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VOL. 11. 





Volumes III., IV., V., VI., VII. and IX. of this work were published under the direction of the Governor, 
Skcretaut of State and CourTROLLER of the State of New- York ; and the publication has been completed 
under the authority of the Regexts of the University, in virtue of the Act of the Legislature to that effect, 
passed April 12, 1856. 

The Documents in Dutch and French were translated by E. B. 0'Callagiia.n, M. D., LL. D., who was 
employed for that, and to superintend the publication generally. 





I tiv^tsj 1^ 




January 3. Memorial of Don Esteyan de Gamarra y Contrevas, the SpaniBh Ambassador, to the States-General ^ 

respecting the case of the Pilot, Jan Gallardo, <Sic., 

January 4 Resolution of the States-General referring the foregoing memorial to a committee, <tc ^ 

January 15. Resolution authorizing a subsidy of 10,000 guilders for New Netherland 

January 25. Resolution of the States-General upon the report of the abovenamed committee, &c » 

January 25. Letter of the States-General to Director Stuyvesant, thereupon ' '^ [' i" "'l"'J 

March 9. Resolution of the Common CouncU of Amsterdam that a Clergyman and 300 colonists be sent to its 

Colonic in New Netherland. and 36,000 guilders advanced, • • • ■ • 

April 12 Letter of the Common Council of Amsterdam to Director Stuyvesant on the matter of Gallardo 4 

April is! Letter of Yice-Director Alrichs to the Commissioners of the city's Colonic on the Delaware river 4 

May 7. Letter of Vice-Director Alrichs to the Burgomasters of Amsterdam, 

May 8. Letter of Vice-Director Alrichs to the Commissioners of the city's Colonic, 

May 8. Bond for Nine Tliousand guilders borrowed for the Colonic on the Delaware nver, _. ^ 

May 25 Letter of Vice Director Alrichs to the Commissioners of the city's Colonic on the Delaware river, 13 

July 4. Resolution authorizing a further subsidy of fi.OOO guilders for that Colonic ••••••••;••. ;; ' 

August 10. Letter of Evert Petersen, Schoolmaster at New Amstcl, to the Commissioners of the Colon.e on the ^^ 

Delaware river, ■" •■"" .j, 

August 13. Letter of Vice-Director Alrichs to the Commissioners of the Colonie on the Delaware, .............. 

Sep°tember 7. Resolution of the Common CouncQ of Amsterdam appointing a committee to inquire into the affairs cf ^^ 

the Colonie on the Delaware • • ■ ; 

October 1 3. Resolution of the Common Council of Amsterdam to advance 1 6,000 guilders for that Colonic, 

1658. . 22 

AprU 11. Resolution for a further subsidy of 20,000 guilders for that Colonie 

Papers relating to the case of Jan Gaillardo and his Negro Slaves : 
April 25. Letter of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company to the States-General 

Oclofer 20. Letter of Director Stuyvesant and the Council of New Netherland to the States-General in reply to ^^ 
theirs of January 25th, 1657 

1656. txe 

September 6. Petition of Jan Gaillardo to the Director and Council of New Netherland ^^ 

April 10. Declaration of Jan Gaillardo before a Notary 

September 6. Extract from the register of the Director and Council of New Netherland ^^ 

November 1. Declaration of Adriaen Janssen before Secretary Van Ruy ven ■'■,■■■,■■■,■ oq 

Answer of Juan Gaillardo to the resolution of the Director and Council of New N ethcrland, 29 

October 31. Extracts from various papers respecting the Negroes, Ac, claimed by Gaillardo, &c. 

August 24. Extract from the register of the Director and Council of New Netherland, 33 

August 29. Reply of Jan Gaillardo, <tc., at New Amsterdam 

September 4. Extract from the register of the Director, Ac, of New Netherland, thereupon, ^^ 

September 15. Rejoinder of Jan Gaillardo, &c., 

Letter of Secretary Van Ruyven to the committee upon Gaillardo's case, *c. 40 

September 4. Examination of Nicholas Bernard before a committee in the City Hall of New Amsterdam 41 


1657. Page. 

October 22. Report of the comtnitteo on the case of Jan Gaillardo 42 


July 1 2. Declaration before the Dutch Consul at Cadiz, Ac., 44 


June IG. License from Director Stuyvesant to Carsten Jeroensen, Captain of a yacht, to go to Curarao, Ac. 44 

June 21. Instructions to Skipper Jeroensen, 45 


May 25. Letter of Skipper Jeroensen to Director Stuy vesant, 49 


April 2G. Resolution of the States-General referring the foregoing documents to a committee, Ac 47 

May 3. Resolution of the States-General referring to a committee a letter of the West India Company respect- 
ing tlie ratification, by the English government, of the Provisional Boundary agreed to at Hartford, 47 
May 31. Resolution of the States-General referring to a committee a petition of the West India Company praying 

that the exportation of arms and ammunition to New Netherland may be prohibited, 48 

June 6. Resolution of the States-General upon the report of the abovenamed committee 48 

July 1 8. Account of moneys borrowed for the city's Colonie at New Netherland, at interest to date 48 

October 10. Letter of Vice-Director Alrichs to the Commissioners of the city's Colonie on the Delaware, 49 

October 1?. Resolution of the Common Council of Amsterdam referring the condition of its Colonie to a committee, 66 

December 20. Resolution of said Council upon the report of their committee to alter the articles, Ac, 67 


February 13. Letter of the Chamber at Amsterdam to the Director and Council of New Netherland 58 

Remonstrance of the Commissioners of the city's Colonie on the Delaware recommending a modifica- 
tion of the Conditions, 68 

March 10. Resolution of the Common Council of Amsterdam upon the above remonstrance 59 

April 22. Letter of the Comniis=ioners of the City's Colonie to Vice-Director Alrichs, 60 

Juno 25. Letter of Vice-Director Alrichs to Governor Feudal!, of Maryland 64 

June 27. Calculation of expenses, Ac, for the transportation of 100 persons to New Netherland, 65 

August 13. Letter of Governor Fendall, of Maryland, to Vice-Director Alrichs, 67 

September 23. Extract from the proceedings of the XIX. of the West India Company, respecting New Netherland, ... 72 

September 9. Protest of the Vice-Director and Council at New Amstel against Lord Baltimore's claims, 73 

Septfmber 20. Letter of Vice-Director Alrichs to the Commissioners of the city's Colonie 75 

Septembcr21. Letter of Vice-Director Alrichs to Burgomaster Cornelis de Graeff, 76 

September 30. Resolution of the Common Councilor Amsterdam to surrender the city's Colonie to the West India 

Company, 78 

September 30. Order appointing a day of General Fasting and Prayer, 78 

October 6. Vindication of the Dutch title to the Delaware river, or Declaration and Manifest on behalf of the 
Director-General and Council of New Netlierland, delivered to the Governor and Council of 

Maryland 80 

Extract from Lord Baltimore's patent, 84 

October 17. Observations of Messrs. Ileermans and Waldron on Lord Baltimore's patent 86 

October 17. Letter of the Governor and Council of Maryland to the Direc'or and Council of New Netherland, 66 

October. Journal kept by Augustine Ileermans of his erabas.<y from New Netherland to the Governor and 

Council of Maryland 88 

October 21. Letter of Messrs. Ileermans and Waldron to Director Stuy vesant, 99 

November 8. Resolution of the Common Council of Amsterdam to grant a further subsidy of 12,000 guilders for tho 

city's Colonie on the Delaware river 100 

November 18. Return of loans elTected on account of the city's Colonic at New Netherland, at interest of SJ per 

cent, to this day 101 

November 18. Extracts from tlie records of the Vice-Director, Council and Schepens of the Colonie at New Amstel, 103 

Letter of Sheriff Van Sweringen to tho Commissioners of the city's Colonie on the Delaware river,. . . 106 

December 8. Letter of Sheriff Van Sweringen on affairs in the city's Colonie 108 

December 12. Letter of Alexander d'llinojosn to tho Commissioners at Amsterdam, together with sundry accounts, 109 

December 12. Letter of Vice-Director Alrichs to the Commissioners of the Colonie on tho Delaware river 112 

December 21. Letter of Skipper Jacob Janscn Ilnys to the Commissioners of the city's Colonie, dated on board the 

galiot 2fcw Amstel, lying at The Ferry at Manhattans, 114 



August 25. 

September 25. 
August 23. 
July 3. 

July 24. 

September 1. 
September 30. 
November 5. 
November 5. 
November 5. 




































September 14. 

September 25. 


December 27. 






Resolution of the Common Council of Amsterdam referring a memorial of the Commissioners on the 

affairs of the Colonic, 115 

Papers relating to the controversy with Lord Bal timore 116 

Protest of Captain James Neale, Agent of Lord Baltimore, against the West India Company, 117 

Letter of Charles II. to the Governor of Virginia commanding him to assist Lord Baltimore against 

Governor Fendal and his faction in Maryland 118 

Letter of Attorney from Lord Baltimore to Captain Neale, 119 

Answer of the Board of the XIX. of the West India Company to Captain Neale's protest 120 

Letter of Skipper Jacob Jansen Huys to the Commissioners of the Colonic on the Delaware river, 1 24 

Letter of the West India Company to the inclosing sundry papers on Boundaries, 125 

Deduction respecting the differences about Boundaries, ifec, in New Netherland 127 

Memorial of the West India Company to the States-General respecting the differences on the South 

river with Lord Baltimore, <tc. 131 

Deduction, or Brief and clear Account of the situation of New Netherland ; who were its first discover- 
ers and settlers, &c., and the unseemly and hostile usurpations, by the neighboring English, of the 

lands within the West India Company's limits 133 

Condition and Agreement entered into between Commissary Jacob van Curler and the Chiefs of the 

Sickenames 139 

Protest of the Director and Council of New Netherland against William Holmes' settling on the Fresh 

river, 140 

Remonstrance of Commissary Opdyck respecting the violent and hostile proceedings of the English at 

Fort Hope, on the Fresh river, 141 

Notice of Director Ivieft to Captain Patrick that the land he has settled on belongs to the Dutch 142 

Particulars of further aggressions of the English at Fort Hope, 142 

Submission of Captain Daniel Patrick to the Dutch, 144 

Protest of Director Kiefl against Robert Coghwel, about to proceed to the South river 144 

Commission and Instructions to Secretary Van Tienhoven, about to proceed against some foreigners 

and vagabonds who have landed on Long Island, 144 

Examinations of divers Englishmen taken on Long Island, 146 

Agreement of said Englishmen to abandon Long Island, 150 

Power of Attorney to the Reverend Hugh Peters from the Governors of Massachusetts and Connecticut, 

to treat with the Dutch West India Company respecting the land on the Fresh river 150 

Proposals of the Reverend Hugh Peters to the Dutch West India Company 160 

Vindication of Captain John Underbill, setting forth the causes which impel him and others to renounce 

the Dutch government and to submit to the Parliament of England, . . . , 161 

Proclamation issued at Gravesend, Long Island, establishing the laws and republic of England, 153 

Letter of the Magistrates of Gravesend, Long Island, to the Directors at Amsterdam expressive of their 

happiness under the government of Director Stuy vesant, &c., 164 

Letter of the Magistrates of Gravesend to the Directors at Amsterdam, against an elective Governor 

and other popular clamors 1 64 

Letter of the Magistrates of Heemstedo to the Directors at Amsterdam in defence of Director 

Stuy vesant's government, <fec., 166 

Letter of the Magistrates of Gravesend to the Directors at Amsterdam in vindication of their loyalty 

to the Dutch, 163 

Protest .igainst John Levereth, who is settled at Oyster bay 160 

Protest against Thomas Pel for settling in Westchester, 161 


1667. Pagb. 

Aagost 24. Letter of Director Stuyvcsant to the Magistrates of Graresend, L. I., ordering tbem to send him the 

letter adJreesed by Protector Cromwell to the English of Long Island ;• 162 

October 30. Letter of the Director and Council of New Netherland forwarding to the Directors aSAmsterdam the 

Protector's letter, 163 


Beptember 5. Order of King Charles I., in Council, 163 

November 5. Kesolution of the States-General to write to their Ambassadors at London, and to send the foregoing 

papers to them, itc., 164 

NoTember 5. Letter of the States-General to their Ambassadors at Loudon, thereupon 164 

November 16. Eesolutiou of the Common Council of Amsterdam, appropriating 6,000 guilders for the pressing neces- 
sities of the Colonie on the Delaware river, <to. 1 64 


January 6. Resolution of the Common Council of Amsterdam, granting a further subsidy of 15,250 guilders, 165 

Report of the Commissioners of the city's Colonie to the Burgomasters of Amsterdam, concerning 

alterations in the conditions, io., 165 

March 9. Resolution of the Common Council of Amsterdam to maintain the Colonie on the Delaware river, 167 

July 19. Resolution of the Commissioners of the city's Colonie on the Delaware river, . 171 

August 1 8. Proposals for subscriptions to the stock of the Colonie on the Delaware river 171 

November 9. Directors at Amsterdam to Director Stuy vesant (with ) 173 

Proposals of the city of Amsterdam, and further privileges granted to its Colonie on the Delaware 

river 173 

Further enlargement of the privileges granted to the city's Colonip on tlio Delaware river, 175 


April 20. Resolution of the Common Council of Amsterdam, to loan 100 guilders to each of the twenty-five 

families of Monnonists going to the Delaware river, 176 

June 9. Contract with Peter Cornelis riocldioy to convey Mennonists to the Delaware 176 

September 16. Letter of Director Stuy vesant to the Magistrates of New Amstel, 178 

September 16. Letter of Director Stuyvcsant to the Chamber nt Amsterdam, 178 

November 8. Return of Monthly payments on account of the Colonic on the Delaware river, from 18th November, 

1659, to 3d November, 1062 179 

List of emigrants going to the city's Colonie on the Delaware river 183-- 

List of goods, Ac., to be sent to the city's Colonie on the Delaware river, 183 

List of farming implements required for the citj's Colonie on the Delaware river, 184 

Return of ammunition and stores to bo sent to the city's Colonie on the Delaware river, 186 

November 14. Account, d bit and credit, of receipts and disbursements for the city's Colonie on the Delaware river, 1S6 

Letter of thj Commissioners of the city's Colonic to the Burt msters of Amsterdam 196 


February 8. Resolution of the Directors of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company, in answer to 
certain proposals from the Burgomasters of Amsterdam respecting the surrender of both sides of 
the Delaware river to that city, etc., 197 

Febniary 22. Resolution of the Common Council of Amsterdam referring certain matters affecting the city's Colonie 

on the Delaware river to a committee, <ie 200 

Some Thoughts on the city's Colonie on the Delaware river 200 

Enlarged conditions for the Colonie on the Delaware river, S02 

March 10. Resolution of the Common Council of Amsterdam to continue assistance to the city's Colonie on the 

Delaware river, 204 

March 16. Further resolution of the Council upon the same subject, 205 

July. Aug. Resolutions of the Chamber at Amsterdam touching the city's Colonie on the Delaware river 206 

August 10. Report of the Commissionera and Dircetoi-s of the city's Colonie to the Burgomasters of Amsterdam, . 209 

August 10. Resolution of the Common Council of Amsterdam to send a ship to the city's Colonie on the Delaware 

river, 212 

October 23. Further proposal of the Commissioners and Directors, concerning the affairs of the city's Colonie, sub- 
mitted to the Burgomasters of Amsterdam 213 

October 24. Resolution of the Common Council of Amsterdam on the aforesaid proposal, 216 

Remonstrance of the West India Company to the States-General, complaining of Ihe encroachments of 

the English on New Netherland 216 

Dcc«mber 20. RcsoluUon of the Slates-General referring said remonslr.ince S17 




January 20. 

January 21. 

January 21. 

January 23. 

Janu.iry 23. 

January 23. 

February 29. 

April 21. 

April 23. 

June 19. 

June 19. 

June 27. 




















r 5. 

September 6. 

September 12. 





















Letter of the Directors at Amsterdam to the Director and Council of New Netherland respecting the 

eu roachments of the English in that country, itc 218 

Memor. .1 of the Directors of the West India Company, &a., to the States-General, complaining of the 

continued unlawful proceedings of the English in New Netherland, &c 224 

Resolution of the States-General referring the foregoing memorial to their committee, 226 

Resolution of the States-General that the Ambassadors, about to be sent to London, be instructed to 
insist upon the ratification, by the English, of the Treaty of Hartford ; and also that an act be 

passed, under the Great Seal, defining the limits of New Netherland, as therein settled 227 

Declaration of the States-General in favor of the title of the Dutch West India Company to New 

Netherland, 228 

Letter of the States-General to the towns in New Netherland, <fec 229 

Letter of the Director-General and Council of New Netherland to the Amsterdam Chamber of the West 

India Company respecting the encroachments of the English, 230 

Letter of the Chamber at Amsterdam to the Director and Council of New Netherland ; Commissioners 

"bout to proceed to New England to install Bishops there 235 

Letter of King Charles II. to the Governors of New England to assist in reducing New Netherland, . . . 237 
Letter of Mr. Harald Appelboom, the Swedish Resident at the Hague, to the States-General, respecting 

the " Elucidation " contained in the Treaty of Elbing 238 

Resolution of the States-General thereupon 239 

Memorial of Mr. Appelboom, the Swedish Minister, to the States-General respecting the restoration of 

the Colony on the South river 240 

Memorial of Mr. Appelboom, the Swedish Minister, to the States-General in support of the good and 

complete right of the Crown of Sweden to Nova Sueoia, 241 

Resolution of the States-General referring the foregoing memorials to the West India Company, <feo.,. . 242 
Letter of the West India Company to the Burgomasters at Amsterdam respecting the English 

aggressions, (fee. 243 

Letter of the Commissioners and Directors of the Colonic on the Delaware river on the same subject, . . 244 
Resolution of the Common Council of Amsterdam referring to a committee thetwo preceding letters 

concerning the aggressions of the English on New Netherland, <feo 245 

Resolution of the Common Council of Amsterdam to assist the Company with ships, &a 245 

Resolution of the States-General upon the memorials of the Swedish Miuister, abovementioned, 246 

Letter of the States-General to the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company, thereupon 247 

Resolution of the States-General upon the memorial of the Swedish Minister 247 

Resolution of the States-General upon the receipt of despatches from the Ambassador at London, .... 247 
Remonstrance of the people of New Netherland, to the Director and Council, against resisting the 

English and urging a capitnlation, 248 

Articles of capitulation on t'-c reduction of New Netherland by the English, 250 

Letter of Ambassador Van Gogh to Secretary Ruysch respecting the news that New Netherland 

is reduced by the English, Ac, 253 

Letter of the West India Company to the States-General (with ), 254 

Observations upon the memorial of Sir George Downing, the English Ambassador, about the differences 

with the Company, &c 255 

Resolution of the States-General referring the foregoing observations to a committee, &a 258 

Letter of the West India Company to the States-General, in answer to their High Mightinesses' letter 

of August 15th, about the Swedes on the South river, <fec. 268 

Resolution of the States-General, referring the foregoing letter to their committee, &c. 259 

Resolution of the States-General, approving the draft of a reply to the King of England's answer to 

various memorials presented to his Majesty by Ambassador Van Gogh, &c 260 

Reply of the States-General to the King of England's answer, &o 261 

Letter of the West India Company to the States-General, acquainting them with the surrender of New 

Netherland to the English, &c 272 

Resolution of the States-General, to send copies of the foregoing to all the Provinces, and also to their 

Ambassador at London, Ac. 272 

Resolution of the States of Holland upon the foregoing papers, &c 273 

Letter of Ambassador Van Gogh to the States-General, 274 















November 13. 

November 14. 







December 11. 





December 18. 









December 20. 



December 31. 


























Kesolution of the States of Holland upon the subject of the restitntiou of New Nctherland, unjustly and 

violcntl3' taken by the King of England, <tc. £75 

Kesolution of the States-General, further instructing Ambassador Van Gogh in regard to the affair of 

New Xetherland, <tc., 276 

Letter of the States-General to Auibassa lor Van Gogh thereupon, inclosing copy of the West India 

Company's remonstrance, 277 

Letter of Ambassador Van Gogh transmitting an account of his audience with King Charles II. on the 

subject of the taking of New Nethcrland, ic, 277 

Memorial addressed by Ambassador Van Gogh to the King of England on the subject of the English 

aggressions in New Netherland, Ac, ... 280 

Another memorial from Ambassador Van Gogh to King t'harles IL on the same subject, 281 

Letter of the States-General to all the Provinces upon the receipt of the foregoing despatches, urging 

pronijit preparations for v< a , A'C 282 

Letter of Ambassador Van Gogh to Secreta y Ruysch, respecting New Netherland, ifcc, 283 

Memorial of Sir George Downing, the English Ambassador to the States-General, complaining of their 

conduct, itc, 285 

Resolution of the StatesGenv al referring the above mera':)rial to their committee, ic 2SC 

Resolution of the States-General upon the ft regoing memorial, 286 

Letter of the States-General to their Ambassadors at London, Paris, <tc., (hereupon, 288 

Secret resolution of the States-General to victual the fleet under Viee-Admiral de Ruyter 288 

Letter of instructions of the Slates General to Vice- Admiral de Ruyter, 288 

Secret resolution of the States-Ge i- ral, approving draft of a letter to the King of France, in regard to 

the hostile aggressions of England, ic 289 

Letter of the Slates-General to the King of France, thereupon, 290 

Letter of the States-General to M. Van Beuningen, their Ambassador at Paris, inclosing the above, .... 291 
Letter of Aniba<;a 'or Van Gogh to Secretary Ruysch, containing an account of his audiences with the 

King and the Duke of Yi rk, Ac 291 

Grant of New Netherland to the Duke of York 291 

Memorial of Sir George Downing, the English Ambassador to the States-General, justifying the conduct 

of the King of England and complaining of the States, <te, 299 

Resolution of the States-General referring tlie foregoing memorial to a committee, itc 304 

Resolution of the Slates-General to write to the Kings of Sweden and Denmark to the same purport 

as to the King of France on the 18lh December, respecting the conduct of the English, <tc., 305 

Resolution of the States-General referring letters from their Ambassador at London to a committee,.. 305 
Secret resolution of the States-General to write to their Ambassador at Paris respecting the accommo- 
dation of the diflerences with England, the restitution of New Netherland, itc SO J 

Resolution of the Slates-General to write to the different Boards of Admiralty, ic, that the States are 

obliged to come to an open rupture with England, <t' S06 

Letter of the States-General to the West India Company respecting reprisals against England, etc., 306 

Resolution of tlie S:ates-General authorizing the West India Company to do all the harm they can to 

England, Ac 30^ 

Report to the States-General of a draft of a Deduclion or answer to the memorial of Sir George 

Downing, the English Ambassador, of 30th December last, 307 

Resolution of the States-General approving the same and ordering copies to be communicated to the 

Kings of France, Sweden and Denmark, itc, 307 

Letter of the States-General inclosing copies of their manifesto to their Ambassadors in France, 

England, Sweden and Denmark 308 

Observations of the States-General in reply to the last of Sir George Downing, of the 

20th December, 1664 309 

Abstract of the preceding observations or manifesto 330 

Reply of Sir George Downing to the Dutch manifesto of February 9th, 1665 331 

Resolution referring to a committee the subject of the obligations of the city of Amsterdam for the 

Colonic on the Delaware river, 336 

Letter of Ambassador Van Gogh to Secretary Euysch, respecting the differences with the English about 

New Netherland, ic 3S6 




































September 1. 

September 27. 


















September 3. 
















December 19. 

December 19. 

December 19. 

December 31, 

Memorial submitted by Ambassador Van Gogh to the Ambassadors of France in Eagland, as mediators, 

respecting the differences between the States-General and the King of Great Britain, S39 

Letter of Ambassador Van Gogh to Secretary Ruysch 340 

Resolution returning the thanks of the Common Council of Amsterdam to their committee, &c., 340 

Letter of Ambassador Van Gogh to Secretary Ruysch, respecting the mediation of the French Ambas- 
sadors, &c., 340 

Resolution of the States-General, referring the foregoing letter to a committee, &c., ; 342 

Letter of Ambassador Van Gogh to Secretary Ruysch, respecting New Netherland, &c.,'.- 343 

Answer of the King of Great Britain to the French Ambassadors, as mediators, respecting the differ- 
ences between England and the United Provinces, &c., 346 

Resolution of the States-General, referring the foregoing documents to a committee, &c 347 

Resolution of the States of Holland, &c., upon the foregoing documents, &c., 347 

Resolution of the States-General to write to the East and West India Companies on the subject of the 

above documents, &c., 347 

Letter of Ambassador Van Beuningen to Secretary Ruysch, respecting the French mediation 348 

Letter of Ambassador Van Beuningen to Secretary Ruysch, on same subject, 351 

Proposition made on the part of the King of France to the King of England, regarding the differences 

with the Dutch 352 

Secret resolution of the States-General upon the foregoing letters of JI. Van Beuningen, 352 

Resolution of the Common Council of Amsterdam, that the inhabitants of the city's Colonie be admit- 
ted to the " Burger Recht " of that city, , 354 

Resolution of the States of Holland, &c., upon the foregoing letters of Ambassador Van Beuningen,.. 354 

Answer of the King of England to the proposition of the King of France, 355 

Resolution of the States-General upon the preceding resolution of the States of Holland, &e 355 

Resolution of the States-General upon the report of their committee of conference with the East and 

West India Companies, &c., 356 

Letter of Ambassador Van Gogh to Secretary Ruysch, respecting New Netherland affairs, &c., 356 

Letter of Ambassador Van Gogh to Secretary Ruysch, upon the same subject, 359 

Letter of the West India Company to the States-General, announcing the arrival at the Hague of Peter 

Stuyvesant, formerly Director of New Netherland, 361 

Resolution of the States-General, ordering Mr. Stuyvesant to make his report in writing, &c., 361 

Report of the Honorable Peter Stuyvesant, late Director-General of New Netherland, on the causes 

which led to the surrender of that country to the English 363 

Memorial of Mr. Stuyvesant to the States-General, inclosing his report, 364 

List of papers which Mr. Stuyvesant hath delivered in support of his report, 370 

Letter of Director Stuyvesant to the officers at Fort Orange, 3=?1 

Answer of the officers at Fort Orange to Director Stuyvesant, 371 

Letter of Director Stuyvesant to the officers at Fort Orange, 372 

Answer of the officers of Fort Orange thereto, 373 

Certificate of Herman Martensen van den Bosch and Dirk Looten, 373 

Letter of the Magistrates of Amersfoort, Breuckelen, and the other Dutch towns on Long Island, to 

the Director and CouncU, 375 

Letter of Director Stuyvesant and Council to the Dutch towns on Long Island, 376 

Answer of the Dutch towns thereto, 376 

Extract of a letter from Mr. Cornelis van Ruyven to the West India Company, 377 

Resolution of the States-General referring the foregoing documents to a committee, &c., 378 

Resolution of the States-General to send the report of the above committee to the West India 

Company, &c., . . • ■ • • 878 

Resolution of the States-General referring the petition of Mr. Stuyvesant, for his passport to return 

to New Netherland, to the West India Company, 378 

Letter of the States-General to the Chamber at Amsterdam, thereupon, 379 

Rejoinder of the States-General to Sir George Downing's reply of^ the 17th April, 1665, 379 



September 29, 

October 20. 


Jannarj- 11 
January 11 

January 12. 

January 11. 
January 15. 


September 9. 
September 2. 

December 31. 

December 4. 


January 11. 

January 1. 

January 12. 

April 2. 

April 2. 



October 29. 
October 29. 

October 29, 




August 17. 

August 17. 


Letter of Messrs. Willet and Baxter, respecting the negotiation of the Treaty at Hartford, 384 

E.Ktraot from the Journal of the Dutch Dei)Uties to Boston 385 

Journal kept liy Messrs. Van Ruyven, Van Cortlant and Lamence, delegates to the General Assembly 

at Hartford, 385 

Record of the jiroceedings with Captain Jolin Scott on Long Island: 

Letter of Captain John Scott to the Honorable Peter Stuyresant, " General of the Dutch on the 

Manhattans," ^^•^ 

Report of the Dutch Commissioners sent to discover Captain Scott's object, 394 

Letter of Director Sluyvesant to Captain John Scott, calling for his commission, 395 

Letter of Director Stuy vesant to Captain John Scott, informing him that the Dutch Commissioners will 

meet him, 2^" 

Commission issued to Messrs. ^an Euyvcn, Van Cortlant, Steenwyck and Lawrence, to treat with 

Captains Scott and Young 396 

Letter of Director Stuy vesant and Council to Captain John Scott, by the aforesaid Commissioners, 396 

Memorandum of instructions for the aforesaid Commissioners, 399 

Report of the aforesaid Commissioners, 399 

Remonstrance of the Magistrates of Amersfoort, Breuckelen, Midwout and Utrecht, to the Director 

and Council of New Netherland, 401 

Smidry ailidavits and letters, respecting the violent proceedings of Captain Scott and the English on 

Long Island, and elsewhere 403 

Extract of the proclamation distributed among the Dutch by the Ejjglish Commissioners 410 

Journal of the principal events which occurred in the attack on and reduction of New Netherland,.. . 410 
Letter of Director Stuyvesant to Colonel Richard Nicols, in support of the Dutch Title to New 

Netherland, 411 

Resolution of the States- General, approving of the draft of the rejoinder to Sir George Downing, and 

ordering it to be printed, 415 

Letter of Ambassador Van Gogh to Secretary Ruysch, 416 

Propositions made by the French Ambassadors at London, as mediators, &c., respecting the cession of 

New Netherland, &c., 419 

Letter of the West India Company to the Slates-General (inclosing), 419 

Observations of the West India Company on the report of Ex-Director Stuyvesant, 419 

Resolution of the States-General, referring the foregoing documents to their committee, &c., 423 

Memorial of Ex-Director Stuyvesant to the States General, praying for a copy of the observations, &c., 424 
Resolution of the States-General referring tlie foregoing niomorial and accomi)anying papers to their 

committee, 425 

Resolution of the States-General, ordering copy of the observations of the West India Company to be 

given to Ex-director Stuyvesant, &c., 425 

Answer of Ex-Director Stuyvesant to the observations of the West India Company, 427 

Memorial of Ex-Director Stuyvesant to the States-General, praying that the documents and answer 

submitted by him to the States-General may be considered sufficient for his justification, &c., and 

that he be permitted to return to New Netherland, 428 

Resolution of the States-General, referring the foregoing documents, 4)7 

Letter of Ex-Director Stuyvesant to the committee of the States-General, 447 

List of the papers submitted by Ex-Director Stuyvesant to the Slates-General, 448 

Letter of Ex-Director Stuyvesant to the Chamber at Amsterdam, with a copy of his answer, and a 

minute of the Directors' rejily referring him to Mr. Do Witt, Grand Pensionary, 451 

General account of powder received and expended iu New Netherland, from lOGl to 1664, 452 

Declaration of iEgidius Luyck and others, that there was not powder enough to defend Fort Amsterdam, 469 

Letter of Mr. Cornells van Ruyven to Ex-Director Stuyvesant, expressive of the sense ho entertains of 

his services, and regretting the persecution to which he is subjected, 472 

Declaration of Messrs. Van Ruyven and Bayard, respecting the efforts made by Mr. Stuyvesant to 

obtain provisions in New England, 473 




November 2, 

Jan'y, Feb'y. 

November 10. 

March 9. 

March 12. 

June 10. 

September 16. 
June 10. 

August 4. 
September 16. 

November 10. 

February 29. 
January 15. 

November 10. 

March 4. 

March 12. 
March 3. 

March 25. 








August 25. 

August 30. 

August 30. 

October 1. 

October 12. 

October 12. 

October 20. 

October 31. 

Sundry other papers showing the efforts made to obtain provisions, and the weakness of Fort Amster- 
dam, previous to the coming of the English, 474 

Remonstrance of the Burgomasters and Schepens of New Amsterdam, and of the Delegates of the 

adjoining Dutch towns, to the Directors of the West India Company Chamber at Amsterdam, 477 

Divers declarations respecting the violent conduct of Captain John Scott on Long Island, 480 

Letter of Director Stuyvesant to the Chamber at Amsterdam, on the low condition of New Netherland; 

" it is wholly out of our power to keep the sinking ship afloat any longer," 484 

Resolution of the States-General, referring to a committee the memorial of Frederick Richel to be 

allowed to import tobacco from New Netherland, &c., 488 

Reply of the Directors of the West India Company to the answer of Ex-Director Stuyvesant, 489 

E.\tract of a letter from the Director, &c., of New Netherland, to the West India Company, 504 

Extract of a letter from the Director, &c., of New Netherland, to the West India Company, 504 

Extract of a letter from the Director, &c., of New Netherland, to the West India Company 504 

Extract of a letter from the Director, &c., of New Netherland, to the West India Company, 605 

Extract of a letter from the Director, &c., of New Netherland, to the West India Company, 505 

Extract of a letter from the Director, &c., of New Netherland, to the West India Company, 506 

Extract of a letter from the Director, &c., of New Netherland, to the West India Company, 606 

Extract from what has passed with Captain John Scott, respecting the Duke of York's claim to Long 

Island, &c., 507 

Requisition for warlike stores for New Netherland, &c., 507 

Declaration of Herman Martens van der Bosch, and Evert WiUiamsen Munnick, sergeants in the 

service of the West India Company, respecting the circumstances of the surrender of New 

Netherland to the English, &c., 508 

Petition of Ex-Director Stuyvesant to the committee of the States-General, &,c., praying that the 

reply of the West India Company may be communicated to him, &c., 510 

Memorial of the Directors of the West India Company to the States-General, praying their High 

Mightinesses to insist on the restitution of New Netherland by England, &c., 510 

Memorial of the merchants and ship owners trading to Africa and America, upon the subject of the loss 

of New Netherland, its restitution, &c., 511 

Resolution of the States-General referring the documents relating to the proposed treaty of peace with 

Great Britain, to their committee, &c., 514 

Resolution of the States of Holland and West Friesland upon the above papers, 514 

Further resolution of the States of Holland, &c., upon the subject of the above papers, &c., 515 

Letter of the States of Utrecht to their deputies to the States-General, in relation to the case of Mr. 

Van der Capelle, &c., 515 

Instruction to the Dutch Plenipotentiaries at Breda, respecting the cession of New Netherland 517 

Resolution of the States-General referring the documents delivered by the deputies from Utrecht 

to their committee, &c., 517 

Great victory obtained in the Virginias 518 

Letter of Commissary Bourse to the States-General, about the capture of several English ships in 

Virginia by Commander Crynssens, &c 518 

Resolution of the States-General to refer the above letter to the Admiralty in Zealand, &c., 518 

Letter of the States-General to the Board of Admiralty at Zealand, thereupon, 519 

Resolution of the States-General on the report of their committee respecting the capture of the 

English ships in Virginia 519 

Resolution of the States-General to write again to the Admiralty of Zealand upon the foregoing subject, 520 

Letter of the States-General to the Board of Admiralty at Zealand, thereupon, 521 

Answer of the Board of Admiralty at Zealand to the States-General, 521 

Resolution of the States-General thereupon, requiring a further answer of the Admiralty, 522 




January 14. 

March 10. 

March 10. 

Marcli 20. 

March 22. 

Sei)toraber 8. 

October 24. 

October 25. 

October 24. 

October 25. 



December 15. 

December 19. 


















































Letter of the Dutch Ambassadors at London to the States-General 623 

Resolution of the States-General upon the memorial of the nierclianls trading to New Xetherland, 

complaining of the proceedings of the West India Company, &c., 524 

Letter of the States-General to the West India Company, thereupon, 524 

Answer of the Amsterdam Chamber of (he West India Company to the States-General 625 

Resolution of the States-General referring the above letter to their committee, &c., 525 

Letter of the Corporation of New Orange to the States-General, 526 

Letter of the Board of Admiralty at Amsterdam to the States-General respecting the proceedings of 

Commanders Evertsen and lienckes, in New Netherland, &c., 527 

Resolution of the States-General upon the receipt of the foregoing letter, 628 

Letter of II. de Wildt, Secretary of the Board of Admiralty at Amsterdam, to Grand Pensionary Fagel, 

resjiecting the re-concpiest of Xew Netherland, &c., 528 

Secret resolution (jf the States-General upon the foregoing letter, respecting the preservation of Xew 

N€>therland, &c., 629 

Resolution of the States-General referring divers memorials of mercliants and shi]) owners, respecting 

the preservation of New Netherland, to a secret committee, &c., 5.30 

Secret resolution of the States-General, that the general direction of New Netherland, &c., be 

entrusted to the Board of Admiralty at Amsterdam, and that Joris Andringa, now secretary of the 

fleet, be appointed governor or commander thereof, &c., 5.30 

Letter of the States-General to King Charles II., offering to give him back New Netherland, 631 

Letter of the Corporation of the city of New Orange to the States-General, 532 

Secret resolution of the States-General upon the subject of the proposed treaty of peace with 

England, &r., respecting the surrender of New Netherland, &,c., 633 

Secret resolution of the Slates-General upon the report of their committee on foreign affairs, with draft 

of a letter to King Charles II., offering to give up New Netherland, &c., 534 

Secret resolution of the States-General upon the opinion and report of the Board of Admiralty at 

Amsterdam, respecting the di.sposition of matters in New Netherland, &c., 5.35 

Secret resolution of the States-General approving the foregoing report and opinion of the -\dmiralty, 

and ordering copies to be sent to Joris Andringa, Governor of New Netherland, &c., 537 

Secret resolution of the States-General, with extracts from the despatches of the Plenipotentiaries at 

Cologne, concerning the restitution of New Netherland, &c 537 

Resolution of the States-General referring the letters from the Corjjoration of New Orange to the 

Admiralty, &c., 638 

Letter of the States-General to all the Boards of the Admiralty thereupon, 538 

Letter of the Maaze Board of Admiralty to the States-General, in reply, 539 

Resolution of the States-General, referring the above letter to a committee, &c 540 

Letter of the Amsterdam Board of Admiralty to the States-General, on the same subject 540 

Letter of a committee of New Netherland traders, to the Amsterdam Board of Admiralty, 641 

Resolution of the States-General referring the foregoing documents to a committee, &c., 543 

Letter of the Zealand Board of Admiralty to the States-General, ou the same subject, 543 

Letter of King Charles II. to the States-General respecting the restitution of Ne-s- -York, 544 

Resolution of the States-General referring the letter from the Zealand Board of Admiralty to a 

committee 544 

Resolution of the Slates-General on the letter of King Charles II. to them, 645 

Letter of the States-General to King Charles II. in answer to his Majesty's communication 546 

Letter of the States-General to the Council of Zealand, thereupon, 546 

Letter of the States-General to the Amsterdam Board of Admiralty 547 

Letter of the States-General to their Ambassadors at London, thereupon 547 

Letter of the States-General to the Governor of New Netherland, thereupon, 547 

Letter of Ambassador Van Reede to tho States-General 648 

Petition of the Patroou and Directors of the Colonic of Ronsselaerswyck to the States-General, praying 

that their interests may be favorably considered 549 

Freedoms and exemptions granted by the Board of the XIX. of the West India Company to all those 

who will plant Colonies in Now Netherland, 551 



1674. ^*''=- 

April 2. Declaration of the West India Company, in favor of tlie proprietors of Rensselaerswyck, 658 

1673. Petition of Jeremias van Rensselaer to Commanders Evertsen and Benckes for permission to continue 

in the possession of Ms Colonie, "&" 

September 4. Order on preceding petition, °^9 

June 4. Resolution of the States-General referring the memorialists to the King of England, and instructing 

their Ambassadors at Loudon to second their application, &c., 560 

June 4. Letter of the States-General to their Ambassadors at Loudon, accordingly, 561 

June 1. Letter of the Ambassadors at London to the States-Geueral stating that Secretary Coventry had desired 

that the West India Company should write to New Netherland, to second the orders of their High 

Mightinesses respecting its evacuation, 562 

June 5. Resolution of the States-General, thereupon, 564 

June 5. Letter of the States-General to the West India Company, thereupon, 565 

June 11. Resolution of the States-General to write to their Ambassadors at London respecting the evacuation of 

New Netherland, &c., 565 

June 14. Letter of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company to the States-General, in reply to theirs 

of Junes, 566 

June 15. Resolution of the States-General thereupon, 566 

June 15. Letter of the States-General, to their Ambassadors at London, therewith, 567 

June 19. Letter of the Dutch Ambassadors at London to the States-General respecting the evacuation of New 

Netherland, &c 567 

June 25. Resolution of the States-General, thereupon, 568 

1673, 1674. Minutes of Council during the Administrations of Commanders Evertsen and Benckes, and of Anthony 

Colve, Governor of New Netherland, 569 


August 12. Orders to sundry towns in New Yarsey, 571 

August 13. Orders to sundry towns on Long Island, 572 

August 15. Nomination and oath of the municipal officers for the city of New Orange, 574 

August 17. Proclamation altering the form of government in the city of New Orange, 575 

August 18. Order respecting the towns situated at Affhter Coll, lately New Jersey, 576 

August 18. Nomination of municipal officers for the Dutch towns on Long Island 577 

August 18. Proclamation sequestrating the property iu New Netherland belonging to the Kings of England and 

France and their subjects, 5(8 

August 18. Nomination of Magistrates for the town of Bergen, 57S 

August 10. Order to the towns situate at Aghfer Coll, 579 

August 22. Order on the petition of Flushing and adjoining English towns on Long Island, 581 

August 23. Petition of the town of Oysterbay, 581 

August 24. Nomination and oath of the Magistrates for the several towns situate at Aghter Coll, 582 

August 14. Petition of the Delegates from Easthampton and adjoining towns on the East end of Long Island, . . . 583 

August 24. Order thereupon, 584 

August 7. Letter of the Governor and Assembly of Connecticut, 584 

August 24. Answer of the Commanders and Council of New Netherland, thereto, 585 

August 25. Nomination of Magistrates for Staten Island, 586 

August 26. Nomination of Magistrates for Piscattaway, 587 

August 28. Order for the winding up of the late Governor Lovelace's estate, 587 

August 28. Confiscation of Shelter Island, 588 

Form of Oaths to be taken by the Dutch, and by the English inhabitants of New Netherland, 589 

August 29. Conveyance to Nathaniel Silvester of Shelter Island, 590 

August 30. Nomination of Magistrates for Westchester, Flushing, Hemstede, &c., 591 

September 1. Order on a petition from the several towns at Esopus, >^9- 

September 1. Points submitted by and answer to the town of Beverwyck and Fort Orange, henceforth to be called, 

respectively, Willemstadt and Fort Nassau, 593 

September 1. Commission of the Sellout and Secretary of the towns at Achter Coll, 595 

September 1. Census of the several Dutch towns on Long Island, ''"° 

September 4. Order continuing for one year the privileges enjoyed by the Colonie of Rensselaerswyck, 597 

September 4. Nomination of militia officers of the town of Bergen 597 

September 6. Petition of the Burgomasters and Schepens of the city of New Orange, 598 


73. Paoe. 

September 6. Answer of Commanders Evert.sen and Benckes, thereto, 600 

September 8. Appointment of Magistrates for the several towns on the East end of Long Island, 601 

September 8. Letter of Comniamlers Evertsen and Benckes to the towns on the East end of Long Island, 601 

Oath of fidelity to be taken by the people on the East end of Long Island, 602 

September 8. Confiscation of Captain Lavall's old ketch, 602 

September 11. Order to the late Governor Lovelace to depart the government C03 

September 11. Proclamation forbidding strangers to enter the city of Kew Orange or sojourn therein, 601 

September 12. Order enumerating the privileges to be enjoyed by the inhabitants of the South river, 604 

September 13. Speech of, and answer to the Indians of Ilackingsack 606 

September 14. Census of Elizabethtown and the other settlements at Aghter Coll. 607 

September 14. Military oflicers of the jireceding towns 608 

September 18. Appoiriinient of Magistrates for the town of Schaneghtede 009 

August 12. Commission of Anthony Colve to be Governor-General of New Netlierland, 609 

August 12. Commission of Cornells Steenwyck to be member of the Council, 610 

Oath to be taken by the Honoiable Mr. Steenwyck, 610 

September 20. Proclamation confiscating the property of the Kings of England and France, and of their subjects in 

New Netlierland 611 

August 20. Commission of Nicolas Hayard to be Secretary to Governor Colve 612 

September 20. Commission of Nicola.s Bayard to be Receiver-General, 613 

Septembcr20. Order fixing the amount of Mr. Bayard's s.alary, 613 

September 19. Commission of Peter Alrigs to be Sellout and Commandant of the South river, 614 

Oath taken by Mr. Alrigs 014 

September 25, Order to Mr. Alrigs to .administer the oath of allegiance to the inhabitants of the South river, 615 

Seplember25. Commission of Walter Wharton to be Land Surveyor at the South river, 615 

Oath taken by Mr. Wharton, 615 

September 25. Letter of Governor Colve to the Magistrates of Hempstead, 615 

Septeml)er25. Order to those of Hempstead who have not t.iken the oath of allegiance 616 

September 26. Order on the petition of tho Lutheran congregation at Willemstadt for freedom of divine worship,.... 617 

September27. Instruction for Andries Drayer, Commandant of Fort Nassau, formerly Fort Orange, 618 

September27. Instruction for Peter .\ldric.\. Sellout at the South river, 618 

October 1. Commission to Captain KnyfT, who is sent to administer the oath of allegiance to the inhabitants at the 

East end of Long Island 620 

October 1. Instruction for the Schout and Magistrates of the Dutch towns on Long Island, 620 

October 1. Order for Ensign Sol, Major of Fort Willem Hendrick, 622 

October 4. E.xtiact from the Dutch articles of war to be read to the garrison at Fort Willem Hendrick, 623 

October 4. Instruction for the Commissary of Fort Willem Hendrick, 625 

October 6. Apfiointment of oflioens for the several towns at the Eso]ius 626 

October 6. Appointment of oflicers for Willemstadt and Rensselaerswyck, 627 

October 7. Letter of Governor Colve to the Magistrates of Hempstead, 628 

October 7. Letter of Governor Colve to Scdiout Laurence and the Magistrates of the several towns in his district, . 628 

October 9. Letter of Secretary Bayard to the Magistrates of Sw.acneuburgh, 6.30 

October 11. Order respecting the guardianship of the late Richard Morris' child 631 

October 14. Letter of Governor Colve to Schout Ogdeii, 633 

October 10. Proclamation ordering the removal of several houses in the immediate neighborhood of Fort Willem 

Hendrick, 633 

October 16. Valuation of the houses and lots in the immediate vicinity of Fort Willem Hendrick which are 

ordered to be taken for public use, 635 

October IS. Appointment of M.igistrates for Fordliam, 638 

October 19. Report by Captain KnyfT and Lieutenant Malipart, of (heir mission to tho East end of Long Island,.. 639 

October 25. Appointment of military officers for the Dutch towns on Long Island, 645 

October 30. Commission of Councillor Steenwyck and others, sent to bring the towns on the East end of Long Island 

to obedience, 648 

October 30. Instruction to Councillor Steenwyck and the other commissioners, 649 

October 30. Commission of Isaac Grcveraet to be Schout of Esopus, 649 

November 1, Commission of Balthazar Bayard to take possession of two-thirds of the estate of the late Richard 

Morri.s, 650 


1673. P^°^- 
November 2. Commission of Olof Stevense van Cortlandt and others to regulate tlie estate of the late Governor 

Lovelace, 6^1 

October 21. Letter of the Governor, &c., of Connecticut, to Governor Colve 651 

November 5. Answer of Governor Colve to Governor Winthrop, of Connecticut, 652 

November 8. Instruction for the Schout and Magistrates of Willemstadt and Rensselaerswyck, 653 

November 9. Journal kept on board of the frigate Zechond on a voyage from New Orange to the East end of Long 

Island and back, 654 

November 15. Proclamation for a day of Humiliation and Thanksgiving, 658 

November 16. Commission to Captain Ewoutsen to proceed to Nantucket to recover a vessel which ran aground there, 658 
October 31. Reply of Governor Winthrop, of Connecticut, to Governor Colve's Answer, " which he will not call 


November 18. Letter of Governor Colve to Gov. Winthrop ; is not obliged to render him any account ; is here to 

maintain their High Mightinesses' right and to reduce rebels, &c,, 660 

November 29. Examination of the Captains of four New England ketches, captured and brought in by Commander 

Ewoutsen, ^'^^ 

November 27. Letter of Governor Colve to Governor Levereth, by the New England Captains whose vessels were 

captured 663 

November 28. Appointment of Magistrates for the Whorekill 663 

November 30. Letter of Lewis Morris to Governor Colve, applying for a pass 664 

November 30. Confiscation of the four New England ketches captured by Commander Ewoutsen, 664 

December 8. Sentence of Francis Brado for creating a public disturbance at, and threatening the inhabitants of, 

Fordham, ^^^ 

December 12. Proclamation ordering all strangers to depart the Province and all tavern-keepers to return the names 

of their lodgers, and interdicting all correspondence with New England, 666 

November 25. Letter of Edward Rawson, Secretary of Massachusetts, to Governor Colve, demanding the delivery 

of the ketches captured by Commander Ewoutsen, 667 

December 13. Answer of Governor Colve to the Governor, &c., of Massachusetts, and requesting them not to employ 

" spies " as their messengers, 667 

December 15. Commission of Captain Willem Knyff, to be Fiscal of New Netherland, 668 

December 19. Order to provide accommodation for such families as may remove from without into New Orange with 

their goods, in case of attack, 669 

December 19. Oath taken by the officers of the militia of the city of New Orange, and their names 670 

December 21. Letter of Governor Colve to Schout Lawrence, enjoining on him and the Magistrates of his district 

to be faithful to their trust, and not to be deluded by ill-minded spirits, 670 

December 22. Order prohibiting the exportation of provisions from New Orange, 671 

December 22. Commission of Cornells Steenwjxk, heretofore Captain of horse, to be Captain of a militia company ; 

Nicolas Bayard to be Lieutenant, and Gabriel Minviele, Ensign thereof, 671 

December 22. Letter of Governor Colve to the Schout, &c., of Bergen, encouraging them to their duty, 672 

December 23. Order of Gov. Colve, furloughing one-third of each of the companies which came to New Orange, 673 

December 27. Letter of Governor Colve to the Magistrates of the towns of Haerlem and Fordham, 673 

December 27. Orders issued for the preservation and security of the city of New Orange, 674 


January 1. Commission of Jacobus van de Water to be Major, &c., of New Orange, 674 

January 1. Commission of Francis de Bruyn, to be auctioneer of the Dutch towns on Long Island, 675 

January 1. Letter of Governor Colve to the Magistrates of Schenectada, 6<5 

January 1. Commission of Martin Kregier, Junior, empowering him to regulate the estate of Thomas de Laval, . . 676 

January 2. Letter of Governor Colve to Schout Ogden, 676 

January 10. Instruction for the officers of the militia in the Esopus 676 

January 10. Instruction for Captain Vonck of the ketch Hope, 677 

January 11. Oath taken by Allard Anthony, an admitted notary 677 

January 12. Instruction for Jacobus van de Water, Major, &c., of New Orange, 677 

January 14. Proclamation to the people of the South river, on an invasion of those parts by some Englishmen from 

Maryland, 678 

January 15. Instruction for the Schout, Burgomasters and Schepens of New Orange, 678 

January 16. Order of Governor Colve on the refusal of the Burgomasters, &c., to allow Capt. Knyff to preside at 

the meeting of the Common Council at New Orange, 680 

xvlii CONTENTS. 

1074. Page. 

January 22. Comraissioiicif Messrs. Van Tluyvt'ii and Epesteyii, (o iiivcstigate certain comiilaints 'brouglit against llio 

Schout of Stateii Island 081 

January '22. Proclaniatinn against furnisliing strong drink to tlie soldiers of the garrison of Fort Willeni llendrick, . 682 
February 1. Comniission of persons appointed to make a return of all estates in Xew Orange exceeding in value 

one tliousand guilders 685 

February 1 1. Writ in a suit of appeal issued l)y Governor Colve 086 

February 2'K rroclanialion ordering the exclusive use of the weights and measures of Amsterdam, 688 

February 2S. Commission of Pirck van ClyfT and Walter Webly, authorizing them to regulate the estate of the late 

Richard Morris, 601 

March 1. Order in the matter of the marriage of Ralpli Doxy and Mary Harris, 092 

March 1:!. Order to the male inhabitants of the Dutcli towns to ajjpear armed at New Orange, 096 

Marcli 10. Order forbi.lding the citizens of New Orange to pass the night out of that city witliout leave, 096 

JIarch 17. Order calling in a loan to pay the expenses incurred in putting the Island of Manhattans ia a thorough 

state of defence 697 

February 19. Vidualion of the estates of tlie best and most affluent inhabitants of New Orange, 099 

March 21. Commission of Jaobus van de Water, to be book-kee[>er and receiver of the moneys furnished for the 

fortifications, 701 

March 20. Miiuites of the meeting of llie dejiuties from the respective Dutch towns, 701 

April .'). Sentence of Peter Poulsen for creating disturbance, and assaulting persons in Xew Orange, 703 

April 10. Order against the going at large of hogs in New Orange, &c.. 704 

April 19. Sentence of Samuel Fornian for disturbing pulilic worship, 705 

April 2'). Proposals from the .Magistrates of Willenistadt, and order thereui>on, 707 

May 12. Sentence of Isaac Melyn for uttering seditions words, 709 

May 12. Sentence of bani.shment pronounced against John Sliarp, 709 

Slay 12. Order confiscating properly in Xew Xetherland belonging to the inhabitants of New England, Virginy 

and Maryland 710 

May 12. .Mortgage of certain puVi!i<' pro]ierty as security for the reiiayment of moneys advanced to the 

government, 710 

May 12. Letter of Secretary D.-iyard to Lieutenant Drayer, advising him that news had been received of the 

conclusion of peace 711 

May 22. Propositions of the Moliawks to fiovernor l?olve and his answer 712 

May 20. Declarations of tlie Coinmanders of sundry Xew England vessels captured and l)rought into Now 

Orange 715 

May 20. Order confiscating said vessels and their cargoes, 715 

June 15. Order in the matter of debts due to the Rev. Messrs. Meg.ipolensis, 7:;2 

June 17. Commission of Mr. John Lawrence .and otiiers, to settle some difTcreuces between the towns of I'iscat- 

taway and Woodl)ridge 723 

June 20. Order empowering Messrs. Steenwyck and others to receive the account books of the West India 

Company, &c., 724 

June 28. Order releasing the property of citizens of Xew England, Virginy and Maryland from confiscation,.. .. 726 

July -1. Onler releasing certain Xew England vessels, 726 

July 7. Resolution of the respecting orders for the evacuation of Xew Xetherland 730 

July 7. Letter of the States-fieneral to the Boards of Admiralty at .Vmsterdam and Zealand, thereupon, 731 

July 7. Letter of the States-fJeneral to Governor Colve, Governor of Xew-Xetherland, thereupon, 732 

July 7. Letter of the States-General to Captain llendrick van Tholl, on tlie same subject, 732 

July 7. Letter of the States-General to their Ambassadors at London, thereupon, 732 

July 17. Letter of tlie .Vmbassadors at London to the Slates-General informing them that Mr. Andrew is autho- 
rized to receive Xew Xetlierland, 733 

July 21. Resolution of tlie Slates-General referring the above letter to their committee, &c 734 

October 0. Letter of the .\dmiralty at .■Vmsterdam, to the States-General, respecting a ship arrived from X'ew-Vork, 735 
October S. Resolution of the States-General, to write to the West India Company upon the subject of the above 

letter, 735 

October 8. Letter of the States-General to the -Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company on the same 

subject, 736 

November 1. Letter of tlie West India Comiiany to the States-General, in reply, 736 

December 0. Resolution of the States-General referring the above letter to a committee, &.C 738 


1675. Page. 
October 12. Petition of Dutch Burghers in New- York, to the States-General, complaining of the conduct of Governor 

Andres, 738 

March 10. Petition of Dutch Burghers In New-Tork to Governor Andros, 740 

October 12. Resolution of the States-General to send copies of the above papers to their Ambassadors at London, 

with orders to exert themselves in favor of the memorialists, &c., 744 

October 12. Letter of the States-General to their Ambassadors at London, thereupon 745 

Kovember 15. Letter of Ambassador Van Beuningen to the Secretary of the States-General, in reply, 745 

December 21. Memorial of the West India Company, to the States-General, respecting an impost upon goods to and 

from New-Tork, &c., 746 

December 21. Resolution of the States-General, to communicate the above memorial to the Province of Holland, &c., 747 

September 2G. Further resolution of the States-General, upon the above memorial of the West India Company, 748 

September 26. Letter of the States-General to the Boards of Admiralty, thereupon, 748 


May 13. Memorial of the West India Company, to the States-General, upon the subject of the above impost, .... 749 

May 14. Resolution of the States-General, to send copies of the above to the Boards of the Admiralty, &c 750 

May 14. Letter of the States-General to the Boards of Admiralty, accordingly, 750 

June 24. Memorial of the Maase Chamber of the West India Company, to the States-General respecting the 

commerce to America, &c., 751 

June 24. Resolution of the States-General, thereupon, 751 

July 12. Memorial of the traders to New- York, complaining of the West India Company oppressing their com- 
merce, &c., : 752 

July 12. Resolution of the States-General, referring the above memorial to the West India Company, 752 

July 12. Letter of the States-General to the West India Company, thereupon, 753 

November 16. Letter of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company to the States-General, in reply, 753 

November 22. Resolution of the States-General, thereupon, 754 

January 14. Resolution of the States-General to write to the West India Company, upon the subject of a reduction 

of the duties on the New-York trade, &c., 754 

January 14. Letter of the States-General to the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company, thereupon, 754 

January 25. Letter of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company to the States-General, in reply, 755 

January 26. Resolution of the States-General, approving the reduction of duties, &c., made by the West India 

Company, &c., 756 

January 26. Letter of the States-General to the Presiding Chamber of the West India Company, thereupon 756 

-\rPExnix, 757 


April 1. The First Clergyman of the Dutch Reformed Church of the United States. By the Hon. Henry C. 

Murphv, V. S. Minister at The Hague, 759 


August 11. Letter of the Reverend Jonas Michaclius, of the Island of Manhatas, in New Netherland, to the 

Reverend Adrianus Smoutius of Amsterdam, 762 



Don Estevan de Gamarra y Contrevas to tJie States -General 

[ Frum the Original in the Royal ArchiTes at the Hague ; File, Spanje. ] 

Mess", the States-General, will recollect very well the letters they granted on different 
Memorials of the undersigned. Ambassador of Spain, the last of which was on the G"= of this 
month, last year, to Jean Gallardo Ferrara, a Spanish pilot, and native of St. Lucar de Barameda. 
addressed to the Director-General and Councillors of New Netherland, ordering them to 
arrest Captain Sebastian de Raeff (alias, Martin Bastiansse), with his Lieutenant, Jan van 
Campen (otherwise named Coeurt Thyssen), on their arrival in the ports of that country, and 
to send them hither ^ude Ugalo, in order to their being chastised for their piracies commuted 
on several of the subjects of the King, his Master, in the West Indies, and especially on Jean 
Gallardo; also, to cause the negroes, his property, to be restored to him, with the 3G others, 
the property of Antonio de Rivera, that have devolved on his Majesty, and whatever else 
had been taken by said pirate, who sold the same to the inhabitants of said country where 
he is in the habit of repairing with his prizes. Whereupon this poor man, having proceeded 
thither, in the belief that their Lordships' orders would be obeyed, and having discovered 
the said negroes and presented the petition, copy whereof their Lordships will find annexed 
hereunto, for restitution or at least attachment thereof, has derived no other benefit from 
all the fatigue and expense of so long and dangerous a voyage, and from all his diligence 
than the illusory resolutions of the Director and Council (copy whereof is also adjoined 
hereunto), who, their Lordships will perceive, acted with so much passion as even to refuse 
to examine the witnesses he was willing to produce to prove his right; the pretext alleged 
of the pirate's commission being wholly invalid ; for, as a subject of this State and for thirty 
years a burgess of Amsterdam (as he admitted on his examination, whereof authenticated 
copy hath been heretofore delivered to your Lordships), he could not take out one from 
France, according to its laws, nor his Lieutenant either, who is a native of these Provinces. 
Wherefore, their Lordships are most earnestly requested to order anew the said Director 
Vol. II. 1 


and Council to make restitution, witliout any furtlier excuse or subterfuge, of the negroes 

aforesaid, as tiiey are bad prize, and, moreover, to command said Director and Council, 

as well as tlie Governor of tlie Island of Curac^ao, to arrest the pirate above mentioned, with 

his Lieutenant, and to seize bis ships and effects, whenever be shall repair, according to his 

custom, to said ports; as the Ambassador is informed that he had spent a few months in the 

harbor of said Island, with two other prizes taken from his Majesty's subjects, whereby their 

Lordships will afford manifest proof of the aversion they entertain against similar piracies. 

This he expects the more, as they know that this pirate, having been discharged from prison 

in Amsterdam, in which he had been some months confined, on a simple caution J tirulolre (his 

own recognizance), immediately left these Provinces to evade the chastisement he knew he 

deserved, and returned to the Indies to continue there his robberies and thefts as in times 

past; which, I presume, is not their Lordships' intention. 

Done at the Hague, 3'' [January], of the year 1G57. 

(Signed), Gamarra. 

Hemlutioii of the States-General, 

[ From the Eegislcr of Wtst IpJia AITiiirs, \<X>i — 1CC3 ; Royal Archives at Ihe Hagae. ] 

Thursday, 4"' January, 1Gd7. 

Spanish Ambassa- 

Folio 235. Head at the meeting a certain Memorial of the Spanish Ambassador, to the 


efi'ect that the Director-General and Council of New Netherland be again written 
Ferrara. to, to restorc to Jean Gaillardo Ferrara, a Spanish pilot, born at St. Lucar de 

New Neibe.iaiKi. Carameda, some negroes taken from him by Captain Sebastiaen Raef, alias, 

Martin Bastiaensz", or his Lieutenant, Jan van Campen ; also, that the Governor 
Captain Raeir. ^f [|^g island of Cura^ao be instructed to imprison the above named Captain and 
Lieutenant, and to seize their ships and eRects whenever they should come there, they have 
been guilty of divers |)iracies committed against the King of Spain's subjects; which, being 
considered, it is resolved and concluded to place the Memorial aforesaid in the hands of Mr. 
Iluygens and the other their High Mightinesses' Deputies for the aflciirs of the West India 
Company, to inquire, examine and report. 

Resolution of tlie Common Council of the City of Amsterdam. 

[From the Ji6soiutien van de VrotiUcltappen^ A., 1S2, in the Si*id Uuys^ Amsterdam.] 

15"' January, 1657. 
nni,ar,jiD«;umcnts. Q^ ^j^g application of the Directors of the Colonic in New Netherland for a 

8uhsi,ijf„rit,ppr„. a subsidy of about 10 th guilders for the promotion of said Colonic, it is resolved 

motion of Colonic . r I 

in New Niiht^riand. that they have authority to borrow 10 thousand guilders from the Orphan Chamber 
(it'cescawc?), as has already been done. 


Resolution of the States-General. 

[ From Ihe Register of West India Affaire, 1652 — 1663, in the Royal Archives at the Hague, ] 

Thursday, 25"' January, lGo7. 
Folio 237. Heard the Report of Mess" Huygens and other their High Mightinesses' 

Captain Raeff. Deputies for the affairs of the West India Company, having, pursuant to their 
resolution of the 4"' instant, looked over and examined a certain Memorial of the Spanish 
Jan van Kampen. Ambassadop, to the eflect that the Director-General and Council of New 
New Neiheriand. Netherlaud be again written to ; that they shall restore to Jean Gailiardo Ferara, 
a Spanish pilot, born at St. Lucar de Carameda, the negroes taken from liim by Captain 
Sebastiaen Raeff, alias, Martin Bastiaensz", or his Lieutenant, Jan van Caiiipen ; also, that he 
and the Governor of the Island of Cura§ao be instructed to imprison said Captain and 
Lieutenant, and to seize their ships and effects, whenever they come there, in order to be sent 
h\i\\er fede liga to ioT punishment, being guilty- of divers piracies committed against the King 
of Spain's subjects. Which, being considered, it is hereby resolved and concluded to comply 
with said request, and the aforesaid Director-General Stuyvesant and the Governor of Curasao 
shall be accordingly written to to this effect, in case they shall find the matter as represented 
by said Ambassador. 

States -General to Director Stuyvesant. 

[ From the Register of Uit^egane Srieven of the States-General in the Royal Archives at the Ilagne.] 

To Director-General Stuyvesant : the S-j"" January, 1657. 

Item. Mutatis mutandis. To the Governor of Curasao. 

The States, etc. 
Folio 14. Honorable, &c. We have resolved to send to you herewith the accompanying 

Spanish Ambassa- ]^jg,j^Qj.jjj] ^j- ^^^ Spanish Ambassador and the papers thereunto belonging, with 
order and command that if you find, as far as it concerns you, the case as represented in the 
said Memorial, you shall have to comply, in all parts, and to obey the request contained in 
the above mentioned Spanish Ambassador's Memorial, without failing in any wise therein, and 
you will have to inform us what will have been done and effected by you in the premises. 
Whereon relying, &c. Done 25"* January, I (357. 


Re-solution of the Common Council of the City of Amsterdam. 

[ From the Regolutien van da Vrodenchappen, A. 199, in the Stad Ilayi, Amsterdam. ] 

9'" March, 1C.57. 
iioiian.^ D >oun!cni8, 'f|,g DirectOTS of the new Colonie in New Netherland have stated, through 
c..i..nii- in New the Bu rsioniasters, that they liad collected about 300 Colonists, and therefore 

Selhcrlan.l. a J 

A citv »hin anil a Tequestcd permission to enj^nge a Minister, and to employ one of the city's ships 
wi'tTT ►ubll'iy'^ilf for their conveyance, and lor the advancement of everything, to be allowed to 
d"rs. '""°"' *'"" raise the sum of 30,000 guilders. Which, being considered, it is resolved that the 
city's ship called dt Wa<j^e. be employed for that purpose, a Minister engaged, and tlie aforesaid 
sum of 30,000 gl. borrowed by them either from the Orphan Chamber or the Exchange bank, 
according as the Burgomasters deem proper. It is, also, further resolved that the Treasurers 
be requested to pay attention to the employment of this and the foregoing moneys, and to 
keep the account of the one and the other. 

CunDiton Council of Amsterdam to Director Stuyvesant. 

[ From the Gemeene Missiven, IV., iu the Stad Buys, Amsterdam. ] 

To Mr. P. Sluyvesandt, Director-General in New Netherland. 

Honorable, Right Worshipful, Wise, &c. 

Hoiian.i Documents ^°^ ^'" niore fully leam what Johan Gaillardo, a Spanish pilot, hath 
^^■•^^^- represented to us, from his Memorial and their High Mightinesses' resolution, 

which will be exhibited to you, and as his Excellency, Don Estevan de Gamarra, the 
Ambassador of his Royal Majesty of Spain, hath, both by verbal and written recommendation, 
seriously commended his business to their High Mightinesses, and us in particular; we, 
therefore, request you to let him, said Gaillardo, against Captain Sebastiaen Rast and his 
Lieutenant, J. A. Campen, or others, obtain quick and speedy justice; which we shall 
reciprocate. Herewith, etc. 
la"" April, 1057. 

^ ■» » « . ^ 

Vice- Director Alrichs to the Commissioners of the Colonie on the Delaware. 

[ From tlic Bundle indorsed Yendifide Stukken ratkende de ColonU van A'. Xtdcrlandt, No. 30, In the Stad Iluyt, Amsterdam. ] 

To the Honorable Directors on the behalf of the city of Amsterdam, Commissioners for the 
management of its Colonie in New Netherland. 

Honorable, Worshipful, Wise and Prudent Gentlemen. 

Holland Documentii. ^'y '^st to vour Honors was dated the So"" December, 1656, and was written 

XV. 242. c 

from the Texel, when I went to sea and set sail in the ship Prins Maurits, Mr. 


Dirck Corneliss" honingh, and the ships and Gcldcrsche Blorn, perform ^^ the 
office of Admiral, as the above mentioned vessel was greatly clogged, and U was d.scovered 
To hat neither the skipper, pilot, nor any superior officer belongtng to the sntp ad 

r; be in New Netherland, or frequented its coast. But indifferent luck followed tins 
a rangement. for in the night of the 2S- of the same month, these three, overtak n by 
bd we the or a storm, wire separated from each other ; they from ours and we from thetrs. 
We Tf rwards experienced, now and then, divers inconveniences, from the satis, whjch were 
blown uTo the b'oUs, from the shot, which rolled out of the carriages, and from the breaktng 
and Ipping of the sea, which rushed so heavily and impetuously over the deck as to make a 
large crack or vent in a certain great beam called the fisher; s,x or seven of the crew wen 
v'r'y near being swept overboard at once by a sea, which, however, happ y flowed by As 

h ship was a bad sailer, the southern course was chosen. Havng reached as far as the 22d 
die of North latitude on the 17- of February, the course was changed ,n order to expedtt 
ouf voyage ad ,and was descried a little south of Cape Romaine, whence we satled forwa d 

r;.:r • ::L: ^- Z Z: ;- - other of the -P^o^..^- e.ven^.ock 
on the night of the 8- of March, after we had sailed that day m 26, IS and G fathoms ot 
water alth uj, the skipper, pursuant to my customary warning, had , not an hour 
rr; good care'andlt to spare the lead, and that he should qu.ckly cast anchor 

a d ten come into the cabin to report or communicate the matter, yet the men unexpectedly 
al ed ou teTght and nine fathoms. Wishing, thereupon, to tack, and the sh,p refusmg, she 
mm d at ly St uck, and so shoved, which she afterwards continued to do harder and harder 
so hat we Lre not a moment certain whether we should leave there ahve or After 
pi gTl rouj^^ n,ost of the darkness of that night in the greatest anxiety and fear, we found 
ou;ve at day-break, about a gunshot from the shore, but being between the shoal ard 
rtltdmsulhabad position, Ld ignorant ^.-Her this place wa south or no. o 
Manhattes, it was unanimously resolved, first to save our -^l"'^ .^';;' /^Z ^^ /, f ^ "ter 
tn save as much as we possibly could. Accordingly on the 9'" of March, in severe, muer 
and fie ng Te t r, wiU. drifting ice, after great trouble, through dangerous breakers ,n a 
V ylakTboat, with considerable water in it, we succeeded in reaching the shore on a bro .en 

it'orfor'eland, on which neither bush nor grass grew nor was ^^^ J^ ^ ^-7;^ ^ 
found. On the third day we, for the first time, saw and spoke some Ind. ns wl o u orm d 
us that it was the foreland of Long Island, and that the place -- -' ^^^^^-; f^;, ^Zty 
the ship getting nearer the shore, we, from time to Ume, unloaded ^^^ aved al le dry 
articles Having met and experienced this misfortune, I sent an, wth J^v'ce thereot 
to General Stay vesant, who immediately sent us a small sloop and came himself, the 
cond da af er, to us at the above mentioned place, which lies about twenty leagues nor 
Manhattes. On the other, or land, side of said place, a sma ^P-^f -;;';^^ t, ^ 
has been discovered, which a small sloop can enter; but most o the § ° , J^^^ 7,^» ^^^^ 
land to the other side to be loaded on the river. Workmg, with great / ^^ ^^ -^ i 

have discharged most all of the goods. -^^;]^:-^t^'::^::'::Z^ 
above named place; but before they could ^^'^f ^^^^^^l Zl named place hither, is 
splinters and pieces. But to transport the ^^^^^^^""^^'^^^ ,„,„, etc, are lost and 
not worth the freight and expense ; besides, the stone, tUes, ume. 


washed away. The otlier remaining goods are, according to specification, put on board nine 
craft, both yachts and schooners, with a perfect account of what goods are shipped in each, to 
be conveyed to the Manhattes, where, being come, I have been obliged, and have resolved, for 
the prosecution of the voyage, to hire the ship the Vergyldc Bmr, agreeably to the charter party 
thereof, and have agreed to pay tliree thousand guilders, Holland currency, for the freight; 
whereby the expenses here will be somewhat increased. 'J'o meet this, I shall be obliged to 
make use of some of the cargoes, as these command a higher price here, such as duffels, (It 3f 
and QL 4 gl. the ell ; the linen, Hi to 30 stivers the ell, and others in proportion. But on the 
other hand, the freight of the ship 7V/«.s Maurits, for the term of four or five months, with 
the monthly wages and victualing of the seainen, would not amount to less. I am, God 
knows, most sorry that this misfortune should just now overtake me and all the rest, in the 
first ship proceeding thither, and superadd, moreover, such labor and inconvenience that, I 
fear, we shall yet pa}' dear for it. In the meantime, I trust and will not doubt that Almighty 
God will bless and prosper the well begun atlairof the Colonie, which appears considerable. 

In regard to the season of dispatching ships for the winter, 'tis better that they be ready, 
and, if possible, sail in the last of September or beginning of October, so as to be here in 
December, or by the middle of that month, when it is still fair, mild and ordinarily good 
weather, as good preparations can then be timely made for whatever is necessary to be done 
in the winter, so that everything may be seasonably ready in the spring. The latter part 
of the winter has been severe, and, up to April, the weather has been cold, rough and 
disagreeable. The most of that time is now lost, but had we arrived all safely, I could not, at 
the south, be 10 or 14 days more forward, as the ships, the Gddersche Blom and the Bc(r, 
which arrived some 10 days after, would have taken all the month of April ere they could be 
unloaded and the goods again transhipped ; but by continual, steady, vigorous and unceasing 
exertions, we have now brought things so far that the ship the Bn-er is now fully laden. Your 
Honors will please, in future, to observe, above all things, that one of the officers of the ships 
coming hither, whether skipper or pilot, be somewhat conversant with this coast, or hath 
sailed hither ; many such are now to be found and easy to be got. It will also be most 
necessary, if not already done, that I be immediately provided with some suitable little 
vessels, to wit : one or two prams, which are here called, also, scows or c/uimpans, a good row 
boat, a sloop of nine or ten lasts and a schooner. The boat is more required ; without it much 
cannot be accomplished here. 

As stone and tiles are most necessary, please to supply again, hereafter, at pleasure, materials 
of which I am now stripped by this misfortune; also, smiths' coals, grindstones, which have 
remained in the ship ; as I expect to be able to get suitable timber here as well as lime, they 
need not be sent. 

I understand that pork, beef, peas, etc., are to be had clieaper here than they can be sent 
from Holland, to wit: beef and pork at 4 and 5 stivers the pound ; peas, three or 3i guilders 
the skepel, payable in merchandize, such as dufTels, linen, etc., at aforesaid prices. And such 
cargoes are of use for the purchase of cattle ; therefore, please remember to send some of 
these articles continually; as the cargoes are estimated in the purchase of beef and pork, these 
cannot cost above two or three and a half slivers the pound, or thereabout, a little more or 
less, according to circumstances, so that many expenses, with some freight and risk, can 
be saved. 


The ship Bncr is now ready to sail with us to the South river. God grant we may arrive 
there speedily and in safety. 

It will be necessary that a proper warehouse be got ready yonder, and set up, and being 
again talien to pieces, be sent, with its appurtenances, by the first opportunity, as, here 
without materials, good tools and carpenters, none of those sent over as servants being able 
to make anything good or suitable, it will be a long and tedious job. I shall require, also, a 
proper young man who is somewhat ready and apt at the pen, to serve me as clerk or 
secretary, and to write down and enter the daily occurring events, and, moreover, to copy 
what may be found necessary. 

In like manner, should more ships and people come here, it will fall somewhat heavy on 
Commissary Teynevelt, as he is already pretty well advanced in years, and about sixty years 
of age. 

- Should a person suited for the. office of Sellout olTer himself, please make no delay in the 
matter, as, when more people come here, such an officer cannot be well dispensed with among 
new and rough people. 

I also fully hope, and have placed my entire reliance on a Clergyman coming over in the 
first ship, so that all our work may begin in the fear of God, and obtain the blessing of 
the Almighty; that those who have little knowledge or light may not become backsliders; 
and those who are still weak in the faith may be further strengthened. A learned and aged 
man who hath good gifts and is well acquainted and conversant with church government, 
would be of much use there. This should not be deferred, as it is a scandal not to have either 
Church or Minister there, whenever any of the neighboring people, and even of those who 
intend to settle, come. I, therefore, request that this may be taken into the greatest 
consideration, with an effort to accomplish it most speedily. 

I learn and understand here nothing but what is good of the lands on the vSouth river. The 
original deeds of purchase are here and were offered to be delivered to me, but for greater 
security I have determined that they should remain here in the Secretary's office until further 
order, taking only authentic copies thereof, which are here inclosed, to wit: N" 1 is one 
preparatory to the purchase of the land ; N" 2 is the deed of it. I also send a deed conveying 
Fort Casimyr, now New Amstel, and all the lands thereunto belonging. Herewith is a second, 
or other, donation deed or conveyance of some presented lands situate on the east bank, as 
well as of a portion of land on the west side, whereof no deed has as yet been given by 
General Stuyvesant, because he hath no special instruction .regarding it from the Directors; 
this they can do on some future occasion. 

There being other good lands which, I understand, are useful to the Colonie, I shall, from 
time to time, write over about them and about other circumstances. There are a great many 
people here who request permission to go to the South river on the conditions granted by the 
city. I told them they could communicate their desire to me in a written application when 
I should arrive at that place, and I should then make every effort to accommodate them as 
much as possible, but I shall bear in mind to include therein as many conditions, for the ease 
of my principals, as can be beneficial and proper. 

In order to prevent disturbances, it will also be necessary that the soldiers be placed ori a 
certain allowance for rations, payable to them in kind or in cash, weekly or monthly. I have 
noticed that such is provisionally fixed at sixty guilders a year, but it must be expected that 
your honors will, moreover, be pleased to direct the time when it shall commence and be 


observed. In my opinion, the sum of sixty guilders is too little, and I think, under correction, 
that it might be raised to thirty stivers per week, wliich would amount to seventy-eight 
guilders. But your honors will please to dispose hereof as you will think proper ; and I shall 

pray Ciod, 

Honorable, Worshipful, Wise and Prudent Gentlemen ! 
to bless your administralioti and to keep your persons in continual health and prosperity. 

Your obliged and faithful servant. 

Fort Amsterdam, the IS"" April, 1C-J7. (Signed), J. Alrichs. 

Vice-Director Alrichs to tie JBurgoma-sters of Amsterdam. 

[From the Bundle endorsed VtTadaide Stukken raekeitde de Colonie van y. Xederlandt Ko. 1*, in the Stad Uuyp, Amsterdam.] 

Right Worshipful, Most Wise and Prudent Lords. 

Holland Documents ^'j '-'0'''^S' ^s youhave been pleased to employ, and, by commission and 
•x.\'.,-iii. otherwise to command me to repair to the South river, there to perform my 

bounden duty to your Colonie to that end I embarked on the 21" December, of last year, in 
the ship Prins Maurils, with one hundred and thirteen souls, including Colonists, free mechanics, 
soldiers and attendants, together with sixteen matrosses, in all 129 souls, and proceeded with 
t em on the proposed voyage, and after some storm and other obstacles, reached, on the 8"" of 
March, the vicinity of the Manhattes, and was in daily expectation of arriving there. But 
the Lord God did not vouchsafe this, for, through ignorance of the skipper and pilot who vrere 
never on this coast, and of other officers of the ship, having neared the shore in the evening, 
she immediately grounded, and so shoved, which continued afterwards harder and harder, 
that we were tiot, for a moment, sure of our lives, and seeing no escape in the morning, we 
uiianiinously resolved to save ourselves on a broken coast, which we, some days later, 
understood to be Long Island, and then brought the ship as close to the beach as was possible, 
saved, with the great labor, most of the goods. These we brought over the broken coast to a 
little river and, whilst there, sent for nine several sloops, in order to transport in them whatever 
was saved, to be put on board another vessel. An agreement was made to this effect, as by 
the Charter party, with the skipper of the Bcvcr, when at the Manhattes or New Amsterdam. 
I have about 50 persons more, who arrived with other ships, and in order to go to tlu; Colonie, 
have also taken up with the ship Ikier, which, having completed her cargo, set sail, on the IG"" 
of April, from the harbor of New Amsterdam, and arrived in the Colonie and at Fort New 
Amstel on the 21" ditto, where 1 have been put in possession agreeably to the deed of 
conveyance executed for me by the Director-General in Fort New Amsterdam. Authenticated 
and other copies of this deed were sent by the ships Bcvcr and Gcldcrse Dlom to the Directors 
at Amsterdam. 

The situation and quality of the lands on the South river are good and highly considered, 
the rather, as I perceive, that divers other families, from various places, evince an 
inclination, and request permission to remove or to settle on the above named river on tlie 
granted conditions. When I was at the Manhattes I promised to accommodate as many as 


was possible of them, after I had reached the South river, and if they then would communicate 
their request again and in writing, 1 shall remember to add such suitable conduions thereto, 
nay, as much as possible shall be then done as will save your Honors from any disbursements 

for such as come hither. oi o-^ 

Further, I have granted to the Colonists and free mechanics here, on their request, 24 or 25 
lots for house and garden, each lot about 30 feet front and ISO feet deep ; the Colonists and 
some freemen are zealously at work; the aforesaid places are mostly all fenced, and prepared 
for gardens, even whilst busy planting, for which it is now the season. As soon as the gardens 
are finished, and the people are somewhat under cover, they will look at the lands, a portion 
of which will be granted and conveyed to each, then, by lot. Here is still a good deal of fine 
land lying waste for want of people, who, with whatever appertains thereto, will, I hope, be 
sent out by the first opportunity. As I find now, at first, a great deal of one sort and another 
to do I have not, as yet, had time to inform myself of divers circumstances. Not one carpenter 
has been sent out in service with us. I could not save any stone or lime or smiths' coals, 
because the ship, after she was almost discharged, went into a thousand splinters and pieces. 
And, as there was scarcely any storehouse, I have been obliged to fix something tent fashion, 
to preserve the goods which, in such a manner or with such covering, are not sufliciently 
protected from rain, rotting, &c. Therefore, necessaries are required to be sent hither for a 
large storehouse ; also suitable boats and a Minister, all which are of the greatest necessity. 
As there was no powder-house here, 1 have had a cellar constructed under the walls, so that 
the powder may be preserved in a sure place which is beyond danger. Meanwhile, the ship 
Bn-er has been discharged within her ten allowed days. The soldiers, with the Captain and 
Lieutenant, marched overland because there was no room in the Bcccr, above mentioned, to 
allow of their coming by water. The ship experiencing contrary wind, the soldiers, on that 
account, started somewhat later from the Manhattes, and therefore arrived at the fort six 

days after me. . , 

The fort is nearly falling, especially in front of the beach ; this will have to be repaired, 

which will be done in its own time. 

Little is thought here of the inhabitants or natives and other neighbors, and we shall be 
sufficiently cautious towards them, not to give them the least occasion to be dissatisfied, but 
use every exertion to treat them with all friendship and kindness, in order to maintain, as 
occasion shall require, all good alliance. , ,, , ■ c j 

Moreover, I shall, as in duty bound, so acquit myself in my station that you shall be satisfied 
and content. Herewith, abbreviating, I shall, on the earliest occasion, furnish fuller information 
of what relates to this Colonie, according to further experience. I shall also transmit a little 
map of this District, especially of its extent, with the condition and extent of the buildings m 
this fort; likewise a perfect little sketch of this fortification. To this purpose, I must receive 
the assistance of a land surveyor. With my dutiful respects, I pray Almighty God, Honorable, 
Right Worshipful, Most Wise and Very Prudent Gentlemen, to bless your government and to 
grant you, personally, continual health and prosperity. 

Right Worshipful, 

Your most obliged and 

Faithful servant. 

Fort New Amstel, (In haste.) (Signed), J. Alkichs. 

7"' May, A" 1657,. 

Vol. II. 2 


Vice-Directoi- Alricli',' to the Com/nis-suoner.s of tlie Culonie on the Ddaware. 

[ From tbii BunJl« cq lorjcd Yinoheidt Stukken raekende de C<jtonU van .V. XvU'rland!, So. 13, in Iho Stud Hays, Anisti-riiam. ] 

Honorable, Worsliipful, Wise and Rijilit Prudent Gentlemen. 

iMv last was on the 1-'"' of April, since wiiieh, the ship Ctrfr being loaded, I 

II"lIan(l Documents. -' r ' r o 

.XV., ■-•;». embarked in her on the IG"" April, and proceeded front the road-stead in front of 

the Manhattes to Fort Casimir in tlie South river where lie arrived on the 2-J"" ditto, God be 
praised, with about 125 souls, followed on the P' May by 3S soldiers, with whom were some 
iVeemen, who traveled over land with the Captain and I.ieuleuant. On the day of my arrival 
I took possession of the fort, the keys of which were delivered me by the Vice-Director Jaquet, 
and the place vacated, agreeably to the deed conveyed to me at the Manhattes by the Hon'''' 
Mr. Stuyvesant, Director-General of New Netherland, etc., whereof I have transmitted an 
authentic copy. But the fortifications and all the buildings are in a very ruinous condition, 
whereby from the want of a store-house, etc., 1 now hnd myself considerably embarrassed. 
In order to unload the goods I, moreover, put up a tent, but in consequence of unsettled and 
rainy weather, have been obliged to arrange matters here as well as I can, not as I would. 
The house is covered with oak shingles which are so shrunk, drawn up, and in part rotten, 
that scarcely a dry spot can be found when it rains. And as there was no place for the 
powder, and only from eight to ten kegs in the house, I have thought it best to have a powder- 
house constructed under the southeast bastion of the fort for the greater security of about 30 
or 40 kegs. In addition to this, 1 unloaded and dispatched the ship Bevcr in the quickest time. 

To each of the Colonists and free tradesmen I showed and conveyed in fee a lot 30 feet in 
breadth and about 180 in depth, which was soon fenced or encircled witli palisades. The 
greatest portion of them are prepared for gardens, which, for the most part, are already 
planted, and am now busy providing each with some sort of lodging in order to get under 
cover. So quick as that is done, I shall look out for land, so as to distribute a portion to each 
by lot. And as I have been wholly deprived of materials such as stone, tiles and lime for the 
mason; Ilcm, wood-work and carpenters; coals and other necessaries for the smitii, I most 
liumbly request your Honors to be pleased to take some trouble to send out a storehouse or 
necessary materials for such ; should the freight be too high, I shall endeavor to get boards, 
but these will not be what such work demands; they will be badly sawed, and not easily had. 

Of the effects and property belonging to the Company, 1 have taken the shot and 
ammunition, furniture [irajns'guidcrcji), with some necessary cattle which I cannot do without, 
for hauling palisades and other timber absolutely required for the repairs of the fort; this 
and the gun carriages and platforms are in a most ruinous condition, and the building greatly 
out of order; these and much other work are in great need of improvement and repair. The 
property made over is specified according to inventory as to be seen annexed. 

The land here is good and fertile, and better and finer in the vicinity. If one, two or more 
hundred men additional are sent here, be pleased to consider whether it would not be wise, 
first of all, to secure all the lands at present lying within the Company's jurisdiction, or claimed 
and heretofore occupied, or to be occupied by it, on both sides of the South river, so as to 
prevent many claims or questions which may he set up thereto bv private persons in 
consequence of some right ownership through individual purchase, gift or other privilege. 


Regarding tlie people who are sent hither by your Honors' permission, I think it would be 
wise that tlie most or greater portion of those forwarded should be males, inasmuch as strong 
and working people are, in the first instance, the most serviceable in these parts, and can do 
more than those who are weakly. 

And as some freemen, who do not apply themselves to farming, and the soldiers, most of 
whom, in addition to their wives and children, have brought over servant girls for their house- 
work, are importunate, yea, would draw right plentifully from the store ; whilst from many of 
them, in my opinion, but little is to be expected in return; and whenever proper reasons are 
objected to such a course, they become very touchy and make a great uproar, and unreasonably 
say, that they have been brought hither and cannot get what they require and therefore suffer 
from want, &c.; and the soldiers, in like manner, are mostly all dissatisfied, although good 
rations have hitherto, been issued to them and their wives, and will insist on them for their 
servant maids and children, have the goodness, therefore, not to postpone stating how many 
rations, or for what amount of money they are entitled to draw, annually, from the store, or 
when their fixed or apportioned board money shall annually commence here. This, by no 
means, ought to be in force any longer than the end of the year from the date of their sailing. 
This, also, ought be the case with all Colonists and tradesmen, if your Honors have no 
objection, but the Colonists ought to be allowed 12 months after their arrival. 

In regard to the Bay of this river, which is about five leagues wide and nine long, as strange 
skippers or pilots, who are ignorant of, or unacquainted with it, will find this somewhat 
serious inasmuch as there are many sand-banks, shoals, and flats which extend to a considerable 
distance, I have conferred with some seafaring people on the subject, in order to ascertain by 
what means those obstructions could be remedied, or managed so as to insure the greatest 
safety or least danger. It was agreed that it would be of use to lay five or six buoys there ; 
to sound the shoals in the most exact manner, and then to write a description thereof for 
general information. Your honors will please to consider of this in such manner as may be 
found proper. There is very good land at the mouth of the Bay, where some people might 
be settled, to the number of one hundred, or at least eighty, men. If many persons were 
sent here in a short time, then a sloop might also sail hither and thither, to drive some trade, 
and, meanwhile, to look out at sea for arriving vessels and then to pilot or bring them in. 

I find, likewise, that the greater the immigration hither, the greater is the importation of all 
sorts of merchandize, especially of strong liquors, such as brandies and distilled waters, as 
there is no impost thereupon when retailed by tapsters, tavern-keepers or others. The 
consequence is, that many, for the sake of the profit, seek to sell them, and do sell them to 
the Indians, who, by drunkenness, become very rude, quarrelsome and disorderly. Should 
your Honors make any objection to putting some impost on this trade for the removal of such 
evils, I shall, nevertheless, meanwhile, think of, and try to introduce other means, according 
to circumstances, for the prevention thereof. 

As many persons repair hither for purposes of agriculture, and also for building huts or 
houses, some carpenters' tools are required, of which each family hath great need, such as 
hand-saws, adzes, axes, augers, etc., nails, to wit, double and single mediums, two-inch nails, 
wainscot nails, the latter most, and three times as many as of the others, for clapboards, which 
are used here instead of tiles for covering roofs; iron and copper pots and kettles, also, are in 
much demand here. The agricultural implements ought, by all means, be of the strongest 
and best kind, not liable to break or to become loose by use, namely, hoes, axes, spades, 


shovels, etc. Item. We have great need of 10 or 1,200 lbs. of sheet lead, 2 or 3 grindstones, 
and also a bundle of steel, together with all sorts of measures, skepels and smaller measures, 
quarter casks, and some of less dimensions, which Corss Janss, says were not put on board ; 
quart measures, etc., and small weights, few of which were brought here and are difficult to 
be had. ^ 

Please, also, not to forget sending some reams of paper. 

Also, when sending, do not, by any means, forget, if convenient, or when forwarding 
cargoes, to let us have Pork somewhat plentifully, in order to be able to buy up here, on the 
best terms, in season, or at the fitting time, all sorts of necessary provisions, which can be 
Salt purchased here cheap, as already stated ; and as Salt in this place is worth about 

3 @. 3i guilders, of this currency, the skepel, and sometimes a little more, which, being paid 
for in goods, I estimate would stand in about half in Holland currency, I should like much to 
have a supply of it especially for curing beef, pork, &c., which 1 shall attempt by the ne,\t 
opportunity if you have no objection; unless it be previously found requisite, inasmuch as it 
is profitable and most useful, to purchase one or two hundred deer or the venison thereof on 
commission. These, as I am informed, are to be had, at most, for three guilders and less, 
because they are shot by thousands here every year. The carcass of each deer might weigh, 
one with another, in meat, at least GO and 70, 80 and 90, and sometimes even 100 lbs., wliich, 
again, is to be paid for in goods ; that amounts to only half in Holland currency, as 1 shall be 
able, with full certainty, to advise you by the next opportunity, after further experience and 
fmal purchase. 

The two seins which were sent in the Trins Mmirils are almost spoiled and in part rotten, 
as the ship made considerable water when it was stranded, and previous to its being 
discharged, whereby the nets got wet ; therefore, please furnish us with others, by the first 
opportunity, as they are very necessary and useful for the purpose of making the rations and 
provisions go further. 

Herewith ending, I shall pray God, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise and Right Prudent 
Gentlemen, to bless your administration, and to preserve yourselves in lasting prosperity 
and health. 

Your Honors obliged and 

Fort New Amstel, Faithful servant, 

on the South river, 8'" May, 1G57. (Signed), J. Alrichs. 

Bond for Xine Tlionmnd Guilders borrowed for the Colonie on the Delaware. 

[ From tho Bundle endorsed Verxcheidt Stulckm raekende de OolonU tan X. Xtdfrtandt, No 12, in the Slad Iluy/i, Amsterdam. ] 

Holland Docutnenui, We, the Undersigned Commissioners and Directors, appointed and commissioned 

XV., 209. . ~ ' r r 

by the Right Worshipful, the Burgomasters and Regents of this city of Amsterdam 
to superintend its Colonie established and planted on the South river in New Netherland, hereby 
acknowledge to have fully received, and to be indebted to Margareta, daughter of Gysbert 
Cornelissen Fuyck, in the sum of .Nine thousand gl. in heavy silver money, which aforesaid 


sum of Nine thousand gl., at the interest thereof at three and a half per cent, per 
annum, we promise to repay precisely ~ after date hereof to the above named Margareta, 
daughter of Ghysbert Cornelissen Fuyck, or the bearer hereof, in heavy silver m.oney (the 
patacoon at 50 sliv. and the ducatoon at G3 stivers), and that under pledge of this city's means 
and revenue, being specially authorized thereunto by resolution of the O"" March past, 
adopted by the Right Worshipful Burgomasters and Common Council of this city, without the 
above named Commissioners and Directors being hereafter in any wise hohien or responsible 
therefor, either in their persons or property. In testimony of the truth whereof, the above 
named Commissioners and Directors have signed this, the S"" of May, XVI hundred and 
fifty-seven, in Amsterdam. 

(Signed), Hector Pietersen and 
Jan Tayspel. 

Vice-Director Alrichs to the Commiasiomvs of the Colonie on the Delaware. 

[ From the Bundle indorsed Verscheide Stukken raekende de ColonU van y, l^ederlandt^ No. 23, in the SUtd ITuya, Amsterdam, ] 

Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Right Prudent Gentlemen. 

Holland Documents, % '''^^t to your Houors was dated the S"- instant, whereunto I refer; 
•^^''■'^*' nevertheless, I am under the necessity to repeat here, and again herein respectfully 

to request you to be pleased, should you not have already sent out the materials necessary for 
a suitable warehouse, as well two carpenters at least, who, without whom we cannot get 
along, and the requisite boat and clergyman, no longer to postpone forwarding them, for, in 
consequence of the heavy rain that frequently falls here in great quantities, which will leak 
through any old sails, there is imminent danger that whatever is dry or susceptible of damage, 
will be spoiled. 

As an apology for, or in place of a storehouse, we have only a sort of hut made of props and 
boards, and covered with old sails, which I, through great necessity, was obliged to take from 
the late skipper of the Prins Maurits, on condition of paying for them, and he would give short 
credit. I have therefore secured this, as I must close at once with him ; 'tis a large topmast- 
sail, a pretty fair piece, and a mainsail, tolerably tight. I had them valued by Paulus Leenders, 
Burgomaster, in New Amsterdam, and Claes Willemsz, skipper of Beer, who estimated 
them at 19 and 11 stivers the ell, amounting together to three hundred and forty-six guilders 
of this currency, which is 30 or more per cent, lighter than Holland currency. In exchange for 
this is delivered to him wherewith to support his people from the 1" to the 15"" of April, since 
the loss of the ship and since the goods were put again on board a small sloop and sent to the 
Manhattes ; this was for 15 men, estimated at least at 7 stivers per day, and after that, again 
at the Manhattes, was delivered out of the ship Bcver what is specified in the annexed account, 
the amount whereof is by guess at my valuation ; it can be again valued there, inasmuch as the 
price or what the provisions cost, is not mentioned in the invoice ; they can then be offset 
against one another. 

Again, the skipper, in consequence of the misfortune that has overtaken us, is inclined to 
refuse justifying the bills of lading. In reasonable fairness and under the circumstances, all 


is or slioiihi be considered, since, in sncli misfortune or mishnp, niiicli went entirely to loss. 
Tliere occurred not only much leakage in the liquors, hut on shore much was stolen in the 
discharging, tec; and how was it kept or ])reserved during the nigiit "? The sentinels crawled 
under, drew out in tubs what was found sullicient. Some of tiie dry goods, entirely scattered 
about, were wet and injured by the quantity of water in the siiip, and the skipper could not 
resolve on cutting a hole in the vessel to let the water run out; and, moreover, one thing or 
the other was wholly carried away and lost; amongst the rest, a barrel of hams, smoked beef 
and tongues, a box with side arms {.mJarmcii) and a flag. I would have willingly bought his 
flag and iiave offered to pay him for it, but he will not give up nor surrender it; some tubs of 
bullets, whole pikes, two newly made tackles, some Spanish wine and oil, also, other goods 
such as fans, muds, sieves, skepels and other small measures, have been thrown overboard and 
drifted away, few of which were recovered, and only about some dozen muds; some of these, 
again, broken or stove into pieces by being thrown overboard, were swept away. I have 
therefore resolved, by advice, to have his goods seized, which have been saved and brought to 
the Manhattes, in order to bring him to reason, because, also, he has not consented to give me 
receipts (or the jjrovisions he applied for there, and which were delivered from the ship, de 
Bar ; but I have let it be known that he may take his goods on giving security, and dispose 
of them to ids benefit, according to his pleasure. The matter can be better disposed of in this 
country, where all the circumstances of the loss and misfortune are best known and understood, 
than elsewhere, and 'twas done principally with this view; whether the proprietors decide oa 
setting up any claim against the above named skipper, or be willing to acquiesce, I expect 
their pleasure l)y receipt. 

In regard to the rations, these are issued according to the annexed table determined on here, 
except tiiat fish is also used, in order to make the provisions go farther. "The rations cannot 
well be issued otherwise than equally among the Colonists, free handicrafts men and soldiers, 
in order to prevent disputes and dissatisfaction, which are of no use here. It is also to be 
considered that there are many who have heavy families, for all sergeants and corporals have 
brought over maid servants with them ; provisions must, of necessity, be issued both for their 
wives and tliemselves, and for their maids and children. At the lowest calculation, a soldier 
who earns twelve guilders a month receives in weekly rations for himself one, his wife one, and 
the maid and child, both one; in all, three rations; and in four weeks twelve, which, in a year 
of 52 weeks, each ration at least at 30 stivers, amounts, for such married people, to 234 
guilders yearly, exclusive of daily necessaries, such as stockings, shoes, shirts, clothing, etc.; 
this will still run on and ought to be continued until further orders, so as to avoid at the outset 
much umbrage, and I expect the diminution or augmentation in value thereof, and at what 
price each species shall be charged ; also, especially the first cost of all the goods, how and at 
what piices shall these be charged to the people. When the cost of all the goods is specified or 
marked, about .50 per cent, should, in my opinion, be added for advances, risk, waste, freight, 
labor and other expenses of packing, etc. But the provisions can hardly bear this, and ought 
to put down lower, with the full understanding that all be done undersuch limitation and order 
as your Honors have already made, or shall, as a general basis or measure, still further 
decide on. 

Since my preceding letters I have made some enquiry, and taken some information 
respecting the country and its advantages, also regarding the situation of this fort, and tliC 
circumjacent lands. I have, accordingly, comprised in a little map the location of Fort New 


Amsteland the adjoining territory belonging tliereunto ; also of Fort Christina, riow called 
Altona; and in like manner, shown, generally, how near it is to Virginia or the Enghsh r.ver, 
which can be reached in two days, or even less. On this road or way, 'tis also sa,d ,s a 
good and rich iron mine, and if so, I shall, at the earliest moment, have a sample brought .n. 
'Tis situate or contained in a certain mountain, near which is a cataract or waterfall, on a 
river that runs past and close by the place, and is adapted to the turning of mdls. This river 
likewise, affords facilities for bringing away such substance in a boat, as can be further seen 
in the rough sketch of the above mentioned map annexed hereunto. 

I have, also, drawn up a plan of a city, as is to be seen in the accompanying sketch ; the 
circumstances and situation of the spot are not very much unsuited or ill-adapted for such ^ 
fortification, inasmuch as the place where the ditches of the city are to run, and the two 
harbors are, but particularly one, in some sense, and apparently suited thereto by nature, save 
that in a matter of such importance there are still many considerations, and nothing will 
possibly be effected without inconveniences arising against it. I am convinced that the first 
harbor, by clearing it, could be so made that a large ship could sail into and be discharged and 
loaded in it; by this accommodation the ships would be protected against, and prepared for, 
the drifting of ice, which sometimes here, of a winter's day, flows in such masses that no 
ship, lying in the river could, without danger, withstand it; add to this, that they could then 
be loaded and unloaded with greater convenience. I shall willingly await other considerations 
and opinions thereupon, should the matter come, in any wise, under deliberation. 

No one here is very conversant with engineering on whose survey and judgment reliance 
could, or dare, be placed in a matter of such great importance. I was obliged to have hud 
out as best I could, the house lots and gardens by a man who possesses some triflmg 
knowledge of land surveying. The people were anxious and craving to be under a roof, in 
order to do something for their own support, which usually is willing labor, for had they gone 
immediately inland, they would have to go and settle more apart or separated, at their own 
risk and to the general insecurity, and could never be brought to dwell within (the town) near 
each other. And I think it ought to be the rule, not to give land to any person unless he 
reside here himself, or is domiciled, and have kept or was keeping a man and arms inasmuch 
as 'tis of primary necessity to establish a capital, where a goodly number of inhabitants live 

together and in good order. , j r -i 

The condition of the land on the other side of this river is likewise good and fertile; nor is 
it bad policy to begin a hamlet or village there, were it right opposite this place or nearly so. 
in order to completely defend this river thereby, which these lands and places deserve ; neither 
can it do any harm at first to keep a strict watch here and there, so as to ascertain somewhat 
the intentions or actions of the Swedes. There are many here thoroughly conversant with the 
circumstances of this place, and Jhey are trying to keep the claim of the Crown alive; that is 
not of much moment, but neither ought it to be taken too little into account. 

I have also made one drawing of Fort New Amstel, but it is somewhat handsomely sketclied ; 
the walls are not nearly half so good as they appear on paper, and it threatens to fall do«n 
where there is much superstructure before it can be rebuilt or repaired. It is, moreovei, 
small, so that it would afford hut poor accommodation for the Captain and Lieutenant, whic, 
however, it has not yet done for want of materials and carpenters. Each, in particular, has 
already a somewhat large family and moveables. Wherefore, when at the Manhattes, each of 
them, knowing the condition and smallness of the fort, did hire a proper house which they 
occupy and need. For these reasons none can or will, as yet, watch in the fort. 


The storehouse in the fort is nnicli too small ; and when a more suitable one is built it will 
only make the space narrower or more limited, but tlie preservation of the goods is most 
important. Tlie people must be secured thereby, and also by their own good care and 
attention. I have, tlierefore, made a sketch of the fort and also of its proximate dimensions, 
so as to ascertain them and to order everything proportionally: if it come to this, 1 shall duly 
consider v\ liat course to take for the disposition and arrangement thereof. 

The Colonists, free mechanics, civil servants, with the freemen who were here before our 
arrival, and some few who have come and settled here since, may amount, altogether, to 
al)i)ut sixty men capable of bearing arms. They shall and will be placed under burgher 
officers to keep watch and ward, agreeably to the conditions which are thereunto enacted ; 
this is of use for the security and strength of this Colonic. 

Tlie gun-carriages, and whatever belongs to them, are bad and mostly all unserviceable; if 
new ones be made, the sun and heat will immediately dry them up, and cause them to split 
and warp {veis[ia/u7i), unless tarred, they will be, in a short time, rendered wholly useless. 
Therefore, a stock of five or six tons of tar ought to be sent hither. 

In like manner, for private houses on 25 new lots, on each of which a small building has 
been, or will hereafter be, erected. Though country fashion and make, they require a quantity 
of nails, especially double and single ones, a good many spikeS; and not a few wainscot nails, 
inasmuch as a great number of these are used for clapboarding, or roofing the houses with wood. 

Mr. Jan Costing, the Surgeon, hath given in this annexed memorandum of necessary 
medicines, which, he says, will not amount to much. He requests that they be sent out by 
the earliest opportunity. 

Herewith I also send a list of the tobacco and peltries, etc., shipped on board the Beier 
whenever it sails hence to the Manhattes; also, what is likewise sent hence in another yacht 

called the As a beginning, something, 'twill be seen, is to be done here ; already 

some persons have traded a large quantity ; this trade, most probably, will experience a 
considerable augmentation and improvement, so that it would not be surprising if a large 
quantity of peltries will be sent over as a return cargo in the first coming ships. 

And as there are many good kinds of timber here, it is a matter of consideration whether 
the inhabitants will not find herein, in course of time, a source of advantage and profit, 
moreover, as it supplies, with tobacco, loading for the arriving ships. And I have heard that 
some Swedes have expressed a willingness to cut masts on condition of paying reasonable 
freight thereon. I shall talk with them on this subject more fully and finally on the next 
opportunity. In order that this Beaver country may be the better remembered, I also send 
with this a beaver skin, which, in my opinion, is somewhat of a curiosity. 

Herewith ending I will pray God, Honorable, Worthy, Wise and Prudent Gentlemen, to 
bless your Honors' government, and to preserve your Honors' persons in continual health. 
I remain your Honors' obliged and 

Faithful servant. 
Lower was: (Signed), J. Alriciis. 

In Fort New Amstel, on the South river, 
the 25"' May, 1G57. 

Still lower : 

Through lack of lime, and as I must do almost everything, 1 have not written to Mess", 
the Burgomasters. Please to communicate to them the maps and plans. 


Eesolution groMmg further Aid to the Colome on the DeUware. 

[ From Iho n«>olutlen van de Vroei^cUapp^n, A, 225, ia the Slad Iluys, Amsterdam. ] 

4"' July, 1G57. 
. , ThP Burgomasters have informed the Council that the Directors of the 
"-r.7— J;^^^;5 :t,herland still require to borrow from the Orphan Chamber 
^f^'f^ ^6 00^.1, (br the advancement of said Colonie on the credit o the cty. 
a™ "done the iV November, 1050, in regard to the sum of 25,000 gl and whereas 
0^00.1 we afterward,, borrowed from the Orphan Chamber on the IS-^ January. 16 7, 
nd 36 on the 9^^ March following, without the clause, pledging the P-P- J f^, '-' ^j 
they request the opinion of the Council whether it were not tac.tly unders ood that the means 
irde It f this city were bound for the said 10,000 and 36,000., cons.dered 
he Co i^ consent 'to the required loan of 6,000 gl , and resolve ^ -;,;-— ;;^ 
property of this city shall be pledged as well for the 10,000 gl., b°";7^;; ;' ^i'^/^ Xf 
Lt! as for the 36,000 gl. raised on 9- of March, the same as was voted on the 11 November. 
A" 1656, ia regard to the 25,000 gl. 

Mert Fietersen, Sehoohnaster, to the Commissioners of tU Colonie on the Delaware. 

, Prom the Bund.e endorsed r..^«. SU^n ra^^ <^e Co^on. ra. ^. K^rlana, No. 15. >. the St^ U.y., Amsterdam. J 

Extract from the letter of Evert Pietersen, Comforter of the sick, and 
Schoolmaster in the Colonie established by this cty, Amsterdam, on the 
South river, in New Netherland, dated 10"- August, 1657. 

We arrived here at the South river, on the 25"- April, and found 20 families 
no;,a„d^Boe.meat„ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^,^^^ ^ ^^ g f^.^jji^^ belonging to our nauon. \ 

find the land here right good and well timbered. I have been full 5 or 6 hours m the inter.or m 

le woot and fou.fd fine oaR and hickory trees ; also, excellent land for t|H^ge - saw n.-y 

plants growing, except nettles, all very good, so that the land produces whatever U can, but of 

e es't kind ■ I therefore firmly believe were we to have 1 to 2 "-"-f '.ea-y farmers w 
should reap an excellent crop here, where, therefore, nothing ,s wanting but people. Wharves 

e alreadjlaid out here and'almost built ; land is also given out ^^-^^ -^--J^^f^rt 
to get the winter grain in the ground. Your Honors are also mformed that there is 
:„f^erlble black w!.nut timber here to make gun-stocks with -^^^^l^^l^-^^Zrilt^l 
of the gunsmiths what it is worth, and whether they purchase by the st ck °;J°°;' ^"'^ JJ 
long the pieces must be, and then calculate the profit to be made on it. I -^^-^jy^; Jfj' 
ancf makes good ballast, for a great deal of it is worked up at home. I already begin to keep 

school, and have 25 children, etc. 

Your Honors' most obedient servant, 

(Si-^ned), Evert Pietersen. 
On one side was: \ ° ' 

Dated the lO'" August, 1657. In Fort New Amstel, 
on the South river, in New Netherland. 
Vol. II. ^ 


Vice • Director Alriehs to the Comraissiontr-s of tlie Colonie on tlie Delaware. 

[ From tbe Bundle endarscd V^nclieide Stukken. ratkendi dt Colonic van X. Xederhmdt, No. 14, in Ibe Stad IIuy%^ Amsterdam.] 

Honorable, Worshipful, Wise and Riglit Prudent Gentlemen. 

Hoi'.in.i Documents, ^'y ''^^*' I'^llf's to you Were dated the 13"' April and 8"" and 5"" of May, and 
xv.,213. were sent by the ships, Beer, Gddcrse Uom and Btver. I hope they liave all 

got safe to hand, and refer thereunto. I had requested therein a sloop and a scow or champan, 
row-boat, yacht and galliot, but learn that a row-boat and galliot are coming and sent by the 
TVtirg, which is looked for with great impatience. But tiie scow and yacht of 8 or 9 lasis are 
also very necessary here. 

I expect that a large quantity of material, suc'i as bricks {stcc7ic?t), tiles, smiths' coals, etc., 
will be sent out; they are much needed here, as we have not a solitary brick in store to repair 
an oven which is in ruin. We have here only a little oven which is unsuitable, and cannot last 
longer. Two more must therefore be built, wherefore I expect what tliereunto belongeth as 
well as other necessary materials. 

Provisions, generally, are very scarce, and the arrival of tbe ship, the Waeg, is an.xiously 
looked for; otherwise, we shall be in great distress. I have already had 200lbs. of English 
pork purchased at the Manhattes, payable in Duffles, at 4 guilders the ell. 

And, as I was somewhat apprehensive, and moreover greatly afraid, that no warehouse 
would be sent over early, which is the cause of greater inconvenience and injury than can be 
expressed, I have therefore been obligeii to conclude, and have deemed it proper to liave a 
storehouse built. But as we have no brick here, and as it must be constructed entirely of 
wood, and there is no room in the fort to set up coarse and rough work, and of great dimensions, 
I have had it located on one side and under the fort for protection of the work, 5G feet long and 
25 feet wide, 9 high, with a ceiling, but I cannot get any suitable carpenters ; consequently, it 
makes little progress. Notwithstanding, I do all I can. Your Honors will please not to omit 
sending out 3 or 4 of the best carpenters who are well versed in their work. They are the 
cheapest, inasmuch as they save time, and the work is better made and faster. They will 
have steady employment here, as there is considerable to be made and repaired. Three or 
four carpenters only came over among tbe freemen; one of them is sometimes sick or ailing; 
the other will not work ; the third demands something better, and so forth, so that it is 
a very troublesome and difficult matter. 

Furthermore, as a secretary or clerk was necessary for the dispatch of law suits and occurring 
differences or questions, I have been obliged provisionally to engage Andries Hudde, who also 
under.stands somewhat of surveying, in which he can likewise be, in some degree, useful ; and, 
as he hath filled the same office for the company, and is here domiciled, settled and also 
licensed, I have agreed with him for 30 guilders, this currency, a month, payable here, with 
rations. Such was the salary and board received before by him, he also provisionally performing 
the duties of Deputy Sheriff (for which office he was proposed and recommended by the 
Deputies of the Commonalty) for the avails or emoluments thereof, without having any other 
perquisite in respect thereto, all subject to your Honors' approval, or until another be sent out. 
As relates to the deed given me of lands for your Honors' Colonie here, it is only from 
Boomtjes hook to Christina kill, including also many inferior tracts, of which there are several 
belter here, both in the Bay and on the river. And it were most proper, when this established 


Colonie shall become successful, as is to be hoped, that the whole should be placed under one 
head or government. But so soon as only five or six hundred are here in one place, they must 
be located and spread farther apart, as there is still here much excellent and fine land, under 
the jurisdiction of and belonging to the Company. Besides, there are also many Netherlanders 
and other inhabitants here who, with the consent and permission of the government, have 
purchased and possess deeds of some miles, or many thousand morgens, of land, which could be 
obtained easily for a trifle or very little. And I think it would be of advantage to acquire, by 
degrees, as much as possible of it, because occasions often present themselves to me to prevent 
any of them hypothecating their right or property to the English or other nations. But what 
the Company owns on the South river must be wholly under your Honors' authority. 

I have understood here that the General proposes to send a Vice-Director to Fort Altona, 
and is ofTering favorable terms in order to plant a Colonie there. Time will determine what 
progress it will have. 

Being hitherto obliged to furnish and supply the rations of the soldiers, and also of their 
wives and children, a large consumption was the consequence. Add to this, that a great deal 
of dry provisions were injured and ruined by water in consequence of the wreck of the ship. 
We are now approaching the end, and are longing for the arrival of the ship TFacg, with the 
Galiot, to which all eyes are beginning to be turned, both for those without who intend to 
repair hither, as for the encouragement of the insiders ; because already many difficulties are 
created by reason of the war which, it is reported, exists between the Crown of France and 
us, wherefore 'tis feared that the ship or ships may be late in coming, and this might then 
cause inconvenience here. 

I trust, as I observe from the letter, that the TVacg will supply and bring over everything 
that is most necessary. Besides, I am here in want of all sorts of measures and of whatever 
appertains thereunto, so that I am inconvenienced on all sides. Cors Janscn, the steward, 
hath gone away and broken his troth ; he is, therefore, outlawed, his wages confiscated for the 
profit of the State, and himself banished for three times seven years from this southern Colonie. 
Be pleased, from time to time, to let the prices of all goods, provisions, iron ware, and all 
other necessaries whatsoever which are sent here, be written out with the invoices. 

When receiving and sending people, please to observe that the most of those drawn and 
sent, be conversant with farming and accustomed to work, so that everything may be more 
expertly done and more speedily finished. 

I have already stated that there is a very fine and excellent country called the Whorekill, 
abounding very much in wild animals, birds, fish, etc., and the land is so good and fertile that 
the like is nowhere to be found. It lies at the entrance of the Bay, about two leagues up from 
Cape Hinlopen. I shall send a draft of it by the next opportunity. Please to keep it 
recommended; the place can be conveniently visited with a yacht of 8 or 10 lasls, but some 
people must be there for security. This can be regularly done, or set about in course of time, 
after numbers are sent and have arrived here, and more of the place is taken up. 

And whereas considerable provisions and liquors are being forced here at excessive prices 
by private individuals, as well retailers as tavern-keepers and tapsters, and as there is neither 
baker nor brewer here, and thin drink makes hungry bellies which recoil on the store, and as 
working people must sometimes take a drink of beer or wine to comfort their hearts, I 
resolved, with the advice of the Municipal government, and on the representation of those 
authorized by the Commonalty, that the tapsters and tavern-keepers should not retail the can 


of Manhattan beer for any more than nine stivers wliich they used to sell for fifteen, and the 
wine in proportion, to the end that the anicles of food which are scarce here, and sometimeB 
not to be had, and which are imported, such as wheaten flour, English loaves or bread, butter, 
rice, etc., when not abundant here, may be also regulated at a reasonable price, for the good, 
relief and advantage of ail the inhabitants and settlers. This is a new beginning, delicate in 
all or many respects, and accompanied by many difficulties ; but hitherto everything has come 
on well and in good order; every possible effoit will be made to continue so; the people 
are well, and well disposed, but the soldiers are sufficiently inclined to be troublesome 
and importunate. 

It also sometimes occurs to me, I know not wherefore, that a certain person who is bound 
especially to promote peace and quiet, seeks to cause disturbance by himself, or by others, 
in my absence. I thought this was best met by civility and reason, and I avoid, as much as 
possible, to affijrd any man the least cause of dissatisfaction. If it happen that any one should 
furnish any food for misconstruction, please to reflect and fully to believe that such person can 
well be spared from this [ilace. 

By the ship dc Mr.tihn has arrived your Honors' most welcome letter, dated lO"" April, wiiich 
reached me for the first time on the last day of July. 1 have been much pleased to learn by 
it that the ship de JVncg was taking in a cargo, together with a schooner and several families 
of Colonists and free tradesmen, etc., also provisions, goods and materials, and a Clergyman; 
this affords me pleasure. They were then to leave for this place in about 15 or 1(5 days after 
the above date, but nothing has yet been heard of them up to this day. I have, also, word 
from the Manhattes that no news of them had been received there up to the G"" instant. 1 have 
understood that the TVucg was to go there first ; 'tis somewhat out of the way, and injurious 
to this place. The Bay of this river is shallow {/ic7it), and such appropriation ouglit to 
be made to render it safer and better for incoming ships, that operations may be commenced 
without delay ; this would bring a greater resort, commerce and improvement to this place, 
not only from thence but also from the neighboring Colonies. 

The amount of your Honors' disbursements is large at first ; the thing is here for which and 
to which all was done, and what is still of much greater importance, the result thereof, and what 
is to be expected from it remain yet unknown. Were a vigorous policy soon or now 
immediately adopted and put in force, it will in my opinion, afford proof that such vigor was 
not employed in vain, and without foundation. 

I have seen the proposal respecting the loading of the ship the JVacg. I should willingly see 
it sail to its destination from this place, with a full cargo, and not from the Manhattes. Since 
I have received your Honors' letters, I have endeavored to encourage some persons to bring 
some timber together to freight it. A sort of beginning has been made. 1 fear they will be 
distressed for want of hands. It would be highly gratifying to me should the first of the ships 
belonging to the city arrive there direct with a return cargo of timber from this place. I am 
very anxious for that, and if it will succeed in the brief time that is allowed, I dare assure 
your Honors at least of another ship load or perhaps two in tiie spring, unless, as already 
observed, we come to want hands to do the work here, which, indeed, is heavy work. 

As provisions are now rapidly consumed and run low, I have been obliged to discover means 
whereby I may, as best I can, provide some stock of supplies. 1 shall write more fully on 
this subject in my next. 


Should one or two brickmakers offer to come hither in service or else as free men, there is 
a good opportunity for them ; please engnge them, and let them come over iu the one capacity 
or other, at pleasure. 

I have, up to this time, issued such reasonable and necessary rations as circumstances, in 
any wise permitted, but it has been impossible to excuse the distribution to soldiers' wives, 
their maids and children ; to wit, the women the same as the men, and the maids with the 
children, eacii half a ration, as is to be seen in the annexed list. 

In course of time it will be requisite to send out some wax, green or red, as may be proper, 
with a seal for this place. 

Herewith ending, I shall pray God, Honorable, Worshipful, Wise and Right Prudent 
Gentlemen, to bless your administration, and to preserve your Honors' persons in continual 

Remaining your Honors' 

Obedient and 

Faithful Servant, 

In the margin was : ( Signed ), J. Aleichs. 

In Fort New Amstel, 13"" August 1657. 

Resolution appointing a Committee to inquire into the affairs of the Colonie on 

the DeJaiuare. 

[From Ihe HesohiUen van de Vroedschappen, A., 246, in the Stad JTuijs, Amsterdam. ] 

T^ September, 1657. 
Holland Documenu On the application of the Commissioners of the Colonie in New Netherland 

XV 16 ' 

Kcqii'estofihB Cora- to send auothcr ship thither, and to be supplied with the necessary funds for 

loMe'in'^NeV'Nethr that purpose by the city. Resolved, whereas, it was not the Council's intention 

orasuaiy. ^^ foster Said Colonic by excessive and endless expenditure, that Mess" Tulp,^ 

Cornelis de Graeff, Lord of South Polsbroeck, Witsen,' Valckenier, Van Hoorn and Burgh be 

' Doctor Nicolas Tulp, the celebfated Regent and Physician of Amsterdam, came into the world in that city on the lltli of 
October, 1593. At the nge of twenty-nine, he was chosen Schepen and Member of tlie Common Council in the place of his 
birth; was reelected &ve times as Schepen, and filled the office until 1642. In 1654 he arrived at the honorable and 
important post of Burgomaster, and was again called to it in 1656, 166G and 1671. Tn the following year he gave a grand 
entertainment to his fellow Burgomasters and Councillors on the completion of the fiftieth year of his being a Member of the 
Common Council, on which occasion each of the guests was presented with a silver medal, which was struck to commemorate 
the event. The festivities lasted from noon until eleven o'clock at night Two customs were observed on the occasion — 
one somewhat general; the other, rather rare. The first was, that each guest, on retiring, took home with him a large plate 
of loaf sugar and fruit from the dessert ; the second, that the pipes, from which the guests smoked, were served up, with the 
tobacco, on salvers of Porcelain. Dr. Tulp died on the 12lh Sejitember, 1674. in the 81st year of his age. He was author of 
a work entitled Geneeskimdige Aenmerkhigrn (Observations on the Art of Medicine), published both in Latin and Dutch. 
Kok's Vaderlandsch Wurdenboek, XXIX., 56, which contains also his portrait. — Ed. 

' Doctor Cornelis Jansen Witzen was the son of Excise-Master Jan Cornelis Witzen, and a native of Amsterdam, where he 
was elected to the office of Schepen, 1636-1651. In 1643 he obtained a seat in the Common Council, and became Burgomaster 
in 1653, and subsequently in 1668, 1662 and 1667, when he exchanged the office for that of Hoofdschoul, or High Sheriff of 
•he city. Ibid. 


commissioned and requested to consider and examine said matters maturely and to report 
their conclusion ;iiui opinion accordingly. 

Re-soliition graniiiuj further Aid to the Colonie on the Velavmre. 

[ From Iho liaolittien vaji d/i Vruedichappen, A , 252, in llie SUid Utiyf, Amsterdam. ] 

13'" October, 1G57. 
Hniinnd Documents, The Committee appointed on the 7"" September last, to examine the application 
sui.sidy for tho cn- of the Commissioners of the Colonie in New Netherland to be supplied with 
eriani. * 10,000 gl. for the equipment and dispatch of a ship, have this day reported: Tiiat 

the Commissioners of the Colonie had informed them that they meant henceforth to promote the 
work with a yearly outfit, and, as they should require only IG (Sl 20 thousand gl. for each 
venture, not doubting but the good fruits of the planting this Colonie would manifest themselves 
in a short time, sooner or later; the Committee of this Council, as their opinion, therefore, 
consider, inasmuch as such subsidy is moderate, and would still further diminish in course 
of time, that the required subsidy ought to be continued and granted said Commissioners, by 
reason of the notorious appearances of increase in the Colonie. 

Which report being heard, the Committee is thanked for the trouble they have taken, and it 
is accordingl}^ resolved that for this once, the required 16 thousand guilders shall be granted, 
and for the raising thereof the revenue, means and effects of this city, shall be bound, as has 
heretofore been done, the council reserving to itself, to determine, then, in regard to the future. 

Mesolution granting further Aid to the Colonie on the Delaware. 

[From tho Kcsolutien van de V/oed^chappen, B., 16, io the Stad ir«j,«, Amsterdam.] 

ll"- April, 1658. 
Holland Documents, '^^^ application of the Commissioners or Directors of the Colonie in New 
2o\ho!sand gl for ^'''tl'ei'hind to 1)6 Supplied with a sum of 20 thousand gl. for the fitting out of a 
thecXnTehi'New ^'''P '" ^6 scut thitlicr witli a nuuiber of persons who offer to go there, for the 
°' """ ' advancement of said Colonie, having been submitted by Mess" the Burgomasters, 

to the Council. 

It is, after deliberation, remarked that the reasons and motives which led to the prosecution 
of said Colonie, still continue, and from tinie to time afford more probable tokens of a good 
result; and it is therefore resolved that the above named Commissioners shall be allowed the 
required 20 thousand gl. for the next outfit, on like negotiation and pledge, as is expressed in 
the resolution adopted on the 13"" October, 1057. 


Sundry Papers in relation to the Case of Jan Gaillarclo and his Negro Slaves. 

[ From the authenticated copy Id the Boyal Archives at the Hague ; Loketkas of the States-General, K. ; Letter L. ; Division, Weit Indische 

CoTjipagnie, No. 46. ] 

Received 26th April. 1658. 

Letter of the West India Company to the States-General, with sundry Appendices, 
respecting Jan Gaillardo, a Spanish Pilot. 

High and M'chty Lords! 

Your High Mightinesses having, on the repeated instances of the Spanish Ambassador, 
instructed and ordered the Company's Director-General in New Netherland not only to be 
helping one Joan Gaillardo ferara, a Spanish pilot, in his petition, according to reason and 
equity, but to furnish your High Mightinesses with information and communication of whatever 
was done there in this matter, or may happen then again to be done. The said Director- 
General, accordingly, hath sent to us, by the last ships, a despatch drawn up by him on this 
subject and addressed to your High Mightinesses, together with divers documents and 
inclosures appertaining thereunto, which we have resolved to transmit herewith to your Higii 
Mightinesses in order that you may use the same as may be proper. 


High and Mighty Lords, 
we shall pray God for the continual welfare of your High Mightinesses' prosperous 
government, and remain, 

Your High Mightinesses' humble servants, 

The Directors of the West India Company's Chamber at Amsterdam. 

Amsterdam, (Signed), Ab : Wimerdonx. 

25"' April, 1658. 

To the High and Mighty Lords, States-General of the United Netherlands. 

Keceived 26tb April, 1658. 

Director-General and Council of New Netherland to the States-General. 

Right Honorable, High and Mighty Lords ! 

My Lords. 

Your High Mightinesses have been pleased, in a despatch dated 25"" January, 1657, to send 
us copy of the Memorial of the Ambassador of Spain for and in behalf of one Jan Gallardo, 
a Spanish pilot, with an order and command to us that we, on finding the matter as set forth 
in the aforesaid Journal,' do grant, in all its parts, as far as it concerns us, the request of the 
said Ambassadors, contained in that Memorial, and, further, to inform your High Mightinesses 
what we shall have done and accomplished in the premises. In obedience to your High 
Mightinesses' letters and orders we transmit herewith the papers presented to us, and our 
answer and resolutions thereupon. To read and examine all these will too much interrupt 
your High Mightinesses' application to higher and weightier affairs, in the same manner as the 
bold and shameless impertinence of the aforesaid Gaillardo, to the effect that we merely glance 

' Sic. — Ed. 


at voiir lliirh Mightinesses' recommendations without correcting the complaint, has troubled 
and disturbed, not a little, our small occupations. The Ambassador has been very much 
imposed on by the aforesaid Ciallardo, and consetjuently your High Mightinesses, by the 
Ambassador, in regard, to the merits of the case, in representing that we had demeaned 
ourselves angrily towards him, (iallardo, in refusing of justice and examination of witnesses 
whom the said Galiardo was willing to propose. The contrary appears by the papers. 

"i'is further set forth in the Memorial that one Bastiaen Ilaafl', alias, Martyn Bastiaensen, 
and his Lieutenant, Jan van Campen, have taken and brought iiither a certain Spanish ship 
with tiegroes and other merelianriise belonging to the aforesaid Juan Galiardo. The trutii of 
the matter is, that .Sebastiaen Raafl" and Jan van Campen have never been here, at least not 
in our time. But in or about the last of July and beginning of August, of the year 1G52, 
GuertTyssen, a l-'rench privateer, appeared ofi' the Narrows {voor Jc hoo/Ucn) with a commission 
from Chevalier du I'oinci,' hereditary Governor of St. Christophers, etc., Lieutenant-General 
of the King of France in the Islands of America, having with him a .Spanish prize ; iiis ships 
remaining outside, he came up in person, bringing with him only his commission, executed 
and signed by the said M. Poinci, in virtue whereof he requested, as a servant of the Crown 
of France, permission to come up and to supply himself with necessaries for iiis money or 
wares. In consideration of the alliance and friendship existing between the said Crown of 
France and your High Mightinesses, we dare not refuse the request, the rather so as to be 
able to take advantage of his aid and crew, the most of whom were Frenchmen, in time of 
need, as we were then in no little dread of being attacked by the English. The aforesaid 
Geurt Tyssen remained lying here for the space of about half a year, and left in the winter 
witli the drift-ice, having purchased and trucked provisions and other necessaries, with divers 
persons, both English and Dutch, in exchange for negroes and other commodities; some of 
these negroes are dead, others again sold or exported by the first and second purchasers. The 
aforesaid Jan Galiardo claims those negroes as his property, with a petition for restitution 
With this view he brought with him last year, and now again brings the above mentioned 
Memorial, and your High Mightinesses' recommendation, together with letters recommendatory 
from the Ilight Worshipful the Burgomasters and Regents of the city of Amsterdam, and 
Directors of the Incorporated West India Company; the last containing an order to send the 
aforesaid Jan van Campen or Geurt Tyssen jtedc ligato to Fatherland and to allow the above 
named Galiardo to enjoy speedy and prompt justice. 

The first cannot be done, because Jan van Campen has never been liere, nor has Geurt 
Tyssen since his departure hence four years ago. 

' Clievniicr de LoNviu.F.ns Potxct, BnilifT iini! Grand Cross of tlie Order of St. Jolin of Jerusalem, Commander d'Oisemont 
and de Coulours, Commodore of the King's slaps in Bi'itt.iny, was born in the year 15S3. lu 16;!9 he was appointed 
Governor of St. Christophers. In 1652 the Knights of Malta purc-hused that Island from the French West India Company, 
and Poincy, then already very old, was appointed Lieutenant-Cieneral of the Islands of St. Christopher, St Croix, St. Martin 
and St. Bartholomew in 1054. His administration was marked by prudence and valor; heconferred great benefit on the Island, 
wh;cli he found a desert, and left full of beautiful buildings, well peopled and prosperous. He built, on the siope of a very 
high and well woided mountain, about three miles from the sea shore, an elegant mansion of cut-stone and brick, a description 
and plan of which are in Da Tr-rtres Index Ofcidentales and in JinclifJ'ort's llixloire des Antilles. Here l>e had a suite of one 
hundred Fieneli servants and some three hundred negroes, exclusive of his bod}' guard, and lived in almost regal stj-le, at the 
expense, however, of the Order, for, at his death, which oecurrcd on the lUh April, lOCO, all he left behind him consisted 
merely of the debts he had contracted to support his government. His chateau was destroyed, after his death, by 
an earthquake. Labat's Nouveau Vuyagt aux Jslca de VAmeri^ue ; liochefort, 4to, p. 49: Du Tertrt ; hides Oecidentales, I., 
681. — Ed. 


Secondly, on liis petition for restitution. Said Jan Galiardo was again last year informed 
and notified in writing tliat tlie aforesaid negroes captured by tlie Geurt Tysen, acting in 
virtue of a commission from tiie Crown of France in actual war with his Majesty of Spain' 
were sold or exchanged here, paid for and again exchanged. Therefore, in our judgment the 
owners in possession could not be stripped or deprived thereof, unless the purchasers and 
payers were given proper satisfaction in return. 

On his second reply, dated 29"' August of this year, demanding the negroes, not from the 
owners in possession, but from the Company, as Lords and proprietors of this country, or from 
us their servants who have declared the negroes herein required, to be good prize. With respect 
for your High Mightinesses, we pronounce this to be false and untrue, and our orders, therefore' 
not obligatory to pay, on our own or our principals' account, for what we have neither taken 
nor confiscated, much less issued any order or commission to take or confiscate, but liave 
notified the claiming owner that he must seek his redress either from the captor and seller 
himself, who is one Geurt Tysen ; but whether a Hollander, a Zealander, or an Overyssels 
man, we are ignorant, nor is it material ; his commission declared him to be a subject and 
servant of the Crown of France ; or else from Governor Chevalier du Poinci, who issued 
the commission. 

This, High and Mighty Lords, is, in brief, agreeably to your High Mightinesses' order, the 
substance of what has been done in the matter of the abovementioned Memorial. If your High 
Mightinesses' most wise judgment doth not quadrate with it, but absolutely orders us, contrary 
to our expectation and belief, to restore the sold and long since paid for negroes, to the 
claimant Jan Galiardo, either at the expense of the owners in possession, who have paid for 
them, or at the cost of the Company or of their servants, who have issued neither commission 
for capturing, nor order for selling, your High Mightinesses' will and further recommendation 
must be law to us. Meanwhile we will hope gind humbly request your High Mightinesses in 
your accustomed wisdom and kindness to your subjects, to be pleased to point out to us a way 
and a means where and how to seek and to obtain for your High Mightinesses' supplicating 
subjects, restitution or satisfaction. First, for a ketch belonging to a private citizen of this 
place, sent, with the consent and commission of the government here for the prosecution of 
commerce to the Carribbee and Curasao islands, and thence to the Caymanos for turtle, and 
captured, contrary to the Treaty of Peace on its return by the Spaniards and carried to St. 
Jago de Cuba, and there declared a prize by the Governor and sold. As appears by the 
declaration annexed, letter A. 

Secondly, for a small ship or yacht, named H Hacn/je (the Little Cock), which, on the IS"" 
June, 1654, was purchased here for account of the Incorporated West India Company, fitted 
out and sent under the annexed commission and instruction to the Island of Cura9ao : on her 
return, being about the Island of Hispaniola she was taken by three Spanish ships and carried 
into St. Domingo and kept there, as appears by the authentic copy of the skipper's letter to us, 
hereunto annexed, letter B. 

Thirdly, for the loss and damage suffered by those of the aforesaid Island of Cura9ao, in 
tlie seizure, by the Spaniards of Coro, of the sloop belonging to the island, together with some 
of the Company's negroes and soldiers, the more ample details whereof are in the hands of 
the Hon"'* Company at the Chamber at Amsterdam. We might enumerate many other 
injuries which your High Mightinesses' subjects have suffered directly from the Spaniards 
during the Treaty of Peace, were it not that we fear to interrupt, too much, your High 
Vol. IL 4 


Mightinesses' more important and weightier deliberations. We shall, therefore, conclude, and 
await your High Mightinesses' further order and wise counsel touching the one and the other. 
Meanwhile we commend your High Mightinesses to (Jod's gracious protection, and remain 

Your High Mightinesses' 

Obedient and faithful servants, 
Amsterdam, in N. Netherland, P. Stuyvesant, 

the 20"" October, A" 1057. Nicasius de Stlle, 

La Montag.n'e. 
Beneath was : 

By order of the Director-General and Council at New Netherland. 

(Signed), C. V. Ruyven, Sec'. 

Appendix 1 : Reeciveil 26tli April, 1658. 

To the Hon'"'' Petrus Stuyvesant, Director-General and the Council of New Netherland. 

Petitioner aiiaii re- RespcctfuUy showeth, Juau Gailhirdo ferrara, a resident of the city of St. Lucar 
ffsouuion'''«.iopied dc Barraiiieda, at present in tiiis city of Amsterdam, in New Netherland, that he, 

In tlie case herein 

mcniicned. the Petitioner, did deliver to your Honors, on tiie G'" instant, the despatch of 

Da:cil, Araatf-r- •' ' 

errnd"ihemif&e|!^ I'l^'"" ^^^'S'' Migli tiuesscs, the Lords States-General, as well as of the Hon'''% the 
L^wMr'Tiy order Burgomastcrs of the city of Amsterdam, to the end that you may be pleased 

oftho l>Irecior-Gen- , t» • • , . i • ■ . ■ ^ i • p ^ i ■• • , ■ 

erai and o.un.ii of to the Petitioner here to administer just, brief, prompt law ana justice; 

New Netherland. , i i • 

Signed, coBNELia vvhercunto the Petitioner hath placed in your Honors iiands some documents, 

TAM RnvvEx, Sec- . 

"■"^'y- among others a sworn declaration, by which it appears that one Geurt Tysen 

did, in the month of April, 1G52, in the latitude of Cape Morante, unlawfully deprive him, the 
Petitioner, of forty-four negroes and negresses, and bring the same here. 

And, whereas the Petitioner hath discovered here some of said negroes, whose names appear 
on the suljjoiiied list, all of whom, male and female, still well recognize him, he therefore, 
respectfully prays your Honors to give orders that the negroes, whom he has already discovered, 
and may happen hereafter to find, shall be restored to him and placed in his hands. Further, 
as the Petitioner is at present a very poor man, he respectfully prays your Honors to be 
graciously pleased to provide him with lodgings and some board money, until a ship sail for 
Fatherland. Which doing, etc.. Your Honors' servant. 

(Signed), Juan Gaillardo. 

Beneath was : 

Agrees with the original in date and signature, as above. 

(Signed), C. V. Ruyven, Secrete 

Appendix 2: Received 26th April, 1658. 

This day, the tenth April, sixteen hundred and fifty-six, before me, Joachim Thielmans, 
admitted by the Court of Holland a Public Notary, residing at Amsterdam, and the under named 
witnesses, appeared Joan Gallardo ferrara, an inhabitant of the city of St. Lucar de Barameda, 
actually within this city, who, by true christian words 'and on his conscience, in place and 
with oiTer of oath, hath, by the interpretation of P'' Pathuyzen, who speaks and understands 


the Dutch and Spanish languages, who, also, promises in manner as aforesaid, well and 
faithfully to perform his oflice of interpreter, solemnly affirmed and declared, as strict truth : 

That he, the affirmant, being, in the mouth of April, of the year 1652, on a voyage from 
Janiayca to St. Jago de Kuba, in the ship named Sf. Ani/ioni, whereof Silvester Peres was 
skipper, and being come to the latitude of Cape Morante, was met by a certain privateer ship 
whereof Martin Janss Raeff was Captain, wliich ship was navigated, in consequence of the 
Captain's absence, by his L'-General, Coert Tyseq Campen, whit'h privateer attacked, fought, 
boarded and conquered his, the affirmant's, ship and made a prize thereof, and proceeded to 
New Netherland, in the harbor called Rfanades, and whereas he, the deponent, had a deep 
interest in said sliip carrying, among other merchandise, four-and-forty negroes and negresses, 
he, the affirmant, in further proof of his property therein, declares that said black men and 
women are branded in manner as follows; ^O 

To wit : First. Thirty-two of them are marked ._/V?y being the name of Anthonio de 
Rivera, and three more are marked J., being the name of Jean Loper, which marks are 
branded on the left breast; and then nine more are marked A, being the name of Allonso, 
which marks are branded on the right breast. Thus done, in good faith, in Amsterdam, 
present, Henrick Vericselen, Dirck Tack, as witnesses hereunto invited. 

Beneath was : 

Quod attestor. 

(Signed), J. Thielmans, Not'' Pub. 

We, the Burgomasters and Regents of the city of Amsterdam, to each and every whom 
it may concern, do certify as true, that before us appeared Joan Gallardo ferrara, who, by 
solemn oath, with the interpretation of Pieter Pathuyzen, who speaks and understands the 
Dutch and Spanish languages, and he, also, appearing, affirms on oatli, as aforesaid, to have 
well and truly performed his office of interpreter, declares and aiiirms the contents of the 
foregoing affirmation read to him by the subscribing Secretary, to be the truth, and thereby to 
persist: So truly may God Almighty help him, the affirmant and the interpreter aforesaid. In 
witness whereof the seal of this city is hereunder affixed, the SS"" April, 1656. 

(Signed), N. Nicolai. 
[ L. s. ] 

Appendix 3: Received 26th April, 1668. 

Extract from the Register of the Resolutions of the Honble. Director-General and 
Council, adopted in their Session on Wednesday, G'"" September, A" ]G56. 

The despatches of the Noble, High and Mighty Lords, States-General, being delivered in at 
the meeting by Juan Gaillardo, an inhabitant of the city of St. Lucar de Barrameda, with a 
copy annexed thereunto of an extract from the Memorial of the Spanish Ambassador, respecting 
the case of the above named Juan Gaillardo, a Spanish pilot, with and against Captain 
Sebastiaen Raeff and his Lieutenant, Jan van Campen, who was charged with having seized 
the ship and some negroes belonging to the above named Gaillardo, and repaired to New 
Netherland, from which the aforesaid Raaff was discharged at Amsterdam, on his own security ; 
also, an extract of their High Mightinesses' resolutions, dated lO"* January, 165G, with order 
to the Director-General and Council here that, should they find the case, upon inquiry, to be 


<18 narrated in the Memorial aforesaid, they shall send Lieutenant Jan van Campen tiiilher, 
pede ligfJlo, and also to those interested in the matter of the slaves claimed, grant good, brief, 
prompt and full justice ; likewise, having received the letters of the Hon'"''' Burgomasters of 
the city of Amsterdam, recommending the above named Gaillardo, in order that he may 
receive, in the matter aforesaid, good, speedy and prompt justice. 

After reading both the despatches at)d the Memorial of the Spanish Ambassador, it is found 
that the Memorial presented by the Spanish Ambassador to their High Mightinesses, is very 
erroneously drawn up and given in, inasmuch as neither the said Captain Raaff nor iiis 
Lieutenant, Jan van Campen, hath ever been in IN'ew Netherland, at least not in the time of the 
present Director-Cieneral and Council, but it is found that, in or about the last of July and 
beginning of August, in the year lG-52, there arrived here at the North Kiver, in iSew Netherland, 
one Captain Geurt Tysen and his Lieutenant, Pieter Jacobsen, with a commission in due form, 
from M. Poinci, French Governor of Christophers, beginning: Nous Poind, ChevnUicr de Malle, 
Lieutenant- General du Roij de France des Jllcs Amerigucs ct Gouvernmr Heredilairc de St. Christop/iere. 
Signed, Le Chevalier Poinci, and sealed on one side with his seal; which commission being 
exhibited to the Director-General and Council of New Netherland, and received as good, said 
Captain Geurt Tysen and his Lieutenant, I"" Jacobs, in virtue of said commission as servants 
of the Crown of France, and agreeably thereunto as allies and good friends of their High 
Mightinesses, the Lords States-General of the United Netherlands, asked that they, with his 

ship, named the , and accompanying prize, may, unmolested, come up 

before this city of Amsterdam, in order that they may repair, mend and re-victual their ship for 
their money and merchandise ; who, exhibiting to him his commission as above mentioned, 
together with special recommendations to that effect from the above mentioned Chevalier du 
Poinci to the Director-General, he could not and dare not refuse such permission ; which Capt" 
Geurt Tysen lay here for about the period of three months, and, meanwhile, having given, 
traded or sold some negroes to one or other of the inhabitants, subjects of this State, for wages, 
provisions and other effects, sailed again towards winter from this place, and has not been here 
since ; some of these negroes are already dead ; some have run away ; some are still on hand 
here, with divers inhabitants, as bond slaves, purchased and paid for, but most of these have 
been two, three or more times re-sold, and have changed masters. In consideration whereof, 
the Director-General and Council cannot, at the request of the aforesaid Juan Gaillardo, 
deprive the owners of any negroes that have been bought, and bought over again and long 
since paid for, but it is resolved and concluded to inform the High and Mighty Lords, States- 
General and the Hon*"' Directors of the Incorporated West India Company precisely of the 
circumstances of the case, and to await their High Mightinesses and Mess" the Directors' 
further advice on the subject; meanwhile, to allow said Gaillardo copy hereof. Done in Fort 
Amsterdam, in New Netherland. Ady as above. Was paraphed P. Stuyvesant. 

Beneath was: 

Agrees with the aforesaid resolution. 

(Signed), C. V. Ruyven, Secref. 

Appendix 4: ReceWed 26tli A pril. 1658. 

Before me, Cornells van Uuy ven, Secretary in the employ of the General Incorporated West 
India Company in New Netherland, appeared Adriaen Jans', of Saraaskercken, which is a 


village in Zealand, who, in the presence of the subscribing witnesses, at the request of 
Gallardo ferrara, a Spaniard, declares, attests and testifies that what follows is true and 
truthful : That in the year 16-54, about the month of June, sailing in a Spanish advice boat 
bound from Carthagena to Campeachy, and from Campeachy on a full cruise in New Spain, the 
said boat was in the neighborhood of Cape St. Anthony, boarded and plundered by one Geurt 
Tysen, with his ship and crew ; further, that the deponent, with the boat aforesaid, on board 
which Captain Geurt Tysen had placed his Lieutenant Peter as Captain, came here in New 
Netherland, before the city of New Amsterdam, in the year 1654:, in or about October, loaded 
with mahogany, copper, and some canella; that on the voyage hither in said yacht, he heard 
from the sailors who were on board, that Captain Geurt Tyssen had taken a vessel with 
negroes on the coast of Jamaica, without knowing or hearing how many negroes or what 
other cargo the vessel had ; declares he cannot furnish any more special information or 
description of the aforesaid vessel. All which aforesaid the deponent declares to be true and 
truthful, and is ready, when required, to confirm the same by oath. In witness whereof he 
hath signed this with Daniel Polyn and Cay Swart, hereunto invited as witnesses. New 
Amsterdam, in New Netherland, the 1" November, 1656. 

(Signed), The mark /| _V of Adriaen Jans', 
made^^^by himself. 
Lower stood : 

Daniel Polya and Cay Swart. 

Beneath was: 

In my presence, and signed, Cornelis van Ruyven, Secretary. 

Agrees with the Protocol. 

(Signed), C. V. Ruyven, Secrt^ 

Appendix 5: Received 26tli April, 1668. 

John Galliardo ferrara, burgher and inhabitant of the city of St. Lucar de Barrameda, gives 
and says, in answer, that the Governor did claim and require that I shall have three 
informations from Spain wherein are clearly mentioned the names of the privateers or pirates, 
whom the Governor named ; and the reason that they are not distinctly specified and numbered 
in the Memoir is, that the principal privateers of the ship named the Raveii are called Martinus 
Jans" de Rafe and his comrade, de Cortisen, who hath confessed and declared his name to be 
Jan van Campen, and is, in my information, Cortisen Campen, and the Lieutenant was named 
Peter Vereyde, corresponding in age, station and appearance ; and it is true that privateers or 
pirates carry no fixed names nor certain flags; your Honors, therefore, ought not to inquire 
further, for the plundered negroes are found here, and further, in the declaration taken in 
Amsterdam, before the Burgomasters of that city, they were designated pirates ; also, the 
marks of the negroes ; and, in order to discover the truth, your Honors can learn the notoriety 
thereof both from burghers and inhabitants of this place, and by the declaration of said 
negroes, who, as soon as they beard of me, came immediately to inquire for me, and I 
recognized them as well as they me, and said negroes sought me from house to house until 
they found me, divers persons being present, among whom I found a sailor of said Cortison, 
who, without any solicitation on my part, made a declaration containing more than the whole 


contents of my informations, saying, therein, that tliey received five tiiousand pieces of eight, 
exclusive of the manufactured silver-ware, and two strings of large pearls, and tiiat tliere 
were sixty negroes, 20 of whom were females and 40 males, and this is what the aforesaid 
sailor declared hefore the Commissary at this phice ; one Cooper, an inhahitant of this city 
and place, being also present; and here are two Dutchmen, to whom I am well known, for 
they were comrades of the others who also plundered me and helped to take me prisoner ; so 
that I say, should your Honors please to take other informations, they can easily he had. I 
shall willingly name the sailor, if your Honors require it, whom you can interrogate under 
oath, touching the truth, referring myself, further, to my informations, which are just, real and 
true, and the aforesaid informations are directly presented and exhihited to your Honors that 
you may examine them and discover the truth from them ; and as I have found another 
seaman, born at Flushing, who hath, these two years past, sailed witli the Spaniards out of 
the Campeachy country, on the Indian coasts, whom said Cortisen took and brought into this 
port, loaded only with logwood, copperas and some parcels of cinnamon, and being, meanwhile, 
in the privateer, he hath, divers times, heard the crew talk of my imprisonment, all of whom 
were very much rejoiced and glad of it, and wished heartily that we had all l)een killed ; 
on their side, only one man was missing, and eight of ours were killed, when the ship was 
captured. I request and pray your Honors to be pleased to attach and arrest said negroes, 
according to the Memoir and list thereof furnished your Honors, which contains the names of 
their present masters, until the Lords States-General shall have heard my suit, and shall have 
ordered and answered your Honors in the premises. When I delivered your Honors the 
letters and documents of the Lords Stales-General, you said and answered, that said negroes 
could not be delivered to me, but that you would attach and arrest those at their masters 
until further order ; and whereas I request the same to be done with all the remaining 
still missing negroes, to the number of GO, which is the number that was in said prize, 
with three thousand minted pieces of eight, also a pack of rouwaan worth one thousand 
pieces of eight, together with one hundred and fifty ounces of wrought or manufactured 
silver-ware, such as dishes, &c., used at table, and in eating, which were delivered up to me by 
the prisoner when I imprisoned his Lieutenant at Amsterdam. I also request evidence of the 
truth from the negroes belonging to me and the pilot named Antonio de Riveras, and that the 
declaration may be made and the marks noted and taken down in my presence. 1 also 
request your Honors' answer to my notice, and this my Memorial, in order to deliver it to the 
States-General and to reply again, in proper time, to your Honors ; and if your Honors 
demand a bark, as stated in your answer, and its master use the same diligence as I have 
done (wherein I have spent three years) to recover the pirate or his property, and, like me, 
do his best, they will, without doubt, have good justice and law administered to him in 
Spain, although it is quite notorious that the Spaniards do not like pirates nor live thereby, 
and if they happened to receive one, it may be because he ran into a harbor in India against 
his will, or that a pirate was driven there by contrary winds, otherwise the person receiving 
him must defend and vindicate his act, or must pay for him. Therefore you have no excuse 
for not restoring my property, which I see daily before my eyes, and I pray and beseech your 
Honors to be pleased to have pity and compassion on my poverty and that of my wife and 
children, who must be in want of my presence. 'Tis an act of mercy to grant me redress 
which I claim, and have signed this in the name of all the partners and of those interested in 
this restitution. 


Copy of the List of Blacks which your Honors demanded of me, saying that you 
intend to attach the Negroes aforesaid in the hands of their masters, so that 
the said Negroes may not be alienated nor sold out of this country until 
further order, as stated. 


A. Francisco, who belonged to me, and is now in the possession of Thomas Hall, ... 1 
Gasinte, who belonged to the pilot, and is now the Company's,. . .. .... .... - 

R. Antonio, who belonged to a Biscayan, and is now with the man who sells straw ^ 

{vajcro), '.'"V^r'cc 1 

Diego, or Jacob, was mine, and is now in the possession of Neethes, i 

G' or John, was mine, and is now with Verbets 

Barbara was the pilot's, and is now in the possession of Jan Martens, i 

Christopher was the pilot's, and is now in the hands of Oloflf Stevens,.. .... 

Bastiaen and Lucia were the pilot's ; they are in the Bay, and now belong to 

Jaboce, . 

Fernando was mine, and is now with Veesteman or Beeckman, i 

Balthazar, who belonged to the pilot, is now the General's, 1 

Maria was the pilot's, and is now Augustine's or Verlet's, ''"u"l' 

Juliana and Maria and the children were mine, and are now with Jacob, the ^ 

Miller, in the fort, 

Mookinga was the pilot's, and is now at Fort Orange, ^ 

John was the pilot's, and is now Govert's, 

Madelina, a(Z «fcm, and now with Govert, aforesaid, 

Catelina and 2 children, in the possession of Potter's son or daughter ^ 

Susanna, who was the caulker's, and now Tharan Hal's, - ^ 

Peter Noorman's negro belonged to the pilot, 

John and Francisco were the pilot's, and are now Jaboce's, in the Bay ^ 

F. Maria, Jan and Lius were our clerk's, and now Jacob Hay's, 3 

La Caubotera was the pilot's, and is now in the hands of , ^ 

Figa was the pilot's, and now Fortese's, 

Manuel, ad idem, is now at Fort Orange, - " 

Lucia and her husband, called Joseph, now in the possession of the Company, and 
whom the General hath sent to Curasao, to take charge of the cattle at pasture 

there, " ',' . „ 

Paulo and Diego, or Jacob, are also sent to Curasao, in the Company s service, . . 2 

Collated and translated from the Spanish papers into the Dutch language, as well as I could 
make them correspond, and my knowledge could compass, some errors being found which is 
possible. Please excuse me; I have already forgotten much of said language, and it is 20 
years or more since I have been in Spain. This only, and the mark your Honors will be able 
to infer and extract from it; on request, after many earnest persuasions and entreaties, have I 
accommodated him, Juan Gallardo ferara, in this instance, inasmuch as I was under obligations 
to him. 


The Director-General and Council still adhere to their postil, verbal and written answer, 
dated the G"" September, granted to the Petitioner on exhibiting their High Mightinesses' letters, 
to wit : That the said negroes were brought here by one Geurt Thysen, under a lawful and 
proper commission from Chevalier du Poincy, Lieutenant-General of the King of France, in 
the Islands of America, and Hereditary Governor of St. Christophers, and in virtue of said 
commission sold here to divers inhabitants of this Province, who also paid cash therefor, and 
the Director-General and Council cannot consent to take back from the purchasers the negroes 
that have been bought and paid for, dear enough, and to restore them to the Petitioner, unless 
either the Petitioner or the seller make restitution of the payment to the purchasers and 
present proprietors. Whether Geurt Thysen and Jan van Campen be one and the same 
person, is unknown to the Director-General and Council, and is immaterial. The exhibited 
commission, signed by Mons'' du Poincy, was, in express words, granted to Geurt Thysen. 
What number of negroes were brought and sold here by said Geurt Thysen, who has been 
here only once; also what cash, wrought or unwrought silver and other merchandise were 
previously or afterwards taken under said commission by Geurt Thysen aforesaid, is also 
unknown to the Director-General and Council. If the Petitioner thinks he has any further 
pretension or right to the sold and paid for negroes in the list rendered, or to any other specified 
goods and moneys, wliereunto he demands our provisional attachment, he can proceed therein 
according to law, as his good judgment may determine. Further, if the Petitioner, according 
to the tenor of this, his written remonstrance, can exhibit any evidence or proof that Jan van 
Campen, Geurt Thysen or Peter, their Lieutenant, are within this government, or can be 
reached by the Director-Genera! and Council, so as to be sent over, pcde Ugato, pursuant to 
the order of their High Mightinesses aforesaid, he can give notice thereof at the Secretary's 
office or to the Court, and he can likewise bring to the Secretary's office the matross or seaman 
mentioned in this, his remonstrance, to be examined and heard there before Commissioners, to 
the end that pertinent report may be made to their High Mightinesses in the premises. 

Thus done, at the Assembly of the Hon"*'^ Director-Cieneral and Council of New Netherland, 
holden in Fort Amsterdam, in New Netherland, 31" August, A° 1656. Was paraphed 
P. Stuyvesant. 

Under stood : 

By order of the Hon''''' Director-General and Council of New Netherland. 

(Signed), C. V. Ruyven, Secret. 

Appendix 6 : RecoiveJ 2BUi April, 165S. 

Don Estevan de Gamarra y Contrevas to the Stales-General. 

[ Omitted, being duplicate of Document, sripra, p. 1. ] 


Appendix 7: Received 26th August, IfinS. 

Extract from the Register of Resolutions of tlie Hon''''^ Director-General and 
Council of New Netiieriand, adopted in their Hoa''''^ Assembly, on Friday, 
24"' August, A" 1657. 

In answer to the Exhibit of the Ambassador of his Spanish Majesty, presented to their High 
Mightinesses, the States-General, dated S"* January, 1657, we say that Jan Gaiilardo ferera, 
the Spanish pilot, hath furnished his Excellency, the Ambassador, with very erroneous 
information, to wit, that the Director-General and Council of New Netherland had acted 
towards him from passion in refusing proper justice, or the examination of witnesses whom 
the aforesaid Gaiilardo was willing to ofler. The witnesses brought by him to the Secretary's 
office made their depositions there, copy whereof was furnished him. No more witnesses 
then appeared, certainly not before the Secretary of the Director-General and Council, who, 
ex-officio, does not refuse to receive and record any person's testimony. 

As for the contents of the Ambassador's Exhibit or Memorial, as well that dated S"" January, 
1657, as the previous one dated ll"" December, 1655, presented to their High Mightinesses, 
implying that Captain Bastiaen RaafF, alias Martyn Bastiaensen, and his Lieutenant, Jan van 
Campen, otherwise called Geurt Tysen, have taken a certain Spanish ship with some negroes 
and other property belonging to the aforesaid Jan Gaiilardo, a Spanish pilot, and other 
subjects of his Majesty of Spain, which plundered ship and negroes were brought and sold 
here in New Netherland. It has been already stated, and is once more repeated, that about 
the month of August, in the year 1652, a French privateer, named Geurt Tysen, and his 
Lieutenant, Peter Jacobsen, came here with a commission from Chevalier du Poincy, Governor 
of St. Christophers and Lieutenant-General of the King of France for the islands in America, 
divers persons, both English and Dutch, purchased negroes from said Geurt Tysen, or bartered 
provisions and labor with him therefor ; of these negroes some have died, others have been 
re-sold or sent away by the first and second purchasers; those remaining were last year, and 
are again, claimed by the aforesaid Jan Gaiilardo as his, with a demand of restitution. To 
this effect, he brought with him last year and is again the bearer of letters both from their 
High Mightinesses and from the Right Worshipful, the Regents of the city of Amsterdam 
and the Directors of the Incorporated West India Company, containing an order to send the 
aforesaid Geurt Tysen, peJe ligato, to Fatherland, and to allow the above named Jan Gaiilardo 
to receive prompt, quick and full justice. The first could not be done, inasmuch as Geurt 
Tysen was not here in three or four years since he departed hence, and it is impossible for the 
Director-General and Council to look him up in the West Indies or elsewhere. Had he come 
here since, their High Mightinesses' orders would have been punctually obeyed. 

As for the second, the aforesaid Jan Gaiilardo was advised and notified in writing, that the 
negroes claimed and demanded by him were sold, traded and paid for here, and changed 
hands repeatedly over and over again; therefore, in the judgment of the Director-General 
and Council, the actual owners in possession cannot be deprived of them unless they receive 
due contentment and restitution at least of the moneys or goods they have disbursed for them. 
Meanwhile, he was notified and allowed, as he is again advised and allowed, if he consider 
that he have any further action either against Captain Geurt Tysen, the absent bringer of the 
aforesaid negroes, or against the owners in possession, to institute it when and where he 
Vol. II. 5 


thinks proper. And in order to prevent the aforesaid Gailiardo's sinister accusation, and to 
avoid any further blame, the Director-General and Council hereby appoint and qualify 
Councillor Peter Tonneman,' the two ruling Burgomasters and the presiding Schepen of this 
city, to be judges between the aforesaid Jan (Jaillardo and whomsoever he shall summon 
before the said Commissioners, and with them. Secretary van Ruyven to act as their Secretary 
in the matters aforesaid, and to have a casting vote in case opinions happen to be equal. 

Thus done at the meeting of the Hon'''"-' Director-General and Council, holden in Fort 
Amsterdam, in iV'ew Netherland, the 24"> of August, A" 1G57. 

Agrees with the aforesaid resolution. 

C. V. RuvvEX, Secr^ 

Appendix 8: Received 2fith August, 1658. 

Copy of the Answer and Reply of Juan Gallardo ferera, a Spaniard, burgher and 
inhabitant of Lucar de Berrameda, translated into our Dutch language from 
the Spanish, so far as the same can be rightly understood and comprehended. 

I, Juan Gallardo ferrara, burgher of St. Lucar de Berrameda, do say that I have submitted 
my right and my just cause in law to your Honors in the Memorial annexed hereunto, as I had 
already e.xhibited it to you last year, A° IGoG, which I again present to your Honors; and to 
your Honors' assertion and answer that it is not true that I brought the two sailors, who were 
then ready and prepared to have their testimony of the truth taken down by the Secretary 
(I say), that it is, nevertheless, true that I did bring them before the Secretary, to be examined 
and heard under oath, which aforesaid Secretary then said, and gave for answer from your 
Honor, meaning thereby the Hon''''' Director-General, that he was forbidden to examine or to 
liear tlie persons aforesaid ; wherefore I communicate and exhibit herewith to your Honors 
their declarations and evidence in French. Your Honors say and answer that I must seek the 
negroes in question from their masters or owners, or wherever else I please. I have not to 
seek them from them nor from any person other than your Honor, who is Governor of this 
Province and place, and the Council who luive declared said negroes herein dtinandcd, to he good 
prize; it is notorious that they were brought here, and that the Captain was a Dutchman and 
the prize Spanish, which was to be seen by the negroes, and was sufllciently stated and declared 
by them. I therefore most humbly request that the above named negroes may be delivered to 
me, or in default thereof, their value ; for, as stated, I have a right thereto ; or else to direct me 
to the gentlemen of the Hon''"' Company, who are Lords and masters of this country, who have 
some of these self same negroes. This is what your Honors have been requested and required 
to do by the Lords States-General and Mess" the Burgomasters of Amsterdam, wiio have sent 
me hither with their letters and recommendations to that effect, in order to recover those 
negroes, so that my many voyages, troubles and expenses, in consequence of traveling hither 

' Peter Tonneman succeeded David Provoost as sheriff of the Dutch towns on Long Island in 1656, and is found, in 
January, 1G67, a member of the Supreme Council of New Netherland. On the 5th August, 1660, he was sworn sheriff of 
the city of New Amsterdam. He was the first person to fill that office, and continued in it until the reduction of the 
country in ICG-t. Ue took the oath to the English in October of that year, and in December following sailed for llolland in 
the ship Unity. O'Cailaglian's JJis'.ory of New NHherland, II., 271, STl, 372; Xew-York Colonial Documents, III., 76; 
Nete - York General Enlriet, I., 75. — Ed. 


and thither, whereby I have lost considerably, have contributed to the great injury even of my 
health. Therefore, the aforesaid expenses, etc., rightfully belong to me, for I have had him 
or his Lieutenant, Geurt Tyssen, a long time a prisoner at Amsterdam. 1 further again request 
copy of my Memorial and papers, and of your Honors' answer to the Lords States-General in 
behalf of the right and justice which I have herein. 

Dated at Manhatan, the 29"' day of the month of August, Anno 1657. 

(Signed), Juan Gallardo ferraka. 
On one side was : 

I acknowledge that these were read to me and found to agree, word for word, being 
translated from the Spanish into the Dutch language. Done at the meeting of the 
Commissioners of the Director-General and Council in the city hall, in New Netherland, 

the 12"' day of September, 1657. 

(Signed), Pieter Tonneman, 

Joseph d 'Acosta. 

After collating this with the translation from the Spanish, it is found to agree 
by me. 

C- V. RuYVEN, Secrete 

Appendix 9: Received 26tb April, 1668. 

Extract from the Register of the Resolutions of the Hon'''' Director-General and 
Council of New Netherland, adopted at their Hon''''^ Session, on Tuesday, 
the 4'" September, 1657. 

Rescript of the Director-General and Council on the Reply or Answer of Jan Gaillardo 

Whereas, Jan de ferrare, a native of St. Lucar de Barrameda, hath, in his writing of the 29"> 
August, 1657, declared the Director-General and Council his party in the suit, and demanded 
satisfaction from them for some negroes brought hither under a French commission in the 
year 1652, by one Captain Geurt Tysen, and sold to divers persons, in which writing of 
his, exhibited to the deputed Commissioners, Councillor Pieter Tonneman and Mess" the 
Burgomasters and presiding Schepen of this city, he did not hesitate to accuse the Director- 
General and Council aforesaid of non-justice, and charge them with divers falsehoods, to the 
grave censure of themselves and their office; wherefore, they are under the necessity, in 
the first place, to vindicate themselves, and, in the second place, to demand some justice and 
reparation, as the above mentioned Commissioners shall, in equity, according to their 
knowledge, decide. 

In the first place, the Director-General and Council say, that the information given by the 
aforesaid Jan de ferrare to his Excellency, the Spanish Ambassador, namely, that the Director- 
General and Council conducted themselves with passion in denying justice or in not examining 
and hearing of witnesses, whom he could produce in support of his cause, is false and untrue, 
or what he, ferrare, more erroneously and falsely alleges in his answer and reply of the 29"" 
August, that the Secretary was forbidden by the Director-General to hear his witnesses. This, 
his falsehood and wicked and sinister accusations, will be more palpable, if Mess ^ the 
Commissioners will please to take the trouble to hear and examine — 


First, Secretary Cornolis van Knyven, aixi to ask him whether the Director-General and 
Council ever forbade liim to take any evidence, and especially tiiat wliich Jan Gaillardo 
ferrare was willing to produce. 

Secondly, the witness himself, whom Jan ferrare hath produced, or is willing to produce, 
and it will be found that one, having given his deposition and declaration, it was recorded by 
the Secretary, who furnished him, ferrare, with an extract from it. 

Thirdly, if you will please to examine and to hear the accuser himself, as to the language and 
expressions the Secretary used when he stated that the Director-General had forbade him to 
hear his witnesses, that falsehood will be suliiciently evident if Mess" the Commissioners will 
please to observe that one witness being heard, and the other not having anything else to 
testify, w^liat advantage or damage it could be to the Director-General whether this other were 
heard or not. Certainly this falsehood demands a special proof or correction. 

In the second place the Director-General and Council declare to be false and untrue the 
assertion of Jan Gallardo that the Governor and Council of this Province and place declared 
the negroes herein demanded, good prize ; these are his own expressions. This point 
demands special proof or else due correction. 

The Director-General and Council have never troubled themselves, nor have had any cause 
to trouble themselves with conliscating or declaring, as prize, any ship or property of any 
other prince or potentate which hath arrived here accidentally. The Director-General and 
Council never inquired whether the Captain was a Hollander and the prize a Spaniard ; it is, 
therefore, not gainsaid, and in their opinion it is a matter of little importance. The commission 
by virtue of which Captain Geurt Tysen said the prize was captured, was exhibited to the 
Director-General and Council and appeared to be a French commission, granted and signed 
Chevalier du Poincy, and on the face, Consulier and Luytenant-General of the King of France 
for the islands of America and Hereditary Governor of St. Christophers; the continuation of 
the commission empowering Captain Geurt Tysen to do as he had done, and the Director- 
General and Council presume that in virtue of the treaty and alliance then existing between his 
Majesty of France and their High Mightinesses, the Lords States-General, they could not refuse 
what they granted to a Captain coming here with a French flag and commission, although he 
were a Dutchman or a person of any other nation whatsoever ; to wit : to repair before 
this city and to depart when he pleased ; meanwhile, to purchase, for his money and wares, 
whatever he may require, which, as the Director-General and Council are informed, is not 
refused to any Frenchman or to any one coming, or who have heretofore come, with a French 
commission, into any ports within their High Mightinesses' jurisdiction ; therefore, we cannot 
refuse it unless their High Mightinesses be pleased previously to give, or to send, us orders to 
the contrary, which we, then, as dutiful subjects, shall observe and obey. 

Here the Director-General and Council mention and say, as they have already stated in the 
previous and last answer, dated 24"' August, until better informed by other laws or order, that 
they cannot conceive their subjects, much less themselves, as Director-General and Council, 
to be bound to restore to, or pay Jan de ferrere for, any negroes or goods sold or bartered by 
Captain Geurt Tysen to the Company or any of its subjects, unless the first, second or third 
purchaser or present owner in possession be satisfied therefor, which Jan Gaillardo de ferrare 
seems to demand in his last answer or reply, dated 29"' August. The reasons to that eflect 
alleged by him are too frivolous to merit scarcely any reply. 


Admitted and granted that Geurt Tysen is a Hollander, a Zealander, or a native of 
Overyssel, the question is: Cannot he or any other Dutchman seeli. service and commission 
from another christian prince or potentate ? The Director-General and Council, until better 
informed and advised in the premises, apprehend that he can. This, or the contrary being 
the case, the above named de ferrare, as plaintiff, hath no cause of action against the Director- 
General and Council herein as defendants, but against Geurt Tysen alone, whom, in the 
conclusion of his vsriting, he says he had a long time in prison in Amsterdam ; or against 
Governor du Poincy, who might have favored Geurt Tysen, a Hollander, according to the 
plaintiff's allegation, with some French commission. 

The second reason set forth by the plaintiff, that their High Mightinesses, the Lords States- 
General of the United Netherlands, and the Burgomasters had commanded and ordered such 
restitution of negroes, is alleged by him under an absolute mistake. Quick dispatch and full 
justice were and are never refused to the plaintiff. It is impossible for the Director-General 
and Council, pursuant to the aforesaid orders, to send over Geurt Tysen, ^?cd!e ligalo, because 
he is absent and has not been here in 5 years. And the plaintiff says, in his conclusion, that he 
had him or his Lieutenant, Geurt Tysen, a long time in prison at Amsterdam; wherefore was 
he not holden and prosecuted in due form of law. 

The expenses and trouble of his voyage over and hither, the plaintifTmust charge to himself, 
and consequently not impute or attribute to, much less demand of the Director-General and 
Council, who now, for the second time, cannot afford him any quicker or other complement of 
justice, answer or satisfaction than was given him last year when the expenses of his board 
here were paid by the Director-General and Council, and his passage was apparently agreed 
and paid by the Company; and therefore it is a gross error now, on his part, to again 
demand them. 

The Director-General and Council offered the plaintiff or Petitioner, ferrare, in their 
meeting of the 24th of August, not only a copy of the Memorial and papers, but even the 
originals, as they were transmitted in duplicate, but he refused to accept them. 

This being what the Director-General and Council have deemed expedient, at this time, to 
rejoin to the answer or reply of Jan Gallardo de ferrare, they authorize and order their Fiscal 
to make use of the further provisions of law against him, and to proceed against his sinister, 
frivolous and false accusations before the Commissioners, according to the statutes. Done, 
Amsterdam, in New Netherland, as above. 

Agrees with the resolution aforesaid. 

C. V. RuYVEN, Secretary. 

Appendix 10: Received 2Gt.h April, 1658. 

Jan Gallardo de ferrara, of the city of St. Lucar de Berrameda, says your Honor's answer 
asserts that what I here allege is not the truth, and that I have misinformed the Ambassador ; 
and I say that I again refer to the testimony which the witness hath signed with his own hand, 
that he was two days consecutively to the Secretary's, to be examined, and the said witness told 
me, on the first day he was there, that he should return the day following, to be examined, 
and the Governor had ordered that the examination must be taken by the Burgomasters, and 
so with this answer he went away. On the next day, I accompanied said witness to the 


Secretary, who began to speak some words to tlie witness and me in French. I understood 
distinctly what he said, which was, that your Honor had forbade him to examine the witness, 
and, toticiiing that answer, I demanded from him this declaration in French, signed also by 
another witness, from which tiie truth is to be seen. And your Honor says that such witness 
hath declared and testified, and that a copy of the declaration was given to me; I say I know 
nothing of the declaration, nor hath any copy of his sworn declaration been given to me. 
Therefore, I humbly request the Burgomasters to give herein a little attention to the points 
which I shall further submit here. As neither your Honor nor the Secretary hath known 
anvthing of the French declaration and witnesses, and I have mentioned them in the Memorial 
which I subniiltcd to you on the 29"" August, and the answer your Honor gave me, is the 
answer to the Memorial of the Sy"" August, of the year 1G07, and I have had no other answer ; 
the declaration of tlie witness is of no value; your Honor says that he hath testified, and copy 
hath been delivered to me; I have not received any copy either from your Honor or the 
Secretary. Who, then, should give it to me, as this is the first answer that your Honor hath 
vouchsafed me, and, yet, your Honor says that the original of the declaration is in the 
Secretary's oflice. Here, again, the clear truth of my case is manifest, and what I have written 
thereupon is known, and the tricks and injustice which are done me; and I also say, if 
there be any persons in this country who translate from Dutch into Spanish, wherefore was not 
a copy in Spanish furnished me, so as to answer it, and not oblige me to have recourse to a 
Jew, to beg him, for God's sake, to read to me what your Honor gave me as an answer. And 
it was read to me so as to be hardly intelligible to me, and I heard scarcely four words 
that I could understand. Here, also, is my right acknowledged. 

Therefore, I demand copy of his evidence and, moreover, of the other testimony, to be placed 
with the different papers in my suit, in order to know, and to be able to ascertain whether 
they have truly testified, and whether it agrees, question for question,, with my Memorial 
of last year, 1056; and if he hath not declared the truth agreeably with the aforesaid 
Memorial and entered demand of said year, your Honor can have the commissary of this 
place and a cooper named Simon, summoned, for he hath, before the witnesses who heard 
it, declared according to the tenor of the Memorial ; and you can have the two witnesses swear 
and declare, under oath, before God, the truth of all that shall be asked of them, and let the 
questions be drawn up according to the tenor of said Memorial, and if said witness Bernaal do 
not testify the truth, it will be because it is adverse to your Honor, and because he is an 
inhabitant here, or through dread and because I am a poor foreigner; for in my country, if 
the witnesses do not swear the truth, and there are other witnesses who have heard the 
contrary, that is added to the other declaration, and if he have not sworn the truth, his teeth 
are pulled out, agreeably to the laws of the Kingdom, he being a perjurer. If they altogether 
do not declare the truth, I then have no other information than what I have brought from 
Spain, for in that declaration a seaman is named who helped to capture me; and the 
declaration of the Captain who ws a prisoner, a companion of Geurt Tysen in further 
justification of my case and my acquired right. 

And it being true that I have found the negroes, in this country, as appears by my 
Memorial of last year, 1G5G, in which are specified and set forth the names of the masters who 
now hold the negroes and the names of the latter and their marks, and who their original masters 
were, whereby my right and truth are seen, as well as now in the draft of the said Memorial, 
they, the same negroes being still in the country, I request and pray your Honor, without 


delay or litigation, that my negroes be restored to me, as it is notorious that such is my right, 
as it is the law of this Kingdom tiiat stolen goods cannot be retained by fraud and treachery, 
inasmuch as the Lords States-General and Mess", the Burgomasters, request and require that 
right and justice be done me. 'Tis notorious that the Captain is a Hollander and the prize a 
Spaniard, and as your Honor alleges, in your answer, that it does not appear that tiie Captain 
is a Hollander, I say tliat a foreigner, residing ten years in the country, enjoys its privileges 
the same as the native of that country, and for tliis reason is he a subject of the Lords, 
masters of said country, and for the same reason the commission in the hands of this pirate 
was void; for the placards and laws of the city of Amsterdam impose the penalty of restitution 
of goods and corporal punishment. And as your Honor says, in your answer, that I must 
seek my redress and right from the pirate, who already hath been in prison, I say that those 
who let him out of prison have sent me here. And if I discover said negroes in this country, 
as it is notorious that I have recognized them, tlien I shall receive right and justice, according 
to my deserts and on the demand which I make. 

Your Honor says, in your answer, that you have supported me last year. Mess", the 
Burgomasters, well know, and I also admit, that I have received assistance for 36 days, more 
or less, by your Honor's order in a house where I have eaten twice a day, and that your 
Honor should know the truth, my food consisted of salt meat twice a day, such as is 
distributed as rations to the soldiers from the Hon'''<= Company's store, and notiiing else, and 
I have slept in my clothes, and have been obliged to pay for my washing out doors, in support 
of which I have left with my landlord, named Matthys, a deposition of what he gave me. 
He asked me, the other day, if I wished to see again what I had left with him. Your Honor 
says, you paid my passage last year, I, therefore, made application to your Honor, who 
answered me that you could not thus give alms; and I told you that the Burgomasters had 
offered me alms, to which you answered, that they could do so, as they were rich, and that 
you could not do so. Whereupon I have agreed with the skipper Jan Jansen Bestevaer, in 
the presence of a Jew, named Abraham Lucena, who, having consented, hath paid it. In 
coming over, last year, to this country, the Manhattans, an Amsterdam merchant sought me 
out, who remains bound for the payment thereof. Your Honor says, you have great 
forbearance aud patience with me. Your Honor well knows the truth of my right, and such 
being the truth, in order rightly to answer you in Dutch, for which purpose no interpreter was 
then furnished me, I gave your Honor the answer I made, without retaining a copy of it ; it 
was returned to me in Dutch, which I do not understand, nor have I any person to explain 
its contents to me. Your Honor says, by my style of speaking no further respect is paid to 
Counts and Marquises, wherefore I must answer to the Fiscal. The Fiscal is aware of the 
truth of my claim, to which I refer, and to the contents of my papers; and your Honor and 
the Fiscal, as resolute judges in this place, can do with my person what you please. 
According to my right, I think I have not deserved any such thing. Therefore, in the name 
of the Lords States-General, and in the name of the Burgomasters of Amsterdam, and on 
behalf of my abundant and just cause, and out of respect for the letters and papers I have 
brought with me for such restitution, I humbly crave Mess", the Burgomasters of this country, 
and the Commissioners named to hear my claim, to do me right and justice, and to restore 
me those negroes with all expenses which I have incurred by four years' pleadings here, or the 
value of said negroes from the persons against whom T have most right, or against the Lords, 
whose country it is, and who own them, inasmuch as they possess some of my negroes, and 


the owners may apply to those who liave declared the prize good, or to him who sold them, 
who is a Hollander, and has a brother named Jan van Campen in the city of Amsterdam, 
a Captain of a ship of war belonging to the States. And as I say, that a year has expired 
since I have gained my cause without being able to enjoy my just right, and I have need of 
no further delay or postponement, so Mess", the Commissioners, will please to decide according 
to equity; and should such be against me, I appeal now, henceforth, to higher judges or 
courts, who most agree with my right, and I demand copy of this, my Memorial, authenticated 
and signed by the Secretary, who must, above all, be believed; and 1 also demand copy of my 
other Memorial dated 29"" August, of this present year. Done in the city of Manhattans the 
IS'" September, 1657. 

(Signed), Juan Gallardo ferrara. 

We, the undersigned, by request, and as deputed herein, have, to the best of our 
understanding and comprehension, translated from the Spanish into our Low Dutch language 
this preceding answer of Jan Gallardo, a Spaniard, contra, the Hon''''' Director-General, Petrus 
Stuivesant and Council, and in their name against the Hon'''^ Directors of the Incorporated 
West India Company. Your Honors will be always sufficiently able to understand and to 
perceive the substance and meaning of the aforesaid Spaniard from it. Your Honors will 
please e.xcuse a word, more or less unintelligible, ill expressed and not well rendered, which, 
under correction, we did not readily seize or understand. Wherefore we deliver the hereunto 
annexed, and by our usual signature affixed, acknowledge to have translated it to the best of 
of our ability. Ady H"' day of October, A" 1657, in the city hall at the city of Amsterdam, 
in New Netherland. 

(Signed), Pieter Tonneman, 
Joseph d'Acosta. 
Found to agree with the original translation. 

C. V. RuTVEN, Secret^. 

Appendix 11 : Received 25th April, 1G58. 

To Mess" the Commissioners appointed and qualified in the matter of Jan Gallardo ferrare, 
a Spaniard. 

Hon'"^ Sirs. 

Whereas, I learn from the Memorial presented by the Ambassador of his Majesty of Spain 
to their High Mightinesses the Lords States-General dated 3"^ January, 1657, that Jan Gallardo 
ferrare hath grossly misinformed his Excellency, the said Ambassador, and sinisterly accused 
me of having declined recording the declarations of persons whom he, Gallardo, hath brought 
before mo, which he repeats, dc novo, in the writing he gave in yesterday at your Honors 
meeting ; wherein he further adds, that I answered him, Gallardo, that I was forbidden by the 
Director-General to hear the witnesses, or to sign their declaration. 

In the first place, I declare as the truth, that 1 have never been forbidden to receive or to 
record the evidence of the aforesaid Gallardo, or of any other person; also, that I never told 
him so ; and that I never refused him or any person else to sign their declaration or to 
record it. 


Said Jan Gallardo brought before me, in November, 1656, one Adriaen Jansen, of 
Saraaskercken, and requested me to sign his declaration, which I immediately did, and handed 
Gallardo a copy of said deposition. After that, Jan Gallardo returned with one Nicolaes 
Bernaerd, a Frenchman, and asked me to record his declaration also. Whereupon I had 
Nicolaes Bernaerd told by a soldier speaking the French language, to return on the next day 
with an Interpreter, in order to understand him thoroughly ; but, to my knowledge, I never 
saw the above named Frenchman Nicolaes Bernaerd again. And as said Bernaerd is still, 
at present, in the city, I respectfully request that he may be examined and asked by 
your Honors. 

First. If I have refused to sign his declaration which he would make at the request of 
Jan Gallardo? 

Secondly. How often did he come to me to make a declaration at the instance of Jan 
Gallardo, and what answer I had given him ? 

Which being truly answered, it will appear that said Gallardo hath grossly misinformed his 

Excellency, the Ambassador of Spain, and unjustly accused me, for which I hope, in time, to 

obtain reparation. Meanwhile I remain, 

Your Honors' servant, 


A|ipeiidis 12: Received April, 1658. 

Extraordinary Meeting holden at the City hall, Amsterdam, in New Netherland, 
on Tuesday afternoon, the fourth September, 1657. Present: Mess" 
Nicasius de Sille, Fiscal ; Pieter Tonneman, Councillor in the Assembly of 
the Hon''''' Director-General and Council of New Netherland, and Paullus 
Leendert van der Grift, Burgomaster, 

On the requisition of the Hon. Cornells van Ruyven, Secretary of the Hoa'''° 
Director-General and Council of New Netherland, is summoned Nicolaes 
Bernardt, to answer truly the following questions ; 

Did Cornells van Ruyven, Secretary of the Nicolaes Bernardt, appearing at the meeting, 

Hon'''"' Director-General and Council of New makes answer to the first question. That tiie 

Netherland, refuse to sign his, Nicolaes Ber- Secretary said : Come again, early to-morrow ; 

nardt's, declaration, which he wished to make, then I will sign your declaration. 
at the request of Jan Gailliardo ? 


How often was he to the aforesaid Secretary Answers : He was only once to the Secre- 

to make a declaration, at the request of Jan tary's, to make a declaration, at Jan Gailliar- 

Gaillairdo, and what answer did the Secretary do's request; the Secretary answered: Come 

make? early, to-morrow, as aforesaid. 


Did he return on the following day, as the No. 
Secretary had appointed / 

Vol. H. 6 . 


Tlie foregoing being read substantially two several times to liim in Frencli, in presence of 
the above named Commissioners, he declares the same to be true and truthful. In testimony 
whereof, he hath subscribed this with his usual mark and confirmed it with solemn oath, at the 
hands of the Fiscal, Mcasius de Sille. Done the day, year and place as above. 

Beneath was : 

The mark of IVicolaes Bernardt, made by iiimself, in presence of the aforesaid 

Lower stood : 

To my knowledge, Timotheus Gabry, Secretary of Amsterdam, in New Netherland. 

Upon collating, found to agree with the original. 

(Signed), Timotheus Gabry, Secrete 

Appendix 13: Received 2Ctli April, ir.SS. 

Whereas, the Director-General and Council of New Netherland have been pleased, by their 
Resolution, dated 24"' of August last, to commission and qualify us as judges between Joan 
Gallardo de ferrara, inhabitant of the city of St. Lucar de Berrameda, and those he would 
cite and summon before us in the matter of the negroes claimed by him ; we, in the quality 
aforesaid, have considered and read the exhibits, documents and papers produced by the above 
named Gallardo, as plaintiff, on the one side, and the writings in answer of the aforesaid 
Director-General and Council, as defendants, on the other side, and find that the plainlill' 
demands restitution of some negroes traded off here in the year 1652, by one Captain Geurt 
Tysen, which negroes he, by his writing in reply, dated 29"" August, says he demands, not 
from the actual owners or possessors thereof, but from the Hon'"''' Director-General and Council 
aforesaid, who, as lio alleges, demanded said negroes here, and have declared the same good 
prize. Which being replied to by the Director-General and Council in date, d"" September, 
they declare it to be false and untrue that the Director-General of this Province required here 
the negroes in question and declared them to be good prize ; that, in August, in the year lG-52, 
a French privateer named Geurt Tysen came up to the Narrows here, with a commission from 
Chevalier de Poinci, bringing with him a Spanish prize ; he, as a servant of the Crown of 
France, re<iuested to be allowed to provide Iiimself witii necessaries for money or goods, which, 
they say, they dare not refuse him out of respect for the alliance and friendship between tlie 
aforesaid Crown of France and the High and Mighty Lords States-General. This Geurt Tysen, 
after lie had provided himself here with necessaries, in exchange for some negroes and other 
merchandise, sailed in tiie forepart of the winter, as is more fully set forth in the above 
mentioned rescript. Demanding, therefore, that the plaintiff prove his assertion that the 
Director-General and Council of New Netherland required the negroes here, and declared 
them good prize. 

Whereupon, the plaintiff, Jan Gallardo, being this day summoned before us, was asked, 
through Moses de Lucena, the Interpreter, how could he prove that the Director-General and 
Council of this Province aforesaid, had required here and declared the negroes good prize, 
as he liath alleged in his above mentioned writing. This was at first denied by him, saying that 
■he did not so state or write, but, after reflecting a little, he said that he at first did not clearly 


comprehend the meaning, but that it was true that tlie General and Council had required the 

negroes here, and declared them good prize. Whereupon he was again asked what proof had 

he of it? He answered that the negroes themselves said it was a Spanish prize, and that the 

General ought not to allow him to come up, as he was a Hollander, and the prize Spanish 

property. And, further, had the General not declared the prize good, that the negroes had not 

been found here. 

Whereas, the aforesaid the plaintiff's answer is little or nothing to the purpose, it is by us 

resolved and concluded, before delivering definitive judgment on the matter in question, to 

cause the plaintiff, Jan Gallardo, to be notified and informed, that within the space of 14 days 

or earlier, if possible, he shall prove tliat the Director-General and Council have required the 

negroes here, and declared the same good prize ; which being done, or in default thereof, 

judgment shall then be pronounced according to the exigency of the case. Thus done in the 

city hall of this city Amsterdam, in NewNetherland, the 22""' October, A° 1657. Reconsidered 

and agreed to the 23"^ ditto. 

(Signed), Pieteh Tonneman, 

Allard Anthony,' 


Upon collating this with the original subscribed as above this day, the same is 
found to agree. 


At the meeting of the above mentioned Commissioners appeared the Hon'''^ Nicasuis de 
Sille, who ex-officio demands that Jan Gallardo shall be ordered to remain until he prove that 
the Director-General and Council of New Netherland had required here and declared 
good prize the negroes by him claimed. Which being taken into deliberation, the demand is 
found consistent with justice, and accordingly the same is allowed and granted to the Fiscal, 
and Gallardo is ordered not to depart before he hath complied with the request of the 
Fiscal therein. Thus done in the city hall of this city the 23"* October, A° 1657. 

Upon duly collating the preceding it is found to agree with the record of the 
minutes kept in the Assembly of the above mentioned Commissioners by me. 

C. V. RuYVEN, Secref- 

' Allakd Anthony was a merchant in New Amsterdam. He filled tlie office of Schepen in 1653; of Burgomaster from 
1655 to lOCl ; and of city Sellout or Sheriff from 1662 to 1673. From one cause or another he was Tery unpopular with 
the majority of the citizens, and in the execution of his duties as Sheriff was so exacting and severe that among the lower 
classes he went by the name of The Hangman. He died in 1685. Valentine's History of New-York, 97. 

■ Paclcs Leendeetzen van dee Geift was a property-holder in Kew Amsterdam in 1644. He afterwards sailed from 
Holland in command of the "West India Company's ship the Great Gerrit, on Christmas day, 1C46, and arrived at the Manhat- 
tans 11th May, 1647, with Peter Stuyvesant, the new Governor, by whom he was appointed naval agent. He next became a 
trader; served as Schepen in 1663, 1654, and Burgomaster in 1057, 1658, 1661 and 1664. He resided, in New Amsterdam, on 
the west side of Broadway, in the vicinity of what is now Trinity church, his property running west to the river; his place 
of business was in Pearl, near Broad-street He remained iu the country until 1671, when he returned to Europe, and his 
agents disposed of his property in the city of New- York. & Callaghan' s History of New Netherland, II., 21, 583 ; New -York 
Court of Assize, 620; Valentine's New -York, 101. — Ed. 


Appendix A : Received 2GtIi A pril. 1Co8. 

We, the undersigned skipper and seamen, declare tliat on tiiis day, the 12"" of July of this 
present year 1652, we presented ourselves before Consul Jaconie van den Hove, residing* 
on behalf of their High Mightinesses, the Lords States-General of the United iXetherlands, in 
this city of Cadis, and have reported to the said Consul that we, whilst navigating a ketch, 
with a permit from the General of New iXetherland, from said I'rovince to Caymaynos, to 
fetch tortoise, which having taken in, we proceeded on our voyage to St. Eustatia, but being 
come about 10 leagues above St. Jago de Cuba, were taken by a Spanish ship and carried into 
St. Jago aforesaid, and there made prize by the Governor and sold; and so forth by 
Carthagena and Havana have come here. After having reported the foregoing to said Consul, 
he gave us the following answer, that he hath taken legal advice hereupon who say, that 
nothing can be done in the matter here, but it must be justified in his Royal Majesty's court 
and in his Council for the Indies. And whereas we, coming from a lost voyage, have neither 
means nor time for such purpose, said Consul considers it best to forward us to Patria, and to 
notify the same to our interested friends, so that the case may be managed and concluded by 
their High Miglitinesses with the resident Ambassador of the King of Spain. Thus done iu 
Cadiz on the day and year aforesaid. Subscribed with divers hands and marks 

Skipper Dirck Dircksen, 
1 William Ely, 

This i^is the mark of Hendrick Bevert, 

This Y is the mark of Jan Mores. 
Beneath was: 

Agrees with the original. 

( Signed ), J. V. Hove. 

Upon duly collating this it is found to agree by me. 

C. V. KuvvEx, Secret" 

Appendix B. 

Petuus Stuvvesant, Director-General of New Netherland, Curacao, Bonayro, Aruba and 
the dependencies thereof, on the part of the High and Mighty Lords States-General 
of the United Netherlands, and the Hon''"'' Directors of the General Incorporated West 
India Company : 

To all those who shall hear, see or read these, Greeting: Be it known that, for the 
advancement of trade and commerce between this, our intrusted government and other 
neighbors. We have thought proper and necessary to equip and prepare and to send direct from 
this place to the Island of Curac-ao, the yacht named the Hacn, whereunto we, first of all, 
requiring a fit and proper person to command said yacht as skipper and chief, and to 
navigate her; 

Therefore, We, on the good report and information furnished of the person of Carsten 
Jeroensen, of Amsterdam, having been heretofore in our service as pilot of the ship Frins 
Willem, in which he hath given us full satisfaction, have commissioned and appointed him for 


the present, as we do hereby commission and appoint him to be ski^pper and chief of tl>e 
y cht e H.e«, with order and comn.ission the said yacht to man and to w.t sucl, 
nn itim's of war as she requires, and he shall make a return thereof to us and when so 
man d and fitted out, to proceed on a voyage direct from this port to the Islands of Cura.a 
Td thence back here, wifhout, unless necessitated and forced, touching at any other >slands 
p lacermuch less, in passing and repassing, acting with enmity or host.l.ty towards any 
Tar has not e'ven towards the English nation, as we are informed by a sure source, 

th t he European differences that have arisen between both natjons are arranged and s tied 
beng required only to stand on self defence ; We, accordingly, will and all or 
su eel and have requested and entreated all neighbors. Generals. Governors and Captains to 
a knowledge and recognize the aforesaid Carsten Jeroensen for such as he ,s '--^7 ^uah ed 
Tot to hinder nor obstruct him or his crew and laden goods in passing and repassing, but rather 
to be iding and helping, in every way, if necessary and required thereunto, which being 
done in our'regard, we shall, on similar occasion, recompense and return Given under our 
usual hand and seal, this IG"- June, A° 1654, in Amsterdam, in New Netherland. 

The original was signed, p_ s^uyvesant. 

Instruction for Carsten Jeroensen, Skipper of the yacht the Ilacn, destined 
for Curacjao. 

On sailing hence, with God's help and the first favorable wind, you will seek out and take 
the nearest course to the Island of Bonayro, without touching at any other islanas or places, 
unless obliged or forced, which may the good God forbid. 

Being arrived at the Saltpans, on the Island of Bonayro, you shall set on shore, at first, one 
man, or at most, two, to explore the country, and not permit a single ot er one of your crew 
to go ashore before those return on board and give assurance whether the coast is clear, and 
whether friends or enemies are dwelling there. 

If the aforesaid island be not occupied by our people or found abandoned, and some salt 
be ready in or about the pans, he shall endeavor, with dispatch, to take on board as much 
salt as the yacht can conveniently load; keeping, meanwhile, a good lookout and remaining 
on his guard. 

Should he find on said island no salt, whether coarse or fine, he shall proceed to the Island 
of Curacao, in or about Craacke bay, and lie with sails aback or at andior as opportunity 
offers, and. as before, send a man ashore to see by what people the aforesaid island is occupied, 
and la no case enter the port until he be first fully and sufficiently assured that the fort on the 
island is still occupied by our people. 



After delivering our despatch to Vice-Director Rodenborch, with the accompanying grain, 
he shall get ready, without any delay, to return hither, and request Mr. Rodenborch to 
have the vessel quickly discharged and loaded with timber or salt, the last in preference, as it 
is greatly needed. 


He shall not leave any of the people who accompany him, on the Island of Curagao, except 
by their absolute consent, and with others in their stead capable of navigating the yacht on 
her return voyage ; nor sail from Cura9ao to any other places, nor suffer himself (o be 
otherwise employed, but return hither in the most speedy manner, as the knowledge of the 
state of the island is of particular importance to us. 

Dated Amsterdam, in New JXetherland, this Si"" June, A" 1654. 

(Signed), P. Stuyvesant. 

Honorable, Valiant, I'rudent and Right Worshipful Petrus Stuyvesant, Director-General of 
Curacao, New Netherland, and their dependencies. 


It will be agreeable and pleasing to me to hear of your health. Thank God, mine is good. 

The case is, that I was sent, with the yacht the Ham, under your commission and instruction, 

and by your Honor's order, to the Island of Curacao, where I arrived in safety, and on my 

return voyage was captured by three Spanish ships, and carried to St. Domingo, where I, in 

your name, protested in the strongest manner for the loss of my voyage, the violation of my 

Lord and master's advice, and all further losses and damages, and for whatever else I might 

happen to suffer until I should arrive in safety at New Netherland, to communicate my 

complaints to your Honor, and that your Honor may proceed further therein as you may deem 

proper, which complaints I have laid before the Directors. Secondly, after my arrival, I 

cannot report to your Honor how their Honors shall order, whether they will demand 

satisfaction from the Ambassador at the Hague or from the King of Spain. Should it succeed, 

I shall let you know with all diligence. I shall conclude here, and commend your Honor, your 

Lady and children to the protection of the Most High. 

Always your affectionate servant, 

(Signed), Carsten Jeroensen. 
Dated SS"- May, A" 1657. Amsterdam. 

Found, upon collating, to agree with the original, dated and signed as above. 

C. V. RuY\'EN, Secret^. 


Resolution of tlie States -Gtneral. 

[ From Ibe Eegister of West India Affairs, 1052 — 1GG3, in tlio Eoyal ArcUivea at Ibo Hague. ] 

Friday, 26"^ April, 165S. 
Folio 201. Received a letter from the Directors of the West India Company, Chamber at 

Amsterdam, written there the 2G"' instant, and with it a despatch of the Director-General and 
Director of New Council of Ncw Netheriand, dated 20"" October last, with and besides some 
Netiicriand. inclosures in answer to their High Mightinesses' letter of the 25"' January, of 

last year, and, consequently, information on the subject of a certain Memorial of the Spanish 
Jan Gaiiiardo. Ambassador, touching one Jan Gaillardo, a Spanish pilot, more fully set forth in 
the aforesaid Memorial. Which being considered, it is resolved and concluded that the said 
letters and inclosures be referred to Mess" Huygens and other their High Mightinesses' Deputies 
for the affairs of the West India Company, to examine, investigate and report thereon. 

Ite-solution of the States- General. 

[ From the Register of West India Affairs, 1652 — 1603, in tlio Koyal Archives at tlie Hague. ] 

Friday, S"' May, 16-58. 
Folio 261. Received a letter from the Directors of the West India Company, Chamber at 

Amsterdam, dated the 1" instant, together with an inclosure requesting that the government 
Boundary of New ^f England may be brought to approve and ratify the Provisional Boundary 
Neuieriand. mutually agreed on by the agents of the aforesaid Company in New Netheriand 

on the one part, and the English nation of New England on the other. Which, being considered, 
it is resolved and concluded that the aforesaid letter and inclosure be referred to Mess" 
Huygens and other High Mightinesses' Deputies for the affairs of said West India Company, 
to inspect, examine and report thereon. Mr. Nieuwpoort' was added, on the same business. 

' WrLLiAM NiEUPOORT was member of the Comnion Council of Scliiedam in 1650, in which year he was sent with M. Tan 
Beuningen to Friesland and other Northern Provinces, to obtain their adhesion to the form of government by a StadUolJer 
after the death of William the II., and in 1661 was sent by the States of Holland to Zealand to prepossess that Province 
against the necessity of a Captain-General, for which post Prince William III. was put forward, though scarcely a year 
old. The zeal M. Nieupoort evinced on these occasions caused him to be selected, with M. van Beverninck, Ambassador 
Extraordinary to England in 1653. He returned home in 1657 and was appointed Resident Minister to the Court of 
London, where he arrived in August, 1658, and continued until June, 1660, when, on the restoration of Charles II, 
who openly sided with the Prince of Orange, it was considered best to recall Nieupoort. He continued in public life, 
however, until the end of the year 1672, when, in a popular tumult exoited by the party favorable to the Prince of Orange 
and opposed to the Dc Witts, he fell into the hands of the mob from whom he suffered severely before he was released. 
Kok, XXIII., 182. — Ed. 


Itesolntion of the States-General. 

I From Iho Kcglstcr of West India Affairs, 1652 — 1603, In the Archives al Ihc Hague. ] 

Friday, 3P' May, 1C5S. 
Folio 203. Read at the meeting the Petition of'tiie Directors of the West India Company, 

Artnslo NcwNelh- . , , . i i • i- i ■■■ r r .\ ■ 

.Ti.wi.i. praying tlial tiie exportation and sending of arms and munitions ol war from this 

country to New Netlierland, may be prohibited by proclamation. Which, being considered, it 
is re.solved and concluded that the aforesaid I'etition be placed in the hands of Mess" Iluygens 
and the other their High Mightinesses' Deputies for tlie affairs of the said Company, to inspect, 
e.\amine and report tiiereon. 

Itesolntion. of (lie States-General. 

[ Krom the Kegisler of West India Affairs, 1052 — 1003, in the Roynl Arclrivcs at the n.igac. ] 

Thursday, G"' June, 1G58. 
Foiio20;?. Heard the report of Mess" Huygens and the other their High Mightinesses' 

Deputies for the aflairs of the West India Company, having, agreeably to their resolution of 
Anns 10 Now No- ^'"^ '^^"' '^^'^7 '''®*-' i'lspccted and examined the petition presented on the same day 
"'"'"'"'■ to their High Mightinesses, in the name and on behalf of the Directors of the 

West India Company, requesting that their High Mightinesses will prohibit, by proclamation, 
the exportation of arms and munitions of war from this country to New Netherland. Which 
being considered, it is resolved and concluded that the rctroacta in the matters aforesaid shall 
be examined. 

lldnrn of Loans effected on account of tht Colonic on the Delaware. 

[ From the liundle indorsed Vt'rsc/ieife Stit^-^-ai racirnde do Colonie van A"". Xsderlandt^ No. 13, in tho Stad IItiij% Amsterdam. ] 

Holland Docnmenta Moueys reccived on account of the City's Colonie planted in New Netherland, 

■'■' ■ on interest at 3-1 per cent., whereon a year's interest has accrued. 
A" 1657. 
1"' April. P'roni Burgomaster Cornells van Vlooswyck, fl. 3,000 

" Agatha van Ousthoorn, widow of Mr. Roelofi" Bicker, 3,000 

9"" May. From the Superintendents of Orphans, for account of Margareta, 

daughter of Gysbert Cornelissen Fuyck, fl. 9,000 

Andries Boelissen, 3,000 


Amount carried forward, 11. 18,000 


Amount brought forward, fl. 18,000 

G"" June. From the Superintendents of Orphans, for account of Cornells Reyneirs, 

son of General Carel Reyniers, 12,000 

lO"" July. From the Superintendents of Orphans, on account of Mr. van Swietea's 

daughter, G,000 


SP'June. From the Managers of St. Peter's Hospital, 10,000 

IS"" July. From the Superintendents of Orphans, on account of 

Symon van Neck, fl, 2,000 

Arnout Hudde, 3,500 

Pieter Pietersen Deeckencamer's child, 4'500 


fl. 56,000 

The year's interest due on this sura amounts, at 3J per cent, to fl. 1,960 

< n » ■ I » 

Vice-Director Alvichs to the Commissioners of the Colonic on tlie Delmvare River. 

[ From the Bundle indorsed VerscJieide Stukken raekande (U Cokmie van 2r. yederlandt, No. 33, in tlie Stad Euys^ Amsterdam. ] 

Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Prudent Gentlemen. 

Holland Documents ^^1 ^^^^ ^0 your Honors was dated the 26"' of June, and went with the ship the 
xvi.,51. Vergulde Sonne, KAoX^Vfyngaexi, skipper, whose departure, notwithstanding he 

was detained a considerable time repairing and fixing, in consequence of his disabled condition 
when he arrived, was delayed over 14 days longer by unfavorable wind and weather. I hope, 
nevertheless, that the above named ship will have safely arrived in due season, which God 
grant. I long to hear it. 

1. The provisions brought over, from time to time, by the arriving vessels are become very 
scarce, through great consumption, let alone the fact that in the transmitting of them, what 
was required for the soldiers and civil officers was little thought of. 

Your Honors had heretofore ordered that Beeckman should be employed in the purchasing 
of provisions at the Manhattans. He is now placed at, or in Fort Altona, as Vice-Director. 

2. In regard to the salt which your Honors suppose is quite plenty at the Manhattans, that 
is a mistake. We have only a hogshead and a cask, and can hardly get any there for money. 
A skepel of salt, 'tis said, costs a beaver there, which is 12 gl., more or less, this currency, 
so that we shall be sorely distressed in consequence. Hardly a cup of salt can be had for 
extraordinary occasions; this causes great discontent and uproar. In well regulated places, it 
does happen, that scarcity and want, of one part or the other, occurs ; much more is this the 
case in a far distant and newly begun Colonic, which, at least, ought to be provided for one 
year with whatever is not produced as yet in this country, or procured through others and can 
be brought from neighboring places. In other products which grow here, we may have bad 

Vol. H. 7 


years by a short crop, the worm and other ill-luck, excessive drought, continual rain, severe 
sickness, etc"., for it has already occurred here that the worm has appeared in vast quantities 
and seriously injured the crops and gardens; mucii grain has been ruined by long rains, and in 
consequence of severe and general sickness, scarcely COO skepels have been saved, where 900 
have been sown, llye is worth here at least nine guilders the sack, which is equal to 324 
guilders the last. "White peas 7i or S gl. the sack. Little or no butter is to be had here ; 
cheese, less ; and whenever any one is about going on a journey, he can hardly get anything 
more than dry bread, or he must just carry along a pot or kettle to cook some food. This, 
frequently, time does not permit. Therefore, once more, as a reminder or repetition, it were 
well that some rye-meal, groats and cheese, etc^, were sent in all the ships. 

3. I have appointed Mr. Inojossa to go to the Manhattans; I shall, by this occasion, demand 
the original deeds of this place ; also, learn what is to be done for the purchase of the lands 
at the WhorekiU, and speak about the price of 8 or 10 cattle, including 2 horses which were 
received with the fort, but never sent for and were given out on halves to the Swedes. 
Therefore, as horses are necessarily required here for agriculture, means should be devised 
and tiie opportunity of vessels seized, to obtain a good supply of horses and salt from 
that place. 

4. The buoys will, on the earliest opportunity, be laid down, as soon as possible, in the 
most suitable parts of the Bay ; but stones are wanting, which will be looked up and prepared 
for the purpose. 

In regard to the fort, 'tis, with whatever is on, or in it, in a great state of decay. I cannot any 
longer postpone its removal, but have been obliged, for the storage and delivery of goods, and 
for a residence of the Commissary, to resolve on building a house of plank, about 50 feet in 
length and 20 in breadth; also, I caused to be repaired ^ of the house in which I have been 
lodging very uncomfortably, the greater part whereof is still so leaky, that it is with the greatest 
difficulty anything can be kept dry. The rest remains still unfinished, until we receive more 
brick, lime and tiles, which are much wanting here. I have also had a new guard-house built, 
and a new bakery, 30 feet long and 20 wide ; the lower story 9, and the second 6^ feet high ; 
half of it remains still unroofed for want of tiles. We shall be obliged to pull down and rebuild 
the soldiers' barracks immediately, and afterwards the fortification itself, a considerable part 
of which is washed away outside on the river; therefore, no change of site can be made here 
in regard of the building that has been done, and, since it is the first place where possession 
was taken in your Honors' behalf, it must remain the oldest and lowest, as the alteration 
entails, besides, much labor, time and expense. I shall therefore let it stand, and not attempt 
the least change of site in this case. 

Tiie ship de Meiilen has, God be praised, safely arrived on the 27"" ult", after a voyage of 13 
weeks, and experiencing great want of water, to such a degree, that for some days it was 
impossible to cook. The people suffered considerably from sickness, and 10 or 11 died. 
When the vessel reached this vicinity, with much contrary wind, it was obliged to seek a port, 
and on arriving here, caused us a great deal of joy, although it brought many mouths without 
bringing with them a mite of any sort of provisions, and the season being now advanced, 
heavers or peltries can, with difficulty, be bartered. Duffles, also, are scarce, though in 
demand, particularly at this time, and even constantly. 


5. I had expected, at least, the supply of some provisions, such as rye-flour, groats and some 
cheese. The galliot must also be provisioned; there is a set of insolent fellows on board her, 
who, when she is laid up, will not lay a hand to work; if there be anything to do, and there 
is never any want of work here, they will not stir for less than a rix dollar or 3 guilders a da}'. 
Carpenters, masons and other mechanics earn 4 guilders ; this amounts to considerable in 
extensive works, but it is, on the other hand, to be borne in mind that this country currency 
is also very high, and that an ell of duffles costs 4 guilders in wampum. 

6. There is no reason or plea for declining or refusing to supply the old or first inhabitants 
from the store lor their money. Tiiere is no merchant's store here, nor scarcely any one that 
hath provisions for sale for the daily supply of the inhabitants; nay, not even bread, although 
there are over 600 souls in this place. Whoever has anything vpill not sell it, and whoso 
has not, cannot. Things here are in their infancy, and demand time. Many who come hither 
are as poor as worms, and lazy withal, and will not work, unless compelled by necessity. Tiiis 
gives great umbrage, and to keep all matters straight affords plenty of occupation. 

In regard to the timber, which you are surprised, has been sent hence as freight, whoever 
has anything here to load ought not to be repulsed but encouraged, and such is necessary here ; 
if things are to succeed, we must operate in that way. Therefore, I shall much rather 
animate the people to labor than discourage them. It is not to be wondered at, if the work, 
at first, he not so perfect and profitable. Practice renders the people more expert, and 'tis 
better to do something good than to be employed uselessly or unprofitably. The timber was 
sent that labor may be supported. Though at present discredited and brought into disrepute, 
it will soon surmount the difficulty when improved, and faults or accidents are remedied or 
removed. That the ship should have arrived sooner home, 10 or 13 days were employed in 
taking the timber in ; it lay on the bank alongside the vessel and the crew undertook to haul 
and load it for 200 gl., or thereabouts; it was the finest weather that could be expected, so 
that it can easily be determined whether this could be effected sooner, in half the time. It 
ought not to be laid to my charge if others wasted the time at the Manhattans and on the 
voyage. I shall faithfully study the interest of the city, but I am not responsible for delays 
caused by others. In like manner, the ship de Sonne took a month, or a little more, to load, in 
consequence of having been in a damaged and bad condition and requiring considerable time 
to be caulked. About 130 iron bolts were made and used in her repairs, exclusive of spikes, 
&c. Though the heavy freights absorb all the profit of the timber, yet it is better that the 
people, who are inclined to be industrious, should be accommodated, although they derive no 
profit, than that they be deprived of the smallest opportunity to send off their goods, for which 
no manner of reason can be given. 

The wise resolution which has been adopted to annex to this place the Whorekill and the 
country from Boomtiens hook to Cape Hinloopen is advantageous and excellent. It will be 
no sooner purchased than I shall hasten the conveyance, and take immediate possession, of it ; 
but send then in the spring or in the ships sailing in December, a good number of strong and 
hard working men. Should they not be forthcoming so speedily or promptly at the time, they 
can be supplied by boys of 15, 16 or 17 years and over, bearing in mind, particularly, that 
they be robust. Whatever is to be accomplished here must be expected from labor. I shall 
take care to build a redoubt or stronghold in the most favorable position, but I desire much 
to have a small vessel also, similar to a Wiering galliot of 10 or 12 Imu. We are not yet in a 


condition to build such a craft here j one thing is wanting and then another, and the work 
does not progress. The slowness and interruption are most injurious and damaging. 

Resort to New England and Virginia: Every prudence shall be made use of in this regard; 
I know it is required, and I shall, witli all circumspection, observe whatever the service and 
necessity here will happen to demand. 

7. Tiie fruits or products thereof by cultivation here: Whatever is possible is done in this 
matter. But a young or unwilling horse must first be taught and broke in, so that he may 
he lit (or the bridle or for draft. It is even so here for the most part with the people, and 
also with the soil which has first to be cleared of small and large trees and other brusliwood, 
then broken up, as opportunity offers, and ploughed and sowed in due course ; then the whole 
remains to be fenced and so ordered, that wild and domestic animals may not destroy or 
trample the crops or render all the labor fruitless. 

The children sent over from the Almshouse have safely arrived and were in sufficient request, 
so that all are bound out with one and the other; the oldest for 2 years, the others, and the 
major portion, for 3 years, and the youngest for 4 years, earning 40, 60 and SO guilders during 
the above period, and at the end of the term will be fitted out in the same manner as they are 
at present; the conditions are no worse, but rather better than were prescribed in the form 
transmitted. Please to continue sending others from time to time ; but, if possible, none ought 
to come less than 15 years of age and somewhat strong, as little profit is to be expected here 
without labor; but from people with large families or many small children, little is to be 
expected. When the men die they do not leave a stiver behind. The public must provide 
the coflin, pay all the debts, and feed, or maintain, those who survive. 

8. Respecting the sloop to be built here : No persons ever came over acquainted with such 
business and willing or able to work at it. We have no sawyers; one articled smith, little 
iron and coals for heavy work ; free smiths are extraordinarily scarce, and it is not advisable 
to get much work done by them ; sails, ropes and many other indispensable necessaries are 
long expected from time to time before anything can be finished. 

9. The materials are arrived but no tiles, quantities of which are much needed here. The 
brick-maker is dead. Iron padlocks, scythes, sickles, thatchers' knives, adzes, saws, crosscut- 
saws, picks, iron pots and kettles, 0,000 lbs. of iron, smiths' coals, fire-brick, lime, steel and 
powder are required ; therefore, please make some room for them when sending, also for two- 
inch nails, were it 100 thousand, but 5, 6, 7, S and 9-inch, not until demanded, as there 
is but little heavy building here as yet. Do not forget plenty of carpenters' tools, mostly 
hand-saws, crosscut-saws, adzes, augers, etc^ 

10. In regard to contraband goods : I could not help what happened in the previous matters 
for reasons which you will please to consider, but since there is a change in that service, I 
shall see that proper attention be paid in future. Respecting what came in de JVaeg, on seeing 
and noticing that the goods were of that description, I had them removed to the store and 
after they had remained there some months, was requested to take them on the city's account, 
at the original cost in Holland. This was refused and not listened to ; wherefore, at last, 
the case was opened and found to contain five-and-thirty guns, which I seized and delivered to the 
Ensign of the Burgher corps for distribution among the men coming over who are under 
the Company's jurisdiction and not provided with any arms, which was done. If any person 


prefer any claim to them, it should be proved before the Slieriff or Fiscal, who will then be 
obliged to protect the public right; and iu my opinion, under existing circumstances, nothing 
further.ought to be done in this matter, for the reason that, first: I do not desire to dig up 
any old questions or disputes; and, secondly : because on account of the small profit realized 
in this trade, there will be no inducement to traffic in such goods any more. Besides, lie is 
not the man who hath originated it ; 'twas brought on him by friends who believed that they 
could pass unobserved under his cloak, which now, most assuredly, they have missed. Were 
any further trouble to arise therefrom, it would be to the prejudice of the person and a scandal 
and annoyance to him where he resides; this would be of no service to us; peace and quiet 
are of much more benefit to us. 

11. In respect to the Swedish nation and their lands, which are now partly vacant and 
partly occupied and cultivated by them : There are two parcels of the best land on the river 
on the west bank, the first of which is above Marietiens hook about two leagues along the 
river and 4 leagues into the interior; the second, on a guess, about 3 leagues along the same, 
including Schuylkil, Passajonck, Quinsessingh, right excellent land, the grants or deeds whereof, 
signed in original by Queen Christina, I have seen ; they remain here. I believe the 
proprietors, as they style themselves, or those who hold the ground-briefs, would willingly 
dispose of them for a trifle, according to their value and worth. In like manner, there are 
some old inhabitants here, sworn subjects of this Province, who, in the years 1G62 and 1653, 
purchased, with the consent of the General, from the Indian nation, about 2 leagues on the 
east bank of this river, just above old Fort Nassou, and then a second tract of 5J leagues 
along this river, with convenient kills, woods and fine land, which it would also be well to 
obtain ; but 1 can easily understand that this title is not perfectly clear, and could alone be 
considered as pretences or claims ; first, although the Company hath full authority over what 
the Swedes possess, and also sho"fFS the people that it will use it for its own advantage, 
which the General considers to be the most expedient, nevertheless, by withdrawing the letters 
of donation, the claim from without would cease, and the propriety or pretended title would 
be extinguished by a conveyance to be executed in addition to their to be surrendered deeds. 

Respecting the Dutch, the case is : In the troubles, when the Swedes came here, they were 
permitted to purchase in order to prevent the above mentioned lands being sold by the Indians 
or natives to the Swedish nation. But your Honors will be better able to understand the 
whole matter by the grant and deed, whereof I shall endeavor to obtain copies, which I will 
transmit. Meanwhile I should not be surprised were men here to get some sort of lien on the 
above mentioned pretended proprietors; that is, to advance to them, if they should desire it, 
some money or merchandise, to wit, on a league of country or thereabouts, 50, 60 or 70 
guilders at most, which, in Holland currency, is 50, GO or 70 ells of Osnaburgh black linen ; 
this is sold at 15, 16, 18, and even easily for 20 stivers, on condition that they pledge their 
deeds and patents in return, by which means some title may be obtained, and any conveyance, 
mortgage or other incumbrance thereon to the English may be prevented. What is further to 
be considered in the premises, your Honors can, in due season, hereafter determine. 

What relates to the admitting or permitting the English nation : No steps shall be taken to 
the prejudice of our own interests. 


12. The catrle piirchnsed here and distributed among the Colonists on halves: The reason 
is tiiis: None of liie Colonists wanted any of them entirely at their own risk; first, because 
winter was a[)i)roacliing, and they were unprovided with hay or forage ; secondly, because the 
laud, being wild and full of trees, the cattle easily strayed away or got lost, and might be 
killed by the Indians; thirdly, they objected and could not agree, under such insecurity or 
risk, to embarrass themselves with their share or half, especially as the cattle from Virginia 
are accustomed, for the most part, to run wild and are hard to be managed. 

Notwithstanding all this, I was obliged to buy in the cattle, for had not such been done, no 
person would ever be willing to bring an animal or anything for sale here. 

13. For the city I have considered, were these to be given on credit and people to have a 
perfect title to them, then much traffic and changing thereof would follow, to the great 
prejudice of the Company, and whenever a man comes to hang his head, becomes sick or 
unable to work, then there is not a penny to the good, and everything must be remitted, and 
in addition, women and many little children, are to be supported. 'Tis, as yet, somewhat too 
soon to send many women and a multitude of little children here; it will be more advisable 
and safer when crops are gathered and abundance prevails, and everything is cheaper; 
therefore, the people ought not to be so much trusted, and consequently less loss would accrue. 
The season now being bad, rainy and unhealthy, rye is held at 4 guilders the skepel ; but the 
usual price here is 3 gl., and I have never bought it for less. I wish 1 could get it now for 
that, which is 324 gl. the hist. 

14. The Virginia trade might be easily cultivated, were there plenty of goods here; and 
when brought a little into shape, reputation or rank, there will be private persons enough to 
lay hold of it, to whom it can be given up and left. 

As to what concerns some fugitives who came with two boats from Virginia, and were 
stranded on Cape Hinlopen, there was nothing secret in the matter, which was simply thus: 
They have been here one, two or three months, and on further inquiry, mostly left this place 
fur the Manhattans and the north, except one whom I arrested and sent back. 

15. But, meanwhile, I perceive they have an eye to land lying ou this side the Virginia 
river; it will now be included in the district between this place and Cape Hinlopen, to 
prevent which the largest number of people possible ought to be sent out, but provisions 
ought particularly be sent with them until circumstances here shall be in a somewhat better 
and more favorable condition. 

What has been granted to Mr. Alexander Hinojossa ou his Petition for some brick, shall be 
transcribed according to order. 

Jan Barents, late chief boatswain on board the Prins Maurits, now deceased : I had given 
him a certificate that he was employed here, in order that he may receive his wages on his 
departure in tlieJe Wacg, but it was not my intention that he should receive such pay on board 
the ship. In future I shall so enlarge on it as to prevent such persons receiving more than of 
right belongs to them and they have earned. He was an industrious and diligent man, who 
endeavored to act faithfully by those whom he served. 

One of the miners that came over is sick, which already discourages the other. I shall 
endeavor to cheer him up, and in time, also, supply him with what they and I desire, and may 
be consistent with the public and city's good. 

I have received the police and law books which were sent out, consisting of 2 parts, and a 
duplicate of each; they will be a great convenience to us and we shall make use of them; 


but [not] the by-laws of the city, at the end of which the customs of Antwerp are annexed 
and printed, whereof mention was frequently made in the despatch. 

16. Of the account: I greatly wish that the Commissary had more experience and time. 
He has some excuse from his illness, which lasted full ^ during that period he lay flat and was 
often very low. This has caused much more work to accumulate, besides the impossibility 
he is under of attending to everything. 'Tis very easy to require from one, alone, what 
would supply five with plenty of work. 1 have repeatedly written for a clerk or book-keeper ; 
Item, for a secretary and schout, without any result ; not a word have 1 received in answer. I 
employ some now, provisionally, but without wages ; not much is asked, therefore please 
to provide particularly what is required. There are about 600 souls here now; among these 
are many rough people who furnish plenty of work; scarcely an hour passes without having 
talk or trouble with one or the other of them; add to this, so much to be done, to be thought 
of and arranged, or to be written, that but little time remains for me to do the work of another 
person; yet that now in his sickness even consumes time, and, meanwhile, work increases 
and accumulates for him, which please also to consider and to make further disposition therein. 
There is no baker here, so that all the bread to be delivered to the Colonie comes mostly to 
the store; and there is but a small supply of grain and ilour, and a poor place to store it. 
I, therefore, allow another frame house to be built, 30 feet wide and 36 feet long ; the first story 
10 feet, the 2"^ of 7 feet, with a roof which requires some thousand tiles. Besides this, many 
erected houses, the store or dwellings for the Commissary, guard-house, barracks, bakehouse, 
etc., and § of my own dwelling are not yet tiled, which I have anxiously desired and 
endeavored to accomplish. Plenty of brick and lime, much iron work, iron and coals ought 
to be sent out. 

Doetie Jacobs, daughter of Geertruyt Braems, whom the skipper is authorized to take 
over with him, is, according to such authority, at the orders of said skipper. But I shall 
hardly be paid by Jeuriaen Symens, who brought her over, for the passage money and the 
years provisions, &c., delivered from the store; he is frequently sick and unable to work; 
thus people become impoverished fast. Therefore, send only, for the most part, men or 
servants, or young, growing, strong people. When these die, we do not inherit heavy 
burthens and maintenance with a small estate. 

William van Rasenberg, who came over as Surgeon, puts forth sundry claims against people 
whom he attended on the passage, inasmuch as his wages did not run at the time and on the 
voyage, and he used his own provisions. There were on board the ship considerable 
sickness, accidents, and hardship in consequence of a tedious voyage. One hundred souls 
required at least a hogshead or two of French wine and one of brandy, and a tub of prunes 
had also to be furnished for refreshment and comfort to those sick of scurvy and suffering from 
other troubles, through the protracted voyage ; for, from want thereof, the people became so 
low that death followed, which is a pretty serious matter. Here, on shore, I see clearly that 
the poor, weak, sick, or indigent, sometimes have need necessarily of this and that to support 
them, which one cannot easily, or will not, refuse; though it be sometimes but a spoonful, 
frequently repeated, it amounts to more ihan is supposed. The barber also speaks of a house 
which Master Jan occupied being too small for him ; he hath a wife, servant and child or 
children also. If he hire, as he says, at the expense of the city, he shall be obliged to show 
a paper to that effect. People's words, or what they verbally produce for their own profit, 
cannot be accepted. 


Francis Gunde owes 22 gl. to Styntie Jacobs in the Princenhoff, or to the wife of the mao 
servant in the Princenhoff. It will be entered and charged to his account. 

I might enlarge this further, but time does not permit, and the sloop is ready to sail for the 

Manhattans. I must, therefore, abreviate, wherewith concluding, I shall pray God, 

Honorable, Worshipful, Wise and Right Prudent Gentlemen, 

to bless your administration, and also to preserve you all in continual prosperity and health; 


(Signed), J. Alriciis. 

On one side was : 

In New Amstel, 10"> October, A" 165S. 

Beneath was : 

Having written this in haste, and not having any time to read it over once, please 
excuse all imperfections and omissions. 

Me-solittion of the Common Council of the City of Amsterdam. 

[ From the ResoUiiien van do Vroedschappen, B., p. 55, ia tho Stad Huys^ Amsterdam. ] 

lO"- October, 1G5S. 
Holland Documents, The Burgomasters have submitted to the Council, and shown by account, that 
To conBider how t'l^ returns brought hither from the South river of New Netherland, have not 
la'nd'ccrion'io cim produced so much as would meet the expenses incurred, but have fallen short 

Ijc advanced at lees , . , it, . .. i, j ^^ •• 

expense. about 7,000 guilders. And upon deliberation, it is agreed that the Gommissionera 

of the New Netherland Colonic shall borrow a like sum of 7,000 gl. from the Orphan 
Chamber, at interest, to defray with it the remaining expenses; and 'tis, moreover, resolved 
to request and commission Mess" Cornelis de GraefF, Baron of South Polsbroeck,' Nicolaes 
van Loon,- and Cornelis Geelvinck.^ to consider in what manner the aforesaid Colonie can be 
advanced at less cost than heretofore, and report thereon to the Council. 

' C0KNKI.IS HE GiUAF was tho son of Jacob de Graaf, who filled the office of Burgomaster of Amsterdam from 162S to 
1637. Cornelis became Burgomaster in 1C43 and filled that office, worthily, nine times, to the year 1601. He was employed 
in divers public services, which prove the great confidence the State of Holland reposed in him. Kok's Vaderlandsch 
Woordcnboek, XVIH., 551. 

' Nicolas tan Loon belonged to a family originally from Brabant, whioli fled to Holland to escape religious persecution, 
and took up its abode in Amsterdam. He was the oldest son of Hans van Loon and Anna Ruyehaver, and was born on the 
14tli June, 1G02; filled the offices of Councillor and Schepen of Amsterdam from 1653 to 1064, and died on the 29th Decem- 
ber, 1075, in tho 73d year of his age. Ibid, XXIX., 141. 

' Cornelis Geelvi.nok belonged to an ancient and respectable family of Amsterdam which supplied that city with 
many eminent magistrates. He was Commissary in 1C46, Councillor iu 1052, Schepen iu 1057, and Burgomaster in 1C73. 
Ibid. — Ed. 


Resolution of the Common Council of tlie City of Amsterdam. 

[From the JleaaluUen van de Vroedsdiappen, B., p. 72, in the Stud JTii],t, Amsterdam.] 

20"- December, 1658. 
Holland Documents, TliB Committee appointed by resolution of the Common Council on the IQ"" 
Conditions fnr the °^ OctobeT last to Consider in what manner the New Netherland Colonie can be 
coinnie^Bomewha't improvcd at a less expense than heretofore, and to submit their opinion thereupon 
modifled. ^^j jj^g Council, having, agreeably to said commission, examined and considered 

the Conditions which were offered on behalf of this city to all those who will proceed to New 
Netherland as Colonists, and heard the suggestions of the Commissioners and Directors of the 
aforesaid Colonie thereon, have reported as their opinion that the following alterations ought 
to be made in the aforesaid Conditions : 

First: That the ninth article, imposing entirely too great a burthen on the city, ought to be 
expunged and so communicated to the Director of the above named Colonie in New Netherland 
with orders that he shall have to distribute the provisions remaining in store there only to 
those who have removed thither heretofore, which being done, he will have to dispose of what 
is found on hand in said store to the best possible advantage. 

That the exemption from tenths, mentioned in the 22^ article, ought generally to expire 
with the year 1G78, without making any difference between those to whom the lands were 
granted, early or late, with an exception, however, in regard of such as shall have brought 
their lands under cultivation before the year 165S, in whose favor the aforesaid privilege 
should not continue longer than XX. years, and consequently expire so much sooner than the 
year 1678, as they shall have cleared their lands before the year 1658. Also, that the exemption 
from poundage, horn and salt money, ought, regarding all indiscriminately, not to continue 
any longer than the year 1068, when such taxes shall be then imposed by the Director, 
according as the inclosed lands are situated near or at a distance. 

That the 23'' article ought to be erased, and in lieu thereof it ought to be enacted, that the 
Colonists shall be obliged to address and consign to this city or its Commissioners all the 
merchandise which they will send thence, in order to be disposed of and converted into cash to 
the best advantage of the owners, as is granted. 

That in place of the 25"" article, it ought to be conditioned that the goods which the city 
may have in its store there, siiall be delivered to the Colonists requiring them for cash, or 
its equivalent, calculated at as low a price as will be reasonable, without the city being 
obliged to keep the store continually stocked. 

And, finally, that further arrangement ought to be made with the West India Company 
respecting the regulation mentioned in the 33'* article, to the end that it may be modified in 
favor of the city. 

Which, being considered, the Council agreed to the report of the committee, and accordingly 
resolve and conclude, that the above enumerated changes shall be made, yet in such a manner 
that what has been promised to those who have already proceeded to New Netherland shall be 
performed ; and the gentlemen of the committee are thanked for their trouble. 

Vol. H. 8 


Directors of the West India Company to the Director and Council of Neiv Ketherland. 

Extract from the general letter of the Managers of the West India Company, 
Chamber at Amsterdam, to their Director-General and Council in New 
Netherland, dated [IS"" February, 1G39.'] 

. ,„ The request your Honors present in favor of the written Remonstrance for 

Holland DocumeuU. 1 •' ' 

xvi.,213. ji^g grant of a larger liberty to the inhabitants there to trade to foreign parts, 

we have, upon examination, found to be of importance and especially for the benefit of the 
aforesaid inhabitants, but of no small consideration for the Company, inasmuch as hereby 
a larger door appears to be opened to defraud it, and to deprive it especially of its revenues 
here ; yet it being by us considered that this is a means to encourage every one in the 
cultivation of the soil, and that the prosperity and advancement of this State depends mainly 
on the promotion and furtherance thereof, we have, at length, after long deliberation, 
resolved tiiat the trial thereof, which is to be made by your Honors on our ratification, shall, 
provisionally, take its course, under express conditions that the ships which shall sail thence 
to France, Spain, Italy, the Caribbee islands, and other parts, to dispose of and sell their 
freighted produce, salted fish, wares and merchandise, shall be obliged and bound to return 
direct either here before this city of Amsterdam or back to New Netherland to the place of 
your Honors' abode, in order to pay to your Honors, on the discharge and sale thereof, such 
duties as the Company here derives from them; who, also, for especial reasons, hath resolved 
that no beavers, otters or other peltry shall be exported except in the ships which are coming 
llience directly here. What further appertains to the duties to be laid on the exportation of 
agricultural products, timber, salted or dried fish, and whatever else is to be prepared and 
invented there by industry, we will much rather refer to your Honors, as some mistakes may 
be committed through ignorance in this matter ; and here we do not know what your English 
neighbors have enacted on their side hereupon, whom it were, in some degree, well to follow. 
Your Honors are, therefore, authorized to inform yourselves thereof, and after communicating 
with the magistracy there, provisionally to impose such moderate duties as shall be found 

Memo n.s-t ranee re-sped lug the Colonie on the Ddairare Hive/: 

I From the Buudle indoraej Vorsoheide StukUn ruekmile de Cotoiiw nan X. A'rderlandt, No. 57, in the Stad /Tuiji, Amstcnlam. ] 

Remonstrance presented on the to the Right Worshipful the 

Burgomasters and Regents of the city of Amsterdam. 

HoUau.i nooumonis, The Commissiouers and D i rectors appointed and intrusted viith the management 
of your Worships' Colonie in New Netherland, having seen the modification and 

Tins date is 8U[)plieJ from the original letter in A'ew-York Colonial Manuscripts, in the office of the Secretary of St^itc, 
Albany, NowYork Ed, 


alteration your Worships have been pleased to make in the public conditions offered to al! who 
might go to the said Colonie in New Netherland. have remarked therein still something 
which, under correction, they think ought to be changed ; and namely : 

In the 23"* and 24"" articles, 
which, by this change, remain the 22'* and 23* articles, whereby the Colonists and other 
freemen without distinction, are bound to address and consign to this city all products and 
merchandise that they will send thence, to be by its Commissioners disposed of and converted 
into cash for the best advantage of the owners, and the proceeds thereof remitted back in such 
goods as the owners shall order, etc. 

This has the appearance of great slavery and restriction, very offensive to the people, and 
therefore we have been willing respectfully to submit to your Worships whether, for the 
advancement of population and agriculture a distinction ought not to be made, and the rule 
be applied alone to those who are found in debt to the city, in order, when such debts are 
discharged either by the consignment of their property here, or to the Director in that country, 
they may be at liberty to send and consign their agricultural products, salted and dried fish, 
together with whatever is to be obtained there by industry, to such persons as they please, 
not only here in this city but also to other countries, such as Spain, Italy, the Caribbee 
islands, etc., and such principally, because we understand that the West India Company are 
resolved to grant the like provisionally to their inhabitants in New Netherland (under such 
conditions as may be seen in the preceding extract), such freedom and liberty being considered 
the only means to encourage the people to the cultivation of the soil and to make them more 
industrious, whereby the lands may be necessarily improved ; by this means also will the city 
obtain much honor in the payment of its disbursements, because every one will strive, by the 
discharge of his debt, to arrive at that freedom and liberty, whereas, on the contrary, by 
refusing it, all will eventually leave that place for the Manhattans in the Company's district. 

In the SO"" article, 

which is now the 29"', enumerating the benefits to be enjoyed by those who discover minerals, 
crystals, precious stones, etc. In case this article must be understood according to the letter 
and as it reads, viz'., that one-lO'*' part of such discovered minerals must be paid to the 
Company, we are of opinion that it had better be wholly omitted here, when it can be again 
inserted in the general conditions having relation to this particular. In which place your 
Worships may then insert such tanlum for this city, in addition to what the discoverers must 
pay to the Company, as you will think proper. 

Resolution of the Common Council of the City of Amsterdam. 

[From the ReiotutUn van de Vroedschappen-f B. p. 91, in the Stad JZuyt^ Amsterdam. ] 

lO"- March, 1059. 

Holland Documents ^" ^''^^ Reiiionstrance of the Directors of the city's Colonie in New Netherland, 
xv.,iir. recorded in Muniment Register B., fol. 26, respecting the encouragement of 


„, . „ , said Colonie, submitted by Mess", the Burgomasters, to the CoudcII, it is 
?ri?n,f ma7rxp'.« Tesolvcd and concluded that article , concerning the bringing over all the 

ib.:ir warvs ij. products of Said Colonie to this city, shall be amplified in manner as follows : 

That the Colonists who will have paid the city their board and passage money, and 
dischar"ed their other debts, shall be at liberty to bring into such harbors and kingdoms as they 
consider shall be for their greatest advantage, their wares, products or merchandise raised in 
the Colonie, except beavers and other peltries; also, all other wares and goods, under 
whatever name, which shall be destined for Netherland, the east or the north, and they shall 
he bound to bring them to this city, to pay the public and the Company's duty thereon, and 
generally to conduct themselves precisely agreeably to the regulation granted by the Company 
to the inhabitants of New Netherland. 

Accordingly, authorizing the aforesaid Directors to alter the articles conflicting herewith, 
and to arrange them conformably to what precedes, 

It is, moreover, also resolved and concluded that the article respecting the discoverers of 
minerals, marbles, precious stones, etc., shall be wholly erased and expunged, and said 
Directors are likewise authorized to agree with said discoverers for the best advantage of 
the city. - 

Commissioners of the Coloriie on the Delaware River to Vice-Director Alrichs, 

[ From Iho Bundle InJorsed Verschsida Stttkken raekende de Coloni4 '^an N. Xtdtrlandt, No. 34, in Ihe Stad Buys, Amsterdam. ] 

Honorable, &c. 

iioiianci In OUT last, dated the 13"" February, lG-59, dispatched by the private trader 
5VI., 80. ^g Trou, proceeding to the Manhatans, duplicate whereof is inclosed, we have 

advised you of the cause of our neglecting to answer divers letters and papers received 
by the ship it Sonne; and though they are now taken up, yet the sudden and altogether 
unexpected departure of this vessel hath allowed us no time to do so as requisite and point 
by point. We, therefore, have undertaken to answer the aforesaid letters only generally, and 
in some of their principal points, without confining ourselves to any order, as you will be 
able to perceive from what follows: 

It afforded us pleasure to learn the good disposition evinced by the Governor of Virginia to 
encourage and establish trade between both nations, and consequently cannot do otherwise 
than recommend the promotion thereof, particularly, to you. But as that Governor is not 
absolute master, but dependent on the Lord Protector and his government here in Europe, 
you must proceed in the matter with such circumspection and prudence, that you there will 
avoid any embarrassment, and, consequently, this city, any loss frnd damage. 

It is not strange that the provisions in the store there are scanty since scarcely any went 
over, for in truth it had much to bear seeing that agriculture is progressing so slowly, not so 
much, we believe, on account of the building of houses and the general sickness which hath 
prevailed there, as from the absence of all regularity in the cultivation of the lands, or from the 
people not having been constrained thereunto. This might well have come to pass, the rather 
as some of them were giving out that they would not put their hand to anything during the 


Blessed year, as they called the year when they were provisioned, but resort to the store. 
Such persons should really have been forced to work, by close-fistedness ; for though the 
previously offered Conditions are herein couched in general terms and unconditionally, yet 
living experience ought to have taught you what this state of things required, and, consequently, 
you ought not to have allowed the good intention of this city to have been abused in this 
wise. In order, then, to prevent the recurrence thereof hereafter, the city hath resolved to 
expunge the whole of the 9"> article from the said Conditions, and, furthermore, to make such 
alterations therein as you will be able to learn from the copies annexed. Every person, 
instead, is now permitted, for the discharge of his indebtedness to this city, and for the greater 
encouragement of agriculture, to send his crops, etc., to such countries and parts as he will 
think proper. As to the provisions and clothing which may be found remaining in the store, 
on the annulling of the previous order, you are recommended to dispose of all them for the 
greatest advantage of the city, so and in such manner as shall be found expedient. 

We are much pleased to learn the improvement of the church and congregation and 
approve the purchase of the house in which service was performed, but not the assessment 
and deduction prescribed there for all real estate {vaste goederen), inasmuch as we have 
resolved that, agreeably to the practice in this country, the 40"" penny shall be deducted 
from all voluntary sales of real estate, and the SO"" from those by execution, -and therefore 
only i per cent, and no more, for the Secretary, besides his fees for writing and dispatch. 
This, we understand, is also the practice in the government of the Manhattans. As to what 
further relates to the invention of such burthens on the commonalty, you are ordered and 
instructed, in future, not to resort to such proceeding without our knowledge, unless the most 
imperative and extreme necessity in this regard cannot admit of any delay. 

The bold undertaking of the Swedish Parson to preach in the Colonic there without 
permission, does not greatly please us. And as we will assuredly, that, as yet, no other 
religion but the Reformed can nor may be tolerated there, so you must, by proper means, put 
an end to or prevent such presumption on the part of other sectaries. 

The required materials of tiles, brick, lime, coals and iron work, together with the powder 
and the little bell necessary for the church there ; also, the brewer's kettle for Hendrick Kip, 
will be sent you by the first opportunity ; and as the freight and other charges amount to 
considerable, whatever of such wares may be sold there, must, henceforth, be sold at an 
advance of 50 per cent, which must also be the case with the clothing. And this not only 
to the soldiers, as we had indicated to you in ours of the 7"' of December, 1657, but also to 
the freemen, as we find that we otherwise shall sufler loss, as you correctly apprehended. 

The timber received in the de Vergulde Sonne, like that previously sent, is found to be so 
indififerent that half the ship's freight could not be realized from it at public sale. The 
net return from it amounted to only fl. 1,678.9.8. Therefore, that so much should be due 
the city by the shippers, who, we dare say, have suffered loss already hereby, we shall not 
argue, but, meanwhile, it all falls on |this city, which, truly, is not thereby encouraged. 
Therefore, you are hereby again admonished and ordered, in case there be no heavier oak or 
hickory to be had there, to suspend sending any in future, unless the ships chartered by the 
city must otherwise leave that place or the Manhattans without a cargo ; you have, then, to 
regulate yourself accordingly. 

We approve of the purchase of the lots and plantations ; also, of preparing and building 
a store, barracks for the soldiers, bakery, guard-house, watch-house for the burgher corps, etc. 


But as the expenses incurred by such buildings and public works must be met by the city, so, 
indeed, circumspection ought to be used herein and economy studied as much as possible ; for 
it is yet too premature to attend to the ornamenting of such and other public works, and to 
neglect what is most essential, such as the pushing forward the cultivation of the soil, which 
is the principal, yea, the sole object wherefore this city hath established tiiis Colonic. This, 
then, certainly ought to have the first place, in order to confirm and improve the good opinion 
this city entertained thereof when it, too imperceptibly, suffered such general charges and 
expenses. Such, then, ought to be introduced and practised. We, on our side, will not fail, 
henceforth, to direct our attention, as far as possible, to the sending thither of a larger number 
of Boors conversant with agriculture. 

On examining the draft sent over of a deed of lots which have been conceded yonder, we 
find omitted the bond whereby the grantees of such lots oblige themselves to build on it 
within {;,. We have, therefore, resolved that the aforesaid dral't shall be amplified by the 
following clause, namely : That he, to wit, the grantee of such lot, or his assigns, are bound 
and held to build, or cause buildings to be erected, on the lot or lots within 6 months from 
this time, assuredly to make a beginning thereof, on pain of forfeiting the aforesaid lot or lots, 
and paying, in addition, a fine of 25 guilders, together with becoming subject to all such public 
charges and duties as are already or may hereafter be imposed. With this amplification, we 
thus approve of that draft, as we also approve of the method you use in the issuing of 
provisions and other articles to the soldiers and Colonists, debiting them therefor in their 
accounts at the same price as they sell at the Manhattans. This plan must be followed and 
observed under similar circumstances, in order to keep pace, as far as possible, with that place. 

We readily believe that tliere are still many inhabitants there who earnestly solicit the 
privilege of having some cattle, on the previous plan and condition of half the increase. As 
we fear, by that arrangement, such contractors will shear the sheep, and this city the hogs, you 
ought to have truly and fully mentioned what reasons induced you to contravene our orders in 
this matter, as stated in ours of the T^ June, 1658; then, possibly, we should have been 
better pleased and more satisfied. We must now wait patiently for these reasons as well as for 
the conditions on which those cattle are given out on half the increase ; namely, how long and 
until what time are the young calves left with the mother, and when are they delivered to the 
city, and what further conditions are added. Otherwise, we cannot judge of this matter, and 
consequently cannot yet fully comprehend the proposal you have submitted, although we have 
had it under consideration. 

We have all been pleased with the formula of the oath taken by those persons who arrive 
yonder, and with the placards and the publication of a day of Thanksgiving, and accordingly 
hereby approve thereof. We, in like manner, on the foregoing conditions, approve of the 
granting of some land situate near Christina kil to Jan Paul Jacquet, in lieu of certain 41 
morgens which he then surrendered to the city. 

We do not consider strange, but deem important, the reasons submitted by yoii in favor of 
the appeal lying to the Director and Council there, from judgments pronounced between fl. 100 
and fl.GOO, and, therefore, those only exceeding fl.GOO, may be taken in appeal before the 
Director and Council of New Netherland. We shall accordingly forego our speculations on 
this subject, in order to see by what means it could be more fitly and certainly obtained and 
elaborated here. In like manner, we judge it proper that Schepens there shall not be at liberty 
to grant any execution unknown to the Director, for this reason — in order to be able to 


consider beforehand, and, above all things, to preserve the interest of this city; this practice 
must therefore be observed. 

We have been particularly pleased to learn that everything is going on peaceably and 
harmoniously there, and that there is great appearance of the Colonic flourishing more 
and more in future. That such may continue, we must continually consider by what means 
its prosperity is to be promoted, and the consequent advantage of this city discovered, which 
will not then fail in its duty, being even at present already busy in devising means whereby 
cargoes might be sent thither, and consequently trade and commerce attracted. I shall advise 
you in due season of the result thereof. 

We have sold, at a reasonable price, the 20 tubs of tobacco sent hither on account of one 
Captain Thomas Stegge ; they have rendered net the sum of fl. . . . , as is to be seen 
by the account annexed. In case a like number of tubs had been sent, as we were 
advised, we should have proceeded here with the purchase of the required Dogger and its 
appurtenances, and, without doubt, sent them on herewith. We shall still expect the remainder 
of the tobacco, unless said Captain Stegge had changed his mind, and accordingly advised us 
to the contrary, when we shall expend the said received moneys here, or else remit them in 
such manner as he shall direct. 

We will not question that the order and method adopted by you in regard to the issuing of 
the rations, both to the soldiers and Colonists, have given much trouble ; but as those to the 
Colonists, which are the principal, have now ceased, we cannot think that Commissaries, unless 
a clerk or book-keeper, are required there, so that we shall look for, by the first opportunity 
thence, not only the copy of monthly wages and Colonists' books, with the rolls of judgments 
and resolutions which have been passed during your time, but also and especially a pertinent 
statement and account of your administration in that country. Herein, particularly, there 
must not be any neglect or evasion, as it would avail nothing with us, and consequently would 
not be favorably interpreted or explained. We will hope that you will endeavor to prevent it. 

Thus much briefly and as far as time hath permitted, in answer to your private and general 
letter received. Since then, and now recently, we have indirectly heard that there is a great 
probability of minerals being discovered in New Netherland, and even some copper ore which 
has come from thence, has also been shown to us. In order, then, to inquire further about it, 
we have examined Claes de Ruyter, an old and experienced inhabitant of that country, from 
whom we have learned thus much, that the reported copper mine does not lie on the South 
river, but that a crystal mountain was situate between that Colonie and the Manhattans, 
whereof he himself had brought divers pieces and specimens; furthermore, that the acknowledged 
gold mine was apparently there, for he, having kept house some time with the Indians living 
high up the river and about Bachom's country, had understood from them that quicksilver was 
to be found there. Of the truth of this matter we can say nothing, but this is generally believed 
for a certainty, that minerals are to be had there. You are therefore hereby recommended to 
inquire precisely into the matter there, and, if possible, to employ for that purpose the aforesaid 
de Ruyter, who is returning to New Netherland, in order that you may be able to ascertain the 
truth of the report. In such case, you are not to neglect sending us specimens both of the one 
and of the other, to be tested here, which we shall then, at the proper time, anxiously expect. 

The reason that the SO* article, relating to the discoverers of such minerals, is now omitted 
in the accompanying copies and conditions is, because there is a contract between this ciiy and 
the company, whereby the latter alone is benefited, so that the city must enter into a further 
contract with such discoverers of minerals in their district there, namely, to pay, over and above 


tlie 10 per cent, to the company, at least one 20''' part of the net proceeds thereof to the city, 
or as much more as shall be agreed on for its advantage. We have judged it necessary to 
preadvise you hereof in this letter, to the end that it may be henceforward put in force when 
occasion present. 

You will learn from the accompanying list what families or free people are going over at 
present, whom we have consented, at their request, to send out in advance by one of these 
ships named dt Bever, which is going to New Amsterdam, as their circumstances did not 
permit them to wait any longer. 

Herewith . . . 

Honorable, Honest, Dear, Trusty, &c. 
Dated Amsterdam, 
the 22"'' April, 1G59. 

Vice-Director Alrichs to Gomrnor Fendall, of Maryland. 

[ From Iho Bundle InJorsed rersdie)i.U Stuhken raektnde dt Colonie van y. Kederlandt, No. 50, in tho Stad Buy), Amsterdam. ] 

Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Right Prudent Sir! 

Holland Documents, Having Understood here that some delinquents and fugitives from this place 
XVI., 1-5. g|.g harbored and skulking within your jurisdiction, domain or district, we have 

therefore resolved by this, our letter, to make declaration and give notice who those persons 
are, and how named, to wit: Hans Roeloflf, of Stockholm, Andries Thomasen, of Jutland 
in Denmark, Cornells Jurriaensen, of Winseren in Sweden, Jacob Jansen, of Antwerp, 
Jan Hinger, of Utrecht, and Evert Brants, of Amersfort, all soldiers, who have enlisted in such 
service for a consideral>le time. Some of them have deserted from here without a pass, in 
consequence of bad conduct, others through rebellion and wicked disobedience. And, being 
informed that they are skulking within your Honor's jurisdiction, we were unwilling to neglect 
to greet your Honor herewith by the bearer of this letter, and also respectfully to request, for 
the maintenance of justice, that those persons, as well as all such who, to get rid of the 
payment of their debts, have absconded from hence, whom we shall, from time to time, make 
further known, may, at our expense, be sent back, as we have heretofore done by the Governor 
of Virginia, on his Excellency's request, who hath also promised to reciprocate; for which 
reason we trust that equity and the policy proper to maintain neighborly friendship, have a 
place in your Honor's breast, and that your Honor will condescend to grant us this request. 
We further ask, in order to prevent such desertion, that henceforth none of our nation may be 
permitted to come from this place within your Honor's jurisdiction, except such as can exhibit 
a passport or free leave under our hand; on this, our 8i)ecial friendship and the service of this 
State depend, and we shall reciprocate in like manner, and even much farther; desiring your 
Honor will plense to allow us to receive a note in answer to this. Awaiting which, we remain, 
after suitable compliments and commendation unto God's protection. 

Your obedient neighbor and servant, 
On one side was: "Agrees." 

(Signed), Cornelis van Gesel, Secretary. 

In the margin stood : 

New Amstel, the 25'" June, 1659. 


Edimate of Expetises attendant on sending 1 00 Colonists to the Delaware. 

[ From the Bundle indorsed Vefscheide Stul-^en raekends de Colonie van 2^. Ktderltnidt, No. 52, in the Stad But/s, Amsterdam. ] 

Anno 1G59: this 27"" June, in Amsterdam. 
Holland Documents Estimate of tliB Gxpcnse of transporting and conveying, in a chartered ship, 100 
^^^•'*^' souls, Colonists and others, tradespeople to this city's Colonie in New 

Netherland, with what, besides, ought now be sent, to wit: 

Provisions or board for 100 persons in the voyage to the Colonie, pursuant to the S"* article 
of the conditions whereby the city offers to pay the passage money by way of advance, 

calculated for the space of ^j at G stivers a day, fl. 2,700 . 00 

Goods to trade for cattle, which are most necessary, as without them tiie 

cultivation of the land cannot be promoted, the sum of, 1,500.00 

Clothing and goods for the store, etc., which, at least, must be furnished to 

the soldiers on account of their monthly wages, at an advance of 50 per cent 

for this city, according to the Company's custom, the sum of, 1,800.00 

Materials, ammunition, and other small matters necessary for the construction 

of public and other buildings, and for the defence of the inhabitants, the 

sum of, 2,500 . 00 

Freight of a ship for conveying the people and necessaries for ^ certain @. 

fl. 900 per month, 5,400 . 00 

fl. 13,900.00 

Note. — Against this last item must be charged the freight which the aforesaid ship would 
earn by bringing private merchandise from New Netherland here. 

And were no ship specially chartered for the purpose, and could the people and necessaries 
be conveyed over in a private ship, the expense would be as follows: 

Food and passage money of 100 head at 30 guilders each, fl. 3,000.00 

Goods to be exchanged for cattle, as above, 1,500.00 

Clothing and articles for the store, etc., as above, 1,800.00 

Materials and ammunition, as above, 2,500.00 

Freight for conveying the aforesaid goods over, 1,200.00 

fl. 10,000.00 

Anno 1659: Ady 27'^ June, in Amsterdam. 

List of Goods to be bartered for Cattle required to promote the cultivation of 
the soil. 

200 pieces of white Flemish linen, measuring, in all, 800 ells, at 10 stivers,.. fl. 400.00 

12 pieces of white and black narrow linen, measuring about 1,100 ells, at 

about 5 J stivers, 300.00 

Amount carried forward, fl. 700.00 

Vol. II. 9 


Amount brought forward, A- 700.00 

24 ankers of Annis water, and 7 ankers of bitters { Bo ist water), amounting, 

togetlier with cooperage, to 350 . 00 

175 pairs of shoes @, 30 stivers, 262.10 

]25 pairs of men's hats @, 30 stivers, 1S7 10 

fl. 1,500.00 

List of clothing and articles required for the store there to be furnished to the 
soldiers and others at 50 per cent advance. 

250 pairs of farmers' cowhide shoes, including some women 

and children's shoes, @, 32 stivers, 400.00 

110 pairs of men and women's stockings, (a. 12 " 60.00 

165 pairs of children's hose, @. 10 " 32.10 

100 pairs of men and women's shirts, (2^36 " ISO. 00 

250 ells of Flemish linen for children's shirts, &c., (IL 10 " 125.00 

24 hats, Ca. 3 florins, 72.00 

20 boys' hats, (a, 2i " 50.00 

4S English caps, (a, 30 stivers, 72.00 

4S red caps, (a, 7 " 16.16 

140 ells of coarse colored cloth, (a. 50 " 350.00 

260 ells of rus: cloth, (a. 6 " 7S.00 

130 ells of green and red duffels for women and children's 

petticoats and jackets, (2,20 " 130.00 

90 ells of baize, of divers colors, to be sent with the rest, .. (2. 1 guilder, 90.00 
Silk, black and colored thread, buttons, hooks and eyes, 

cords and other small articles, together, for, 137.14 

fl. l.SOO.OO 

Anno 1659 : Ady 27"" June, in Amsterdam. 

List of some iron work, materials and ammunition which are most particularly 
required in the Colonie of this city. 

150 pairs of hinges, of all sorts, @. 8 stivers, fl. 60.00 

25 door and chamber locks, (iL 3G " 45.00 

50 large locks, with bolts, (a, IS " 45.00 

50 smaller " " @. 15 " 37.10 

100 bolts with staples, assorted, (Jk ii " 12.10 

12 large crosscut-saws, longest size, (a. 5 guilders, 60.00 

Carpenters' tools, assorted, 80.00 

100 good picks, @. 22 stivers, 110.00 

50 iron pots and kettles, @. 3 guilders, 150.00 

6,000 lbs. iron, flat and square, (2. 9 " 540.00 

Amount carried forward, fl. 1,140.00 


Amount brought forward, fl- 1,140.00 

300 lbs. steel, 5 st. the lb., 75.00 

12,000 tiles, or somewhat more, according to circumstances,.. @. IS guilders, 215.00 

100,000 hard brick, @, 4 " 400.00 

20 hogsheads of lime, @- H " 65.00 

1,000 lbs. powder, (a, 43 " 430.00 

10 chaldron of smiths' coals, 174.00 

fl. 2,500.00 

Governor Fendull to Vice-Director Alriclis. 

■ [ From Iho Bundle indorsed Tersckeide Stukkm Taekende de Colonie ran y. Nedtrlandt, No. 8S, in tho Stad ITuys, Amsterdam. 1 

„, ^„ . I receaved a letter from you, directed to mee, as the Lord Baltemores 

Hnlland Documents, .^ 

xvi.,99. Leiftenandt of the Province off Maryland wehere in you seeme to suppose yo' 

selfe to bee Governo"' off a poeple seated in a part off Delaware Day, w'"'', I am very well 
informed lyeth to the soveth ward off the degree ffourty Aand therefore, can by noe meanes 
owne or acknowledge any for Gouern'' there, but myselfe who am by his Lordschip oppointed 
Leiutenandt of his whole Province leying between tlie degreas of thirty eight & ffourty. But 
doe by these requyre & command you presently to depart forth of they his Lordships Province 
or otherwise desyre you to hould me excused, iff I use my uttmost endeauour to reduce that 
part off his Lordships Province unto itts due obedience under him. 

(Signed), Josias Fendald^ 
The address was: 

To the Honorable Jacob Alricke, at Delaware, these presen febury,^ Q; D : G :^ 

' Josias Fend.all. — When Governor Stohe endeavored, on bebalf of Lord Baltimore, to repossess liimself, in 165.5, of the 
government from wliich he bad been deposed l>y Croinwell's commissioners, he auUiorized Captain Josias Fendnll to seize 
the public stores at Patuxent^ A battle was fought on the 29lh March, of that j-ear, belween the opposite parties, in which 
Fendall was taken prisoner. Having extricated himself from the liands of his enemies, hia restless spirit would not allow 
him to remain quiet. He raised another insurrection, and the proprietary, supposing that his zeal arose from principle and 
ntt;ioliment to his Lordship, and not from self interest, appoint'd him Gov<-rnor, by conimiiision dated KJlh July, 1656. In 
1657 Governor Fendull visited England and returned to Maryland in Februnry, 165S; but, in March, 1659 (O. S ), he 
turned against his patron, becuine a party to a scheme for abolishing Lord Baltimore's dominion over the Province 
and accepted a commission from the General Assembly. He was superseded in Deceinber, 1660, and, in Februnry 
following, tried and found guilty of rebellion, sentenced to be banished and his estate was ordered to be confiscated. 
On his humble petition to the Governor and Coun';il, he was pardoned, on paying a moderate fine. He was. 
however, declared incapable, in future, of holding any civil office or of voting at an election for Burgess, and required to 
give security for his good behavior. Thus was he reserved to disturb the public peace twenty years after, by other intrigues 
ond treachery. The_fiction of the Popish plot, that has stained the annals of England with so foul a die, extended its baneful 
influence even to Maryland, and was, by other politieians, made the corner stone of similar projects. Fendall now abused 
the lenity which had been shown him in 16fll, to excite new commotions in July, 1081, having had, it seems, no other 
object in view than a scramble for property and power, amid the convulsions that might ensue. He was, in consequence, 
again arrested and tried in November, of the same year, for seditious practices, and, after a very fair trial, in which he 
excepted against all the Roman Catholics as jurors, he Was fined forty Ihous.and jiounds of tobaeeo, impiisoncd until the 
same was paid and banished the Province forever. His trial is given at length in the "Maryland Papers," State paper 
office, London. Chnlmen,' Political Annah, 224, 226, 237, 368. 377; Bozmau's UiUory of Maryland, IL, 558, 6S9. — Ed. 

'This word was intended, perhaps, for — pr. C. tJly. 

' The above letter was written 3d August, 163d, O. S. 1 Nea-York Historical CoUections, III., 369. 


Vice-Director Alrichs to Burgomaster de Graaff. 

[ From Ihe Bundle iodoHcd VerxAeide Stiikten raekend» (te Colmiie van JV'. XaUrlnmlt, No. 55, In the Stad Hiiyf, Amsterdam. ] 

Honorable and Right Worshipful Sir. 


jM'sn.1 Documents Mess", the Burgom.isters and Hegents of the city of Amsterdam, having resolved 
xvi, lac. jji^j concluded lo plant aCoIonie in New Netherland on the South river, and having 

appointed Comniist^ioners and Directors in your city for the advancement thereof, in order that 
everything requisite should be regulated in the most suitable manner, the ship the Prins 
Mavrifs was accordingly first dispatciied with about 35 Colonists as free handicraftsmen, 
among whom were some few workmen and some future servantmen, but the major part were 
tradespeople, who did not learn their trade very well and ran away from their masters too 
early in consequence of their own viciousness. There were, also, 47 soldiers and 10 civil 
servants, with 76 women, children and maid servants. 

Some others followed in de JVueg, de Sonne and de Mculcn, but of no good repute ; scarcely 
three good farmers were to be found among the whole lot. The total that came over 
amounted to about 137 tradesmen and servants; 70 soldiers and civil servants, the crew of 
the sloop included, in addition to about 300 women and children, and the maid servants of the 
married freemen, soldiers, etc., and who alone came here single women. 

From time to time I requested and recommended successively, in divers letters, that only 
men and stout, growing farm servants be sent out, and many women and children, be omitted 
for the present, as agriculture could not be advanced without good farmers and strong, 
laboring men. 

After the loss and wreck of the ship Prins Maurits, the goods, by extraordinary labor, were 
mostly saved and brought hither, possession having been taken of this place. 

I also found the government to consist of a Military Council over the soldiers who were 
here of old; the ancient inhabitants being about 12 @^ 13 families, whose disputes or 
diflerences were decided by the Commander and two persons as schepens and one Secretary 
thereunto authorized by the General on behalf of the West India Company, whom I informed, 
at the time, that this place had come under other masters, to whose orders they had to 
submit, whereupon they alleged that although such was now the case, yet they expected, 
nevertheless, that they might be permitted, according to the Conditions offered, to continue 
under municipal government, as was ordained on behalf of the Company and the Director- 
General. Tliey were allowed to continue in order to decide all differences which might arise 
between burgher and burgher or freemen and inhabitants. 

As for the rest, the Council and I disposed of all public affairs and whatever concerned the 
military and militia; questions between the servants of the city, such as civil officers and 
freemen, misunderstandings arising among and received from the schepen or burgher [court] 
until the arrival of the ship de Waeg, when 7 Common Councilmen and from them three new 
schepens were chosen ; also, another Secretary and Schout, 

Two Elders and two Deacons, 

But before, and immediately on, my coming, lots or grounds were distributed and shown to 
every one, in order to their being regularly built on and fenced. 


And before I had been a month here, I proposed to all those inclined to agriculture to look 
up land themselves for their satisfaction, which they did. Moreover, I allowed to be measured 
out to every one as much land as he required and marked, as more fully appears by the 
written record sent to the gentlemen at home. 

Furthermore, I found here few or no houses; therefore, since all goods were to be secured 
against the rain and from being taken away, 1 had first built a large store, 26 (ai 27 feet wide, 
64 feet long, the first story 10 feet high with a loft under the roof above, for a dwelling, a 
storehouse and other necessary conveniences. And as the fort was small, where the married 
soldiers with their wives and children were not well sheltered and would not live, I had 
erected, right under the fort, a long barrack, 16 to 17 feet wide and 190 feet in length, the 
room 9 feet high, and covered with reed, also, divided into 11 copartments ; likewise, inside 
the fort, a guard-house 16 feet wide, 20 feet long, covered with boards. Afterwards, in the 
square, a bake-house of about 18 feet wide, 31 (51 32 feet long and the first story 10, and the 
second 7 feet high, with a garret under the roof which was covered with borrowed tiles. I 
had, also, one-third of my dwelling raised and improved with a square loft covered with 
tiles in order to be lodged somewhat dry. As a dwelling for the Commissary for the 
distribution of the rations, I built a house of square timber 21 (^ 22 feet wide, 50 feet long, 
the story about 9 feet high and garret, the roof covered with boards for want of tiles. 
Moreover, outside the fort, I had repaired, according to exigencies, the Clergyman's house and 
that of the smith. Ikni; had a burgher watch-house built of logs ; it is about 20 feet square, 
the first story 9, the 2d 8 feet, and covered with tiles. Other public lots were, likewise, set 
off in the square, so that this settlement is now pretty well looking and convenient ; with 110 
houses built, which, at first, afforded plenty of employment, the rather, as not many brought 
either money or means with them, for which reason they were obliged to perform heavier work 
almost alone and with but little assistance. 

Meanwhile, agriculture was not neglected, but attended to as much as possible, according as 
circumstances permitted. But, on the other hand, there came a general sickness, attended by 
burning fevers, etc., which sorely fatigued and oppressed the people, and made them groan. 
In consequence, house-building for the commencement of a city, and the tillage of the land for 
a suitable harvest of grain, went forward but poorly, and not so much progress followed as 
was desirable. 

The second year was so wet and unseasonable that hardly grain enough for the people 
and the cattle could be saved; add to which a multitude of new cases of sickness again broke 
out with such severity, that nearly the tenth part of the people lingered and lived in misery, 
under continual sickness, fevers and languors. Fully more than 100 persons perished in 
consequence, and a great many cattle were lost. By this means, most of the labor was at a 
stand-still; this gave rise to scarcity and dearth ; most of what the people had saved was spent 
in their poverty, whereupon a severe, hard and long winter followed. 

This summer, or the third year, I undertook a granary or barn and a new stable for the 
cattle ; also to have the lands fenced, because the people were without means, and could not 
accomplish this of themselves. 1 began it on an advance, and allowed between 400 and 500 
rods of fence to be made; Item, enlarged by one-half the church or place where service was 
performed on Sundays. Some considerable victuals were given on this occasion, for, where 
everything is done voluntarily or by free labor here, one must attend to, run after and keep all 
things in view where many works are meanwhile going on for the improvement of this place. 


and whatever agriculture demands. But as the paople can effect but little herein, and are 
unaccustomed to farming, and new land.s here require such immense labor, and, as those who 
have no assistance, must do the work themselves, being unable to pay servants' or laborers' 
wages, as these are very high here, they, as yet, can ill or imperfectly get along, for they do 
not well understand the work, and have the misfortune of one or two months' sickness. All 
this puis many in arrears. 

Now it conies again to pass that the English of Maryland, above Virginia, whereof Lord 
Balthus Moor, residing in Old Kngland, is Governor, lay claim to this place and say it appertains 
to his district. The above named Lord B. Moor hath written, or given sharp and strict orders 
hereupon to M"' Josias Fendal, who governs Maryland in his absence, to make a minute 
inquiry and examination respecting the boundaries and jurisdiction of his district in these 
countries, to give notice thereof, to summon, and now to employ further means according to 
his power and the conjuncture of affairs. This is public here at present, and causes much 
uncertainty and trouble among the people. Almost everything is, as a consequence, at a stand 
and every one is trying to remove and escape; and although, in my opinion, tliis is not so 
serious, yet it is seized on as a pretext by many lazy and idle people, none of whom have 
any prospect of ever being able to pay. On this account, they pretend that they ought still 
continue to be supported from the store, which is unadvisable and would be endless; they 
assert that such should be and imagine [would be] done, by the English, because, as 
they report, better land and abundance of stock are to be had there; also, 2,000 or 2,500 lbs. 
of tobacco per annum can be earned exclusive of board, which might easily be promised, 
because the English harvest is yet to be saved, but they are few to give it, the English being, 
as yet, assisted by each other, which, in these troubles, it is hard to remedy here, since, in 
consequence of more extensive settlement, we have few people here. 

Divers letters liave been written and application made from here that provisions may be 
continued to be sent, as but small store has been laid in either by the old inhabitants or new 
comers, in consequence of bad years and much sickness. 

The ship de Miilcn came up late last autumn with 100 souls without a handful of provisions. 
Tt was impossible to proceed to the north and south, and nothing could be had from the 
Manhattans in the fall and before the frost, as winter set in on us suddenly and early. 

The Commissioners and Directors considered so much building very strange and unnecessary, 
but no work was done but what was essential, and if work cannot be furnished in this place 
by the city to some 25 or more, a day, then they cannot live here. If such be stopped, 
'twill cause many to go idle who must seek employment in one or other neighboring place in 
order to earn their living, as now happens whenever any remove to the English and even to 
the Manhattans. 

It almost seems as if those of the South and North are jealous and dread this place becoming 
great and flourishing. To prevent this happy event, 1 believe much is done to excite prejudice 
against it and to depreciate us, to foment dissentions and to entice people away. For field 
labor here being too severe for divers free handicrafts people, such as various sorts of weavers, 
tailors, shoemakers, button-makers, etc., and they being unwilling to work at it, and the city 
having nothing for them to do and they having no provisions, easily found a pretext for loafing 
about; for, in consequence of laziness, they never prosper, and no payment is to be expected 
from them. 


Tlie enlargement of this Colonie has been attended to according to order; besides that, a 
new fortification and settlement were made at the Whore or Sickoneysincks kill, which have 
been daily visited. It was, therefore, expected that a ship would have arrived in the spring; 
it being now late in the year, and none expected, great discouragement has ensued. Add to 
this, the maize crop, etc., is now injured by the Indians, and in this manner the hospital is 
robbed and bread taken out of the mouth, which we, from weakness, cannot prevent. 

The West India Company are also enlarging their conditions to the inhabited places, with 
full exemption from board and passage money. The number of croakers is thereby increased 
to the disparagement of this place. I yet hope, on that account, that a good ship is at hand 
and to arrive from day to day. Should it happen otherwise, it is impossible to keep this place 
up; it will daily decline and be placed in greater danger. It is considered necessary and 
proper to point all this out, respectfully, to your Honor in order to prevent any more damage, 
and so to direct the management of this Colony that no bad, but the best course may be adopted. 

These lands and conveniencies are many and important, were they somewhat assisted. 

Here, consequently, it would be highly necessary to demand 2 or (3 persons as Councillors, 
or of superior rank with offices annexed, as may be deemed most expedient, in order to 
establish everything regularly and on a good basis. 

This Colony is in length, along the Bay, about 9 leagues, and on the river 7 ; inland, it is 
tolerably deep, the next place being about a day's journey off. The expense will not be 
incurred in vain, but richly repaid here; therefore, I humbly pray that this place may 
be protected. It will bring honor and profit if well supported, perhaps before it is supposed 
or expected ; this State is not worse, but tolerably well, and much better than it was, although 
a little scum still gets on the surface ; it is gradually improving once more ; I recommend it to 
the patronage of all, which I fully expect. 

In respect to the 3 persons sent as Councillors, the first hath asked for and obtained his 
discharge ; the third, who was Commissary, is dead, and his jilace still vacant. The second 
should command at the Sickoneysincks kill, in order to establish possession and government 
firmly there. But, as things appear to be somewhat struggling here, I propose that he, M' 
Hinoyossa, shall return home in the spring to make a verbal report on everything, and, as 
letters cannot be answered so readily, he, on his arrival, will be able to give information and 
satisfaction on every point. Finally, I shall pray God to bless your Honor's government and 
to preserve your Honor in continual health and prosperity, remaining 

Your Honor's obedient and 

Faithful Servant, 

(Signed), J. Alrichs. 
At the side was : 

In New Amstel, the IG"" August, 1659. 

Beneath was : 

Please excuse the prolixity hereof. It passes from the thought to the pen, and thence 
to the paper ; please to look on it favorably. 

Honorable Mr. C. de Graeff.^ 

' Supra, p. 66, note. — Kd. 


Proceedings of the XIX. in regard to Kew Neiherland. 

[ From tho M3. in the Royal Archives at Ihe Hague, Loketktu of the States-General : Division, TT&si Jndische CompagnU^ No. 47, entitled 

BcnoQiuti van de Verffaderini/ van de XIX., Ao. 1659. ] 

Extracts from the Minutes or Resolutions of the Assembly of the XIX., of the 
West India Company, holden at Amsterdam, from the 21" August to 
the 22'"' September, 1659, so far as they relate to New Netherland. 

Monday, the 25"" August, 1659. 
Folio 2. Dom' Pruelius, Cop a groen and Van Noort, clergymen enter, who represent 

that the Venerable Classis at present met in this city, had deputed them to greet this Assembly 
and to inform it: 

1. First. That they had learned that various sects were residing in New Netherland, namely, 
divers Quakers at the lied Hill or Rhode Island, and a number of Lutherans at New Amsterdam 
and the South river, who were propagating their doctrine there, requesting that provision be 
made therein, and their conventicles prevented. 

2. Secondly. As, according to letters from the brethren in New Netherland, some Dutch 
and English clergymen were required there, they wish and request that this Assembly, in support 
thereof, may adopt a favorable resolution, and provide the place with more Ministers. 

3. Thirdly. As three clergymen have died some time since in Guinea, and in the meantime 
the congregation are without any, they submit and propose to this Assembly, in order to 
proceed more assuredly therein and to provide the congregation there always, as far as possible, 
with one clergyman, whether a second ought not be sent thither in addition to the minister 
who sailed in the last ship. 

4. Fourthly. They demand payment of the arrears of the salary earned by D'" Polhemius,^ 
at present a minister in New Netherland ; also, that Reverend Asstetten's widow, who has been 
referred to this Assembly by the Zealand Chamber, may be paid what is due. Which being 
considered, and question being put, it is resolved and concluded, and told to the aforesaid D°*, 
who, being without, were again invited in, namely, that the first and second parts of their 
aforesaid proposal and request concerned the presiding Chamber of Amsterdam, whose delegates 
being at present at this meeting, had undertaken to communicate the same to their principals, 
that proper order may be taken thereon. But what regarded the third division of their request, 
viz., the dispatching a second preacher to Guinea, that this Assembly considers one Minister 
enough for that place as there is but a small congregation there, and those from the 
surrounding forts and places came to church to El Mina, and attended divine service there. 
Fourthly, the minister, Polkemius, in regard to his petition, is referred to the presiding Chamber 
of Amsterdam, to make due disposition thereof. And the widow Asstetten's petition, consisting, 
in fact, of three parts, etc. 

' Jon.tNNES Theodokus Polhemus lia<3 been a Minister ot Itamaroa, in Br.izil, previous to his coming to New Netherland ia 
1654 ; lie officiated at Flutbusli, in the Mornini;, and at Brooklyn and Flatlands, in the afternoon of each Sabbath, until 1660, 
when Brooklyn obtained a Minister. In 1CG5, Doaiine Polbeiiius ceased to be connected with the church of Flatbush, and 
removed to Brooklyn, where he died 9th June, 1676, the worthy and beloved Pastor of the church of that place. O'Callaghan't 
Hittory of Xew Netherland, II., 272. — Ed. 


Wednesday, 3"^ Sept', 1659. 
Folio 9. The first point for consideration, whereupon many deliberations have been now 

for some time had, but no conclusion come to by the different members is resumed, in order to 
finally bring the respective chambers to closer connection, good correspondence and union, 
the result of which will evidently be their complete restoration and preservation, tiie present 
deputies from all the chambers representing the Assembly of the XIX., resolved and enacted 


First and foremost, each chamber, etc. 


Folio 10. And in regard to New Netherland, where the Amsterdam Chamber, and the 

Wild Coast, where the Zealand Chamber has each already its Colonies, the other Chambers 
respectively will be at liberty (the resolutions heretofore adopted thereupon, remaining in full 
force) to plant their Colonies also in those parts in suitable places, having no proprietors, and 
to allow other persons to come into their Colonies, all with previous notification, knowledge 
and approbation of the Assembly of the XIX., and upon an equal footing, order and proper 
regulation, not conflicting with the already established Colonies of Amsterdam and Zealand, on 
the planting of which Colonies, belonging to said respective chambers in those places and 
coasts, the expenses to be incurred thereby shall be declared and assumed as a common charge, 
in order that the repartition of the Company's receipts, hereinbefore more fully specified, shall 
be made in the same manner, as it will be put into practice on the behalf of the Chambers of 
Amsterdam and Zealand, by virtue of this resolution, and the profits accruing therefrom for 
the common advantage. 


What relates to the general trade on the Coast of Guinea, etc. 

Protest of the Vice-Director and Council of New Amstel agaiivit Colonel TJtie. 

[ From the Baudie iadoraed Veracheul^ Sttt/cken raeketida de Col-onie van N, KedeHandt No. 42, in the Staxl Huys^ Amfiterdam. ] 

Colonel Nathaniel Utie: 

Holland DocQments, Whercas you appeared yesterday afternoon, at your request, in our Council, 
'^^^''^'' and there read and exhibited a certain Instruction, which you stated was done by 

order of M' Josias Fendel, Lieutenant of the Lord Baltamoor, but without day or date, or place 
where written, being signed by Philip Calver,^ Secretary, concerning our settlement on Delaware 
bay, or this Colony here. 

In which said instruction, it is simply stated and alleged that this place is situate in the 
aforesaid Lord Baltamoor's Province, and that, therefore, this Government should depart hence 

' Philip Cvlvert was brother of Cecilius, Lord Baltimore. He wa.s named principal Secretary of the Proriiice of Maryland 
in 1656; was appointed to succeed Fendal, as Governor, in June, 1660, and was sworn into office in December following, 
lie administered the affairs of the Province for about a year, aud was succeeded by his son, Charles Calvert. — Ed. 

Vol. IL 10 


with its people as soon as you had given notice hereof. Moreover, you insisted that all the 
lands, between thirty-eiglit and forty degrees east and west, from sea to sea, belonged to 
the above named Lord Baltamoora,' Governor at Maryland, and whatever was in dispute 
concerning this, had lately been settled and arranged in Old Enghuid. 

Narrating the whole only, without producing any required proofs, or sending them to us, as 
we should have been pleased to have your proposals in writing, in order to prevent 
further misunderstanding. 

You further make known, with words of greater weight, to wit, that, in case of our delaying 
to depart immediately, you will be guiltless of the vast quantity of innocent blood that may 
then be shed on this account. 

Unexpected and strange to us are tliese proceedings and treatment on the part of Christian 
brethren and neighbors, with whom we never sought, and still do not seek anything else than to 
maintain good friendship, and to whom we have never given any cause of offence. 

We, therefore, again request the proof already required from you, or some extract serving as 
a verification of your chief assertion, of property and boundary of the lands, whether they 
were conquered by stronger force or ol)tained by title of purchase or gift ; also, what disposition 
has been made by the I'arliament in Old England lately, or a short time since, for your 
principal's advantage or right herein. 

We offer to exhibit to you, this instant, such right as we have received for the possession of 
this place, both by grant from their High Mightinesses, the Lords States-General of the United 
Netherlands, and by lawful conveyance or deed from the West India Company, in consequence 
of fair purchase and payment. 

But if any misunderstanding arise in the propositions of one or of the other, let the difference 
be referred to the Supreme authority, such as the Parliament and the High and Mighty Lords 
States-General; otherwise, as we are new comers in these parts, and the circumstances of this 
case, or what may be in the Archives and elsewhere concerning it, are not known to us, we 
refer ourselves to the opposite proofs to be produced by the General of i\ew Netherland, under 
whom we resort. 

Further; the second part of your Honor's instruction continues, that you are to offer to some 
people and inhabitants here, favorable terms of agreement for planting and for trade with 
those of Maryland, with promise of protection and larger freedom, which already has, in some 
measure, been made here to those bound by oath to their Lords, masters, and to others 
who owe considerable sums, and who, seduced by such offers, are wavering, abandon their 
commenced work and opportunity, get into arrears and run away. They thus become ruined 
and their masters are cheated out of what is owing to them. Wherefore we are under the 
necessity of protesting, as we do hereby protest, against you and your principals for all 
damages, injuries and losses already incurred and still to he suffered, in order to recover the 
same at one time or another, according as shall be deemed expedient. 

For the continuance of peace and quietness between the subjects of the Republic of England 
and their High Mightinesses, the Lords States-General, we refer to the articles of peace, 

' Ceoihus Calvkbt, second Baron of Tiallimore, in the county of Longford, Ireland, wne the eldest son of George, the first 
Baron, and Anne M>nne, of Hertirigfordbuiy, Ileiifordsliire, En^'hlnd. He was born in the year 1606; succeeded to hia 
father's title, 1,0th April, 1632, sat in Parliament in 1C3-1 and was married to Anne, third daughter of Lord Arundel, of 
■Wurdour. He died 30th November, 1675, covered with age and rei.utation, for, never, says Chalmers, did a peo^de enj.iy 
more real happiness, or were more grateful for it, than the inhabitants of Maryland under Cecilius. the excellent founder of 
that Province. Political AnuaU, 215, 362; BrouninjS Appeal ; London Magazine, XXXVII., 284. — Ed. 


treaties of alliance, made and concluded on the S"" April, in the year 1654, obligatory on all 
governments, whether in America or in Europe, whereby they were all ordered and commanded 
not to inflict, the one or the other, any hostility, injury or damage, as more fully appears by 
article 16. 

We trust, nevertheless, that you will please to take all the premises into consideration and 
proceed no otherwise than as equity and justice require. 

We declare that we are in no wise inclined to commit the least injustice, but are very 
willing to second, or to yield to, those who have the best right. We refer whatever exceeds, 
goes beyond, or is opposed to, this and all unreasonable proposals to the supreme government^ 
or else protest against all damages, as above. 

It is, also, proposed that, in order to obtain a further answer hereunto, the General shall be 
expressly written to ; wherefore the Colonel has allowed and granted the time at least of three 
weeks, or thereabouts, in order that a rescript or answer may be received. 

(Signed), J. Alrichs, 

Alexander d'Hinojosa, 


Jan Willemsen, 
Jan Cuato, 
Hendrick Kip. 

By order of the Director and Council, Director Beeckman and Mess", the Schepens, the 
Secretary absent. To my knowledge. 

(Signed), G. van Sweringen. 

The foregoing Notification and Protest was, by me, the undersigned, in presence 

of the above named witnesses, read and copy thereof delivered to the Colonel. 

Signed as this: This done at the meeting as above. Done in New Amstel the 9"" 

September, 1659. 

(Signed), G. van Sweringen. 

Vice-Director Alrichs to the Co7nmissio)iers of the Colonie on the Delaware River. 

[ From Ihe Bundle indorsed Veracheide Stukken raekende de Colonie van 2r. Kederlandt, No. 54, in llie Stad JIuys, Amsterdam. ] 

Honorable, Worshipful, Wise, Most Prudent. 

Hon »nd Documents, This serves only as a cover of the inclosed duplicates of letters written and 
xvi.,193. lately sent you and the Worshipful Burgomaster de Graeff. Since then, after 

long and previous threatening, the troubles which the English are fomenting, unjustly and 
without reason, have overtaken us. They will not listen to, nor make use of, any reasons, 
making only a verbal statement and delivering an instruction, instead of credential and 
commission, without date or place of execution, all which is obscure. I, therefore, could do 
nothing more than give a written answer with protest to Colonel Nathaniel Utie, delegate 
from Josias Fendel, Lieutenant of Baltamoor, who is Governor of Maryland, the 2""* part of 


Virf^inia, which lies off the English river and adjoins us ; they can come here from the nearest 
point in a day or a day and a half. As they do not submit nor will employ any reasons, so 
we are obliged to listen to and see what is intolerable. They insist that we shall move off, or 
submit to them immediately, or at furthest, within three weeks. Here are only 14 (a. 15 
soldiers, half of whom are sick and unfit for service; the remainder are at the Whorekill. 
The burghers will hardly leave their houses and property and defend the fort; everything is 
at a stand ; it is dangerous for people to begin anything or to invest means or labor in a place 
not free, and to which others lay claim, i may now, consequently, admit, in the face of all 
these obstacles which are occurring from year to year, that I find myself unfortunate. Mr. 
Beeckman, Vice-Director, residing at Altona, on the part of the Hon'''* West India Company, 
and I have sent post after post to the Manhattans. But as the Indians have, again, killed 
three or four Dulchn)en, no person can go through ; one messenger, who was eight days out, 
returned without accomplishing his purpose. We have no vessel ; the sloop went to the 
Manhattans before the arrival of the English ; the boat is unfit to go to sea ; we lack even 
powder, for which 1 wrote over a year and a day ago ; but it is long and somewhat late in 
being sent. We shall do our best, according to time and circumstances, hoping that God 
Almighty will give a favorable issue. To His gracious protection I commend your Honors, 

and remain, 

Your obedient and 

Dutiful servant, 

(Signed), J. Alrichs. 
On the side was: 

In New Amstel, the 20"" September, A" 1659. 

Beneath was : 

It is now reported that they are to come back in twelve days from the date of their 
departure, which took place on the 11"" of this month. Meanwhile I am waiting for the 
letter of the CJeneral, who is in command there of 500 men, to march against us. Time 
will tell what more is to follow. I must be brief, through want of time. 

To Mess", the Directors of the South Colony. 

Vice -Director Alrichf to J3urgomaster de Graaff. 

[ From tho EuDdIo indorsed Ycrtditide Strtikin rackende de CoUfnit nan K. Kederlajidt, No. 63, in the Stad Uuyi, Amsterdam. ] 

Honorable and Most Worshipful Sir: 

Holland DocumentN l'^*^ ^""s*' ''^"'' '^st letter Sent you yesterday, was by a ship, the name of 
XVI., 133. which I do not know, that was to sail from the Manhattans in a few days. I 

forgot, I think, through haste, to state the number of houses here; there are 110 in this place, 
and IG (iJ. 17 more on land belonging to our nation, and 13 (aj. 14 belonging to the Swedes. 
In that letter I had also stated that 2 (9). 3 qualified persons are needed who, it may readily be. 
supposed, can find some employment here. 1 have therefore drawn up a brief plan as to the 
st-rvices you might expect from them. According to my opinion, under correction, they 


might be employed, at first, as ordinary Councillors to deliberate and to resolve on all matters 
whatsoever, except such law suits, diHTerences and contests occurring between Burgher 
and Burgher, as the Schepens decide. They might also conjointly have charge of the ciiamber 
of accounts and the office of Surrogate (JVcesmcesterschap), for which there is plenty of business 
here already ; also what appertains to public buildings and fortification. Besides that, the first, 
as Commissary, should have the particular superintendence of all receipts and delivery or sale 
of goods, provisions, stores, ammunition and materials for building of fortifications. The 
second, as Commissary of merchandise, for which the profits of a capital of one hundred 
thousand guilders, over and above the ordinary interest, might serve as a fund to defray all 
charges and expenses here, the capital remaining intact. The third might act as general book- 
keeper, to record everything, to arrange the books with what depends thereon — these three 
persons conjointly remaining bound to send, from time to time, to the principals at home, 
[copies] of all documents executed here, whether resolutions, contracts, land patents, minutes 
or pleadings in suits at law and other differences or disputes, judgments, etc., without any 
exception. With consent of those yonder the duties of Schout, Secretary, and also, indeed, of 
Commissary, of or over agriculture might be transferred to the above named persons, to witness 
and superintend, moreover, all business appertaining to this State or city. In such wise, the 
proprietors would receive entire and in full, and clearly know, what passes here, so as to 
deliberate and to give orders on all things with more certainty. Moreover, were you to be 
pleased to establish more speedily and assuredly, a well begun project, I think, under 
correction, that 20 or 25 families, of good agriculturists and farmers, well acquainted and 
conversant with the keeping of cattle and whatever is connected therewith, might each be 
offered, in the first place, 30 or 40 cows (more or less, according to circumstances), mostly 
milch cows, the remainder somewhat younger, and other cattle on halves for the term of 4 or 
6 years, on condition that, on the expiration of such time, those of the cattle furnished that 
have died, strayed or been lost, be first made good by the proprietor from the best and oldest 
of the increase; the remainder of the increase then to be divided, half for the proprietor and 
half for the farmer, unless 10 or 12 lbs. of butter could be annually got from each milch cow 
for the behoof or profit of the proprietor, or, if better conditions could be obtained, it would l)e 
well that they should take eflTect on the increase of the cattle, which would cause an abundance 
of milk and butter at a cheap rate. Hereunto, each person should be allowed two hundred 
morgens of land or more. The purchase and expense of a thousand head of cattle to be brought 
here, demand 40 (a). 50 thousand guilders at most, in merchandise, consisting of broad Duffels, 
grey Osnaburg linen, a part bleached; also, broad Flemish linen and such like articles, brandy 
and distilled liquors in ankers and half aums, stockings, shoes, shirts and some woolens of 
divers sorts. What are most in demand here are Duffels, grey Osnaburgs and strong liquors, 
and then, from time to time, there ought to be sent with all the ships, of which two at least 
should arrive every year, 25 good farmers, who can till the land. Clearing land furnishes 
considerable employment here; ploughing, sowing, mowing and thrashing require strong 
people, accustomed to labor, most of whom should, as far as possible, be men. 

Having written thus far as a supplement to my former letter, dated IG"" August, the hitherto 
long dreaded and apprehended triennial misfortune occurred on the S"" instant, namely, the 
dissatisfaction that the English foment unlawfully and unreasonably, even without having, 
or not wishing to give, any reasons. I have, therefore, delivered to the Deputy in answer to 


their unfounded pretence and proposal, a written Protest, which is transmitted herewith.^ We 
have been, hitherto, unfortunate on account of the contentions whicii have annually occurred 
here. I have sent off messenger after messenger to the Manhattans overland, but no one can 
get through as the Indians there have again killed four Dutchmen. A messenger, who had been 
out eight days, returns without executing his business. When the English came, the sloop 
was at the Manhattans, where she still remains, so that we have been obliged to charter 
expressly a private vessel that came thence the day before yesterday, to send a letter, with the 
annexed documents, to the General. I expect that assistance will speedily arrive, which God 
grant, to whose gracious protection I commend your Honor. I remain. 

Your Honor's obedient and 

Faithful servant, 
On one side was : J. Alrichs. 

New Amstel, 21" September, A" 1659. 

IIon'"« Mr. C. de Graeff. 

Resolution of the Common Council of tlie City of AmMerdani. 

[ From Ihe ReJiolutien der VroedschappeUj B., p. 161, in the Stad Ruys, Amaterdam. ] 

SO"- September, 1659. 
nojianj Docamenis, Mess", the Burgomastcrs, having notified the Council that experience hath. 
The citr to snrron- ffom time to time, demonstrated more and more that the planting of the New 

diT ihe New Netli- . 

eriand Colonic. Nethcrland Colonie is a source of very great expense to the city, and very little 
return is received to defray these expenses, and that there is little or no appearance that this 
city is to look for any considerable profit from the continuance of that work; 

Which, being considered, it is resolved and concluded to surrender said Colonie to the West 
India Company for such sums of money and on such conditions as shall be most convenient 
for such Company, and Mess", the Burgomasters and Treasurers, are authorized to negotiate 
and agree thereon with the Directors of the above mentioned Company. 

Order apjJointiti// a day of General Fasting and Prayer. 

[ From the Bundle indorsed Verscheidt Stukken ratkendo de Colonit van N. Nedtrlandt, No. 43, In the Stad Buyt, Amsterdam. ] 

Honorable, Dear, Faithful. 

Hniund Documeutj, Although the most merciful God, rich in grace and compassion, hath, 

' ■ notwithstanding our unworlhiness, watched over us hitherto and daily gives us 

abundant cause to proclaim His praise and to bless His august name for the innumerable 

' Supra, p. 13. — Ed. 


benefits and favors exhibited from time to time, in granting peace and quiet both with our 
neighboring Christian nations and the Indians, the natives of the country, as well as in 
bestowing a bountiful harvest, having certainly blessed our basinet of bread and staff of life, 
wherein his goodness and beneficence are clearly manifest. 

Yet, considering that the righteous God hath visited many and divers inhabitants of this 
Province, not only this summer, with painful and long, lingering sickness, but, moreover, 
also, that His kindled anger and uplifted hand threaten with many and divers punishments, 
especially with a devastating Indian war, which is no other than a just punishment and 
visitation of ourGod for our enormous sins of unbelief, dilatoriness in God's service, blaspheming 
His holy name, desecrating the Sabbath, drunkenness, lasciviousness, whoredom, hate, envy, 
lies, fraud, luxury, abuse of God's gifts, and many other iniquities. And because we run 
counter to God in our sins, God, in his threatenings will oppose us with punishments, unless 
we turn to Him (whom, in our iniquities, we have abandoned) in sincere humility and true 
contrition of heart that He may turn aside His wrath from us, and assist and bless us with His 
favor, therefore, we have considered it most necessary, to tliat end, to proclaim Wednesday, 
the 15"" October of the current year, a day of Universal Fasting and Prayer, and, accordingly, 
notify and command all our officers and subjects that they prepare themselves on the aforesaid 
day to appear, at the time aforesaid, with changed heart, at the usual place in the general 
meeting, not only to hear God's word, but also, unanimously, with an humble and penitent 
heart, solemnly to call on the Lord's name that it may please His Divine Majesty to remove 
from our road His just plagues, wherewith we are already stricken, and to divert His rod, 
which flourishes over us, and to pour down His wrath on the Heathen who know not His 
name; to take this just budding Province into His fatherly protection ; to maintain it against 
the efforts of all evil-minded men who seek its ruin ; mercifully to visit the inhabitants and 
subjects of this Province with corporeal and spiritual blessings, that the Word of Truth may 
be proclaimed and spread among many people, and that their rulers may be as lights among 
this evil and perverse generation ; that to this end God may vouchsafe to send forth faithful 
laborers into His harvest to proclaim unto Jacob his sins and unto Israel his transgressions ; 
particularly that God would please to endow our Magistrates and Regents of this land with 
understanding, wisdom, foresight and godliness, that they may resolve, design and valiantly 
execute whatsoever may be of service to the happiness of the country and the welfare of its 
inhabitants both in body and soul. 

In order that it may be the better put into practice, we interdict and forbid, during divine 
service on the day aforesaid, all exercise and games of tennis, ball-playing, hunting, fishing, 
ploughing and sowing, and, moreover, all other unlawful practices, such as dice, drunkenness, 
on pain of the corporeal correction and punishment thereunto already affixed; in like manner 
are all servants of the Divine Word, within our government, hereby admonished to direct 
their preaching and prayers to this end. 

Thus done and concluded iu our Council, in Fort Amsterdam, in New Netherland, the SO"" 
September, A° 1G59. 

(Signed), P. Stuvvesant. 
Beneath was : 

After collating this with the original, dated and signed as above, it is found 
by me to agree. 

(Signed), C. van Rctven, Sec^. 
On the side was: 

Delivered the writing to Doraine Welius on the 10"" of this October, 1659. 


Vindication of the Dutch Title to the Delaware River. 

[ Frum tbe Bundle indorsed Versehfide Stukken raekenile de Cotonie Tim If. Kederkindt, No. 45, in the Stad TTuyx, AmsterdMH ; also from 
Loketkus, letter L , No, 49, lo the Archives at the Hague; Now-Tort Historical Collections, III., 373.' ] 

Declaration and iNFanifest delivered by way of a Speech to the Honorable 
Governor and Council of the Province of ^Laryland, Chesapeak bay, from 
the Honorable Governor-General and Council of the Province of New 

„ „ ,^ . Observing, first and foremost, the orisrinal ric;ht and title the subiects of the 

Unlland Dr>ciimenl8, ^ o' ' o o j 

i.\.,2T4; xvi.,i-'r. fjjgi, finfj Mighty the States-General of the United Provinces, under the proprietary 
of the Lords of the West India Company of Amsterdam, in Holland, pos.sess to the Province of 
New Netherland, which stretcheth itself along the great Ocean, from 3S to about 42 degrees, 
and thence (including all rivers, islands and Main continent) northerly up unto the river of 
Canada, having on the west side Virginia and now Maryland, upon the great Bay of Chesapeake, 
and on the east, New En<;land ; to wit, that their right and title to that part of the newly found 
world of America, partly come down to them, first from the King of Spain, being at the time 
his subjects or vassals, as the first discoverer and founder of that New World, who, in those 
days, after war had been waged and peace concluded, did renounce and give over unto the 
United Republic of the Seven Provinces aforesaid, all his right and title in such countries and 
dominions as they have, in process of time, conquered and settled in Europe, America, 
and elsewhere, wherefore the above said Province of New Netherland, the islands of 
Cura9ao and Brazil became, in this regard, the true, proper inheritance of the Dutch nation 
in those parts. 

Secondly. As for the question generally: The French, by one Jehan de Verazzano, a 
Florentine, were, in the year of our Lord God Almighty 1524, the second followers and 
discoverers in the northern parts of this America. Then came first the English and Dutch 
in like manner, and took possession of the parts we are now in ; for since the year 1G06 or 1G07 
to about IS or 20, the English established only this Colony of Virginia, by distinct patent, 
from 84 to about 3S, the Dutch the Manhatans, from 3S to 42, and New England from 42 
to 45 degrees; the French, beaten in Florida, retain Canada; Spain, the West Indies or 
Mexico ; Portugal, Brazil. And thus is this New World divided amongst the Christian Princes 
of Europe, by communication of each other's Ambassadors, to that effect, mutually agreed 
upon. For which reason King James, of England, did expressly will, command and require 
that the Colony or Province of Virginia and the Province of New England should remain 
asunder and not meet together within the distance and space of about a hundred leagues, which 
was alloted for the Dutch plantations, then called by the general name of Manhattans, after 
the name of the Indians, who first inhabited the same. And here 'tis to be noted that 
they commit a grave mistake who will confine the general name of Manhattans aforesaid to 
the particular city, which is only built on a little island ; as already stated, it signifies the 
whole country and Province, or at least the same particular place in the Province : As, for 
example, it is frequent, with many, still at this day, to say — to go to the Manhattans, or 
to come from the Manhattans — when they mean the whole Province, as they do by the name 

'The translaliou in tlio New-Tork Historical Collections is so iucorrect as to be almost eutirely useless. — Ed. 


of Virginia or Maryland, for the particular towa itself is never named the Manhattans, but 
New Amsterdam. 

And in regard to the South river, or as it is called by the English, Delaware bay, in particular: 
The said river was, in the primitive time, likewise possessed, and a Colonic planted on the western 
shore within the south cape, called the Whorekill even unto this day. The Dutch had erected 
their States' arms and a little fort there and everywhere in their country, but were, after some 
time, all siain and murdered by the Indians; so that the possession of this river, from the very 
first, was in its infancy sealed with the blood of a great many souls. Afterwards, in the year 
1623, Fort Nassou was built about 15 leagues up the river on the eastern shore, besides 
many other places in process of time, by the Dutch, and the Dutch Swedes settled here and 
there, until the Governor-General and Council of New Netherland thought good to remove the 
said Fort Nassou, in the year 1650, down the river back again, and there fix a town or village, 
as it is at this day, without any man, from Maryland or Virginia, ever making protest or 
pretence against it. We say, furthermore, that we have the propriety and just right and title 
of the whole river and of all our above said Province, lawfully obtained and legally bought 
from the Indians, the native proprietors, especially the western side, which we maintain we 
have purchased, from time to time, to this date, landward in to the west as far as, and much 
farther than, our line and limits are as yet extended and seated. By virtue of all which, 
and the right and title above mentioned, we have, as is publicly known to this day, 
always maintained and defended, and will forever defend the said river, against all usurpers 
and obstructors. 

Thirdly. From that primitive time aforesaid have the Dutch nation in the Province of New 
Netherland, and the English nation in the Province of Virginia and Maryland aforesaid, 
everywhere maintained friendly and neighboring correspondence together, and even, which 
is very proper to be noted, in the last open war, without any pretence, injury or 
molestation one against the other; until upon the eighth day of September, this current year, 
1659, Colonel Nathaniel Utie came to our aforesaid South river ( by the English called 
Delaware bay), into the town and Fort New Amstel, erected, as stated, in the year 1650, 
and without any special commission or lawful authority exhibited from any State, Prince, 
Parliament or Government, only by a piece of paper and cartabel in the form of an instruction 
from Philip Calvert, Secretary, written without year or day, or name or place, neither signed 
nor sealed by any State, Prince, Parliament or Government, in a commanding manner required, 
in a strange way, that the place and country should be delivered up to the Province of 
Maryland, as he saith, for my Lord Balthimore, going from house to house to draw and seduce 
the inhabitants into a revolt against their right, lawful Lords, Sovereigns, Governor and 
Province, threatening, in case of no immediate voluntary submission and obedience, to come 
again and bring the people thereto by force of arms, fire and sword, whereunto he saith a great 
company or multitude were expressly kept in readiness. Nay, that the whole Province of 
Maryland would rise and come to reduce them, and that they then should be plundered and 
their houses taken from them, and so forth. Against such action and insulting and illegal 
proceedings the Deputy Governor and magistrates of the aforesaid river and Colonie have 
protested and answered under the signature of their own hands, dated the 9"' of September, 
1659, last past, insinuating that the further occupation of that great business of consequence 
did belong and must be referred to the Honorable Governor-General and Council of the whole 
Province of New Netherland, of whom an answer might be expected within three weeks' time 
Vol. ir. . 11 


Who, after liaving furnished aid and assistance to their subjects in the aforesaid river, have sent 
us the underwritten Ambassadors and messengers with all speed hither to you, the Honorable 
Governor and Council, Assembly, or whom it in any way may concern, in the Province of 
Maryland in Chesapeake bay, to declare and make known by power and authority of our 
commission, whereof we herewith deliver a duplicate: 

First. That the aforesaid injurious acts are done not only against the law of nations, 
neighborly friendship and common equity, but also directly contrary to the amity, confederacy 
and peace, made and concluded in the year of our Lord lGo4, between the two nations of the 
Republic of England and the Republic of the United Provinces and their subjects all over 
the world (vizt.). Articles 2, 3, 5, G, 9, 10 and IG, whereby we proclaim that the said amity and 
peace are disturbed and interrupted by the said Nathaniel Utie or his principals of the Province 
of Maryland, against the Province of New Netherland aforesaid, and therefore protest, and in 
virtue of the above said IG"" article ol'jpscice and amity, demand justice and satisfaction for all 
those wrongs and damages the Province of New Netherland and their subjects have already 
by the aforesaid injurious proceedings, suflered, or hereafter may come to suiler. 

Secondly. We demand that all the Dutch and Swedish people, subjects, runaways and 
fugitives, who from time to time, especially this present year (for the most part, deeply indebted 
or delinquents), are come over and are skulking in this Province of Maryland, be sent back to 
our South river and Colonie, as 'tis strongly suspected that, incited by the above said odious 
and injurious design, they are thereunto encouraged from hand to hand. Declaring that the 
Honorable Governor-General and Council of New Netherland are in readiness to do the like by 
Bending back to Maryland all the runaways and fugitives who may come into their jurisdiction 
anil government aforesaid; with notice, in case of refusal, that, according to the law of retaliation, 
the Honorable Governor-General and Council of New Netherland aforesaid hold themselves 
constrained, necessitated and excused to publish free liberty, access and recess to all planter.*, 
servants, negroes, fugitives and runaways who, from time to time, may come out of the 
jurisdiction of Maryland into the jurisdiction of New Netherland, aforesaid. 

And (to say something, by way of remark, to the supposed claim or pretence of my Lord 
Balthimore's patent unto our aforesaid South river or Delaware bay), we utterly disown, 
reject and deny, that any power and authority (except peace breakers and those who act as 
public enemies, who rest only upon their strength and self-will), may or can legally come to 
reduce or subjugate the subjects in said river from their right, lawful Lords and proprietors, 
who have been forty years undeniably, justly and lawfully possessed and settled as above said, 
whilst, on the contrary. Lord Balthamore's patent is of no longer standing and settlement 
than about 24 or 27 years, and does not contain any particular expression or special title to 
' take that river of Delaware bay from the Dutch; nay, not so much as Sr. Eduard Ploetsen, in 
former time, would make us believe he had, when it was afterwards proved and found out 
that he had only subretively and fraudulently obtained something to that purpose which was 
invalid. And, assuming that the said Lord Baltamore or any other person hath any seeming title 
to the aforesaid river or Delaware bay, then his Lordship, according to the 30th article of the 
peace and confederacy, should have repaired before the IS"" of May,' 1G52, to the Honorable 
Commissioners appointed by both States for the determination of such and the like differences 
as might have arisen or occurred bet%veen the two nations in distant parts of the world between 

' In another copy this date is the 20th of May. — Ed. 


the year IGll and tlie IS"" of May, 1652 ; after tlie expiration of which time, it is in plain terms 
prohibited and proclaimed that then no farther claims should be admitted, which is to be 
obeyed. To prove the true meaning and interpretation of the aforesaid thirtieth article by two 
palpable examples and by evidence of your own creation and chiefest authority, the Republic 
of England, we say — that when New England, in former days, claimed, on its side, also some 
interest in our limits, and the Lord Protector's ships in open war were sent hither to subdue 
the aforesaid Province of New Netherland, the latter renounced and abandoned their design 
v/hen peace was concluded, and went against the French; so that the right and title tlie Dutch 
nation have unto their Province of New Netherland aforesaid, stand ever since, to this day and 
forever, more and more confirmed and ratified. But, forasmuch as mention and question are 
now made of our western limits, and we have thereupon perceived and suspected that the Bay 
of Chesapeake, in the uppermost part thereof, winds so much to the northeast and runs into 
our line about Sassafrax and Elk rivers, we therefore lay also claim to those parts until, by 
due examination hereafter, the truth hereof maj' be found out or agreed and settled amongst 
us otherwise. 

Lastly, and finally, to conclude: The Honorable Governor-General and Council of New 
Netherland aforesaid, do declare and notify that as they, on their side, have never intended any 
wrong or offence to the Province of Virginia, or now, INIaryland, in the Bay of Chesapeake, so 
they desire to continue still there with all neighborly amity, confederacy and friendship, saving 
or providing only that justice and satisfaction be given as hereinbefore stated. Propounding 
further, by way of advice, to prevent further mischief, that three reasonable persons, on each 
side, may be appointed out of each Province aforesaid, to meet at a certain day and time about 
half way between the Bay of Chesepeake and the aforesaid South river or Delaware bay, at a. 
certain hill where the heads of Sassafrax and of another river which flows into our river, come 
almost close together, with full power and commission there to settle the bounds and limits 
between the aforesaid Province of Maryland forever, if possible, otherwise to refer any difference 
that may exist, in case of disagreement, to the Lords Proprietors or Sovereigns in Europe, on 
both sides; but, in the meanwhile, all further hostility and infraction on each other to cease 
and determine ; so that the Honorable Governor-General and Council of New Netherland 
being hereof assured, further charges and damages excused, may call their soldiers home who 
are kept' there only to defend their Province and Colonic aforesaid, and a fair correspondence 
may be, on both sides, maintained, as hath heretofore always been the case up to the present 
time. If this be refused and not accepted, we do proclaim our innocence and ignorance to 
all the world, and do protest, generally, against all wrongs, injuries, costs and damages already 
sustained and suffered, or as yet to be suffered and sustained ; declaring and manifesting 
that we are, and then shall be, necessitated and forced [to proceed], by way of retort and 
reprisal, according to the 24"" article of the peace, in order to preserve and maintain our 
right and propriety to our aforesaid South river Colonic, or Delaware bay, and our subjects' 
lives, liberties and estates, as God, in our just cause, shall strengthen and enable us. Desiring 
this may be recorded and notified unto all to whom it in any way may concern, with the true 
meaning and tenor thereof, and that a speedy answer and dispatch may be given to us in 
writing from you, the Honorable Governor and Council of the Province of Maryland, to be 
returned to our Honorable Governor-General and Council of the Province of New Netherland, 
and recorded in like manner. 

' gesonden, sfcnt. Bullatid Z)ocununts,iX., 2S0. — Td. 


And so wishing God Almighty to conduct both your Honors to all prudent results, so that we 
may live neighborly together in this wilderness, to the advancement of God's glory and of the 
kingdom of Heaven amongst the Heathen, and not to the destruction of each other's Ciiristian 
blood, whereby the Heathen and barbarous Indians are strengthened, but rather that we may 
conclude a league of love and alliance together against them. 

Written and signed by our own hands in the Province of Maryland, in the Great Bay of 
Chesapeake, at St. Mary's County, and delivered the Sixth day of October, Anno Domini, 1659, 
in I'atuxent at iMr. Batennan's house. 

(Signed), Augustine Heermans, 
Kesolvert Waldron. 

Eddraci of (lie Patent granted to Lord Baltimore. , 

[ BozmsH's ilietorj of Maryland, IL, 9. 3 

Extract out ofT y* patents off my Lord Cecilius Calvert, Knight and Baron 
Balthamoor, etc. 

TTotinTKi Dtwanienis, ^^" Whercas our well beloved and right trusty subject, Cecilius Calvert, 
XVI., luu. Baron of Baltimore, in our kingdom of Irclond, son and heir of George Calvert, 

knight, late Baron of Baltimore, in our said kingdom of Ireland, treading in the steps of his 
father, being animated with a laudable and pious zeal for extending the Christian religion, and 
also the territories of our empire, hath humbly besought leave of us that he may transport, 
by his own industry and expense, a numerous Colony of the English nation, to a certain region 
hereinafter described, in a country hitherto uncultivated, in the parts of America, and partly 
occupied by savages, having no knowledge of the Divine Being, and that all that region, with 
some certain privileges and jurisdictions appertaining unto the wholesome government, and 
state of his Colony and region aforesaid, may, by our Iloyal Highness, be given, granted and 
confirmed unto him and his heirs. 

IH. Know ye, therefore, tliat We, encouraging, with our royal favour, the pious and noble 
purpose of the aforesaid Barons of Baltimore, of our special grace, certain knowledge, and 
mere motion, have given, granted and confirmed, and by this, our present charter, for us, 
our heirs and successors, do give, grant, and confirm, unto the aforesaid Cecilius, now 
Baron of Baltimore, his heirs and assigns, all that part of the Peninsula, or Chersonese, lying 
in the parts of America, between the ocean on the east, and the Bay of Chcsapcuhc on the 
•west ; divided from the residue thereof by a right line drawn from the promontory, or head- 
land, called JFatkin's Foint, situate upon the Bay aforesaid, near the River JVighco, on the west, 
unto the main ocean on the east ; and between that boundary on the south, unto that part of 
the Bay of Delaware on the north, which lieth under the fortieth degree of north latitude from the 
sequinoctial, where New England is terminated : and all the tract of that land within the metes 
underwritten {ihat is to say), passing from the said Bay, called Delaware bay, in a right line, by 
the degree aforesaid, unto the true meridian of the iirst fountain of the lliver of F(i/loinmicI(, 
Ihence verging towards the south unto the farther bank of the said river, and following the 


same on the west and south unto a certain place called C'mquack, situate near the mouth of 
the said river, where it disembogues into the aforesaid Bay of Chesapeake, and thence by the 
sliortest line unto the aforesaid promontory or place, called Watkin's Point, so that the whole 
tract of land, divided by the line aforesaid, between the main ocean and Watkiii's Point, unto 
the promontory called Cape Charles, and every the appendages thereof, may entirely remain 
excepted forever to us, our heirs and successors. 

IV. Also, We do grant, and likewise confirm unto the said Baron of Baltimore, his heirs 
and assigns, all islands and islets within the limits aforesaid, all and singular the islands and 
islets, from the eastern shore of the aforesaid region towards the east, which have been, or 
shall be formed in the sea, situate within ten marine leagues from the said shore; with all 
and singular the ports, harbors, bays, rivers and straits belonging to the region or islands 
aforesaid, and all the soil, plains, woods, mountains, marshes, lakes, rivers, bays and straits, 
situate, or being within the metes, bounds and limits aforesaid, with the fishings of every kind 
of fish, as well of whales, sturgeons, or other royal fish, as of other fish in the sea, bays, 
straits, or rivers, within the premises, and the fish there taken : and, moreover, all veins, 
mines and quarries, as well opened as hidden, already found, or that shall be found within the 
region, islands, or limits aforesaid, of gold, silver, gems, and precious stones, and any other 
whatsoever, whether they be of stones or metals, or of any other thing or matter whatsoever : 
and furthermore, the patronages and advowsons of all churches which (with the increasing 
worship and religion of Christ), within the said region, islands, islets and limits aforesaid, 
hereafter shall happen to be built. # » * * # 

V. And We do by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, make, create, and 
constitute him, the now Baron of Baltimore, and his heirs, the true and absolute lords 
and proprietaries of the region aforesaid, and of all other the premises (except the before 
excepted), saving, always, the faith and allegiance and sovereign dominion due to us, our 
heirs and successors. 

This is a true extract off the lort Baltimore's patent off the Province off Maryland. 
Examined by me. 

(Signed), Cecill Langford. 

This aforesaid extract is exactly taken from the authentic copy of my Lord 
Baltamoor's patent shown and permitted to be extracted this ^V October, 1G59, at 
Patuxen, at the house of Mr. Bateman. Done by nie. 

Ohservatmis of Messrs. Heermans and Waldron on Lord Baltimore's Patent. 

[ From the Bundle indorsed Verscheide Stukken raekende de Colonic rare N. Nederlandt, in llie Stad Huys, Amsterdam ; New-York Historical 

Society Collections, III., 384. ] 

Holland Documents, Uppou the Sight and View off Milord Baltemore's patents this 7 dayh 
xvi.,104. ^g- Octob. 1659. presented unto us by the Hon^ Gouvrneur and Concel off 

Maryland : 


To say. Ifeserved only wliat the Hon'' Gouver'-Generale and Concel of tbe New 
Netherl'' in the behalf off Ou'' Lords proprietor.s and Souveraignes, the high and 
inightie States-General off the United Province migiit have to alleadge against it. 

Wee repeete and repiye ou"' former declaration and innnifestatione, the Sixth off this 
jnstance, delivered unto the Honorable Gouvernor and Councelle off the Province of Marylandt, 
and says further : 

That the original! and fundation off the afores'' patent shevs-eth and maked appear 
that Mylord Raitamore iieas hath to his Royall Majestie off England petitioned for a 
Country in the parte off America that was not seated and taken in before, one lie 
inhabited as hee salth by a certain barbarous people, the Indians, uppon w*" ground 
his Royall Majesty, did grant and confirm the patente. 

But now whereas our South River off old called Nassau River off the Niew Netherl'' by the 
Inglisch surnamed delowar, was taken in, appropriated and purchased by vertue off 
commissione and grante from the high & michty States-General off the United Provinces long 
before. Therefore, [it was] in his Royal Mayestyes intention and justice, not to have given 
and graunted that parte off a Country w: before was taken in possessione and seated [by the 
subjects of the High and Mighty States-General of the United] Provinces as is declared and 
manifested heretofore soo that the clayme Mylord Balthamore's patent speaks off to Delawar 
baye or a parte there off in several! other respects and particulars is in valide, off which we 
desire that notice inaye bee taken. Actum as above. 

Governor ami Council of Maryland to the Director^ <£r., of JVeiv N^etherland. 

[ From tho liuiiille indorsed Verschi-ide Stukkeii raekendfi de Colonie van A' Nederhindt,'No. 49, in Ihe *?(«(/ 77i/y^, A niBtercIam ; 1 New-York 

Historical CoUeclions, III., 882. ] 

Elonorable Gentlemen : 

Holland Documents ^® '^'^^^ Tecclved your letters of credence by the hands of Mess" Augustine 
'"^^ '■'''" Heerman and Resolved Waldron, your Ambassadors, wherein, as we find many 

expressions of love and amity, we accompt ourselves obliged to return you real thanks in 
unfolding the cause which, as it seems, hath been the reason of your astonishment, and, as the 
matter shall permit, give you that satisfaction which, with reason, you can expect, and which 
we likewise shall exact from you in the rendering to us as substitutes of the Right Honorable 
Cecilius, Lord Baron of Baltemore, Lord Proprietary of this I'rovince, &c., that part of his 
Lordship's Province lying in Delaware bay, to us entrusted, and by you, as it seems, injuriously 
seated in prejudice to his Lordship's just right and title. 

For answer, therefore, unto your demands, by your said agents made, we say that Colonel 
Nathaniel Utie was by us, in pursuance of a command from the Right Honorable Lord 
Proprietary, ordered to make his repair to a certain people seated upon Delaware bay, within 
the 40th degree of northerly latitude from the equinoctial line, to let them know that they 
were residing within our jurisdiction without our knowledge, much less our license, without 


grant of land from, or oath of fidelity to his Lordsliip taken, both which are expressly by his 
conditions of plantation and laws to all comers here to inhabit, conditioned and enjoined ; 
and, further, to offer unto them such conditions in case they intended there to stay, as we 
ourselves enjoy. But in case of refusal and abode there made, to let them know we should 
use lawful means to reduce them to that obedience which all people within the degree aforesaid 
are bound to yield unto us intrusted within this Province by the Right Honorable Lord 
Baltemore, sole and absolute Lord and Proprietary of the same, by patent under the great seal 
of England, bearing date SO"* of June, in the year of our Lord God 103 , and since by act of 
Parliament confirmed (a copy whereof we have shown to your said Ambassadors). And since 
you, by your writing as well as by your Ambassadors, do insinuate that the said Colony 
in Delaware bay is seated there, by and under your command, we do protest, as well against 
them and you, as against all other persons, either principals or abettors in the said intrusion 
upon our bounds and confines, in order all damages and costs in due time, and by all lawful 
means to recover which we either have experienced, or shall at any time hereafter sustain, as 
well as the place so seated within our bounds and limits, and unjustly by you retained. 

The original right of the Kings of England to this country and territory must be our 
endeavor to maintain, not our discourse to controvert, or in the least our attempt to yield up, 
as being that which we can neither accept from any other power nor surrender to any other 
authority, without the consent of our Supreme Magistracy, their successors in the government 
of England, though we cannot but remind you that is no difficult matter to show the utter 
nullity of your pretended title to that part of this Province where those people live, who are 
now, if at all, for the first time owned by the High and Mighty States, to be seated in Delaware 
bay, by their order and authority, and that your patent (if you have any) from the States- 
General of the United Provinces, is invalid, void and of no effect. 

And as to those instructions by us delivered to the said Colonel Nathaniel Utie, so much 
insisted on by you, we say : they are such as every person, inhabitant of this Province, ought to 
take notice of as being subscribed by the Secretary of this Province, and to no other did we 
give them or he make use of them. Neither can we believe the High and Mighty States- 
General, &c., do think or will now own those people at Delaware bay to be there seated by 
their authority, since they have heretofore protested to the Supreme authority then in England, 
not to own their intrusion upon their territories and dominions. As to indebted persons, if 
any be here that are to you engaged, our courts are open and our justice speedy, and denied to 
none that shall demand it of us, which we think is as much as can, in reason, be expected, and 
the self same course we take, and the only remedy we afford to our neighbor Colony of Virginia 
and our fellow-subjects and brethren of England. Thus hoping that you will seriously weigh 
the consequences of your actions, we rest in expectation of such a compliance, as the style you 
give yourselves imports having taught us to subscribe ourselves 

Your affectionate friends and neighbors, 

(Signed), Josias Fendal. 
Beneath was: 

Signed in the name and by order of the Governor and Council of the Province of 
Maryland, [October 7"", 1G59, o. s.] 

Philip Calvert, Sec''. 
Lower was: 

Agrees with the copy. 

(Signed), Cornelis van Gezel, Seer''. 


Jounial of (lie Dutch Emlmsy to Maryland. 

[ From the Original In New-York^Colonlal Manuscripts, Secretary's Office, Albany, SVIII. * ] 

Journal kept by Augustine Heermans during his Embassy from the Riglit 
Honorable the Director-General, Petrus Stuyvesant and the Supreme 
Council of New JN'etherland, to the Hon'''" Governor-General and Council 
of Maryland, touching the pretensions set up by Colonel Nathaniel Utie to 
the South river. 

1G59. September 30"', Tuesday. Set out on our journey from New Amstel about noon, 
accompanied by Resolved Waldron and our attached soldiers and guides, and, after traveling 
about an hour, arrived at a small creek which comes from the hunting country. Our course, 
as we computed, was W.N.W. About four miles and a half" further came to a little creek or 
run of water, which we suppose flows from Jacger''s (the Hunter's). Our course was due west, 
and, having traveled about three miles further, came to another run of water flowing southwards, 
where we must encamp for the night, as the Indians would not proceed any farther. Notliing 
occurred on the way except hearing a shot fired to the north of us, which the Indians doubted 
not was by au Englishman. Whereupon we fired 3 shots, to see if we should be answered, 
but observed nothing. 

October 1", Wednesday. In the morning, before sunrise, proceeded on our course W. by S., 
and so directly South again, crossed two little runs of water, branches, as we surmised, of the 
South river, and some dry thickets. The country afterwards became hilly, and again low; 
about 9 o'clock, came to the first stream that, the Indians said, flowed into the Bay of V'irginia, 
where we breakfasted ; we computed it to be about 5 leagues from New Amstel. This 
stream, the Indians stated, is called, in their tongue, Cimamus, which signifies Hare river, 
because the whole of this point {lioeclc) is so named. 

From this spring we proceeded S.W. and W.S.W. straight across the woods, without a path, 
and about 1 league or somewhat more, struck, as was presumed, the same kill ; following it 
along to where the tide comes up, we found the boat which the Indians mentioned, hauled on 
shore, and almost entirely dried up. 

We embarked and dismissed our 4 guides, but Sander Poeyer, with his Indian, accompanied 
us ; shortly after we pushed off", the boat became half full of water, whereupon we were 
obliged to land and turn the boat upside down; we caulked the seams somewhat with old 
linen, our people having left behind them the tow which had been given them for that purpose, 
and thus made it a little tighter, but one was obliged to sit continually and bail out the water. 
In that way, we came with the same tide a good league and a half down Elk river, and found 
ourselves at its east branch, where we built a fire in the woods, and proceeded with the night 
ebb on our journey with great labor, as the boat was very leaky, and we had neither ruilder 
nor oar, but merely paddles {pagayai"). 

October 2'\ Thursday. Having paddled down Elk river almost the whole of the night, came 
about 8 o'clock to Sassafrax river, where we stopped during that tide at , on the 

'The paper in Holland Documents, XVI., 141, being only an "Extract," h oiuitteii, anJ the Journal is translated and 
publii-hed entire from tlio original, as aliovc credited. — Kd. 

these distances are here expressed in the Dutch MS. by "hours," one of which is computed in the translation to be equal 
to three English miles. 

' gagayt is the Iroquois word for " paddle." Bruyai. 


plantation of one Mr. John Turner. Here we found Abraham the Fin, a soldier who had run 
away from Christina with a Dutch woman, and vviiom the hunter brought hither. We offered 
him the General's pardon, in case he would return to New Amstel within 6 months, and should 
he then be unwilling to reside at that place, he would be at liberty to go to the Manhattans. 
The woman accepted these conditions, having 3 months more to serve, when she would return. 
But the soldier raised many objections. We prevailed, however, so far on him, that he made 
us a pair of new oars. We set Sander Poeyer on shore here to obtain information, but we could 
not learn anything, as the only residents there were some Swedes and Finns, who had run 
away in the time of Governor Prins. Having thus had a little rest, and the tide being favorable, 
we prosecuted our course; we had only pushed off" from the shore, when the aforesaid Abraham 
followed us with one Marcus, the Fin, in a canoe, and would not let us pass, as they claimed 
the boat, and, notwithstanding we assured them that they should have the boat on our return, 
they forcibly held on to us, and this Marcus drew a pocket-pistol and threatened to fire if we 
would not stop. They had, besides, two snaphaunce ; we finally got rid of them with a great 
deal ado. On leaving the river, we heard a heavy firing on Colonel Utie's island, otherwise 
called , which we presumed must have proceeded from 50 or GO men ; it was 

mingled with music. This lasted until night, so that we conjectured they were making ready 
to go to the South river. On looking around for information, we accidentally found an infant 
plantation on our road, where people had come and were busy cutting down timber for a house, 
but the carpenter, who was one of my acquaintances, knew not what the firing meant, unless 
it might possibly be some feasting or frolic. He invited us, it being late, to remain with him 
through the night, as there was not another house on the way between this and Kent island, 
but we proceeded on our course and got 2 leagues farther. We would have gladly dispatched 
an Indian, could we have got one, to carry intelligence to New Amstel and to return to the 
Swedes with the boat, but we feared to be detained, so that we had no doubt but Sander 
Poeyer would have done his duty on that occasion. 

This Sassafrax river rises close by our creek, which empties near Reedy island. There is 
only a high hill between the two, whence both streams are equally visible. From that place 
the woman said she came down with the hunter. I understood that ships could sail up as far 
as this river, but no farther, because it is then shallow and navigable only for sloops, especially 
Elk river, which is quite shallow. 

October S"*, Friday. We rowed forward during the tide of that night and day until opposite 
Pools island, which we estimate to be miles from Sassafras river. It lies on the 

west shore, and we passed with our leaky boat along the east shore, observing nothing on 
the way except that there was no fresh water to be found far beyond here and Kent island. 
We arrived, towards evening, at the north end of Kent island, where, meeting a strong flood 
tide against us, and being fatigued, we took up our quarters with Captain Wikx, who 

resides on the point and is one of the 3 magistrates of that island. Getting into discourse with 
him, we could learn nothing of any general design that the English might have, up to this 
time, of invading the South river, but he had understood that it belonged to Maryland, and 
they were bound, by engagement, to aid in maintaining my Lord Balthamore's patent, or right 
and title. We replied, on the contrary and said, we should be able to prove that the river 
belonged to us of old and to no one else, and whoever should wish to have it, must, by force 
of arms, wrest it from us ; but that we, in the meantime, were prepared, and that 100 soldiers 
had already arrived and fully 100 more were expected, to defend the river to the last man. 
Vol. H. 12 


I5ut we hoped that tlie English, with whom we had lived so long in neighborly friendship, 
would not try to get another man's land and riglils, and thereby commence an open war, etc. 
From this conversation, he turned to certain news he had heard from Mr. Bateman, which 
Mr. Wright, the Indian Interpreter, had brought down to Accomacq, from above the Bay, that 
in regard to the war which the Indians and tiie English were at present waging against one 
another, the former acknowledged that they were incited by the Dutch of the Whorekill to 
murder the English, and that it happened in the following manner. A certain Indian met a 
Dutchman in the Whorekill and told him that he intended to kill a Dutchman because his 
father had been formerly slain by one. Whereunto the Dutchman answered, that his father 
had been killed by an Englishman and not by a Dutchman, and therefore that he should 
revenge himself on one of the latter. Thereupon the Indian went off and slew an Englishman, 
and in this way the war commenced. It was suspected that the Dutch had not only secretly 
fomented it, but had furnished the Indians with powder and ball and guns, with which they 
were most abundantly supplied, a circumstance that the English took very ill. At first 
denying, then extenuating the case, I inquired the name of the Dutchman who had given the 
Indian such counsel; but he answered, he did not know; in such matters no witnesses were 
called publicly, but in secret, so that he could not be persuaded to the contrary. 

We further inquired for a boat to convey us thence to the Governor and back, as our little 
skiff could not be used any longer, and was, also, too small. He offered us his own, but 
inquired what security he should have that he would get the boat back or be paid for it, as he 
had frequently before been deceived in that manner. To whicii we stated, that we could not 
give him any other security than our words and credentials, and that we should draw for security 
and payment on Mr. Browne, who, we presumed, was arrived with his ketch at Seavorn. 
And so we agreed at 20 lbs. of tobacco per day for the boat, and 20 lbs. tobacco for one man 
to accompany us, which was the lowest terms we could agree on. Otherwise, we should have 
been greatly perplexed, as we could not learn of any other opportunity liere. We found here 
's wife, who said she had come away with her husband's consent, as he 
intended to follow her; but when we offered her pardon if she were willing to return with 
us. Captain Wikx complained that she was so lazy that she did not earn her salt; whereupon 
we observed, that it was easy to infer from this, that she had run away from the South river 
through Ifziness and unwillingness to work. 

October -l"" We sailed or rowed over the Seavorn to see if Mr. Browne had arrived there 
and would accept the draft, but he had not come. Captain Wicx wished to lodge us that 
night at Colonel Utie's, who, we understood, was at his plantation at Seavorn, but we declined, 
saying that we believed he was above on hrs island, as there had been so much firing, and so 
we took up our quarters, it being dark, at the house of Mr. , father-in-law of Codtfried 

Harmer, the Indian trader, who, only a few days before, had gone up to his plantation ; but 
his wife and child were at home. We gave the former to understand that our nation attributed 
great blame to Codtfried for enticing and transporting our fugitives from New AmsteU and 
that he would, therefore, do well to get the runaways back again there. Whereupon his 
father-in-law and mother-in-law excused him, saying that they had come, from time to time, to 
him, and had eaten him so bare that he would scarce have food enough for iiiniself for the 
winter, and that he could not get the people to return nor could he refuse them a night's lodging, 
with many other excuses and complaints that the majority of the people they had seen, and 
even a poor, old man, with his wife and child, whom they had received in the greatest misery, 
were utterly idle and lazy, and not worth their food ; nay, that they were too lazy to wash 

7ber Oil 



their own spoons and the plates which tliey ate off. We again took occasion to answer, that 
it was evident enough from this, that the people had not run away on account of the badness 
of the place, nor on account of ill-treatment, but because they had neglected, at the time, to 
do anything for u living and had come to Virginia to gain the bread of idleness. But it was 
replied, with all that, many had died of hunger, and the people had been refused bread for 
money, etc. To this we again replied, that this could not be supposed to be true. 
Nevertheless, even had they suffered any wrong, they must complain to the General and 
Council of New Netherland and not run to a strange nation. To which they made answer, 
that the Director in the South river had refused and prevented their passage ; with many 
other debates, too long to be here stated, the substance whereof was finally as follows: Tliat 
the (Jeueral and Council of New Netherland should publish a general pardon so that each may 
reestablish himself, and that the condition of the Colonic be redressed, and that those who 
will not remain there but wish to go to the Manhattans, be conveyed thither. Tiie old man, 
who is a farmer and husbandman, promised to accompany us back to the Manhattans, but not 
to remain in the Colonie, which was allowed him. We understood, also, that there were 
many in Seavorn who hired themselves and their children as servants. We requested that 
they be notified to return, 

October -5: Sunday. Rising early in the morning, gave a draft on Mr. Browne to pay 

Captain Josias Wiks, on account of Genera! Stuyvesant, in New Netherland, 
so much of his goods for the hire or use of the boat, to the value of 20 lbs. of 
tobacco, and for one man to accompany us, also 20 lbs. of tobacco, the amount whereof should 
be stated on our return, and reimbursed in beavers or other articles at the Manhattans. But 
this was not sufficient for Captain Wicks; he made us sign an obligation that we should deliver 
his boat safe at his house, pay therefor 1-500 lbs. of tobacco, at Seavorn or Kent, or make it 
good in brandy at the Manhattans. Being thus agreed, we received intelligence that Colonel 
Utie was at home at his plantation, and Captain Wicks importuned us to pay him a visit. But 
we answered that we dare not lose the opportunity of wind and weather, and that our message 
to the Governor required dispatch, and therefore Colonel Utie must excuse us from visiting him. 
As it was Sunday, it would too probably retard and detain us, for which we could not answer, 
and thus, with such like excuses, we set forth on our journey, WMth a fair breeze and fine 
weather, which brought us towards evening to May Billingsly's plantation at the Cliffs, 
estimated to be miles from Seavorn. We did not observe any public preparations against 
the South river. 

October 6: Monday. Reached Patuxen river towards evening, where our people 

Seotember 27 requested a night's lodging at Mr. Coersy's. He welcomed us politely, being 
one of the Council with whom we had divers friendly conversations, and 
observed that Colonel Utie had been authorized to state at the Colonie of New Amstel that it 
was seated within their limits, and should therefore submit to them, but not to go to work with 
such menaces ; and he was not well pleased that, on that account, 100 soldiers, as we stated, had 
gone thither, for whose sakes we are the more urged to hasten our journey. We also learned 
here that my Lord Balthamoor's patent dated only from some time in the year 1034, to which 
we answered that our patent was issued full 40 years. Whereupon they claimed to derive 
theirs originally from Sir Walter Ralegh since the year 1584, and we, on the other hand, 
take our origin, as vassals and subjects, from the King of Spain, then the first finder and 
founder of all America- Thus concluded we our conversation, with the hope, which we 
mutually expressed, that this matter might be settled and adjusted without bloodshed. 


October 7 : Tuesday. Left our boat there and marched a-foot overland nine English miles, 

;:;: ; ^r " to the Secretary's, Mr. Philip Calvert, and Mr. Coersy conducted us full 3 English 

September 27. , , . , , n , • ir /, i ., i . •• i • .i r. 

miles on the right road. Reaching Mr. Calvert's plantation early in the atternoon, 

we sent tn-o of our people in advance to announce our approach and that we could not forbear 

paying him our respects, requesting passage across his creek to Mr. Overzee's, with whom we 

proposed to lodge, whereupon he invited us in, and after salutation we informed him that we liad 

been sent from the Governor-tieneral and Council of New Netherland to the Governor and 

Council of Maryland on weighty allairs, requesting him, therefore, with all speed, to be pleased 

to send intelligence thereof to the Governor, who lived English miles farther up, and to 

recommend that we have an early audience and dispatch. We then took our leave, crossed 

the creek and arrived at Mr. Symon Overzee's, to whom we were very welcome guests. 

October S: Wednesday. Mr. Overzee having invited the Secretary, Mr. Philip Calvert, 

. ^T" „r to dine, he came, being the next neighbor, early in the forenoon to visit us, 

September 28. . , . ^r ^ , . • < /- 

whom we again requested, in Mr. Overzee s presence, to inlorm Governor 

ffendal, as early as possible, of our coming, so that we may have an audience and be dismissed 

without delay, as the business was of great consequence, and caused daily great expenses not 

only as regards ourselves individually, who had, in addition, at our cost, a boat with a man at 

40 lbs. of tobacco per day, but principally in regard to the military and other preparations and 

expenses, which were expressly awaiting our return with over 100 soldiers who had come (rom 

the Manhattans. Thereupon he promised to do his utmost, but that nothing could be eifccled 

before the next court, which was to meet on of October. We then conversed about New 

Netherlaud and Virginia, and the conveniences of both being considered, he wished Maryland 

may be so fortunate as to have cities and villages like the Manhattans. And hereabouts, we 

gave him to understand that Manhattans signified the entire country, having preserved the 

ancient name of the Indian nation among whom the Dutch had first settled. And in this way 

proceeded to the boundaries, when he said that the Maryland patent extended along the sea 

from 3S to 40 degrees, wherein Delaware bay was also included, and so across to Pamaiis 

island and thence to the source of Potomax river. To which we observed, that the as"" to 

the 40"" degree must be understood [to apply] only to the upper part of Cheseapeak bay, and 

that then the Colony of Virginia extended from the lower part of the said bay to the sea. 

To this he replied : Not so ; and that it was expressly stipulated that they should extend 

unto New England, whereupon we inquired : If they wish to touch New England, where 

r would New Netherlaud be in that case? He answered: He knew not. And we said, that 

therefore, we, both of us, well knew that such was a mistake ; that our people were in 

possession of New Netherlands and had settled on that place several years before Lord 

Balthamoer had obtained his patent; further alleging, among other things, that Sir Edm. 

Ployten had, \fi former limes, set up a claim to Delaware bay, and that, therefore, one claim 

must be as good as the other. Whereunto he replied that Ployten liad had no commission, 

and lay in jail in England on account of his debts, relating that lie had solicited a patent 

for A\'ovum Albium from the King, but it was refused him, and he thereupon applied to the 

Viceroy of Ireland, from whom he had obtained a patent, but that it was of no value. 

Hereupon we confounded him by his own words, and said, that it was not certain whether 

my Lord Balthamoor's claim to Delaware bay, should he have any, was not obtained by 

fulsehood and misrepresentation, since it was very probable tliat the King of England would 

not have done anything against us, as he once had knowledge of, and consented to, the Dutch 

plantation of New Netherlaud, and had most expressly ordered and commaaded those of Virginia 


and New England, as we should prove by their own English authorities, not to approach within 
one hundred leagues of each otiier. It was, therefore, clear and evident, if their patent set 
forth that they could go as far as New England, that it was fraudulently obtained and of no 
value whatsoever. 

October 9: Thursday. Nothing occurred, except drawing up our proposals, which we 

September 29 t'io"ght best to do in English, in order to bring matters sooner to a speedy 


October 10: P'riday. Again, nothing has occurred, except that we lieard the Secretary 

Sentember 30 ^^^ communicated our arrival to the Governor by a letter forwarded from 

constable to constable. He invited us to dinner on Sunday. 

October -r, Saturday. Again, nothing special has occurred. We are impatiently waiting for 
the Governor's answer. 

October -^, Sunday. Accompanied Mr. Overzee to Secretary Calvert's to dinner, where 
Mr. Doughty,^ the Minister, accidentally called. After the cloth was removed, talked about 
Jiis charts or maps of the country, of which he laid on the table two that were engraved and 
one in manuscript. One was printed at Amsterdam, by direction of Captain Smith, the first 
discoverer of the Great bay of Chesapeake, or Virginia; the second appeared also to be printed 
at Amsterdam, at the time of Lord Balthamoor's patent; we knew not by whom or where the 
manuscript one was drawn. All differed, one from the other. He wished to prove from them 
the extent of Lord Balthamoor's boundaries, but we, on the contrary, showed and maintained 
that if Chesapeake bay ran, above, so crooked towards the northeast, they would come so far 
within our line. To this, he asked how could that be, for the English first discovered and 
possessed all these parts. Thereunto, we answered that the Dutch were three years earlier in 
our parts than they in theirs. To which he replied, that they took their beginning from Sir 
Walter Raleigh ; and we said we derive our origin from the King of Spain. But, he retorted, 
you were not yet a free and independent nation. He was then told that the King of Spain was, 
at the lime of the discovery of America, our King, and we were as much his vassals and subjects 
as they were the subjects of their King or Republic of England, but afterwards, when we were 
obliged to take up arms, and achieved our liberty, the King of Spain conveyed over, and to, us, 
in full propriety, by lawful right and title, all his own and other conquered lands in Europe and 
America. To this, he said that the King of Spain was, indeed, in the West Indies, but not so 
far to the north, and that the English were the first discoverers. And we again observed that 
the contrary could be proved from Spanish journals and chronicles, and also that even the 
French had, in the year 1524, been before them in these parts. Lastly, being half angry, he 
demanded whether the English had not been the first in Delaware bay, for it obtained its name 
from them. And we answered. No; that the Dutch had been the first in the river, long before 
Lord Delaware- ever came to Virginia, and we again asked : What right had the Kings of Spain, 

' Previously of Newtown, Long Island. ( See supra, L, 325.) Dis daughter, Mary, widow of Adrian Van der Donck { supra, 
I., 5S2), had married Uugh O'Neal, of Maryland. O'Callaghun's New Netherland, II., 551. 

' Thomas West, 8th Baron Delawarr, was knighted in the year 1600, and succeeded to his father's title 24th March, 1502 ; 
in 1603 he was one of the tweuty-five Lords of the Privy Council who announced the ascent of James I. to the throne; and 
in 1609 was constituted Captain-General of all the Colonies then planted or to be planted in Virginia, for which country he 
sailed the same year with three ships and one hundred and fifty Colonists, and landed at Jamestown 2Sd May, 1610. After 
Bilmioistering the government nearly a year he was obliged, by sickness, to embark for England, where he remained until 
161S, when he is said to have embarked asraiu for Virginia and to have died on the passage on the 7tli June, 1618. He was 
a person of a noble and generous disposition, and e.xpenJed much in promoting the colonization of Virginia. Collins' 
Peerage; Hobiies' Annah. — Ed. 


France or I^ii"lai)il, more than the Hollanders or the Dutch, to the New World — America? 
IJut these and such like discourses, running higher and higher, were left off; he said he had 
invited us as a welcome to the country, and thenceforward we conversed on other subjects, 
and parted from one anotlier with expressions of friendship. 

October \^, Monday. Nothing occurred. 

October -/> Tuesday. This being Court day at Potuxent, and Mr. Overzee going thither, we 
deemed it advisable to have a request only presented to [the Court] for audience and a place 
of reception, copy whereof is hereunto annexed. 

October -/", Wednesday. In tiie evening, about sunset, we received in answer, an invitation 
written by Philip Calvert, in the name and on the behalf of the Governor and Council, that 
we should have an audience at the house of Mr. liateman, sending, with this view, two 
horses to convey us there. 

October \-, Thursday. We took our departure in the morning from Mr. Overzee's for Mr. 
Bateman's, at Potuxen, being about 18 or 20 English miles, and about between 3 and 4 
o'clock in the afternoon, arrived Governor Josiah fiendall with Pliilip Calvert and the 
Councillors William .Stone, Thomas Gerrard, Nathaniel Utye, Edward Loyd, Luke Barber, 
Baker Broukx, who, alter fiaving welcomed us, and, after we had complimented them on the 
part of our Director-General and Council of New Netherland, thanked us cordially; and dinner 
being ready, the Governor said he would give us an audience after we had dined. And, sitting 
down to table, they placed me beside the Governor on his left hand; on his right sat Philip 
Calvert, the Secretary, next to him Resolved Waldron, and so on the other members of the 
Council around the table. During the dinner a varied conversation was held. 

The cloth having been removed, we were invited to the audience, and after we had again 
presented the friendly, neighborly respects and compliments of the Honorable Director-General 
and Council of New Netherland, we delivered, in the first place, our letters of credence, which 
the Governor, opening and seeing that they were written in Dutch, had Mr. Overzee called to 
translate them. Meanwhile, their substance being stated, we proceeded to deliver our speech 
in English, by way of Declaration and Manifest, which, for tliis purpose, we had previously 
committed to paper. In order that no mistake may be hereafter pleaded in the one or the 
other, we gave the Secretary the original, with the request that he would be pleased to collate 
it with us, and we distinctly and clearly read the duplicate, which we moreover delivered 
under the seal of our commission, declaring, when we had finished, that that was all we had 
to say, and to propose, at that time, on tlie part and in the name of the Director-General and 
Council, subscribing the same with our own hand, in the presence of all; and we exchanged 
the duplicate for the original, and the original again for the copy, which we returned, and left 
them the other. 

We perceived a great change, for some of the Council, as it seems, had no correct knowledge 
of what passed; and the Governor, in answer, inquired whether his letter, which he had 
sent apart from, or by Colonel Utie, had not been shown to the Governor-Cieneral of the 
Manhattans? We replied, No: his Honor had not seen any letter, but that we had, indeed, 
understood, at the South river, that Mr. Alrichs had received a private letter in answer to his, 
but without day or date, or place where written, whereof the General did not take any notice. 
Whereupon the Governor made answer, that he had nothing to do with the government of 
the Manhattans, but with the Governor and people who had lately seated themselves within 
his limits in Delaware bay, to whom they had sent Colonel Utie; not that he should have 


communicated his instruction wliicli had been given liim for his guidance and vindication 
only, as we were not obliged to deliver our instruction to them. To this we replied, that 
the Governor and people in the South river were not a separate, but subaltern and dependent 
government, and simply Deputy Governor and members of New Netherland, so that whatever 
was presented and given to them in the matter of chief jurisdiction, etc., did not affect 
them but the General and Council, and consequently, the whole State of New Netherland, 
and the Lords proprietors thereof; yea, the sovereignty of their High Mightinesses. 
Whereunto he again rejoined, that they did not know nor understand any better than that the 
Governor in Delaware derived liis commission from the city of Amsterdam, and had come 
with his people to settle there as a separate government. To which we again answered, No; 
but that the city of Amsterdam owned the place as a Colonic and particular district of New 
Netherland, which was similar, in manner and style, to their counties in Virginia or Maryland, 
and we had more such Colonies planted in New Netherland, so that whatever injury was done 
to the Colonic of New Amstel, was, I say, inflicted on the entire State of New Netherland. 
Meanwhile, Colonel Nathaniel Utie began to bluster and to say, that they ought not to take any 
notice at all of this matter; his acts had been directed against a people that had intruded into 
my Lord Balthamore's Province, and if the Governor and Council will again command him, he 
will again act as he had done. We rejoined thereto. If he returned and comported himself 
as he had done, he would lose the name of Ambassador and be dealt by as a disturber of 
the public peace, because a Deputy or Ambassador could not attempt anything except to 
notify the magistracy and Regents of the place in a courteous manner of his embassy; but 
to summon a place by fire and sword was the style of avowed enmity, war and hostility. To 
this he replied, that he had done nothing in contradiction to his commission and instructions. 
To which we rejoined, that they had only to look at the answer he had brought back, 
which would clearly show how he had acted. And he, thereupon, further said, that he heard 
they had threatened to send him to Holland; he only wished they had done so. We replied, 
that should he return and act as he had done, probably he would not fare any better. 
Whereupon he inquired, how, then, should he behave ? He had certainly sent two men 
before him to announce his approach ; afterwards put up at the public tavern, and was he, 
then, not to walk out and see the place and converse with the people who requested to have 
some discourse with him? To which we again remonstrated, that he was at liberty to see 
the place and converse with the people, but not to excite them to revolt and rebellion against 
their magistrates, and threaten them with being plundered and robbed in case they would not 
willingly surrender. So that these criminations and recriminations being bandied somewhat 
sharply and angrily, especially by the Colonel, the Governor was pleased to put a stop to 
him, and we were at liberty to express our meaning without any interruption, whereupon 
we referred entirely to our Manifest and Declaration, and to the answer which Colonel 
Uty himself had brought from New Amstel. We requested that such might be taken into 
consideration and that no frivolous discourses be allowed. 

The Governor submitted to the Council, among other things, that we had come without 
asking proper permission, which Colonel Uty might have given and signified. To which we 
answered that we were not acquainted with the state and form of their government, but that 
we should in future regulate ourselves according to such custom as may be pleasing to them to 
establish on such passage. Hereupon, Colonel Utie began again to exclaim, saying that we 
ought to have first recognized him and gone to his island, and inquired if we should be permitted 


to proceed fartlier, adding, in so many words tliat, had he met us, or had he known of our 
coming, lie woiihi iiave detained us lliere, and not allowed us to go on. But one of the Council 
softened that expression by saying that we should have been furnished with a better boat and 
accommodation, for we had stated that we had come down in a small, leaky boat, and dared 
not venture from the shore. JUit we readily discovered that, had we not done our best to 
avoid Colonel Utie on the way, he would liave at once endeavored to prevent our design. 

At length, after some debate, we were invited to withdraw, and, after a short deliberation, 
were recalled and inlormed that they had acted by special order and command of Lord 
IJidtiiuoor, whose right and jurisdiction they are sworn to maintain, and that they w^ould 
exhibit Lord Baltamoor's patent on the morrow, until when they should defer any further 
public business, and pass the remainder of the evening over a glass of wine, promising, on our 
request, to dismiss us by next Saturday. 

Meanwhile, we proceeded to engage one and another of them, from time to time, in private 
conversation, and at one time to dispose them to a friendly course, and to have the claim tliey 
set up to our limits, and we to theirs, decided by commissioners, in order to avoid further 
mischief and bloodshed; at another, to agree to an intimate correspondence and confederation 
for reciprocal trade and intercourse. We found the majority of them favorably inclined to this 
view, but yet, they gave it to be understood that it was not in their power, and had no other 
commission than to defend Lord Baltimoor's lawful patent. This they were disposed to do, 
however, with all [)ossible and justifiable prudence. 

I had also a private conversation on that point with the Governor, who declared that he 
would prefer to continue in peace and quietness than to live in hostility and war. 

October -f-, Friday morning. After breakfast, the Governor and Council laid before us Lord 
Balthamoor's patent, and read to us the article respecting his jurisdiction. We requested 
a copy thereof, when we should answer it. We were then allowed to make an extract 
of it ourselves. Meanwhile, the Governor and Council went to hold their Court at the next 
town, whilst we, in the meantime, read and reread the above mentioned patent, extracting 
the point respecting the boundary, to which we drew up on paper a written refutation. For we 
found that it was set forth in the preamble that Lord Balthamoer had applied to and petitioned 
ilis Majesty for a tract of country in America, which was neither cultivated nor planted, but 
only inhabited, as yet, by barbarous Indians. In answer whereunto, we maintained that our 
South river, called, of old, Nassaw river, had been long before occupied, appropriated and 
purchased by us in virtue of a commission and grant of their High Mightinesses the Lords 
States-General of the United Netherlands, and therefore that it was his Royal Majesty's intention 
and justice not to have given away and granted that part of a country which had been previously 
taken possession of and settled by the subjects of their High Mightinesses the Lords States- 
General, as already declared and demonstrated, and that Lord Balthamor's patent was invalid 
where it makes mention of Delowar bay, or any part thereof, as well as in various other 
respects and particulars. We requested a note might be made of this. The Governor and 
Council returning in the afternoon, and supper being over, we delivered the above mentioned 
answer in writing, having read the same aloud. Whereupon we perceived another change, and 
the Governor made his defence: That, on the contrary, our assertion and action were invalid, 
for the aforesaid patent was granted by the King, with full knowledge and understanding of the 
case, that Delowar bay should remain and belong to the English, and demanded a view of our 
patent to New Netherland. We answered that we had it not to show them, much less had we 


come for that purpose, but only to prepare a way for a future meeting of deputies on both sides, 
then to dispose chiefly of that point, agreeably to our advice contained in our declaration. The 
Governor thereupon made answer that they then ought not to have exhibited their patent, 
from which we concluded that they regretted having discovered and exposed themselves so far, 
saying if that part of the patent was invalid, or if they yielded it, the entire patent would then 
become void. We replied to that ; we would not make any further observation on that article, 
except so far as it concerned us, and they set up a claim to our limits. Whereupon the 
Governor rejoined : That Col. Clabborn had heretofore set up the same exception against 
Lord Balthamoer in regard to the Island of Kent, of which said Col. Clabborn held that he had 
taken actual possession before the aforesaid patent had been granted, but that it did not avail, 
and fared badly with him, so that he was obliged to beg his life from Lord Balthemor. To 
this we answered that this was a different case ; that we were not subjects of England, but 
a free, sovereign people^belonging to the Dutch nation, who, as we had already declared, had 
as much right to take possession of any lands in America as any other nation. And with this 
and such like debates, was the meeting adjourned for the night. 

October \-, Saturday. The Governor and Council being met in order to our dismissal, they 
again "demanded the exhibition of the patent we had to the South river. We gave them for 
answer, that we had not brought it with us, but referred that point to future Commissioners 
on both sides, and we again withdrew. They drew up their answer, which they read to us 
who were called in for that purpose.^ 

Hereupon we asked their Honors whether this writing contained all they had to dispatch 
by us. To this they declared, they had nothing else ; but that they persisted therein. We, 
then, again inquired, how we were to act in the matter of our military ; whether all further 
hostility and encroachment should cease, and we might safely send back our garrisons and 
soldiers, or whether we must let them continue there. To this they answered, that we must 
please ourselves in that matter, and they would act as they thought best. Whereunto we 
replied, that we should, in that case, remain on our defensive, as we had declared and 
protested, and that we hoped, nevertheless, that they would not be guilty of any clandestine 
attack and treachery, as is usual in public and open war, but according to the custom in 
neighborly and public peace and alliance between nations, first give notice and warning that 
friendship is at an end. To which they rejoined : that they should act therein as would be 
most advisable. We further inquired, what was to be the understanding on the subject of 
our fugitives, and received for answer, that they should, by law, oblige such as were in debt, 
to pay, but they did not mean to send them back, inasmuch as they considered the people in 
Delowar bay to be under their jurisdiction, and consequently were not fugitives from the 
General and Council of the Manhattans. Whereupon we replied, that we too would adhere 
to the lex talionis, in order to act in like manner towards their fugitives. And thus terminated 
our meeting and business. 

The Governor also asked what Dutch Swedes meant — why we named them so in our 
Declaration ? And we answered, because the greatest number of them were partners of 
Dutchmen and formerly resorted under the Hon"* Company's jurisdiction, and had been 
heretofore connived at, until they began to be so insolent in the river as not to hesitate forcibly 
to seize, in a treacherous manner, on Fort New Amstel, previously Casimier, whereby the 

' See iupra, p. 86. — Ed. 
Vol. H. .13 


General and Council of New Netherland were compelled and obliged to clear and purge the 
river, once for ail, of sucli disiionest and hypocritical friends. 

October -'</> Sunday morning. Again, having breakfasted, their Honors' answer, fairly 
written out by the Secretary, was placed in our hands, and so took a most friendly leave, as we 
could not but perceive, that were it in their power they would willingly incline to a friendly 
agreement, but that they must lirst have authority to that effect from Lord Balthamoer, or 
otherwise wait for such order as he may send respecting it this summer; for I so understood, 
in private conversation, from the Secretary, Philip Calvert, who is Lord Balthamoer's half- 
brother, that they expected something to this purpose, though they knew not what ; for Lord 
Balthamoer had, last year, ordered them to inform him what they had done with the people of 
Delowar bay, to which they had answered, that they could not yet write anything as to the 
effect, but that they intended to do so and so. 

W<! had, likewise, some private conversation on the subject of establishing mutual trade 
and commerce, overland, between Maryland and Delowar bay, which, I assured him, could 
easily be carried on, as soon as this question was terminated and the limits on both sides 
adjusted. I recommended him to notify his brother thereof, in order to engage him therein 
in all reasonableness, for not only his Province in general, but himself in particular, would 
be most essentially benefited by such trade, so that an effort might then be made to establish 
an easy passage by land for mutual intercourse. 

He also particularly inquired about the Hill, which we had proposed in our declaration for 
a neutral meeting, where the Sassafrax river, in Virginia, and the creek which enters the 
South river behind Reedy island, seem to take their rise ; and we are to institute and make 
further inquiry respecting that Hill at the earliest opportunity. 

Finally, we returned together from Patuxen river to St. Mary's, to our quarters at Master 
Simon Overzee's. 

October }"-, Monday. Nothing particular occurred, except preparing to dispatch Kesolved 
Waldron to the South river and the Manhattans. 

October lii Tuesday. Sent off Resolved Waldron on his return, overland, with the reports, 
papers and documents respecting our negotiations, and I set out for Virginia to ascertain 
the opinions of the Governor and others there concerning this matter, and thus to create 
some diversion between them both ; also, to clear ourselves, at the same time, of the slander 
which some people seek to attach to us, that we had excited the Indians to massacre the 
English at Accomacq. 

God grant that the whole may redound to the glory of His name and the general advantage 
and safety of us all, and that we may be directed by His Divine Majesty. Amen. 

In haste, 

AuGUSTYN Hermans. 


Messrs. Heernians and Waldron to Director Stuyvesant. 

[ 'From tlie Bundle iiidorscd Yerscheide Slukken ruekende de ddoiiie ran N. Nednlandt, So. 48, in the Slad Httijs^ Amsterdam. ] 

Right Honorable, Wise, Prudent the Honorable Petrus Stuyvesant, Director-General, and 
the Supreme Council of New Netherland. 


Holland Documents ^^ repaired, in obedience to our commission, from the South river to Virginia, 
XVI., 16G. ^jjj.| ^g much dispatch as possible, but we could not accomplish the business nor 

get it disposed of sooner. 

Your Honors will learn from the annexed journal the transactions from day to day, and from 
the duplicate of the adjoined Manifest and Declaration, what we set forth, notified and protested, 
on your part, to the Governor and Council assembled in Council, as well as the opinion we 
submitted and communicated to them. Hereupon they, however, have not been willing to do 
anything final, as your Honors can see from their answer inclosed herein, the substance whereof 
cannot be considered anything else than simply the justification of what Colonel Nathaniel Utie 
did in New Amstel ; that it was done by their authority, and that they still adhere thereto, so 
far as being commanded thereunto by their Lord Baltamoor, independent of whom they cannot 
do anything, much less act in the matter of his patent and boundary, and therefore the business 
is to be left standing. The Declaration and Manifest which we drew up and presented, shows 
on what basis we placed our case. We doubt not but it will meet with your approbation, and 
that you will seasonably prepare whatever is to serve thereunto hereafter, for if we will retain 
what we have, all the allegations we submitted to them must be punctually proved, whereof I 
shall give your Honors a fuller account when I return home. Meanwhile, I find the public 
service and your Honors' reputation require that I proceed hence to Virginia to the Governor 
there, to communicate the state of affairs in your Honors' name, and to inform and prevail so 
far on him, in opposition to the action of Maryland, if he will not take our part, that he will 
not oppose us, but if it cannot be otherwise, that he at least will remain neutral and our 
confederated friend. And, at the same time, to inquire into the state and circumstances of 
Lord Baltimore in England, and how the boundary can best be efTected. My opinion is that, 
possibly, it would not be unwise for the Directors, who have cause enough to do so, to depute 
one of their Board to Lord Baltimore to see whether an agreement could not be made quietly 
with him. But, first of all, the South river and the Virginias, with the lands and kills between 
both, ought to be laid down on an exact scale as to longitude and latitude, in a perfect map, 
that the extent of country on both sides may be correctly seen, and the work afterwards 
proceeded with, for some maps which the English have here are utterly imperfect and prejudicial 
to us. The sooner this is done, the better, before Baltamoor whispers in the ears of the States 
of England, and thus make the matter much more difficult. Meanwhile, the places and forts 
in the South river ought not to remain without considerable force, through fear of a sudden 
invasion, for which 1 observe, as yet, no preparation or disposition; but a sleeping enemy is 
not to be trusted. 


Thus far have I found myself obliged to notify your Honors, provisionally. I shall further 
use my utmost diligence to examine and understand, as well as possible, vfhatever will in any 
wise relate to your Honors' reputation, and the greatest profit and advantage of the Hon'''^ the 
West India Company, and commending your Honors to God's Holy care and protection. 

(Signed), A. Hermans. 
Dated tr October, 1G50, R. Waldron. 

At St. Mary's, in Maryland. 

Agrees with the copy. 

(Signed), Cornelis van Gesel, Secr^. 

He-solution of tlie Common Council of (lie City of Amsterdam, 

' [ From the liesotutien van dc Vroedsc/tappen, B. 174, iu the Stad ITui/s, Amsterdam. ] 

8"" November, 1G59. 
The Burgomasters have submitted to the Council that, pursuant to its 

Holland Documenis, ° ^ 

^'f''^^- Resolution adopted on the SO"" of last September, they had conferred with the 

12,000 gl. to be bor- . . 

rowed for the af- Directors of the West India Company, in order to surrender, on equitable terms 

fairs of Ihc Colome r J ' ' T 

inndfSuo to^crn'r to that compauy, the Colonic which this city undertook, to plant in New 
BSiboniiovodS Netherland, but that no agreement could be concluded thereupon, as yet, and 
that, meanwhile, the city is dunned for the payment of the interest which is due 
on the moneys borrowed on interest on account of this city, for the promotion of said Colonie, 
as well as of some bills of exchange drawn on this city for account of that Colonie, amounting, 
first, for the payment of interest and exchange, to the sum of about 12,000 gl., to meet which 
sum, no moneys can be found, except by borrowing. 

Which being considered, the city consents to the negotiation of the aforesaid 12,000 gl., and 
Cornelis de Graeff, Baron of South Polsbroeck, Sieur Nicolaes Tulp, Sieur Gilles Valckenier, 
Mr. Henrick Hooft, Mr. Peter Cloeck and Coenradt Burgh are appointed, in default of the 
aforesaid agreement, to call on the West India Company (which, however, shall not be 
insisted on), to consult in what manner the city can best be released from the burden of the 
aforesaid Colonie. 


Account of Moneys horrowed for the Colonie on the Delatoare River. 

[ From the Bundle indoraed VefscJi^ds Stukken raek^ncU de Colonie van N, Kederlandt^ No. S4, in tlio Stad Huys^ Amsterdam. ] 

Holland Documents Moneys rcccived, on interest at 3 J per cent, on account of the city of 
■'^^■'^''*" Amsterdam's Colonie, establisiied in New Netherland. 

A" 1656. 

20"* November. From Burgomaster Johan van de Pol, fl. 5,000.00 

10"" December. From Mess", the Orphan Masters, on account of: 
Pieter, son of Pieter Pieterson, merchant- 
tailor, fl. 6,300.00 

Meyndert Seivertsen's 2 children, 600.00 

Claes Claessen Pos' children, 700.00 

Jan Ennesenmugge's 2 children, 1,400.00 

Hiibrand Flory'e child, 800.00 

Joost Duyn's child, 800.00 

Cornelis Cornelissen Coster's 2 children,.. 1,000.00 

Christoftel Hoffman's children, 600.00 

Jacobus Reepmaecker, 3,300,00 

The heirs of Hendrick Evertsen of Oost- 

winde, 2,000 . 00 

Adam de Wees, 3,600.00 

16"" January. From Mess", the Orphan Masters, on account of: 

Mr. Steven van der Hagen, Secretary,.... fl. 4,000.00 

YbeTjaers' children, 1,000.00 

Captain Cornelis Stoffelsen Verbeeck's 

daughter, 1,800.00 

Cornelis Thomasen's children 1,200.00 

Jochem Flint's child, 1,200 , 00 

Trynte Jans Hoochsaet, as heir of Aeffgen 
Jans' children, 800.00 

O"" April. From Burgomaster Johan van de Pol, fl. 2,000.00 

From the same on account of Eva Reyniers, Isay 

Wynant's children, 4,000.00 

1" May. From Burgomaster Cornelis van Hooswyck, 3,000.00 

From Agata van Ousthooren, widow of Mr. 

Roeloff" Bicker, 3,000.00 

9"" May. From Mess", the Orphan Masters, on account of : 
Margaretha, the daughter of Gysbert Cor- 
nelissen Fuyck, 9,000.00 

Andries Boelissen, 3,000.00 




Amount carried forward, fl. 59,000.00 


1G57. Amount liroiightrorwnrd, fl. 59,000.00 

6"' June. From Mess", the Orphan Masters, for account of 

Cornells Reyniers, son of (ien' Carel Ueyniers, 12,000.00 

]0"'Jijly. From Mess", the Orphan Masters, for account of 

Mr. van Swieten's daughter 6,000.00 

G"' November. From Mess", tlie Orphan Masters, on account of 

Catliarina Hendricx' children G, 700. 00 

29"" ditto. From Mess", the Orphan Masters, on account of: 

.Martin Willenisen Schagin's children fl. 5,600.00 

The lieirs of Hendrick Jansen vander Kley, 2,S00.00 

Jan Claessen Swaeg's children, 900.00 



21"' June. From the Governors of St. Peter's hospital, 10,000.00 

IS'* July. From Mess", the Orphan Masters, on account of: 

Symon van Neck, fl. 2,000.00 

Arnout Iludde, 3,500.00 

Tlie child of Pieter Pietersen Deecken- 

camer, , . , 4,500 . 00 


IQ"" October. From Mess'', the Orphan Masters, on account of: 

Micheil Lunenburgh's children fl. 2,500.00 

Abraham van Prison's children, 2.500.00 

Isaac van den Ende's cliildren, 2,000.00 



IS"" November. From Mess", the Orphan Masters, on account of: 

Alexander Meynen's children, fl. 9,500.00 

Grietjin Luyten's heirs, 2,500.00 


Total, fl. 132,000 . 00 

On which moneys is already due, and yet to be paid, the following interest, to wit: 

On a capital of 11. 5,600, already due, fl. 1,960.00 

On a capital of 7,000, payable in October, 245.00 

On a capital of 33,000, payable in November, 1,155.00 

On a capital of 20,000, payable in December, 700 . 00 

On a capital of 10,000, payable in January, 1G63, 350.00 

Alreadypaidof GOO, payable in Aprillast, 210.00 

Principal, fl. 132,000. Interest, fl. 4,620.00 


Proceedings at the Colonie on the Delaware River. 

\ From the Bundle indorsed Verscheide Slukkr:n rackendc d<i Colonic raji N. Nedp.rlandt^ Xo. 47, in the Stad Huys, Amf^terdam. ] 

Holland Documents Extract from the Minutes of the Hon'''' Director, Council and Schepens in 
XVI., 157. jj^jg Qoio„ie of New AmsteL 

Present — Mr. Hinojossa, 

Gerrit van Sweringen. 

P'riday, 14"' November, 1659. 

Jan Willemsen declares that Francis Bloetgoet came to him on tlie morning of the , the 
day after the delivery of the answer to the deduction of the Commissioners, Mr. van Ruyveu 
and Marten Kryger, and told him tliat he was authorized to go around to all the Burghers, 
and to say that the Commissioners w^ould leave soon ; therefore, that whoever had any 
complaint or recommendation to make, should communicate the same In writing, and it would 
be answered at the Manhattans, and that he had done so. 

Thursday, IS"- November, 1659. 

Present — d'Hinojossa, 

G. van Sweringen, 
Jan Willemsen, 
Jan Crato. 

Jan Teunissen, carpenter, declares that he applied to Mr. van Ruyven for employment as a 
soldier, who answered him thereto : If you be a soldier, you must stand sentry, and therefore 
cannot earn much ; you should prefer coming to the Manhattans as freeman, in order to be 
employed as carpenter by private persons or even by Mr. Stuyvesant, and as such had only to 
ask wages; whereunto he replied that he did not know what to ask; further, that said Mr. 
van Ruyven had recommended him to draw his wife's pay, and when he came to the Manhattans 
he should not be sent back here again, thereunto taking down his promise, under oath, that he 
should not depart out the Province of New Netherland before this Colonie or the city of 
Amsterdam were paid. 

(Signed), Jan Theunissen. 
Beneath was : 

To my knowledge. 

(Signed), Cornelis van Gesel, Secretary. 

Jan Scholten declares that his wife had, without his knowledge, presented a petition to Mr. 
van Ruyven and Captain Marten Kryger for permission to leave here, and that when he learned 
it, he then, at their invitation, hath himself spoken on the subject to the above named gentlemen, 
that his wife may be allowed, agreeably to her request, to leave for the Manhattans, to which the 
said gentlemen had answered, seeing that there was no means of doing so, they thought it best 


to see and effect it in tiie same wise and manner as Maria Wouters went from here, whereunto 
the aforesaid gentlemen promised to afford every aid and assistance. 

(Signed), Johannes Scholten. 
Beneath was : 

To my knowledge. 

CoRNELis VAN Gezel, Secretary. 

Jacob Crabbe declares being heretofore in conversation with Sheriff Gerrit van Sweringen 
on a particular suit decided by this Council, from which he, Crabbe, had previously appealed, 
but did not prosecute the same at the proper time, and was therefore adjudged in default, and 
could not prosecute his aforesaid right any further, that Mr. van Ruyven had said to him, 
Crabbe, in presence of the Director: Petition the Director-General and Council to be purged, 
80 as to institute your action anew. 

(Signed), Jacob Crabbe. 
Beneath was: 

To my knowledge. 

CoRNELis VAN Gezel, Secretary. 

Saturday, 2^'"^ November, 1659. 
Present — d'Hinojossa, 

G. van Sweringen. 

Tryntien Croonenburg, wife of Jan Theunissen, being summoned and asked for her 
husband, who had broken out of jail at night, and how was she to have gone away with 
Karreman, and on what conditions, she hath declared that, on the Commissioners, Cornelia 
van Ruyven and Martin Kryger, suggesting and insisting that she would be much better 
at the Manhattans, for there were such good opportunities there to make money and obtain 
bread, as was to every one of the Colonists also sufficiently well known, and that the entire 
people had listened to the aforesaid gentlemen, and taken into their heads to remove to the 
Manhattans; wherefore, that she likewise endeavored to go away in this manner with 
Karreman, declaring, further, that she does not know how or in what manner her husband hath 
agreed with Skipper Carreman, but, indeed, that Carreman's wife and servant have had 
knowledge of it who have helped to put her furniture on board, complaining, now, that the 
aforesaid gentlemen were away, and she was left in trouble. Thus done in the presence of 
Jan Juysten and Jan de Barelle, as witnesses hereunto invited. She, Tryntie Cronenburg, 
further declares that whenever she spoke to Carreman about going away with him, he said 
and answered : Away ! away ; can't you come on board at night ; you must do tliat. In 
presence, etc., signed with the mark of Trijntien Cronenburgh, wife of Jan Theunissen. Jan 
de Barelle and with the mark of Jan Juysten. 

Beneath was : 

To my knowledge. 

(Signed), Cornelis van Gezel. 

Lyntie liarens, wife of llendrick Assuerus, declares that Michiel Karreman hath allowed 
and permitted her to accompany him to the Manhattans in his sloop ; that she accordingly put 



her property on board, saying also, that wlien the Commissioners were here she had been 
with them, because she saw everybody running to them, and the current report was, that the 
Manhattans and this place were all one, and the Commissioners could and were empowered to 
do everything, and therefore 'twas the same thing whether people, if they wished to go to the 
Manhattans, went to the Commissioners or to these magistrates. Thus executed in presence 
of Christiaen Libart and Claes Antonis, invited as witnesses. In testimony, signed with the 
mark made by Lyntie Barents, wife of Hendrick Assuerus, Claes Antonis and Christiaen 
Libart, as witnesses. 

Beneath was : 

To my knowledge. 

(Signed), Cornelis van Gezel, Secretary. 

Jan Pyl, being summoned, declares that Captain Kryger's sergeant asked him, as they were 
sitting together drinking at Albert Jansen's house, if he would wish to be employed, and having 
thereunto answered yes, but that he was not free of the Colonic, as his passage money was 
not paid, howbeit much more was due at Fop Jansen's, so that the sergeant thereunto again 
replied that he, Pyl, should get his account and give him his chest, to be carried on board, and 
he should mention it to the Captain. Whereupon he afterwards was sent for by the Captain in 
the fort, and coming there, did not find him, but the under Commissary, Mathys Capito, who 
said to him in the Captain's name that he had applied for his account: also that the same had 
asked him the next day whether he had already got liis account, offering to confirm the 
same by oath. Thus done in presence of Hendrick Gerritsen, Court Messenger, and Claes 
Antonisen invited as witness. 

(Signed), Jan Pyl. 
Hendrick Gerritsen van Gesel, 

Claes Antonis". 

Beneath was: 

To my knowledge, 

(Signed), Cornelis van Gesel, Secretary. 

Antony Briandt, being summoned, declares that his wife, on the ofTer of Mr. van Ruyven to 
assist him in a certain suit and difTerence between him and the Director, arising out of a certain 
contract, on which judgment had been, since 5 @^ 6 months, pronounced by the Council, hath 
given verbal procuration and power, in order to be relieved of said judgment, which Mr. van 
Ruyven then hath promised his wife, shall be performed for her, free of cost and damage; that 
his wife hath delivered over thereunto all papers and vouchers to the said Mr. van Ruyven, 
ofTering to confirm the same by oath, if necessary. Thus executed in presence of Jan van 

Vol. II. 14 


Kalcker and Reynier Raven, invited as witnesses, wlio, with the above named Briandt, hath 

subscribed these. 

(Signed), Antoxy Briandt. 

Jax Evertson van Kalcker and 
R. Ravens. 

Beneath was : 

To my knowledge, 

(Signed), Cornelis van Gezel, Secretary 

Under was : 


(Signed), Cornelts van Gezel, Secretary. 

Sheriff Van Sweringen to the Commissioner'^ of the Colonie on the Delaware River. 

[ From the Buudlo imlorseil YeradixUU Sttikken raekende Je Colonie van A'. NcderlanM, No. 58, in the Stad JIuys, Ainet«rdam. ] 


I cannot forbear, by this occasion, saluting you and oflering you my humble 

HoUand Documents, 'J ' o j a J J 

xvL, iss. service. I hope your Honors will be disposed to accept it, on my Petition by 

the ship the So7i, etc., as I have been admitted, subject to your Honors' approbation, Schout 
and Councillor in the stead of the late Commissary Rynevelt, whose place, as Commissary, I 
have filled, since his death, to the 20"" November, lGo9, only for want of others, as I have 
never been inclined to continue in such employ, as your Honors will have fully seen per my 
last. I have, also, verbally told the Director that I was not willing to do so, whereupon he 
answered me, I shall think of it. This is all that is to be expected whenever anything is 
asked of him. Some time afterwards, I allowed Domine Welius to request it. He gave for 
answer: When his house is built ; which he plainly saw could hardly be done in a year for want 
of workmen, and because of the size of that house, which is, at present, about finished, so 
that now I am heard by my Petition and discharged for the term of 3 months. Thereupon, 
Cornelis van Gezel hath taken charge of the store by inventory, but I have nothing to say to the 
specifying of the 3 months, but can well consider that men, on the expiration of 3 months, 
will not retract and restore me therein and again make an inventory of the store. It appears 
to be a trick to hold me bound to it, and also in regard that he hath placed his nephew 
therein, to which Mr. d'Hinojossa is somewhat opposed because they are too nearly related, 
and for other reasons thereto adduced. 

What now appertains to the books or accounts : 'tis now, by the hard driving of Mr. 
Hinojossa, resolved that they shall be prepared, but I still fear nothing will come of it, for 
the Director, as I hear, has to your Honors thrown the blame on us, and that they cannot, 
therefore, be ready. But I wonder much that so clever a man, who appears to be so expert at 
book-keeping, should have recourse to such pitiful excuses before so wise a board as your 
Honors. I should fear being severely reproved therefor. 

On this subject I have submitted a proposal to him through Mr. Hinojossa, viz.: that the 
accounts, or what the people have received, both in provisions and merchandise, in the year 


1G57, were delivered by him through the aforesaid Ilynevelt ; now what appertains to the 
year '58 is also ready, the same as '57, so that his Honor, if he have any desire, can easily 
go on, and I offer to subjoin 1G59 also, before he wants it, or forfeit 100 guilders. To this he 
made answer: What I have is mere chikl's work; wherein his Honor spoke correctly, for 
he treats the Commissary as a mere child and would never make him wiser, withholding his 
commission and instruction. He himself kept the books of monthly wages, whereof he will 
boast some night or morning, but I trust 'twill meet with very little consideration from you, 
for, when the Commissary knew what his office was, it made him frequently sad, asking Mr. 
Alrichs for his instruction, to which, in [my] presence, he gave for answer: My order is 
your instruction. Whereupon Jonkh'' Rynevelt was obliged to apply for it further off, and his 
instruction followed by the So?i, but things were then brought in a train, as already stated, so 
that nothing then remained to be done, and shortly after he died, after having accomplished 
his time here honestly and piously, constantly endeavoring honorably to advance the public 
interests of the city ; but the good man has been always put off by his goodness, so that he 
had nothing either here or there. 

To return, then, to the foregoing, relative to the accounts, it can well be considered that 
whoever simply and faithfully confines himself to disbursing to this one and that, on the 
Director's order, cannot deliver his account, except on a debit sheet, the same as any one, in like 
manner the provisions from year to year, but to arrange his credit, that must be the business 
of him who receives the debt, purchases wares, holds the proceeds in hand and disposes 
thereof; but disposing of city's means is now, God help it, an easy matter here, as they are few 
or none except about 2,000 guilders in merchandise and what General Stuyvesant hath sent 
on credit, notwithstanding there must be a considerable sum, in addition. There's still in 
store some shirts, women's hose, and some bales of coarse cloth, with a parcel of hats and 
shoes ; the best wares are disbursed for provisions procured in the Sonne many of which 
were sold by me for Wampum on the Director's order, in small quantities, so that the store 
might well be called a grocery. The proceeds I carried every week to his house or he gave 
orders on me, which, at the end, amounted to so much that I sometimes must disburse 4 or 5 
hundred guilders of my own, which I could not do any longer, it tending to the injury of those 
whose goods I had on hand, which gave me more and more an aversion to the store. Again, 
through ail this selling, chaffering and bartering, I dreaded to come, finally, into trouble with 
the Director ; for confused accounts and an empty treasury bring a man to his wits' ends, and 
his Honor is daily talking of rendering an account, and I would readily shove everything from 
his head, but I hold myself excused from that, as I have never been willing to take any 
justification upon myself, for divers reasons, such as the leakiness of the store in the fort ; the 
detaching the store from our dwelling, and the like; and although he hath, up to this time, 
kept me against my will, I have asked him what wages I should have for my past time, or at 
least to give me a certificate that I had served so long ; he refused it, but I rely, herein, on 
your Honors' discretion; yet I shall not neglect faithfully to serve the city of Amsterdam in 
the office which I now unworthily fill. 

Herewith T commend your Worships to the protection of God Almighty, who will always 
keep and preserve you and direct your Honors' undertaking to the advancement of this Colbnie 
and God's Church. 

Your Honors' obedient and 

Ever ready servant, 

(Signed), G. v. Sweringen. 


Sheriff Van Swerinrjen to 

[ From Uio Buii.llD iudorscd Versclttide StiiMen raekcnde de Mmie van N. NederlanJt^ No. 40, in the Stiid Iluys, Am«terdam. ] 

Noble, Worshipful, Venerable, Wise, Right Prudent Sir! 


Hoibmi Document* With due respect and reverence have I hereby taken the liberty to greet you, 
XVI., luG. through bounden duty of gratitude to devote to you all the days of ray life. I hope 

you will not consider the insignificance of my person, but excuse the previous and present 
boldness of so freely writing to your Honor. 

Such being the case, I cannot neglect hereby to communicate my promotion; about a year 
and a half after my departure from Fatria, with your Honor's favorable recommendation, I have 
been appointed Schout here, subject to the approbation of the Hon'"= the Principals; previously 
1 have taken care of the store as clerk, and, after J. Rynvelt's death, as Commissary, from 
which I have now requested to be discharged, as I have, though unworthy, been recently 
made Second Councillor with Joncker Alexander d'Hinojossa, first Councillor and Captain 
Lieutenant of the Military here, who intends to go over in the spring to represent this miserable 
place, God help it. The Military were few when the English came down on us, as your Honor 
will have fully seen by the papers in the case transmitted ; the store is empty and repaired, the 
most being distributed among the people ; but much unnecessary expense is incurred, which 
might have been spared, and the honor of the city, which is here now so scandalously cried 
down, might have been preserved, and one debt after the other have been remitted ; even the 
property of the orphans, inclusive, hath been retained, so that the continual craving for and 
recommendation to send over the books, is not strange ; this should now be commenced, but I 
believe all again will remain in arrears. The Director will apparently lay the blame, as he 
daily does, on the death of the Commissary, and now on me, but I can in no wise excuse him, 
inasmuch as the late Commissary being held in little esteem by the Director, the latter withheld 
his commission, and, on being applied to for it, said : My order is your instruction; kept the 
books of monthly wages himself, sent orders only with a boy to have from the store whatever 
he pleased, so that said Commissary complained thereof to his superiors, who have sent him a 
commission conformable to that the Director had belonging to him. Nothing but a journal is 
kept in the store; what came in was by the Director received, traded, etc. ; 'twas not for us 
to know whether 'twas for the city or on his Honor's private account; therefore, we could 
not return to him except what we have given to the people ; how he hath means to balance 
the credit with the debit, he himself must know, for he hath bought all those dear enough. 
Thus, also, we cannot make out that special vindication, for neither Rynevelt nor I have ever 
issued any goods by measure or weight; all was done by guess. I am grieved to be obliged 
to put such things to paper, as still young in this office, I have been the city's unworthy 
servant; but it pains me that everything has been done so inconsiderately, whereby so noble a 
city, whereof all the world boasts, hath been slandered both here and in surrounding places. 

Secondly, if things become worse, I, individually, am ruined, for I have received here some 
goods from my brother, all which 1 have laid out in house, horses and mules {jimtlen), which 
cost me full 4 (a). C thousand guilders, Holland currency ; besides that, I am also married ; yet, 
I hope that their Right Worshipful Honors will not allow the work to stick ; I trust Mr. 
Hinojossa's proposals will serve in this matter to redress everything at trifling cost. 


I shall herewith conclude, recommending myself to your good favor. I dare not proceed 
farther herein, for all that I am well acquainted with a history of this place. I refer to Mr. 
Hinojossa, who again yesterday told and requested me to communicate to your Honor his 
coming; he will then bring everything clear enough on the car[)et. Herewith I commend 
your Honor to the mercy and protection of the Most High God, and remain your obedient 
humble servant, 

(Signed), G. v. Sweringen. 

New Amstel, S"* December, 1659. 

In the margin was : 

After this, it has happened that Mr. Hinojossa hath written to Mess" the Commissioners 
and Directors; he requested me to inclose the same, through fear that it may be detained 
at the Manhattans, which was formerly the case. Therefore, 1 request your Honor to be 
pleased to forward it by a safe hand. 

Mr. Hinojosm to the Commissioiiers of the Colonie on the Delaware River. 

[ From the Bundle indorsed Versc/behU Stuklcen. ra^kend-e de Colonie van 1^, Nederlandt^ No. 41, in the Stad Httys^ Ameterdam. ] 

Honorable, Wise, Right Prudent, Most Worshipful, the Commissioners and Directors 
appointed over the Colonie, on the behalf of the Right Worshipful Burgomasters of the 
city of Amsterdam. 

Right Worshipful Gentlemen ! 

Holland Documents, ^V '^^' ^^ 7°" ^^^ °^ l^"" August by Way of Manhattans, under cover of the 
XVI., no. Director-General, which I hope shall have been duly handed to you. I should 

now transmit tiie copy herewith, but the sudden departure of the sloop does not permit it. 
Whether this be in order to deprive me of the opportunity of writing thereby or wherefore it 
is, I shall pass over, but with difficulty have I been able to obtain this. I shall therefore only 
cursorily relate the contents, which is the low condition of the Colonie, and how that occurred ; 
also its renewed progress, and wliat concerns this river and can be procured from it, and the 
trade which is to be carried on and had here; but I refer myself especially to my verbal 
representation, as I, for certain weighty reasons, do not trust to writing over nor to the pen, 
but prefer verbal communication, except that I shall feed each soul according to this inclosed 
list, and hope to give you verbal explanation, so as to recover moneys disbursed with the 
interest thereof, less than 7 @^ S, and that your Honors' Colonie shall be full of people and 
cattle, and shall then flourish, through the iriercy of God. Man employs means, but God must 
bless them, otherwise are they lost. The Colonists to be delivered here — a thousand souls — 
who will work the land with plenty of cattle, and support all the servants five years, the 
freight or passage money of the Colonists, or else the expenses of the people and crew of 
the ship, also for a term of five years; then shall the Colonie be considerable enough and 
peopled, and the city relieved of disbursements, such as maintaining servants, and receive 
something yearly. All this shall I perform, by God's help, with one hundred thousand 


guilders, and I shall each time give security for the moneys I shall receive, until your Honors 
have obtained, to your satisfaction, the handwriting of each individual, that he hath had 
the promised rations according to agreement, and besides wlint they have done, together 
with the declaration of the overseers that it is so; all this without prejudice to the Director, 
simply in quality as Commissary, Captain and Councillor, and that shall be without stipulation 
of wages, but shall submit to the profound discretion of your Honors, according to merits and 
your Honors' favor with gratitude and thanks, whereof 1 have already requested and still crave, 
so as by your order to be sent for in the spring. But since my last, so much change has taken 
place here, that 1 think it to be very proper to depart sooner, wherefore I have asked the 
Director's permission to go in January, by way of Virginia, to Holland, simply giving him as a 
reason for my departure, to acquaint your Honors with the low condition of this place. 
Thereupon answered, first: I cannot spare you from here ; secondly, before I allow you to leave, 
my accounts must be arranged. Then, on the first point, I said : Should I happen to die, you 
would have to spare me. I inquired, when would the books be ready? He answered the first of 
March, and that 1 might go then. But I expect that if I do not leave, except with his permission, 
1 shall wait a long time. Therefore, I shall anxiously look for your Honors' order; also 
the sending for the galiot, which is running behind — I say running behind, partly because the 
freights do not pay the expenses, wages and board of the skipper and crew, saying nothing of 
the wear and tear of the galiot, sails, &c. But, more than this, the little freight which it 
produces is likewise wholly wasted here, and also the exchanges and what the one hath paid 
the other, the freight moneys of the ship, the Guide son and thousands which his Honor owes 
here, so that my heart almost breaks when I reflect on and consider everything, besides my 
individual loss, which is considerable, as well as that of other inhabitants. 1 shall then even 
draw up what is due here, what he considers to be public debts, that is, what I know, exclusive 
of what I do not know. Please not to interpret me unfavorably, because 1 am bound by Cod 
and the Lords I serve, to do it. And even nowadays, all that he can gripe and catch, is he 
inclined for, provided 'tis only to be had on credit, so that, in presence of Gerrit van Sweringen 
and Cornelis van Gezel, his nephew, whom he hath now appointed Commissary, I lately said : 
I have oflered opposition enough, but what his Honor wills, that will he do. Now he. Van 
Gezel, hath invested his means in clapboards; he means to keep the weather out of the store; 
but what does that avail ? 'Tis too late ; the little ham is all eaten, the store is empty, so the 
Director requests goods and provisions from the Director-General ; whereupon I said : Sir, how 
will you pay for them? Turning himself around in his bed, though sick he was, he answered : 
Why do you trouble yourself about that; you are altogether too thick headed ! It appears, if 
his Honor can get a thing, he thinks very little about restitution. He longs much for a ship, 
but I should be sorry to see it, as 'twould be all wasted. This shall serve for conclusion, that 
the Regents of the city of Amsterdam should not allow the past to stop so noble a work, but 
consider the reward they have to expect from God and the thanks from man, and not to look 
to the expense of my little plan. But 1 trust that previous disbursements which are, as it were 
gone, will be hereby recovered, and I think that God presents this means, in order that so 
noble a project should not be smothered in the birth, as such tender and new beginnings cannot 
be as much ; be pleased to take this, my boldness, in good part, and consider that I am driven 
thereto for the improvement of my house, and secondly, by the duty I owe my Lords and 
masters. Herewith shall I commend myself to your Honors' good favor, and pray God the 


Lord that bis Almightiness may bless your administration, so that we may live peaceably and 
quietly under it, in all godliness and uprightness. Amen ! 
Honorable, Wise, Right Prudent, Right Honorable, 
I am and remain, 

Your Honors' obedient servant, 

(Signed), Alexander d'Hinoyossa. 

Debts due in the Colonie. 

The Director-General, as I heard from his own mouth, » fl. 4,000.00 

To the same gentleman, now anew, 2,400.00 

To myself, 516 . 00 

To Joost Gooderis, ,. 150.00 

fl. 7,060.00 

Cornells van Gesel, 500 guilders ; Gerrit van Sweringen, 400 gl., fl. 900 . 00 

To myself, 1 ,530 . 00 

Public baker, 700 gl.; two men, 400 gl., 1,100.00 

Hendrick Kip, 200 gl.; Michel Carreman, 80 gl., 2S0.00 

Peter Alrichs, his nephew, 400 gl 400 . 00 

The creditors of Andries Hude, for the church, 000.00 

fl. 5,520.00 

To me, also, an ox and lOS lbs. of beef; 18 skepels Indian corn. Wampum. 

This is what I know, exclusive of what I don't know, and I believe does not include all. 

Table of the Rations which I should give for one year for sixty Holland guilders. 

Each man, per week, seven lbs. of bread, 7 lbs. 

Meat, 4 lbs., 4 lbs. 

Four pints of peas, per week, 4 pints. 

Two pounds of dried codfish, 2 lbs. 

One quartern of oil, 1 quartern. 

Two quarterns of vinegar, 2 ditto. 

One man can work well a week on this. 
One cow worth 50 gl., Holland currency. 

Beneath stood : 

\ Your Honors' obedient servant, 

(Signed), Alexander d'Hinoyossa. 
Done in New Amstel, 

IS"" December, 1659. 


Vke-Dlredor Alricli-s to the Commis-^loners of the Colonie on the Delaware Hiver. 

r From Die Bundle indoracd VerscMfU Stukhen Tafk^mde d6 Coltmie ran N. Nederlandt No. 56, in the Stad Iluys, Amsterdam.] 

Honorable, Wise, Right Prudent! 

„„ ^„ , This will serve to cover the duplicates of the letters transmitted heretofore 

IIollaDo Documents, * 

x\'i.,2u8. ^^ ^i^g 2oih September, under the inclosed previous envelope to the Manhattans, to 

advise you of the troubles which the English endeavor to foment against us, as the ships had 
sailed and those duplicates came back, as may be seen by said envelope, and also by the annexed 
papers, viz., the summons of the English, the answer, insinuation and protest against it, which 
we returned. Whereupon we received the assistance for which we and also Mr. Willem 
Beeckman, Vice-Director over the Company's limits in this river, made application to the 
Director-General and.Council, under the command of the Commissioners, Secretary van Uuyven, 
and Captain Martin Kryger, who, after exhibiting their letter of credence and commission, 
dispatched two delegates, Jonk"' Augustinus Hermans and Resolvert Waldron, to Maryland, 
to the English Governor, named Josias Fendel, whose Vindication is to be seen annexed. 
From the one and the other, an opinion can be formed of our condition, which, in truth, 
'is very low, for we now are subject to one and another drawback continually, from the 
beginning and undertaking of this Colonie, so that we are in need at once of an entirely new 
heart, and of people adapted for agriculture, such as we have had heretofore for the most 
part; besides, the pretensions which the English put forth to this river and territory 
ought, above all things, be removed, in such wise as the Hon''''' West India Company 
shall find most advantageous to themselves and to the peace and quiet of the lands, for, 
otherwise, no man will be willing or can remain here, much less will any person come hither; 
but, on the contrary, private interested persons, who have employed and invested their 
means here in houses and lands, will claim indemnity for losses caused by the pretensions of 
the English, so that, in uncertainly, such conjectures have arisen in the minds of all and 
every one, that 'tis unknown how or what at last will come of it. Meanwhile, they accuse 
the city and proprietors, for, say they, a quiet and peaceable country, to which no man 
hath a right, was promised them, which damage not only is considerable, simply for each 
individual, but is of still more importance for the city itself, by the retrogression and stoppage 
which the Colonie in general sutlers, exclusive of the costs already incurred for expenses, 
repairing and strengthening this fortress since the commencement of the troubles with the 
English, amounting to over three thousand guilders, on which amount, as well as for 
the maintenance of more military, inasmuch as we are obliged and necessitated to enlist as 
many as possible of the Colonists to strengthen and preserve this fort, the city's credit is 
burthened more and more. We therefore wish, as has frequently been requested, that the 
required stores may be sent over, which we all along have expected, and are still daily 
expecting. Should they not arrive in the spring, we shall be obliged to allow everything to 
take its course ; nevertheless, in order to prevent that, it is resolved and concluded to depute 
Mr. Hinojossa next spring to your Honors, for the purpose of demonstrating the causes of the 
low condition of the Colonie, viz., first, the want of industrious people who understand 
agriculture, and the superabundance of lazy, idle and all-devouring men, who know no more 
about work and farming than women and children ; who are only good to eat and drink, and 
pertinaciously insist that a year's support was promised them ; secondly, the intemperate air 


and heavy rains, which have caused a poor crop of all the means of support for men, and of 
forage for cattle, and consequently great scarcity and loss both in the one and the other; 
thirdly, unhealthiness, sickness, disease, violent and pestilential fevers and other tedious 
disorders which have continued every year, whereof many have died. The proclamation of 
days of fasting and prayer on this account, observed from time to time, and the lists of the dead 
also sent over, are proofs thereof All the inhabitants of New Netherland are visited with those 
plagues, but none, however, so severely as our people, which also, nevertheless, continue, for, 
at present, those here are still, for the most part, tormented, as I, myself, have been ; T am now 
confined to my bed between 2 and 3 months, and so severely attacked by tertian ague, that 
nothing less than death has been expected every other day, and all things were directed 
accordingly ; but now, thank God, I begin to be somewhat better, so that at present I 
begin again to leave the bed for a little while, which inconveniences have consequently been 
productive of more trouble to us than to other old inhabitants, who apparently have been 
better able to withstand a bad time; for, by the aforesaid occurrences, has this Colonic, like a 
tender plant, been crushed and down-trodden; fourthly, agriculture, which was manifesting 
a favorable beginning, is all at once thrown into a heap by the impending and all-destroying 
English war. Fifthly, and lastly, the uneasiness and dread created, by the aforesaid impending 
war, among us and the common people, of being stripped of their property, and, on the other 
hand, the offer of good conditions made them by the English whenever they would come and 
dwell among them ; add to this, their being enticed and protected by those of the Manhattans, 
have been the cause that many among them have removed hither and thither. It was hoped 
that this dread would have been dispelled by the arrival of the reinforcement with the 
Commissioners, Secretary Cornells van Ruyven and Captain Marten Kryger, whereas they 
have caused as much greater disquietude, as by the annexed declarations' can be seen, and is 
transparent. All which, with many other things, will be verbally demonstrated to your Honors 
more clearly and fully by Mr. Hinojossa, and also how and what is serviceable for the 
improvement of this Colonic, in order to develop the constitution and circumstances of these 
lands, and to that end, help to concert and to point out the means for the best advantage and 
profit of the city. 

Concerning the accounts : As Commissary Rynevelt and his successor, Gerrit van Sweringen, 
have been unfit to make out proper accounts, and I, myself, have continually so many 
occupations, that it is impossible for me to devote my time thereto, they, therefore, are not 
ready, as they ought to be. Wherefore I pray your Honors to entertain the reasons and all 
things duly to consider. Nevertheless, we hope, with God's help, to transmit them in the 
spring by Mr. Hinojossa, in such form as will be possible, not doubting but your Honors will 
experience contentment and satisfaction therein. Previous letters had promised the sending of 
assistance of servants, and the last, a ship with divers stores, such as iron, coals, brick, lime, 
powder, a brew-kettle and such like, which we have anxiously expected, as well as refreshments 
for the common people, viz: prunes, currants, French wine, etc., as 'tis impossible, in this 
vexatious sickness, to live without them, and they were always to be received by the arrival of 
the ship or ships, but as these did not come, want is frequently experienced. In consequence 
of the failure of the aforesaid materials, the people were not accommodated, but everything is 
at a stand-still. 

• Svpra, p. 103 — Ed. 

Vol. II. 15 


Again, you are advised that our Minister, D* Everardus Welius, hath died on the 9"' instant, 
to the sorrow and grief of us ail. Director-General, requesting the galiot to send provisions and other necessaries by her 
to Curasao, his Honor hath chartered her for the term of 3 mouths, to make a voyage 
thither and back, for the sum of five hundred guilders a month. This could not be refused, oa 
account of needful service for the Hon'''^ Company. 

Your Honors are again hereby respectfully requested to pay as much attention as possible to 

the sending another Minister hither very speedily, so that the congregation now here collected 

may not come all at once to grow wild. Wherewith commending your Honors to God's 


Your Honors' obedient and 

Obliged servant, 

(Signed), J. Alrichs. 

On one side : 

New Amstel, on the South River, in 

New Netherland, this 12"' December, 1659. 

Shipper Huys to the Commissioners of the Cohnie on the Delaioare River. 

[ From Iho Bundle indorsed Veracheide Stukken roikende ds Colonic van K. NecUrlandt^ No. 51, in the Stad Suys, Amsterdam. ] 

On board the galiot Nleuwer Amstel, lying at the ferry, 
in front of the Manhattans, 24"" December, A" 1659. 

Honorable, Wise, Prudent and Right Discreet Gentlemen ! 


Holland Documents "^^ *^'i® ^^'P Speramundi now lies ready to sail for Patria, I cannot omit to 

^^''*''' greet your Honors with these few lines. 

Having returned on the 19"" March to the Manhattans with the galiot, to undertake another 
voyage to Curarao for the Hon'''' Petrus Stuyvesant, and in the employment of the Hon""'* 
West India Company, and am at present somewhat in want both of cordage, canvas, and also 
of an anchor, which was lost in the South river whilst I lay sick at the Manhattans, for the 
common rope is scarcely good for anything ; 'tis as it were burnt in the manufacture ; at least it 
appears so. The purchase of new rope here would be very expensive, so that I shall examine it 
well this time, for I must have 2 or 3 bales for hoisting lines. 1 have had a new topsail made 
here ; I am getting a new mizzen. I have requested one of the anchors lying at Curasao from 
Mr. Stuyvesant, who gave me for answer : That I must speak to Mr. Bocx about it. 

As regards the galiot : If it remain in tiiis country longer than my time, considerable expense 
must be incurred, and everything that is to be purchased here is mighty dear, and if it be not 
ordered to return home by the summer, the goods I have heretofore written for must be 
sent out. 


As regards our new Colonie, established by your Honors : At present 'tis in a low condition, 
and should there be no change, I fear 'twill be lower; but that will be learned from divers 
private individuals. My own opinion is, that almost all the people will leave that place — 
some for Virginia, others for the Manhattans, as it seems. Many here attribute this to the fault 
of Mr. Alrichs, but I leave that aside ; but 'tis painful to behold how the people here complain. 

What regards the clamor which has always prevailed respecting the English, you will be 
fully informed of what has transpired by divers letters, both from Secretary van Ruyven and 
others, but heavy expenses will be incurred ; had Mr. Alrichs sent off" in the galiot or in a yacht 
to the Manhattans, those who came to demand the place, as I and many others plainly counseled 
him to do, it would have made a diff'erence fully of from one to S thousand guilders by this time ; 
the cause and pretence which the English of Maryland set up, proceed only from one Baltmo : 
and from some of our own people who went thither from here and afterwards persuaded the 
English that they could take the place without much difficulty. 

What regards the arrest of the galiot by one Reyndert Jansen Hooren, on a contract entered 
into with Lieutenant Hinojossa for the purchase of some provisions, such as pork, beef, wheat 
and peas: As the above person was not paid according to contract, he caused the galiot to be 
arrested, and as I had cleared here to go to the South river I was obliged to give security for 
the demand, and on coming to the South river I went to Mr. Alrichs and the Lieutenant, 
taking also the protest which I had served on the aforesaid Reyndert Jansen Hooren, with the 
answer he made thereunto. My security is Captain Jan Jacobsen, heretofore a resident of 
Amsterdam. Neither Mr. Alrichs nor the Lieutenant has done anything in the matter except 
writing a few words to Mr. Verlet, who will not trouble himself about the affair. So an 
extraordinary session of the Court was demanded yesterday by this Hooren in order to cite 
and oblige Captain Jan Jacob to pay, who gave me for answer that he should appeal to the 
Supreme Council and, if he were then condemned to pay, he should again put the galiot under 
arrest. Hereupon I consulted with Mr. Stuyvesant, who answered me, that I should pay it 
and release the security, which I considered inexpedient and said, that I had trouble enough 
for myself and people, that I must disburse so much in victuals and drink, that I already had 
my belly full, but if they will mortgage the galiot and draw exchange and make contracts, 
they must be responsible for it; that's their affair, for which I am not responsible; and what 
I do I shall vindicate to my superiors. Of all the fine cargoes sent by the ship the TVaeg and 
by the galiot and the Son and the Meultn, it may be said: 'Tis impossible that they are lost ; I 
firmly believe not a particle remains and still always in poverty, so that things are in a low 
condition here at present, as you may suppose. 

What regards the building carried on there, 'tis of little expense; the first winter I remained 
there, I made application for my crew to be allowed to assist the carpenters, in putting the 
Director's house under cover. I gave 35 days with my carpenter and pilot; he promised to 
pay me as much as he had given one baes Joost, but when the work and also the church and 
guard-house were finished, he put me off" and paid me in sweet words ; but he hath paid my 
carpenter and pilot. 

Respecting my discharge when my three years are expired, I have written to you, gentlemen, 
before this, to be pleased to see and send a good and suitable skipper in my place, if the galiot 
is to remain longer in this country, as I intend, with the help of God, to return home next 
summer. 1 should not desire to do so were it here as in other places, for I am always ready 
and willing to serve you even during my whole life; but when I arrive home, I shall make 


such report as will prevent any expression of displeasure against me. The death of Everardus 
Welius, our Minister, who piously rested in the Lord on the O"" instant, has caused deep 
sorrow here and especially among the virtuous, who now are almost disconsolate. 

Also, Cornells Harpersen de Jager was likewise buried here at the Manhattans on the 20"" 
instant, so that almost all the people are dead, run away, or banished, and very little hope is 
remaining, and there is every appearance of that little being less. 

Herewith ending, I pray God, the Lord, for your Honors, that He may be pleased your 
Honors, collectively, in health to spare unto salvation. Amen. 

Your Honors' faithful servant, 

(Signed), Jacob Jansen Huts. 

Resolution of the Co^nmon Council of Amstenlam. 

[ From the Jitsuluticn tan de Vrocdsc/utj^pt:?!, C., 50, in the Stail lluys, Amsterdam. 1 

SS"" August, 1660. 
Holland Docnments, ^ Memorial is presented to the Burgomasters from the Directors of the city's 
New NeiheriaDd Colonic in New Netherland for assistance to its Colonic and an advance of 
8,000 gi. 8,000 gl., which, being considered, it is resolved and concluded to place the 

aforesaid Memorial, and the papers appertaining thereunto, in the hands of the gentlemen who, 
by resolution of the 8"" of November last, are commissioned for the affiiirs of said Colonie, to 
examine said Memorial and to report their opinion and advice. 

Controvei^ey lehoeen Lord Baltimore and the J?utc7i, respecting tlie Delaware Bivev. 

[ From the Original in the Royal Archives at the Ilaerne; Lokrtkiis of the States-General; Ilubrickj West Indische Compagnie, No. 4S. 1 

Extract from the Minutes taken by the Deputies of the General Incorporated 
West India Company representing the Assembly of the XIX., at Amsterdam. 



Tuesday, l?"- August, 16G0. 
Present — Mess" Abraham Wilmerdonx, 

Hans Bontemantel, Schepen, 

Jacobus Reynst, 

Anthony Verspreet, Assessor, 

Willem van der Heyde, Zealand. 

Nicolaes ten Hove, Maase. 

Claes Pietersen Boschieter, North Quarter. 

On the notification of the presiding Chamber of Amsterdam, dated 29"" July last, appeared 
the members of the Chambers of Zealand, Maaze and North Quarter (Groningen alone 


being absent), and, accordingly having made a commencement of the business, read the 
commission of the Chamber of Amsterdam to Mess" Eduard Man, Abraham Wiimerdonx and 
Hans Bontemantel, old Schepen and Councillor of that city, dated the 9"^ August, A" 1660. 

One of the chief partners, etc. 

The following notice and other papers handed to the Chamber aforesaid, by Notary Crosse, 
on the 20"" instant, in the name of Captain James Neale, Attorney of Cecilius Calvert, Baron 
of Baltimore, being produced and read to the meeting by the Deputies of the presiding 
Chamber of Amsterdam, it is, after previous question, resolved and concluded that the aforesaid 
Notary Crosse and Captain James Neale shall be summoned to the meeting to-m'orrow morning, 
and that then a fitting answer shall be given to their unfounded 


Be it known to all and every, by this public instrument of Notice and Protest, that on the 
three-and-twentieth day of the month of August, New Style, in the year of our Lord God 
1660, I, Johannes Crosse, by the Court of Holland admitted a sworn and public Notary, 
residing at Amsterdam, have, at the request of Captain Neale, presented myself to the Assembly 
of the Hon'''* West India Company, within this city of Amsterdam aforesaid, with 

Captain James Neale, Agent of the Right Hon"'' Lord Cecilius Calvert, Baron of Baltimore, 
owner and proprietor of that entire tract of land or territory named the Province of Maryland, 
in America, extending, according to the limits described in his Lordship's patent, to him 
granted by his Majesty, Charles the First, of most blessed memory, King of Great Britain, on 
the 20"" day of the month of July, in the S"" year of his said Majesty's reign, and in the year 
of our Lord 1632, correct copy whereof [is annexed], together with an order or commission 
granted to him. Captain Neale, by his aforesaid Principal, the Hon"'' Baron of Baltimore, 
dated at London on the 20"' of April last, authorizing and empowering the said Captain Neale 
to ask you, the Hon'''*' West India Company, if you acknowledge the cultivation of the Colonie 
called New Amslel, lying in de la Waer bay, in Maryland aforesaid, and in case Yes, then to 
demand your submission and obedience of said place and Colonie to his aforesaid Lordship, 
as proprietor of said country, wherein the aforementioned Colonie of New Amstel is situated 
and planted (both which instruments are by me, the above named Notary, translated into the 
Nether Dutch language); also, a Notice and Protest demanding submission as aforesaid ; 

All which have been by me, the Notary aforenamed, delivered to the Hon'''= Eduard Man, 
one of the Directors of your Company, for the behoof of the said Company, on the 7"" day of 
the month of June last, in virtue of a second order or commission from his Lordship, the Baron 
of Baltimore aforesaid, dated at London, the 24"" July last past, copy whereof, together with a 
copy of a letter from his present Royal Majesty, Charles the second. King of Great Britain, to 
the Governor and Council of the Virginias, notifying the confirmation of his said Lordship's 
patent, acknowledging his Lordship to be the right owner of the said Province of Maryland, 
under his Majesty, dated at Withall, the third day of the month of July last, both by me, the 
above mentioned Notary, translated into the Nether Dutch tongue, which are at present by me 
delivered to you, the Directors aforesaid. I now again, and for the second time, ask you, the 
Directors of the West India Company aforesaid, if you acknowledge the cultivation and 
possession of that district of country called New Amstel, lying in the de la Waer bay, on the 
south side of said bay, within the limits or jurisdiction of his said Lordship's patent of Maryland. 

And if yea, he, Captain Neale, aforementioned, doth, in the name and on the behalf of his 
said Lordship, the Baron of Baltimore, owner and proprietor of the said Province of Maryland, 


demand of you, the said Company, surrender of the said plantation of New Amstel to liim, the 
said Lord; and in case of refusal or neglect of submission, doth declare, in the name and on 
the behalf of his Principal, hy me, the Notary aforesaid (with due reverence and respect to you, 
individually and as a Company), that he protests, as [ do hereby protest, against you, the said 
West India Company, for and because of your unlawful and illegal cultivation, detention and 
possession of said plantation of New Amstel, and for all costs, charges, losses and interests 
already, by your illegal cultivation, possession and non-submission thereof, had, done and 
suffered, and still to have, to do and suffer, with express declaration that his said Principal shall 
and will, by all possible, lawful and proper means, seek to reduce the said Colonie to and under 
his J^ordship's obedience, at such time and place, where and whenever he shall find fitting. 

Nevertheless, to the end that the whole world may see and acknowledge that his said I'rincipal 
acts in no other wise than is right, and as his just and legal right demands, he, Captain Neale, 
doth now again and for the last time, offer and tender, in the name of his Principal, to you, the 
Directors of the said West India Company, that his Lordship is willing and ready to treat with 
you or any agent of yours, and to decide and conclude the said matter in love and friendship, 
on honorable and just terms, subject to your abiding there, and hereupon he. Captain Neale, 
demands your positive and prompt answer. 

Charles IL to the Governor of Virginia. 

Charles R. 

Trusty and well beloved. We greet you well. Whereas, it appears to us by divers 
depositions, that one Josias Fendall, late Governor under Lord Baltimore, of our Province of 
Maryland, hath raised a faction in said Province against the right and jurisdiction of said 
Lord Baltimore ; 

Therefore, we, on the humble prayer and petition of the said Lord Baltimore, to the end 
that we him in his just rights, would protect and defend, do charge and command you and every 
one of you to be aiding and assisting unto his officers in the establishment of his jurisdiction 
there, as the same existed last January, according to his patent or charter of the said Province, 
to him granted by the King, our father, of blessed memory, whereby you will be doing us a 
special service. 

Given in our court at Whitehall, on the third day of the month of July, in the twelfth year 
of our reign. 

Lower stood what follows: 

To our Governor and Council of the Virginias, and to all ship Captains and Skippers 
trading to Maryland, and to all Magistrates and officers and others our subjects in those 
quarters or countries. 

Beneath stood : 

Agrees with the original. 

(Signed), Edw : Nicholas.' 

Sir Edward Nicholas, Knight, after passing tlirough OxforJ and the Middle Temple, lived about a year ia France; he 
afterwnrds became Secretary to Lord Edward Zouche, warden of the Cinque ports, and, next to George Villiers, First Duke of 
Buckingham, Lord Zouche's successor, and so, in a short lime. Secretary of the Admiralty. After the murder of the Duke, 
in 1628, Mr. Nicholas continued in the same place whilst the oflice was in commission, and next was one of the Clerks of the 


Lord Baltimore to Captain Neale. 

Captain Neale. 

Whereas I have written to you formerly at Amsterdam to inquire of the West India 
Company whether they acknowledged or claimed the cultivation and possession of that district 
of country lying in the Bay de la Ware, on the south side of said bay, within the limits of my 
patent or grant of Maryland, and in case they acknowledged the cultivation of said district, 
then and in such case, to demand their submission of the said plantation to me; and in case 
of refusal on their part, to protest, in my name, against them, because they unjustly or illegally 
possess or remain in occupation of the same. 

In like manner I again do authorize and request you once more to address yourself to the 
said Company, or to such others as you may understand to be the possessor of the same, or 
whomsoever hath authorized said possession, taking with you a Notary Public, and in case 
of their refusal to submit to my jurisdiction, against them again to protest, and also such to 
communicate to my Lieutenant in Maryland for the time being, and to any other person by 
me authorized to the said service, in order to employ or make use of all possible and proper 
means to reduce those people, who are settled on my land, under the obedience of my 
government of Maryland. 

And to effect the same, this shall be your power and authority ; and in case they will submit 
let me know it, to the end that I may send over a commission, to grant or accord conditions to 
them, to allow them to abide under my government according to my aforesaid patent or grant, 
dated in London on the four-and-twentieth day of the month of July, A° 1G60. 

Beneath was : Your very dear friend. 

(Signed), Baltimore. 
Addressed : 

To Captain James Neale, this deliver: and sealed with his Lordship's seal at arms 
impressed on black wax. 




Wednesday, 1" September, 1660. 
Present — Mess" Eduard Man, Chairman, 

Hans Bontemantei, 

^ t T> u i- Amsterdam. 

Coenraet Burgh, j 

Jacobus Reynst, 

Willem van der Heyde, Zealand. 

Nicolaes Ten Hove, Maase. 

Claes Pietersen Boschieter, North Quarter. 

Pursuant to yesterday's resolution, appeared at the meeting, Captain James Neale, Attorney 
of Cecilius Calvert, Baron of Baltimore, accompanied by Joannes Crosse, Notary here ; to 

Council ; in 1641 he succeeded Sir Francis Windebanke as Secretary of State, and in 1648 withdrew to France on the death 
of his Royal master. In 1650 he removed to Holland, where he continued to reside until 1655, when he joined Charles II., 
who gave him the Royal Signet. On the restoration, he was reappointed Secretary of State, and held that post until October, 
1662, when he was succeeded by Sir Henry Bennett He was a very honest and industrious man, versed in business, and was, 
in truth, throughout his whole life, a person of great reputation and of singular integrity. Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, 
8vo„ III., 1321 ; Beation'a Political Index. — "Eo. _. 


•whom was given the following answer to his presented Notice and Protest respecting the 
claim to the Colonie of New Amstel situated in New Nelherland ; whereof said Captain, 
requesting copy, the same is graciously granted : 

The present Deputies to the Assembly of the XIX., of the General Incorporated West India 
Company in the United Netherlands, having seen and heard, with great surprise, the demand 
which you. Captain James Neale, make for the behoof and by authority (as you state) of 
Cecilius Calvert, Baron of Baltimore, whereby you require that the Directors of the aforesaid 
Company shall command some of their settlers on the South river of New Netherland, and 
particularly the Colonists of the city of Amsterdam, to pay submission and homage to the 
above mentioned Lord or his Attorney, by virtue of a certain grant made to his Lordship by 
Charles I., of immortal memory. King of England, Scotland and Ireland, etc., offering, to that 
end, to agree on certain conditions, with the aforesaid Company, protesting, in case of refusal, 
against all costs, losses and damages done and suffered, to do and to suffer, &c., requesting, 
thereunto, a prompt answer; 

Have, agreeably to said request, after mature deliberation, resolved to give you, the Protestor, 
for answer, that they have, with good right for a long series of years, the aforesaid demanded 
place possessed and still occupy under the government of the High and Mighty Lords States- 
General of the United Netherlands, without the said Baron of Baltimore, or any one else, 
having put forth the least claim thereto, and that they, accordingly, do intend the same to hold, 
their settlers in their good right to maintain and to defend against whomsoever it may be. 

Which we hope the said Baron will take into consideration; but, if contrary to our 
expectation, his Lordship shall, to the end aforesaid, resort to any acts of violence, in order to 
disturb said Company in their just possession, they, the notified Deputies find themselves 
necessitated to tell you that the aforesaid Directors, their Principals, will, under the protection 
of their High Mightinesses, make use of such means as God and nature have provided them 
with. Finding themselves fortified with much greater reason than you, the Protestor, have to 
protest not only against all costs, losses and damages on that account done and suffered, or to be 
done and suffered, but also against the innocent Christian blood which shall in consequence 
be shed among co-religionists and allied friends and neighbors. 

Wednesday, 1" September, IGGO — afternoon. 
Present — Mess" Eduard Man, Chairman, 
Hans Bontemantel, 

Coenraet Burgh, ^Amsterdam. 

Jocobus Reynst, 
Jacob Quina, Assessor, 
Wil.lem van der Heyden, 
Francis Moens, 

Nicholaes ten Iloeve, Maaze. 

Claes Pietersen Boschieter, North Quarter. 

Appeared, &c. 



Monday, G"" September, 1660. 
Present — All the members. 

It being submitted by the Commissioners from the presiding Chamber of Amsterdam, that 
the English nation in New England are daily usurping and appropriating considerable tracts of 
land in New Netherland belonging to this State and the Company, so that they have taken to 
themselves to within 8 @^ 9 leagues of the Manhattans, the Fresh river there situate, wherein 
not only the inhabitants of this State have heretofore had their Colonies and plantations, but 
also the Company, a trading house or fortress. 

Whereupon Director-General Stuyvesant, in order to prevent any further usurpations, and, 
as much as possible, amicably to hinder the same, has been obliged to agree, in the year 
165 , on a boundary line with those of New England, which has been approved by their 
High Mightinesses, without any further result in England, although the Ambassadors of the 
State there being, on receiving instructions to that effect, have requested it, and received, for 
answer, that the government there had no knowledge of the matter and had received no notice 
thereof from New England. 

In like manner, that the English nation is now seeking to dispossess the Company of the 
North river and to invade its shore, whereof the papers prepared by the Chamber of 
Amsterdam remain in the Company's hands; which, being deliberated on, and it being 
considered that their High Mightinesses' Ambassadors are about to depart for England, it is, 
therefore, resolved and concluded, that the presiding Chamber of Amsterdam shall be, as it is 
hereby requested, to communicate the aforesaid to their High Mightinesses, the Lords States^ 
General, and to request that they would be pleased to give the Ambassadors the above 
boundary with the Crown of England in charge, and the same most warmly to recommend ; 
Whereunto shall be adjoined the business of the South river or New Amstel, to which Cecilius 
Calvart, Baron of Baltimore, is laying claim, regardless, nevertheless, that the place has been 
so many years in the possession of the Company, without the aforesaid Baron of Baltimore 
having had any knowledge of it or laid any claim thereto. 

So that their Excell'^'" may also duly attend to said business in England, should the above 
mentioned Lord Cecilius Baltimore happen there to put forth anything further. This session 
is spent with the aforesaid resolution together with some further conversation concerning the 
Company's affairs and what stands inserted in the Secret Resolution. 

And the Commissioners appointed heretofore respecting the affairs of the officers of Cape 
Verd and Rio Gambia, are requested to examine the matter this afternoon, so that the persons 
who are extremely solicitous may obtain a termination to their affairs and be dispatched. 

Tuesday, 7"" September, 1660. 
Present — All the members. 

Appeared, Mr. Cornells van Essen, &c. 

Vol. IL 16 



Tuesday, 14"' September, 1660. 

Present — Mess" Eduard Man, Chairman, 
Hans BoDtenianlel, 

Coenradt Burgh, ^Amsterdam. 

Jacobus Reynst, 
Anthony Verspreet, Assessor, 
V. Moens, Zealand. 

Claes Pietersen Boschieter, North Quarter. 

Gerhardt Svvarte, Groeningen. 

The resolutions adopted on the fourth being this day resumed ; they are, after question was 

put, approved. 

Read a certain Deduction drawn up by the Chamber at Amsterdam, touching the unseemly 
and forcible usurpation of the English neighbors in New Netherland, accompanied by divers 
appendices in support thereof; also, a Petition to the High and Mighty, the Lords States- 
General, requesting them to be pleased to instruct and commission their Ambassadors going to 
England, not only to complain to the King of such usurpation but also to request redress, and 
then to negotiate a settlement of the boundary between us and them in that country. 

Which, being considered and put to the vote, the aforesaid Deduction and Petition are both 
approved and are to be delivered accordingly to their High Mightinesses in the name of this 
Assembly to obtain the effect thereof. 

And further, the Chamber of Amsterdam is thanked for its good services herein, with the 
request that it will continue its zeal in the premises for the advantage of New Netherland. 

Tuesday, 14"' September, 1660. 

Present — Mess" Eduard Man, Chairman, 
Hans Bontemantel, 
Coenraet Burgh, 
Jacobus Reynst, 
Anthony Verspreet, Assessor, 
F. Moens, 

Claes Pietersen Bosschieter, 
Gerhardt Swarte, 


North Quarter. 

The report of the Accountants of the Chamber of Amsterdam being brought into the 
Assembly, &c. 


Saturday, 25'" September, 1660. 

Present — Mess" Huygens, "^ |^ | Pergens, ^ g- 

Swanenburg, ; ga | Burgh, • -a 

Ripperse, f ssS Reynst, f | 
Renswouw, J 0*"^ Verspreet, Assessor, J < 

Van der Heyden, ) 7 1 j Ten Hove, Maase. 

Moans, J ' ' Bosschieter, North Quarter. 

Swarte, Groningen. 

The wind being at present favorable for the departure of the yachts Postpaart, Ecndracht 
and Visser/gie, and their High Mightinesses' Deputies at this meeting, being requested to 
dispatch, forthwith, the letters to Director-General Van Heussen and the Lieutenant of the 
anchor, the same are signed by Mr. Huygens, as President of this meeting on the part of their 
High Mightinesses, also by the Deputies of each Chamber, and order shall be given for 
forwarding said letters this morning by express to Amsterdam, to be transmitted thence. 

Thus done and enacted by the Deputies of the General Incorporated West India Company 

at the Assembly of the XIX., at the Hague, the five-and-twentieth of September, A" 1600. 

(Signed), Jacob Pergens "'. 

By order of the same. 

(Signed), L. van Seventer. 


JResolutkm of tJie States -General. 

[ From the Register of West India Afl'airs, 1652 — 1663, in the Royal Archives at tlie Hague. 1 

Tuesday, 28"" September, 1660. 
Folio 289. Mess" Huygens and other their High Mightinesses' Deputies for the affairs of 

Company. (^he West India Company, having reported that all the business was resumed 

Report of the bosi- r J ^ or 

"^^'^ at the late meeting of the Nineteen at Amsterdam, holden here at the Hague, in 

their presence, by the attending Directors from the respective Chambers, and that they had 
no suggestions against it. Which being considered, their High Mightinesses have resolved and 
concluded hereby to confirm and approve all the aforesaid business, so that it may take effect 
according to the form and tenor thereof. 


Skipper Ibnjs to the Commis-'<ioners for the Colon ie on the Delaware River. 

I I'rom tbo BuoUlo indorsed Vmthcide Stukkcn rarkenile dr. Colonic ran N. Ncderlandl, Xo. 58, in the Stad Hxiys, Amsterdam. ] 

Hon'"'', Right wise, Prudent and very discreet Gentlemen ! 

Gentlemen. I hope that my last, sent you per the ships MocsmaJi and Versrulde 

Hnlland Documents, i j j i ^ o 

XVI., 221. Sever, together vpith a large package of books and letters by the ship Bontekoe, 

has safely come to hand. I had then written that I doubted not my discharge did come by 
the ship Vcrtruhh Otter, but up to this time 1 have not had intelligence thereof, therefore 
was I fully resolved to return In the ship Eijclccnhoom, having appointed in my place one 
David Jochemsen, residing here at the Manhattans, subject to the approval of Mr. d'Hinojossa. 
The last time I was in the South river, I informed Mr. d'Hinojossa thereof; he gave for 
answer that he could not well do it, but he was expecting news by the first ships how it was to 
fare with the South river, and that he hoped to receive early information either by Virginia or 
the first ship coming from Fatherland, and that we must have patience until then. Whereunto 
we made answer, I and my pilot, we have exceeded the three years by three months, and the 
crew were the whole time growling and murdering, and swearing by Death and the Devil, and 
insisting on their discharge, so that the two who have now come over, have requested their 
discharge, and others their accounts for the three years which have expired, exclusive of myself 
and the pilot, and also a list which I have sent over to my wife of what I had furnished the 
sailors, as appears by their account. I doubt not your Honors will pay the wife what she 
really requires; the rest to friends. I shall request your Honors to grant me my petition ; 
that is, what 1 have so often written to you about, to order another in my place ; one will leave 
here to request it of your Honors ; my opinion is, David Jochemsen, named as above, is a 
proper man. 

The galiot is now again chartered for six months to Mr. Cornells Willet, to go with him to 
Virginia, and on return thence, to Curarao. I should send over the charter party, 'tis not as 
yet clear but it will earn 2,500 guilders in the space of six months. In my opinion, I had 
rather send her at Christmas to Fatherland, had I had here hauled ashore, but I have nothing 
to say as to that ; and when the time is all expired, not a stiver is to the good ; all at once, 'tis 
bread all forgotten. Meanwhile, am I always out of pocket for pitch and tar and sail cloth, and 
sail making, which your Honors will not be surprised at when once you see my account. The 
galiot hath now been in the Hon*"'* West India Company's service over S months, at 500 guilders 
per month, whereof not a doit, I understand, is forthcoming. I have asked the Director and 
Supreme Council whether I could not get as much as was to be disbursed or still to be paid for 
the galiot and necessaries. Was answered Yes, but if for disbursements prior to her entering 
into their service, they will pay nothing. 

What regards the danger which we in the river run from the English ships on the lookout 
in Virginia; good security is given as far as the galiot is concerned but not for our monthly 
wages, although Mr. d'Hinojossa has promised that our wages should be paid to a stiver, in 
case the galiot happened to be overhauled by the English. 

In respect to the Soutii river: Were there a tolerably healthy population and a reasonable 
harvest, and a parcel of good farmers, it would still prosper, and the people who still remain 
there would again begin to pluck up fresh courage. 


At present the Indians keep themselves very quiet; I hope 'tis now almost entirely over 
with them, for this place, the Manhattans, is quite rich of people, and there are, at present, 
fully over three hundred and fifty houses, so that it begins to be a brave place, and divers brave 
villages are rising up which are built in good order. May God, the Lord, grant it may so 
continue to improve. 

Breaking off, I pray God, the Lord, for your Honors' health and prosperity unto salvation. 


Your Honors' 

Humble, faithful servant, 

(Signed), Jacob Jansen Huys. 
On board the galiot N. Amstel, 
lying before the Manhattans, 
SO"- September, 1660. 

The West India Company to the States -General. 

[ From the Original in the Royal Archives at the Hague; File, West Indie. ] 

To the High and Mighty Lords, the States-General of the United Netherlands. 

High and Mighty Lords. 

The annexed petition, with all the papers thereunto belonging, to the effect that your High 
Mightinesses' Extraordinary Ambassadors may be instructed to terminate and dispose of, 
reasonably, the differences touching the boundary, &c., between the English and our nation in 
New Netherland, immediately with his Majesty of Great Britain, to the end that both nations 
may live as good neighbors in good correspondence, being presented to you. High and Mighty 
by the deputed Directors of the General Incorporated West India Company, representing 
the Assembly of the XIX., your High Mightinesses are therefore, in their name, most respectfully 
requested to order all those papers to be handed to the Ambassador Extraordinary going to 
England, with instruction and command to be vigilant therein for the public service and for the 
advantage of the West India Company, according to the importance of affairs, and to promote 
this good intention near the government of the Kingdom of England. 
This doing, &c. 

(Signed), N. Ten Hove. 

6* November, ] 660. 

West India Co7npa7iy. 








5th of November, 1660. 

[ Zoketkas of the States-General, Letter L. ; Division, IJ'est Indisc/ie Coinpagnie, No. 49. ] 






No. 1. RemonstraDce of the West India Company to their High Mightinesses, 131 

No. 2. Deduction of said Company on the aflfairs between the Dutch and the English in New England 

and Virginia, 133 

Letter A. Copy of the Charter granted by their High Mightinesses, the States-General, on the Xlth 

October, 1614, to the inhabitants of this State for trading to New Netherland, 139 

Letter B. Papers respecting some hostilities of the English neighbors against the Company's servants within 

the territory and jurisdiction of New Netherland, together with some Protests against them ; 

also, some resolutions about the purchase of lands from the natives in those parts, 139 

Letter C. Power and authority to Mr. Hugh Peters, Minister at Salem, 150 

Letter D. Seditious and mutinous letter of John Onderhill, 151 

Letter E. Transactions of some seditious Englishmen on Long Island, in the village of Gravesend, 152 

Letter F. Four letters from the Magistrates of the villages of Amersfoort, Breuckelen and Flushing,' and 

particularly Gravesend, written to the Directors of the West India Company, their Lords 

and Patroons, 153 

Letter G. Protest of the Company's officers and the strange and important answer of the English on Long 

Island, 160 

Letter H. Three special Exhibits, according to which the English nation sought to dissuade and detach the 

inhabitants of this State from their obedience and the oath they have taken, and by which 

they were bound, to the Company, 162 

Letter I. Declaration and Manifest against those of Maryland or Virginia, 163 

Letter K. Consent granted to the West India Company by his Majesty, Charles the First, of England, 

of blessed memory, dated 5th September, 1627, 163 

' There are no letters from these three places. The four mentioned consist of three from Gravesend and one from 
Hempstead. — Ed. 

Vol. II. 17 


No. 1. Remonstrance of the West India Company. 

[ From the Original in the Royal Archives at the Hague; Loketkas of the States-General; Division, West Indischc Compagme, No. 49. ] 

To the High and Mighty Lords, States-General of the United Netherlands. 

The Directors of the General Incorporated West India Company, representing the Assembly of 
the XIX., respectfully state that they, as well as those of the aforesaid Company at the Chamber 
of Amsterdam in particular, have heretofore frequently represented to your High Mightinesses 
that the English nation bordering at the North side on our lands of New Netherland, has for 
many years been trying and endeavoring, by unseemly practices and means, on unfounded 
pretences, to invade our lands and jurisdictions there. 

Yea, has progressed so far in them, that of the three chief rivers which lie within the limits 
of New Netherland, viz'. The South river, North river and Fresh river, it had, by such 
usurpations, made itself complete master of the last named ; 

Also of a portion of Long Island, lying on the East end, all contrary to a multitude of protests. 

And that such nation, in these, its insufferable proceedings, seems to have been backed by 
the English government here, so that greater and more hostile attempts and designs on its part 
were afterwards the consequence, for some had tried, by sinister means and open practices, 
to debauch your High Mightinesses' and the Company's inhabitants there, and to seduce 
them from the oath and obedience they owed the same; all which, and how it happened 
from the beginning down, can be seen in the accompanying Deduction and the appendices 
thereunto appertaining. 

And although the Directors had hoped that, on the discovery and exposure of such 
unrighteous and hostile designs, that nation, as if overwhelmed by shame, would have 
thenceforth abstained from its so unjust usurpation of the Company's lands and jurisdiction ; 

Yet they find that, still recently and namely last year, 1659, it has endeavored to settle on 
the North river, with a view to dispossess and thrust the Company in lime therefrom, or at least 
to draw off and destroy the Beaver trade. And howbeit the Company's officers in that country 
have opposed this, and plainly and fully proved the want of foundation on the part of the 
English in this instance, and consequently clearly refuted their frivolous exceptions, evasions and 
pretences, as is also to be seen by the aforesaid Deduction ; nevertheless, they have learned by 
the last accounts from New Netherland, that the English neighbors from the North adhere 
to their design to settle, willingly or unwillingly, and to form a Colonie on, the aforesaid 
North river. 

Another and aggravated difficulty has, in addition, arisen from the English neighbors situated 
at the South between Virginia and the South river, in a place called Merrilant, who have 
presumed, at the latter part of the last year, to summon, by fire and sword, not only the fortress 
named New Amstel, lying on the aforesaid South river, and where the Worshipful government 
of the city of Amsterdam hath established and included its Colonie, but, and of a consequence 
also, the entire South river, and that in virtue of a certain patent or grant given and accorded 
to a certain Baron Baltimore, by Charles the First, King of England, of illustrious memory ; 

Notwithstanding it appears, from the aforesaid patent itself, that 'twas obtained and procured 
from his Royal Majesty on fraudulent representations ; namely, that the lands were not, at 
the time, in the possession of any one, the contrary whereof, 'tis conclusively proved, was 


(lone by the Dutcli nntion, which hath taken possession of the aforesaid river many years 
before Ihe said patent was obtained ; as can also be seen in the aforementioned Deduction. 

So that the Company is iiienaced and in danger of being utterly ousted and expelled from 
its so justly possessed fs'ew Nelherland Province in that American country, on both sides; 
namely, by the English of the North and South, who outnumber our people there; whereby 
this State and its loyal inhabitants are about to lose the benefits, advantages and profits, which, 
in respect of divers conveniences they now possess and daily expect more and more to enjoy 
(to avoid prolixity these are here omitted, having been, heretofore, frequently demonstrated); 
the aforesaid Province being already brought to such a posture that it not only can subsist of 
itself but is beginning to produce reasonable fruits and revenue ; so that, with (Jod's help, it 
will, iti a few years, reimburse, especially if what is usurped be restored and peaceable 
possession be then permitted, the expenses incurred in the settlement and advancement thereof, 
which amount to far beyond ten tons of gold. 

Wherefore the Directors have considered it their duty, hereby, humbly to request you. High 
and Mighty, to be pleased, on this occasion, to commission and instruct the Ambassadors now 
about to proceed to England, not only to com[)lain of all such unseemly and hostile proceedings, 
but, and particularly, also, further seriously to urge, request and intreat his Majesty the King 
of England : 

First — That Baron Baltimore, who resides in England, may desist from his unfounded 
pretensions and consequently leave our people yonder unmolested. 

And at least allow this matter to remain in stuiu until Commissioners on both sides should 
there make and agree upon a boundary between Merrilant and New Netherland. 

Secondly — That his Majesty may resolve and order that the Fresh river and the lands on 
both sides thereof, together with a part of Long Island, unjustly usurped from the Company 
by the English of the North, may be again restored to it, and consequently that the English, 
who have settled there and are willing to remain, shall be bound to comport themselves like 
the other your High Mightinesses and the Company's vassals and subjects there, &-c. 

And thirdly — That a boundary line between the said Northern English and the Company 
be then made and concluded, as being the only means to preclude and prevent their invasions 
and usurpations in future. 

And as the Coinpany will hereby, in all appearance, arrive at a peaceable possession, and 
the result will tend to the great peace of both nations in those parts, we cannot (with 
submission) doubt hut you, High and Mighty, will make such good order in the premises and 
cause such aid to be contributed as the importance of the case and your wisdom shall dictate. 

We shall only add, on this occasion, as King Charles the First, of illustrious memory, the 
father of his present Royal Majesty hath pleased, on the inost humble Petition of the West 
India Company, to declare and consent that its ships, whether equipped for commerce or war, 
both in the voyage out and home, shall have and enjoy, without any molestation, hindrance 
and obstacle, Iree ingress and egress in and from all his Majesty's harbors, roadsteads and 
creeks, as is more fully to be seen by his act of consent given at Whitehall on the S"" 
September, 1C27, copy whereof is hereunto annexed ; that your High Mightinesses will please 
to instruct and commission the Ambassadors to procure from his Majesty the confirmation 
and renewal of the act of consent aforesaid, so that the Company may, on all occasions, make 
use of it according to circumstances. Which doing, &c. 

o"" November, lUGO. 








New Netherland is situate on the north coast of America, in latitude 3S to 41i degrees, or 
thereabouts, along the coast, being bounded on the Northeast by the countries now called 
New England, and on the Southwest by Virginia. 

This district or country, which is right fruitful, good and salubrious, was first discovered 
and found in the year IG09, by the Netherlanders, as its name imports, at their own cost, by 
means of one Hendrick Hudson, skipper and merchant, in the ship the Halve Macne sailing in 
the service of the Incorporated East India Company; (or the natives or Indians, on his first 
coming there, regarded the ship with mighty wonder and looked upon it as a sea monster, 
declaring that such a ship or people bad never before been there. 

The discovery of this country by Netherlanders is further confirmed by the fact that all the 
islands, bays, harbors, rivers, kills and places, even a great way on either side of Cape Cod, 
called by our people New Holland, have Dutch names, which were given by Dutch navigators 
and traders. 

In the year following this discovery, namely in 1610, some merchants again sent a ship thither 
from this country, and obtained afterwards from the High and Mighty Lords States-General a 
grant to resort and trade exclusively to these parts, as appears by the copy hereunto annexed 
Letier A. Under Letter A., to which end they likewise, in the year 1615, built on the North 

river, about the Island Manhattans, a redoubt or little fort, wherein was left a small garrison, 
some people usually remaining there to carry on trade with the Natives or Indians. This was 
continued and maintained until their High Mightinesses did, in the year 1622, include this 
country of New Netherland in the charter of the West India Company. 

This Province of New Netherland was then immediately occupied and taken possession 
of by the said Company, according as circumstances permitted, as is the case in all new 
undertakings. For which purpose they caused to be built there, since the year 1623, four forts, 
to wit: two on the North river, namely Amsterdam and Orange; one on the South river, called 
Nassaw, and the last on the Fresh river, called The Hope. From the beginning, a garrison 
has been always stationed and maintained in all these forts. 


The Company had erected these forts both Southward and Northward, not only with a view 
to close and appropriate the aforesaid rivers, but likewise ns far as title by occupation tends, 
the lands around them and within their borders (being then about sixty leagues along the coast), 
and on the other side of the rivers, to possess, to declare as their own and to preserve against 
all foreign or domestic nations, who would endeavor to usurp the same, contrary to the 
Company's will and pleasure. 

And for greater quiet and security, and, in order more lawfully to confirm their possession, 
the Company caused their servants to purchase from the nations there, as can be seen by divers 
resolutions, deeds and conveyances, many and divers lands situated in various places within 
their aforesaid limits, whereon boundary posts were erected, to which their High Mightinesses' 
arms were aftixed, in order to notify other nations coming there that the country was owned 
and possessed. 

The subsequent circumstances of the Company alone prevented the occupation, by forts, of 
the River Pequatosfocket, Narikansick, otherwise called Sloop's Bay, which are situate behind 
Cape Cod 

Which circumstances being observed by the English of New Plymouth, in New England, 
they began to build, some leagues above the Company's fort The Hope, a trading-house of 
which one Master Pinsen was the first commander. 

Wouter van Twiller, the Company's Director, duly protested against this in the year 1635, 
and admonished the said Pinsen to remove without the Company's possessed jurisdiction, 
who, refusing, placed himself on the defensive. This Pinsen remained, though unlawfully in 
possession, because the Company's servants were not authorized to show any hostility to the 

The latter, becoming bold, from time to time, on account of the increase of numbers in their 
country, in consequence of the troubles in J^ngland, encroached Westerly below Cape Cod, on 
the Dutch limits, absorbing Rhode Island, Block Island, Martin's Vineyard, Sloop's Bay, 
howbeit possession had been taken thereof, for the Company, in the year 163G, by one 
Abraham Pieterss., of Haerlem, on the Island of Queteurs, situate in front of said bay, 
and ['equators river, which they pretend to have conquered by force of arms from the natives, 
inasmuch as they have wholly subjugated that nation. 

The English, not satisfied with the foregoing usurpations within the limits of New Netherland, 
continued tliese improper proceedings, and have, contrary to the law of nations (inasmuch as 
all the lands thereabouts were purchased by the Company's servants) and against a multitude 
of protests, founded a comely city, called Hartford, about a gunshot from Fort Hope, on the 
Fresh river, together with divers other towns and hamlets. 

The English, afterwards perceiving no consequence or obstruction to follow those protests, 
went on in their unseemly usurpations and built, six leagues to the Westward, a handsome 
city called New Haven, with some villages and hamlets. Divers protests were made against 
this, as aforesaid. 

Long Island, which is encompassed Southwardly by the Great ocean and Northwardly by 
the East river, is about 30 leagues in length, and was, l)efore the English had any pretension 
or ever made any claim to it, taken possession of by the Dutch in the name of the Company, 
by planting the villages of Amersfoort, Hecmstede, Flushing, Gravesend and Breuckelen, 
■with a goodly number of bouweries and plantations, the inhabitants thereof being all subjects 
and vassals of their High Mightinesses and of the Company. 


Notwithstanding which, that Island has not remained free from such unseemly usurpers, for 
the English of New Haven (called Rodenbergli by the Dutch of olden times) have planted, 
on the east end of Long Island, two little villages named Southampton and Southold. 

la like manner, in the Kromme Gouw,' which is an inland sea in Long Island, have they 
usurped what is called Garnart's Island, belonging to Long Island, and lying very convenient 
for the cod and other fishery. 

Yea, this usurpation is intermixed with the greatest contempt and contumely in the world ; 
for though 'twas known to the English that the Company had caused to be purchased all the 
lands on Long Island which were belonging to a certain Chief or Sachem named Pensauits, 
and though their High Mightinesses' arms were, in token of possession, affixed there to a certain 
tree, yet that nation hath not only thrown down the aforesaid arms but carved a fool's face in 
the place thereof, to the gross disparagement of their High Mightinesses. 

Whose subjects then iiave been forced also to submit to many injuries and affronts from that 
nation, both in their persons and property, as also appears, among other matters, from a certain 
Letters. appendix annexed under Letter B. 

And although, for all such indecorous proceedings, satisfaction has been, divers times, 
demanded by letter, yet hath none resulted nor can any be obtained. 

In this wise, then, have the English, by unrighteous usurpation, made themselves masters 
of all the before mentioned places and particularly of the beautiful Fresh river, notwithstanding 
they well knew and were aware that the Company had not only ratified the possession of the 
aforesaid river by the construction of its fortress and some bouweries besides, but that it had 
purchased, long before their coming, from the natives and proprietors, many lands thereabouts, 
which were, accordingly, conveyed to it. 

This can also be sufficiently proved by what those of New England, the usurpers of the 
aforesaid Fresh river, have done at the time the troubles between King Charles I., of 
illustrious memory, and his Parliament had burst forth in England to acts of hostility ; viz', 
offering to pay to the Company's officers there an annual acknowledgment, or to conclude a 
bargain with them ; also, to this end, sending hither, in the year 1G41, one Mr. Hugh Peters,^ 
a Minister at Salem, with instruction and authority to enter into an agreement with the 
Company on that subject, both which can, also, in some wise, be seen from the copy of the letters 
Letter c. of Credence and of the written proposition hereunto annexed under Letter C. 

In like manner, also, did the Rhode Island usurpers, when at loggerheads with those of The 
Bay, apply to the Company's officers in those parts to permit them to come and hide among 
the Dutch; all which can more clearly and fully be proved and confirmed by the papers and 
documents remaining with the Company's officers in New Netherland. 

But since the unfavorable change in the government of England, that nation, in order to 
gloze over its doings yonder, hath had recourse to divers subterfuges, circumstances, forged 
pretences and false arguments to obscure and overthrow the Company's lawful claims and 
just right; afterwards, from time to time, proceeding persistently and even boldly in this their 
so unrighteous usurpation on the Company's lands and jurisdiction, unto the palpable injury 
of this State and Company. 

Neither did they rest satisfied with this intolerable usurpation, for it appears their cupidity 
was extending further, when some of that nation endeavored, by sinister means and open 
practices, to dispossess and drive the Company wholly from that country of America, or at 

' Gardner's bay. ' Supra, L, 566. — Ed. 


least to bring its subjects there under their government. These means consisted in debauching 
and incilin" them, and endeavoring to seduce them from the oath they have taken and by 
which they veere bound to the Company; as is sufficiently apparent, among the rest, by a 
certain seditious and mutinous letter written by one Jolin Onderhill, copy whereof is annexed 
Letter P. Under Letter D. 

Whereupon it followed, on the 9"" INLirch, IGoo, when the difficulties here between England 
and Netherland had long been adjusted, that some seditious Englishmen, among whom were 
fJeorge Baxter and James Huybert, inhabitants of this State and under the Company, did, in 
tiie town of Gravesend, on Long Island, publicly, and before all the world, declare tliemselves 
subjects of the Government or Republic of England, to that end setting up its arms there ; 
Letter E. as cau be seen by the annexed copy under Letter E. 

Notwithstanding these mutinous subjects knew, for a certainty, that the State or Government 
of England had not a shadow of claim in the world to this village of Gravesend, which was 
lying, with Heemstede, Amersfort, Breuckelen, Flushing and some others, on Long Island; 
as can be clearly enough seen by the supplicatory and humble letters which the aforesaid 
English and Magistrates of the villages aforesaid, and particularly Gravesend and Heemstede, 
have, from time to time, addressed to the Directors of the West India Company, Chamber 
at Amsterdam, as their Lords and Patroons, whereof some copies are annexed under 
Letter F. Letter F. 

And although this attempt did abort through the foresight of the Company's officers, yet 
that nation did not long lie still, but, as was their custom, continued to encroach on and in 
our lands and jurisdiction, and, among others, on the aforesaid Long Island, which, although 
protested against, yet have those who had squatted there dared to give a very strange and 
serious answer (which was not the first time); as can be seen from tiie two copies of Protest 
Letter G. and Auswer annexed under Letter G. 

By these strange and unheard-of proceedings of the English, the Company's officers in that 
country were greatly embarrassed, being apprehensive that such insufierable action and 
boldness might be encouragnd ; wiierefore they then have communicated these things, from 
time to time, to the neighboring Governors of New England, by way of complaint, and besought 
tlieiii that such iioslile action and insufierable usurpation be not countenanced, but rather 
opposed, by them as good neighbors and allies were bound and holden to do. 

Whereupon many excuses were made, but not such as could remove the presumption to the 
contrary ; which was more confirmed and strengtiiened when advice was received that they 
had sent thence, by way of Boston, to Old England, one James Grover, one of George Baxter 
and James Iluyberl's accomplices, and the very man who had set up the arms of the Republic 
of England in the village of Gravesend. 

Which James Grover afterwards came there, in the year 1G57, bringing with him a letter 
from the pretended Protector, Oliver Cromwell, addressed to the English inhabitants of Long 
Island, which he afterwards presented to the Magistrates of the village of Gravesend, 
belonging, as already slated, to the Company's jurisdiction, to be opened and read ; as is to 
be seen by two copies of letters written by the Company's officers there and annexed under 
Letter n. Letter H. This could not tend to any other purpose than to (iissuade and seduce 

the inhabitants of this State and Company from the obedience and oath they had tal^en and 
were owing to the same. 


From this mode of proceeding, it clearly appears that such usurpers and mutineers were 
backed up and encouraged even by the English home government. 

Which support and encouragement then have so countenanced and emboldened those of 
New England, that, notwithstanding they dispossessed and shoved the Company from the 
entire Fresh river, as also from the Eastern part of Long Island, yet, not satisfied with that, 
they have cast their eyes on the North river, in the neighborhood of a place called Wapping's 
kill, situate between Forts Amsterdam and Orange, with a view to dispossess the Company, 
in time, of it ; nay, at least to draw off the beaver trade. But not being well able to effect 
their purpose without the knowledge and consent of the Company's officers, they requested 
of them free passage, under color of planting a Colonic there, maintaining that it could not 
be refused them, in regard, particularly (as they say), that the aforesaid selected place, 
according to a certain patent granted hy the illustrious Iving Charles L, was within the resort of 
Massachusets Colony. And, although it be objected thereto and clearly and plainly shown 
tliat, even admitting such patent to have been granted, it could not take away the power and 
authority of the High and Mighty Lords States-General of the Free United Netiierlands, whose 
subjects first discovered that country of America, and particularly the North river, and also had 
taken possession thereof afterwards, under charter from their High Mightinesses, as heretofore 
set. forth, being long before the illustrious King Charles' father succeeded to the kingdom, which 
first happened in the year 1625. Notwithstanding this, we learn by the last despatches received 
from New Netherland that that nation at the North still remain disposed, with or without consent, 
to plant a Colonie on the North river aforesaid. 

About the same time, and in the latter part of the aforesaid year 1659, news arrived here that 
some other Englishmen in the South, from a place called the Province of Merrilant, situate in 
Chesapeak bay, between the South river and Virginia, have had the presumption to demand, 
by fire and sword, not only the fortress called New Amstel, lying on the aforesaid South river, 
where the worshipful government of the city of Amsterdam have established and included their 
Colonie, but and of a consequence, also the aforesaid entire river, with bold and intolerable 
menaces, founding their right on a certain patent or grant which the illustrious King Charles L 
had also given to Cecilius Calvert, Baron of Baltimore, who is residing here in Old England. 

This unheard of and hostile mode of summons took the Company's officers there greatly by 
surprise, having never expected any pretence or claim from that quarter, which also could not 
be put forth with any sort of foundation, it being a place within the resort of the Province of 
New Netherland, the possession of this South river, being itself sealed with the blood of their 
High Mightinesses' subjects ; for the Company having, in its infancy, planted a Colonie called 
the Whorekill, and erected a small fort there on the west side of the bay, within the South 
Cape, they were all, in course of some time, murdered and slain by the Indians. 

And afterwards, in the year 1623, as hereinbefore stated, the West India Company caused Fort 
Nassau to be erected 15 (a). 16 leagues up the river on the east bank (which was maintained 
with a constant garrison until the year 1660, when it was removed thence, and the river 
downwards on the west bank was included where the fortress New Amstel is now standing) ; 
in like manner, also, some time after, downwards on the west bank a redoubt, called Rivers, or 
Bevers rede, was erected on the Schuylkill ; by that means, having purchased from the natives 
many and divers lands, in order to hold the possession with quieter conscience, the Company 
meant, as it dolh still mean, to have its possession in that quarter so strengthened, that its right 
thereto is incontrovertible. 

Vol. II. 18 


In order, then, to maintain that right, as much as possible, against such evil-minded neighbors, 
the Company's ofTicers were not only obliged, at a great expense, to secure the possession of said 
Fort iNew Amstel, with a force of 70 and more soldiers, but they have also, for peace sake, to 
prevent further mischief, resolved on an Embassy to the Governor and Council of Merrilant, 
to dissuade and deter them, if possible, from their so unrighteous design, and accordingly to 
furnish them a clear and precise explanation of the incontrovertible right their High Mightinesses 
and the Company were having to said river, with further otter, irrefragably and forever to fix 
the boundary between the Province of Merrilant and NewNetherland, by Commissioners to be 
appointed on both ides, or else, in case of disagreement, to refer the matter to the respective 
Sovereigns in Europe ; and if all tiiis were refused, generally to protest against all damages, 
costs and losses wliich already had been suffered, and would still accrue, as can be seen in its 
length and breadth, in the copy of the Declaration or Manifest, politely drawn up by the 
aforesaid Ambassadors, and delivered over to the said Governor and Council of Merrilant, 
Letter I. aiHiexed under Letter I. 

And such Embassy and explanation of matters, in like manner, ought to have made them, 
when sufficiently convinced, to desist from their design, as less stubborn and more peaceable 
neighbors would have done; yet have they continued persistent in their previous claim, viz', 
that the fortress and Colonie of New Amstel, and, of a consequence, the entire South river, was 
lying within the jurisdiction of the Province of Merrilant, according to the pretended patent or 
charter granted to the above named Baron Balthasar More. 

After which, also, did the aforesaid Baron now recently, and namely, on the vii'*" June, 16G0, 
send unto the Directors of the Incorporated West India Company at Amsterdam, a translation 
of the aforesaid patent or grant, in confirmation of the claim put forth by him and his in that 
quarter, and accordingly demanding submission and obedience of the aforesaid place and 
inhabitants of New Amstel, or, in case of refusal, protesting against said Company and declaring 
that he, at a more convenient time, shall and will reduce the aforesaid Colonie under his 
authority and obedience. 

Which came upon the Directors with so much the greater surprise, as it can be clearly proved 
even by the aforesaid patent or grant, that their High Mightinesses and the Company's 
subjects have been the first possessors of the South river, for the date of the aforesaid patent is 
June, 1632, 

And that it was obtained on fraudulent or at least on ignorant pretences, for the aforesaid 
patent states, among other things, in substance : That the Baron of Baltimore was petitioning 
his Royal Majesty for permission to transport, at his own expense, a considerable Colony of 
the English nation to a country or territory in the hitherto uncultivated and unplanted parts 
of America, although inhabited in some parts thereof by certain savage people, possessing no 
knowledge of Almighty God. 

Ergo, not in a place which was already possessed, planted and cultivated, by other free 
nations and Christians, being subjects of their High Mightinesses, the Lords States-General, on 
a charter thereto specially granted, and that so many years before, as already so clearly and 
conclusively demonstrated. 

King Charles the First, of illustrious memory, being likewise of too generous and too just a 
nature to give away and present to his subjects, lands and places already possessed and 
governed by other free nations and his allies, and over which, consequently, no disposition in 
the world appertained or belonged to him. 


Unless such be claimed, on the ground that the English nation have had a settlement prior 
to and before the Netherlanders, about that part of America, to wit, in Virginia. 

If that have weight, the Dutch nation must, we think, be altogether preferred, being 
considered, as in former times, namely vassals and subjects of the King of Spain, first finder and 
founder of this new American world, who, by the conclusion of the peace, hatii made over to 
the United Netherland Province, all his right and title to such country and domains as they 
should conquer, in process of time, in Europe, America, etc. 

The French having been the second followers and discoverers of this Northern part of America, 
who are come there in the year 1524. 

The English came there, for the first time, many years after. 

But deeming such claim and forced argument unnecessary, they are of opinion (with 
submission) that they have deduced and proved clearly and plainly enough, that their High 
Mightinesses and the West India Company's subjects have been the first discoverers and 
possessors, not only of the South river, but also of the North river and Fresh river, all lying 
within the limits of New Netherland, as hereinbefore laid down and described. 

Therefore, the Directors cannot doubt but their High Mightinesses will maintain the 
Company, and cause it to be supported in its so righteous possession, and will accordingly exert 
every means, and have the same employed, that, on the one side, the English of the South, 
namely the Baron Baltimore, may desist and cease from his unjust pretension to the fortress 
or Colonie of New Arastel and the South river, and on the other, that those of the North, or 
New England, be prevented and hindered, not only from settling and taking possession of the 
North river, but, and chiefly be constrained to restore the entire Fresh river and lands lying 
on both sides thereof, together, also, with a part of Long Island, all by them both forcibly and 
unrighteously usurped, so that the Company may finally succeed in reaping the fruits and benefits 
promised, if it be left in peaceable possession of its New Netherland conquests that stand the 
Company in so dear, having cost it many tons of gold before they were brought to such a state. 

Lette" A. 

Grant of the States-General to Gerrit Witsen, and others, of an exclusive right 
to trade to New Netherland for three years; dated H"" October, 1G14. 

[ Omitted, being a triplicate of Document I., 11. ] 

Letter B. 

Condition and Agreement entered into between Commissary Jacob van Curler 
and the Chiefs of Sickenames, on the S"" of June, 1633, as follows : 

The aforesaid Curler, and the sachem named Wapyquart or Tattoepan, chief of Sickenames 
river, and owner of the Fresh river of New Netherland, called, in their tongue, Conettecuck, 
have amicably agreed for the purchase and sale of the tract named Sickajoock, a flat extending 
about one league down along the river and one-third of a league in width to the high land and 
beyond the kill upwards, being a flat extending to the next adjoining little stream, on condition 
that all tribes might freely, and without any fear or danger, resort to the purchased land for 
the purposes of trade; and whatever wars might arise between them and others, may be 
waged or carried on without any of them entering on our said territory. It is further expressly 


conditioned by this contract, and assented to by the aforenamed ciiief, that the Sequeen should 
dwell with us, all at the request, and to the great joy of the Sequeen Allarbaenhoot, and all 
interested tribes. This has taken place, on the part of the Sequeen, with the knowledge of 
Magaretinne, chief of Sloop's Bay. The chief of Sickenames is paid for the said land by 
Jacob Curler one piece of duffels, twenty-seven ells long; six a.\es, six kettles, eighteen 
knives, one sword-blade, one shears, and some toys. All which was signed by Jacob van 
Curler, Fredrick Lubbersen, Gillis Pieters, Claes Jans Iluyter, Domingo Dios, Barent Jacobs 
Cool, and Pieter Louwerensen. 

Anno 1633, on the S"" June, by Jacob Curler, Commissary in the service of the West India 
Company, was purchased, by order of the Director and Council of New IVetheriand, from the 
chief of Sickenames. with free will and consent of the inhabitants there, all that flat land, 
about one league long across through the wood on the river, and about one-third part of a 
league broad, and a musket-shot over the kill where the said Curler, by orders aforesaid, has 
commenced building the trading-house called The Hope, situate on the Fresh river of the New 
Nelherland; with express condition, on the part of the purchaser and seller, that all tribes of 
Indians shall be permitted to come freely thither to trade with us ; and that the enemies of one 
or the other nation shall not molest each other on the purchased tract ; which conditions were 
agreed upon and concluded to the great satisfaction of the Indians, especially of the Sequeen, 
all which occurred in the presence of all the Company's servants then there present. 


The Director and Council of New Netherland hereby give notice to William Holmes, 
Lieutenant and trader, acting on behalf of the English Governor of Plymouth, at present in 
the service of that nation, that he depart, with all his people, forthwith from, and break up his 
settlement on, the lands lying on the Fresh river, continually traded upon by our nation, and 
at present occupied by a lort, which lands have been purchased from the Indians and paid for. 
And in case of refusal, we hereby protest against all loss and damage which the Incorporated 
West India Company may sustain. Thus done at Fort Amsterdam, in New Nelherland, this 
xxv"" October, 1633, in presence of the underwritten witnesses. And the above named 
Lieutenant gave a written answer to the same, that he could give no writing, as he was 
appointed there and must remain until further orders from the Governor and Council of New 
Plymouth ; also, that he was there and intended to remain, in the name of the King of 
England, whose servants they were. (Signed), Jacob van Curlier, Frederick Lubbertsen, 
Carel Fransen. 

Anno 1633, IG'-'' September. After long admonition to desist from their undertaking, we 
have expressly forbid them to pursue any trade above our fortification, much less to erect a 
house, as the river belongs to us, in virtue of our frequent resort and possession taken of the 
ground; but they have even continued. 

Anno 1663,' the 25"" of April. The English on the Fresh river have sowed corn in our 
ground during the night, against which we have frequently protested. In the afternoon we 
undertook to sow barley therein, but finding it planted, turned back, and one of our people 

'Sic. 1643. —Ek. 


wns violently struck by the English on his arm, so that he could not move; another 
Englisliman cut a hole in his head with the top or crown of an adze, so that the blood ran 
down over his face and clothes. 

The following written Remonstrance was presented to tlie Hon""'* Director and 
Council of New Netherland, hy Gysbert Opdyck, Commissary on the part 
of the General Incorporated West India Company : 

That we, on the 23"* April, 1G40, did tell and notify Mr. Hopkens, the English Governor on 
the Fresh river of New Netherland, that we proposed ploughing, for the Company, a piece 
of land lying behind Fort Hope, as it was our purchased and paid for ground, forbidding him, 
Mr. Hopkins, or any of his, to attempt doing anything on the aforesaid piece of land ; who 
gave for answer, that 'twas their ground, inasmuch as they and not we, had bought it from 
the right owners, and that the Pequatoos never owned the land, which he will prove by a 
chief of the Morahtkans, who dwelt near the Pequatoos, and that the owners had fled away 
to seek assistance from their people. Whereunto we, Opdyck, and the other servants of the 
Company, made answer, that the lands, many years before their coming, were taken possession 
of, and payment in full made to the right owners, which was also approved of by the residents. 
Mr. Hopkins said: Show your right; we shall show ours; also, that he sought to deal in 
friendship with us ; which, Opdyck said, was our intention, but that he, meanwhile wished to 
have the use of the land, it being our ground. To this he, Hopkins, and the other English, 
would never agree. 

Also, that the English constable on the Fresh river did, on the 24"" April, 1G40, come with 
ten (a^ eleven men, each being armed with a thick stick, to our people, who were busy ploughing 
on the Hon''''' Company's ground, who, with blows and shouts, so frightened our horses that 
were drawing the plough, that, from terror, they broke tlie ropes and chains, and ran away. 
And whereas we had that day notified the Governor not to molest us on the Hon'''^ Company's 
land, we, in an hour after the constable came to us, resumed ploughing without hindrance. 

On the 25"' April, 1640, the English, in the night, sowed with corn the land that, in the day, 
Opdyck had caused to be ploughed, against which Opdyck protested, delivering a written protest 
to the Governor, who would not answer it as 'twas in Dutch, saying: I can also protest, and 
that we were not acting right ; asking, likewise, that Opdyck should show the Company's title 
to the land ; also, that the English sought to live in friendship with our people, but if we came 
with force, they should use force against us, and that their King would fully maintain them as 
our Prince of Orange would us. Thereupon, Gysbert Opdyck gave for answer: He was not 
bound to show them any title, but if they had anything to say, they should deliver it to him in 
writing, and he would forward it to the Hon'''^ Director. 

Moreover, that we very well knew that his Majesty of England did not require them to 
•^wrong another in his property. In the afternoon, Opdyck had barley sown in the ploughed 
field, but the English drove the people off. Whereupon Opdyck himself went thither, but the 
English, who were standing on a ridge, would oppose our people, and sought to prevent them 
sowing our own land, which was ploughed by our men. Meanwhile, Evert Duyckingh ran past 
the English with a hat full of barley; whilst sowing, an Englishman struck him on the arm 
with a club, so that he could not move; another cut said Duyckingh in the head with an 
adze stuck in a long handle, so that the blood ran down his face and clothes. Whereupon we 
were forced to depart, but Opdyck said : You do us wrong and violence. 


In the ni."-ht of the 30"" May, one of the Company's mares that was going astray, was taken 
by the English and brought in their pound without our knowledge. A man came afterwards, 
who told us that the Governor's servant had taken it because tiie horse had eaten their grass. 

If Opdyck would pay the damage, they would restore the animal. To which was answered, 
that the ground and grass were ours; that they had nothing to do with our horses, and should 
bring them back whence they were taken. 

On the 21"' June, 1G40. Gysbert Opdyck being come from the Manhattans, and about an 
hour at home, the English carried ofl', in the twinkle of an eye, a cow and calf, and drove them 
to their pound. 

On the 22'' June, 1G40, the English Governor in the Fresh river [sent] two men to Opdyck, 
on the demand of the Hon"' Director, Willem Kieft, and consented to give up the horse, cow 
and calf, if we would pay the damage done by them to the grass; whereunto the Commissary 
gave for answer : If they would give back the cattle belonging to us, they could do so, but he 
did not intend to pay any damage, as they iiad sought their food on our purchased land, and 
no damage had been done. 

On the 28"" June, 1640, an English clergyman took a load of the hay which the Company's 
servants had cut; wherefore the Commissary served iiim with a protest, at the house of the 
Governor, who was not at home. 

On the ly"" of August, Teter Colet, the steward, and other of the Company's servants, whilst 
cutting the Company's grain, were driven off by the English, who said 'twas their grain, and 
that they had sown it. Whereupon Opdyck protested at the house of Deputy-Governor Hengst,' 
who answered that he had nothing to do with any protest, and that they knew it. 


I, Willem Kieft, Director-General of New Netherland, notify you, Captain Daniel Patterick, 
or whom it may concern, that this ground- which you claim to take possession of, is within 
the jurisdiction of New Netherland, and belongs to their High Mightinesses, so that hereafter 
vou may not pretend any cause of ignorance ; we order and warn you further not to attempt 
anything to the prejudice of their High Mightinesses, and in default thereof, we protest against 
all damages, losses and interests which may accrue herefrom. Ady. 15"" October, 1640. On 
the Island Manhattans, in Fort Amsterdam. 


We shall not do anything in the least which will contravene their High Mightinesses, the 
Lords States' right to any lands of theirs in New Netherland ; yet,^ until 

the matter be more clear that this is States' land on which we live ; and we dare not give any 
other answer to this protest. 

Ditto. The Director protests as above. Signed — Daniel Patterick, Willem Kieft, Ulderich 
Lupolt and Oloff Sevensen, witnesses. 

1G41. On the IS"" April, Peter Colet, Evert Duycking and Sybrant Sibols ploughed and 
sowed some peas in the land belonging to the Company, situate in the Fresh river of New 
Netherland, about the house The Hope ; the English came to them in the field, saying: Ye are 

' Eaiaes. See I., 598. ' Greeawicli, Connecticut. ' Something out. — En. 


smart fellows, to be at work so early in the morning, but what we were doing was of no use, as 
(they said) the ground was theirs. Thereupon Colet answered : We plough our own purchased 
and paid for land. 

Wiiereunto the English said : Are you going with your three men to resist the whole town ? 
The English have severely beaten and injured Peter Colet and the horses, and driven us 
from the Hon'''* Company's land; wherefore we, Peter Colet and Evert Duycking demanded of 
the Governor, Mr. Hopkins and of Mr. Heyns, what induced them to obstruct us on our Lords 
and Masters' land ? we said we had paid for it, and it belonged to us. Mr. Heyns said : Prove 
it by good men ; and if ye do not leave off cultivating the aforesaid land, we siiail teach you 
something else. Whereupon we made answer: Do whatever you tiiink proper; we shall, 
with the help of Almighty God, have the land ploughed, wiiich belongs to us. 

1641, 17"" April. The Hon'''* Company's servants began again ploughing the land on the 
Fresh river belonging to the Company. An Englishman was found on it who stood and dug 
what we had ploughed ; he went towards the English village to advise the rest that we were 
ploughing the land, whereupon the English, with a knife, cut the ropes and knocked down 
Sybrant Sibolts; then threw the plough and a portion of the tackling into the river, and again 
drove the Company's horses off, and, moreover, violently abused the farmer, not like Christians 
but like heathens. (Signed), P' Colet, Evert Duyckingh, Sybrant Sybolts. 

1641, 26"" May. The following statement, in writing, was made by Elsie Gosens, widow 
of Jan Hendricksen Rochen, in his lifetime Commissary at Fort Hope; that the English, 
dwelling on the Fresh river of New Netherland, did, on the 24"" May, 1641, drive posts in the 
ground around said fort, and with rails fenced it off in such a manner that we could not use 
our own wagon-road ; we were, thereby, shut off from the woods and our hay and grain land. 
Hereupon the servants of the Hon'''* Company resolved to pull up the rails and throw them 
into the river, which was at once done. Mr. Weyting,' the Governor, being asked why the 
English did such acts, on our purchased and paid for laud, said, he did not know. 

1641, 12"" June. Goodman Hill demanded of our people on the Fresh river of New 
Netherland, whether they will pay the damage done by the hogs in the bush? To which was 
answered. No; as they had gone on the Hon'''* Company's land. 

l?"" ditto. Goodman Speenter was sent to our people from the Council of the English 
towns, who, by order of the Council aforesaid, said to our people, that one of the Company's 
hogs was sold for five English shillings because it had trespassed on their land ; and Goodman 
Speenter said: If you will repay the five shillings, the hog shall be restored. To which our 
people answered. We were not bound to buy our own. 

24"" ditto. We heard from an Englishman that one of the Company's hogs had died of 
hunger with them. 

1641, 16"" July. Mr. Weyting and a Captain came and said that they had some of our 
hogs some time at their houses ; asking, whether we would not have them back before they 
would die of hunger. Whereunto the Hon'''* Company's servants answered : That it was not 
a Christian act to detain and sell other people's hogs, and to let them perish, as they had eaten 

' William Whiting was a merehnnt and becntne one of the proprietors of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, about 1632; a 
settler at Hartford about 163G, where he was chosen Magistrate in 1641, and in 1642 Treasurer of the Colony. He filled 
these offices until his death, which took place in July, 1647. Goodwill's Genealogical Notes, 329. He was never Governor of 
Connecticut. — Ed. 


grass not on English land but on that of the Hon""'" Company; Mr. "Weyting and the Captain 
saying. Vou can take them away whilst they are still alive. That night Mr. Wytingh's boy 
drove the hogs back on the land, but they were again dragged to the pound. 

Whereas we, Captain Daniel Patterick and Elisabeth Feae, duly authorized by her husband, 
Robert Feac, now sick, have resided two years about five or six leagues east of the 
Netherlanders, subjects of the Lords Slates-General, who have protested against us, declaring 
that the said land lay within their limits and that they should not suffer any person to usurp 
it against their lawful rights; and whereas we have equally persisted in our course during 
these two years, in order to be well assured if his Majesty of England hath any pretended 
right to this soil ; and whereas we understand nothing about the matter, and cannot any 
longer presume to remain thus, on account both of the strifes of the English, the danger 
consequent thereon, and these treacherous and villainous Indians, of whom we have seen 
sorrowful examples enough ; We, therefore, betake ourselves under the protection of the 
noble Lords, the States, his Highness, the Prince of Orange, and the West India Company, or 
their Covernor-Ceneral of New Netherland, promising, for the future, to be faithful to them as 
all honest subjects are bound to be, whereunto we bind ourselves, by promise of oath and by 
signature, provid ;d we be protected against our enemies as much as possible, and enjoy, 
henceforth, the same privileges tiiat all Patroons of New Netherland have obtained, agreeably 
to the freedoms. Thus done and signed in the presence of the underwritten witnesses, the 
ix"" April, 16-12, in F'ort Amsterdam. (Signed), Daniel Patterick. Witnesses: Everardus 
Bogardus and Johannes Winckelman. 

I, Willem Kieft, Director-General residing in New Netherland in behalf of the High and 
Mighty Lords, States-General of the United Provinces, of his Highness of Orange and the 
Honorable Directors of the Incorporated West India Company, make known to you, Robert 
Coghwel and your associates, not to build nor plant on the South river, lying within the limits 
of New Netherland, nor on the lands extending along it, as they lawfully belong to us, by our 
possessing the same many years ago, before it was frequented by any Christians, as appears by 
our forts which we have on it; the mouth of the river is also sealed with our blood, and the 
soil itself, most of which has been purchased and paid lor by us. 

Unless you will settle under the Lords the States and the Hon'''^ West India Company, and 
swear allegiance and become subject to them, as other inhabitants do. Failing therein, We 
protest against all damages and losses which may accrue therefrom, and desire to be holden 
guiltless tliereof, &c. 

Robert Coghwel answers: He does not propose to settle under any government, but to select 
a place over which the States-General have no authority; and in case such place is not to be 
found, he intends to return, or if he settle within the limits of the States, he will repair under 
it, and then take the oath. 

Done on board Mr. Lammerton's bark, lying in the roadstead, in front of the Island 
Manhattans, the S"" of April, A" 1G41. (Signed), Robert Coghwel. Cornells van der 
Hoykens, Fiscal, Hendrick van Dyck, witnesses. Beneath was: To my knowledge. 
(Signed), Cornelis van Thiexhoven, Secretary. 

We, the Director and Council residing in New Netherland. on the part of the High and 
Mighty Lords States-General of the United Netherlands, his Highness of Orange and the Hon"'* 
Directors of the Incorporated West India Company, having express order and command from 


the aforesaid Lords, to purchase in their name, from the inhabitants of these parts, all such 
lands as we may consider adapted for agriculture and the raising of all sorts of stock — 

Have, therefore, pursuant to the orders of our Sovereign Lords, purchased from the Great 
Chief or Sachem named Pensawits, all the lands lying on Long Island, within the limits of New 
Netherland, which he has inherited from his forefathers, with all such action and right as he 
might at any time claim, according to the deed of purchase and conveyance thereof in existence. 
Which aforesaid Pensawitz, after some foreigners had settled on the aforesaid land, about 
Schout's bay, hath notified us that some strollers or vagabonds had come on the land that we 
had purchased from him, and had there begun to build houses, cut trees and do other work, 
and that said vagabonds had there thrown down their High Mightinessess' arms. 

In order to obtain a good and correct report and assurance of the aforesaid, Jacobus van 
Curler, Commissary of cargoes, is sent thither with the yacht Prins TVillcm, who, coming to the 
place where their High Mightinesses' arms had been set up, hath found tlie same broken down, 
and on the tree to which they were nailed, was a fool's face carved in the stead of said arms^. 

All which aforesaid appeared strange to us, being a criminal offence against his Majesty, 
and tending to the disparagement of their High Mightinesses. 

We therefore, on the 13"' May, 1640, after mature deliberation, have resolved to send Cornelia 
van Tienhoven thither with XXV. soldiers, to whom we have given the following Instruction 
hereunder inserted : 

Whereas we have certain information that some foreigners have come on Long Island into 
Maerten Gerritsen's and Schout's bay,' which are the Hon'''' West India Company's lands, under 
the authority of the High and Mighty Lords States-General, and there thrown down the arms 
of the Lords States, and settled and cultivated the soil. We therefore send you Secretary van 
Tienhoven thither, with the under sheriff, the sergeant and three and twenty men, to inquire 
into the state of the matter, and you shall regulate yourself as follows : 

You shall endeavor to arrive there unexpectedly; 'twill be hest, in our opinion, at the 
break of day, and to hinder and prevent the English having recourse to any force; and you 
shall forthwith inquire who hath thrown down the arms, and who gave them commission to 
do so, and oblige them to come here and defend themselves. If they refuse, then you shall 
set about, by force, to constrain them to repair hither, taking an inventory of their goods and 
making out in writing a good report of all that occurs and you do; you shall also prevent the 
soldiers committing any excess, and in case the Indians themselves have removed the arms, and 
the English are innocent of the matter and willing to depart back in your presence, it would 
not be unwise to let them do so quietly; but then, the chiefs of the Indians must be taken 
prisoners and brought hither, and, in all cases, it will also be necessary that you take the Indians 
with you. And if it happen that so many additional English have come (which we do not 
anticipate) as to prevent you being able for them, you shall make a strong protest against such 
proceedings, have it served and come back, taking care, above all things, to avoid all bloodshed. 

Thus done in our Council, the IS'"" May, A" 1G40. 

Anno, 1640, the 14"" May, the Secretary and five and twenty soldiers, departed with the 
preceding Instructions from Fort Amsterdam, and on the XV'^' at break of day, arrived at 

' Now, Manhasset ( North Ilcmpsteaci ), at the head of Cow bay, afterwards called Howe's bay, from Lieutenant Daniel 
Howe, and sonietinies Schout's bay, from the circumstance of the Dutch official having landed there. Thompeon's Long Island, 
1., 110, 3-26; II., 62. — Ed. 

Vol. II. 19 



the place where the English had taken up their abode, finding there a small house built by 
Ihem, and another not finished. 

They were first asked : What they were doing there ; by what power or by whose authority 
they presumed to settle on our purchased soil, and told that tliey must show their commission. 

Eight men, one woman and a little child, made answer, that they intended to plant there 
and were authorized thereunto by a Scotchman who had gone with their commission to the 
Red Hill. 

Secondly, they were asked, for what reason did they throw down their High Mightinesses' 
arms and set up a fool's face in the stead ? 

To which some answered : The escutcheon was cut down by a person wiio is not present. 
Another answered : Such was done in their presence by order of a Scotchman, and the man 
who did it was at the Red Hill. 

Hereupon six men were brought to Fort Amsterdam, leaving two men and one woman and 
a child on the ground to take care of their goods ; they arrived on the fifteenth of May. 

Examination of divers Englishmen taken on Long Island. 

On the IG"" May, 1640, at the house of the Hon''''' Director of New Netherland, 
these six under named persons were examined, to wit: 

What is your name ? 

Where born ? 

How old are you ? 

On what conditions did you go to reside on 
Long Island, under the English or Scotch ? 

Who brought them there, and who was their 
principal ? 

What did they intend to do there, and if 
more folks are to come ? 

Where did they reside in New England ? 

Did they not see the arms of the State ? 

Do they not know who did it? 

Answer. Jop Gears. 
Aiiswcr. In Bretfortsthier. 
Answer. Twenty-eight years. 
Answer. Under the English, with authority 
from Mr. Foret. 

Answer. Lieutenant Houw. 

Ansivcr._^ To plant and build dwellings ; does 
not know for certain how many folks are still 
to come there. 

Answer. At Lin, in Matetusje's bay, S miles 
from Boston. 

Answer. Saw them when cut down ; was on 
board when it was done. 

Anstnr. Lieutenant Daniel Houw and Mr. 
Foret did it together; do not know which in 
particular did it. 

All which hath he declared, upon oath, at the hands of the Hon''" Director, to be true and 
truthful, and further knoweth not. 

(Signed), Jop Sayrs. 



Declaration of George Wilbe. 

Where born ? 
How old? 

Who was the chief person that had them 
brought, and what did they propose to do ? 

Were they to settle under the English or 
Scotch, if they remained there? 

Where did they live in New England? 

Did he not see the States' arms? 

Wherefore did they pull down the arms, and 
■who did it ? 

Does he not know who carved the fool's face 
in the stead of the arms ? 

Answer. North Hamtomschiet.* 

Answer. Twenty-five years. 

Ansiver. Lieutenant Houw brought them 
thither, and he did not know the land belonged 
to the States; they came there by authority of 
Mr. Foret, a Scotchman. 

Answer. They should have lived free under 
their own laws, and would have been obedi- 
ent to whomsoever was lord of the land. 

Answer. In Matetusje's bay, eight miles from 

Answer. Did not see them when he came 
with the sloop. 

Answer. Does not know, for certain, whether 
Mr. Foret or Lieutenant Houw did it. 

Answer. He does not know. 

All which he declares to be true and truthful, without knowing any more, and hath, at the 
hands of the Hon'''* Director, confirmed the same on oath. 

(Signed), George Wilbe. 

Interrogatories for John Farmington. 

Where was he born ? Answer. In Bockingamschiet. 

How old is he ? • Answer. Twenty-four years. 

Who brought them there, and who was their yl;(swe/-. Lieutenant Houw brought them, 

leader that conveyed them thither, and what with Mr. Foret's permission, there, where they 

did they intend to do there, and how many intended to plant ; it was intended that 20 

persons more are to come there ? 

Were they to settle under English or Scotch 

Where did he live in New England? 

Did he come there with the knowledge 
and consent of Mr. Wintrop, the Governor of 
The Bay. 

Did he not see the arms of the State ? 

families should come, and if the land was good 
they expected a great many people. 

Answer. English, and they have acknowleged 
Lord Sterlincx' for their Lord; and if 'twere 
found that the land belonged to the States they 
would remain under him. 

Answer. At Linn, in Matetusses bay, eight 
miles from Boston. 

Answer. He understood so. 

Answer. Saw them when brought on board. 

' Northamptonshire. — Ed. 



Does he not know who tore them down Answer. Lieutenant Houw and Mr. Foret 
and conveyed them on board ? brought them on board and he understood 

that tliey liad broken them oft'. 

Does he not know who carved the fool's face Aitsuer. No ; some of his people did it. 
on the tree in the stead of the arms? 

Declares this to be true and truthful, and confirmed tiie same on oath at the hands of the 

Hon''"" Director. 

(Signed), John Farington. 

Interrogatory for Philip Cartelyn. 

Where born ? 

How old are you? 

Who was the principal person that brought 
them there? 

On what conditions did they come there ; 
under the English or Scotch? 

What did they mean to do there? 

Were many people to come there? 

Where did he live? 

Did Mr. Wintrop, the Governor of The Bay, 
know that they were going to plant there ? 

Did he not see the States' arms ? 

Who tore them oft'? 

Does he not know who carved the fool's face 
on llie tree? 

Answer. In Bockingamschiet. 
Answer. Six-and-twenty years. 
Answer. Lieutenant Daniel Uouw. 

Answer. Under the English with Mr. Foret's 
permission, as far as he knows. 

Answer. To plant and make a plantation. 

Answer. Some were to come to look at the 
land, and if they liked it they were to settle 
there, if not, they were to depart ; the number 
he did not know. 

Answer. At Lin, eight miles from Boston. 

Answer. Did not know 'twas States' land ; 
thought that the laud belonged to Lord Ster- 

Answer. Did not see them before they were 
torn dowp, but when they were broken oft'. 

Answer. Is not sure whether 'twas Mr. Foret 
or Lieutenant Houw; says that one of the 
two did it, as he believes. 

Answer. Does not know ; believes none of 
the English did it. 

All which he declares to be true and truthful, and hath confirmed the same on oath at the 

hands of the Hon''''^ Director. 

(Signed), Philip Cartelyn. 

Interrogatory of Nathaniel Cartilyn. 

Where was he born ? 
How old is he ? 

Who was the chief person that brought them 
there ? 

Ansicer. In Bockingamschiet. 
Answer. Twenty-two years. 
Answer. Lieutenant Houw brought them 
there with Mr. Foret's consent. 

'See IX., 981, note. — Ed. 



What did they propose doing there, and how 
many people were to come there? 

Where did he reside? 

Did he not see the States' arms? 

Does he not know who hath torn them 
down ? 

Does he not know whether any of their 
party carved a fool's face on the tree where 
the States' arms were ? 

Answer. They intended to plant, and if the 
place was good, a great many more were to 

Answer. At Lin, 7 (& S miles from Boston. 

Aiiswer. Mr. Foret and Mr. Houw went 
ashore and brought the arms on board. 

Answer. Does not know who tore them 
down ; but understood from the boy that Mr. 
Foret and Lieutenant Houw had done it. 

Answer. Does not know who hath done it, 
and 'twas not done by his party. 

All which he declares to be true and truthful, and hath confirmed the same by oath at the 

hands of the Hon'''^ Director. 

(Signed), Nathaniel Cartelant. 

Interrogatory of William Harker. 

Where was he born? Answer. In Cincenschier. 

How old ? Answer. Twenty-four years. 

Who was the principal person that brought Answer. Lieutenant Houw, master of the 

them thither, and what did they intend to do sloop, with Mr. Foret's consent; they intended 

on States' ground ? 

Were there not many more people to come ? 

Did Governor Winthrop know that they 
were to plant there ? 

Did he not see the States' arms ? 

Who tore them down ? 

Does he not know who carved a fool's face 
in the stead of the States' arms ? 

to plant. 

Answer. He does not know. 

Answer. Yes ; and he wrote a letter to Mr. 

Answer. Did not see them on the tree, but 
when brought on board. 

Answer. Heard Lieutenant Houw say that 
he had torn them down, and that Mr. Foret 
hath lent him a hand. 

Answer. Does not know, and does not 
believe that any of their company did it. 

All which he declares to be true and truthful, and confirms the same on oath, at the hands 

of the Hon'''* Director. 

(Signed), William Harkek. 

On the 19"" of May, being Saturday, it is resolved in Council, after the six Englishmen who 
were brought in were found not guilty of having torn down the arms of the Lords States, to 
discharge them from confinement and to set them at liberty, on condition that they do promise 
to depart forthwith from our territory, and never to return to it without the Director's express 
consent; whereunto they shall be obliged to pledge themselves in writing. 


Whereas we, .Top Sears, George Wilke, John Farington, Philip Cartelin, Nathaniel Carelant, 
William llarker, have, within a few days, come to settle on territory belonging to their High 
Miiihtinesses, the States-General, without knowing the fact, being deceived by Mr. P'oret, a 
Scotchman, wherefore the Hon'''* Director-General of New Netherland hath had us removed, 
and requires us immediately to break up and depart beyond the limits of the Hon'''* Incorporated 
West India Company, which we are bound to do, and promise on our word of honor to set 
about it forthwith without fail, on pain of being punished as perverse usurpers, subjecting 
ourselves not only to this, but to all other courts in the world. In testimony of the truth and 
upright sincerity, have we subscribed this with our own hand, in Fort Amsterdam, in New 
Netherland, the xix"' May, anno 1640. Signed, Job Sayres, George Wilbe, Johan Farington, 
Philip Kartelant, Nathaniel Carelant, Willeni Harker. 

After comparing, this is found to agree with the Book of Resolutions by me. 

Letter C. 

Power of Attorney to the Reverend Hugh Peters. 

Whereas the bearer hereof, Mr. Hugh Peters, Minister of Salem, is sent, at public request, to 
England, to negotiate with the present Parliament there about such matters as concern us, 
which we confide to his care and fidelity, this is to authorize him, if occasion permit him to go 
to the Netherlands, to treat with the West India Company there, concerning a peaceable 
neighborhood between us and those of New Netherland, and whatever we shall further think 
proper touching the West Indies; wherefore, we have agreed and consulted together in a 
matter of such great importance, God willing, to reduce the particulars to be treated of, to 
such propositions as shall be presented on coming together. 

John Winthrop, 

Gov. of Massachusetts. 
This 10'" day of October, 1G41, John Haynes, 

in the Bay of Massachusetts, in New England. • Gov. of Conjecticut. 

Proposals of Mr. Peters to the West India Company at Amsterdam. 

I. The Hon'''* Company will be pleased to devise some expedient for the settlement of 
the limits between New England and New Netherland, or at least define ibr us their limits. 

II. That your Honors will wholly abstain from molesting our people on the Fresh river, 
alias the Connecticut, since we are willing that inditterent persons, if any such can be found, 
may examine our title. 

III. That said Company set a price on their plantation, if they have any intention to part 
with it. 

IV. That if any Englishman remove from our district to the Continent of the West Indies, 
being provided therefor with all necessaries, except ships and ordnance, which the Company 
should furnish, what conditions would the latter be willing to require? 

V. That the Company, knowing that the English in America amount to about fifty thousand 
souls, may be pleased to inform us in what manner we can be employed in advancing the great 
work there, being of the same religion as themselves and such as, we hope, may be trusted. 


and furnish us with an analysis of such government as they, in conjunction with us, would he 
willing to grant there. 

VI. That the Company would he pleased in all things to see in the inhabitants of New 
England, who number about forty thousand souls, a people who covet peace in their ways, 
the planting of the gospel above all things, and not to cause trouble or injury, in any manner 
whatever, to the Company. 

I-etter P. May 20'". After the birth of Christ, 1053. 

Vindication of Captain John Onderhill in the name of as many of the Dutch 
and English as the matter concerns, which justly impels us to renounce the 
iniquitous government of Peter Stuyvesant over the inhabitants living and 
dwelling on Long Island, in America. 

We declare that it is right and proper to defend ourselves and our rights, which belong to a 
free people, against the abuse of the above named government. 

We have transported ourselves hither at our own cost, and many among us have purchased 
their lands from the Indians, the right owners thereof. But a great portion of the lands which 
we occupy, being, as yet, unpaid for, the Indians come daily and complain that they have 
been deceived by the Dutch Secretary, called Cornells, whom they have characterized, even 
in the presence of Stuyvesant, as a rogue, a knave and a liar; asserting that he himself had 
put their names down in the book, and saying that this was not a just and lawful payment, 
but a pretence and fraud similar to that which occasioned the destruction of Jo" Huchinsen 
and Mr. Collins, to the number of nine persons. 

III. He hath unlawfully retained from several persons their lands which they had purchased 
from the natives, and which were confirmed to them under the hand and seal of the previous 

IV. He hath unlawfully imposed taxes contrary to the privileges of free men ; namely, six 
stivers per acre, chimney money and head money; the tenth part of all our grain, flax, hemp 
and tobacco ; the tenth part of butter and cheese from those who pasture cattle ; excessive 
duties on exported goods — fifteen stivers for a beaver; all which taxes are to be paid by the 
poor farmer to maintain a lazy horde of tyrants over innocent subjects. 

V. He hath, in violation of liberty of conscience, and contrary to hand and seal, enforced 
articles upon the people, ordering them otherwise, against the laws of God and man, to quit 
the country within two months. 

VI. He hath imprisoned both English and Dutch, without trial, setting them at liberty again, 
after the manner of a Popish inquisition, to their great sorrow, damage and loss of time, 
himself not having any patent from James, King of England, the right grantor thereof. 

VII. He hath also imposed general laws forbidding the inhabitants to sell their goods or to 
brew their grain, without the approbation of the government. 

VIII. He hath neglected to avenge English and Dutch blood shed by the Indians since the 

IX. He hath treacherously and undoubtedly conspired, as proved, to murder all the English. 

X. He hath been guilty of barbarous cruelty towards Mr. Jacob Wolfertsen and his wife, at 
the time of the birth of their child. 


XI. He hath acted treacherously towards Thomas Miton,' for, notwithstanding the government 
hath promised him safe and secure conduct, he hath ordered his arrest and extradition. 

XII. He hath been guilty of the unheard-of act of striking, with his cane, an old gentleman, 
a member of his Council, and had publicly threatened every freeman who does not conform to 
his pleasure. 

XIII. He hath, moreover, imposed magistrates on freemen without election and voting. 
This great autocracy and tyranny is too grievous for any brave Englishman and good Christian 
any longer to tolerate. In addition to all this, the Dutcli have proclaimed war against every 
Euglishman who live wherever he may wish or like. 

The above grounds are sufficient for all honest hearts that seek the glory of God and their 
own peace and prosperity, to throw off" this tyrannical yoke. Accept and submit ye, then, to 
the Parliament of England, and beware ye of becoming traitors to one another, for the sake of 

your own quiet and welfare. Written by me, 

(Signed), John Onderhill. 

To the Worthy Mons' Couwenhoven, Mons" Potter, Petres Wolfersen 
and the Worthy Commonalty of the Manhattens. 

Letter E. 

We, individuals of the English nation here present, do, for divers reasons and motives, as 
free born British subjects, claim and assume unto ourselves the laws of our nation and Republic 
of England over this place, as to our persons and property, in love and harmony, according to 
the general peace between the two States in Europe and this country. 

God preserve the Republic of England and 
His Highness, the Lord Protector. And the 
continuance of peace between the two countries. 

Publicly proclaimed in this village, now named 
Gravesend, situate on the west of Long Island, 
this 9'" March, 1655. Old Style. 

And this being published three times, it was openly proclaimed. Whereof all and every 
may take notice. 

The following was in Dutch : 

This was done on the date above written, by George Bacxter and James Huybert, in the 
presence of Fiscal Tienhoven and Burgomaster AUart Anthony, and many inhabitants of 

Beneath was : 

Agrees with the original. To my knowledge. 

(Signed), Carel van Brugge. 

' Sic. Newton. — Ed 


Letter F. 

The Magistrates of Gravesend to the Directors at Amsterdam. 

Honorable and Most kind Gentlemen. 

Our last letter to your Honors was by the Secretary, Mons'' Van Teynoix,' wherein we 
declared that we threw ourselves on the wisdom and uprightness of our Governor in regard 
to what was best for the Commonwealth, because through him your Honors might receive 
a correct account of the state of the country, which, we hope, he has rendered. As to what 
regards ourselves, we cannot omit thankfully to acknowledge the many benefits which we 
have received and at present enjoy under your Honors' authority, as lawful proprietors of 
this place, and, therefore, shall be prepared, in all submission, to address ourselves to your 
Honors, on all occasions, to provide against whatever we understand will be prejudicial to 
the public welfare or to the privileges granted us by the Governors whom your Honors have 
been pleased to send us. 

And, inasmuch as we have heretofore, in a cerlatn Petition, remonstrated to our above 
mentioned Governor and Council respecting such things as we considered oppressive, of 
whicii we cannot say but our Governor was inclined, as far as he was concerned, to afford 
us satisfaction, as the case demanded. Nevertheless, it appears there was some obstacle in 
consequence of somebody's opposition. We understand that he sent the Petition for 
consideration to your Honors by the Secretary ; wherefore we humbly request your Honors to 
be pleased to agree to so much thereof as you will approve of in your letters of approbation, 
to be sent to our Governor. And, as such want of gunpowder sometimes exists here, that an 
entire city can hardly furnish four pounds for our protection, in case of necessity, and as what 
people have procured, sometimes costs three, four, yea, five guilders the pound (for those who 
had powder to sell for the sake of profit, favored Indians in preference to us) ; we humbly 
request you will be pleased to send, or to order to be sent us, four hundred pounds of lead and 
two hundred pounds of good musket powder annually, in such ship or ships as you will think 
proper; the said powder and lead to be delivered to the Magistrates of Gravesend, for the 
time being, on condition that they give honest pay for it in such merchandise as the country 
produces, and that they dispose of said powder and lead in such manner as shall tend, on 
occasions, to the necessary public defence and to the individual use of the inhabitants, in 
hunting and fowling; whereof they shall render a yearly account to the Governor and Council 
for the time being, so that the whole of such powder be not sold to the Indians. 

Regarding ourselves: As we are living under your Honors' authority and that of the 
Governor by you authorized, so is it our desire to acknowledge such, and so to remain residing 
without any change, and to evince our submission and fidelity to you on all occasions. We 
shall consider ourselves unworthy to enjoy the benefits and freedoms kindly granted us by 
your Honors' Governors, should we, in the least, desire or endeavor to abridge your rights ; 
wherefore are we sorely grieved at the reports spread by some who have come hither in the 
ship ValcJccnier, all the particulars of which our Governor will, doubtless, have transmitted 
to your Honors ; for as the government of the public affairs of this place has been intrusted to 
us, the same being only a small member of the entire body, so we cannot be otherwise than 
sensible of, and appreciate, the manifold troubles which are likely to arise therein, such as 

• Sic. — Ed. 
Vol. II. 20 


schisms, faction anri internal tumults, not respecting tlie government but trampling it under 
foot. Therefore do we most liumbly pray your Honors to take the same into your most wise 
consideration in order that a seasonable remedy may, by your Honors' wisdom, be applied 
thereto, so as to prevent these inconveniences. This, in our opinion, we humbly conceive 
will best be done by maintaining and upholding our present Governor against all malignant 
persons, our superiors in Holland paying no attention to the reports of dissatisfied persons; 
for we have had such experience of his aifection for the general welfare of this place and of 
his carefulness over us, in the execution of the public service committed to him, that we are 
anxious that he be still continued so that we may live under his government; and incase 
your Honors should please to send over here, at the same time, the seasonable reinforcement 
of soldiers to lie ready in garrison in the fort, on all occasions, we doubt not but he will aflord 
your Honors good satisfaction in the management of his onerous charge, for the advantage 
and benefit of the entire land. 

We shall add nothing more but pray your Honors to excuse us in case we have overstepped 
^the limits of propriety, requesting you to ascribe it to our sincere and upright affection for the 
public weal, as we understand that we owe such to your Honors by our oath and fealty. 
Remaining, herewith, your Honors' humble and obedient servants and inhabitants. 

(Signed), Geo. Baxter, William Hilkixs,' 

Nicolas Stilwel, Hubert, Schout 

By the Magistrates and Schout of Gravesend. 


John Tilton, Secretary. 
On the side was : 

Gravesend, in New Netherland, the 20"" August, 1650; New Style. 

Addressed : 

To the Hon'''% the President and Directors of the West India Company 
Chamber at Amsterdam. 

Beneath was : 

Faithfully translated from the original this T'"" December, 1650, in Amsterdam, by me. 
• (Signed), J. Hetns, Notary Public. 

The Magistrates of Gravesend to the Directors at Amsterdam. 

Honorable Gentlemen. 

Your Honors' letter, dated the 21" March, 1G51, was handed us by our honored and revered 
Governor, agreeably to your Honors' commands, and we return you our humble and thankful 
acknowledgment for your Honors' care not only of us, but also for the general welfare and 
prosperity of the entire country, it being to us a very great encouragement that we should 
receive your favorable inclination not only to hear but to redress the just grievances of your 
subjects in this Province; also, that your Honors are pleased to maintain us in our privileges; 
wherefore shall we, on all occurring occasions, apply and repair to you, as our Lords and 
Patroons, for the improvement of whatever we consider out of order, or to obtain any further 
just privileges. 

' Sic. Wilkins. — Ed. 


We especially take to heart your Honors' wisdom and candor in postponing to answer 
our previous letter until your Honors had fully examined and silted the truth in regard to our 
actual government, being heartily rejoiced that you are satisfied therewith, and that you are 
resolved to support and maintain its authority under your Honors. We clearly acknowledge 
that the frequent changing a government, or the power of electing a Governor among ourselves, 
which some among us, as we understand, aim at, would be our ruin and destruction by reason 
of our factions and various opinions, inasmuch as many among us being unwilling to subject 
themselves to any sort of government, mild or strong, it must, on that account, be compulsory 
or by force, until the Governor's authority be well confirmed ; for such persons will not only 
despise, scorn or disobey authority, and by their evil example drag other persons along, 
whereby the laws would be powerless, but every one would desire to do what would please 
and gratify himself. In fine, the strongest would swallow up the weakest, and by means of 
elections or choosing, we should be involved in like inconveniences. Moreover, we are not 
supplied and provided with persons qualified and fit for such stations. Tiierefore, and seeing 
that we have nothing to bring forward against our present Governor, but, on the contrary, 
truly, and in deed approving his public deportment in his administration, we request that he 
be still continued over us, and that no change be made. 

We presume that your Honors are informed, by our neighbors of Hemstede, of the divers 
injuries and damages done them by the Indians, on various occasions, by slaughtering their 
cattle, as well as those of private individuals at other places. Although we doubt not your 
Honors have, by commands and otherwise, labored to prevent the importation, into this place, 
of muskets, powder and lead to be sold to the Indians; yet, whether by connivance or 
winking, or neglect of the oflicers appointed to that duty carefully to examine or inspect, 
or in consequence of the activity and cunning of the inhabitants, the fact is, so great a quantity 
of every sort were imported and sold to the Indians that the latter have thereby become 
obstinate and daring enemies, highly dangerous to our lives and properties, and difficult to 
tolerate; that we must daily suffer such injuries and losses from the Indians for which we 
have received no satisfaction, so that it is to be feared great dangers will arise herefrom to the 
ruin of your Honors' Province, unless seasonable remedies be applied thereto. 

We are very sensible of your Honors' great care for the welfare of the entire country, 
inasmuch as you have appointed a detachment of soldiers for us, and have, also, heard our 
petition and allowed us to receive a good quantity of ammunition for our necessary defence, 
wherefore we heartily thank you; requesting your Honors, at the same time, to continue the 
same annually on condition of our paying our Governor therefor. The reinforcement of 
soldiers has, however, been very small; and although we have had, this year, many ships 
here from Holland, yet tliat has been of little avail to the strengthening of these parts; on 
which subject we have taken the humble liberty to submit to your Honors these two questions 
or propositions. In case they are obtained or carried out, they will avail, considerably, to the 
strengthening of this country and the general revenue of the Tenths, to your Honors' profit. 

First. Our Governor, considering, with the advice and approbation of others who will agree 
with him thereupon, the imposition of the traders and the little strength added by some of 
their shipping to the security and increase of this Province, inasmuch as they, for the most 
part, are traders and factors, who do not add to the public prosperity, but come and go solely 
for their individual profit and advantage, we have bethought ourselves of chartering some ships 
in Holland for the behoof of this country, to bring over whatever we stand in need of, viz', 


passengers and servant men, wliich we mostly lack, as we are too much fatigued by work ; 
provided your Honors will consent and permit these ships, and none other, to trade here. In 
case your Honors will be pleased to consent, for a certain time, and the Agents, who shall 
be employed therein, have the liberty to hire or engage servant men who, also, shall be 
distributed according to the good will and pleasure of the Governor and Council, the masters 
paying 50 per cent for the expenses of their passage and other outfits, besides yearly wages 
agreed to with the servant man in Holland, this country will be able to absorb, yearly, five (Sl 
si.x hundred, whereby it will be greatly strengthened and your revenue increased. 

Secondly. We most humbly request your Honors to expend, in Negroes or Blacks, whatever 
means you, in your wisdom, will deem prudent; for yout Honors can best do that, in 
consequence of your interest in this place, on condition of our paying you for the same 
wliatever price you will order. We humbly conceive that your Honors will, thereby, have 
double profits ; first, from what we shall pay for those Negroes ; secondly, from the Tenths. 

Gentlemen. 'Tis not with us as in our Fatherland, or as in Kingdoms and Republics which 
are established and settled by long and well experienced laws and fundamentals, best agreeing 
with the condition of the people. But in our little body, made up of divers members, namely, 
folks of different nations, many things occur in the laying of a foundation for which there are 
no rules nor examples, and, therefore, must be fixed at the discretion of a well experienced 
Governor; for we are as a young tree or little sprout now, for the first time, shooting forth to 
the world, which, if watered and nursed by your Honors' liberality and attention, may, 
hereafter, grow up a blooming Republic. After our humble recommendations and services to 
your Honors, we leave off and remain your Honors' obedient servants and inhabitants. 

(Signed), Geo. Baxter, Richard Gibbons, Schout, 

WiL. WiLKiNs, James Hubbard, 

Gravesend, in New Netherland, Nicolas Stilwil, Will. Browne, Assistants. 

14"" September, 1651. 

John Tilton, Clerk or Secretary. 
Addressed : 

To'the Hon'''*, our special good Lords and Protectors, the Lords Directors of the West 
India Company Chamber at Amsterdam. 

Copy of the letter from Gravesend, No. 4. 

The Magistrates of Heemstede to the Directors at Amsterdam. 

Honorable and Right Worshipful. 

After tendering our love, humble service and due reverence, we have taken the liberty to 
inform your Honors that we have received your friendly and acceptable letters, dated 
Amsterdam, 21" March, 1051, by which we learn your Honors' care, attention and favor 
towards us ; and howbeit we do not deserve such, neither the favors received nor those proffered, 
whereof although unworthy, yet shall we exert ourselves to be and remain your Honors' 
honest, loving and faithful friends and subjects, as your Honors were pleased formerly to name 
and style us, being anxious to obey your commands according to the rules of righteousness, 
beyond which we are certain your Honors will neither ask nor order. In regard to those who 
have been malignant or malevolent towards our respected Governor and government, we hope 
tliat your Honors will not include us among tliem, as we have not countenanced nor assisted 
them iu their complaints or designs. And as we have found the Governor to be an honorable. 


upright and wise person, of courteous demeanor towards us at all times, in all places, and on 
all required occasions, we request that we may have him to respect and encourage, as far as in 
our humble power and means lies, as your Honors' President and our very dear Governor. In 
opposition to those who are contrarily inclined, we say : " Dieu est mon droit ; Hony soit qui 
mnl y ycnsc." " Evil be to him who evil thini\s." Hoping that he will endeavor to patronize 
and protect those who are honest and upriglit, which is a wholesome principle or fundamental, 
together with their honest affairs, according to the will of God ; We cannot do less than humbly 
and earnestly thank your Honors for bearing in mind to provide us with powder and lead, 
requesting, in like manner, your annual supplement thereof, and we shall endeavor honestly to 
satisfy you with such pay as we shall receive. But we cannot forego submitting to your 
Honors one sad grievance or hardship, which is the more painful to us because of your diligence 
and care to prevent it, and its direful consequences, notwithstanding which our grievances 
remain unredressed. We mean the daily and public sale to the Indians of powder and lead, 
many men making such a practice of this trade that they cannot live without this desperate 
traffic. Thus it is probable that those Indians will, in a short time, be the destruction both of 
the Dutch and English, as such practice renders them powerful and merciless ; so that unless a 
supernatural power keep them under, neither nation will be able to resist them. Moreover, 
since our last letters to your Honors, wherein we besought a reform in this matter, those 
Indians have been guilty of various insolences; hundreds of thjm coming on the Island, have 
killed our cattle and carried them off to their own plantations to feast on them. They 
have also carried the meat to the Manhattaens and sold it there to the Dutch in place of 
venison; they have driven out of the pasture, through the swamps, our remaining and 
surviving cattle, over our standing corn, so that we have, this summer, been damaged to the 
extent of more than a thousand guilders. 'Tis a matter of small moment in their eyes to kill 
a good ox merely for the horns to carry powder in ; sometimes they slay a man, sometimes a 
womau ; plunder the houses ; purloin our guns ; pry into our affairs ; endeavor to drown the 
people ; strip the children in the fields and woods ; prowl abroad with masks or visors ; 
slaughter our hogs, and when we demand satisfaction, challenge us to fight, boasting of their 
great number of men and guns. All this proceeds from the daily supply of powder, lead and 
muskets or guns, by the Monhaens' and Dutch trade. So that if your Honors will not 
remedy this intolerable plague and that soon; for we dread a heavier misfortune, namely, their 
barbarous or cruel insurrection ; we must and shall be obliged, though disinclined, to abandon 
our dwellings and your Honors' jurisdiction. And it sorely roils our English blood that we 
should be slaves and raise corn and cattle too, for Indian vagabonds ; that our wives should 
be so terrified, our children ill-treated, our substance wasted and endangered, and that all this 
occurs whilst our hands are tied and those of our enemies are at liberty and strengthened by 
their daily supplies and stores. We trust your Honors will seriously consider that, in case we 
suffer wrong, the property of your own nation will, therefore, in like manner suffer, should 
this barbarous and inhuman race be encouraged and strengthened. We seek the welfare and 
prosperity of the Dutch ; but it is not to be endured that they should obtain their incomes or 
profits in this way, to the ruin and destruction of themselves and us, and the extirpation of 
both our races. Wherefore the humble Petitioners pray us to request your Honors' attention, 
with all possible expedition, to the reformation of the aforesaid, if our lives are dear and 
precious to you, which, otherwise, will be cut short, yea, possibly before your Honors will 

' Bic. Manhatans. — Ed. 


hear again from us. Our Governor would most willingly redress these grave abuses, but 
he finds it to be a matter beyond his power, and one of great difficulty, as tlie madness 
is so general among traders. And whereas your Honors have been pleased to intimate in 
your letters that neither the Governor nor any other person should so trade on pain of your 
displeasure and indignation, we take the liberty to inform j^our Honors, inasmuch as 
dissatisfaction may arise from misunderstanding, that we have never accused our Governor in 
this matter; and we do not now accuse him, but, on the contrary, defend him before your 
Honors and say, that we hope and believe he would redress it were it in his power, approving 
the propositions and applications of our remaining and esteemed friends, who hold dear the 
public good. We have still a further request to make; viz': that your Honors would be 
pleased to send over some servant men, who are here as precious as gold both in regard to our 
work and to our protection, as matters stand at present or shall hereafter fare with us; on 
condition that your Honors will please to order us to be provided with goods on somewhat 
more reasonable terms, which could easily be done and the traders still make a good profit and 
gain ; for at present we are forced to buy supplies at excessive prices elsewhere, whenever 
liquors are all out and consumed in the Manhattans. We shall do our best to make due returns 
in produce, the proceeds of our servants' labor, viz', in corn, beef, pork, butter, tobacco, staves, 
or such like wares in exchange for such merchandise as we shall receive. 

We beg your Honors' pardon for having so long detained you, but tliank you most sincerely 
for all received benefits; regarding the difficulties already experienced and still to be 
apprehended, we are necessitated to request your Honors' assistance together with the 
reformation thereof, if it possibly be in accordance with our request, which is the cause of our 
writing so much. Herewith we desist from troubling your Honors any further, but wishing 
you all honor and prosperity, and that the Father of Mercy may be pleased to show mercy 
to you who are so good to liis people. Signed : Your Honors' servants in all dutifulness and 
good opportunity. 

Heemstede, September 25'S 1651, New Style. 

This is a true copy, agreeing with the original, which I, John Moore, Minister of 
the church of Heemstede, do attest. 

On the reverse follows: 

For the Hon'''' Mess", the Directors of the West India Company, Chamber at Amsterdam. 

Copy of the letter from Heemstede, No. 4. 

The Magistrates of Gravesend to the Directors at Amsterdam. 

Translation of a certain English letter written by the English inhabitants and 
Magistrates of Gravesend, on Long Island, in New Netherland, to the 
Directors of the West India Company, Chamber at Amsterdam, dated 27"' 
December, 1653. 

Honorable, right good Lords and Patroons. 

In addition to the general letter respecting this Province or country, our duty prompts us to 
write this from ourselves to inform you of what has occurred here in our town, in order 
thereby to furnish evidence of our fidelity or loyalty to their High Mightinesses or you, under 


whose protection or patronage we have placed ourselves ; and that without any jealousy or 
intention of revolting from that due obedience which we owe their High Mightinesses or your 
Honors, although, haply, information to the contrary may have reached you. 

Please then, to know, that in regard to the sad differences between both States, viz, that of 
your Honors and that of England, our native country, together with a certain report of the 
Indians or natives having risen up against us, we, standing in daily dread of being invaded 
in our properties, and in order not to be deprived of our lives, were invited by our neighbors 
and countrymen of Flushing to meet them as well as those of Heemstede, at Middleborg ; as 
appears by the Notice, No. 1. Whereon we were answered : the Manhattans and Broockine 
are also invited. The time of meeting being come, we sent two delegates from our town with 
Instructions, as is to be seen by duplicate No. 2, all of whom met except Manatans and 
Broockine, and certain propositions were submitted, but no conclusion come to. We 
recommend to the rest of the English places, as appears by duplicate No. 3, and such was then 
and is still our resolution, should occasion require. The aforesaid duly considered, as well as 
the attacks to which we were exposed, all being countrymen of one nation ; together with the 
refusal of ammunition, as by duplicate No. 4, and some unfriendly acts done us, contrary to 
what, we apprehend, we have deserved ; also, the refusal of the enjoyed freedoms (we mean 
Dutch freedoms) for which we came, which we then and now might enjoy under our own 
nation, as all this might have sustained the loyalty of proper men such as we ; thus acting, 
according to the proportion of intelligence which God hath been pleased to grant us, we hope 
and trust that your Honors and all honorable people will keep us free of all aspersion that 
may be flung at us, of our intending to revolt from that due obedience which we owe your 
Honors, as our Patroons, from whatever quarter it may proceed. [Whatever] ill-treatment 
we have received, we shall do no injury nor wrong, although, perhaps, they think so. Our 
town or place, one of the oldest planted on Long Island under your Honors' patroonship, 
which hath been loyal to you on all occasions, and as your Honors know, hath ever been good 
friends of our present Governor, as he himself hath frequently acknowledged, seeks to increase 
the confidence which your Honors repose in us, for the greatest advantage of your Honors' 
population and the strengthening of the country; admitting among us as many more 
inhabitants, as the number sent to us in the beginning could then be scarcely accommodated. 
All in the hope and on the firm promise of our Governor that we should obtain an addition of 
town land, which, though solemnly promised, never followed, but, to our sorrow, remained 
back with expensive delays. 

Therefore do we now, in our particular, make our application or address to your Honors, 
our Patroons, who, we not only hope but doubt not, will afford us such proper satisfaction as 
God shall direct you according to right equity and our due liberty, &c. 

Under the letter was : Obedient and loyal, in all becoming respects, your Honors' servants 

and farmers of Gravesend. 

(Signed), Georg Baxter, N. Hubbart, 

William Wilkings, John Moris, Schout. 
On one side was : 

Gravesend, in New Netherland, S?'"" December, 1653. 

Beneath was : 

The Magistrates and Sheriffs have subscribed, by order of the entire representative, 
for the whole town. (Signed), John Tilton, Public Town Clerk. 


Letter G. 

Copy of a Protest served on Johan Levereth, who iiath settled on Marten 
Gerritsen's bay, by him called Oyster bay. 

Cornells van Tienhoven, in quality of Fiscal of the Province of New Netherland and legal 
conservator of authority and jurisdiction, by commission of the High and Mighty Lords States- 
General of the United Netherlands and Hon''''' the Directors of the Incorporated West India 
Company, Lords and Patroons of New Netherland, given and granted to the Right Hon"''* 
Petrus Stuyvesant, Director-General, and the Supreme Council of New Netherland. 

Being instructed by the aforesaid Director-General and Council to repair to you, William 
Levereth,' here and to notify and make known to you and all whom it dotii concern, tiiat you 
have settled within the limits of New Netherland, on land named Marten Gerril's bay, purchased 
from the natives, the right owners and proprietors, and paid for and long possessed by the 
Netherland nation and by the subjects of New Netherland. Therefore do I, in the name and 
on tiie behalf of the said High and Mighty, the Lords Stales-General, and of the Hon'''^ Directors 
of the Incorporated West India Company, warn you, on these aforesaid, our long since purchased, 
possessed and [laid for lands, not to proceed with building, clearing, cattle-feeding or hay- 
mowing, or whatever appertains to agriculture or farming, but that, within thirty days after 
the service hereof, you do depart beyond the jurisdiction of New Netherland with your people, 
servants or slaves, furniture, implements, and every article of property you and your nation 
brought thither, on pain, if you or any of yours, after the expiration of tiie time aforesaid, be 
found to have acted contrary hereunto, of my being compelled, against you and whomsoever 
it may concern, to proceed as circumstances may require. Meanwhile I protest against all 
damages, injuries, mischiefs and losses which may arise herefrom, whereof I declare, before 
God and the world, our iiniocence. This 2'' April, lG-')5, in New Amsterdam, New Netherland. 

(Signed), Cornelis van Tienhoven. 

' Reverend William Leverich wns graduated at CamLiidge, England, in 1625, and arrived in the ship James, at Salem, 
Massachusetts, with Captain Wiggin and company, October lOlh, 1033. A Congregational society was organized at Dover, 
New Hampshire, in 1633, for which he officiated till 1635, and was probably the first ordained Minister that preached the 
gospel in that Piovinee. lie eanie to Boston in 1035, was admitted a member of the church there, and afterwards assisted 
Mr. Partridge, at Duxbury, for a short time. In 1638 he became the first Pastor of the church at Sandwich, on Cape Cod, 
and devoted much of his time to instructing the Indians in that quarter. In 1047 he was employed by the ComniissionerB 
of the United Colonies a? a Missionary, and resided, most of his time, at Plymouth. He is particularly mentioned by Morton, 
as among the ablest Ministers in the Colony of Massachusetts in 1642. In April, 1653, he visited Long Island in company 
with some of his former parishioners at Sandwich, and made a purchase of land from the Indians at Oyster bay. By the 
accounts of the Commissioners, presented to the Society for Propagating the Gospel in New England, it appears that they 
allowed Mr. Leverich small sums from time to time, between 1653 and 1658, for his services among the Indians. In 1657 
they desired him to instruct the Corchaug and Montauk tribes, at the east end of Long Island; but in lOflS. he was called 
to be Pastor of the church at Huntington where he continued to labor eleven years. In 1604 he was admitted a freeman of 
Connecticut, and in lOG'J accepted a call from Newtown, L. I., where he soon after entered on his spiritual charge and con- 
tinued until his death, which event took place, according to Rikcr, in the early part of 1077 ; according to Thompson, in 
1692. An interesting relic of Mr. Leverich exists in the Town Clerk's office, Newtown. It is a volume of between 600 and 
700 pages, about one hundred of which are occupied by a running commentary, in his handwriting, on the first fourteen 
books of the Old Testament, in part copied from the Commentary of Piscator. After Mr. Leverich's death, the book wa9 
given to the town to record the town business in iU 'Thompson's Long Island, I., 480; II., 143; Jiiker's Hhloi'y of Xc\c- 
toan, 63, 62, 76, 81, 94, 98. — Ed. 


This day, 22'' April, 10-5-5, have I, Claes van Elslant, Court Messenger, by order of the 
Hou'''"^ Fiscal, Cornelis van Tienhoven and the Supreme Council of New Amsterdam, in New 
Netherland, protested against those who were building the new village on the Company's 
land called Vrcedlant ; four armed men came to meet me at the kill, demanded what I 
was after? I said. Where best could I land; near the houses? They answered. You shall 
not land. I said. Let me land, I am cold ; and I sprung ashore. Whereupon I and 
Albert, the trumpeter, were placed under a guard and warned not to advance a foot 
further, until he who had the command came to us with a pistol, holding the barrel forward 
in his hand, accompanied by 8 (ai 10 armed men more, to whom 1 read the Protest, word 
for word, and handed him the same, who gave for answer: 1 cannot understand Dutch; 
why did not the Fiscal send it in English ? If you send it in English, then shall I answer 
in writing. But, said he, that's no matter; we expect the ships from Holland and England 
which are to bring the settlement of the boundary. Whether we are to dwell here under 
the States or under the Parliament, time will tell ; furthermore, we abide here under the 
States of England. Whereupon we took our departure. They said. If we had a sup of wine 
we should offer you some ; but we have not any. And they discharged their guns all round. 
I had also inclined to see their houses and fixtures ; also, the Parliament's arms, which the 
English say hang on a tree, carved on a plank ; but they left us standing in a hut on the shore 
well guarded by men. Done as above. 

(Signed), Claes van Elslant. 

Copy of the Protest against Thomas Pel for having settled at Vreelant. 

Cornelis van Thienhoven, Fiscal of the Province of New Netherland and legal conservator 
of authority and jurisdiction, by commission of the High and Mighty, the Lords States- 
General of the United Netherlands and the Hon""'^, the Directors of the Incorporated West 
India Company, the Lords and Patroons of New Netherland, given and granted to the Right 
jjQjjbie Petrus Stuyvesant, Director-General, and the Supreme Council of New Netherland: 

To you, Tliomas Pel, or whomsoever else it may concern. 

Being instructed by the aforesaid Director-General and Supreme Council to repair to and 
upon the lands of Vreelant, whereof possession was taken in the lime of the late Director- 
General Keift, and by lawful title purchased from the natives, right owners and proprietors 
of those lands, and paid for, as the record and sign-manual thereof in existence can show ; 
wherefore, in quality aforesaid, I notify and make known to you, and all whom it may concern, 
that you and your associates have, not only settled on the lands aforesaid, which were, many 
years ago, purchased by the Dutch nation and taken possession of by deeds from General 
Kieft, of blessed memory, but by usurpation, in violation of the Treaty of Hartford and the 
peace concluded between both nations in Europe, occupied the same without the permission 
and consent of the Director-General and Supreme Council of New Netherland ; Therefore I, 
the Fiscal, do, in the name and on the behoof of the aforesaid High and Mighty Lords States- 
General and the Lords Directors of the Incorporated West India Company, warn you, and all 
whom it may concern, by the bearer hereof, Claes van Elslant, the Court Messenger, requested 
and empowered to serve this, not to proceed, contrary to the Treaty concluded at Hartford, on 
Vol. IL 21 


tlie aforesaid purchased and long possessed lands, with building, clearing, cattle-feeding or 
hay-mowing, or whatever, in any wise, appertains to agriculture or farming, but within 
filteen days after the service hereof, to depart from the lands aforesaid, situate within the 
jurisdiction of New Netherland, with your people, servants or slaves, furniture, cattle, 
implements, and every article of property you and your nation have brought tliilher, on pain, 
if you, or any of you, after the expiration of the time aforesaid, be Ibund to have acted 
contrary hereunto, of my being obliged, otficially, to proceed against you, or whomsoever it 
may concern, as circumstances may require. Meanwhile do I protest against all damages, 
injuries, mischiefs and losses which may arise herefrom, whereof I declare, before God and 
the world, our innocence. This 1!)"" April, 1G55, in Amsterdam, in New Netherland. 

(Signe '), CoRNELis van Thiexhoven. 

On the aforesaid 22'' April, 1C55, have I, Claes van Elshout, Court Messenger, served the 

above Protest on the magistrates of the new village near Vreihint, who gave for answer: Why 

doth not the Fiscal write English? then we could answer in writing; we expect a settlement 

of the boundary between Holland and England ; until that, we abide under the State of 

England. Done as above. 

(Signed), Claes vax Elslaxt, Court Messenger. 

Letter IT . 

Director Stuyvcsant to the Magistrates of Gravesend. 

Honorable, Dear, Faithful. 

We received, quite late, your information that one James Grover had come there with 
letters from tlie Lord Protector to the English inhabitants on Long Island. The Indians and 
English inhabitants, outside of our jurisdiction and government, can take and read them to 
their people, but we are unable to understand how any letters from any foreign Prince or 
Potentate can be accepted within our government by subjects under oath and obedience to us. 
Therefore, you are hereby requested, and at the same time authorized, to send said James 
Grover, with his letters, to us in order to exhibit to us in our Council what writings he has 
for our subjects. Awaiting which, after cordial greeting, we shall commend you to God's 
protection, and remain. 

Honorable, Dear, Faithful, 

Your afl'ectionate friends. 

The Director-General and Council of New Netherland. 

(Signed), Petrus Stuyvesant. 
Addressed : 

Hon''''", Daar, Faithful, the Schout and Magistrates of the village of Gravesend. 

Beneath was : 

After collating, is found to agree with the original. 
Ainsterdam, in New Netherland, (Signed), C. V. Ruyven, Secretary. 

24'^' August, 1G57. 


Extract from the letter of the Director-General and Council of NewNetherland, 
written on the SO'"" October, 1657, to the Directors of the West India 
Company, Ciiamber at Amsterdam. 

After closing and dispatching our general letter, we were informed that the aforesaid English 
nation, on the East end of Long Island, had probably sent a petition to the Lord Protector to 
be released from the government of tiie Dutch and to be taken under his protection, which 
we, for divers reasons, too long here to be stated, i)elieved to be true. One of the foundations 
on which they build, is the letter of the Lord Protector, written " To the Englisch wel affectet 
in Habitaing, on Long Islant, in America." Tiie aforesaid letter being brought into the village 
of Gravesend, the bearer of it, James Grover, requested it to he opened and read ; as is to be 
seen by the subjoined copies sent us on that subject, both by the bearer and Magistrates, and 
our answer and order to prevent the same thereunto annexed. That letter was sent your 
Honors per the ship de TVargh, as it was received by us without our daring to open it or allow 
it to be opened, so as not to be accused by the Lord Protector of the crime of opening his 
letter or rending his seal, or by your Honors of admitting letters to your subjects from a foreign 
Prince or Potentate, from which rebellion might result. We again request your Honors to 
keep a watchful eye over the matter, so that the entire of Long Island may not be rendered 
useless to you either by sinister practice or by force; were the English once masters thereof 
by revolt or otherwise, it would be fatal to the North river. The continual machinations and 
practices had recourse to by the English to that end, have appeared unceasing during our 
government, and by no means unmistakable tokens thereof are still manifest. Therefore, . . 

without assistance of people from Fatherland, we, the Company's servants, are not 

able to prevent it ; the freemen we can hardly command to do it. 

Lettei' I. 

Letter K. 

Declaration and Manifest of the Hon'''^ Governor-General and Council of the 
Province of New Netherland, delivered by way of a speech to the Hon"" 
Governor and Council of the Province of Marrylant, in Chesapeake bay. 

[ Omitted, beiDg a duplicate of Document, supra, p. 80. ] 

Order in Council extending the provisions of the Treaty of Southampton to 
Dutch ships, dated Whitehall, S"" September, 1G27. 

[Omitted, being a duplicate of Document, post, IIL, 12.] 


Re-solution of the States- -General. 

{ From tho Register of the West India Cuinpariy't* AlTairt?, 10^2 — 1GG3, in the Royal Archives at the Ilague. ] 

Friday, o'"" November, 16G0. 

Folio 290. Read at the meeting a certain IMemoir from the Committee of the Directors 

Division of Bonn- of tiic General Incorporated India Conujanv of this country, representins 

duty III Now Nelli. I ' ■' ^ ' r a 

efi"""!- the Assembly of the Nineteen, to the effect that Mess", the E.xtraordinary 

Ambassadors of this State to the King of Great Britain, may be instructed to terminate and 
determine, according to equity, with the said Most Illustrious King, the differences wliiidi 
have arisen respecting the Division of Boundary, &c., between the English and this Nation, 
ill New Netheiiand. Which being considered, it is resolved and concluded hereby to grant 
the aforesaid request, and the above mentioned Ambassadors sliall accordingly be written to 
to the end aforesaid, and" all the papers appertaining hereunto delivered to the Assembly, 
shall be sent to them. 

States-Genend to tlieir Amlas-sadors to England. 

I From the Register of Vitgegane Urievcn of the States-General, in tho Royal Archives at the Hague. 1 

The States, &c. 
Folio 2.39. non'''= We have thought proper herewith to send to your Honors the anne.iced 

extract of our resolutions, adopted on the petition of those of the West India Company of 
these parts, with and besides the papers thereunto appertaining, and to the end as in the 
resolution set forth. Wherewith ending, &c., at the Hague, 5"" November, IGGO. 

lieeolution of the Common Council of Amsterdam. 

[ From the Jlesolutiai ran de VroetUchappeii, C., p. 82, in the Slad Huys, Ameterdara. ] 

16"" November, 16G0. 
iMiniid Docnmentfl, After deliberation, it is resolved and concluded that the aentlemen appointed 
New Ncthcriand "Y i'*-'solution of tlic S"" Novembcr, of last year, and of the 25"" August last, a 
uoionic. Committee for the affairs of the New Netherland Colonic shall be exhorted and 

requested to bring their business to a at the earliest period and to report their 
consideration and advice; and whereas some payments regarding said Colonic are so pressing 
as not to admit of any delay, it is consented that a sum of six thousand guilders sliall, 
meanwhile, be disbursed by this city to be employed for the aforesaid urgent payments. 


Re-solution of the Common Council of the City of Amsterdam. 

[ From the Jtesolutien van de Vroedschappett, C, p. 100, in the Slad Ihiys, Amsterdam. ] 

G"* January, 1661. 
H'.iia"!! Documents, Mess", the Commissioners, by previous resolution of this Council appointed for 
ATOiisidv of i.v2.'io ^-'^^ affairs of this city's Colonie in New Netherland, have reported that, although 
fo' ^New" Ne'h'"r- they had not j'^et been able to render a positive opinion on its affairs, yet they 
aied'by'theTreSuI could uot abstain froui representing to the Council that the reputation of the 
city meanwhile demanded that the Directors of that Colonie be provided with 
funds for the payment of the accrued interest on the loan negotiated by them, with the approval 
of this Council ; also for the satisfaction of the people who have served the city there, and have 
already long solicited their pay ; whereunto is recjuired a sum of fifteen thousand two hundred 
and fifty guilders. Which being considered, it is resolved and concluded that Mess", the 
Treasurers, shall advance to said Directors the sum of fifteen thousand two hundred and fifty 
guilders, and to that end said Treasurers are autliorized, in addition to the 150,000 guilders, 
this day allowed, by previous resolution, to be negotiated, to raise the aforesaid sum of fifteen 
thousand two hundred and fifty guilders, on the like terms, as is resolved in regard to the said 
150,000 guilders. 

Report of the Commissioner. s of the Colonie on the Delaware River. 

[ From the Bundle indorsed Verscheide Slukken ruekende de Colonie van N. Nederlandt, No- 63, in the Stad Uut/s, Amsterdam. ] 

Right Worshipful Gentlemen. 

Holland Documents "^''^ Commissiouers and Directors of your Colonie in New Netherland having 
XVI., 231. received the alteration made in the Conditions, by resolution of the Council, 

have caused the same to be posted, agreeably to your Worships' instructions, and every diligence 
shall be forthwith used for the advancement of the Colonie, for the greatest benefit and profit 
of the city ; whereunto may God grant his blessing. 

In order to attain this object, they cannot avoid respectfully to submit to your Worships 
whether it would not be considered, in your profound wisdom, proper to apply to the West 
India Company for a change of certain articles in the present Conditions, which are not very 
advantageous to your Worships, and are offensive to many, both Regents and private persons; 
and the Company possibly, by the removal or modification of them, may bring about a speedier 
augmentation of the Colonie and a more frequent resort thereto. 

The first article that comes under consideration is the 13"", in the old Conditions (which we 
shall refer to herein), providing that the SlierifF and, article 15"", that the Schepens shall be 
appointed, in the name of their High Mightinesses and the West India Company, by the 
Deputies of Amsterdam, who, for that purpose, shall give a power of attorney to the Director, 

Tiie Commissioners are respectfully of opinion that, besides High, Middle and Low 
Jurisdiction which the Company conferred on your Worships, the disposal of the offices 
whereby such must be exercised, namely that of the Sheriff and other members of the Court, 
ought also be granted. 


Secondly. Tlio IT"" article extends tlie judgment or decision of the Scliepens of your 
Worsliips' Colonic no farther tlian to one hundred guilders; that for a higher sum being 
subject to an appeal to the Director-General and Council of New Netherland ; and by article 
IS"' an appeal is also allowed in criminal cases. 

The Commissioners are of opinion that the government of your Worships' Colonic ought 
finally pronounce judgment, or at least that the sum which men might prosecute should be 
souK^what increased; in all cases that no appeal be allowed in criminal cases. 

Thirdl}^ Although your Worships have been pleased, by the enlarging of tlie 30"" article, 
whereby the finders of minerals, etc., were allowed the propert; thereof, on condition of 
jiaying after the lapse of ten years, one-tenth of the proceeds to the Company, to take the 
aforesaid minerals on said c( ndition from them, authorizing your Worships' Commissioners to 
write to the Director to agree with tlie finders for the best a vantage of the city. 

The Commissioners are still of opinion that the aforesaid tax ought to be, if not entirely removed, 
at least rendered as light as can in any wise be agreed upon. 

And the Commissioners are of opinion that not only your Worships' goods, but also those of 
all private merchants who are willing to trade to your Worships' Colonic, ought to be allowed 
to be sent to it direct, and that trade be carried on with it, without being bound to run to 
New Amsterdam, believing that the Company will not be injured, but possibly derive more 
benefit from this than from the system which has been hitherto in practice. For : 

First. On many goods all, and from all the greatest part of the duties were paid 
here, so that, as little fraud can be committed in your Worships' Colonic, where they 
must always keep somebody, as at New Amsterdam. 

Secondly. 'Tis more profitable to them to benefit an entire country, especially 
that which through agriculture, which is carried on far and wide, must return its 
profits, than merely one place, whereby Colonists are rendered unwilling to spread 
themselves throughout the country to cultivate it, but repair all to settle at that 
privileged place, and lay up goods, which has commonly been the cause of the slow 
increase, and frequently the ruin of the Colonies of our nation. 

Thirdly. More duty shall undoubtedly be collected whenever people will be at 
liberty to go from here direct to trade to your Worships' Colonic, which is as easy 
of access as New Amsterdam ; nearer for those who go from Europe, the West Indies 
and the Islands; of warmer climate and certainly of as good quality of soil. 

Fourthly. The Company is interested in the prosperouspopulation and maintenance 
of your Worships' [Colonic], which, in case of rupture with the English or Swedes, 
must abide the first brunt and be a wall unto those of the North, although they 
willingly admit that the communication with the Virginian English hath brought 
the Colonic, up to this time, no loss but profit. 

Finally. The Commissioners are of opinion that the duty on the merchandise which goes 
to New Netherland, amounting to 14i, ]2i and Si per cent, if not entirely taken olf, as far 
as your Worships are concerned, ought at least be somewhat diminished ; certainly, if the 
merchants sending their wares to New Netherland are allowed to agree at a less ]trice, such 
also ought to be the case with your Worships, who, in all inslances, ought to be placed on a 
)eyel with those of New Amsterdam? 


Resolution of the Common Council of ths City of Amsterdam. 

[ From the Resolutien van de Vroedschappen, C, p. 132, in the Stad Hui/s, Amsterdam. ] 

9 March, 1661. 

Hniiami DocumentB "^lie Commissioners appointed by resolution of the Council of the 8" 
^^'■'^'' November, to consider (in default of any acrreement beinff concluded with the 

On what fnoting to ' ^ JO O 

!!ie'i'i"iN''ewNe?hi?- Wcst India Company, pursuant to the previous resolution of the 30"" September, 
'''"''■ of said year, to surrender to said Company, on reasonable conditions, the Colonic 

undertaken to be planted in Nevp Netherland by this city, which agreement the Cou cil, 
nevertheless, resolves shall be insisted on) in what manner the city would be most suitably 
freed from the burthen of the aforesaid Colonic, a Memorial of the Directors of the aforesaid 
Colonic, tending to the maintenance of the same by disbursing a small sum of money, being 
also by resolution of the 25"' of August, A° 1660, placed in tiie hands of the said Commissioners : 

Have reported that, in pursuance and fulfillment of the aforesaid resolutions, after having 
perceived tliat there was no appearance of any negotiation being concluded with the West 
India Company for the conveyance of the aforesaid Colonic, according to the intent of this 
Council, they set about inquiring, first : What the principal causes were that the Colonic 
aforesaid did not increase according to the design of this city? secondly: In what manner 
could a remedy be applied ? and, lastly, drew up a sketch of the means which, after provision 
is first made for those obstacles, should be employed to redress the Colonic, and what sum of 
money would be required, once for all, lor that redress, so that the Colonic in future may be 
able to support itself, and the city in time expect the fruits thereof. 

In regard to the first: The said Commissioners say, that they are informed by those who 
have been in the service of the city there and returned hither, that the late 1 irector did not 
at the first start apply himself to the work with sufficient diligence and dexterity, especially 
to the promotion of agriculture, so that the Colonists, not being able to gain their subsistence, 
did mostly run away. 

Which running away was further caused by the difference that arose between Director- 
General Stuyvesandt and the officers of the city's Colonic, both in the matter of jurisdiction 
and otherwise, whereby also the remaining Colonists were rendered unsettled. 

Moreover, the Colonists find it peculiarly onerous that they are obliged to repair before the 
Director-General and Council of New Netherland in cases of appeal, where the amount 
exceeds one hundred guilders, and that no efficient police can he maintained, because an 
appeal is permitted in criminal matters. 

It is also highly injurious to the Colonic, that, according to the 30"" article of the Conditions, 
the goods of private persons which the city happens to send over on freight, together with the 
goods belonging to the city, laden in a common ship, cannot be conve3^ed direct to the 
aforesaid Colonic, but must first be discharged and opened at New Amsterdam, or some other 
place belonging to the Companj\ 

And great disputes have arisen in consequence of the Company's servants claiming the 
money arising from the privilege of anchoring in the South river in front of this city's Colonic. 

Against the aforesaid mismanagement, the Commissioners say, that it was provisionally 
supplied with another person, who, with great zeal, is endeavoring to promote the 
reestablishment of the Colonic. 


And thcv are of opinion that the aforesaid difference about jurisdiction could be remedied by 
the Companv hohliiig their Director to his duty and siiarply interdicting liim from undertaking 
anylhin" contrary to the right of the city's Colonic, instructing him, on tiie contrary, to favor 
evervwhere the promotion thereof, and to live on good understanding with its officers, to which 
effect, on complaint made to the aforesaid Company in tiiis particular, very earnest letters have 
already been sent off to said Director. 

Against the oppressiveness of the appeal, a provision could also be made, as tlie Company 
consented that the Schepens of the aforesaid Colonic sliall henceforth pronounce judgment in 
civil actions unto 600 gl., Holland currency, and in all criminal cases indifferently. Likewise, 
against the injustice of the aforesaid 30"" article, that the Company allows the contents thereof 
to be taken out of the Conditions; and, as to the 31" article, nothing more was allowed than 
that, whenever the city is sending off its own or a chartered ship, loaded solely with the city's 
own goods, such ship may proceed directly to the city's Colonie. This was amplified and 
changed, so that all ships which the city happens to send to its Colonie, whether they be 
Laden with goods belonging to the city or to private individuals, together with all other private 
ships which are allowed and permitted by the city to trade and frequent the Colonie aforesaid, 
ehall be at liberty to proceed direct to said Colonie without first touching at New Amsterdam 
or any other of the Company's places, and are, therefore, so far released from the observance of 
the rule, remaining, nevertheless, subject to the same rule in all other points, such as, uamelj', 
that the goods and ships aforesaid to be loaded shall, as before, be brought into the Company's 
warehouse here, for inspection and to be marked with the city's and Company's marks, by 
some person on the part of the Company, in the presence of the Committee of the city; and, 
moreover, that the duty thereupon be paid, agreeably to the tariff; also that, on the anival 
of the ship in the city's Colonie in New Netherland, the cargo shall again be opened in a 
warehouse, in the presence of some person to be appointed for that purpose by the Company 
and on behalf of the city. 

Likewise that the differences and difficulties arising on occasion of the privilege of 
anclioring, together with all others that may in future again happen between the respective 
officers, through propinquity, could be removed and avoided whenever the Company 
shall conclude to make over to tiie city the lands on the east side of the South river, as 
far as the city's district extends at present on the west side, all such jurisdiction and rights 
as said city hath heretofore obtained on the aforesaid west side, and the limits of the 
Colonie shall be extended nortliwards up to Upland Kill ; ' as the Directors of the Chamber 
here already accorded and agreed to bring the two aforesaid points before the Assembly of the 
XIX., and to help to procure the approbation of the States-Gen(U-al thereto. And as regards 
the tliird, communication was sent on the behalf of the aforementioned Commissioners to the 
aforesaid Directors who had given to understand thereupon, that whenever the aforesaid 
Colonie was maintained by the city, and serious arrangement was made for populating it by 
conveying people thither, the Company would not throw any difficulties in the way of the 
extension of the limits aforesaid. 

The abovementioned Commissioners consider the means whereby the aforesaid Colonie 
might be redressed, to be these : 

Namely: That the military who are in the service and pay of the city be discharged, 
leaving the Colonists to provide for their own defence, whereunto 'tis considered that they 

'Now, Chester Cretk, Delnware couuty, Peansjlvunia. — Ed. 


will be competent, especially when they shall be reinforced with people, which point will be 
hereafter treated of; whereunto the military migiit be induced to coi'iperate, without pay, by 
distributing lands among them for their own support, under bond to serve the Colonie as 
soldiers in time of need, and in that case to draw pay. 

Further, for populating the Colonie, that a goodly number of free people be gratuitously 
conveyed over, with their necessary baggage, by the city, and nothing more should be 
disbursed except a piece of land for them to support themselves on, as has been the practice 
of the Company for many years with good success, and now plenty of people are to be found 
who would very willingly repair tiiither. 

And for the greater advancement of farming, it would besides, be well to engage 
provisionally, 25 or 30 farm servants from Westphalia or Gelderland, who are willing and 
accustomed to work, together with some boys, and pay them board and wages, at the expense 
of the Colonie, on condition that the product of their labor shall in return be enjoyed by 
the Colonie. 

That the civil servants who are drawing pay be reduced to as few in number, and as small 
an amount of wages as is in anywise possible, so that there be retained in service only : 

Guilders. Guilders. 

One Director on a salary of, 100 per month ; and board-wages a year, 300 

One Sheriff, being Commissary, 40 150 

One assistant,. 15 75 

One barber, being also apothecary, 23 100 

One steward and cooper together, 12 75 

One smith (3. one guilder a day when 

employed by the city, otherwise, nothing. 
One comforter of the sick, to act, also, as 

schoolmaster, IS , 80 

And that, finally, a sum of 24,628 guilders be demanded, once for all, to be expended as 
follows, namely : 

50 snaphance, each 5 guilders 250 . 00 

2,000 lbs. powder, @, 40 " per 100 lbs 800.00 

One cargo of merchandise, 10,000.00 

Materials for brickwork, 800.00 

Farming implements, 1,000.00 

Eight months' charter of a ship, 4,800.00 

17 ships' crew, estimated, with officers and seamen, to average 17 gl. per month, 2,312.00 

Their food for the entire voyage, 1,666.00 

One cargo, to be sent this year, 3,000.00 


Nothing is set down for the salaries of the civil servants, nor yet for the wages of the farm 
servants and boys, nor for their board, as they should be engaged or continued on condition 
that they shall so improve the aforesaid cargoes and other etlects of the Colonie there, and 
Vol. II. 22 


likewise the cultivation of the soil, that from the proceeds of those cargoes and wliat shall 
be obtained from time to time for them, together with the produce of the lands which will be 
cultivated by the aforesaid farm servants and boys, their salaries or wages, and their board 
shall be abundantly provided ; on which condition the principal of the officers offer their 
services, provided that 2 months' wages be advanced to those only who are to be taken 
up new. 

Neither is anything set down for the board on the voyage of the aforesaid free people, 
farm servants and boys, estimated at G stivers a day each for about 2 months ; nor for the 
aforesaid 2 months' wages in iiand, as it was calculated that tlie profits which the aforesaid 
ship will realize on the outward and chiefly on the homeward voyage, with the outward 
freight of private merchandise, will be more than equivalent to the aforesaid board and 
monthly wages in hand. 

So that, in all cases, no more than the above 24,G28 guilders will be required, once for all, 
for the redress of the Colonic, which sum should be the less burdensome seeing that whenever 
it would be concluded to abandon the Colonie on payment of the already disbursed monthly 
payments, &c., a considerable sum which the city would be then owing must be furnished; 
that debt will, in case the aforesaid 24,628 guilders are appropriated, be refunded by the 
Colonie itself. 

Further, the Commissioners are of opinion, if this Council resolve to maintain the Colonie, 
that it will be highly advantageous for the redress and promotion thereof, that the city admit 
some private individuals to a share of one-half the Colonie, without those persons, however, 
being liable for any of the expenses which have been heretofore incurred, but only for what 
is hereafter necessary for its redress and continuation, and therefore to participate in half the 
gains; with this understanding, that the private persons to be admitted as aforesaid, should 
be allowed with the Directors on behalf of this city to be appointed for the management of 
the Colonie, the management and supervision with an equal number of votes as the Directors, 
provided that the city Directors should ji reside ; and, in case of an equality of votes, one 
Commissioner be appointed, on the behalf of the city, to help to arrange the difference ; for, 
beyond all doubt, the work would be attended to with more zeal and assiduity by private 
persons who are interested, and such also would redound to the advantage of the city. 

And then, within the time expressed in the condition, the tenths are to be looked for ; and 
the Colonie being again brought into shape, it is to be expected that the people who have 
gone away and are impoverished will return thither, and become able, with the prosperity of 
the Colonie, to repay the city what has been disbursed for them. In addition to this, the 
probability is, that considerable gain would accrue from the convenience of certain creeks 
which have been discovered penetrating into the interior of the country, and are navigable for 
small boats to within a quarter of an hour's distance of the distrii^t of the English, with whom 
a great trade can be carried on from this side, as those who have been there have found to 
their great profit ; and this, exclusiveof the great prosperity which this city would consequently 
derive in general from the frequent navigation and commerce to this Colonie. 

Which being considered, it is resolved and concluded to maintain and continue said Colonie 
on the footing proposed by the aforesaid Commissioners, who are thanked for the trouble they 
have taken. 


Resolation of tlie Commissioner's of the Colonie on (lie Delatvare River. 

t From the Bundle indorsed Verschcide Stu/Jctn rae/ccnde de Colonie van N, Nederlandl^ No. 59, in the Slad Huys, Amsterdam. ] 

Extract from the Minutes of the Commissioners and Directors appointed and 
named to superintend the Colonie estabiislied on the South river, in New 
Netherland, by the City of Amsterdam. 

Amsterdam, Tuesday, 39"" July, 1661. 

Present — Mr. Burgh, Chairman. 

Mess" Roeters, 

Holland Dooumenta Meyutic Willems, wife of John Barentsen, late freeman in this city's Colonie 
ivi., 225. j^ New Netherland and there deceased, appeared and delivered to the meeting 

a certain written inventory, acta and obligation, whereby Hans Block, gunner in the service 
of the aforesaid city's Colonie, acknowledges to have purchased such property as is therein 
specified, and was left by her deceased husband, amounting, altogether, to about nine hundred 
and eighty guilders, he promising thereby to make payment in beavers or other returns, or 
else and in default thereof, to allow the same to be paid here out of his wages ; and as she 
had received hereupon, after long waiting, only 300 guilders, she requested our aid, in order 
that she may make use of the alternative, namely, that the balance, which is now about six 
hundred aud eighty guilders, may be paid here from his wages. Whereupon the account of 
the said Hans Block, as entered in tlie book of monthly wages last received thence, being 
examined, it is found that nearly that sum is due him there, yet as not the slightest entry to 
above effect is found, and he consequently might, since that time, have taken up and received 
his wages there in whole or in part; it is accordingly resolved, after question being put, to 
decline the payment in this instance for the present, and until she exhibit to us an original 
settlement of account of Hans Block's monthly wages earned and due, together with an 
assignment or power of attorney, executed from him to her, as is customary, or certainly ought 
to be the practice. 

By order of the same. 

Proposals for Subscriptions to the Stock of the Colonie on the Delaware River. 

[ From Grool Memoriaal, V., 51, in the Stad Hut/s, Amsterdam. ] 

Holland Documenia, The Burgomastcrs and Regents of the city of Amsterdam To all and every 
Ne^w 'Netherland ^Y thcsc Prescuts make known : That, by resolution of the Burgomasters and 
ouy'8 Colonie. XXXVI. Councillors of the aforesaid city, a proper number of Commissioners from 
the midst of their Worships' Assembly has been ordered seriously to inquire into the condition 


of the Colonic named New Amstel, tlie planting whereof by the city aforesaid has been 
commenced on the South river; and, in addition, to consider in what manner the above named 
Colonic may be further maintained and brought to a flourishing state; also, that the said 
Burgomasters and XXXVI. Councillors, having found, when tlie aforesaid Commissioners, after 
laborious application, made a report of tiieir opinions, that provision must be made for divers 
points tending to the embarrassment of the Colonic ; also that said Colonic must be relieved of 
divers ordinary expenses ; the clearing and cultivation of thelands situated thereabout, zealously 
promoted, and, in addition Ihcreto, that a goodly sum of money ought to be disbui'sed for the 
maintenance of the aforesaid Colonie : Their Worships have, upon mature deliberation, 
resolved, first : To employ all possil)lc diligence for the removal of said embarrassments, the 
chief of which have already been put out of the way, namely, that henceforth the Schepens 
of the aforesaid Colonie shall pronounce and decree judgment in civil suits to six hundred 
guilders, Holland currency, and in all criminal cases indifferently, without appeal or reprieve, 
instead of having, as heretofore, appeals from their judgments amounting to above one hundred 
guilders, allowed to the Director-General and Council of New Netherlaud at vast expense, 
trouble and loss of time to the Colonists, and, in all criminal cases, to the hindrance of 
maintaining good police. Likewise, that all ships which this city happens to send to its 
Colonie, whether freighted with city property or goods of individuals ; also, all other ships of 
private persons permitted by said city to frequent and trade to the aforesaid Colonie, shall be 
at liberty to proceed directly hence to the above mentioned Colonie, without touching at New 
Amsterdam or any other of the West India Company's places, which could not heretofore be 
done, to the manifest injury of that Colonie. That, further, for the relief of said Colonie, their 
Worships have resolved to dismiss the military who are there in the service and pay of the 
aforesaid city, and to reduce the public officers who receive salaries, to as small a number and 
as low wages as is in any wise possible. And, to the end that agriculture be promoted, to send 
over gratis a goodly number of free people and have them distributed on said lands; also, to 
send thither in the city's service some laboring men who are accustomed to the cultivation of 
the soil; and, finally, as regards the money means, amounting to about 25,000 gl., the aforesaid 
Burgomasters and XXXVI. Councillors have resolved, once for all, to the end that the 
advancement of their Colonie be encouraged with more zeal, to adjoin to them some private 
merchants to take an interest for one-half in this Colonie, on such rights and conditions as the 
Burgomasters aforesaid have agreed upon with the Directors of the West India Company, 
which also are approved by their High Mightinesses, without, however, such private individuals 
being responsible for any of the expenses which have heretofore been incurred, but in such 
manner that they shall contribute only one-half of what is henceforth necessary for the 
continuance of the Colonie aforesaid, and in return shall enjoy one-half of all the profits; also 
possess, together with the Directors to be appointed on the part of this city, the management 
of the Colonie, with a number of votes equal to those of the Directors aforesaid; on condition 
that the city's Directors shall preside, and, in case the votes are equal, one Commissioner 
siiall be appointed, on the part of this city, to assist in settling the diflerence. 

Pursuant to which resolution, the Burgomasters and Regents aforesaid offer to receive all and 
every as partners, on the abovenamed conditions. Those who are hereunto inclined, will 
please address themselves to Nicholas Nicolai and Mr. Wigbolt Slicher, clerks of this city, so 
that every one may be allowed to subscribe for what shares he desires to take, and, at the 
same time, obtain more circumstantial information of the condition of the aforesaid Colonie, 


of the fruits and profits which are to be expected therefrom and of the employment of the 
aforesaid 25,000 gl. 

Done the 18'" August, 166}. 

By order of their Worships. 

(Signed), Wigbolt Slicher. 

^ •« » »i » 

Directors at Amsterdavi to Director Stuyvesant. 

{ New- York Colonial Mauuscripts, in the OtRce of the Secretary of State, Albany, XIV. ] 

Honorable, Prudent, Beloved, Faithful. 

We received by tlie vessels Tronic, Hoop and Gulden Arent your general and particular letters 
of the 21" July last, with the documents belonging thereto. As time does not permit us to 
answer these at present, by the vessel that directly sails to the South I'iver, we hope to do so 
by the ships which are expected to sail from here in the latter part of next month. Meanwhile, 
we herewith send you, with a view to your special information, our resolution adopted upon 
a proposal of this city, from which you will see what further privileges we have granted the 
Magistrates of this city in regard of their Colonic on the South river. And as said Magistrates 
will continue, accordingly, to charge themselves with the direction of said Colonic, they are 
now sending several Colonists and farmers thither for the advancement thereof, in the hope 
that such will be crowned with better success. Your Honors may see from the invoice, what 
necessaries of clothing for the soldiers have been laden in this vessel, while the remainder can 
be expected with the winter vessels. 

With which terminating, we commend you to God's protection. 
Honorable, Prudent, Beloved, Faithful, 
Your good friends. 

The Directors of the West India Company Department, Amsterdam. 

(Signed), Jacobus Retees. 
Amsterdam, Q'*" Nov', 1661. Abe. Wilmeedonk. 

To the Director-General and Council in New Netherland. 

Proposals of the Commissioners of the Extract from the Register of the Reso- 

Right Worshipful, the Burgomasters lutions of the Directors of the West 

of the city of Amsterdam. India Company Chamber at Amster- 


[ New-York Colonial Manuscripts, in the Office of the Secretary of State, Albany, XIX. ] 
I. 1. 

First. That besides the High, Middle and With regard to the appointment of a Sheriff, 

Low Jurisdiction, the city ought to possess this is granted to the city of Amsterdam in 

the absolute disposal of all the offices, through the name of their High Mightinesses and the 

which such is exercised ; namely, that of the West India Company, as specified in article 



Sheriff, Schepens and other officers of the 13, provided he take the oath of allegiance 
court, on such instructions and conditions, as to their High Mightinesses and the Company, 
they may deem proper. So tiie Ilegents of the city of Amsterdam shall 

be requested to command and instruct their 
Director and other servants to assist the 
Sheriff and the Commissaries of the Com- 
pany's rights. 

2. 2. 

Tliat no appeal from judgments, pronounced The amount to which the Schepens of New 
by said Schepens, shall be permitted to the Amstel may give their judgments is raised to 
Director-General and Council at the Manhat- the sum of GOO guilders, and no appeal is 
tans, but only to the court of justice here; allowed in criminal cases, and the Director- 
or if great objection be made to this, or it be General and Council shall be instructed not 
impossible, that the sum of one hundred to grant a reprieve, except conformably to 
guilders, which the Schepens may now not the laws of this country, 
exceed in their judgments, be augmented to 
one thousand, or more. In ail events, that 
110 appeal in criminal cases shall be permitted; 
and tlie Director-General shall be instructed 
not to give, in future, any reprieve to the 
inhabitants of the city's Colonie. 


If any one discovers any minerals, he shall 
be maintained in the possession thereof 
without any payment to tlie Company, but 
the city may enter into an agreement with 
such individual to its best advantage, or lay 
such a duty as the said city may deem proper. 

This point remains undecided till such au 
event shall occur. 


It is the opinion of their Worships that the With regard to the free conveyance of private 

30"" article ought to be rescinded from the ships and goods, it is granted to the Colonie 

Conditions, and in lieu thereof, that the Com- of New Amstel, upon the footing and regula- 

pany allow not only the vessels of the city, tion sanctioned in this country and at New 

laden with their own goods, but also all those Amsterdam, with regard to the lading of 

of private merchants who are willing to trade goods, viz, that these must be carried first to 

to the city's Colonie, to proceed directly the magazines of the Company and there be 

thither and prosecute trade there without marked, provided the duties are paid, as is 

being bound to touch at the city of New customary here and in New Amsterdam. 
Amsterdam, much less to break bulk there ; 
which, if duly considered, your Honors will 
be convinced, will be more advantageous to 
the Companj' than the present practice. 


5. 5. 

Your Honors will be pleased to consider With regard to the proposal, tliat the city 

seriously if the city ought not to be relieved receive a part of the recognitions, this cannot 

of the great expenses which it has already be granted without prejudicing, seriously, the 

incurred, and must yet continue to incur, by preceding article ; but if the city deems it an 

allowing it to receive the recognitions and advantage to impose any new duties, as has 

duties which are levied in that country in been granted to the Manhattans, to provide 

order that it may possess a proper fund to for the expenses, which it already incurred, 

pay its servants, maintain the public works, and which it must yet continue to incur, 

&c. this might be effected with the previous 

knowledge and approbation of the Company. 

6. 6. 

That the duties which must be paid here On the article of diminishing the duties 
on goods in this city be diminished, so as your nothing can be done, as this Colonie ought 
Honors may deem advisable. to remain on the same footing as New 


Further Enlargement of the Condition.s granted to the Colonie on the Delaware River. 

[ From the 3Iunitnenl Register van den Hand, C, p. 2i3, ill the Stad Uuys, xVmsterdara. ] 

Holland Docutnents, The Commissioners and Directors of this city's Colonie in N. Netherland, 
Colonie in New h'^viug represented to the Burgomasters that the Directors of the Incorporated 
Netherland. Wcst ludia Company had allowed those of New Amsterdam and other inhabitants 

of N. Netherland, on their petition, to export their wares and products which grow there, 
and cannot be profitably sold here, to other places both in and out of Europe, but under certain 
limitations, as more fully appear by resolution of the said Company, with the request that their 
Honors will be pleased to allow this city's Colonists to enjoy the like freedom. 

Secondly. That the 30"" article, which grants to the discoverers of minerals in the aforesaid 
Colonie the property of said minerals, on condition that they pay -cs thereof to the West 
India Company, after the lapse of ten years, confers no advantage on the city, to which, 
according to the general conditions made with said Company, such minerals devolve and 
were granted ; and the same ought to be expunged therefrom, and the Commissioners authorized 
to agree thereon with the discoverers of minerals and such things. 

It is, after consideration, resolved and concluded on the first, to amplify the conditions with 
the following article. That : 

The Colonists who shall have paid their board and passage money, and discharged their 
other obligations, shall be empowered to bring their wares, produce and goods, the growth of 
the Colonie, unto such ports and kingdoms as they think proper, to sell the same to the best 
advantage, except beavers and other peltries ; likewise, to bring all wares or merchandise, 
however named, which they shall destine for Netherland, East or North, to this city, to pay 


tlie public and Company's duties, and generally to govern themselves precisely according 
to tlie ri'guhition given by the Company to the inhabitants of N. Netherland. 

And the aforesaid Directors are accordingly authorized to rescind the articles contravening 
this one, or to arrange them agreeably to the instruction of tliis resolution. 

On the 2"'', it is resolved to expunge the SO"" article of the present conditions, and the 
Directors are authorized to agree with the discoverers of minerals, marbles, precious stones, 
to the best advantage of the city. 

Resolution of the Common Council of the Citu of Amsterdam. 

[ From tlie Resolutien ran dc Vrofdschappen, ('., p. 193, in the S'tad Iliit/s, Amsterdam. ) 

SO'" April, IGG2. 
iioiian.i Documenu, The Burgomastcrs have also reported that about 2-5 Mennonist families had 

A V ., 51. ^ ^ 

somo famiiiea re- declared their inclination to remove to and reside in the citv's Colonic in New 

qufst asBiHtaiieo to " 

K,\nn\e '!'n New Ncthcrland, if this city would resolve to assist each family to that end with 200 
Netheriand. guilders for oncc, lu addition to the passage money, on condition that such 

families would jointly and severally bind themselves to repay the same. Which being 
considered, it is resolved to loan. each family 100 gl. on such conditions, the passage money 
therein included. 

Contract for the Conveyance of Mennonists to the Delaware River, 

[ From tile Groot Memoriaal, Xo. 79, in tlie Stad Hiiys, Aroelerdain. ] 

Burgomasters and Regents of the city of Amsterdam. 
Holland Documents, Whercas vve remain, at all times, disposed to advance this city's Colonie in 
?^"'^'..„ New Nctherland, therefore have we, with the knowledge and consent of the 

Conlraet Willi Pelor ^ 

soin'"'"' i'o™''New XXXVI. Councillors, resolved to enter into the following agreement to that end 
Nciir.riaod. ' ,^i^jj Yxetex- Cornelisz Plockhoy, of Zierikzee, viz. : 

He, Pieter Cornelisz Plockhoy, undertakes to present to us, as soon as possible, XXIIII. 
men, who, with him, making a Society of XXV. persons, shall bind tliemselves to depart 
by the first sailing ship or ships to tiie aforesaid city's Colonie to reside there and to work at 
the cultivation of the land, fishing, handicraft, etc., and to be as diligent as possible not only 
to the end that they should live properly by such labor, but that provision may thereby be 
made for other coming persons and families. 

Therefore the aforesaid Society of XXV. male persons, whether the same be more or less, 
according as they may increase or diminish, shall, for the whole, and, moreover, each member 
of said society for himself individually, have the privilege of selecting, taking up and 


appropriating ai? much land, tlie property of no other person, whether in the Whorekill or 
in any other part of the district of this Colonie wherever it may lie, as they shall be willing 
and able to cultivate and pasture. Which lands, both divided and undivided, the aforesaid 
Society and Colonists respectively shall occupy in full property, to do therewith as to thena 
shall seem good. 

And the aforesaid Colonists, for the peace, union and welfare of their Society, such rules 
and orders shall be empowered to enact as they shall think proper, provided, nevertheless, 
that each person who may consider himself wronged shall be at liberty to appeal to the 
Magistrate there or here. 

The aforesaid Society, and each member thereof in particular, shall, for their further 
encouragement, be granted freedom from Tenths and all other imposts, howsoever they be 
named, for the term of XX. years. 

And there shall be paid, likewise, to each of the aforesaid 25 persons, by form of a loan, a 
sum of one hundred guilders to provide himself therefrom with necessaries according to 
pleasure, on condition that such sum is utiderstood to include his passage money only, and 
not those of his wife and children, who shall be conveyed over at the expense of this city, 
conformably to the printed Conditions. 

Therefore the aforesaid XXV. Colonists, promise and bind themselves, i?i solidum, the one for 
the other, to repay the aforesaid 2,500 guilders to this city agreeably to the 21 and 22 articles 
of the Conditions relating to the city's Colonie, last printed and published. 

Then, in case any of the aforesaid 25 men should wish to leave the Society before the time 
of the full payment of said 2,500 guilders, in order to return hither, he shall be at liberty to 
do so, on condition of leaving to the Society the undivided land, cattle and all other common 
property, and taking with him only his own particular goods, so that the repayment may be 
effected by the remaining Colonists. Therefore the passage money of such Colonist and 
family as have gone away shall be paid by the Society out of the common stock in return for 
bis contributed labor. 

And if any person will go over, or make the voyage at his own expense and yet wish to 
save or even sell his share in the common fund, he shall be at liberty to do so, on condition 
that he previously put one in his place or sell to such a one as the Society respectively 
shall approve of, in order to help to have a strict eye over the common labor and other 
things besides. 

The aforesaid Society and the individual members thereof remaining further bound to 
observe, in all other respects, the aforesaid printed articles. In like manner, also, the 
explanation of whatever should herein be found to demand further interpretation remains 
reserved unto the Burgomasters of this State. 

In testimony whereof have we, the Burgomasters and Regents aforesaid, the seal of this 
city affixed to these presents the 9"" of June, A° 1662. 

(Signed), Wigbolt Slichee. 
Having a seal impressed in Green Wax. 

Vol. II. 23 


Director Stuyve-sant to the Magistrates of JS'eio Amstel. 

[ From the Bundle indorsed Versclwiile fyiukken Tatkende de Colonie ran .V. Xederlajtdt, Xo. GO, in tlie Stad Hut/s, Amsterdam. ] 

Honorable, Prudent, 3Iost Discreet Gentlemen. 

nniiaiiH Docutnenio ^^*^ receivcd yesterday evening your letter, from which we learned with 
^*'''^"'' anxiety the murder of a Dutchman and the burning of a house near the Fortress 

of New Amstel, and the consequent justifiable trouble and apprehension of the inhabitants, and 
also the request of M. d'Hinojossa to send a reinforcement of 12 men at the city's expense; 
this request has already been granted by us. But, regarding the passage thither of the trifling 
assistance demanded, whether it is to be sent by land or outside around ; if over land, 'tis 
an objection that so small a number might very easily be overpowered and massacred on the 
march by the Indians, if tiiese be inclined to war; round about by sea would take along 
time, and so small a number could not essentially serve and defend both 2)laces, New Amstel 
and Altonae. Having, besides, considered Mr. Beeckman's advice and the verbal report of the 
bearer of the letter, we are inclined to hope that the trouble may pass over ; nay, that it is 
not so bad and dangerous as the inhabitants of New Amstcd apprehend. We have, therefore, 
concluded first to dispatch this with speed by the bearer of yours and Claes Jansen Ruyter, the 
Interpreter, the latter of whom we have expressly commanded to make all possible speed and 
haste, and take precise information from all the Indians as to the continuance of the matter 
i-emonstrated on; if anything be learned, to return hither, cito cito. In this case, the required 
assistance, and, according to the circumstances of his report, a greater number will be sent to 
your Honors. If he learn nothing of consequence or no news, he is directed to proceed onward 
and to hand these to your Honors in person, and to bring back speedily your opinion. 
Wherewith, ending for the present, we shall, after greeting, commend you all together to 
God's care and protection. 

Honorable, prudent and very discreet gentlemen, 
Vour affectionate friends. 

The Director-General and Council of New Netherland. 

Done Fort Amsterdam, in (Signed), Peter Stuyvesant. 

New Netherland, IG"- Sept% 1GG2. 

Directoi' Stayve-sarit to tlie Directors at Ainsterdain. 

Honorable, Wise, Prudent and Right Worshipful. 

noiinnd Documents Aftcr our last was closcd, and the skipper had departed about noon yesterday, 
xvi.,229. with the letters, we received late in the evening the annexed from Director 

d'Hinojossa, which we deem necessary to communicate to you and through you to the 
Commissioners of the city's Colonic, in order that you and they, according to your far seeing 
judgment, may adopt such regulation for the belter security of this far distant place, as 
your good and wise Council may devise. From the annexed copy of the letter speedily 
dispatched in answer to the first, your Honors can partly deduce bow the matter was viewed 


by us ; things must improve by time. Meanwhile, we shall not fail to look to the security of 
both the one and the other place, and to contribute thereto as far as present circumstances 
permit us. Therefore, your Honors and the Commissioners may be assured, should any 
collision occur or happen there or elsewhere, we should find ourselves forthwith in want of 
good powder. Our supply consists of only about 2,500 (^ 3,000 pounds in all ; but, as the 
greater part of it is some years old and has lain too long, we could not rely on it in time of 
need. We therefore will respectfully request your Honors to send over a good quantity by 
the first opportunity, and annually afterwards, in order to have a supply of good powder 
constantly on hand, to the extent of 5 (S^ 600 pounds, in which case we should, from time to 
time, have the old powder sent back, in order to be made over again. We are much at a 
loss for drums and skins for drum-heads, in consequence of being obliged to supply the 
outlying villages with them, at their request; none can be obtained here, as they are, not 
imported by private persons. We therefore fequest your Honors to provide us with some, 
next spring. Wherewith, hastily ending, we shall, after hearty greeting, commend your 
Honors to the care and protection of God, and remain, 

Honorable, wise, prudent and right worthy, 

Your obedient and faithful servant. 

Fort Amsterdam, in P. Stutvesant. 

New Netherland, 16'" 7"", A° 1C02. 

-♦>♦ » ■■ *r - 

Return of Moneys imid for the Golonie on the Delaware River. 

[ From the Bundle indorsed Rek-eningrn raekende New Nederlandl, C., 4, Xo. 1. ) 

No. 41. 

Return of the monthly payments here by the Directors for the government of 

xv!'uo.^°""°™"' the Colo&ie of New Amstel, in New Netherland, from the IS'" November, 

1659, to the 3'* November, 1662. 

A" 1659. FIorinB. 

IS'" November. To William van Diemen, sergeant,,.... No. 1, .... 30. 0.0 

-ditto William van Diemen, " 2 30.0.0 

ditto Roeloff Swenske, soldier, " 3 34. 8.8 

ditto Jan Nanninghsen, boy on board thegaliot,.. " 4, . 19. 0.0 

ditto Andries Andriessen, carpenter of ditto " 6, . — 52.10.0 

ditto William V.Rasenburg, surgeon in the Colonie, " G, . 46. 0.0 

25'" ditto Jan Nanninghsen, " 7 22.12.0 


10'"January. Peter Tergotsky, soldier, " 8, 16.0.0 

ditto Claes Antonisen, soldier,. " 9, . — 16. 0.0 

ditto Christiaen Libert V. Iperen, soldier,. " 10, . — 16. 0.0 

13'" ditto Roeloff Swenske, soldier, " 11, 8.0.0 

Amount carried forward,. 290.10.8 






























aS'" June. 








10'" August. 































Amount brought forward, 290.10.8 

Gerrit Specht, soldier, No. 12, 16. 0.0 

Jan Claesen van den Bolch, soldier, " 13, .... 16. 0.0 

Theunis Servaes, of Haerlem, cooper " 14, . . . . 88. 0.0 

de liuyter, of Antwerp, soldier,. .. . " 15, . 16. 0.0 

Jacob Jansen, soldier, " 16, . — 16. 0.0 

Hendrick VVillemsen, soldier, " 17, 16.0.0 

Hans Oloffsen, soldier, " IS, 16. 0.0 

Cornells Theunissen, smith in the Colonic,. . " 19, .... 40. 0.0 

Michiel Blickhuysen, cadet, " 20, 20. 0.0 

Tites Sieversen, soldier, " 21, 16. 0.0 

Hans Rasmullen, soldier,..*. " 22 18.0.0 

Hendrick Gerritsen, cadet, " 23, 20. 0.0 

Reynier Spierman, soldier, " 24, . 16. 0.0 

Jan Andriesen, soldier, " 25, . 16. 0.0 

Thomas Bingen, soldier, " 26, 16. 0.0 

Bernard Stodeur, soldier, " 27, 16. 0.0 

Jan Barentsen, soldier, " 28, .... 10. 0.0 

Jacob Jansen Huys, skipper of the galiot,. .. . " 29, . 135. 0.0 

Jan Broers, cook of the galiot, " 30, . 48. 0.0 

Jacob Gerbrantsen, seaman of the galiot, " 31, . 36. 0.0 

Jan Claesen, seaman of the galiot, " 32, .... 33. 0.0 

Jan Jochemsen, pilot of the galiot, " 33, . 84. 0.0 

Arent Korsen, seaman of the galiot, " 34, . 36. 0.0 

Jan Gerritsen, seaman, late of the ship P/ins 

Maurils, " 35, 11. 0.0 

Claes Antonisen, late soldier, " 30, . 63. 7.0 

Ditto, •" 37, 16.0.0 

Martinus van der Rest, soldi ir, " 38, 32. 0.0 

William van Rasenburg, surgeon, " 39, . 15.10.0 

Michael Evertsen, corporal, " 40, . 310. 8.0 

Theunis Servaes, cooper, " 41, .... 91. 0.0 

Idem, " 42 250.0.0 

Cornelis Theunissen, late smith, " 43, . 414. 0.0 

Jan Gosling, late surgeon, " 44, .... 404.17.8 

Theunis Servaes, late cooper, " 45 36. 0.0 

Arent Korsen, seaman, late of the galiot,. . . " 46, .... 323. 2.0 

Jan Broers, cook, late of the galiot, " 47, . 86. 9.0 

Jacob Gerbrantsen, seaman of do " 48, ..-. 236.13.0 

D"' Everardus Welius, clergyman, " 49, 800. 0.0 

Jan Jochemsen, pilot of the galiot, " 50, . 700. 0.0 

Andries Andriesen, carpenter of do, " 51, .... 336. 0.0 

Thys Jacobsen, boy of the same, " 52, 61. 9,0 

Amount carried forward, 5,168. 6.0 


20"" January. 











12"" February. 




IS* March. 













ll* June. 










lO* October. 



20"" December, 




10* January. 













1" April. 



Amount brought forward, 5,1GS. G.O 

Jan de Ruyter, soldier, No. 53, 16. 0.0 

Jan lloodelier, soldier, '♦ 54, 38. 0.0 

Louys Frison, of Iperen, soldier, " 55, .... 53.1S.S 

Reynier Spierman, soldier, " 60, . 16. 0.0 

Jacob Jansen Huys, skipper of the galiot,. . . " 57, . 1,385.17.0 

William van Rasenberg, surgeon, " 58, . 390. 0.0 

D"*" Everardus Welius, clergyman, " 59, 1,713. G.S 

Jan Evertsen, of Kalcker, M'" mason, " 60 1,384.10.0 

Jan Stoocker, seaman of the galiot, •' 61, .... 131. S.O 

Jacob Gerbrantsen, seaman of do, " 62, .... 60. 0.0 

Jan Stoocker, seaman of do, " 63, 187. 0.0 

Evert Pietersen, comforter of the sick, &c.,. . " 64, . 927.16.0 

Bernard Stodeur, soldier, " 65, . 16. 0.0 

Evert Pietersen, comforter of the sick, &c.,. . " 66, . 66. 0.0 

Idem, " 67, 142.13.0 

Idem, " 68 190.15.0 

Jan Barentsen van Deventer, soldier, " 69, . 16. 0.0 

Arent Evertsen, comforter of the sick, &c.,.. " 70 50. 0.0 

Jan Roodlier, soldier, " 71, . 58.14.8 

Martinus van de Rest, soldier, " 72, . 16. 0.0 

Abraham van Rynevelt, commissary " 73, . 788. 2.0 

Hend : van Bilevelt, cadet, " 74 250. 0.0 

Barent Odwael Noorman, seaman, " 75, . 72.13.0 

William van Diemen, sergeant, " 76, . . . . 200. 0.0 

Evert Pietersen, late comforter of the sick, &c., " 77 75. 0.0 

Arent Evertsen Molenaer, comforter of the 

sick, " 78 100. 0.0 

Hend: van Bylevelt, cadet, wages, " 79, . 254.11.0 

Jan de Ruyter, ditto, " 80, 50. 0.0 

Amadis van der Meylen, drummer, " 81, 70. 0.0 

Jan de Ruyter, soldier, " 82, 16. 0.0 

Alexander d'Hinojossa, director, " S3, . 700. 0.0 

Jacob Jansen Huys, skipper of the galiot, " 84, . 2,105. 1.8 

Jan Jocherasen, pilot of do ..." 85, . 542. 5.0 

Andries Andriesen, carpenter of do " 86, 171. 6.8 

Tys Jacobsen, boy of do ... " 87, 69. 7.8 

Jooat Theunissen, seaman, late of the Prins 

Maurils, '« 88, 11. 0.0 

Bernard Stodeur, soldier, " 89, 16. 0.0 

Andries Andriesen, carpenter of the galiot, . . " 90, 12. 0.0 

William Rasenburgh, surgeon, " 91, 46. 0.0 

Amount carried forward, 17,577.11.0 













































3"* November 



Amount brought forward, 17,577 .11.0 

.Jan Ciaesen, seaman ol the gaiiot, No. 92, 201.12.0 

Idem, " 'J3, .... 13S.10.0 

Idem, " 94, .... 101.10.0 

Idem, " 9-5 13S.10.0 

Reynier Siperman, soldier, " 90, 300. 6.S 

Hans Block, gunner, " 97, S37. 7.0 

Jan Barentsen, soldier, " 9S 16.00.0 

William van Rasenburg. surgeon, " 99, .... 741.12.0 

Barent Stodeur, late soldier, " 100, 163. 3.0 

Jan Barentsen, ditto " 101, 35. 7.S 

Hans Rasmussen, ditto " 102, 124.15.8 

Jacques Gardelo or Payo, soldier, " 103, 224. 19. S 

Hend: van Bilevelt, late cadet, " 104, 176. 1.8 

Jan de Ruyter, late soldier, " 105 251.10.8 

Pieter Fergotsky, ditto " 100, 36.0.0 

Idem " 107, 140.16.8 

Hend: Gerritsen, idem, " 108 16.13.0 

Idem, " 109, 30. 0.0 

-Pieter Pouwelsen, soldier " 110, 133.10.0 

Andries van der Mynen, drummer, " 111, . — 262.13.8 

Francois Greeyn, late soldier, " 112, . — 220. 7.8 

Jan Corneiissen, of Deutecom, cadet, " 113 100. 0.0 

Idem, " 114 40.0.0 

Idem, " 115, 30. 0.0 

Idem " 116, 32.10.0 

Idem, " 117, 20. 0.0 

Idem, " lis, 00. 0.0 

Marten Cleynsmit, cadet, " 119, 250. 0.0 

Christiaen Libert, soldier, " 120, 176. 1.0 

Dirck Jacobsen de Vries, skipper of the 

Purmcrlandcr Kerck, " 121, 395. IS. 

Otto Philips, soldier, " 122 282.0.0 

Idem, " 123, .'. . , 25. 0.0 

Francois Greyn, soldier, " 124, 22. 0.0 

Total, 23,398. 5.8 


Emigrants to tlie Colonie on the Delaware River. 

List of the Colonists and other free people who have entered to go to this city's 
Colonie in New Netherland. 

ITollan'l Documenla, 
XVI., 242. 

Joris Herisse, of Leyderdorp, with his boy and 2 servants, 4 

Cornelis Aertsen, of Zevenhoven, with his boy and nephew, 3 

Jan Liendertsen, in the Bent, 1 

Jan Roemer, of Hazerswoude, with his wife and daughter, 3 

Gerrit de Grot, of Ryntsterwoude, and boy, 2 

Pieter Adriaensen, of Sevenhoven, 1 

One lad from Sardam -. 1 

Lourens de Geus, of Amsterdam, 1 

Joost, the mason, of Amsterdam, 1 

3 persons from Vreelandt, 3 

Gerrit Sandersen, of Tuyi, with 10 persons 10 

Joost Noorda, wife and 2 servants, 4 

Antony Willemsen, of Vreelandt, being a mason, ] 

Arent Arentsen, of Oldenburg, farm servant 1 

Lourens Cornelissen van der Wei, 1 

Jacob Pietersen van Brugge, in Angeliers Straat, farm servant, 1 


Return of Goods for tlie Colonie on the Delaware River. 

List of Cargoes demanded in the Colonie of New Amstel, in New Netherland, 
but for the present about \ part ought to be sent with the Colonists going 
thither, consisting of the following : 

Hnllnnd Documents, 
XVI., 248. 

500 ells red duffels, ) o/; .• a cm ir> 

,. > 25 stiv., fl.S02.10 

150 " blue ditto. ^ 

12 double blankets, 5 gl, 60.00 

12 single ditto, , 4 gl., 48.00 

16 ankers of brandy, 13 gl., 208.00 

700 ells of white Osnaburgh linen, 5 stiv., . 175.00 

700 " black ditto, 5 stiv., 175.00 

200 " Flemish linen, 11 stiv., 110.00 

50 pairs strong shoes, 34 stiv., . 85.00 

50 " common shoes, 28 stiv., . 70.00 

75 " white Ferose hose, 12 stiv 45.00 

Amount carried forward, fl. 1,778.10 


Amount brought forward, fl. 1,778.10 

3G prs. red and blue hose, 25 stiv., 45.00 

25 " women's woolen liose, 15 stiv., .... IS. 15 

30 " children's liose, assorted, . — 25.00 

2 ps. fustian, one white and one mouse color, 11 gl., . — 22.00 

20 ells gray and brown cloth, 3 gl., 60.00 

20 " ditto ditto, ^J gl- 50.00 

25 " blue and red check, 50.00 

100 lbs. copper kettles, 13 stiv., 65.00 

IJaamofoil, G5 gl, 97.10 

2 liogsheads of vinegar, 25 gl., . 50.00 

2 ditto French wine, 36 gl., 72.00 

1 aam malmsey, 05 gl., . 65.00 

7 tubs soap, 7 gl., 49.00 

100 lbs. tallow candles, 6 stiv., 30.00 

75 lbs. clieese, 28 gl., 21.00 

1 quarter hogshead of prunes, 600 lbs., 9 gl, . 54.00 

50 lbs. of long and round raisins, 4 stiv., . 10.00 

30 lbs. of currants, 6 stiv., . 9.00 

1 lb. mace, 6 gl. 6.00 

IJ lb. cloves, 4 gl, 6.00 

2 lbs. nutmegs, 3 gl, 6.00 

5 lbs. pepper, 11 stiv., . 2.15 

50 lbs. sugar 8 stiv., 20.00 

fl. 2,612.10 

Holland Documents, 
XVI., 245. 

List of the farming implements now required to be sent to this city's Colonie. 

6 gl, 

12 ploughshares, with coulters, 

1 first class wheel plough, with its pulleys, &c.,. 

12 two-prong hay and grain forks, 15 stiv., 

12 three-prong ditto ditto, 20 stiv., 

100 iron teeth to make harrows, 6 stiv., 

24 best scythes 2 gl, 

24 good reaping hooks, 22 stiv., 

50 steeled axes 25 stiv., 

24 grubbing-hooks, 16 and 24 stiv., 

20 winnowing fans, 16 stiv., 

25 wheelbarrows, Si gl, 

30 spades, ligh, 

30 shovels, 1 gl, 

30 hoes 42 stiv., 

Amount carried forward, 

26. 8 

fl. 553.18 


Amount brought forward, fl. 553. IS 

20 ironrakes, IGstiv., 16.00 

12 hay knives, 2^ stiv., 1.10 

571. 8 
Iron work for a saw-mill, 450.00 

fl. 1,021. S 

List of ammunition, stores, materials, &c., now required to be sent to this city's 
Colonic in New Netherland. 

800 lbs. powder, 40 gk, with expenses. fl. 320.00 

600 lbs. musket and snaphance bullets, 13 gl., 78.00 

40 snaphance guns, costing, - 240.00 

Worms, priming brushes and flints in proportion, 7.00 

8 snaphance moulds, 10 sliv., 4.00 

40 cartridge boxes 28 stiv., 56.00 

fl. 705.08 
3 iron ladies to meU lead, 3.00 


2 tubs tar, , 9 gl. the ton, 4-5.00 

1 ton pitch 11.00 

1 ton pitch and tar, mixed, 500 lbs., 21.00 

3 kedges for the sloop, 16,00 

1 pendant, 2 jacks and 3 vanes for same, 26.00 

70 ells light sail-cloth, 10 stiv 35.00 

Some small rop«, tarred and untarred.for sloop,,. 125.00 

1 medicine chest, J 50. 00 

6 chaldron of smiths' coals, 18 gl., 108.00 

600 lbs. of iron p?ates, \ g , gg ^^ 

600 square ditto, ) 

60 lbs. steel, 5 stiv., 15.00 

1 pr. millstones, 4|- feet, 6.00 

i tub of middle-siEed nails,, , 69.00 

2 tubs of 2 in. nails, 130. 00 

I roll of sheet lead, 25.00 

4 reams writing paper, <» gl->- 24.00 

1 ink powder, 15.00 

I tin inkstaad, 3.00 


fl. 1,628.00 

Vol. IL 24 


Receipts and Di-shur-sement-s for the Colonie of 

Account of the receipts and disbursements of the moneys appropriated both for 

Hniiand Docnmcnn, jq ^|^g Colouie in New Netlierland and its support, as the same were 

Commissioners and the Director appointed to superintend said Colonie, and 

Dr. The Colonie of New Amstel, planted in New Netherland by the city of Amsterdam. 

To the following, being so much appropriated by the Regents of the aforesaid 

city at three several times, for the payment of accrued interest, earned 

monthly wages of the military, seafaring and civil servants, and other 

outstanding debts, as shown on tiie opposite side, to wit : 


November IS. To the guardians of orphans (nccsmeesteren), the same having been received from 

them for account of the children of Alexander Heynen, pursuant to the 

resolution agreed to on the instant, fl. 9,500 

To the same, for account of the heirs of Grietie 

Luyten, 2.500 

fl. 12,000.00.00 

November 25. To the Treasurers of this city on account of Six thousand 
guilders, according to resolution adopted on the 10'^- instant, 

in Council, fl. 2,000 

December 24. To the same, on account of the aforesaid fl. 6,000,. 2,000 

January 18. To the same, for so much received from them accord- 
ing to the resolution of the Council dated O"" inst., 
the 2,000 gl., balance of the preceding 6,000 gl., 

being included in tiiis sum, 15,250 


Amount carried Ibrwurd, fl. iil,2i>0.0b.00 



New Am-stel, o/i the Delaware River ; from 1G59 to 16G2. 

the payment of tiie accrued interests, monthly wages, &c., arising from the heretofore ventures 
afterwards and specially voted for the redress of the aforesaid Colonie, drawn up by the 
by them delivered to the Right Worshipful, the Burgomasters, the 14"" November, 1GG2. 

Tlie Colonie of New Amstel, planted in New Netherland by the city of Amsterdam, Cr. 

By the following, for payments which were made since the last account, 
rendered on the October, 1659, for debts contracted and made both here 
and in New Netherland, such as accrued interests, allowances and wages 
earned by the military, seafaring and civil servants, and all according to the 
documents, accounts and receipts annexed, first; 

November 18. By so much being deficient on last account, fl.4S9. 6.00 

Barent Jochimsen, for dried codfish delivered in 
New Netherland, according to assignment of 

Director Alrichs, No. 1, 106. 1.00 

Abraham Wilmerdoncx, for a bill of exchange 

from New Netherland, " 2, 560.00.00 

November 28. Barent Hidding, for anchor, as per assignment, " 3, 110.00.00 

December 4. Hendrick Camerling, for a bill of exchange from 

New Netherland, " 4, 300.00.00 


.Tanuary 6. Henry Bartels, for provisions delivered, " 5, 340.00.00 

February 3. Abraham de Decker, for salary, " 6, 1,350.00.00 

Isaac Ipensz, ditto, " 7, 400.00.00 

4. Martin Hegervelt, ditto, " S, 150.00.00 

Peter Claesen, for services rendered, " 9, 60.00.00 

Hendrick Pietersen, ditto, " 10, 60.00.00 

Barent Jochemsen, for freight of goods to New 

Netherland, " 11, 600.00.00 

Justus van de Ven, Notary, for drawing up testi- 
mony, " 12, 8.18.00 

5. Jan Banning's widow, for printing notices, " 13, 12.00.00 

Hendrick Bartels, for provisions, " 14, 98. IS. 8 

The same, for ditto, " 15, 20. 3.00 

Christina Bruynings, for stationery, " 16, 3.14.00 

May 20. Hendrick Bartels, for cheese, " 17, 13.17.00 

December 9. Jochim Bontius, for passage and board of 3 persons 

from New Netherland " IS, 130.00.00 

Jacobus van Nootgou, for passage of 1 soldier,.. " 19, 36.00.00 
Gerrit van Sweringen, on account of disbursements 

or wages, " 20, 400.00.00 

Amount carried forward, fi. 5,248.17. 8 


Dr. Tlie Colonie of New Amstel. 

To amount browglit from the other side, 

To haliiuce, being excess of disbursements over receipts, 

fl. 31,250.00.00 

fl 43 946.1 3.00 

Thus done niid drawn up by tlie d mniissioners and Directors appointed and 
them rendered to the Kigiit Worsliipfui Burgomasters, the 14"' day of 


The Colonie of New Amstel, Cr. 

1660. By amount brought from the other side, fl.5,24S.17. S 

December 9. Elizabeth Clasenius, in part payment of a note of 

2,500 gl., No. 21, 100.00.00 


.January 21. Abraham de Decker, for one year's salary, " 22, 500.00.00 

Isaac Ipensz, for ditto, " 2o, 250.00.00 

Martin Hegervelt, for one year's salary, " 24, 50.00.00 

February 3. Hendrick Pietersen Meyn, for expenses, " 25, 6.12.00 

12. Jan Baptista Lieffrinck, for services rendered,. — " 26, 100.00.00 
21. Hendrick Schaeff, notary, for drawing up a charter 

party, " 27, 7.12.00 

March 17. Harmen Barentsen, for lead, " 23, 13.15.00 

June 13. Gerrit van Sweringen, on account, " 29, 315.00.00 

July 21. Jan Crato, for traveling expenses incurred, " 30, SO. 00. 00 

Theunis Lucassen, skipper, for passage money,. . " 31, 36.00.00 

September 20. Gerrit van Sweringen, on account, " 32, 400.00.00 

November 4. Elizabeth Clasenius, in part payment of a note of 

2,400 guilders, " 33. 100.00.00 


March 5. Christina Bruynings, for stationery, " 34, 12.17.00 

Jan Dircksen Bergen, skipper, for passage and 
board of the skipper of the galiot N. Amstel, 

and his crew, " 35, 222.00.00 

29. Captain Hendrick de Raet, light-house dues, &c.,. " 36, 13S. 14.00 

Abraham de Decker, for 1 year's salary, " 37, 500 00.00 

April 1. Isaac Ipensz, for ditto, " 3S, 250.00.00 

Martin Hegervelt, for ditto, " 39, 50.00.00 

November 6. The freighters of the ship Purmerlandskerck, for 
passage of the city's officers brought from the 

Colonie hither, according to account and receipt, " 97, 460.00.00 

Interest paid on moneys borrowed since 25'" 
November, 1659, to 20"" March, 1662, according 
to the list and annexed receipts, 

Monthly wages paid to the city's officers who have 
returned home, from IS"" November, 1659, to 3"" 
November, 1662, according to list annexed, and 
monthly rolls, numbered, 

fl.S,841. 7. 8 

40, 11,707.00.00 

41, 23,398. 5. 8 
fl. 43,946. 13. 00 

intrusted with the superintendence of the Colonie of New Amstel, in New Netherland, and by 
November, A" 1662. (Signed), Burgh, 

Hendrick Roeters, 
Jan Tayspil. 



Dr. The Colonie of New Amstel, planted in New Netherland by the city of Amsterdam. 

To the following, being so much appropriated by the aforesaid city for the 
redress of the aforesaid Colonie, according to the resolution adopted on 
the 9"" May, IGCil, to wit : 



6. To the Treasurers so much thereof this day received on account of the above 
mentioned vote, fl. 6,000.00.00 

3. To the same, for what is received on account of the above,. 
15. To the same, in full for the above vote,. 


Amount carried forward, fl. 24,625.00.00 


The Colonie of New Amste], planted in New Netherland by the city of Amsterdam, Cr, 

By what is expended on account of the moneys on the other side, last voted 
for the redress of the aforesaid Colonie, as well for the payment of the 
passage and board money of 5S Colonists and other laboring persons wlio 
departed thither on the 27"" November, IGGl, and 11"' March, 1662, with 
the merchants' ships de Fanmrlandcr Kcrkc and Gulden Artnt, and in sending, 
besides of cargoes, ammunition, farming implements and other necessaries, 
likewise freight and other disbursements thereupon ; all according to the 
documents, accounts and receipts annexed ; and, first: 
July 19. By Jacob Coutey, for muskets delivered according to 

account and receipt, No. 42, fl.S5.00.00 

August 26. Gerrit Schimmel, for snaphaunce delivered, " 43, 60.00.00 

September 1. Abraham Volkertsen, for ditto, " 44, S9. 15.00 

October 4. David Butler, for stockings delivered, " 45, 39.00.00 

Warnar Poppen, for ditto ditto, " 46, 76.10.00 

14. Lysbet Jane, for Flemish linen delivered, " 47, 95.14.00 

Isaac Boddens, for fustian delivered, " 4S, 22.00.00 

17. Jan Jansen van Dam, for musket ball delivered,.. " 49, 87.15.00 

Albert Jansen, farming implements delivered, " 60, 72.12.00 

20. Isaac Herling, for shoes delivered, " 51, 58.10.00 

22. Jacob Jansen, for farming implements delivered,. . " 52, 458. 1.00 

25. Hendrick Reael, for 2 mill-stones, " 53, 82.10.00 

28. Wyert Beeltsnyder, for spikes, iron and other 

materials, " 54, 667. 9. 8 

The same, for carpenters' and other tools, " 55, 87.00.00 

Jan Siebing, for duffels and blankets delivered, " 66, 965.12. 8 

31. Isaac Looman, for North English cloth delivered,. " 57, 145. 2. 8 

November 16. Johan Moors, for one clock delivered, " 58, 133. 4.00 

23. William Harmensen van Tiel, for iron work for a 

mill, " 59, 667. 6.00 

Abraham Jansen Bruyn, for bread delivered " 60, 61.11.00 

Sicx van der Sande's widow, for butter and cheese, . " 61, 63.18.00 

Jan Pietersen, for shoes delivered, " 62, 88. 8.00 

PieterClaessen, for work done, " 63, 16. 8.00 

Pieter Albertsen Kieft, for freight of a lighter to 

Texel, " 64, 36.00.00 

Abraham Volckertsen, gunsmith, for flints, &c., " 65, 9. 6.00 

Joost Jonassen, for cartridge-boxes, " 66, 42.00.00 

Michiel de Marco Chertser, surgeon " 67, 77. 5.00 

Christiaen Struys, for pots, glasses, &c., for the 

chest, " 68, 8.10.00 

Amount carried forward, fl. 4,186. 7. 8 



Dr. The Coloiiie of .\e\v Amstel. 

To amount brought from the other side, fl. -24,6^8.00.00 

Amount carried forward, fl. 24,028.00.00 


The Colonie of New Amstel, Cr. 

1661. By amouat brought from the other side, fl. 4,186. 7. 8 

November 23. Marritge Gerrits, for old cloth for chest, No. 69, 18.12.00 

Jan Jacobsen, cabinet-maker, for surgeon's chest, . " 70, 12.00.00 

Jacob van Belcamp, druggist, for drugs, " 71, 25. 1. 8 

Adam Dortmans, brewer, for beer delivered, " 72, 25. 4.00 

Christina Bruynings, for stationery, " 73, 7S. 1. 8 

Guilliam Beeltsnyder, for medicaments, " 74, 62. 9.00 

Harmen Goyer, for tallow candles delivered, " 75, 35. 4.00 

Philip Steen, oil and spices, " 76, 216. 1.00 

25. Abraham Francx and Company, rope, " 77, 59.15.00 

29. Gerrit Witpaert, flags, pendants, &c., " 78, 72.15.00 

December 12. Pieter Bilder, wine delivered, " 79, 77.14.00 

15. The same, for ditto, additional, " SO, 35.00.00 

16. Jacob vander Keeren and William Schreyville, 

forbrandy, " 81, 187.10.00 

23. Joost Adriaensen Knevelaar, for expenses, " 82, 10.00.00 

24. Pieter de Keyser, for beads {halssteencn), " 83, 7. 4.00 


January 4. Adriaen de Bout, for winnowing fans delivered, ♦< 84, 38.00.00 

March 3. Jacob LuyfTgens, for seeds delivered, " 85, 17.00.00 

Dirck Aertsen, of Oocklaen, for seeds delivered,.. " 86, 37.18.00 
6. Arent Jansen Moesman, for victualing the pas- 
sengers, " 87, 1,898.00.00 

22. Gerrit Kop, for pitch and tar delivered, " 88, 54.18. 8 

.23. Erasmus Forckeubeek's widow, for linen, " 89, 242. 7. 8 

Burgomaster Hendrick Dircxsen Spiegel, for soap,. " 90, 52.10.00 

April 4. Directors of the West India Company, for duties.. " 91, 202. 5.00 

Abraham Claesen Lesenter, for wine and vinegar,. " 92, 133. 5.00 

6. Hendrick Meyndertsen, cooper, for casks delivered,. " 93, 16.00.00 

May 16. Pieter Claessen Deucht, skipper, for passage of 

13 souls, " 94, 445.00.00 

August 8. Jacob Feytama, for inkpowder delivered, " 95, 9. 4.00 

September29. Abraham Pietersen Kroock's widow, for powder, . . " 96, 307.10.00 
November 6. The freighters of the ship P urmerlands Kerclc, for 

freight of goods to New Netherland " 97, 1,063.00.00 

8. Isaac Ipensz, for disbursements, " 98, 100.13.00 

9. Skipper of the ship Gulden Arent, for freight of 

goods to New Netherland, " 99, 175.00.00 

Amount carried forward,. fl. 9,906. 9. 8 

Vol. II. 25 


Dr. The Colonie of New Amstel. 

To amount brought from the other side, 

fl. 24,628.00.00 

fl. 24,628.00.00 

Thus done and drawn up by the Commissioners and Directors appointed and 
them rendered to tlie Right Worshipful Burgomasters, the 14"' day of 

We, the undersigned auditors, have, by order of the Riglit Worshipful Burgomasters, 
examined the above accounts and compared the same with the vouchers annexed, and found 
them to agree. 

Dated tliis IS'"" day of December, 16G3, in Amsterdam. 

(Signed), Nicolaes Opmeer, 



The Colonie of New Amstel, Cr- 

16G2. By amount brought from the other side, fl. 9,906. 9. 8 

Deficit in the old account, which, for want of other 
means, must be paid from this money, which 
shall be reimbursed when tlie resolution of the 
Worsh. Council appropriating the above sums 

shall be carried out and fulfilled, 12,696.13.00 

Balance on hand, 2,024.17. 8 


intrusted with the superintendence of the Colonie of New Amstel, in New Netherland, and by 
November, A° 1662. 

(Signed), Burgh, 

Hexdrick Roeters, 
Jan Tayspil. 


Commissioners of the Colonie on tlie Delaware River to the Burgomasters of 


\ From Ihe Bundle indorecd IVrscAeiV/e Stukken raekendfi dt Colojiie xan N. Nederlandf, Xo. 64, in the Stad Hut/s, Amsterdam. ] 

To the Right Worshipful the Burgomasters and Regents of the City of Amsterdam. 

Right Worshipful. 

„ „ , „ , Whereas you have been pleased to communicate to us, the undersigned 

Holland Documents, J r ' > 

XVI., 23C. Commissioners and Directors of your Colonie on the South river, in PSew 

Netherland, and to request of us information on, a certain petition presented to your Worships 
by Cornelis van Gesei, who styles himself heir under benefit of inventory of Jacob Alriciis, 
deceased, late Director of your Worships' Colonie aforesaid, wherein he requests, first : 'J'hat 
you would be pleased to grant iiim justice, or letters of protection against the present Director, 
Alexander d'Hinojossa, whereby your Worships should instruct said d'Hinojossa, not only not 
to do him, the petitioner, any wrong or injury, whereof the petitioner greatly complains, 
but even to restore him, the petitioner, what said Director, d'Hinojossa, as the petitioner 
alleges, hath appropriated to himself out of the aforesaid Jacob Alrichs' estate, together with 
the books and papers remaining with him and relating to the estate aforesaid, in order to form 
therefrom not only a perfect statement and inventory, but also a correct account, to the 
satisfaction of your Worships and of the other creditors of the aforesaid Jacob Alrichs. 

Secondly. The petitioner, as he alleges, having been employed there in various offices, and 
especially some time as Secretary, that your Worship may be pleased to determine his 
remuneration according to your pleasure. 

The one and the other appearing more fully in the petition aforesaid delivered unto your 

We are of opinion, under correction, that no disposition can well be made of the first point 
until your Worships' Director, d'Hinojossa, be heard, the rather, as he represents your 
Worships there, and should not, in our opinion, be citable {convenibk), in case of opposition 
before any other but you. Moreover, your Worships will please to observe, from his letters of 
the 2S"' of April, 16"" & 17"" May, and from others of an earlier date, written from New Amstel, 
that Mr. Pelrus Stuyvesant, the Director-General of the Incorporated West India Company 
there residing, hath taken the aforesaid books, accounts and other efTects, and given them to 
the petitioner's wife for safe keeping; so that your Worships' Director, d'Hinojossa, as he 
advises us, has thereby been prevented making out divers accounts, as he ought to do, 
requesting, at the same time, permission to come over, in order to report to your Worships 
the state and condition of the Colonie, which we, in our humble judgment, do, lor divers 
reasons, consider useful in the highest degree, on condition that he bring with him the books 
in question ; also that General Stuyvesant ought to be written to seriously, as otherwise he 
may interpose some difficulty to the production of the aforesaid books. 

In regard to the 2""* point, as the petitioner hath exhibited no papers, not only of relevancy, 
but even in any wise appertaining to the first, it is fair that lie, in his capacity as heir, under 
benefit of inventory of the late Director Alrichs, should first give your Worships satisfaction 
for the moneys intrusted to him before he can claim anything from you, to which time he 
should also remain in statu quo, unless, on account of the petitioner's straightened circumstances ; 


of his staying here without his familj% at great expense, and of the season for going to 
New Netherland being probably past before d'Hinojossa arrives here, your Worships will be 
pleased to order otlierwise, whereunto we fully submit ourselves in the premises. 

Wherewith we trust we have obeyed your Worships' apostil. We find ourselves under 
the necessity, officially, of making known to you, with due respect, that since the commencement 
ofthisColonie, we have borrowed on interest by your Worsliips' order from theOrphan Chamber 
and some private individuals, a sum of fl. 132, UOO, at 3.J per cent per annum, amounting to the 
sum of fl. 4,G20 of interest, and that to our sorrow, we have not as yet received any, or but 
few, considerable returns tiierefrom, out of which the above mentioned interest can be realized, 
so that, in order to satisfy the worthy people, the above sum must be yearly raised on your 
Worships' account. We, therefore, would respectfully submit if it would not be best to order 
the aforesaid principal and accrued interest to be paid ; or, in case you would prefer to continue 
tiiem, to provide a fund to meet the aforesaid interest; otherwise, 'tis hardly possible for the 
aforesaid Colonie to exist; and the partners whom your Worships will please to admit into 
the above mentioned Colonie will be thereby the rather encouraged, whereunto it would be 
possible and useful to have printed a Pertinent Description of the South river with the Conditions, 
which apparently ought here and there be somewhat modified; whereunto your Worships can, 
if you please, direct attention. 

Your Worships will also please give orders about maintaining possession of Ciconicing or 
Whorekill, inasmucii as by the discharge of the soldiers, it runs the risk of being occupied by 
the English, since it is a very fertile and well prepared land, and lies on the sea at the mouth 
of the river. 

Wherefore and for various other reasons, which your Worships' Director, d'Hinojossa, sets 
forth in the letters communicated to you, with which, therefore, we need not now detain you, 
we consider it proper to permit him to return in order that your Worships, being at once 
thoroughly informed, may be able to resolve for the further maintenance of the Colonie. 
Whereunto may God grant his blessing. 


Resolution of the West India Company^ Chamber at Amsterdam.. 

[ New- York Colonial Manuscripts, in the Secretary of State's Office, Albany, SIX. ] 

Thursday, S"> February, ]663. 
The Commissioners over New Netherland having been in conference with the Worshipful 
Burgomasters of this city, pursuant to the resolution of last Monday, and having submitted a 
written report of their business, it is, after question was previously put, unanimously resolved 
and agreed that the propositions shall be answered as follows : 

Honorable and Worshipful. 

The Worshipful Burgomasters, Bontemantel and Wilmerdoncx, have reported to our 
Assembly that your Worships bad placed in their hands a Memoir comprising some furtiier 
exemptions which your Worships consider necessary to be granted by the West India Company 



for the advancement of }-our Coldnie on tlie South river, in New Netherland, called New 
Amstel, recommending that the Company may be pleased, most speedily, to resolve favorably 
thereon, as vou are disposed to push said Colonic lorv^ard with greater zeal than has hitherto 
been done. Whereupon, having heard the opinions of said gentlemen and of Mr. Pergens, as 
Commissioner of the aflairs of New Netherland, they have concluded that your Worships' 
Memoir consisted of ten articles, on which they have resolved as is inserted opposite 
each article. 

First. That the Company shall give and 
surrender all property in the soil. 

The Company would grant your Worships 
the property of the lands and the distance, as 
mentioned in the P', S'S 9"" and lO"" Articles, 
the same as the lands whicli are already 
occupied, and the Company is willing to give 
up and surrender Fort Christina to your 
Worships on this condition: That the owners 
and proprietors of the lands situate there and 
thereabouts be not abridged in their obtained 
freedoms, and that your Worships do immedi- 
ately send thither a good number of soldiers 
to relieve those of the Company, protect the 
Colonists and resist the English and Indian 
nations, and cause to be cleared there every 
year in succession one league of land, and send 
four hundred Colonists annually thither until 
the farmers shall amount to a respectable 
number sufficient to occupy such a tract of 
land ; and your Worships shall not be at 
liberty to alienate the Colonic by sale, transfer 
or otherwise, either in whole or in part, on 
pain of forfeiting the exemptions granted by 
(his resolution. 

Together with all rights both of High and 
Low Jurisdiction which they possess on the 
South river. 

That is, agreeably to the jurisdiction already 
granted to your Worships, as is to be seen in 
Art. 2, 3 and 4 of the Conditions arranged 

On condition of paying said Company the 
duty, as at present paid on exported and 
imported wares. 

This article is according to the list attached 
to the Conditions published by your Worships. 



Without, however, being in any wise bound 
to bring the goods into your Honors' ware- 
house. The 4"", 5"^, 6"" and 7"" Articles are nothing 
5. else than highly prejudicial to the Companyj 
Or to be inspected by your clerks. and your Worships will please excuse the 

Company therefrom, as they have already 

6. declined consent, according to their resolution) 

But to be satisfied with the declaration of dated 21=' March, 1661, Article 4, as we had 

the Commissioners or Director. the pleasure to communicate to your Worships. 

Not paying anything at the South river, and 
the Company not claiming any authority 



The jurisdiction and propriety of the country 
must fextend from the sea upwards, as far as 
the river reaches. 

The 8"", 9"" and 10"" points are hereinbefore 
9. answered in Art. 1 and 2, treating of the 

And on the north side from the bank of propriety of the lands and jurisdiction, 
the river landward in. 

And on the south side as far as the land 
extends there to the English Colonie. 

Friday, IG'" February, 1663. 

The Commissioners appointed by resolution of the 12"" instant, to examine tlie further 
considerations proposed, respecting New Netherland, by the city's Commissioners on the 
resolution of this meeting, adopted on the S'*" inst;int on the aforesaid gentlemen's Memoir 
and communicated to them, have reported that they had found the same to consist of the two 
following points : 


That the Company should give up and renounce the quit-rent of 4 stivers on the beaver, 
which is paid on the South river, and to allow the same henceforth to accrue to the profit of 
the city's Colonic. 


That, in place of all goods transmitted from here to the city's Colonie in New Netherland 
and thence hither, being subject as at present, according to the concluded agreement, to the 
inspection of a deputy of the Company, one Commissary shall be appointed hereafter on 
the part of the city, who shall inspect in place of the Company's officer, and take an oath of 
fidelity to the Company. 


Whereupon the opinion of tlie aforesaid Commissioners being further heard, it i?, after 
question was put, resolved and concluded tliat both the aforesaid Conditions shall be, as 
the same are hereby, consented to, with this understanding, that in all cases the other 
side shall comply with the Conditions stipulated by the Company, and particularly that the 
aforesaid Commissioners shall not neglect to observe what was concluded on the 8"" instant in 
Article 1 of the Commissioners' Memoir. 

Resolution of the Common Council of the City of Amsterdam. 

I From the Resolutien rati tie Vroedsrhappen, C, p. 233, in the Stnd Ifiii/s, Amstertlam. I 

SS"" February, 1G63. 

iionand Doeumcots '^'^^ Burgomasters have proposed to the Council that they have received 
"^^■"^"' advices from the Colonie of this city in New Netherland, that the redress of matters 

Cok'nio in r»ew *' 

Netherland. there was already advanced after such a manner that ere long returns of the 

expenses incurred may be expected thence. But in order the better to forward the prosperity 
of that Colonie, 'twas demanded that it should have less connection with the West India 
Company, and that it be provided with a greater extent of jurisdiction and authority, also 
with some means in money. Which being deliberated on, Mess" Henrick Dirckz Spiegel, 
Cornelis de Craeff, Baron of South I'olsbroeck, D' Joan Blaeu,' Cornells Geelvinck, Nicolaes 
van Loon and D'' Frans Reaell, were appointed a Comm.ittee to consider, according to the 
information received from the Directors of the Colonie aforesaid, in what manner said Colonie 
can most properly be separated from the connection with said Company, and be provided with 
more extensive jurisdiction and authority, also with some means in money at the least cost 
to this city, and to report their opinions and advice thereupon. 

Some Thoughts on. the Colonie at the South River in Keio Netherland. 

\ From Muniment Efgister van den Rood, D., 69, in the Stad Iluys, Arahterdam ] 

Holland Docoments First. Why the city of Amsterdam ought not only to continue, but with great 
^^■'^'' vigor, advance it. 

'Tis known to every one and beyond contradiction, that all trade is from time to time falling 
off in our country, also that there is nothing in view from which any improvement is to be 

' Johannes Blaacw was a native of and the oldest eon of Willem Jansz Blaauw, th« celebrated printef. IIo 
succeeded his father in businesa in 1038, and, in 16S1, was chosen Schepcn and one of the thirty-six city Councillors. His 
world-renowned ptinting eetablishnicnt, which stood iu the rear of the Nieuwe Kerk, was burnt to the ground on tha 22d 
February, 1672, and the plates and letter-press of his celebrated Atlas were unfortunately consumed at Ihe same time. Uia 
losses were estimated at 828,200 guilder's or $181,200. He did not long fjrvive the misfortune, having died on the 20th 
December, 1678. Kok. —Ed, 


expected ; and this notoccurring, 'tis also beyond dispute that the ruin of the State, but principally 
of Amsterdam, is in time to be thence apprehended, since it exists by trade only. Whence 
this diversion of trade proceeds is notorious; it principally proceeds from the great jealousy 
which our prosperity has excited among all the Potentates of Europe, and therefore every 
possible obstacle has been thrown in our way by France, England, Sweden and Denmark. 
This is so notorious that I think, in order to avoid prolixity, it is unnecessary to be 
minute. The second cause whereby trade has been diverted not only by the aforesaid 
Kingdoms, but by the Hanse Towns which bloom whilst we are decaying, is the excessive 
rate of the convoys both on the outgoing and incoming goods. But on the former 'tis to be 
considered, since all the Potentates of Europe embarrass our trade, how much profit is to 
be expected from New Netherland, where if it were peopled, no one can embarrass us, it being 
beyond contradiction the finest country in the world ; where everything can be produced that 
is grown in France or the Baltic (Oosten), and which can in course of time be as great as both 
those Kingdoms together. The English afford us an instance of the worthiness of New 
Netherland, which from their Colony alone already sends 200 vessels, both large and small, 
to the Islands. There is now as good an opportunity as ever can offer for increasing the 
population with numbers of men, mechanics, &c., from home and from Germany, Norway, 
the East, Westphalia and those countries which have been ruined within two years by hard 
times, but principally by the persecution to which those of The Faith throughout the entire 
of P'rance, also the Waldenses, have been subjected ; wherefore some families from around 
Rochelle are already making application to remove with some farmers to New Netherland at 
their own expense, were the settlement only secure, in order to be beyond apprehension of 
the Indians. These expenses for a settlement of 50 men need not continue longer than until 
there be an abundance of Colonists, which will be the case in a year or two were the 
matter taken zealously in hand ; and in a very few years the trade to New Netherland from 
Amsterdam alone will be very considerable were nobody to be admitted but those who apply ; 
and trade will come not only from the city's Colonic but from the English who offer, if we 
will trade with them, to make a little slit in the door, whereby we can reach them overland 
without having recourse to the passage by sea, lest trade with them may be forbidden by the 
Kingdom of England, which will not allow us that in their Colony. Now whereas every 
considerable sum employed by the city, is expended with regard to its advantage or profit, 
they think such is hereinbefore sufficiently proved by good argument. No money can be 
more usefully disbursed than for this Colonic, and that will certainly be only a matter of a 
loan. For calculating 

The great discharge which will in a short time take place from the alms-houses, of boys to 
be sent thither; 

Secondly. That the Toll from the beavers may possibly be received there ; 

Thirdly. The Tenths and capitation tax of some Swedes who now pay it, and which is 
surrendered by the Company ; 

Fourthly. The Tenths and capitation tax of the Colonists who will now go thither; 

Fifthly. The Trade, if they wish to retain it, whereunto the city will obtain partners enough, 
if it please; but 'tis well to understand that the founding of such a Colonic can only be 
undertaken by the combined efforts of the city and country, and not by individuals. 

Now, to effect this with good success, 'tis necessary that a sufficient fund be assigned to the 
Commissioners, whereof they might dispose under the supervision and with communication of 
Vol. II. 26 


the Right Worshipful Burgomasters ; for 'tis certain that the Colonic of the South river is nigh 
fallen to ruin, because what has been needed for each equipage, has dragged along in the 
Council a very long time before any resolution was adopted thereupon, wherefore the ships 
took their departure, the suitable season was lost and meanwhile the beginnings, for want of 
being continued, have come to nauglit ; and, although there is no doubt of the good 
foresight of the members of the Council for the above named fund, yet shall we respectfully 
submit a plan, whereby we are of opinion it will be accomplished with the least onerousness. 
Let them please to allow the said Commissioners, instead of the Treasurer, to manage the 
English post establishment and employ the profits thereof; also, if the post hence to Paris be 
successful ; likewise, as the Antwerp, Cueleu and Hauiburgii messengers do not travel any 
more, 2 or 3 members having died in each office, instead of appointing any new ones, to 
employ the places of those who are deceased to the profit of this Colonic ; but as the income 
from this source is slow, and there will be considerable disbursements in jiromptis, therefore 
your Honors will please to assist, according as funds siiall be necessary, in the negotiation of 
so much ; then, I think, the city will apparently never again be applied to for money for this 
purpose, but, on the contrary, I hope, repay it in a few years. 

Enlarged Coii<Iitioii..s for (he Colonie on the Delaware River. 

( From llie Muniment RvgislEr van den Raafi, D., p. 91, in the Slnd Ifnt/s, Amsterdam.] 

General Conditions agreed to with the Further Conditions made and entered 

West India Company. into with the West India Company. 


Holland Documenis, Tlic Wesl India Company shall What alteration has been made in this 
^^•'^*' approve, as far as tliey are regulation, shall be hereafter distinctly set 

concerned, the annexed agreement, plan and forth, 
regulation whereon the city of Amsterdam 
shall plant Colonies. 


Their High Mightinesses [and] the West The West India Company hath, on the 12" 
India Company shall cede to and confer on February, 1GG3, conferred on the city the 
the city of Amsterdam, as founders and build- entire South river, and the proprietorship of 
ers of the place. High, Middle and Low juris- the land beginning at the sea, upwards as far 
diction, in order the better to maintain the as the river extends, and on the north side 
requisite authority. three leagues from the bank of the river 

landward in, and on the south side as far as 
the land extends there to the English Colonies, 
and this upon the same footing and condition' 
in regard to the law of High and Low Juris- 
diction, as in art. 2, 3 and 4, hereinbefore 



The city shall possess the aforesaid juris- 
diction in form of fief, appointing a person to 
that end successively on whom the fief shall 
be conferred on payment of certain 

The sovereignty and supreme authority, 
together with all that depends thereon, remain- 
ing nevertheless with their High Mightinesses 
and the Company, so far as the same is thereto 
authorized by the charter. 

stipulated, with this understanding that the 
city shall send thither a good number of 
soldiers for the prottction of the place, also 
cause a league of land to be cleared there 
every succeeding year, and send thither 400 

Special Conditions from the printed regulation wherein a change has occurred. 

ll'" Article. 

The Sheriff shall be appointed in the name On the 21*' March, 1662, (he Company 

of their High Mightinesses and the West India conferred on the city the appointment of a 

Company, by the Deputies of Amsterdam, who Schout, to depend from their High Mightinesses 

by procuration shall give hereunto authority and the West India Company, on condition of 

to the Director. swearing allegiance to the city. 


It shall also have three Burgomasters whom 
the common burghers shall appoint from the 
most honorable, most fit and wealthiest. 


And five or seven Schepens whereunto a 
double number shall be nominated by the 
burghery, in order that selection may be made 
therefrom by the Director, by procuration as 
stated in Art. 11. 


The Schepens shall pronounce judgments 
by decree for all sums below 100 g!., but in 
cases exceeding 100 gl. the aggrieved party 
shall be at liberty to appeal to the Director, 
Schout and Council of New Netherland. 


On the 21" March aforesaid the Company 
increased this sum of 100 gl. to 600 gl. ; 




Said Schepens shall also decide all criminal 
cases, but an appeal siiail be provisionally 
allowed therefrom. 

If the city of Amsterdam send over any 
goods on freight in any ships they must, accord- 
ing to the regulation, go to New Amsterdam, 
and the city shall submit to the same regula- 
tion as others. 

The city of Amsterdam shall cause a conve- 
nient warehouse to be prepared here, wherein 
shall be deposited all the goods which the 
said city intends to send to its Colonic in New 
Netherland, where they may be inspected by 
a person to be appointed by the Directors of 
the West India Company in the presence of 
a person commissioned thereunto by the city 
of Amsterdam, and marked with the marks of 
the city and the Company, the duty thereon 
to be paid by the Company according to the 


Concerning the Company's toll, the city 
shall take care that in time what shall be paid 
in New Netherland be employed to the build- 
ing and maintaining of public works. 

And forbad the granting of any appeal in 
criminal cases, the Company engaging to 
instruct their servants in New Netherland not to 
grant any relief agreeably to the order in this 

On the date aforesaid, the Company granted 
free trade to private ships and goods direct 
from here to the South river, on the fooling 
and regulation in use in this country and at 
New Amsterdam in shipping off goods, to wit, 
that they may be brought to the Company's 
warehouses and marked with its mark and pay 
duty as is done here and at New Amsterdam. 

On the IG'" February, 1663, the Company 
consented that instead of all the goods from 
here to the city's Colonic in New Netherland 
and thence hither, being at present according 
to agreement, subject to the inspection of one 
of the Company's Deputies, a Commissary may 
hereafter be appointed on the part of the city 
who shall inspect tiie same instead of a Deputy 
of the Company, and take the oath of fidelity 
to the Company. 

On the 16"" February, 1663, aforesaid, the 
West India Company granted that the quit 
rent of 4 stivers on each beaver obtained on 
the South river, shall be henceforth for the 
profit of the city. 

-♦■.« ♦ «■.-♦- 

Resolution of the Common Council of tlie City of Amsterdam. 

[ From the liesolutien ran de Vroedschappen, C, p. 240, in the Stad Hui/s, Amsterdam. ] 

lO""- March, 1663. 
Holland Documents, ^^ ^^^° heard the report of the Committee appointed the 22"'' February last to 
■' ■ consider in what way the city's Colonie iu New Netherland can best be 


Funds for the ad- benefited, Stating, in substance, that having heard the opinions of the Directors 
vancement^of^ the ^p j^|^g aforesaid Colonie submitted in writing to the Council and registered in 
Muniment Register, D., folio 89, they cannot think otherwise than that, if said 
Colonie be properly sustained for a few years, it would, by the increase of inhabitants, furnish 
great trade to this city, as the land was found to produce almost all the articles which must at 
present be brought from the Baltic (Oostzee). 

That the aforesaid proper support could be furnished were a sufficient sum of 3 @. 4 tons of 
gold laid aside to enable such equipage and other necessaries as the good of the service may 
demand, to be annually supplied, at proper seasons, from the income thereof, without being 
obliged to apply over and over again to this Council for permission and subsidy therefor ; 
since it appears sufficiently clear and apparent that the slow progress of said Colonie arose 
from the tedious deliberations on the state and provision of the aforesaid subsidy, whereby 
the season for the departure of the ships was frequently lost; as well as from the scarcity of 
those subsidies which frequently could not suffice for providing so many necessaries as are 
always demanded in the first beginnings of a Colonie. 

And whereas it is, first of all, necessary to have less communion {gemeenschaj}) with those of 
the West India Company, that the Committee, therefore, pursuant to their commission, had 
negotiated with the Directors and obtained from them, among other things, first: a pertinent 
boundary line of the district belonging to the Colonie aforesaid ; also, that the Schepens there 
might execute judgments for the sum of fl.600, instead of fl.lOO, without any appeal lying to the 
Director-General and Council of New Netherland, except for a higher sum; likewise, that 
the goods going to, and coming from the Colonie, should be inspected henceforth only by 
one Commissary to be appointed thereunto by this city instead of a Deputy of said Company ; as 
more fully appears by the agreement in writing, enregistered in Muniment Register, D., folio 91.' 

With which Conditions the Committee were of opinion that the advancement of the aforesaid 
Colonie would be greatly facilitated. 

Which being considered, and the Council approving highly of the above mentioned advice 
of the Committee, and hereby thanking them for the trouble they have taken, it is resolved 
and concluded that assistance shall be continued to the aforesaid Colonie; also, that a suitable 
sum of money shall be borrowed, to be advanced by the Burgomasters to the Directors, 
from time to time, in such sums as they shall need for outfits and other necessaries. And 
forasmuch as the aforesaid sum or fund itself is concerned, the computation thereof is postponed 
until the next meeting of tliis Council. 

Mesohdion of tlie Common Council of the Cihj of Amsterdam. 

[ From the Resoluiien van de Vrocdschappen, C., 244, in the Stad Htiys, Amsterdam. ] • 

IG"" March, 1663. 
X vl^M. °°°"°'°"'°' Whereas the computation of the fund for the promotion of the city's Colonie 
Colonie. jQ New Ncthcrland has been postponed from the tenth instant on account of the 

' See tupra, p. 202. — Ed. 


thinness of tiie meeting, to tiie next Council da}-, and the Burgomasters saw that no greater 
number is in attendance to-day, their Worships have therefore only proposed whether, in the 
meanwliile, a subsidy of 25™ guild, could not be resolved and agreed to, it being urgently 
(ienianded for the dispatch of the present equipment for the Colouie ; also, that Mr. Cornells 
de Graefl", Lord of South I'olsbroeck, be again requested and commissioned with the 
Comniissioners appointed for the affairs of the aforesaid Colouie, to resume the conference 
witii the Directors of the West India Company, in order to see whether their Honors could 
not, for the good of the aforesaid Colonic, agree to the contents of a certain draft of Conditions 
submitted to the Council, and here inserted verbatim: 

In case the Worshipful Council resolve vigorously to promote the settlement of 
the city's Colonie on the South river, we then, under correction, are of opinion that 
their Worships might and ought to stipulate with the West India Company not only 
that no appeal should lie to the Manhattans, but also that the duties should be payable 
not to the Company, but to tlie city, for the relief of its to be incurred expenses, at 
the same rate as was paid at the iSlanhattans, so as not to undermine this Colonie, it 
being noted, likewise, that the city will occupy Fort Christina with its garrison and 
will relieve the Company therefrom. 

Which points being taken into consideration, a provisional subsidy of 25"" guild, is consented 
to for the end aforesaid; and the above named Lord of Polsbroeck is appointed anew with the 
aforesaid Commissioners, to see and trj', on resuming their conference with the Directors of 
the West India Company, whether their Honors could not agree to and approve the aforesaid 
Conditions, reporting tiie result. 

JResolutions of the Directors of the Wevt India Compavy^ Chamher at Amsterdam. 

{ From Ihe Xew-York Colonial MaDUscripU, XIX., in Ihe Sectetary of Stale's Office, Albany, N, Y. ] 

Friday, 13'" July, 1G03. 
The Committee appointed at the meeting yesterday to confer with the city's Comniissioners 
respecting New Netherland, having reported that, they being negotiating with the gentlemen 
aforesaid, the latter had communicated a written extract from their resolutions, to the effect 
that half the duty of this Colonie be ceded to the citj', and, furthermore, that tiie appeals from 
their Colonie to tlie Director and Council of New Netherland be abolished, or else that in the 
cases from their Colonie, which, by appeal, devolve on the Director and Council, an appeal 
may lie to the Supreme Court here : The whole matter being considered, it is resolved to place 
the aforesaid written extract in the hands of the Committee on New Netherland, for immediate 
examination and report. 

Monday, 30"- July, 16G3. 
The Committee on New Netherland, having made a report on the Memoir of the city's 
Commissioners, dated 12'" of July, which was submitted to the meeting on the IS'" next 


ensuing, the opinion of the aforesaid Committee is iieard, and everything being duly examined, 
it is unanimously resolved and concluded that the following shall be furnisiied, as an answer: 

Tlie Directors of the Incorporated West India Company, Chamber at Amsterdam, having 
seen and examined tlie Memoir of Mess" the Commissioners and Directors of this city upon 
their Colonic in New Netherland, dated the IS'"" instant, consisting of two points, first: That in 
place, as at present, according to the Company's order and the Conditions enacted with the 
Right Worshipful Burgomasters of this city, all the Nevr Netherland duties and convoys must 
be paid to the Company, the aforesaid Directors resigning a portion thereof, are willing to 
grant and concede the same to tiie city aforesaid, for reasons set forth in the aforesaid Memoir, 
ihrtt the said city may henceforth absolutely receive and administer the convoys and duties of 
all such goods as will be sent hence direct to the South river in New Netherland, provided that 
the aforesaid city lieep a proper account of the receipt and administration thereof, and pay 
one-half of the clear proceeds to the Company, and they may retain the other half for themselves; 
with express restriction that the aforesaid other half shall be employed for the advantage and 
greater security of their Colonic, in erecting and repairing public works, maintaining tiieir 
officers and such like things, with offer to prove the same at all times. 

Secondly. That, from judgments pronounced by the Director and Council of New Netherland, 
in matters devolved on them by appeal from the aforesaid city's Colonic, according to the 
agreement, an appeal may, if necessary, be allowed to the Supreme Court of this country. 

The above named Directors, having taken all the aforesaid into consideration, and especially 
weighed on the one hand the reasons advanced by the aforesaid Commissioners and Directors, 
and, on the other hand, the constitution of the charter, orders and rules enacted by their High 
Miglitinesses for the Company; in order to acquiesce in the aforesaid request in favor of the 
aforesaid city's Colonic, as far as it may in no wise prejudice the Company, they have resolved, on 
the first, to request the aforenamed Commissioners and Directors to excuse the Company, so far as 
relates to their request, for the receipt and administration of the duty and convoys; but, 
nevertheless, the Company grants and consents that one-half the clear proceeds of the convoys and 
duty from all the goods to be sent direct from hence to the aforesaid city's Colonie in New 
Netherland, shall be received by the aforesaid city for the term of eight consecutive years, so 
that the receipt and administration of the duty and convoys aforesaid shall eftectualiy remain, 
as hitherto, without any change be made hereby therein, but the half of the net proceeds shall 
be paid by the Company to the city aforesaid, to be expended and employed as requested in 
the aforesaid Memoir, all with this understanding, that the above mentioned Commissioners 
shall also puuctually observe and execute all the foregoing agreements and consents, especially 
what has been by the Directors resolved on the IS'* of February last, on the first point of their 
petition, regard being had, on the one side, to the evil consequences which might arise in other 
of the Company's districts; and, on the other hand, the impossibility which exists that 
judgments pronounced in their High Mightinesses' name by a judge of the highest resort, 
should be subject to correction and alteration by a Provincial Court, in direct contravention to 
divers of their High Mightinesses' resolutions, of themselves in conlradictorio, adopted iieretofore 
ia cases which occurred in that district. 


Friday, 3'^" August, 16G3. 

The Committee on New IVetherland having been in further conference with t4ie Commissionera 
of the city's Colonic on the Memoir of the 30"" ultimo, and liaving afterwards presented to the 
meeting the Memoir hereinafter inserted, it is in said report resolved hereby to authorize 
the Committee on New Netherland to make such further arrangement with the city's 
Commissioners as shall be found most advantageous to the Company. 

Memoir of the city's Commissioners on New Netherland. 

The Commissioners and Directors over this city's Colonie in New Netherland having seen 
and examined the written answer of the Directors of the West India Company to a certain 
Memoir to them delivered on the 12"" July last, containing two difTerent points, namely, first, 
that the city may be allowed to receive the duties and convoys of goods and merchandise 
going hence direct to the South river of New Netherland, on condition of paying one-half the 
net proceeds thereof to the said Company; and secondly, that from the judgments pronounced 
by the Director-General and Council of New Netherland in cases devolved on them by 
appeal from said city's Colonie, an appeal may also lie to the Supreme Court here ; have 
observed by the aforesaid written answer, on the first point, that the said Company does in fact 
concede to the city the half of the aforesaid duty and convoy for the term of S years, but that 
the same must be collected by the aforesaid Company which accordingly would have to pay 
over the half to the city ; this being taken into consideration by the Commissioners, who have 
principally observed that the nature of the case is such that the city up to this time hath 
reserved this trade not for private individuals but exclusively for herself, their Honors 
theretbre think that the Company, wishing to avoid double trouble, requires only to be paid, 
so long as the trade is carried on directly and immediately by the city, the half of the net 
proceeds of the duty and convoy to which such goods and merchandise as the city will send 
thither, are subject; furthermore, have no objection to the Company receiving the duties 
and convoys on the goods which will be sent thither by private individuals, provided the city 
shall be empowered to appoint, in the Company's office, a person who shall there receive for 
it the half of those duties and convoys. 

In regard lo the 2""' point: Of the appeals. As the Company makes so many objections, 
this point will be given up, and as the planting of this Colonie hath already cost the city 
considerable, and the latter therefore deserves to be encouraged in order, with more power 
and zeal than heretofore, to advance the work, which will still require many thousands, the 
Commissioners are of opinion that the time is now come when the city must provide for its 
relief, to the end that it may enjoy the effect of the Conditions which she entered into with 
the West India Company and have been approved by their High Mightinesses, vizt., That the 
toll or duty, by whichever name it goes, that is paid in the city's Colonie on the South river, 
may be expended now by the city in the construction and maintaining of the public works, 
as expressly directed by the 8"" article of the printed Conditions and is verbally also more fully 
expressed. The Commissioners and Directors, above named, therefore doubt not but the 
Company will now consent hereunto, at least if it desire to see so good a work zealously 
taken in hand and advanced, both for the greater security of its interests there and for the 
advantage of this State in general ; in which case the tolls aforesaid might be received both 


by those wlio will be appointed there by the Company and by the city, in order to obtain 
more certain information tliat they were employed no otherwise than in the construction and 
preparation of the public works, which shall at all times be proved ; the surplus thereof shall 
be paid back to the Company, as the city is not requiring it for herself. 

And whereas great complaints have been frequently made by the Commissioners of the 
colonists running away from the city's Colonie, which necessarily tends to injure the city's 
interests in that quarter ; they are, therefore, of opinion that, in order to obviate all distrusts 
between officers ou both sides there, it would be very advantageous that said Company 
should expressly order its oificers not to harbor any persons coming from the city's Colonie, 
unless provided with proper passports, otherwise to send tiiem back, on demand, said 
Commissioners undertaking to reciprocate and act in the same way ia case any one should 
come over in the same manner from the Company's district. 

Done at the meeting of the Commissioaers and Directors aforesaid, iu Amsterdam, 2"* 
August, 1063. 

Thursday, S'* August, 1663. 
The Commissioners of New Netherland being, pursuant to their resolution of the 3"* 
instant, in further conference with the Commissioners and Directors of the city's district on 
the South river, and having made a report thereof, after hearing their opinions and the 
additional Memoir of the aforesaid city's Commissioners of the 3"^ instant, it is resolved to 
acquiesce therein and it is hereby consented to, and further to request the Company, having 
iaid aside divers and weighty motives to the contrary, zealously to encourage the advancement 
of the aforesaid Colonie in the speediest manner. 

Agrees with the register of the aforesaid resolutions. 

(.Signed), Mich' Ten Hove. 

Hepori on the Colonie on the Delaware River. 

t From MKKir.iexl Register van den liaad, D., 108, iu the Slud H«i;s, Amsterdam. ) 

Report of the Commissioners and Directors over this city's Colonie in New 
Netherland to the Right Worshipful, the Burgomasters, submitted the 10'" 
of August, 1663. 

Hniinmi Documcnis, Your Worships have been heretofore informed that the Commissioners and 
^^•'"" Directors had, by their own experience and knowledge, seen and perceived the 

obstruction and damage inflicted on the Colonie in New Netherland, especially in tlie matter 
of judicature, and that accordingly to obviate it had obtained from the West India Company 
not only that there should be no appeal in criminal cases, but that the sum to be decided 
by the decree of the Schepens of the city's Colonie should, instead of 100 guilders, be 
advanced to GOO guilders, Hollands; also, that to the city sliould be surrendered and 
conveyed the whole of the South river, from, the sea upwards so far as the said river 
V6l. II. 27 


extends, and on the North side three leagues from the river's banli landward in, and on 
the South side as far as the land extends in tiiat direction to the English Colonic ; and as the 
Worshipful Council of this city did, afterwards, on the IG"" March, of this year, request and 
appoint Mr. Cornelis de Craef, I^ord of South Poisbroeck, with and besides the Commissioners 
aforesaid, to agree, if possible, by further conference with the West India Company, not only 
to abolish appeals in loto, but also, that henceforth the city should receive the duty on the 
goods and merchandise going hence direct to the South river, for the defraying of the expenses 
which are to be incurred ; and as the said business has now finally been concluded with the 
West India Company aforesaid, therefore, not only an explanation hereof will now be given, 
but also this supplementary report is respectfully submitted to your Worships of the state of 
the city's afl'airs there, and by what means they can be maintained and advanced. 

First. Concerning the abrogation of the appeal, and that accordingly from the judgment 
[pronounced] by the Director and Council of New Netherland in matters devolved by appeal, 
there shall lie an appeal to the Schepens of this city or to the Supreme Court in this country: 
It has been considered by the Company, to that end applying ample reasons wherefore it 
could not be done; the same was then abandoned, as we were not able to perceive how the 
city or its inhabitants could hereby, certainly not for the present, be prejudiced, as cases 
exceeding GOO guilders will be of very rare occurrence there. 

Concerning the 2""' point : The aforesaid Company has granted to the city, for the term of 
eight years, the net half of the receipts of the duty and convoy of goods going hence direct 
to the South river, and that for the building and mainlaiuiiig its public works and supporting 
the officers there ; accordingly only half ol the duty and convoy of the goods and merchandise 
which are sent on behalf of the city is paid to the Company, at whose office shall, furthermore, 
be received the duty and convoy of the goods which will be shipped thither by private persons, 
but the city, in order to be served faithfully and betimes, shall be empowered to appoint a 
person there who shall receive the half thereof on its account. 

Having, moreover, obtained from the said Company, for a like number of years, the toll 
or duty which is paid in New .Netherland both on beavers and other peltries and Virginia or 
Maryland tobacco, whereof the last pays 30 stivers and the first lOi guilders per 100 export 
duty (including the 4 stivers per beaver) and whatever additional might be paid on other 
and all such returns, likewise for the erection and maintaining of public works; which is 
consequently of such consideration as \\\\\ hereinafter be more fully submitted. 

.^nd as the city's Colonic has also heretofore been grievously injured by the running away 
of its colonists, said Company hath, on the request presented by the Commissaries aforesaid 
on this occasion, also promised to introduce strict order to the end that no persons coming from 
the city's Colonic to the Manhattans without a proper passport, shall he harbored there but 
sent back again, which shall also be done reciprocally by the city, in order thus to obviate and 
remove all troubles between the governments on either side. 

This being thus transacted with the West India Compan\ at a further conference, we shall 
now proceed to the state or condition of the Colonic itself, and by what means it could be 
maintained and advanced. 

Concerning the state or condition of the Colonic itself, that being considered as it will be 
conveyed to the city, namely the entire river, as hereinbefore specified, it is found that the 
Swedes, Fins and other nations have made and erected there about 110 good bouweries, 
stocked with about 2,000 cows and oxen, 20 horses, SO sheep and several thousand swine. 


'' The lands being particularly productive and adapted both for tillage and pasture, having 
exceedingly fruitful valleys, which, being drained at a small expense, then return 30 (al 40 fold 
for what's sown, besides producing two crops a year, are therefore, not only suitable for wheat 
and all sorts of grain, as experience hath already abundantly shown, but also for hemp and 
flax; and rice will also thrive and grow there particularly well, the low grounds being thereto 
well adapted. A proof of this shall then be taken by the first opportunity; also of P'rench 
prunes and other fruits. Thus, people only must be sent there, who are lahorious and skilled 
in farming. No Hollanders but other foreign nations must be employed and attracted for 
this purpose, the Swedes and Fins (who are already there in reasonable numbers) being, among 
others, hereunto particularly fitted, and of whom many families or households are from time to 
time expected, as they have been notified by their countrymen in the aforesaid Colonic of the 
good opportunity there. Already some families of them have come from Sweden to the number 
of 32 souls, who only are waiting for the departure of a ship thither. On this occasion some 
cattle must be given to them there by the city on half tiie increase, to promote the cultivation 
of the soil ; they will be bound to restore these cattle with half their increase in about 4 or 5 
years at most, whereby not only agriculture will be promoted in the most economical way, but 
the city will also be thereby benefited. And concerning the passage money which, together 
with a few farming implements, the city is advancing them only in form of a loan, the same 
shall be made good in the space of 3 years from the produce of the land they shall happen to 
realize there, and especially in wheat to be calculated at only 30 stivers the skepel ; thus, the 
city will not suffer any loss from this, but be well repaid its accrued interest. 

And, as agriculture is of very great importance to this city, no less so is the trade which can 
be very conveniently carried on there not only with the natives of the country, but also and 
principally with the neighboring English of Merriland, who occupy themselves chiefly with 
the planting of tobacco, and are greatly inclined to such trade, on account of the suitableness 
and convenience of the places and kills which run in both directions, none being more than 
a half hour's distance from the other. On one of these, at our side, called Apoquemans kill, a 
stone house in form of a redoubt ought to be built, in order to carry on trade there more 
conveniently, as we cannot but conclude from the reports of Director d'Hinojossa, and also 
from the circumstances that this trade of tobacco might be carried on with great advantage 
for the city, for which reason it ought, in our opinion, make an experiment in the case, and, 
accordingly, in the first place now, such a cargo as is suitable for that purpose ought to be 
sent thither, amounting to 12 (& 15,000 gl., not doubting but the city will derive a handsome 
profit therefrom. 

This trade being of so much the more importance, inasmuch as the country produce of the 
Colonic might hereby be sold off and consumed, and especially the barley and buckwheat, 
from which the city or individuals there might brew strong beer, which is much sought for 
by the English, who do not manufacture any, and therefore can be sold with great profit 
for tobacco. 

So that from both these, namely agriculture and trade, the expenses will be sufficiently met, 
as these consist there only in the construction and maintenance of the public works and city's 
officers; on account of the taking up and occupying the entire river, the number must now be 
increased by 15 (ai 16 soldiers, which are considered sufficient to the necessary settlement and 
defence of this place. 


Against this is to be estimated the toll aiui (iuty which, l)y the opening of the trade in 
beaver ami oilier peltries with the Indians, miglit be realized at the South river; this is said 
lo have annually been 10,000 skins, being lOJ per cent, with 1 stivers quit-rent ; thus, it should 
annually amount to fl. 6,000.00.00 

And from the tobacco, which pays a duty of li fi. per 100; in case only 
rOOO tubs were exported yearly by private individuals, which will doubtless 
be done in lime, that would amount yearly (each tub being estimated at 
400 lbs) lo 6,000.00.00 

Exclusive of the profits to be derived from 2 (a. 3 breweries, which the city possesses there 
already, and from which great profit can be realized. 

As also from the city's cattle to be given out on halves, as above. 

Item, in lime, likewise, from the 10'"; some of the Swedish bouweries there are already 
over two years in arrenr, and these arrears must therefore be paid to the city. 

Yet, as provision must be made liere for the e;;penses of the passage and board of the 
colonists who will h;ippen to go thither (and the greater the number of these from lime to 
lime, the sooner will the city reap the fruits thereof), it will therefore be necessary to find 
means thereunto, and that merely for the space of 3 years and no longer, in order vigorously 
to promote so good a work, which, we are of opinion, under correction, will tend to the best 
advantage of llie State in general and this city in particular, believing that it will then be so 
far advanced, that such passage money will be able to be derived from the revenue of the 
Colonic itself. 

And as your Worships have been informed on the 14'^ ull" that Director Alexander 
d'Hinojossa was to sail hence for the South river with 100 colonists, including 32 Finns, and 
that in addition such cargoes were to be sent as were required at first as an experiment for the 
Merriland trade, the Commissioners above mentioned have considered it their duty hereby }o 
remind your Worships thereof, as it cannot admit o( any further delay in case the season of 
the year is to be taken advantage of. Your Worships are, therefore, requested to give orders 
to the end that this money for the aforesaid Merriland trade may be placed in our hands to 
enable us to purchase the necessary merchandise therewith, and in case your Worships may 
not be disposed to the whole of this, and consequently be pleased to participate only in half, 1)8 
the same more or less, or, indeed, in none of it, in such circumstances the Commissioners ofTer 
to make up the requisite sum, or else lo have the wliole put on board, by whom then, 
furthermore, a ship will be looked up, in which will then be most speedily dispatched the 
aforesaid cargo and people, for the payment of whose passage tiiey have still some of the city's 
money on hand. 

^ ■ • ♦ ■ ■ » 

Itcsohdions of tJie Council of the City of Ami<terdam. 

{ From the Rcsohttien tan de Vrocdsckapptri, D., 26, In iho Stad liuys, Amsterdam. ] 

lO"- August, 1GG3. 
TTniiand Docnmems, ^I""' Comelis de Gracf, Lord of South Polsbroeok, being appointed by previous 
■' ■ resolution of the IG'*" of March last, with the Commissioners and Directors of 


tliis city's Colonie in New Netiierland, to resume the conference with the 

A c.-trgn of mr-T- 

rbnmiise lo be s ni Dipectors of the West India Company, for tlie purpose of obtainiiij;: from said 
nn'Tci'^' ""''ihe Compan}', for the behoof of tiie aforesaid Colonie, the Conditions contained in 
f.iI'^ao.°iut".'f tile the aforesaid Commissioners' resolution, iiath summaril)- reported the result of the 
aforesaid conference, and referred more fullj^ to the written report this day delivered 
to Mess", the Burgomasters, in the name of said Commissioners, settingforth what was consented 
and agreed to by the aforementioned Directors in tlie aforesaid confei'ence, also tlie actual 
condition of tiie said Colonie and what is tiiought necessary for tlie promotion and advantage 
thereof; which written Report, as recorded in Muniment Register, D., ful. 108, being read 
and considered, it is resolved and concluded to send a cargo of merchandise to the value of 
twelve or fifteen thousand guilders, to the aforesaid Colonie, to be traded there as an 
experiment, namely, half on account of the city and the other half on account of said 
Commissioners and Directors; whereunto the city and the Commissioners shall each furnish 
half the sum, and in return each shall participate in half the profits and loss accruing on the 
aforesaid cargoes. And it is further recommended by the Council that not only Swedes and 
Finns but also people of other nations should be accepted as colonists to be sent over. 

Further Proposal^ respecting the Colonie on the Delaware River. 

[ From Muniment Register vayx den Raad^ D., 148, in the Stad Huys, Amsterdam. ] 

Draft of a Proposal of the Commissioners and Directors for the management 
of the South river in New Netherland, submitted to the Right Worshipful 
the Burgomasters of this city of Amsterdam, the 23"* October, A" 1C63. 

nmiami Document- "^^^^ Commissioners and Directors having considered that a suitable ship 
^^'^'■^' ought to be sent this year, and before the frost, to the South river, not only 

with a goodly number of farmers, besides tiie implements required for agricultural purposes, 
but also with some cargoes and goods for the continuance and promotion both of agriculture 
and trade, together likewise with a good quantity of ammunition and materials to bring and 
maintain that place in a proper state of defence, and having accordingly submitted their 
speculations as to the expenses which should be incurred for this outfit and what depends 
thereon, are of opinion, under correction, that besides other things there would be required 
for that purpose, viz' : 

The passage and board of the farmers to be conveyed over; item, the amount of their 
implements, also ammunition and materials and what depends thereon, about the sum of 13 
@, 14,000 guilders. 

For cargoes and goods both for the trade with the Merrilanders and the Indians, together 
about 35 @. 36 000 guilders. 

In addition to this, it will be necessary, according to the report of Director Alexander 
d'Hinojossa, to send thither immediately 50 negroes who are particularly adapted to the 
preparation of the valleys, which are found exceedingly fertile, as can expressly be seen by 
the letters last received, and for other heavy work ; also for the advancement of agriculture, 


which we, too, can apprehend ; wherefore we, under correction, are of opinion that a contract 
ought to be entered into with the West India Company iiere for the delivery of such a 
number; we tiiink they can be obtained for 230 guilders each, or thereabout, which, in such 
case, would be for 50 negroes fl.lL500. 

Your Worships must likewise be informed that, on the last two outfits, both in the passage 
money of the persons going over as in freight and averages of the goods sent with them, there 
was a deficit of about ^,000 gl., as far as can be most correctly ascertained. 

And, although all this amounts, for this turn, to a large sum, yet the Commissioners and 
Directors aforenamed are and remain of opinion, after having thoroughly examined and 
investigated the nature and qualities of these outlandish Colonies, that the outlay which now 
and hereafter must be incurred, will, with God's blessing, be in its time abundantly repaid. 

And to show their sincerity in this their opinion, the Commissioners do hereby offer to share 
one-half the expense which will be incurred after this, in the advancement of the Colonic. 

Beginning, accordingly, from now forward, and with this projected venture, fully 
understanding that they will then also share, they and their heirs, in half of all the eflects 
and rights which the city already possesses in that country, of what nature soever the same 
may be; on the other hand, they, the Commissioners aforesaid, will share not only the half 
of the above 8,000 gl., but also such debts as shall be paid in that country on account of 
the city; in this case, the profit and loss in the farming, etc., which, after this time, will arise, 
shall be divided and charged half and half, as the nature and equity of the matter will 
then determine. 

And, although your Worships have participated the last time only for Jth part in the 
cargoes for the common trade, and here would be willing to participate only for a like quarter 
in the purchase of the required cargoes now to be sent ; nevertheless, whenever your Worships 
may afterwards so resolve, you will be always hereafter at liberty to enter for the half in this 
trade and venture, in order to have, in this way, an equal share in everything. 

And as it has been heretofore noticed that some members of your Worshijiful Council have 
entertained a different opinion respecting the founding and progress of this Colonie, yea 
even now perhaps not enough will be hereby efl'ected, and your Worships accordingly may 
resolve to appoint a committee the better to be informed by us of everything, we therefore 
intend to be able to give them such an explanation of things as shall be perfectly satisfactory. 

Only respectfully requesting, as time is passing and the work is of so much importance as 
not to admit well of delay, that your Worships would be jileased to allow your resolution 
hereon to reach us as speedily as possible, and especially that regarding the slaves, for 
procuring which the West India Company here has a ship ready to sail, but before her 
departure, which will take place in 4 (3^ 5 days, a contract must be made with the Company 
for the delivery of the said 50 head, or else another entire year will have been lost, which 
would tend to the serious disadvantage of agriculture in that country, as your Worships will 
be able yourselves to perceive from what precedes, whose resolution hereupon then we shall 
expect immediately. Meanwhile remaining, &c. 


Resolution of the Common Council of the City of Amsterdam. 

[ From the Resohtlien vaii de Vroedschappen, D., 48, 49, in the Stad Hut/s, Amsterdam.] 

24"' October, 16G3, 
Hoii.nd DocumeniB, The Burgomasters have submitted to the Council some proposals of the 
New' *"' Neiherianu Commissiouers au(l Directors of the city's Colonic in New Netherland, respecting 
fen°SJe ind^^idl ^^^ maintenance and advancement and what to that end should at present be 
vaDcemenu taken by the hand and put in operation ; according to the aforesaid proposal 

contained in writing and enregistered in Muniment Register, D., fol. 148. 

Which being considered, Mr. Joris Backer, Mr. Peter Cloeck, Dr. Joan Blaeu, Cornells 
Geelvinck and Gerard Hasselaar are requested and appointed to hear the aforesaid 
Commissioners and Directors further touching said proposal, and to examine the same and to 
report their opinions and advice thereupon at the earliest moment. 

26"" October, 1663. 
Holland Document., Heard the report and advice of the Committee of this Council, which, pursuant 
Piro'rtors allow a and for the fulfillment of its resolution, dated the 24"" instant, had further 
'he'^^e^r" iicihei- heard the Commissioners and Directors of this city's Colonic in New Netherland, 

land's Colonic, and ^ r i -ii-ii -r-. 

3,tbs in the present and alterwards examined and weighed some Proposals touching the maintenance 

cargoes, etc. c-> i o 

Item. Consent to a and advancement of said Colonic, and what ought at present be undertaken and 

loan for that Colo- . ' r i 

Die. put in operation tor that purpose according to said Proposals submitted in 

writing and enregistered in Muniment Book, D., fol. 148. 

Which being considered it is resolved and concluded that the above mentioned Commissioners 
and Directors of the aforesaid Colonic shall, according to their proposed offer, share for one-half 
in the expenses which will henceforth be incurred in the planting of said Colonic from this time 
forward and in the projected adventure, so that they, the Commissioners and Directors, shall, 
for themselves and their heirs, participate for one-half in all the effects and rights which the 
city already possesses and may hereafter obtain in that quarter, of what nature soever they 
may be ; therefore they, the Commissioners and Directors, shall also bear the half in the sum 
of eight thousand guilders which are deficient on the two last ventures to the aforesaid 
Colonic, both in passage money of the colonists that went over and in freight and average 
sent vpith them, and in all debts that will be paid in New Netherland on the part of this 
city. And this on condition that all the Tenths, together with all profits and losses which 
will hereafter accrue in farming and otherwise, shall be shared and borne half and half; 
the agreement with Director d'Hinojossa respecting the farming on the behalf of this city 
remaining valid. 

But so far as regards the cargoes of merchandise to be now sent thither to be traded, it is 
understood that the city shall have only one-fourth share therein, the remaining three-fourths 
being for tlie account of the Commissioners and Directors ; on condition, nevertheless, that 
the city shall be at liberty, if desiring it, to participate for one-half in the cargoes which 
hereafter shall be sent to the Colonie aforesaid. And the Burgomasters are further authorized 


to borrow on interest through the medium of said Commissioners and Directors, the 
moneys at present required both for the passage of the new colonists and for other necessaries 
and for tlie purchase of slaves and the cargoes of goods to be sent off, &c., according to the 
foregoing Proposals and as far as the share of this city amounts to. And the Commissioners 
are thanked for the trouble thev have taken. 

Remondrance of the ^Ye■st India Company. 

[ Aitzems, SuUen vayi Staet en Oorlogh, folio, IV., ll'Jl ; 4to., X., 65S. ] 

To the High and Mighty Lords States-General. 

Tlie Directors of the General Incorporated West India Company respectfully remonstrate 
against the unreasonable and unjustifiable proceedings of the English in America, who 
not only have forcibly settled themselves on many districts first discovered and taken into 
possession by the Company, as appeared by the tokens thereof which had been specially 
set up, and had still been standing at the time of this forcible entry of the Engli-h, but 
also invaded several places which had been brought under cultivation, and where towns 
and villages had been organized under their own governments in the name of your High 
Mightinesses. As a ground for their unrighteous conduct, they perverted merely vague 
patents from the King of Great Britain, conveying to them (as was reasonable) those lands 
which were not occupied by others. Tlie Company not being able, as they were taken 
by surprise, to prevent these proceedings, in every instance at first attempted means of 
reconciliation before recourse would be had to force. For this end, they used, from time 
to time, many efforts to procure a settled boundary line between the possessions of the two 
nations, agreed upon either here in America or else in Europe, believing that by this means 
all future difllcultics might be prevented and requesting the aid and influence of your High 
Jliglitinesst's for the attainment of that end. The Company advanced so far in the matter in 
America, tliat, in tlie year .Sixteen hundred and fifty, there was established at Hartford a 
Provisional boundary line, subject to the approbation of the supreme governments on both 
sides, and your High Mightinesses insisted, through your Ambassadors in England, either 
that a boundary might be concluded on here, or that the one of Hartford might be approved, 
or else that some persons in America might be authorized on both sides to draw up a 
Boundary line. Still, this had no influence in favorably disposing the Phiglish towards this 
object, but it appeared evident that they were moving onwards in their proceedings, in order, 
as it seems, being elated by their first successful commencement, to make themselves masters, 
righteously or unrighteously, of the whole Province, to turn the Company out of the cities, towns 
and entire country; and to reduce all New Netherland under P^igland, to the humiliation 
of your High Mightinesses, to tlie great injury of the commerce of this State, to the incalculable 
loss of the Company and tlie ruin of many inhabitants in those parts. For, passing by the 
previous violences, of which a full account has been given in Remonstrances heretolore presented 


to your High Mightinesses, they sent, on the twenty-seventh and twenty-eighth of July, one 
Captain Talcott, with sixteen or eighteen men on horseback to the town named Oostdorp, 
under your High Mightinesses' authority and government, who, on his arrival, absolved 
the inhabitants from the oath of allegiance taken to the government there, displaced the 
Magistrates appointed by the Company, appointed others in their stead, and thus made 
themselves masters of the town. Not content with that, but proceeding in this unheard-of 
course, the same Captain Talcott, on the twenty-fourth of December, sent to the town 
of Gravesend, under your High Mightinesses' authority, one James Crisp," to read an address 
to the inhabitants to induce them, like those of Oostdorp, to acts of sedition, and thus bring 
them under the British government. The intention was to proceed, for the like object, to 
Flushing, Heemstede and Rustdorp and the village of Gravesend, all being places under 
your High Mightinesses. This was prevented by the arrest in Gravesend of the aforesaid 
person in very season, for, on the twenty-fourth of December, in the evening, one hundred 
and iifty English, on horseback and on foot, came into the town, surrounded the dwelling of 
Lieutenant Stilwell, demanded him dead or alive, broke into the house and committed much 
violence. The Company, in consideration of the close alliance between the Crown of Great 
Britain and the States-General, have not dared to offer any opposition, until the matter be 
first communicated to your High Mightinesses, and your assistance and direction be invoked, 
which the Directors aforesaid hereby request. Praying, moreover, that your High Mightinesses, 
in consideration of the unrighteous acts of violence committed by the English against the 
Company, would be pleased to adopt the most suitable and effectual measures in the case. 

Resolution of the States -General. 

[From the Register of the We6t India Company's Aftairs, 1652 — 1663, in the Royal Arcliives at the Hague.] 

Thursday, 20"" December, 1662. 
roi.3G2. Read at the meeting the Rcmonsfnince of the attending Directors of the West 

Bound"/' India Company of these parts, respecting the boundary in New Netherland, 

Kew Keiheriand. ^^^ ^^le wrong done them by the English nation. "Which being considered it is 
resolved and concluded that the aforesaid Remonstrance shall be placed in the hands of Mess" 
Huygens and other their High Mightinesses' Deputies for the affairs of the West India Company, 
to examine, investigate and report. 

' Sic. Christie. — Ed. 

Vol. II. 28 


Cliamher at Avisterdam to tlte Director and Council of JS^ew NetJie^iand. 

[ From New-York Colonial Manuscripts, XV., m Sccrctar)- of folate's Office, Albany, X. T. ] 

Honorable, Prudent, Worthy, Beloved, Faithful. 

In our last, of the lO"" and 30"" October and November, of this year, whereof the 

duplicates to which we refer, accompany this letter; the two former being dispatched by 
the ship St. Fieter, and the last by the ship Gideon, which first went to Guinea for slaves, we 
promised your Honors, among otlier things, an answer to your letter of the 2^^ August last. 
As the ship Bontthoe has arrived here since, bringing a letter from the Director-General and 
another from the Council dated 13"" September and first of October of the aforesaid year, the 
answer to all of them, as far as we have deemed necessary, will be conveyed to you hereby. 

The first thing, then, that attracts our attention therein is, that we have been very 
incorrectly informed here relative to the fortification or defensible condition of the mouth of 
tlie river, both on Staten and Long island, which, according to your representation, will be 
labor in vain. We shall not discuss this, but willingly admit it to be the case on the 
representation of persons who, being there on the spot, are, therefore, by experience and 
knowledge in the premises, better fjualified to see and determine everytbing. But you must 
also be aware that our instruction in this matter was by no means intended to have forts or 
redouts erected on both sides of the mouth of the river in order to efl^ect that security, but 
such proper and suitable means adopted as might be considered best and advantageous to at 
least prevent the English occupying those places, which could well be accomplished by 
planting Colonies, or settling people, there. Certainly, if the land thereabout be anywise good 
and adapted to agriculture ; and, in case it fail somewhat to be so and, consequently, no person 
were disposed to take it unless some additional privileges were granted, further inducements 
could be held out according to discretion ; if by that means the object we have in view could 
be effected. Your Honors are to judge of this, and are seriously recommended to bestow on 
it all that attention the importance of the subject deserves. 

We have already anticipated your Honors' opinion as to whether our proposed scheme to 
attract specie into the country ought to be put into practice, under its present circumstances and 
poor condition; and therefore have intimated in ours of the 27"' September last, that it should 
be suspended for the present in order to prevent trade being diverted. With regard to the 
next point, viz.: that on attempting to give the Company's servants there the benefit and 
enjoyment of the equivalent of the specie promised them here in Fatherland, you had found it 
impracticable on account of the depreciation of the Wampum, being, therefore, of opinion 
that it was best and most proper, that whoever was engaged in Fatherland, ought, at the close 
of the year, when the books are balanced, be credited not only one-third for the Wampum 
received, but also one-fourth for the accepted Beavers. On further examination and 
investigation of this matter, we have discovered that we had heretofore, and recently, provided 
for this case, inasmuch as we had ordered, by our previous letter of the a?"" September 
aforesaid, that the monthly wages of such servants there shall henceforth be liquidated and 
paid in Beavers valued at G instead of 7 guilders a piece; whereby we consider that we have 
afforded them sufficient satisfaction herein, the rather as the Beaver, for which there was so 
little demand here, is now again beginning to improve and rise, and from all appearances, will 

To Director-General Petrus StuyTesant and Council of Xew Netlierlnnd. 


advance further. In regard to the Wampum, as its depreciation is on the increase, we have 
resolved and accordingly consent that the account of such persons as have been engaged here, 
shall, at the end of the year, be credited one-fourth in order to afford them satisfaction herein 
also, and to obviate all just causes of complaint. Your Honors can, therefore, regulate 
yourselves accordingly. 

The chief thing in your Honors' letter that took us by surprise was the illegal, yea, 
sufficiently hostile proceedings set on foot by the English neighbors of Hartford Colony, and 
especially put into practice and carried out anew in the purloining of a place unquestionably 
within the Company's bounds, viz., the village of Westchester, otherwise called Oosidorp, having 
even afterwards also endeavored, as we have noticed by the Council's letter of the first of 
October last, by sinister means, to reduce and bring within the jurisdiction of Hartford, other 
villages on Long Island. All this, we acknowledge, must be a matter of strange and dangerous 
consequence, which, on account of the peace the Crown of England hath concluded and effected 
with our State here, was not expected by us from that quarter, for we cannot well suppose 
that they are encouraged from this side. We shall soon ascertain the fact, as we have presented 
our complaints on this subject fully to this government, which we finally requested to make 
renewed application, at least that the Provisional Boundary concluded at Hartford aforesaid 
in the year 1G50, may be at once ratified by the Crown of England. And, as great hopes and 
promises of assistance are held out to us, that our request will be complied with on the earliest 
and most fitting opportunity, we must wait patiently for that time, to shorten which we shall, 
by continued perseverance, do all in our power. Meanwhile, we are anxious to learn how 
Director-General Stuyvesandt fared at the General Court at Boston, having seen that he had 
gone thither in order once more to attempt the ratification of the Provisional Boundary, and, 
at the same time, to remove existing troubles about Westchester and the further encroaciiments 
of neighbors ; whereunto we are somewhat encouraged to hope by the favorable inclination 
manifested by Governor Winterop. As you are especially requesting our categorical answer^ 
on the supposition that we be disappointed herein, and those people continue their unjust 
proceedings, before even the said division of the Boundary be completed here, we therefore 
say, as we have stated in our preceding and annexed letters, that such intolerable proceedings, 
of such dangerous and far-reaching consequences, are not to be endured, but must be opposed 
in every way ; certainly, if such can in any wise be accomplished with the men and means at 
your disposition there. Of this, you, who are present and in loco, can judge better than we 
here. The subject is then absolutely referred to you to act therein, in such 'manner and 
way as you will judge best for the safety of the State and its inhabitants. It will, in our 
opinion, not be without advantage, were you, in such a conjuncture, first of all, by written 
manifest, to explain and make known the improper and hostile proceedings of the neighbors, 
in order to demonstrate to all the world there the righteousness of our cause, which has been 
frequently done under similar circumstances. This, then, is for your Honors' information. 

We have observed, from the Conditions and lease to the farmers of the Revenue {eeri-iachlingc), 
that goods and household commodities, such as English cloths, stockings, provisions and 
whatever are imported there by the English neighbors, are for the most part hurthened with 
such duties as are paid here in Fatherland, by the same articles; and therefore resolve, on 
account of the difficulties which you represent against the augmentation thereof, that such duties 
shall remain provisionally unaltered. But in regard to wares, and especially the Beavers 
which the English receive in exchange and are carrying out of the country, as the principal 


returns which come thence consist of these Beavers, and as they are more and more in 
demand, and are beginning to advance in value, it is our opinion that the toll or duty on such 
Beavers as are exported to New England, ought, v^ithout affording any dissatisfaction to the 
inhabitants, be indeed increased at least Jd or one-fourth. We hereby, then, submit this to 
your further consideration, in order that if you agree v?ith us, as we trust you will, it may be 
put in operation. 

We regret to learn that so little advantage is to be expected from the free people who, from 
time to time, have been conveyed thither at the Company's expense ; in regard that the third 
part are not what they represented themselves here, namely, agriculturists and such like. 
And, although we shall in future pay more attention to this, and have more care observed on 
that head, yet we must remark that such inexperienced, lazy and indolent fellows, if they 
know no other handicraft, ought not only be taught farming, but be held and constrained 
thereto, at least until they shall have worked out and paid the disbursement which the 
Company hath incurred in conveying them thither, &c. We refer to your own judgment and 
knowledge the best and properest manner of accomplishing this. 

The complaints which may have been mutually made by the government of the city's Colonie 
and yourself, ought henceforth to cease on both sides, and a good neighborly correspondence 
be maintained with one another. We hope that it will in future improve, inasmuch as we 
believe, the cause for caviling and bickering will, for the most part, be removed, as since 
that time the entire river is conveyed and made over to the city of Amsterdam. And, as 
your Honor requests our advice in this conjuncture, on some points which you submit in 
writing, viz: To whom shall the Tenths be then paid by the Swedes on the South river? 
Who shall have the selection of their Magistrates? and various other points. Your Honors 
can remark, by the contract in this case concluded with the Worshipful government of this 
city, and sent you herewith in form of our resolution, that everything is now conveyed to the 
city or its officers in that quarter, on condition that such and other inhabitants must remain in 
the enjoyment of the privileges they may have obtained from the Company. And as regards 
the diiliculties you mention, in case the common people along the entire river are exempted 
from the subsidies and general taxes wliich may be imposed by you in the Company's name, 
we cannot see herein such consequences or difficulties ; certainly, none that can counterbalance 
the expenses and danger to which we might be exposed from those of Merrilandt, &c., by the 
maintenance and occupation of that river ; as experience hath heretofore sufficiently shown. 
Therefore was it thought safer and better to commit the protection and preservation of that 
river to the city, and to have it consequently, as a partition wall between both, than to have 
the English Merrilanders, or no better, for neighbors. The Company have enough on its 
liands with the English at the North, as your Honors find but too well. Neither is it apparent, 
for these and other alleged reasons, that people will run hence to the South river, certainly 
not so long as the city hath reserved the trade there to herself, to the exclusion of all others. 
This, alone, is sufficient to deprive every one of all desire to go thither as your Honors will, 
we trust, find by experience. We wish further to charge and recommend you punctually to 
regulate yourselves agreeably to the aforesaid concluded contract. 

As we heard, with sorrow, the deceitful and treacherous conduct of (he Esopus Indians in 
surprising our inhabitants there, so were we afterwards rejoiced to learn, by the Council's 
despatch dated the first of October, the victory which our people have gained over them. In 
lliis connection we must praise your Honors' vigilance in establishing such speedy and 


necessary order. Such, then, must be continued and this entire nation, their allies and 
adherents rooted out, and, if possible, utterly exterminated ; in order, at once, to strike such 
terror and circumspection into others as will deprive them of all desire to attack our people, 
who thus may be at liberty to possess their property free from danger and in peace. And as 
some soldiers must have been enlisted there to execute those operations, and your Honors 
ought to be assisted in paying them, we have consented, on your Honors' reiterated request in 
the premises, to send in this ship herewith not only the required ammunition, but also, and 
first of all, the half of the required supply of clothing, as can be seen by the accompanying 
invoices and manifests. The remainder or greater part thereof will follow in the summer 
fleet, and this is to serve according to circumstances in the present conjuncture. 

We have paid surgeon Jacob Hendricksen Varrevanger here for the medicaments which 
have been obtained there from his wife, amounting to tlie sum of fl.132.4. We have, also, 
accepted to pay the bill of exchange drawn by Director-General Stuyvesant on us for the sum 
of fl.124.4, for some silver coin which he required in the journey to Boston, as he hath 
advised in his letter of the 13"" of September. 

We have thus, we think, answered your previously received letters in such manner and at 
such length as is necessary for your Honors' government and information. 

Dirck de Wolff hath applied to us li«re to request you, as recommended in ours of the 6"" 
December, 1662, to expedite his case in regard to the circumstance of the salt kettle, which, 
having been erected by him on Coney Island, was afterwards removed by you, by judgment, 
on some pretence of the English of Gravesend. And as nothing is known of the case, 
notwithstanding we had seriously commanded you not only to render us pertinent explanation 
thereupon by transmitting the papers and documents which were produced there .on both 
sides, but also, in addition, a small Map of the situation of said island, as we were informed 
that the English ought not encroach any further on that side, we have consented to renew 
the instruction. You are, therefore, once more recommended not to postpone compliance any 
longer, but to forward those papers by the first opportunity to us, that we may make use of 
them in such way and manner as we shall think proper. 

This letter being drafted and fairly copied thus far, the ship St. Jacob arrived here, whereby 
we received your despatch and inclosures of the 10"" of November of last year. We have 
learned, with regret, from them not only the fruitless result of the voyages to Boston and 
Hartford, the former by Director Stuyvesant and the latter by some Commissioners to the 
Common or General Assemblies at the aforesaid places ; but also that those of Hartford 
aforesaid were persisting in their unrighteous course, inasmuch as they had detached several 
more towns on Long Island from our government and brought the same under their 
jurisdiction. This shows us sufficiently what the object of those people is, viz.: not merely 
to dispossess the Company of the whole of Long Island, but of the North river, and, 
consequently, of the entire country. Therefore it is necessary that they be absolutely estopped 
and opposed herein by all possible means, both by force and authority, on the part of the 
NoTE.-oniy 42 or govemmeut. The former being furnished by us, certainly as far as the Company's 

43 of thfsa -were . . ^ •' •' '^ •' . 

sen'- circumstances permit, at present, with 60 soldiers provided with the necessary 

ammunition besides what was previously required, as you will be able to see by the annexed 
muster-rolls and invoice, we hope, when this force and means are added to what you 
already possess in those parts, that not only a stop will be put to the matter but restoration 
effected, especially when the Company is assisted by the second means, and the general 


government resents, in this instance, such unrighteous and treacherous proceedings ; as has 
been the case (according to our former opinion) with the Right Worshipful, the Burgomasters 
of tills city, who have not only granted the Company favorable letters of recommendation, 
but have also appointed some of the Commissioners who superintend the South river (but on 
their own proposal) a Committee, with some of the members from our Board, to solicit 
from their High Mightinesses at the Hague what is really required to hinder and counteract 
so treacherous an action. Those gentlemen will, accordingly, apply first for an Acte or 
commission determining and confirming the Boundary of New Netherland ; our opinion being 
that it should have the form of a further interpretation of the charter; and, furthermore, a 
letter written in serious terms to the English towns on Long Island. And as said Committee 
have already gone to the Hague it may possibly be that the aforesaid commission and letter 
may be sent by these ships ; they will, without fail, if these vessels be detained there 8 or 10 
days longer by contrary winds. Afterwards, urgent application will be made to their High 
Mightinesses to effect, with the Crown of England, a division of the Boundary, the same 
being so necessary to the peace of this State and its inhabitants. All which would, indeed, 
be done if an Ambassador were there from this State ; the first moment he is commissioned 
it will be given him specially in charge. The result shall be communicated to you in its time. 
Meanwhile we seriously recommend your Honors fo manage this matter and that of the 
barbarous Indians, so wisely as to render them subservient to the greatest security of 
the State. 

We, likewise, have been not a little astonished at the insufferable and hostile action 
committed by a certain English privateer in attacking and seizing our ship V Waepen van 
Amsterdam, on her way from the coast of Guinea, which he carried, with her cargo of Slaves, 
into Virginia. And as you have sent Councillor Johan de Decker and Commissary Verlet 
thither to reclaim them, we are impatient to learn their return, not without apprehension 
that we shall hear by the first opportunity that they either were too late, or else were put off 
with frivolous excuses and consequently will have gone back without having accomplished 

We informed you in our last letter, now again inclosed, that we had entered into a contract 
here with Symen Glide, commanding the ship Gideon, to take in a good cargo of Slaves at 
Loango, on the coast of Africa, and to fetch them, by way of Curasao, to New Netherland ; 
also, that this city was a partner for one-fourth thereof; as can be more fully seen by the 
copies which we have directed to be sent you herewith for your information. And as these 
Slaves are sent solely to be employed in agriculture, which is the only means whereby this 
State can be rendered flourishing, we expect and require most expressly that the aforesaid 
Slaves must be sold there to our inhabitants on express condition that they shall not be taken 
beyond our district, but kept specially there and be employed in husbandry, so that the great 
expense we are incurring herein may not be in vain ; but the fruits we promise ourselves 
therefrom be abundantly reaped. That ship may arrive next June or July with about 300 
Slaves, according to our calculation. As your Honors will possibly be bravely assisted by 
this supply, you will, therefore, be careful that the third part at least of the proceeds of the 
Company's Slaves shall be sent hither in Beavers, in order to be able, on the arrival of said 
ship, to pay the freiglit or the greater part thereof, according to contract. Otherwise, we 
shall lose all desire to continue supplying Slaves. Your Honors are, then, to pay particular 
attention to this matter. 


And although we have also ordered you, in the aforesaid despatch, to agree amicably with 
the city's officers about chartering the Company's sloop for the conveyance of the city's Slaves 
to the South river, yet we have subsequently resolved and determined that it should be 
effected here by the principals on both sides. Wherefore we have concluded to order and 
recommend you, in case the aforesaid sloop may be employed for that service, distinctly then 
to write us your advice and opinion what and how much ought to be charged for her freight, 
adding the reasons in support thereof, in order to enable us to make proper use of them in the 
present conjuncture. 

Hobbe Cornelissen Hobbe and Company have applied to us here for payment of a certain 
account of linen and charges sent to the Island of Curasao and purchased there on the 
Company's account in the years 1660 and 1661, as you may see by the inclosed copy. As we 
have no knowledge here of the transaction and do not propose to assume any such debts, 
we have refused payment, and wish seriously to recommend you hereby, in case the above 
debt is still honestly due, to discharge and pay it there on the first opportunity and as soon as 
possible. Plenty of opportunities will ofTer on the arrival of the forementioned Slaves. 

D* Megapolensis goes out now by this ship. We have engaged him as Minister 

on the same terms and conditions as D' Blom and Selyns were formerly accepted, viz., fl. 50 a 
month. We hope he, too, will give satisfaction, and perform good service there, which we 
shall be glad to hear in due season. 

The lists of the freemen, going over at their own and the Company's expense, accompany 
these presents, fl. 3S,' instead of fl. 36, shall have to be paid for the passage and board of the 
latter, as ship-masters are again complaining of the high price of some provisions. You have 
to remember this, in order that it may be charged in each one's account. 

From the accompanying list can also be ascertained the payments made in this country since 
the last account, on the wages of those in service yonder. In like manner, from the inclosed 
invoice can be seen what goods of private persons are on board this ship, all for your Honors' 
use, as shall be deemed proper. 


Honorable, Prudent, Worthy, Dear, Faithful, 

Shall we commend you to God's protection, and remain 

Your good friends. 
The Directors of the West India Company, Chamber at Amsterdam. 

(Signed), Abr. Wilmerdonx, 

Amsterdam, this 20"" January, 1664. Dirck Spiegel. 

'Equal to $16.20. — Ed. 


Memorial of the We^i India Com.'paiiy^ &g. 

[ From the Original ia the Royal Archives at the Hague ; File, TXest Indie. ] 

To the High and Mighty Lords, States-General of the United Netherlands: 

The Directors of the General Incorporated West India Company of this country, the 
Commissioners of the Colonic belonging to the city of Amsterdam in New Netherland, and 
the Deputies to tiie General Assembly {landts vergaderhige) in New Netherland, respectfully 
represent : That theabove named Directors did, on the 19"" December, nowlast past, remonstrate 
to your High Mightinesses against the unlawful proceedings of the English in New Netherland 
for some time past, requesting that all possible provision may be made against the same, or 
otherwise the loss of the whole of New Netherland was impending. The aforementioned 
Directors have since received letters from New Netherland, dated the lO"" November, 1GG3, 
wherein they were advised by the Director-General and Council that the latter had endeavored 
to settle, amicably, the questions which had arisen there, and for that purpose, Director- 
General Stuy vesant had proceeded in person to Boston, in order there, at the meeting of the Four 
United Colonies of New England, amicably to induce the English, if possible, to forbear their 
unlawful proceedings. The aforesaid Stuyvesant, having arrived there, after divers debates by 
three of the Colonies, to wit: Boston, New Plymouth and New Haven; the fourth, namely 
Hartford, was publicly declared in the wrong, in regard to her proceedings against the Company. 
Being unwilling to submit herself to the decision of the aforesaid three Colonies, Hartford 
maintained that the above mentioned difficulty must be determined by the Assembly of her 
particular Colony and not by that of the United Provinces, because the latter had no power 
to diminish the bounds of her patent obtained from the King of England. Thereforei 
Commissioners were again sent in the month of October last to the aforesaid distinct Assembly 
at Hartford, who inclined, as in duty bound, to peace, quiet and union, report that the aforesaid 
Colony of Hartford declared absolutely, That theijknnvno New Netherland ; refusing the Director- 
General and Council even the title now, for about forty years, set forth in your High Mightinesses' 
commission ; insisting that the place which we call New Netherland, had been granted to them 
by his Royal Majesty ; and, accordingly, even supposing it were in our possession, it must be 
surrendered to them, although his Royal Majesty very expressly protests, in the granted patent, 
that those of Hartlbrd shall not encroach on any other Prince, Potentate or State ; that the 
Company could never exhibit any patent from the King of Great Britain, and that consequently 
they will reduce all nolens volcns under their jurisdiction ; uphold the village of Oostdorp and 
five towns more situate on Long Island, which they had already, for the third time, notified to 
come under their jurisdiction, and enlarge the limits of their patent to that end, and (according 
to the Map annexed' ) rob the Company of the whole of New Netherland, which they invade; 
pretexting that these towns which came under their jurisdiction, would no longer remain under 
their High Mightinesses' authority and the Company's government, and therefore they should 
and would support them ; threatening, in case the Company's officers should proceed against 
those villages, to oppose them with fire and sword; refusing many fair offers which were made 
for adjustment. Thereupon, taking their proceedings immediately into consideration, a General 
Assembly of the whole of New Netherland was holden, and things found to be so, that, without 

' There ie no Map connected witb this Memorial in the Holland Documents. — Ed. 


your High Mightinesses' speedy assistance, all will be lost. Two of the most interested were 
then delegated hither to represent to the Directors and, if needs be, to your High Migiitinesses, 
the sad condition to which New Netherland has fallen hy such unlawful proceedings, and humbly 
to request your High Mightinesses to be pleased not to suffer thousands of persons who, by 
public invitation, and relying on the promise of support held out in the charter granted to the 
West India Company, had, with your High Mightinesses' approbation, settled their families 
there, to be ruined and forced to regret having lived in that country 40, 30, 20 more or less 
years, established themselves comfortably there, and now to be so unrighteously removed ; as 
you. High and Mighty, can sufficiently deduce, from the foregoing reasons, on what foundation 
the English seek to establish their pretensions: Wherefore the petitioners, having endeavored 
to smooth everything peaceably in yonder country, but without any success, and seeing no 
other refuge than to cast themselves into your High Mightinesses' arms and to consider you 
as their protectors, again find themselves necessitated to address and once more to request 
you. High and Mighty, to be graciously pleased, at length, to cast your eyes once on the 
proceedings which the English have now for many long years been carrying on in New 
Netherland, and which have for many long years been complained of to your High Mightinesses. 
We assure you. High and Mighty, that you will find that these conquests, so often recommended 
by your High Mightinesses to the Company, possessed so many years by the Company at 
excessive outlay, will be torn away from this State by the English, who see that you, High 
and Mighty, do not trouble yourselves about their proceedings ; whereby not only the Company 
will be debarred the profits thereof, and lose the expenses incurred so many years in New 
Netherland, on your High Mightinesses' recommendations, but so many thousand inhabitants 
will be obliged to return home to this country naked and destitute, weeping and mourning, 
being now ruined there by the English in the same manner as those at Brazil had been by the 
Portuguese ; unless you, High and Mighty, maturely considering all the aforesaid, take to heart 
the complaints of your weeping and injured subjects, and in your High Mightinesses' wisdom, 
so manage the matter, either with the King of England or otherwise, that your faithful subjects 
shall be freed from this unrighteous oppression. To obtain this, the aforesaid Directors and 
their Director-General and Council, have (under correction), as heretofore represented to your 
High Migiitinesses, considered the surest means to be the negotiation here in Europe of a Boundary 
between both nations, and therefore most humbly request you. High and Mighty, to be graciously 
pleased, once more, so to direct the matter, that the aforesaid settlement of the Boundary may 
be concluded forthwith, by such means as your High Mightinesses, in your accustomed wisdom, 
will deem best. And as, in consequence of the dissoluteness of the English, it looks as if 
they will not forbear in the Province of New Netherland, whilst the aforesaid settlement of the 
Boundary is prosecuted here in Europe, but will push on their encroachments, the result of which 
might be that the Company would be stripped of everything before the Boundary could be 
settled ; therefore, some means should, at the same time, be provisionally employed to stay 
those proceedings, to prevent the designs of the aforesaid English and to retain your High 
Mightinesses' subjects within their duty. The aforesaid Directors are, at the same time, 
necessitated to request of your High Mightinesses, first, your opinion whether or not the 
Company shall have to oppose the said proceedings by force, and if yea, that they may be provided 
with adequate assistance thereunto by your High Mightinesses; secondly, that your High 
Mightinesses, in regard to your subjects, and in order to retain them, meanwhile, within the 
obedience of this State, may be pleased to grant to the Company an Acte under the Great Seal, 
Vol. II. 29 


whereby your High Mightinesses will please to fix the limits of New Netherland according to 
the ancient computation, to wit: along the coast from thirty-seven and a half degrees unto 
forty-one and a half and, furthermore, landward in as far as men can travel; and, besides, 
distinct letters to all the places and towns which, having been under your High Mightinesses' 
obedience, have already repaired under the authority of the English, and to those which are 
notified to do so by the English, to the end that the former may return under your High 
Mightinesses' authority, and the latter remain within their allegiance ; otherwise, that your 
High Mightinesses will enforce the aforesaid letters with the power of the nation, and accordingly 
constrain those people to their obedience, and hold and punish them as the case may demand ; 
thirdly, that your High Mightinesses may be pleased to communicate these proceedings to his 
Royal Majesty of Great Britain, to the end that he may issue orders in America for the 
immediate restoration of the places invaded, and their preservation from all usurpations during 
the negotiations for a Boundary line. 

Which doing, &c., 

(Signed), Mich' Ten Hove. 
Indorsed, 16^64. 


of the Directors of the 

West India Company. 

21" January, 1GG4. 

Resolution of tlie States -General. 

[ From Uie UcgUter of West India Affairs, 1604 — 1070, io the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Monday, 21" January, 16G4. 
Foiio 3. Read to the Assembly a certain Remonstrance of the Directors of the General 

West India Com- j ititii-^-, .-i- i^-i •• c < 

pany. IncorpoTatcd West India Company of this country, the Commissioners of the 

ew e "fan . (^jgi^^jg qJ- j|,g ^.j^y pf Amsterdam, in New Netherland, and the Deputies from 

1 roceeaings of the .' ' r 

*""*'"''■ the General Assembly {Inndis vergaderingc) in New Netherland, containing a 

continuance of the complaints against the unlawful proceedings to which the English have, 
for some time since, had recourse against them, praying that provision be made in the premises. 
Which, being considered, it is resolved and concluded that the aforesaid Remonstrance be 
placed in the hands of Mess" Huygens and other tiieir High Mightinesses' Deputies for the 
afTairs of the West India Company, to inspect, examine and investigate the retroacta; verbally 
to hear and listen to the Petitioners or their Attorneys, and among tiie rest, Johan Tayspil, 
Commissioner and Director of the Colonie which the city of Amsterdam hath planted on the 
South river in New Netherland aforesaid, and to report thereupon. 


Resolution of the States -General. 

[ From Iho Register of I he Resolutions of the States-General, in the Royal Archives at Iho Hague. ] 

Wednesday, 23'' January, 16G4. 
Folio 48. Heard tlie Report of Mess" Huyeens and otiier their Hiarh Mightinesses' Deputies 

■Wesl India Com- /r- • »it • o o I 

pany- for the affairs of the West India Company, having, pursuant to their resolutions of 

tlie 20"' December last and the 21" inst., inspected and examined the iterated Remonstrances 
of the Directors of the aforesaid West India Company, the Commissioners of the Colonie of 
the city of Amsterdam, in New Netherland, and the Deputies of the General Assembly in 
New Netherland, containing a continuation of the complaints respecting the unlawful 
English proered- proceediugs to which the Englisli there have, for some time past, had recourse ; 

iogs in New Neth- » *^ ^ *-" r 7 

•^"■i"""'- praying that provision may be made in the premises; also, that the reiroacta be 

Tajspei. examined, the Remonstrants, or their Attorneys and, among the rest, John 

Tayspil, Commissioner and Director of the Colonie planted by the city of Amsterdam on the 
South river, in New Netherland, be verbally heard. Which, being considered, it is resolved 
and concluded, that the Ambassador to be soon sent to reside at the Court of the King of 
Great Britain, shall inter alia be given in command, there to urge and insist, with all earnestness 
and zeal, on the determination of the Boundary line between the English and the said West 
India Company in New Netherland, for the prevention of all troubles and alienations which 
otherwise are to be apprehended. 

Secondly. In respect to the subjects of the State, and in order to retain them meanwhile in 
obedience, that an act under the Great Seal shall be granted to the West India Company, 
containing and defining the limits of New Netherland, provisionally, agreeably to the provisional 
Boundary determined between both governments in the year 1650, and approved and ratified 
by their High Mightinesses on the 23"* February, 1656, until further negotiation with the said 
King; saving and without prejudice to the right which the aforesaid West India Company 
claims, by virtue of its charter and subsequent discovery and possession of New Netherland, to 
the Fresh river and other places situate there, without the limits aforesaid. 

Thirdly. That all the towns and places lying within the limits aforesaid, shall be written 
to; both those which have already betaken themselves under the authority of the English, 
and such as have been notified so to do; that the former shall return under the obedience 
of their High Mightinesses, and the latter remain under it, on pain of incurring their High 
Mightinesses' indignation, and of being punished as they, according to the exigencies of affairs, 
shall find fitting. 

Fourthly. That the aforesaid unlawful proceedings shall be communicated to the King by 
letter, with a serious request that his Majesty may be graciously pleased to issue orders 
in America at the earliest moment, for the immediate restoration of the towns and places in 
New Netherland invaded by his subjects, within the aforesaid limits, and for the cessation 
of all further usurpations ; also, that they regulate themselves precisely according to the 
aforementioned provisional Boundary, until as above, a pertinent Boundary shall be concluded 
and determined on for those parts between his Majesty and their High Mightinesses. 


Ordi^r cancel-)} ill ij the JJivi-sion of Houndai-ie-f in Ncio JS'ef/ierland. 

[ From llic O'l-oot PlacaH Bofk, II. ] 

The States-Ceneriil of the United Netherlands, To all who shall hear or see these, Health: — 
i!e it known. Whereas, for divers and weigiity reasons. We thought proper, in the year 1G"21, 
to erect and establish, in our country, a company called the West India Company, through the 
same alone, and to the exclusion of all others, to resort and trade to the coasts and countries 
of Africa, from the 'J'ropic o( Cancer to the Cape of Good Hope, and the ('ountries of America, 
or the West Indies, from the south end of Terra Nora through the Straits of Magellan 
and La Maire, or other passages and straits situate thereabout, unto the Strait of Angan, 
as well on the ,\orth as South Sea, and all islands lying on the one and the other side 
and betwixt both, and extending to the Australian or sonlhern countries, and lying between 
both Meridians, including, in the east, the Cape of Cood Hope and in the west, the east end 
of New Guinea. Granting, by the second article of the Charter of the 3'' of June, 1621, 
given to them under Our great seal, further and more particularly, that they, in Our name and 
by Our authority may, within tlie aforesaid limits, make and conclude contracts, treaties 
and alliances with the I'rinces and Natives of the countries contained therein, erect fortresses and 
strongiiolds there, appoint, remove and dismiss Governors, soldiers and officers of justice 
necessary for all other requisite services, for the conservation of the places, the maintenance 
of good order, police and justice, together with the promotion of trade, and others in their 
places to appoint, according as the same shall be found proper, and especially as it may best 
promote the peo[iliiig of fruitful and uninhabited countries; and the aforesaid company having, 
from the beginning, by virtue of the aforesaid charter, in conformity with (_)ur sincere intention, 
eslal)lislied their population and colonists on the coast of America, in the country called New 
Netherland, notwithstanding which some persons evil disposed towards our State and the said 
company, endeavor to misrepresent Our good and honest meaning, as the same is contained 
in the said charter, as if We had privileged the said company only to trade within the said 
limits, and not to colonize nor to plant settlements, nor take possession of lands, calling the 
company's right thereto in question. 

Wherefore We, being desirous to assure all, each, and every one whom it may concern, of 
our intention in the aforesaid Octroy, hereby declare Our meaning well and truly to have been 
and still to be, that the aforesaid company was and is still empowered to establish colonies and 
settlements on lands unoccupied by others, within the limits aforesaid, and particularly that 
the same (for the preservation of the right which devolved on them in virtue of the aforesaid 
charter, by discovery and occupation of the Fresh river and other places in New Netherland, 
situated more easterly, even unto Cape Cod, and from Cape Hinlopen and fifteen leagues 
further south, along the coast) could, by virtue of the aforesaid granted Charter provisionally, 
and until further agreement on a settled Boundary between the King of Great Britain and Us, 
adjust their limits conformably to the provisional division and Boundary concluded in America 
between both governments in the year 1G50, anci ratified by Us on the 22'' February, 1G56, 
which shall be as follows, to wit: On the main land from the west side of Greenwich bay, 
being about four miles from Stamford, and also to run inland in a northerly direction twenty 
miles, provided it approach not within ten miles of the North river. And further on Long 
Island, from the west side of Oyster bay in a straight line south unto the sea, remaining by 


provision and in conformity as before, the east part of the aforesaid island to the English, and 
tlie west to the said West India Company and the inhabitants of this country. 

W'lierefore We request all Emperors, Kings, llepuhlics, Princes, Potentates, Friends and 
Allies of this State, or Neutrals, to allow the afornsiiid West India Company to enjoy 
and possess the aforesaid limits in peace and quietness, which We shall freely reciprocate 
towards them on suitable occasions. We further expressly and strictly charge and command 
all, each, and every person in Our service, and under Our obedience, and especially the 
inhabitants within the aforesaid limits, punctually and precisely to regulate themselves 
according to the tenor of this, Our acic, without opposition, or acting or allowing others to act 
contrary thereto, on pain of incurring Our highest indignation and displeasure, and being, 
consequently, punished as contraveiiers of Our commands, according as the exigency of affairs 
shall demand. 

Given at the Hague, under Our great seal, the paraphure and signature of Our Clerk, on the 
23'' January, 16G4. 

States -General to the Toion-s in JVerv JSfetherland. 

\_ From the Register of UUgegam Biievpn oT the States-Geaeral, in the Knyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

The States, &c. 
To the towns of Eastdorp, Gravesend, Heemstede, Flushing, Middelburgh, Rustdorp, 
Amersfoort, Middewout, N. Utrecht, Breukelen and Boswyck, situate in N. Netherland. 

Honorable, wise and discreet friends: — It having, for some time, come to Our ears, through 
the complaint of the West India Company, that the English, in America, have sought, from 
time to time, notwithstanding the Provisional division of Boundaries concluded at Hartford ia 
1650, to settle within the district provisionally assigned to the above mentioned Company by 
the aforesaid division, and consequently in the places and villages situated within the samei 
having first given notice that these places should withdraw themselves from Our allegiance and 
repair under the English government; secondly, have deposed the Magistrates appointed there 
in Our name by the Director-General and Council, released them from their sworn oath, and 
established others again in their stead; the Magistrates appointed by the aforesaid Director 
and Council, regardless of that respect and obedience due to us as their superiors, offering no 
opposition thereto ; nay, on the contrary, as the English aver, soliciting these appointments. 
Therefore, We, desirous to provide against these and such like disorders, have resolved hereby 
well and strictly to charge you that in case you, forgetful of your plight, should have repaired 
under the government of the English, to return again under Our allegiance as soon as you 
have received these presents ; or, if you be further importuned by the English to come under 
them, to demean yourselves as those subjects do who still remain in Our allegiance, until We 
shall have agreed with the King of Great Britain on the Boundary, on pain, for contravening 
these, of experiencing Our severest indignation and displeasure, and of being punished according 
as the exigency of the matter may demand, which you will take into proper consideration. 
Wherewith ending, &c. 

At the Hague, the 23"* January, 1664. 


Director-General and Council of New Netherland to the Clminher at AtnMerdam. 

[ Trora the Ci'py in the Royal Archives at the Hague; Loketkas of the SlatCB-Oeneral; Rubticli, WpsI Indischc Compagni^ Xo, 67, 3d Division. ] 

Honorable, Wise, Prudent and lliglit Honorable. 

We find unanswered by us your Honors' letters, the first dated 25"" of June of last year, 
sent with the goods shipped on board the Vcrgulde Star, wherein nothing further remains to 
he answered than that the (ew goods that vessel contained on the Company's account, 
according to the invoice, were duly received. To our great inconvenience, and the greater 
disaccommodation of the almost bare and naked soldiers, we have seen nothing of the cloths 
and stuffs from Cura5ao for the clothing of this garrison, which were expected according 
to advice. 

Secondly. We received from the South river, on the 22'' December last, your Honors' letter 
by the ship the F urmtrlaiuhr Kerch, dated 11"" September, wherein you have been pleased to 
communicate to us the conveyance of that river to the Worshipf" government of the city of 
Amsterdam. The condition of the conveyance, viz., that no one is to be at liberty to trade 
there for the future, hath e.Ncited no little commotion among the inhabitants of this city, and 
no less, as we afterwards were informed, among the people there, both Dutch and Swedes, 
who have lived in those parts a great many years. God grant that no further troubles 
and commotion result therefrom, for reasons submitted to your Honors more fully and 
circumstantially in our long despatch dated 2'Z^ August, and forwarded by the ship Rooscboom. 
The present embarrassing position in which we and these good people are placed, does not 
in any wise permit us to indulge in any discussions, ^)ro or con., about the matter, but to 
commend the result to the most gracious God, heartily praying that it may turn out well. 
Your Honors' order for the conveyance and cession of that river has been punctually followed 
and obeyed, certainly, as far as the winter season hath permitted ; and whatever deficiency 
may have occurred on account of the winter, was without fail made good at the proper time. 

Shortly after this we received your Honors' favor of the 27"" September, dispatched by the 
ship Statyn, which contains, for the most part, what you had recommended in the foregoing 
one respecting the conveyance of the South river; but is extended somewhat further by your 
Honors' speculations on the complaints of some Netherland merchants already, as we are 
informed from another quarter, referred to your Honors and which were to have been referred 
here also, in case matters of greater importance, the total ruin of this your Honors' Province 
and so many hundred families, did not supervene. That also is the reason, then, of our 
postponing, for the present time, any answer to your Honors' letter; wherefore we do not 
anticipate nor apprehend the least dissatisfaction from the Right Worshipful government of the 
city. Deferring, then, this and many other matters of minor concernment to a more favorable 
time and opportunity, vN'e shall, to be brief, come, in process of time, to your Honors', however 
acceptable, still to us critical, letters of the 16"" and 30"" October of last year, received some 
8 (3^ 10 days ago by the ship St. Fitter, after having premised some short but needful 
information relative to the continuance of the proceedings and encroachments of the English 
on this your Honors' Province. 

In our last, by the ship St. Jacob, duplicate whereof accompanies this, we have stated and 
plainly shown, among other things, that although we should cede Westchester and the English 
towns on Long Island to the Colony of Hartford, it would not satisfy the latter. The proof 


and effect thereof manifested tliemselves shortly after the dispatch of our letter ; for, some 
English hoth from the East end of Long Island and from Gravesend, did secretly cross over 
the North river to the Newesings, lying behind Rensselaers hook, and there endeavored to 
purchase a tract of land, which they did afterwards, contrary to our express command, buy 
from the natives, according to the declarations of themselves and of some Indians, with the 
firm determination of settling there, contrary to our will and pleasure, also, notwithstanding 
the most and best of the land had been bought and paid for by us over 10 @^ 12 years ago, as 
appears by the authentic deeds thereof in existence. What we have done in opposition to 
those encroachments, your Honors can learn from the Appendix, N" , and further perceive 
what an unfair demand the Indians shortly after made against us for a parcel of land remaining 
yet unsold. Some blankets and cloths had been given them formerly on that account, oa 
condition that they should not sell any land here to others than your Honors' servants, which 
they promised, as appears by their signatures made in Court in presence of divers witnesses. 
The aforesaid Appendix [contains] the declaration they made and their subsequent demand. 
If your Honors correctly consider these, you will be able to understand and perceive from them 
that it is impossible for us to buy and pay for those still unpurchased lands, unless there be 
sent for that purpose nearly a cargo of goods, assorted as they ask, amounting to the sum 
of about fl. 4,000 for so small a parcel of land, the best of which has been already bought 
and paid for. Hence, then, is to be inferred, in addition to other injurious consequences, 
how wickedly the barbarians are stirred up against us and what injurious practices have 
been resorted to by our neighbors to oust your Honors and your good subjects from this 
their conquest. 

If your Honors will further please to allow your eyes to run over the Appendix N" 4, which 
is a daily record, with the addition of a Deduction and Remonstrance of the Dutch towns on 
Long Island, and the proofs thereunto belonging, against the conduct of one Captain John 
Schot, President, as he styles himself or allows himself to be styled, of the rebellious troop 
of over 150 horse and foot, your Honors will be able clearly to conclude that, not content with 
the English towns on Long Island only, but coveting all Long Island, yea, the entire Province 
of New Netherland, their intolerable menaces have no other object than to get our blood and 
that of our people up, and in a manner to drive us to some immediate opposition and resistance, 
or to have but one of their men wounded, imprisoned or in any way ill treated, in order 
therefrom to create a pretext to fall with a larger force on our people, to plunder and despoil 
them of all their property; all which more fully appears from the aforesaid daily record and 
papers annexed thereunto. We judge a duplicate account thereof to be unnecessary, and shall 
once more merely request and beseech your Honors to be pleased to take into serious 
consideration what your faithful servants have so repeatedly in many and divers letters, for a 
great number of years, but especially last year by the Rooscboom and Bontekoe, remonstrated, 
advised, requested and prayed on this subject, and not only your Honors' faithful subjects, 
but also your loyal subjects, now again make known and request, to wit: Prompt and 
immediate settlement of the Boundary, or effectual and immediate reinforcement of ships 
and men, of such quality and quantity as your Honors, in your more clear-sighted judgment, 
will deem proper, sufficient and fit to oppose the neighbors' threatening force. Otherwise we 
shall once more hold and declare ourselves, before your Honors and all whom it may concern, 
blameless and guiltless of all further damage, mischief and losses consequent hereupon, if we, 
your Honors' faithful and obedient servants, are not, upon such reiterated remonstrances, 


letters and petitions, seasonably seconded and advised iiovv we are to govern and comport 
ourselves, in tliis critical conjuncture, against such violent usurpers. Up to the present time, 
God be praised, not a drop ol blood has been slied, but little damage done, and vfe have not 
been deprived of anything, nor lost a fool of ground which an equal force cannot recover and 
retrieve, if no worse mishap be apprehended or looked for. And this, then, alone was and is 
still the chief reason vi'hy we have exhil)ited so much patience in the matter, certainly until 
we should hear and understand from your Honors what assistance we have to hope and expect, 
under God, from your Honors, or on your solicitation from their High Mightinesses. 

We are sorely perplexed by your Honors' two last letters received by the ship St. Pteler, 
first, in regard to not answering our previous letter, transniitted by the ships Purmcrlundir 
Kcrck and Eyckeboom, under date 14"" May, nor the last, dated 23'' August, sent by the ship 
llooseboom, both duly received as your last intimates, your Honors excusing your not answering 
them and deferring doing so to the next opportunity, on account of the want of time. This 
grieves and perplexes us, yea, makes us almost despair of any aid or assistance, and renders us 
utterly hopeless, the rather, as the ship Purmerlander Kerck, by which your Honors, yourselves, 
say the necessary settlement of the Boundary has been so repeatedly recommended, had arrived 
home about 14 (iK 15 weeks before the dispatch of your last, as appears by your Honors' letter 
bearing date S?"" September, received by the. ship Sfatijn. And, in regard to our very long 
letter dated the 23 ■* August, which went hence by the Rooseboom, it is to be inferred, from a 
private letter dated 23"' November, written by a member of your Honors' Board to the Cieneral 
by the ship St. Pieter, in answer to his; also, from the report of the passengers who have 
arrived, that the ships Rooseboom and Gulden Arent had reached home about 7 weeks before the 
St. Piaer had sailed. During that time some reinforcement, were it but 25, 30 @. 40 men, 
assuredly some supplies of necessary goods and munitions of war might have been prepared and 
sent ; at least one letter of advice and counsel been dispatched as to how your Honors' faithful, 
forsaken and almost hopeless servants and subjects should govern themselves in this so perilous 
a conjuncture, and whether they had to expect any aid, assistance and consolation to animate 
and encourage them. Yea, your Honors certainly intimate, by your own expressions, dated 
These arc iheir own 1^"" November, by way of the South river, per the Purmerlander Kerch, viz. : After 
\y words. jjjg conclusion of the peace between this State and England had prevented the 

English executing, by force of arms, their design as to the conquest of New Netherland, which 
had been disclosed for some years past, we could for a long time perceive that they have resorted 
to other means, such as creeping in, from which they were cut off by the aforesaid peace, &c.; 
as well as by the language which follows, besides many other expressions that your Honors, in 
addition to our so repeated remonstrances, solicitations and informations, have had suflicient 
time and notification regarding the threats against us, and what we had certainly to expect 
from that quarter, and on that account alone was it sufficiently requisite and necessary to send 
some relief to anxious and almost despairing subjects, and some advice to your Honors' faithful 
servants, whereupon to depend or whereby to regulate themselves. 

Of no less importance and anxiety is your Honors' advice and postscript regarding the secret 
XI expedition fitted out in Sweden under the command of the Swedish Vice-Admiral, Hendrick 
Gerritsen, a person well acquainted with the coast of New Netherland, inasmuch as he was 
employed here in the year 1(541 with the ship Neptunis from Curasao. And from this 
consideration, the more important is it that what your Honors recommend and order us about 
the delivery of the Company's cannon which consists of only 2 @^ 3 small pieces capable of 


doing but trifling execution, should be carefully attended to on the South river; and that the 
warning of the city's servants circulated all around both by land and water on the first fair 
weather, but we are fearful it will avail but little if matters turn out as your Honors advise ; 
viz., that there is a Swedish ship of 32 guns and another of 8 (3^ 10, manned, in addition to 
the customary crew, by 200 and more soldiers who were taken on board in passing the Sound. 
If this be as your Honors represent, 'tis to be feared that the city's servants and colonists 
there will offer but feeble resistance to that force, augmented by the Swedes and Fins 
heretofore settled there and recently arrived in the Purmerlander Kerk, who, we are informed, 
number, in all, about 200, at least 180 able bodied and resolute Carls ; when the latter are 
reinforced by the other 200 and the usual crew of the ships, because we are already informed, 
to our sorrow, of some new troubles and dissatisfaction between the city's servants and the 
old colonists, which we, for reasons, omit particularizing. From the aforesaid and many other 
circumstances 'tis greatly to be feared, in case both those ships have a design on, or hereafter 
aim at, that river, that the Hon'''° Company will be dispossessed of that fertile part of New 
Netherland, and the Worship" Regents frustrated in the expenses they have incurred, which 
may the All merciful God forfend. In case the unexpected attack be undertaken and the worst 
happen, we run the more danger of our malignant neighbors of the North being the earlier 
and more encouraged to commence their intended machinations against us from the other 
side, esteeming us wholly shut out from, and abandoned by, all help from Fatherland, which 
the best affected are apprehensive of and others have sufficiently belled around in the worst 
way. Yea, it excites in ourselves a strange emotion that your Honors and the Worshipful 
Commissioners over the city's Colonic have had such long and particular knowledge and 
information of this meditated expedition, and did not, conjointly, immediately and instantly 
request and apply to the Lords of the Admiralty, residing at Amsterdam, for a man-of-war, 
sufficiently powerful and fit to counteract so ruinous a design ; the rather as we have heretofore, 
on this and similar occasions, frequently observed and clearly shown to your Honors: 
Whosoever is master of the river by water, is, consequently, or soon will be, master of its 
weak fort and garrison. Your Honors have an instance of this in your own vigorous 
expedition in the year 1655, in the ship Waegh, when we were recommended and ordered to 
recover possession of the river; 40 soldiers were put on board that ship, carrying 34 guns, the 
ordinary crew of which numbered between 50 and GO seamen ; about 150 (S^ ICO militia were 
added and distributed among 3 @^ 4 smaller craft. The object was accomplished without 
bloodshed, and the subject is here referred to merely in proof of the proposition : Whoso is 
master of the river by water, is easily master of the fort, unless its garrison is seasonably 
supported and relieved by an equal naval force. This country affords no means for this; and 
consequently it is to be apprehended and feared, should the said Swedish ships come there 
and encounter nothing but the almost crumbling fort, that the warning already given and still 
shortly to be repeated, will avail them but little ; which may God forbid. 

From what is thus far stated, your Honors will please to observe how miserably we are 
situated here. If we are to be surprised on the South river by the Swede, according to your 
Honors' notice ; troubled on Long Island by malignant neighbors and English vassals, and on 
the other side by the barbarous Indians ; between three stools one falls to the ground, as the 
proverb has it. In regard to the first warning your Honors gave us to be on our guard, we 
thankfully acknowledge and shall attend to it as much as is in our power. As regards the 
Vol. II. 30 


other advices and recommendations, in your Honors' despatch, dated 27'" September, receivei? 
by the ship StaUjn — that the lines and places allotted to your Honors by the Provisional 
Boundary concluded at Hartford, must be maintained, and all undue usurpations and 
encroachments of the English neighbors resisted, and that the barbarous Indians, of whoni 
your Honors write in your last received by the St. Pieter, must now be utterly rooted out; 
you omit sending, on our so oft repeated requests, any reinforcement of men, ammunition, or 
other necessaries for clothing. This we again earnestly demand may be done without any 
delay or postponement. 

We forgot, in the regular order, what ought to have been remarked, and appears more fully 
under an NB. at the end of Appendix No. 4. Among other observations, John Schot stated and 
said : "That only one way and means remained open to put a stop to the commencement of 
the English claims on Long Island, viz., to see and come to an agreement, as soon as possible, 
with the Duke of York, inasmuch as he knew, for certain, that his Majesty had granted that 
Island to his Royal Highness, and that some had informed the aforesaid Duke that said Island 
could produce yearly several thousand pounds sterling," etc. This statement of his corroborates 
a certain letter in form of commission, written in favor of the aforesaid Schot to those of 
Long Island, copy whereof being handed to us, I have thought it necessary to annex it to the 
Appendix, N" 5. 

If your Honors will please to read this through and further to compare it with the above 
Narrative, you will be able to perceive, to your full regret, that not only Long Island but also 
the islands adjacent, whereof Manhattans and Staten Island are the nearest, have been fully 
given away by England's Majesty, and that he has ordered them to be fortified in his name, 
NB. for the security of his subjects and to prevent the interdicted trade, which, to the 
diminution of his Majesty's revenue, this place carried on in Barbadoes and Virginia tobacco, 
the execution and enforcing whereof is deferred to the pleasure of his Majesty's brother, the 
Duke of York. 

Right Honorable Gentlemen. If such palpable proofs cannot move you to remedy and 
remove such pretences by effecting, to that end, a settlement of the Boundary for the comfort 
and relief of so many hundred afflicted families, the good people will finally be obliged to 
submit, if not to loss of life and property, at least to be stripped of their lands, cattle and 
movables, if they refuse to become subject to the English government, as is more fully to be 
seen from the Appendices, to which, for brevity sake, we refer ; and thus ending, we shall 
commend your Honors, after cordial greeting, to God's care and protection ; and remain 

Dated Fort Amsterdam, in New Netherland, 
the last of February, A" 1664. 

Per the ship De Vergidde Starrt. 


Vhamber at Amsterdmn, to the Director and Council of New Netherland. 

\ 5'rom the Original in the Royal Arclii\-es at the Hague; Loktlkas of the States-General; Rubriclc. Wzst indUcH Campagnit, No. 57, 3d Division.! 

Honorable, Worthy, Dear, Faithful. 

Your complaining letter of the last of February of this year, by the ship Slar, being handed 
us on the day before yesterday, we have thought proper, notwithstanding our previous ample 
despatches dated the 20''" January and 2^ February of this year, to send you by the ship now 
on the poiat of sailing, this short answer to your aforesaid letter. 

Passing over the particulars of your Honors' aforesaid letter and all the rest, we will 
frankly acknowledge and as frankly admit, that the country under your Honors' government 
hath experienced much annoyance and trouble for many years past in consequence of the 
unlawful proceedings of the English, and that you have, in divers letters, fully and largely 
enough demonstrated the dang^ to us. But we also insist that you will not, whilst complaining, 
accuse us, notwithstanding our previous knowledge of that danger, irrespective of the 
information subtnitted to us from time to time as a remedy therefor, of having so little 
understood the state of New Netherland as that you and our people should call themselves 
abandoned. On the contrary, that your Honors, paying attention and opening your eyes in 
order to see what we have done, will acknowledge that we have been affected by the 
misfortunes of our New Netherland possessions, and have made use of every means to maintain 
them and the people to such an extent, that we still do not doubt but you, pledging that what 
was just now said to have been lost can be recovered by a like force, will, on receipt of our 
Jast letters of the 20*'' January and 2* February, and inclosures thereunto belonging, with the 
military sent for assistance and defence, determine that our inhabitants ought not to submit to 
the English yoke and not lose their properties; admonishing you once more to employ every 
available effort to preserve the country, whilst we shall not fail, by all means in our power, 
to accomplish whatever can be effected here. 

We had better have expected from your Honors, who are on the spot, the advice which you 
request from us, than to write hence under many unknown circumstances. But hereupon we 
shall refer to our despatches dated 20* January and 2^ February ; and particularly repeat that 
we consider the military sent to, and now with, your Honors, to be, in our opinion, sufficient 
to execute our orders of the 2^ February, under your Honors' prudent command and wise 
direction. We are impelled to this conclusion, on the one hand, by your letter of the last of 
February, in which we find that all this game is played by a rebellious band of only one 
hundred and fifty men ; a number our people will be fully able to resist, and which, apparently, 
will not receive any aid or support from elsewhere, because the other three English Colonies 
consider their actions unlawful, and Governor Wintrop, himself, not approving of it, will not 
permit those who, according to your previous letters, had made themselves masters of 
Westchester, without his knowledge, to be now, with his knowledge, assisted. 

We are impelled to it, on the other hand, by the news we receive from England, according 
to which his Royal Majesty of Great Britain, being inclined to reduce all his kingdoms under 
one form of government in Church and State, hath taken care that Commissioners are ready 
in England to repair to New England to install Bishops there the same as in Old England ; 
because we believe that the English of the North, who mostly left England for the aforesaid 


causes, will not give us, henceforth, so much trouble, and will prefer to live under us with 
freedom of conscience, rather than risk that in order to be rid of our authority and then again 
to fall unde.- a government from which they formerly fled. 

Tiiese two reasons, we hope, will serve your Honors for speculation in the disposal of our 
forces and aid greatly in executing our intention and maintaining our conquests by means of 
the above force, without any difficulty, until a final agreement shall be concluded on. 

The settlement of the Boundary itself, so long attempted, begins now also to put on another 
aspect, partly through our eilbrts and partly through other circumstances and actions between 
the East India Company and ours, which happened with the English some time since on the 
coast of Africa and in the East Indies. We and those of the East Indies having had various 
engagements with the English on account of the trade to one place and the other, their High 
Mightinesses have been importuned by the English with divers complaints, yea, and threats. 
These being brought forward in the Assembly of their Noble, Great Mightinesses, the Lords 
States of Holland and Westfriesland, were referred to and e;?hmined by a Committee, who 
have reported that their High Mightinesses will be always troubled with such questions unless 
a general settlement of Boundaries between both nations, in all parts of the world, be agreed 
upon. This being drawn up on the 3^ or 4"" instant, when our Commissioners, then at the 
Hague, afforded all the assistance in their power; their Noble Mightinesses adjourning on 
the 5"" to the SQ"", on account of the Easter Holidays, the matter will be brought in on their 
re-meeting and supported at least by evidence wherever practicable. We shall then press it 
with all means in our power, so that we hope, in a short time, your Honors will be relieved 
from threatening danger. Meanwhile, we heartily wish that we had here authenticated copies 
of all contracts entered into with the Indians regarding the property of the lands, in order to 
be assisted thereby in the discussions on the Boundary question ; howbeit we are perfectly 
aware that in the case of a dispute de limitibus imperij, it will, for the most part, be decided, 
especially as far as our discovery and occupation will be substantiated, that whosoever, be 
they English or others, shall purchase property from Indians or others within the limits of 
our authority, are even so subject to our jurisdiction ; and, accordingly, the English under our 
authority, settling on their own purchased lands and residing within the limits of our jurisdiction, 
shall be constrained out of those documents alone, to afford us satisfaction. 

The Swedish expedition of Admiral Hendrick Gerritsen Zeehelm, being wonderfully 
obstructed by the hand of God, relieves you from all apprehension and dread of his arrival, 
and us from much trouble in carrying out your advice. For said Admiral having sailed from 
Sweden in the month of , first ran aground before Landts croo7i;^ having miraculously 

got ofT, he passed the Sound and with his attendant ship struck on the island of Anont,* 
where the smallest vessel was wrecked, with all her stores. The larger having touched the 
reef a little, 'twas found necessary to run for Gottenburgh ; her compasses being unshipped by 
the aforesaid grounding, she again ran ashore on this voyage. But finally being dismantled at 
Gottenburg all the hands were discharged. So ended that voyage. In case he resume it we 
shall take good care, according to your advice, to request the ship-of-war from the Admiralty. 

Having now answered your Honors' letter of the last of February, as far as time permits, 
we shall take the earliest opportunity to have the papers received by us with the aforesaid 
despatch translated, examined and answered, insomuch as this has been omitted herein, and 

' Kear Helsinberg, iq Denmark, at tb« uorth entrance of the Sound. ' Sie. Querc? Anliolt — Ed. 


then communicate what we, in that regard, have resolved to lay before their High Mightiness^, 
and what we have accomplished. 

Honorable, Worthy, Dear, Faithful, 

We shall commend you to God's protection, and remain 

Your good friends. 
The Directors of the Incorporated West India Company, 
Chamber at Amsterdam. 

(Signed), Cornelis Clerk, P. F. 
Amsterdam, this 21" April, 1664. Abr. Wilmerdonx. 

Charles II. to the Governors of New England. 

Extract from the letter sent by his Majesty of England to the government of 
New England, beginning: 

"Charles Rex: 

Trusty and well beloved, we greet you well. Having taken very much to heart the welfare, 
&c." Subscribed: 

Given at our Court, at Whitehall, the SS* April, 1664, in the XVI"" year of our reign. 

Beneath was : 

By his Majesty's order. (Signed), Henry Bennet. 

That we may protect our subjects of our several plantations from the invasions of their 
neighbors and provide that no subjects of our neighbor nations, how allied soever with us, 
may possess themselves of any lands or rivers within our territories and dominions, as we are 
informed the Dutch have lately done, to the prejudice of our good subjects of those our 
plantations and to the obstructions of trade, which, in time, may prove very mischievous to 
our good subjects there. 

And, therefore, we cannot but be confident that when our Commissioners have imparted 
unto you our pleasure in this particular and the benefit and advantage which, with God's 
blessing, must accrue to yourselves from the same besides the preventing many growing 
inconveniences to your peace and prosperity, you will join and assist them vigorously in 
recovering our right in those places now possessed by the Dutch and reducing them to an 
entire obedience and submission to our government. In which case our desire and pleasure 
is that they should be treated as neighbors and fellow subjects, and enjoy, quietly, what they 
are possessed of by their honest industry.' 

' For the above letter in full, see, foit, III., 61. — Ed. 


Resident Appelhoom to tlie States -Gene7-al. 

[ From the Original in the Roj'al Archives at the Hague ; File, Duitschland. ] 

Whereas the undersigned Resident of his Royal Majesty of Sweden, since he had the honor 
to appear at your High Mightinesses' Assembly, hath several weeks ago requested a conference 
with your High Mightinesses' Deputies, which was granted to him shortly afterwards, and the 
same was postponed from time to time, and howbeit he hath learned by private visits that an 
answer shall be given him before he, the Resident, hath explained himself in such conference 
concerning what was given him exclusively in command, said Resident, in order to consume 
the least time, hereby will make known to your High Mightinesses the contents of what he 
hath had to submit at such conference, respectfully requesting that your High Mightinesses 
may be graciously pleased to pay attention thereunto, and to allow him, the Resident, to be 
furnished with a wished for answer and declaration thereupon, as your High Mightinesses, in 
your profound wisdom, shall deem most suitable for the maintenance of just friendship and 
correspondence between both States. 

Dated at the Hague, the 19''' June, Anno 1664. 

(Signed), Harald Appelboom. 

To the Committee of the States-General. 

Noble and Mighty Lords. 

The credentials of his Royal Majesty, my most gracious Lord, delivered to their High 
Mightinesses on the 20'" of May, have sufficiently assured their High Mightinesses that his 
Royal ^L^jesly hath nothing more at heart than to meditate on the old and reliable friendship 
and alliance which existed continuously between his Royal Majesty's ancestors and their High 
Mightinesses for nearly time immemorial, and that consequently his Royal Majesty hath an 
exceeding great desire to cultivate mutual confidence and correspondence, and, on the other 
hand, with the consent of both sides, to remove all whatever might be found hindersome and 
injurious thereto. 

1° And whereas, in regard to the so called Elucidation of the lately concluded Treaty of 
Elbing, divers incongruities, obscurities, difficulties, contradictions and impossibilities now and 
then have manifested themselves, which give a shock to the ancient friendship in sundry 
instances, his Royal Majesty hath instructed me to hold a conference thereupon with their 
High Mightinesses or with you, Noble Mighty, in their name, to remove all such obstacles to 
friendship, and with conjoined hands to lift up what, through the iniquity of the times^ may be 
wrongly introduced. 

Immediately on proposing the Elucidation in the year 1660, serious debates arose thereon 
between the Royal Commissioners and their High Mightinesses' Ministers, and the difficulties 
and inconveniences contained in the aforesaid Elucidation were pointed out to their High 
Mightinesses' Ambassadors, but as the said Ambassadors, at that time, alleged the precise orders 
which they had on the subject, promising to make a report of the objections, and held out a 
hope that this State would perceive their justice, and that everything would be redressed, 
therefore, fully confiding injustice and such like promises, at the time, we would not interrupt 
the negotiations of friendship on that account, nor insist on those objections, but did proceed 
to the conclusion of the negotiation. 


Experience afterwards demonstrated the injury done by the Elucidation to the maintenance 
of friendship. His Royal Majesty, in order to obviate such obstacles, hath appointed 
Commissioners to treat thereof with Mr. Heinsius,' their High Mightinesses' Resident. 

Who, after holding some conferences, excused himself, when his Most Illustrious Majesty 
most graciously instructed me to resume here the conference thereupon, and by the production 
of pregnant reasons, to invite their High Mightinesses to revoke and rescind the aforesaid 
obscure, ofTensive and in many places impracticable acte of Elucidation, whereunto it is hoped 
their High Mightinesses will not offer any objection. 

2° Respecting the second point: Their High Mightinesses are now again, as they have 
heretofore been, requested to pay the subsidy promised by the treaty of the year 1640. True, 
indeed, it is that said treaty was directed principally against Denmark, but that article has been 
extended by the late treaty of Elbingh, against all others, and his Royal Majesty having 
been since attacked by the Muscovite, the Emperor, Denmark and Brandenburgh, the promised 
subsidies must also be regulated and multiplied by the number of enemies. 

3° The third point opposes the Dutch Souud dues {Veylgelt^), which, being imposed on 
Baltic wares and trade, mostly oppressing the kingdom of Sweden, their High Mightinesses 
were requested also to abolish the same, as it was not fair that one ally should be thus 
indirectly aggrieved by the other. 

4° Furthermore, I hereby hold, as renewed, the request of good and prompt expedition, 
reparation and satisfaction in the complaints heretofore so frequently made, and again repeated 
in regard to the Royal Swedish American and African Company and the matter of the 
Groo/jan, &c. Confident that their High Mightinesses will at once issue orders for the removal 

of all such like unfriendly acts. 

(Signed), H. Appelboom. 
Dated at the Hague, 19"" June, 1664. 

Resolution of the States -General. 

[From the Register of West India Affairs, 1664 — 16T0, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hogae. ] 

Thursday, 19'" June, 1664. 
Folio 15. Rea,di to the Assembly a certain Memorial of Mr. Appelboom, resident of the 

King of Sweden, and a certain other writing exhibited with it and addressed to Mess" Huygens 
and the other their High Mightinesses' Deputies for the aflfairs of Sweden, setting forth, in 

' NiooiAAS HuNsins, one of the Datch poets, was born at Leyden in the year 1620. After completing his studies, he made 
the tour of France and Italy, where he occupied himself in comparing the published editions of the Latin Poets with the 
ancient MSS. On his return, he settled in hia native city ; in course of time, his reputation as a poet came to the ears of 
Queen Christina, of Sweden, who, in consequence, invited him to Stockholm, where he was appointed Resident by the States- 
General. After filling that post for several years, he returned to Holland and settled at Vianen, where he died in the year 
1681, in the 6l8t year of his age. Besides his own poetry, he wrote notes on the works of Ovid, Claudian, Valerins Flaceus 
and Vellejus Paterculus {Kok, XX., 516), which also contains his portrait. — Ed. 

' In the year 1646, their High Mightinesses ordered that all ships and wares going from Holland to the Baltic and coming 
thence to Holland, should pay a veylgelt, in proportion to the tolls levied in the Sound by the King of Denmark, the pro- 
ceeds of which went to support the fleet maintained for the protection of Dutch trade to that sea. Aitzema, 4to., XL, 487. 



substance, the points whereupon he desires a conference with them, according to foregoing 
resolution of the committee {resolutie commissoriael) ; the first, respecting the Elucidation on 
the lately concluded Elbing treaty ; the second, the payment of the subsidies promised by the 
treaty of the year 1640; the third, the Dutch Sound dues {veijlgclt) ; the fourth, and last, 
the reparation and satisfaction of the complaints heretofore made in regard to the Royal 
Swedish American Swedish American and African Company. Which, being considered, it is 

and African Com- ' , a^ • \ 

pany- resolved and concluded that the retroacta \n the aforesaid respective aiiairs be 

looked up by the Agent de Heyde, and when afterwards written out, shall be handed to the 
said Deputies of their High Mightinesses, to be used in the aforesaid conference according 
to circumstances. 

Resident Appelhoom to tlie States -General. 

[ From the Original in Ibe Koyal Archives at the Hague; File, DuiUcJdand,'\ 

The undersigned Resident of his Royal Majesty of Sweden hath many years ago, and namely 
on the SS""* March, of the year 1G56, by express command of his Royal Majesty, made known to 
your High Mightinesses that those of the West India Company of this country had, the year 
before, attacked unexpectedly and with force of arms, the Swedish Colony planted on the South 
river of Florida, in America, sacked their forts, expelled their inhabitants and thus thoroughly 
stripped the Swedish Company of their district, which they had purchased on the aforesaid 
South river from the natives and right owners of the country, and possessed optimojure et titulo 
several years in peace. Which information and complaints have not been followed, as they 
ought, in justice, to have indeed been, by any satisfaction or redress, at that time nor since, nor 
up to this moment; therefore, the aforesaid Resident doth now, on further instructions from his 
most excellent Royal Majesty, hereby renew his previous complaints, and consequently amicably 
requests your High Mightinesses to be graciously pleased to order the aforesaid West India 
Company to restore the aforesaid wrested lands to the Swedish Company in integrum, and 
reimburse it all losses and damages it has suflered, and that so much the more and the speedier, 
lest his Royal Majesty's subjects may experience still further prejudice in their rights and 
properties, as it was understood from that side that the said West India Company of this country 
were themselves now questioned by others in those parts. 

As this will be conformable to equity and mutual friendship and alliance, so doth his Royal 
Majesty indubitably expect it from your High Mightinesses. 

Furthermore, the aforesaid Resident doth also request a speedy and desirable answer on the 
points by him now recently handed in to your High Mightinesses' Deputies, and whereupon 
they, without doubt, will make a report to your High Mightinesses' assembly. 

(Signed), Harald Appelboom. 
Done at the Hague the 27"' June, 1G64. 


Further Memorial delivered by his Swedish Majesty's Resident, to their High 
Mightinesses, in support of the good and complete right of the Swedish 
Crown and its subjects to Nova Suecia, in America. 

t Altiema; Saacken van Staet en Oarlogh, V. 247 ; 4lo. XI., 492. ] 

Summarily to deduce the said right, agreeably to the said Resident's Memorials of the 22""* 
March, 1656, and 27"" June, 1664, the fact is, that the district of Nova Suecia, lying on the 
west side of the South river of Florida, in America, was not taken, purchased nor bought from 
any Netherlanders or Hollanders, to whom it never hath belonged ; but from the Indians 
themselves, whose property it was, and at a time when it still lay wild, vacant and waste, and 
uninhabited by any'European nation. Which Indians, as the right owners of that country, 
delivered up and conveyed the same to the Crown of Sweden and its subjects after due 
purchase and treaty, and fixed and established the limits thereof by erecting the Swedish arms, 
as the same appears by the thereon executed documents and acts signed and ratified by the 
true owners and proprietors of those lands, who, though Indians, have among themselves their 
form of government, justice and policy, whereby they, after their manner, retain each his 
own ; and they being master and lord of their own country have, also, consequently, the 
power to sell and alienate the same as they think proper. The Crown of Sweden having 
acquired, then, the aforesaid country by good title, its possession thereof has, therefore, been 
lawful, without affording the West India Company here any pretext for saying that it has 
been injured ; the intention having never been to disturb the same in its property. 

It appears by the published maps of New Netheriand, that the aforesaid West India 
Company are in possession, on the South river, fifteen leagues up, of a fort called Nassau, which 
fort will not be called in question here, it lying on the opposite, or eastern bank of the river. 
The West India Company may deduce their right therefrom, but said fort can, by no means, give 
them any jurisdiction over Nova Suecia, which is altogether separated from New Netheriand 
by the aforesaid river, and lies on the west side thereof, where the Crown of Sweden caused 
Fort Christina to be built, which was the first fortification erected there after the acquisition 
of that district, where the Royal Swedish Governor has always duly maintained the respect 
and jurisdiction of the Crown of Sweden, and even preserved good understanding and 
neighborhood with the Hollanders on the North river, in order the better to exclude, by 
united action, other nations. It were to be desired that this union continued, and that the 
West India Company could have been content with what they were possessing. But the said 
Company, seeing that the west bank of the river, on Nova Suecia, was the best land, and that 
the Swedes had purchased the same from the right "owners, and held i\\\% juUo litulo, had 
recourse to divers expedients to obtain a foothold on the same side of the river, but having 
been informed by the inhabitants how far the Swedish limits extended, could not well 
accomplish their purpose, so long as the Swedish Governor maintained his right. They took 
their residence far down in the Bay and acted with the Indians in wild disorder, who would 
repel their violence with similar violence, but were unable. 

By such, and no other right, did the West India Company afterwards, from time to time, 

render themselves, more and more, masters in the South river, being, besides that, also, more 

powerful in the North river than the Swedes, especially as the Swedes had experienced some 

delay and inconvenience in the transportation of their ordinary garrisons and people. This 

Vol. II. 31 


gave the advantage to the West India Company, and they, pressing forward in Nova Suecia, 
forcibly tore down the boundary marlts and Swedish arms far and near, and constructed a fort 
two leagues below Fort Christina, on Swedish territory. The said place was afterwards wrested 
again from them, but the West India Company thereupon sending a ship from Amsterdam 
thither, with ammunition and troops, they had recourse to such extreme violence and hostility 
that they seized on the whole of Nova Suecia; stripped Fort Christina of all its guns 
and ammunition ; forced tiie Swedish Colonists in those parts to swear fealty and homage, and, 
regardless of right, dragged everything after them, wherein they still persist, and strengthen 
themselves more and more ; debauching not only the Swedish inhabitants who happen to be 
there, but even drawing and conveying from Finland and Old Sweden, additional inhabitants 
to be employed in their service in New Sweden, as the Swedish people are more conversant 
with, and understand better than any other nation, the cultivation of pasture, wood and tillage 
land, fishing, hunting and fowling. 

His most sacred Majesty could not observe, without resentment, such proceedings and 
enormities, and hopes that they will be regarded by their High Mightinesses with such 
indignation that the West India Company of this country shall be constrained to render due 
restitution and satisfaction in all these premises. For, hath the Crown of Sweden acquired 
Nova Suecia justly ? Was the same in lawful possession thereof? Hath the West India 
Company here deprived the Swedish Crown thereof by force and violence? Doth the said 
Company still persist in its injustice and wrong? It is, then, proper and highly necessary, 
that provision should at once be made, that the aforesaid Company be brought to reason, and 
restore back what they are unjustly occupying, with indemnity for all caused loss and injuries, 
which his most sacred Majesty expects from their High Mightinesses without further delay. 

Resolution of the States-Gener'al. 

[ From Ibe Eegister of West iQdia Affairs, 1 GG4 — 1670, ia the F.oyal Aroblvea at the Hague. ] 

Friday, 27"' June, 1C64. 
Folio 16. Read at the Assembly a certain Memorial of Resident Appelboom, to the effect 

= .• .. .,.., that restitution be made to the Swedish African Company of the lands formerly 

Swedish African r J J 

Company. takcu from them by the West India Company of this country, on the South river 

of Florida ; also that he, the Resident, may obtain a speedy answer on the points by him 
recently submitted to their High Mightinesses' Deputies. Which being considered, it is resolved 
and concluded that the aforesaid Memorial shall be placed in the hands of the attending Directors 
of the aforesaid West India Company, to write down the unsettled differences between the two 
Companies, so as to enable them and to be prepared to arrange the same in a friendly way. 


West India Company to tlie Burgomastei's of Amsterdam. 

[ From the Muniment Register^ E., 1, in the Stad ITui/s, Amsterdam.] 

Right Worshipful, 

Holland Docaments '^^^ Dircctors of the Wcst India Company have, for a long time, observed the 
XV., 109. jealousy which the English Nation hath entertained of the trade and commerce 

of this country, endeavoring, by all means, to embarrass and obstruct the same; which not 
succeeding, according to their desire, by crafty practices and other subterfuges, they have now 
not hesitated to advance their projects by open force, and to this end, under pretext of 
reinforcing Tangiers, have dispatched, in December, Major Homes east, with six ships of war, 
and one merchantman, which in February following have attacked and seized Cape Verd 
^ , and its fort, and have taken, besides, 4 ships and merchandise according to the 

The Beclaration ^ ~ 

wa7'°raa"e™bp"o'"re Declaration hereunto annexed, continuing their voyage further along the coast 
Bch'aef, M^'june'^ of Affica and towards Guinea, of whose success there cannot be any tidings 
as yet in this country, but information has been received from a sure source, that 
in February, 5 ships more followed from England to the coast of Africa, and 3 or 4 weeks 
later, a large ship and a yacht with provisions and ammunition to victual Cape Verd ; also, on 
the 25"" of last May, 4 ships sailed from Portsmouth with 300 soldiers to take possession of 
New Netherland, or at least of Long Island, in 2 important towns of which, depending on 
this State, they last year forcibly deposed the Dutch magistrates, in whose place they appointed 
English ones. 

We will not doubt but your Worships will be of opinion that by these proceedings of the 
English, the entire coast of Africa and all New Netherland are endangered, unless provision 
be made in the premises promptly and without delay. We have, therefore, given orders that 
the same be laid before the High and Mighty Lords States-General, with a request that the 
West India Company, which, at present, hath 4 or 5 ships ready to sail, and destined for 
Guinea and the coast of Africa, may be assisted with two or 3 ships of war and 300 soldiers 
to serve as a convoy of said ships and to recapture Cape Verd, and whatever else has been 
seized by the English on the coast of Guinea ; likewise, for the establishment and protection 
of the posts and places belonging to this State. In like manner we request that the Company, 
in this difficulty, may be assisted with 300 soldiers as a reinforcement for New Netherland, 
and a ship of war to oppose the English designs there. 

And whereas, for the conveyance of those soldiers to Guinea and New Netherland, 4 
flyboats, at least, will be required, besides munitions of war, provisions and other necessaries, 
with 2 months' wages, which the soldiers are accustomed to receive in advance; and Holland 
consented, in the year 1656, to furnish 60,000 gl. for the security of the castle of Mina and the 
coast of Guinea against a certain attack which was threatened by the English and Portuguese, 
which security, at that time, was effected by the Company, who sent out soldiers, ammunition 
and ships, without the Provinces having fulfilled their voted share of the above mentioned 
60,000 gl., with the exception of Gelderlant and Groningen ; the Directors, therefore, request 
your Worships to be pleased to grant letters to Mr. Tulp^ and the other your Deputies at the 
Hague, to the end that we may, at the earliest moment, obtain the contingent of Holland in 
the above named 60,000 gl., and that from the moneys now last appropriated for naval affairs. 

' Supra, p. 21, note 1. — Ed. 


Commismonerfi of the Colonie on the Delaware River to the Burgommter-s of 


[ From the Muniment Register, E., 2, in Ihe St<td Buys, Amsterdam. ] 

To the Right Worshipful, the Burgomasters of this city Amsterdam. 
„ „ J „ . The Commissioners for the management of the South river in New Netherland, 

Holland Documents, ~ ' 

•''^■' "^" having understood that the designs of the English were aimed not only at the 

coast of Africa (as experience hath certainly shown), but also at the conquest of New Netherland, 
■whereunto they have dispatched 3 @. 4 ships with 300 soldiers on board ; said Commissioners 
are therefore troubled, tlie rather, as tliey are not without reason of opinion that your Worships' 
Colonie on the South river incurs great danger and risk of invasion, for, although from previous 
proceedings and frivolous pretences of the neighboring English in the north there, Long Island 
and the North river will have, in all probability, to bear the first shock; yet, 'tis sure and certain 
that the South river will not be left unmolested, but will be afterwards invaded by them, and 
the rather, because this nation in that country is possessed of one particular idea, absolutely 
maintaining that, in such case (which, God forefend), they would soon be forgotten, because the 
Colonie is esteemed of little value by the Worshipful Regents, as is very expressly stated by 
Director Alexander d'Hinojossa in his letters last received, the summary whereof has beeo 
communicated some days ago to your Worships. 

This imminent danger being then so much apprehended, the Commissioners are, under 
correction, of opinion, that this city should principally be interested, not only on account of the 
trade which is carried on from this place to that conquest in general, but specially of its Colonie 
on the South river, which finally is exhibiting, after such a great expense, so favorable an 
appearance. It being alleged, and this hope being held out in reference to the fertility of the 
soil, which is capableof producing all sorts of Baltic commodities and other foreign productions, 
that at least 10,000 skepels of wheat were to be expected here from thence within two years, 
after which it will increase and improve more and more every year, and therefore will realize 
an annual profit of several thousands, which can also be seen from the aforesaid summary of the 
Director's letters. 

And, as we are informed, that the Directors of the West India Company have already requested 
your Worships' favorable recommendation to your Deputies at the Hague, to the end that they 
be maintained against such designs of the English on that country, and assisted by at least one 
ship of war and a good number of soldiers, the Commissioners, out of respect for the interest 
which your Worships have in common therein, considered it their duty hereby to second the 
aforesaid Company, and accordingly respectfully to request your Worships so to direct this 
matter, that so trifling an aid may be granted by the State, in order to prevent such inimical 
designs, and consequently to preserve a conquest of such appearance. 

Relying thereupon, &c. 


Resolution of the Common Council of Amsterdam, 

[ From tha Reiolutiin van d* Vroedschapp&ji, D., ISO, in the Stad Iluys^ Amsterdam. ] 

S^"- July, 1664. 
x'v.?6s.'^™'°'^°"' ^^^^ a Memorial of the Directors of the West India Company respecting the 
w'lt"'?nlia'°C(^- appli<;ationsraade by said Company to the State for assistance against the violence 
^"°^" which the EngMsh have had recourse to on the coast of Africa, and also threatened 

in New Netherland, which contains likewise a request from the aforesaid for letters to Mess", 
the Deputies from this city, to the end that the aforesaid Company may most speedily obtain the 
Holland contingent of sixty thousand guilders, voted in the year 165G for the security of the castle 
de Mina and the coast of Guinea, and that from the moneys now lately appropriated for naval 
affairs. Moreover, 5s presented a Memorial of the Commissioners for the management of the 
South river in New Netherland, in substance that the above mentioned assistance may be 
facilitated and effected for the protection of the conquests there and preservation of this city's 
Colonie, according to both the aforesaid Memorials enregistered in Muniment Register, E., fols. 
i and 2. Which being considered. Mess" Joan de Poll,' Pieter Cloeck, Dr. Gillis Valckenier 
and Dr. Frans Reael are requested and appointed to examine the aforesaid Memorials, and to 
report their opinions and advice thereon. Saving this. Mess", the Deputies, are authorized and 
instructed to attend to and promote the business wiiich shall be transacted at the Hague in this 
case, and to communicate the result thereof to this Board. 

Resolution of the Common Council of Amsiei'dam. 

[ From the Retohitien van de Vroedtchappen, D., J3S, Iq the Stad Suys, Amsterdam. J 

16* July, 1664. 
Sonsnd Docnment*, H«ard the opinions and advice of Committee of this Council, which pursuant 
.,.^'''°'. .V -^ .and for the fulfillment of its resolution, dated S* instant, examined a Memorial 

To asMst the West 

India Company. ^f j^i,g Directors of the West India Company respecting the applications made 
to the State on behalf of that Company, to be assisted against the violence to which the 
English have had recourse on the coast of Africa and also threatened New Netherland with. 
Which Memorial contains likewise a request for letters to Mess", the Deputies from this city, 
to the end that the Company aforesaid may most speedily obtain the Holland contingent of 
sixty thousand guilders, voted in the year 1656, for the security of the Castle del Mina and 
the coast of Guinea, and that from the moneys now lately appropriated for naval affairs. The 
aforesaid Commissioners having in like manner considered the contents of a similar Memorial 
of the Commissioners for superintending the South river of New Netherland, to the effect 

' Jan van de Poll belonged to an ancient Amsterdam family. He was Commissary in 1638, Schepen in 1640, Councillor 
an 1646, and finally elevated, in 1653, to the office of Burgomaster of his native city, which post he filled six times; for the 
last time, in 1672, when, on the suspicion of being an adherent of the De Witts, he was deprived of the office on the order 
of William IIL, Prin«6 of Orange. K^>k. — E». 


that the above mentioned assistance, for the protection of the countries there and preservation ^ 
of this city's Colonic, may be facilitated and granted according to both the aforesaid Memorials 
enregistered in the Muniment Register, E., fol. 1, et seq. Which being considered, it ia 
resolved and concluded that on the part of this city all assistance and good offices shall be 
contributed, to the end that the aforesaid Company be aided with the ships and soldiers 
required, to serve as a convoy of the said Company's ships ; also for the garrisoning and 
preservation of the forts and places belonging to this State in Guinea and further coast of 
Africa ; for the reinforcement of New Netherland and resistance of the violence designed against 
the countries there. In this wise, however, that said ships of war and soldiers be not employed 
in the recapture of Cape Verd, or whatever else might have been taken by the English on the 
coast aforesaid, nor in any other offensive acts. In like manner Mess" the Deputies will please 
facilitate and further the payment to the Company of the above mentioned quota of Holland, 
in the said 00,000 gl., in order to its being employed both in the transportation of the aforesaid 
soldiers and in the purchase of ammunition of war and other necessaries. 

Resolution of the States-General. 

( From the Eeglsler of West India AETalra, 1664 — 16T0, in the Eojal Archives at the Hagne. ] 

Friday, IS"- August, 1664. 
FoiioM. The two distinct Memorials respectively delivered by Mr. Appelboom, Resident 

Sweden. of tlic King of Swcdcn, on the IQ"" and 27"" June, to their High Mightinesses and 

their Committee, are again brought before the meeting, requesting, among other things, that 
good and prompt expedition, reparation and satisfaction be at once given on the complaints 
African and Ameri- heretofore frequently brought forward by those of the Swedish Royal African 
cancompany. Company against those of the West India Company of this country; also that 

the Swedish American Company be reintegrated in a certain Swedish Colonie, having 
occupied the South river of Florida, in America, whence they were driven by those of said 
West India Company of this country. Which being considered, it is resolved and concluded 
that Resident Appelboom was, on the aforesaid, first informed in a verbal conference with Mr. 
Van Braeckel and other their High Mightinesses' Deputies for the affairs of Sweden, and 
afterwards by written answer, that their High Mightinesses were ready, and had also fully 
authorized their Deputies to treat and conclude amicably upon the aforesaid African and Guinea 
differences with his Majesty or those authorized by him. And, regarding the second point, as 
their High Mightinesses will have need of further information as to the alleged violence 
committed by those of the West India of these parts on the Swedish nation in America, at the 
South river of Florida or elsewhere; that, therefore, Mr. Appelboom's Memorial mentioning 
it, shall be sent to the Presiding Chamber of said West India Company of this country, in 
order that it may communicate information thereupon, to the end that, on receipt of such 
information, and the same being seen by the Assembly, further resolution be taken thereupon 
as to the exigency of affairs may appertain. 


States -General to tlie Directors of the West India Company. 

[From the Begteter of Uitgegan£ Brieven of the States-General, In the Koyal Archives at the Hague. 1 

To the Presiding Chamber of the West India Company of this country ; IS"" August, 1664. 

The States, &c. 
Folio 235. Honorable, &c. We send you herewith the annexed copy of the Memorial 

herebefore presented by Resident Appelboom,to the effect that the Swedish African Company 
may be reintegrated in a certain Swedish Colony, occupying the South river of Florida, in 
America, whence they had been expelled by those of the West India Company, requesting and 
requiring you to transmit your information thereupon at the earliest moment. Whereunto, &c. 
At the Hague, the IS"" August, 1664. 

Resolution of the States-General. 

[ From the Register of West India Affairs, 1664 — 1670, in the Eoyal Arohlvea at the Hague. ) 

Tuesday, IQ"- August, 1664. 
Folio 24. On consideration, it is resolved and concluded that their High Mightinesses' 

Deputies for the affairs of Sweden here present, shall, notwithstanding the absence of some 
of the Committee, proceed to a verbal conference with Mr. Resident Appelboom 

Appelboom. . ' i • <• i i, • 

Conference. oo the poluts expresscd in their High Mightinesses' resolution of the 15'" instant, 

and report thereupon. 

Resolution of the States -General. 

[ From the Hegliler of West India Affairs, 1664 — 1670, in the Eoyal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Monday, SS'"" August, 1664. 
F011027. Received four letters from Ambassador Van Gogh, all written at Chelsea the 

Amh'ssador Van , n n i •., 

0"gi>- le"" and 22'' instant, three of which are addressed to Secretary Ruysch, with two 

The King's answer. . . f.t ^r^ r/-. it>-j.-iJ' 

Affairs or Guinea appeudices, whereof one is a written answer of the King of Great Britain to divers 
IndiaComVan^'"' Mofflorials of Said Ambassador presented to his Majesty ; the translation of the 
answer, so far as relates to the affairs of Guinea and the complaints which the King makes 
against the West India Company of this country is hereinafter inserted. Which, being 
considered, it is resolved and concluded that all the aforesaid letters, with the appendices, shall 
be placed in the hands of the attending Deputies of their High Mightinesses for the affairs 
of England, to inspect, examine and report thereon, and the hereinafter inserted letters shall 


be sent to the Chamber of the above menlioned Company at Amsterdam, if it have any 
information in addition to what is contained in the letter of the 23'* instant, received and read 
this day. This resolution shall be dispatched without reconsideration. 

Hemonatrmiee of the People &f Ne^o Neikerhmi to the Director -General and Coimcil. 

[ Fruin tho Copy in the Royal Archivt-* at th& Hague; File, West IndU. J 

Right Honorable f We, your sorrowful commonalty and subjects, beg to represent, with al! 
humility, that having, beforehand, for our own Yindieation before God and man, in these sad 
and difficult circumstances, maturely considered and deliberately weighed what is necessary to 
be done and concluded at this critical and urgent conjuncture, we cannot conscientiously foresee 
that anything else is to be expected for this fort and city of Manhattans (as your Honors must 
be convinced), than misery, sorrow, conflagration, the dishonor of women, murder of children 
in their cradles, and, in a word, the absolute ruin and destruction of about fifteen hundred 
innocent souls, only two iiundred and fifty of whom are capable of bearing arms, unless you 
be pleased to adjust matters according to the conjuncture of the time. 

Your Honors are, in the first place, better aware than we, that four of the English King's 
frigates are now lying in the road at Nyack, with six hundred soldiers, not only ordered hither 
by his Majesty, but bearing also commissions to all the Governors of New England (a populous 
and thickly inhabited country), to impress troops, in addition to the forces already on board, for 
the purpose of reducing New NetherSand to his Majesty's obedience. In compliance with that 
commission, the English General hath sent divers letters to your Honors, summoning this city and 
Fort Manhattans, promising, in case we voluntarily submit, that we shall not experience the 
least loss or damage, but, on the contrary, should we prove obstinate and headstrong, we must 
expect the aforesaid miseries and misfortunes. 

These threats would not have been at all regarded, could your Honors or we, your petitioners, 
expect the smallest aid or succor. But (God help us!), whether we turn us for assistance to 
the north or to the south, to the east or to tiie west, 'tis all vain ! On all sides are we 
encompassed and hemmed in by our enemies. If, on the other hand, we examine our interna) 
strength, alas! it is so feeble and impotent that, unless we ascribe the circumstances to the 
mercy of God, we cannot sufficiently express our astonishment that the foe should have granted 
us so long a reprieve, inasmuch as he could have delivered us a prey and plunder to the 
soldiery after one summons. 

We shall now examine your Honors' fortress. You know, in your own consciences, that it 
is incapable of making head three days against so powerful an enemy. Granting, even that 
it could hold out and contend against its assailants one, two, three, four, five or six months 
(which, to our sorrow, it cannot), it is still undeniable that it cannot save the smallest portion 
of our entire city, our property and (what is dearer to us), our wives and children, from total 
ruin, for, after considerable bloodshed, even the fort itself could not be preserved. Wherefore, 
to prevent and arrest all the aforesaid misfortunes, we humbly, and in bitterness of heart, 
implore your Honors not to reject the conditions of so generous a foe, but to be pleased to meet 



him in the speediest, best and most reputable manner. Otherwise (which God forbid), are we 
obliged, before God and the world, to protest against and call down on your Honors the 
vengeance of Heaven for all the innocent blood which shall be shed in consequence of your 
Honors' obstinacy, inasmuch as the Commissioners have to-day informed us, that the aforesaid 
English General has stated and threatened that he shall not wait longer than this day. 

We trust your Honors will not question that to God, who seeks not the death of a sinner, 
belongs obedience, rather than to man. We feel certain, therefore, that your Honors will 
exhibit yourselves, in this pressing exigency and sorrowful season, as men and Christians, and 
conclude, with God's help, an honorable and reasonable capitulation which, may the Lord our 
God, in His great mercy, be pleased to grant us ! Amen. 

Vol. H, 

Hendrick Kip, 

Balthazar Stuyvesant, 

Abrara Wilmerdoncx, 

Martin Kregier, Jr., 

Timotheus Gabrie, 

Stephanus van Cortlant, 

Cornells Pluviers, 

Hendrick Bosch, 

Hend. Janss. van der Vin, 

Jeronimus Ebbingh, 

Isaack de Foreest, 

Arent Janss. Moesman, 

Symon Janss. Romeyn, 

Willem Raasenburgh, 

Tomes Davidts, 

Reynout Reynoutss, his mark, 

Balthasaer de Haert, 

Evert Duyckingh, 

Boele Roeloft's, 

N. Varleth, 

Johannes van Brugh, 

P. L. van de Grift, 

Cornells Steenwyck, 

Jacob Backer, 

Pieter Tonneman, 

Isaack Grevenraat, 

Nicolas Demeyer, 

Allard Antoni, 

Jacob Kip, 


Hendrick Obe, 

Tomas Hal, 

Jochim Beeckman, his mark, 

Jurian Blanck, 


Jan Janss. Preste, his mark, 

Johannes de Peyster, 

Oloff Stevens : van Cortlant, 

Lodewyck Pos, 

Govert Loockermans, 

Conraet ten Eyck, 

Cornells Clopper, 

Anthony de Mill, 

Hendrick van de Water, 

Gerrit Jansz, 

Jan Hendrickss. 

Hendrick Hendrickss. 

Dionys Isaacqs, 

Jan Brouwer, 

Arent Isaacqs, 

Jacob Teunisse, 

Allard Koninck, 

Andries Rees, 

Jan Vinge, 

Pieter Stoutenburgh, 

Hendrick van Dyck, 

Nicolas De la Plaine, 

Cornells Gerloffs, 

Warnaer Wessels, 

Herraen Wessels, 

Alexander Hulter, 

Tomas Lamberts, 

Frerick Arents, 

Abram Klock, 

Isaacq Bedloo, 

Pieter Winster, 

Jan Gerrits van Buytenhuyse, 

Jonas Bartels, 

Meyndert Barents, his mark, 



Luycas Dircks, 
Cornells Janss : 
Tousein Bryel, his mark, 
Jan Cornells van Hooren, 
Jacob Leyseler, 
Claes Janss: Backer, 
Gullllam D'lloneur, 
Isaacq Coustrier, 
Isaacq Kip, 
Frederick Geysbertse, 
Egbert Meynderls, 
Barent Kours, 
Paul Richard, 

Jan Dircks Meyer, 

Daniel Verveele, 

Jacob Leunens, 

Johannes Nevius, 

Jacob van Kouwenhoven, 

Hans Kierstede, 

Jacob Hugens, 

Ambrosius de Weerhem, his mark, 

Lambert Huyberts Mol, 

Abram Verplanck, 

Jan Jans van Sint Obiju, his mark, 

Abel Hardenbroeck. 

5"" Sept', 1GG4. 

Articles of Capitulation on tlie Reduction of New Neflierland. 

[General EDlries, I., 1664—1665, p. 23, in SecroUry of State's Oflaw, Albany, N. T. ] 

These Articles following were consented to by the persons hereunder subscribed 
at the Governor's Bowry, August 27'", Old Style, 16G4. 


We consent that the States-General or West India Company shall freely enjoy all farms 
and houses (except such as are in the forts), and that within six months they shall have free 
liberty to transport all such arms and ammunition as now do belong to them, or else they 
shall be paid for them. 

All public houses shall continue for the uses which they are now for. 


All people shall still continue free denizens and enjoy their lands, houses, goods, shipps, 
wheresoever they are within this country, and dispose of them as they please. 

If any inhabitant have a mind to remove himself he shall have a year and six weeks from 
this day to remove himself, wife, children, servants, goods, and to dispose of his lands here. 

If any officer of State, or Public Minister of State, have a mind to go for England, they 
shall be transported, freight free, in his Majesty's frigates, when these frigates shall return 



It is consented to, that any people may freely come from the Netherlands and plant In this 
country, and that Dutch vessels may freely come hither, and any of the Dutch may freely 
return home, or send any sort of merchandise home in vessels of their own country. 


All ships from the Netherlands, or any other place, and goods therein, shall be received 
here and sent hence after the manner which formerly they were before our coming hither for 
six months next ensuing. 


The Dutch here shall enjoy the liberty of their consciences in Divine Worship and church 


No Dutchman here, or Dutch ship here, shall, upon any occasion, be prest to serve in 
war, against any nation whatever. 


That the townsmen of the Manhatoes shall not have any soldier quartered upon them 
without being satisfied and paid for them by their officers, and that at this present, if the fort 
be not capable of lodging all the soldiers, then the Burgomaster, by his officers, shall appoint 
some houses capable to receive them. 

The Dutch here shall enjoy their own customs concerning their inheritances. 


All publique writings and records which concern the inheritances of any people, or the 
reglement of the church, or poor, or orphans, shall be carefully kept by those in whose hands 
they are, and such writings as particularly concern the States-General, may, at any time, be 
sent to them. 


No judgment that hath passed any judicature here shall be called in question, but if any 
conceive that he hath not had justice done him, if he apply himself to the States-General the 
other party shall be bound to answer for y' supposed injury. 

If any Dutch living here shall, at any time, desire to travel or traffic into England, or any 
place or plantation in obedience to his Majesty of England, or with the Indians, he shall 
have (upon his request to the Governor) a certificate that he is a free denizen of this place, 
and liberty to do so. 

If it do appear that there is a public engagement of debt by the town of the Manhatoes, 
and a way agreed on for the satisfying of that engagement, it is agreed that the same way 
proposed shall go on, and that the engagement shall be satisfied. 


All inferior civil officers and magistrates shall continue as now they are (if they please), 
till the customary time of new election, and then new ones to be chosen, by themselves, 
provided that such new chosen magistrates shall take the oath of allegiance to his Majesty of 
England before they enter upon their office. 

All differences of contracts and bargains made before this day by any in this country, shall 
be determined according to the manner of the Dutch. 

If it does appear that the West India Company of Amsterdam do really owe any sums of 
money to any persons here, it is agreed that recognition and other duties payable by ships 
going for the Netherlands be continued for six months longer. 


The officers, military and soldiers, shall march out, with their arms, drums beating and 
colors flying, and lighted matches, and if any of them will plant they shall have 50 acres of 
land set out for them, if any of them will serve any as servants, they shall continue with all 
safety, and become free denizens afterwards. 

If at any time hereafter the King of Great Britain and the States of the Netherland, do 
agree that this place and country be re-delivered into the hands of the said States whensoever 
his Majesty will send his commands to re-deliver it, it shall immediately be done. 


That the town of Manhatans shall choose Deputies, and those Deputies shall have free 
voices in all public affairs, as much as any other Deputies. 

Those who have any propriety in any houses in the fort of Orange, shall (if they please) 
slight the fortifications there, and then enjoy all their houses, as all people do where there is 
no fort. 


If there be any soldiers that will go into Holland, and if the Company of West India, in 
Amsterdam, or any private persons here will transport them into Holland, then they shall 
have a safe passport from Colonel Richard NicoUs, Deputy Governor under his Royal Highness 
and the other Commissioners, to defend the ships that shall transport such soldiers, and all 
the goods in them from any surprisal or acts of hostility to be done by any of his Majesty's 
ships or subjects. 

That the copies of the King's grant to his Royal Highness and the copy of his Royal 
Highness' commission to Col' Richard Nicolls, testified by two Commissioners more, and Mr. 
Winthrop to be true copies, shall be delivered to the Hon''''' Mr. Stuyvesant, the present 
Governor, on Monday next by eight of the clock in the morning, at the Old mill. 


On tfeese articles being consented to and signed by Col. Richard Nicolls, D«puty Governor 
to his Royal Highness, within two hours after, the fort and town called New Amsterdam, upon 
the Isle of Manhatoes, shall be delivered into the hands of the said Col' Richard Nicolls by the 
service ef such as shall be by him deputed by his hand and seal. 

John de Decker, Robert Carr, 

Nigh: Verleet, Geo: Cartwright, 

Sam : Megapolensis, John Winthrop, 

Cornelius Steenwick, Sam : Willys, 

Oloffe Stevensen Koetlant, Thomas Clarke, 

Jaams Cousseau. John Pincheon. 

Ambassador Van Gogh to Secretary Ruysch. 

5 ^om I£k Or^ijsal in tfee Keyo! Arckives &t the IlAgue, Divisien, Engdand; Secretekas B., Lol-st L., Ne. 124, in Ka^ F., Zof:^ C-, No. 4. j 


I received, by the last post, at the regular time, two duplicates of their High Mightinesses' 
resolutions of the 27''-' and 2S'* of August, with the accompanying papers, of which I shall, 
with all submission, make use, on the proper occasion, as I have more fully stated in my last. 

Yesterday, one Claes Bret of Graft near Amsterdam, skipper and pilot, as he declared, of 
the ship de Slerre, belonging to Amsterdam aforesaid, being come to the Exchange, related, 
that on the first of June last the aforesaid ship, the Ster7-e, having obtained a full load in the 
Virginias in the name of an English skipper, he dispatched her homewards, and proceeded, in 
person, in a ketch to the Manhaltes and thence by New Ncikerland to the Island of Jersey; 
having sold his load of tobacco, he came, in person, thence hither. That, being at New 
Netherland, he had understood that the English had taken Lo7ig Island from the Dutch by one 
Captain Schot, with a number of people who were impressed on the aforementioned island 
and elsewhere, by orders and commission from the Duke of York, as the aforesaid Captain 
had given out. 

Further. It was reported by the English there that as soon as the fleet, which they were 
expecting from England, should have arrived, they intended to attack and, if possible, to master 
the city of Amsterdam and other places thereabouts, maintaining that such places, of right, 
belonged to them, and that the Dutch had no right in the world thereto, and that they had 
occupied and settled them in bad faith. Furthermore, that General Stuijiesa?it, having been 
informed of the aforesaid, had already issued good orders for the defence of the place, being 
able, as he declared, to enrol a good number of people from among the inhabitants thereabout, 
to the number of two thousand men, who were already appointed to keep watch on alternate 
nights. The preceding Declaration being brought to me, I have made every effort to speak 
with the aforesaid skipper, in order to take fuller information respecting everything, but could 
not succeed by reason, as it seems, that he could not find any time for such business whilst 
preparing for the voyage to Netherland, and was intending to proceed in all haste thither. 


Wherefore, whenever said ship shall have arrived in Fatherland, further knowledge will have 
to be sought there as to the truth hereof. 

The officials, appointed by the King to congratulate and to further introduce foreign 
Ministers, who have paid their respects to their High Mightinesses' Ambassador on his arrival 
here, have not, as yet, been presented with the fees thereto belonging. I wish their High 
Mightinesses would please to have the goodness to bear this in mind, and that I were, therefore, 
acquitted on that head. Tiiey are many in number, viz', the Master of tlie Ceremonies, his 
Deputy and also the clerks of the King's Secretary, and some others who write and are daily 
kept busy with translations, etc., all to the end that more willing service may, therefore, be 
expected from them all round and on every occasion. In regard to the minor officials, such as 
the Masters of the King's barges, coaches, &c., who have been employed and engaged in the 
said introduction, they have been already satisfied by me. Whereupon, with all submission, 
] shall await their High Mightinesses' pleasure. 

The present composition of the equipments here on the river and in other ports; also the 
design, which it is pretended, is in view, in order to be set to work on the coast of Africa, are 
communicated to their High Mightinesses in a separate despatch, hereunto annexed, which 
is of such importance that I have thought I dare not risk the security of its delivery 
exclusively to the ordinary post, but will dispatch an express in order to assure as much 
certainty for the aforesaid delivery as I can in any way think of. I hope their High 
Mightinesses will please to approve this, as it is done for the public interest. And your Honor 
is most earnestly requested to manage the communication thereof with all possible secrecy. 
Herewith I remain, 

Chelsea, 1%- September. Your humble servant. 

Received lO"" September, 1664. (Signed), M. Van Gogh.' 

West India Company to the States -General. 

[ From the Original, ia Iho Koyal Archives at the Hague ; File, Engeland. ] 

To the High and Mighty Lords, States-General of the United Netherlands. 

High and Mighty Lords. 

The Directors of the General Incorporated West India Company, of this country, having 
received your High Mightinesses' letter dated the SS"" of August, inclosing certain Memorial 
delivered on the same day, by the King of Great Britain's Extraordinary Ambassador to 
you, High and Mighty, with some points ; in order to prevent all inconveniences and 

'Michael van Goaii was born at Flushing, of which city he was afterwar^ls Pensionary; in 1655 was Deputy fi'om the 
Province of Zealand to tlie Rrkenkamer or Board of audit On 22d July, 1660, he was appointed Ambassador to the Court of 
England, where he arrived on the 1st November following. He returned to Holland in 1602 and was again sent Ambassador 
to London in 1664. He sailed from Scheveningen on the 17th of June, and reached England a few days afterwards. Ho was 
recalled in December, 1665, and arrived at the Hague llth January, 1066. In 1667 ho was appointed Councillor of Flushing, 
and died in the year 1669. KoVa Vaderlandtch Woordenboek, XVlll., i6S. — En. 


misunderstanding between the East and West India Companies of the respective nations 
within the limits of tiieir respective charters, we could not omit, in obedience to tlie aforesaid, 
your High Mightinesses' orders, submitting these annexed Observations to you, to serve your 
High Mightinesses for information, respectfully requesting that the same may be favorably 

Which doing, etc., 
Read G"- October, 1664. (Signed), Mich' Ten Hove. 

Observations of the West India Company on Sir George Downing's Memorial, 

High and Mighty Lords. 

As the intention of the Envoy Extraordinary of his Royal Majesty, the King of Great Britain, 
in his Memorial of the 25"' August, appears to aim at the removal of all misunderstandings 
which may arise between the respective Companies of both nations, and, on the other hand, 
the West India Company of this country has, notwithstanding their just complaints, always 
been inclined to contribute everything to be relieved in one way or the other, within the limits 
of their charter, from the proceedings of the English nation for some years past, so please you. 
High and Mighty, to be assured that the West India Company of this country will be extremely 
rejoiced if any means can be devised whereby the above mentioned trouble can in future be 
obviated. And therefore willingly proceeding, with all submission, to the examination of the 
points which are proposed by the Envoy as ingredients of the regulation between both 
Companies, the Directors of the aforesaid Company will, before coming to the examination of 
the particular points, first of all humbly request your High Mightinesses to be graciously pleased 
once more to object to the Envoy the unlawful proceedings which the Englisii iiave, for some 
years, had recourse to in America against the West India Company of this country, and those 
executed a few months ago on the coast of Africa, without the least appearance of justice ; and 
accordingly that the lands, fortresses, towns and jurisdictions, with their dependencies, also 
the ships and goods which the English have taken from this State and Company, both in America 
and Africa, by no other right than vi et armata manu, shall be restored, before fixing and concluding 
a rule by which each side shall have to regulate itself, and therefore that the King's orders to 
that effect may be dispatched by an express boat, and the Company allowed to send some person 
therein, in order to resume possession of the captured places ; and that, when proceeding to the 
aforesaid regulation, regard be had, not only to the extent of the charter granted by his Royal 
Majesty of England to the Royal Company, but also to the contents of the charter given by 
your High Mightinesses to the West India Company, and that, accordingly, the regulation may 
not only be reckoned between both Companies for so much as their charters have given 
respectively in the one and the other country, but against all those of the English nation who. 
within the limits of the charter of the West India Company of this country, carry on trade, 
traffic and have planted any Colonies, under special patent from the aforesaid, and, above 
all things, that to this end a Boundary line be at the same time specially fixed in America, 
where the English, for some years past, have now done nothing else than dispossess the Company 
of one place after the other ; the letters now received by the Company from New Netherland, 
most expressly importing that the Duke of York hath, agreeably to the complaints made to 
your High Mightinesses by the Company of this country, finally, by means of his soldiery, brought 
under England the whole of Long Island, whereon are nine (al ten considerable villages, and 
hath sent additional force from New England to attack Amsterdam, the capital, and thereby 


to erase the name of New Netlierland from tlie raap, and to cause a loss of millions to the 

And herewitfi, coming to llie first point of the draft of tlie above named Envoy, reflecting, as 
?t appears, on tiie question in lemui'is, occurring between tlie respective Companies, your High 
Mightinesses will please to consi<ler that tlie Directors of the West India Company, so faj- as 
regards their district and the kingdom foand therein, are, under correction, of opinion that, in 
order to conclude such a point, great distinction nriust, above all tilings, be drawn between tiie 
places situate in Europe and those found svithin the limits of their charter, inasmuch as all 
the places situate in Europe can be invested by land and water. Anoliier reason in their regard 
is, as in the places situate on the coast of Africa, which, on account of the insalubrity of the 
country, can be invested only by water, and as, consequently, what can be sustained in regard 
of the places in Europe, is not wholly applicable to those, a»d therefore, in order, simultaneously, 
to accomplish what appears reasonable in European places, and practicable in African, it ought to 
be agreed that one place, being invested by one of the Companies by water and not by land, the 
other Company shall be at liberty to trade by land with the inhabitants thereof; and if the place 
be besieged by land, the other Company shall vice versa be at liberty to come by water to the 
beleaguered place, it being, with subn^ission, very unreasonable that the one Company should 
be allowed to pass forces to a place which the other had, as it were, closely blockaded. Your 
High Mightinesses, yourselves, also appeaV to have nearly perceived this in 7"" article of the 
Marine Treaty concluded with the King of Spain, vsrhich forbade all commerce in a place which 
shall be besieged, blockaded or {(juod nGla) beset. 

The second point being agreeable to practice, and introduced by divers treaties between the 
Potentates of Europe, mutuo consensu, almost as a law of nations, might be agreed to; only in 
order to obviate many inconveniences, the ships wherein such articles of contraband are found, 
must also go to the place where those who seized the above mentioned contraband goods, wiJI 
discharge the same, without, however, being subject to confiscation, unless in case of 
resistance; the above named Directors referring to your High Mightinesses' profound wisdom 
to dispose of this article in such wise as shall be found best, as it concerns the maxims of the 
State more than the interest of the Company. 

The third point being restricted agreeably to reasonableness, might also be passed, provided 
that there be, accordingly, added to it — unless those who had erected a fortress on any coast, 
possess, at the same time, the jurisdiction or property of the lauds, or had privately contracted 
with the Chiefs of the country for trading, and in all cases, if none of these conditions be found 
attached to such fortress, those who will trade shall not be allowed to repair within range of 
the cannon of the fort or to any further distance than may be allowed, which is the practice 
observed by the English in Barbadoes, Jamaica, .New England and Guinea. 

The fourth, when regulated according to a reasonable distance, can be also practiced. 

The fifth article, being a case which never occurred within the limits of the West India 
Company, except it may be applied in future to what is laid down by the Company in the 3^ 
point in regard to private trade, it may, under correction, be enacted that one Company having 
prosecuted trade with a nation which was obliged privately to trade with the other, shall not 
be incommoded on that account, but when found in aclu, may, indeed, be prevented continuing 
80 to do ; and, above all things, the contracted merchandise, or goods not yet delivered, may 
be seized; especially if the contracts entered into privately with the nations, continue, so that 
the Company which hath contracted shall be empowered to prevent all trade with its 
inhabitants within its jurisdiction. 


On the sixth article, which concerns, principally, this State, the Company submits it again 
to your High Miglitinesses' profound wisdom, since it is directly contrary to the condition 
entered into by your Higli Miglitinesses with the King of Spain in the IS"" article of the Treaty 
of Marine ; and there are other examples that proceedings have heretofore been in this country 
in conformity to Mr. Douwningh's Memoir. 

The seventh is altogether reasonable and without stipulated conditions, necessary. 

The eighth is also agreeable to reason, being not only practised within the limits of the 
charter but throughout the entire world, and your High Mightinesses' placards of the years 
lG-24, 1632, and 1057, being still in force, which were enacted against the subjects, inhabitants 
of this Slate and those who, having served the Company, engage in the service of foreign 

Tiie ninth article, explanation only being given respecting the Captains or Commanders who 
are not in the English service in contravention of the above mentioned placards, might be agreed 
to in so far as they and their ships belong effectually to the English, and are not fitted out 
here contrary to your High Mightinesses' placards and express resolutions; but further 
explanation ought to be given of the words (or to any nation or people with whom each 
Company trades); for hereby it is understood that one Company being at war with a nation 
which is at peace with the other Company, should not attack the ships of its enemy because 
they had a pass from the other Company (which appears to be Mr. Downingh's intention); thus 
'twould be in the power of the one always to protect and defend the Company's enemies. 

The tenth article is also, under correction, reasonable whenever the following conditions are 
added to it, to wit: First, that the ships of the West India Company of this country shall 
be at liberty, free and unimpeded, to make use of all harbors within the limits of its charter, 
and of all the harbors of Great Britain, Ireland and circumjacent islands, without being subject 
to any seizure by any person or for what cause soever, but that those who have any claim 
against them, must address themselves for justice here, without Incommoding its ships on 
that account, in their going out or returning. Secondly, that the ships of the one Company 
which come, on the above named occasions, into the harbors of the other Company, shall not 
be at liberty, in any case, to pursue trade or barter there, on pain of confiscation. Thirdly, 
that the number of ships be proportioned to the strength of the harbors which they enter, and 
shall depart as soon as the necessity shall have passed away which drove them into port. 

The eleventh point concerns the East India Company. 

As the first part of the twelfth concerns the West India Company of this country, the 
above named Directors will humbly request your High Mightinesses to be pleased to remembar 
that the West India Company, on the 23"* of August, when answering a memorial of Mr. 
Douwningh of the 14"' of August, informed your High Mightinesses, that the notice given by 
Director-General John Valckenburgh was merely to save the right which the Company 
thought it had, without any insults being offered to the Crown of England, which, if offered, 
would indeed be ground to demand redress; but yet, when two parties are disputing about 
the property of a thing, it must be considered as unheard of, that he even who was in the 
wrong should be ordered specificially to recall the reasons alleged in support of his right. In 
any case, this is not a point on which a place should be summoned wherein the object of the 
thing can be reached without such recall. And if ever any Notice, Protest or Declaration 
ought to be revoked, truly 'tis that of one Selwyn served on the above named Director- 
General on the 14"' June, 1664, not because the reasons adduced in support of his right should 
Vol. II. 33 


demand it, but on account of the scandalous insults therein perversely inserted against the 
profound respect of your Higii Mightinesses and the reputation of the Company. 

Herewith trusting that your High Mightinesses' intention and orders have l)een fulfilled, 
the above named Directors most humbly request your High Mightinesses to be pleased to pay 
favorable attention to the above recited considerations, and chiefly to the restitution of what 
has been previously demanded, and to maintain the Company, by tiie strong arm of the nation, 

in its just right. 

Which doing, &c. 

(Signed), Mich' Ten Hove. 
Indorsed : 

West India Company. 
Exhibited G" October, 1G64. 

-.♦*> ♦ ». 

Hesolution of the States -General. 

[ From the Register of West Inlia Affairs, 16M— 167", in the Kojrol Arcliiycs at the Hagne. ) 

Monday, 6"" October, 1G64. 
roBo63. Read at the meeting a certain Memoir of the Directors of the West India 

Company, with which they, in compliance with their High Mightinesses' letter of the twenty- 
fifth of August last, exhibited their written information and considerations on the Memoir 
presented on the same day to their High Mightinesses by Mr. Downing, Ambassador 
Ecguiaiion for pre- Extraordinary of theKingof Great Britain, with the points accompanyinarlhe same, 

Ttmlng oil disor- J n r r ./ o 

ders in the Indie., for obviatiug all incoDveniences and misunderstandings between the East and West 
India Companies of the respective nations within the limits of their respective grants. Wliich 
being considered, it is resolved and concluded that the aforesaid Memoir and information shall 
be placed in the hands of Mess" Van Ommeren and the other their High Mightinesses' Deputies 
for the afllairs of England, to inspect, examine and thereupon to report. 

West India Company to the States-General. 

[ From the Orlgioal, In the Uoyal Arcluvci at the Hague ; File, Witt Indif. ] 

The Directors of the General Incorporated West India Company of this country having 
received your High Mightinesses' special letter, dated 15"' of August last, to communicate to 
you information respecting a certain Memoir of Resident Appelboom, say in obedience thereto 
that they have laid before you already, in the year 165G, information on the complaints made 
by the above named Resident, on the Si""" March of that year, and then communicated to your 
High Mightinesses that the Incorporated West India Company of this country hath, in the year 
1G2G, taken possession of the South river, situate in New Netherland, in the Northern part of 
America, and said possession having been, with consent of the natives of that country, peaceably 


and quietly continued until the year 163S, wiien some private inhabitants of this State, forgetting 
the duty they owed their fatherland, engaged themselves to some subjects of the Crown of 
Sweden, and thus combined, succeeded in obtaining a commission from the aforesaid Crown, by 
virtue whereof they did settle down together on the above mentioned South river, in the name of 
a Swedish Company, notwithstanding divers protests of the servants of the aforesaid West India 
Company, which they minded so little, that they not only have, from time to time, usurped 
more and more land and grounds, purchased and occupied for many years by said West India 
Company, but usually comported themselves in such wise, that the trade for the inhabitants of 
this State was spoiled, navigation obstructed and divers bouweries and plantations at once ruined ; 
which aforesaid proceedings of the Swedish Company, though of themselves intolerable, yet 
liave those of the West India Company been unwilling to oppose by force, in order to avoid 
giving any occasion for difficulties between both nations. But that was not the intention of the 
aforesaid Swedish Company, which, designing to make itself master of the entire South river, 
and being emboldened by the patience and peaceableness of the aforesaid West India Company, 
did indeed dare to put its scheme into execution in the year 1654, in violation of the law of 
nations, for when, in the month of May of that year, a new Governor came there with some 
people to the South river on the part of the aforesaid Swedish Company, he immediately seized 
the fortresses of this State, stripped the West India Company's soldiers of their arms and drove 
them away and compelled the people to swear allegiance to him, or to leave. This, coming to 
the ears of the Director-General of the aforesaid West India Company residing in the city of 
New Amsterdam, he, on the first opportunity, caused restitution thereof to be demanded. But, 
receiving nothing but menaces in return, he finally could not help resenting the received wrong. 
Accordingly, in the year 1655, he departed with his forces for the said South river, and again 
reduced, under the obedience of this State, what it had so unjustly been robbed of. And, as it 
is sufficiently apparent therefrom that no improper proceedings were resorted to by the West 
India Company, it therefore trusts that your High Mightinesses will perceive that these 
complaints are renewed after a lapse of eight years more, for form sake, and because the 
Company were seized, justly or unjustly, of all sides, than because it hath committed an injustice, 
and will accordingly, from the above named grievances excuse the Company, which, having 
ceded to the city of Amsterdam all its rigiit on the South river, doth no longer possess the place. 

Which doing, etc. 

(Signed), Mich' Ten Hove. 
g"- October, 1661. 16-i2o64:. 

Resolution of the States-General, 

\_ From the Eegisterof West Indii Affairs, 1664 — 1670, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ) 

Thursday, Q"" October, 1664. 
Foiiofis. Read at the meeting, a certain Memoir of the Directors of the West India 

Company of this country, communicating, in obedience to their High Mightinesses' letter of 
the 15"" August last, information on the memorial presented to their High Mightinesses by 
Swedish Africaa '^'"" Appleboom respecting the affairs which occurred in the South River, situate 
Company. j^ ]>jg^ Nctherland, in the Northern part of America, between the officera of 


said Company ami those of the Swedisli African Company: Winch, being considered, it is 
resolved and concluded that the information aforesaid shall be placed in the hands of Mess" 
Vnn Oinmeren and the other their High Mightinesses' deputies for the affairs of said West 
India Company, to inspect, examine, and then to report on them. 

JRcmhition of ilie Stafe-s-General. 

[ From the Register of the IlcBOInlioiis of llie Statfs-General, io the Koyal ArcliiTcs at tbe Hague. ] 

Thursday, O"- October, 1G64. 
Foiio752. Heard the report of Mess" Van Ommeren and t)ie other High Mightinesses' 

England. Deputies -for the affairs of England having, pursuant and in obedience to their 

Kcply tn the answer . i.i,i/^,- ...» .t,..i 

of the King on the com ui 1 1 tee resol u 1 1 OH dated the niteenth ol August last, examined and weighed 

memoir o( Alnbaa- , 

.adorvan Godi. certain answer to the King of Great Britain to divers memorials presented, from 
time to time, by M. Van (joch, to His Majesty on various matters; the aforesaid answer being 
annexed with a certain letter of said ambassador V'an Gogh of the sixteenth. And the said 
M. Van Ommeren, in the name and on (he behalf of the said their High Mightinesses' Deputies, 
exhibited at the meeting and had read a certain writing containing divers matters, which 
their High' deputies, aforesaid, were of opinion ought, for further information, be 
represented to the King on the aforementioned his answer, in manner and form as the aforesaid 
writing which is annexed hereunto, is inserted, word for word, as follows: 

The States-General of the United Netherlands having seen, examined and weighed the 
contents of a certain written answer given by the King of Great Britain, on divers points 
submitted to him by their ordinary ambassador at his Majesty's Court, etc., etc. 

Thus done and enacted at the Assembly of the Lords States-General at the Hague, the O"" 
October, 16G4. 

[Here follows a French translation of the two preceding paragraphs.] 

Which being considered, their High Mightinesses fully approve of the aforesaid draft for 
information as above, and accordingly hold the same as enacted. They, also, have hereby 
resolved and concluded that an authentic copy thereof be sent to the above mentioned 
Ambassador Van Goch, with order and instruction to communicate it, verbally, to the King, 
veith all earnestness and emphasis, and subsequently, also, to deliver the aforesaid in writing. 
Furthermore, that a copy thereof shall be communicated by Agent de Heyde to Mr. Downing, 
the King's Envoy Extraordinary, with a request to second, to the best of his ability, their 
High Mightinesses' good intention therein contained, near his Majesty and also wherever 
the same may avail. In like manner, copy thereof shall be handed, by said agent, to Count 
d'Estrades, Ambassador Extraordinary of the King of France; likewise to Mess" Appleboom 
and Charisius, respectively residents here for the Kings of Sweden and Denmark, with request 
that they will represent most favorably to their respective Lords and Masters, their High 
Migiitinesses' upright and sincere intention for the maintenance of all good correspondence with 


the said King of Great Britain, and for the precise observance of the treaties entered into 
with his Majesty; an authentic copy thereof shall be also sent to Ambassador Boreel,' to 
Residents Heins and Le Maire respectively, to make use of it to the end aforesaid, as is proper, 
and further to serve them for information. 

States -General to the King of England. 

[ From the Minute in tlie Eoyal Archives at the Hague ; File, Engfiland. ] 

Deduction drawn up for the Information of the King of Great Britain on divers 
points contained in a certain Answer given in his Majesty's name to the 
Ambassador of their High and Mighty the Lords States-General of the 
United Netherlands. 

The States-General of the United Netherlands having seen, examined and considered the 
contents of an Answer^ which the King of Great Britain has given in writing on many points 
presented to him by their Ordinary Ambassador at his Majesty's Court ; which answer includes 
n substance, the following points and articles : 

First. The reasons and considerations whicli have obliged his said Majesty to arm and 
squip a considerable number of ships of war, and do not permit him to dispense with sending 
said ships to sea. " 

Secondly. That the said Lord, the King, since his happy restoration, had no sooner been 
idvised of some particular matters wherein the subjects and inhabitants of these United 
Provinces might have been injured, than his Majesty gave orders to redress them in tlie 
speediest manner, without subjecting them to the ordinary delays and formalities of the Courts, 
and that, on the contrary, this State hath never given the least satisfaction on the complaints 
his Minister has made here at the Hague ; but, on all occasions, hath had recourse to all sorts 
of delays, which can be looked upon only as an absolute denial of justice. On which account 
the Parliament had, likewise, very urgently pressed his Majesty, on the cries of his entire 
people, to employ an extraordinary remedy for the reparation of the damages and injuries 
which the subjects and inhabitants of these United Netherland Provinces are daily inflicting 
on his subjects by continual depredations on sea, both in the Indies and elsewhere ; wherein, 
also, are some circumstances of such importance touching the declaration of Domein and the 
possession of trade contrary to the law of nations, that all the Princes and Potentates would, 
as well as his Majesty, be interested therein. 

' William Boreel, Lord of Duinbeke and WesthoTen, Councillor and First Pensionary of Amsterdam, was the son of 
Burgomaster Jacob van Boreel, of Middelburg. He served his country in a diplomatic capacity for forty years ; was sent to 
Bremen io 16B9 to settle the differences between the Archbishop and the city ; the following year, to Sweden, to congratulate 
[Jueen Christina on her accession to the throne. In 1641 he was appointed one of the Commissioners to Staden, to arrange 
the differences with the King of Denmark about the Sound dues, and, in 1644. with Messrs. Joachimi and Van Rhede, was 
lent as Ambassador Extraordinary to England. In 1650 Mr. Boreel was appointed Ambassador to France, and resided at 
that Court until his death, which took place at Paris on the 29th September, 1638. His remains were brought back in a 
ship-of-war to Holland, and were buried in the Great Church at the Hague, at the expense of the country. The funeral was 
by torch light, and under the superintendence of a committee of the States-General. Kok, VII., 750. — Ed. 

' This answer and the present reply of the States-General, are published in Aitzema, Saakeii van Slaet en Oorlogk, 4to., XF., 
216, 232, 245. 


In the third place, that the said Lord, the King, has not given any commission to Captain 
Holmes to liike Cape de V'erd or any other places belonging to those of this country, or to 
commit any hostility against the subjects of the United Provinces ; but, only to do whatever 
would be necessary to defend his subjects and their trade in those parts. At all events, his 
Majesty was only waiting for the said Holmes, on whose arrival the King would obtain exact 
information so as afterwards to do whatever was just in regard to what said Holmes may have 
committed. Also, that the vessels lately sent from P^ngland are merchantmen, and that they 
have neither the power nor the will to do injury to the subjects and inhabitants of these 

In the fourth place, that the Director-General in the service of the West India Company, 
of this country, on the north coast of Africa, did, by means of sixty bendys of gold, suborn the 
native inhabitants of the country, and namely, the King of Fantyn, to surprise Fort Cormantin, 
and to that end had assisted him with a great quantity of muskets, gunpowder and other 
niunitions of war. 

In the fifth place, that Captain Bartwyck, being on the coast of Guinea with the ship he 
commanded, was prevented, by two vessels of this country, prosecuting his trade, and his 
boat, with five men, detained some time; wherefore his Majesty requires their High 
Mightinesses to be pleased to express their detestation of what is included in this and the 
preceding articles, and to inflict exemplary justice on those who are guilty of the one and 
the other action. 

In the sixth place, that although the said Lord, the King, was not fully informed of the 
affairs of the Reformed churches in the valleys of Piedmont, both as regards their present 
condition and the cause of their late persecution, yet his Majesty had given orders to his 
Minister at Paris to request the King of France to employ his mediation that the differences, 
which may yet remain, be settled, doubting not but the said Lord, King, would do so, on the 
application of his Majesty's Ambassador. 

In the seventh and last place, that his Majesty, on account of the contagious disease infecting 
some of the United Provinces, was constrained, in order to divert this affliction from his 
subjects, to have a general prohibition of trade proclaimed in his territories, and, therefore, for 
the present could not yet make any change therein, adding, that he wished, with all his heart, 
that it may please God, our Lord, to deliver these countries soon from this affliction: — 

Have, after mature deliberation, resolved to represent to the said Lord, the King, as his 
good neighbors and friends, in all sincerity and with a heart breathing only peace, what 
follows on all the said points, and on each of them in particular, to wit : 

On the said first point, that their High Mightinesses, in order to remove whatever umbrage 
might be taken and to prevent all the animosities and ill-feeling which were beginning to arise 
in the breasts of the subjects and inhabitants on both sides; also, in order to clear the way as 
much as possible for the relief of both States from the expense of extraordinary equipments, 
and principally to obviate all untoward accidents that might result from the meeting of the 
fleets of both States in such teinper, were pleased by their letter of the 24"' of June last ' to 
communicate to his Majesty, in full confidence, the resolution they had adopted not to permit 
the departure, from these coasts, of the naval force of this State, which lay then ready to sail, 
nor to allow it to proceed towards the north or elsewhere ; with this express declaration, 

' For this letter see Aitzema, Saackcn van Stael en Oorloyh, Ito., XI., 233. — Ed. 


made in all sincerity, that their true intention and abiding meaning were, not to employ that 
naval force in offending, in any wise, directly or indirectly, any neighbors, and particularly his 
Majesty's subjects. And although their High Mightinesses have not been sufficiently fortunate 
as to be able to draw from his Majesty a similar resolution and declaration which might put 
them at rest in that regard, they, nevertheless, trust that his Majesty can, unmistakably, infer 
therefrom and by what is done and has, in fact, followed, that every care that can be desired 
of them, capable not only of preserving reciprocal peace and friendship, but also of preventing 
and turning aside all unexpected and unforeseen accidents that might trouble the same, is 
contributed and applied on this side ; wherein their High Mightinesses likewise intend 
invariably to continue and to persevere. And, in fact, they believe that by such proceeding 
they have effectually demonstrated that they have never had any intention of employing that 
fleet to the injury of theirneighbors, inasmuch as they have not authorized a squadron of more 
than twenty good men-of-war which had lately convoyed the ships recently arrived from the 
East Indies. In order to place the sincerity of their intention in a stronger light, their High 
Mightinesses have also been pleased to furnish additional proofs thereof, by declaring and 
communicating, with confidence and sincerity, by the act of the 29"" of September,' the true 
reasons and end for which this State sent son:e ships to the coast of Guinea and the order that 
has been given to their commander in regard to his Majesty's subjects and the English vessels 
he might fall in with or meet on his route. 

On the second point, their High Mightinesses say, that it is with a great deal of regret they 
learn his Majesty is made to believe that they have thought so little of his friendship and 
intercessions as not to have afforded, since his happy restoration, the slightest satisfaction on 
all the complaints Mr. Downing has made here in his name ; but that so many delays have 
been had recourse to in the whole affair, as to oblige him to consider such a palpable denial of 
justice; whilst, on the contrary, it is most true that not a single complaint has been brought, 
on his Majesty's part, before them, sustained by proofs necessary not only in affiiirs wherein 
his Majesty's subjects found themselves notoriously injured by those of this Slate, but even 
in cases which, it could be maintained, were problematical or dubious, wherein their High 
Mightinesses have not caused satisfaction to be made to those interested, or at least caused 
resolutions to be placed in said Mr. Downing's hands, which ought to be satisfactory. And in 
order to render what has just been said, palpable and visible to his Majesty, their High 
Mightinesses will supplicate his Majesty to remember that a distinction must be drawn herein 
between the affairs which occurred before the conclusion of the last Treaty of tV September, 
1662, and since that time. It is not necessary to demonstrate here, minutely, with what 
equity their High Mightinesses have proceeded in the affairs of the former class, seeing that, 
in regard to them, there is now established and enacted by the lo"" article of that Treaty an 
order and form agreeably to which cases of that class not generally extinguished, or particularly . 
regulated, are to be terminated and vacated either by amicable arrangement or else by 
arbitration. Their High Mightinesses will execute this punctually and exactly. But in regard 
to the complaints made in cases that have transpired and occurred since the conclusion of said 
Treaty, which are now principally in question ; their High Mightinesses, after having reviewed 
the retroacta, find that the complaints of this class which said Mr. Downing has made, up to 
this time, and have been accompanied by proofs, or whereof proofs have been in their High 
Mightinesses' possession or which have been knowing unto them, are reducible, principally, to 
the following: 

' In Aitzema, XI., 251. — Ed. 


1" That those of tlie Incorporated East India Company of tiiis country liave prevented, at 
divers times, two English vessels, one named the ILqicuel, and the other the Leopard, touching 
at I'orca, on tiie Coast of Mahibar, and taking in cargo which, 'tis said, was ready for them 
tliere. And, although wiiat transpired in said affairs, is contested and debated on several 
grounds pro and con, so that, in all cases, nothing has been done indicative of any bad intention 
or which might afford ground for supposing that any design was entertained to inflict wrong 
on his Majesty's subjects, nevertheless, their High Mightinesses have taken upon themselves 
to settle these two cases in such a manner, that the parties interested in these two vessels 
be indemnified for the losses it will be found that they have sustained in consequence. More 
ample explanation has been furnished Mr. Downing hereupon, on the 5''' of June and 25" of 
September last.' 

S"** That those of the Incorporated West India Company of this country have prevented three 
different English vessels, one called the Charles, another the James, and the third, the Mary, 
touching at Cape Corse, Comani and other ports and places on the Coast of Guinea, to which 
they had been destined. And although that same West India Company also alleges, on its 
side, very weighty reasons which evidently show that, at all events, it has not been their 
intention to do wrong to his Majesty's subjects, nevertheless, their High Mightinesses have 
consented to promise, as regards these three ships, that they will cause the parties interested 
to be indemnified for the losses they may have really sustained in consequence of being so 
prevented; formal declarations to this effect have likewise been given to Mr. Downing on the 
5"" June and So" September last.- So that, as far as these five ships are concerned, their High 
Mightinesses have absolutely and entirely given every satisfaction that Mr. Downing desired 
and demanded on that point, in his Majesty's name. 

And in regard to the complaints made to his Majesty, that among the injuries which, it 
is claimed, the inhabitants of these countries have done the English, there are some that 
interest all other I'rinces, in consequence of the declaration respecting pretended territories 
and prohibition of trade, contrary to the law of nations, their High Mightinesses can only say 
on this point, so long as the items are not particularized, that they are nowise inclined to 
protect the inhabitants of this country in the wrong they may have done the English, as is (o 
be seen by what is already stated, much less in unfounded territorial pretences or in prohibitions 
of trade contrary to the law of nations. And, inasmuch as their High Mightinesses must, in 
consequence of what has been more fully represented to them by his Majesty's Minister here 
on this subject, refer these complaints to the obstructions said to have been offered to tliese 
English ships just mentioned, before I'orca and on the Coast of Guinea, and to those presented 
in the Memoir submitted to them on the 14"' of August last, touching a certain writing of 
Director-General Valquenhourg, therein mentioned, they doubt not but his said Majesty will 
find entire satisfaction in regard to these circumstances, to wit, the first, in the resolutions and 
declarations of the S"" of June and 25"" September last ; and the other, in the answer raisonnee 
their High Mightinesses have drawn up on that subject on the S"" of this month,'' and which 
has been afterwards placed in the hands of his Minister. 

Z"^ That complaints have been made in the name and on the part of bis Majesty of the 
placarding of a bill of sale whereby the honor and the reputation of the Duke of York were 
affected. And although said bill had been drawn up in those terms through inadvertence and 

' For these Documents, see Ailzema, ul supra, pp. 252, 253. — Ed. 

' See Aitzema, ut tupra, pp. 265, 266. 

' lu Aitzeiua, ut supra, p. 257, ' 


without malice, and even those to whooi that note had been sent from Middlebourg to affix it 
or have it affixed in the towns where they were residing, had proceeded without any bad 
intention and malice, yet their High Mightinesses have employed such good etlbrts with tiie 
Provinces of Holland and Zealand, that the States of these two Provinces have caused those 
persons to be so vigorously prosecuted, that Mr. Downing has expressed, on the behalf and in 
the name of his Majesty, in a Memoir^ he has presented to that eflect, that his Majesty was 
entirely satisfied and content with the result of those prosecutions. 

i'*" That said Mr. Downing has claimed in the name and on the behalf of his Majesty, a certain 
English ship named the Handmaid which had been taken by those of Algiers, and afterwards 
rescued from these pirates by some men-of-war of this State under the command of Rear- 
Admiral Tromp.^ And, although this ship had been in possession of those pirates not only 
twenty-four hours or double that period, but a very long time, and it may be pleaded by others 
under similar circumstances that said ship was a lawful prize, having been taken from those 
whom their High Mightinesses had, for valid reasons, commanded to be attacked and captured 
everywhere they may be found; therefore was it just that the parties iiiterested in said ship, 
the Hundmaid, should first come forward and offer proper salvage which was due to those who 
had recaptured and delivered said vessel out of the hands of barbarians; nevertheless their 
High Mightinesses, laying aside all those considerations, have, at once, given orders .for the 
restitution of said ship when demanded.' 

Tiieir High Mightinesses are not aware that any complaints, of consequence, have been 
presented by or in the name of his Majesty, in regard to matters that occurred since the 
conclusion of the treaty, other than those mentioned in his Majesty's answer, and which have 

'In Aitzema, ul supra, p. 260. 

' CoBSELius Tbomp, Second son of the renowned Admiral Martin Harpertzoon Tromp, commonly called Van Tromp, was 
born at Rotterdam 9th September, 1629. In 1650 he commanded a naval expedition against the pirates of Salee and 
was attached to Van Galen's fleet in July, 1632, as Captain of a man of- war, when it engaged an English squadron off Elba; 
his ship being disabled he was put in command of ihe Plionux, tdken from the English, but this ship was cut out of the port 
of Legliorn in November following, when Tromp barely escaped bj' jumping overboard. In March. 1653, he was a partici- 
pator in the attack on, and helped to defeat, the English squadron off the same port. He was, soon after, rewarded for his 
gallantry by being promoted to the rank of Rear-Admiral In 1662 he was sent against the Algeiines and liberated a 
number of Christians held in slavery; and on the breaking out of the war with England was advanced to the rank of Vice- 
Admiral. He was attached to tlie fleet under Baron Opdam and led the van in the bloody engagement off Lowestoffe 13(U 
June, 1665, N. S., in which the Dutch were defeated. Tromp, however, received the commission of Lieutenant-Admiral in 
return for his services; he then hoisted his flag on board the Hollandia and was second in command under De Ruyter in the 
celebrated fight with the English fleet off the coast of Sussex, June 11th, 1666, N. S., which continued for the space of four 
days, and terminated with the defeat of the English. He fell a victim to the malignant spirit of party which was kept up 
in those days by the rival followers of the De Witts and the House of Orange, and Tromp being suspected of favoring the 
latter, his commission was revoked. The French endeavored to engage him, by the offer of large pay, to take the command 
of their navy, but he preferred to remain a simple Burgher in his native land, and continued in retirement nearly seven 
years, or until the downfall of the De Witts. On the commencement of hostilities between Holland on the one side and 
England and France on the other, in 1672, Tromp was invited to resume his commission and hoisted his flag on board the 
Oolden Lion. He distinguished himself in the several engagements aL'ainst the combined fleets during this war, and was 
rewarded with a pension; after the peace he visited England in 1675, by invitation of Charles II., who, to honor his bravery, 
conferred on him the title of Baronet, 25th March. On (he 7th May, of the same year, the States-General declared war 
against Sweden, when Tromp was put in command of the fleet, and was created Count Syliesbiurg by the King of Denmark. 
In May, 1677, he succeeded De Ruyter as Admiral, and died in Amsterdam 21st May, 1691, aged si.\ty-two years. His 
remains were removed to Delft and deposited in his father's tomb in that city. Kok, XXIX., 2; Moreri, Grand Diet, VI., 
621 ; Beatson's Political Index, I., 196. — Ed. 

' The order to this effect is in Aitzema, ut supra, p. 261. 

Vol. H. 34 


been enumerated iibove, and will be hereafter treated in their order and separately. So that his 
Majesty will be able evidently to perceive tliereby, that he has been impo-^ed on when people 
would fain persuade him that no satisfaction has ever been given for the complaints which 
have been, from time to time, presented to their High Mightinesses on his behalf, since quite 
the contrary has been demonstrated by the pertinent enumeration which has just been made 
thereof. And on this occasion it must be also particularly remarked, that since the conclusion 
of the last Treaty extinguishing or settling all the claims that had previotisly arisen, the 
inhabitants of those countries have not attacked, damaged, taken nor destroyed one single ship 
belonging to his Majesty or his subjects, and that his Majesty's Minister even has never 
alleged that they had, much less that tiieir High Mightinesst-s or the inhabitants of these 
United Provinces have invaded or occupied any lands, islands, forts or places belonging to his 
Majesty, as his subjects have undertaken to do, and have, in fact done, against this J^tate and 
its good inhabitants, without our being able to obtain one certain word or assured promise 
that those places and forts would be restored, much less their restitution, and still less any 
reparation or satisfaction for those outrages; notwithstanding that, on our part, not only have 
we disposed of all the complaints which have been made in the name and on the behalf of his 
Majesty, in such wise as to be entirely satisfactory to him, but also, in addition, on his Majesty's 
intercession, the ordinary court of law in this country has given orders not only that justice 
be rendered his subjects equitably and indilTerently, but that their suits have preference even 
over those of the subjects of these United Provinces, as their High Mightinesses' Ambassador 
will show more clearly and pertinently to his Majesty, by the list of his subjects' causes which 
have, since his Majesty's happy restoration, been terminated by the Grand Council and Court 
of Law of Holland.' It is, moreover, a fact, that their High Mightinesses, or the local 
Provincial States, whereof this Republic is composed, so far from refusing anything whatsoever 
that his Majesty could in justice ask of them, have, on the contrary, made extraordinary 
efforts to manifest their affection and complaisance and to afford marks and tokens thereof, on 
all occasions, to such a degree that his Majesty, following the impulses of his natural 
generosity, has been graciously pleased, more than once, to express, in return, his gratitude, 
both by his obliging letters and the acknowledgments he has caused to be made by the mouth 
of his Minister. 

Hence, it can be easily inferred that their High Mightinesses must be extremely displeased 
and surprised at the artifices of those who have prejudiced the Parliament of England, and 
obliged it, by false informations, to lay before his Majesty such bitter complaints against their 
High Mightinesses and the inhabitants of these countries, and such exorbitant claims for 
several millions of pounds sterling, accompanied by a zeal so violent as to be capable of 
pushing things to the last extremity. Therefore is it not to be wondered at, nor are their 
High Mightinesses to be blamed, if unable to assure themselves of the continuance of peace 
between both nations, they have ordered an extraordinary fleet to be prepared and have 
been desirous to keep on their guard. And this, particularly, because the uneasiness they felt 
on account of the animosity of Parliament was so much increased in consequence of the receipt 
of news that the resolution had been taken in England to fit out an extraordinary Naval 
armament, and of the foreboding of designs against the territories and countries possessed 
by their High Mightinesses in Africa, which have since become public; and because all the 
rules of prudence dictated a moderate extraordinary equipment to be an indispensable 

'This liBt will be found in Aitzoma, ut siyira, p. 262. — Ed. 


necessity, until affairs should be brought within the terms of more perfect confidence. To the 
promotion of such confidence their High Mightinesses have tai\en the first step, by employing 
to thai end, ait im:igin;ibie means which depend on them, and particularly by retaining their 
fleet on their coasts and dischargin ■ so large a number of ships of war, as just stated. 

And, as far as the affirmative and positive declaration which tlieir Higli Miglilinesses again 
find in his Majesty's said answer, that no C' mplaints have ever been made from tills side of 
irregular actions or unjust proceedings on the part of his subjects, for wiiich the required 
satisfaction had not been immediately given without any formality or delay, their High 
Mightinesses cannot forbear citing here some notable instances wherein, to their deep regret, 
Ithey have not been able to obtain the satisfaction and reparation they have demanded, and 
whicli were due to this State and its good people. 

First. It is true that this State hath frequently complained, both by urgent letters and by its 
Ministers, that Captain Holmes, with the fleet commanded by him, under his Majesty's flag, 
lias taken from this State and the Incorporated West India Company of tiiis country, as in time 
of war, tlie Island of Boavista and Fort St. Andrew, situate on the River Gambia, without our 
having ever been able to obtain the restitution thereof, much less any reparation or satisfaction 
therefor, any more than for other acts of hostility tiie same Captain Holmes has of late committed 
anew, and which will be hereafter more fully treated of. 

Secondly. That their Higli Mightinesses have complained also very seriously [to his Majesty] 
both by letters and otherwise, that h'is subjects in Novum Belgium, called New Netherland, 
regardless of the Boundary line provisionally concluded and in flagrant violation of the Treaty 
entered into to that effect, have forcibly expelled the subjects of this State from their 
possessions, and have wrested from the Colonists of this State a very extensive tract of country 
and divers places. So far from obtaining the satisfaction which was demanded, the smallest 
answer has not been returned, up to this time, to those complaints. 

Thirdly. That a certain ship, called the Gmcf Enno, belonging to the Incorporated West 
India Company of these parts, having entered the port of Plymouth, was detained there at the 
instance of the Danish Minister, then residing in England ; and although, on the remonstrances 
made to the King of Denmark, his Majesty did disavow his Resident's proceeding, and order, 
as far as depended on him, the release of the ship without any more trouble, so is it that, 
notwithstanding all possible pains taken for that purpose by this State near the King of Great 
Britain, and in every other quarter where necessary, the release of that ship could never be 

Fourthly. The merchantmen belonging to this country, that lay in the River Thames ready 
to sail, having been some time seized and stopped at the instance of the agent of Malta, although 
such was done with the greatest injustice in the world, even in the opinion of his Majesty who, 
according to the movements of his natural inclination in favor of justice, has so thought, after 
having been duly informed of the case ; yet, the parties interested have never been able to 
obtain any indemnification for the great losses they have incurred. 

F'ifthly. A man-of-war belonging to this State, commanded by Captain Block,' having been 
seized at Gravesend by the officers of the customs, the ship was badly treated, and the Captain 
himself dragged to the common jail, on the ground that Captain Banckert, holding under 

* Captaia Simon Block, a brave Zealander, who, after fi^equently risking Iiis life on several occasions in the service of hia 
country, was finally, wliilst serving as Captuiu iu Admiral Evertoeu'jJ squadrou, killed in the bloody sea fight with the English , 
1668. A'oi, VI, 602. — Ed. 


the Aflmir.ilty Bonni of Zealand, had taken a certain Englisli sloop belonging to thi! llye 
cusloiii-lioiise ; the ahove was by way of retaliation, although on the part of the Englishj no 
comniunicaiioM hatl been given to their High Mightinesses of the capture of that boat, and 
no restitution nor reparation had been (iemanded, much less refused here. And, notwithstanding 
that demand ought necessarily to have preceded ihe having recourse to such measures against 
one of the ships-o(-war of this State, tliat is to say, against the Slate itself, because, otherwise, 
that proceeding could not be justified, however it may be glossed, and, although the English 
sloop which had been attacked and carried off by Captain Banker, under the impression that it 
was a I'ortuguese privateer, was not only released and set at liberty, the moment the proofs 
and records had been examined, but those interested were paid a round sum of money as an 
indemnity for losses they pretended to have incurred by that blunder, yet the State has never 
been able to obtain any compensation or reparation for the wrong and damage it suffered by 
the proceedings of his Majesty's officers and subjects against said ship-of-war and the person of 
said Captain Block. 

It woidd be superlluous and too tiresome to enumerate here the several other losses and 
inconveniences his Majesty's subjects have inflicted on the inhabitants of these United 
Netherland Provinces since his happy restoration, satisfaction or reparation for which it has 
never been possible to obtain; and to make a list of a very great number of vessels which 
have been captured, with their cargoes, by his Majesty's subjects with Portuguese 
commissions, or under that pretext, and carried into tire harbors of that kingdom where they 
have been conveyed away and dissipated, without the proprietors having been able to obtain 
restitution or even just reparation for their losses either in whole or in part. 

However, these last complaints are not renewed and revived here with the design to demand 
of his Majesty remedies for the satisfaction and redress thereof, but only to demonstrate 
pertinently to him, that this State and its inhabitants have most patiently suffered many very 
serious losses and damages from his Majesty's subjects without ever having obtained any redress 
or indemnity, a good portion whereof their High Mightinesses have been willing absolutely to 
sacrifice to peace and friendship between the two nations without any intention of demanding or 
prosecuting any other redress or satisfaction at any time whatsoever. Being willing in regard to 
the others and especially those in which private persons have most interest, and whereof, for that 
reason, their High Mightinesses cannot absolutely dispose, to conforin themselves to what has 
been regulated by article 15 of said Treaty, without directly importuning his Majesty any further. 

But, in regard to what has recently occurred on the coast of Africa, where, lately, his Majesty's 
subjects have by force, and, like declared enemies, occupied the forts of Cape Verd and Fort 
Tacorari on the coast of Guinea, the one and the other belonging to this State, and, under 
their High Mightinesses, to the said West India Company, and, at the same time, taken or 
destroyed the ships called the Neptune, Bril, Visch-Korf, Walcheren and Crocodil, and committed 
divers other similar acts without their High Mightinesses having been able, up to the present 
time, to obtain any positive and assured promise of restitution, and much less, any reparation 
of all what precedes — inasmuch as it is of quite another nature, and also the subject of said 
third point, their High Mightinesses will take the liberty to represent again to his Majesty 
that they cannot find any safety at all in the general terms employed in his Royal answer, 
because in this encounter his Majesty's subjects have committed a direct hostility, which 
cannot be considered other than a declared war, begun against the State of these Provinces in 
another quarter of the globe, by cannonading, attacking and seizing by force of arms, the forts and 


fortresses on the mainland with the aid of a formal fleet, armed for war, manned with soldiers 
and provided with all necessaries for committing hostilities by sea and land ; also by proceeding 
hoslilely, in an unwarrantable manner against the subjects and inhabitants of this State, by 
capturing their ships and pillaging their merchandise by sea and land, in the same manner as is 
customary in declared war. These are things which cannot be glozed over with any appearance 
of reason or justice, and can neither be ignored nor denied. Wherefore, their High Mightinesses 
cannot anticipate, from his Majesty's justice and equity, anything else than a sure and firm 
promise to cause the forts, ships and merchandise which have been taken, to be restored, and 
the losses suffered by the State and its inhabitants to be repaired by the guilty parties, as ought 
to be done agreeably to the law of nations and in virtue of the last concluded Treaty ; likewise, 
that restitution and satisfaction do effectually follow accordingly. Their High Mightinesses are 
of opinion that they have the more cause to demand thus positively a declaration and absolute 
assurance on this occasion, as in the year 1661, after they had news that the said Captain 
Holmes had committed said hostilities on the coast of Africa, and the complaints thereof had 
been submitted to his Majesty, he thereupon made similar and even more advantageous 
declarations than those of this day. And even the said Mr. Downing gave assurance in his 
Majesty's name, by his Memorial of the -^a of August, that in case he should find that said 
Holmes or any of the persons under his command had offended, by word or act, or even 
obstructed any of the inhabitants of these countries in their commerce, his Majesty would have 
them punished exemplarily on their return, and, nevertheless, said declaration has been 
productive of so little consequence, that, so far from their High Mightinesses having been able 
to obtain merely the simple restitution of Fort St. Andrew and the other places which have 
been taken, no redress nor exemplary punishment hath ensued, notwithstanding Captain 
Holmes, on arriving in England after committing those acts of hostility, had given, for all excuse, 
that he had nothing else to allege than that those of the aforesaid fort had discharged shot at 
the King's flag. But, even were that true, they would not have acted contrary to the practice 
observed and put in force by all nations towards ships that want to pass in front of forts and 
castles without lowering the flag, and exhibiting the usual courtesies. Moreover, their High 
Mightinesses have not been able to obtain the promise they had reason provisionally to expect in 
consequence of the loud complaints and clear informations they have caused to be laid before the 
said Lord the King by their Ambassador. But instead of receiving such assurance, they learn 
that more ships have, since that time, again been dispatched from England towards those parts, 
and that, from time to time, others are sent off, so that their High Mightinesses have reason to 
apprehend that such ships will try to do more mischief and occasion additional inconvenience 
to this State, its subjects and inhabitants. And this fear is the more founded as, according to 
the report made to their High Mightinesses by eye witnesses of the hostilities committed 
there, the perpetrators have boasted that, for the execution of their designs, they would be 
reinforced or followed by a number of ships, equal to what had sailed from England in the month 
of August last, to go towards the coast of Africa, without the slightest security or assurance 
having been afforded their High Mightinesses, notwithstanding the iterated applications and 
remonstrances they have caused their Ambassador to present to his Majesty on this point. So 
that, in this regard, England has contributed nothing of what, under like circumstances, is 
expected and hoped from his Majesty, to obviate and prevent more serious dangers. 

On the aforesaid fourth point : That their High Mightinesses feel themselves obliged to 
declare, in all sincerity and good faith, as they do hereby bona fide declare, pursuant to their 



resolution of" the IS"" of the last month, which is founded on information furnished by the 
West India Company toucliing what has occurred in rejiard to the said Fort of Coromantin, 
copy whereof has already been furnished to his Majesty, tluit they cannot in any way 
believe, tfiat those of this nation had allowed themselves to be guilty of an action of that 
nature, the rather as, since the time when 'tis pretended it happened, several vessels have 
arrived from those parts both in England and here, and, nevertheless, of all those which 
have arrived, not one has heard anything at all about it. In all cases, if the Lord, the King, 
has at hand any other proofs touching that affair, inasmuch as, up to this time, neither he nor 
his Minister has furnished any, their High Mightinesses, will willingly receive them, and in 
case it, at any time, appear (which, however, they cannot anticipate) that what his Majesty 
has been induced to believe, turn out true, they shall then show that they will not permit nor 
suffer the inhabitants of tiiese Provinces to do any wrong to his Majesty's sul)jects ; hut, on 
the contrary, will afford thereupon all the satisfaction he can desire; their intention and 
resolution invariably being to entertain and cultivate, with him, more and more, all good 
and sincere friendship, neighborhood and confidential correspondence agreeably to the Treaty 
last made and concluded with his Majesty. 

On the fifth point : Their High Mightinesses declare, agreeably to another resolution of the 
same date, the IS"" of last month, that in case his Majesty have any proof of what it is 
pretetided has been done to Captain Bartwic and the ship under his command, by two vessels 
of this country, on the coast of Guinea, they will receive them, also, most willingly, in order 
that the truth may be the better elicited and that the one may act towards the other 
consistently with reason and equity. 

On the si.xth point, concerning the Reformed churches of the valleys of Piedmont: iheir 
High Mightinesses have learned, with joy, that it hath pleased his Majesty to respond therein 
to their good will and intention for the good of the poor Protestants of those parts, and to 
request the King of F'rance by the Ambassador he has on the spot, as Ambassador Boreel has 
already done on the part of this State, to be so good as to employ his mediation, their High 
Mightinesses hoping, that not only the said Lord the King will do so, but that the effects 
which are anticipated, will soon be obtained for the relief of those poor, persecuted people. 

On the seventh and last point : Their High Mightinesses have learned, with quite an especial 
satisfaction, that his Majesty was penetrated with compassion for the towns and places in these 
Provinces which it hath pleased God to afflict with the contagious disease, hoping that He will 
continue and increase his Divine goodness, whereof He hath been pleased to give us signs 
and tokens, by causing the sickness visibly to diminish within a few weeks; so that, in future, 
[as in times past' ], reciprocal navigation, trade and correspondence not only may run their 
course free and unobstructed, but also may flourish and increase more and more. 

And, in the meanwhile, their High Mightinesses will expect from his Majesty's habitual 
equity and goodness, that according to the request they formerly made him, he will revoke 
and suppress the general prohibition of trading, which he has caused to be proclaimed 
throughout all his kingdoms for the space of three months, with the ships, provisions and 
goods of these United Provinces, such being contrary to good friendship and correspondence, 
as well as to all former practice. Or at least, that he will so regulate it that the inhabitants 
of these Provinces who will be able to prove, by good certificates from their superiors and 

' Aitzcnia, ut tujjra, p. 213. — Ed. 


magistrates, that they come with their ships and goods from places not infected by any 
contagious disease, may be admitted into England, as formerly, without any objection ; and 
all others, under ordinary quarantine. 

And inasmuch as his said Majesty would be able to perceive, clearly, as well by what is 
above fully deduced, as by the resolutions, answers and declarations which have been given 
here from time to time in writing to his Majesty, that their High Mightinesses, on their side, 
contribute and do everytliing that can be desired of them for the continuance and strengthening 
of the friendship and alliance betwen his Majesty and this Stale, so they hope that his Majesty 
will draw from it an infallible conclusion, and one consistent with truth — that they feel a 
strong and sincere inclination for the continuance of peace and good understanding between 
both nations, as their High Mightinesses protest by these presents that, so far as they are 
capable of judging and understanding, all the interests of State and Religion can and must 
require and oblige them thereto; as their High Mightinesses have likewise remarked, with 
great joy, the same inclination in his Majesty, both by the moderate answer it has pleased his 
Majesty to give, in the month of May last, to the complaints of his Parliament as by the 
reiterated declaration his Majesty has made in the answer which has been given in the month 
of August last to the Ambassador of this State. Wherefore, they expect and anticipate, as an 
effect of that inclination of his Majesty, that he will give them as much contentment and 
satisfaction on the well founded complaints made on their part, and which have hereinbefore 
been more fully expressed, touching the adiurs which have occurred since the conclusion of the 
last treaty, and particularly during this year, as their High Mightinesses, on their side, have 
afforded in the manner just set forth, on the complaints made to them on his Majesty's part, 
touching similar matters, to the end that by a prompt adjustment to be afterwards concluded 
with his Majesty's Minister here, all umbrages and distrusts existing in the minds of the 
subjects and people on both sides may be dispelled ; and in the stead thereof, true friendship 
and confidence being duly reestablished, that the peace and alliance concluded and established 
between them may be confirmed and rendered indissoluble. Whereunto their High Mightinesses 
promise, with all their hearts, to contribute all that can be reasonably and equitably desired 
of them, to the utmost extent of their power. 

Thus done and concluded in the Assembly of said Lords States-General, at the Hague, the 
9"- October, 1664. 

(Paraphed), H. Gockinga". 
Below was: 

By order of the same. 

(Signed), N. Ruysch.' 

'The copy of the above paper, in the Holland Documents, is in French. It is printed in Dutch in Aitzema, Saaeken van 
Stall en Oorlogh, 4to, XI., with the Documents referred to in it, all which had also been separately published both in Dutch 
and French, at the Hague, in the month of November, 1664, in a small 4to Tract, for the use of a copy of which we are 
indebted to the politeness of James Lenox, Esq , of New-York. The sub-title at the head, and the signatures at the close of 
the above paper, are borrowed from this Tract. — Ed. 


WeM India Company to the States -General. 

( From a Copy in the Uoyal Archives at the Hagae ; File, West Indie. ] 
Read 'J-ltli Octolier. ]f)64. 

To the High and Mighty Lords, States-General of the United Netherlands. 

The Directors of the General Incorporated West India Company have been obliged to trouble 
your High Mightinesses from time to time with complaints of the proceedings of the English, 
who, after their intolerable violences had dispossessed the Company of one place and then of 
another, of the conquests of this State in N. Nelherland, to the end that your High Mightinesses 
may not be ignorant of the manner whereby this State was robbed of its foreign possessions, and 
the inhabitants thereof, of their trade, and that you, High and Mighty, may be graciously pleased, 
in season, to devise some means or other, in your profound wisdom, whereby total loss may 
be prevented. And, finally, they are forced with sorrow, most humbly, to make known to you. 
High and Mighty, that, in verification of their previous remonstrances, complaints and warnings, 
the ships and forces sent from England by the Duke of York, assisted by the power of New 
England, on the 27"' August last, reduced, captured and subjected to the English authority, the 
city of New Amsterdam, now occupied for fifty years in full peace and quietness, and in addition 
thereto, the entire of IN'ew iXetherland, and immediately called it by the name of Sew-York, 
whereby thousands of people have been reduced to a miserable condition, and the State hath 
lost a Province, the appearance whereof was wonderful to behold; which annually afforded 
thousands of people a living, already augmented the shipping trade, and within a few years 
would have caused an incredible increase thereof; promoted the commerce of this country to 
an inconceivable degree, whereby the Company hath experienced a loss of millions expended 
thereon for the benefit of the State and promotion of the trade of this country. Therefore, the 
Company is again obliged, humbly, to pray your High Mightinesses to be pleased to take into 
consideration, according to their importance, these violences and hostilities against the State 
and to the Company's great loss, and, above all things, to consider the sorrowful and lamentable 
complaints of the inhabitants remaining there, in the hope that your High Mighlinesses may 
still find means to recover that country, which the above named Directors once more pray 
and request. 

Which doing, &c. 

(Signed), Michiel Ten Hove. 

liemhition of the States-General. 

{ From the Register of AVertl India AtTairrt, 1GG4 —1070, iu the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Friday, 24''- October, 16G4. 
Folio c:. Read at the Assembly a certain Remonstrance of the Directors of the West India 

Company of this country, complaining that the ships and forces sent from England by the Duke 


New Netheriaad of Yofk, aided by the power of New England, had, on the 27"' of August last, 
taken by the tng- ^.g^j^^jg^^ captured and subjected to English authority, the city of New Amsterdam, 
now, for fifty years occupied in full peace and quietness, and in addition thereto, the entire of 
New Netherland, and immediately called it by the name of New-York. Which being considered, 
it is resolved and concluded that a copy of the aforesaid Remonstrance shall be sent to all the 
Provinces, with the request that they forthwith exert themselves to the uttermost to obtain 
vigorous consent and the appropriation of necessary pecuniary means, to prevent the mischiefs 
whereby this State is threatened both within and beyond Europe. Copy of said Remonstrance 
shall likewise be transmitted to Ambassador van Gogh, in order that he strongly expostulate 
against the attacks aforesaid, and request due and prompt reparation from the King of Great 
Britain therefor, together with the issue of prompt order for the cessation of similar attacks 
in future. 

Resolution of the States of Holland. 

[ From tha Resolvtien van BMand, 1661, p. 447, ia State Library, Albany, N. T. 1 

SS"- October, 1664. 
England Read at the meeting a certain Remonstrance presented to their High Mightinesses 

West India Com- \)j the Directors of the Incorporated West India Company of these parts, 
The we«t India complaining of the intolerable violeuces Committed agaiust Said Company by thosc 

Company c^m- r o 

plains ihaiihe Eng. (jf (.^e English natiou in New Netherland and elsewhere, and, namely, that the 

lish have seized o •' 

New Netherland. gjjjpg ^^^ forcBS Sent from England by the Duke of York, aided by the power of 
New England, had, on the 27"" of August last, captured and subjected to English authority the 
city of New Amsterdam, now occupied for fifty years in full peace and quietness, and in addition 
thereto, the entire of New Netherland, and immediately called the same by the name of New- 
York, with request that their High Mightinesses, for reasons more fully set forth in said 
Remonstrance, would be pleased to consider, according to their importance, the aforesaid 
violences and hostilities committed by the English against this State and said West India 
Company, and, above all things, also to take into consideration the sad and- lamentable 
complaints of the inhabitants remaining there, in hopes that means will be found by their High 
Mightinesses to recover the same. 

Which being considered, it is resolved and concluded that the aforesaid Remonstrance shall 
be placed in the hands of the Nobles {Heeren. van de Rldderschap^) and other their Noble Great 
Mightinesses' Committee for the affairs of England, in order, after mature deliberation of its 
contents, to submit their opinions and advice thereupon. • 

' The supreme authority in the Province of Holland was vested in an assembly or body, consisting of the Raad Pensionarn, 
Nobles and the Deputies from certain cities, eighteen in number. The Noble* were denominated Heeren ran de Ridderschap. 
Kok.— Ed. 

Vol. II. 35 


Anihafisailor Van (fntjK to tlie State-S'-General. 

[ rmm the r»riginal, in the Uoyal Archivt-s at the Hague ; File, KnfjeUmdt. 1 

Mv Lords. 

The (itting out of ships here is still steadily continued, and it is understood that orders have 
been given that all such men-of-war as are yet found lying here, shall be equipped and got 
ready as soon as possible. 

'Tis reported that it is tlie intention to form them into two squaiJrons, to be employed 
hereabout; the one of 20 ships, under his Koyal Higiiness, the Duke of York, for cruizing in 
the channel ; the otlier under Vice-Admiral Montague,' to be employed elsewiiere hereabouts. 
'Tis said that this Montague has already eleven ships with him, which number will probably 
be increased to 20. 

Vice-Admiral Lawson- came to Portsmouth over three days ago, with Captain Berckely^ 
and two ships of his squadron which he commanded in the Strait, having lel'c the remainder 
there under the command of Captain Allen,'' who is ordered to command there in his place. 
This Vice-Admiral was heard to say at the Exchange and at Court, that when he left the 
Strait and spoke Admiral de Ruyter, he had understood from the latter that 'twas his intention 
to go to Salee with a portion of his ships, which 'twas understood had been victualed for some 

' Edward Mostague, first Earl of Sandwicli, son of Sir Sidney M., of Boughton, wns boro 27lh July, 1C25. In 1643 he 
received a commiesion to raise a regiment, at the head of whieh be afterwards distinguished himself, particularly in the 
battles of Marston Moor, Naseby, Ac. In the time of the Commouweultb, he adhered to Cromwell, and served with Rlake, 
after whose death he had sole command of the fleet. In 1659 he and Monk were .ippointed Joint Admirals; he gave in his 
adhesion to Charles II., and shortly after sailed to Holland, to receive his Miijesly who invested him with the Garter, created 
him Earl of Sandwich and heaped divers other honors on him. On the ru]>ture with the States-General, he served as Vice- 
Admiral under the Duke of York, and shared in the great sea fight off Lowestoffe, the I3th June, 1665. In 1666 he was sent 
Ambassador Extraordinary to Spain, and relorned to England in 1668. In 1670 he was constituted President of the Council 
of the Plantations, and on the breaking out anew of the war with the Dutch, in 1672, served again as Vice-Admiral under the 
Duke of York. In the buttle of Suulhold bay. May 28, between the combined fleet and the Dutch, the Earl of Sandwich 
commanded the linijal James, which was set on fire in the course of the action. Having ordered ench of the officers and 
men as survived, U* abandon the ship, he remained to the last, and perished in the flames. His bo^ly having been afterwards 
recovered, was interred, at the j'ublic expense, in the north side of Henry the V II th's chapel. He was a person of extraordinary 
parts, courage and affability, and justly merited all the honors conferred on him. Collins' Peerage. His portrait is in Allen'a 
Batllei of the British Navy. — Ed. 

'Sir John Lawson, Knight, was the son of a person in low circumstances in Hull, and became early attached to the sea. 
In course of time, by his merit, he obtained a ship, and was made Captain in the fleet under the Parliament in the civil war, 
towards the end of which he obtained the flag of RearAdiniral, and as such, commanded the Fairfax in 165S, in the 
engagement of the ISth February. In 1657 he fell under the suspicion of Cro i well, was committed, but afterwards 
reinstated with the rank of Vice-Admiral. lie gave in his adhesion early to the Royal cause, and, after the restoration, 
continued in the public service. He was wounded in the knee in the engagement off Lowestofl'e, 13th June, 1665, and died 
on the 26th of the same month at Greenwich. He had the reputation of being the most experienced seaman of the age, if 
we except Sir. Geo. Ayscough. Yet, after conferring so many and great benefits on his country, not a tomb has been 
erected to his memory. In religion. Sir John Lawson was an Anabaptist; in political principles, a epublican. Campbell"* 
Lives of the Admirals. II., 422. * 

'Sir William IJkkklev, Knight, Governor of Portsmouth, and Vice-Admiral of the White, son of Sir Maurice B., and 
brother of Charles, first Earl of Falmouth. He was killed in the action of the 1st June, 1666. The Dutch, wiih a noble 
feeling, embalmed his body and placed it in the chapel of the great church at the Hague to await the King's pleasure. 
Allen's Battles of the British Kavy, I.. 59; Collins' Peerage, ed. 1756, V., 191. 

* Afterwards Sir TnoM.vs Allen, Knight. He commanded the lymouth, 56, and defeated the Dutch Smyrna fleet, off Cadiz' 
in 16C5, on which occasion Van Brackett, their Coniraander, was killed. As a reward for his gallant conduct on this 
occasion, Commodore Allen was promoted to the command of the White squadron, and received the honor of Knighthood. 
He next served with distinction throughout the first Dutch war, and afterwards against the Algerines. Ltdiard. 


months. Whence 'twas inferred and concluded that his design was farther, and guessed to be 
nothing else than to run to the coast of Guinea, wliich causes much tu5k everywhere here 
among people. 

News was received from Prince Robbcrt' and the fleet under his command, both Kings and 
Royal Company's ships, that he should certainly sail yesterday from the Downs on his voyage 
towards Guinea. But now a report is spread that, since Lawson's intelligence of the 
aforementioned Vice-Admiral de Ruyter's design, the Council had resolved to countermand 
the above fleet which they design employing elsewliere. 

In like manner, a report is current here that a ship has arrived at Falmouth from New 

Netherland with some inhabitants of Long Island, which the English have sent up to be 

carried to Holland. 

Herewith, &e., 

Your High Mightinesses' obedient servant, 

Chelsea, H October, 16G4. (Signed), M. van Gogh, 

Resohition of the States of Holland. 

J From the Rcsolntun van Ilelltrtd, 16S4, p, i5% in State Library, Albany, N, Y. ] 

31" October, 1664. 
^ .^^^ The Grand Pensionary hath reported to the Assembly, the opinions and advice 

Tocir-wtuiaiewiih of their Noble, Great Misjhtiuesses' Committee for the affairs of England, having, 

the King of Gr.-at ' O o ' O' 

Briiain about the pursuant and in fulfillment of the resolution dated 25"' of this current month, 
demaQd'u^ res'uti^ examined and considered the contents of a certain Remonstrance presented to 
their High Mightinesses by the Directors of the Incorporated West India 
Company of these parts, complaining of the intolerable violences committed against 
said Conipany by those of the Englisli nation in New Netherland and elsewhere, and, namely, 
that the sliips and forces sent from England by the Duke of York, aided by the power of 
New England, had, on the 27'* of August last, captured and subjected to English authority 
the city of New Amsterdam, now occupied for half a century of years in full peace and 
quietness, and in addition thereunto the entire Province of New Netherland, and also 
immediately called the same by the name of New- York ; requesting their High Mightinesses, 
for reasons more fully set forth in the aforesaid Remonstrance, to be pleased to take into 

' Prines Rdpert was the thir<3 son of the Prince Elector Palatine, sometimes styled the King of Buhetnia, by Princess 
Elizabeth, daughter of James I., and was, conse<]^uently, nephew of Chailes I., to whom he offered his sword and services on 
the breaking out of tlie civil war in England. In 164-t he was created Earl of Holdernesse and Duke of Combeiland ; on the 
tenninatioD of the war, he returned to the continent and afterward? endeavored to resist Cromwell, but in 1649 was so 
hard pressed hj Blake that he narrowly escaped. In 1664 he was intrusted, conjointly wilh the Earl of Albemarle, with 
the command of the fleet. He defeated the Dutch on the 3d .June and 24lh July, 1665, O. S. On the breaking out of the 
second Dutch war, in 1672, he was again put in command of the fleet, and on 9th July, 1073, was appointed First Lord of 
the Admiralty, which office he held until 1079. The latter years of his life were spent in prosecuting chemical and philo- 
sophical experiments, in the course of which he invented the Mezzo-tinto style of engraving, and the composition called tha 
Prince's metal. He died in his house, in Spring Garden, on the 29th November, 1682, in his grand climacteric, when, for 
want of legitimate issue, his titles became extinct, Campbelfs British Admirals, 11., 413 ; Beatton's Political Index, L, 60 { 
II., 31; III,, 41. — Eo. 


consideration, according to their importance, the aforesaid violences and hostilities committed 
by tlie English against this State and said West India Company, and, above ail things, to 
consider, also, the sad and lamentable complaints of the inhabitants remaining there, in the 
hope that means may be found by their High Mightinesses to recover the same. 

Whereupon, deliberation being had, it is resolved and concluded that the matter shall be 
referred, on the part of their Noble, Great Mightinesses, to the States-General {/cr Gaicmliieit) 
to the end that their High Mightinesses may cause a copy of the aforesaid Remonstrance, and 
other papers thereunto appertaining, to be transmitted to Mr. Van Gogh, Ordinary Ambassador 
from this State to the King of Great Britain, with orders to expostulate, strongly and 
seriously, with his Mnjesty on the matter aforesaid, requesting, hereupon, prompt restitution 
and reparation, also, a speedy and categorical answer and declaration from his Majesty, 
whereof he, the Ambassador, shall immediately notify their High Mightinesses by express 
and the ordinary post. The resolution to be adopted by their High Mightinesses is to be 
handed by Agent de Heyde to the Ambassador of France and to Mr. Downing, Extraordinary 
Envoy of the aforesaid King of Great Britain, also, to Mess", the Residents of Sweden and 
Denmark, and, likewise, to Mr. Boreel, Ordinary Ambassador from this State to the King 
and Court of France, and to Residents Heins and Le Maire to serve for their further information. 

Folio 69. 

jResolutioii of the States -General. 

I From thp Kegieter of West India Affciire, 1664 — 1670, in the Koyal Archives at the Hagne. ] 

The Remonstrance presented by the Directors of the Incorporated West India 
"cu ied''b'"''tb6 Company of this country is again brought before the Assembly, complaining of 
EngiiBh. jjjg intolerable violences committed against the said Company by those of the 

English nation in New Netherland and elsewhere, and namely that the ships and forces sent 
from England by the Duke of York, aided by the power of New England, had, on the 27"* of 
August last, captured and subjected to EnglLsli authority the city of New Amsterdam, now 
occupied for fifty years in full peace and quietness, and, in addition thereunto, the whole of 
New Netherland, and immediately called the same by the name of New- York, requesting 
that their High Mightinesses, for the reasons more fully set forth in the aforesaid Remonstrance, 
■would be pleased to take into consideration, according to their importance, the aforesaid 
violences and hostilities committed by the English against this State and said West India 
Company, and, above all things, also to consider the sad and lamentable complaints of the 
inliabitants remaining there, in hopes that means may be found by their High Mightinesses 
to recover the same. Which being considered, it is resolved and concluded that copy of the 
aforesaid Remonstrance, with and besides the additional papers appertaining thereunto, shall 
be sent to Ambassador Van Gogh, with order to expostulate strongly and seriously with the 
King of Great Britain respecting what is above set forth, requesting hereupon prompt 
restitution and reparation; also a speedy and categorical answer and declaration from the 
Lord, the King, whereof he, the Ambassador, shall immediately notify their High Mightinesses 
by express and also by the ordinary post. This, their High Mightinesses' resolution, shall 


also be handed by Agent de Heyde to the Ambassador of France, and Mr. Downing, 
Extraordinary Envoy of the King of Great Britain ; also to Mess" ihe Residents of Sweden 
and Denmark, and likewise sent to Ambassador Boreel and Residents Heins and Le Maire to 
serve for their further information ; and the despatches resulting herefrom shall be sent off 
without reconsideration. 

States -General to Ainbasmdor Van Gogh. 

[From the Register of Vitgegane Brieren of the States-General, in the Royal" Archives at the Hague.] 

The States, &c. 
Folio 804. Honorable, &c. Hereunto annexed, we send you copy of the Remonstrance 

West India Com- . J I J 

?=>"?■ and its appendices of the West India Company, together with the accompanying 

extract of our resolutions adopted in the premises, and that to the end, as therein mentioned. 
Wherewith ending, we commend you to God's holy protection. 
At the Hague, the 31" October, 1664. 

^ ■« « ■ ■ f 

Ambassador Van Gogh to Secretary Ruysch. 

[ From the Manuscripts in the Royal Archives at the Hague; File, Engelandt. ] 


On the S"" of November, N. S., 1664, the packet came to hand containing divers letters 
and appendices from the State, namely, duplicates of letters and resolution both of the 21" 
October, also, a letter and resolution of the 21" of that month, together with, likewise, a 
similar letter and further resolution of 21" ditto, with its respective appendices, all containing 
divers complaints both of the seizure and overpowering of Cape Corse and New Netherland, 
&c., with the orders appertaining thereunto, as more fully therein mentioned ; whereunto 
was further added a justification of the King's claim concerning the infraction of the 14"" 
article of the treaty, written in the Dutch language, whereof I am promised a translation in 
French with the earliest opportunity, all to serve as it behooves. 

In obedience to said orders I have, at the audience which, upon previous request to that 
effect was appointed for me on yesterday evening about four o'clock, fully and at large 
submitted again verbally to his Majesty the whole subject of grievances which have occurred 
heretofore, as well the injuries, violences and outrages committed by the English on the 
inhabitants of the State of the United Netherlands, as also the inconvenient and wrong 
interpretations put by his Majesty on the words of the orders issued by their High 
Mightinesses. His Majesty was pleased to give for answer that he had noted, perused and 
examined all the reasons transmitted in writing by their High Mightinesses on the aforesaid 
matters and what was submitted in full by me, and had already given orders to have all 
answered in writing ; but as the aforesaid answers and papers were so copious and voluminous 


(as he said), such answer could not, as yet, be perfected ; nevertheless, he believes it will be 
ready on an early day, when it will be communicated to me. And as I had, in like manner, 
submitted to his Majesty the two last occurring cases mentioned in the aforegoing letters of 
th(5ir High Mightinesses, concerning the circumstance of Cape Corse and New Netherland, 
whereof the English did, in an inimical manner, strip, divest and deprive the West India 
Company, his Majesty made use of the written Memoir, copy whereof accompanies this 
letter, having the same at hand, and said, that a relation was made of the whole, fully and at 
length, both in writing and verbally, but that the matter was so voluminous that he could 
not well remember it; however, he will answer summarily and verbally on these three 
points, viz.: Wliat was heretofore complained of respecting Cape Verd, that he had already 
answered on that subject, to wit : that the act was committed without his knowledge, and 
he should inform himself thereupon, and have justice and redress done according to the 
circumstances and the exigencies of aflairs, maintaining that this provisional answer, ought 
also alford provisional satisfliction ; that herein he could hot do otherwise, nor could anything 
else be done consistently with right, especially in such a case wherein he hath judged that 
the aforesaid act, having been without liis knowledge and order, must be considered as ill 
done, and therefore was deserving of redress as well as correction ; but that liis people must 
be heard thereupon, to ascertain what reasons and motives they may have had, so that [they 
being heard] right and justice may be administered according to the exigency of the case. 

That, to this end, Captain Holmes has been expected now over two months, and it could not 
be imagined where he was delaying this long time, it being feared that some misfortune must 
have overtaken him at sea, or else he must have arrived, which he would be sorry to see, both 
for other as well as for the aforesaid reasons. But, added his Majesty with some animation 
and vehemence: I cannot suffer that any other person should presume to administer justice 
to my subjects or to attempt to redress his own affairs, as I have seen their High Mightinesses 
have undertaken to do, in their instruction to the commandant of tin; fleet bound for Guinea; 
quoting the very words of the said Instruction, and dwelling upon them ; which being 
answered by me in due form, both by reasons which suggested themselves, and by those 
borrowed from the Justification, &c., his Majesty declared, further, that said words could not 
be otherwise taken nor understood, but that on all this matter (breaking off further reasons), as 
he said before, his written answer was ready in writing to be comnninicated to me in a short 
time. And, in regard to what was mentioned respecting the case of Cape Corse, his Majesty 
said : That such was done with his knowledge and by his order, as it belonged to the English, 
the very ground being their propeu'ty, they having placed the building thereupon ; that the 
English were dispossessed of it without any right by the Dutch West India Company, which 
afterwards erected some additional buildings thereupon ; that they were in possession of it no 
more than, or a little over, four years; that the English would justify and demonstrate their 
right to all this. Whcreunto, then, the person present replied : That this (with respect) was 
not the right way, even according to his Majesty's language and reasons previously submitted, 
to attempt to redress himself in this maimer, and conflicted especially with the concluded 
Treaty to which his Majesty was apptialing, with further arguments, too long to repeat here. 
Whereupon his Majesty declared, that further information should be given in the written 
answer to the aforesaid Memoir ; breaking off further reasons. And, as to what regards the 
Remonstrance respecting New Netherland, he said, in like manner: That said country was a 
dependency under his authority, being situated there among other his lands, and therefore 


had been settled and occupied before this by the English, who only permitted the Dutch 
nation at the outset to settle there, without any authority having been thereby conferred on 
the Dutch West India Company or any other person. Then I replied in like manner, and 
said as above reported of Cape Corse, and, further, that the Dutch nation had indeed been now 
for 50 years in quiet and peaceable possession of that country, and that they cannot be stripped 
of it with any right, or even shadow of right in the world ; therefore, that his Majesty may 
please to examine these things according to equity and justice, and let due redress be made, 
as their High Mightinesses expect no less than this from his Majesty's well known and 
renowned justice. His Majesty again, as if interrupting his reasons, said : I shall have a 
written vindication made of and respecting all, as it has been already commenced, in order to 
its communication at an early day. On my remarking further, seeing his Majesty seemed 
willing herewith to cut short the argument, that the above mentioned actions could have no 
other effect than to produce a widening of the breach between the nations, and further 
mischiefs which were to be apprehended therefrom, his Majesty repeated the reasons heretofore 
frequently reported, and said among other things, that he had not begun this business 
(meaning the fleets destined for Admiral Obdam' and for Guinea), but that it was first 
undertaken by the Dutch, calling them Hollanders; that already he had shown himself a 
lover of peace, and still sought not war; nevertheless, he could not neglect maintaining his 
subjects' right and rights, and to defend them everywhere, but only with justice, as he declared 
to be willing to attest on all occasions ; adding, moreover, that he did not wish to say any more, 
but to refer to the answer hereinbefore promised, and if any further request was to be made 
on the part of their High Mightinesses he should be ready at all times to consider it ; wherewith, 
then, after proffered compliments and the promise to communicate the Justification in question, 
with request and recommendation that it may be rightly appreciated and further that what is 
proper may follow, I took leave of his Majesty. 

I should have handed in there, and at the same time, the aforesaid Justification, but as the 
translation into French from Dutch had not arrived, and there was no time here to translate 
it, and it had been promised to be forwarded by the first opportunity from Fatherland, I have 
availed myself of the aforesaid promise herein ; their High Mightinesses' commands concerning 
this and all other things being followed and obeyed with all submission. 

Pursuant to their High Mightinesses' resolution of the 31" October, this is forwarded not 
only by the ordinary post but also by express, which (God willing) shall also be done whenever 
the King's answer in writing will reach my hands. 

'Jacob tan Wassenaab, Lord of Obdam, son of Admiral Jacob van Duvenvoorde and Anna Randerode van der Aa, was born 
in the year 1612. He entered tlie service as Captain of a company of cavalry, and soon was promoted to a Colonelcy, in which 
capacity he distinguished himself at the siege of Maastricht, in 1632. He was soon after appointed Governor of Heusden 
and vicinity, and, in 1648, was sent Ambassador to Kleef, to assist at the baptism of the Prince of Brandenburgh's son. After 
filling several other similar employments, he was appointed Commissioner on board the fleet commanded by the elder 
Admiral Van Tromp, in 1653,'whom he'^shortly after succeeded. He served in the Bailie iu 1656 ; in 1657 commanded the 
fleet sent against the Portuguese, and, in 1658, that sent to the assistance of the King of Denmark, when he encountered and 
defeated the Swedish fleet under Wrangel. He continued actively employed, and, at the commencement of the war between 
Holland and England, in 1666, was appointed Lieutenant Admiral-General of the Dutch fleet. He hoisted his flag on board 
the Mendraght, 84, and, on the 13th June, fought the English fleet under the Duke of York, off Leostofi'e. The battle 
commenced at day-break About two o'clock in the afternoon the Eendraght unfortunately blew up, with all on board. 
Admiral Obdam's body was never found ; but, in honor of his long and eminent services, hie statue, of life size, was erected 
in the Great Church of St. Jamaa, at the Hague, at the public expense. Kok, X5X., 310; Martinet's Nederlanden, III., 
150. —Ed. 


As for ordinary news, there is none special at present, except that the fleet under Prince 
Robbert' is still waiting for a wind at Portsmouth, firmly resolved to prosecute the voyage as 
soon as convenient ; some dissatisfaction having arisen among the crews on account of spoiled 
provisions being served out, &c., they at present are not found altogether willing to serve, 
especially in a voyage to Guinea, but, by supplying other provisions, and inflicting punishment 
on some, the difliculty lias been arranged. For this reason, and on account of want of time, 
notiiing fuller can be communicated. Inquiries were made about the constitution of the 
shipping and what appertains thereunto, according to their High Mightinesses' letter, to 

which referring, 

I remain, &c., 

Sir, &c., 
Clielsea, V"" November, 16G4. M. van Gogh. 

Received ]2"' November, 1G64. 

P. S. — Impressment for the manning of the ships is carried so far that, contrary to the usual 
custom, even the journeymen or apprentices are taken, and now, for the first place, the Guild 
of shoemakers has been applied to respecting its journeymen.* 

Ambassador Van Gogh to Charles II. 

[ From tho M9. iu the Royal Archives at the Hague, Secrete Kas; DiviRion, Etigeland; Kas B., Loktt L., No. 124, to be found iu Kas F., 

ioAe/ C, No. 4.] 


At several audiences with wiiich the undersigned. Ordinary Ambassador of th^ir Lordships 
the States-General of the United Netherland Provinces, has been honored by your Majesty, he 
submitted divers grievances and complaints of damages which your subjects had caused and 
made those of the United Provinces to suffer, especially by the violent seizure of their ships, 
the plunder of their goods and the unjust capture of the forts and places they possessed by 
just title on the coast of Africa, as the whole has been fully deduced in the Memoirs, 
Declarations and ulterior Opinions and Deductions presented in writing to your Slajesty, and 
supported verbally by said Ambassador. On all which complaints it has graciously pleased 
your Majesty to make at first a verbal answer, and afterwards, on the application of said 
Ambassador, to promise a more ample one in writing. As this has remained, up to the 
present time, in arrears and as their High Mightinesses have not yet received satisfaction in 
regard to tlie aforesaid matters, notwithstanding they have offered to give not only equitable 
satisfaction and contentment to your Miijesty for all damages and reasonable counter-claims 
of your subjects, but likewise have removed all difficulties which have been offered or alleged 
against them, as appears more fully by the Memoirs, Declarations and Deductions above 
mentioned, and which have from time to time been made both verbally and communicated 
in writing to your Envoy Extraordinary at the Hague and also to your Majesty by their 

' Sic. Rupert, tupra, p. 276. 

" Another translation of this letter is to be found, post, IU., 11. — Ed. 


Minister at this Court, the said Ordinary Ambassador finds liimself necessitated to apply 
anew to your Majesty for the end aforesaid. 

And also to remonstrate on the part of their High Mightinesses, his superiors, that they 
have received intelligence from the coast of Africa above mentioned, confirming that not 
only the aforesaid outrages and violent actions of the English were not ceasing, but even 
still continued, by the capture of Fort Cape Corse, belonging to the Incorporated West India 
Company of the Netherlands, before which fort your Majesty's subjects came with a number 
of ships, laying siege to it by sea and attacking it by land, with the aid of the natives of the 
country, whom they have debauched and gained over to assist them, for a few marcs cCor and 
other merchandise after having cannonaded and attacked it as open enemies. This act, 
conflicting not only with good correspondence and neighborhood, but principally also with 
all equity and reason, being, in fact, an open hostility, an irresponsible violence whereby the 
Treaty recently concluded between your Majesty and the State of the United Provinces is 
gravely injured, they flatter themselves that your Majesty, in accordance with your accustomed 
justice and equity, will not permit nor suffer it to pass in any manner whatsoever. The said 
Ambassador, in the name of his masters, most respectfully requires your Majesty to be pleased 
to cause to be duly redressed and repaired both the preceding violences committed by his 
subjects on the people of the Netherlands, and those quite recently perpetrated by the capture 
of Cape Corse aforesaid, to have exemplary chastisement inflicted on the guilty and to introduce 
such order for the future as will prevent a recurrence of such and the like irregularities. 
Whereupon the said Ambassador promises himself and expects, on an early day, your Majesty's 
favorable and satisfactory answer, in order to place their High Mightinesses at rest on 
that score. 

(Signed), M. van Gogh, 

Chelsea, -'^Q'""''" 1664. 

o November 


After the abovenamed Ordinary Ambassador had already put in writing the preceding 
Memoir to be presented to your Majesty, having with that view demanded an audience, he 
has received, by the post which arrived yesterday, letters from their Lordships, the States- 
General, enjoining on and ordering him most precisely to represent to your Majesty without 
delay what follows, to wit : 

That the Directors of the Incorporated West India Company of the United Provinces have 
complained anew to their High Mightinesses of the wrongs and intolerable violences which 
the English nation has again committed against them in New Netherland and elsewhere, and 
especially that the ships and people sent by his Royal Highness, the Duke of York, from this 
Kingdom into those parts, being assisted by the forces of New England, had, on the 27"" of 
August last, taken the town of New Amsterdam, a place whereof the said West India Company 
has been, under their High Mightinesses' protection, in full and peaceable possession since 
fifty years, and afterwards subjugated the Province of New Netherland, and subjected it to 
English jurisdiction, imposing on it at once the name of New-Yoek; whereby the said 
Company has not only lost and been damaged to the amount of several millions which the 
said Province cost it, and thousands of men have been impoverished and reduced to penury, 
but also the supreme jurisdiction of their High Mightinesses has been gravely insulted. 
Vol. I[. 36 


As this action of the English must be esteemed not only 1)}' the entire world and every one 
) ' particular, but also in a special manner by your Majesty, according to your discretion and 
ordinary and universally recognized equity, as an enormous proceeding, opposed to all right 
and reason, contrary to mutual correspondence and good neighborhood, and a notorious 
infraction of the Treaty lately concluded and solemnly ratified between your Majesty and 
their High Mightinesses, and must consefjuently he deemed a most flagrant, violent and an 
open hostility, which cannot and must not, in any manner whatsoever, be suffered or tolerated. 

The said Ambassador therefore comes, in his Masters' name, to request your Majesty most 
urgently and in serious terms that, in consideration of what is above alleged, you may be 
pleased, in your accustomed justice and equity, to order that prompt and just restitution and 
reparation be made to their High Mightinesses and their subjects in the premises aforesaid, 
and to make your intention known at the earliest moment, by a clear and categorical answer 
in writing, which the said Ambassador will await with all devotion, in order to afford satisfaction 
to their High Mightinesses, his Masters. 

(Signed), M. van Gogh. 

Chelsea, this --"''' O'''"^--- 1664. 

Stak-s-Genentl to the Provinee-9. 

[ From Ibe KegUter of Vitffeffaiie Brieven of the Slates-General, ia the Royal Arcblre* at the Hague. ] 

Noble Mighty Lords. 

Folio 847. Your Noble Mightinesses have doubtless observed from the last letters of M. Van 

Goch; Ordinary Ambassador from this State in England, written at Chelsea on the 7"" instant, 
that the King of Great Britain had in the late audience granted to that Ambassador, declared 
Capture of cipe in round and positive terms that the capture of Cape Corse on the coast of 

Corse and New • , r .» 

Neiheriand. Guinea, and of New Amsterdam in New Netherland was done with his knowledge 

and by his order. The affair then being now entirely clear and all doubt being removed, 
whereby men have been hitherto desirous to persuade this State that the acts of hostility 
committed in those countries on the part of the subjects of the said King, already in the year 
1661, by the incorporation of the Island of Boa Vista and of Fort St. Andrew, situate on the 
River Gambia, and executed in the current year, more empliatically and forcibly in the seizure 
of tov?ns, forts, ships and goods of this State and its good inhabitants, had been done 
without the knowledge and command of the aforesaid King, promising that proper redress 
would be given according to the circumstances and character of affairs, pursuant to and in 
conformity with the negotiated Treaty. Things being so, your Noble Mightinesses in your 
wisdom will be in a position easily to agree with us how necessary it will be, in the present 
conjuncture of times and things, that considerable naval equipments be made, and a respectable 
number of first class ships of war be constructed. To which end we have resolved hereby 
most seriously to request you, Noble Mighty, and all the other Provinces, if the salvation of 
our beloved Fatherland is dear to you, now to take properly to heart all that appertains to the 
promotion of the aforesaid equipments and the construction of new ships of war, with whatever 
is incidental thereto and consequently heartily to grant not only all the requisitions issued 


concerning them, but also to speedily furnish the prompt means in money demanded for the 
carrying out thereof. Wherewith ending, &c. At the Hague, the 13"" November, 1664. 


Ambassador Van GogTi to Secretary Riiysch. 

\ From the Original, in the Royal Archives at the Hague ; Secrete Kas of the States-General ; Division Etigeland ; Kas B., Lo/cet L., No. 124, in 

Kas F., Loket C, No. i.] 


My last unto you was of the lO"" instant, accompanied with a triplicate of the letters 
previously sent hence the 7"" ditto by the ordinary post as well as by express. I have since 
received the duplicates of their High Mightinesses' letters and resolutions of the 24"" of 
October, adopted on the first Remonstrance of the Directors of the Dutch West India 
Company, complaining of the actions of the English by the taking in, and making themselves 
masters of. New Netherland, which were sent me only for my information. There was also 
another duplicate of the letters and resolution with some other papers of the 31" of October 
aforesaid upon said complaints, with an order as therein mentioned, which have already been 
acknowledged, also another duplicate of the letter and resolution of the 31" ditto, with an 
authentic copy in Dutch of the Justification agreed upon, whereunto is annexed a copy in 
French to be delivered to his Majesty here. 

In pursuance of the said last resolution (as his Majesty had already been spoken to of this 
affair, as I wrote in my said letter of the V"" instant), having desired audience with his 
Majesty (which was appointed yesterday in the evening about 4 o'clock), I did again by 
way of introduction make a repetition of the former arguments I used at my last audience 
with his Majesty, which were chiefly concerning the taking of Cape Corse and New 
Netherland, and to desire the redress demanded for the same. I repeated at the same time, 
as mentioned at length, the amicable and reasonable offers, made on the part of their High 
Mightinesses, towards the reparation and satisfaction of the damages pretended by the English, 
forasmuch as may be found to be just and reasonable; in which they have endeavored to 
come up to his Majesty in all respects, so far as in reason can be expected of them, for the 
preservation of good friendship and correspondence and, besides, the due observance of 
the Treaty last made, which their High Mightinesses intend ever to adhere to, as they have 
made it appear, in deed and in fact; and as their High Mightinesses were informed that his 
Majesty seemed to have taken some discontent concerning some words set down in the 
instructions given to the Commander-in-Chief of the ships designed for Guinea, and to 
maintain that they have been contrary to the said Treaty, notwithstanding all this has been 
fully answered by me, in confidence that the same would afford satisfaction, yet, nevertheless, 
his Majesty, beyond all expectation, did seem to adhere to his former opinion ; that therefore 
their High Mightinesses had thought fit to make a concept of a Justification to be delivered 
to his Majesty, not doubting but that his Majesty would have given place to, and taken 
satisfaction from, said reasons according to his usual discretion. And after I had verbally 
stated the contents of the said Justification and had added what else was needful, (at the same 
time delivering over the same which was then also accepted by his Majesty), he said ia 


substance: "I know very well what satisfaction could hitherto be obtained there and what 
hath been offered for that puurpose, but the effects thereof could never yet be seen; they 
declare they will stand by the Treaty, and yet they act right contrary, giving orders which 
are repugnant to the same, as I have remarked before, and aa shall be more clearly 
demonstrated by my answer which I have ordered to be drawn up in writing, and will 
in a few days be delivered to you. In the mean time 'tis observed that still more and 
more shipping are fitting out for sea, as soon as the wind shall serve. But be it known that 
if they do, my fleet shall not stay at home nor behind them" (speaking of the ships bound 
for Guinea). All which being by me answered with such arguments as were fitting, and did 
offer themselves at other times and at this interview, his Majesty did somewhat eagerly, 
and interrupting me, say: "I cannot put any other interpretation on the orders aforesaid 
than what I have formerly said;" and falling upon the discourse of the Dutch fleet added: 
" I could have also brought a greater number of ships to sea (naming 40 sail) if I would have 
followed the desires of my people, but 1 have been willing to show myself inclinable to 
peace in all respects." To which having again replied in due form and earnestly laid before 
his Majesty the bad effects of the sinister renconters and consequences to be feared, which 
ought with all care and circumspection to be prevented in order to avoid all further breaches 
between both nations, his Majesty again observed, as before, that he was not the occasion 
thereof, not having first begun this work. And forasmuch as I perceived that all former 
reasons of discontent were repeated, ex ahrvpto as it were, and that all the counter 
arguments alleged by me seemed to have no effect, I did once more assure his Majesty of their 
High Mightinesses' special and entire inclination for the continuance of the mutual good 
correspondence, which since the reducement and establishment of this State hath ever, and 
without any interruption, between both nations been maintained, and whereof also the good 
fruits on both sides have, through God's mercy, been hitherto abundantly enjoyed (which 
matter I did extend to the highest praise of the English Nation) and that therefore and for 
many other reasons, all possible means ought to be used, whereby the differences between 
both nations might be removed and all further breaches prevented. Thereunto his Majesty 
was then ofiicially requested to contribute all on his part, as their High Mightinesses also are 
fully disposed to declare their good inclinations towards the same. His Majesty (seeming to 
give a turn to the conversation) said, that he knew not what more to say hereunto than what 
he had said before, and that he had caused his answer to be drawn up in writing which 
should be sent me in a few days, and that in case their High Mightinesses had anything to 
propound to him, he would be always ready to hear them. Whereupon I, perceiving that 
his Majesty seemed willing to leave off all further discourse, did, after due compliment and 
earnest recommendation that his Majesty would please to apprehend all things rightly, take 
my leave of his Majesty. 

There were many other discourses repeated there, which still tended to the same effect as I 
have wrote formerly, therefore I shall omit to set them down here, but his Majesty still 
seemed to remain dissatisfied insomuch that I could not perceive any satisfaction on his 
part in all what was said, but in general referred to the answer which is to be given me in 
writing, Herewith, &c. 

M. VAN Gogh. 


P. S. Owing to want of time, I cannot entertain their High Mightinesses with the current 
news ; I shall do so next Monday. 
Chelsea, the 1*4 November, 1664. 

P. S. Just now I understand that a general embargo is to be laid on the ships in the harbors 
hereabout, in order the more easily to obtain hands, and to man the ships that are to be got 
ready and furthermore for general encouragement. The East India ships and those bound to 
the Straits with fish only are to be exempted. Further particulars can be learned from 
Pensionary De Witt, to whom, in consequence of shortness of time, I refer. 

Ambassador Downing to the States -General. 

[ From the Original, in the Royal Archives at the Hague ; File, Engetand. ] 

The underwritten Envoy Extraordinary of His Most Sacred Majesty of Create Brittaine etc: 
Is commanded to make knowne to their Lordships the Estates Generall of the United Provinces, 
that the King his Master is very sorry, that all his urgent and incessant instances, friendly 
endeavours and unwearied patience for so many yeares together, have beene of so little force 
and efRcacy with them as yet to this day. Since his returne to his Kingdomes, satisfaction 
hath not bin made to any one of his subjects in any one of those cases of piracy and violence, 
committed upon them by the people of this country. Concerning which complaint hath 
from time to time in his name, and by his order, bin made by him, his Envoy Extraordinary 
unto them. 

Particularly it is sufficiently knowne how and in what manner he hath from first to last bin 
dealt with in relation to the businesse of the ships Bona Esparanza and Bonadventure. 
And as to the ships Charles James Marie, etc., though satisfaction hath bin promised once and 
againe ; yet to this day nothing done therein. Whereby the time limited by the treatie for 
expecting satisfaction from them in an amicable way thereupon is expired. 

And as to the list of dammages : notwithstanding all his earnest indeavours for the hastning of 
the dispatch thereof, whereby those matters, that had caused and did continue so much rancour 
betweene the nations, might have bin timely and friendly determined. Yet so it is that it was 
about twice twelve months, ere he the said Envoy extraordinary could obtaine so much as a 
sight of their list, but still putt ofi'from time to time with delays; and then it was found to be 
filled with such falsities and impertinencies and maters, that by the letter and text of the 15 
article, were not to have bin inserted therein, as if the intention had not in any kinde bin to 
proceed too friendly adjustment of matters, but onely thereby to have an occasion of decrying 
and stifling the just, modest and grounded list of the pretences, given in by him, by order of the 
King his master, in the behalfe of his subjects. And since the exchange of the said lists, he 
hath not bin able to obtaine more than two conferences, in order to the examining thereof, and 
those to no purpose, nothing having bin therein declared by them in order to the retrenching 
and reforming of the same, where by so much as a way may be opened, upon which to begin 
to trye, what may be done in order to the ending of those disputes. 


And whereas for the prevention of all such disorders for the future, the King his master was 
pleased not onely to declare himselfe willing to enter into a treaty with them. But a concept 
of a reglement to that end, was in his name and by his order upon the 25 day of August last, 
old style, tendered unto them by him, his Envoy extraordinary ; and that he hath since from 
time to time pressed them to the expediting of so good and desirable a worke, that yet to 
this day he has received no answer thereupon, nor any the least progresse made therein. 

That their Lordships have contrary to their treatie with his Majesty to all good neighborhood, 
and without the least shadow of ground, stopped and detained for so long a time a certaine 
Swedish ship laden at Gortenburgh with merchandizes for London, driven into this country 
by stresse of weather, notwithstanding the reiterated and joint demands, made by him and 
the Minister of Sweden, residing here, for the discharge thereof. And notwithstanding that the 
King his ALister, upon the desire of their Ambassador hath the last weeke given liberty to all 
shipping of this country, freely to go out of his harbours, even when he had imposed and 
continued a generall imbargo upon the shipping of his owne subjects. 

Al which he hath order to lay before them, withall letting them know, that the King his 

master cannot longer suffer himselfe to be thus dealt withall. 

Given at the Hague this 25 Novembre 1GG4, old style. 

(Signed), G. Downing. 

Resohition of the States-General. 

t From the ReKieter of the States-General's Resolutions, in the Royal Arehives at the Hague. ] 

Friday, 6"" December, 16G4. 
Folio 906. Read at the meeting a certain Memoir of Mr. Downing, Ambassador 

Downingh. . " ° 

compi.innofpira- Extraord iuary from the Kingof Great Britain, containingdivers remonstrances that 
no satisfaction had, up to this time, been given to any of tlie complaints of piracies 
and violences committed against his Majesty's subjects by the inhabitants of this country. 
Which being considered, it is resolved and concluded that a copy of the aforesaid Memoir shall 
be sent to Ambassador Van Gogh for his information, and be, moreover, placed in the hands 
of Mess" Huygens and the other their High Mightinesses' Deputies for the affairs of England, 
to inspect, examine and report thereon. 

Resolution of the States -General. 

[From the Register of the West India Company's Affairs, 1664—1670, In the Royal Archlres at th« Hague. ] 

Thursday, ll"- December, 1664. 
Foiiors. Deliberation being resumed on the Memorial of Mr. Downing:, Ambassador 

Downing. ° °' 

complaints. Extraordinary from the Kingof Great Britain to their High Mightinesses, delivered 


on the 5"" of this current month, copy whereof, as we are informed, has been handed by the 
said Extraordinary Envoy to the Foreign Ministers residing at this court; it is, after previous 
deliberation, resolved and concluded that copy of the aforesaid Memorial shall be sent to M. 
Van Beuningen, Minister Extraordinary from this State to the King and Court of France, with 
command and order palpably to demonstrate to the aforesaid King and his Majesty's Ministers, 
from the retroacta furnished him here before his departure and also from his own knowledge, 
the unfounded or mistaken representation of the matters and circumstances therein mentioned, 
and to show said King, on the contrary, that the King of Great Britain and his Majesty's subjects 
have begun to treat this State and its good inhabitants with inimical attacks and open hostility, 
first, by capturing towns, lands, forts and ships in distant countries, and afterwards in 
Europe, by seizing, taking and making prize all the homeward bnund ships of this country, 
without England being able to allege, or it having ever been asserted that, since the conclusion 
of the last made Treaty, which quashed or settled all previous differences and actions, any of 
her ships have been hostilely attacked, taken or destroyed by the inhabitants of this country, 
much less any lands, islands, forts or towns been occupied or mastered. And, although 
their High Mightinesses, by reason of the aforesaid inimical aggressions on the part of England, 
have for a long time been, by the law of nations, justified, for the just and necessary defence of 
the inhabitants and subjects of the United Netherland Provinces and the reparation of the 
losses and offences suffered, in inflicting, by way of reprisal, all possible injury on the English, 
especially since the King of Great Britain hath been pleased publicly to declare and to announce 
to their High Mightinesses and their Minister in England, that his Majesty himself hath given 
orders for the incorporation of New Netherland and the seizure of Cape Corse (as he hath now 
been pleased to make a similar declaration in regard to the seizure, capture and making prize 
of the aforesaid ships in Europe), being acts of hostility undertaken against towns, lands and 
places to which the said King not only had no right in the world, but no claim had ever been 
presented to this State for them, nor, as is believed, was ever any imagined in regard to New 
Netherland by the said King; besides, such imagined action and claim being older than the 
year 1G54, was extinguished by the lately made Treaty; their High Mightinesses, having 
entertained the hope of a peaceable issue, especially promising themselves such a result from 
the good offices which the said King of France hath been pleased to initiate in this regard, 
have abstained from all offensive actions against the King of Great Britain and his subjects, 
because the justice of their High Mightinesses' case must appear everywhere so much the 
clearer. And this, their High Mightinesses' resolution, shall be sent to Ambassador Van Gogh, 
Residents Heins and Le Maire ; also be handed by Agent de Heyde to Count d'Estrades, 
Ambassador Extraordinary of France ; likewise to Mess" the Residents of Sweden and Denmark 
for their respective information. The despatch resulting herefrom shall be sent off without 


States-General to their Foreign Ministers. 

[ From the Regiett-r of Uitgpgane Brieven of the Slalee-Geuerft!, in the Royal Archives at ihe ITftgue. ] 

To M. Van Beuningen, Ambassador Extraordinary from this State. 

To Ambassador Van Gogh. 

To Residents Heins and Le Maire. 

The States, &c. 

Folio 328. 

Honorable, &c. We send you herewith the annexed Memorial presented to 

Memorial of Mr. •' ' 

Downing. us OH the 5"" instant by M. Downing, Ambassador Extraordinary from the King of 

Great Britain, together with the accompanying extract of our resolutions adopted on said 
Memorial, and that to the end therein mentioned. Wherewith ending, &c. 
In the Hague, the 11"" December, 1664. 

Secret Resolution of the States-General. 

[ From the Register of Secret Resolutions of the States-General, in the Royal Archives at the Hague. ] 

Friday, 12"' December, 1664. 
Folio 104. After previous deliberation, it is resolved and concluded that the respective 

pfo^wo'Js for Ad- Boards of Admiralty superintending the ships of the fleet under Vice-Admiral de 
mirai de liuyter. Ruyter be hereby and, at all events, authorized and instructed to send secretly 
some more provisions to the aforesaid fleet, either by chartering neutral ships here or from some 
ports of France or elsewhere, iu such manner as they themselves shall think best and safest. 

States-General to Vice-Admiral de Ruytcr. 

To Vice-Admiral Michiel Adriaense de Ruyter, Admiral and Commander-in-Chief 
of a fleet of Dutch ships of war on the coast of Africa and Guinea, or in his 
absence, to whomsoever may have succeeded to the chief command. 

The States, &c. 

Honorable, Valiant, Honest, Beloved, Faithful. 

Lieutenant Admiral Our last to you was dated the 22°"' of last month ; we believe it will reach you 

do Ruyler. .... 

Rupture with Eng- with tliis, as siucc that time an opportunity has not presented itself to dispatch 
beyond Europe. Captains Clerck and Verschuur with the ships placed under their convoy ; likewise 


the West India Company's galiot, which, on the day aforesaid, should have carried you a despatch 
and inclosures thereunto appertaining. But now, appearances seeming more favorable, and 
the necessary orders being issued, we have resolved to advise you, by this opportunity, that, 
in place of a hoped-for change for the best, on the side of the English since the departure and 
laying up of a portion of the fleet, according to the notification already sent you, they, in 
addition to the hostile aggressions and proceedings committed and undertaken against the 
forts and good inhabitants of this State beyond Europe, and especially on the coasts of Africa, 
Guinea and New Netheriand, have broken out in similar proceedings in Europe, not only by 
seizing the ships of this country within the ports of England, but also by attacking them at 
open sea, making prizes of and detaining them. 

In order to repel and resist this, we intend to employ all possible and lawful means, wherefore 
we have hereby resolved to instruct and order, as we do hereby order you, that, pursuant to 
our previous instructions, with mutual communication and correspondence of Director-General 
Valckenburch, having made use of every exertion towards the reduction of Fort Cape Corse 
under the obedience of this State together with the other forts or places of ours occupied by the 
English, and these being victualed as much as possible, according to the strength of the force 
you have with you, and consistently with the keeping it in fitting order to return home, you 
do, after such communication and correspondence, endeavor to overpower and capture Fort 
cormantyn. Comiantyn in the occupation of the English on said coast, should circumstances 

be deemed favorable, and not occupy too much time. And this being effected or postponed, 
according as deliberation there shall determine, you will proceed on your voyage home, and 
inflict, by way of reprisal, as much damage and injury as possible on said nation, either at 
Barbados, New Netheriand, Newfoundland or other islands and places under their obedience, 
and on their forts, ships or other effects which they shall find out of Europe, so long and so far 
as tlie condition of the fleet under your command and the provisions in or with it will permit, 
and the greatest zeal shall be applied to the work. After all which, instead of sailing to Cadiz, 
agreeably to previous orders, you will pursue the shortest course homeward and come here 
north about England, using in all such prudence and courage as you, accordin