Assemblyes, I cannot but suspect they would be of 
dangerous consequence, nothing being more knowne then the aptness of such bodyes to assume 
to themselves many priviledges w"'' prove destructive to, or very oft disturbe, the peace of y* 
governm* wherein they are allowed. Neither doe I see any use of them w* is not as well 
provided for, whilest you and your Councell governe according to y'' laws established (thereby 
preserving every man's property inviolate) and whilest all things that need redresse may be 
sure of finding it, either at y^ Quarter Sessions or by other legall and ordinary wayes, or lastly 
by appeale to myselfe. But howsoever if you continue of y^ same opinion, I shall be ready to 
consider of any proposalls you shall send to y' purpose. 

Since it is by the advice of yo'' Councell and what you judge best for your Countreys that 
you have taken of the two p'' cent from the goods of the product of America brought into yC 
Port (and not specified in the rates I have established for the Customes) I approve of if ; 
supposeing nothing of this kind is to remayne fixed beyond the three yeares at first designed in 
which time you may be able to send me a cleere ace' of this whole affaire. 

I shall be glad to have from you a more exact ace* of the revenue and charge of those 
Countreys, then that sent me in your letter of the 7"" Aug'' last (which in many particulars 
seemes only an estimate) since you have now put me in hopes that the government wilbe (at 
least) able to support itselfe and ease me of the burden I have hitherto susteyned, soe much to 
my inconvenience. 

I refer you to my Setf" letters for other particulars and send this to you by Capt. Salisbury of 
whom I have had a good character, and therefore I would have you remember him upon any 
fitt occasion for his advantage in my service. Dated at Whitehall the 28 Jan^ 167f . 


Sir John Werden to Governor Andros. 

[ New-Tork Enlrics, CLI. SO. ] 


By the retunie of Capt. Salisbury (whose stay here hath proved much longer than he 
expected or desired) I am to acknowledge to you the rec' of sev^all of yo"" letters, and that I 
shall doe by answering every particular as well as I can. 

Yours of the 8"" June last mencons the scarcity of provisions w"^"" you impute to the want of 
salt ; this I hope wilbe noe longer soe, in regard by takeing of the duty on salt, that hath 
now all the incouragement tis capable of in it's importacon to you. 

Tis certaine that whilest the Act of Navigacon stands in the way, it cannot be obtained to 
have ships trade directly from Holland to yo'' parts ; and indeed the other part of yo'' proposicon 
to have ships cleere at the out ports without being strictly searched is soe much opposed by the 
Customers here (which I have found upon tryal and whose favorable report is of necessity, to 
obtaine such a permission) that I looke upon it as wholely impracticable ; for they will never 
be perswaded but that many prohibited goods would then pass unseene. 

Your rayseing the value of p. i is what I am not able to judge of, but I am told by 
M-- Delavall that he thinks they may well beare 6». G"^. This is his single opinion, but you 
certaiuely upon the place are the best judge, yet I suppose you remember in generall that the 
rayseing of any money in a country far above its intriusicke value, is a certaine way of debaseing 
the Comodityes of that Country ; and therefore a kind of impoverishing it. 

As for Connecticut Colony you may be assured we shall enter Caveats to prevent y-^ passing 
to them any New grants or priviledges till His R" B?' be heard. And this leads me to take 
notice to you of yo'' late proceedings w'" them (which is indeed the raaine thing conteyned in this 
and yo"" other letters of the 28"' June last) and to adde to what you will see in his Ro" H' letter 
somewhat that hath occurred to me on discourse w"' the D"" Councell at law touching the state 
of that Case. On the Dukes part you alledge that the Duke is intitled to all that the Dutch had 
in those parts, and that his Patteut doth expressly containe those places claymed by you (I 
distinguish not his pattents for the latter if it did convey a new right, j'ett most certainely it 
conveys not any territoryes but those w'^'' he had before) and that the Pattent of Connecticut is 
soe uncertainely bounded that it may as well extend to all as far as Virginia as to what they 
now clayme. On the other side it is said to be proved that they had possession of all or most 
they now enjoy, before the Dutch were expelled from New Yorke, and that their Pattent must 
be understood to be voyd wholely if it did not entitle them to the very bowells of their country 
conteyned in that Pattent, and w<^'> they were actually in possession of at the passing thereof. 
That their Pattent was prior to the Dukes and soe confirmed in all their possession, the Duke at 
y' time haveing noe pretence at all, and the latter -Pattent not being of force to destroy the 
former, and that Com- appoynted by the King in (64) settled y<= Boundaryes by vertue of an 
authority under the Great Seale, w-^" though never confirmed by the Duke, yett was assented to 
I'y his Leiut. Govern^ who sure would not have yielded to it, if His R" H- rj^ht had beene 
cleere m y' pojait. 

Upon the whole you will see that His Roy" H- is wiUing things should rest as they are at 
present but he is not sorry you have revived this clayme because possibly some good use may 
be hereafter made of it. f J & J 


The Dutch Ambassador M"' Van Beuningen hath put in a memoriall into my hands, settino- 
forth that some of the Dutch complaine you impose on them the Oaths of Allegiance and 
Fidelity, and will not declare as the late Govern'^ did (and as the articles of surrend'' to Coll. 
Nicholls he saythe import) that they should not be oblidged to beare armes against the 
Hollanders. He therefore pray'd they might have the Oaths in as large a sence as was agreed, 
or els leave to transport themselves and estates. I have by his R" H" approbation returned him 
this answer : — That I know nothing of any such declaracon und"" the hand of any preceding 
Gov' and that the only article of y' kind amongst those of the surrend'' to Coll. Nicholls (which 
I observe in a copy with me) says, they shall not be pressed to serve in war ag"' any nacon 
whatsoever, w'='' doubtless was meant of pressing (as we press seamen) and not to exempt 
inhabitants from beareing their proporcon of the charge in the militia, or from contributeing all 
they can to y= comon defence of the Country ; and that whosoever pleased might withdraw 
himselfe and his effects or estate freely from thence, when he pleased, paying his debts and 
provided he hath not first incurred the penalty es the Law inflicts after a legall tryall for any 
offence. And in conclusion I gave him a copy of two paragraphs in yo"' letters (y^ last of the 
24"" October last) wherein he sees all I know of that matter. This I suppose may give 
satisfaction, but if not, and that he make any farther instances, I shall then desire that the 
partyes may gett hither authentique coppyes of proceedings from New Yorke, if a reference to 
you (by way of review) be not sufficient. 

But upon this occasion I think it not unseasonable (though I believe it not necessary) to put 
you in mind that it is his R" High=' intencons to have all persons whatsoever treated with all 
humanity & gentleness that can consist with the honour and safety of yo"" governm' to the end y' 
where the laws doe inflict a punishment it may seeme rather for example to deterr others from 
the like crimes, then to afflict the party punished, except where his malice appeares plainly to 
aggravate his offence. 

I know nothing like a project that I'me fonder of, then the hopes you give me of setting up a 
fishery at Long Island, w'='' I believe would be the most acceptable and * the most beneficiall 
improvem' that can be thought on, as well by the number of hands and shipping it w^ll employ 
as by the great concourse of people it may draw to his R" H"' territoryes. 

I think I have formerly told you the value of the timber brought hither in the ship Castle 
frigott ; it is .£400. But at the same time the Duke paid of the wages of the officers and 
seamen in all .£S00. and I feare is yett likely to pay for all the victualling w'''' I guesse may be 
j;500. Soe as by this Ace' reckoning .£1300 cargo (besides what you had) y* Duke wilbe out 
of purse ^2200 on this expedition for the repossessing New Yorke : which I should be 
heartily glad to see in a fayre way of being reimbursed to him. 

As to yo' thoughts of bounding the Dukes territoryes Northwards by Canada, you will 
doubtless doe well to looke upon them alwayes as being soe bounded, the Dutch having ever 
clajaned & never lost the possession of the same, and when any occasion shalbe to take out a 
New Pattent (be it upon the better adjusting the Boundaryes with Connecticut or othervrise) 
then care wilbe had of fixing this northerne limitt. 

The like I may say to you as to Delaware Colony, though it seeme of more necessity than 
the other, but it wilbe good you send us the distinct markes and boundaryes of those parts, as 
well as any other that you think ought to be expressed in a Pattent (w"""" you may best doe by 
people upon the place who are acquainted therewith) and then we shall have the encouragem' 
(at least) of goeing'betf instructed to take out our new Pattent. 


It may possibly be of use hereafter and therefore I desire you will send as good an acc« as 
you can, what townes or territoryes on tlie West side of Connecticut River were actually under 
the govemm* of Connecticut Colony in April 1662 : that being the time their Patteut beares date. 

Dated at S' James's the 28'" day of January 167f . 

Sir John Werden to Governor Andros. 

[New- York Entries, CLI. 21. ] 


I have for gott to mention in my long letter of the 2S"' instant one particular w* I have been 
informed of, and it is this. 

I'me told that in the whole time of yo"" predecessours in that governm' they never p-'mitted 
any Forreigners vessells to pass up y* river of New Yorke to sell their goods up at Albany or 
elsewhere in y^ country, but oblidged them alwayes to sell what they had at New Yorke, thereby 
not only secureing better the publique dutyes at New Yorke, but inriching the people thereof 
by giving them the opportunity of the first marketts and of keeping the Beaver trade within the 
hands of the inhabitants of our owne Colony. Whereas 'tis said y' you p''mitt the Bosteners 
and other strangers to goe up in their small vessells to Esopus and Albany and elsewhere as 
freely as the very natural subjects of his R" High*' Colony. 

I know not whether the thing be truly represented to me, or whether such ill consequences 
attend it as are presaged by some, but finding it reported as a new thing I am not sorry for 
y' opportunity to give you notice of what I heare and shalbe glad to have your reasons for a 
proceeding different-from what was heretofore thought best for the place, if my intelligence be 
good. I am &■= S' James's 31 Jan'' 167f. 

To Major Andros &"= 

Sir Jolin Werden to Governor Andros. ' 

[ New-York Enlries, CLI. 22. ] 


Since my last to you when Capt. Salisbury went hence, I have rec" divers from you, y* freshest 
whereof beares date y' 21. May last, and omitting those parts of yo"' Ires w'^'' are narratives of 
y'' proceedings 'of y'= Indians &"^ 1 shall as nere as I can answer the rest, whereto you seeme to 
expect it from me. 

But by y' way, I may owne to you y' yo'' forbidding y^ sale of powder to any Indians except 
y Maquas (whose friendship w"" you is necessary to be preserved) is very well looked on here, 
since though our neighbours Christians deserve small courtesy from us, yet still theire being 
Christians makes it charity for us not to furnish theire enemyes w"' y* opportunityes or meanes 
to hurt y™ 


I am glad to heare y= Dutchmen liave willingly submitted at last, and taken y' Oath of 
Allegiance as tendered ; and I suposed as much before, for I have never heard more of y^ matter 
from y* Dutch Ambassad"" since y^ first paper of v.-"^ I gave you an ace' 

Both from yo" selfe and M' Dyre in Aug" (75) or thereabouts, y* ace' we had of y* Customes 
and. other revenue of New Yorke, put us in hopes of future advantages more y° I perceive are 
like to be confimaed to us when y' Ace' comes stated, w''' you promise 'ere long. The only 
comfort remaineing is, y' if j" present charges or losses be soe great by reason of y' war among 
yo"" neighbours, when y' is ended we shall presume on better things. But such as it is, I believe 
it vdll give some satisfaccon if your Gen" ace' (and I\P Dyre's) be constantly sent us once a 
yeare at least ; his instruccons ordering him to give it in accordingly, or oftner if you thinke fitt. 

You are desirous of his R" High"* comands touching y^ Vice Admiralty in those parts, but 
you doe not explaine in what particulars you meane. If it be as to y' Boundaryes, I cannot say 
more y° referr you to those of yo"" governm' it selfe ; for though His R" High" be Admirall still 
of all his Ma'" forreigne Plantacons, yett y' Pattent of Admiralty I thinke is dated before yo' 
govern' was in English hands ; soe as properly his R" High"" can derive noe authority in 
those countreys or seas, but according to y^ limitts of the latter Pattent, by w'^'" he holds y« same 
from the Crowne. And in pursuance of y" latter Pattent you may doubtlesse act in pursuance of 
your intruccons in as ample maner (haveing already y^ Dukes Gen" commission) as he himselfe 
might doe if he were upon y* place. 

And as for Delaware Plantacon, I thinke I have already told you y' his R" High"" is not 
advised here to passe a Pattent singly for y' ; but when there shalbe occasion of reneueing or 
altering his other Pattent for N. Y. (either for the better ascertaineing the Boundaryes or for 
any other cause) then it wilbe a fitt season to insert Delaware into y' same graunt and in the 
interim it wilbe convenient y' you send us y« proper boundaryes thereof, especially takeing care 
to have y"" large enough y« way, y' noe other English claime a right, and w"" respect to such 
consideracons as may make us hope for most improvem". 

I shall see by discourse w"" M'' Legge or some other of y* officers of the Ordenauce what may 
be done in ord"' to furnish you w"" some of those small guns you mention, of 300 weight or 
thereabouts, for small boates, and now his R" High"" is pleased to agree y' you buy such a 
small vessell (w"" a decke) as you say is needfuU and may be fitt both [for] river & sea, in hopes 
it may be a countenance to you, and of good use, especially against such Masters of Vessells as 
shalbe refractory within your Ports. But his R" High"" would have you make y' charge thereof 
as little as possible, viz' 2 or 3 men at most, and then up#n occasion you may clap in souldiers 
&"= as is dayly used here at Gravesend and else where at many of y^ Kings forts. 

I have lett his R" H"" loiow of Capt. Bellopps desire to part w"» his com" of 2'' Leiuetenant 
under you ; but y^ Duke is not pleased to give way unto it by any means ; yett sayth in regard 
he hath formerly served y* King, he would have you let him continue still in y' employm', 
provided he demeaue himselfe as he ought ; but if you find he doth otherwise, and y' you should 
judge it necessary to put him out, y" y* Duke would have you put in Capt : Salisbury in his 
roome, and a comission will in y' case be sent to him upon your notice hither. 

The story you tell me of a small vessell from Boston ends well in regard you say y« Master 
was bound to answer his contempt at New Yorke ; but ISP Dyre writes me word of one Griffin 
y' at Virginia was by his meanes bound to answer his contempt (in y'= like nature) in England, w'^'' 
putts us to play an after game here (besides some other consideracons \\^^ I need net insert :) 
whereas il" y' caution had been used to make y'^ partyes answer in N. Yorke whensoever after 


a judiciall proceeding in your govenim' tliey sliould appeale hither, it woidd be farr easyer to 
justify his R" Higli" rights, y" it is in y' other case to vindicate y" from y-^ arts and wiles of 
seafaring men. 

You may please to gett M"' Dyre observe y' caution (where he can) y' soe you may the better 
preserve y* rights of your Port. 

And since I am upon y» subject it is not impertinent to it if I adde tlius much further in 
relacon to Sir George Carterett's Colony of New Jersey, y' is, that I have acquainted his R" 
High"' with what M'' Dyre writes to me, about his late bickering w"' Capt. Carteret for not 
letting a Present pass Sc", and though small matters are hardly worth y* notice especially where 
Sir George Carterett himselfe is concerned; (for whome the Duke hath much esteeme and regard,) 
I doe not find y' y' Duke is at all inclined to lett goe any part of his prerogative w'^'' you and your 
predecess" have all along constantly asserted in his behalfe ; and soe, though at present in 
respect to Sir Geo : we soften things all we may not to disturbe his choUer (for in trath the 
passion of his inferio"' Offic" soe far infects him as puts him on demands w*^"" he hath noe colour 
of i-ight to) I verily believe should his foote chance to slip, those who succeed him must be 
content w"" lesse civility y" we shew him in y" point, since y" we should exercise y' just 
authority his R" High'' hath without such resei-ves, as though intended but favours now, may, 
if confirmed, redound too much to y' prejudice of yo"' Colony. You will reserve what I say in 
y' paragraph to your selfe, and lett M' Dyre and Capt : Billopp know what relates to y"" as you 
judge fitt. Dated at S' James's Aug'' y« 31" 1G7G. 

To Major Andros. 

Extracts from Edivunl Randolph's Jxeporf fa tlie Council of Trade. 

[New Eusland, U. 96.] 

Sixth Enquiry. 

What are the reputed Boundaries and Contents of land. 

The ancient bounds of the Massachu^ets Colony was not above twenty miles upon the sea coast, 
but the present limits are as large as that government please to make them, having some years 
since taken in the two entire provinces of Hampshire and Main, by them now called after other 
names & devided into foure counties, Noifolk, Suffolk, Middlesex & Yorkshire, besides several 
considerable towns in the other Colonies of New Plymouth and Connecticut. For the Massa- 
chusets having the pre eminency in trade strength and riches they take the liberty to claime as 
farr as their convenience or interest directs ; never wanting a pretence of right to any place that is 
commodious for them, declaring they doe not yet know the boundaries of their commonwealth. 
And althougli His Maj" Commissioners in the year 1GG5. did settle the limits of several 
Colonies, especially the Provinces of Hampshire and Main, and declared to the inhabitants that 
by His Maj" commission and authority they were taken off from the government of the 
Massachusets, to the general satisfaction and rejoicing of the people and did constitute Justices 
of the Peace and other officers (with the consent and approbation of the Proprietors) to act and 


governe according to the laws of England, and by such laws of their owue as were not 
repugnant thereunto, untill His Ma''^ should take further order therein. Whereupon His Maj"= 
by his Declaration to the Corporation of Boston of the 10"> of April 1666 did approve of the 
actings and proceedings of his said Commissioners and did require and command that no 
alteration be made either in the boundaries or government of those Colonies, and that all 
determinations made by His Maj" Commissioners should continue and be obsei-ved until His 
Maj"* should make his owne finall determination 

Yet nevertheless no sooner were His Maj"" Commissioners returned for England, but M' 
Leveret the present Governor, M"' Ting, Captain Pike and some others, entred those Provinces 
in a hostile manner, with horse and foot, and subverted the government there setled by the 
Commissioners, imprisoned several persons and compelled the inhabitants to submit to their 

And thus, taking all oppertunities and advantages to improve their dominions and authority, 
the jurisdiction of the Massachusets is swelled into a very large territory. 

Sane nth Enqidnj. 

What correspoudance doe they keep with their neighbours the French on tiie 
North and the government of New York on the South V 

The French upon the last treaty of Peace, concluded between the two Crowns of England 
and France, had Nova Scotia, now called Acade, delivered up to them, to the great discontent 
and murmuring of the government at Boston, that His Ma"^ without their knowledge or consent, 
should part with a place so profitable unto them, from whence they drew great quantities of 
beaver and other peltry, besides the fishing for codd. 

Nevertheless the people of Boston have continued a private trade with the French and Indians 
inhabiting those parts, for beaver skins and other commodities & have openly kept on their 
fishing upon the said coast, though often forbid by the French King's Lieutenant in Acadie. 

Last year Monsieur la Bourn, Governor for the French King there upon pretence of some 
affronts and injuries offered him by the government of Boston did strictly inhibit the inhabitants 
any trade with the English, and moreover laid an imposition of four hundred codfish upon every 
vessel that should fish upon their coasts, and such as refused had their fish and provisions 
seized and taken away. 

The French have held a civil correspoudance with the inhabitants of Hampshire, Main, and 
the Duke's Province, although the government of Boston upon all occations is imposing upon 
the French and encouraging an interloping trade, which causeth jealousies and fears in the 
inhabitants bordering upon Acadie, that the French will some time or other suddainly fall upon 
them, to the breach of the national peace. The government of the Massachusets hath a 
perfect hatred for the French, because of their too near neighborhood and loss of their trade 
and look upon them with an evil eye, beleeving they have had a hand in the late wars with 
the Indians. 

As for New York there were several things in matter of trade that occasioned a difference 
between the two governments, which at length rose soe high that it came to a stop of trade, the 
Governor of New York not permitting any European goods to be imported into that Colony 
Vol. in. 31 


from Boston that had not a certificate or other sufficient proof to have paid customs in England, 
whicli has ever since occasioned a misunderstanding between them. 

In the late Indian warr the government of Boston did greatly complaine of Fort Albany, that 
from tiience the Indians were supplied with arms & ammunition and were encouraged to begin 
and prosecute the warr ; but this great outcry is judged by the wiser and sober sort of people 
to be without any just cause or ground, but rather a report raised out of malice and envy. For 
the government of the Massachusets loves no government that is not Hke their owne, and 
therefore they were more kind & friendly to the Dutch (even in time of warr) when they were 
possessed of New York, than they are to their countreymen the English. 

How ever the Governour of New York hath proved very friendly and serviceable to the 
Massachusets in this warr, and had the Magistrates of Boston either conferred with or hearkened 
to the advice of Colonel Andross, the Indian warr had either been diverted or proved less 
destructive ; for he offered and would have engaged the Mohawks and Maquot Indians to have 
fallen upon the Sachem Phillip and his confederates ; but his friendship advice and offers were 
shghted. Nevertheless Collonel Andross out of his duty to His Mnj''" kept the aforesaid Indians 
from taking any part with the Sachem Phillip. 

Eighth Enquiiij, 

What hath been the original cause of the present warr with the Indians, what are 
the advantages or disadvantages arising therby, and will probably be the 
final end thereof '? 

Various are the reports and conjectures of the causes of the late Indian warr. Some impute 
it to an imprudent zeal in the Magistrates of Boston to christianise those heathens, before they 
were civilized, and enjoining them to the strict observation of their laws, which to people soe 
rude and licentious, hath proved even intollerable ; and that the more, for while the Magistrates 
for their profit severely putt the laws in execution against the Indians, the people on the other 
side for lucre and gain intice and provoke the Indians to the breach thereof, especially to 
drunckenness, to which these people are soe generally addicted, that they will strip themselves 
to the skin, to have their fill of rum and brandey ; The Massachusetts government having made 
a law that every Indian being drunck should pay ten shillings or be whipped according to the 
discretion of the Magistrate ; many of those poor people willingly offered their backs to the 
lash, to save their money. Whereupon the Magistrates finding much trouble and no profit to 
arise to the Government by whipping, did change that punishment of the whipp into a ten days 
worke, for such as would not or could not pay the fine of tenn shillings ; which did highly 
incense the Indians. 

Some beleeve that there have been vagrant and Jesuitical preists, who have made it their 
business and designe for some years past, to goe from Sachem to Sachem, to exasperate the 
Indians against the English and to bring them into a confederacy, and that they were promised 
supplies from France and other parts, to extirpate the English Nation out of the Continent of 

Others impute the cause to arise from some injuries offered to the Sachem Phillip, for he 
being possessed of a tract of land called Mount Hope, a very fertile pleasant and rich soil, some 
English had a mind to dispossess him thereof, who never wanting some pretence or other to attain 



their ends, complained of injuries done by Phillip and his Indians to their stock and cattle. 
Whereupon the Sachem PhiUip was often summoned to appear before the Magistrates, 
sometimes imprisoned and never released but upon parting with a considerable part of his lands. 

But the Government of the Massachusets (to give it in their own words) doe declare these 
are the great and provoking evils for which God hath given the barbarous heathen commission 
to rise against them. 

The wofull breach of the fifth commandment in contempt of their authority, which is a sinn 
highly provoking to the Lord. 

For men wearing long hair and perriwigs made of womens' hair. 

For women wearing borders of hair and for cutting curling and laying out their hair and 
disguising themselves by following strange fashions in their apparel. 

For prophaneness in the people in not frequenting their Meetings, and others going away 
before the blessing is pronounced. 

For sufiering the Quakers to dwell among them, and to sett up their thresholds by God's 
thresholds, contrary to their old laws and resolutions. — With many such reasons. 
• But whatever was the cause the English have contributed very much to their misfortunes, 
for they first taught the Indians the use of amis, & admitted them to be present at all their 
musters and trainings, and shewed them how to handle mend and fix their musquets, and have 
been constantly furnished with all sorts of arms by permission of the government ; soe that the 
Indians are become excellent fire-men, & at Natick, a tovsme not farr distant from Boston, there 
was a gathered Church of praying Indians who were exercised as trained Bands, under officers 
of their owne. These have been the most barbarous and cruel enemies to the English above 
any other Indians. Captaine Tom their leader being lately taken and hanged at Boston, with 
one other of their Chiefs. 

That notwithstanding the ancient law of the country made in the year 1633 that no person 
should sell any arms or amunition to any Indian, upon the penalty of ten pound for every gun, 
five pound for a pound of powder, and fourty shiUiugs for a pound of shot ; Yet the government 
of the Massachusets in the year 1657 (upon designe to monopolise the whole Indian trade to 
themselves) did publish & declare that the trade of furrs and peltry with the Indians within 
that jurisdiction, did solely and properly belong to their Commonwealth, and not to every 
indiflerent person ; and did enact that no person should trade with the Indians for any sort of 
peltry, except such as were authorized by that Court, under the penalty of one hundred pounds 
for every offence ; giving liberty to all such as should have licence from them to sell unto any 
Indian, guns, swords powder and shot, paying unto the Treasurer for the same these rates viz' 
Three shillings for each gim ; three shillings for a dozen of swords ; six pence for a pound of 
powder, and six pence for every ten pound of shot. By which means the Indians have been 
abundantly furnished with great store of amis and amunition, to the utter ruin and undoing of 
many famillies in the neighbouring Colonies, for to enrich some few of their relations and 
Church Members. 

No advantages but many disadvantages have risen to the English by this warr, for about six 
hundred men have been slain, and twelve Captains, most of them stout and brave persons and 
of loyal principles, whilest the Church Members had liberty to stay at home and not hazard 
their persons in the wilderness. 

The loss to the Enghsh in the severall colonies, in their habitations and stocks is reckoned to 
amount unto one hundred and fifty thousand pounds ; there having been about twelve hundred 


houses burnt, eight thousand head of Cattle great and small, killed, and many thousand bushels 
of wheat, pease, and other grain burnt (of which the Massachusets Colony hath not been 
damnified one third part, the great loss falling upon New Plymouth and Connecticut Colonies) 
and upward of three thousand Indians, men women and children destroyed, who if well 
managed would have been very serviceable to the English : which makes all manner of labour 

The warr at present is near ended, for the Sachem PhiUip not being able to support his party 
or confederates hath left them to make the best terms they can ; he himself sculking in the 
woods with a small party of two or three hundred men ; being in dispair of making his peace. 

In Plymouth Colony the Indians surrender themselves to the Governor Winslow upon mercy, 
and bring in all their arms, and are wholly at his disposal, excepting life and transportation ; 
but for all such as have been notoriously cruel to women and children, soe soon as discovered 
they are to be executed in the sight of their fellow Indians. . - 

The government of Boston have concluded a peace upon these terms : — 

1. That ther be from hence forward a firme peace between the English and Indians. 

2. That after the publication of the Articles of Peace by the Generall Court, if any English 
shall wilfully kill an Indian, upon due proof he shall dye for the fact ; and if an Indian kill an 
Englishman and escapeth, the Indians are to produce him, and he to pass tryal by the English 

3. That the Indians shall not conceal or entertaine any known enemie to the English, but 
shall discover them and bring them to the English. 

4. That upon all occasions the Indians are to aid and assist the English against their enemies, 
and to be under English command. 

5. That all Indians have liberty to sitt downe at their former habitations without any lett or 

[ Tlie above Report will be found at length in Hutchinson's Collection of Original Papers, Boston, 1769. i~1. Chalmebs 
Bays, that Hutchinson seemed to doubt its authenticity, but adds : — " The Lords of the Committee of Couucil distrusting 
Randolph's Reports, because \hey appeared so extraordinary, sent his papers to Lord Cclpepek, the Governor of Virginia, 
who had called at Boston on his voyage to England, who answered, in August, 1681, ' I have perused Mr. Randolph's 
writings sent me, and during my stay in Boston, did hear of the matters of fact specified therein. ' " Political Annals, 438. 
On comparing the extracts now printed, with the corresponding portions in Hutchinson, some omissions and differences will 
be discovered in the latter. — Ed. ] 


Sir John Werden to Governor Andros. 

[Xew-York Entries, CLI. 23.] 


This is to acknowledge the rec' of yo" of the 22'' July, w"^"" came to my hands in September 
last. But the more important business of it at present is to convey the enclosed 
endoled^rom^l'King f'"^™ ^is Ma'^ to forbidd yo'' admitting any of the accomplices of Bacon the 
byom-^john'Te8i?n ye the chcifc of the scditious iu Virginia into yo' govenim' ; a caution w'''' I 
Ma?y Lair ""^ °' presume you needed not, but y^ order from the King will by shewing His Ma" 
displeasure ag^' y"", obviate all such plausible pretences as they may have 
scattered about to debauch the fidelity or attract the pitty of the neighbour colonyes. 

Att the same time I may tell you (besides that S"" John Berry is already gone with the Bristoll 
frigatt and a ketch) that the forces designed to reduce those people unto their due obedience, are 
now well embarked and in the Downes, wayteing for the first opportunity of fayre wind to sett 
sayle : I wish them good successe, y' being a matter of noe small importance to His Ma'^ service. 

The Duke has lately had the mischance of a fall of his horse, whereby he broke his Collar 
bone, but I thanke God he is now well againe and able to use y' arme, though the early frosts 
we have had have a little retarded the bones knitting againe. 

I have nothing else to informe you of at present, supposeing you have from other hands the 
ordinary little occurrences y' we listen after from abroad ; what I write to RP Dyre, to avoyd 
repeticous, I leave you to the p'usall iu his Ire (w"''' I pray scale before it be delivered) and I 
conclude y^ in telling you, y' I send it you by a way my Lord Craven tells me of, of some body 
y' intends to pass in ships to Mary Laud, and thence intends to pass by land to New Yorke. 
Dated at St. James's y' 30"" of November 1676. 

To Major Andros 

Sir John Werden to William Dyer, Collector at JSfeiv- York. 

[ New- York Entries, CLI. 23. ] 

An Extract of a letter from Sir John Werden to M' Dyre the 30"" of November 

As to your two quteryes at y* end of yo" Ire, I have these answers. First S"' George 
Downing (one of the Customes) tells me y' you may receive and give all incouragem' to any 
inhabitants that will come w"" their famelyes and goods, of whatsoever kind or country they be, 
from any of the other plantacons, to dwell w"" you at New Yorke, and y' the Customers here 
doe make noe scruple of letting such introduce all their owne proper goods (for their owne 
use and not to sell) custome free, and y' doeing thus is by noe construccon to be made a breach 
of the Act of Navigacon or any Proclamacon of the King's. Secondly the Deputy Govern' of 
the R" Company tells me that y* Company only pretend to the first empcon or transportacon of 
Negroes out of Guiny, and when they are once sold in Barbadoes Jamaica &*= by them or their 


factors, they care not whither they are transported from thence ; for y* more are carryed of, 
y* more againe wilbe wanting ; and therefore you need not suspect the Company will oppose y« 
introduceing of black Slaves into New Yorke from any place (except from Guiny) if they were 
first sold in y' place by y^ Eoyall Company or their agents. 

Diike of Yorli to Governor Andros. 

[ New-Tork Entries, CLI. 24. ] . .. ' 

Major Andros. 

I have rec"' yC Ire of the 1"' of November last past, and scene y' also to my Secretary. And 
I am glad to find y' quiett coudicon of your governm' notwithstanding the late troubles y' have 
beene in yo' neighborhood. 

Since, as you say, the 3 yeares are ueere expired dureing w'"" I have settled the rates for 
customes & other dutyes in your governm', and y' you doe not p^'ceive by any observacon you 
have yett made, y' any advantagious alteracons can be at y^ tyme, I am willing you should (w" 
you thinke fitt) publish my pleasure to continue the same rates and other dutyes for three yeares 
longer, to comence from y« end of these now running. 

And in regard you expresse a desire to come for England for some time to looke after your 
owne concernes, if you shall towardes the end of this summer continue to he of y' mind, (not 
doubting your care to settle all things dureing your absence from your governm' in y° best and 
safest manner) I doe agree y' you come away v?' the latest shipping, soe as haveing the winter to 
yourselfe, you may be ready to retume to your government with the first ships that goe hence 
in y' spring. 

Lastly 1 have thought fitt to grant your request touching y^ .£200 advanced to you by my 
Trear at your setting out from hence ; w'*" I freely give you at y* same time assureing you I 
shall on occasions be mindfull of your diligence and faithfulness in my service. For y^ rest I 
referr you to my Secretary and am &'= Dated 7 May 1677. 

aSY/' Jolui Werden to Governor Andros. 

[ N.-w-Tork Kntrios, CLI. 24. ] 


His Royall High'' haveing beene pleased to write to you himselfe, leaves little of moment for 
me to tell you in returne of yo" of y' l" and S"" Nov" last past ; only your Ires furnish me w"" 
these following particulars besides those touched by his Roy" High*^ 

First, as to y" gen" ace' you have sent to S' Allen Apsley, I see by y' ballance thereof to y" 
1" October (76) His R" High' was creditor .£126. .1:2. .7^, w'^'' gives some hopes y" ye Duke 
may in time have some returnes for his e.xpences, since already y'' rec"' come to equall y^ 


payments.) But ti-uly I thinke you doe very wisely to make M'' Dyre's paym" be as frequent 
as you can, for though he be sensible of the error he hath beene in by giveing creditt in y' 
customes, (w'^'' he excuseth from former practice and y'= want of ready money) soe probably 
would not venture to do the like hereafter, yet y^ very practice of frequent reckonings is of 
greate use to make men just. But truly I thinke, both by y' manner of his writeing and 
especially by y' respect he shews to you, M' Dyre meanes very honestly to y'^ Duke, and 
therefore deserves j'our kindnesse as far as consists w"" the security of the Revenue. 

It is still his Royall ff pleasure y' you doe nothing further at y^ time touching your bounds 
towards Connecticutt. But since soe many townes &"= have beene soe lately disjo}Tied from 
them, and since they disclaymed y' agreem' of keeping 20 myles distant from Hudsons River 
(w'''' upon AP Delavall's iuformacon I apprehended might, if insisted on by them, have proved 
an equitable plea against us) I beleeve a time may come either upon a regulacon of matters in 
New England w" His Ma''^ shall please to take y' into his consideracon or some other way, w" 
his Roy" High*= may without scruple thinke it convenient to insist on all those rights y' were 
intended him by his Patent from y'' crowne. But as for y^ Northenie Bounds there is noe question 
but they have alwayes beeue esteemed to extend as far as y' Lake (or River of Canada) and the 
French have noe coulour to pretend right of conquest from any of their invasions there, imless 
the had such possession before y^ Dutch were settled in Albany, which I believe is nothing soe. 

Touching Delaware I have already told you S"" John King's opinion in it, but least y' failed 
comeing to your hands, I shall repeate it here : viz' that unless the Duke had some other pattent 
to passe, and till then, it is not worth his while to passe a pattent only for y' colony, by reason 
he is already possessed of it as an appendix to New Yorke gapied by your predecess", whose 
footsteps you follow and whose authority is derived to you in as ample manner as they had it. 
Nevertheless if you come for England this next autumne we shall see whan can be further 
done to secure and settle y' colony, w'^'' I must confesse I should be glad were confirmed in the 
Dukes possession by a better title j" this, w'^ indeed to an ordinary person would not be very 

I had almost forgott to tell you that I could give noe incouragem' to y^ wife of M"' Phillips in 
her desire to buy a Dutch ship in hopes to make her free ; on y' contrary I diswaded her from 
it all I could, by reason of y' strict orders of late prohibiteing any of those practices though 
frequent heretofore. And the Customers are very strict in opposeing all such indeavours. 

Thus I have touched what at present occurs to me. News I presume you have from other 
hands ; the greatest now talked of here is y'^ meeting againe of y= Parliam* y* 21*' instant. I 
wish it may be for as much good as y° last meeting was, wherein a sume of money was given for 
building 30 ships of warr and y^ addiconall duty of Excise continued for 3 yeares, worth about 
iClOOOOO per ann : but I shall adde noe more to your trouble at this time y" (all our services 
being presented to your Lady) to assure you y* I am &■=. Dated at S' James's May y' 7"" 1677. 

To Major Andros. 


Instructions for Lieut. Anilioni/ BrocUes, Ensign Knajyton, and Mr. M. Nicolls. 

Instructions or Orders for Lieut. Anthony Brockles, & Ensigne Caesar Knapton, 
together with ftr Matthias Nicolls. 

liauino- herew"' received a Commission' and Orders, you are w"" the Sloops and Forces under 
your Command to make the best of your way Eastward to the Duke's Territorys att Pemaquid 
and adjacent country, comprised in his Roy" Highnesse patent, as p"' the first original Patent, 
and authentique Copy of the last now delivered to you. 

In case of contrary and stormy wind and weather parting the sloops on this side Cape Cod, 
you are to rendevouz att Martins Vineyard, if on the other or East side of Cape Cod, then att 
Cape Anewagou Islands. 

Att your arrivall in y" Duke's said Territorys, if you shall find any Christians there, you are 
to lett them know your coming, as authoriz'd, as also any freindly Indyans. 

Having made choice of the most convenient place upon Pemaquid, for shipping. Defence and 
good fresh water, if itt may bee about halfe, and not exceeding musquett shot from the shoare 
convenient to command all thither. 

You are without delay to land and sett up your framed Block house or Ridout as soon as may 
bee, in the doing whereof you are to advise well, and keep good guards & sufficient sentinells, 
and all the rest of your men to bee imployed in the worke, & to have their arms ready fixed 
and conveniently placed in readynesse by the Guard 

Having reared y' said Blockhouse or Redout and mounted your little Guns thereon, and 
landed fitting stores and settled your men and Guards therein. 

You are if would fitt at hand to cutt and sett Stockadoes about nine loot high att Convenient 
distance round your Blockhouse with two Bastions in the oposite Angles and mount your Great 
Guns therein. 

In case of any extraordinary accident or unexpected ftbrce to oppose you at Pemaquid and 
adjacent parts, so that you could nott land and settle there as above. 

You are then to land and sett down in the most convenient place upon Cape Anowagon,^ 
Damarell's Cove,^ Manhigen or other adjacent Islands comprized in his Ma''" patent to his Roy" 
Highnesse in those parts. 

As soon as you are landed and Redout reared &<' you are presently to dispatch one of the 
sloops to mee with an accompt of all passages, and your seuce of place and things there. 

As soon as the stockados are sett, and Great Guns mounted in the bastions, unlesse for some 
Extraordinary occasion, you are to discharge the other sloop also Voluntiers desiring itt, except 
a sloop should bee sent to Piscattaway, which to bee discharged immediatly on her returne, and 
only keepe our Garrison souldiers and my sloop, giving mee a further accompt by those 

' For Commission ; See, \Varrants, Orders, d-c, in Secretary's Oflice, 111., '251. It hears date 10th of June, 1677. — En. 

^ Cape Anawagon is a few miles east of SagaJ.ahock, or tlie nioiitli of the Kennebec Kiver, Maine. It will be found laid 
down in Bdlin's Carte de la Pariie Orientale de la Ifouv. France ou du Canada, in Charlevoix Hist. Nouv. Fr. Leveit 
describes it in his voyage to New England, in 1623, and calls it Capemanwagan. Massachusetts Historical Society's Collections, 
8d Series, VIII., 169. It is now known as Cape Nawagen. Sullivan's History of Maine, 391. — Ed. 

' Baie Pamp Mari.>. Jiellin, nt sup. — Ed. 


You are to take great care & accompt of all stores, perticularly provisions to bee duly- 
distributed, and not suffer your men to stragle or range y' woods, but keep them together till 
further order, and give all protection and incouragement to any his Ma"" subjects, planters or 

You may make peace with the Indyans desiring itt, delivering up Christian Prisoners and 
sloop, and comprising Neighbors of the Massachusetts and adjacent Colonyes if they accept itt. 

Jf any Maquaes come you are to receive and use them kindly, as att Albany, giving them 
Intelligence particularly of our freinds as well as Enemys. 

In your going if, by occasion of wind or weather, you are putt into Martine's Vineyard, you 
are to acquaint the commander M'' Mahue of your going Eastward, and that I cannot possibly 
go so farr as him this yeare, but should be glad to see him, and shall bee ready to give present 
dispatch to any buisnesse for the good of thatt and adjacent Islands, and if any Extraordinary 
occasion require itt, you may stay one or two dayes to see and settle things with their Indyans. 

Att your passing by piscattaway, if you can conveniently nott to loose the opportunity of good 
wind & weatiier, or as soon as landed & blockhouse or Redout reared, you are to send a sloop 
with my letters to Piscattaway for said place and Boston, which sloop to make no stay, butt bring 
M'' Joselin,' I\r Jordan,^ Major Chapely,^ or any other willing to come to you. 

M"' Joslin coming and willing to stay you are to deliver to him his Commission of the peace 
to act accordingly in those parts, and also advise w"" him in all Matteriall Concerns particularly 

1 pray God give you good successe. N. Yorke IS"" June 1677. 

The blanck Commission of y^ peace you are to fill to authorize a fitt person if you see cause. 


" Copy of Instructions. 

Eastward. June y' 13"' 77 


Received from G' Andros." 

' Henby Josselyn, of Scarborough, son of Sir Thomas Josselyn named, in the first charter of ilaine, at the head of the 
Commissioners to organize the governmeut, and brother of John Josselyn, Gent., the author of " An Account of two 
Voyages to New England. London, 1674." He acted under the authority of New-York in 1665 ; was taken prisoner by the 
Indians in the war of 1675, and on Scarborough being burnt by the enemy, removed into Plymouth Colony, where his 
posterity remain. Maine historical Society's Collections, II., 78, 79 ; Sullivan's History of Maine, 215, 286, 369. Ed. 

2 Richard Jordan, of Richmond's Island, south of the town of Cape Elizabeth, Maine. For an account of him. See 
Sullivan, 19S. —'Ed. 

' NicH0L.\3 Shapleigh, of Kittery. Sullivan, Z1Z; Belknap's History of New Hampshire, Boston, 1813. 1.129. All these 
gentlemen were strong opponents of the pretensions which Massachusetts set up to the territory of Maine. — Ed. 

Vol. III. 


Wentworth Greenhalgh\- Journal of a Tour to the Indians of Western New -York. 

Observations of Wentworth Greeiihalgh in a Journey from Albany to y'' Indyans 
westward ; Begun May y* SS"" 1G77, and ended July y" 14"" following. 

The Maquaes have four Touns, viz' Cahaniaga, Canagora, Conajorha, Tionondogue, besides 
one small village about 110 miles from Albany. 

Cahaniaga is double stockadoed round, has four ports, about four foott wide a piece, conteyns 
about 24 houses, & is situate upon the edge of an Hill, about a bow shott from the river side.^ 

Canagora^ is only single stockadoed, has four ports like the former, conteyns about 16 houses, 
itt is situate upon a fHatt, a stones throw from y* water side. 

Canajorha is also singly stockadoed, and y^ like man'' of Ports and quantity of houses as 
Canagora, y^ hke situacon, only about two miles distant from the water. 

Tionondogue is double stockadoed round, has four Ports, four foott wide a peice, contains 
about thirty houses, is scituated on a hill a Bow shott from y^ River.^ 

The small village is withoutt fience & conteyns about ten houses, lyes close by y= river side, 
on y' north side, as do all y* former. 

The Maques passe in all for aboutt 300 fighting meu.^ 

Their Corne grows close by y" river side. 

Of tJic Slluacoii of the Onyadcs and tf Onondagos and their Strength. 

The Onyades have butt one towne which lys aboutt 130 miles westward of y* Maques, itt is 
situate aboutt 20 miles from a small river which comes out of y'' hills to y* southward and runs 
into the Lake Teshirogue,^ and aboutt 30 miles distantt from the Maques river, which lyes to y^ 
northward ; the towne is newly settled, double stockadoed, but little cleared ground, so thatt 
they are forced to send to y" Onondago's to buy corne ; The towne consists of aboutt 100 
houses, they are said to have about 200 fighting men, their corne growes round about the 

' CngliTiawagah, or as the Diitcli wi'ote it in 1659, Kagliiiuwage, was called by the French, Gantlaouague. (Relation, 
16(;7, 1668. pp. 23, 41.) It is laid down in Delisle's Carte de la Louisiane, 1718, by the name of Gannaouague. It is supposed 
to derive its name from Caghnuhtcohher-leh, which in the Mohawk tongue signifies, Rapids. ( Vocabulary/ in Gallatin's Synopsis, 
307.) Caghnawaga was attacked by a party of 300 Mohegans on 18th August, 1669 ; the particulars are given in the Relation 
of 1669, 1670. p. Ill, by Father Pierron, who with a number of Onondagas and Oneidas assisted at a grand celebration of 
the Feast of the Dead there the same year. lb. 171. — Ed. 

" Galled Gandagaro in th& Relation, 1669, 1670. p. 112, where it is represented to be the next village to Gandaouague. — Ed. 

' See Note, Ante. p. 163. Tliis village was burnt by the French in 1666. Relation, 1667, 1668. p. 42. — Ed. 

* The Rev. Mr. Mkgapolensls, writing of the Mohawks in 1644, says : — " The Mohawk Indians are divided into three tribes, 
which are called Ochkari, Anaware, and Okuaho, that is, the Bear, the Tortoise, and the Wolf. Of these the Tortoise is the 
greatest and pirineipal. * * * These have made a Fort of Palisades and call their castle Assenie. Tliose of the Bear are 
next to these and their castle is by them called Bnnacjiro [Kanagiro ?] ; the last were taken from them, and their Castle 
is called Ttienondiogo. Kort Ontwerp Van de Mahakuase Imlianen in N. Nederlandt, translated in Hazard^s State Papers, 
I. 525. —Ed. 

■^ Oneida lake. See Map of the country of the Five Nations, prefixed to tha Relatian, 1664, 1665. A\eo, Be/tin's Carte 
des Lacs du Canada and his Carte de la Louisiane, in Charlesvoix Hist. JVouv. France. — Ed. 


The Onondago's have butt one towne butt itt is very large consisting of about 140 houses, 
nott fenced, is situate upon a hill thatt is very large, the Banke on each side extending itt selfe 
att least two miles, all cleared land, whereon y' corne is planted ; They have likewise a small 
village about two miles beyound thatt, consisting of about 2-4 houses. They ly to the Southward 
of y^ west, about 36 miles from the Onyades. They plant aboundance of Corne which they sell 
to the Onyades. 

The Onondagos are said to be about 350 fighting men. 

They lye about 15 miles from Tshirogui. 

Of the Caioj/gos and Senecques their Situacon and Strength, Sf'^ 

The Caiougos have three townes about a mile distant from each other,' they are not stockadoed, 
they doe in all consist of about 100 houses, they ly about 60 miles to the Soutliward of y* 
Onondagos, they intend the next spring to build all their houses together and stockado them, 
they iiave aboundance of Come they ly within two or three miles of y*' lake Tichero f They 
passe for about 300 fighting men.^ 

The Senecques have four towns, viz' Canagora, Tiotohatton, Canoenada, & Keint-he ; 
Canagaroh and Tiotohatton lye within 30 miles of y' lake ffrontenacque, and y" other two ly 
about four or five miles apeice to y^ southward of these, thej' have aboundance of corne ; none 
of their towns are stockadoed. 

Canagorah lyes on the top of a great hill, and in that as well as the bignesse much like 
Onondago, Contayning 150 houses ; Northwestward of Caiougo 72 miles.* Here y*" Indyans 
were very desirous to see us ride our horses, w'''" wee did ; they made feasts and dancing & 
invited us y* when all y' maides were together both wee and our Indyans might choose such as 
lyked us to ly with. 

Tiotehatton lyes on the brinke or edge of a hill, has nott much cleared ground, is neare the 
river Tiotehatton which signifies bending, itt lyes to Westward of Canagorah about 30 miles, 
contains about 120 houses being y' largest of all y' houses wee saw, y' ordinary being about 50 

' Caynga, which we have named Saint Joseph ; Eiohero, which we call Saint Stephen ; and Onnontar(, or Saint Rene. 
Relation, 1669, 1670. p. 264. —Ed. 

" Cayuga lake. See, Map in Relations, 1664, 1665 ; also, Bellin, vt sup. cit. — Ed. 

' The Reverend Father R.iffeis, who was a Missionary, describes the country, as it was in 1670, 1671, in the following 
terms: — " Cayuga is the finest country I have ever seen in America ; it is situated in latitude 42J°, the needle dips there 
scarcely more than ten degrees. It lies between two lakes, and is no more than four leagues wide, almost continuous plains, 
and the timber on their borders is very fine. * » » More than a thousand deer are annually killed in the neighborhood 
of Cayuga. Fishing, as well the salmon as the eel and other fisheries, is as abundant as at Ononda;^a. Four leagues distance 
from here, on the brink of a river, I saw within a small compass, eight or ten very fine Salt springs. It is there that numbers 
of nets are spread to catch pigeons ; seven to eight hundred are often caught in one haul of a net. Lake Tiohero, which 
adjoins our village, is fourteen leagues long by one or two wide, it abounds with swans and geese all winter and In spring 
nothing is seen but continual clouds of all sorts of game. The river Choueguen (Oswego,) which rises in this lake, soon 
branches into several canals, sxirrounded by prairies, with occasionally very fine and pretty deep, bays, where wild fowl flock. 
I find the inhabitants of Cayuga more docile and less fierce than the Onondagas and the Oneidas. * * * They reckon 
over three hundred warriors, and a prodigious swarm of children. Relation, 1671, 1672. p. 75. — Ed. 

■• Mr. Maeshall locates this village at Boughton's Hill, in the town of Victor, in Ontario county ; though De 'ffrrr Clinton 
and others are of opinion that it was on, or near, the banks of the Genesee. A>w- York Historical Socieii/s Collections, 2d Series, 
II., 154. 160. The locality of the other Seneca villages may be easily calculated, as their respective points and distances from 
Canagora are laid down in this Journal. — Ed. 



or 60 foott long, with 13 or 14 fires in one house, they have good store of come growing about 
a mile to y' Northward of the towne. 

Being att this place the l/"" of June, there came 50 prisoners from tiie Southwest- Ward, they 
were of two nations some whereof have few gunns, y' other none at all ; one nation is about 10 
days journey from any christians and trade only with one greatt house nott farre from y"= sea, 
and y" other trade only, as they say, w"" a black people ; this day of them was burnt two 
women and a man, and a child killed with a stone, att night we heard a greatt noyse, as if y* 
houses had all fallen butt itt was only y*" Inhabitants driving away y' Ghosts of y* murthered. 

The IS"" goeing to Canagaroh wee overtook y^ prisoners, when y* souldiers saw us they 
stopped each his prisoner and made him sing, and cutt off their fingers, & slasht their bodys w"" 
a knife, and when they had sung each man confessed how many men in his time hee had killed ; 
thatt day att Canagaroh tliere were most cruelly burned four men, four women and one boy, 
the cruelty lasted about seven hours, when they were almost dead, letting them loose to y* 
mercy of y^ boys, and taking tlie hearts of such as were dead to feast on. 

Canoenada lyes about four miles to y^ Southward of Canagorah, conteyns about 30 houses, 
well furnished with Corne. 

Keint-he lyes aboutt four or five miles to y"" Southward 'of Tiotehattou, contayns aboutt 24 
houses well furnished with corne. 

The Senecques are counted to bee in all aboutt 1000 fighting men. 

The ffrench call J 

The RLnques 

Tlie Onyades 

The Onondago's 

& Onondago the towi 

The Caiougos 

The Seneques 



By the name of - 

Les Anniez 
Les Onoyauts 
Les Montagneurs 
La jMontagne 
Les Petuneurs 
Les Paisans 
S' Jacques 
La Conception' 

14 July 1677. Notes of M' Wentworth Greenhalgh's journey to y* maquas, 
other Indians. " 

' The French had anothe 
317. — Ed. 

at the village of Gandougarae, which they called St. Michel. Relaticm, 1G69, 16V0. 


Bishop of London^s Memorial re-92)ecting tlie ChurcJi^'S in tlie Plantations. 

[ Plantations General Entries, XSXII. 47. ] 

On the 17 of July my Lord Bishop of London presents a memorial, as foil : 

A Memorial of what abuses are crejjt into the Churches of the Plantations 

1. That the Kings Right of Patronage & presenting to all benefices and Cures of Souls which 
happen to be void in any of the Plantations is not duely asserted & practised by the several 
Governors in so much as some parishes are kept vacant where a lawfuU minister may be had, 
and some persons are commissionated to exercise the ministerial function without Orders both 
in Mi-giuia, Barbados, & other places 

2. That the profits of each vacant Parish (in stead of being reserved for the next incumbent, 
as they are by law here in England, or otherwise piously disposed of for Ecclesiastical uses) 
are for the most part converted by y* people to their own use during the said vacancy which 
does very much encourage them towppose all ofiers & opport'" for their supply. 

3. That the Ministers which ought to be admitted for life are often times hired (as they temie 
it) by the yeare & som times by the sermon. 

4. That the setled Ministers are in a great part deprived of that short maintenance which 
their lawes pretended to allot them in that the commodities are paid generally the worst & 
overrated and if the comodities happen to be of a just value to what they are rated, the Minister 
is forced to attend til an other year when they shall be worth nothing. 

5. That in Maryland &" there is no setled maintenance for the Alinisters at all the want 
whereof does occasion a total want of Ministers & Divine Worship except among those of the 
Roman Belief who (tis conjectured) doe not amount to one in an hundred of the people. 

6. That in Virginia (not with standing their own law to tliat purpose) there are no publick 
places alloted to bury their dead in, in so much that that profane custome of burying in their 
gardens, orchards & other places stil continues. 

7. That the vestries there pretend an Authority to be intrusted with the sole management of 
Church Affaires, & to exercise an arbitrary power over the Ministers themselves. 

8. That in Virginia there is a great defect in the execution of those two wholesome lawes 
(viz) the 4 & 12 Acts of the Assembly the one prohibiting all marriges to be solemnised 
without a lawful Minister imposing the punishment due for fornication on the parties & making 
their childi-en illegitimate & so not capable of inheriting, the other prohibiting any person to 
exercise the ministeriall Function without proveing himself to have first received Orders from 
some Bishop in England. 

9. There is no care taken, except in Virginia, for the passage & other accommodations of such 
Ministers as are sent over. 


A Short Accovnt of the General Concerns of Keic-Yorh. 

[ Xew-Tnrk Papers, I. ir.2. ] 

A short Acconipt of the Generall Concerns of New Yorke from October 1G74 to 
November 1G77. 

In October 1674 the Governo' received New Yorke & Dependences from the Dutch, settled 
tliat part neare New Yorke, and in December reduced the East End of Long Island, & some 
turbulent in other places having been questioned, the Governm' hath been very orderly and 
quiett since. 

In May 1G75 the Governo'' sent to demand of Conecticutt Generall Court thatt part of His 
Roy" Highnesse Colony in their possession, exprest in his Ma"" patent to His Roy" Highnesse, 
sending them an Attested copy of said Patent, and att y^ same time went by land to Delaware 
to settle things there, particularly as to New Jersey Indyans of w'"" great apprehensions, 
composed by their submission, observed by them since during all the troubles round us. 

In June following, upon news of Indyan troubles Eastward, the Governour did without delay, 
of w"*" he sent notice by expresse to Hartford, repaire himselfe w"" a supply of ammunicon 
and spare arms to y'' mouth of Conecticutt river, as the properest place to advise and act, but 
said supply (as informed) then wanting were refused, and after four days attendance without 
seeing Magistrate or Officer of Note, and others prohibited communication with him, a severe 
protest was made against his coming. 

Upon which without delay he went over to y* East End of Long Island, and dispatched 
ammunicon and Arms to Martin's Yinyard and Nantuckett, with necessary order for preserving 
then} and Neigliboring Islands ; and to satisfy the great jealousy of our neighbours, hee proceeded 
by land through Long Island to Yorke, and disarmed our own Indyans in all places, and saw all 
our own militia. 

Att the Governo" returne to New Yorke, hee sent for all the neighbouring Indyan Sachems of 
New Jersey as well as other Parts, most of which had been with him afore, & all againe 
renewed their submissions and Engagements. 

In August, all being well settled in New Yorke and parts adjacent the Governor went up 
Hudson's River to Esopus, Albany and most warrlike Indyans neare a hundred miles beyound 
Albany, which Indyans (and Associates to about four hundred miles further) applyed, declareing 
there former Allyance, and how submitted in an Extraordinary manner, wMth reitterated 
promisses accordingly after which all things being setled, for the Magistracy, Militia and defence 
if occasion, hee returned to New Yorke and sent up his first Lieut' with more recruites, to 
conunand att Albany, and upon notice of Indyans in warre coming more Westward, prohibitted 
sale of powder on penalty of ten pounds for each quarter of a pound of powder, or Corporal! 
punishment extending to life ; And upon notice of want, though unasked, sent six barrels of 
powder and some match to Roade Island, which they thankfully accepted, and afterward lent 
part of it to New England fTorces in want, att their fight in Narrogansett country. 

Upon Massachusetts Declaracon of warre in print in y'^ beginning of winter, in which they 
alieage thatt Indyru>s were supplyed with powder att Albany, Hee sent two gentlemen to 
Boston to complaine of such an aspersion, demanding itt might bee made appeare, or falce 
informer punished ; They by a letter cleare the Magistrates butt nott Generalty, still asperced 
w"'out any known cause, complaint, or notice. 


In November and December Pbillip and other Indyans, about a thousand iu two partys armed, 
went up into the country, and came within about forty miles of Albany, of w'='' notice by our 
Indyans to y" Comander att Albany, aud by land expresse to the Governo'' att New Yorke, the 
rivers all frozen ; The Governour imediately dispatched reitterated orders to y^ Commander for 
said Phillip's &" remoue, if not efl'ected afore y* receit of said Orders, and sent an Expresse with 
Letters and Ample Instructions to Conecticutt, desiring Liberty for our fforces, Christians or 
Indyans, to pursue such y' Enemys of said Conecticutt into their parts as occasion &"= and y^ 
like after to Boston ; but being denied, and the River opening unexpected the beginning of 
ai^bruary 167f he tooke y^ first opportunity to goe up with an additionall force & six sloops to 
Albau}-, and found att bis arrivall aboutt three hundred Maquaas Souldiers in towne, returned 
y' Evening afore from y^ pursuite of Piiilip aud a party of five hundred with him, whome they 
had beaten, having some prisoners & the crowns, or hayre and skinue of the head, of others 
they had killed ; Att their setting out the Commander had furnished the whole party with store 
of Amunicon , and all sorts of arms and necessarys they wanted, and received their Old Sachems, 
wives and children into the towne ; butt now upon our neighbours refusall the Governo'' was 
putt to a farre greater charge, as well as authority to stop their prosecuteing said Indyans into our 
Neighbours Colony, which would else have proved of a farre worse consequence ; and presently 
built a new stockadod ftbrt with ffour Bastions, each capable of six gunns, said ftbrt so seated 
as to Defend and Command the whole towme of Albany, and att said time sent an officer through 
y^ woods to see, and if any strange Indyans to demand all Christian captives and command 
such Indyans out of y* Government without delay, said officer mett with five nations together, 
being about four hundred men in arms, which readily obeyed: The Governo'' also ordered 
small ftbrts for the retreats of women and children, to bee made in all the towns or villages 
through the Government, and Row boates all along shore, and kept sloops out as occasion. 

In the Spring and beginning of Summer 1676 the Indyans having committed great outrages 
and spoyles in almost all parts, upon w'''' Conecticutt Colony sent two Commissioners to New 
Yorke upon said Account, pretending full power, though none, howeuer not to loose time ; The 
Governo'' w"" out delay assured them in writeing, bee would nott be wanting upon so extraordinary 
occasion, itt importing all his IMa"" subjects and interest iu those parts, aud thatt if they pleased 
hee was ready to endeavour procuring them an hon''"' and safe peace w"' all Indyans or use 
force and joyne ag*' said Indyans as occasion, and to remove all jealousy would forbeare all 
Claimes or Demands of any part of his Roy" High"*^ territoryes possessed by said Conecticutt 
till orders from England, butt had no answer, however continued to keepe do\\'ne all Indyans 
in warre with them from the Inland Country. 

In the latter end of Sunmier and beginning of winter 1676 the Easterue Indians aboutt 
Kenebeck prevailing much & att last destroying the whole country, driving away all Christians 
from the ffishing Islands as well as Continent as farre as Black point,' which they tooke, and 
burnt and destroyed all houses Eastward ; In December the Governo"' sent his Roy" High"* 
sloop to Boston and Piscattaway, offering free passage and releife to any droven from his Roy" 
Highnesse territoryes aboutt Pemaquid, of which hee gaue notice to y'' Governm' of y= 
Massachusetts, in whose country they then were, butt were by them prohibitted to come to 
New Yorke. 

' Scarborough, Maine. One part of this town was known under the appellation of Black pointi and the other of Blue 
point. The territory which was under the former name is now the east parish. SiUUvan'i History of Maine, 213. — Ed. 


Upon returne of said sloope in January 167f being more particularly informed all said Easterne 
p:irts were wholly deserted by y' Indyans, ancj then neglected by Fostbn, who had usurped itt, 
butt now lost itt, and told the Inhabitants 'twas the Dukes and nott their businesse, and dayly 
beareing of y' number of captives, sloop and vessells taken by the Indians, doing mischeife as 
farre as Piscattaway ; Tiie Governo"' resolved, and in June 1G77 sent a force and strong fram'd 
Redoutt in four good sloops to take possession and settle in his Roy" Highnesse right at 
Pemaquid, and defend or secure the fRshery giving notice thereof to the ^Massachusetts and our 
otlier neighbours. 

Taimediatelv upon Notice said Massachusetts presse vessells and men, and ship aboutt a 
hundred and twenty to send y' way, and proclaime a day of prayer &"= in print ; & their said 
forces comniing to Black Point, they land and attack some Indyans, butt lost aboutt sixty men, 
so INIajor Clarke with the remainder went on to Pemaquid, where finding his Roy" Highnesse 
forces already posted, made onely some questions and so returned. 

A few days after some Indyans came and, being informed who were there setled, offered 
submission, butt nott to include the Massachusetts, w"^ nott being accepted they went away, 
butt w"'in a few days returned, and in lesse than a month all submitted to include Boston and 
all ills Ma"^' subjects, & deliver to us all Christian captives and kettches taken, which were in 
their possession ; which being signified by e.xpresse to Boston, and in their choice whatt to do, 
tliey assented, submitting (as they said) to Providence. 

The Indyans brought presently some, and so as fiist as tiiey could all prisoners at hand, of 
which neare forty, and one Ketch, the rest dayly expected, and all likely to continue ver}' quiett. 

The Post att Pemaquid is a wooden Redoutt with two gunns aloft, & an outworke with two 
Bastions in each of w'^'' two greatt guns, & one att y* Gate ;' fhfty souldiers w"" sufficient 
ammunicon, stores of warre, and spare arms, victualled for aboutt eight months, & his Roy" 
Highnesse sloope w"> four gunns to attend y" Coast and ffishery, which and other charges 
upon y' accompt of y'' New England Indyan Warre, hath been very greatt, as may appeare 
by his Roy" High"^ accompts from New Yorke. 

The latter end of August, the Governor having sent two Christians to the furthest nations of 
Indyans, and Orders to meett Coll. Coursey sent as Embassadour from Maryland to treatt with 
said Indyans ; The Governo'' went also to Albany to receive any addresses, or whatt they 
might have to say to him : Coll. Coursey hadd answers to his sattisfaction, and the Governo' 
reitterated assurances from said Indyans of their faithfullnesse, and att thatt time and place the 
Governo"" received leave from his R" Highnesse to goe for England if hee still desired itt, butt 
with the last shipps, and to be Ready to returne to his Governm' with the first in y' Spring, of 
which hee said nothing 'till att y^ setting of y= Generall Court of Assizes in October, and then 
all being quiett, hee then shewed said Letter, first to y" Councell, then whole Court, desiring 
tiieir opinions of y*" state of y*^ Country, and his goeing if itt might be w"'outt prejudice or 
inconvenience to his Duty or Country, and upon their Resolves and answer thatt all was in 
peace and Countrey as well settled and quiett as could bee expected att any time, and therefore 
as likely as any other time for his being spared ; y= Governour presently resolved and declared 
his goeing as soon as a vessell then intended for England could be ready, and by their advise 
gave directions for all parts of y'' Governm' and all Magistrates and Officers to bee very carefull 
of their Duty, and also acquainted all our Neighbours w"' itt. 

' Tliia fort was on a ueck of laud, on Slieepscott, rivei-, now oallfd Xi'WcnBUe. SuHifan's History of .\fainn, lii;. ; }[orsr's 
Anuriran G^nttraphij, Ist edition, 19.5. — Eo. 



November y" IG"" the Governo"' parted from New Yorke, aud went to take his leave of 
Governo'' Carterett in New Jersey, & lay there all night ; the 17"' went aboard neare Staten 
Island, weyed & went down in y" Bay neare Sandy point, whence hee sayled. 


" A short Accompt of late passages at New Yorck. — Rec"* from S"' Edm. Andross. 
in March 167S. Concern^ the Indians." 

Ordii)' in Council calling for Information about New - YorTc and New England. 

[ Board of Trade Journals, II. 233. ] 

At the Committee for Trade and Plantations, in the Council Chamber at Whitehall 
Munday the S"- of April 167S. 

Present — Lord Privy Seale, Earle of Carlisle 

Earle of Bridgewater iNI'' SeC Coventry 

Earle of Craven M'' Sec^ Williamson 

M"' Ch'' of y' Exchecquer. 

S'- Edmund Audros. 

Their Lordships taking notice of the severall parts of the business of New-England which 
hath long depended before them, M"" Sec"' Williamson acquaints the Committee that His Royall 
Highness intending ^ddenly to despatch S"" Edmund Andros to his Government of New Yorke, 
had before his departure commanded him to attend their Lordshipps, and to give them the best 
information he could of the state of New York, and the several colonies of New England. 
And their Lordships understanding that S'' Edmund Andros was now without, to receive their 
pleasure, hee is called in, and gives an account of the Government of New Yorke, of the Boundaries 
granted to His Royall Highness in his Patent, and how they were disputed and a great part of 
the Country possessed by Connecticut Colony, whereby great animosities had been occasioned 
between them, which are likely to increase, to the great prejudice of His Majesty's affaires in 
those partes if not timely remedied by an impartial decision. 

Hee likewise takes notice of the violent proceedings of the Magistrates of Boston during the 
late Indian Warr, and their neglect of the matters he moved them in for a more timely 
suppressing the Indians, and for receiving the assistance hee was ready to give them, both in 
sending them a considerable force from his own Government, and b)^ drawing the Mohawks 
his neighboring Indians, to join against those in enmity with the Confederate Colonies. In 
acknowledgment whereof they had divulged and published, not only in several printed Books, 
but in their Declaration, or manifesto of warr against thos? Indians, that they had been 
recruited with ammunition from Albany and thereby had registered such a penalty upon the 
Inhabitants of his Government that hee has reason to be afraid that many of them may suffer 
Vol. III. 33 


upon the pretence of this Crime, if at any time they slifill happen to come within the reach of 
the Massachusetts, or to depend on their Justice. 

Whereas on tlie Contrary liee used effectual endeavours and made severe injunctions against 
the furnishing those Indians with anmiunition or Provisions of warr ; tha he is confident they 
had noe sort of supplys from liis Government. 

Hee further setts forth hovi- useful hee had been to tliem in tlie final subduing their Indian 
enemies, and settling of tlie peace and quiet which they now are in. 

Whereupon their Lordships desiring to have a particular account and that in writing, of 
what relates as well unto his government as the neighbouring colonies of New England, doe 
propose tliat His Royall Highness bee moved that S"' Edmund Andros may give in some 
information touching New Yorke upon tiie General iieads of Enquiry which are usually sent to 
the Plantations. 

And as to New England it is ordered that some particular queries be prepared which may 
lead him to those Informations touching that colony which may give light into their behavior, 
soe as to guide their Lordsiiips in advising His Ma"" to such method for tlie settlement and 
retjulation thereof as mnv best conduce to liis Roval Service. 

Petition of Govt-nior Andros. 

To the King's most Excellent Ma''^ and the Right hono''"'' the Lords of His Mal^'' most 
Hon'''" Privy Council 

The humble Peticon of S" Edmund Andros Knight Seigneur of Sausmares 
Lieutenant and Governor of New Y^orl^e and other ^erritorys in America 
under His Royal Higlmess y" Duke of Yorke. 

That having in October 1674 received New Y'orke and other places from the Dutch, and used 
his utmost diligence according to his Commission for the well selling and good government 
thereof hee endeavoured by all possible meanes to keep a fair correspondence witli your Ma'^' 
neighboring Colonies in New England, and to bee assisting unto them in their most necessitous 
occasions as by the many profers and great services during their Indian warr and by his 
Subjection of the Eastward Indians at tlie very great charge and expence of His Royal Higlmess 
does manifestly appear. And, amongst other things, hee did more particularly make a most 
strict and effectual prohibition of the sale of powder and other Ammimition. Notwithstanding 
all which the Colony of the Massachusets Bay in the declaration of warr printed by them in the 
beginning of winter 1G75 and in books of the said warr printed since doe declare and, without 
complaint or notice, asperse all your ]Ma'^" subjects at Albany with having recruited Philip and 
other their Indian Enemys particularly with ammunition from that place, And whereas the said 
Massachusets have hitlierto pot only forborne to allege the least colour or to give satisfaction 
tho' demanded for this public Imputation but doo still countenance and allow the said printed 
Declaration and Books which are dayly sold in their Colony. 


Therefore in behalfe of all your Ma"" good subjects living in those parts, and for securing 
them from the penaltys which may bee inflicted on them by the Massachusets for this imputed 
crime, if found within their Jurisdiction 

The pef most humbly prays yo'' Ma'" in your great wisdome and Justice to cause inquiry to 
bee made into the truth of this matter, while the Agents of the said Colony are yet attending your 
Ma"5', And accordingly to give your Royal Orders as well for the punishment of the offenders as 
for procuring a better correspondence among your Ma''" Neighbouring Subjects in these parts 
for the future. 

And y' pef &.' 

Read in Council the Q"" of April 167S. 

Order in Council on the preceding Petition. 

[ Pn\7 Council Register, C. E. II., XIII. 2S5. ] 

■ At the Court at Whitehall this 9"" of April 1678. — 

Present — The King's Most Excellent Majesty, 

in Council. 

The Agents of Neio England to answer Sir Edmund Andros his Pe'icon 

Upon reading this day at y* Board y^ Peticon of Sir Edmund Andros, Knight, Seigneur of 
Someres, L' and Govemoiu- of New Yorke and other Territorys in America under His Royal 
Highness, complaining that notwithstanding his great proffers and sen-ices done to y'' neighboring 
Colonies of New England in the late Indyan warr, and his subjection of y' Eastward Indyans 
at his Royal Higlmesse's great charge, and particularly in his strict proiiibition of y° sale of 
powder and other ammunition, Yet the Colony of Massachusetts Bay in their declaration of 
warr there, printed in 1675 and in Bookes of y' said warr printed since do declare, and asperse 
all his Ma'y'^ subjects in Albany, with having excited Philip and other their Indj-an Enemyes 
w"" ammunition from that place and have since refused to allege the least colour for this thing, 
or give satisfaction, (though required), for this publique imputation, and still allow and coun- 
tenance the vending the sayd Bookes amongst y"', And therefore for securing y^ sayd people 
from y^ penaltys w"'' may be inflicted on y"" by y^ sayd Massachusetts for this imputed crime 
(if found amongst y"") humbly pray"* his Ma'^ to cause inquiry to be made of the truth of this 
matter while y^ agents of y^ saj'd Colony are yet here, and thereupon to give such order for 
y^ punishment of y^ offenders as for procuring a better correspondency amongst y"" for y^ future, 
as to his Ma'y should seeme meete ; His Ma'>' was pleased to Order, and it is accordingly 
ordered, that a copy of y*^ sayd Peticon be given to y*" sayd Agents of the Massachusetts, who 
are required forthwith to returne their answer to this Complaint unto this Board, That 
thereupon his Ma'^ may declare his further pleasure. 


Amtrer.s of Governor Andros to Enquiries about New-Yorh. 

[ XL-w-York Papers, I. 139. ] 

Answers to the Inquiries of Piantacons for New Yorke. 

1. The Governo"' is to have a Councell not exceeding tenn, w'* whose advice to act for the 
safty & good of tlie country, & in every towne, Village or parish a Petty Court, & Courts of 
Sessions in the several! jjrecincts being tiiree, on Long Island, & Townes of New Yorke, 
Albany & Esopus, & some sniale or poore Islands & out places ; And the Generall Court of 
Assizes composed of the Governo'' & Councell & all the Justices & Magistrates att New Yorke 
once a yeare, the Petty Courts Judge of fine pounds, & then may appeale to Sessions, they to 
twenty pounds & then may appeale to Assizes to y' King, all s"* courts as by Law. 

2. The Court of Admiralty hath been by speciall Comission or by the Court of Mayor & 
Aldermen att New Yorke. 

3. The cheife Legislatiue power there is in the Governo'' with advice of the Councell the 
executive power of Judgem" giuen by y^ Courts is in the sherifts & other civill officers. 

4. The law booke in force was made by the Governo' & Assembly att Ilempsted in 1G65 
and since confirmed by his Royall Highnesse. 

5. The Militia is about 2000 of w''' about 140 horse in three troopes the foote formed into 
conipanyes most under 100 men each ail indifferently armed with fire amies of all sizes, ordered 
& exercised according to Law, and are good fire men ; one standing company of Souldiers with 
gunners & other officers for the ftbrts of New Yorke & Albany alwayes victualled in October 
& November for a yeare. 

6. Forteresses are James fforte seated upon a point of New Yorke towne between Hudson's 
River & y' Sound, its a square with stone walls, foure bastions almost regular, and in it 46 
gunns mounted & stores for seruice accordingly. Albany is a smale long stockadoed forte with 
foure bastions in it, 12 gunns sufficient ag' Indians, & lately a wooden redout & out worke att 
Pemaquid w"" seven gunns, s"* Garrisons victualled for a j-eare, w"" sufl'' stores. 

7. There are noe privateers about o"' Coasts. 

8. Our Neighbours westward are Maryland populous & strong but doe not live in townes, 
their produce tobacco. Northwest the Maques &.' Indians y*' most warr like in all the Northern 
Parts of America, their trade beavers & furrs. Northward the ffrench of Canada trade as wee 
with our Indians ; Eastward Connecticutt in a good coudicon & populous, their produce provisioun 
of wheate, beefe & porke, some pease, o"" South bounds the Sea. 

9. Wee keepe good Correspondence with all o'' neighbours as to Civill, legall or Judiciall 
proceedings, but differ with Connecticutt for our bounds and mutuall assistance W^*" they nor 
Massachusetts will not admitt 

10. Our boundarys are South, the Sea, west Delaware ; North to y' Lakes or ffrench ; East 
Connecticutt River, but most usurped & yett possed by s'' Connecticutt, some Islands Eastward 
& a tract beyond Kennebeck River called Pemaquid &<= New Yorke is in 40"* 35"" Albany ab' 
43* the Collony is in severall long narrow stripes of -w"^ a greate parte of the Settleni' made by 
adventurers before any Regulacon by w"^*" Incroachm'* without pattents w"^"" townes haue lately 
taken but by reason of Continuall warrs noe Survey made & wildernesse, noe certaine 
Computacon can be made of the planted & unplanted, these last 2 yeares about 20000 acres 
taken up & pattented for particular persons besides Delaware, most of the land taken up except 


upon Long Island is improued & unlesse the bounds of the Duke's pattent be asserted noe 
great quantityes att hand undisposed. 

11. Our principall places of Trade are New Yorke & Southton except Albany for the Indyans, 
our buildings most wood, some lately stone & brick, good country houses & strong of their 
severall kindes. 

12. Wee haue about 24 townes, ■villiages or parishes in Six Precincts, Divisions, Rydeings, or 
Courts of Sessions. 

13. Wee haue severall Riuers, Harbours & Roades. Hudson's River the cheifest & is ab' 4 
fathoms water att comeing in butt six, tenn or more within & very good soundings and 
anchorage either in Hudson's River or in the Sound, the usuall roade before the towne & 

14. Our produce is land provisions of all sorts as of wheate exported yearly about 60000 
bushells, pease, beefe, porke, & some Refuse fish. Tobacco, beavers, peltry or furrs from the 
Indians, Deale & oake timber, plankes, pipestaues, lumber horses, & pitch & tarr lately begunn 
to be made ; comodityes imported are all Sorts of English mannufacture for Christians & 
blancketts Duffells &"= for Indians about 50,000" yearly Pemaquid affords merchantable ifish 
& masts. 

15. Wee haue noe Experience or skill of Salt Peter to be had in Quantityes. 

16. Our Merch'" are not many but with inhabitants & planters about 2000 able to beare amies 
old inhabitants of the place or of England, Except in & neere New Yorke of Dutch extraction 
& some few of all nations, but few serv'^ much wanted & but very few slaves. 

17. Noe persons whateuer are to come from any place but according to Act off Pari' w'^'' the 
Magistrates & Officers of y^ severall townes or places are to take care of, accordingly the Plantacon 
is these late yeares increased, butt noe Generall ace' hath been taken soe is not knowne how 
much nor what persons. Some few slaues are sometimes brought from Barbados, most for 
provisions & Sould att ab' 30" or 35" Country pay. 

18. INIinisters haue been so scarce & Religions many that noe ace' caun be giuen of Childrens 
births or Christenings. 

19. Scarcity of Ministers & Law admitting marriages by Justices no ace' cann be giuen of the 
number marryed. 

20. Noe ace' cann be giuen of burialls formes of burialls not being generally obserued & few 
ministers 'till very lately. 

21. A merch' worth 1000" or 500" is accompted a good substantiall merchant & a planter 
worthe halfe that in moveables accompted with' All the Estates may bee valued att about 

22. There may lately haue traded to y^ Collony in a yeare from tenn to fifteen shipps or 
vessells of about togeather 100 tunns each, English, new England & our owne built of w"" 5 
smale shipps and a Ketch now belonging to New Yorke foure of them built there. 

23. Obstruccons to Improuem' of planters, trade, Navigacon, & mutual assistance are y* 
distinction of Collonies for our owne produce, as if different nations & people, though next 
neighbours on the same tract of land, & His Ma"" subjects, wee obseruing acts of trade & 
navigacon &•= 

24. Advantages, Incouragem' & Improuem' of Planters trade & Navigacon would be more if 
next neighbours of o"' owne nation the King's subjects upon the same tract of land might without 

1 "Rich." Chalmers Annals, 603. — Ed. 


distinction, supply each other with our owne produce, punctually obserueing all acts of Parliam' 
for Exportacon & would dispose all persons the better for mutuall assistance. 

2-5. Rates or Dutyes upon Goods exported are 2' for eacii hhd of Tobacco & 1' S"* on a beauer 
skin & other peltry proportiouably. Provisions & all else paye nothing, Goods imported payes 2 
per cent except Liquors particularly rated something more, & Indian trade goeing up the river 
payes 3 per cent, there are some few quitt rents, as also Excise or license monys for retaileing 
strong drinke & a way house or publique scale ; all applyed to y^ Garrison & publique charge, 
to which it hath not heitherto sufficed by a greate deale. 

26. There are Religions of all sorts, one Church of England, severall Presbiterians & 
Independants, Quakers & Anabaptists, of severall sects, some Jews, but presbiterians & 
Indipend" most numerous & substantiall. 

27. The Duke maintaines a chapline w'^'' is all the certaine allowance or Chirch of England, 
but peoples free gifts to y^ ministry. And all places oblidged to build churches & provide for a 
minister, in w'^'" most very wanting, but presbiterians & Independents desierous to haue & 
maintaine them if to be had. There are ab' 20 churches or Meeting places of w"'' aboue halfe 
vacant their allowance like to be from 40" to 70" a 3^eare and a house and garden. Noe 
beggars but all poore cared ftbr, If good Ministers could be had to goe theither might doe well & 
gaine much upon those people. 


" Answers of inquiries of New Yorke. 
Rec'' from S'' Edm. Andros on the 16"" 
of Ap. 1G7S." 

Governor Ayidros'' ansiver to Enqxdries of the Council of Trade. 

[ New England, II. 149. ] 

Answers to enquiries of Plantacons of New England from the Right Hon'''= the 
Lords of the Comittee for Trade and Plantacons: Rec** in London 9"' 

Aprill 1G7S. 

1. The boundaryes of each collony are those expressed in their severall pattents, but some 
being possessed afore, or incroached more since, and all in contest in some particulers with their 
neighbours, none will acquesse, and each true boundaryes tSc contents of Land cann never be 
determined and knowne but by the Kings Royall authority. 

2. I cann give noe other ace' of the lawes and ordanances in force in the Collonyes then 
%vhat is publique and printed by s*" Collonyes. 

3. I cann give noe certaine ace' of the number of inhabitants in the severall Collonyes, 
having by reason of the unsettled government of New Y'orke, as received from the Dutch, not 
had time or oppertunity for't, but by heare say. Connecticutt in all the country they now 
possesse have about 3000 freemen able to beare amies : Roade Islands 1000 or 1200 ; Plymouth 
about 1000 or loOO: Ma.ssac]uisetts S or 10000, most Church Members, as are all in place or 



authority (except Roade Islands Quakers, but governm' now out of their hands) not many 
servants, & but few slaves, proportionable to freemen, the number of Magistrates is as bv the 
patients and lawes of the several! Collonyes, 

4. There are noe standing forces and but few militia horse, but most foott trained bands 
in companyes, as by the seyerall Collonyes lawes, (numbers as afore), & know of noe noted 
experienced officer among them. 

5. There's in New England one small castle or forte upon a little Island att the goeing into 
Boston, indifferently well fortified and capable of annoying and resisting any ordinary enimy & 
(is sayed to be) furnished with amunicon of warr accordingly, & know of noe other fortificacon 
in the Collonyes. 

(j. I doe not know that private p'sons have been p''hibited communicacon nor that y^ Collonyes 
kept any correspondence with the French or Indians. 

7. I was not made acquainted with the originall cause, nor by the CoUony, of the Indian 
Warr, nor cann give any good ace' thereof; but tlie advantages thereby are none, the disad- 
vantages very greate & like to be more, even in the losse of s'' Indians. Doe not know of any 
condicons or peace made by the CoUonys with the Indians, only the Massachusetts, accepting 
y"" peace made for them by y^ Dukes forces att Pemaquid ; w"^"" is like to bee durable, unlesse 
broken by some accident by y^ inveteracy of the Collonyes and Indians. 

S. The Colloueys and A'ew Yorke have kept good neighbourly correspondency in private or 
perticuler legall & judiciall matters; but Connecticutt & Massachusetts not accepted nor 
admitted proffered supplyes & assistances (from New Yorke) dureing their Indian Warr, nor in 
their greatest occasion agreed themselves. Mutuall helps in case of danger ought to be 
according to y" exigence & each collonyes capassity to their power as one people and country ; 
wch (by reason of the severall distinct independ' collonys) cannot be but by His Ma"" asserting 
& regulateing the militia or force of y' severall collonyes ; w'^'' regulacou and orders to be 
indifferently obeyed by all for the future. 

9. If the force of all the severall Collonyes were ordered for mutuall assistance (as occasion) 
and be vigilant to avoyd surprize of their principall strengths or forts (w'^'' therefore ought to be 
garrisoned) they may defend themselves ag" any X'"" force whose charge & hazard for the 
attempt would not be farr greater then the country could compensate, & need not feare but 
may bring any Indians to reason ; & unlesse such regulacon & ord" for mutuall assistance, eveiy 
Collony may be a prey to an invader 

10. The comodityes of y* country to y' westward are wheate & all sorts of graine beefe and 
porke, some refuse fish, pipe staves, timber, lumber & horses, some smale masts; Eastward the 
same, not soe much p'visions, but good merchantable fish, & good masts. Imported, are all 
manner of European goods of all sorts, cheifely wollen & other English manufactures, & linnings, 
some wines from Fyall & Medera ; and a Barbadoes & West Indie trade, from whence cheifely 

11. I cann give noe accompt of the number of shipps tradeing to y* severall Collonyes, 
though but few and not considerable to any Collony, except Massachusetts, where very many 
and good shipps of bui-then, some 2 or 300 tunns, most built in their owne Collony. 

12. The acts of trade and navigacon are sayed & is generally beleeved not to be obsen-ed in 
y" Collonyes as they ought, there being noe Custome houses ; but the Governo"' of the Massa- 
chusetts gives cleareings certificates & passes for every particuler thing from thence to New 


13. I cann give noe other ace' of the Collonyes customes or dutyes on goods then as their 
law bookes and their rates fines and taxes are adjudged by their courts, magistrates or inferior 
officers, as occasion; & being casuall or accidental!, their revenue is accordingly uncertaine. 

14. I doe not knowe that there is any superioritie of one Collony over another, but all 
indepeud', though generally give place to and are most influenced by the Massachusetts, both 
in state and religion. 

15. I doe not find but the generality of the Magistrates and people are well aflected to y' 
King & Kingdome, but most knowing noe other governm' then their owne, think it best, and 
are wedded to and oppiniate for it. And y" Magistrates & others in place, chosen by the 
people, think that they are oblidged to assert & maintaine s"^ Government all they cann, and are 
Church Members, and like soe to be, chosen, and to continue without any considerable 
alteracon and change there, and depend upon the people to justifie them in their actings. 

16. There are severall sorts of religions in all the Collonyes, but inconsiderable to y^ 
Presbiterians and Independ'' ; being only allowed (but not all Church Members) except att 
Roade Island, where most are Quakers, but government now out of their hands. I have not 
heard of any Church or Assembly according to y' Church of England in any the Collonyes; 
their Ecclesiasticall Government is as in their law bookes, and practice most or wholly 
independant. Their Colledge at Cambridge directed as by their law booke. 

17. Tiiere is a trade between the Collonyes and New Yorke of European goods, some wine 
and runnn, fish and provisions. 

(Signed) E. Andkoss. 

^^hort Account of the Assistance rendered ly New-Yorh to New England. 

Upon newes of Indian troubles in June 1G75 tlie Governo' without delay advised & resolued 
sending or goeing to o"" neighbours of W^i" gave presently notice to Hereford of Intent & to goe 
to Connecticutt Riuer & the same day shipt spare ammunicon & armes w<='' they wanted & 
next morneing iiimselfe with some Volunteers & souldiers sailed to s'' River accordingly, where 
he did imediately tender, lending both powder & armes to be repayed in kind when the 
occasions was oner & they could be supplyed, & alsoe sent some to New London next towne to 
y' Indians desireing to be further informed of s'' troubles & assureing his readynesse to act as 
fitt for him to his power, but s'' proffers wholy rejected though ammunicon & armes very much 
wanted, & a severe protest made ag' him as if an Invader of their Country, upon which he 
Immediately went ouer to y' East End of Long Island & supplyed it & all o' out Islands giueing 
necessary Ord" for our defence upon all occasions euery where & to all Indians around us, who 
then apply'd with all submission & gaue all obseruance of ffidelity well obserued dureiug tlie 
whole warr but howeuer wee kept good continued guards by land & water. 

1C75 In Autumne the Indian warr Increaseing Eastward & Comeing more westerly, the 
governo-' prohibited the saile of powder to Indians on severe penaltyes extending to life (except 


to Maques of w'^'' well assured & upon notice of want sent (masked) six barrells of powder 
to roade Island w^^ they accepted & after tlierewith supplyed New England fforces in want att 
iVarragansett fight. 

167-f- In winter l(57f Phillip & other Indians in two partyes anned his ab' 500 the other 400 
men tending westward within forty miles of Albany, Connecticutt & Boston refuseing assistance 
or persueinge them into their CoUonys wee howeuer supplyed o' Indyans with ammunicon, amies 
& all they wanted : & reced old Maques Sachems, women & children into o' townes & though 
refused by o"' neighbours the latter end of ifebruary fell upon killed & tooke severall & drove s"* 
Phillip & other Indians with him quite away, & since kept continuall partyes out to free the 
coasts towards us & prevent old Indyans recourse to Canuada. 

1676. In summer 1676 y^ Indians prevailing much Eastward & towards Connecticutt, they 
sent thereupon two Comissioners to New Yorke, pretending Authority but haueinge none, y* 
Gouemour returned answer of readynesse if they pleased to procure them an hon"*'* and safe 
peace with Indians, or use force as occasion, & to remoue all Jealousies would forbeare all 
claymes to that parte of the Collony they possesse in his Royall Highnesses Pattants but had noe 
answer. Upon news of great devastacon eastward of boston y^ latter end of y"" yeare 1076 the 
Goveruo"' sent to releife & offer retreate to y' Inhabitants fled to Piscataway & Boston but they 
were detained. 

1677. In June 1677 black point^ being repossessed by Massachusetts but all y' Country else 
eastward & Islands distroyed & possessed by Indians the Goverm' sent from New-Yorke of 
w'^'' notice to all o"" neighbours, a force of about 100 men very well victualled in foure vessells 
furnished with smale gunns & all stores of warr & framed Redoute to take Possion of Pemaquid 
Sc'^ by fortifieing the most convenient place they could & not to admitt peace with Indians but 
upon their full submission & deliuering up all X""" prisoners or Captiues & vessells & Includeing 
all his Ma"^" subjects particulerly the Massachusetts w** succeded though with difficulty for 
the Massachusetts admission to Peace, & all Captiues of w'='' 35 by name & vessells att hand 
were presently delivered, att sending to acquaint the Massachusetts of the desigue they proclaimed 
a fast & day of prayer, leuyed or pressed about 120 men w''' they alsoe sent East ward of w"^*" 
^ being killed by Indians att black point the rest proceeded to o" att Pemaquid but finding 
them already posted they friendly questioned our comeing there & soe returned afore the 
Indians applycacons, w='' comeing some dayes after & conclusion as afore, an Expresse was sent 
to acquaint the Massachusetts therewith, & they accepted s"* peace w""" still continues & is all 
the peace (knowue) they haue with Indyans. 

" A shorte ace' of New Yorks assistance to New England. 1677. 
Rec-i from S' Edmund Andros on y* IS* of Aprill 1678." 

' See Note, ante p. 255. 

Vol. IU. 


Answer of tlie Agents of 3fa-ssaclii(setfs to Governor A^ulrcs' Petition. 

[ New-Vork Tapers, I. 137. ] 

To the King's most Excell' Ma'^ And tlie Lords of his most Hou'''= Privy Councill. 

The Answer of William Stoughton and Peter Bulkley Agents for Your Ma" 
Colony of the Massachusetts Bay in New England, to the Peticon of S"' 
Edmund Andros Kn' His Royall Highness' Lieut' and Governo"^ of New 
Yorke in America. 

Most kumhly Sheweth 

That at this distance they are uoe way furnished either with those severall infomiacons, w"='" 
were given both by the Captive Indians, and alsoe by the English, that being taken by the 
enemy and detained amongst them, were redeemed or otherwise made their escape. 
Concerning the supply of Powder &"= from the parts of Albany w'*' Sachem Phillip and the 
enemy Indians did Trade and receive dureing the late warre, nor with what passed betweene 
tlie Pef and your Ma'" Governo"" & Councill of the Massachusetts upon his takeing exception 
to a Clause menconed in their Declaracon. 

And for further answer they say that they understand not how either the Pef or any in place 
luider him hath beene soe reflected on, or preiudiced by any thing in the said Declaracon, or 
other Bookes, as he conceives and represents, it being very possible that notwithstanding strict 
prohibition, and care to the contrary, yet Phillip and his Complices might obtaine amunition 
from those parts without the knowledge of those in authority there, of the indirect and wicked 
practices of such evill minded persons, who will easily venture all for gaine ; yet who these 
were in particular was never (that these Respondents know of) discover'd to your INIa" 
Governm' of the Massachusetts, and therefor there can be noe danger of any mans being 
punished by them as is suggested. 

But if your Ma'^ in your wisedome shall see cause to require a more particuler answer from 
your Governor and Councell aforesaid: These Respondents doubt not of a most ready 
obedience to your Ma" Comands therein, who for themselves (as in duty they are bound) will 
to their utmost endeavor the removeing of any misunderstanding betweene the Pef and your 
Ma"' government of the Massachusetts, and that all good correspondence may be promoted and 
maintained with your Ma'* Colonies theire Neighbours ; soe much tending unto the advancem' 
of your Ma" interest and service, and the welfare and happiness of your Ma" subjects there 


The answer of y= Agents of New England to y« Peticon of iS" Edmund Andross 
R"* Ap. 24"' 1678." 


Order in Council on the ][>receding Answer. 

[ Prh7 CotmcU Register, C. E. II., XIII. 805. ] 

At the Court at Whitehall the this 24"' of April 1678. 

Present — The King's Most Excellent Ma''' 

in Council. 

The Massachusetts not to punish any of y' people of Albany till notice he give?i to his Ma'y. 

Upon reading this day at y* Board the Answer of William Stoughton and Peter Bulkeley 
Agents for his Ma'^' Colony of y* Massachusetts Bay in New England to y' Peticon of Sir 
Edmund Andros Knight, his Royal Highness' L' and Govemour of New Yorke in America, and 
consideration had thereof, his Ma''' was pleased to declare that he finds noe cause to beleive 
that any of his subjects from y^ parts of Albany did supply any powder or other materials for 
warr to Philip or other Indyan Ennemys in those parts, neither could he perceive any cause or 
ground for y= imputation layd upon his sayd subjects of Albany by y* Massachusetts, and 
therefore was pleased to order and direct, and it is hereby Ordered and directed accordingly 
That none of y* sayd subjects of Albany be lyable to any such imputation unless the 
Massachusetts shall accuse any particular person thereof and shall legally proceed against such 
persons in order to their conviction of y^ Crimes layd to their charge in the places where they 
inhabite or shall be informed ag' and proved delinquent before his Ma''' in Councill, within one 
year to be accounted from y'^ date hereof, And y^ Govemour and Councill of y^ sayd Colony 
of INIassachusetts, and all others concerned therein are required to take notice and punctually 
pbserve the same. And it was further Ordered that the sayd Agents of y* Massachusetts (now 
here) doe take care to transmitt this his Ma"^ pleasure to y^ sayd Massachusetts Colony by y' 
first opportunity for y' purposes aforesayd. 

Warrant to Sir Allen and Sir Peter Apdey in favor of Governor Andros. 

[New-Tork Entries, CLI. 25.] 

Whereas by an ace' of the Rec" and disbursem" ordinary and Extraordinary for y^ Colony 
and Guarrison of New Yorke in America from June 1674 to y* first day of November 1677 
exclusive, given in by S"" Edm"* Andros Kn' my L' and Govemour there, and stated by my 
Audif Gen" it appeares that there is due from me upon the ballance of the said ace' the sume 
of ^1381. 10. 5^ beaver pay (w''' in sterling money amounts to about y* value of .£1100., and 
whereas I have thought fitt y' the same be forthwith paid to y' s'' S'' Edm"* Andros in ord' to his 
speedy returne into those parts : These are therefore to will and require you forthwith to pay 
or cause to be paid unto y' said S' Edm"* Andros or his ord"' y' sume of eleven hundred pound 


sterling ; and for soe doeing this, together vv"" his rec' shalbe to you a sufficient Warr' and to 
my Audif Gen" for allowing the same upon your ace' Given und'' my hand at S' James's y' IS 
day of May 167S. 

To S' Allen and S'' Peter Apsley Ku'^ ) < HI 

my Trears and Rec" Gen" j " ^ 

Warrant aidliorizing Governor Andros to increase the Duty on. imported Hum. 

[Ncw-Tork Entries, CLI. 25.] 

Whereas I am credibly informed y' the e.xcessive use of rumme in your govemm' hath 
many pernitious consequences and particularly is fatall to y" health of many of his JIa'' good 
subjects there, one reason of w'^'' excesse is supposed to be from y' smallnesse of the duty on 
importacou of the same (w'^'' the Bosteners have already in some mea.sure prevented by rayseing 
the s* duty considerably vrithin their colony.) These are therefore to authorise and require you 
w"" y" advice of your Councell assone as you shall arrive at New Yorke to encrease y* said duty 
on y^ importacon of rume from time to time as you shall judge fitting; to continue dureing my 
pleasure. Provided that in y* whole y'' said duty be not greater within your governm' y° it is 
at y" same time y' you soe encrease it, in any otlier of your neighbour Colonyes : For which 
y' shalbe your Warr'. Given und' my hand at S' James's the IS"* day of May 167S. 

To S'' Edmund Andros Kn' my L' 
Govern"' of New Yorke, w"" its 
Dependencyes in America 

Comnii.'ision to Governor Andros to appoint a Judge of Admiralty. 

[ New- York Entries, CLI. 26. ] 

Whereas it may be convenient for you to be authorised and empowered to appoint a Judge 
Register and Marshall of the Admiralty within your governm' by reason of its distance from 
hence, (notwithstanding the clause in your comission of Vice Admirall w'"" reserves the 
nomination of them to my selfe) These are therefore to authorize and empower you, and I doe 
hereby authorise & empower you from time to time dureing the vacancyes of the said places to 
nominate constitute and appoint the Judge Register and Marshall of the Admiralty afores"* to 
continue dureing my pleasure only. Given under my hand and scale at S' James's y' 20"" day 
of IMay 1678. 



Report of CoMnsd on the Petition of Kiliaen Van Rensselaer. 

[New- York Papere, B. II. 104.] 

May it please Your Royall Highness 

We have in pursuance of the refference unto us upon the Report of the GoV of New York 
and the Pet" of the heiress of Killiaen van Renssellaer considered thereof, and do find both, by 
the Governors Report and several acts or adjudications in Holland, whereby the right of the 
Pet" to the lands called the Rensselaers Wyck heretofore called Williamstad and now Albany, 
doth of right belong unto the Petition" by a sale made to their predecessors in the year 1630. 
and have been for some years unduely kept out of the enjoyment thereof, and do humbly 
conceive that it may be just for your Royall Highness (if you so please) to grant unto the Pet" 
the said Ransselaers Wyck colonie with such priviledges and imunities as formerly they had, 
excepting the Fort called Orange-Fort and the land it stands upon, that whereas dureing the 
time they have been out of possession viz' since the years 1652. divers persons have built 
several houses upon some part of the premises, that such persons shall hold and enjoy the same 
for one and thirty years from this time, paying to the Pet" yearly the value of two beaver skins 
for the great houses, and for the middle sort of houses one Beaver skin and for the lesser half 
the value of a Beaver skin during tlie term which the Pet" do assent unto, and with this also 
that the Pet" and all that shall claime under them shall from time to time well and truelly pay 
and performe all publick dutyes and impositions as formerly have been by them, or their 
predecessors and all such as siiall be imposed on them by Your Royall Highnesse or j'our 
Governors upon the other persons that hold and enjoy any part of Your Highnesses lands or 
Colonies which [lie] in j'our territories of New Yorke or Albany. 

^ John Churchhill 

Heneage Fixch. 

4 Junij 1678. 

Warrant t-o Governor Andi-os to issue a Patent for Renssehxerswyck. 

[ New-York Entries, CLI. 26. ] 

Whereas I have perused y' peticon of y^ heires of Killian Van Renselaer setting forth their 
right to certaine lands called the Renselaers-Wicke (heretofore called Williamstadt and now 
Albany) and have heard the opinions of yourselfe and of my Councell at Law thereupon : these 
are to will and require you to cause Letters Patents under the Scale of your goveruem' to be 
granted to y* said Pet" to graunt and confirme unto y" y* s** Renselaers-Wicke Colony w"" such 
privileges and imunities as formerly they had (excepting y^ fort called Oranges Fort and its 
outworkes, if any be, and y^ lands they stand upon) and whereas dureing y* time they have 
beene out of possession, viz' since y= yeare 1652. divers persons have built several) houses upon 
some part of the p''misses, you are to take care y' such p''sons and all deriveing und'' y"" shall 
remaine in quiet possession of y* same yeilding and paying dureing the terme of 31 yeares to 


Comeuce from y' date of y' Lres Pattents abovemenconed, unto y« said peticoners or their 
assignes such yearely rent as you w"" the advice of yC Counceli shall thinke reasonable, not 
exceeding y*" value of two Beaver skins for y' great houses and of one Beaver skin for y^ 
middle sort of houses and of halfe a Beaver skin for the lesser sort of houses, and from and 
after y* expiracon of y* said 31 yeares the rent for y' future to be agreed on betweene y* said 
partyes themselves or as you or your successo" for y* time being, w"' y' advice of your 
Counceli shall judge reasonable. All w"'' y= s"* Pet" doe assent unto. And further you are 
to take care y' y' Petit" and all y* claime und'' y"" shall from time to time well and truly pay 
and p''forme all publique dutyes and impositions as foi'merly have beene by y™ or their p'decess" 
and all such as shalbe imposed by my selfe or by you or other my L' Govern" for y'= time being 
upon y' other persons y' hold and enjoy any part of y*" lands or Colonyes w'''in the territories 
of New Yorke or Albany or their Dependencyes in America. For all w'^'' y^ shalbe your Warr' 
Given under my hand & Scale at S' James's y' 7"' day of June 167S. 

To S' Edm'' Andros Kn' and Govern' of 
New Yorke and its Dependencyes in 

Memorandum ly Captain Bredon. 

[New-England, 11. 1511.] 

Capt. Bredon Concerning N. Eng"* Aug" 1678. 

That during y^ time of Oliver, New England had alwayes an Agent here ; one Windslow 
was y* man. 

That one 4"" of y^ chiloren there are not christened, for they neither baptise or give the 
Sacrament to other then those of their Congregation in fellowshipp. Tho' most come to 
Church for feare of y* 5' p. Smiday. 

They nmst enter Covenant. 

That one Sedgwick was sent about 1656 to rayse men at Boston, w"^"" he did, to reduce New 
Amsterdam, but newes comeing y' by treaty it was given up, he carryed those men (and Levirett 
with them he tiiinkes) to subdue y" French broile ; wherein one of the partyes appealed to y' 

But when in June 1662 Capt. Bredon was lifting men for y' expedition under y^ title he 
derived from ISP Eliott of y^ Bedchamber (before S"' T. Temple regained it) the Governour of 
Boston called for his conmiission, w'"" having shewne, " tlie King," sayed he " has granted what 
was not in his power, for we have a Cliarter for all" — putt Bredon in prison for 24 howres, till 
he gave secm-ity to desist. (Noe such beliaviour to Sedgwick sent by Cromwell; he was after 
Governour of Jamaica.) 

That when y' Commissioners went over, they had different quarters assigned them; but 
they chose all to lodge at Cap' Bredons. 


They had exposed their comission about a week before to y* Govei-nour and Coimcill; but 
as y* Com" were beginiug w"" the businesse of one Deane (about a shipp seisd contrary to y' 
Act of Navigation) there came a rable of about 100 before the dore, a sort of herault and a 
trumpeter, proclaiming a prohibition to y= Com" to proceede, or to any to attend at their perills. 

That one Peirce a great fanatick came first with newes of the K' restoration, w"" y' K' flagg 
in y' mayne topp. He brought GofF and Whally who calld themselves Richardson and Stevenson 
(as their fathers were called ;) Bredon advised seisure : the Governour them &■= 

M** To mention how Humphres & Cradock are here aud calld on to answer by y* Great 

Was it purposed y' all y* Patentees should goe over ; or were they here such men of bulke 
and estate as to make y' unlikely. If so, explaine y' and speaks of y* men. 

Q. How were they to fare who never went over and what was their advantage. The 

tw Not fi^g King must either have a Governour there, or must have y* Absolute Governour 
of y' place here. 

Q. Did y* Compau)^ ever sitt here, as y° Quo Warranto explaines, or was y' only to lay y° 

The shipp Eagle was here brought by y' Company. ■-■-> 


Paper about Cap' Bredon 

Aug" 167S. . ... 

Governor Andros to Mr. JBlathwayt. 

' [New-York Entries, I. 40-42.] 

New Yorke y= IB"" of Sepf 1678. 

After nine weeks passage the 7"" past I arrived here, where I found things quiet, tho' mucli 
allarmed with rumours of war, which occasioned extraordinary public charges, I have since 
received letters from the Governor of Maryland, of mischiefs done by strange Indians, on 
some of their Indians and Christians (alsoe) in the parts of Virginia and Maryland appre- 
hending 'tis the Sineques, and the beginning of a Warr, which I cannot think said Sineques as 
well as INIoquas, having been always very good and faithfull to this Government and kind to all 
Christians a this side, though since being treated with by our neighbours have been rude and 
insolent, and the Moquas fetched a\^y by fierce friend Indians of Conecticut, as they write to 
mee, and was owned when they sent to demand, but noe satisfaction given, which wee must 
expect and bee lyable to, so long as each petty colony hath or assumes absolute power of peace 
and warr, which cannot bee managed by such popular Governments as was evident by the late 
Indian wars in New England. And I doe not find but they are as high as ever, as may appear 
by the inclosed printed paper asserting and disposing of Narraganset Country at this juncture, 



tlioiigh hitherto vvholy distinct from and not under any their Colonies, and hy the King's 
Commissioners in IGt)4, called King's Province, and put under Rhode Island 'till further Order, 
of which or appeal to the King desired hy Rhode Island they will not hear, nor at all admit ; 
Alsoe liow well they obsei-ve Acts of Parliament for Enterics or Clearings of Ships or Goods, or 
take the Oaths is dayly seen. 

I thought to have gone to Pemaquid this year, it having proved very advantageous to the 
Fishery, by containing all the Indians in those Parts within the Rules and bounds prescribed 
them when they submitted ; but by advice of my Counsel have deferred going 'till Spring, when, 
all having notice, I may the better, by advice upon the place, settle things as they ought, for a 
continuance. In the mean time former Orders to bee observed as farr as Black Point being 
what the Indians were possessed of, when they submitted, and imports the quiet of all, as well 
as His Royal Highness though born hitherto both risce and charge, Nor shall I value the 
Bostoners telling lye upon their pretended purchase from M"" Gorges unless Ordered from home, 
which I think will not bee unheard, or place viewed, and defective Boundaryes elsewhere alsoe 
setled, particularly of the same Tract Eastward, as well as between this and Conecticut. 

1 pray my humble Service to S'' Robert Southwell with this accompt, and if you please to 
favor mee with a few lines, as occasion, youl farther oblige 

S'' Your most aifectionate 

humble servant 

E. Andros. 
Read in Council 4'" of Dec"" 1678. • * 

^ Governor Andros to Mr. Blailiwayt. 

[ New-York Entries, I. 43, 44. ] 

New York y« 12«'' of Oct' 1678. 

This is by y' return of the Ship that brought mee here, to give you an accompt of my arrival 
after a nine weeks passage. 

I found the Country quiet, but much allarmed with news of a French war, and since have 
had several rumors of Indian troubles with our neighbors, which wee hear still is towards 
Virginia and Maryland, but, not liaving it lately from those in authority, hope 'tis not of any 
import. But our neighbors of Connecticut have writ to mee of it, copies of whose letters and 
answer to them I send you at large, since which I have not heard from them, soe may judge of 
our state, and such their actions have made our Indians Ijft, if not insolent, which they never 
were afore, nor did I ever make treaty with, but dealt with them as being under or part of the 
Government which I told our neighbors, and many more arguments against their going to treat, 
assuring them there soe long as the Indians would hearken to this Goverm' they should not 
hurt them (but in vaine) And now all my hope is Regulations and Orders from the King, as 



the only means to keep us well in peace and preserve or defend us if warrs. In the mean 
time I shall not bee wanting to any ray neighbors, as occasion, to my power, if they will not 
admit it, and praying my humble service to S' Robert Southwell remaine 

S'' Your most affectionate 

humble servant 

E. Andros. 
Read in Council 4"" of Dec''" 1678. 

Commie-'i loners of the Unittd Colonies to Governor Andros. 

[ New-York Papers, I. 158. ] 

Hartford Sep. y' G"" 16TS. 
Honorable S'' 

The meeting of the Comission" of his Maj"" united Colonies at Hartford upon y^ date of 
these presents giues good opertunity to congratulate yo'' safe returne into these parts, Where 
wee arejoyntly concerned in one comon Interest of his Maj''^ and the English Nation, and hope 
yo"' Hono" ready complyance in and advance of those meanes that may conduce thereto, In 
speciall to a Genn''all re-settlement of y^ Country, afFter so nmch trouble and mischeife lately 
suflered by y^ barbarous Indian, W^"" AUmighty God hath in a great measure allready indulged to 
us uo new trouble in view seeming to threaten unless by meanes of misund'"standing betweene 
the Maquas and o'' fFreind Indians the Maquas hauing lately made a Depredation nere o"' English 
houses killing and carrying captiue Twenty ffour, since w'''' wee haue so farr conseraed o'"selues 
as by Messenger to solicite their returne to us, and to informe their mistake if it may so 
charitably be construed ; obtaining yet no more then that they should bee Returned if againe 
sent ffor, and in presence ofyo'' Hono'' upon whom they seem (if not wronged by y^ Interpreters) 
to haue a great dependence the Indians under y' Gov''ment of these Colonies do greatly 
complaine of their constant anoyance and mischeifes done by them so that wee fft?ar if y= 
ffuture quarrell be not p''vented it will quickly break out into a flame w"^"" may endang"' their 
English Neighbours and who can fforesee y^ sad consequences there of wheth"' j'o'' Hono'' will 
haue the like resentment of y^ matf as wee haue or shall Judge it meet to concerue yo'' selfe so 
far as to exert yo'' pow' and Interest ftbr y^ returne of those captiues and quieting those 
disturbances of Man Kind wee know not but do judge it o"' duty w'^'' wee owe to his Maj"^ and 
y" peace of his subjects in these united Colonies, to giue you a true and timely Information 
thereof, those troubles hind''ing the further Planting and Settlement of o' countrymen in these 
parts w'''' yo' selfe and wee are Laboring to procure yo"' sence herein and ansW while wee are 
setling will greatly oblige, 

Hono''able Sir, Y o"' Humble Servants 

y' Comission"''' of the united Colonies. 

Will. Leete 
Joseph Daxley' 
Tho: Hinkley 
Jam. Cud worth 
Jn" Allen. 

' " Dtdley. " — Ed. 

Vol. HI. 85 


Governor Androis' Reply to the Commissioners. 

[ New-York Papers, I. 153. ] 

Hono''able S" 

Since my arriuall I wTite to y'' Gov''nor and gaue bim an accompt of my returne, & yo" of 
the G"" Instant I Receiued last night ffor w"='' I giue you many thanks and shall bee still ready to 
do my Duty as I ouglit and especially to my neighbours, and as to that particular late act of y' 
Maquas you mencon and you hauing sent a messing"' and had answer fFrom s'' Maquas you are 
best able to judge thereof and what is proper to be done thereupon W'' if you shall think 
necessary to signifie or any of your desire I shall not be wanting on my part as occasion to 
p^'ent any flame W^"" may Endang"" any of his Maj"" subjects as you seeme to suggest may 
ensue or Trouble or hinderance to y^ Planting and Settlement of o"' Countrymen in these 
parts, and remaine 

Hono''able S" 

New Yorke 7"" y^ lO"" 78. Yo'' Humble Seruant 

Commissioners of the United Colonies to Governor Andros. 

[Xew-Tork Papers, I. 15S.] 

Hartford Sept. 14"" 1678. 
Hono'''''^ Sir 

Yo" Letf directed to y^ Govern'' of this Colony not being yet come to hand y^ contents are 
unknowne & so crave yo'' Excuss that you haue no answ' thereof. 

Tliese are to signify o"' thankfull acceptance of yor ftreindly Lines in answer to yo'' fforme'' 
Letf y*' G"" of this Instant and that nothing migiit bee wanting on o"" parts wee doe hereby 
flarther request of yo'' Hono'' speedely to improue yo'' Interest & pow''' ffor the returae of those 
poor Captiues yet remaining aliue amonge y^ Mowhawks and ffor y^ security of o'' ffreiudly Indians 
0"" Bowells Can not but yearns towards them. Considering how ffreindly and ffaithfully they 
haue manifested them selues to be to the English in o'' late Troubles and many of them are 
amongst the little number on whom the blessed god has had Compassion in sending to tiiem his 
Euerlasting Gospell and wee hope not w"'out successe to some of theire poore souls, wee haue 
not yet been informed of any Just [gjrounds that y' Maquas pretend tibr their daily Excursions 
and Depredations made upon them yo'' ffreindly aspect and paines herein and ffor y' settling a 
generall peace amongst y^ Indians wee Judge will bee acceptable to god, to His Ma''" and shall 
bee to us, who are, Hon"^ Sir, 

Yo'' humble Servants y" Comission''' 

of y* united Colonies 

Will. Leete 
Tho. Daxforth 
Joseph Dueley' 
Tho Hinkley 
Jam. Cudworth 
To y« GoVner of New Yorke. J^o Allyx. 

' " DuriLET. " — Eb. 


Governor Leet to Governor Anclros. 

[ New-Tork Papers, I. 15S. ] 

Hartford Sep' y= IS"- 1678. 
Hon"^ S' 

Yo" of Aug*' S"" 1678 came not to hand here untill y' date aboue and after the sealing the 
Com" returne now sent in ansW to yo' last, where lay the fault is uncertaine howeuer it hath 
obstructed y^ answ'' w*^"" in civility would haue beene sooner giuen but now I do intreat your 
canded acceptance of my tlianks rendered for yo"' louing and neighbourly notice of one so 
unworthy as allso ftbr that gratefull news of a Geuerall peace tln-oughout Urope w"" tiie other 
intelligence hopeing and desiring such peace in America may be by yo'' and us euer indeauored 
w"" tiie Barbarians who are soe apt to reveng and quarrell and thereby may Embroyle their 
English neighbours and make trouble in the Country none knows wherew"" to prevent it is 
desired that y"' Maquaes and those w"" them may by yo"' Hon'' be restrained from o'' parts unless 
by from y'' selfe and all o" likewise ffrom those parts but by Ord'' flrom us to prevent any 
such Hostill motions as haue of late fallen on & w'"" is all at present ffrom &"= 

Will. Leete 

To y^ Govern"' of N. Yorke. 

Governor Andros' Reply to the Commissioners. 

[ New-York Papers, L 153. ] 

N. Yorke 7>>" 25. 1678. 
Hono"" S" 

I receiued yo""' of y* 14"" Instant Last night and in Answ"' to what is therein desired haue 
advised thereupon and finde you hauing made a particular treaty w''' y^ Maquas and affwards 
upon rong receiued as you mention sent to demand satisfaction w^'out my knowledge or notice 
to any here in my absence ; it is not advisable for me to deale with s"* Maquas on j'o'' accompts 
unless you send some by you sufficiently authorised ffor that purpose, it being nesessary yo"" 
assertine yo'' s"* treaty and message w"" them, w'^'" if you shall think fitt to doe this way I shall 
not only afford them all Liberty through y'' Gov''ment but Contribute w^Iiat shall be fFurth"' prop' 
on my part, as occasion when it will bee requisit that some likewise come from Unkus & the 
oth' yo' freind Indians and if it bee necessary for the Publique good of these Colonies further to 
aduise on the Matt' 1 ain willing and ready my selfe to giue a meeting at N. Haven or any other 
ffitting place betweene this & that Desiring to do my duty to y^ utmost in Euery good respect 
you mention & remaine, Hou'''^ Sirs, 

Yo' most Humble Servant. 

E. A. S. 

To y' C omission" of y° ] 
United Collonyes Joyntly j 


Governor Andros to Governor Leet. 

[ Xew-Tork Pripers, I. 153. ] 

N. Yorke 7^" 28. 1G7S. 
Hono"'- S^ 

I receiued yo'' Perticiiler Letf of Date y*" IS"" Instant and one jointly w"" the Commission" of 
tlie Collonyes Last night for w'"'" I giue you thankes and shall be ready to contribute what may 
be ffor the interest and Safty of yo"" parts but y"selues hauing treated w"' and since upon 
occasions sent messengers to Demand Reparations of the Maquas do not find it adviseable for 
me to act in s'* Matters w^'out some Emediatly autliorized ffrom you w"^' if you think proper I 
shall flavour them ff'urtlier as ffkn-e as you can expect to my pow"' and that I may not bee 
wanting in any thing haue resolued if occasion fibr further [aduise] arise thereupon for y° 
publique good of yo"' parts to meet at New Hauen or any other ffitt place betweene This and 
that when I hope I may allso liaue the opertuuity of seeing yo''selfe and remaine 

To y= Gouernor of ] 
Conecticutt J 


Copys from & to Hartford. 
Rec'* from S'' E. Andros 

Si"- Nov. 1G78. 

Sir John Werden to Governor Andros. 

[ New-York Entries, CLI. 27. ] 


Your freshest Ires are of the 14"' & IG"" September and of y' 12 Octob'' (78) and they are 
lately come to my hands ; His R" H'' p'used y" himselfe and I believe intended to have given 
me his comauds in all particulars therein menconed to have beene sent you by one of y' first 
ships bound for your parts ; but still one day hath followed another without aflbrding time for 
it, save only in one poynt, and y' too I thinke hath beene brouglit to its conclusion rather by y' 
importunity and unreasonablenesse of Capt. Billopp's father, then through any harslmesse in y* 
Duke's disposition towardes him. M" Biliopp (as you will see by y' peticon) hath pretended y' 
your usage of his son hath beene very hard ; and y' complaint engaged y*" Duke to see those 
])arts of yo'' letters wherein you give an ace' of his greate and long neglect of his duty, and 
thereupon y'' Duke not doubting yo"' ability or integrity to judge of y' in your inferior OffiC, 
hatli thought fitt not only to approve yo'' suspension of liis employm', but hath ordered it to be 
given to Capt. Salisbury ; as you will p''ceive by y« enclosed comission to him. I have 
nevertlielesse assured M'' Billo]ip y' if he or his son have any just cause of complaint ag"' you, 


relateing any ways to him properly or to common justice, y' His R" H" will always be ready to 
heare him, and will expect yo"" justificacon to any particular charge of y' nature. Dated at S' 
James's y*" 10"" of March lG7f . 

To Sir Edmund Andros Kn' &' 

Governor Andros to Mr. Blathioayt. 

[Xew-Tork Papers, I. 164.] 

'■ •■' -'" • N. Yorck y S-S'" of March 1679. 


I haue but now receau'd yo" of y^ 2^ of August, by M"' Doruell, y* ve.scll nott yett come up, 
& this ship y^ Beauer cleared, ready to saile w^*" oportunity I caunott ohmitt, to giue y" my 
thaucks for y"" said letter, and fauour of y^ inclosed, hope y" haue receau'd uiiue sent in oc''^'' by 
y^ ship Blosom since -w"^ no alteration, butt all continues in the same good condition in this 
place & GouermnS & hope haue been a meanes to stop & preuent (if seconded in time) futere 
indian mischiefs in Virginia & mariloud hauiug upon first notice from Coll. jefreys of some 
mischeifs by unknown indians toke all y^ care I could to be informed, & in no''" y^ leter had, 
hauing notice of some Xtians brought from y« Southwords by indians aboue 400 miles u west 
from hence, I did presently order, sending expresse Xtians (if to be had for so bitter and distant 
ill journey att such a season) or Indions w"^"" should demand my Xtian captiues to be brought to 
me, & if posible stop their prosecuting or goiug out againe upon y^ like designe, w'^'' they were 
to signifie from me to all other indions by themselves or indion messengers as they could above 
600 miles from hence two Xtians speaking good Indian one being y' usuall interpreter undertook 
itt, in their wey y^ mohaukes readily promised nott to be concerned & sent a messenger of their 
owne to their neighbours whom they call children & are y* oueides deemed y^ first nation of 
sineques, whom notwithstanding were very stuborn & insolent for 3 da3-es aprehending by a 
false informatiou some of theirs were detained att Albany but afterwards \' next nation beyond 
them called onondagues then drowen in submiting very much, liy delivering & sending 
me a scalp brought as they say against their will y' the &'' oneides did so iarr as of -2 
woemen and 4 children they had to free 1 wooman & 2 ciiildren but kept y" otlier & 2 childrt n 
'till they should heare of some of theirs they said the}' had lost in Virginia of w"''' complaine 
much, as being first Sc without cause fallen upon «Sc killed, or taken but promised howeuer they 
would send out no more partys. 

The Xtians being midle of winter (and very hard & sharp weather) could gett no further, 
but sent indions forwords to the other nations with small strings of wonipon (being in lieu of 
letters), from all w'^'" had good satisfactory answers, & return'd the begining of January, but 
Xtian captiues could not come or be brought so soone & hauing notice of their hauing deteined 
halfe, gaue order to insist upon my former demand, \\"^' att their coming to Albany with much 
adoe they promised & I hope are there by this time. 

Att y" same time I sent to indians I sent expresses to Virginia & mariland with a perticular 
accompt desiring their result as soon as might be, for w'^'" they both thank me & desire my 


continued indeauouis, but refer me for their resolues y' one after an assembly to be held in 
Aprill or May, y^ other of a Counsell to be called & answer from their neighbours, & our 
Neighbours Eastsvard rather more unresolued, therefore may thanck God y^ Indians haue nott 
been refractory wee being y' least colony & so dispersed or disjointed, I heare from y^ Eastward, 
w"''' since setling at Pemaquid with a Garrison is very quiett, that y^ masachusets talke hye of 
their pretended purchase from W George by \\'^ they haue already scared severall of the 
cheefest men of these parts into a Compliance with them, & giue out they will have also some 
islonds belongin to and anext to this Governm' w"'' amuses y^ poor people that way thatt nott 

& nott to be helped or remedied but by a determination of all diferences among all y* 
colonyes 'till when no generall friendship nor safety, but y^ contrary, & if some good Comis- 
sioiiers from home might easily setle all & contreys as easily beare y' charge, & the King haue 
a full & particular acompt but I have exceeded the bonnds of a letter & of what y" selfe already 
knows better for all y' latter part for w'='' praying y'' pardon & if you please my humble service 
to S'' Robert Southwell, I remaine, S'' Y' afiectionate & 

most humble Seruant 
» E. Andrgss. 

An Indian Sachem reports that y" frensh of Canada intend this year to send a Garrison or 
setlem' into one of their towns where these Xtian captiues were a this side y" lake w'''' being of 
import ile eudeauor to preuent but if Efected will not only endanger all y^ Indian trade, but 
expose all y* King's plantations upon this continent when they please they pretending no bounds 
that way. 


25 March 1679. 
Will" Blathwayt Esq' 
From S' Edm. Andros. 
Read at y' Committee the 
part concerning the 
Province of Maine, the 
19'" June 1679. 

The King'^s Allmvance to JVeiv- YorTc. 

[ Nciv -T.jk Tapers, I. ICC. ] 

Establislnii' of New Yorke. 

These are to Certify That His Maj"" allowance towards the maintenance of y*" Garrison & 
Forts of New Yorke in America is One Thousand Pounds p" ann. The charge aboue this 
allowance is paid by His R" H"" the Duke of Yorke. 

Job. Holder Aud' 

19° Junii 1679. 


Duke of York^s Commission to John Leicen. 

[ New-Turk Entries, CLI. 2S. ] 

To John Lewen, Gent : &■= 

Know Yee tliat I reposeing gi-eat trust «& confidence in your integrity and ability, have 
appointed and by these presents doe authorize and appoint you to be my Agent and Servant in 
New Yorke and Albany and other my lands and territoryes in America, and therefore you are 
w"' y'= first opportunity of shipping bound for those parts, to take your passage to New Yorke, 
and uppon your arrivall there 3-ow are b)' all good and reasonable wayes aud meanes to apply 
your selfe to inquire and find out all y'' estate, rents, revenues, proffitts, aud p'"quisites, W*" in any 
sort doe of right belong and appeartaine to me and arise in any of those places, and to examine 
all bookes papers records and other matters relateing thereunto, and to y' end I doe hereby 
authorize and empower 3'ou to demand aske aud receive of and from all and every of my 
Officers and servants or any others employed in any places of trust belonging unto mee, all bookes, 
papers, writeings, recordes, registers, acc'S and all otiier things w* may tend to y* discovery or 
manifesting thereof. Aud I doe hereby require and comand all my said officers and others 
imployed in any such places and trusts, to produce and shew unto you and to suffer you to have 
y free and full use of them soe often and soe long as you shall thinke fitt and have occasion for 
y* same. And I doe further authorise empower and require you in a more especiall manner to 
inquire and find out whether y*" free trade of any of y" inhabitants of tliose places or any 
merchants tradeing thither now is or hath beene lately obstructed or hindered, and how and by 
what meanes y* same hath beene so obstructed orhindred, and how such obstructions may be 
removed, and how and by what methods y'' trade and traders in those places may be encouraged 
and increased. It being my reall intencon and desire to encourage and advance y^ ease benefitt 
and advantage of trade and y'' Merch" and inhabitants there. And for y^ better executeing of 
the trust w'^'' I have reposed in you, I doe require you to observe and follow such direccons and 
instruccons as you shall herewith receive. Given under my hand and seale at Windsor y" 
24">ofMay 16S0. 

Instructions for John Lewen, 

[ Xew-Tork Entries, CLI. 

Instruccons and direccons for John^Lewen Gen' for the better executeing of y' 
trust I have reposed in him touching my afi^aires in New Yorke, Albany, and 
Long Island and other my territoryes and Countryes in America. 

You are to understand that y^ reasons moveing me to send you over to New Yorke &"= are 
cheifly y' I might by your inquiry and diligence be fully and certaiuely informed aud adviced of 
y" true state and condicon of all those places in relacon to y' trade thereof, aud of all y« parts & 
branches of y' Revenue and other proffitts aswell certaine as accidentall or casuall w'='' doe 
properly and justly belong unto me, as I am y^ proprietor of y' said places or otherwise. And 


nlsoe y' I mny have a true full and just informacon and knowledge of y" reall constant and 
neccessary charge and expence \v* must be laid out and issued for tlie maintenance & support 
of y^ governem' of those places. In all \v'='' particulars I doe expect to receive from you from 
time to time full plaine certaine and reall ace'* And for yo'' better proceeding therein you are to 
observe the direccons and instruccons following : — 

First imediately upon yo'' arrivall at New Yorke you are to apply your selfe to Sir Edm"* 
Andros y^ present Govern'' there, and to deliver unto him such lett" and ord''* as you shall for 
y' purpose receive for him from me, and then you shall demand of him y' he send to such 
person and persons in whose keeping all or any of y* bookes and ace'" relateing to y^ customes 
of goods imported or exported for six yeares last are now resting, and y' he cause y'= same to be 
delivered to you without any delay. And in case y' same bookes or ace'" of the said Customes 
be in his owne power and keeping, y" you are to demand y"" of him and let him know it is my 
pleasure he shoidd deliver y"' to 3-ou, or put and place y"" where you may have free and 
continuall resort to and inspection and perusall of y"". 

2. You are likewise to demand and procnre from him or any other person who hath y"" in his 
or their keeping, all bookes, entryes, and Ace" of all lands w"''' have beene granted to any 
planter by the present or any other governour. 

3. You are out of those bookes entryes or ace" and by all other certaine wayes or meanes 
w"^ you shall there find out, carefully and exactly to draw out a true and perfect ace' of all y^ 
land y' is granted to y^ planters, soe as to ascertaine y' whole number of acres, and y'' totall of 
all Quitt rents and other rents, proffitts, Services and advantages due and payable to me or any 
other, by reason of such grants or otherwise. 

4. You are also to informe your selfe w"" all dilligence and exactnesse w' rent or tax every 
house at New Yorke, Esopus, Albany, Long Island, and all other my territoryes doth or ought 
to pay by y' yeare, and how y' s"* rent or tax becomes due or was or is imposed, and how 
much y' same doth yearely amount unto in y*" said severall places, & who hath had and received 
the same for y= space of six yeares last past, and for w« use y* same is paid whether for y= 
benefit of me or for defraying y^ charges in y^ country relateing to y" govemement thereof; 
and if you find any bookes or entryes are kept of these rents and of y*" payments thereof, you 
are to demand y"' same of y^ persons in whose custody they are, and draw out an ace' of y^ 
totall of y^ said rec" & to whom the same have beene p*" and for w' use. 

5. You siiall also make careful! and diUigent search and inquiry touching the value or yearly 
proffitt y' hatii beene made of y^ severall weyhouses in New Yorke, Albany, Long Island for 
six yeares past, and also how y^ proffitt doth arise ; and you are to informe your selfe of y° 
best way of manageing thereof for my advantage, whether by appointing a Collector to receive 
y^ duty or by letting it to farnie. 

G. You are in like manner to infoi'me youf selfe of y= yearely value of the Tap licence in all 
y places aforesaid, and how y'^ same doth arise and grow due, and take y^ most exact ace' you 
can how much it doth amount unto in each place, and how it is collected or gathered, and w' 
hath beene made thereof yearly for six yeares past and who hath rec" y= same and whether it 
be most proffitable for me to appoint Collectors to receive it, or to let out to farme. 

7. I being informed y' there is a different method used in Long Island for raiseing of moneys 
fjr my use, from w' is settled in New Yorke, and Albany, viz' by a yearly tax upon all manner 
of goods and stocke aswell liveing as dead: you are therefore particularly carefully and 




punctually to inforrae your selfe how y*' said money is raised and w' hath beene made thereof 
every yeare for six yeares last past, and whether y* same hath beene collected by my Offic" or 
let to farme. And you are to informe your selfe of the true value thereof, and how it may be 
best improved for my advantage. 

8. You are likewise to inquire w' taxes, charges, or impositions have beene paid sett or 
granted in any of y* s^ places for six yeares last past and how, by w", and for w' use, were 
y' same and every of y™ laid sett or granted, who hath reC* y* same, and w' part there is or 
ought to be made good or paid to my use. And in particular you are to inquire whether there 
is not a yearly tax or pa}Tn' by all y'= Inhabitants, of Poll money, and how much is paid by y' 
head and to w™ the same is payable and who hath had and rec"* y'^ same for six j^eares last past, 
and how much y' last menconed Poll money, and all y^ said other taxes charges & impositions 
did severally amount unto and w' p'"ticular yeares they were respectively granted or levyed. 

9. You shall likewise make inquiry of w* fines, amerciam'S or other forfeitures or seizures for 
non paym' of customes or any other duty have beene sett or imposed seized or taken for six yeares 
last past in any of y' Courts there, w''*' doe belong to mee, uppon any offence of forfeiture 
whatsoever, and who hath had and rec'' y^ same and how much they do amount unto. And in 
y' and all other cases where you find any records, bookes, or acc"^ have beene kept, relateing to 
any the matters wherein you are instructed, you are to demand }•" siglit view, perusall, and 
use of all such records bookes ace'' and entryes as have beene kept thereof; and the p''son and 
p'sons in whose custody they respectively are kept are hereby required to deliver y^ same to 
you accordingly. 

10. And forasmuch as y^ greatest part of ray revenue in those parts doth arise by the Customes 
of goods and merchandizes imported and exported into and out of those parts, and from New 
Yorke to Albany, y'' cleare value whereof I desire to be fully informed of and ascertained : You 
are therefore most strictly and w' all prudence care and circumspection to endeavour to find out 
detect and discover all y^ frauds and cunning practices w"'' have beene used by y* Merch' 
importer or exporter, or by any my offic" or ministers of the Custome or elswhere, or by any 
other person or persons. And you are to informe j'our selfe by the best ways and meanes you 
can how y^ same may be avoyded and prevented for y^ future, and in order to make a discovery 
of w* frauds have beene used of y' nature, you shall examine by the Custome house bookes 
(w* you are ordered to take into your custody as is above in y"" first article directed) w' ships 
have been entred inward or outward for six yeares last past, and w' goods or merchandizes are 
therein entered to have paid custome and how much custome was paid, and to whome such 
goods as were imported were consigned; and you are to examine how many beaver a