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Full text of "Documents relative to the colonial history of the state of New-York : procured in Holland, England, and France"

Glass 
Book 




12^2^ 



,11 (b<^ 



DOCUMENTS 



^/C 



RELATIVE TO THE 



COLONIAL HISTORY 



STATE OF BEW-YOEK: 



PROCURED IN' 



HOLLAND, ENGLAND AND FRANCE 



JOHN ROMETK BRODHEAD, ESQ., 

AGENT, 

OF THE STATE," PAbsED MAT 2, 1*5»- 




EDITED BV 

E. B. O'CALLAGHAN, M. D. 



VOL. VI. 



ALBANY: 

WEED, PARSONS AND COJEPANY, PKINTERS. 
1855. 



< 



These Documents have been published under the direction of the Governor, Secretary of State 
and Comptroller of the State of New- York, in virtue of an Act of the Legislature of the said State, 
entitled "An Act to Provide for the Publishing of certain Documents relating to the Colonial History 
of the Stale," passed March 30th, 1S49. 

The Documents in Dutch and French were translated by E. B. O'Callaghan, M. D., who was 
employed by the State Officers above named for that purpose, and to superintend the publication 
generally. 



Fit. V 



^^ z. 



TMNSCEIPTS OF DOCUMENTS 



QUEEN'S STATE PAPER OFFICE; IN THE OFFICE OF THE PRIVY COUNCIL; IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM; 
AND IN THE LIBRARY OF THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY AT LAMBETH, IN LONDON. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV - XXXII. 



1734-1755. 



CONTENTS. 



1734. 

May 



June 
May 

1733. 
November 

1734. 
August 

November 

December 

December 

December 

December 

1736. 
June 

June 
Augusl 

August 

September 
November 

December 

1736. 
January 

February 



Page. 
10. Eepresentation of the Society for the propagation of the Gospel in foreign parts, to the Lords of Trade, 

against the New-Tork act relative to the parish of Jamaica, 1 

19. Letter of Governor Cosby to the Lords of Trade — state of the Province — conduct of Mr. Morris — 

libels in Zenger's Journal — Indian affairs — Louisburg, Ac, 4 

19. Reasons of Governor Cosby for removing Mr. Morris from the office of Chief Justice, 8 

21. Letter of Edward Holland, Mayor of Albany, to Secretary Clarke, respecting the Mohawk Sachems' 

deed to the King, &c 14 

4. Deed of the Mohawks conveying the Mohawk flats to the King, <fec 15 

22. Letter of the Lords of Trade to Governor Cosby — New-York acts — complaints against him — council 

of New-Tork, .tc IC 

23. Letter of Attorney-General Bradley to the Lords of Trade respecting the New-York bill for regulating 

prosecutions by information, <tc., 17 

6. Letter of Governor Cosby to the Lords of Trade — with an account of the staple productions of New- 
York, <tc 19 

6. Letter of Governor Cosby to the Lords of Trade — factions in New- York — conduct of Mr. Ale.\ander — 

Mr. Morris — New Jersey affairs, Ac., 2fl 

7. Letter of Governor Cosby to the Lords of Trade — Provincial affairs — Mohawk lands — conduct of 

Mr. Morris and his "gang," <fee., 24 

10. Letter of Governor Cosby to the Duke of Newcastle — Mr. Colden's improper conduct in making public 

the Council's letter to the Duke upon Mr. Van Dam's complaints 20 

10. Letter of Governor Cosby to the Lords of Trade — Acts of Assembly, with observations on the conduct 

of members of Council, &c. 2i 

19. Letter of Governor Cosby to the Lords of Trade — new members of Council recommended, 32 

6. Report of the Lords of Trade to the Privy Council recommending the contingent repeal of the New- 
York act to cancel bills of credit, &a. — (with) 32 

Draft of additional Instructions to Governor Cosby respecting the forementioned act 32 

28. Representation of the Lords of Trade to Queen Caroline upon the factious, illegal and disaffected 

conduct of persons in New-York, &c., 34 

6. Letter of the Lords of Trade to Governor Cosby — court of Chancery — instructions for his conduct, <tc., S.'i 
26. Order of the King, in Council, approving the report of the Committee for Plantation affairs, that 

Governor Cosby's reasons for removing Mr. Morris are insufficient, <fec 3B 

1 9. Letter of Governor Cosby to the Lords of Trade respecting the customs duties at New-York, <iic., .... 37 

23. Letter of Secretary Popple to Governor Cosby respecting his sitting and voting as a councillor, his 
requiring bills to be presented to him before being laid before the Council, and his having adjourned 

the Assembly in his own name, which conduct is inconsistent with his Instructions, <tc 39 

R. Representation of the Lords of Trade to tlie King, recommending instructions in conformity to the 

Attorney and Sollcifflr-Gcnerftls' opinion as to Governors not acting ns councillors, <fec. 40 



CONTENTS. 



1736. 




January 


15. 


February 


25. 


March 


16. 


Mareli 


11. 


Marcli 


11. 


March 


IC. 


March 


16. 


March 


29. 


April 


7. 



April 



April 


29. 


May 


3. 


May 


3. 


May 


28. 


May 


18. 


May 


17. 


May 


28. 


May 


29. 


May 


29. 


June 


12. 


June 


12. 


June 


18. 


June 


9. 


June 


18. 


June 


18. 


July 


13. 


July 


26. 


July 


26. 


September 


18. 


September 


20. 


October 


7. 


October 


7. 


October 


7. 


October 


U. 


October 


18. 


October 


27. 


November 


23. 


November 


27. 


December 


9. 



Pag* 
Opinion of the Attorney an J Solicitor-Generals, that the Governors in the Plantations should not ait or 

act in any case as members of Council, <fec., 41 

Letter of Secretary Popple to Governor Cosby respecting grants of land on the Mohawk river, <fec, . . 42 
Letter of President Clnrke to the Lords of Trade — death of Governor Cosby — account of the state of 

affairs in the Province — his assumption of the administration of government — Mr. Van Dam's 

conduct, &c., 42 

Letter of Mr. Rip Van Dam to President Clarke 44 

Answer of Pre.iident Clarke to Mr. Van Dam, 45 

Letter of President Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — death of Governor Cosby, and Mr. Van Dam's 

conduct, itc, 4G 

Letter of President Clarke to Mr. Walpole — provincial affairs, 47 

Letter of President Clarke to the Lords of Trade — factions in New-York, ic 49 

Letter of President Clarke to the Lords of Trade — cases of Mr. Van Dam and Mr. Alexander — fac- 
tions, Ac 50 

Order of the King, in Council, rejecting the petitions from New-York for the appointment of Lewis 

Morris, as Agent, Ac., as irregular, ifcc, 51 

Letter of Speaker Philipse to President Clarke — Mr. Van Dam's protest, ifec. 55 

Letter of President Clarke to the Lords of Trade — proceedings of the Assembly, <tc, 52 

Letter of President Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle— Assembly — Mr. Van Dam's machinations 

against him, ic., 53 

Letter of President Clarke to Secretary Popple respecting the Governor's sitting as councillor, &c 56 

Letter of the Mayor, <tc., of Albany, to President Clarke — Mohawk grant, 57 

Letter of tlie Commissioners of Indian affairs to President Clarke — Mohawk lands 58 

Letter of President Clarke to Secretary Popple respecting the Mohawk land grants, Ac. 69 

Letter of President Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — conduct of the Assembly, Ac 62 

Letter of President Clarke to the Lords of Trade — state of affairs in the Province CS 

Letter of President Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — decline of the spirit of faction in the Province,Ac., 65 

Letter of President Clarke to the Lords of Trade — decrease of the faction — Assembly, Ac 66 

Letter of President Clarke to Secretary Popple — Mohawk patent, Ac, 67 

Letter of Mr. Coldeu to President Clarke about the Mohawk lands, 68 

Report of the Lords of Trade to the Privy Council upon Mr. Van Dam's suspension by Governor Cosby, 69 
Letter of President Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle promising assistance to Mr. Oglethorpe, in 

Georgia, Ac ' 70 

Commission constituting George Clarke, Esq., Lieutenant-Governor of New- York, 71 

Letter of President Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — Mr. Oglethorpe's settlement of Georgia — 

frontiers — quit-rents, Ac 71 

Letter of President Clarke to the Lords of Trade — abatement of animosities in New-York — Assembly — 

revenue, Ac 7S 

Letter of President Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle^-conduct of the Assembly — malecontents — 

revenue, Ac, 74 

Letter of President Clarke to the Lords of Trade — review of the conduct of the Assembly, Ac 75 

Letter of President Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — increase of the faction — difficulty of his 

position, Ac 76 

Letter of President Clarke to Secretary Popple — factions — Assembly, Ac, 77 

Letter of President Clarke to the Lords of Trade — review of Provincial affairs, Ac 78 

Letter of President Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — proceedings of the Assembly — treasonable 

conduct of the faction, Ac 81 

Letter of President Clarke to the Lords of Trade — sudden turn of affairs for the better — decline of 

the faction, Ac 82 

Letter of the Lords of Trade to President Clarke — Assembly expected to make good the deficiency in 

the revenue, Ac 83 

Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — receipt of his commission as 

Lieutenant-Governor — decline of faction in the Province, Ac 84 

Letter of Lieutenant Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — review of Provincial affairs, Ac. 85 

Letter of the Lords of Trade to Lieutenant-Governor Clarke — his good conduct commended, Ac 89 



CONTENTS. y[[ 

1737. Page. 

April 9. Letter of Lieuteimnt-Goveruor Clarke to tbe Lords of Trade — affaii-s of the I'roviuce — Canada — 

Georgia — Carolina, Ac 89 

April 9. Letter of Lientenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — Canada — Carolina, ic. 91 

1736. 

August 20. Letter of M. de Beauharnais, Governor of Canada, to Mr. Clarke 92 

October 26. Letter of President Clarke to the Governor of Canada, in reply, 92 

November 15. Letter of the Governor of Canada to Lieutenant-Governor Clarke 93 

November 1. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to Captain Congreve, commanding at Oswego 93 

1737. 
May 9. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — conduct of the Assembly respecting a 

revenue — Indian affairs, <tc., .' 94 

June 17. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — proceedings of the Assembly, 96 

June 20. Letter of the Duke of Newcastle to the Lords of Trade, directing the preparation of Commissions, 

and instructions for Lord Delawarr, appointed Governor of New-Tork and New Jersey y6 

June 22. Letter of the Lords of Trade to Lieutenant-Governor Clarke — appointment of Lord Delawarr, 97 

June 30. Letter of the Lords of Trade to the Duke of Newcastle, 97 

June 30. Representation to the King, upon Lord Delawarr's commission, etc., 98 

June, July. Conference between Lieutenant-Governor Clarke and the Indians, 98 

October 14. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — Massachusetts and New Hampshire 

boundary, &c. — Assembly, 1 09 

December 17. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Dnke of Newcastle — measures of the Assembly respecting 

a revenue, and paper money — military appointments, <fec., 110 

1738. 
February 18. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — review of provincial affairs — temper 

of the people — influence of the Assembly — productions, ifec,, 1 11 

April 3. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — case of Burrows — death of Queen 

Caroline — conduct of some in New-Tork, in not putting on mourning, &c 114 

June 2. Letter of Lieutenaut-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — acts of Assembly — observations, <fec.,. . 115 

June 2. Lieutenant-Governor Clarke's answer to several queries of the Lords of Trade, <tc., ] 20 

February 14. Mr. Colden's answer to several queries of the Lords of Trade — boundaries — soil — climate, itc. 121 

February 4. Answer of the Commissioners of Indian affairs to four of the queries referred to them 126 

January 18. Answer of the Collector at New-York to the queries referred to him, 127 

June 2. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — intended descent of the Spaniards 

upon Georgia — embargo, <tc 128 

August 9. Letter of the Lords of Trade to Lieutenant-Governor Clarke — Indians — Carolina, (fee., 129 

August 10. Representation of the Lords of Trade to the King against the act for the more frequent calling of the 

Assembly, passed by the Assembly of New-York 130 

1739. 

September 16. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — Indian affairs — Assembly, iSrc., 130 

August 30. Letter of the Commissioners for Indian affairs at Albany, to Lieutenant-Governor Clarke 131 

1737. 

Census of the Province of New-York, in the year 1737, 133 

The number of militia within tlie Province of New- York, in the year 1737 134 

1738. 

September 16. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — want of military stores, &e 134 

October 22. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — tonnage act — dissolution of the Assembl}', 135 
November 21. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — insolenee of the Assemblj- — Carolina — 

tonnage act, &e., 135 

November 30. Order in Council, repealing the act of the Assembly of New-York, for the more frequent meetings of 

the Assembly 136 

December 6. Letter of the Lords of Trade to Lieutenant-Governor Clarke — Indian affairs — Crown Point — 

Tierondequat, 137 

1739. 

February 6. Letter of the Lords of Trade to Lieutenant-Governor Clarke — dissolution of the Assembly, &c 139 

April 18. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — small pox — Assembly adjourned 140 

April ' 18. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — proceedings of the Assembly — want 

of salary, <S;c .... 140 



CONTENTtJ. 



1789. 

April 



May 



Jnne 
June 
June 
August 

August 

September 
November 

NoTember 

November 

December 

December 

August 

December 

1740. 
January 
January 

June 
June 
Jane 

July 
April 
July 

August 

August 
August 
September 

October 

November 
August 
1741. 
February 

1740. 
November 

1741. 
March 

April 

April 



Page. 

24. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade— conduct and intentions of the Assembly 

in regard to money bills, 141 

24. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — boundaries — Admiralty com- 
mission, (tc I'l^ 

24. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — French Claims — Massachusetts, 143 

15. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — French at Crown Point, ifcc, 144 

15. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — lands at Crown Point, <S:c 145 

7. Letter of the Commissioners of Indian affairs at Albany, to Lieutenant-Governor Clarke, 146 

30. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — commissions of reprisal against the 

Spaniards-^want of military stores, <fcc., 147 

30. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — Indian presents — expedition from Canada 

against the Carolina and Georgia Indians — fears in case of a rupture with France and Spain 147 

7. Letter of the Lords of Trade to Lieutenant-Governor Clarke — printed libel — Virginia, <tc, • 149 

30. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — preparation for defence in the 

Colony — revenue, Ac. 149 

30. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade— Assembly refuse to give a revenue — 

military stores — French Claims, etc. 150 

3. Letter of the Commissioners of Indian affairs at Albany, to Lieutenant Governor Clarke 152 

7. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — members of the Council, 1 52 

15. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — illicit trade 154 

Minute of a cause tried in the Admiralty Court in New-York 154 

20. Report of the Lords of Trade to the Committee of the Privy Council, on Indian presents, 156 

28. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — case of Burrows, 157 

28. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — Assembly of New-York refuse to grant 

a revenue except from year to year 158 

13. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — paper money — duties on goods 160 

14. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — war with Spain — levies 162 

20. Letter of George Clarke, Jr., to Lord Delawarr — requesting him to resign his office of Governor, in 

favor of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke, his father, and offering him one thousand guineas, I63 

8. Letter of LieutenantrGovernor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — pay of Troops in the Province, .... 164 

26. Letter of Major General Spotswood to Lieutenant-Governor Clarke 165 

25. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — appropriations by the New- York 

Assembly for levies against the Spaniards in the West Indies 166 

1. Letter of the Lords of Trade to Lieutenant-Governor Clarke — commissioners for settling bounda- 
ries of Massachusetts and Rhode Island 167 

i. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — taxes — exchange, cfec., 168 

8. Letter of the Lords of Trade to Lieutenant-Governor Clarke — Indian presents, &a. 169 

22. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — expedition against the Spanish in 

the West Indies 170 

31. I.etter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — troops raised in the Provinces against 

the Spanish 170 

10. Letter of LieutenentGovernor Clarke to the Lords of Trade— Indian affairs, 171 

16. Conference between Lieutenant Governor Clarke and the Six Nations, at a meeting at Albany 172 

28. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — currency of the Province — 

embargo, Ac 179 

13. Letter of Admiral Vernon to Lieutenant-Governor Clarke, 181 

13. Ijetter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — Canadian despatches forwarded — 

news from West Indies, 181 

22. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — suggestions as- to English policy in 

America, in case of war with France 182 

22. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — loss of records by fire — Indians 

and French, 184 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



1741. 
April 

May 
Mny 
May 

July 
June 

June 
May 

August 
August 
August 

August 
January 
October 
October 
December 

June. 
May 
July 
December 

1742. 
August 
August 
June 
Kovember 

Koveniber 



1743. 
April 
June 
June 
Jann.iry 

1742. 
December 

1743 
April 
March 
March 
April 
April 
May 
May 
May 
June 
April 
May 
June 



• Page. 
SO. Letter of the Duke of Newcastle to the Lords of Trade — George Clinton appointed Governor of 

New-York, 1 87 

15. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — recruits and levies 187 

21. Letter of the Lords of Trade to the Duke of Newcastle — commission for Governor Clinton, <fcc, 188 

21. Representation of the Lords of Trade to the Lords Justices, upon the commission for Governor 

Clinton, 189 

3. Commission to George Cliiiton as Governor of New York 189 

20. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — conspiracy to burn the town of 

New-York — levies, <tc 195 

20. Letter of Lieutenant Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — Papist conspiracy to burn New-York, etc., 197 

16. Paragraph of General Oglethorp's letter to Lieutenant-Governor Clarke — Spanish conspiracy 198 

20. Letter of the Lords of Trade to Lieutenant Governor Clarke — Indian presents, ifec, 199 

20. Letter of the Lords of Trade to the Duke of Newcastle — instructions for Governor Clinton 200 

20. Representation of the Lords of Trade to the Lords of the Privy Council, upon Governor Clinton's 

instructions, 200 

24. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — plot of the Papists— Tierondequat, . . . 201 

10. Deed to the King of the Land around Irondequoit 204 

19. Letter of Lieutenant Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — Assembly — losses by fire, 205 

19. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade— conduct of the Assembly 206 

15. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade— state of the Province— Indians — 

disposition of the Assemblj, itc, 206 

Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Bull to LieutenantrGovernor Clarke 210 

28. Conference between Lieutenant-Governor Bull and the Cherokee and Cata%vba Indians, 210 

12. Letter of General Oglethorpe to Lieutenant-Governor Clarke 211 

16. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle— obstinacy of the Assembly- 

recruits not to be obtained 2^2 

3. Letter of the Lords of Trade to Lieutenant-Governor Clarke— Tierondequat— Governor Clinton, <fec., 213 

24. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — Indian affairs — quit-rents, &c 214 

16. Conference between Lieutenant Governor Clarke and the Indians at Albany, 216 

3. Letters of the Lords of Trade to Lieutenaut-Governor Clarke — Virginia and Georgia — trading house 

at Oswego 219 

29 Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade — Indian affairs— revenue— acts of the 

Assembly, 220 

30. Letter of Lieutenant Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle — invasion of Georgia by the 

Spaniards — Indian affairs — state of the fortifications 222 

28. Letter of the Lords of Trade to the Lords of the Treasury — presents to the Indians 224 

19. Letter of Lieutenant Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade— fort at Oswego— Tierondequat, &c., ... 224 

19. State of the British Provinces with respect to the French who surround them, 226 

3. Letter of Governor Gooch to Lieutenant-Governor Clarke 230 

18. Letter of Colonel James Patton to Governor Gooch, 230 

5. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Commissioners for Indian affairs, 231 

20, Letter of the Commissioners for Indian affairs to Lieutenant-Governor Clarke 232 

Proceedings of the Commissioners for Indian affairs 233 

18. Letter of the Commissioners of Indian affairs to Lieutenant-Governor Clarke 234 

27. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Commissioners for Indian affairs 236 

2. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to Governor Gooch 237 

2. Proceedings at a meeting of the Commissioners of Indian affairs, "3S 

30. Letter of the Commissioners of Indian affairs to Lieutenant-Governor Clarke 240 

16. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to Governor Gooch 241 

22. Letter of Governor Oglethorpe to Lieutenant-Governor Clarke, 242 

24. Affidavit of John Grigg, relating to Spanish privateers 243 

19. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duka of Newcastle— garrison at Tierondequat, ic, .... 245 



Vol. VI. 



Xll 

1747. 

August 

August 

August 

August 

July 

July 

1746. 
June 

1747. 
Jnnnary 
September 

September 
September 

September 
September 

September 
September 
October 
October 11 
November 8 

NoTember 9. 

November 
November 



November 

1748. 
January 
February 

February 

April 

March 

March 

Mnrch 

April 

February 

June 



August 

August 
August 

July 

July 

July 

October 

October 

October 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 

4. Letter of Colonel Johnson to Governor Clinton, ^°" 

14. Letter of Colonel Johnson to Governor Clinton, 388 

19. Letter of Colonel Johnson to Governor Clinton, ^^^ 

28. Letter of Colonel Johnson to Governor Clinlon 390 

17. Memorandum of the speech of the Cayugaa and other Indians, to Governor Clinlon 390 ' 

14. Petition of inhabitants of Coxhaukee, Albany county, to Governor Clinton, 391 

4. Census of the Province of New-York, 392 

5. Answer of the Collector of New-York to the queries of the Lonls of Trade 393 

27. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Newcastle— opposition in New- York— Mr. Horsmnnden's 

suspension — Colonel Johnson recommended, Ac 394 

14. Warrant of Governor Clinton to Colonel Roberts about the new levies at Greenbush 397 

18. Letter of Colonel Roberts to Governor Clinton— the people of Albany refuse to furnish quarters to 
the new levies, 

14. Letter of Governor Shirley to Governor Clinton 398 

27. A short account of Governor Clinton's conduct in regard to the Canada expedition, submitted to the 

Duke of Newcastle, 399 

29. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — suspension of Mr. Stephen Bayard 404 

29. Letter of Mr. Horsmauden to the Lords of Trade— Governor Clinton's conduct towards him, 404 

9. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Newcastle — affairs of the Province 405 

11. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford— Council in New-York, 407 

8. Letter of Governor Clinton to Under-Secretary Stone — factions in New-York — Mr. Delancey's removal 

recommended — treasonable conduct of the Assembly, (fee, 407 

Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Newcastle— Mr. Delancey's factious conduct— his removal 

recommended — levelling and republican principles of the Assembly, <fec., 409 

10. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — factions in New-York 410 

30. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — conduct of the Assembly and Council — unless 

some extraordinary assistance be given the Governors, &c., they will not be able to support the 

King's authority in the American Provinces, &c., 412 

SO. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Newcastle — dissolution of the Assembly — danger to the 

King's prerogative from faction, &e 413 

30. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Newcastle — military affairs, 414 

13. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Newcastle — Mr. Delancey's promotion to be Lieutenant- 
Governor, very unhappy for the Province, and prejudicial to hini — remarks, <tc 416 

24. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Newcastle — military and Indian affairs, 418 

22. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — detail of Provincial affairs, 419 

2. Letter from Governor Shirley to Governor Clinton 421 

22. Letter from Governor Shirley to Governor Clinton 421 

16. Letter of Colonel Johnson to Governor Clinton 422 

22. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Newcastle, 424 

17. Letter of Governor Clinton to Governor Shirley, 426 

29. Letter of the Lords of Trade to Governor Clinton — observations on the animosities in New-York — 

moderate and prudent measures recommended — preliminaries of peace signed at Aix la Chapelle, . . 427 

15. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford — review of his administration — factions in New- 

York — Mr. Delancey's intrigues against him, tfcc, 428 

13. Letter of Governor .Shirley to Governor Clinton — his views at length, respecting New- York affairs,. . 432 

18. Joint letter of Governors Clinton and Shirley to the Lords of Trade — relating to Indian and French 

affairs, '. 487 |-' 

23. Conference between Governor Clinton and the Six Nations, at Albany, 441 

23. Conference between Governor Shirley and the Six Nations, at Albany 447 

29. Letter of Governor Shirley to the Marquis de la Galissoni^re Governor of Canada, 452 

7. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — New-Jersey boundary line, 454 

20. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford — French and Indian affairs 455 

20. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — encroachments of the Assembly on the prerogative 

of the Crown 456 



CONTENTS. 



xiu 



1748. 
October 
October 

1746. 
December 

1748. 
October 
Kovember 
November 

1749. 
February 
February 

February 

March 

May 

January 

April 

May 

May 



1748. 
August 
October 
October 
October 
October 
December 

1749. 
March 
April 
April 
April 
April 
May 
May 
May 
June 
July 

July 

June 
June 
June 
July 
August 

September 

August 

September 

August 

October 

Oclolier 

October 



Page. 

24. Letter of GoTcrnor Shirley to the Duke of Bedford — military affairs, 457 

SO. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — difficulties in his admiDistration, etc. 458 

12. The present state of the Province of New-York 439 

30. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford — observations on Provincial affairs in New-York 464 

15. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — acts of Assembly — remarks, Ac 4ti6 

22. Letter of Mr. Colden to the Duke of Bedford — factions in New- York — conduct of Chief Justice 

Delancey, Ac 459 

17. Letter from Governor Clinton to Mr. Catherwood — riotous conduct of Oliver Delancey in New-York 471 
24. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — encroachments of the Asssemblj' — danger to the 

King's prerogative, <fec 4^2 

24, Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford — progress of faction — conduct of the Assembly 

its consequences, Ac, 474 

14. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — Queries — French affairs, Ac, 475 

10. Letter of Governor Shirley to the Duke of Bedford — Canadian affairs, 477 

15. Letter of M. de la Galissoniere, Governor of Canada, to Governor Masoarene 473 

25. Letter of Governor Mascarene to M. de la Gali:-8oniere 479 

8. Letter of Governor Shirley to M. de la Galissoniere 482 

30. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford — Canadian and Indian affairs 434 

3. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — prisoners in Canada — Indian affairs — French 

intrigues, Ac, 4g5 

25. Letter of M. de la Galissoniere to Governor Clinton 488 

19. Letter of Lieutenant Desligneris to Governor Clinton 49Q 

10. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Governor of Canada, 491 

10. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Governor of Canada 494 

10. Instructions of Governor Clinton to Captain Stoddard, sent to Canada, 495 

29. Letter of M. de la Galissoniere to Governor Clinton, .'. 49g 

29. Letter of Secretary Banyar to Lieutenant Desligneris jqq 

10. Letter of Lieutenant Desligneris to Governor Clinton 601 

14. Letter of Lieutenant Desligneris to Governor Clinton 602 

3. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Governor of Canada 602 

28. Letter of Colonel Johnson to Governor Clinton, 605 

1 4. Letter of Governor Clinton to Colonel Johnson 606 

23. Answer of Governor Clinton to the several queries of the Lords of Trade, relating to New-York 607 

26. Letter of Colonel Johnson to Governor Clinton, 512 

28. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford — factions in New-York — case of Oliver Delancey, 613 

7. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford — insolence of Cabals in New-York — Indian 

affairs, Ac, 614 

7. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — increased violence of the factions — movements of 

hostile Indians 61 5 

23. Letter of Captain Marshall to Governor Clinton, 618 

27. Letter of Captain de Lusignan to Captain Marshall, 619 

28. Letter of Colonel Johnson to Governor Clinton, 620 

28. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — obstinacy of the Assembly 620 

7. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — refusal of the Assembly to grant a revenue 

insolent proceedings of the Assembly and the factions, 622 

24. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — rebellious spirit of the factions, 524 

19. Letter of Colonel Johnson to Governor Clinton 625 

1. Letter of Colonel Johnson to Governor Clinton, 626 

22. Letter of th'' Marquis de la JonquiSre, Governor of Canada, to Governor Clinton 627 

17. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford — suggestions for suppressing the factions, 628 

17. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade^sehemes of the French — virulence of factions, Ac, 629 

2. Letter of Governor Hamilton to Governor Clinton 630 



XIV 



CONTENTS. 



1749. 
Au:U3t 
August 

November 
Kovember 

September 

August 

October 

November 

October 

Kovember 

December 

1750. 
February 

February- 
March 
January 
January 
February 
February 

1749. 
May 

1750. 
March 
March 



April 

April 

April 
April 
April 
pril 
June 
March 
June 

»y 

April 
June 
June 
June 
June 
June 
Juae 
June 
June 



July 
July 



Pjioe. 

10. Letter of Captain de Celoron to Governor Hamilt<>n 532 

10. Cer tificale of Captain de Celoron that he had expelled English Tradt-rs from the Ohio 532 

S|iceih of a French ofEt-er to the Ohio Indians 633 

22. Lctttr of Governor Clinton to the Duke of lledfor>l — sources whence the factions obtain moEiey 533 

26. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — history of the rise of the fac'.ions — statement of 

their present proceedings — suggestions for weakening their power, 535 

23. Letter of Lieutenant Lindcay, Commissioner at Oswego, to Governor Clinton 537 

20. List of the Westein tribes of Indians, who traded at Oswego, 538 

80. Letter of Governor Clinton to M. la Jonquiere, 539 

22. Letter of C"li>nel Johnson to Governor Clinton 540 

28. Letter of Colonel Wendell to Governor Clinton 542 

29. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedfoid — conneetiou between the Treasurer of the Province 

and the factions 543 

7. Duke of Bedford to Governor Clinton — Indian Prisoners to be exchanged forthwith, 543 

2. Order in Council, that the Lords of Trade make and lay before the Privy Council a representation of 

the state of the Provinces of New- York and New Jersey, 644 

6. Order for delivering up all English, French and Indian Prisoners, and for facilitating the Redemption 

of Slaves in America, 544 

17. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — intrigues of the French Tvith the Indians 545 

6. Letter of Colonel Johnson to Governor Clinton 646 

22. Letter of Colonel Johnson to Governor Clinton, 646 

19. Letter of Colonel Johnson to Governor Clinton 647 

2. Speech of Hendrick, an Indian Chiefs to Colonel Johnson, at a meeting of the two Mohawk Castles, 548 

10. Census of the Province of New-York 550 

19. Letter of Governor Clinton to tbe Duke of Bedford — assumption of Executive power by the Assembly, 650 
26. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford — state of the fortifications — disinclination of the 
inhabitants to aid in repairing and strengthening the defences — suggestion that duties be laid by 

Parliament upon wine, rum, and West India commodities imported into the Province, 552 

8. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — refusal of the Treasurer to give accounts of the 

public money — necessities of the Provincial Government from want of money, 554 

3. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford — disregard of the King's views by the inhabitants 

of the Proviuce, , 556 

9. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford — continued icsolcnce of the faction, 558 

4. Letter of Governor Clinton to Colonel Johnson 559 

5. Letter of Governor Clinton to Colonel Johnson, 560 

13. Letter of Secretary Hill to Governor Clinton — desiring an account of the boundaries of the Provinces, 560 

7. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — designs of the French 561 

7. Letter of the Marquis de la Jonquifere, Governor of Canada, to Lieutenant-Governor Phips, 562 

7. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Marquis de la Jonquiere, , 666 

81. Letter of Governor Hamilton to Governor Clinton, 568 

5. AHidavits of John H. Lydlus and wife referring to the claim of Indian lands by the English, 569 

7. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford— -intrigoes of the Fiench 570 

1 2. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford— affair of the Greyhound man-of-war •. . . 671 

8. Letter of Captain Roddam to Chief Justice Delancey 672 

9. Letter of Chief Justice Delancey to Captain Roddam 572 

9. Letter of Captain Roddam to Chief Justice Delancey, 573 

12. Letter of Chief Justice Delancey to Captain Roddam 573 

12. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford — details of the affair of the Greyhound rann-of war, 574 
12. Observations of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford on Chief Justice Delancey's behavior on 

account of the aff^iir of the Greyhound 575 

30. Letter of Governor Clijilon to the Lords of Trade — attempts of the faction— the necessities of the 

Provincial Government from want of the money withheld by the Assembly, 576 

SO. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford — exchange of prisoners with tbe French — no 

mone\- granted by the Assembly for Indian affaii-g, 678 



CONTENTS. 



xy 



1750. 

July 30. 

July 23. 

July 26. 

July 27. 

June 19. 

August 18. 

September 1. 



Page. 

Report of Captain Stotlilnrd, upon the state of the fortifications, 1o Governor Clinton 580 

Letter from Attorney-General Bradley to Captain Rod Jam, 683 

Letter from Captain Roddam to Governor Clinton 584 

Letter from Governor Clinton to Captain Roddam, 6S5 

Letter from Captain Roddam to Chief Justice Delancey, 685 

Letter of Mr. Aldworth to the Lords of Trade requesting, on behalf of the Lords Justices, a statement 

of the condition of the Province of Isew-Tork, 586 

Letter from the Lords of Trade to Governor Clinton — desire that the records of the Province should 

be searched for information regarding boundaries, 686 

Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — endeavors of the French 687 

Letter from Governor Glen to Governor Clinton, 588 

Letter from Colonel Johnson to Governor Clinton 589 

Letter from Lieutenant Butler to Colonel Jolinson 591 

Letter from Colonel Johnson to Governor Clinton 592 

Letter from Governor Hamilton to Governor Clinton 693 

Message from the Ohio Indians to the Governor of Pennsylvania, 594 

Letter from the Lords of Trade to the Duke of Bedford— statement of the difficulties of the Provincial 

Government of New- York 597 

Letter from the Lords of Trade to Governor Clinton 597 

Letter fiom Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — intrigues of the French — public revenues with- 
held from the Provincial government by the Assembly 508 

Letter from Colonel Johnson to Governor Clinton 5U9 

Affidavit of Daniel Horsmanden, 600 



September 

July 

August 

September 

September 

September 

September 

October 

October 
December 

September 

1747. 

January 

1748. 

December 

1750. 

December 13 Letter from Governor Clinton to the Dnke of Bedford — French emissaries among the Indians 

December 13. Letter fjom Governor Clinton to the Lords of Tnide — eirculars had been sent tu the Governors of the 

Provinces, requisting a meeting at Albany to join in a treaty with the Indians 

December 19. Letter from Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — reference to a plate of lead containing assump- 
tions of territorial claims b^ the French 

14. Certificate of Governor Clinton about Iron rolling mills in New-Toi k, i'c 

18 Letter fc om Goveinor Clinton to Governor Glen 

31. Letter of Governor Clinloa to the Duke of Bedford, asking leave of absence for twelve mouths, .. . 



20. Governor Clinton's declaration upon Horsmanden's affidavit, , 



December 
December 
Decet^iber 

1751. 
January 
January 

1750. 
December 

1749. 
July 

1751. 
April 

April 
June 



January 

February 

May 

May 

June 

June 



2. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — acts passed for the benefit of the Indians, <tc., . . . 

17. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — refers to a leaden plate, &q , contaiuing territorial 

claims by the French 



4. Speech made by a Cayuga Sachem to Colonel Johnson, and his answer,. 



29. Inscription on a leaden plate, being a pretended claim of the French to lands near the River Ohio, . . 

2. Representation of the Lords of Trade to the Privy Council upon the state of New-York — inconveni- 

encies of the Provincial government, and 8Ug:;estious for remedying them 

2. Abstract of the evidence in the books of the Lords of Trade, relating to New-York 

13. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — proceedings of the Governors of the several 
Provinces upon the call for a meeting at Albany — refusal of the various Assemblies to contribute to 

the expense of the same, <fec 

23. L.etter of Governor VVentworth to Governor Clinton 

5. Report made by Lieutenant Lindesa}', of Indian news, &c., at Oswego, 

15. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Hamilton to Governor Clinton 

21. Letter of Governor Glen to Governor Clinton 

6. Letter of Governor Hamilton to Governor Clinton 

12. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Marquis de la Jonquierc, Governor-General of Canada, 



602 

603 

604 
604 
605 
606 

600 

608 

608 



614 
6;i9 



706 
707 
708 
710 
711 



CONTENTS. 



1761. 




June 


18. 


July 


17. 


July 


17. 


July 




July 


18. 



August 6. 

August 25. 
August 29. 



July 


27. 


July 


10. 


July 


19. 


August 


30. 


August 


10. 


August 


31. 


August 


31. 


October 


1. 


August 


8. 


Kovember 


5. 


September 


13. 


Jioveniber 


19. 


Nuvcuiber 


25. 


November 


25. 


1752. 




March 


11. 


March 


11. 


March 


30. 


March 


12. 


April 


8. 


June 


3. 


June 


16. 


August 


2. 


October 


4. 


October 


24. 



November 
November 



1753. 
January 



Letter of Gorercor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford — desiring leave of absence — necessity of meeting 

the Indians at Albany, ic 712 

Letter from Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — designs of the French, 713 

Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford — meeting of the Indians at Albany, Ac, 715 

Conference between Governor Clinton, Ac, and the Six Nations, Catawbas, <tc, at Albany, 717 

Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford — is preparing to depart for England — recom- 
mends Mr. Colden for the Presidency of the Provincial Council 726 

Order in Council that the Lords Commissioners prepare additional instructions for the Governor of 

New-York 727 

Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford — recommends Mr. John Chambers for Provincial 

Councillor in place of Mr. Stephen Bayard 727 

Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — recommends Mr. Brandt Schuyler for Provincial 

Councillor in place of Mr. Daniel Ilorsraanden 728 

Letter of Colonel Johnson to Governor Clinton 729 

Letter of Lieutenant Lindesay to Colonel Johnson 729 

Letter of Lieutenant Stoddert to Colonel Johnson, 730 

Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — Indian affairs, 730 

Letter of M. dc la Jonquiere, Governor of Canada, to Governor Clinton 731 

Governor Clinton's notes upon the Governor of Canada's letter, 734 

Letter of Governor Clinton to the Duke of Bedford — recommends Mr. William Smith for the office 

of Attorney-General of the Province, 736 

Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — influence of the French over the Indians, 738 

Report of Mr. Colden upon the present state of Indian affairs 738 

Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — disapproving any order to stop grants of land 

to the Northward of Pennsylvania 747 

Letter of Governor Hamilton to Governor Clinton, '. 747 

Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — difficulties with the Assembly of New-York, 749 

Letter of Governor Clinton to the Earl of Holdernesse — troubles with the faction 751 

Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — recommends Mr. Colden 752 

Representation of the Lords of Trade to the King — with a draught of additional instructions to the 
Governors, <tc., in America, requiring them to correspond with the Lords of Trade only, except 
when otherwise directed by the Secretary of State, 753 

Report of the Lords of Trade to the Committee of the Privy Council, with a draught of additional 

instructions for the various Governors in America, requiring tliem to revise the public laws 754 

Letter of the Earl of Holdernesse to the Governors in America — in affairs requiring great secrecy, ac- 
counts should be sent to the King's Secretaries of State, 756 

Order in Council — that vacancies in the offices in the Colonies shall be filled from the presentments of 

the Lords of Trade, 757 

Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — requests the suspension of Mr. Delancey from 

the office of Lieutenant-Governor of New-York, 759 

Letter of the Lords of Trade to the Governors in America — the King's instructions mnst be strictly 

adhered to 760 

Letter of the Lords of Trade to Governor Clinton instru^'ting him not to leave the Province 761 

Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — signifies his willingness to remain in the Province, 762 

Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — represents the encroachments made by the 

Assembly upon the executive power, 764 

Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — recommends Mr. W. Smith for a place in the 

Council, 766 

Memorial of Mr. Lewis Morris to the Lords of Trade — praying that he may be restored to his place in 

the Council in New-York 767 

Representation to the Lords Justices, upon a memorial of Mr. Peter Wraxall, of New- York, 768 

Letter of the Lords of Trade to Governor Clinton, instructing him to remain in the government of 

New-Y'ork 770 

1 1. Letter of the Lords of Trade to Henry Fox, Esq., Secretary of War, acquaintiog him with a mutiny 

at Oswego 77X 



CONTENTS. 



xvu 



1753 V.\GH. 
February 3. Letter of Secretary Fdx to tlie LorJa of Trade, desiring their Lordships to give orders that the muti- 
neers at Oswego be sent to Halifax, 771 

March 16. Letter of the Lords of Trade to Secretary Fox, referring to the mutiny at Oswego 772 

March 21. Letter of Secretary Fox to the Lords of Trade — mutiny at Oswego 773 

June 7. Opinion of the Lords of Trade upon the questions of boundaries between New- York and New Jersey, 77S 

June 29. Letter of Reverend Samuel Johnson to the most Reverend Dr. lierring, Archbishop of Canterbury, 

about the state of religion and of the Church in America Ac, 777 . 

June 30. Letter of Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade — his anxiety to return to England — Assembly — 

elections, Ac 778 

April 20. Letter of Colonel Johnson to Governor Clinton, 778 

May 15. Letter of Captain Stoddert to Colonel Johnson — affairs on the Ohio 779 

Maj- 15. Letter of Lieutenant Holland, commanding at Oswego, to Governor Clinton 7 SO 

June. Conference between Governor Clinton and a deputation of the Mohawks, <tc., 781 

July 6. Representation of the Lords of Trade to the King, upon Sir Danvera Osborne's instructions for the 

government of New- York 788 

July 19. Order in Council, approving commission of Sir Danvers Osborne, Bart., ic, 7!!! 

July 25. Opinion of the Attorney and Solicitor Generals, upon Governor Clinton's appointment of Mr. De Lancej-, 

as Chief Justice 792 

August 9. Letter of the Lords of Trade to the Earl of Holdernesse, suggesting that Sir Danvers Osborne receive 

specific instructions relative to the French encroachments, Ac., 793 

August 27. Order in Council, approving Sir Danvers Osborne's instructions, 793 

August 28. Letter of the Earl of Holdernesse to the Governors, Ac, in America — any encroachments of a foreign 

power upon his Majesty's territories in America to be resisted — the Provinces mutually to assist 

each other, Ac 794 

September S. Journal of Conrad Weiser's transactions with the Mohawks, 795 

September 18. Letter of the Lords of Trade to the Earl of Holdernesse— Indian affairs, 799 

September 18. Letter of the Lords of Traile to Sir D.mvera Osborne — instructions as to his conduct with the Six 

Nations 8i 

September 18. Letter of the Lords of Tr.de lo the Governors in America — Commissioners to be ajipointed to arrange 

a treaty witl; the Six Nations, Ac 802 

October 14. Letter of Thomas Pownall to the Lords of Trade — death of Sir Danvers Osborne — Mr. De Lancey 

qualified as Lieutenant-Governor, Ac , 802 

October 15. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Delantey to the Lords of Trade — Sir Danvers Osborne's death, and his 

qualifying, Ac. 803 

October 30. Letter of Mr. Thomas Pownall to the Lords of Trade— violent parties in New- York respecting the 

management of Indian affairs, Ac 804 

October 30. Dr. Shuckburgli's memorandum of what passed at Colonel Johnson's interview with the Six Nations, 

in July, 1753 805 

November 2. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Delancey to the Lords of Trade — proceedings with the Six Nations,. . . 806 

September 24. Letter of Colonel Johnson to Governor Clinton — with 807 

An account of two conferences between Colonel Johnson and the Six Nations in July and September, . . 808 
November 29. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Delancey to the Lords of Trade — French and Indian movements, Ac, . 815 
December 24. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Delancey to the Lords of Trade — Indian affairs — grants of lands, Ac,. . 817 

1754. 
January 3. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Delancey to the Lords of Trade — Indian aflfairs — Assembly — acts for 

the payment of salaries, Ac 819 

1753. 

December 18. Minute of the Commissioners of Indian affairs of the Message to the Mohawks, Ac 821 

1754. 
January 7. Letter of Governor Shirley to the Earl of Holdernesse — Indian and French affairs — Provincial matters, 822 

1753. 

November 8. Extract of a letter of Lieutenant Holland to Lieutenant-Governor Delancey, 825 

December 24. Extract of a letter of Mr. Smith from Cape Cod, to Governor Shirley, 825 

1754. 
January 29. Letter of Governor Dinwiddie to Lieutenant-Governor Delancey— French on the Ohio— Major Wash- 
ington — Wills' creek, 827 

Vol. VI. c 



CONTENTS. 



1754. 




February 


U6. 


February 


26. 


March 


7. 


April 


4. 


April 


12. 


April 


22. 


January 


10. 


May 


21. 


April 


27. 


April 


16. 


June 


5. 


June 


14. 



July 



July 


5. 


July 


10. 


July 


22. 


July 


22, 


July 


11. 


July. 




August 


6. 


August 


9. 


August 


9. 


August 


9. 


August 


28. 


October 


8. 


October 


20. 


October 


21. 


October 


16. 


October 


25. 


October 


26. 


October 


29. 



Taue. 
Letter of tlie Lords of Traile to Lieuten-int-Govemor Delancey — proposed interview with the Indians 

— French sitlltm.nU on the Ohio, Ac, 828 

Letter of the Lords of Trade to Mr. Thomas Pownall — his conduct connnended, itc, 830 

Letter of Secretary Pownall to Lieutenant-Governor Delancey — Indian pr«-sent8, Ac 830 

Representation of the Lonls of Trade to the King — -justification of iheir previous representation of 2d 

April, 1751, and of the instruction complained of in the address of the Assembly of New-Tork,. . . 831 
Letter of Dr. Collionn to Lieutenant-Governor Delancey — French desertersfrom Niagara — French forts 

at Presqu' Isle and river La Boeuf, 832 

Letter of Lieutenant Governor Delancey to the Lords of Trade — Commissioners from the neighboring 

Provinces to the Albany treaty, Ac. 833 

Deposition of Stephen Coffin, taken prisoner by the French in 1747 835 

Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Delancey to the Lords of Trade — o stinate conduct of the Assembly — 

JCew Jersey boundary — forts on the frontiers, &c., 838 

Letter of JNInjor Washington to Governor Uamilton .' 840 

Summons of Captain ContrecoBur, French Commander on the Ohio, to the Commander of the British 

troops at the mouth of the Monongahela, 841 

Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Delancey to the Lords of Trade — French forces sent to the Ohio, itc.,. 843 
Letter of Secretary Robinson to the Lords of Trade directing thera to prepare a plan of concert 

between the American Colonies. <tc 844 

Letter of Se retary Robinson to Lieutenant-Governor Delancey — the King's displeasure at the unwil- 
lingness of Xew-York to exert itself in the common cause of tlie Colonics — conduct of Massacliusetts 

in contrast, Ac 844 

Letter of the Lords of Trade to Lieutenant-Governor Delancey — Indian affairs — union of the Colonies — 

boundaries — incroaehmeuts of the Assembly of New-York, Ac 845 

Letter of Reverend Samuel Johnson to the most Reverend Dr. Herring, Archbishop of Canterbury — 

church affairs 849 

Letter of Lieutenant-Governor De Lancey to the Lords of Trade — Indian affairs — commissioners at 

All)an3- — plan of union of the Colonies — Washington's defeat near the Ohio. Ac, 850 

Proteediiigs of the Conj;ress held at Albany, by the Commissioners of the several Provinces, Ac, 19th 

June to nth July, 1754 853 

Considerations towards a general plan of measures for the Colonies, aud for the management of Indian 

affairs, Ac, by Thomas Pownall, 893 

Measures necessary to defeat the designs of the French, propnseil by Colonel Johnson, 897 

Order in Council approving the representation of the Lords of Trade, of 4th April last, and rejecting 

the address of the Assembly of New-York 899 

Letter of the Lords of Trade to Secretary Robinson 901 

Representation of the Lords of Trade to the King, upon a project of a general concert to be entered 

into by the British Colonics in North America, 901 

Draft of a plan for a general concert to be entered into by His Majesty's Colonies in North America, 

for their mutual and common defence, Ac 903 

Letter of Reverend Dr Timothy Cutler to the Right Reverend Dr. Seeker, Bishop of Oxford — literary 

and religious publications in America — dissenters, Ae 906 

Letter of Lieutenant-Governor De Lancey to the Lords of Trade — Assembly — French and Indian 

incursions — destruction of Hoosick, Ac, 9U8 

Letter of Right Reverend Dr. Sherlock, Bishop of London, to the Reverend Samuel Johnson — Mr. 

Palmer — New-York College, 910 

Letter of Lieutenant-Governor De Laucey to the Lords of Trade — Albany stockaded — military prepara- 
tions against the French, Ac 911 

Letter of Lieutenant-Governor De Lancey to the Governor of Canada 911 

Letter of Reverend Samuel Johnson to the Right Reverend Dr. Seeker, Bishop of Oxford — increasing 

influence of tlie dissenters — the church scarcely tolerated in New England — colleges, Ac. 912 

Letter of Secretary Robinson to the Governors in North America — the King's orders as to military 

preparations against the French — correspondence with the neighboring Colonies directed, Ac 915 

Representation of tlie Lords of Trade to the King, upon the proceedings of the Colonial Congress at 

Albany, in June last, 916 



CONTENTS. 



XIX 



1754. 
November 

December 

December 

December 

December 

1755. 
January 

January 
January 

1754. 
December 

1755. 
January 

January 
February 

February 

March 

March 

Marcli 
April 

April 

June 
June 

June 

June 



August 

July 

July 

July 

August 

August 



Page. 

25. Secret instructions to Major General Edward Braddock, appointed commander-in-chief in Korlh 

America, <tc ^ .~ 920 

15. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor De Lancey to Secretary Robinson — defenceless state of the frontier — 

condition of the forces, <Sre., go^ 

15. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor De Lancey to the Lords of Trade — French designs — measures necessary 

to defeat them — forts — conduct of the Assembly — quit-rents, &c y^o 

19. Minute of the attendance of Mr. Charles, the agent of Xew-York, on the Lords of Trade, upon the 

representation of the Assembly relative to Sir Danvers Osborne's instruction, (fee, 929 

24. Letter of Governor Shirley to Secretary Robinson, giving his views upon the Albany plan of union, ifcc, 930 

23. Letter of Secretary Robinson to the Governors in North America — augmentation of the military forces 

in America 934 

29. Order in Council appointing Sir Charles Hardy Governor, ifcc, of New-York 9:^4, 

31. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Delaucey to Secretary Robinson — French inl3ueuce with the Indians, ic, 935 

26. Letter of the Marquis Du Quesne, Governor of Canada, to Lieutenant-Governor Delancey 936 

31. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Delancey to the Lords of Trade — defence of New- York — Oswego — 

French, Ac ^ 937 

1. Letter of Lieutenant Holland, commanding at Oswego, to Lieutenant-Governor Delancey, 933 

4. Representation of the Lords of Trade to the King upon Sir Charles Hardy's commission as Governor 

of New-York 939 

4. Letter of Governor Shirley to Secretary Robinson — Indians' jealousy of encroachments on their lands 
— obstinate conduct of the Provincial Assemblies — Parliamentary union and taxation of the Colonies 

recommended 9|rg 

18. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Delancey to the Lords of Trade — proceedings of the Assembly — his 

reasons for assenting to the paper emission bill, <tc., 940 

24. Letter of Governor Shirley to Secretary Robinson — General Braddock's plan of military operations 

commended — observations on the French designs, &c., 94I 

17. Extract of a letter from Colonel Johnson to Governor Shirley, 946 

3. Representation of the Lords of Trade to the Lords Justices upon the drafts of Sir Chailes Hardy's 

instructions y4'7 

4. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Delancey to the Lords of Trade — proceedings of the Assemlily respectin<' 

quartering troops — a general fund — and Governor Shirley's plan, &c 950 

11. Letter of Secretary Pownall to Attorney-General Murray 95I 

11. Case for the Attorney-General's opinion; and question whether Mr. Delaneey's commission as Chief 

Justice is vacated by his acting as Lieutenant-Governor 95 ^ 

12. Representation of the Lords of Trade to the Lords Justices recommending the disallowance of the 

New-York act concerning the New Jersey boundary, 952 

20. Letter of Governor Shirley to Secretary Robinson — his interview with General Braddock at Alexan- 

dria — measures concerted — movements of the troops — Colonel Johnson commissioned by General 

Braddock to manage the Indian affairs — Colonial affairs, <$ic 953 

12. Additional instruction to Sir Charles Hardy respecting the boundary liue between New-York and 

New Jersey , 960 

16. Letter of the Lords of Trade to Secretary Robinson recommending that General Braddock be instructed 

to report his opinion upon the best means of defending the frontiers in North America, <te 960 

21. Letter of Major-General Johnson to the Lords of Trad« — his interview with General Braddock — pro- 

ceedings with the Indians — intrigues with the French — preparations for his march to Crown 

Point, <tc 961 

4. Conference between Major-General Johnson and the nine confederate nations of Indians, from 21st 

June to 4th July, 1755 964 

7. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Delancey to Secretary Robinson — interview with General Braddock — 

his defeat and death — military operations — iinjiortance of Oswego, <fec 989 

9. Letter of Lieutenant-Governor Delancey to the Lords of Trade — General Braddock's defeat — military 

operations proposed, Ac, 992 



XX CONTENTS. 

1755. Tabs. 

August 29. An account of the number of the white inhabitants in His Majesty's Colonies in North America, with 

the number of militia, &e., taken from returns transmitted to Ae Lords Commissioners for Trade and 

Plantations 993 

September 3. Letter of Major General Johnson to the Lords of Trade — zeal of the Indians in the British interest — 
Governor Shirley dissatisfied — answer to his objections — his imperiousnese, <fec., — fort building at the 
Lake, called by the French, St. Sacrament, " but I have given it the name of Lake Oeorge, not only 

in honor to His Majesty, but to ascertain his undoubted dominion liere,"itc 9tio 

September 4. Speech of Hendrick, the great Mohawk Sachem, to Major General Johnson, 997 

September 6. Letter of Governor Hardy to the Lords of Trade — his arrival at New-York, — proceedings of the 

Assembly, «tc. 999 

August 22. Minutes of a Council of War, held by Major General Johnson 1000 

September 1-1. Letter of Governor Hardy to the Lords of Trade — General Johnson's success against the French on the 

8th instant — reinfureements raising, <tc 1002 

September 10. Letter of Captain Peter Wraxall, to Mr. De Lancey, with an account of the action of 8th September, 

and of the Baron de Dieskau's defeat and capture, <tc 1003 

September 10. Letter of a Gunner, under Captain Kyre, to his cousin, giving an account of the action of 8th Sep- 
tember, <tc, 1005 

September 11. Return of the killed and wounded, (fee, of the troops commanded by Major General Johnson at battle 

of Lake George, ^ 1006 

September 20. Letter of Thomas Pownall to the Lords of Trade — details of the action of the 8tb September — the 

Indians on the Ohio determined to act against the French, <tc IO08 

September 24. Letter of M.ijor General Johnson to the Lords of Trade— defeat of Baron de Dieskan — conduct of the 

Indians after the battle — Indian trade — opposition of the Dutch trades at Albany, <fec., 1009 

September 11. Minutes of a conference between Major General Johnson and the Indians, at Lake George 101 1 

September 16. Letter of Major General Johnson to Governor Hardy 1013 

October 8. Letter of the Lords of Trade to Mr. De Lancey — New- York the most proper place for a general maga- 
zine, <tc., 101 e 

October 8. Letter of Governor Hardy to the Lords of Trade — General Johnson's movements — Baron de Dieskau 

convalescing, &c., 1016 

October 9. Letter of Secretary Pownall to Major General Johnson — his appointment by His Majesty to the sole 

superintendeney of Indian affairs — his opinion as to a general plan for regulating those affairs desired 

by the Lords of Trade, (fee, lOl'y 

October 25. Letter of Eeverend Saumel Johnson to the Archbishop of Canterbury — irreligion in the Provinces 

college at New-York, <tc., 1013 

November 7. Letter of the Lordsoflrade'to Governor Hardy — the zeal and resolution of New-York commended, etc, 1019 
November 11. Letter of Secretary Eobinson to Major General Johnson — his good conduct commended — the Kin» has 

been pleased to confer upon him the dignity of a Baronet, as a mark of his royal favor, ic 1020 

November 27. Letter of Governor Hardy to the Lords of Trade — miscarriage of the Crown Point e.'ipedition causes 

of it — forts on Lake George, <fec., 1 0''0 

December 2. Letter of Secretary Pownall to Sir William Johnson, Baronet, in reply to his letter of 3d September- 
misunderstanding with Governor Shirley not alluded to in any of his letters to the Lords of Trade— 

the subject laid before His Majesty, <tc., 10„2 

December 18. Letter of Governor Hardy to the Lords of Trade— proceedings of the Assembly respecting a permanent 
fund for Government— he wishes to avoid a dispute on the subject, in the present situation of 

nff.iirs, &c jl^,.,, 

December 18. Letter of Sir William Johnson to the Lords of Trade— General Shirley's conduct towards him, Ac.,. . 1023 

December 7. Letter of General Shirley to Major General Johnson 1024 

December 7. General Shirley's Commission to Major General Johnson 1025 

December 10. General Shirley's instructions to Major General Johnson, .' 1026 

December 16. Letter of Sir William Johnson to General Shirley, 1027 



LONDON DOCUMENTS 
XXV-XXXII. 



Representation of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. 

[New-Tork Papers, Bundle Ee., No. 31.] 

To the Right Hono'"''' the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations. 

The Representation of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
parts in behalf of themselves and of the Rev"* M' Thomas Colgan their 
Missionary at the Parish of Jamaica in Queen's County in the Province 
of New York. 

Shevveth 

That in the year 1693 the Assembly of New York passed an Act for settling a Ministry and 
raising a Maintenance for them in the City of New York, County of Richmond, Westchester 
& Queen's County, which Act (very truely) recited that prophaneness and licentiousness had 
then of late overspread the Province for want of a settled Ministry throughout out the same, 
and to the end the same might be removed and the ordinances of God duely Administred, it 
was enacted: tiiat there should be called, inducted and established a good sufficient protestant 
Minister to officiate and have care of souls within one year next after the publication of that 
Act, in the several parishes and places in the Act mentioned, one of which, was to have the 
care of Jamaica afore said and the adjacent Towns and Farms, and there should be annually, 
assessed, levyed collected and paid, for the maintenance of the said Minister of Jamaica in 
Queen's County the sum of sixty pounds in Country produce, at mony price. And directions 
were therein contained for laying a Tax on the Inhabitants yearly in order to raise the said 
maintenance for tiie Minister, and the Church Wardens in their respective precincts, were to 
pay to the Minister the aforesaid maintenance by four equal quarterly payments under penalty 
of five pounds for each neglect, refusal or default. And it was enacted that the respective 



2 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Ministers that should be settled in the respective precints therein before named, should be 
called to officiate in their respective precints by the Vestry Men and Church Wardens. 

That the said Act of Assembly received the Royal Confirmation on the ll"" of May 1G97. 

That in the year 1703. The Assembly of New York passed an another Act for the better 
explaining and more etlectually putting in execution the forementioned Act and thereby further 
provision was made for the laying a tax annually for the raising the maintenance for the 
Ministers, and it was enacted, that all the payments that should there after be made and paid 
to the then Incumbents, and to every Incumb' who should there after be presented instituted 
and Inducted, for the respective maintenances, should be made and paid to them in currant 
money of the Province. And it was further enacted that the respective Vestry Men and 
Church Wardens for the time being or the Major part of them, whereof one Church Warden 
should always be one, should and were thereby impowered to call and present after the death 
of the several Incumbents for ever a good sufficient Protestant Minister within one year next 
after the Avoidance of any of the said places which Minis"' should respectively be instituted 
and Inducted to the Churches and so as often as any of the said places became void. 

Which last mentioned Act also received the Royal Confirmation upon the SO"" of March 1704. 

That the GO pounds a year, whether in country produce or in New York money not being 
of itself a reasonable maintenance, for a good sufficient protestant Minister, the Vestry or 
Inhabitants of the said precinct of Jamaica and of several other places within the province of 
New York (where the allowances appointed by the said Acts of Assembly were as little or less) 
have applyed to the Society for the propagation of the Gospel to send over Missionaries from 
Great Brittain under salarys from the Society, which the Society have from time to time done, 
and the said Society on their parts do so far provide for their Missionaries that the annual 
allowances which they make to their several Missionaries, Schoolmasters, and Catechists 
within that province of New York amount to 635 pounds sterls a year; of which 65 pounds a 
year is allowed by the Society to a Missionary and Schoolmaster in the precinct of Jamaica 
aforesaid besides furnishing the Missionaries for their own and their parishoners use with Books 
and small Tracts. The said Society being always willing to assist such of the British Colonys 
as are desirious to contribute what they can on their parts to the maintenance of the protestant 
Ministers among them. 

That some years since, the Society sent over M' Poyer as their Missionary to the said 
precinct or Parish of Jamaica, who continued there and received the appointment made by 
the Act of Assembly and the Society's additional salary, to the time of his death which happened 
about the Month of Jan'^ 1731. 

That upon or rather before the death of the said M' Poyer, the said M"' Colgan was appointed 
by the Society their Missionary in his stead and he being in New York at M"" Poyer's death 
officiated and performed the duty's of Minister in the said Parish of Jamaica from the mouth 
of June 1732 and is since inducted into the Parish. 

Notwithstanding which the Vestry did not pay him the said New York maintenance but kept 
it back and the Assembly of New York have passed an Act (which was published the 1" of 
Nov' 1733) to impower the Vestry of the parish of Jamaica in Queen's County to dispose 
of sixty pounds now in hands of the Church Wardens of the said parish for the use and 
benefit of that Parish ; which Act recites that after the death of M'^ Poyer late Minister of the 
said Parish, and before the induction of M"' Colgan the present Minister thereof, there was 
raised in the said parish sixty pounds & paid to the Church Wardens and no person intitled 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXV. 3 

to receive the money, and it lying useless to the Inhabitants, therefore it is enacted that the 
vestry of the said parish may receive the money from the Church Wardens and may apply it 
to such use and benefit of the Parish as they or the major part of them shall think fit. 

That the Society conceives there are many irregularities as well as hardships in the said Act 
which they offer to your LordPP^ consideration as follows. 

1. That of that year for which the 60 pounds mentioned in the last act was raised, the said 
M-- Colgan had officiated above nine months as minister in the said Parish, and he has been 
since formally inducted there ; and the ground of the Act now complained of, seems to be only 
this, that during that time tho' M' Colgan might officiate, yet he was not actually inducted, but 
the Society conceive that that is neither a true explanation of the former Act of Assembly 
(which have the words: "called and established, as well as inducted) nor is by any means 
grateful to the Society who sent and paid ISP Colgan on their parts, nor yet just with regard 
to him, whose service the parish had had, to all intents as much as if he had been m 
form inducted. 

2"' The Society conceive that the Assembly of New York would not have consented to this 
Act, had it been fairly brought in and had all party's (particularly M^ Colgan who is affected 
by it) been heard, but they are informed (and believe very truely) that this Act was brought 
into the Assembly and passed of a sudden in the absence of M' Colgan (whose parish is at 
some distance from the Assembly Town) and entirely unknown to him, who therefore had no 
possibility of opposing it there. 

3. That as the former Acts had settled and dedicated this sum for the maintenance ot 
Ministers, admitting it might not belong to I\P Colgan while he merely officiated as Minister, 
yet, so soon as he was actually inducted, the Society conceive the arrears since the former 
Incumbents death belonged to him in point of Law, and he had all sorts of titles to it, having 
actually served the cure in his own person as aforesaid. 

4I5' That as this maintenance was enacted by the Assembly of New York for the settlement 
of a Protestant Ministry and that they might have God's ordinances duely Administered among 
them, the Society conceive, it is not properly in the power of a future Assembly to alter the 
uses for which the settlement was given and intended, and to take away and apply it to any 

other uses. 

5. The last consideration receives some addition from this, that the former Acts, which 
appointed this settlement and maintenance for the Minister for ever, received long since the 
Royal confirmation, but this last Act of the Assembly effectually repeals what the Crown 
itself had established, and yet, never takes the least notice of, or mentions those former 
Acts, wherefore the Society hope, though this be a single particular case, yet, being a 
precedent of such a very extraordinary nature, in so many respects, that it shall receive 
the greatest discouragement. 

6. That it was sometime before the Assemblys of New York were induced to make the 
settlement before mentioned, and it may be feared, that if this present attempt should receive 
the least countenance it may be followed by others, even to the taking away and misapplymg 
the whole Revenue and maintenance appointed and established for the settling and maintaining 
a Protestant Ministry in the Province of New York forever. 

Wherefore, upon the whole the said Society entreat Your Lord"?' to report the last 
Act of Assembly which is intituled: '-An Act to impower the Vestry of the Parish 



NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

of Jamaica in Queen's County to dispose of six(y pounds now in the hands of the 

Church Wardens of the said Parish for the use and benefit of that Parish," to His 

Majesty for his disapprobation and disallowance. 

Feed. John Paris 

for the Society. 

10. May 1734. 



Governor Cosby to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-Tork Papers, Bundle Ee., No. 83. ] 

New-York 19. June 1734. 
My Lords, 

I beg leave to inclose to your Lord^P' my speech to the Assembly their address thereon, 
and an address of the Merchants of this place to me; the two main points I came hither 
determined to pursue, are the rights of the King and the interest of the people, one I have 
recommended to them throughout my speech and pointed out the ways most likely to Revive 
their Trade, which in truth is in a very declining state and to fortifye their province against a 
time of war; and this I have done without the least private view, it lyes upon them now to 
do their part. The other it shall be my study and my utmost endevour to maintain I have 
begun already to put the collection of the Quit Rents upon a better foot than hitherto they 
have been, by obliging the Sherriffs in the respective Counties to collect and return them to 
the Receiver General, but that without the assistance of the Court of Exchequer won't do, 
for the Court of Chancery has not given that dispatch to business which the King's suits 
require; this was talked of by the Judges of the supreme [court], long before my arrival, and 
upon a full consideration of it they resolved to admitt and hear Causes in the Equity side 
of the Exchequer, having as their predecessor always had sufficient authority by their 
Commissions for so doing, in pursuance of what the Judges had so resolved on, wherein they 
had the opinion and concurrence of the most eminent of our Lawyers at the Bar, an ordinance 
was prepared for appointing sittings out of term for the greater dispatch of business, and 
revised by the late Chief Justice Morris and the other Judges of the Supreme Court, 
and afterwards past by me with the advice of His Maj'>'' Council; about this time the Attorney 
General tiled a Bill in the Equity side of the Exchequer against M'' Rip van Dam the president 
of the Council of this Province for half the Salary and perquisites of the Govern' (for he had 
received the whole from Coll: Montgomerie's death) which his Majesty had been Graciously 
pleased to give to me for which van Dam pleaded and demurred; the Att: Gen' and the 
other Council retained for the King having prepared their arguments against the plea and 
demurrer rose up to speak, but Morris without speaking a word to the other two Judges told 
them they must speak only to the Jurisdiction of the Court to hold pleas in Equity; this 
surprised them, as well it might, they desired leave to argue the whole plea and demurrer and 
not that particular point, for that what they had to say on that head was so blended and 
interspersed with the other parts of their arguments, that they could not well separate them; 
this however would not be admitted by Morris for an Excuse so that he obliged them to speak 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 5 

to that single point; Van Dam's Council were under no surprise nor made any apology, but as 
if they had before hand been instructed by Morris they read their arguments on that single 
point without the least hesitation whereby the Kings Council conceived that they had prepared 
themselves for that alone, and Morris himself as soon as ever they had done speaking, pulled out 
of his pocket and read a long argument against the Jurisdiction of the Court to try Causes in 
Equity and against the Kings Authority to erect Courts of Equity; thus he who by his oath 
and office was obliged to maintain the King's prerogative, argued strenuously against it in the 
face of a numerous audience, teaching the people irreverence and disrespect to the best of 
Kings, and to his Courts of Justice, and he who ought (nay, in common decency should) have 
taken some time to consider the argument, on both sides before he gave his opinion, came 
before he had heard either side, with a paper in his pocket in maintenance of that part of Van 
Dam's plea, which by his argument appears he had not then seen ; and indeed his zeal was so 
great, that before the Council on either side had spoken he was going to read his own opinion ; 
the two other Judges tho' much amazed at Morris's behaviour, yet said nothing at that time, 
resolving to consider the arguments on both sides; M"' Delancey the Second Judge gave his 
opinion in a few days with much judgement as I am informed in justification of the Authority 
of the Court, and of the King's prerogative to establish Courts of Equity in the Plantations; 
M' Phillipse the third Judge not being ready that term gave his opinion tiie first day of the 
next on tlie same side of the question with Judge Delancey, Morris not being then present, 
but tiie next day upon the Bench and in open Court before a great appearance of people he 
told Judge Delancey and Judge Phillipse, tiio' he had never seen nor heard the opinion of the 
latter that their opinions and reasons were mean, weak and futile and that they were only his 
assistants; those Judges as they had cause resented this treatment and being constant to their 
opinions told Chief Justice Morris that their authority in determining points of Law were 
equal to his, that their opinions concerning their Judgement was the Judgement of the Court; 
upon which Morris left the Bench saying that by the Grace of God he would sitt there no 
more when matters in Equity came before him. 

I send Your Lord^P' herewith a copy of his argum' and opinion which he himself printed' 
and industriously dispersed leaving it to Your Lord^P' to make Your remarks upon it. 

This behaviour of Morris's awaked me to a jealousy of His Maj'^'' prerogative which it is my 
duty to maintain, and determined me to displace him which I did some time after and made M' 
Delancey the then Second Judge Chief Justice and acquainted his-Grace the Duke of Newcastle 
with it, but Morris petitioned His Maj'^ alledging that he knew no cause for my displacing him 
unless it was for giving his opinion in a point of Law, whereupon the Lords of the Committee 
of His Maj'''"' most honourable Privy Council directed me to send my reasons for my displacing 
him, and tho' his behaviour in this is 1 think sufficient, yet, I have given other reasons arising 
from his partiality and neglect of his duty, a copy whereof my Agent will deliver to Your LordPP'. 
Hence his open and implacable malice against me has appeared weekly in false and scandalous 
libels printed in Zengers Journal which my agent will likewise communicate toYour Lord''?', 
and even at this very time when he is petitioning for the King's favour he is making bold and 
presumptions attempts in the Assembly against his Mnj'>'* authority to establish Courts. 

'This tract is entitled — "Tlie Opinion and Argument of tlie Chief Justice of JVcw-York, concerning tbe Jurisdiction of 
the Supreme Court of the said province, to delerininc Causes in the Court of Equity. In a letter addressed by Lewis Morris 
to Governor Cosby. Kew-York: Printed and sold by J. P. Zenger. 1733." Folio, pp. 13. — Ei>. 



6 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

I do myself the honour likewise to enclose to Your LordPP' a copy of M"' Attwoods and a copy 
of the late Chief Justice Morris's Commiss"' that Your LordPP' may see that tho' tJiey differ in 
sometliings (as that in Attwood's the otiier Judges are called Assistants, but now their 
Commissions are otherwise) j'et as to the power of holding a Court of Exchequer they are 
the same, and with them I send a minute in a cause depending in the Court of Exchequer 30 
years ago, from whence it will appear that the Court of Exchequer is no new Court nor are 
proceedings in it of a late date, and I am told by a Lawyer of note lately come hither from 
Barbadoes for the recovery of his health, that the Court of Exchequer in that Island subsists 
only on an ordinance made by the Lieut' Gov"' and Council in King Charles the Seconds time. 

Early this last spring six of the Mohock Sachims deputed by the rest of that Nation came 
down to New York with a deed which they had executed, making over their low Lands to his 
Majesty in trust for them and their posterity lest the Albany people should again ensnare them ; 
a copy whereof I send to Your LordPP' with their speech and my answer, which I hope will 
put to silence the malicious tongue and pen of my inveterate enemie Morris who in Zengers 
papers has represented me as a Criminal for getting that fraudulent deed from the Corporation 
of Albany, but I affirm to Your LordPP' that if I had not complyed in that particular with the 
request of the Mohocks, they would immediately have left their Country and gone over to 
the French whereby we should have lost the nearest and most warlike of the six Nations, 
whose example, as it is well known that they have ever been the leaders and conductors of 
the other nations in time of war, would in ail probability in case of a rupture been followed 
by the other Five ; how fatal this might have proved to all his Majesties dominions on the 
continent Your LordPP' well know ; I, for my part thought it a matter of the highest importance, 
nor was there any medium to preserve the fidelity of the Six nations and deny them the justice 
they so loudly and publickly called for ; it is Morris only with a few of his followers that 
exclaim against this action, for all the Men of discerning, nay, even those of Albany who were 
not to be sharers of the Land under that deed, applaud what I have done ; the Mayor's letter 
(M' Holland) sentiments will best appear in the enclosed copy of his letter; tho' Morris and 
M' Alexander, one of his Majesties Council My Lords have been Van Dam's advisers, yet he 
himself must have consented to all the libellous aspersions and false and scandalous insinuations, 
wherewith the papers printed, published and dispersed in his name abound ; and the Gentlemen 
of the Council have so just a resentment of them and tender and near regard for their own 
reputation and characters, that they think they can not with honour sit any longer at the 
Council Board with van Dam and Alexander the authors and publishers of those false and 
scandalous libels, they therefore by me become humble petitioners to Your LordPP' to move 
his Majesty to displace them from their seats at that Board, which I the more readily do, not 
only for those reasons, but because that if the Members of that Board are suffered to be so fouly 
traduced by other Members of the same Board, they will decline in the esteem of the people 
and the Reverence and respect which is essential to their seats will be turned into contempt. 
Alexander is a Councellor of New Jersey as well as of this Province and being likewise 
Surveyor General of the Jerseys, it seems to me more proper that he should be a Councellor 
there than here, besides as the interest of those two Provinces may sometimes clash as they 
do in that Article of the partition line between them, he ought not to be a Judge of that 
dispute in both Councils, for his interest as Surveyor of that, may biass him at the Council 
board here, and in truth his being of the Council in both provinces is liked in neither, nor do 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXV. 7 

T think he or any one should be a Councellor in both ; Van Dam is very old, past the use of 
his own reason and given up intirely to the management of Morris & Alexander. 

Late in the fall last year the Gov' of Louisbourg at Cape Breton sent two Officers of that 
Garrison in a Sloop hither desireing leave to supply themselves with provisions, especially flour 
to make bread which they stood in great need of having been disappointed of their usual 
supplys; I granted the Governor's request with the advice of the Council, entertained the 
Officers kindly and gave them what assistance they wanted to furnish themselves with 
provisions; this tho' it was no more than I ought to do both, in humanity and by the treaties 
subsisting between the two Crowns; yet Morris complained of it in Zenger's papers, possessing 
the people with a belief that they were spies sent to discover our weakness and that I was in 
their interest; the common people were presently alarmed and the terror grew so great and so 
general, that little less than an Insurrection was apprehended; and truly, My Lords, it is but 
too evident that, that was what Morris, van Dam and Alexander aimed at; but I have the 
pleasure to acquaint Your Lordw that they are defeated in their attemps, and almost all 
the Men of sence Estate and Credit in the province have exerted themselves, rightly abhorring 
those insolent and scandalous papers by which these vile wretches would have involved the 
Province in confusion; their sentiments of my Administration Your Lord^P' will see in the 
Merchants address, a paper concerted among themselves and actually drawn before ever I heard 
that they intended it, which made it the more grateful to me; there is nothing more common 
with writers of sedicious libels than for them to tell the world they speak the sentiments 
of the people, thereby endevouring to perswade them that it is their interest alone which they 
labour, and this has been Morris's method, but all his falsehoods, all his calumnies and letter 
invectives against me, have not gained the end he sought, the best Men saw through his design 
at first, and the eyes of these who willfully shut them are now open to discern his malice and 
his own selfish views, and this he effectually brought on himself; for he who called loudly in 
Zenger's papers for a present meeting of the Assembly the season of the year wherein it was 
impracticable for them to meet and urged the immediate necessity of fortifying this City, 
was the first in the house who started difficulties and threw rubs in the way of it. 

To conclude My Lords, this man with the two others I have mentioned viz' van Dam and 
Alexander, for their followers are now very few, and very insignificant, are the only Men from 
whom I am to look for any opposition in the Administration of the Govern' and they are so 
implacable in their malice, tliat I am to look for all the insolent, false and scandalous 
aspersions, that such bold and profligate wretches can invent. I am with the greatest respect 
and Honour. My Lords, 

Your LordPP' most obedient and 

faithful humble servant. 

W™ Cosuy. 



8 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Reasons of Governor Cosby for removing Chief Justice Morris. 

[ New-York Pnpers, Bundle Ee., No. 58. 1 

Reasons given by Colonel William Cosby for removing M'" Lewis Morris from 
the Place of Chief Justice at the Supreme Court of the Province of 
New- York. 19. June 1734. 

Before I mention my reasons for removing him, I beg leave to acquaint you with the causes 
that induced me soon after my arrival here to inquire into his character; one is, that when I 
went to New Jersey, to take the oaths as by his Majesties Instructions I am directed, and 
receive from M"" Morris who was president of the Council the publick seals, he made me wait 
some hours walking before the door of the Council room before he would deliver the seals to 
me, being all that while busy in having a decree drawn up, which he had given exparte in a 
cause in the Court of Chancery, tho' he himself had never taken the oath of a Chancellor. 
Another is, that the day I arrived at New York, young Lewis Morris son to the late Chief 
Justice did before it was known that I was so near at hand, present a petition to the president 
and Council for an ordinance to adjourn the Circuit Court of Albany for some short time 
because his Father being then President of the Council of Jersey waited to deliver up the 
seals to me, who was then expected; the petition was granted, the ordinance passed as he 
desired and yet M' Morris did not go and hold that Circuit Court which was loudly complained 
of and soon reached my ears. 

My reasons for removal of M'' Lewis Morris from the place of Chief Justice were : 
On account of his notorious partiality in the administration of Justice of which are the 
following instances: Some years since the dissenters in the parish of Jamaica in this Province 
brought an ejectment against the Church of Engl"* Minister, for the Church he preached in and 
was posessed of, when the tryall came on, the defendant's Council demurred to the plaintifs 
evidence. M" Morris the Chief Justice desired them to wave the demurrer, telling them, that 
if the Jury found for the plaintif he would grant the Defendants a new Tryall. The Defend" 
Council were very unwilling to do it, but fearing the worst if they refused, they did consent 
and the Jury found for the plaintif The Defend" Council moved the next term before 
Judgment for a new tryall and urged his promise, he denyed at first that he gave any, but 
when they offered to make oath of it, he said, a rash promise ought not to be kept, and never 
would grant them a new Tryall ; whereby they lost their Church and the Dissenters have ever 
since had it. Another instance of his partiality is this: In 1712. the Town of Westchester 
conveyed to the late Chief Justice Morris and George Clarke Esq" half of their undivided 
lands. Jacobus van Courtland and others, claiming part of these lands (so conveyed to Morris 
and Clarke) went to survey them; the people of Westchester hearing of it, applyed as is said 
to Morris for advice, be that as it will, they got the Sheriff and two Justices of the Peace viz' 
one Hunt, and one Bayly, both freeholders of Westchester, under whom Morris claimed to go 
on the spot and their finding Courtland and his partners surveying ; they fined them for Rioters 
and committed them to prison. Courtland upon this brings his action against Hunt and Baily; 
on the tryal the Defend'^ Council demurred, the plaintifs Council joined in demurrer and some 
considerable time after, the demurrer being first argued on both sides, Morris, who was then 
Chief Justice and M' Walter a Merchant the Second Judge, gave judgments for the Defendants, 
thus in effect Morris was Judge in his own cause. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXV. 9 

A flagrant trespass committed by him and an instance of the dread the people had of his 
power, when he was Chief Justice, I beg leave to lay before you in a letter from M"' Jamison 
a Lawj-er of this Town, of good repute having been formerly Chief Justice of New Jersey 
and Attorney General of this Province, till he was displaced by Gov'' Burnet; his great delay 
of Justice in oppressing the people and suitors by giveing them a great deal of trouble and 
putting them to a fruitless e.xpence both of time and money, in their attendance of the Courts; 
for, tho' he constantly adjourned the Courts to eight or nine in the morning, yet he was seldom 
sitting 'till twelve, one, or two, and sometimes [the Lawyers] are waiting from the hours 
adjourned to, not knowing when to expect him, and fearing to be fined if they happen not to 
be there, and it is with great concern I am laid under a necessity of informing you, that I can 
not help imputing those irregular hours in his sittings among several others to his pride in 
making the world waite his leisure, and his intemperate drinking in which he often spends 
whole nights. This was his behaviour in term time in the Town of New York, but in the 
Circuits it was still more intolerable, for there his hours of adjournment and sitting were not 
only like those in Town, but after the Justices of the Peace who by ordinance were obliged to 
attend him, while he was in the Counties, and other people who attend on these occasions have 
come to the place where the assizes were appointed to be held, many of whom come forty or 
fifty miles from their habitations, and sometimes even after Juries have been summoned, 
witnesses subpeaned, parties attended and the Justices of the peace and other Officers have 
gone to the place appointed for holding the Circuit Courts, as by an ordinance they are 
directed, and have waited there several days in expectation of the Ciiief Justice, who tiien 
alone was to go the Circuits, he has not come to hold the Court tho' in health and able to have 
done it, and I beg leave to inform you, that the damage that one County viz' that of Albany 
sustained by one neglect of M"" Morris's holding the Circuit Court was computed at about two 
hundred pounds. I should tire you. should 1 enter further into the particulars of his behaviour 
on the Circuits; two however I beg leave to mention. Once going to Albany he delayed his 
time so long that he had much ado to reach the nearest part of the County on the day which by 
the ordinance it was to be opened, but getting just within the borders, he opened the Court and 
adjourned it to the City of Albany the next day, whether he went, and there again opened 
and adjourned to the next day being the third ; on that day likewise he opened it but doubting 
whether the first opening and adjournment was regular, he left the Bench without doing any 
business, and yet all this time the Magistrates of the County, Jurymen, Suitors, and witnesses 
were obliged to attend to their great expence and loss of time. The other was in the same 
County, but at another time, M'' Morris having opened the Court he adjourned it according to 
his custome to the next morning, but sitting up all that night and drinking hard he lay a bed 
all the next day till near sunsett, when the people growing more uneasy at his delays, some of 
his friends or his servants awaked him, he got up and Company being admitted into his 
Chamber, he asked what hour it was, they answered almost night ; how can that be, said 
the Chief Justice, the sun is but just risen, and saying, so he took up his Fiddle and played the 
Company a tune. These two particulars I assure you I had from some of the Lawyers, who 
were there at the times and from several other persons of good Credit, the Country was very 
nneasy, but not knowing how to get redress were obliged to bear it, and in several of the 
Counties he has neglected to go the Circuits for many years, tho' his Salary for that very 
service was in 1715 augmented from 130 to 300 pounds a year; that such neglects (especially 
tli-it of Albany in 1732) were very expensive and inconvenient to the Counties in General, as 
Vol. VL 2 



10 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

well as to those, who had causes to be tryed ; the Petition of M' Morris's own son for 
adjourning the Circuit Court of Albany, will testifye, and tho' the cause for adjourning that 
Circuit Court ceased on my arrival here, the very day the Petition was read and the ordinance 
issued, yet M' Morris neglected to go and hold it without acquainting me with it, or since 
giveing me any reason for such his neglect, tho' the clamour of the people were very loud on 
that occasion, besides young M'' Morris's petition, the certificates of the Att:Gen' and of Clerks 
of the Supream Court, and M^ Garrisens affidavit, will be laid before you, whereby his great 
delay of Justice, his brow beating, and other ill treatment, of his Maj''" Att:Gen' in the 
execution of his duty, and the great difficulty the Sheriff of a County had to summon a Jury, 
from the terror the people were under of being unnecessarily and unreasonably detained by 
him from their habitations and business, at a vast expence, will appear very fully. 

And here I beg leave to acquaint you, that M'' Morris was under an obligation to go the 
Circuits, which his predecessors were not in 1691, a salary of 130 pounds a year was established 
by the Gov' and Council on the Chief Justice of this Province, and so continued till 1715, 
during which time tryalls were had at Barr, but in 1715 the Assembly (finding that as the 
Country grew populous, those tryalls multiplied, and that there would be frequent occasions 
for Courts of Oyer and terminer in the Counties) resolved to augment his Salary to .£300 a 
year for going the Circuits, and this addition, I am informed was strongly solicited by M' 
Morris himself, he being then Chief Justice, and a Member of that Assembly; on this foot the 
Salary continued till 1726. when the Assembly struck off by their resolves 50 pounds a year 
of the 300=£; however M"' Burnet the then Gov'' drew for his salary at the rate of 300 pounds 
a year ; in 1728, the Assembly on their then settlement of the Revenue voted but 250 
pounds a year for the Chief Justices salary, and Coll: Montgomerie issued warrants for no 
more than the 250 pounds a year; this gave rise to some insolent papers, read and delivered 
in Council by M" Morris's son then a Councellor, for which Gov" Montgomerie suspended him, 
and his present Maj"' was pleased to dismiss him from his seat at that Board and to appoint 
another in his room, yet all this did not bring M' Morris to a sence of his duty, so that the 
Assembly in 1732 finding their former resolves ineffectual, and considering the great advantage 
of having the Circuits duly attended, voted 150 pounds a year to the Chief Justice for holding 
the Supream Court in New York four times a year, and 150 pounds a year for going the 
Circuits, provided he should do it yearly in the several Counties, at the appointed times ; 
hence it appears how much they had the Circuits at heart, for the Assembly in 1726. made 
the poverty of the province a pretence for their taking of 60 pounds a year from his salary, and 
they had hopes, that so mild a treatment, would have changed his conduct, yet the resolves of 
1732 shewed that they looked upon the benefit of having the Circuits duly attended, more than 
equivalent to his holding the Courts at the four terms in New York, for they gave the Second 
Judge 75 pounds a year too, for going the circuits, for which there was never any provision before. 

His Majesty having been graciously pleased by warrants under his Royal sign manual, to 
direct and appoint, that I should have, & receive, one mojety of the Salary and perquisites of 
this Govern' since the death of Gov' Montgomerie my immediate predecessor, and which had 
been received by M' Rip van Dam, and the said Morris as the said Rip van Dam was 
president of the Council of New York, and as the said Morris was President of New Jersey, I 
sent M' van Dam a copy of the said warrant, and made a demand of half the salary and 
perquisites, from Coll: Montgomeries death, he having received the whole for New York, 
which he not complying with, a proper suit by way of English information, was commt ■ d 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXV. 11 

against him, by his Maj"" Att: Gen' in his Maj''" name, in the Equity side of the Exchequer, 
for discovery and payment thereof, to which bill, M"' van Dam put in a plea and demurrer, the 
plea consisted of several parts, and first, that the Court being established by ordinance in 
the time of his late Maj''' King George the first, and the same not having been renewed by his 
present Majesty, no such court now existed, secondly, that the Judges commissions were void, 
not having had the consent of the Council, thirdly, no Supream or other Court, within the 
said province had any, being Jurisdiction, or authority by prescription, neither had any act of 
Parliament of Great Brittain, or any Act of Assembly there been made to constitute and erect 
any Supream Court in the said province, nor to empower any Court or persons whatever, to 
hold cognizance of any pleas in a Court of equity within, or of the said province, and that the 
Court had no power to compel him to discover the several matters prayed by the Bill, and 
the Demurrer was, for, that his Majesty, had given his interest in the matter in question to 
me, and that 1 was no party to the Bill ; and he also demurred to the Bill for want of Equity; 
which plea and demurrer being set down, and His Maj">" Council having prepared themselves 
to speak thereto, when the same came on to be argued, the Chief Justice (without asking the 
opinion of the other Judges) directed the Council to argue only that part of the plea, which 
struck at the jurisdiction of the Court on the Equity side of the Exchequer, but which his 
Maj"" Council endeavoured to excuse themselves from alledging, that they had prepared their 
argument against the whole plea, and that what related to that single point, was so necessarily 
blended and interspersed with the others, that they could not then separate them, and that the 
whole plea must be taken together; but the Chief Justice overruling them herein, they were 
forced to argue that part of the plea only, which they were called upon to speak to by the 
Chief Justice, whereas the Lawyers for van Dam, were under no surprise for the arguments, 
which they had prepared and (according to the Custom here) wrote down, were adapted to that 
single point of the Courts holding pleas in Equity, and as if they & M' Morris had wrote by 
inspiration, they had no sooner done reading their arguments, but as I am credibly informed to 
the surprise of every one present, M"' Morris without asking the other Judges their opinion 
(which he had always before done in all other cases, beginning with the puisne Judge first) 
pulled out of his pocket, and read a paper to the very same purpose, which he had before hand 
prepared and wrote, containing a very long argument, with his own opinion against the 
Jurisdiction of the Court in matters of Equity, founded on this doctrine, which to me seems a 
very strange one, that his Majesty has no power or authority, to erect a Court of Equity in 
New York, and that such a Court can only be established by Act of Parliament, or by Act of 
Assembly; there Judge Delancey, and Judge Phillipse took time to consider and give their 
opinion on the case ; in a few days after Judge Delancey in a very handsome manner, and as 
his Majesty's Council told me with much judgement, gave his opinion that the Court had 
power to hold pleas in Equity; M"' Phillipse the Third Judge was not then ready to give his 
opinion, but on the first day of the ensuing Term, he delivered it on the same side of the 
question with M"" Delancey, that the Court had power to hold pleas in Equity, so that two of 
the three Judges concurring, their opinion was the Judgement of the Court; however; the 
next day the Chief Justice coming to Court (for the day before when M"" Phillipse delivered his 
opinion he was not there) he told those two Judges openly and publickly upon the Bench before 
a numerous audience,' that their reasons for their opinions were mean, weak and futile (tho 
he had neither seen nor heard Judge Phillipse's) that they were only his assistants, giving 
them to understand, that their opinions or rather Judgements were of no signification in 



12 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS 

opposition to liis, but tiicy resented tliis treatment very becomingly, insisting on tlie force and 
justice of tlieir opinions, and on tiieir power and authority as Judges of tiiat Court; whereupon 
the Cliief Justice left the Bench, saying that by the grace of God, he would sit no more there 
when any matters of Equity came before them; it is material to inform you, that M' Morris 
had been for many years in effect the sole Judge of this Court, for he had only one joined 
witii him, and he a Merchant; and I am likewise very credibly assured that M'' Morris during 
all that time, pressed tiie most eminent of the Lawyers, to commence suits before him on the 
Equity side of the Exchequer, and when he was President of the Council of the Jerseys he 
held a Court of Equity there, tho' constituted much in the same manner with this in New York, 
yet in this case, he gave liis opinion, there was no such Court; so that in causes between 
subject and subject, M' Morris has been extreamly dilatory, but in the cause between the King 
and van Dam, he has been as hasty; in the common method of hearing causes, he always asks 
the youngest Judge and then the Second Judge their opinions, before he gives his own, but in 
tiiis of van Dam's, he delivers his own without asking theirs at all, seemingly with an intent 
to byass or over awe them. Formerly he was for encouraging business to be brought before 
him in the Equity side of the Exchequer, but here he denyes the power of the Court in 
matters of Equity, it would be extreamly ditlicult to account for these contraries had not M' 
Morris been President of the Council of the Jerseys, at the time of Coll: Montgomeries death, 
and received the whole salary & perquisites there, which put him under the like circumstances 
with M"' van Dam as to the matter of this suit, and could he have carried the plea of van Dam 
in this particular, it would have been making a strong precedent for himself, and (for this 
reason I presume) the Lawyers here are of opinion, van Dams plea was of M'' Morris's own 
adviseing. I beg leave further to acquaint you, that being informed, that M' Morris in the 
argument he had read, had used many expressions derogatory of his Maj""' Royal prerogative, 
1 tiiought it my duty to send to him for a copy of it, and that he would sign it, and certifye it 
to be a true copy; to which he returned me for answer, that he did not know whether he 
should or not, that he would think of it; but instead of complying with my request he soon 
after printed and published his said argument, with a letter by way of introduction and 
conclusion to me, which he very diligently and industriously caused to be dispersed over the 
whole province, one of which I beg leave to inclose to you. The printing and publishing of 
which as it was in effect appealing to the people against the Judgement of that Court where he 
presided, and was in eflect arraigning the Judgement of the two other Judges of the Court was, 
what in my apprehension might be attended with very improper consequences, and be 
introductive of very great inconveniencysas in truth it has, and tho' M' Morris in the letter part 
of liiis libellous pamphlet, for so I humbly conceive it deserves to be stiled, very truly says, 
that a Judge may innocently err in opinion, yet I can hardly think that any Judge who should 
alter the judgement of a Court was given publish in print under his hand arguments against 
that opinion, would be justifyed in an action of that kind; and I must submit to your 
consideration whether as he confined the Kings Council to speak to one part of the plea only, 
which is here a practice altogether unknown, and as he would not suffer them to deliver their 
arguments as they had prepared them, and as he before hand had wrote down his own opinion 
and argument which he read as soon as the Lawyers had done speaking without asking any 
of the other Judges their opinion, as he thereby attempted to Byass or over awe the other 
Judges, telling them they were only his assistants, thereby rendering their authority 
contemptible in the eyes of the people and insinuating that their judgements or opinions were 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. ] 3 

of no signification, and as M' Morris was President of Jersey and as such alike circumstanced 
willi Rl'" van Dam, you will judge whether M'' Morris' behaviour herein ought to be considered 
only as an error of Judgement; for my own part I freely own to you I thought otherwise and 
thinking so I could not think him fit to be continued any longer in the Station of his Maj"" 
Chief Justice; as to the letter to me it needs no observations of mine upon it, you will give 
it the consideration it deserves, and will only beg leave to assure you, that tho' honoured with 
his Maj''" Commission of Gov'' of this Province INP Morris has nt^er once shewed the least 
civility or respect to me, but on the contrary he made me wait, as I have before said, hours 
walking before the door of the Council room before he would deliver me the seals he was in 
posession of as President of New Jersey, not that I assign this as a reason for removing him, 
tho' it is what may be very properly communicated to you. 

I hope you will likewise be pleased to take M' Morris' printed speech into your consideration 
which seems to me to be calculated with an unjust view to inflame the People of the Prov" 
against the two other Judges to undermine the very being of all Courts of Equity in this 
prov" and to strike at what I conceive to be clear and undoubted prerogative of the Crown, and 
to ingratiate himself with the people of New York who have a great dislike to the Equity side 
of the Court of Exchequer, I therefore thought, that I could not upon such an occasion, take a 
more proper and necessary step in support of his Maj''" just prerogative in an instance too, 
wherein the welfare of his subjects is so necessarily interwoven as it is in this case, than to 
remove the author thereof from a place he held merely at the will and pleasure of the Crown. 
For that M'' Morris having thus publicly declared he would not hold jurisdiction of any cause 
or matter in Equity, it became absolutely necessary to remove him, since otherwise no Revenue 
causes necessary to be brought in a Court of Equity could be commenced and all matters of 
fraud, breach of trust and matters of accident must go unredressed. 

1 have already mentioned to you that M'' Morris himself formerly urged the Lawyers to 
commence suits in the Equity side of the Exchequer and if the subject can receive a benefit from 
that Court, as they certainly may, lam sure it is necessary for the King's interest there should 
be such a Jurisdiction exercised, that being the proper Court in which the Quit Rents of the 
Crown, all duties and other dues ought to be sued for and recovered ; and should such a Court 
be discountenanced the people would persist in their neglect of paying their rents and other 
dues at such times as they ought, and numberless frauds be carried on to the prejudice of every 
branch of the Revenue of this Province ; but by the assistance of this Court all such frauds 
will be prevented or discovered and the Quit rents and other dues of the Crown be soon 
brought into a more regular and certain method of payment; a thing highly necessary for His 
Majesties service and which I am endeavouring to accomplish. 

Upon the whole I thought it my duty to support this Court, and to maintain his Maj''" 
prerogative to the utmost of my power, especially at a time when his just and reasonable 
authority was so avowedly opposed by our neighbours at Boston, and I perswade myself that I 
shall be approved in displacing M"" Morris, and consider it as a necessary step to prevent the 
like attempts for the future and to put a reasonable stop to persons in authority from being 
advocates for the Boston principles. To the foregoing reasons I will beg leave to add this 
further one, which I apprehend must have its weight, that it is evident from what I have 
already submitted to consideration and on the face of his own printed paper inclosed, that he 
is one from whom I must always expect the utmost opposition in my Administration here of 
his Maj"" Govern' and affairs, wherein at this very time, he is using his utmost efforts in the 



14 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Assembly, of vvliich he has [a son] a member not only in opposing those things which I 
recommended to them for the interest and security of the Province, but more avowedly 
declaiming in and out of the house against his Majesties authority to erect Courts of Equity, a 
popular theme often before debated and carryed to bold and presumptions resolves, but as often 
withstood by His Maj"" Council of this province and discountenanced and reprehended by the 
Board of Trade. What lengths this Assembly will go I cant yet say, but as they have ever 
been fond of power, I may expect the same as in my predecessors times; hence you will perceive 
how little he deserves his Majesties favour which he is petitioning for, it attempts to wrest a 
branch of his Royal prerogative out of his hands. I could say much more of his present 
beliaviour, but as that is posteriour to my displacing him, I cant give it as a reason for it and 
will not trespass further. 

I shall only add that things were come to that pass, that there was a necessity I should 
either displace M'' Morris or sutler his Maj''" authority to be affronted and trampled upon and 
disrespected and irreverence to it taught from the Bench to the people, by him, who by 
his oath and office was obliged to support it; and as this was neither consistent with my duty 
nor my inclination to bear I thought, his Maj"'^' service required I should displace him, which I 
accordingly did and made the next Judge M"' Delancey Chief Justice in his room, and I am 
perswaded will be of opinion from what I have said, that I should have been blame worthy had 
1 suffered M"' Morris, to have sat longer on that Bench and that you may see, I have not 
exercised any new or unusual power in this province, I will instance other Governours who 
have displaced Chief Justices for much less cause and I will go no further back, then M' Hunter 
who turned out M'' Mompesson from being Chief Justice of the Jerseys and made M"" Jamison 
Chief Justice in his room, afterwards Gov"' Burnett displaced M"' Jamison and appointed 
M'' Trent, upon M"' Trents death he appointed M"^ Hooper and sometime after he displaced M' 
Hooper and appointed M^ Farmer. M'^ Delancey was the next Judge on the Bench and is a 
person of a very good Estate as well as of a very good Character and in every respect qualifyed 
to serve his Majesty in the station of Chief Justice of the Province having studied the Law 
from the time he left the University of Cambridge in England. I am ettc. 

W Cosby. 



Mayor Holland to Secretary Clarice. 

[ New-York Papers, Bundle Ee., No. 86. ] 

Hon'-'' Sir, 

Your favour of the 10"" inst: is now before me, under cover of which I received the copy 
of the deed of trust which the Mohawck Sachims executed to His Excell'^^. You desire I may 
let you know my sentiments about it; as Your Hon"- is a much belter Judge of deeds, than I 
can ever pretend to, shall only beg leave to tell you that I find they (the Sachims) have 
granted their lands to His Majesty, and as I am fully perswaded that his Excellency had no 
other view in obtaining that deed, but to secure unto His Majesty, interest, the fidelity of the 
Six Nations, so cannot but think that their lands are now much securer than ever before, for 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXV. 15 

to my certain knowledge those Gentlemen who had the deed, which the Indians destroyed 
when His Exceli'^^ was at Albany had deceived them (the Sachims) in what they had faithfully 
promised (upon delivery of the deed) to perform, which those Gentlemen if stricktly examined 
will confess, for they, have often done to me. 

I shoul'd have been glad, had it been in my power to have sent you a copy of the deed, that 
was destroyed here, but I do assure you that I have done my utmost to find out whether there 
was any such copy, but cannot hear of any, the only one which there was of it, M' Wendall 
who had it, has declared to me that he can not find it, and that he is certain it must have been 
burnt when his house was burned down, otherwise I am sure, money could have got it 
from him. 

I beg the favour of you to make my humble duty acceptable to his Excellency and tell him 
that I am his, as well as Hon^'' Sir 

Your most faithful and obedient 
humble servant. 

Albany 21" May, 1734. Edw-" Holland. 



Deed conveying the Mohawk Flatts to the King. 

[New-Tork Papers, Bundle Ee., No. 86.] 

Know all Men by these presents that we Jacomin, Asarus, Gidion, Cornelius, Sett, Whisaw, 
Asaras, Arras, Sandras, Petrus, Aria, Johanus and Johanus, in behalf of the rest of our Nation. 
Of the several Tribes of the Turtle, bear and wolf the Native born Indians of the Mohock 
Nation in the County of Albany and province of New York in America being deeply sensible 
of the many benefits & gracious bounties we from time to time have received and do now 
enjoy under the Royal favour and protection of his present most Sacred Majesty King George 
the Second, have willingly and freely given, granted aliened and enfeoffed, released and 
confirmed, and by these presents do, give, grant alien and enfeoffs, release and confirm unto his 
said Majesty King George the Second his heirs successors and assigns all that certain tract or 
parcell of low or meadow land commonly called the Mohocks flatts scituate lying and being 
near Fort Hunter on the south side of the Mohock's River on both sides a Creek called 
Tiononderoga Creek, and containing by estimation twelve hundred acres more or less together 
with two thousand acres of Wood or uplands lying at the back and extending the whole 
length of the said low or meadow lands and all our Estate, Right title. Interest, property claim 
and demand thereunto, to have and to hold all and singular the said meadow and woodlands 
with all and singular their appurtenances and premises hereby granted or intended to be granted 
unto his said Majesty King George the Second his heirs and successors, provided nevertheless 
and it is the true intent & meaning of these presents and upon the special trust and confidence 
that we repose in his said Maj'^ under the Great Seal of Great Brittain or under his seal of 
this Province shall not anytime after the date hereof grant or cause to be granted to any Body 
publick person or persons whatsoever the above mentioned tract of Meadow, woodlands and 
premises or any part thereof except it be by the free and voluntary consent and further 



IG NEW- YORK COLONIAL IVLLNUSCRIPTS. 

confirmation of us whose names are liereunto subscribed or the majority of us, or by tlie free 
voluntary consent and confirmation of the majority of tlie survivors of us or of our heirs or 
representatives under our hands and seals first had and obtained in writing & further that we 
hereby covenant and promise to and with his said Majesty his heirs and successors for ourselves 
and our heirs on the consideration aforesaid that we nor our lieirs shall not or will not at any 
time hereafter from the date of these presents convey or alien the abovementioned premises or 
any part thereof unto any body politick person or persons whatsoever except it be by such 
consent or confirmation in writing unto his said Majesty or his lawful representative as aforesaid 
I.\ Witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals this fourth day of November in 
the seventh year of the Reign of our said Soveraign Lord George the Second by the Grace of 
God of Great Brittain France and Ireland King Defender of the faith eltcAnno Dili 1733. 
Sealed and delivered in the presence of Walter Butler, William Printop Jun"' 

Jacomin, Asarus, Gidion, Cornelius 

Sett, Whisaw, Asarus, Erras 

Sander, Petrus, Aria, Johanus 

JOHANUS. 

Note. — By the cUarter granted by Gov. Dongan to Albany in 16S6, that city obtained the right to purchase one thousand 
acres of land from the Indians at what is now Fort Hunter, and a committee was shortly after sent to view the lands. On 
the 12tli October, 1V30, the city took from the Mohawk Indians of the Lower Castle, a decfl to hold the lands in trust for 
them so long as they should be settled thereon, with remainder to the city. This deed continued iu possession of Mr. John 
Depeyster, the Mayor, until 12 September, 1733, wh*?n it was delivered to Governor Cosby, who destroyed it, and on the 4th 
of November, following, obtained the above deed from the Indians, conveying said lands to the King in trust for them. The 
Mohawks, notwithstanding, continued uneasy, and to quieten them, the city of Albany signed an instrument on the 18th 
December, 1773, surrendering to the Indians residing in the Lower Mohawk Castle, all right and title to the said thousand 
acres of land, (with the exception of a few parcels that private individuals ha I previously purchased from the Indians and 
held under the Corporation,) "so long as they shall continue a Nation and be settled on said lands." In 1788, a number of 
the Mohawks residing at Canajoharie, petitioned the Legislature to be reinstated in their lands at Fort Hunter and elsewhere ; 
and by two instruments, dated respectively the fifteenth of April, 1789, and 16th June, 1790, the city bought out all the 
claims of the surviving Indians to the lands in question, as appears by the various instruments on file in the office of the 
City clerk. The lands were divided into farms at first and leased by the corporation, but all these farms have since been sold 
except one, which is still under lease. — Ed. 



Lords of Trade to Governor Co-shy. 

[ New-Tork Entries, B. L. p. 314. ] 

Coll: William Cosby Gov'' of New York & New Jersey. 
Sir. 

We have received your letters of the 29"" of Aug: and 15'' of Dec"' 1733. and one of the IQ'"" 
of June 1734, relating to the affairs of the Province of New York ; as also your letter of the 
17"" of June 1734. relating to the atRiirs of New Jersey, with the several Acts and other publick 
papers you mention to be enclosed. 

We have sent the several Acts of New York and New Jersey to M"' Fane, one of His Majesty's 
Council at Law, for his opinion thereupon, and so soon as we shall have received back the 
same, we will take these Acts into consideration. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 17 

Upon this subject we must remind you of the 21" Art: of your Instructions directing you, 
to be as particuhir as may be, in your observations, to be sent to this Board upon every Act 
passed by you, and likewise to send you[r] reasons for passing the same, unless they appear in 
the preamble of the said Act; and we expect, that for the future you will send over, with 
every Act by you to be passed not only, the general purport thereof, but your motives for 
giving your Assent thereto. 

In the Act N" 10 entituled : " An act for confirming unto the City of New York its Rights and 
Priviledges," mention is made of the Charter granted by Colonel Montgomerie to the City of 
New York, without a copy of which we cannot judge thereof, therefore desire, you will transmit 
to us a copy of the said Charter, as soon as possible. 

We have read what you write in answer to several complaints made against you by M' 
Morris and M"" Van Dam, but that being a matter, now before the Lords of the Council' 
we forbear making any remarks thereon, except that by the Indian deed for vesting in His 
Majesty the Land at Albany, which that corporation claimed by virtue of a Charter from 
Colonel Dongan ; that land is computed at about 1200 Acres, whereas, as this affair has been 
represented to us by an unknown hand, that land is computed at 30000 Acres ; We therefore 
desire, to be more particularly informed by you of the true state of this affair. 

In your letter of the 17"" of June last, you say there are three vacancies in the Council of 
New Jersey, and you recommend three Gentlemen to supply them, but as you have not 
informed us whose those Councillors are, that make the said vacancys, we cannot propose 
them to be filled up, till we hear again from you. 

So we bid you heartily farewell, and are your very loving friends 

and humble servants. 

Whitehall. P. Doeminique. M. Bladen. 

Aug : the 22"'' 1734. T. Pelham. A' : Croft. 



Attorney- General Bradley' to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New York Papers, Ff. No. 51.] 

New York in America 
23^'' Nov' 1734 
May it please your Lordships 

I thought it my duty to lay before your Lordships the inclosed Copy of a Bill that is now 
depending in the house of Representatives, tho I can scarce think the Governor and Council 
will pass it 

My Lords ! tho' this Bill is entitled an Act for the regulating Costs upon Prosecutions by 
information yet your Lordships may perceive it is a Bill of the like Nature and tendency, with 

' Richard Beadlet was appointed Attorney-General of New- York, vice Rayner, llth of March, 172f. Book of Commissions, 
IIL, 234. He fell early under the censure of the House of Assembly, and was in the habit of filing " informations " on his 
own motion, "with a view rather to squeeze money" from those he prosecuted "than from any just cause." Assembly 
Journals, I., 501, 600. But being supported by the authorities both in England and Kcw-York, he continued in office until 
his death, which occurred on the 28th of August, 1752. Smith's Nae-York, ed. 1829. II., 140. Note. — Ed. 

Vol. VL 3 



18 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

that Act which passed here in the year 1727, for preventing Prosecutions by informations, 
which Act your Lordships were pleased to represent as proper to be repealed by his Majesty 
on the 6"" day of November 1728. 

My Lords! There are three things charged in the Preamble of this Bill which are 
notoriously false 

1 That people altogether Innocent have been prosecuted by Informations. 

2 That they have been fairly acquitted on Tryal and 

3"^ It is suggested that divers persons have been oppressed injured and impoverished by 
such prosecutions 

My Lords! I humbly and faithfully assure your Lordships, that no one has in anytime 
been prosecuted Jiere by Information, But by order either of the Government, or the Courts; 
or else upon complaints made to me by the parties injured, and their producing sufficient 
evidence of the Truth of such complaints, before filing the informations. And tho' its true 
several persons have been acquitted on Tryal yet it is as true that whenever any have been 
acquitted or any such Prosecution, it has been very unfairly (to wit) against evidence 

My Lords : It is but too manifest that juries here very rarely find for the King tho' the 
charge be never so well supported by evidence, and I faithfully assure your Lordships no one 
has been either oppressed impoverished, or injured, by any such Prosecution which I am the 
more certain of, because no other person, but myself has (in my time) commenced or carryed 
on any Prosecution here by Information 

Your Lordships will no doubt observe how unprecedented and contrary to Law, it would be 
that His Matys Attorney should be obliged to pay costs «& especially where the Prosecution 
is only at the suit of the King as every one of the Informations filed in my time have been ; 
not one Information Qui Tarn, having in all my time been filed here by me ; or any other 
person ; which I humbly hope your Lordships will be inclined to beleive from the late Governor 
and Councils Recommendation of me in their memorial to your Lordships in April 1729 
whereupon your Lordships were pleased to recommend me to His Maty for my Salary & 
arrears, which I most humbly thank your Lordships, had its desired effect 

My Lords, with humble submission. The Assembly would be more just to me would they 
instead of misrepresents me, pay me the nine hundred pounds and upwards thats due to me 
from this Province for prosecuting a great number of offenders by order of the Courts and 
Government, as may appear by my memorial to the late Governor and Council in Nov"' 1728, 
and their said memorial to your Lordships; For tho since that time, I have with great 
difficulty obtain'd 150'"', and 60'"' from the Assembly ; Yet my fees that have been due since 
November 172S for such like Prosecutions amount to considerably more than what they have 
paid me, or, I fear ever will do 

My Lords: The intent of Assemblys by such Bills as these is as I humbly apprehend, to 
screen themselves and their friends from Prosecutions of any kind as they have influence 
enough over Grand Juries to prevent Presentments by them 

The many artifices of the Assembly to bring the officers of the Crown to be dependant on 
Assemblys. Their making Laws of a short duration; like this, that they may have their effect 
before your Lops can have notice of them & then drawing them into Precedent, for after Laws 
of the like Nature. And their insisting frequently on some pernicious Bill to his Majesties 
Prerogative, or Interest, to be passed at the same time they pass a money Bill; seem in my 
humble opinion to shew a strong Inclination in them to be independant of Great Britain, As I 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 19 

have more fully shewn to your Lordships iu the Case, and Representation which T caused to 

be laid before your Lordships in NoV 1729. All which is humbly submitted by, may it please 

your Lops y' mo humble S'. 

(Signed) R Bradley 



Governor Cosly to the Lords of Trade. 

[New-York Bundle Ee., No. Q.l 
59 

My Lords 

The letter which M'' Popple wrote me by your Lordships order on the 30 of May last I 
layd before the Assembly in E.Kpectation they wo'd have made a proper Answer to it, But they 
were so intent upon Fortifying their Collony and to find meanes for it, that the season wo'd 
not admit to keep them longer together after those matters were finished, which indeed co'd 
have been done sooner, if a few Members had not thwarted and delayed so usefuU a work. 

That however a return to that letter may not be wanting I shall lay before your Lordships 
the best accounts upon that subject which I have been able to discover or procure since I had 
the honor to be Gov"' here. 

Wheat is the staple of this Province, and tho' that comodity seem literally to interfere with 
the product of Great Britain, It do's not so in fact, for its generally manufactur'd into flower and 
bread, and sent to supply the sugar Collonys, And vvhenever a Markett in Spain Portugal or 
other parts of Europe has encouraged the sending it thither in Grain, the Adventurers have 
often suffered by the undertaking, for at this remote distance, the intelligence of a demand 
reaches us so late, that the marketts are supplyed before our Vessells come there, and even if 
it were otherwise our Merchants lye under vast and certain disadvantages besides for freight 
of Wheat from hence in time of warr was at least two shillings and six pence, and in time 
of peace is eighten pence Stirling per bushell and by the length of the passage it often grows 
musty at least cannot come so fresii to Markett as from Great Britain ; whence freights (as its 
said) are not above one quarter part of what they are at here. 

The main bent of our farmers is to raise wheat, and they are like to remain in that way 
untill the price of it becomes so low, that necessity puts them upon some other way of 
cultivation; which in process of time is like to happen, because the sugar Islands cannot 
increase in the proportion which the Northern Collonys do, and whether some other 
encouragement may bring them over sooner I cannot affirm 

In this Collony are agreat many lands extream fit for hemp, and there is not one farm in it 
but has land proper to raise flax; but little more of either is raissed than what is for private 
use, the former they apprehend to require more hands than they have to spare, And labour is 
still so dear that they cannot aflbrd to hire people for that purpose; Nor do they (as I believe) 
well understand how to rot and dress it. 

Tarr Pitch and Turpentine may be got here, but more plentifully in some of the other 
Northern Collonys, in greater quantitys than can be made use of by the Navy or Nation of 
great Britain, if the price at home will encourage it, which I am informed It has not done for 
several years past, Notwithstanding the bounty allow'd on the importation 



20 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

I am told your Lordships formerly sent hither the method uses in Russia for making of Tar 
and that upon tryal thereof it was found not to answer here, which is attributed more to the 
difference of the nature of their pitch pine and that of this Country, than to the uuskilfulness 
of our people 

In the Jerseys is one extraordinary rich mine and some others are discovered there which 
afford a good prospect but in this Province none have has yet been discovered, tho a good 
deal of money has been expended in search of them 

Some lead mines have been found in several! parts of this Collony but they have hitherto 
not by farr quitted the cost expended on them. And if they happen to prove good, I beleive 
the proprietor will rather send it home in Oar than be at the charge to erect Smelt houses here 

We have a great many Iron Mines both of the bogg, and of the Mountain Oar but as yet no 
Iron work is set up in this Province if an encouragement was given upon the importing of it 
in Piggs and Bars, at least that it might be free of dutys. It is very probable that in a few 
years the Nation might be amply supplyed from her own Plantations And its evident that the 
whole amount thereof wo'd be paid in the manufactures of Great Britain, who now pays ready 
money (as I am informed) for greatest part of the Iron It has from Sweeden 

I am informed that when the Dutch were in possession of this Collony they sett up a 
Pottash work at vast expence but found it wo'd not answer, about twenty five years agoe it 
was attempted here again at the expence of a Gentleman in London but dropt for the same 
reason. And a like essay is lately set on foot in Jersey; which its feared will be attended with 
the same fate. 

Upon the whole I beg leave to offer it as my opinion, that whatever Great Britain can be 
supplyed with from her own plantations, must tend to the benefitt of the nation in general!, 
because the same is paid for [in] her own Manufactures, and her own Navigation employed in 
the transportation thereof All which is nevertheless humbly submitted to your Lordships 
I am 

My Lords 

with the greatest respects imag*"'* 
Your Lordships 

New York Most obedient and 

December 6. 1734 Most humble Servant 

To the Lords of Trade W. Cosby 

Endorsed Rec"* Jan^ y* 22. 173^. 
Read June 26. 1735. 



Governor Cosby to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-Tork BoDdle Ee., No. S9. ] 

My Lords 

I have very long declined laying before your Lordships the beheavour of a certain Member 
of his Majesty's Council here, while I had the least hopes of his return to his duty, upon this 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXV. 21 

prospect I have been born with many inconveniences his dangerous conduct still growing upon 
my patience til his Majestys Service and the safety of this Province demanded that I shou'd 
explain this man to your Hon'''* Board. 

M'' James Alexander is the person whome I have too much ocation to mention, at my first 
arrival I found that the late President Van Dam had employ'd him in the payment of the 
forces, and for that reason I show'd him all the Civility in my power, but no sooner did Van 
Dam and thelatecheif Justice Morris (the later especially) begin to treat my Administration with 
rudeness and ill manners, then I found Alexander to be at the head of as scheme to give all 
imaginable uneasiness to the Govern' by infuseing into and making the worst impressions on 
the minds of the people, A Press supported by him and his party began to sworm with the 
most virulent libels. Scurrilous and abusive pamphlets publish'd against the Ministry, and other 
persons of Great honnour and quality in England were reviv'd and reprinted here, with such 
alterations as served to incense and enrage the people against the Governour, the Council, the 
Assembly and all Magistrates in general, no man in his Majesty's Service tho' many had been 
ten and twenty years, in the same employments was spar'd, all were equaly made the objects 
of rage and fury with a deluded and unreasonable mob, and that some of them were not made 
a Sacrifice to this fitt of madness, is matter of wonder to themselves as well as to many others, 
some of these peapers giving very plain hints, also that the Governour was in no greater Safety 
then his friends 

Cabals were form'd against the Government and a meeting of their factious men is still held 
several nights in the week at a private lodging which I have discover'd Alexander always 
p'.sent and Morris, till he lately fled privately for England, in great fear as tis publickly reported 
least the printer of their Seditious libel should discover him, for these reasons it is, that I 
have not lately requir'd Alexanders presence in Council. 

One particular and remarkable instance of the most abominable and detestable villany that 
ever was committed, I shall barely mention referring your Lordships to a report of a full 
Committe of the Council of this Province which I send enclos'd, the person whose life, Caracter 
and fortune were struck at, is M' Harison one of the eldest Members of that Board, y 
Lordships will see where the Intrument intended to destroy him was dropp'd, how found & by 
whose vilanous blank affidavit (a common practice with Alexander and Morris) the same was 
imputed and charged to him at that Critical Juncture, when the passions of the people who 
were to be his tryers, were rais'd to the highest pitch against all who avowedly declar'd their 
resolution, to stand or fall in a steady active opposition to the enemies of the Government 
M' Harison has for twenty six years past, been employ'd in very considerable trusts, by the 
Gov', tho' with little profit to himself his steady adherence to the present Establishment, his 
known and long experienc'd fidelity, to Lord Lovelace, M'' Hunter and his successors here 
recommended him to me, while Alexander, Morris and the disaffected party were thereby 
become his mortal enimies, and thus resolved to make him the first offering to a licentious 
Mob, who have very much injur'd him in his circumstances, tho I with mine and the fav" of 
his friends in England have us'd all power and just means to support him under the highest 
injustice, and most cruel oppression, and I confess it is with pleasure I see him again gathering 
Spirit and ability to exert himself against the enemies of the Government. 

My Lord at this distance from England I am not able to trace the facts, but I am assured that 
this Alexander' (some years since a teacher of navigation on board one of his Majesty's Shipps ) 

' An account of this gentleman will be found in V., 982. — Ed. 



22 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

was turn'd away and dismissed from the Service for disaffection to the protestant Succession, 
and refuseing the Oath's to the Governm', some of his intimates on board having discover'd 
him to his Commander, and now while I am writeing, after the Council had order'd certain 
Seditious libels, tending to open rebellion, to be burnt by the hands of the common Hangman, 
that the printer of them be committed to the Common Goal, and prosecuted by the Atturny 
Gen" and a proclamation issued by their unanimous advice (a Grand Jury who having presented 
the same libels) with a reward of fifty pounds for the discovery of the Author of them, this man 
James Alexander has apear'd as the printers Council and Attorney for several successive days 
before the Chief Justice James De-Lancy Esq:, attended by William Smith Atf at Law, 
another declar'd incendiary, and one Jansen and Alderman chosen as their audacious libels 
set forth in oposition to, and in a different interest from that of the Government, for these 
reasons I intreat your Lordsps to intercede with his Majesty that a Member of Council, whose 
beheavour has declar'd him to be in an intrest opposite to that of the Crown, who is dayly 
inciteing the unthinking people, to sedition, riot and insurrection by blackening and asperseing 
his fellow Members of that board, and ail others whose loyalty and integrety have recommended 
them to my predecessors and myself, may be removed from a seat to which he is the greatest 
disgrace and dishonnour, and I hope y'' Lordships will be so good to move his Majesty in ord' 
that a Commission be granted for John Moor to succeed James Alexander as Counciller in the 
Province of New York; as I have in another letter given you a Caracter of M"" Moor, I will 
not here trouble your Lordships with a repetition of it. 

My Lords the removal of Lewis Morris late chief Justice of this Province has already been 
of consequence to his Majesty's afiairs here, his successor James De Lancy Esq: having upon 
some very important occations exerted himself with so great prudence, steadiness and resolution 
as has in great measure allay'd the heats of the Common people, and defated the factious 
designs of his predeceser, enrag'd at this worthy Gentlemans conduct and success, and 
almost distracted with the disapointment Morris is privately embark'd for England laden with 
complaints, false affidavits, and certificates of his beheavour, some ( as is said ) forged and all 
glean'd from the meanest labourers, tradesmen and Artificers neither he nor his confederates 
having with all their wicked Arts, been able to seduce any men of honour, credit or 
reputation, except a very few whose principals and inclinations wanted no incitement to create 
disorder and confusion, upon the weak hopes they had entertaiu'd and which they have often 
spoke out, that a New Parliament would introduce a New Ministry, and that something more 
would follow, which I shall unwillingly name to your Lordships, unless I see a continuance of 
their misbeheavour, which I do not expect now the principle incendary has left them to the 
support of Alexander whose credit is growing very low. 

My Lords I had scarce set foot in New Jersey when M"' Morris declar'd he wou'd never 
appear in Council while I remain'd Govern"' he had been President there after the death of 
Coll Mountgomerie, and had acted with a very high hand, and in the most arbitrary manner 
he had turn'd several good and loyal old Servant and officers in the County out of employments 
without the consent of his Majesty's Council, and in open contempt of the royal orders and 
instructions, to make room for sons inlaw and other relations, he sat and acted as Chancellor, 
and made a decree without regular notice given, or hearing of the party's, while in that and 
this Province, ever since I came hither, he has been loudly declaiming against all Governors 
who have hitherto sat as Chancellours and assureing the Country that no decrees of that Court 
or any other Court of equity here are binding on the subject, and that his Majesty has no right 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 23 

to establish any such Court here, your Lordships well knowes the consequence of these 
doctrines, and to the leasure of your Hon"*'' Board I must resign then them and the Authors of 
them, amongst whome I must reckon Van Dam or at least as a publisher who frequently 
prostitutes his name to the same purposes, tho his capacity will not admit that I should 
believe him to be writer of even their mean performances, your Lordships have already been 
pleased to enquire into his conduct, which as I doubt not will merit your displeasure in such 
manner as to have him in no farther power or authority here, therefore I beg leave to 
recommend Paul Richards to be put in his room as Councilier, whos caracter I have already 
sett fourth in another letter if I were not assured that the change will be very much for his 
Majestys Service and to the publick satisfaction, I trouble your Lordships no farther on 
that head 

My Lords I have had thoughts of sending your Lordships the detale of perticulers in M'' 
Morris's beiieavour but I sett a more Just value upon your Lordships time, and if anything of 
that kind should attend you, it shall be in a separate paper, one thing I belive he will 
complain of, that I have not Summou'd him to Council of late in New Jersey, My Lords his 
residence is always in this Government, and whenever the Assembly meets in New Jersey, the 
method is to issue out a proclimation requireing the attendance of the Council likewise, who 
stay with me upon the spot dureing the whole Session, it being impracticable as they live very 
remote from each other, as well as from the place, where the Assemblys are by law alternately 
to set, to call them together upon the necessary emergency (their distances from each other, as 
well as from those places being so great) if they were to separate at pleasure as the Council of 
New York does, the Majority of whome reside in this City, and to these proclimations neither 
Morris nor Alexander who is of the Council there as well as here, have ever pay'd the least 
regard since the seventh of August 1732 which was seven days after my arrival. 

My Lords the just value I have for the Provinces which I have the honnour to govern, the 
earnest desire I have to see their Inhabitants enjoy in peace and quiet the blessings of his 
Majesty's mild and Glorious Administration and those great liberty's and priviledges which they 
held by his Royal bounty, will always incline me to do for them while I am among them, and 
to wish them well when ever I am to leave them, No greater Service can I doe them at present 
then to use all my credit with your Lordships, that you would be pleased to move his Majesty 
in order that a Commission be granted to Robert Lettice Hooper Chief Justice of the Jersey's 
to succeed Lewis Morris as one of his Majestys Council in the Jerseys a person who truly 
aflfectionate to his Maj'^' royal house and in very great esteem and reputation in his country, 
My Lords I must not omit to inform your Lordships that a mislead populace in this City had 
in September last elected their annual Majistrates and chosen their Aldermen and Common 
Councel, out of such as were followers of the leaders above named, they very soon, though 
to late, began to reflect upon their own folly and madness in throwing out of office several 
Gentlemen of the best fortunes and greatest influence here, who were their own constant 
employers and Cheif support, publickly wishing that they could recall those weak papers which 
Morris and Alexander have prevailed upon them to sign, without aprehending their design or 
intention of them 

My Lords if you are pleased to assist these my requests I solemly assure your Lordships 
that you will lay the highest obligations upon many thousands of his Majestys best and most 



24 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

loyal subjects in both Provinces, that you will secure the fidelity of all, and at the same time, 
do a thing for which I and my successers shall ever be obliged to your Lordships 

I am My Lords, with the greatest 
New York respect imaginable, Y' Lordships 

Dec: the 6. 1734 Most obed' hum''" Serv' 

Lords of Trade &c W. Cosby 

End": ReC' Jan: the 22. 173^. 
Read Aug" the 14. 1735. 



Governor Cosby to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-Tork Bundle Ee., No. 63. ] 

My Lords 

I had the Hon' of your Lordships letter of the 22 of August last, as to what relates in 
General! to the affaires of New York and New Jersey, 

I shall for the futer, send over with every act of Assembly the Generall purport of it, aa 
also my reasons for given my assent to them, I shall likewise obey your Lordships Commands 
as to the 21 Article of my instructions by Given reasons except, they appeare in the Peramble 
of- the said Acts In my letter which I did myself the honour to write to your Lordships of 
the 17 of June last, I recommend three Gentlemen to witt, Coll" Thomas Farmer, Docter John 
Rodman and M' Richard Smith ; I begg pardon My Lords It was a mistake the three persons 
deceased ware not named, whom they ware to be succeded by, it should have been thus. Coll 
Farmer to succeed John Johnson who first died, M' Rodman in the room of John Parker and 
M" Smith in the room of James Smith Since these I took the liberty to recomend John Schuyler 
in the room of Coll Peter Baird deceased, I must beg leave to observe to your Lordships that 
I recomended Coll Provoost who succeded M' Hogg who dyed in Coll : Montgomerris time, 
In one of my letters which goe with this to your Lordships I have given reasons for the removal 
of Lewis Morris from the Council which I hope your Lordships will approve of; I would then 
begg you would move his Majesty that Robert Lettice Hooper Chief Justice of the Province' 
may be appointed Councillor to succeed Lewis Morris 

According to your Lordships directions I herewith send a Copy of the Charter granted by 
Coll Montgomerie to the City of New- York. 

I hope your Lordships will be so good for the many reasons I have given for the removeing 
Rip Van Dam and James Alexander from the Councill of this Province, that you will be pleased 
to move his Majesty that Paul Richard and John Moore may be Councillors in their room, 
being two Gentlemen who are greatly beloved and esteemed for their worthy Caractors and 

'Robert Lbttick Hooper was originally appointed Chief Justice of New Jersey in 1725, on the death of Mr. Trent Supra, 
v., 195. After having filled that office for about three years, he was succeeded by Thomas Farmer, who officiated as Chief 
Justice until Nov., 1729, when Mr. Hooper was again appointed to his former position, Field's Prcn: Courts in Aew Jersey, 
126, 12S, and continued to act as Chief Justice until his death which occurred in March 1739, when he was succeeded by 
Robert Hunter Morris. Papers of Lewis Morris, 3S. — Ed. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 25 

ability's they also having great possesions in land as well as very great share in carrying on 
the trade of this Province, I could not recomend two fitter to serve his Majesty in his Counciil 
my Lords. 

The Assembly broke up but the 29 of last month which has made it impracticable to have 
the Acts engrossed and prepared for the Seale, and to have Copy's made for the printer, so as 
to transmitt printed Copy's to your Lords'" which shall be done by the first ship that goes after 
these As to the lands vested in the Crown in trust for the Mohoks Nation your Lordships 
desires to be inform'd, as to the truth of the quantity and that you were informed by an 
unknown hand, that it was thirty thousand Acars, instead of twelve hundred, your Lordships 
must know, that they have two ways of discribing their Lands, the one they distinguesh by 
the Gen" name of Land, that is, what they call land, is flatts or meadow ground, where wood 
nor brush was never known to grow, this puts me in mind of a tryall that happen'd at the 
Supream Court In this Province in relation to boundrys of lands which is agreeable to 
the distinction they make, one of the witnesses being examined upon oath as to the Premisses 
in question gave his evidence that he had walked several Miles over it but did not see one foot 
of Land 

Now my Lords as to the lands you desire to be informd of, is certainely that tract of land, 
that the Mohoks nation has put under the protection of the crown in trust for them they are 
called the Mohock flatt, where we have a Gerreson, and are generally computed at about 
twelve hundred acars, tho most people that have seen it, say, it is not quite so much by verry 
near all the lands quil round it, to God knows where the Mohoks claime, and there are many 
and many thirty thousand Acars but not an acar as 1 could ever learne of flatts or clear Meadow 
land, being every foot (except this twelve hundred acais) all the country besides being all 
wood lands, and most of them for some miles each side the Mohoks river already granted 
long since. So that those that sent your Lordships information in an unknown hand designed 
only an impossition upon you, being ashamed to put their names to it, knowing the assertion 
to be falls. 

Now my Lords since I am upon this I cannot help mentioning one more vile action amongst 
the manny cotjimitted by M"" Morris Alexander and their adherants ; some months since I had 
the honour to transmitt to your Lordships the proceedings relateing to the Mohocks flatts, which 
I thought myself in duty bound to doe, to secure them from going over to the French intrest 
at that very time they were vilifying me, and falsly acusing me here, as well as at home, I 
say at the very time, did this same INP Morris, M"' Alexander and one Smith, a Lawer one of 
their Gang goe to one M' Boyle a Scotch Gentl" here who they imagined had great intrest at 
home and gave him there opinion, which was, that the Albany people had no right to them 
flatts, that Coll Dongans grant was not good, therefore desired he would write to his friends 
in England in order to obtain a grant of the said lands, and for their opinion they were to 
come in for a share of them, this I do assure your Lordships is true from the mouth of 
Boyle who told it, to M'' Lindsy Shirff of Albany County, who is a very honest man, M" Lindsy ' 
came to me an hour after he had been with Boyle the said Boyle making no secret of itt, M'' 
Lindsy farther said that M'' Boyle had showne him coppy's, of the letters he had wrote to his 
friends in order to obtaine the grant, so that your Lords'" sees the absurdyty of these people 
and how capable they are of doeing every thing' that is bad. 

' John Linhsay was appointed Naval Officer of New-York in IVSO, vice AUxauilcr. lie was ajiiioiiitcd Slicriff of Albany 
iu 1732, and lield tliu office until 173'J. — Ku. 

Vol. VL 4 



26 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

My Lords it is just now come into my iiead, that it is not unlikely but that M"' Morris, who 
is gone over may say, that there was sent a Sergant with a file of men to stop him, so farr 
from it that I do assure you my Lords, if he had sent to me for a pass to goe for England, I 
would have readily have granted to him your Lordships well knows that desersion is very 
common where there are Soldiers and very often they desert and get on board Sloops and ships 
that goe from hence, a Capl" mist a man, and found that he had deserted and had intellegence, 
that he went to the Hook on the Jersey side in order to gett on board Capt" Payton, the Capt" 
himself saying two or three days before there had been a man bargaining with him for his 
passage upon which the Capt" sent down a Sergant with a file of men in order to take him in 
case he should attempt to goe on board at the Hook this my Lords is the truth of the 
whole matter 

I am my Lords 

With the greatest respect 
Imageinable 
New York Your Lordships most obed' 

the 7 Dec' 1734 and most humble Servant 

To the Lord of Trade W. Cosby 

End" Rec*" Jan-^ the 22. 173i 
Read Aug' li. 1735. 



Governor Cosby to (lie DuTce of Newcastle. 

[New-Tork, 8. P. O. TIU., IGS. ] 

New York Dec' y 10"' 1734. 
My Lord, 

As the letter which His Majesty's Council did themselves the honour to write to your Grace 
with their answers to M' Van Dam's articles of complaint against me has been made public in 
a most scandalous pamphlet' dispersed about this Province containing a very rude reply to 
those answers and reflections both on my self and them, and as those Gentlemen that were 
present at the drawing up of those answers may possibly seem chargeable with a breach of 
trust and disrespect to your Grace in divulging what ought to be kept secret, till your Grace's 
pleasure was known, they have in Council entreated me to represent to your Grace, in what 
manner their letter became expos'd, in order to vindicate them from the imputation of an 
offence, which they beg leave to assure your Grace in regard to y" honour of the trust repos'd 
iu them, and their respect to your Grace they detest and abhor. 

'It i» entitled: — "Heads of Articles of Complaint by Rip Van Dam Esq. against his Excellency 'William Cosby Esq. 
Governor of New York Ac. To which is iii-efixe.l, Sir. Van Dam's letter sent to His E.xcelleacy with a copy of those Articles. 
As also A Letter from some of the Gentlemen of the Council of New York, to his Grace the Duke of Newcastle, one of 
His Majesty's principal Secretaries of State, in Answer to the several Articles of Complaint And a Reply to those Answers 
of the Gentlemen of the Council. Sub Judice Lis est. Boston: Printed in the year 1734." Folio pp. 28. It is in the State 
Library, Albany. — Ed. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXV. 27 

To doe justice therefore to tliese Gentlemen I must beg leave to acquaint you ihat M"" 
Golden the Surveyor Gen' of y* Crown lands and a member of the Council, not being in town 
at the time when the letter was drawn up, prevail'd afterwards on one of the Clerks of the 
Secretary's Office to let him have a copy of it, which he communicated to the late Cheif Justice 
Morris for the use which has been made of it. 

I will further trouble your Grace with this observation on the General behaviour of RP 
Golden, that it is inconsistent with, and unworthy of the Character of a Councilor, he has so 
little regard to y° trust and confidence of his office and so closely link'd with y' opposers of the 
Goverment, that he is not asham'd of being made their spy, upon all the proceedings and all 
tlie transactions of the Council. This my Lord, is so true that I doe asure your Grace their 
most secret consultations and resolutions are no longer so than while tiiey continue sitting, 
My Lord I am determined never to give your Grace any trouble in Coplaineing of these 
Infamous fellows, I shall rather bear their insults, neither would I at this time, if I could have 
avoided the importunity of the Council to send your Grace tliis. 
I am My Lord 

Your Grace's most oblidged 

& faithfull servant 

( signed ) W. Cosby. 
I beg my hum""'* duty to y* Duches & Miss Spence. 



Governor Cosby to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-Tork Bundle Ee. No. 66. ] 

New York June 10. 1735 
My Lords 

With this I do myself the honour to transmitt to your Lordships the acts of Assembly 
pass'd at New York the last year whereon on I shall make such remarks as will let your 
Lordships into the reasons for the Council and Assembly passing them and for my giving my 
assent to them, and that I may avoid repetition as much as possible, I will consider all those 
together that have any conection or dependance on each other 

N" 1. An Act to lay a duty of Tonage on the vessels and for the time therein mentioned. 
7. An Act for fortifying the City of Albany and Schonentady and other places in the 
County of Albany. 

11 An Act to lay a duty on the goods and tax on the Slaves therein mentioned during 
the time and for the uses mentioned in the same. 

12 An Act to prolong the duty of Tonage laid by an Act entituled an Act to lay a duty 
of Tonage on the vessells and for the time therein mentioned. 

13 An Act to strike and make currant Bills of Credit to the value of twelve thousand 
pounds on the funds and for the uses therein mentioned 

14 An Act to appoint and impower Commissioners for erecting fortifications in this 
Colony at the several places therein mention'd 



28 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

All these principally relate to one and the same thing viz' the putting the Province in a 
posture of defence, your Lordships very well know that this Province is a Barrier to the 
Southern ones against Canada and as such ought at all times to be well fortified for their 
defence as well as our own, wherein the Crown has thought it reasonable that they should be 
at some part of the expence however as those Gracious intentions have not hitherto had the 
intended effect, the people of this Province have chose rather to perswade themselves into an 
opinion of their Security from their own poverty and the weakness of their neighbours of 
Canada then at their own expence to make proper fortifications for their defence, but as the 
posture of affairs in Europe appeared to us at this distance to threaten a rupture with France 
I laid hold of the peoples apprehensions to engage them to build these fortifications both on 
our frontiers towards Canada, and in the town of New York which lay exposed to the insults 
of a few ships there being nothing to hinder them from entring the Harbour and takeing and 
distroying ourVessells and burning the town; I flatter myself my Lords that his Majesty upon 
your Lordships representation will be graciously pleased to think favourably of what I have 
done, for I am confident there is no way so effectual to recommend me to his Grace & favour 
as this which is entirely agreable to his paternal tenderness and care of his Subjects, this 
work so highly necessary yet met with many rubs, the poverty of this Country was strongly 
urged and the difficuty of finding such funds as were likely to go down with a Majority of the 
house and would answer the end too, was not easily got over nor was I without some strugle 
with myself brought to submit to the strikeing of paper money however as I conceived the 
work to be of the highest importance to his Majesty in the preservation and defence of his 
Provinces and as there was no possibility of raising the money in a shorter time than is given 
to the bills of Creddit, as the sum to be struck is but small that if in the mean time a rupture 
with France should ensue, this and the neighbouring Provinces would lye open to the attacks 
of the enemy 1 prevailed with myself to give my assent to those bills hopeing for his Maj"" 
pardon on your Lordships representation, which I the more confidently ask as I do with the 
utmost truth assure you that I have in this whole affaire thrown by all considerations of my 
private interest ; upon a thorough deliberation therefore I presume to hope your Lordships 
will recommend these Acts to his Majesty for his Royal aprobation 

N" 2 An Act for granting to the people called Quakers residing within this Colony the same 
Priveledges benifitts and indulgencies as by the laws and Statutes now remaining of force in 
that part of Great Brittain called England the people of that denomination are intituled unto 
within those dominions 

Under the former Acts of Assembly the Quakers could not vote for Assembly men without 
taking an oath, its certain they are not the most tractable people where they are numerous as 
in one or two Counties they are. 

N" 3 An Act to prevent small stallions from running at large in the Colony of New York 
and to geld such as shall be under the size therein mentioned 

This Act is intended to mend the breed of horses in their size for at present they are small 
and will be smaller still unless care be taken. 

N" 4 An Act for regulating the ruts of waggons in Dutches County, one or two counties in 
the Province having formerly obtained Acts of Assembly to make their waggons of a larger 
and equal size this County having observed the benefitt the people have had by it are desirous 
to tread in their steps 

N" 5 An Act for regulating the choice of a representative for the Manor of Courtland in the 
County of West Chester. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 29 

The reason of tliis bill appears in tlie body of it, the King by his Grant gave Courtland the 
priviledge of having an Assembly man for his Mannor but as there were no directors in 
the Grant how the choice should be made this Act supplys that defect. 

N° 6 An Act for the better explaining and more effectual putting in execution the Act of 
Generall Assembly therein mentioned proper houses for holding courts in the Counties and 
good prisons are necessary buildings, this County they wanted both and the Act recited in this 
not being sufficient to answer the end this was passed to make it effectual. 

N" 8 An Act for regulating the rates to be taken for ships and other Vessells useing the 
Warf called Burnets key in the City of New York. 

The owners of this wharf having at a great charge carry'd it a considerable way into the 
water whereby almost any of our Vessells can carrean there with more ease and less expence 
both of money and time than they formerly used to do by hulks when riding at anchor in the 
River, are deserous to have the rates which the Merchants have hitherto voluntarily paid them 
settled by a law. 

N° 9 An Act for naturalizing Abraham Housman John Grondain, Jacob Boss, Frederick 
Becker Johanis Wedderlin, Conrode Rightmier, Johanis Spaler Zacharias Haber, Peter 
Cruller and Johanis Vanwyck 

N° 10 An Act for discharging a certain obligation enter'd into by Cornelius Cuyler of the 
City of Albany Merchant to the treasurer. 

Neither of these Acts want anything more to be said of them than that the first encourages 
the peopleing of the Country the last explains its self. 

N" 15 An Act for the partition and division of a certain tract of land in Dutchess County 
granted to Samson Broughton Rip Van Dam Thomas Wenliam Roger Mompesson, Peter 
Fauconnier, Augustin Graham, Richard Sackett and Rober Lurting 

The Acts of Assembly that have been heretofore past in this Province for the partition of 
lands, especially the last general Act that was made in M'' Burnetts time bave^ not guarded 
against the encroachments which the granters might make on the Crown lands or other 
contiguous Grants, and being in other respects to loosely worded or giveing to much room for 
fraud or surprise the -persons who petitioned for this Act having nothing in view but a fair and 
equitable Partition, have in this shunned those causes of objection which proved the fate of 
that and have conceived it in terms altogether agreable to justice and the circumstances of the 
Province, hoping only for an honest and necessary aid to enable them to divide their lands 
that they may be tiiereby impovvered to pursue the end and intention of the grant in peopleing 
and cultivating the Province, and I own that I find so much Justice in it that if 1 had no other 
reason to induce me I should very frankly give them my utmost assistance; but my Lords 
there are others that weigh very much with me, the fate of the act pass'd in M' Burnetts time 
has been a principall cause not only that people have not come from abroad to settle among us 
but has likewise drove many of our own people to the Neighbouring Colonies, for tho some 
hardy men have ventur'd without a partition to settle some parts of the undivided lands in the 
Country, yet those are but few, and the rest more Cautious have chose rather to neglect a 
present advantage than rashly to engage in a thing that in the end will involve them in 
expensive law suits and lasting trouble 

This Province is the frontiers to the other Provinces against Canada and as such the 
peopleing of it ought 1 thing to be encouraged nor is there a more effectual way to do it than 
by enabling the proprietors to divide their lands in the manner prescribed by this Act, I see 
no inconvenience in it either to the Crown or to the subject but many present and great 



30 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

advantages to the publick from the settlements that will be made in consequence of Partitions 
especially of those tracts of Lands that lye between Albany and New York of which this is 
one, among other advantages this being one that we shall keep our own young people from 
going to the other Colonies for they are very unwillingly brought to settle the frontiers ; as for 
the extream part of the Province beyond Albany where there are large tracts still in the grant 
of the Crown other methods are to be taken for the settling them and we have already fallen 
upon a Scheme that [ think will fully answer the end, which is to give grants gratis (all the 
officers concerned having consented to it) of 100,000 acres of land clear of all charges but 
the quit rent, in 200 acres to a family to the first 500 protestant famillys that come hither from 
Europe on that encouragement, and I have already caused adverlizements with the advice and 
consent of Council to be printed and sent to several Parts of Europe. 

Upon the whole my lords whether you cosider the Common Strength and wealth of the 
Country the increase of trade or the Justice and equity of this Act 1 perswade myself you will 
think with me that it is highly reasonable and necessary to be passed into a law, and I hope 
from your Lordships goodness and care of the Provinces, for your recommendation of it to his 
Miijesty for his Royal aprobation 

rs° 16 An Act to lay a duty on empty casks imported into the City of New York during the 
time therein mentioned 

The preamble of this Act setts forth the reasons for the passing it, and they are very true. 

N" 17 An Act for the further continueing an Act entituled an act to let to farm the excise of 
sirong liquors retailed in this Colony for the time therein mentioned and for declaring shrub 
lyable to the same duties as distilled liquors. 

This Act being that fund for sinking the paper money formerly struck here and being the 
same as has been anually passed for several years I need make no other remarks on it. 

N» IS An Act to prevent desertion from his Majestys forces in the Colony of New York 

N" 19 An Act for the further continuance of an Act intituled an Act for settling an regulating 
the Militia in this Province, and makeing the same useful! for the security and defence thereof 
and for lepealing all other Acts relating to the same likewise the several Acts whereby the 
same has been revived and continued 

These two Acts carrying their reasons with them I will not give your Lordships the trouble 
of any observations on them. 

Having finish'd what I thought myself obliged to say on these .acts of Assembly I beg leave to 
acquaint your Lordships that the Attorney General of this Province having filed a bill in the 
Court of Chancery against the pattentees of a patent granted by Coll Montgomerie for some 
lands in this Province in order to make the same void being as the bills suggests obtain'd by 
fraud and surprize and having served those defendants who live in this Province with Supeenas 
to appear and answer, several of them instead of answering having given in exceptions under 
their hands to the constitution and Jurisdiction of the Court, your Lordships well know 
that the Court of Chancery has been often attacked and warmly voted against by the 
Assembly's of this Province, and its authority as often asserted by his Majesty's Governour and 
Councill, and the Governours countenanced and protected by your Lordships board, but this is 
the first time that any private persons have ventured to question it, and since former 
Governours have withstood the resolves of the Assembly and have been Justified in it I 
should be unexcusable if upon a weaker assault I should give up the Kings Authority nor 
do I despare of the like protection that my predecessors have rece"*; I assure your Lordships 
I am not at all fond of having any suits brought before me in that Court and this is the 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 31 

only one that has been commenced in my time but when the Attorney Generall for the King 
or others for the relief of their Clients think it necessary to do it I dare not deny them, 
1 am surprised indeed and I believe your Lordships will think it very extraordinary 
that three of his Majesty's Council, and they to, three of those Counceliors who warmly 
censured the resolves of the Assembly against the legality of the Court of Chancery in 1727 
should sign these exceptions against the same Court, nor are they content with that but 
openly and avowedly declare their opinions against the Kings authority to Establish Courts 
of Equity in the Plantations a doctrine very opposite to the opinions which I have seen under 
His INLnjesties Attorney and Solicitor General of England and to the opinion of your Lordships 
board signify'd in a letter to Coll Hunter of the 12 of June 1712 my Lords I am to Act in 
matters of moment (and there can be none of greater moment tiian those wherein his Majestys 
prerogative is concern'd) by and with the advice and consent of Council, what advice and 
what consent I am like to have from such men your Lordships will readily guess, there are 
many things that I dare not, I cannot do without the advice of the Council and yet if I follow 
such advice as these men will give me I may be more criminal I have no ways therefore to do my 
duty with my preservation of my honour but to leave it to your Lordships Judgement whether 
they are fit to sit in His Majesties Council here or not, I have formerly acquainted your 
Lordships that a majority of the Council have declared that they could not sit at the Board 
with M' Vandam after the open and scandalous aspersions he has thrown upon them in printed 
libels and papers industriously dispersed in the Province, and recommended M'' Paul Richards 
a merchant of this town of good estate and Credditt to be appointed in his room this I also 
submit to your Lordships Judgements, 1, do myself the honour to enclose to your Lordships a 
copy of the exceptions against the constitution of the Court of Chancery N° A which by order 
of the Court on the motion of the Attorney General comeing on to be heard the 5 instant, 
M'' Horsmanden one of the Council for the King in this cause open'd the nature of the bill 
and pray'd to have the exceptions read, which being done he stood up to argue that point but 
I would not suffer either the Council for the King or for the defendants to speak to it telling 
them that those exceptions where of so extraordinary a nature that I could hear no arguement 
upon them, that I was fully sattisfied in my own Judgem' of his Majesties undoubted 
right to erect Courts of Equity in His Plantations and that I was not singular in my opinion 
I order'd the enclosed Extract of minutes of Council N° B to be read, and then dismiss'd the 
Exceptions ordering the defendants to answer by a certain day, and I have the satisfaction to 
understand that my determination is universally approved of by all but the Defendants, I shall 
go shortly to Amboy to hold the Assembly of that Province were I shall meet with some 
difficulty to get a sufficient number of Counceliors together to make a Council of those I 
recomended to your Lordships to be appointed for that Province have your Lordships 
aprobation I intreat you to recommend them to his Majesty that I may receive their 
apointments as soon as possible for the reasons here mention'd I likewise do myself the 
honour to send your Lordships M"' Kenedys account of the Quit Rents from the 29 of Sept: 
1733 to the 29 of Sept. 1734 I am 

My Lords 

with the greatest respect 

imaginable Your Lordships 

most obedient and faithfull 
humble Servant 

W. Cosby 



32 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Governor Co-sly to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New York Bnndlo Ee., No. 09. ] 

New York June 19. 1735 
My Lords 

In my letter to your Lordships of the lO"" inst I layed before you the beheavour of some of 
his Maj'J' Council of this Province and tlie difficulties I shall lye under in the discharge of my 
duty to his Majesty in the trust repos'd in me if these men be not remov'd from their Seats at 
this board, I had not then fully resolv'd whome to recommend to your Lordships to succeed, 
but now my Lords I have thought of those whose fortunes and caracters are amongst the 
foremost in this Province for reputation and estate and as such I recommend them to your 
Lordships and they are these Tho' Freeman Esq: who maryed one of my daughters, and M"' 
John Moore a considerable merchant in this town I am 
My Lords 

with the greatest respect 

imaginable 

Your Lordships most 

obedient Humble Servant 
W. Cosby 
End" Kec"* Aug' 2 

Read Aug' 14. 1735 



Lords of Trade to the Lords of the Privy Council. 

[ Now York Entries, M., 1—7. ] 

To the R' Hon"'''^ the Lords of the Committee of His Majesty's most Hon*'' Privy Council. 

My Lords, 

We have considered the humble petition of the Merchants and Traders of the City of 
Bristol, whose names are thereunto subscribed, referr'd to us by Your Lordships on the 1" day 
of November 1734 complaining of an Act pass'd in His Majesty's Province of New York 
intituled, "An Act to repeal the Act and to cancel the Bills of Credit therein mentioned, and 
grant unto His Majesty several duties for supporting His Majesty's Government in the Colony 
of New York until the first day of September which will be in the year 1737." 

We have been attended upon this occasion by the Agent for the Petitioners and have heard 
what he had to offer in support of their petition and having considered the said Act and taken 
the advice of M' Fane one of His Majesty's Council at Law thereupon we take leave upon the 
whole to observe to Your Lordships that by the following Clauses of this Act it is provided 
that there shall be paid to his Majesty for every slave, (male or female) "of four years of age 
"and upwards, imported directly from Africa, the quantity of five ounces or Sevil Pillar or 
"INIexico Plate, or forty shill: in Bills of Credit made current in this Colony. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 33 

'•For every Negro, Mullatto or Indian Slave (male or female) of four years of age and 
" upvpards imported from all other plaices by land or water, the sum of four pounds in 
" like money. 

"For all European or East India Goods imported wMth proper Certificates from the British 
" Islands in the West Indies, the sum of five pounds in like Money, for every hundred pounds 
" value prime cost, and after that rate for a greater or lesser quantity." 

As these clauses are greatly prejudicial to the Trade & Navigation of this Kingdom, and 
are likewise expressly contrary to His Majesty's Instructions to the Gov"' of New Vork, by 
which he is directed not to pass any Act for imposing Duties upon Negroes payable by the 
Importer, or whereby the Trade or Navigation of this Kingdom might be any ways affected, 
unless a clause be inserted in such Act for suspending the execution thereof 'till his Majesty's 
pleasure should be known concerning tiie same, we should for these reasons propose to Your 
Lordships that the Act in question might be laid before His Majesty for his Disallowance. 

But considering the Inconveniencies and Confusion that might arise in the province of New 
York if this Act which settles funds for the support of His Majesty's Government there should 
be repealed before other provisions are made for the same purposes, we therefore humbly 
propose that this Act may be suffered to ly by for the present, and that orders may be 
immediately sent to His Majesty's Gov' of New York to move the Council and Assembly of 
that Province forthwith to pass a New Law for repealing the three foregoing clauses and for 
providing and settling other Funds for the like purposes not liable to the same objections. 

We take leave to transmit to Your Lordships the Draught of such an Instruction as we have 
prepared upon these heads for the Gov"' of New York, which, if Your Lordships should 
approve it, may be immediately sent to him. But if the Council and Assembly of New York 
shall refuse to comply with this Instruction, we should tiien propose that the Act in question 
may be laid before His Majesty for his Disallowance. We are. My Lords, 

Your LordP' most obedient 

& most humble Serv" 

FitzWalter 
T. Pelham 
Whitehall Ja. Brudenell 

Aug" y« e"" 1735. R- Plumer. 

Additional Instruction to our Trusty and Wei beloved W™ Cosby Esq"" Our Cap' 
General and Gov'' in Chief in and over our province of New York and the 
Territories depending thereon in America or to the Commander in Chief 
of our said Province for the time being. Given at 

Whereas several Merchants and Traders of Our City of Bristol have most humbly petitioned 
us complaining of an Act pass'd in our Province of New York entituled " An Act to repeal the 
"Act and to cancel the Bills of credit therein mentioned and to grant unto his Majesty several 
"Duties for supporting His Majesty's Government in the Colony of New York until the 1" 
" day of Sep"" which will be in the year 1737," laying a Duty of five ounces of Plate or 4.0' 
current mony of New York upon every slave (male and female) of four years of age or upwards 
imported directly from Africa, and four pound like mony upon every slave of the same age 
from any other place for all European or East India Goods Imported with proper certificates 
Vol. VI. 5 



34 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

from the British Islands in the West Indies, the sum of five pounds in like mony for every 
.£100 value prime Cost which Act having been examined by our Commiss'* for Trade and 
Plantations is found to be directly contrary to the IS"" Article of Your Instructions whereby 
you are expressly forbid to pass any law by which the trade or Navigation of this Kingdom 
may be any way affected declaring it to be our Royal Intention that no Duties shall be laid in 
the province under your Government upon British shipping or upon the Product or Manufactures 
of Great Britain upon any pretence whatsoever. It is therefore Our Express will and pleasure 
that you move our Council and Assembly of our said Province forthwith to pass a New Law 
for repealing the three foregoing Clauses and for providing and settling other Funds for the like 
purposes not liable to the same objections, or at least that an Exception be made in favour of 
all Goods whatsoever of the Product or Manufacture of Great Britain ; and that no Duty be 
laid on any Slaves Imported payable by the Importer, and you are also to signify our Royal 
Intention to our Council and the Assembly of our said Province that if they do not immediately 
comply with this our Instruction we shall repeal the Act now complained of. 



Lords of Trade to Queen Caroline. 

[ New-Tork Entries, M., p. 12. ] 

To the Queen's most Excell' Majesty Guardian of the Kingdom of Great Britain & His 
Majesty's Lieutenant within the same. 

May it please Your Majesty 

We have rec* a letter from Col° Cosby his Majesty's Governor of the Province of New York 
dated the 6"" of December last in which he complains of the factious, disaffected and illegal 
Behaviour of M' James Alexander, a Member of His Majesty's Councils in New York and 
New Jersey, Lewis Morris late Chief Justice in the Province of New York, and a Member of 
His Majesty's Council in New Jersey, and Rip van Dam Esq' late Commander in Chief and 
President of the Council at New York, which Complains are supported by several papers 
printed at New York and by a Report of His Majesty's Council there, transmitted to us upon 
this occasion by Col" Cosby. 

Col° Cosby acquaints us in his letter that the said Alexander and his party have set up a 
printing press at New York, where the most virulent libels and most abusive Pamphlets 
published against the Ministry and other persons of Honour in England have been reprinted, 
with such alterations as served to inflame the people against the several branches of the 
legislature, and the Administration in that Province. 

That factious Cabals are secretly held several times a week in New York at which Alexander 
is always present, as Morris was before his coming privately to England. 

That a black and malicious attempt hath been made by the said Alexander against M' 
Harrison, a Member of his Majesty's Council at New York, and a person of known loyalty, by 
charging him with a capital crime, of which he hath been fully acquitted by a Committee of 
His Majesty's Council and by the grand Jury in that Province who refused to find the Bill 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 35 

against him, upon the Aflitlavits of the said Alexander and one Smith, who acted in concert 
with liim upon that occasion. 

That the said Morris whilst President of the Council in the Province of New Jersey, acted 
iu the most arbitrary manner having turned out several loyal old servants and officers without 
consent of the said Council, in contempt of His Majesty's Instructions to make way for His 
near Relations; that he had sat and acted as Chancellour, and made a decree without giving 
regular Notice, or hearing the parties concerned, and that nevertheless he hath loudly declaimed 
both in New York and New Jersey against His Majesty's Gov" who have sat as Chancellors 
affirming publicly that no decrees of the Chancery or any other Court of Equity were binding 
on the subject, and that His Majesty had no right to establish any such Court in those Provinces. 

Col° Cosby further acqaints us that Rip van Dam, Morris, Alexander and others of their 
party appear by their behaviour to be disaffected to His Majesty's Government, and are daily 
exciting the people to sedition and Riot, for which Reasons we take leave humbly to propose 
to Your Majesty that the said Van Dam may be deprived of his seat in his Majesty's Council of 
New York, the said Morris of his seat in the Council of New Jersey, and the said Alexander 
of his seats in both those Councils and that John Moor and Paul Richards Esq" may be 
appointed of His Majesty's Council in New York, in the room of Rip Van Dam and James 
Alexander, and that Robert Lettice Hooper, chief Justice of the Province of New Jersey, & 
Joseph Warrell Esq" may be appointed of the Council in New Jersey in the room of the 
aforesaid Lewis Morris and James Alexander, the said John Moor, Paul Richards, Robert 
Lettice Hooper and Joseph Warrell Esq" having been recommended to us as Persons every 
way qualified to serve His Majesty in those Stations. 

All which is most humbly submitted 

Whitehall Ja Brudenell FitzWalter 

Aug' y'' as"" 1735 R. Plumer T. Pelham 



Lords of Trade to Governor Coshj. 

[New York Enlries, M., IC. ] 

To W™ Cosby Esq-" 

Sir, 

Since our letter to you of the 22'' of Aug' we have received yours of the 6"* and V"" Dec'"' 
1734 and 10''' and 19'' of June last, with the Acts and publick Papers therein mentioned to 
be inclosed, which Acts we have sent to M'" Fane, one of his Majestys Council at Law, for his 
Opinion in point of Law thereupon, and so soon as we shall have received the same we shall 
take the said Acts more immediately into consideration. 

We have considered what you write concerning the Court of Chancery, as also the Resolves 
of the Assembly of the 25"" Nov**^ 1727 with a Report of a Committee of Council thereupon 
dated the 5"' of Dec*"" following, and we are not a little surprized at Your informing of us that 
some of the Members who compose that Committee should now make any opposition to the 
holding of that Court, however different they may be in opinion from what they formerly were 
of, We think you did very well not to admit the arguing of any exceptions against the 



36 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Jurisdiction of that Court, a Court established in the very Infancy of that Colony by the 
Crowns undoubted Right signified to the then Governor under the broad Seal of this Kingdom, 
successively confirmed under the Broad Seal in every Governor's Commission that has been 
appointed since, and which must therefore consequently be deemed an Essential part of the 
Constitution of that Province; You will therefore do well to pursue the Directions of Your 
Commissioners and Instructions by holding that Coiirt whensoever there shall be occasion and 
if the Assembly of that Province shall for the future yet presume to dispute the King's 
Authority in this respect, you may very properly signify to them that they and the Court of 
Chancery meet and act by Virtue of the same power, viz' His Majesty's Royal License, 
granted under the broad Seal of this Kingdom. 

According to Your Desire we have recommended John Moore and Paul Richards Esq" to 
succeed M'' Van Dam and M"' Alexander in the Council of New York; and W™ Provost, John 
Schuyler, Tho. Farmer, John Rodman, Rich"* Smith, Robert Lattice Hooper & Joseph Warrell 
Esq" to succeed M"' Hugg, M' Baird, M"' Johnson, M'' Parker, M"" Smith, ftp Morris, and M"" 
Alexander in the Council of New Jersey. 

We desire you will not omit to send us Annual Answers to the queries we formerly 
transmitted to you, concerning the state of the Provinces under Your Government and so we 
bid you heartily farewell, and are, 

Your very loving friends 

and humble Serv" 

FitzWalter 

Whitehall T. Pelham 

Sep^ y"^ S"- 1735 R. Plumer. 



Order of the King in Council declaring the Reasons for removing Chief Justice 

Morris insufficient. 

[ New-Tork Papers, Ff., No. C. ] 

At the Court of St James's the 26 day of Nov' 1735 

Present — The Kings most Excell' Majesty in Councill 

Upon reading at the Board a Report from the Lords of the Committee of His Majestys most 
Honorable Privy Council for Plantation affairs dated the 7"' of this inst' in the Words 
following viz' 

Your Majesty having been pleased by your order in Council of the 23''^ Nov 1733 
to referr unto this committee the humble Petition of Lewis Morris Esq"" setting forth 
that he hath held the office of Chief Justice of His Majestys Province of New York 
in America for about twenty years during which time he discharged his Duty with 
the utmost integrity; That in August 1733 Col° Cosby the present Governor of that 
Province issued a Supersedeas to the Petitioners Commission of Chief Justice without 
assigning to the Petitioner any reasons for the same That conceiving his character 



LONDON DOCUINIENTS : XXV. 37 

to be greatly affected by being tlius removed and that as the said Governor is required 
by your INIatys Instructions not to displace Judges without good and sufficient Cause 
to be returned to your Majesty and also to the Lords Commissioners for Trade and 
Plantations He therefore most humbly prayed to be allowed copys of the reasons for 
his removal returned by the said Governor and that he might be heard in his Defence 
against the same and in case it should appear that the said reasons were not good & 
sufficient that then he might be restored to his said office — The Lords of the 
Committee in Obedience to your Matys said order of Reference did on the S"" of 
January following take the said Petition into their consideration and thought proper 
to order that the said Governor should forthwith transmit to this Committee his 
reasons for removing the said Petitioner from his office of Chief Justice which he 
having accordingly done the Lords of the Committee this day took the whole matter 
into their consideration and heard counsel as well on behalf of the Petitioner as of 
the said Governor and do thereupon agree humbly to report to your Maty as their 
opinion that the Reasons so transmitted were not sufficient for removing tlie 
Petitioner from His office of Cheif Justice of your Matys Province of New York 

His Majesty this day took the said report into His Royall consideration and was pleased 

with the advice of His Privy Council to approve thereof 

A true Copy 

Ja Vernon 



Governor Co-shy to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-York Papers, Ft, No. 11. ] 

New York Dec lO"- 1735 
My Lords 

I have the honor to receive your Lordships letter of the 17"" June & take this opportunity 
to give your Lordships the following answer which I hope will give you all the satisfaction you 
expect. All the Duties & Impositions that were laid on Trade and we[re] subsisting in this 
Province in the year 17-31 were laid in the year 1728 by an act of Assembly entituled an Act 
to repeal some parts & to continue & enforce other parts of the Act therein mentioned and 
for granting several Duties to His Majesty for supporting His Governor in the Colony of New 
York from the first of September 1728 to the 1" Sepf 1733 and are these 

On every Negroe of four years & upwards imported from Africa 40' And for every Negroe 
imported from every other place £4= 

Every pipe of Wine imported two pounds five shillings Every Gallon of Rum Brandy or 
other distilled liquors imported .£0: 0: 2h, 

Every gallon of Rum or other Spirits distilled wholly or in part from Molasses within this 
Colony 2*" 

On all European or East India Goods imported from the British Islands in the West Indies 
^•5 P' Cent on the prime cost. 



38 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Oil every hundred weight of Cocoa imported 4s. 

Which Act was repealed by an act passed in 1732 intituled an Act to repeal the act and to 
cancel the Bills of Credit therein mentioned and to grant to His Majesty several Duties for 
supporting his Government in the Colony of New York until the first of September 1737 by 
whicii Act the like duties are laid and are to subsist to the l^'Sepf 1737. 

By an act passed in 1731 entituled an Act to support the Troops at Oswego & to regulate 
the Indian Trade there the following duties are laid 

On every piece of Strouds which shall be sold carryed or transported in order to be disposed of 
to the Indians or French from the first of October 1731 to the first of October 1732 ^0-10: — 
& on every Gallon of Rum so disposed of Is. which duties are by subsequent Acts continued 
to the first day of November 1737 

By an Act passed in June 1734 entituled an Act to lay a duty of Tonnage on the vessells and 
for the time therein mentioned there was a duty laid of 3s. a Ton on all Trading vessells except 
vessells built within this Colony, Vessells wholly owned by the Inhabitants of this Colony and 
the Inhabitants of Great Brittain all coasting vessells westward & Southward as far as Cape 
Henlopen and Eastward as far as New Hampshire and all Whaling vessells which duty 
by that Act was to continue six years to commence from the first of July 1734 but by a 
subsequent Act passed in Nov 1734 was continued to the 1^' of July 1744 and is applyed to 
the sinking of Bills of Credit struck for Erecting Fortifications 

By an act passed in NoV 1734 entituled an act to lay a duty on Negroes & a tax on the 
Slaves therein mentioned during the time and for the uses within mentioned there are the 
following duties laid 

For every Barrel of Sj'der from the 25"" of Dec"' 1734 for ten years one shilling 

For every Barrel of Pork except that of New Jersey 3s. 

For every Barrel of Beef except that of New England 2s. 

For every Negroe, Indian or Molatto Slave above the age of fourteen & under fifteen one 
shilling yearly — 

These duties are likewise applyed to the sinking of the Bills of Credit struck for the 
erecting Fortifications 

B)'^ an Act passed in 1734 entituled an act to lay a duty on empty cask imported into the 
city of N. York during the time therein mentioned the following duties are laid 

For every Hogshead 1' 6^ 

For every Tierce 1» 

For ev''' Barrel or small light cask 9'^ 

For every flower or Bread Barrel V 

For every flower or Bread half Barrel 7 J"* 

These duties are to continue to the 1" Dec' 1737 

These my Lords are all the duties & all the Acts in force that any way eff'ect Trade 

I do myself likewise the Honor to send to your Lordships the Acts of Assembly past at 
New York the last Session which are these 

An Act for the further continuing an Act entituled an Act to let to Farm the excise of Strong 
liquors retailed in this Colony &c 

An Act for the further continuance of an act entituled an act for settling and regulating the 
Militia in this Province 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXV. 39 

These being annual Acts I will not trouble your Lordships with any remarks upon tliem 
having nothing more to say than what 1 bave heretofore said 

An Act to continue the two several Acts therein mentioned relating to the publiclv higli 
Roads in the city and county of Albany 

An Act for the further continuing an Act entituled an Act for the better clearing regulating 
and further laying out publick Higli Roads in tiie County of Ulster 

The Services proposed to be done by the Acts whicii these continue not being compleated 
& it being a necessary work it was proper to pass these 

An Act to continue an act entituled an Act to discharge the several Demands on the trading 
House att Oswego to support His Majestys Troops posted there — There have been so many 
Acts passed for this Service and your Lordships are so well acquainted with the importance of 
the Fur Trade and the necessity of maintaining this advanced Garrison to protect it that it is 
unnecessary for me to say any thing to it 

An Act to receive and enforce and continue the currency of the Bills of Credit tlierein 
mentioned until the end of the year 1739 

The Fund on which these Bills of credit were struck not answering the expectations of the 
Assembly there are many of them not yet sunk and that fund being afterwards appropriated 
to the sinking of other Bills of Credit can not till the year 1740 be further applyed to the 
sinking of them it was thought absolutely necessary to pass this act which gives the paper 
money its former credit 

An Act to prevent damages by Swine in the Precinct of Goshen and some other parts 
contiguous to the County of Orange 

This Act carries its reason in the preamble 

An Act for naturalizing William Cornelius &c This and other Acts of the like kind are 
necessary to encourage foreigners to settle among us 

Besides the Acts I do myself the Honour to send to your Lordships the Minutes of Council 
from the 5"" day of April 1735 to the 24 day of Nov'' last 
I am My Lords 

With the greatest respect 
imaginable 

Your Lordships 

Most obedient & faithful 

Humble Servant 
Sg" W. Cosby 



Seai'etary Pojyple to Governoi' Cosby. 

[ New- York Entries. M. p. 19. ] 

To Col" W" Cosby Gov' of New York & New Jersey. 

Sir, 

Among the papers you transmitted to My Lords Commiss" for Trade & Plantations in Your 
letter of the 6"" of December 1734, relating to Y''our Complaints against M" Morris M"" Van 



40 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Dam and M' Alexander, there are some New York News Papers by whcli it is intimated that 
you have sometimes voted as a Councillor in a legislative Capacity, that you have expected 
Bills pass'd the Assembly should be presented to you prior to their being laid before the 
Council and that you have adjourned the Assembly in your own Name. 

As these three points are not before My Lords as matters of Complaint against you, their 
Lordships do not send you these particulars by way of charge, hoping they may be not be 
true. But however they have commanded me to send you their sentiments upon each of them 
for your conduct thereon. 

As to the first you are to observe'that the Council sits in two Capacities, viz' as Your Council, 
to advise you generally in all political Cases, and in particular Cases where, by your instructions 
you are restrained from Acting without their advice & consent : In both these Cases you are 
to sit, and advise with them. They likewise sit as the S"* Part of the Legislature and in that 
case you are neither to sit nor vote with them. Was you to do it upon any occasion where a 
law is the subject of their Debate, and that the Councillors being divided in opinion the law 
should either be passed or rejected, by your single vote. It would in fact be taking away the 
Priviledge of the Council in vesting two of the three parts of the Legislature in one person 
and consequently destroying that constitution so prudently established by His Majesty's 
Commission & Instructions for the Government of his American Colonies. The same 
Reasons govern the Board's opinion upon the second point, because as a third part of the 
Legislature is vested in you, you have an absolute negative upon every act agreed to by 
Council or Assembly ; and therefore you are not to expect any Act to be presented to you, till 
it shall have pass'd both the Council and Assembly. 

With regard to the third point I am to remind you of your Instructions by the whole tenour 
of which you are directed to Act in the King's name and not your own. And also it may be 
some doubt whether you have any right of adjourning the Assembly, yet there can be none, 
but that it must be in His Majesty's name, if done at all ; & with Regard to the Governors 
adjourning them the Custom of the province must be Your guide ; but the power of proroguing 
and dissolving is without doubt His Majesty's Prerogative, and vested in You as Gov'' I am, &■= 

A. P. 

Whitehall 

Jau^^ 23<» 173f. 



Lords of Trade to the King. 

[ New-York Entries, M., 22. ] 

Representation to H. M. as to Governor's not acting as Councillors. 

To the Kixg's most Excellent Majesty. 

May it please Your Majesty, 

Having been informed that in some of Your Majesty's Colonies in America the Gov" do 
sometimes sit and vote as Members of their respective Councils, in all ordinary cases, and even 
when the Council acts in their Legislative capacity & this appearing to us to be inconsistent 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 41 

with the tenour and intention of Your Majesty's Commission and Instructions to the said Gov" 
we thought proper in a matter of this Consequence to state a case and propose Queries 
thereupon to Your Majesty's Attorney and Soil'' Gen' who are of opinion tliat the Gov" of 
Your Majesty's Plantations ought not in any case whatsoever to sit & vote as Members of the 
Council in their respective Governments. 

We therefore beg leave to annex a Copy of the said case and opinion to this Representation 
and humbly submit it to Your Majesty's Royal Wisdom whether the said Gov" should not be 
directed to conform themselves thereto in such manner as Your Majesty shall thing proper. 

Which is most humbly submitted 

M. Bladen 
Ja. Br^denell 
Ar. Croft 
FiTZ Walter 
Whitehall O. Bridgeman 

Feb'J' 6. 173i R- Plumes. 



Opinion of M' Attorney and Solicitor General. 

[ New-Tork Papers Ff., No. 8. ] 

The Government of His Maty' Plantations in America consists of a GoV Council and 
Assembly — These three have the Power of making Laws vested in them and the Governor 
has a Negative upon every Act passed by the Council and Assembly 

The Council sits in two capacitys viz as one part of the Legislature, and as a Council to 
advise & assist the Governor in all political cases 

And the Governors are restrain'd by their Instructions not to act without the advice and 
consent of the Majority of them, in many cases 

Query Therefore, whether in any Case the Governor can sit and vote as a 

member of the Council 
On the Death or absense of a Governor The President of the Council, if there be no 
Lieutenant Governor upon the Place, always acts as Governor, till a new Governor is 
appointed by His Majesty 

Query Is the said President then capable of acting and voting as a Councillor 

during the time he acts as Governor, and represents the King ? 

1" Answer 

We are of opinion that it is inconsistant with the nature of this Governm' with the Governors 
commission & His Majesties Instructions That the Governors should in any case whatsoever 
sit and vote as a member of the Councill 

2'' Answer 

The clause in the Governors Commission which gives the Power to the President of the 
Council to act as Governor in case of the Death or absence of the Governor is not laid before 
us but only referred to in the Instructions but we presume it gives him no greater power than 
Vol. VI. 6 



42 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

is given to tlie Governor liimself and if not we are of opinion that such President can not act 
or vote as a Councillor during such time as He acts as Governor 

J WiLIiES 

January IS"" 1735. D Ryder 



Secretary Popple to Governor Co-shy. 

[ New- York Enlries, M., p. 26. ] 

To Col. Cosby. 

Sir. 

M'' Livingston and M' Storke having petitioned his Majesty for a large Tract of Land upon 
the Mohawks River of about Six Miles square, that Petition is referred to My Lords Commiss" 
for Trade & Plantations who not being apprized whether some part of the said Land may not 
already be granted to some other persons and whether the Mohawk Indians may not be seated 
on part thereof in which case it will be highly improper to give them any umbrage, I am 
commanded to send you a Copy of the said petition, and to desire you will as soon as possible 
send to their Lordships Your opinion and Observations at large concerning the said petition 
and that you will inform them whether the Tract of Land surrender'd to the City of Albany 
by the Mohawks in trust for themselves is not contained in the Tract now petitioned for. I 
am further to acquaint you that tlieir Lordships think it highly improper that you should make 
any Grant of any part of the land described in the aforesaid petition before His Majesty shall 
have determined thereupon. 

It was with great pleasure that I was informed by a letter from your Secretary that you are 
recovering from your late dangerous Illness : I hope the next letters will bring news of your 
being quite well again, and am, Sir, 

Your most humble Serv' 

A. Popple. 
Whitehall 
Feb--^ y" 25"' 173^ 



President Clarhe to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New- York PaperB, Ff., No. 18. ] 

New York Mar. IG"- 173f 
My Lords 

I do myself the honor as it is my duty to inform your Lordships that Governor Cosby 

departed this life the tenth of this month after a severe fit of sickness that held him above 

fifteen weeks two days after he was taken ill he suspended M"' Van dam Whereby, On his 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 43 

Excellencys dentli tlie administration of the Government devalved on me, I immediately 
summoned all the Council then in Town who administered the oaths to me as your Lordships 
may be pleased to see by the enclosed Minutes of Council No A and N° B. The next day 
M'' Van Dam came to the Court Gate and demanded to speak with M" Cosby who sent him 
word that her great affliction would not permit her to see any one the[n] he desired tliat some 
witnesses whom he brought with him might deliver her a letter from himself which he had in 
his hand but being told that the answer to the first demand answered the second he desired 
the officer of the Guard who carried his first message to deliver her that letter, he did so, and 
it being a demand of the Commission, Instructions and .Seal she ordered an answer to be sent 
to him that she had delivered them to the Council as soon as he had delivered his letter for 
M" Cosby to the officer of the Guard he desired him to acquaint me that he wanted to speak 
with me I immediately went out of the Fort Gate to him, who put into my hand an open letter 
from himself to me the copy whereof is No C and demanded my present answer in writing I 
told him I would send it to him whereupon he left me and I returned to the Fort and having 
communicat'' his letter to as many of the Gentlemen of the Council as were then with me I 
returned him the answer No D. the next day he served me with a protest NoE. This demand 
and protest is with a view to sue me for the profits of the Government in case he be restored 
& I must expect it in the severest manner but as I have had the Honor to see your Ldps 
letter to Gov'' Cosby dated the fifth of September last acquainting him that you had made a 
Representation to her ^L^jesty for removing M' Van Dam and I\r Alexander from the Council 
Board. I presume to hope they will be removed and the Gentlemen whom your Lordsfjips 
have recommended being Merchants of Eminence and of very fair Characters appointed in 
their Room 

As soon as the Governors Suspension of M'' Van Dam was known as it was that very day a 
copy being then served on him the restless faction appeared very active and great pains were 
taken to prepare the mob for an insurrection and the Soberest and most thinking men have not 
been without apprehensions of some rash attempt, the[y] gave out many thingsto amuse and to 
corrupt the minds of the people, among others that the Governor had no power to suspend or 
if he had that the Suspension dyed with him that Ihey have got the opinion of some Lawyers 
in other Provinces confirming their own, however notwithstanding all their noise and threats I 
have the Honor to be peaceably possessed of the administration of the Government and have 
reason to hope that by a mild and prudent conduct I shall reclaim the people to their due 
obedience and in time restore tranquillity to the province to which I am bold to say that 
nothing will so much contribute as his Majesties dismissing Morris from his pretensions to be 
restored to his Cheif Justice Ship, and Van Dam and Alexander from the Council these being 
the heads of the factions who openly declaim against the Kings Prerogative, who poison the 
minds of the People, who libel the Government in weekly printed papers and who have 
endeavored to distress the Governor in his just administration but if these even are not 
removed the people will grow still bolder in their attempts on his Majesties Prerogative and 
the spirit of Faction increase as the Ring Leaders are countenanced 

I do assure your Ldps that no private prejudice sways me to this Representation I have had 
the Honor to serve the Crown many years in tiiis province, I have ever to the utmost of 
my power and in my station opposed all attempts against the Prerogative, and at the same 
time have lived in a friendly correspondence with all men nor ever had any personal 
misunderstanding with any of my fellow councillors what I have said proceeds from the 



44 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

sincerity of my heart entirely devoted to his Majestys service, iiad not M"' Van Dam been 
suspended he would have been but a Tool in other hands he is very old and that small share 
of understanding which he had formerly is much impaired he is looked upon as the head of 
the faction, only as he had once the administration of the Government as President on Coll. 
Montgonieries death a time wherein no spirit of Party appeared If Van Dam be restored he 
will load me with Prosecutions and I shall be undone, they have already hanged me under a 
feigned name in a fictitious piece of history about a month ago in one of their printed papers 
but their inhumanity to the Governor and his afflicted family was much greater I was in health 
and could laugh at it, the Governor was in a weak languishing condition and his family in the 
utmost affliction 

I humbly implore your Lordships Protection & hope for it no longer than I shall exert 
myself in the support of His Majestys Rightful authority and for the prosperity of the province, 
I am placed in my present Station not by my own seeking but from the apprehensions 
Governor Cosby had of the evils that would ensue from the malice and rage of faction if Van 
Dam had not been suspended and it would be the hardest case in the world if I shall be undone 
for it. 

I enclose to your Lordships the Certificate No F. and the Affidavit No G to shew the 
falsehood of the assertion in Van Dams protest, and the printed paper I mentioned and a 
proclamation for continuing Officers in their places. I beseech your Ldps to prevent my ruin, 
and to be permit me to subscribe myself as I am with the highest honor 
My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble & most 

obedient Servant 

sg'' George Clarke 



Mr. Van Dam to President Clarhe. 

[New-Tork Papers, Ff, No. 15.] 

Sir 

I was informed this morning that last night His Excellency our Governor died Whereupon I 
just now waited upon his widdow to inform her that upon the decease of the late Governor 
Montgomerie the administration of the Govern' of this province did devolve on me as eldest 
Councillor and requested her that as I was obliged to suppose that His Majesty's Comission 
and Instructions to her deceased husband were in her possession or power that she would favor 
me with a sight of them and that if they were conformable to the commission and Instructions 
to his late Excellency Governor Montgomerie in those points which respect the administration 
of the Government in case of the death of the Governor That then she would deliver the said 
Commission & Instruction and the Seal of the Province to me to whom I conceive they do of 
right belong. But her great and just grief upon so melancholy an occasion I supposed has 
debarred me of the opportunity to see her However I am informed that last night the 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXV. 45 

Commission Instruction & Seal of tiiis Province were put in your liands Now Sir as you 
are sufficiently apprized that the administration of the Government did devolve on me at the 
decease of Gov^IMontgomerie I pray that you would favor me witli tiie Sight of the Commission 
and Instructions to liis late Excellency Governor Cosby and if tliey are conformable to the 
Commission and Instructions to the late Gov"' Montgomerie in those points tiie respect the 
administration of Government in case of death. Then that you would deliver the Commission 
Instructions and Seal to me to whom only I conceive they of right belong and if you have any 
reasons why you do not or can not comply with this request. I pray you to inform me of it in 
writing & you will oblige 

Your most humble Servant 

Rip Van Dam 
Directed thus 

To the Honble George Clarke Esq" 

one of His Maties Council for 

the Province of New York 

The original letter dated ll"- Mar 1735 



President Clarice to Mr. Van Dam. 

[ New-York Papers, Ff., No. 15. ] 

Fort George in New York 
March ll"- 17 3| 
Sir 

In answer to your letter just now delivered to me by yourself I do myself the honor to say 
that Governor Cosby having suspended you a copy of which suspension you were served with 
in Novembr. last and I having been yesterday regularly sworn by His Majestys Council into 
the administration of the Government — I conceive the custody of His Maties Comission and 
Instructions to the said Governor, and of the Great Seal of the province, belongs to me And 
I shall keep them, as it is- my Duty to do, till His Maties pleasure be known to whom only I 
am accountable 

I am 

Sir 

Your most humble St. 
Directed to Rip Van Dam Esq''*' signed Geo Clarke 



46 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

President Clarke to tlie Duke of Newcastle. 

[ Ncw-Tork. S. T. O., Till., 173. ] 

New York March IG"" 173f 
May it please Your Grace, 

As it is my duty I humbly presume to acquaint your Grace that Governor Cosby after a 
sixteen weeks sickness dyed the tenth of this month. Two days after he was taken ill he 
summoned a Council and suspended M'' Van Dam from his seat in the Council Board in 
consequence whereof the administration of the Government of this Province devolves on me. 

About an hour after the Governors death all the Council who were in town met in the 
Council Chamber and having caused his Majesties Commission and Instructions to Governor 
Cosby with his suspension of M'' Van Dam to be read they all except M' Alexander declared 
their opinion that the administration of the Government devolved on me and accordingly 
administred the oath to me, M'' Alexander said he was not prepared to give his opinion, but 
after I was sworn he concurred with the rest in adviseing me to issue a proclamation signifying 
the Governor's death and continuing all officers in their Posts. 

The next day about five in the afternoon M"" Van Dam came to the Fort Gate with some 
witnesses and demanded admittance to M" Cosby, but being told she was not in a condition to 
see him he demanded that an open letter which he had in his hand might be delivered to her 
by those witnesses whom he brought with him and being likewise told that as she was not in 
condition to see him she could not see them he gave the letter to the officer of the Guard to be 
delivered to her, it containing a demand of the commission Seal and Instructions, and by the 
same Officer sent to speak with me, I went out of the Fort Gate to him where he deliverd me 
an open letter of the like purport and demanding my present answer in writing, I told him I 
would send it to him and haveing communicated his to as many of the Council as were then 
with me I sent him an answer in writing, a copy of which Suspension, Van Dam's letter to me 
my answer and the minutes of Council I do myself the honor to present to your Grace The 
next day he served me with a protest a copy whereof I likewise do my self the honor to inclose. 

During the whole course of the Governor's illnes the restles faction have been very active 
to prepare the mob for an Insurrection, and the soberest and best men have not been without 
their apprehensions of some rash attempt however I have reason to hope that by a mild and 
prudent conduct I shall be able to restrain the first sallys of the peoples heat and to reclaim 
them to their due obedience, and in some reasonable time to restore Li-anquility to the Province 
to which nothing will so much contribute as his Majesties dismissing Morris from his 
pretensions to his Chief Justice ship and Van Dam and Alexander from the Council, these are 
the heads of the factions, these are the men who declaim against the King's prerogative, who 
poison the minds of the people, who libel the Governor and all in authority in weekly printed 
papers and who have endeavored to distres the Governor in his just administration, I am bold 
to affirm to your Grace, pardon my Lord, the expression, tliat if these men are continued in 
their stations this Province will be very unhappy, as on the contrary if they are dismissed the 
Spirit of faction will dye, those who have been misled by them will leave them and I shall 
have the honor to inform your Grace, that tranquility and harmony will be restored and the 
people brought to their former duty and obedience to his Majesties just prerogative. 

I beseech your Grace to be assured that no private prejudice sways me to this representation, 
I have had the honor to second the Crown many years in this Province, I have ever to the 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 47 

utmost of my power and in my station opposed all attempts against the prerogative, and 
yet I have lived in a friendly correspondence with all men, nor had ever any personal 
misunderstanding with my fellow Councillors M' Van Dam or Rr Alexander, what I have done 
my self the honor to represent to your Grace proceeds from the sincerity of my heart wholly 
devoted to His Majesties service. 

I perceive by a letter from the Lords of Trade to Governor Cosby dated the fifth of September 
last that they had made a representation to Her Majesty for dismissing Van Dam and Alexander 
from the Council, but as tiieir dismission is not yet come hitlier if Van Dam had not been 
suspended he would undoubtedly have been but a tool in the hands of others, for he is very 
old, and that small share of natural understanding which he had formerly is greatly impaired, 
he is lookt upon as the head of the faction only as he had once the administration of the 
Government as President, on Col. Montgomeries death a time wherein no spirit of party 
appeared, had he not been now suspended M"^" Cosby whose present affliction is alredy too 
great must have expected a large addition from his resentment, as her being immediately 
turned out of the Fort and loaded with malicious prosecutions on imaginary and groundless 
claims, but as the administration is in my hands she is confident, and I presume to assure your 
Grace, not only of her continuance in the house of the Fort so long as she stays in the 
Province but of every act of service and friendship in my power. 

I expect, and it will most certainly come to pass that if Van Dam be restored by His 
Majesty he will sue me for the profits of the Government, tis with this view that he has made 
his demand and protest, and 1 shall be undone : I humbly implore your Grace to grant me 
your protection, it is my great unhappynes to be unknown to your Grace, but if I presume to 
hope that His Excellency M'' Walpole who has done me the honor to give me his will be 
pleased to extend it so farr as to mention me favourably to Your Grace. 

I beg leave likewise to inclose a certificate and affidavit to shew the falsehood of Van Dams 
assertion in his protest that the Governor was delirious. I humbly ask leave to recommend 
my self to your Grace's protection from the ruin threatened me by the malice of faction, and to 
subscribe my self with the greatest submission 
My Lord 

Your Graces 

most humble most obedient and 
most dutiful servant. 
To his Grace the Duke of New Castle. (signed) Geo Clakke. 



President Clarice to the Rt. Hon. Horace Walpole. 

[New-Tork. S. P. 0., YIIL, 155.] 

New York March IG"" 173|^ 
Sir, 

On the 10"" instant Governor Cosby dyed, I immediately summoned all the Council then 
in Town being seven who upon Reading His Majesties Commission and Instructions to 



48 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

the Governor and his Exlys. suspension of M'' van Dam declared their opinion that the 
administration of the Governm' devolved on me and accordingly administerd the oaths to me 
not one of them dissenting except I\r Alexander who said he was not prepared to give his 
opinion, though it is notorious that from him the notions have come and been propagated 
among the mob that the Governor had no power to suspend or if he had that the suspension 
would dye with the Governor. 

The next day being in the Council Chamber the officer of the Guard told me that Van Dam 
was coming up to the Fort, I answered, it is very well, and without saying more he ordered 
the Gate to be shut fearing a mob would follow, soon after the Officer returned to me and told 
me that Van Dam wanted to speak with M" Cosby, he acquainted her with it and delivered 
her answer that her great affliction would not suffijr her to see him, then he desired that two 
witnesses whom he brought with him might deliver her an open letter which he held in his 
hand but the like answer being given he desired the officer to deliver it, and to tell me he 
wanted to speak with me. as I was going to the gate I was told that the wicket was shut, I 
order it to be open and went out to Van Dam, who put into my hand an open letter from 
himself directed to me and desireing my present answer in writing, I said that I would send 
it to him and then he went away, upon inquiry the Gate was shut because the day the 
Governor dyed it was so ordered that no body might come into the Fort while the Council 
was sitting and I mention it to your Ex'^ because he takes notice of it in his protest but I have 
forgot to mention it to his Grace the Duke of New Castle and to the Lords of Trade. Both 
the letters, that to M" Cosby and that to me contain a demand of the Commission, Instructions 
and Seal, about an hour after I sent him my answer in writing, the next day he served me 
with a protest, and the next day after that all or most of the Council copys of all which 
papers and minutes of Council I do my self the honor to send to his Grace the Duke of New 
Castle and to the Lords of Trade. This demand and protest are done with a view to sue me 
for the profits of the Government in case he be restored and I must expect it in the severest 
manner the consequence whereof will be my ruin, and the perpetuating the Spirit of faction to 
the ruin of the Province, on the contrary if Van Dam and Alexander be removed from the 
Council Board, as the Lords of Trade represented to Her Majesty in the King's absence and 
Morris be not restored to the Chief Justice ship I have as great hopes as ever to restore 
tranquility to the Province. These men are the head of the Faction, these are they who 
declaim openly against the King's prerogative, who libel the Government in weekly printed 
papers, and who have endeavoured to distres the Governor in his administration, I mention 
all three tho Van Dam only lends them his name being himself of a very great age and that 
small share of understanding which he formerly had much impaired and tho Morris himself be 
in England yet his Son fills his place in the faction, and it is the hopes of seeing these men 
continued or restored to their places that attach the mob to them. If they are dismissed 
their followers will soon leave them and return to their former duty and obedience to 
the Governm' 

I did Sir in my letter of the le"" of January last humbly implore your protection in several 
things and to it I beg leave to refer. 

I have done my self the honor as it is my duty to acquaint His Grace the Duke of New 
Castle with the Governor's Death and have presumed to say for which I humbly ask your 
pardon, that I hope from your Excell>'' former protection you will do me the honor to 
recommend me to His Grace. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 49 

I heartily wish your Excellency succes in the high affairs committed to your management 
and in all things else being with the highest honor and regard 

Sir 

Your Excellency's most humble and 

most obedient servant 
To (signed) Geo. Clarke. 

R' Hono''''' Horace Walpole. 



President Clarice to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-Tork Papers, Ff., 22.] 

New York March 29"> 1736 
My Lords 

I now do myself the honor to send to your Lordships an other copy of M"" Van Dams protest 
which I told your Lordships in the duplicate of my letter of the 16"" instant I had not then 
time to transcribe 

I have the pleasure to inform your Lordships that all the noise and threatnings of the Faction 
to rise on the Governors death is now no more talked of and 1 promise myself and dare assure 
your Lordships that if Van Dam, Alexander & Morris be displaced, I shall in some reasonable 
time have the honor to inform you that the people are returned to their right minds but whilest 
there is the least hope remaining to see those men continued or restored to their places the 
Spirit of Faction will shew itself 

I do myself the honor to enclose to your Lordships one of their weekly printed papers 
wherein is young Morris's Speech against the Court of Chancery and with it I send the Resolve 
of the Assembly made upon it last November This Speech now printed and published by the 
Heads of the Faction to refresh the Peoples memories to tye them to their Interests & to extol 
their own merit If these men are countenanced what must those expect who exert themselves 
on the side of the Kings just Prerogative already they suffer all the vile contumely, that 
malice can invent and succeeding Governors must look for endless & insolent attempts on the 
Kings just authority 

I do assure your Ldps it shall be my study by gentle methods to reduce the misguided to a 
sense of their duty (of which I do not doubt if the Ring Leaders are displaced ) and to manifest 
to your Lordships that I have nothing so much at heart as his Majestys Service and the honor 
of subscribing myself with the highest Respect 
My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and 

most obedient Servant 

sg'' Geo. Clarke 

Vol. VI. 7 



50 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

President Clarke to tJie Lords of Trade. 

[ Now-Tork Tapers, Ff., No. 23. ] 

New York April V"- 1736 
My Lords 

Having lately done myself the honor to write twice to your Lordships I do it now with 
some fear that my addresses may be thought troublesome but as this may serve to corroborate 
the Reasons given to your Lordships by Coll Cosby for removing M"' Van Dam & M"" 
Ale.xander from the Council of this province I presume to go on. 

I enclose the minutes of Council of the 10th March No 1 wherein your Lordships will see, 
that tho M' Alexander said he was not prepared to give his opinion on the Question whether 
the administration of the Government devolved on me yet after I was sworn, which he did not 
oppose, he with the rest of the Council took his Seat and acted with us in the order made for 
the Proclamation as much as any other of the Council there not being one dissenting voice 
and in the order for the Jersey Commission & Seal he was very active offering to carry himself 
to Jersey, but finding when he went from Council that the Faction blamed him for not 
opposing me, and for acting as a Councillor after I was sworn, he resolved to reinstate himself 
with them at any rate even with the grossest falsehood accordingly he caused a paper' to be 
printed and published in his name No 2 denying what he had so lately done nor was this his 
only view in it it is intended likewise to signify his opinion that the administration of the 
Government does not belong to me, that it is an usurpation that the Council who act with me 
are criminal and lyable to prosecution & Punishments threatenend in M' Van Dam's Protest, 
and to support this opinion he has absented himself from Council every Council day since tho' 
duly summoned every time except once when he was out of Town and without doubt after 
this behaviour does not intend to come to Council any more. If his example or his Doctrine 
or the Threats in M' Van Dams protest had prevailed with others the consequences that would 
have ensued are obvious, but the rest of the Council who live in Town and are all named in 
the enclosed minutes are so far from being deterred that they are unanimous in giving me their 
best assistance and advice : I humbly presume to hope from your Lordships Representation 
that his Majesty will be pleased speedily to remove M'' Van Dam and M"" Alexander and to 
appoint M"' John Moor & RP Paul Richard in their room, besides the opinion of the Cheif 
Justice, and of M'' Horsemanden (Baristers at Law) two of the Council I have that of the 
Attorney General in Writing No 3: upon M"' Van Dams suspension being resolved to act on 
the best advice and with the utmost caution 

I am informed that M"' Van Dam about the time of his Suspension got a certificate in his 
favor signed by the Faction and a great number of People of the meanest Rank ; if Characters 
of men are to be judged of from such Testimonials, Faction will ever be triumphant. I never 
saw the certificate, but be it what it will his understanding is so much decayed that he is now 
almost childish & incapable of any public Trust or business and if he were to shew himself to 
your Lordships you would presently be convinced of it M' Alexander too apprehending his 
fate from his behaviour has within these few days got a certificate from the Corporation of this 
City it was brought into common Council ready drawn by one of the Aldermen, upon reading 

' Entitle'! "Notice of James Alexander, to the effect that he never advised or consented to Mr. Clarke's taking on liim the 
administration of the Government, New-York, March 24, 17a|." — Ed. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXV. 51 

it the Recorder M' Horsmanden, and the Mayor, M"" Ricliards objected to it, and refused to 
sign it the rest of the Corporation who were present and of the Faction signed it, and the 
Recorder insisted that it would be wrong to have it go in the name of the Mayor, Recorder &c 
since neither the Mayor nor Recorder would sign it, yet they resolved it should go in that 
Style and so it does. I am told that he has another Certificate from the Council of N Jersey I 
have nothing to do with that nor shall I rake into his character I have shewn your Lordships 
his behaviour as a Councillor in this Province and there I leave him with this short remark on 
his printed papers that the papers which he says appearead in Print posted up in the Market 
Houses is the inclosed Proclamation in the print No 2. I do myself the honor to send to your 
Ldps a Narrative No 4 drawn up by some of the Council in answer to Alexanders paper No 2 
Yesterday a vessell arrived here from the Bay the Master whereof reports M' Cunningham 
the Governor of Jamaica is dead' I humbly recommend myself to your Ldps protection 
being with the highest honor & Regard My Lords Y' Lps mo. Humble St. 

Geo : Clarke 

P S I have adjourned the Assembly to the last tuesday in the month when they are to meet 
& go upon business 



Order in Council rejecting Petitions in favor of Leiois Morris as Agent. 

[N^cw-Tork Papers, Ff., No. 2C.] 

At the Court at St James's the 29"> day of April 1736 

Present — The Kings most Excellent Majesty in Council 

Upon reading at the Board a Report from the Right Honble the Lords- of the Committee of 
Council for Plantation affairs dated the 21" of this Instant in the words following Viz' 

" Your Majesty having been pleased by your orders in Council of the S"" of Feb'"y 
•'last to refer under this Committee three Petitions from your Majestys Province of 
"New York, The first in the name of sundry of the Gentlemen of your Matys 
" Council of the said Province and of the Aldermen Common Council & Inhabitants 
" of the City of New York, The second in the name of several of the Freeholders 
" and inhabitants of Queens County within the said Province and the third in the 
"name of the Freeholders of the County of Ulster likewise within the said Province 

' Hesey Cunmngham was a gentleman of great parts and worth, and of sound judgment and happy temper. He had great 
knowledge of the Sriiish Constitution, and was zealous in the support of it in and out of Tarliament, of which he had almost 
always been a Member ever since the Union ( of Scotland ). Tho' Governor, he never lost the affability of a private gentleman. 
Never was one more beloved or caressed with more justness ; he knew the blessings of Liberty, and had he lived, would have 
redressed many grievances under which the Poor labored. It was his fault to begin too soon to cure the Insolence of the 
Planters; and a difference with one of the most considerable of them hastened his Death. Other accounts say, lie was at an 
Entertainment with some of the principal persons of theplace, and that there was an abundance of Good Wine as well aa 
good humor ; that Mr. Cunningham soon felt the effects of it in a violent fever in a few days, if not hours, about six weeks 
after his arrivaL Oldmixon. British Empire in America. 2d. EdL IL, 379. — Ed. 



52 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS 

" all which Petitions Pray, in regard there is no agent appointed to lay a true state of 
"that Province before your Majesty or to take care of their Interests that your Maty 
" will be graciously pleased to receive such Representations in behalf of the said 
" Province as shall be presented by Lewis Morris Esq"'^ The Lords of the 
" Committee in obedience to your Matys said Orders of Reference, have this day 
" taken the said Petitions into their consideration And to agree humbly to report to 
" your Majesty that this method of applying to your Maty by way of Petition for the 
" appointing Agents for your Majesties Plantations is irregular & unprecedented 
" But that in case such method had not been irregular yet in regard the present 
" application is made only by some inhabitants of Particular Parts of the Province 
" who have taken up(/in them to nominate a Particular person to your Majesty, as 
" Agent for the whole Province, the same can not therefore but be lookt upon as an 
" Innovation, which may prove detrimental to your Matys Service in the Plantations 
" in case the same should receive any countenance from your Maty & therefore the 
" Committee humbly propose to your Majesty that the said three Petitions may 
" be rejected." 

His Majesty this day took the said Report into his consideration & was pleased with the 
advice of His Privy Council to approve thereof, and accordingly to order as it is hereby ordered, 
that the said three Petitions be rejected. Whereof all persons whom it may concern are to 
take Notice and Govern themselves accordingly 

A True Copy. 

W Sharpe 



President Clarice to tlie Lords of Trade. 

{ New-York Papers, Ff., No. 27. ] 

New York May S-" 1736 
My Lords 

The Assembly of this Province standing adjourned at the time of Gov"' Cosbys death to the 
last Tuesday in March I adjourned them by the advice of the Council to tuesday the 27"" of 
April that being so soon as the Season of the year would permit them to meet, but there not 
being a majority in Town on that day, I adjourned them again with the advice of the Council 
to the thursday following in the morning the Speaker came to me & acquainted me that there 
was a majority of the house in Town and were to meet about eleven o'clock I summoned the 
Council to meet at that hour expecting to have a message from the Assembly as usual, we 
waited till one when the Speaker came to me and told me that enough of the members had 
met to make a house but that being all served by M'' Van Dam with a copy of his Protest 
against me and all tiiat assisted me (which I did myself the honor to send to your Lordships 
the le"" March) inclosed in a printed letter signed by him and Coll. Morris son one of the 
members present desiring to say something before the Speaker took the Chair he pulled out 
of his pocket & read a speech to the same effect as Van Dams letter having as I am informed 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 53 

before they went to tlie house taken pains to prepossess them, & having finished his speech he 
produced a declaration which he read and then offered it to the members for them to sign, how 
much soever some of them might be startled they would not sign his Declaration whereupon 
he and some others left the house & there not being a sufficient number left to adjourn 
themselves the speaker came to me, acquainted me with what had past and desired me to 
adjourn them to the tuesday following hopeing by that time there would be a full house, which 
I did with the advice of the Council, tho' I have little hopes that they will meet till His 
Majestys pleasure be signified on Van Dams suspension. I was very solicitous all Thursday 
to get a copy of the Declaration hearing that it was a very extraordinary piece, but on friday 
I found I liad little reason to apprehend it would be stifled for it appeared in Print & I do 
myself the honor to send it to your Lordships with M'' Van Dams letter served on Coll Philips 
one of the Assembly which he sent to me under cover of the inclosed letter from himself to me 

I will not give your Lordships the trouble of my observations on these papers your Lordships 
will see through them at first view, this however I am bold to say that if his iNLijesty will be 
pleased to confirm Van Dams Suspension and to dismiss Alexander from the Council for 
witiiout doubt it is with his advice that these very extraordinary things are done Van Dam 
himself being a very weak old man, the Assembly will resume courage to meet and act as 
they ought to do, it will break the spirits of a restless faction, reclaim the misguided to a sense 
of their duty, and restore quiet to the Province, Especially if his Majesty will likewise be 
pleased to confirm James de Lancy Esq''^ in the Chief Justice Ship so that Coll. Morris may 
have no hopes^of being restored, for in that & in the continuance of Van Dam & Alexander in 
this Councill is the faction kept alive. I perswade myself that your Lordships will think it 
absolutely necessary that some effectual orders be forth with sent to me in the mean time I 
will continue the Assembly on adjournments and preserve the peace of the Province 

M"" Alexander tho' he has been constantly summoned ever since the Governors death has 
never attended the Council since that day that the Governor dyed, and when he was present, 
& acted after I was sworn, tho' he has since confidently denyed it in point — Inclosed I send 
your Lordships some proofs of it, I humbly recommend myself to your Lordships Protection 
and am with the highest honor & regard 

My Lords 

Your Ldps most humble 

& most obedient Servant 

sg'' Geo Clarke 



President Clarke to the Duhe of Newcastle. 

[New York. S. I'. O., VIII., 191. ] 

New York IMay 3" 1736. 
My Lord 

After Governor Co.sby's death I adjourned the Assembly with the advice of the Council, from 
the last Tuesday in March to the last Tuesday in April, as the season of the year would not 
sooner admit of their meeting, and then for two days more there not being a Majority in Town, 



54 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

but on that last day to which I adjourned them, the Members in Town (being fifteen of the 
Twenty seven which compose the whole house) met, and having been severally served by M' 
Van Dam with a copy of his protest against me and all that assist me (which I did myself the 
honor to send to your Grace the sixteenth of March) and with it a letter which I now inclose, 
young Morris Coll. Morris's son a member of the House desired he might be heard before the 
Speaker took the Chair, and made an harangue to the like effect as Van Dam's letter, and 
then pul'd out of his pocket and read, and offered it to the members to sign it, a declaration 
which was printed the next day with Van Dam's letter, and which I do myself likewise the 
honor to inclose, but tho the members then present would not sign it, yet they went away 
without raakeing an house, and are so much intimidated that I doubt they will not sit till His 
Majesty's pleasure be signified on Van Dam's suspension. 

Tho the letter, My Lord, be in Van Dam's name, and signed by him, he is to be considered 
as a weak old man given up to the management of M' Alexander one of the Council and to 
young Morris in his father's absence, being perhaps ignorant of the tendency of these things 
that are done in his name, I will not presume to speak my thoughts of them to your Grace 
who can at one view see clearly into the design and consequences that must ensue if a check be 
not speedily put to them ; but this I am bold to say that, if His Majesty will be pleased to signify 
his approbatian of Van Dam's suspension, to remove Alexander from the Council, and to 
confirm M'' De Lancey in the Chief Justice Ship, the Assembly will then sit and act as becomes 
them, the Spirit of faction will dye and the Province enjoy its former quiet, for it is only the 
hope of seeing Van Dam and Morris restored and Alexander continued in his seat at the 
Council Board that keeps the Mob of their side in expectation of favours. 

I humbly implore your Grace to take me into your protection to put it out of Van Dam's 
power to ruin me as he will certainly attempt to do if he be restored, and to keep His 
Majesties best subjects, who are the most eminent and considerable men in the Province from 
falling under the power and resentment of the implacable enemies of the Government who in 
truth are in gross the meanest of the people. 

There is nothing of such immediate necessity for the Assembly's sitting but what may be 
done by them in the fall, and by that time I presume to hope I shall have the honor to receive 
from Your Grace the signification of His Majesties pleasure. In the mean while I will keep 
them on foot by short adjournments preserve the peace of the Province and act with the 
utmost moderation in all things. 

I shall be obliged. My Lord, to live at a very great expence not only to support the honor 
and dignity of the Government but to incourage and countenance all that are faithfuU to it, I 
shall few or no opportunityes as others have had to make any money because of the opposition 
that Van Dam gives me I presume therefore to hope from your Grace's goodness and 
protection that his Maj'^ will give me the whole salary, which will be no injury to a Governor 
he not being intituled to any but from his arrival here, and M"^ Van Dam after Coll. 
Montgomeries death took it without the King's Warrant. 

If upon the confirmation of Van Dam's suspension, the removal of Alexander from the Council 
Board and the confirming M'' De Lancey in the Chief Justice Ship, I have the good fortune as 
I am confident I shall to reclaim tlie people to their duty and to heal their divisions I likewise 
presume to hope that His Majesty will be graciously pleased to continue me for some time 
longer in the administration of the Government that I may not leave it poorer then I entered 
on it. If your Grace will be pleased to give me your protection. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 55 

I do myself the honor to inclose to Your Grace a letter from M'' Philipse Speaker of the 
Assembly to me covering M"' Van Dam's to him, this is the last and great effort of the faction, 
in every other part of my administration I assure your Grace I am easy, a Majority of the 
Council being with me in all things wherein their advice or consent is necessary, and 
the Province is general easy under it, and busines goes on as usual. 

I beg leave to recommend my self again to your Grace's protection and to subscribe myself 
with the greatest honor and regard 
My Lord 

Your Grace's most humble most obedient and most dutiful servant 

(signed) Geo. CLAuiiE. 

P. S. I do myself the honor to inclose to your Grace some proofs of M'' Alexander's 
absenting himself from Council. 

To 

His Grace the Duke of New Castle. 



Speaker Philipse to President Clarke. 

[New.Tork Papers, Ff., No. 35.] 

New York Sg"- April 1736 
Sir 

I give myself the honor to acquaint you that this morning betw" the hours of 11 & 12 as I 
was going to attend my service in the General Assembly pursuant to the last adjournment 
thereof a pacquet was delivered to me in the City Hall by a Kinsman or apprentice of M' Van 
Dam sealed up and beleiving It was intended to be communicated to the House I laid the same 
on the table in the Assembly Chamber but finding that the several members that had been 
there before me had been served with a like Pacquet I opened that which was delivered and 
Instant directed to me and found it to be a printed letter* from Rip Van Dam Esq"" dated the SG"" 
signed by himself & in it his Protest after some stay there only twelve members appeared, 
and it being reckoned up that there were three more in Town, the door keeper was sent for 
them and before the last of them came in it was asked whether they were not a number 
sufficient to make a house upon which Coll Lewis Morris Jun' (member for the Borough of 
West Chester) replyed we are but begged leave to say something first and pulling two papers 
out of his Pocket He read first a pretty long speach tending to persuade the members that they 
could not legally sit or act and then a long declaration to that purpose which he proposed they 
should sign 

I gave some reasons why I conceived we had as good a right to act now as ever the 
assembly had upon any adjournment heretofore and declared my resolution not to sign such a 

' Entitled, " Copy of a letter from Rii) Van Dam, Esq., to the soveial Members of that General Assembly of New -York, 
that stood adjourned to the last Tuesday of March, 1720, dated New -York, April 20, l'72i5, with report of the Jiroceedings of 
the members of that meeting, at the City Hall, April 29, 1736." Folio, pp. 4. — £d. 



56 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Declaration as Coll: Morris proposed, who thereupon said he would sign it tho' all the other 
members declined it, soon after which some members withdrew and others following no house 
could be made 

I thought it my duty to apprize you of what has happened upon this occasion & send you 
herewith the before mentioned letter of M' Van Dam beleiving it unnecessary to trouble you 
with the Protest 

(Copy) lam 

Your Honors mo' humble St 

Geo Clarke Esq" Ad Philipse ' 



President Clarhe to Secretary Popple. 

[New- York Papers, Ff., No. 29. ] 

New York May SS"" 1736 
Sir 

I had the honor to receive the Duplicates of your letter of the 23'''* of Jan'^^ last on the 10"" 
of May — It can not be denyed that Governor Cosby sate with the Council in their Legislative 
capacity it has been constantly done ever since I have been in the Province which is upwards 
of thirty years but I dont remember that a Governor has voted upon any question in the 
passing of a Law: I presume their Lordships will think it a reasonable excuse for Governor 
Cosby's sitting since he found it a practice for my own part I never thought it right but 
subscribed to it as other Councillors have done finding it a custom and supposing it to be well 
known to their Lordships by the Minutes of Council. If the Assembly should sit whilst I 
have the honor to have the administration of the Government in my hands I will certainly 

' Adolfir's Phiupse, merchant of New-York, was second son of Frederick P. and Catharine Van Cortland, and was born 
in the year 1G65. On the rumor that the French were about to attack Albany, he was sent in 1691 to Connecticut to 
demand assistance from that Colony. Council Minutes, TL, 34. He was called to the Council on the 7th of February, 17o|, 
and in 1718 was appointed one of the commissioners for running the boimJary line between Connecticut and New-York. In 
1721 he was removed from the Council, on the representation of Gov. Burnet, for opposing the continuance of the Assembly 
after his Excellency's arrival. Smith. lu the following year he was elected to represent the county of Westchester in the 
Assembly, and in 1725 was chosen Speaker. At the ensuing election in 1726, Mr. Philipse was returned one of the four 
members for the city of New-York, again elected Speaker and filled that chair until 1737. At the general election that year, 
however, he lost his seat; but Gerrit Van Home, one of the members elect for the city dying soon after, an election was 
held to fill the vacancy, and in September Mr. Philipse was declared to be chosen. A great clamor ensued. SheriflF Cosby 
was accused of having committed the most barefaced villany in returning him, and the matter was brought before the House 
by petition. After a month's scrutiny, Mr. Philipse was declared member. The decision was important in some respects, 
for it was determined by the Assembly : I. That Jews could not vote. H. That non-resident freeholders had a right to vote. 
IIL That such as were freeholders of forty pounds, three months before the test of the writ of election, were voters; but IV. 
A grantee of a mortgage in fee forfeited, who has been in possession of the mortgaged premises for several years, was declared 
not entitled to a vote by virtue of such mortgage. Mr. Philipse was reelected Speaker in 1739, and occupied that office 
until 1745. Journal, I., 710-717, 750; II., 2. He died a bachelor in January, 1750, in the 85th year of his age, and at the 
time of his death was proprietor of the Great Highland patent, which included all of the present county of Putnam. Blake's 
Putnam Co., 77. "He was a man," saye John Jay, "of superior talents, well educated, sedate, highly respected and popular. 
Except that he was penurious, I have heard nothing to his disadvantage." Depeyster Genealogy, 118. — En. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 57 

obey their Lordships command tlierein, and then the Bills which have hitherto been some 
times brouglit into the Council Chamber when the Council were sitting with the Governor but 
often so delivered to the Governor himself out of Council and afterwards brought into Council 
by the Governor will of course be presented to the Council and pass them before they be 
presented to me 

As to the third point it is as true that the Governors liave in their own name adjourned the 
Assembly. Some times on the close of a sitting they have called the Assembly before them in 
the Council Chamber, where in the presence of the Council having given their assent to the 
Bills then ready for it they have adjourned them but often so after the Governors have 
assented to the Bills they have desired the Assembly to return to their house and to;,adjourn 
themselves to a certain day which the Governor named : But whenever the Assembly have been 
adjourned by proclamation the proclamation has constantly been in the Governors name as all 
Proclamations of all kinds ever have been in this Province. I know no instance to the contrary 
Sometimes the Governors have issued the proclamation for adjournment with the advice of the 
Council, but often so without it. There have been but few Prorogations, and I have ever 
thought it wrong, I think there ought to be one every year to make a Session Those 
Prorogations have been by Proclamation in the Governors name too as the adjourments have 
been — Do me the honor Sir to assure their Lordships that I will ever pay the greatest 
deference to their Sentiments & the most punctual obedience to their commands, & yet I 
presume to hope that they will not think me wanting in either if when the Assembly is to be 
adjourned again I do it by Proclaraatioa in ray name as usual, and I will do it with the advice 
of the Council as I have hitherto done, for if I should issue a Proclamation in His Majestys 
name, it would be implyed and strongly urged by the faction fond of distressing the Government 
that the former adjournments were illegal, and that the Assembly is dissolved nor may the 
evil stop there, perhaps they may carry their reflections a great way back & argue that Ail Acts 
passed under the former method of adjournm' are void, I should think rather, pardon Sir the 
freedom with which I speak my thoughts that if it be necessary to alter the method it would 
be more proper upon a new Instruction directing the stile of all Proclamations for the future. 
I am with the greatest Respect 
Sir 

Your most obedient 

humble Servant 

sg** Geo: Clarke 



Common Council of Albany to President Clarice. 

[ New-York Papers, Ff., No. 30. ] 

Albany IS"" May 1736 
May it please your Honor 

The Mayor communicated to this Board your letter of the 11"" instant directed to Captain 
Collins, whereby we perceive that you would have our opinion of a certain Tract of Land in 
Vol. VL 8 



58 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

the Mohawks Country petitioned for Mess" Storke & Van Brugh Livingston to his Majesty. 
We therefore shall endeavor to give you our opinion of it and its consequence according to the 
best of our Capacity & understanding, In the mean while we join with your Honor in Opinion 
that there is a course left out, However we can partly guess where the Land petitioned for 
lyes, and are well assured that great part of said Tract is already Patented and we are credibly 
informed that there are several purchases made from the Mohawks in the regular method for 
part of s"* Tract We are also assured that some of the Mohawks Indians are seated on part 
of it. But can not conceive that any of the Mohawks Flatts are included in those imperfect 
Boundaries We are confident that the method made use of by those Gentlemen first to obtain 
a Patent for Lands before a purchase made from the Natives will prove of ill consequence & 
alienate the Indians from His Majestys Interest & create great animosities & strife between 
them & us & in the end drive them' to the French So we most ernestly entreat your honor that 
you would in the strongest manner you can sett forth the ill consequences of such proceedings 
to the Lords of Trade & desire them to discountenance any such practices We are 
May it please your Honor 

Your Honor's mo obedient 
humble Servants 

Sg"* Edw^ Holland Mayor. 

Cornelius Cuyler Alderman 
Johannes Evert Wendell Aid" 
Leendert Gansewort Aid""" 
Tobias Ryckman Ald"° 
Jacob Tien Eyck 
Gerrit Brat 
Antony Brat 



Commissioners for Indian Affairs to President ClarTce. 

[ New-York Papere, Ff., No. 31. ] 

Albany l?"- May 1736 
May it please your Honor 

Sir 

Capt° Collins has communicated to us the Commissioners of Indian affairs, your letter to 
him of the ll"" Instant whereby we perceive you desire our opinion concerning a Tract of 
Land M' Storke & M"' Van Brugh Livingston has petitioned His Majesty for, and whether any 
of them be already granted to others, whether the Mohawks be seated on any part of it and 
whether the Mohawk Flatts be included in said Tract 

We observe with you that there is one course left out but are certain that a great part of 
the Land we take to be petitioned for is already granted to others, & as we are informed 

' from U8. ilinutca of Common Council, Albany, N. Y. — Ed. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 



59 



some purchases made in tlie usual way tho' not yet granted by Patent and that some of the 
Mohawks Indians live upon part of it but do not think that the Mohawk Flatts are included 
therein But are humbly of opinion that that way of granting Land before purchasing from the 
natives may be of ill consequence and alienate the minds of the Indians from His Majestys 
Interest and occasion great divisions among the people of this Province We most ernestly 
desire that your Honor and Council will be pleased in the strongest manner to recommend to 
the Lords of Trade to discountenance such Practice 
We are 

May it please your Honor 

Your Honors mo' obedient 
humble Servants 



Dike Ten Broeck 
In de Peyster 
Edw"* Collins 
Reyer Gerritse 
Con' Cuyler 



Mynder Schuyler 

RUTGER BlEEKER 

Stevanus Groesebeck 
Abraham Cuijler 
John Schuijler Jun"" 
John Lansing Jun"^ 
EdW* Holland 

NiCOLAES BlEEKER 



President Clarhe to Secretary Po^yple. 



[ New- York Papers, Ft, No. 83. ] 



Sir 



New York May 28"" 1736 



With the Duplicate, for the first is not yet come to hand of that of the 23'''' of January T 
had the honor to receive your letter of the 25"" of February last with a copy of M' Storke & 
M' Livingstons Petition for Lands in the Mohawks country a copy whereof I sent two days 
after to the surveyor General directing him to inform me whether any of the Land petitioned 
for by them be already granted, how much and to whom, who tells me he can not at present 
give me a satisfactory answer perhaps he may not be well acquainted with that part of the 
country. I therefore likewise wrote to Albany for the same information and whether any of 
the Mohawks are seated on any part of it, or whether any of the Mohock Flatts be 
comprehended within it and having received an answer thereto from the commissioners of the 
Indians affairs I do myself the honor to inclose it to you presuming it will give their Lordships 
full satisfaction in those points and to obey their Lordships commands in the rest I beg leave 
to make the following observations on the Petition and first, They pray to have the grant 
before they purchase the Lands of the Indians This is a practice so little known and so 
seldom used among us that I have heard of no more than two instances of it viz' that in the 
Albany Charter, before the Revolution of the Mohawk Flatts mentioned in your letter to be 
surrendered by the Mohowks to the City of Albany in trust for themselves the other a grant 



60 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

made by M' Van Dam after Coll Montgomeries death to M' Philip Livingston,' the Petitioner 
Livingstons Father and four others, of Lands in the Mohawks Country likewise, Livingston 
and the other Grantees of the Grantees' of the last mentioned Tract having in vain 
attempted in Coll Montgomeries time to purchase it of the Indians, took the advantage of Van 
Dams weakness, and got a grant from him without a real purchase but the Indians would 
never yet suffer them to possess it the Government in all other instances have been very 
careful not to grant Lands until they have been first purchased of the Indians knowing that 
they are impatient of such injuries and too apt on slighter occasions to shew their resentment 
of them, their Lordsliips know of how much importance it is to the British Colonies to tye 
the six Nations to our Interest, and I am confident they will discountenance every thing that 
may tend to alienate their affections from lis 

The Petitioners pray to be exempt from paying any Quitt Rents till the Lands come to be 
settled who would not on such Terms take Grants, and if such a Grant be made who will 
afterwards take them on any other Terms — Few who take Grants of Lands propose to make 
any immediate Profits of them, those who have Lands lease them out for ten or twelve years 
on a pepper Corn Rent and pay the Quitt Rents themselves from the date of their Patent 
which may be ten years more before they do lease it 

The Petitioners intend they say to bring over Palatins to settle the Land but they don't 
propose to oblige themselves to do it, nor do they mention any time for it nor any number of 
familys, they forsee perhaps that a few years may people the Province from Germany Ireland 
and other Parts of Europe and are preparing before hand to lay in for themselves an estate on 
easy Terms, for Sir having often reflected on the great concourse of People that for almost 
twenty years have flocked to Pensilvania, from Germany and other parts of Europe and hav^ 
informed myself of the nature of the Soil in General of that Province, of the price that the 

' Philip Ln'iNGSTON, 2nd proprietor of the Manor of Livingston, was the son of Robert L. and Alida Schuyler, widow of 
the Rev. N. Van Rensselaer. He was born at Albany in the year 1686. In 1705 he accompanied his uncle, Col. Vetch, to 
Quebec, that gentleman having been sent with Mr. W. Dudley by the government of Massachusetts bay, to Canada, to procure 
an exchange of prisoners, and if possible to conclude a Treaty of Neutrality. Hulchhison, II., 141 ; Post, IX., 770, 776. He 
^crved in the expedition against Port Royal in 1710, and after the reduction of that place, was ordered to proceed with the 
Baron de St. Castine to Quebec, to communicate the articles of capitulation to M. de Vaudreuil. He set out accordingly in 
the middle of October, and went up the Penobscot river as far as lodiaa Old Town, where, had it not been for his companion, 
his brains would have been knocked out by an enraged Indian, because some English prisoners had run away with his canoe. 
After some time the party again started but had not proceeded far when the ice so shattered their canoes that they were 
obliged to continue their journey by land and to travel by compass through a dense and almost impassable forest, the greatest 
part of the way over broken and mouutainous land. Six days before reaching the French settlements their provisions gave 
out and they were obliged to live on moss, leaves and berries. At length, after a most fatigueing march, they arrived at 
Quebec on 16th December, 1710. Hutchinson, II., 168; Post, IX., 854. Mr. L. returned to New-York and was admitted to 
the Bar on 31 Deo., 1719. Commissions, III, 197 ; in 1720 he was appointed one of the Commissioners for the management of 
Indian affairs, and in 1721 succeeded his father as Secretary of that Board and as clerk of the county of Albany, Ac. He 
was called to the Council in May, 1725, and took his seat in October following. In July of the ne.^t year he, for a third 
time, visited Canada, as bearer of Gov. Burnet's despatch, complaining of the erection of a French fort at Kiagara. Supra^ 
v., 802. In 1737 he acted as president of the commission appointed to run the boundary between New Hampshire and 
Massachusetts, and in 1740 was named one of the board to determine the line between Massachusetts and Rhode Island; 
on which occasion, Hutchinson says, he had great influence. In 1746 and 1747 he was one of the Commissioners on the 
part of New- York to meet and eoo|)erate with Commissioners from the other American colonies in measures for carrying 
on ihe war and securing the interests of the Indians. Commissions, III., 422, 436; Hvtchinson, II., 359; Belknap's New 
Hamphhire, III., 122. He continued in public life until his death, which occurred at New-York, in February, 1749. Mr. 
Livingston married Catharine, diiughter of Philip Van Brugli, mayor of Albany, and had two sons and three daughters. 
Sarah, one of the latter, was the wife of General Lord Stirling, who served in the American Revolution. Holgale's Qtn. — Ed. 
» Sic. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 61 

proprietors sell their Land for & the Rents they reserve I concluded that if one could induce 
some familys to come to this Province from Europe, they would find the Lands so much better 
than any tliat are now bought of the Proprietors of Pensilvania and the Terms on which they 
may be bought or leased so easy that multitudes on their report of these things, would follow 
them. I drew up therefore some proposals, shewed them to Gov' Cosby and having had his 
approbation & that of the Attorney and Surveyor General, we laid them before the Governor 
& Council in 1734 desiring they would make some resolves engage the honor & faith of the 
Government for the performance of the Proposals, as they very readily did & ordered them to 
be advertized printed dispersed in Europe but those being only printed papers some merchants 
in Dublin and Amsterdam desired that they may have the proposals under the Seal of the 
Government assuring us that they could then procure people to come In this we complyed and 
sent it to them last fall under the Seal of the Province, and under the hands of the Governor 
and Council and hope to hear further from them this Summer The proposals were these to 
grant no dealers of Land in the Mohawks Country in 200 acres to a family to the first 500 
protestant families that shall come from Europe, the Grants to be made gratis and the Lands 
to be purchased for them the only difference that they are to be at (besides the Quitt Rent 
which is to commence from the date of the Patents) will be the Surveying it, which will be 
very little, we have already some Lands purchased which we design for this use if the people 
come in reasonable time: and this is such encouragement as Mess" Storke & Livingston can 
not give them and such as the[y] can not have in any other Province, for no proprietors will give 
away their Land when they can have twenty five pounds and more a hundred for them. By 
the proposals for giving away 100,000 acres I shall be at considerable expence, for parchment, 
wax, engrossing Books for recording the Patents and Certificates &c the Governor and 
Surveyor General at none at all for they will only sett their names to the Surveys and 
certificates, the Attorney General will only be at the expence of copying paper for the Drafts 
of the Patents The prospect of advantage to us arises from the Expectation that after these 
100,000 acres are settled great numbers of people will follow who must purchase of the Indians 
and take grants at their own expence or if they are not able must become Servants to others 
who are able and will readily do it — Thus Sir, I have without disguise opened to you my 
design the advantage I propose to myself is at a distance, the publick benefit in the 
augmentation of the Quitt Rents, and the peopling of the Province near at hand, but nearest of 
all the profit to the Merchant in the Transportation of the people. This advertisement which 
contained the proposals was sent to M' Guerin in London the Governors Agent to Mess" 
(Swoern?) Merchants in Dublin and to M' Livinus Flackson merchant in Amsterdam to be 
printed and dispersed in Great Britain and Ireland, and in Holland to be translated into High 
Dutch and sent into all parts of Germany, the Germans are the most likely people of all these 
to set on foot the Hemp manufacture for which we have many Lands in the Mohawk Country 
very proper, but the first settlers being generally poor will want some further encouragement to 
enable them to begin that work and some skillful people to lead the way and shew others the 
best method of raising and dressing it : If these proposals had some publick Countenance at 
home, and that signified abroad, it would without doubt highly promote the design, I presume 
Governor Cosby acquainted their Lordships with it & ordered M' Guerin to present some of 
the printed copies to them. 

There is one line omitted in the Copy of the Petition that was sent to me wherein the 
description of the Land is thus, beginning at a certain Brook which vents itself into the 



62 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Mohawks River known by the name of Canada Creek being the Western bounds of Lands 
heretofore granted to John Collins and company computed to be forty miles Westward from 
Hudsons River, thence coming from the said River at the mouth of the said Brook northward 
in a direct line six miles into the woods thence extending south to the said northwest Spring 
and from thence Eastward along the Banks of the said River terminating at Canada Creek 
aforesaid Here I find but tliree lines which can neare make six miles square If by the said 
Northwest Spring be meant the Northwest Spring of the Mohawks River the Tract petitioned 
for will be almost one hundred and thirty miles in length, and six miles Wide which will 
comprehend almost all the Lands granted in the Mohocks Country on the Northside of the 
River but that can't be so understood, because you say the Land the Petition for is about Six 
miles Square, which must be six miles along the River from Canada Creek and six miles 
back into the woods it must therefore be some other Northwest Spring then that of the 
Mohawks River or the Petitioners would most grossly deceive the Crown 

Since I begun to write this I received the enclosed letter from the Mayor, Aldermen & 
Common Council of Albany much to the same effect as the letter from the Comm" of Indian 
affairs and two of the Councillors informed me that AP Philip Livingston,' the Petitioner 
Livingstons father) who is likewise one of the Commissioners of the Indian affairs being present 
when they wrote the letter to me declared to them that he would not for two or three thousand 
pounds that his son and M' Storke should succeed & that he knew nothing of his Sons 
petitioning till the arrival of the last ships from London, but yet he would not sign the letter; 
without doubt he would not have made that Declaration had he not been sensible himself, and 
conscious that the Commissioners evidently foresaw the pernicious consequences that must 
attend the Grant. 

Inclosed I send you Sir the Boundaries of a Tract of Land containing eight thousand acres 
which at first sight will evidently appear to be within the Petition I could send you the 
Boundaries of other Tracts likewise within the Petition but that I think this with the other 
Papers will be abundantly sufficient to satisfy their Lordships in what they expect to 
be informed 

I am with all possible Respect 
Sir 

your most obedient 

Humble Servant 

Sg** Geo: Clarke 



President Clarice to the Duke of Neiocastle. 

[ Now York^ 8. P. 0., VIII., 199. ] 

New York May 29"' 1736. 
My Lord 

In my letter of the S*" of May a duplicate whereof I do myself the honor to inclose, I 
informed your Grace of the steps that were taken to keep the Assembly from sitting. I found 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 63 

that they were too much intimidated for me to expect they would sit, and therefore T adjourned 
them with the advice of thu Council to the first Tuesday in August, hopeing in the meantime 
wliile to receive from Your Grace the signification of his Majesties pleasure on Van Dam's 
suspension and a dismission of Alexander from the Council, being confident that when these 
things are known, and that Morrris will not be restored the misguided people will return to a 
sense of their duty and I shall put an end to the faction whose spirits are already much 
sunk upon their disappointment on the arrival of our London ships, for they confidently 
affirmed before their arrival that Morris and Van Dam were restored, but finding those 
reports had no foundation in truth they begin to think that the heads of the faction have all 
along amased them for their own private ends. 

One of their main views and they have the two last sessions made some attempts for it, is 
by all means possible to get a dissolution of this Assembly before the present Revenue expires 
as it will do next year, being in hopes to get a Majority in the next, and resolved as they 
openly and avowedly declare not to give the Revenue longer then from year to year. If a new 
Governor comes before the present Revenue expires he will be under this dilemma, either to 
dissolve the present Assembly, or, not doing it, perpetuate the spirit of faction, but as they 
know it is not in my power to dissolve them they have no hopes of a new Election, and the 
further setlement of the revenue for a competent number of years may be obtained from this 
Assembly, and the disaffected may afterwards be brought change their present thoughts for 
others more temperate and dutifull; I take it to be my duty and yet I should not dare to 
mention this but that I presume upon your Grace's goodness to hope for pardon, I am carryed 
by the same hopes likewise humbly to acquaint your Grace that upon a new Election, if they 
get a Majority, they do not intend to setle even annually, the Revenue without first obtaining 
some concessions, that no former times have insisted on, some of which are these, they will 
declare the present Courts of Equity subsisting on his Majesties prerogative to be nul, and 
erect others by act of Assembly, they will pass an Act declareing that Judges shall hold their 
Commissions dureing good behaviour, they will have triennial Assemblys by a Law, they 
will make all Officers of the Crown their dependants, not only by their annual Salary but by 
retrenching their fees whenever they displease them, and who then can serve His Majesty 
faithfully and not starve. This is their present way of thinking but if they are for sometime 
kept out of the way of doing these things by the continuance of the present Assembly they 
will by good management be reduced to reason. I humbly presume to recommend my self 
to your Grace's protection, and to subscribe myself with the highest honor and regard, My Lord 
Your Grace's most humble most obedient and most dutiful servant 

Geo Clarke. 

To His Grace the Duke of New Castle. 



President Clarice to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New- York Papers, Ft, No. 84. ] 

New York May 29"> 1736 
My Lords 

Since the last which I did myself the honor to write to your Lordships of the S"' of May 
A Duplicate whereof i now send, I have with the advice of the Council adjourned the 



64 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Assembly to the first tuesday in august finding that Van Dam's letter and Morris's declaration 
had wrought too strongly on their fears for me to hope for their sitting at this time. In the 
mean while they will I hope recollect themselves & resume courage of which I have no doubt 
if His Majesties pleasure be made known on Van Dams Suspension & Alexander be dismissed 
from the Council. 

The Faction are much quieter since the arrival of our Ships from London, for the heads of 
them having before confidently affirmed that Morris was restored & that they expected to 
receive by the first vessel His Matys order for taking off Van Dams Suspension & being 
disappointed of both the people begin to suspect they have been imposed on, and prepare 
themselves to look for the signification of His Matys pleasure in another manner than their 
Leaders promised them and I am very confident that when I have the honor to receive them I 
shall be able to put an end to the present distractions and to unite the minds of the people ia 
their duty & Reverence to His Maty Governm' 

I have done myself the honor to answer M" Poples letters to Governor Cosby of the 23"* of 
January & 25"' Feb^ which I hope will be satisfactory to your Lordships 

I have upon your Ldps letter to M'' Van Dam of the 4"' of FeV^" 173| given to me by M" 
Cosby among other papers since the Governors death taken the oath of Chancellor & shall 
hold that Court as often as their is occasion 

There is at present a deficiency in the Revenue of four thousands pounds the Assembly last 
fall resolved to provide for it at their next sitting, but as that will not be till His Majestys 
approbation of Van Dams Suspension be signified I humbly hope I shall soon have it. If this 
Assembly be not continued neither that deficiency will be made good by an other Assembly, 
especially if it be chosen before the Faction be broke, nor will a new Revenue be given by 
them but from year to year and that only on condition of having triennial assemblys the 
abolishing of the Courts of Equity subsisting by the Kings authority, Judges during good 
behaviour a dependancy of all Kings officers on them — This my Lords is the Scheme the 
male contents talk commonly of; If a Governor comes before the deficiency be made good and 
an other Revenue be given for a competent number of years he will be in a great Strait, it will 
be expected that he dissolve this assembly which has subsisted ever since Gov' Montgomerie 
came. If he should dissolve them I have told your Lordships what must be expected from a 
new one at this time if he should not dissolve them he will perpetuate the spirit of faction 
They know I can't dissolve them and so don't expect it and I dare undertake that if it be His 
Majesties pleasure to continue me in the administration of the Government to get an other 
Revenue for a competent number of years before the expiration of this to have the present 
deficiency made good and to restore quiet to the Province I humbly recommend myself to 
your Ldps protection and am with the highest honor 
My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble & 

most obedient Serv' 

sg'' Geo: Clarke 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 65 

President Clarice to the Duke of Newcastle. 

[New-Tork. S. P. 0., VIII., 200.] 

Duplicate New York June 12"" 173G. 

My Lord, 

With this I do n7y self the to send to your Grace a duplicate of my letter of the 29"' of 
May. Since that time nothing e.xtraordinary has occurred to deserve your Grace's notice, 
unles it be that there appears daily a greater Calm in tlie Province, the misguided people 
having given over their expectations of hearing Van Dam and Morris's being restored and 
preparing themselves to hear contrary news. For ray own part I beg leave to assure your 
Grace that I give them no cause of complaint, I open my arms to receive those who have been 
led astray, and I dare with more confidence than ever affirm to your Grace that upon tiie 
signification of His Majesties approbation of Van Dam's suspension, of Alexander's dismission 
from the Council, and of Morris's not being to be reinstated, tiie spirit of faction will soon 
disappear, the Assembly meet and do their duty, and quiet and concord resume their former 
seats, nor can any thing obstruct it but a speedy dissolution of this Assembly; That indeed 
will throw the people into fresh convulsions, and make an union more difficult to be brought 
about, especially if the dissolution be before the deficiencies of the Revenue be provided for 
and another Revenue given. The defiiciency of tiie Revenue at present is four thousand 
pounds. The Treasurer computes that all the Revenue yet to come as it expires next year 
will not bring in more money then will be necessary to sink the Bills of Credit directed by 
tlie Revenue Act to be sunk. So that at the Expiration of the Revenue there will be a farther 
deficiency of above four Thousand pounds more, thus all the Officers of the Government will for 
more than two years be without a penny of their Salary, the main support of their familys, 
which will reduce them to the utmost necessities, and my fate will be worse than theirs for I 
shall not only live at an extraordinary expense, but must buy fire wood and candle for the 
Garrison, repair the Fort &c and pay all the contingent charges of the Government out of my 
own pocket. But if this Assembly be not dissolved as it is not expected from me that it 
should I make no doubt but that they will in the first place provide for the deficiencies of the 
Revenue, and afterwards give another Revenue before this expires without clogging it with 
those unprecedented demands which a new Assembly if the faction have a Majority will do: 
If this Assembly be dissolved before they have provided for the deficiencies of the Revenue a 
new Assembly chosen at this time will not make them good, nor give another Revenue 
otherwise then as I have done my self the honor to mention to your Grace. It is therefore I 
humbly presume of the highest importance to His Majesties service to keep this Assembly on 
foot till these things are done; a Governor may soon dissolve them (as it will undoubtedly be 
expected from him come when he will) this Assembly having sate ever since the year 172S) 
and haveing nothing to ask of a new one will have time enough by mild and gentle methods to 
reclaim the disaffected, if not done to his hand, and to unite the mind of the people. 

To morrow M" Cosby embarks on Board' the Squirrel Man of Warr for Boston, to go from 
thence to England in the station ship that the Squirrel relieves. I have done whatever has 
lain in my power to contribute to her ease, and I hope she has found the good effects of it: 
undoubtedly had Van Dam succeeded to the administration of the (iovernment she would 
have felt the severest and most unjust persecution that ever Lady sullcred. If he liad any 
Vol. VI. 9 



66 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

just demand on Governor Cosby, which as Executrix M" Cosby is now liable to the Laws are 
open to him in England and he may see her there, if he does not it will I think be plain that 
all his pretences were calculated to make a clamor here, and to misrepresent Gov' Cosby at 
home: and I dare affirm to your Grace that most if not all Morris's complaints are built on the 
same foundation. 

I humbly implore your Grace's protection against the malice of the implacable enemies of 
Governor Cosby who will most certainly ruin me if Van Dam be restored, it is in your Graces 
power to prevent it, and I presume on your goodnes and justice to hope for it and humbly 
beg leave to subscribe my self 

]\Iy Lord 

Your Grace's most humble 

most obedient and most dutiful servant 

(signed) Geo: Clarke. 



President Clarice to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-Tork Papers. Ff., No. 8T. ] 

New York June 12"> 1736 
My Lords 

Since my last which T did myself the honor to write to your Lordships of the 29"" May I 
have had the pleasure to see a dayly decrease of Faction, for my own part I give them no 
cause to complain, and I hope a mild and uniform conduct may at length put an end to the 
unhappy divisions in the Province. Some things however may intervene to defeat my 
expectations, but nothing is so likely to do it (except the restoring Van Dam & Morris) as a 
dissolution of the present Assembly before they have settled an other Revenue and provided 
for the deficiencies of this, which at present is about four thousand pounds and will be four 
more at the expiration of the Revenue which will be next year, unless made good before for 
the Treasurer computes that it will not bring in more money than will be necessary to Sink the 
Paper money directed to be sunk by it in that case all the officers of the Government will 
be undone for they will not receive a penny of Salary for two years and upwards and their 
Salary is the cheif support of their familys my case will be still harder, for I must live at a 
greater expence to support my character to countenance and encourage the friends of the 
Government &c I must buy firewood and candle for the Garrison repair the Fort and pay all 
contingent charges out of my own pocket If this Assembly be dissolved before these things 
be done, I have already done myself the Honor to inform your Lordships what is to be 
expected from another chosen now. It is therefore of the highest importance to his Majesties 
Government and to the peace and good of the Province to keep this Assembly a foot till they 
have done those things. A Governor may then dissolve them and it is most certainly expected 
he should, come when he will he will have time before him to gain upon the affections of the 
people before he will have any thing to ask of them, and before the expiration of that Revenue 
happens the Assembly may have something to ask of him, for which he may obtain a 
Settlement of the Revenue for a further term of years 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 67 

I beg your Lordships to be assured that I have notliing so much at heart as His Majesties 
honor & Service and the Ease the Quiet & the Prosperity of tliis Province and that I shall 
spare no pains, nor grudge any expence to heal the unhappy Breaches and to unite the minds 
of the people & I dare promise a good event if I liave time given me 

Your ^Lordships^ to whose great wisdom His Majesty has committed the care of his 
plantations will I am confident weigh what I have done myself the Honor to lay before you 
and it is from your Lordships Representation to His Majesty that I give myself the leave to 
hope for such orders as may support me in the pursuit of those good ends I have in view 

I do myself the honor to send to your Lordships the miimtes of the Council from the tenth 

of March to the twenty seventh of May & beg leave to subscribe myself with the highest 

honor and regard 

My Lords Your Humble S' 

sg'' Geo: Clarke 



<■«»■■» 



President ClarT&e to Secretary Popple. 

[ New-Tork Papers. Ff., No. 38. ] 

New York June IS"' 1736 
Sir 

Yesterday I received from M'' Coldens own hand who is now in Town the enclosed Map & 
Letter concern^ the Land petitioned for by Storke & Livingston You will perceive Sir, by the 
Map that most of the Land contained within the square of six miles is already granted, that 
which is ungranted of it is supposed to be scarce worth the expence of a Patent, the 
Petitioners therefore had without doubt some further view and most probably it was to get a 
Grant of all the Lands on that side of the Mohawks River about one hundred and thirty miles 
in length and six miles wide. If they had succeeded it would have opened a door to endless 
Law suits and contentions between them and the present Patentees and possessors of great 
part of those Lands, and purchasors from the Indians on valuable considerations of other 
parts not yet patented. It would hinder the Settlement of the country. Notwithstanding 
their pretence of peopling it it would rob the King in His Quitt Rents of nigh six hundred 
pounds a year and wo'd undoubtedly drive the Mohocks & Oniades two of the Six Nations 
from us to Canada; for the Oniades own the uppermost part of what is called the 
Mohocks country 

We are in no part of the Province more careful not to grant Lands till they are first 
purchased of the Indians than in the Mohocks Country, the same caution ought always to be 
used, but I am persuaded their Lordships will discountenance all attempts to the contrary — I 
am with profound Respect & Honor 

Sir 

Your most obedient 

humble Servant 

Alured Popple Esq™ sg'' Geo: Clarke 



68 NEW- YORK COLONIAL INIANUSCRIPTS. 

Hon. Cadwallader ColJen to President Clarhe. 

[New-Tork Papers, Ff., No. 3S. ] 

Sir 

In answer to yours of the 10"' of last month I send you a Map of that part of the Mohawks 
Country where I suppose the Lands lye of which M' Stork & M"" Livingston have prayed His 
Mnjestys Grant in England, which Map is made from the Surveys of the Lands granted 
formerly by the Governors of this Province and which are lodged in my office It is not 
possible from the Copy of the Boundaries of that Land which you send me to lay the 
Boundaries down upon this Map or upon any other because something is omitted necessary to 
make tiie sense compleat: But as you say, Sir, tiiat the letter which enclosed the Copy of the 
address sent you calls it a Tract of Land six miles square the prick't lines on the Map shew 
such a Tract lying to the Westward of the Canada Brook & on the Northside of the Mohawks 
River by which it appears that the greatest part of it is already granted, and as to what 
remains ungranted I am confident no man would pay for the fee of the Land one half the 
money that the charge of obtaining such a Grant in England must amount to. I therefore 
suspect (if I be right in guessing what is meant by the words the said Northmost Spring 
mentioned in the Boundaries sent to me) that the Petitioners are far from intending to obtain 
only a Tract of six miles square but rather an oblong Square as some call it of Six miles in 
Breadth and to extend the whole length of the Mohawks River upwards to its head. This 
indeed would [be] a vast Tract tho' I do not with certainty know the length of that River in 
number of miles and with the charge of obtaining the Grant of it free of the Quitt Rents till 
such time as it could be settled, but then it would contain at least thirty miles of Land already 
granted and settled 

It is very difficult for the Kings officers, who live in the Province to guard against Frauds in 
petitioning for Lands described by natural Limits such as Brooks, Hills, Springs &c Tho 
actual surveys be made previous to the Grant because the names of such places being in the 
Indian Tongue are know to few Christians so that the Proprietors afterwards are sometimes 
tempted to put those names upon others places that they think more convenient for them & it 
is impossible for the superior officers to guard against the unfaithfulness of all those that they 
are under a necessity of employing in surveying lands especially in remote parts of the 
country. Now Sir if it be so difficult for the officers who live on the spot to prevent abuses 
how much greater must it be at such a distance as England is from us where the Satuation of 
the parts of this Province is not in any manner knowen & how great will the Temptations be 
to attempt Frauds. Indeed the common method of obtaining Grants of Land in this Country 
is at so easy a rate that I can not think that any man in this country would endeavor to 
obtain a Grant in England upon the usual Quit Rents unless he had some thing private in view 
which he thought could not be kept secret in this country 

This method of granting Land in England if encouraged must of course be of great 
prejudice to the Settling of the country & the improving the uncultivated Lands for considering 
the expence person[s] who design to take grants of Lands in this Country must be at in 
purchasing from the Indians in making the previous surveys before the Grant passes and 
in passing the same as likewise in preparations to settle and improve, none or few will attempt 
taking a Grant in this Country, when it may happen that the same Lands are granted in 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. G9 

England notwithstanding that no man in the Country may have suspected any such Design 
in England as really once happened in the Case of the Equivalent Lands 

The office of Surveyor General of Lands you know Sir is not of inconsiderable Trust & 
yet I have no Sallary from the Crown either here or in England but am left from' my 
encouragement & the subsistance of my Family to the Perquesites of my office which will be 
entirely or in a great measure lost if this method of granting Lands in England be encouraged 
which is a hardship such as I hope the Kings ministers are not willing to put on any officers 
of the Crown 

Manj' more inconveniences may ensue from this method by raising vexatious suits upon 
Titles of Lands by irritating the Indians when Lands are granted without purchases &c which 
will naturally occur to you the Representation of which come more properly from you & 
which I beleive you think of such consequence to the Wellfare & Peace of this Country 
that you will not fail to set them forth 

The answer Sir to the other questions you were pleased to put to me I beleive will arise 
from the inspection of the Map 

I am 

Sir 

Your obedient 

liumble Servant 

June 9"" 1736 sg*^ Cadwallader Coldejj 

Received June 17"" 
GC. 



The Lords of Trade to the Lords of the Privy Council. 

[ New-Tork Enlrles, M. p. 29. ] 

To the Right Hon'''^ The Lords of the Committee of His Majesty's Most Hon'''"' Privy Council. 

My Lords, 

We herewith transmit to Your Lordships agreable to Your order of the 3'' Ins' upon the 
petition of Rip van Dam Esq"' copies of two Letters which we have received from M'' Clark 
now Commander in Chief of the Province of New York dated y' 29"" of March & 7"' of April 
last together with Copies of the Minutes of Council at New York on the 24"' day of November 
1735 and the 10"' of March 173;} as also a State of M"' Van Dam's case and the Opinion of 
His Majesty's Attorny Gen" at New York thereupon, dated the SS"" of Feb^y last and three 
printed papers entituled the New York Weekly Journal dated March S"" 1735 and March SS"" 
173G and the New York Gazette from March the 2S"' to April 5"" 173G all which relate to the 
Suspension of the said Rip V^an Dam from y^ Execution of his Office of Councillor and y= 
settlement of y* administration of the Government for the time being, in the person of the 
next eldest Councillor M'' Clarke 

' Sic. Qu? for. — Ed. 



70 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

We furtlier take leave to observe upon this occasion to Your Lordships, that it being a setied 
Instruction to ail the Gov" of His Majesty's Plantations, not to suspend any fneinber of their 
respective Councils without transmitting the Reasons for so doing to His Majesty and to 
tins Board, We presume that what prevented the late Col. Cosby's Coniplyance with tliis 
Instruction upon M' Van Dam's Suspension was his being then very ill in the sickness of 
which he afterwards dyed. 

But Col. Cosby's Opinion of the said Van Dam and of the Necessity there was for removing 
him from the Council of New York maybe collected from His former letters to this Board; and 
are stated in our Representation to Her Majesty of the SS"" of Aug" last, a Copy whereof is 
hereunto annexed to which we beg leave to refer Your Lordships for Your further Juformation 
in this Case. We are, My Lords, 

Your Lordships most obedient 

and most humble Serv" 

FiTz Walter 
T. Pelham 
M. Bladen 
AVhitehall Orl° Bridgeman 

June y' IS"" 1736 R. Plumer. 



President Clarice to the Duke of Newcastle. 

[New- York. S. P. O., Till., 201.] 



June IS 1736. 



My Lord, 

I have the honour to receive your Grace's letter to Gov' Cosby of the 10"" of October 
inclosed to me in one from M"' Oglethorp dated at Georgia the ll"" of May, wherein he 
acquaints me that the Spaniards were preparing to dislodge them, that they had strove to 
corrupt the Indians to forsake His Majesty's alliance and had sent for a large body of Troops 
from the Havannah, but that they had neither Trading goods, Guns nor Powder to perform 
their promises to the Indians, nor food to support their Troops when they arrive, without they 
procure them from the English Collonys, That he was informed from Charles Town that the 
Spaniards have sent hither to buy provisions &c. and desired me to prevent it I called a 
Councill and layd before them your Graces, and M"" Oglethorp's Letters, and having advised 
with them of the properest methods to prevent any supplys from being sent to the Spaniards, 
I issued an order to the Collector not to clear any Vessell for St. Augustine, and a Proclamation 
forbidding all His Majesty's Subjects to supply the Spaniards with any stores of Warr, Trading 
goods or provisions. 

I wish with all my heart it may have the effect proposed tho' I have cause to fear it will 
not, for the Vessells which at any time go to the Havannah or St. Augustine enter at the 
Custom House and clear for some English Collony, and it's supposed that a sloop so enter'd 
and cleared went to St. Augustine a few days before I had the Honour to receive your Grace's 
letter. I presume, My Lord, to think the most effectuall way to prevent succours being carryed 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 71 

to St. Augustine will be to get the Carolina and the other nearest station ships to cruise and 
lye off that place to hinder the English vesselis from going in. 

I beg leave to assure Your Grace that I will upon all occasions give M'' Oglethorp all the 
assistance in my power, being of nothing so ambitious as the honour of obeying Your Grace's 
commands, and subscribing myself with the most profound submission and honour, 
My Lord, 

Your Grace's most humble most obedient and 

most dutiful Servant, 
(sign'') Geo. Clarke. 



Commission of George Clarice, Esq., as Lieutenant-Governor of JVew-York. 

I New York Papers, Ff., No. 40.] 

Caroline R : C : R 

Caroline, Queen [Guardian of the Kingdom of Great Britain and His Majesty's Lieutenant 
within the same]' To George Clarke Esq''' Greeting. We do in his Mnjestys name, by 
these presents constitute and appoint you to be Lieut"' Governor of His ALnjesties Province 
of New York in America, you are therefore carefully and diligently to discharge the duty of 
Lieut' Governor by doing and performing ail and all manner of things thereunto belonging. 
And all His Majestys ofhcers and subjects whom it may concern are hereby required to obey 
you as Lieut' Governor of His Watys said Province, and you are to observe and follow such 
orders & Directions from time to time as you shall receive from His Majesty, His Governor 
of the said Province for the time being or any other your superior officer according to the 
rules and discipline of War in pursuance of the Trust hereby reposed in you. Given at 
the Court of Kensington the IS"" day of July 1736 in the tenth year of His Matys Reign 

By Her INIaties Command 

signed Holles Newcastle 



President Clarice to (lie Dtike of Newcastle. 

\ Ncw-Tork. S. P. 0., VIII., 202. ] 

New York July 2G"' 173G. 
My Lord, 

I do my self the honor to send to your Grace a Copy of my letter of the IS"" of June, I 
hope M'' Oglethorps apprehensions of hostilities from the Spaniards are pretty well over, for 
we hear nothing of it. 1 heartily wish succes to the setlement of Georgia on every account. 

' The words within brackets are added from the Record in Booh of Commissionn (in the Secretary of State's office, Albany, 
N. Y.), IV., 96, in which the date of the Instrument is "thirtieth" of July, 1736. — Jio. 



72 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

If the people have their health they will in a few years be too numerous to fear any attacks 
from the Spaniards and become a strong barrier to Carolina, and I think those places that are 
frontiers both against the Spaniards to the Southward, and against the French to tiie Nortliward 
ought to have encouragement to extend their setlements, and to make them as populous as 
possible. It was principally with this view and to augment his Majesties Quit rents that I 
projected a Scheme to setle tlie Mohacks Country in this Province, which I have the pleasure 
to hear from Ireland and Holland is like to succeed. The scheme is to give grants gratis of an 
liuudred thousand acres of land to the first five hundred protestant familys that come from 
Europe in two hundred acres to a family, these being setled will draw thousands after them, 
'or both the situation and quantity of the Land are much preferrable to any in Pensilvania, the 
onely Northern Colony to which the Europeans resort, and the Quit rents less. Governor 
Cosby sent home the proposals last Summer under the Seal of the Province, and under his 
and the Council's hands, but it did not reach Dublin till the last day of March; had it come 
there two months sooner I am assured by a letter which I lately received, directed to Governor 
Cosby, that we should have had two ships belonging to this place (then lying there) loaded 
with people but next year we hope to have many both from thence and Germany. When the 
Mohocks Country is setled we shall have nothing to fear from Canada; — our Beaver Trade 
will be well secured, and greatly augmented, and the Navigation and Trade of the Province in 
general vastly increased, and the hempen manufacture set on foot, and I presume to hope the 
scheme will receive your Grace's approbation and protection. I have tlie honor to assure your 
Grace that the Heats and animosities which lately rage'd in this Province are so much abated 
that from one end of the Town to the other, nothing of complaint or party disputes, which 
were lately the whole conversation, are now talked of, and if neither Morris nor Van Dam be 
restored, I am confident that I shall restore the Province to perfect tranquility and to a more 
flourishing condition then ever. I may venture to assure your Grace, however vain it may 
appear, that the present good disposition of the people arises in a great measure from the 
opinion they have of me in a long experience. The main things tiiat remain to be done to fix 
the quiet of the Province on a lasting foundation are to get tiiis Assembly to meet, to make 
good the deficiencies of the present revenue and to setle another before this expires of which 
I have now a fair prospect. It is the present Assembly that must do it. If your Grace will 
vouchsafe to give me your protection, that I may be continued in the administration of the 
Government I will undertake on the forfeiture of my life to get the Assembly to do those 
things before this Revenue expires, which will be in September 1737, but if a Governor 
arrives before it be done, the Province will undoubtedly be thrown again into convulsions. 

Zanger has lately published a vile paper highly reflecting on the memory of Governor 
Cosby, which would not have been writ I believe ^had not some warm spirit printed the 
Introduction to Morris's case with some observations on it, tliis enraged his Son or one of his 
friends who in revenge wrote this scandalous paper, the only one that has appeared a good 
while: their Spirits were sunk, they had notliing to say, and must be silent unles Bradford the 
other printer provokes them, which I will endeavour to prevent. 

I humbly ask pardon for the trouble I give your Grace, and implore your protection, and 
iiave to subscribe my self with the highest iionor, and greatest submission 
My Lord 

Your Grace's most humble most obedient and most dutifuU servant 

(signed) Geo: Clarke 

His Grace the Duke of New Castle. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 73 

President Clarke to the Lords of Trade. 

[New-York Papers, Ff., No. 39.] 

New York July 26 1736 
My Lords 

It is with tlie greatest pleasure I ever felt that I have the honor to assure your Lordships 
that the heats and animosities that lately raged iu this province are now so much abated that 
those who before would neither converse nor deal with one another now do it with the utmost 
freedom Greivances and complaints which made all the conversation are no more mentioned 
and I'll forfeit my life if I do not again restore the province to as much tranquillity and to as 
flourishing a Condition as ever it enjoyed provided I have time given me for it. There is but 
one main thing wanting to finish what I have so happily begun which is to get this present 
Assembly to sit and make good the Deficiencies of the Revenue, and to give another before 
this expires, as it will September come twelve months. I have at the Request of the Speaker' 
and some other members adjourned the Assembly from the first tuesday in the next month to 
the second Tuesday in September all the intermediate time being the busiest Season in the 
year for the farmer — I have great hopes of their meeting & sitting at that time, though 
the signification of his Majesties approbation of M"" Van Dams Suspension should not come If 
they do sit I have no doubt of their making good the Deficiencies of the Revenue this Session 
and as little of their giving a further Revenue next year It is from this Assembly that we 
ought to expect it another will not do it and it is happy that His Majesty by His Instructions 
has put it out of my power to dissolve them without the Consent of seven of the Council 
which the people are sensible can't be got. In the Spring Van Dams protest & letter & young 
Morris Speach wch he read intimidated them, but I shall now guard against such things and 
prepare something for them before the day on which they are to meet in answer to those 
papers wherein I hope to set matters in a clear light I have bora the heat of the day and 
humbly hope from your Lordships Protection & Interest to be continued in the administration 
of the Government till I shall put the finishing hand to the work of uniting the minds of the 
People and settling the Quiet of the Province upon a lasting Foundation 

M'' Alexander continues to absent himself from Council having never once appeared tho' 
summoned every time since the day on which Governor Cosby died 

I humbly recommend myself to your Lordships protection being with the highest honor 
& Respect 

My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble & most 

obedient Servant 

sg** Geo: Clarke 



' See note 1, supra p. 00. — Ed. 



Vol. VI. 10 



74 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

President Clarice to the Bailee of Nervca-stle. 

New-York. S. P. O., VIII., 208.] 

New York September the IS"- 1736. 
My Lord 

I humbly beg leave to inform your Grace that on the 14"" instant about eighteen or nineteen 
of the Assembly coming to Town on my adjournment met in the House, but would not put the 
Speaker in the Chair, after some discourse they sent two of their members to me desiring a 
copy of the clauses in the Commission and Instructions relating to tlie Suspension of 
Councillors, I sent them to them; and then adjourned them to the next day; by that time 
they made up two and twenty of the Seven and Twenty of which the House is composed, 
and having debated the matter for some time, the Speaker not being in the chair, young Morris 
thinking he migiit carry away so many as would reduce the rest to a minority, as he did in 
the Spring, rose up and mad a feint to be gone, and three or four following his example called 
to some others to go with them, but all the rest keeping their seats, Morris and those who 
rose with him returned, and then the Majority agreed to send the Speaker and another of their 
members to me desiring me to adjourn them to the Second Tuesday in October, they assured 
me it would have a good effect, and I complyed. 

I do myself the honor to send to your Grace the Papers which came out at this time, 
wherein tiie Malecontents objections to the legality of Van Dam's suspension and my 
administration are stated and answered. I was in hopes to have had the honor to receive 
from your Grace His Majesties approbation of Van Dam's suspension, which would have put 
an end to the faction. I am not without great hopes that the Assembly will sit in October 
and I promise my self succes in their proceedings as to the making good the Deficiencies of 
the Revenue. 

If your Grace will be pleased to give yourself the trouble to read the inclosed papers 
printed by Zanger and a copy of a manuscript certified by the Mayor you will see to what a 
heighth of villany they are arrived, and yet tiiey do not pretend any other cause, then that, 
I have usurped the administration of the Government, and it is no small satisfaction to me 
that I have given them no other cause of complaint, nor has there been since the Spring when 
the Assembly was to meet the least stirr or noise about the town till now, when they were 
about to meet again, all their strength is bent to keep them from sitting as the only thing left 
them to keep up the appearance of discontent, and to distress the Government, but I hope 
they will fail of their expectations, and then I shall be able to give your Grace a good account 
of the Province. 

I have been obliged to say something, in those papers, wrote on the side of the Government, 
to keep me from being suspected to be the author, which nothing else could excuse, and I 
should blush to own, they have alredy had a good effect on the majority of the Assembly and 
on the people. I humbly beg leave to recommend my self to your Grace's protection and to 
subscribe myself with the greatest submission and honor. My Lord Your Grace's most humble 
and most dutifull servant 

(signed) Geo. Clarke 

His Grace the Duke of New Castle. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXV. 75 

President Clarke to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New- York Papers, Ff., No, 51.] 

New York Sepf 20"' 1756 
My Lords 

Oil the 14"" Instaat a majority of the Assembly met but would not put the Speaker in the 
Chair being resolved first to inquire into the legality of Van Dams Suspension and my 
administration being frightened and terrified by Zengers Journal they agreed to send two of 
the numbers to me desiring I would give them a copy of the clauses in the Commission and 
Instructions relating to the suspension of Councillors in this there was a pretty general 
concurrence both of my friends and opponents, of the first in hopes to convince the others, of 
latter on a beleif from the inclosed paper intituled Sentiments &c that I would deny them. I 
readily gave into their request and sent them in a few hours and then adjourned them to the 
next day by that time two or three more of my friends came to town: Some of those came 
with no good dispositions being convinced by the Sentiments &c and Bradfords Gazette begun 
to talk temperately and the Majority expressing an inclination to be adjourned to the second 
Tuesday in October they agreed to send their Speaker & another of their members to me 
with that request who being my friends assured me it would have a good effect. I did 
accordingly adjourn them to that day, they hope that I shall before that time receive the 
signification of His Majestys approbation of Van Dams Suspension, but if not they will they 
say, then meet and sit, I was obliged to give way to necessity and did it with as good a 
Grace as I could. Young Morris would now again have played over his Game of the 29"" of 
April, he made a feint to leave the house and to carry off as many members as would have 
reduced the rest to a minority, but failing in his attempt he and three or four more that followed 
him sate down again. If the Assembly sits as its thought they will I hope soon to give your 
Lordships a good account of the Province. 

I have been obliged my Lords in those papers wrote on the side of the Governm' to say 
something from being suspected to be the author, which I should otherwise blush to say they 
have already had a good effect. I likewise do me myself the honor to send your Lordships 
some of the opposite papers by which you will see to what a height of Villany their pens go, 
but with all this it is a great pleasure to me that they have nothing to complain of but that 
they say I have usurped the administration of the Government. The Summer Leaf passed 
very quietly and so would the fall have done had I not called the Assembly together for which 
there is an absolute necessity, they know that that is the only way they can distress me, and 
they lend all their force to keep them from sitting but that point once gained of them, I shall 
soon put them to silence which will effectually restore the Province to its former tranquillity I 
humbly recommend myself to your Ldps Protection, and am with the most profound Honor 
& Regard 

My Lords 

Your Lordships- 
most humble and 

most obedient Servant 
(sg**) Geo: Clarke 



76 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

President Clarice to the Duhe of N&ivcastU. 

[ New-York. S. P. 0., VIII., 209. ] 

New York October 7"' 173G. 
My Lord 

I am sorry that I have so soon occasion to give your Grace the trouble of another letter, but 
the faction having prevailed on M'' Van Dam's weaknes to a greater degree then could be 
imagined, I think my self bound in Duty to acquaint your Grace with it by presenting to you 
a copy of my letter to the Lords of Trade, with the papers therein referred to, presuming that 
they contain (if not a full account of all the folly and madnes of the faction,) enough to give 
your Grace a view of the present situation of affairs. 

I beseech your Grace to be assured that I will never fail to maintain His Majesty's Royal 
Authority to the utmost of my power and to the last penny I have, in world. Never was 
any man so distressed as I am, there is not a farthing in the Treasury, on the contrary there is a 
great deficiency in the Revenue, I am obliged to defray all expenses out of my own pocket, 
and shall continue to do so in support of the Government tho I and my family are thereby 
reduced to the utmost want, hoping from your Grace's [favor] and protection that His Majesty 
will be graciously pleased to continue me in the administration of the Government, there is no 
other way by which I can possibly be preserved from ruin, for if a Governor comes whilst I 
labour under a heavy load of debt which I am daily contracting in my present circumstances 
I can hope for litle relief from the Assembly, when I have no influence over them, and if this 
Assembly be dissolved, another will not make good the deficiencies of the Revenue nor give a 
new one especially if it be chosen before the faction be broke, and the people reclaimed from 
their madnes, and for that reason chiefly if not solely it is that all their strength is bent to 
keep this Assembly from sitting. 

We are informed by private letters from Merchants in London that it is his Majesties pleasure 
that M" Cosby shall have a pension paid her by whoever succeeds Governor Cosby. 1 heartily 
rejoice at every instance of Royal favour to her, and cannot but think it a high act of Justice 
in recompense for her sufferings here. I have done my self the honor to congratulate her upon 
it, and humbly ask your Grace's pardon for presuming to mention it to you. 

A few days will resolve me whether the Assembly will sit or no, if they do, as they 
promised on my adjournment they would, I have great hopes that I shall put to silence these 
seditious spirits. Your Grace I presume will readily believe that I have a very hard task, but I 
shall bear up under it, I hope, in such a manner as may justify me to His Majesty, and gain 
your Grace's approbation and protection. 

I humbly beg and presume to hope that your Grace will be pleased to send me full powers 
and instructions to put an end to the present distractions and their pretended doubts, and T 
humbly propose it to your Grace's consideration whether it will not be proper that I should 
have on this occasion, a power to pardon Treason ; Van Dam, Alexander and Smith have 
alredy trod very near it, and if they should go further and draw in many unwary people with 
them, I presume your Grace will think it necessary. If James Alexander, William Smith 
and Lowis Morris Junior the author of the seditious papers, with John Peter Zanger their 
printer were sent to England the spirit of faction would be intirely broke, but this at present 
I dare not venture to do without orders, being by His Majesties 45"" instruction forbid to send 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXV. 77 

any prisoners to England without sufficient proof of tiieir Crimes to be transmitted vvitii tiiem, 
and i have no oll>er proof at present against any of them then the appointment of Corporation 
Officers by Van Dam, wherein it appears that Alexander assisted as a Councillor. 

The printer on promise of a pardon might be a strong witnes and help us to more. By the 
next ships I hope to have the Iionor to acquaint your Grace that the face of affairs are then 
altered for the better. I humbly beg leave to recommend my self again to your Grace's 
protection and to subscribe my self with the most profound honor and submission My Lord 
Your Grace's most humble 

most obedient and most dutifull servant, 

His Grace the Duke of New Castle. (Signed) Geo:Claiike. 



President Clarice to Secretary Popple. 

[ New-York Papers, Ff., No. 42. ] 

New York Oct: 7"> 1736 
Sir. 

As the inclosed letters to their Lordships with the papers in them will be in your hands I 
forbear to give you the trouble of a repetition of them in this. You will see, Sir to what a 
height Faction runs and how eagerly these men would sacrifice the Peace of the Country to 
their own private views, and what an administration we should have had if M"' Van Dam had 
not been suspended, he was ever a weak, man but now his great age makes him weaker — It 
is our great unhappiness that no orders have yet come to me from his Grace the Duke of 
Newcastle or from their Lordships, it is that that kept the assembly from sitting and made 
them desire this adjournment, in hopes I should have some in the mean while and it is to 
keep them from sitting that these virulent papers are published and these mad steps taken. 
All the Council that are in Town except M'' Alexander act very heartily with me and Doctor 
Coldens sentiments who has been for some time in the woods surveying and intends to be 
here in about ten days are best known by his own words I had a letter from him to day dated 
the 27"" of the last month wherein is this passage which my present situation warrants me to 
transcribe "Your prudence, Sir, and patience in the conduct of the publick affairs gives me 
" much pleasure, your persevering in the same method I think, can not fail of success unless 
" prevented by foreign accidents which a wise man can not guard against, may you receive 
" your reward in the good effects of restoring peace & contents to the Inhabitants of this 
" Province, and I shall for the promoting these good purposes do every thing in the power 
" of Sir &c" 

I hope their Lordships will now think it highly necessary that Van Dams Suspension be 
confirmed and expressly declared to be so from the beginning Alexander dismissed and M' John 
Moore & M' Paul Richard appointed in their Room and I presume to ask your favor in it you 
will see, Sir, their way of writing, and 1 hope that whatsoever orders are sent, they may be so 
clearly expressed that those men may be driven from all their shifts, but I ask pardon for 
interposing my opinion and beg you will be so good to move their Ldps to some speedy & 
effectual Resolution 



78 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Pardon me, Sir, for presuming to enclose to you my letters to M' Walpole Coll Bladen and 
M"' Le Heup I was afraid some trick might be plaid me, if 1 had sent them single and 1 know- 
not which way to guard against it so well as this and as they relate to the publick affairs, I 
the more assuredly hope you will forgive it 

I am with great respect & honor 
Sir 

Your most obedient 

humble Servant 
sg** Geo: Clarke 



President Clarice to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-Tork Papers, Ff., No. 48. ] 

New York Ocf 7"" 1736 
My Lords 

On the IS"" of the last month we had by the Post the news of Morris's being arrived at 
Boston the faction were busy contriving ways to keep the Assembly from Meeting on the 
adjournment I gave them at their own request, they thought if the Corporation of this city 
questioned my authority and refused to submit to it it would have a great influence upon the 
members; the Majority of the Corporation being entirely at the Beck of the Faction and for 
the most part men of Low class were easily persuaded to their measures, the anniversary day 
whereon the Gov' or Commander in cheif nominates the Mayor Sheriff and Coroners viz 29"" 
Sepf being at band the Common council met & sent the Mayor & Town Clerk to me to desire 
I would appoint no officers for the ensuing year or to appoint the present ones for by the 
Charter they are to continue till new ones are sworn they delivered their message and told me 
but not by directions, that the Common Council intended to present a memorial of which tiiey 
had a draught ready prepared, desiring me not to appoint & to present the like to M"' Van 
Dam pretending that they were fearfull of their Charter if they should accept of any officers 
appointed by me and His Majesty should think fit to replace M' Van Dam, when in truth 
this was only a fetch to get some acknowledgement that I doubted of my authority and then 
to spread it abroad to keep the Assembly from meeting I returned an answer to the Message 
that 1 would to the utmost of my power protect the City in all their just rights liberties and 
priviledges and in the nomination of such officers as are to be appointed by me I would make 
the directions of the Charter the rule of my actions and hoped no man would attempt any 
innovations that may be prejudicial to the city, two days after I gave that answer they held an 
an other Common Council and sent some of their members to M' Van Dam to ask him if he 
would appoint who told them as I am informed that when the day of nomination came on he 
would let them know what he would do, the 29"' of Sepf came but no memorial 1 summoned 
his Majesties Council in the morning as usual & by their advice appointed the officers of the 
present year for the year ensuing and sent a copy of the minute of Council to the Town 
Clerk the same day M'' Van Dam sent as I am told to the Aldermen acquainting them that he 
intended that day to appoint their officers and in the afternoon summoned me and the rest of 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXV. 79 

the Council by a door Keeper whom he that day appointed to meet him in council at his house 
but none went but M^ Alexander who has never since the day of Gov' Cosbys death tho' 
constantly summoned appeared in Council with me what Van Dam did will appear to your 
Lordsiiips by the enclosed paper No A' the next day I held a council again and we went^ to 
the Town clerk for that attested copy and ordered a Proclamation to be drawn which being 
prepared against the afternoon was then in council referred to a Committee who the next 
morning laid it before the board where it was again read with the amendment the Committee 
made to it and ordered to be issued No B. So soon as it was known that Van Dam had taken 
this extraordinary step the council thought it high time for me to remove from my house 
in Town into the Fort where I now am, what, or whether the Faction have any 
encouragement from Morris to go this length I can't tell most people imagine that letters 
have passed between him and them since his arrival at Boston and suppose that his 
journey hither has been put off on that account this is certain that they have in their weekly 
journal published by their Printer, Zenger endeavored to persude the People that every man 
has a right to judge to whom the administration of the Government belongs that if a Governor 
misbehave himself they may depose him and set up an other in consequence whereof they 
prepared a paper and on the 29"" of September in two of their wards got the people when 
they were voting for aldermen to sign it, the other five wards did not nor would not sign it — I 
despair of getting it or a copy of it and all the account I can get of it is that they declared 
M' ^'an Dam has the Right to the administration of the Government in some of the wards 
the aldermen refused to offer it to the People and tho it was notwithstanding spoke of to them 
by others yet the people would not sign it, it has been said (as I have been informed ) by several 
of the faction at several times that Morris had done what he could but since he could not be 
heard and that they could not have justice done them at home, they must do themselves justice 
heare they talk of making a sacrifice in Zingers journal No C and of murdering me for my 
usurpation of the Government as they call it No D, I own I am much surprised Van Dam 
should by any means be drawn so great a length, tho' I know he is a very weak man and it is 
universally talked on and beleived in Town that Alexander and Smith two Lawyers and 
the first one of the Council gave him their opinion in writing in very positive Terms that the 
administration of the Government properly and lawfully belonged to him and that it might have 
the greater weight Alexander gave his opinion upon oath the day that Van Dam nominated the 
city officers, but of this I have no proof however it is generally & firmly beleived, & that this 
way the drew him into that unwarrantable step, your Lordships may be surprised that so 
many months having passed since I have had the administration of the Governm' in my hands 
& none of these extraordinary steps taken by Van Dam he should now act in this mad manner, 
the reason is they know there is no way by which they can distress the Government so 
effectually as by hindering the Assembly from sitting and have great cause to apprehend that 
if they should sit the eyes of the people will be opened, they will see for themselves and be 
no longer led by those who have hitherto misguided them, they had hopes from the Precipitate 

' The following is a copy of this paper: — "New York, September 29, 1736. His Majesty's Council of the Province of 
New York being duly summoned to attend me in council, as commander in Chief of the Province, and James Alexander 
appearing, and the rest neglecting to appear according to the said summons, so that a quorum could not be made to give 
me their advice concerning the appointment of the following magistrates of this city ; I have, in their default, appointed 
Cornelius Van Home, Mayor ; William Smith, recorder ; Richard Ashfield, sheriff and Richard Nicolls coroner, for the 
ensuing year. Rnp Van Dam." — Ed. 

' Sic. Qu ? sent. 



80 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Behavior of the Assembly in the Spring that they would meet no more but when contrary to 
their expectations they found they came together in September that the acted more rationally 
and that the majority sent to me to desire a short adjournment (in hopes that I should in the 
mean time receive some orders) for notwithstanding Zengers audacious denyal the majority 
did send the speaker & an other member to me, they resolved to make a bold push and at any 
rate to attain their ends & the anniversary day for Election of Aldermen & common Council 
& for the nomination of the mayor &c being to come about during the time of this last 
adjournment they thought no season so favorable as that, I am fully perswaded that if the 
Assembly sit I shall be able to break the Neck of the Faction and get the deficiencies of 
the Revenue made good, and I am bold to affirm to your Lordships that if the Assembly 
be not continued till the Province is restored to its tranquillity an other Assembly will 
neither make good the deficiencies of the present Revenue nor give an other, but by their 
presumptuous attempts on His Majestys Royal Prerogative will throw the Province into 
the extremest convulsions 

These City officers to whom Van Dam has nominated talk of acting but how he will give them 
commissions 1 can't see 1 have the Seal Commission & Instructions he must either grant the 
Commissions in his own name or in the Kings under his own Seal I beg your Lordships to 
be assured that it shall be my first & principal care to reclaim the People by mild methods 
without departing from my duty or prostituting His Matys Authority. The Defection is cheifly 
confined to the City where the Ring leaders of the male contents dwell we hear nothing of it 
from the Counties. If there were not two companies of the Kings forces in Garrison here the 
Faction would probably take arms but fear I beleive restrains them now 

[ think the Ring leaders have already gone too far & if they should go further and draw 
unthinking and ignorant people in with them, I humbly presume that it will be necessary that 
I should have power and Instructions to pardon Treason I am forbid by His Matys 45'" 
Instruction to send home any prisoners without sufficient proof of their crimes to be so 
transmitted with them and I have no regular proof but Zengers papers & Van Dams 
appointment of the City Officers If James Alexander, William Smith and Lewis Morris J' 
the authors of those papers with their Printer Zenger' were sent home it would put an [en]d 
to the Faction & Zenger on promise of Pardon might be a strong witness & direct us to others 

Your Lordship's will see No E & F. That Alexander has been duly summoned and never 
appeared in Council since the last affidavits of this kind that I did myself the honor to send to 
your Lordships, I humbly recommend myself to your Lordships Protection and am with the 

greatest Honor 

My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and 

most obedient Servant 
Sg"* Geo : Clarke 

' Jons Peter Zenger was born in Germany in the year 1697, and arrived in New -York in company with Johanna, his ' 
widowed mother, a brother and a sister, in the summer of 1710, being one of the Palatines sent out that year by Queen Anne's 
government On the 26th October following, being then in his thirteenth year, he was bound apprentice to William Bradford, 
Printer, for the term of eight years. After his time was expired he set up business on his own account, and in 1733 began 
the publication of the New -York Weekly Journal. It was the second newspaper established in the province, and, being 
opposed to the government, was prosecuted and publicly burnt. Zenger himself was imprisoned. He died in 1746, leaving 
his paper to be printed by his widow. — Ed. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXV. 81 

President Clarhe to the Diike of jSFewcastle. 

[New-York. (S. P. O.) VIII., 222.] 

New York October 14"' 1736. 
My Lord, 

I beg leave to do myself the honor to inform your Grace that on the 12"" instant the 
Assembly met according to my adjournment, and spent that day in debating the legality of 
my administration, without putting the Speaker in the Chair, I adjourn'd them to yesterday, 
when they were to put the question whether or no they should sit and act, it is thought, and 
some of them told me, they should be able to carry the question for sitting, however early in 
the morning before the House met, I had the honor to receive Her Majesties additional 
instruction dated the first of June directing the form of Prayer for the Royal family, I 
immediately summoned the Council and in their presence opened it, and the news being 
presently spread through the Town most of the Assembly came to me to whom I shewed it, 
They e.xpressed much joy, went strait to the House, put the Speaker in the Chair, and 
adjourned themselves to this day, when I sent for them as usual, and made my Speech to them, 
they appear to be very unanimous, and I hope a good effect from the Session, which the 
season of the year will make very short. The universal gladnes that appeared on my receiving 
that Instruction was as great as ever I knew it, and I hope the Spirit of faction is now intirely 
broke. The Corporation came all to me to day with the Mayor whom I swore as usual in 
their presence, tho three only of their Aldermen are by their Charter to attend him. 

The first day the Assembly met they asked Morris if he knew of any Orders or Instruction 
prepared or preparing for me, he stood up and in a solemn manner declared that he knew of 
none, and believed I should have none, and tho we had an account from Boston soon after 
Morris's arrival there, for he came that way, that he and his son had said that Van Dam was 
not restored, nor he believed would be till a Governor arrives, that in the mean time the 
Government properly belonged to me, and that the son said he saw this very instruction made 
or making out for me, and that he offered to bring it, yet the son deny'd it all in Zangers 
Journal of the 11"" instant, and said he believed that I should have no such orders nor any 
other order relating to the Government. These confident declarations of the Father and 
Son startled the Assembly, and confirmed the disaffected people in their opinion that the 
administration of the Government belonged to Van Dam, who, it's said was resolved on tliis 
day to swear the Mayor and other officers whom he had appointed into their places, which 
might have been attended with fatal consequences, for I must have maintained His Majesties 
Royal authority, and have protected and assisted his magistrates, but the Instruction came 
very opportunely to prevent evils, and to give the people who before favoured him a vile 
opinion of Morris. 

Tho' it is much in my nature to act with gentlenes, and to forgive private injuries. Yet I 
think so many bold and daring insults on His Majesties Government and some of them very 
near if not. High Treason call for some severer notice. I pity Van Dam and heartily wish he 
could be distinguished from the rest, for he is really incapable of judging for himself and lias 
been wholly guided by Alexander, Smith, Morris and his son, I wish I could say that it is not 
generally believed that Captain Morris has had as great a hand in keeping up the spirit of 
faction as any man, but of that I have no regular proof, M" Cosby knows his behaviour very 

Vol. VI. 11 



82 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS 

well. It is believed that Alexander will apply in England for his Majesties pardon, but surely, 
My Lord, no man ever deserved it les, 'tis to him as much or more than to any one that all 
the past sedition is owing Van Dam has been only a tool in his hands, and I presume to think 
is to be considered in this case as an Idiot, he is alredy severely punished in his purse for 
Morris, Alexander and Smith have undone him he is an object of His Majesties mercy and I 
truly wish he had it, notwithstanding he would have shewn me none had I been in his power ; 
for the others, they may be punished and no man pity them, for even the mob who lately 
favoured them for Van Dam's sake, would now for his sake too, see them fall without regret, 
so sudden a turn as things have taken is rarely seen, every man rejoices or seems to rejoice on 
the occasion, those who two days ago cryed Hosanna to Morris, now cry crucify iiim. I 
humbly beg your Grace that I may have orders how to proceed against these delinquents, at 
present I am pleased with the happy turn without appearing to have further views lest too 
many should be driven to despair, but when things are setled, and the memory of them grown 
staler, I shall then be able without fear of new disorders to execute wliat commands I receive. 
A Gentleman who is going to Boston waits for this where I hope it will find a conveyance, I 
therefore intreat your Grace's pardon for whatever faults my haste may have committed, 
humbly imploring your Grace's protection, and leave to subscribe my self with the greatest 
submission and honor, 

My Lord, 

Your Grace's most obedient 

and most dutiful! servant 
(signed) Geo Clarke 



President Clarice to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-Tork Papers, Ff., No. 4T. ] 

New York Oct. IS'* 1736 
My Lords 

It is with pleasure not to be expressed that I do myself the honor to inform your Lordships 
that when Morris & his son. Smith & Alexander had wrought the people to a pitch of Rebellion 
and they were the next day determined to commit some open act, I had the Honor on the 13"" 
Instant to receive Her Majestys Instruction directed to me ordering the form of prayer for 
the Royal Family I immediately summoned the Council opened it in their presence and 
communicated it to them the members of the Assembly were then going to meet to determine 
whether or no they would sit but hearing of the Instruction most of them came to me to 
whom I shewed it they went strait to their House put the Speaker in the chair and adjourned 
to the next day when I sent to them & spoke to them as your Lordships may be pleased to 
see by the inclosed telling them after I had made my speech that the council were to sit by 
themselves without me — So sudden a Turn and so universal a joy upon the Signification of 
the Instruction are rarely heard of, the common cry now runs against those others that I named 
every one pitys Van Dam, & so do I too he has been misled by them who took hold of his 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 83 

weakness. I hope whatever orders are sent to me about the others he will be favorably- 
dealt with 

The Assembly have but a short time to sit because of the approaching winter the tenth of 
November being the latest day that Sloops venture up the River what they will be able to do 
in that time I can't tell they are in a very good temper and I am perfectly easy in my 
administration and make no doubt if His Majesty will be graciously pleased to continue me in 
it for a time, I shall be able to put the Province in a more flourishing condition then it has 
hitherto known I humbly recommend myself to your Lordships Protection and am with the 
highest honor and regard 

My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and 

most obedient Servant 
sg'' Geo : Clarke 



Lords of Trade to President Clarice. 

[ New-Tork Entries, M., p. 82. ] 

George Clarke Esq"" 

Sir, 

We have received Yours of the S"* & 29"" of May, 12"" of June 2C"' of July, and have seen 
what you wrote to our Sec'"'' in Your letters of the SS"" of May & IS of July last. We have 
also received the several papers you therein mention to be inclosed, and we cannot but 
congratulate you upon the tranquility which seems in a great measure to have been restored to 
the province by your prudent and steady conduct during the time that some people were using 
all possible means to disturb your administration. We hope that by this time you may have 
received his Majesty's Commission appointing you Lieut Gov"' of the Province and that you 
may soon be enabled to induce the Assembly to raise a proper Fund to supply the Deficiency 
which you mention in the Revenue of the Province, as also to pass an Act for raising another 
before that at present subsisting shall expire. 

We shall be glad to hear by Your next Letters what progress has been made in the Proposals 
you mentioned to us in Your Letter of the SS"" of May last, for making a settlement of foreign 
Protestants in the Province So we bid you heartily farewell, and are 

Your very loving friends, 

and humble Servants 

FiTz -Walter 
Tho: Pelham 

Whitehall Col° Bladen 

Octo"' y' 21" 1737 M^ Plumer. 



84 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Limtenant-Govenior Clarice to the Buhe of Ntioca-stle. 

[New-York. S. P. O., VIII., 2i5.] 

New York Nov. SS*! 1736. 
My Lord. 

On the 29"" of tlie last month I had the honor to receive Her Majesty's Commission 
appointing me Lieutenant Governor of this Province, and heg leave to return your Grace my 
most humble thanks for your protection. The Assembly were then sitting but as their 
meeting was put otf by the arts and intrigues of the faction, and their own fears, till it was 
late in the fall, the short time they had left was not sufficient for them to enter into an inquiry 
and to make good the deficiencies of the Revenue, they resolved hovrever to do it the next 
summer. I put on the best face I could and parted with them without expressing any 
dissatisfaction and they seemed much pleased that 1 had given my assent to their Bills, it being 
insinuated that I would not. 

The faction being broke, the people grow daily more sensible of the danger that Morris and 

a few more had brought them into and of the happy escape they have had, for without doubt 

had not Her Majesties Instructions to me come on the day it did, the next would have involved 

them in open Rebellion, Van Dam would have sworn the City Officers, whom he named, and 

I must have supported those of my nomination, and have sent a detachment of the Garrison 

to have protected and assisted them in quelling the tumult that was threatened and would 

most certainly have been raised on that occasion. Happy for them that so unexpected a stop 

was put to their madnes, and that Morris's designes are discovered, he can no more delude 

them but is become the object of their passion which they express in the sharpest terms, 

even Van Dam whose cause Morris espoused exclaims loudly against him for having imposed 

upon him and threatens to sue him for some money he took up in England in his name 

of his Correspondent. In a word. My Lord, the face of aflairs is wonderfully changed for the 

better, the people seem perfectly contented, and the hopes of a few desperate men, are all 

placed in the expectation of seeing a Governor soon come from England, imagining that in 

that event they shall be able to revive a troublesome spirit, but I do with confidence assure 

your Grace, that if His Majesty will be graciously pleased to continue me in the administration 

of the Government, and it's enemies have no room to perswade the people that they will soon 

see a change, I shall be able to restore them to as much unanimity, content and happynes as 

they ever knew, and the Province to a more flourishing condition then ever. As to my self I 

beg leave to inform your Grace that I have been obliged to live at a very extraordinary expense 

to attain those ends, and that I have been obliged too, to defray all contingent charges of the 

Government out of my own pocket, not having received one single shilling from the Treasury, 

since Governor Cosby's death, and must go on in the same expensive manner till the 

deficiencies of the Revenue are made good. It is a very heavy weight upon me, and will 

inevitably undo me if I am so unhappy to be removed from the administration of the 

Government before those deficiencies are made good. But I humbly hope from your Grace's 

great goodnes and compassion that you will give me your protection and save me from ruin, in 

those hopes I shall go on with cheerfulnes at whatever expence it be to finish the work that is 

so happily begun presuming that I cannot do a greater service in my present station nor 

recommend myself more elllectually to your Grace. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 85 

The Council and Assembly having joined with me in an address to His Majesty on His 
Royal Highnes the Prince of Wales's nuptials, I do myself the lionor to inclose it to your 
Grace praying tliat you will do us the honor to present it to His Majesty. I humbly 
recommend my self again to your Grace's protection, and am with the most profound 
submission and honor 

My Lord 

Your Grace's most humble 

most obedient and 

most dutifull servant 
(Sigued) Geo Clarke. 



Liiutenant-Governor Clarhe to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-York Papers, Ff, No. 43. ] 

New York Nov 27"' 173G 
My Lords 

In my letter which I did myself tlie honor to write to your Lordsliips the IS"' of October I 
acquainted you that I had received Her Matys Instruction directing the Form of Prayer for the 
Royall Family but not having then time to inform your Ldps particularly of affairs 1 beg leave 
now to give you a plain and further narative 

Wiien Morris first arriv'd at Boston not knowing how things stood iiere he owned that tJie 
administration of the Govern"" would remain in my hands till tiie Kings pleasure should be 
knowen and iiis son who came vvitii him said he saw the Instruction mentioned made out for 
me in one of the offices at home that he offered to bring it but was refused, but said tiuit it 
would be sent to me in Pajecoes Ship this Piece of news was inserted in our Gazette hoping 
some good effect from it But Morris had not been long at Boston before he and his son 
changed their note and denyed what they had before said whether upon the informations he 
might receive from his friends here of the measures they were taking to keep the Assembly 
from sitting, or upon discoursing his son in Law Capt" Norris who went to Boston to him I 
don't know tho' the circumstance of time in which tiiey changed their note happened to be 
just after Capt" Morris arrived at Boston however it was the design was about tiuit time laid 
to prevail with M"' Van Dam to appoint a Mayor and other officers for this city and the like for 
All)any which he did on the 29"" of September tliat being tlie anniversary day for that purpose, 
tlio' they are not sworn into their office till tlie 14 of October about the ninth of October Morris 
came to Town being met by M'' V^an Dam ic many of His friends with whom he marched 
thro' the Streets to a tavern where a supper was prepared. Morris I am told seemed surprized 
that M"' Van Dam had not .the administration of the Government in his hands assured tliem 
it belonged to him complimented him drank his health and addressed himself to him by the 
Title of the President of the Council and commander in Clieif of the Province in so much that 
those who were present at the supper expected every moment to see him produce some orders 
for tliat purpose, before the company broke up Morris made a long Harangue to incite tlie 



86 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

People to persist in tlieir measures against tiie Govern"" concluding liis speech tlius, let us stand 
by one another and hang them or they will hang us, on the 12"" of October the members of the 
Assembly who were in town met to debate whether they should sit Morris who was one of 
tliem bringing a great number of People with him & throwing open the door of the Assembly 
room hoping by the appearance of so many to deter some of the members who were for sitting, 
but the majority carrying it for shutting the Door they entered on the Debate wherein M' Van 
Dam's and my right to the administration of the Government was canvassed, Morris argued 
strongly for M'' Van Dam and among other things said that he was so well assured of M'' Van 
Dams Right that if he would give him a Commission he would act under it. This confident 
Speech delivered by a man just come from England and who it was supposed knew how the 
thing was understood at home staggered some good men but there being more members expected 
in Town that evening they put off the further debate till the next day, but early in the morning 
of that day before the members were to meet Pajecoes ship came in and brought the Instruction, 
so surprizing an event astonished the whole Faction, every man then saw plainly the truth of 
what had been wrote from Boston, that that Instruction would be sent to me in Pajecoes ship 
and were highly enraged with Morris for thus imposing upon them blinding their eyes and 
leading them to the Brink of Rebellion and destruction, Morris finding the Storm gathering 
against him hoped to weather it by his Affidevit wiiich he took denying that he knew heard of 
or beleived tiiat. that Instruction would come directed to me, & his son swore too that he never 
said at Boston what I have before mentioned, however the Events happening Just as they 
were said they would in Bradfords Gazette, established the truth of what was there said beyond 
all doubt & everyone beleived the Father knew of it as well as the son, thus instead of clearing 
themselves they made all the world nay, all the Faction look upon them as perjured wretches 
& the vilest of men & are fallen never to rise again : that a tumult would have ensued and overt 
acts of high Treason would have been committed the next day will I presume be evident to 
your Lordships from Hence for that the next day Van Dam would have sworn his Mayor and 
other officers into their offices I must have done the like to those of my nomination, there being 
then two setts of officers each would have acted, the people were prepared to support M"' Van 
Dams, I must have supported mine who would have sent to me for assistance and I must have 
sent them a detachment from the Garrison both to protect them and assist them in quelling 
the Riots in which many lives on both sides would have been lost and many more been guilty 
of high Treason — but if it should be said all this was done only to keep tlie Assembly from 
sitting and that M'' Van Dam would not have sworn them let it be considered that had that 
only been their hitention they would not have put him upon sending Commissions to Albany 
for the Mayor Sheriff and Recorder of that city with a dedimns to swear them on the same 
day, which he could not recall, for fearing the Sloop by which they were sent would not arrive 
time enough they ordered the Master of it to send it express by Land if he saw there was 
occasion and the Master finding he could not reach Albany in, time did send them by an express 
wch arrived there the night before they were to be sworn, however they were wiser than those 
who sent them and would not qualify themselves, but that Van Dam could not ibresee nor 
could he have recalled in time his dedimus or Commissions and that there was no tumult or 
Rebellion at Albany is not owing to Van Dam or his advisers for poor man he is not capable of 
judging for iiimself & is much to be pitied and if it be true that Alexander Smith & the other 
Ring leaders of the Faction here were (as I am told they declare they were) kept in the 
dark as to the Instruction & encouraged by Morris to go the lengths they did the blame will 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 87 

all lye at his door — The Instruction coming so seasonably the Assembly met the same morning 
and put the Speaker in the Chair, the season of the year could not suffer them to sit long and 
from tiience and for want of having the Treasurers accounts they have put off the providing 
for the Deficiencies of tlie Revenue which are very great to the next Session this was a cruel 
stroke to me wlio are already above a thousand pounds out of pocket witiiout hav^ received 
a single shilling from the Treasury since Brigadier Cosbys death, or a possibility to receive a 
siiilling till the deficiencies are made good, 1 am obliged to live at a great expence and to pay 
all contingent charges out of my own Pocket, and if a Governor should be appointed before 
that be done I am innevitably ruined nor is there any other possible way to revive the spirit 
of Party or to prevent me from establishing the Peace and content of the Province fixing it 
upon as sure foundation and making it a more flourishing country than ever and this I dare 
undertake to do at the hazard of all thats dear to me if His Majesty will be graciously pleased 
to give me a further continuance of the administration of the Government, but if a Governor 
comes before those things are fully settled the Province will be thrown into as great 
convulsions as ever. I beg leave therefore to become an humble Petitioner to your Ldps for 
my own sake for the sake of the officers of the Government who groan under a long arrear of 
Salary but especially for the sake of the Province to consider our past sufferings our present 
conditions & future expectations and to represent all to His Majesty in such a light as your 
Lordships think best for His Mnjestys Interest and the Quiet & Prosperity of the Province 
wherein I beg to be understood too of such Instructions & orders as may enable me to quiet 
the fears of those who may live in apprehension of being questioned for their past actions as 
yet I have called no man in question and I dayly find the good efltjcts of it 

On the 10 Instant 1 put an end to this Session of Assembly Prorogueing them to the last 
tuesday in March having first given my assent to all their Bills tho' it was strongly insinuated 
that I would not as they had not made good the deficiencies of the Revenue, they were 
wonderfully pleased that I assented to them and so they were that the Council sate this 
Session without me, it being never done before we parted in very good temper and they 
promised me to do next Session what I proposed this the Bills that I assented to are these 

1 An Act to continue the Militia Act 

2 An Act to revive an act for the speedy punishing & releasing such persons from 
imprisonment as shall commit any criminal oftences in the City of New York under the degree 
of Grand Larceny 

3 An Act to revive an Act for mending and keeping in repair the post Road from New York 
to Kingsbridge 

4 An Act to revive an act to prevent swine running at large in Dutchess County &c 

The first of these Acts being to continue one in being and the rest to review others that 
jiave formerly passed and expired by their own limitation want no remark 

5 An Act to enforce part of an Act for raising fifty pounds in Schonectady &c 

This Act I think very just & necessary both as it provides for the Payment of money 
advanced by private persons for a publick Service and as it enables the People of the Town 
to mind their streets which in some places at some seasons of the year are not passable for 
carriages which is very inconvenient to the Inhabitans who carry on a considerable Trade of 
flower and other goods 

G"" An Act continuing the Act to let to Farm the Excise 



88 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

This is an annual Act with this difference only that this year the Excise of the city of New 
York is by the Act itself let to a particular person who gives more than in other years it has 
been let for 

7"" An Act for paying of sixty pounds to M' Barclay' 

This young man has applyed himself to the learning the Indian language has taught the 
Indian children to read and write and brought many otliers over to the Christian Religion, he 
is going to England to take orders and hopes to be employed by the Society for Propagating 
the Gospel! as their missionary to the Indians, The thing deserves encouragement and I hope 
will have it 

S"" An Act to enable the justices of Peace in Orange County to build a new Jail 

This is a very necessary work in all places and in this it is very much wanted 

g"" An Act to revive an act for the speedy punishing and releasing such persons from 
imprisonment as commit any criminal offences under the degree of grand Larceny in the 
several counties therein mentioned and to include the city and county of Albany and County 
of Suffolk 

The Act that this revives has been found so very beneficial that not only the Counties to 
which it extended desired a revival but others have desired to be inclosed in it 

lO"" An Act for the better clearing regulating and further laying out publick High Roads in 
the County of West Chester 

This Act is necessary for the ease & benefit of Travellers and for all the people of the 
County, nor can any new Roads be made or the old ones kept in repair wthout it 

With the Acts I do myself the honor to send your Lordships the Journal of the Council and 
Assembly and also the minutes of Council to the IS"" of November whereby your Lordships 
will be pleased to observe that I have not drawn any warrants since those became due the 
first of June, hoping that His Majesty will be graciously pleased to give me the whole Salary 
as I have the whole burthen of the expence wherein I humbly intreat your Lordships to give 
me your protect" & if I draw for one half only I doubt and am almost sure the Asssembly will 
not make any provision for the other half when they make good the Deficiencies I humbly 
recommend myself to your Lordships and am with the most profound honor and regard 

My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and 

most obedient Servant 
Sg^ Geo: Clarke 

' Rev. Henkt Bauclat, D. D., waa a native of Albany and son of the Rev. Thomas 1?., first Episcopal minister of that city. 
He graduated at Yale College in 1734, and on the recommendation of the Rev. Mr. Miln, of St Peter's church, was 
appointed Catechist to the Mohawks at Fort Hunter in 1736; he proceeded to England in 1737, for the purpose of 
receiving Holy orders, and was ordained on 30th January, 173J, and sent by the Society for the Propagation of tlie 
Gospel Missionary to Albany and Fort Hunter; he arrived in his native city in the beginning of April following, and 
continued his labors there and among the Mohawks until October, 1746, when he was inducted Rector of Trinity church. 
New -York. In 1701, he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity from the College of Oxford, and died 20th August, 1761. 
At the time of his death he was engaged in superintending the printing of a Translation of the Book of Common Prayer into 
the Mohawk dialect — Ed. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 89 

Lords of Trade to LieiLtenant-Govemor Clarke. 

[ New-York Enlries, M., p. 37. ] 

To Geo. Clarke Esq' 

Sir. 

We Iiave received Your letter of the iS"" of October last giving us an Account of Your 
having received the Instruction from Her Majesty to you as President of the Council and 
Commander in Chief of New York, directing the new Form of Prayer for the Royal Family, 
and we are very glad to find the good effect that has attended the Receipt of this Instruction : 
If this acknowledgement of Your Authority in the Title only of an Instruction from her 
Majesty has restored the peace and tranquility of the Province, we hope the Confirmation of 
it will follow Your receipt of Her Majesty's Commission appointing You Lieu' Governor in the 
execution of which we make no doubt but you will follow the same prudent & steady steps 
you have hitherto taken. So we bid you heartily farewell and are. Your very laving friends 

and humble Serv" 

B'itzWalter 
T. Pei.ham 
Whitehall M. Bladen 

Dec"-^ y' 9"" 173G R. Plumer. 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Lords of Trade. 

[New- York Papers, Gg., No. 1.] 

New York April 9. 1737 
My Lords 

I have the honour to receive your Lordships letters of the 22 of October and 9 of December; 
I beg leave to return your Lordships my most humble thanks for your favourable opinion 
of my readiness, an incouragement that will enable me with chearfulness to go through 
all diflSculties 

The Assembly are now sitting but I cannot as yet make any Judgement of what they will 
do, I do my self the honor to inclose to your Lordships my speech with the Councils Address, 
and the addresses of some of the Counties which in the late times were the most disaffected 
as a testemany that my endeavours have had some success I have the misfortune howsoever to 
sufer extreamly under the deficiencies of the Revenue, not having yet received one penny from 
the Treasury, and being obliged to support the honor and dignity of the Government out of 
my own private fortune and credit, but I assure your Lordships that no distresses shall ever 
make me give up his Majesty's just authority which perhaps may be attack'd especially in the 
point of erecting Courts of Equity; I have endeavoured previously to their sittings to divert 
them from such thoughts by inviting them to think of raising hemp and Iron which will be of 
solid and lasting service to them ; I published a scheme for that purpose and recommended 
those things to them in my speech, it is approved of out of the House what they will think of 
it without, time must resolute me. 

Vol. VI. 12 



90 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

I am sorry that I cannot acquaint j'our Lordships that my proposals for setling foreign 
Protestants have been yet attended with success, they have been sent to Amsterdam, translated 
into highdutch and dispersed in Several parts of Germany, 1 still hope they will in time attain 
the end proposed. I beg leave to acquaint your Lordships as I do his Grace the Duke of New 
Castle that I received a letter from M' Beauliarnois Gov' of Canada complaining of the Lieut' 
to which I returned him an answer and likewise wrote to theire Lieut' about' M'' Beauharnois 
not having received my letter wrote to me again on the same Subject copys of which letters I 
do myself the honor to send to your Lordships, and when the Lieut' is relieved I will inquire 
into the business 

The Gov' of Carolina having inform'd me this Spring of a descent intended to be made by 
the Spaniards from the Province of Georgia and Carolina, I Issued an order in Council to the 
Collector not to clear any vessells for Augustin and Proclamation forbidding all his Majesties 
Subjects to send to or give the Spaniards any succours of any kind ; Captain Harris^ of the 
Tartar Station'd here having apply'd to me in Council for thirty seamen to enable him to go 
to Georgia I issued an order to the Mayor and that having been the method to cause that 
number of seamen to be impress'd the Mayor issued his orders to the Constables to apprehend 
all deserters and vagrants, more than that he said he could not do, nor did that procure the 
men, Capt" Harris^ therefore applyed to me again in Council, and the Council were unanimously 
of opinion that I could not issue any further Warrant, whilst this was in agitation Vessells 
arrived in Several ports from Carolina giving an account that if any descent had been intended 
it was now laid a side and tho this intelligence came only in private letters yet so much credit 
is given to it that Captain Harris,^ I am told, does not intend to sail and the Gaston Station 
Ship which he order'd hither to join him lyes here too ; I have taken to examination of the 
master of a vessell lately arrived from Augustin which will give your Lordships some account 
of the present state of that place 

I beseech your Lordships to be assured that I will in all things to the utmost of my power 
exert myself for his Majesties Service, in this husines Captain Harris^ applyed to me in Council 
I advised with the Council, and having done so I must be concluded by their advice. 

The Town was alarm'd at the rumour of a press. Captain Harris ^ I am told said to one of 
the Aldermen that he would not impress a man, and that I could not, tho he had applyed to me 
perhaps he wished to see us again in a flame, I may venture to say for it was obvious to every 
one that he has all along given too much countenance to the faction, but he will not be able to 
raise another. 1 humbly recommend myself to your Lordships protection and am with the 
greatest respect and honor 

My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and 

most obe"" Servant 
The Right Hon*"* the Lords of Trade. G. Clarke 

End* Rec"' June 27. 1737. 
Read Sept : 7. 1737. 

' " and likewise wrote to the Lieut, about it." See next Doc. 

' Sio. Captain Norria wai the second son of Admiral Sir John Norris. He married Eupharo, daughter of Governor Lewis 
Morris, and died in England in December, 1738. Papers of Governor Morrh, 57. — Ed. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXV. 91 

Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Duke of NewcaMle. 

[New-York Papers. (S. P. O.) IX., 1.] 

New York O"' April 1737. 
My Lord. 

I do myself the honor to inform Your Grace that the last fall I received a letter from 
j\P Beauharnois Gover' of Canada complaining of the Lieul' posted at Oswego to which I 
returned him an answer the 20"" of October a copy whereof I do myself the honor to inclose 
to Your Grace, hopeing that that would give him full satisfaction; 1 likewise wrote to the 
Lieut' at Oswego about it, as Your Grace may be pleased to see in the inclosed copy, but 
ftr Beauharnois not having received my letter wrote to me again the 15"" of Novem'^ on the 
same subject inclosing to me a duplicate of his first letter, which I do myself the honor to lay 
before your Grace with a copy of his last — The winter has shut up all intercourse between 
us and Oswego so that I have not heard from that officer, but the season of the year now 
aproaching to relieve that Garrison, I shall upon his return e.xamine into that business. 

Upon the notice that I received the beginning of March from the GoV of South Carolina,' 
that the Spaniards were preparing to make a descent from the Havanna on that province and 
Georgia, I again issued an address as I did the last summer, forbidding the collector to clear 
any vessell for Augustin and a procl" prohibiting all His Maj'''* subjects to send to or give the 
Spaniards any succours of any kind ; Capt" Norris of His Maj*'" ship Tartar stationed here 
having applyed to me for thirty seamen to enable him to go to Georgia for the defence of that 
place, I issued an order in Councill to the Mayor to cause that number of seamen to be 
impressed ; the Mayor issued his orders to the constables to apprehend all deserters and 
vagrants; more then that he said he could not legally do, but that failing of getting the number 
of men that Capt" Norris asked for, he again applyed to me in Council, but the Council, being 
of opinion that I could not legally issue any further warrant, would not advise me to do it ; I 
recommended to the Capt" to beat up for volontiers but he has not; He complains that the 
Masters of Merch' sliips intice the sailors from the Kings ships, but its said that the Captains 
themselves incourage their men to go in the winter season in Merchantmen, because they find 
their account in it, and the men having higher wages dont think of returning: Our latest 
accounts from Carolina which are private letters, give us cause to think that no descent was 
or is intended, and the inclosed examination of a master of a vessell confirms it. — 

I beg leave to assure your Grace that I will upon all occasions exert myself to the utmost of 
my power for his Maj'J" service. 1 humbly recommend myself to your Graces protection, and 
am with a most profound submission and honor 
My Lord 

Your Graces 

most humble, most obedient and 

most dutiful servant 
(signed). G W. Clarke. 

' Thomas Beougiitox, Esq., Lieutenant-Governor of South Carolina, succeeded to the commniid of that I'rovince, on the 
death of Governor Johnson, ad of May, 1735, and died in 1738, when in his turn he was succeeded by Governor Bull. Otdmixon't 
British Empire in America, 2d ed, I., 506. Carroll. Hist. SoulA Carolina, I., 311, 327, who says, that he was a plain man, but 
little distinguished either for his knowledge or valor. — Ed. 



92 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Governor de Beauharnois to President Clarke. 

[TRANSLATED FKOM THE FRENCH.] 
[New-York Papers. Bundle Gg. No 4.] 

Sir, 

It appears by all the accounts I have received from Europe, that good understanding prevails 
between France and England; nevertheless the Commandant at Choueguen has committed an 
act of hostility vi^hereof I must inform you. Here is the fact : — 

The Major of the town and castle of Quebec, a Knight of the Military Order of Saint Louis 
passing Choueguen last July was met by a bateau with two men in it, who whilst enquiring 
how he was, were hailed from the shore. This officer asked what that was ; they told him 
'twas to bring his flag ashore. Immediately he saw about twelve to fifteen men embarking on 
board another bateau which made towards him and seeing that he was continuing his course, 
three or four muskets, loaded with ball, were discharged at his canoe. Fortunately for both 
Nations, no one was hurt. 

You will agree. Sir, that the officer who would carry his flag ashore on such an occasion, 
would be despised by the Nation. I am persuaded, Sir, that you will disapprove the conduct 
of the Commandant of Choueguen as soon as this letter shall have informed you of it, and 
consequently, that you will have him punished as he deserves. Had Officers under my 
command so demeaned themselves, I assure you. Sir, that I should have them punished most 
severely. The harmony that reigns for so long a time between our Sovereigns must make us 
live as good friends. The proceeding at Choueguen is in strong contradiction to it. I am 
persuaded. Sir, that you will render the French Nation prompt justice for this attack and that 
you will be pleased to send me an answer by the first opportunity. 
I am most respectfully 
Sir, 

Your most humble and 

Most obedient Servant 

Quebec 20"" August 1736. Beauharnois. 



President Clarice to Governor de Beauharnois. 

New York Oct : 26. 1736 
Sir, 

I have the honor to receive your letter of the 20"' of Sept. and to answer you, that I shall 
inquire strictly into the conduct of the Officer at Oswego, and take such Course with him, as 
shall be agreeable to Justice; being determined to preserve, in all things under my care, that 
peace which happily subsists between the Two Crowns, and to cultivate a good understanding 
between us ; nor will it derogate from the profession I make, to complain to you the Practices 
too much used by your people, to seduce the Six Nations, and to draw them from their 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 93 

Allegiance, which they owe to the Crown of Great Britain ; for I am perswaded that being 
thus informed of it, you will discountenance such practices, and give orders, that for the future 
the like be not committed I am 

With greatest respect 
Sir 
Mons' Beauharnois Your most obe' humble Servant 

Gov"' of Canada. Geo: Clarke 



Governor de Beauliarnois to Lieutenant-Governor Glarhe. 

[TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH.] 
[ New- York Papers. Bundle Gg., No. 4. ] 

Quebec IS"" November 1736. 
Sir 

A corporal and a private soldier, deserters from Choiieguen have confirmed what I have had 
the honor to state to you, and that it was Lieutenant Caneroiie who was in command there ; 
that as soon as he saw a French Canoe with a flag, he ordered th.> swivels to be loaded ; that 
he afterwards had a bateau armed with nine men, si.\ of whom were soldiers, two Dutch 
colonists and the corporal in question ; that they had orders to pursue the French canoe and 
fire ball at it, if they would not overtake it. 1 persist, Sir, in what I have had the honor to 
write to you. 

I am with much respect. 
Sir, 

Your most humble Servant 

Beauharnois. 

I think it my duty to inform you that I have written about the matter to the Court. 



Liewtenant- Governor Clarice to Captain Congreve. 

New York Nov' 1. 1736. 
Sir 

I am truely sorry to hear so many complaints of your conduct at Oswego, I hope for 
better things, but am now in fear, if some better care be not taken, that the Garrison will all 
desert or perish for want of provision of which I am told there is no manner of fficonemy: it 
behoves you. Sir, to be very circumspect, and I earnestly recommend to you, to keep good 
dissipline, and to take care of the provision and of the security of the house and Garrison. 



94 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

M'' Beauharnois complained to me of your Commanding a French Canoe ashore, which was 
passing by, I assured liim. I wo'd inquire into it, and I hope you will be able to acquit yourself 
of wliat he lays to your charge 

I desire you will be very vigilant and guard carefully against all surprizes of the Indians or 
others. Capt : Dick will convey this to you, to whom you ought to give an account of your 
Garrison by all opportunity's, as he is the Commanding Officer on the frontiers I am 

S^ &c. 

Capt° Congreve G. C. 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-York Papers, Gg., No. 6. ] 

New York May 9. 1737. 
My Lords, 

The Assembly having entered into the consideration of the deficiencys of the Revenue came 
on the 27 of April to some Resolves; short of the sum, foreign to former practise and very 
injurious to his Majesty's just authority, which obliged me on the 2S of the same Month with 
the unanimous advise of the Council to prorogue them to the S"* day of May, The Council 
having before adjourned to the 2'' and then by the same unanimous advice to dissolve them, 
The method they took was thus, after having examined the Treasurer's Accounts, and a list of 
the warrants unpaid, that had been drawn on him and having computed what they supposed 
would become due on the 1" of September next, they then mentioned such warrants as 
they would pay, and such sums for future services to the P' of September as they thought fitt, 
and then Resolved that those and those only should be payd, and ordered a Bill to be prepared 
for that purpose; By these resolves a warrant unpaid to the Auditor General for auditing the 
Treasurer's Accounts from March 1733, amounting to .£281 17 6^ is wholly rejected; No 
provision is made for the Clerk and Doorkeeper to the Council, as they now Sitt at a distant 
house, and but One half of the Governor's Sallary provided for; These Resolves will appear 
more extraordinary. If it be considered that by the Kings Instructions, and by the Revenue 
Act too, all the money arising by it, is to be issued by Warrant Signed by the Governor with 
the advice of the Council, for they would now even break through a law of their own making, 
and take upon them to appropriate the Revenue by Bill, they would deprive His Majesty of 
his just Right of having his Revenue accounted for to him. And the Auditor General of His 
fees established above forty Years ago and ever since pay'd, and subject the Gov' and every 
Officer in the Government to a dependance on them ; This is what they formerly attempted in 
17 10, But neither Governor Hunter nor the Council would submitt to any such appropriation, 
So that the Government remained for two or three Years without any support, and I do assure 
your Lordships that I will starve 'ere I give into things so deregotary to His Majesty's honor, 
and so injurious to his interest and Service. The Crown Officers are already but ill look'd on 
by the People, and hardly escape Censure in doing their necessary Duty, and if ever they 
should be subjected to the power of the Assembly, The Government will have but little good 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 95 

to expect from their Services, 1 have ordered Writta to be issued for a New Assembly to 
meet the 15 of June. I do myself the honor to send to your Lordships the Resolves mentioned. 
What the next Assembly will do is not at this distance to be guest at, 1 hope the best, If 
they come with dispositions to consult the interest and prosperity of the province, they must 
come to with resolutions to support his Majesty's Government in the like manner that it has 
been hitherto supported, for 1 have told them, they must go hand in liand, then they may 
expect from me all things that by his Majesty's instructions I am allowed to grant them, more 
than that I cannot do ; 

I presume your Lordships will be of opinion that if I have any thing in my power that I 
may make usefuU to bring the Assembly to reason, I may do it when I have the opportunity 
and they give me occasion. On this supposition I beg leave to acquaint your Lordships that in 
1714 and 1717, two Acts were pass'd to pay the debts of the Government and paper money 
issued for that purpose, to sink that paper money the Excise on strong Liquors was give and 
appropriated to the year 1739, at which time the Act expires, and there will then be about 
twenty thousand pounds of that money unsunk in the hands of the people and without any 
fund to sink it, they must therefore give the excise a considerable number of years more or 
find some other fund, or the bills will be a dead loss to those who have them ; the Act cannot 
pass without my assent, and I presume to hope your Lordships will think that before 1 assent 
to it, I may very reasonably insist on their making good the full deficiencys of the present 
revenue, and on their giving a further Revenue for a competent number of years, as yet this is 
a thing unthoiight of at least not talked of by the Assembly, it being at the distance of two 
years. And I hope in the mean time they will come to a sense of their duty. 

I am now going to Albany to meet the Six Nations the expence whereof must go out of my 
own pocket as all my other expence have and must do, for I have not received a shilling from 
the Treasury since Governor Cosby's death, nor shall I till the deficiency's of the Revenue are 
made good, there is a necessity for my meeting and giving them a large present at this time 
both to renew our treatys, and to keep them from suffering the french to build a trading house 
or rather a fort in the Cinnikes Country; which they are now attempting to bring the Six 
Nations to consent to, 1 have already sent to forbid them to meet the french Emissary on his 
sumons, and to require them to meet me at Albany the 21 of June. 

I have the pleasure amidst my distresses to see quiet restored to this late distracted Province, 
and tliat there is a great appearance that the ensuing elections will be carry'd on without 
reviving past animosities, and with no other than the usuall struggles on such occasions. 

I humbly recommend myself to your Lordships protection, which I can hope for no longer 
than I exert myself for his Majestys honor and interest, and Govern the Province with Justice 
and moderation 

I am with the greatest honor 
My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble 

most obedient Servant 

Geo: Clakke 

End-i ReC^ June 29. 1737. 
Read Sept : 7. 1737. 



9G NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade. 

[New-Totk Papers, Gg., No. 6.] 

New York June 17. 1737 
My Lords 

On the 1-5 the Assembly met and chose their Speaker. I made a short speech to them, and 
yesterday the addressed me, the majority is of those, who opposed me before I was appointed 
Lieutenant Governor, but if appearances dont deceive me, I have reason to hope they will 
make good the deficiencyes of the Revenue and give another; they will expect from me at the 
same time such laws for the good of the Province as I can pass, more than that, the speaker 
tells me, they wont insist on ; If they keep within those bounds, provide for the deficiencies, 
and give a further Revenue, the Province will soon raise its head and become a flourishing 
Country. 

The house seems to be in very good temper we met and now part well satisfyed with each 
other, the Speaker' is very open with me, and gives me room to think that I shall at their next 
meeting be able to give your Lordships a very good account of them 

The harvest drawing nigh I have directed the house to adjourn to the 4 Tuesday in August, 
and am this day going to Albany to meet the Six Nations 
I am with profound respect and honor 
My Lords 

Your Lordships most humble 

and most obedient SeiVnnt 

Geo: Clarke 
End'' Rec"' July 26, 

Read Sept: 7. 1737. 



Duhe of Newcastle to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-Tork Papers, Ff., No. 53. ] 

Whitehall June SO'" 1737. 
My Lords 

His Majesty having been pleased to appoint the Right Honorable the Lord De la Warr, to 
be Governor of New York and New Jersey, in America, it is His Majestys pleasure that the 
draught of His Commission and Instructions may be prepared, in order to be laid before His 
Majesty for his approbation 

I am 

My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most obedient 

humble Servant 
Lords Com" of Trade Sg** Holles Newcastle 

' Colonel Lewis Morris, Junr. — Ed. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 97 

Lords of Trade to Lieutenant-Governor Clarice. 

[ New-Tork Entries, M., p. 40. ] 

To the Hon'''* Geo. Clarke Esq' Lieut Gov"' of New York. 

Sir. 

We should hy this Conveyance have answered Your Letters of the 20"" of Sep'"' 7"" and lO"" 
of October & 27"" of Nov'"' 1736 but that His Majesty has been pleased to appoint the R' Hon"'" 
the Lord Delaware Gov' of New York and New Jersey, and as lie will with all convenient 
speed set out for his Government we have only to desire that until his Lordships arrival you 
will do your utmost to preserve the Tranquility of the Province under Your command. So 
we bid you heartily farewell, and are 

Your very loving friends 

and humble Serv" 

T. Pelham 
Whitehall Ja. Brudenell' 

June y* 22'' 1737 R. Plumek. 



Lords of Trade to the Duke of Newcastle. 

[ New- York Eolriea, M,, p., 41. ] 

To His Grace The Duke of Newcastle. 

My Lord, 

Having in obedience to His Majesty's Commands signifyed to us by Your Grace's letter of 
the 20"" Instant prepared the Draughts of Commissions for the Right Hon'''* the Lord Delaware 
to be Gov' of New York and New Jersey, we take leave to inclose the said Draughts to Your 
Grace with our Representation thereupon, which you will please to lay before His Majesty 
We are. My Lord, Your Grace's most obedient 

and most humble Serv" 

MoNSON 

T. Pelham 
Whitehall M. Bladen 

June y* SO"- 1737 R. Plumer. 

' Rt. Hon. James Bbudenkll, younger son of Francis, Lord Brudenell, and brother of the Earl of Cardigan, was appointed 
Master of the Jewel office on 23d March, 17l|-, and resigned that post on the 4th June, 1730, on being constituted one of tha 
Commissioners of Trade and Plantations. He was also one of the Grooms of the King's bed chamber, and in June, 1737, was 
appointed gentleman of the horse to his Majesty. He was Member of Parliament for Andover, and for the city of Chichester, 
from 1715 to the time of his decease, in August, 1746. He married Susan, daughter of Bartholemew Burton of Rutlandshire, 
by whom he bad several children. Collint' Peerage, II., 389. — Ed. 

Vol. VI. 13 



98 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Kepreseiitation to the King. June 30"" 1737. 

To tlie King's most Excell' Majesty. 

May it please Your Majesty 

In obedience to Your Majesty's Commands signifyed to us by a letter from His Grace the 
Dulse of Newcastle dated the 20"' Instant we have prepared the Draughts of Commissions for 
the Right Hon"*'' the Lord Delaware to be Governor of New York, and New Jersey, which 
being in the usual form, we herewith humbly lay the same before Your Majesty, and shall 
prepare the necessary Instructions for his Lordship with all possible Dispatch. 

Which is most humbly submitted 

MONSON ' 

T. Pelham 
Whitehall M. Bi-aden 

June y 30"' 1737 R. Plumer 



Conference between Lieutenant-Governor Clarhe and the Indians. 

[ Kew-Tork Colonial Manoscripts in See's Office, Albany. LXXI. ] 

Albany 24"' June 1737. 
The Sachims of the Six Nations waited on his Honour the Lieutenant Governour at his 
Lodging Aud Said Brother Corlaer We welcome you at Albany and are glad you are safe 
Arrived while Men are Subject to many unhappy Accidents of Sickness or other sudden 
Disasters that Death follows us in all places and that it hath pleased God to suffer us to meet 
together in Good Health for which We are very much rejoyced Gave four Skins 

Brother Corlaer 

We are come a great way from our Habitations and have several of our people among us are 
but poor and not able to have their hatchetts, Hows & Guns Mended wherefore we beg of 
you to get them mended ; 

Albany June 25"' 1737. 
Two Sachims of the Mohoggs waited on his Honour George Clarke Esq' in behalf of 
themselves, Onedes, Onondages and Tuskaroroes desiring that his Honour would be pleased to 

' John first. Lord Monson, was the son of George Monson, Esq., and Anne Wren. He was chosen member for the city of 
Lincoln, in 1722, and in 1725 was installed Knight Companion of the Order of the Bath. On the decease of his uncle. Sir 
William Monson, he succeeded to the Baronetcy and his estiite in 1726, and was again elected to represent Lincoln in the 
parliament of 1728. At the conclusion of the session he was advanced to the peerage by the title of Baron Monson, of 
Burton, in the county of Lincoln, 28th May, 1728. His Lordship was appointed first Commissioner of Trade and Plantations, 
on 25lh June, 1737, and was sworn of the privy council, ou 21st July following. On a new commission issuing in 1745, he 
was continued president of the Board of Trade, and died ISth July, 1748. His Lordship married about theyear 1726, Lady 
Margaret Watson, youngest daughter of the Earl of Rockingham, by whom he had three sons, one of whom married the 
niece of the Duke of Newcastle. Collint' peerage, V., 362. — Ed. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXV. Of) 

Defer to Speak to tliem in puhlick until next Monday because they would this day Condole 
the Death of the two sachims who hitely Dyed According to the Antient Custom of their 
Ancestors and until that was done they were like Children under Age who cannot Act in 
publick Affairs. 

Whereon his Honour was pleased to tell them that According to their Desire lie would deferr 
speaking to them untill ne.\t Monday for which the return their hearty thanks and Informed 
his Honour privately that the Schaveno Indians Living on Susquehanna river to the Number 
of 130. Warrours having Notice that the Caycuges and Sianekees lately sold the land they 
live on, unto the Proprietor of Pensilvania have thereupon sent Messengers with a belt Wampum 
to the Indians Settled at Tussaghrondie to Desire Leave to shelter and live among them ; to 
which they have Consented and the French with a Number Indians have promised on Notice 
that they are on their March to meet them with provisions &c. to receive and Conduct them to 
this new settlement. 



Proposition made by the Hon'''* George Clarke Esq' Lieu' Governour and 
Commander in Chief of the Province of New York to the Sachims of the 
six Nations Viz' Mohoggs, Onedes, Tuskorores, Onondages, Caycuges & 
Sinnekes In Albany the 27"' June 1737 

Present — The Hon'''' George Clarke Esq' &c. 

Abraham V Home ] 

Philip Livingston vEsq" his Maties Council 
James D Lancey ) 
The Com" of Indian Affairs 
The Mayor Recorder & Aldermen 

Brethren 

What is this I hear? is it possible that men who Profess to Tread the paths of Justice that 
men who would be thought to Act upon principles of Honesty & Virtue should have no regard 
to the sacred Obligation of publick ffuith but Desolve those Bonds of friendship and alliance 
which united Our forefathers and made them and you and us Brethren or are you tired of the 
benefit You Receive by Trading with us that thus you Assist the Frencii to Deprive you of it; 
to make fetters for you and to restrain you from that Liberty which you now Enjoy if you are 
at a loss to know my meaning a few words will Explain it: I am told you have given Leave to 
the French to build a House at Tiorondequat ; it is a thing so far beyond belief that I could 
give no Creditt to it; on the first report but it is now so Confidently Affirmed that I can no 
longer Doubt of it. 1 came hither to Renew to Brighten & to strengthen the Covenant Chain 
but till you Come to a resolution to revoke that Leave which you have given to the French 
and give me your positive and ffaithfull promise not to suffer any PVenchman to build in your 
Country I cannot speake on that head for what Confidence Can we place in Men who keep 
not their ffaith with us; the Great King your Father Glories in a strict Observance of his 
Treaties with his Brethen of all Nations and he Expects the like from tliem but when they 
Warp from their Promise he disclaims their friendship as unworthy of his : Tell me therefore 
before I speak of Renewing the Covenant Chain wiiat you Intend, you know well that about 
thirty Six Winters ago you gave those Lands to the Great King of England your fatlier to hold 



100 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

& Protect them for you and you know too that about Eleven Winters ago you Acknowledged 
and Confirmed that Gift if your Memories fail you We cannot forgett it. We Comitted it to 
writing which time cannot wear out now having in that solemn manner put it into the hands of 
our King your Father you cannot without his Consent suffer a flrench Man or any other but 
the subjects of the great King of England to build on it unless you resolve to throw off his 
Protection and our Friendship. The Commissioners of the Indian Affairs on the first Notice 
Complained to you of this your breach of Faith you promised them not to suffer Jean Couer 
or any other ffrenchman to build and Confirmed that Promise by this belt Wampum and yet 
Notwithstanding that Promise I am told that with your Consent he is going to build, what shall 
I say to you upon it I want words to Express my thoughts of it I leave you therefore to your 
own Reflections Consider what I have said ; Consult your own Interest wipe off the stain that 
this Ad ion has thrown on you retrieve your Honour and Give me your Positive Answer 
Gave a Belt of Wampum 

Answer made by the sachims of the Six Nations to the Honourable George 
Clarke Esq' Lieut' Gov' &c 

That they with Attention heard what his Honour has been Pleased to say that they will 
Consider of it and Consult together to Deliver a speedy Answer but desire that they may not 
be hurried in it, 

His Honour was pleased to say that they Should take their own time, butilxpected it should 
be as soon as they could Conveniently do it. 

Answer made by the sachims of the six Nations to the Governours Proposition 
in Albany the 27. June 1737 

Present — His Honour the Lieu Gov' 

The Counsellors 
The second Judge 
The Mayor & Aldermen 
The Comis" of Indian Affairs 

Brethren Indians that belong to the French 

You are here to listen to what we shall speak to our Brother Corlaer. 

You may hear it and We doubt not but you will tell it to the Governour of Canada which 
you may do but we desire that you may tell him Nothing but the truth. — 

Brother Corlaer 

You spoke to us to day and made a preposition you heard with Great Surprize that we had 
Given Liberty to the French to build a House at Tiorondequat but that you could not give 
Credit to the first report of it. 

You have Likewise told us that you have heard it so often that You was at last obliged to 
believe it. 

You have likewise told us that it would Occasion a breach in the Covenant Chain if We 
should give leave to the French to build these or any where on our Land. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 101 

You have likewise told us Brother that our Father the Great King over the Great Water has 
several Treaties with other of his Neighbours and if they do not regard those Treaties he 
Values them no Longer and Withdraws his friendship and Protection from them. 

Brother Corlaer 

You have likewise told us that our giving Leave to any of the French to live on our lands 
would be a means to tie us with fetters and be a Prejudice to us all : You desired a positive 
Answer to what you said without a false iieart. if tlie French should settle there it would be 
a means to Cutt otl' our Communication with the far Indians. 

We have now repeated here and there a Word of your proposition but now we shall begin 
with our Answer. 

Brother Corlaer 

You spoke very fierce and roughly to us and We hope You will give us tlie same Liberty 
We shall likewise tell you your faults You tell us you Committ Your Affairs to Writing 
which we do not and so when you look to your Books you know what passed in fformer times 
but we keep our Treaties in our heads and therefore sliall begin with wiiat passed long ago. 

Brother 

At the time when the French built a House at lagara the Governour Asked us in a publick 
Meeting why we suffered it & did not Demolish it We Answered that we were not Able to do 
it but desired of the Governour to write to the King about it wiiich lie promised to do but We 
have never heard more about it; So think that they who write are as forgetful! as We who do 
not write for this We Can Remember and think the Governour should at least acquainted us 
with what Answer he had — 

Brother Corlaer 

You have told us that We have probably forgott what past in former times but our Ancestors 
have handed down to us from Father to son what has happened both in the Dutch and English 
times there has been a book but perhaps that book has been Destroyed. 

Brother Corlaer 

We have now done with what past of old we come now to Answer your Proposition again 
You told us We had a stain in our Garments and now we have Come to a full Resolution of 
all the Six Nations not with False Lips but from the Bottom of our hearts the French shall not 
Settle on any of our Lands and this you may Believe we speak with Sincerity. 

Brother Corlaer 

We thank you for your Good advice to us we acknowledge we have been in the Fault 

Brother Corlaer 

We again say as before that we speak with a sincere heart & shall Perform our Promisses 
there shall not one French Man setle on our Land; 

Brother Corlaer 

We have now Done speaking to you but we want to Ask a single Question which Does not 
Belong to our Proposition How Comes it that the French have setled so near in the 
neighborhood even at the Crown Point have they Wone it by the sword We think it is 
our Land ; 



102 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Proposition made by the Honourable George Clarke Esq' Lieu' Governour &" 
to the sachims of the Six Nations in Albany the 2S"' June 1737 

Present — The Honourable George Clarke Esq' &" 

Abraham Van Horn ] 
Philip Livingston >- Esq" Councellors 
James DeLancey J 
Tiie Mayor Record'' & Alderman 
The Commissioners for Indian Affairs 

Brethren 

The Promise you gave me yesterday not to suffer any French to settle upon any part of 
your Lands the Publick & open Manner wherein that promise was made and the assurance you 
gave me that it Proceeded not from Lying Lips nor a Deceitfull Tongue but from the sincerity 
of your heart have Wiped of this stain that would otherwise have remaind upon you and 
would have pointed you out to the World as Faithless People & haveing thus Retriv'd your 
Honour and Shak't off the fetters that the French by your own folly had begun to putt upon 
you I open my Amies & Receive you and Embrace you with Joy & Effection Equall to that 
which we felt when a Brother has Escaped from the hands of his Enemies that Were streched 
out to putt him to Death in hopes therefore that for the future you will Guard against the 
Crafty Designs, of the French Defeat their Attempts & Resist their Temtations that you never 
forgett the sacred obligations of your Publick faith which has United you to us and made us 
Brethren and that our Friendship and Brotherly Love may be strong & Lasting 1 do now in 
the Name of my Master the Great King of Great Brittain your Indulgent Father & Protector 
in the most Solemn manner renew Brighten and strengthen the Antient Covenant that has 
tied you & all his Majesties Subjects in tlie Strictest Bands of Affection and Interest Lett it be 
your Care therefore as it Shall be ours to keep it from Rust and preserve it in its full strength 
and Lustre gave a belt of Wampum 

The Many Instances you have known of the Craft & Treachery of French ought never 
to be forgotten by you & you Shall Learn from thence that no Concessions of any Sort Can 
be made by you to them that they will not turn to you Disadvantage they have tryed 
Every art to Weaken you & if possible to Extirpate your name &■ Nations & if you will give 
your Selves Leave to Look back you will see how many of your Youths have Perished by 
the sword in Fighting their Battles against nations to whom you yourselves had no 
Enemity and Can there be a surer way found to weaken your strength or in Time to 
Reduce your Number to an handfull of men and in the End to Nothing Courage is given 
us to Protect and Defend our Wives our Children our friends & our Rightfull possession 
not to Invade & by force & Violence to Injure and Distroy our Neighbours who Give us no 
Provocation the first is Commendable the Law of Nature oblidges us to it but the second 
Proclaims to the world our want of Reason & our Want of every Virtue and Levels us with 
savage beasts a Fresh Instance of the Designs of the French upon you has Lately Reached my 
Ears and it is with the uttmost Concern that I hear you have Consented to Suffer young People 
to Promise the French to Joyn them in a Warlike Expedition against the Foxes what are your 
Views in Conquest Deceive not yourselves tho the French will not suffer you to share with 
them one Inch of Land is it Glory? Remember that Glory is the Reward of Virtuous actions 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXV. 103 

not of Lawless Violence what will you gett by it why Nothing but Danger & perhaps 
Distruction rather Inspire your Youth with sentiments of Justice Temperance & the Love of 
Mankind Train them to the Use of Arms in hunting so will they be Inured to Labour & an 
Active Life in their youth Ready and able to Defend Their own Country if Ever it Should be 
Invaded & in their old age become wise Just & Prudent Rulers you will grow Richer at Home 
and Highly Honour'd abroad for tiiose Virtues that make a Nation Reiiound and Famous; 

As for us a Long Experience has taught you that we seek Not tiie Destruction of your or our 
Neighbours and that we Endeavour to Live in a Strict Union with you to Promote and 
Incourage your Trade & Even to Bring it Home to your own Doors the Tradeing iiouse at 
Oswego is an Instance of the Truth of what I say & I am presuaded you have found your 
advantage as well as your Ease in it as our Brethren therefore I hope (and what may not one 
Brother Expect from an other) that you will keep the paths that Leads to that Tradeing House 
open not only for you selves but also for all the Upper Nations we have great Plenty of goods 
to suply both you and them & the more skins you and the remote Nations bring Thither the 
more goods shall we send to Traffick with you and we shall always sell them Cheaper to you 
than the ffrench who are Obliged to buy many goods from us. 

It is said that our Brethren the Sinnekees and Cayuges have sold those Lands on Susquehanna 
River on which they settled the Schavanna and other Indians who put themselves under their 
Protection, if it be so I hope you will give them other Lands to live on and prevent their 
Settling among the French Indians some of whom I am told have Invited them to dwell at 
Tucksagrandie thereby hoping to Weaken you and Streghthen themselves but I trust in that 
Wisdom & foresight for what you are remarkable That you will Defeat their Intentions by 
Keeping those people Among you and Increase your own Strength by Inviting other Indians 
to live with you. 

I have brought from King George my Master and your Father a Good present which I shall 
deliver you as soon as you give Me your Answer that you may not be Cheated out of it for 
Rum as you have often been ; but that you may Carry it home to your Family Entire — I 
shall likewise give you Provisions for your Journey & Rum Enough but not till you are just 
going I have now done & shall wait for your Answer 

Answer of the Six Nations — 

Brother Corlaer 

We have heard your Proposition and shall take it into Consideration We cannot tell 
how soon we shall be ready with our Answer but We shall Acquaint your Honour when 
we are ready 

Answer of the Sachims of the six Nations to the Governours Proposition the 
30"> June 1737 

Brother Corlaer 

You made lately a Proposition to us in the Name of the King your Master and our Father 
You said likewise Brother Corlaer that you was Glad to meet us here in the City of 
Albany You have also said Brother Corlaer that you Opned your Arms to Embrace us with 
Sincere Love. 



104 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

You have likewise told us Brother Corlaer that the reason you Embraced us with open Arms 
was that We had Escaped the deadly Snares that were laid for us And that you received us 
again with hearty friendship — 

You have likewise told us that your Chief Business here was to renew the Antient Covenant 
Chain that our Ancestors made together, to renew that Silver Chain wherewith our aforesaid 
forefathers had linked their hands together and to make its Lusture still more bright 
and Clear — 

Brother Corlaer 

That Covenant which our {forefathers have made you have told us nobody can breake which 
We always say on our part that it shall not be in the power of any evill tongue to make a 
breach betwixt us 

Brother Corlaer 

We have remembered every thing that has been Transacted between our {forefathers hitherto 
One Generation tells it to another — 

Brother Corlaer 

We are very glad with the Promises that you have made to the six Nations ; which you 
promise to keep Inviolable on your part, and we are come on the same End and promise 
in the name of the Six Nations to keep the same Inviolable on our part and to make it Clearer 
and stronger than it ever has been before ; We know Brother Corlaer that our Neighbouring 
Enemies would rejoyce to hear that we fell out together but the better we agree the more 
Disagreeable it will be to them in Confirmation of all we have said : Give this belt Wampum 

Brother Corlaer. 

You likewise told us that you heard that there lyes a belt Wampum amongst the Sinnekees 
Send by the Governor of Canada to invite us to go to war with him against the Foxes it is 
true Brother there is a belt come from Canada but it is our own which was returned us We 
heard that the Governour of Canada had conceived a prejudice against us We sent that belt 
in place of a Letter in order to be Informed of the truth of it the Governour of Canada hath 
not Accepted of that belt but returned to us and let us know there was no truth in what we 
had heard : but afterwards he let us know tiiat he Intended to go on an Expedition against the 
Foxes & their Allies but no harm was Intended us & if we were willing to go we sho'd be 
welcome but he sent us no belt & it is a Maxim amongst us if ever any body speaks to us they 
must give a Belt which the Governour of Caneda has not done so we take no notice of it. 

Brother Corlaer 

You have likewise desired us to give no Credit to any thing the ffrench should tell us ; for 
they are a Deceitfull People and no Creditt to be given to what they say but that we should 
adhere firmly to the Covenant Chain with you. 

Brother Corlaer 

You have likewise told us to keep open all the paths that Lead to Oswego not only our own 
Paths but all those of the far Indians and to give them all Incouragement to come and 
Trade there. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 105 

Brother Corlaer 

You have likewise said that the more skins are brought to Oswego the More Goods will be 
sent there for the Indians. 

Brotlier Corlaer 

You have likewise told us that we should sitt still & molest no body but take Care of our 
Wives & Children: the House at Oswego is like a trap which when you Intend to Catch a 
prey you lay a bait in it and so when the Creature comes to Eat the bait he is Catched and to 
this Trap We Compare the House at Oswego we now repeated the heads of what your Honour 
has said and shall give our opinion thereon — 

Brother Corlaer 

We think there is some poison at Oswego where the Trap is Set ; for many have dyed with 
the Bait. 

Brother Corlaer 

We shall here and there give an Answer to every Article you have Recommended to us not 
only to keep open all the paths to Oswego But to all the settlements of all other his Mat'" 
subjects which we promise to do. 

Brother Corlaer 

You have told us that the more Beever and Skins come to Oswego the Cheaper the Goods 
wo'd ; but We Can't perceive that for we must pay now 3 bever Skins for a Wonians Petticoat 
therefore we desire that We may have the Goods Cheaper then the price now is, and then all 
the far Nations will Come and Trade with you. Gave a belt of Wampum 

The Governour told them here 

That whoever takes three bevers for one petticoat Imposes on them and desired them to 
mark those Traders and not Deal with them for honest Treaders will give them two Petticoats 
for three heavy Beavers 

Brother Corlaer 

You have likewise said that you have heard that some of our Indians have been at 
Philadelphia Last summer And sold the Land to M' Penn which the Schawenoes live on and 
that they are going to live among the French Indians at Tuchsaghrondie because We sold 
their Lands from under their Bodys. it is true We have sold a small piece of Land to M"" 
Penn but not that where Schawenoes live on : it is a piece of Land that lies at a great Distance 
from where those Indians live and there is a great ridge of Mountains betwixt the Land We 
sold & that whereon they live. 

Brother 

We think it is Governor Pens own Fault that those Indians go to leave the Lands whereon 
they now live — 



Vol. VI. 14 



lOG NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Brother 

We think there is an old misunderstanding between the Schawenoes and Governor Penn 
and they have Conceived some disgust against Governor Penn and the Design of the 
Schawenoes, to leave their Lands has been in Agitation some years 

Brother Corlaer 

We say we think it is Governor Penns fault and we shall give our reasons for it : it is a 
Custome amongst the Christians that when they buy land of the Indians to take in more than 
is agreed for And we believe M'' Penn has Encroached on their Lands and therefore tliey go 
for Protection to the French wherefore we desire you would use your Intrest as a Mediator 
between M' Penn & them to prevent their going to the ffrench upon this gave a Belt 

Brother Corlaer 

In Antient times when our forefathers first met at this place we will tell you what then 
happned ; before there was a house in this place, when we lodged under the Leaves of the 
Trees the Christians and We Entered into a Covenant of friendship, and the Indians loved the 
Christians on Account the sold them the goods Cheap, this Government was likened unto a 
Great Ship which was moared behind a great Yper Tree' but because the Tree was perishable 
the Anchor was lifted up and laid behind the Great hill at Onondage and the Si.x Nations are 
to take Care of that Anchor : that it be not Removed by any Enemy 

Brother Corlaer 

We Shall not Repeat a Long Story of what happend between our Forefathers we Shall 
break off here but We shall say in few Words that onr Forefathers Did act Uprightly & in 
Simplicity wlien they first begun to trade they had goods much Cheaper than we have now 
you Said we had no Memories but it is Written in our Foreheads Gave a Boundle Bever. 

Brother Corlaer 

We have now Said what we had to say & Conclude with A Request that your honour will 
order us Waggons to Carry us back to Schanectady we thank your honour for your kindness 
in Ordering our hatchetts Locks & kettles to be mended but we have a few Guns to be mended 
& the Gunsmith has refused to mend them because he had no orders for it : hope your honour 
will give orders for the same which was accordingly Done 

The Gov' further Said Viz' — 

The Reason they gett a Less price for their Bever is that the Traders Gett Less of it then 
they did formerly our Traders give more for your Bever &,'=^ than the French do which 
Themselves know ; 

Brethren 

I am very Glad we are met here in Friendship & hope we shall part with Love & Affection 
as Friends I Shall order you Waggons & Provisions to Carry you home I am very Sorry there 
has been any Misunderstanding betwixt Governour Pen & the Shaweno Indians. 

' Tpenboom, a species of elm. Hollrop's Dutch Dictionary. — Ed. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 107 

I Shall Do my Endeavour to gett a good Understanding betwixt them but as no man Can 
Answer for the Success of what he undertakes I Recommend to you to keep the Shawenoes 
among your Selves as you have Done the Tuskierores to prevent their Going to the French — 

The Speaker of the Six Nations named Cachjagerocden waited on liis Honour 
George Clarke Esq''^ & said 

Brother Corlaer 

You told us that you have heard that the Schaweno Indians intended to Remove from their 
Habitation on the susquehanna River to Tushsaghrendie and Settle among the French Indians 
& Recommend to the Sachims of the Six Nations that they Should prevent their Removal! 
I am Come in their name to tell you that they will do all in their power to Prevent their 
Removall and give them other Land among us in Case it be Sold to Governour Penn 

Albany July 1" 1737 
The Governour on his arrivall att Albany Declared that he Came Heither with a Resolution 
to Oblige the Six Nations to Revoke the promise of Leave which they had given to the French 
Interpreter to build att Tierondequat, that having obtained such promise from them he would 
then Endeavour to Prevail with them to sell to him for his INLnjesties use so much Land at 
Tierondequat as would be Necessary to Erect a Fort on and so much Land adjoining to it as 
might Serve to raise Provisions of all kinds sufficient to Victuall that Garrison & Oswego 
This Declaration giving umbrage to some of the Commissioners of Indian Affairs wiio 
apprehending or pretending to suspect that the Governour had a Design to purchase those 
Lands for his own use whereby he might ingross great part of the ffur trade grew uneasy and 
Talked of Speaking to the Indians not to sell him any Lands There this Discourse Comeing 
to the Governours Ears and giving him Cause to fear that his good Intentions would be 
defeated by those whose Duty it was to assist him Resolved at any rate to Attain his Ends 
and Judging that Nothing would Remove the Jealousie that some of the Commissioners had 
Conceived so soon or so Easily as to give them That land which they pretended the 
Governour Intended to purchase for himself, the Governour therefore took Occasion to 
tell them what he had beard. He declared that he had no Intention to take one Inch of the 
Land for his own use and to show them that he was in Earnest he told them that if they 
would be at the Expense of making the Purchase he would Grant it to them and then 
Directed them to meet together to Consider of it and let him know their resolutions; after 
one or two meetings a Committee of the Commissioners waited on the Govern' and 
Acquainted feim that they had Considered of what he had say'd to them and that they were 
sent by the rest to thank him & to Desire that he would make the Purchase and then 
Grant to them four or five thousand Acres the Governour undertook it Ordered the 
Interpreter several times to bring the sachims to him that he might treat with them about it 
nor were these Directions given privately but openly in the hearing of the Council and the 
Commissioners of Indian Affairs and yet the Interpreter Carryed them to the House of Nikolas 
Bleeker one of the Commissioners and as Bleeker says, told him it was the (iovernors Orders 
that he should treat with them about the Purchase of the Laud but wlien the Governor 
Examined the Interpreter in the presence of Bleeker and M"" Livingston and others the 



108 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Interpreter Deney'd that the Governor had given him any such Orders, or directed him to 
Carry the Sachims to M"' Bleekers, or that M"' Livingston the secretary for Indian affairs had 
given him any such Orders: the Governor much displeased both with Bieeker and the 
Interpreter, Expressed his Resentment very warmly reproved Bieeker for taking upon himself 
to treat with the Indians on that head and Checked the Interpreter for having Disobeyed 
his Orders: 

The sachims upon Bleekers proposals to buy all their lands on the south side of the Lake 
from Niagara to Oswego Answered him with a good Deal of heat that they would not sell it 
That wherever the Christians Settled their hunting was destroyed for the Bever & Deer &c. 
fled from the places where they were Disturbed: and when Bieeker again pressed them to it 
they Answered that if they should be willing to let us settle there yet the proprietors of the 
Land at Tierondequat were in the sinnekees Country and that for their part they would not 
Sell other Mens Lands thus through folly or design the Governors Intentions are for the present 
defeated : the Interpreter owned to the Governor that he believed some people had put him 
on sending the sachims to Bleekers but that being fudled he could not remember who the 
persons were that put him upon it 

A True Copy taken from the Minutes 

Compared and Examined P' 

Ph LmNGSTON 

Sec'"'' for the Indian Affairs. 



Proposition made by the Honourable George Clarke Esq' Lieut. Gov' & 
Commander in Chief of the province of New York &'* to the Schachkook 
Indians in Albany the first July 1737 

Present — The Honourable George Clarke Esq' &" 

Abraham Van Home l ^ . _, 

„, .,. T . . h Esq" of Council 

Phihp Livmgston j 

The Commissioners of Indian Affairs 

The Mayor Recorder & Alderman 

Children 

I sent for you my Children to give you Fresh Assurance of the Protection of the Great King 
of Great Brittain my Master, our Comon Father & sovereign & to Acknowledge in this Publick 
manner the Just sence I have of your Dutifull behaviour and Fidelity to him and your Effection 
to your Brethren the Rest of his Subjects in those parts and in his Name I Renew with you 
the ancient Covenant Chain that it be Stronger & Brighter then ever In Consequence of which 
I Expect you will behave your Selves in a Peaceable manner to all your Brethren his Majesties 
Subjects Especially your good Neighbours at seachkook that you stay & not Remove from 
that your old habitation to other Remote Places but to keep your abode under the Branches 
& Leaves of the Great Tree of Peace Planted for you & to persuade all Those who may be 
Removed to Return to that Shade I Shall take Care you Shall have Land Sufficient to plant 
on & that the Tree may Flourish & grow & if you do follow this advice you will again grow 
a Strong and Flourishing People but when you scatter & are Seperated that will be a Certain 
Means to weaken you. gave a Belt; 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXV. 109 

I make you a present in tlie name of onr Great Fatlier of sucli Tilings as are Necessary for 
you which Sliall be Delivered you after you Shall have Given your Answer. 

They Answered Fatlier 

We are glad to see you here & thankful for your advice you have given which we shall 
Follow as far as in our power we are not ready to give our answer out of hand hut shall 
Consider of what you have Recommended to us & give you an Answer to Morrow 

Answer made by the Schaahkook Indians to the Honourable George Clarke 
Esq^ Lieu' Gov' &■= the 2'» July 1737 

Present — The Hon'''^ George Clarke Esq" &' 

Abraham V Home ) ^^ „ ^ ,, 

V Esq" Councellers 
Philip Livingston j 

The Commissioners of Indian Affairs 

Father 

We are glad and Rejoyced to see you here and bid you heartily welcome we give you our 

hand and renew the old Covenant Chain with our Father and Grandfather and here is a Token 

werewith we strenghen that Chain & we are very glad to see you in behalf of our Father to 

Take the Trouble to Visitt your Children and that we live in Peace and Friendship and that 

the Tree of Peace may Flourish that its Branches may Spread & we Live under the Shade 

(gave a few bever) and that the Fire which has been kindled at Schaahkook has been almost 

Extingiiist but now it begins to Burn again that Smoak will not Dissappear again & we now 

again Brighten the Chain & wrap this Bever about it that it may keep clear not only for us 

but for Many Generations and are glad that our Father was pleased to see so many of his 

Children here and that we Increased 1 give this Belt in token that we are Glad you did 

recommend unto us to Encrease & Multiply and Draw as many of our People to Return and 

Live at Schaachkook which we Do promise to Do as much as in our povi'er. 

Answer 
I give you in his Majestie's Name my Master and your Indulgent Father a Present of Such 
Things as are usefull for you & I expect you will behave your Selves as Dutifull Children 

A true Copy 

Examind & Compaird P"" 

Ph : Livingston 

Sec" to the Indian Affairs 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Lords of Trade. 

[New-York Papers, Gg., No. 10.] 

My Lords 

I obeyed your Lordships commands of the 18 of February by acquainting the members of 
his Majestys Council for this Province who are appointed with others, Commissioners for 



110 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

selling the lines between Massathusets and New Hampshire, with what your Lordships 
directed me, Soon after the Commissioners arrived I received from the Agent of New Hampshire 
a copy of it with letters' and copys of the Commission for the other Gentlemen which were 
delivered to all of them except one Harrison who has been in England these two years, and 
soon after came two Gentlemen from the Massathusets on the same errand, but no signification 
from either Province that they would reward their trouble or have their expences, so that none 
went from this Town, but two Gentlemen being likewise sent from Boston to Albany they 
prevailed with M' Livingston to go, as for myself your Lordships know it was impracticable 
for rae to leave the province 

I have the honor likewise to receive your Lordships letter of the 22 of June acquainting me 
that his Majesty has appointed my Lord DeLaware Governor of this Province and Jersey; I 
beg leave to assure your Lordships that I will do my utmost to preserve the tranquility of this 
Province hopeing in all things to acquit myself to your Lordships approbation and thereby to 
recommend myself to your protection, the Assembly are sitting but have yet done nothing but 
hearing and determining controverted Elections, that is now over and I hope the house will 
proceed to busines, of which I will do myself the honor to acquaint your Lordships; I am 
with the most profound respect and honor 
My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and 
New York most obedient Servant 

October 14. 1737. Geo: Clarke 

End"" ReC" Nov: 22, 

Read Nov: 30. 1737. 



Lieutenant -Gove?'no7' Clarice to tlie BuTce of Newcastle. 

[New- York Papers, (S. P. O.,) IX., 10. ] 

My Lord. 

I beg leave to inform your Grace, that yesterday the Assembly broke up for this session, 
after having made provision for the payment of the deficiencys of the last revenue, and laid a 
foundation for a future one, by striking paper money, (which was much wanted), to be let out 
on interest, and by giving some smaller dutys than formerly, on the importation of merchandize, 
but the application of those Funds for the future support of Govern', they have reserv'd to the 
next sitting — 

This morning I received an express from Albany, acquainting me that M'' Will™ Dick Capt" of 
one of the Independant companys posted there, dyed the tenth inst: — M"" Nicholl ■ Capt" 
Lieut" of the company commanded by the late Governor, having in the most earnest manner 
desired my leave to goe home on this occasion, I have given it him, hoping it may receive Your 

'See note; V., SYS. — Ed. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. Ill 

Grace's approbation ; he has served long in the army, greatest part of the last war in Flanders, 
and many years here, where he has behav'd himself very well, and presumes to hope from his 
long services for Vour Graces protection, to which I humbly beg leave to recommend him, and 
to subscribe myself with the most profound regard and honour 

My Lord 

Your Graces: 

Most obedient and 
New York most dutiful servant 

Dec' the l?"" 1737. (signed). G W S Clarke ^ 



Lieutenant-Governor GlarTce to the Lords of Trade. 

[New-Tork Papers, Gg. No. 14.] 

New York Feb : 17. 173 J 
My Lords 

On the 17 of December I did myself the honour to acquaint your Lordships that the Assembly 
were adjourned for this season, having first made good the Deficiencys of the last Revenue, 
which were very considerable, and given some fonds for a future Support, the application 
whereof they have reserved to their next sitting, nor in all likelyliood will they then give it for 
a longer time, than from year to year; that being the General disposition of the people as well 
without doors as within, hoping thereby to restrain a Governor from running into any excesses ; 
for my own part if I had nothing to consult but my own ease and interest, 'twould give me no 
great concern, since I think a moderate use of power is the best, and I am sure is most 
agreeable to my nature; but as former Revenues have been given for a longer time, I think 
myself obliged in duty to his Majesty, to endeavour at least to get it establish'd on the same 
foot ; how I shall succeed I can't tell, the Grievances complained of in a late unhappy 
Government have sowered the people, and will make my task exceeding difficult, tho as to other 
things I have had the good fortune to succeed pretty well, having reduced the Province to a 
state of Repose, little lookt for in so short a time; and yet your Lords?' I presume will 
easily imagin, that it will require a longer to wear out the memory of unkindnesses so lately 
and so warmly done by each party to the other, but a steady course of moderation in the 
Administration of Government, if tliere be no prospect of speedy Alteration in it, will I hope in 
the course of a few years, perfectly restore them to a Mutual Benevolence ; for my own part 
I think I may very justifiably make use of all advantages to obtain a settlement of the Revenue 
for a term of years, and shall soon have one, which if your Lordships approve of, It may 
answer to the end: It is this, above twenty years ago the Excise on Strong Liquors, which 
before that time had all along been appropriated to the Revenue, was given towards the sinking 
a large sum of paper money then struck to pay the debts of the Government; this fond will 
expire in 1739, When as I am informed, there will be nigh twenty thousand pounds of that 
paper money unsunk, I presume therefore when ever the Assembly talk of continuing that fond, 

■ 8k. — Ei>. 



112 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

or giving another to sink that paper money, I may then insist on a Revenue for a term 
of years, as a condition of my assenting to such bill ; But yet my Lords I would fain have your 
Lordships opinion and Commands thereon, before it be brought on the Carpet, which probably 
may be next Summer; nor must I too much rely on that expedient, but make use of it in 
conjunction vpith other things, to win them to the like measures that former Assemblys have 
taken least by insisting too highly and positively on it, I kindle a new fire in the province ; for 
those paper bills will be in a multitude of hands, who will without doubts be very clamarous 
on that occasion. 

One thing that the Country have for several years complained of, and born with much 
impatience, is, the long continuance of their Assemblys; and to it they in a great measure 
impute the party heats animossities and divisions, that have subsisted here, with the decay of 
ship building Navigation and Trade ; to that (they say) it is owing, that many people have left 
this Province, to go to Carolina Pensilvania and the several Charter Govern'' in New England ; 
Whereby lands in the Country, and houses in town, are much fallen in their vallue and in their 
Rents; they look upon frequent Assemblys, as the best and surest protection of their liberties 
and properties, tis to the laws subsisting in the other Colonys, which I have mentioned, for 
frequent Elections, that they ascribe the happyness of those people, the increase of their Trade 
and the peopleing their Countrys in a few years past even beyond belief; whether this be the 
sole or the prevailing cause; it is certain that the people of this Province passionately wish to 
be put by a law, in the like situation with their Neighbours, whom I have mentioned hoping 
from thence to retrieve their declining trade Navigation and Ship Building, and to see the 
Province soon replenished with white people, and truly My Lords, I think it were to be wished 
that the Provinces under his Majesty's more immediate Government, were to be upon a foot as 
advantageous for the encouragement of its inhabitants and of Strangers to come and dwell in 
them, as the charter and proprietary Provinces, it is pity that this Province above all others, 
as it is a frontier, should not be well peopled If it was the french would not take those large 
strides they have done, and are dayly taking; they have already possest themselves of the 
Crown point, and built strong Stone fort there, which cutts off all communication between us 
and the Northern Indians, from whence we formerly had much bever. They have possest 
themselves of Niagra, whereby they may in a great measure intercept the trade of the Western 
Indians in their way to Oswego; they heve attempted, and had well nigh obtained, leave of 
the Six Nations to build a trading house at Tierondequat in the Sinnekes Country, which 
for the present I have happily prevented, and am now taking some measures to get from the 
Six Nations some land to build a fort on at that place, If I fail in that attempt, and the french 
succeed Adue to Oswego, and all our fur Trade, for Tierondequat will entirely cut oft' our 
Western fur Trade, and what the consequences thereof will be to the trade of England, Your 
Lordships know full well; Nor is the loss of our Trade all that we are to apprehend, for with 
it we shall loose the Six Nations: It is with much difficulty and a great Annual Expence to 
this Province in time of peace, without any assistance from our Neighbours, that we have and 
now still retain the fidelity of the Six Nations; who with us in time of a french war, are the 
only Barrier to New Jersey Pensilvania Maryland Virginia and Carolina; And yet even then 
they give us no aid, but leave us to defend ourselves as well as we can: A people thus 
circumstanced, ever ready to defend themselves in time of War, and to cover the other 
British Colonys, thus situated to carry on the fur trade, which centers in England, to the great 
advantage of that Kingdom; I presume to think, deserve Your Lordships countenance in 



LONDON DOCimKNT.S: XXVT. 113 

all things reasonable; for my own part My Lords I dare not interpose my opinion, whether 
their felicity depends so absolutely as they think it does, on their having frequent Elections; 
It is sufficient for me to tell your Lordships, that they themselves are fully possest with that 
opinion; and in that confidence they did the last Session pass an Act for triennial Assemblys, 
the Event whereof they are so impatient, that at their request I now send it to your Lordships 
by way of Boston before the other Acts can possibly be ingrost; hoping that by your 
Lordships favourable representation it may obtain his Majesty's Approbation, And that I may 
have it before the Assembly Sitts, which I shall be obliged to put off as long as I can for that, 
purpose. They did likewise the last Session pass an Act, empowering themselves to appoint 
an Agent independent of a Governour or the Council ; But the Council, who were not averse to 
exclude the Governor, would not be excluded themselves; they therefore made those 
alterations; but the Assembly would by no means agree to them. So that the Bill dropt. 
However the Assembly having their Triennial Bill very warmly at heart, sent their Speaker to 
me, desiring me to be their Agent, to negotiate his Majestys Approbation of their Bill, and 
especially of that Bill ; I said what j^ could in excuse, founded upon their Bill for appointing an 
Agent, and upon other prudential considerations, But that would not do, he assured me that 
the house reposed an entire Confidence in me, which shew'd plainly that in the framing 
that bill, they had no eye to me, and they hoped I would not deny their request, I found 
myself obliged to give into their desire, hoping for your Lordships countenance and that from 
his Majesty's approbation. It may have a very good effect on the minds of the people 

I do myself the honor to send to your Lordships a copy of their Resolve, If it were not for 
the reason mentioned Vi',' that the people are impatient of living in a Province, where 
Assemblys subsist without limitation of time, and for the inferences they deduce from it, It 
were impossible, one would think, that this Province should be so thinly peopled for our soilis 
as good or better, than that of our Neighbouring Colonys, they are to be purchased or patented 
on easier terms, tiie quit-rent is considerably less than in Pensylvania (the present growing 
Colony) our land taxes none, but such as are for the necessary charges of the respective 
Countys, which are annually assessed and levyed by themselves, and are very inconsiderable. 
No Province is more happy in its situation for trade and Navigation, this town is not above 21 
miles from the sea, having a bold and safe Channel to it, for Vessels even of a large size, and 
an excellent harbour before the Town: Our Inland Navigation is inferior to none, for besides 
that to New Jersey and Connecticut, Hudson's river is Navigable thro the heart of the Province 
150 miles from New York to Albany, from Albany to Schenectady is but 15 or 16 miles by 
land, and there you enter into the Mohocks river, which is Navigable for Canoes and Battows 
to the head of it, being about 120 or 130 miles from thence there is a short land carryage of a 
few miles to the Wood Creek, which leads thro the Oneides Lake to Oswego, and the Lakes 
and Rivers even to the Branches of Messasippi, it is from the Indians that inhabit near, and to 
the Northward and Westward of those Lakes, that we have our Beaver in exchange chiefly for 
goods of the ALmufacture of England; with all these advantages this Province, if it were 
populous, might extend its trade to a far greater length, but it cannot be expected, that they 
will make Settlements in remote parts, while the lands nearer at hand are not inhabited for 
upon the first rupture with france, they must expect to quit them, and retire for protection, or 
to be cut of by the Enemy; who having already several forts between Canada and Mesasippi, 
have established a communication between those places which encompasses all the English 
Colonys on that side, will make them masters of all the Indians and Indian Trade, and enable 
Vol. VI. 15 



114 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

them to annoy our Colonys upon every occasion And yet my Lords the Assembly think that 
tilings are not come to that pass, but that they are still within a possibility of a remedy, from 
the increase of people among us; which they assert can no way so well be brought about, as by 
putting the inhabitants of this Province, upon a footing as near as possible with their Neighbours, 
in the frequent Election of their Kepresentatives, This they say will above all things promote 
that great end, those who are allready removed from the Province will return to it again, 
others will [be] encouraged to come hither from abroad, ship building will again revive and in 
consequence Trade and Navigation will again flourish. Iron work (of which Oar we have great 
plenty) and the raising of hemp (for the produce whereof, the Province abounds in Swamps 
and Meadows the properest land for it) will be set on foot, either by private undertakings, or 
by publick encouragement ; In a word my Lords they impute every evil to the want of this Act, 
and promisse themselves every Blessing from his Majesty's approbation of it ; Be that as it will 
it is ceriain that the discontents of the people have grown in proportion to the length of time, 
that an Assembly has been continued, beyond what they thought reasonable I therefore humbly 
hope for your Lordships favourable representation of it to his Majesty for his Uoyal approbation, 
and for your Lordships pardon for this long address. I am with the highest honor and regard 
My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and 

most obedient Servant 

Geo. Clarke 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Duke of Newcastle. 

[ New-York Papers ( 8. P. 0.,) IX.. 14. ] 

New-York April 3"* 1738. 
My Lord. 

I have the honor to receive with Your Grace's letter to my Lord de Lawere of the 30"" of 
Nov' His Maj'*'' instruction relating to the form of prayer for the Royall family which I have 
obeyed and with the papers relating to Burrows Master of the sloop happy, one Verplank a 
Merch* of this place who freighted the sloop some time ago came to me and acquainted me that 
he was informed by private letters that Burrows had not behaved as he ought atSallee; 
Burrows being here I told M' Verplank, that I would send a Messenger to bring him before 
me in Council and desired M' Verplank to attend, Burrows was brought but Verplank did 
not come, not being willing as I was informed to shew himself in a matter whereof he had not 
proof, I examined Burrows however in Council, a copy of whose examination I do myself the 
honor to send to Your Grace : The Council were of opinion, that as no proof appeared against 
Burrowes he ought to be discharged ; however judging there was some foul play, I directed the 
Judge of the Admirality to have him taken up, and to oblige him to give security to answer, 
he did so, and I have now directed the advocate General to file a libel against him. It is 
thought Burrows will not come hither again in haste, regardles of his sureties, he is a 
Bermudian, and properly belongs to that Island, tho' he often freights here. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVI. 115 

I beg leave humbly to thank your Grace for Your Goorlness and protection to my son, and 
to implore the same to myself", for tho' the difficulties I strugle with and my sufferings have 
been great, yet I dare not pretend to any merit that may hope for Your Graces notice, 'tis from 
Your Grace's goodness and Generosity only that [ presume to hope for your protection, that 
after the heat and fatigues of the day, I may enjoy some fruits of my labours which have been 
greater and more uncommon then I believe any one in my station ever encountered, and had it 
not been for the hopes 1 boldly conceiv'd of your Graces countenance I must have sunk, 
under them. 

1 had the melancholy news of her Maj''^' death in the public prints, long before I had the 
honor to receive your Grace's letter and had not only put my own family in mourning but 
signifyed my intention of so doing beforehand thai the Town might be the like, I wish I could 
say, my example was universally followed, I am sure there never was an occasion which 
adrainistred more real cause of grief to a people who admire virtue, love our constitution, are 
zealously attached to the protestant succession, heartily profess the religion of our country, 
and abhor the thoughts of despotick power: but yet My Lord there are some insensible of the 
greatness of this cruel stroke of fate, who had that indiference for it (to say no worse of them) 
that tho' they were all able, and rank themselves with the foremost of the principal people of 
this Town, yet did not put themselves in mourning, pretending that they had made themselves 
the joke of the Town for doing it on the late Kings death — tho' now they made themselves the 
contempt of it — I would not presume to trouble your Grace with this, if one of them whom 
I have formerly recommended to be of the Council was not in the small number, I mean M*" 
John Moore a Mercli' of this Town, but that circumstance provokes me, and I should think 
myself unpardonable if I was silent under it. For my own part My Lord, I never was so 
shocked as on this melancholy occasion, my heart and thoughts are full of it as I believe 
is every good subject's, and if any thing can attone for my inpertinence, it must be the 
distraction of|my mind; in that confidence I humbly ask leave to subscribe myself with 
the greatest submission 

My Lord 

Your Graces 

Most humble most obedient 

and most dutiful servant 
(signed). G W S. Clarke. 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarhe to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-York Pnpere, Gg., No. U. ] 

New York June 2. 1739. 
My Lords 

I do myself the honor to send to your LordP* the Acts of Assembly past last Session, this being 
the first opportunity I have had to do it since they were ingross'd which took up much time; 
with them I also send the minutes of Council, I beg leave to mention the titles of the Acts, 
and to make such remarks on them as I presume to hope may give your Lordships satisfaction 



IH^ NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

N" 1. All Act emitting bills of Credit for the payment of the debts and for the better support 
of the Governour of this Province and other purposes therein mention'd. 

The preamble will in a great measure let your Lordships into the reason and necessity 
of making this money and of my assisting to the bill there was no other possible way of 
discharging that load of debts which the insufficiency of the former Revenue had involved the 
Province in, trade and Navigation had for some years declined, and the Merchants of most 
wealth had chose rather to put out their money to interest @ eight p' C then to employ it in 
Trade, and ship building Silver and Gold was sent to England, as fast as it came into the 
Country, to make returns to the Merchants who send goods hither to their factors, or to 
purchase goods tiierefore those of this place who Trade on their own account, and leaving little 
paper money of our own that of the Neighbouring Provinces was become the chief raediam of 
Trade here ; nor was there any other remedy for it, except that of keeping the Silver and Gold 
in the Province, which is constantly exported to England, and that would be injurious to the 
English Trade and Merchants ; High interest is in every Country is a great discouragement to 
Trade, and it has been so here, the Usurers your Lordships may be sure were not pleased with 
an Act which in its consequences might reduce the General interest of money, they foresaw 
twould have that effect and it has so far already prevail'd, that I am told some of them offer 
their money att Six p"" C from whence I promise myself the pleasure to see Trade and Ship 
Building revive and flourish. The Province grow populous, and the Settlement and 
Liiprovement of Lands carry'd greater lengths than could otherwise be expected ; the benefit 
whereof England will largely partake, in the consumption of its Manufacturer the more 
populous the Plantations are, the more of those Manufactures will be imported to them ; your 
Lordships will perceive that in the striking this money, there is some regard likewise had to 
Trade in easing it of so much as the Interest of .£40,000 will amount to over and above 
.£8059 14 which is to be sunk by it; for imports on Trade has hitherto have the whole 
charge of supporting the Governour; Of this the Merchants have long complained, and often 
try'd to get it eas'd by laying some tax on lands, but the Country Members are too great a 
Majority against it; however they are willing that Trade should be eas'd, provided they bear 
us part of the burthen, As in the present case they do not, but on the contrary reep all the 
benefit of having money on a low interest, this Province has been more cautious of making 
paper money, than our Neighbours not having struck any but upon extraordinary occasions and 
when there was no other possible way to provide for those exigencies; And its credit has 
always been better than theirs, and so it will be so long as they keep within the bounds of so 
much as their Trade necessarily requires, and it is generally acknowledged that their is not 
now paper money of their own enough for that purpose it is universally agreed that this 
Province abounds in Iron Oar, and in lands proper for raising of Hemp and yet both lye useless; 
Iron Works require considerable sums of money to bring them to perfection, or at least more 
than private persons wiio own those mines can command; and the lands fit for raising of Hemp 
being Swamps, Bogs and wet Meadows, cannot be cleared and drained but at a great expence ; 
the Assembly had these things under their consideration the last Session, intending if they 
could to enable the proprietors to build furnaces and forges for pig and barr Iron ; and to clear 
and drain the bogs and meadows, but the approach of winter would not give them time to do 
any thing in it; these works would employ a great number of people, and the produce make 
remittances to England, to the advantage and inlargement of its trade and Manufactures, and 
in time the Plantations might make the Trade to Sweden and Russia for those commodities 
less necessary 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVI. 117 

N" 2. An Act to facilitate and explain the duty of the loan Ofiicers. This Act containing 
only directions to those persons in letting out the .£40,000 need no Remarks. 

JN" 3. An Act for granting to his Majesty several duties towards supporting his Government 
in this Colony for One year &^ There are no other goods charged with duties by this Act, 
than such as in the former Revenue Bills have been subjected to a duty ; and the duties given 
by this Act upon some commodities are less tlian they were formerly, which is done solely in 
ease to the Merchants, who have long complained of the hardships they have been under from 
the imports on trade, when the Trade of Neighbouring provinces has been exempted from 
duties; the deficiency which there will be from the difference between the present and past 
duties;. they suppose will be made up, by the interest of the paper mentiou'd in my 
observations on the first Act. 

N° 4. An Act to defray the necessary & contingent charges of the Garrison of Oswego 
repairing the same and for the better regulating of the fur Trade. 

This Act except wliat refers to the repairs of the house or fort is pretty much the same with 
former Acts, that have been passed to defray y^ charges of that Garrison but the house having 
fallen to decay for want of timely repairs, I have prevail'd with the Assembly to give money 
for its repair 

N° 5. An Act to prevent the further importation of copper money into this Colony. 

Many years have not pass'd since copper money was first known in this Province, at first 
necessity either for change or market, gave it a currency at an hundred p"" C advance on the 
value it has in England, an English half penny passing here for a penny, whereas the difference 
of money in Bills of exchange is but .£65 p' C or ^165 this money for ^100 Sterl^, this put 
the Merchant upon sending to England for it as the best commodity they could import, which 
has filled the Province so full of it that it becomes a griveance, large payments at this time 
being tenderd in it, and if a stop be not put to it will become too great a burthen, and the 
more of it a Merchant imports (as some will do it especially if others decline) the less of the 
English Manufactures will be imported for we have no merchants here who leave their money 
in England 

N" 6. An Act for lowering the interest of money 

This Act as it pass'd the Assembly reduced money from eight p' C to six but the Council 
alter'd it to seven p' C which the Assembly agreed to: excessive Usury being a great 
discouragement to the trade, and to the settlement or peopleing the Country, it was thought 
high time to reduce it by a law, and tho the paper money mentiond in the Act N" 1, to be let 
out at interest at 5 p' C would in efl'ect reduce the interest of all money without this law, 
people might exact 8 p"" c'. 

N° 7 An Act for establishing and regulating Courts to determine causes of forty shillings 
and under 

It has been a standing instruction to Governours to get such an Act passt it being a 
necessary one. 

N° 8 An Act to restrain Tavern Keepers and Innholders from selling strong liquors to 
servants and apprentices and from giving large credit to others 

The vice against which this Act is pointed, has prevailed of late years to too great a degree 
and servants and apprentices finding ready credit from such houses, are led from their duty to 
their masters, and from their own true interest, into an habit of idleness, that may in time 
prove ruinous to the whole Province if not prevented 



11^ NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

No 9 An Act for tlie further continuing an Act entituled an Act to let to farm the excise of 
Strong Liquors. 

N" 10 An Act for the continuing an Act for settling and regulating the militia such act being 
past annually I will not take up your Lordsliips time in saying anything upon them 
N° 11 An Act to revive an Act to amend the practice of the law. 

This Act needs no otlier observation than this, that the lawyers having found means to evade 
the intention of the law wliich this Act revives, this explains and renders more certain that 
part of the former Act 

N" 12 An Act to revive an Act entituled an Act to provide able pilots &' 
N" 13 An Act to revive an Act entituled an Act for the better preservation of Oysters &" 
These Acts being to revive Acts formerly pass'd and found useful need no observations 
N° 14 An Act for naturalizing Johannes Lorents Corstens 
iN" 15 All Act for naturalizing Gustaple Martin Rheneil and others 

The readiness the Assemblys have from time to time shewn to pass Acts for naturalizing 
foreign protestants has encouraged them to come to and settle in this Province, and will much 
contribute to the peopleing of it 

N" 16 An Act to divide Duches County in precincts Sc' 

N° 17. An Act to enable the Justices of tiie peace in that part of Orange County being to 
the Northward of the High lands to build a Court house and Goal for the said County 
at Goshen 

N° IS. An Act for defraying the common and necessary charge of the mannor of Cortland in 
the County of West Chester. 

N° 19. An Act for the better clearing and further laying into publick high Roads in 
Duchess County. 

N° 20. An Act to enable the Justices of the peace in Ulster County to defray the charges of 

building a Court house and Goal for the said County and to enable them to furnish the same. 

The five last mentioned Acts, being of a more private nature respecting only particular 

County's and places I will not take up your Lordships time in makeing any other remark upon 

them then that they appear to be necessary for the purposes intended. 

N° 21. An Act for the further encouragement of a publick school in the City of New York 
for the teachin latin and Greeck and the Mathematicks 

N° 22. An Act restrain Hawkers and Pedlars within this Colony from selling without licence. 
Being confident that publick schools for the education of youth will always find countenance 
from your Lordships I will lay the two last Bills before you without any further remarks in 
their favour; I wish the Assembly had made the reward greater than it is like to be, from the 
last of these Bills, that money was apply'd before, to the like use but fell short of the sum 
intended, nor could the school master get any redress tho he petition'd for it or got some of his 
friends to move the house in his behalf; it is not likely it will bring in more now however the 
master having at present no other way of living is obliged to submit. 

N" 23 An Act for confirming an agreement and exchange of lands in the township of 
Oysterbay formerly made between Samson Hawks and John Pratt deceas'd &■= 

This being a private Act the previous steps were taken as directed by his Majesty's Royal 
instruction and there is in it a particular saving to his ^L^jesty His heirs and Successors and a 
general saving to others, as well as a clause restraining it from taking effect till it has received 
his Majestys approbation 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVI. 119 

N" 24. An Act to prevent damages by swine in the County of Orang and some part of Ulster 
County Sc" 

N° 25. An Act to enable the Corporation of the City of New York to raise tlie sum of two 
hundred and fifty pounds for the use therein mentioned 

N" 26. An Act furtlier to encourage the destroying of wolves in the County of West Chester 
and to repeal part of the Act therein mention'd 

K" 27. An Act for the preservation of Oysters at and near Richmond County in this Colony 

N" 28. An Act for the better extinguishing fires that may happen within the City of 
New York. 

These Acts being likewise of an inferior nature, reasonable and necessary for the purposes 
intended. I submit them to your Lordships, without giving you any further trouble about them. 

I do myself the honor likewise to send to your Lordships the Naval Officers accounts to tiie 
25 of March last; When tlie Assembly meets which will be in August I will then press them 
in the strongest manner 1 can to settle the revenue for a term of years, they will want to have 
an Act continued (which expires next year by its own limitation ) whereon the credit of about 
^20,000 paper money subsists; if they will give a revenue, I will pass such an Act ; but I will 
let them know that they must go hand in hand or not at all, I have already mention'd it to 
the Speaker and some others, who seem to take the thing right. 

Coll: Cosby recommended to your Lordships M' Paul Richards' and M"' John Moore, as fit 
persons to be of his Majesty's Council for this province in case of vacancys and I thought them 
so too; but I presume to say that from some observations I have made, I think it highly 
necessary that such of the Kings Officers as hold the most considerable posts should be prefer'd 
to seats at that Board, and I have found the want of them more than once in matters that 
concern the Government; whenever vacancys therefore happen I beg leave to recommend to 
your Lordships, Richard Bradly Esq : the Atrorney General with M' Paul Richards and as to 
myself if your Lordships please to recommend my son who is now secretary for the province 
to be Councillor in my room I am will to resign to him. 

1 do myself the honor likewise to send to your Lordsiiips answers to most of the queries I 
received last year which I hope will be satisfactory to your Lordships the rest I will send so 
soon as I can get them which I hope to do soon I humbly recommend myself to your Lordships 
protection and am with the most profound respect and honor 
My Lords 

Your Lordships most humble 

and most Obedient Servant 

Geo : Clarke. 

" Paul Ricuarhs, eon of Paiilus Richards, a meicliant of New-Yorif, was Maj'or of that city from 1735 to 1739, and in 1743 
was elected to lepresent his native city in the Geneml Aesemlily, of which body he continued to be a member urjtil liis dciitli, 
in December, 1756. Having no children, he divided his property between his wifi-, his three brothers and the cliihlren of his 
two sisters. His will is in the office of the Surrogate, New-York, Liber., XX., 151. He opposed the administration of Gov. 
Clinton, and was an intimate acquaintance of Chief Justice Delancy. Sinilli's New-York, II., 142. — Ed. 



120 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Answers of Enquiries of the Lords of Trade. 

[New-York Papers, Gg. No. 17.] 

M"^ Clarke's Answers to Queries of Board of Trade. 2 June 1733. 

3. The constitution of the Government is such as liis Majesty by his Commission to his 
Governour directs, whereby the Governour with the Council and Assembly are empowered to 
pass laws not repugnant to the laws of England. 

13. In the town of New York is an old fort of very little defence cannon we have, but the 
carriages are good for little, we have ball but no powder, nor will the board of Ordinance send 
any on pretence that a larg quantity was sent in 1711 for the Canada expedition which is 27 
year agoe, much of it as for many years been troden under foot in the magazine the barrells 
having been rotten. 

There is a battery which commands the mouth of the harbour whereon may be mounted 50 
cannon this is new having been built but three years but it wants finishing 

At Albany there is a new stone fort built the same year with the Battery at New York. 

And at Schenectady a new fort built at the same time and both are sufficient for those places 

In the Mohocks Country there is an old stockado'd fort of little use now tho country there 
was about being pretty well settled and nigh Schanectady 

I have been trying to prevail with the Seneca's to let us build a fort at Tierondequat in their 
country which will more effectually secure the fidelity of the six nations and better preserve 
the fur Trade, and I hope at last prevail 

IS. We have no revenue establish'd at present 

19. The ordinary and extraordinary expences of the Government are about .£4000 a year. 

20. We have a Militia in every county for the regulating whereof there is annually past an 
Act of Assembly 

The people are generally expert in the use of fire arms. All the Officers are commissioned 
by the Governour. 

The Mayors and Records of the Cities of New York and Albany hold their places by 
Commissions under the seal of the province so do the Sherriffs Corroners and Clerks of 
the peace. 

The Chief Justice is usually appointed at home and by the Kings warrant to the Governour 
he gives him a Commission under the seal of the province the second and third Judges have 
no warrant the Governour appointing them himself under the seal of the province the Attorney 
General the Surveyor General of the lands and the Secretary or Agent for Indian affairs are 
appointed as the chief Justice is by the Kings warrant &." 

The Secretary and receiver General have their Commission under the great Seal of England. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 121 

[ New-York Tapers, Gs-, No. IS. ] 

M' Colden's Answers to the Queries of the Lords of Trade. ' 

Province of New York February 14. 173S 
To the honourable George Clarke Esq: Lieut' Governour of the Province of New York &■= 

May it please your honour, 

In obedience to your honours order in Council of the 5"" of last month, referring to me the 
following Queries from the Lords of Trade and Plantations Viz' 

" N" 1. What is the Scituation of the province under your Government, the nature of the 
"country soil and Climate, the Latitude and Longitude of the most considerable places in it, or 
" the Neigiibouring french or Spanisli settlements, have those Latitudes and Longitudes been 
" settled by good observations or only by common computations, and from whence are the 
" Longitudes computed ? 

N° 2. What are the reputed Boundaries and are any parts thereof disputed, what parts and 
by whom ? 

I shall that answer may be made tliereunto, mention such particulars as occur to me, from 
my own knowledge or the credible information of others, on the subject matter of their 
Lordships Queries; and class them in the same order observed in the Queries. 

The Scituation of the Province of New York is to the Eastward of the Province of 
New Jersey and Pensylvania and of the Indian Countries lying to the Northward and Westward 
of Pensylvania to the Southward of Canada, and the Indian Countries claimed by the french; 
and to the Westward of tiie Colonies of Massathusets Bay and Connecticut 

The nature of the country is more uneven, hilly, stony and rocky, than that of the Provinces 
to the Southward of it. In some parts it is Mountainous. At about 40 miles from the city 
of New York Northward a chain of Mountains of about ten miles in breadth, commonly called 
the Highlands Cross Hudsons river runing many miles from the North East Southwestward. 
About 90 miles Northward from New York another body of Mountains rise on the West side 
of Hudsons river at about ten miles from the river and are commonly called the Hatts Hill 
mountains or Blow Hills, from these Mountains the most Northerly arid main branches of 
Delaware river, some branches of Susquehana river, and several of Hudsons river take 
their rise. 

The Southern part of the country that is from the sea on both sides of Hudsons river to 
within 20 miles of Albany, is generally cover'd with Oaks of several sorts intermixed with 
Wallnutts, Chestnuts and almost all sorts of timber according to the difference of the soil in 
several parts. I have seen in several parts of the country large quantities of the Larix Trees 
from whence Venice Turpentine is made about Albany, and as I am informed a great wny up 
the Eastern branch of Hudsons river the land is generally cover'd with pines of several sorts. 
The Mohawks country or that part of this province lying on both sides th.e Western branch of 
Hudsons river is generally cover'd with beech maple and elm. 

The settlements extend in length from the ocean Northward along Hudsons river and the 
Eastern branch of it, to about 40 miles to the northward of Albany, and westward along 
the western branch, to about four score miles West Northwest from Albany : so that the settled 
and improved part of New York extends about 200 miles in length but there are few 

Vol. VI. 16 



122 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS 

settlements anywhere to the Northward or Westward of Albany at any distance from the 
branches of Hudsons river. 

In the Mohawks Country the levell of the land seems to be at the greatest heighth above 
the sea ; for in that part of the country at about fifty miles West North West from Albany and 
12 miles West from the Mohawks river some branches of the largest rivers in North America 
and which run contrary courses, take their rise within two or three miles of each other Viz' 
1" a branch of Hudsons river, which falls into the sea near New York after having run above 
250 miles; 2. The Oneido river running Northward falls into the Oneido Lake which empties 
itself into the Cadarachui Lake at Oswego: from this Lake the great river S' Lawrence takes 
its rise, which passing by Montreal and Quebeck empties itself into the Ocean opposite to 
NewfoundLind. 3'''' A branch of Susquehana river, which running Southerly passes through 
Pensylvania and Maryland, and empties itself into Cheasaspeak bay in Virginia. 

The Province of New York has for the conveniency of commerce, advantages by its scitualion 
beyond any other Colony in North America, for Hudsons river running through the whole 
extent of this province, affords the inhabitants an easy transportation of all their commodities 
to and from the City of New York, from the Eastern branch there is only land carriage of 
sixteen miles to the Wood Creek, or to Lake S* Sacrement, both of which fall into Lake 
Champlain, from whence goods are transported by Water to Quebeck. but the advantages are 
from the western branch of Hudsons river at fifty miles from Albany the land carriage from 
the Mohawks river to a Lake from whence the Northern branch of Susquahana takes its rise 
does not exceed fourteen miles : goods may be carried from this Lake, in battoes or flat 
bottom'd vessells through Pensylvania to Maryland and Virginia the current of the River 
running every where easy, without any cataract in all that large space. In going down this 
river two large branches of the same river are met, which come from the westward and issue 
from the long ridge of mountains, which stretch along behind Pensylvania Maryland Virginia 
and Carolina commonly, called the Apalachy Mountains. By either of these branches goods 
may be carried to the Mountains, and I am told that the passage through the Mountains to the 
branches of the Mississipi which issue from the west side of these Mountains, is neither long 
nor difficult, by which means an Inland Navigation may be made to the bay of Mexico from 
the head of the Mohawks river there is likewise a short land carriage, of four miles only to a 
creek of the Oneida Lake, which empties itself into Cadarackui Lake at Oswego, and the 
Cadarackui Lake, being truly an Inland sea, of greater breadth than can be seen by the eye 
communicates with Lake Erie the Lake of the Hurons, Lake Michigan and the upper Lake 
all of them Inland seas, by means of these Lakes and the rivers which fall into them, commerce 
may be carried from New York through a vast tract of Land more easily than from any other 
Maritime town in North America, these advantages I am sensible cannot be sufficiently 
understood without a Map of North America, the best which I have seen, is M' De L'isles map 
of Louisinia publish'd in french in the year 1718, for this reason I frequently use the french 
names of places, that I may be better understood. 

There are great quantities of Iron Oar in several parts of the Province, large quantities of 
Sulphur in the Mohawks country, salt springs in the Onondaga country lead oar has likewise 
been found in several parts of the Province but no where as yet sufficient to pay the expence 
of working 

The Soil is less uniform as the surface is more unequal than in the more Southern Provinces ; 
and consequently there is a great variety of Soil in several parts of the Province It is 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 123 

generally proper for most sort of grain ; as wheat Rye Barley, Oats Maiz or Indian Corne and 
Buckwheat, the wheat of this Province is generally heavier than that of the Provinces more 
so the Southward and yields a larger quantity and better kind of flower. The soil is likewise 
more fit for pasturage running naturally as soon as its cleard of the woods into clover and 
other good grass and is almost every where intermixed with good meadow grounds. These 
in several parts are of a deep rich black mold, and have when sufficiently drained produced 
hemp to great advantage, what I say of hemp is grounded on what has been done in New 
Jersey, and though the experiment has not been sufficiently tryed in this Province: I can see 
no reason to doubt of the like success. 

Oil many of the branches of Hudsons river and near Albany on Hudsons river itself, there 
is a kind of soil made by the rivers and extends about half a mile in breadth along the rivers. 
This being maide the soil which the rivers let fall, is exceeding rich, yields large crops of the 
best wheat and the repeated overflowings of the rivers keep it always in strength. 

The soil of the IMoliawks country is in general much richer and stronger than that of the 
more Soutiiern parts of the Province and exceeds any soil that I ever saw in any part of 
America. I am told the same kind of soil extends through out the Countries of the Onedoes, 
Onondagas, Cayugas and Senekas. This soil I am perswaded will produce any thing that can 
be produced in a climate where the winters are very cold. 

The climate of the province of New York confinning it to the present Christian settlements 
extends from the 40"" degree and thirty minutes of Latitude to the 43'' degrees 30 minutes. It 
is much colder in winter than those parts of Europe which lye under the same parallels of 
latitude The alterations in the Thermometer are very considerable as great perhaps as in any 
part of the world : but the changes in the barometer are not so great the mercury seldom 
descending so low as in Britain the changes of heat and cold passes through all the degrees of 
the thermometer. I have observed the cold so great, that the spirit in Patricks Thermometer 
which is fixed to his portable Barometer descended to the space of S.V gradations below all the 
graduations marked on the Thermometer at the same time tho spirit in my florentine 
Thermometer was included intirely without the ball but so great a degree of cold happens 
seldom The peach and Quince Trees were in many places kill'd by it but the apple and pear 
trees are never hurt by the cold. Hudsons river so far as it is fresh is froze every year, so as 
to bear horses and carriages. The excesses in heat and cold seldom continue a week together 
or more than two or three days the greatest cold is in January and heat in July and August. 
Since the country has been settled and cleared the seasons are become more moderate 

The spring comes late, it is seldom sensible before April. This it is probable is occasion'd 
by great quantities of snow to the Northward while everywhere are cover'd from the sun by thick 
forrests and by melting slowly produce cold Northerly winds. The spring being late of 
consequence is short, the succeeding warm weather produces a quick growth so that the face 
of the country in a short time becomes surprizingly changed, In the summer exceeding heavy 
dews fall almost every night, the wheat harvest is in the beginning of July. 

The fall of the leaf is the most pleasant season in this country, from the beginning of 
September to december we have moderate weather with a serene sky the horison being 
seldom cover'd with clouds in that time. 

d m 

City of New York is in Latitude 40 42 

Longitude 74 37 



124 NEW-YOKK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

d m 

Sandyhook a Cape in the ocean at the entrance into the 

Bay into which Hudson's river empties itself. .... Laf* 40 25 

Long-i' 74 37 
Albany the second city in New York and most considerable 

place for the fur Trade Lai''' 42 4S 

Long"" 74 24 
Oswego a Fort on Cadarackuy Lake from whence the fur 
Trade of Albany is carried on with the Western 

Indians Lat. 43 3-5 

Long. 76 50 

Pensylvania Lat*"" 39 5S 

Long. 75 40 

Boston Lat. 42 25 

Long. 71 28 

Quebeck the Capital of Canada Lat. 46 45 

Long. 69 4S 
Montreal the second town in Canada and nearest New 

York Lat 45 52 

Long. 74 10 
Crown Point the place where the french have built a fort 

near the South end of Lake Champlain Lat. 44 10 

Long. 74 00 

The longitude of all these places is computed westward from the meridian of London. 
The Latitude and Longitude of New York is from my own observations which I am satisfied 
are near enough to the truth for common use tho not made with such instruments care and 
accuracy as is necessary where the greatest exactness is requisite the Longitude is from the 
immersions and emersions of Jupiters first Satellite and the calculations made from D^ Pounds 
tables of that satellite; The Latitude and Longitude of Boston are from the observations 
made at Cambridge College in New England and those of Quebeck from the observations of the 
french there, those of other places are computed from their distance and scituation with respect 
to some one or more of these that are determined by observations 

The Province of New York is bounded to the southward by the Altantick Ocean, and runs 
from Sandy hook including Long Island and Staten Island, up Hudson's river till the 41*' 
degree of North Latitude be compleated wiiich is about 20 miles above the City of New Yoik, 
East New Jersey lying for that space on the west side of Hudson's river; from the 41" degree 
of Latitude on Hudsons river it runs Northwesterly to 41 49 minutes of Latitude on the most 
Northerly branch of Delaware river which falls near Cashiehtunk, an Indian settlement on a 
branch of that river called the fish Hill, thence it runs up that branch of Delaware river till 
the 42'' degree of Latitude be compleated or to the beginning of the 43'' degree. Pensylvania 
stretching along the west side of Delaware river, so far northward as to this parellel of latitude 
from the beginning of the 43 degree New York runs Westerly on a Parallel of latitude along 
the bounds of Pensylvania to Lake Erie, or so far West as to comprehend the country of the 
five nations (the french having by the Treaty of Utricht quitted all claim to these five Nations) 
there it runs along Lake Erie, and the Streights between Lake Erie and Cadarackuy Lake 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. ] 25 

find along Cndarackuy Lake to the East end thereof, from thence it continues to extend 
Easterly along the bounds of Canada to the Colony of Massatliusets bay thence Southerly 
along the boundaries of the Massathusets bay and of the Colony of Connecticut to the Sound 
between Long Island and the Main, and then Easterly along that Sound to the Atlantick ocean. 

The j^boundaries between New York Province and the Provinces of New Jersey and 
Pensylvania are so well described in the Grants to the proprietors of New Jersey and 
Pensylvania that by determining the proper parallels of Latitude on Hudson and Delaware 
rivers the boundarys between iheni may at any time be fixed with sufficient certainty. But 
as this has not hitherto been actually done, disputes now in several parts subsist between the 
Proprietors of the lands near the line which is supposed to run between New York and New 
Jersey from Hudsons river to Delaware river and it is probable the like disputes will happen 
between the inhabitants of the Provinces of New York and Pensylvania, when the lands near 
the line dividing them shall be setled. 

The boundarys between New York and Connecticut are intirely setled by agreement between 
the two Colonies and by lines run at about 21 niiies from Hudsons river and running nearly 
parallel to the general course of that river. 

I know of no regulations for determining the boundaries between New York and Canada 
Its probable each will endeavour to extend themselves as far as they can, the french have lately 
made a wide step by building a fort at Crown point, which alarms the English Colonies by its 
being a pass of great importance By this pass only there is access to Canada from the English 
Colonys, and from this the french will be able in war time to send out parties to harrass and 
plunder the Colonies of Massathusets bay New York and Connecticut the building of this fort 
deserves the more notice by reason, it is not at half the distance from the settlements in 
New York that it is from the nearest settlements in Canada, If we are to Judge of the 
pretentions of the french, by the Maps lately published in france by publick authority they 
not only claim this part of the country and the countries of the five nations depending on 
New York, but likewise a considerable part of what is actually setled by the inhabitants of New 
York. The English Maps are such servile Copies of the french that they mark out the 
boundaries between the i^nglish and French with the same disadvantage to the English that 
the French do. 

The boundaries between Massathusets bay and New York is every where disputed by the 
Massathusets bay charter that Colony is to extend as far west as Connecticut. The question 
is whether it shall extend as far West as to Connecticut, or extend as far West as Connecticut 
does the difference is so considerable that it takes in near a great a quantity of laud as the 
whole of what is not disputed It is probable, they may at last make their claim good by 
the numerous settlements they have already and are daily making upon it. 

Your honors knowledge of this country will easily discover any errors I may have committed, 
and will supply the defects. I have endeavour'd that what I have wrote may be of use to you 
in some matters wherein you are less conversant, and may assist your memory in others lu 
hopes that it may and in obedience to your commands it is submitted by 

Sir , 

Your most obedient and 

most humble Servant 

Cadwallader Colden 



126 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Answer to four Queries referr'd by his Honor the Lieu' Governour and Council 
of the Province of New York to tlie Commissioners of Indian aflairs. 

14. The six nations of Indians including the river and Shaachkook Indians are about 1500 
fighting men of which number J part incline to french interest being partly overawd by fear, 
The French have their interpreter continually among the Sinnekes who have a great influence 
over them and they often send messengers with presents to the Six nations 

15 The Indians living near about Montreal and Quebeck are about 1000 fighting men 
besides a vast number of other foreign Nations amongst whom the french have sixteen 
Fortifications and Settlements. 

16. The French Europeans settled on the river S' Lawrence in Canada consisting of the 
three Govern" of Quebec Montreal and the three rivers are about ten thousand fighting men 
including thirty two companys of regular forces. 

Spaniards none. 

17. The Metropolis of New France is Quebeck a well fortifyed town being inclosed in a 
very strong wall and has a strong fort scituated on a Rock being the sea Port on the North 
side of river S' Lawrence. About sixty leagues S" West thereof is Montreal on the same side 
of the river which is regularly fortifyed and surrounded with a strong stone wall having battaries 
within and a large trench round the North, East and West sides thereof and to the South is 
the river. About seven leagues South from Montreal is a village called Chambley scituated on 
a river running out of Corlaers Lake which is by the French called Champlain, and emptys 
itself into the river S' Lawrence at Soreil there is a good strong stone fort at the side of the 
river at the upper end of a basson. 

The French have also a very strong fort to the West of Crown Point at the side and South 
East end of Corlaers Lake before mentioned called by the french La Pointe au la Chevlenres, 
about Seventy miles to the Northward of our farthest settlements, built in the year 1736 for a 
retreat when the french at any time should come to disturb or annoy our frontiers, either in 
our Province or New England, this fort is scituated on a rock having a very strong cittadel 
arch'd with stone three storys high, the wall thereof is about seven feet thick, it commands 
the entrance into the Lake before mentioned from the Southward and has four regular Bastions 
To the Southard is a large plain. They likewise by that means extend their limitts, having 
encroach'd upon land belonging to his Majesty 

They have also a strong fort at Cadaruchque at the North East end of the Lake Ontario which 
emptys itself in the river S' Lawrance, made there not only in order to entice the six nations of 
Indians to their interest and to have an awe over them but also for a retreat to the french when 
at any time they should attack or annoy the six nations and likewise to prevent the said Six 
Nations trom going to Canada in time of war. 

They have also a strong fortification at Niagara which is at the South west end of Canada 
Lake below the Falls of that name about three Leagues, where there is a carrying place, it 
borders near the six nations which in a great measure comands the Indian Trade from the 
Westward and overawes the Sinnekes 

They have several settlements and forts as above observed of less note among the upper 
nations of Indians on the chiiif passages as the Indians come from their hunting in order to 
intercept the furr trade and to keep an awe and comand over them. 

Albany 4 Feb^y 173^ 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 



127 



New York iisr Amkiuca. 
The referred Queries from the Lords of Trade and Plantations, and the required Answer from the Collector of the 


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First the coiinlry people hero have for ninny years, 
and yet their homespun, so term'd of wool &Flax, 
to supply somewhat themselves with the necessarys 
of eloathing &c. 

From the year 171.5 or thereabout", have bin raia'.L 
linseed and Milld into Oil. balls made of heaver 
fnrr, the exporting whereof preveiiteii by ihe .Act 
from Miciileraass 1782, also lamp black work'd up. 

From the year 1730. Sugar luiking and ila rcll g 

have been for home cimaiimpliun ,fe transportaliMU 
hence to oiher districts on llm Cimlinenl and to ihe 
TVcst Indies by regular cerliflrales, and lalerjy the 
distilling oi Kum and other spirits for these only 
are two houses erected. 

In this province are Mines of Iron and lead Oars the 
Uannfacturing of which have bin of late proposed, 
and the raising of hemp likewise 

Lasily of these several behides, are grain of all sorts 
and other provisions, willi Tobacco, a dimlniilive 
quantity naturally produced out of Uiis soil yet 
being with such like brought hilher Ironi the 
Kaslern and Western I'arUs ol this Continent are 
Bailable and vended abroad cannot be dislm- 
guiahed as to ascertain llie anual exporling or their 
value neither praelicably could it be, il from the 
inqinrt thereof separated because their prices ac- 
cording to the markets currcatly vane. 


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These on ench Column are particularized aa to quantitys as qnalitva in the quarterly list of 
Trading Vej-sells, ihe transmitting wherof to their Lordships is from the Naval offict-r here consti- 
tuted by the Governour, and also such iista duly to thi-ir honors thi- C.>mnii-:-ion.'ra of the Customs 
from thHr offices hence, thi^reby may appt-ar that within the queries meutd to me, how seemingly 
little the increase or dimiuuilou ditTerenccth respectively. 


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First to London and Out Ports tlie 
latter aeldoin, the enumerated 
goods and other merchandze le- 
galy imported 

To Ireland: flax seed and Staves 

To other pans of Europe drain, 
hides, EIke and Dr Skinns, (ix- 
horns, Sp: SnuB, Logwood. 
Indico, Cocoa nulls &cof toreign 
proiluce and Lumber 

To Madeira and Azores, Grain, 
Beeswax and Staves. 

To English districts Nth and Slli 
of this Continent and West 
Indies, provisions Chocolale 
Lumber, European goods with 
those species enumerated and 
such others as brought here for 
export regularly 

Lnslly 10 the Newtral ports as St. 
Thomas Caraciia and Suretihalin, 
provisions Lumber and horses 
vflth provender. 


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"What, is the Trade of lhi8 Province, the number of 
ehtping, iheir Tnnjpre, and the number of sea- 
furing'men with the respective increase or diminu- 
tion within ten years paalV 

"Whai, quantity and sorts of British Manufacture do 
the inhabitants nnnualy take from hent-e Y 

"What, trade bos this province under ytmr Governt 
with any Foreicn IManiation or any part of l.urope 
besides Great Britain, how is thai Trade carried 
on, What commodities do the people under Your 
Government send to or receive from Foreign 
Plantations? 

"What, is the natural produce of the Country staple 
commoditiea and manufactures and what value 
thereof In Slerliug money may you annually' 
export? -J 




1 

|| 
£ 3 

h 



128 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Duhe of Newcastle. 

[ New-Tork Papers. (9. P. 0.) No. 9, p. IG.] 

New York June 2"-' 1738. 
My Lord. 

I beg leave to do myself the honor to acquaint Your Grace that, being informed that a 
considerable land and naval force vpas arrived at Augustine from Cuba in order to make a 
descent on Georgia, I sent for those Masters of vessells who were lately arrived from Augustine 
and Carolina, and examined them on oath concerning that affair, copys of whose examinations 
I do myself the honor to lay before Your Grace. The Council were of opinion that there was 
sufficient cause to embargo Kip and Griffiths sloops, the first was loaden with provision for 
Augustine and Griffith careemng in order to take in a loading for the same place, both owned 
by on William Walton of this Town, who, as I am informed has supplied that place with 
provisions many years by contract — He protested against the Custom-house officers for refusing 
to clear ships, a copy of which protest I likewise do myself the honor to enclose. I have 
besides the restraint laid on those two sloops issued a Procl"" with the advice of the Council, 
forbidding all His Maj'>'' subjects in this province to supply Augustine with provision or 
ammunition. The obligation on M"' Walton to give security before his sloops be cleared at the 
Customhouse that tiiey should not go to Augustine might have not answered the end, but as 
I was to act with the advice of the Council, the order was made pursuant to it, yet there being 
no sum mentioned wherein he was to be bound, I had it in my power to direct wiiat the 
penalty should be. Capt" Walton thought it hard, that his vessells entering and clearing for 
Carolina (as they always do for some English port) should be embargo'd, and other vessells 
that enter for the same place should be suffered to depart; but I can not think it either hard 
or unjust, Walton being the only person in this place whom the Spaniards permit to trade at 
Augustine, where he has a Factor who has resided there many years. 

In this situation the business continued till the lO"" of May, when Capl" Tucker and one 
Coll. Hicks an Assembly man in Carolina who came hither with Tucker for his health being 
examined on oath tiie Council were thereupon of opinion that the Spanish expedition against 
Georgia was countermanded, in consequence whereof, an order of the Board was sent to the 
Collector to clear Griffith and Kip, and a Proclam" was at the same time ordered to issue to 
recall the Proclam" above mentioned. — 

I have with all humility and the warmest gratitude to returne my most humble thanks to 
"Your Grace for your goodness to my son, who 1 hope will by all his actions endeavour to obtaia 
the continuance of Your Grace's protection, to which I humbly recommend myself — 
I am with the greatest submission 
My Lord 

Your Graces most humble 

most obedient and most dutiful serv' 

To His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. (signed). G. Clarke. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 129 

Lords of Trade to lyieutenant -Governor Clarice. 

[ New-York Entries, M. p. 63. ] 

To Geo. Clarke Esq'' Lieu' Gov' of New York. 

Sir, 

Since our Inst to You of June 22^ 17-37. we have received yours of April 9"" ^^ay 9"" June 
17"" October 14'" Nov""' 2S"> Vvh'^ IS'" 1737 and one of the second of June last, together with 
which we have also recei\ed the public Papers transmitted us by you. 

As to what regards the several Acts, so soon as we have forni'd our judgment on them j'ou 
shall hear further from us, but in the mean time we must acquaint you that notwithstanding 
your pressing Instances in favour of the Triennial Bill back'd by your son's arguments, who 
has frequently attended us on that subject, we can by no means recommend it to his .Majesty 
for his approbation, nevertlieless we must desire you to use your utmost endeavours to obtain 
a settled Revenue agreable to your Instructions, in which undertaking we hope you will meet 
no difficulty but what you will be able to get over. 

In compliance with Your Desire of having Your son of the Council, we have Recommended 
him to his Majesty, of which We doubt not but he has already given you notice. M'" Paul 
Richard has been likewise recommended. 

We are glad to hear by yours of June l?'" 1737 of your intention of meeting the Six Nations 
from which interview we promise to ourselves no small advantage. 

In answer to that part of your letter dated Feb'"'' IS"' 173J which regards the French, we 
must acquaint you that we are very much concerned to find they make such great advances 
and gain ground so considarably on us but we hope you will be able to prevent them from 
doing us any essential prejudice in regard to the Indian trade, especially if you obtain the 
Liberty of building the Fort you mention at Tierondequat. 

We commend the great readiness you shew'd to assist Carolina in case of necessity, and the 
care you took in preventing any Provisions being sent to S' Augustine and doubt not but upon 
every occasion you will use the same diligence in order thoroughly to defeat any sinister 
Designs of the Spaniards. 

We must acquaint you that yours of Dec"" 17"', which you mention in yours of the IS'" of Feb'''' 
last, never came to hand. 

We shall expect the remaining answers to our queries, which you promise in your letter of 
the S*" of June last by the first conveniency. 

We expect likewise that once in Six Months you regularly send us a list of the Members of 
Council taking Notice at the same time of those that are dead or absent, and in regard to the 
last that you particularly remark from whom and for how long a time they have obtained a 
Licence of Leave, so far as you are able, and so we bid you heartily farewell, and are 

Your very loving friends 

and humble Serv" 

MONSON 

Whitehall Ja. Brudenell 

August 9'" 1738 R. Plumer. 

Vol. VI. 17 



130 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Report against the 2Viennial Act of Neio-Yorlc. 

[ New-Tork Entrief, M., p. II.] 

To the Kixg's most Excellent Majestt. 

May it please Your Majesty 

We have had under our consideration an act passed in your Majesty's Province of New York 
in December 1737 intituled " An Act for the frequent Elections of Representatives to serve 
in Gen' Assembly and for the frequent calling and meeting of the General Assembly so Elected. 

We have likewise had the Opinion of M'' Fane one of Your Majesty's Council at Law, and 
are of opinion with him that it is an Infringement of Your Majesty's Prerogative by taking 
away the undoubted Right which the Crown has always exercised of calling and continuing 
the Assembly of this Colony at such times and as long as it was thought necessary for the 
publick service, and as no reason has appeared to us to require such an Innovation, we humbly 
lay the same before Your Majesty for Your Royal Disapprobation, 

I Which is most humbly submitted 

R. Plumer 
M. Bladen 

Whitehall Mo.nson 

August 10"' 1738 Ja. Brudenell 



Lieutenant-Governor GlarTce to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New- York Papers, Gg., No. 20. ] 

New York Sepf 16. 1738 
My Lords 

The enclosed Accounts of the Numbers of people and numbers of Militia in this province 
compleat my answers to your Lordships queries 

My son having signify'd to me your Lordships commands concerning the Bermudas petition 
against the tunnage Act past here in the year 1734, 1 have lay'd that matter before the Council 
and the Assembly ; as it was an Act passed before I had the honor to have the Administration 
of the Government, so soon as they furnish me with their reasons in support of that Act, I 
will do myself the honor to lay them before your Lordships. 

I do myself the honor to inclose to your Lordships my Speech to the Assembly, what they 
will do this year I cant tell, but next year they must give his Majesty such a Revenue, as 
former Assemblys have given, or suffer a large sum of their paper money to fall to the ground 
for want of a fond to support it; this is a staff which I have now in my hands, and ought by 
no other means to part with, than that of their giving such a Revenue as I have askt; and 
unless a Governor has now and then some advantage over these people, he will find it difficult 
to bring them to reason and their duty 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVI. 131 

Tlie letter from the Commissioners of Indian affairs (of whicli tlie inclosed is a copy) I 
received a few da3's ago and have sent it to the speaker to be laid before the house, desiring 
tiiem to enable me to defeat the designs of the french ; for if they possess themselves of the 
Wood Creek not far from which tiiey built the strong Fort mentioned in the letter at the 
Crown Point about fifteen years ago, they will become Masters of that part of the Country; 
And in case of the rupture, obliged all our planters to quit tlieir habitations; and if they 
possess themselves of Tierondequat they will intercept all our Western furr trade that centers 
now in Oswego, and will by degrees become intire Masters of the whole six Nations ; from 
hence your Lordships will perceive that these two posts are of the utmost importance to this, 
and every other of his Majestys Colony's in North America; and I presume to think that these 
attempts of the french to settle on this side of the Lakes and on any Lands belonging to the 
six Nations are no ways warranted by the treaty subsisting between the two Crowns, and I 
fear if some effectual method be not taken to obtain orders from the Court of France forbidding 
the Governour of Canada to pursue his intentions, the little that this Province will or can do 
may be ineffectual tho' my utmost endeavours shall not be wanting I am 
with the highest honor and regard 
My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and most ob' Servant 

The Right Hon'''' the Lords of Trade Geo: Clarke 



Commissioners of Indian Affairs to Lieutenant-Governor Clarhe. 

[ New- York Papers, Gg., No. 21. ] 

Albany 30 Aug : 1738 
May it please your Honor 

Sir 

Since our last of the 25 instant Captain Cornelius Cuyler returned from Canada, who 
informed us that he has heard that the french have a design to settle severall familyes on the 
Wood Creek about 10 miles from our settlements next spring; that the Governour of Canada 
has sent several farmers there among which was Ilber, to view the land last fall and this 
summer as far as fort Anne; and that he has heard a report that the land is granted to the 
said liber and others, which we believe to be true; which settlements we conceive to be of 
very bad consequence to this province in general and to this city and county in particular; 
wherefore we earnestly entreat your honor to find out some proper expedient to prevent this 
encroachment of the french of Canada for we are perswaded if they be sufl!ered to proceed in 
this their intention they will soon erect a fort at the Wood Creek: We hope that more notice 
will be taken of what we now mention, than of what we informed about the erecting the 
french fort at Crown Point, which is made as strong as any in Europe. 

Some of the principal Sachims of the Sinneckes are gone to Quebeck, we fear to make over 
Tierondequat to Governour Beauharnois, who no doubt will take the first opportunity next 



132 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

spring to erect a strong building there, then we are inclosM on all sides, but we are yet in 
hopes that the french may be prevented in their designs. We heartily wish that the liniitts 
between our Crown and that of france were settled which might prevent their continual 
encroachments on us. We are with respect 

Your honors most humble Servants 

Ph: Livingston 
Myndekt Schuvler 

RUTGER BlEECKER 

Abr"" Cutler 
John D'Pevster' 
Nicholas Bleecker 
Dirick Ten Brodily 

' JoHU DE Petsteb Was grandson of Abrfiliam. Supra, IV., 111. He was born at New-York on the 14lh of January, ]69f, 
and moved to Albany, where he married Anne Sclmjler, by whom he had two dauglileis; Anna, the wife of Yolkert P. 
Bouw and Rachel, the wife of Tobias Ten Eyck. Depeyxter, Gfr,.. 111. He was Recorder of the city of Albany from 1726 
to 1728, and Mayor from 1729 to 1731, and again in 1732. In 1734 he became one of the Commissioners of Indian Affairs; 
was snbsequentiv a contractor with the Government to supply Oswego and other outposts with stores, and in 1755 one of the 
Commissioners for paying the forces in the expedition in which General Johnson defeated Dieskau. His name appears as a 
patentee of lands in Schoharie ; also, in Herkimer county and near Schaghticoke. — Ei>. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 



133 






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134 



NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 



[Kew-Tork Papers, Gg., No. 28.] 

List of the Number of Militia within the Provinceof New Yorii taken Anno 1737. 



New York . . . , 

Albany 

West Chester. , 
Kings County. 
Queens Do . 
Kiohmond Do , 
Suflfolk Do , 
Ulster Do . 
Duchess Do , 
Orange Do . 

Total 



30 


904 


74 


1436 


130 


1144 


24 


293 


32 


958 


13 


231 


40 


1291 


31 


601 


24 


521 


25 


509 



lAeutenant-Governoi^ Clarhe to the Duke of Newcastle. 

[ New-Tork Papers, ( S. P. O., ) No. 9, p. 26. ] 

New York Sepf IB"" 1738. 
My Lord. 

I do myself the honor to send to Your Grace a copy of my letter to the Lords of Trade, with 
a copy of a letter therein mentioned to be received by me from the Commissioners of Indian 
Affairs ; I forbear to give your Grace a repetition of what I have said to their LordspP' begging 
leave to referr to my letter to them, and submitting the subject matter of it to Your Grace's 
great and superior wisdom. I beg leave however to remind Your Grace that this is a frontier 
Province, which only can restrain the French from making incursions, in case of a rupture, into 
all His Maj'5''' provinces to the westward of this, and humbly hope that Your Grace will be 
pleased to take us into Your immediate protection and consideration. We have garrisons but 
without an ounce of powder, and very few other warlike stores, without a carriage fit for 
service to mount any of our guns upon, nor have we had any stores sent us this seven and 
twenty years, too long a time for powder to remain good, had the necessary care been taken 
to preserve it. but for want of that care great quantitys have been trodden under foot. 

I do myself the honour, to send to Your Grace my speech to the Assembly, wherein I have 
told them the state of a large sum of their paper money. If they do not give to His Maj'^ such 
a Revenue, and for as long a time as former Assemblys have given it. This is an advantage I 
have over them at present, which I think I ought by no manner to part with, and I humbly 
presume to hope for Your Grace's protection therein — I am with the highest honour and most 

profound submission My Lord 

Your Graces 

most humble, most obedient, and 
most dutiful servant 
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle (signed) G Clarke. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVI. 135 

Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade. 

[New-Tork Papers, Gg., No. 24.] 

New York Oct' 22. 1738 
My Lords 

I do myself tlie honor to acquaint your Lordships that on the 20 of tliis month I dissolved 
the Assembly after they had very fruitlesly set about seven weeks my reasons for so doing 
your Lordships will see in the inclosed papers to which I beg leave to refer, that I may not 
give you a double trouble; and I presume to hope your Lordships will think I could do no less 

I acquainted them at first with the petition of the Bermudians against the tunnage Act past 
in 1734. desiring them as it was passed before my time, and as it was a matter of general 
concernment to the province, to furnish me with reasons to be lay'd before your Lordsiiips in 
support of it, But I do not find that they gave themselves one thought about it, and I presume 
your Lordships will not e.xpect that I should attempt to give any after I have recommended it 
to them, they suppose as I have been told, that your Lordships will let the Act lye as it is till 
you have their reasons, I cannot suppose that they intended by it to strengthen my hands, 
when I insist upon a revenue for a term of years ; and yet if the bill be rejected it will have 
that effect, for both the money struck on that bill as well as that on the excise Bill will be 
without a fond to subsist on to sink it, and next year they must return to their senses or 
involve their country in misery ; for it must I think, be expected that 1 should part with the 
advantages I have by this means over them on any other condition than that of their giving a 
revenue for a term of years : I humbly hope for your LordP' countenance herein and beg leave 
to subscribe myself with the highest honor 
My Lords 

Your Lorpships 

most humble and most ob' Serv' 

The R' Hon''" The Lords of Trade. Geo : Clarke 



Lieutenant- Governor Clarice to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-York Papers, Gg., No. 25. ] 

New York Nov : the 21. 1738 
My Lords 

Your Lordships letter of the 19 of August which I have the honor to receive gives me a fresh 
occasion of acknowledging the obligations I am under to you and in a very particular manner 
that of recommending my son to his Majesty to be one of the Council for this province 
hoping that his behaviour will be such as may recommend him to the continuance of your 
Lordships protection 

1 was sensible when I wrote to your Lordships about the trienial Bill that there was no 
great probability of its passing at home and what I wrote was purely on the pressing instances 
of the Assembly 

Although my interview with the Six nations had not the effect I hoped for in their giving 
us some land to build a fort on at Tierondequat yet in other things 1 succeeded pretty well for 



136 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

I got them not to permit the French to erect a trading house there nor sufTer them to take any 
other footing among them and to give what encouragement they can to tlie remote Nations of 
Indians to bring their beaver to Oswego. 

I am equally sensible and thankful for the honor that your Lordships to me in approving of 
my conduct in the affair of Carolina and S' Augnstin and your Lordships may be assured I 
will upon every occasion exert myself for his Majesty's Service. I do myself the honor 
herewith to send your Lordships the minutes of Council and the votes of tlie Assembly during 
their last sitting I was obliged to disolve them for their insolent attempts and his Majesty's 
authority I intend to call another Assembly to sitt in the Spring who I hope will come together 
with better dispositions and a truer sense of their Countries wants and interest but however 
they are disposed, T will keep the Excice Act in my power for if they are not easily to be 
managed by tliat advantage which I have over them without it they would be ungovernable. 
The tonnage Act of the year 1734 against which the Bermudians petition'd your Lordships 
being past before I had the Governm' it was thought proper that I should pass that matter 
before tiie Council and Assembly as I did at the first meeting that they might furnish me with 
reasons in support of it, but your Lordships will perceive by the enclosed votes how little 
notice they have taken of it I think I have done my duty what ever they have done and I 
presume your Lordships will not expect after this that I should take upon me to answer for 
the country whom it most concerns and to whom it most properly belongs to speak in its 
defence and who possibly may not well like what I might say in its behalf I humbly recommend 
myself to your Lordships protection and am with the highest honor and regard 

My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and most 

obedient Servant 

The R' Hon"'' the Lords of Trade. Geo: Clarke 



Veto of tJie Triennial Act of JSfeiv -Yorh 

[New-Tork Papers, Gg., No. 2S.] 

At the Court of S' James's the 30 November 1738 

Present — The Kings most Excellent Majesty in Council 

[Archbishop of Canterbury, Earl of Albercorne 

Lord Chancellor, Earl of Silkirk 

Lord President, Lord Harvey 

Duke of Montague, Lord Harrington 

Earl of Pembroke, M' Speaker 

Earl of Grantham Sir Paul Methuen 

Earl of Cholmondley Horatio Walpole Esq:] 

Whereas by Commission under the great Seale of Great Britain the Governour Council and 
Assembly of his Majesty's Province of New York are Authorized and Empower'd to make 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 137 

Constitute and Ordain Laws Statutes and Ordinances for the Publicly pence Welfare and Good 
Government of the said Province Which iavps Statutes and Ordinances are to be as near as 
Conveniently may be Agreable to the Laws and Statutes of tliis Kingdom and to be 
transmitted for His Majesty's Royal Approbation or Dissaliowance And Wiiereas in pursuance 
of the said powers An Act was past in tiie said Province in December 1737 Eiitituled 

"An Act for the frequent Election of Representatives to serve in General Assembly 
" and for the frequent calling and meeting of the General Assembly so Elected 

Which Act together with a representation from the Lords Commissioners for Trade and 
Plantations proposing the repeal thereof having been referred to the Consideration of a 
Committee of the Lords of his Majestys most Honourable Privy Council for Plantation 
Affairs the said Lords of the Committee did this day report to his Majesty as their opinion 
that the said Act ought to be Repealed. His Majesty taking the same into his Royal 
consideration was pleased with the Advice of his Privy Council to declare his Dissaliowance of 
the said Act and pursuant to his Majestys Royal pleasure thereon Exprest the said Act is 
hereby Repealed Declared Void and of none ett'ect. Whereof the Governour or Commander 
in Chief of his Hajesty's Province of New York for the time being and all others whom it 
may concern are to take Notice and Govern themselves accordingly 

[J. Vernon'] 



Lords of Trade to Lieutenant-Governor CJarhe. 

[ New-York Entries, M., p. 79. ] 

To George Clarke Esq"" 

Sir. 

Having lately received a letter from the Lieu' Governor of Virginia^ giving us an account 
of the endeavours that he has used to settle a good understanding between the Indians under 
the Government of New York, commonly called the five Nations, & the Cherokee & Catabavv 
Indians lying on the back of Carolina and Georgia and complaining that after by your assistance 
the time and place of Treaty iiad been appointed, and a Cessation agreed to between them, the 
Five Nations had broke off the negotiation by a treacherous attack on the Catabaw Indians & 
did afterwards murther eleven English Inhabitants dwelling on the back of the mountains, 
adding at the same time that he had sent to demand satisfaction for the said murther but had 
not been able to obtain any, We thought it our Duty to write you on this Subject. 

We cannot help observing upon this occasion that it seems very extraordinary to us, that 
these five Nations who are protected by the British Government should employ their force to 
destroy other Nations of Indians under the same protection which is effectually doing the work 
of our common Enemy. 

' The names within brackets, in the above Document, are ad Jed from the Journals of the New-York Assembly, I., 1 fi3. 
' Sir William Gooch was Governor of Virginia from 1727 to 1749. — Ed. 

Vol. VL 18 



138 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

We must tlierefore recommend it to you in tlie strongest terms to employ all your credit and 
Authority first to obtain satisfaction for the murthers committed upon his Majesty's Subjects 
and in the next place to facilitate a lasting friendship not only between the five Nations and 
the Cherokee and Catabavv Indians but also to recommend to the said five Nations to live in 
good Intelligence and Correspondence with all the rest of the Indian Clans in America 
dependant upon the British Government. 

And as we apprehend nothing can more effectually contribute to this end, than the restraining 
the several Indians within their proper bounds, agreable to former Treaties, We send you 
inclosed a Copy of that made between Col" Spotswood' and the five Nations in the year 17:^2 
to which we apprehend they have paid but very little regard upon this occasion. 

We take this opportunity to acquaint you that we have received yours of the 16"" September 
last, and immediately communicated to His Grace the Duke of Newcastle an Extract of it 
together with a Copy of the letter to you from the Commiss"'^ of Indian Affairs that the same 
might be laid before His Majesty. 

But we must desire you would in Your next give us a more particular description of the 
situation of the Crown Point and of Tierondequat in regard to New York there being no 
notice taken upon our Maps of either of these places. 

We wish you Success in Your undertaking and hope the Assembly will concur with you in 
Settling a proper Revenue for the support of the Government agreeable to Your Instructions, 
and so we bid you heartily farewell and are, 

Your very loving Friends 

and humble Serv" 

M. Bladen 

Whitehall Ar. Croft 

Dec''^ 6"" 173S. R. Plumer. 

' Sir Alexander Spotswood, Kt, became Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia in IT 10. In 1714, he successfully accomplished 
an exploration across the Blue ridge, which obtained for him tlie honor of Knightliood. On his return he proposed the 
estat>lishment of a chain of posts for tlie protection of the frontier so as to cut olf the communication of the French witlx the 
Western tribes; he attended a Conference witli the Indians at Albany in 1722, and in 1723 was superseded by Hugh Dr3-sdale, 
Esq., owing, it is said, to tlie intrigues of France at the British Court, joined to the importunities of several leading familes 
in Virginia, to whom his intimate knowledge of the country and of its true commercial and political interests had rendered 
him obno.xious. Burk, He still continued to reside in Virginia and was afterwards appointed Deputy Postmaster-General of 
the Colonies. Horrid Papers, 70. In 1739, he was appointed to command the Colonial troops in tlie expedition against 
Carthagena, but his career was cut short by his death, on the 7th June, 1740. Colonel Spotswood was an officer of rare 
talent and a scholar of high attainments ; urbane and conciliating in his manners, innocent in private life, unimpeached in 
his administration, a friend to the liberties of the Colony without losing sight of the interests of the parent country ; a skilful 
ftLd enterprising soldier, he appears a star of no ordinary magnitude amidst the darkness by which he was surrounded. His 
jiolicy towards the Indians was humane and wise ; many of them were educated and instructed in trades by his orders, and on 
the whole he has descended to us with scarcely sufficient alloy to constitute a human character. Burk. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVI. 139 

Lords of Trade to 'Lieutenant-Governor Clarl-e. 

[ New-York Enlries, M. p. 82. ] 

To Geo. Clarke Esq-- 

Sir. 

Since our last letter to you dated the 6"" December (a Duplicate whereof is herewith 
inclosed) we have received two from you, one dated October 22'' 173S the other the 21" of 
November following. 

In the first you acquaint us with your having dissolved the Assembly, and at the same time, 
for your reasons of so doing, you refer us to the papers enclosed therein; We have considered 
them very maturely, and thereupon have thought proper to give you by the first opportunity 
tliis early testimony of our approbation of Your conduct in this Affair, You certainly liave acted 
as became you botii in communicating Your Instructions to them and in adiiering to it yourself. 

We hope when the next Assembly meets you will find a better disposition in them to concur 
with you in such measures as are necessary for the support of the Government, and we would 
recommend to you to cultivate a good understanding with them but should you have the same 
Difficulties to struggle with, we still promise ourselves that no consideration will induce you 
to come into a Bill for sinking the Paper Money unless a proper provision be made for the 
support of the Government. 

As to the Answer you made to part of the Message sent you by the Assembly that you could 
not give Your consent to the Appropriation of the Money, we must observe that the Right of 
issuing of Mony when given by the Assembly belongs to you as His Majesty's Governor, as 
does also the appointing the Officers necessary for that purpose but the Appropriation of it is 
in the Assembly agreeable to the Constitution of England. 

In Your other Letter which takes notice of Your Interview with the Six Nations, and of the 
advantages you hope to receive from it, tho not so great as you had expected, gives us 
another opportunity of commending Your conduct, and we doubt not but you will continue 
to use the same Vigilance as you have hitherto done in preventing the French from gaining 
any footing among the Indians, as nothing can be done of that nature which will not affect 
our commerce in the most sensible manner. So we bid )'ou heartily farewell and are. Your 
very loving Friends 

& humble Serv" 

MONSON 

M. Bladen 
Whitehall Edw"* Ashe 

Feb''' 6'" 17:3| R. Plumer. 



140 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Lieuteriant-Goveinior Clarice to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-York Paper, Gg. Xo. 29. ] 

New York April IS. 1739 
My Lords 

I had the honor last night to receive your Lordships letter of the 6 of Decemher last, which 
I will do myself the honor more particularly to answer hy the first ship bound to London ; but 
there being one just upon the departure and impatient to sail for Holland I beg leave only at 
present to acquaint your Lordships that the small pox being in Town, and nine of the twenty 
seven that compose the house of Representatives who have not had it, they desired my leave to 
adjourn to a small village about two or three miles off", but that would not quiet their fears ; 
wherefore having past a short bill to revive the Act past in 1737 for laying duties on Rum &% 
and one to restrain hogs from running at large I was obliged on their request to give them 
leave to adjourn to the fourth Tuesday in August, lioping by that time the small pox will be 
entirely gone, what I shall then bring them to I cannot yet tell for the province is yet very 
quiet, and people live well witii one another, yet your Lordsiiips will see by an inclosed printed 
paper what their prevailing thoughts are by which those who have contrary notions are swayed 
against their will; that paper came out the day before the election for this town, and was read 
publickly to the candidates. I had no time to answer it and to get my answer printed before 
the election but in two or three days I published the inclosed answer. Judging it highly 
necessary that some notice should be taken of it to prevent its ill effiacts, if it might be I 
likewise do myself the honor to send to your Lordships my speech and the Assemblys address. 
I am with the highest honour and respect 
My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and 

most obedient Servant 
Geo: Clarke 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Diike of Newcastle. 

[ New-Tork Papers, ( S. P. O. ) No. 9. p. 86. ] 

New Y'ork April IS"" 1739. 
My Lord. 

I beg leave to inform Y^our Grace, that the Small Pox being in Town and one third part of 
the Assembly not having had it, I gave them leave to sit at Greenwich, a small village about 
two or three miles out of town, but there too their fears of that distemper continuing, I was 
obliged, on their request, to give them leave to adjourn to the fourth Tuesday in August, 
having first past a bill to revive an act past in 1737 for laying duties on wine ettc. and another 
of a more private nature: what they will then do I cannot yet tell: Your Grace maybe 
pleased to observe by an inclosed paper that, much pains is taken to keep them from going 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVI. 141 

right, and in truth those notions are too predominant in the province: that paper was 
published the day before the election in the Town, and I could not possibly get my answer printed 
before the election, however judging it necessary not to let it go unobserv'd, I got the inclosed 
answer printed in two or three days. Hoping to expel the poison which the other paper, had 
infused into the minds of the people ; If I have failed either in matter or manner, or both, I 
humbly hope your Grace will impute it to my want of ability, for I wrote it in the integrity of 
my heart: I do myself the honor to send your Grace my speech and the Assembly's address. 
I am now almost two years in arrear of my salary and perquisites, and am daily running in 
debt to support a numerous family, but let my necessities be what they will, I beg leave to assure 
your Grace that nothing shall divert me from my duty to His Maj''', and that I will leave 
nothing unattempted to bring the Assembly to theirs, and I hope patience and moderation may 
at length have an happy effect. I beseech Your Grace to be assured that I will not do (as I 
have not hitherto done) any thing to occasion disturbances here, or complaints at home. The 
people are very quiet, and easy in all things except that of giving a revenue for a term of 
years, that being the point in dispute between us. I liumbly recommend myself to Your 
Graces protection and am with the most profound respect and honor — My Lord — Your 
Graces — most humble, most obedient and most dutiful servant (signed). G Clarke 
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle — 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Lords of Trade. 

[New-York Papers, Gg., No. 31.] 

New York April 24. 1739. 
My Lords 

The ship by which I did myself the honor to write to your Lordships the IS of this month 
being detained by the owners longer than they intended I have since that day the honor to 
receive your Lordships letter of the 6 of February for which I give you my most humble thanks, 
finding myself by your Lordships approbation of my conduct fortifyed against the difficulties 
I have yet to encounter, for I shall have a hard strugle about the Revenue and strugle I will. 

The Assembly by the word appropriation mean more then your Lordships conceive they do 
they mean by it to assume to themselves the power in the Revenue bill to ascertain every 
Officers salary, and to apply and issue the money, they give to those very Officers and uses and 
no other thereby making the Governour and every officer in this Government dependant on them 
alone, and wresting from the Governour the right of issuing the money (which they give for 
support of Government) as hath hitherto been done with advice of the Council, pursuant to 
the Kings instructions they have far above twenty years upon their giving a Revenue 
ascertained every Officers Salary in their votes and the Governours have very seldom in issuing 
the money varyed it, but now they would go a step further and in effect assume to themselves 
all power and this I presume your Lordships will think I ought not to give into let them 
appropriate the money the give for support of Government to that use only and the money 
they give for other services to those uses only, this I never did oppose and it has been the 



142 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

constant practice of Assemblys and I suppose is what your Lordships mean by appropriation I 
do assure your Lordships that will not fail to cultivate a good understanding with the Assembly 
it being what I have much at heart. 

I will write to the Commissioners of the Indian affairs to inquire into the murders said to 
be committed in Virginia by some of the Six Nations, to exhort them to stay at home and 
to dispose them to a solid peace, wherein I will spare no pains (and by the first London ship 
I will describe to your Lordships the situation of the Crown point and Tierondequat I humbly 
beg the continuance of your Lordships protection and am with the highest honor and regard 
My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and 

most obedient Servant 

Geo. Clarke 

P. S. I have received his Majesty's dis-approbation of the trienuel Bill. 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle. 

[New-York Papers. (S. P. O.) No. 9, p. 42] 

New York May 24'" 1739. 
My Lord. 

I do myself the honor herewith to send your Grace a copy of my letter to the Lords 
of Trade. 

I formerly wrote to their Lordships about Tierondequat and the Fort built by the French at 
the Crown point, an extract of which letter they acquaint me they have laid before Your 
Grace but could not find those places in their Maps, I now point them out in a small map which 
I send to them: I likewise presume to send Your Grace a copy of the papers mentioned in my 
letter to the board of trade relating to the boundaries of this province and that of the 
Massachusetts: I humbly hope Your Grace will be pleased to give us your protection therein, 
that they may be kept within their proper bounds and within the rules of justice to the Indians. 
I beg leave likewise to inform Your Grace that the Commission formerly granted by his late 
Maj" for trying of Pyrates is nowhere to be found upon all the enquiry I have made both of 
Gov'' Cosby's private secretary and the officers of admiralty: I have hitherto had no occasion 
to make use of it and hope I shall not, but least it so happen, that I may have occasion to 
hold such a Court. I presume to give Your Grace this information tho' if the commission were 
to be found, I am not sure that I could hold a court it being a commission from King George 
the first. I humbly implore Your Grace to keep me in Your protection and that you will 
permit me to subscribe myself as I am with the most profound submission 
My Lord 

Your Graces 

most humble, most dutiful and 

most obedient servant 
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. (signed). G Clarke. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 143 

Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-Tork Papers, Gg., No. 82. ] 

New York May 24. 1739 
My Lords 

I do myself the honor to send to your Lordships a small Map of the country taken I suppose 
from M'" De Lisles, tho it be not correct it will serve to shew your Lordships where the fort 
built by the french at the Crown point at the entrance of the Lake R' Sacrament and where 
Tierondequat on Cadaracqui or Ontario Lake are situated from whence you may find those 
places in your own JNLnps 

Tierondequat in the inclosed Map was placed nearer to Niagara than to Oswego whereas it 
is at most but fifty Miles from the latter, and the Brook which goes by that name I have now 
laid down in Red ink at that distance from Oswego, the Fort at the Crown point is also drawn 
in Red ink : the French pretend to claim all the lands so farr as the Spring heads of any rivers 
or waters that empty themselves into any of the Lakes that disembogue into the river of S' 
Lawrence if these pretentions had any foundation the greatest part of the Six Nations would 
be theirs, they would come close to Virginia and other Colonies and confine the English 
Dominions to the limitts of our present settlements, but I presume to think those their 
pretensions vain and that if water is to be the boundary between them and us that the Lakes 
and the rivers into which those Lakes disembogue themselves are the most natural and proper 
boundary and much or more in favour of the french then in reason and equity they can expect 
for the Sinnekas claim a large country on the opposite shore of the Lake Cadracqui which 
they conquered long agoe from the Nations of Indians their inhabiting it 

I lately received a letter from M'' Belcher the Governor of the Masathusets with a resolve of 
their Assembly concerning the ascertaining the boundaries between the two Provinces with my 
answer thereto all which I inclose that being as much as the Council thought I could say at 
present and I expected M"' Belcher would wait till I had laid it before the Assembly and that 
they had provided for the expence on our part and hoped to have heard from him in answer to 
my letter, but I have as yet received none, on the contrary without staying for the sitting of 
our Assembly several people of their Colony have gone within 16 miles of Hudsons river 
near Albany with a Surveyor to lay out some lands (for one or more Townships) as I am 
informed some of which were granted by the Governor of this Province in the year 16SS and 
some of them purchased of the Indians by lycence from Gov' Montgomery and now too granted, 
the owners of those lands hearing what the New England people were doing went on the spot 
and forbad them The Indians who had sold the lands to our people drove the Surveyor and 
those who were with him away being exasperated at the New England men who without any 
purchase pretended to survey those lands If the New England people have formerly taken 
such steps I am not surprized that they have drawn upon themselves bloody and Indian Warrs, 
our method is very different from that we never grant lands until they have been bought of the 
Indians and until deeds are executed by them and those deeds laid before the Gov'' and Council 

I wish with all my heart that our boundaries were settled, but in order to do that I conceive 
I must not only be assisted with money by the Assembly but I must have an instruction from 
his Majesty for that purpose and untill the boundaries are settled I presume to hope your 
Lordships will think it proper to obtain bis Maj'*' order forbidding any future surveys or 



144 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

settlements to be made by the New England people on their frontiers towards this Province 
for if they go on to settle it will be more difficult on a treaty to throw them back to their proper 
bounds, and the more they encroach the more quite rents will the King lose in this Province 
and in truth my Lords 1 doubt whether the New England people really desire to have their 
limitts ascertained since they serve themselves in this manner without it, for this is not the 
first time they have made the same request as the Gov" of this Province and then without 
waiting have made out lands and settled them I mean some lands which had many years 
before been granted here, besides they well know too that the Assemblys of this Province 
are averse to the giving of money for such purposes as the lands are the Kings and not 
theirs, and therefore think they may safely go on without fearing to be disturbed by our 
and their fixing the boundaries however they ought to beware of provoking the Indians by 
taking their lands either by fraud or force lest they begett a new warr with them which in its 
consequences may effect us. 

1 do myself the honor to send your Lordships the Minutes of Council with the only Acts of 
Assembly past in April last 

One to prevent swine running at large an usefull Act for the coun'ies to which it is confined 
The other for laying some small duties on wine &" which will put some money into the 
Treasury ag' the Assembly think fitt to pay our long arrears 1 humbly recommend myself to 
your Lordships protection and am with highest respect and honor 
My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and 

most obedient Servant 

Geo: Clark 

P. S. The Naval officer has just brought us his accounts which I do myself the honor to 
send to your Lordships 

The R' Hon''" the Lords of Trade 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to tlie Duke of Newcastle. 

[ New-Tork Papers. ( 8. P. O. ) No. 9, p. 47. ] 

New York June IS'" 1739. 
My Lord. 

A few days ago I received a letter from the Commissioners for Indian affairs at Albany, a 
copy whereof I do myself the honor to send to Your Grace; wherein you may be pleased to 
observe, if the intelligence be true, that the French are going to settle on the wood creek, which 
lyes between a B'ort they lately built at the Crown point, and Albany; whereupon I wrote to 
the Commissioners (a copy of which letter I likewise do myself the honor to send to Your 
Grace) but as I do not conceive that any thing 1 can represent to the French will divert them 
from making those settlements, if they really intend to make them I thought it my duty to 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 145 

inform Your Grace of it. The lands whereon the French propose to settle were purchased 
from the Indian proprietors (who have all along been subject to and under the protection of 
the Crown of England) by one Godfrey Dellius and granted to him by patent under the seal 
of this province in the year 1C96. which grant was afterwards resumed by act of Assembly 
whereby they became vested in the Crown ; on part of these lands I proposed to settle some 
Scotch Highland familys who came hither last year, and they would have be>'n now actually 
settled there, if the Assembly would have assisted them, for they are poor and want help: 
however as I have promised to give them lands gratis, some of them about three weeks ago 
went to view that part of the Country, and if they like the lands 1 hope they will accept of my 
offer (if the report of the French designs do not discourage them:) depending upon the 
voluntary assistance of the people of Albany whose more immediate interest it is to encourage 
their settlement in that part of the Country. — 

About three weeks ago I sent to the Lords of Trade a map wherein the French Fort at the 
Crown point was laid down, It was the only one 1 had nor can I get another, if that arrives 
safe as 1 hope it will and Your Grace will be pleased to order it to be laid before you, you will 
have a clearer view of its situation then I can otherwise give. I humbly recommend myself, 
to Your Graces protection, and am with the most profound honor and submission 
My Lord 

Your Graces. 

most humble, most obedient and 

most dutiful servant 

His Grace the Duke of Newcastle (signed). G Clakke — 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-York Papon, Gg., No. 85. ] 

New York June 15. 1739 
My Lords 

I do myself the honor herewith to send to your Lordships a copy of a letter I received from 
the Commissioners for Indian affairs with my answer, the lands that the french talk of settleing 
were purchased from the Indians and granted by patent under the Seal of this Province in the 
year 1G96 to one Godfrey Dellius which was afterwards resumed by Act of Assembly whereby 
they became vested in the Crown, And I presume to hope upon a representation of the matter 
at the Court of France that orders will be given to the Governourof Canada not to make any 
settlements on this side of the Lake, tliese lands your LordsP' will perceive by the Map I sent 
you, lye between the French Fort at the Crown point & Albany where I intend to settle some 
Scotch Highland familys who came hither last year having promised to give them lands gratis 
some of them went about 3 weeks ago to view the lands but are not yet returned, but I doubt 
when they are informed of the designs of the french they will be discouraged It is the interest 
of the Province in General and more particularly of the people of Albany to encourage those 
Scotch to settle there by giving them some assistance for they are very poor, yet 1 find no 
Vol. VI. 19 



146 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

disposition in the Assembly to do it, what the people of Albany will do by a voluntary 
contribution is yet uncertain 

I do myself the honor to write to his Grace the Duke of Newcastle mentioning to him the 
Map I sent your Lordships whereby he will see the situation of the wood Creek ; I humbly 
hope your Lordships will be pleased to take the matter into your consideration and to give me 
directions how to act herein the only information the Commissioners for Indian affairs have 
at present is from an Indian and such intelligence is not always to be depended on, however 
as their is some probability that the French will now or soon make such an attempt, I thought 
it my duty to lay this before your Lordships 

I recommend myself to your Lordships protection and am with the highest honor and regard 
My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and 

most obedient Servant 

Geo: Clarke 
The R' Hon'"'^ the Lords Com" for Trade and Plantations. 



Commissioners of Indian Affairs to Lieutenant-Governor Clarice. 

Copy 

Albany 7 June 1739 
May it please your Honor 

We cant omitt acquainting your honor that we are informed by an Indian who came hither 
from Canada that the intend' accompanied with 30 batoes with four Frenchmen in each were 
going to Crown point and from thence designed to go to setle sundry familys french on land 
along the Wood Creek being the same where your honor intended to place the Scotch 
Highlanders, we thought it our duty to send an express to go up as far as the fork were Fort 
Anne was where we are told that Leber and some other French are now. if this report be 
true which we are of opinion will prove so, we should be glad to know your honors pleasure 
what must be done, in case the french attempt to settle those lands and incroach so far on his 
Majesties Empire in taking possession of his frontiers in those parts. As soon as our Messenger 
return's shall acquaint your Honor with his report, mean while we are with esteem 

Your Honors most humble Servants 

Ph: Livingston 
Edw'' Clarke 
Edw** Holland 
From the Com" of Indian affairs at Albany. Djrck Ten Broeck 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 147 

Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Duke of Newcastle. 

[New-Tork Papers. (8. P. O. ) No. 9, p. 60.] 

New York Aug : SO"- 1739. 
My Lord. 

On the IG"" inst: I bad the honor to receive your Graces letter of the 19"" of June last 
inclosing His INIaj'^' warrant authorizing me to grant commissions of reprizal on the Spaniards; 
the publication whereof in a proclamation which I issued the next day and the London 
news-papers of the month of June, which came to Town two days after, alarmed the people 
of this place, with apprehensions of an open rupture witii spain, but more especially with fears of 
seeing the French take part with them against us, however that may be, I think it my duty to 
lay before Your Grace our present wants, which I beg leave to do by sending Your Grace a 
copy of my letter to the Lords of Trade and of the account of our stores, presuming their 
LordP' will make such a representation to Your Grace, as they think may be necessary to 
supply the Garrisons and to keep the six Indian nations steady in our interest. I will not 
trespass further on Your Grace's time, since I have nothing more to lay before Your Grace, 
than what I have said in my letter to The Lords of Trade — I humbly recommend the 
province, and myself to Your Graces protection — I am with the most profound submission 
and honor 

My Lord 

Your Graces 

most humble, most dutiful and 

most obedient servant 
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. (signed). G Clarke. 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to iJie Lords of Trade. 

[ New-Tork Papers, Gg., No. ^6. ] 

New York Aug: 30. 1739 
My Lords 

The orders I have received to Grant letters of marqz and reprizal aganst the Spaniards, and 
the English new papers of the month of June have possessed the people of this Province with 
apprehensions of a sudden war with Spain, with whom they fear France will take part against 
us, in which event as we are a frontier Province bordering upon Canada they expect the first 
attack will be made upon us and are the more uneasy, knowing in how ill a posture of defence 
we are at present for want of ammunition and all other warlike stores; whether their 
apprehensions of a war are well or ill grounded I know not but I think it my duty to lay 
before your Lordships the enclosed account of the stores Sc'^ in the fort of New York, whereby 
your Lordships will see our wants hoping you will be pleased to make such representation 
thereof as may procure a quantity of all sorts of stores answerable to our present necessities. 
I beg your Lordships to consider that the forts of Albany, Schenectady, the Mohawks country, 



148 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

and Oswego are to be supplied out of the Stores to be sent hither for tho they have small 
Artillery yet they have no ammunition. 

Soon after my Lord Delaware was named for the Government to this Province he wrote to 
me for an account of our stores and in Feb : 1735 I sent him a Copy of that signed by Capt" 
Bond in Nov 1737 the carriage wheels which in that account are called good are only 
comparatively so as they are better than the rest, but in truth are fit for little service the 
musquets mentioned to be good are in the store and over and above what are actually in use. 

In case of a rupture with France, it will very highly concern us to make sure of the Six 
Nations, which can be best and only done, by making them large presents as has been 
customary. The several sorts of goods necessary for that purpose are contained in the inclosed 
list, and if your Lordships in the present posture of affairs think it necessary I should be 
supplyed with them. I beg your Lordships will be pleased to direct Mess" Sam' and \V111" 
Baker Merchants in London to buy them, and send them to me, they being perfectly well 
acquainted with goods of that kind, as they ship large quantities of them yearly to Albany. 
If .£500 which I am informed has been usually given to a Governor for Indian presents, 
in time of peace was no more than sufficient a larger sum will be absolutely necessary in case 
of a war with France. Your Lordships well know how useful! the Six Nations have been to 
us It was by their influence on the French Indians that our planters, and those of all the 
other Provinces lived in Security all the last french war, untill the Canada expedition veas set 
on foot ; and I am in hopes by presents if I am full handed to procure by their means the like 
repose for the future for if they are neuter the French will not venture to molest us, and 
certainly it be of great advantage to all the Provinces our Settlement being abundantly more 
numerous than those of the french and altogether unguarded. 

About a Month ago, I reced intelligence that a party french and Indians were marched 
from Canada, with a design to attack the Cherickees and other Indians lying on the back of 
Carolina and Geogia under his Majesty's protection that it was given out, that they were to 
be joined by other french and Indians from Missasippi of wiiich I sent imediate notice to the 
the Governors of Virginia, and Carolina, and to General Oglethorpe, hoping they may as I 
beleive they will, have time enough to give those Indians intelligence that they may either be 
prepared for their enemies or retreat, as they find it necessary ; some of our young Mohawks, 
joined the party from Canada, contrary to their promises not being to be retained by the 
advice or perswasion of their Sachaims As there is no peace yet concluded between the six 
Nations and the Southern Indians, but if M' Gooch, to whom I have wrote on that subject, 
disposes the Southern Indians to terms of amity, I hope, and doubt not of bringing the six 
Nations to it, and I have proposed to M'' Gooch, that the Deputies from the Southern Indians 
meet the Six Nations at Albany next summer, which is as soon as those Deputies can well be 

there I am with the highest respect and honor 

My Lords &' 

George. Clakke 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 149 

Lords of Trade to Lieutenant-Governor Clarice. 

[ New-Tork Entries, M., p. 83. ] 

To Geo. Clarke Esq' 

Sir, 

Since our letter to you of Feb'^ 6"" 173| we have Received yours of the IS"" and Si* of 
April, the 24"> May and IS'' of June 1739. 

We doubt not but you will by Your prudent conduct preserve tiie Peace and Tranquility of 
the Province notwithstanding the printed Libel which you sent us or any other writing of that 
kind which the discontented may publish in order to inflame the people, and we hope you will 
at your next meeting with the Assembly find them in such a temper as to be able to obtain 
from them a settled Revenue, so absolutely necessary for the support of Your Government, 
taking particular care to get it done in such a manner as not to admit of any the least 
encroachment upon the prerogative of the Crown. 

We hope you have writ to the Commiss" for Indian Affairs about the Murders committed in 
Virginia and that you will bring the six Indian Nations to settle a lasting peace with that 
Colony and with all the Indians under the protection of His Majesty and in Friendship with 
his People. 

We have under our consideration what you mention in Your last of May 24"' 1739 
concerning the Boundaries of Your province, and as it is our Opinion that the people of the 
Massachusetts Bay have been too hasty in this aflair, We have wrote to the Governor to have 
it adjusted in an amicable way by Commiss" agreable to his own proposals and in the 
mean time to take care to prevent any inconveniencies that might arise to either of the Colonies 
by any Disputes about it. 

We have laid Your letter of June 15"" before His Grace Tbe Duke of Newcastle with the 
papers transmitted with it and hope you will soon have directions from him how to act upon 
that occasion. So we bid you heartily farewell and are, 

Your very loving friends 

and humble Serv" 

M. Blatjen 

Whitehall Ja: Brudenell 

Sep*" y' 7"' 1739. > R- Plumer. 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Duke of Newcastle. 

[ New-Tork Papers. (S. P. 0. ) No. 9, p. 64. ] 

New York Nov' 30'" 1739. 
My Lord. 

I do myself the honor to send to Your Grace a copy of my letter to the Lords of Trade, 
and of the papers therein referred to: I beg leave to assure Your Grace I did all that was 



150 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

possible to bring the Assembly to give a revenue upon a general appropriation, but the 
precedent that Gov' Morris gave in Jersey was too strong for me, and I was obliged to give 
way to necessity, for the people were upon the point of growing clamorous both for that 
and for the continuance of the paper money; however I have got the Assembly to put the 
province into a posture of defence, and have laid I think a sure foundation for a general 
harmony, which in case of a rupture with France is absolutely necessary as this is a frontier 
province that covers from Canada the Western Colonies; I humbly hope for Your Graces 
approbation of my conduct, and having in my letter to the Lords of Trade, laid all things 
more fully before them, I will trespass no further on your Graces time, than to beg you will -do 
me the honor to permit me to subscribe myself with the most profound submission 

My Lord. 

Your Graces. 

most humble most obedient and 
most dutiful servant 
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. (signed) G Clarke 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarhe to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-Tork Papers, Gg., No. 40. ] 

New York Nov: 30. 1739 
My Lords 

A. On the 17 of this month I adjourned the Assembly to the second Tuesday in April next 
I flatter myself that upon the strength of your Lordships letter of the 6 of February last I should 
be able to bring them to give a revenue for a Competent number of years upon a general 
approbation, and without a particular application of it. to that end I bent all my endeavours 
and used all my possible means to bring them to it, but all in vain they remained inflexible and 
seemed resolved to run all risques rather than give into it they knew the Country were 
unanimous in the same sentiments and from thence they were assured of their elections on a 
new choice in this confidence they went on, and I prorogued them for a few days hoping they 
mio-ht some how or other change their minds, but this had no effect, they perswaded themselves 
from the strong appearances of an open rupture with Spain and France, that instead of disolving 
them I would lay hold of their present sitting to put the province in a posture of Defence this 
consideration wrought upon me, and made me cast off" all thoughts of a dissolution fearing 
likewise that new elections might revive old animosities, and beget new ones at a time when 
the greatest unanimity would be absolutely necessary; besides they were fortified in their 
resolutions of applying the Revenue from a recent example in the adjoining Province, 
M' Morris the Governor of New Jersey having last winter (after I had dissolved the Assembly 
of this Province for attempting it) given his assent to the Revenue Bill whereby the money 
was particularly applyed, however I would do nothing rashly and therefore advised with the 
Council upon it who were unanimously of opinion that considering the present circumstances 
of aff"airs it was by no means proper for me at this time to dissolve the Assembly, but rather 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI, 151 

to comply with tliem in letting 'em apply the money they give for support of Government 
nnd to give the paper money a further continuance as your Lordships may perceive by the 
inclosed copy of their opinion which they gave me in writing, being thus reduced to the necessity 
of giving way to the Assembly, I got them to make provisions for fortifying the Province, to 
wit, to finish the battery in tiiis town to build a new fort in tlie !\Ljhavvks country, and 
another at Sarachtoga, our most advanced settlements towards the fort which the French have 
built at Crown point and an liuudred pound to be applyed in the purchase of a piece of Ground 
at Tierondequat in the Senekas Country, that we may thereby get footing there, and keep the 
French from possessing themselves of it, a thing which I have long aimed at, but could never 
til now get the Assembly to give any money for it, All these tilings are highly necessary at all 
times, as this is a frontier Province but more especially at this time when a rupture with 
France is mentioned in the New Papers as a thing we are to expect, I humbly hope for your 
Lordships favourable construction of what I have done if I have departed from my former 
resolutions I beg your Loidships to consider that the necessity of the times, the defenceless 
condition of the Province and the bad example ment"* have compell'd me to it. 

B. I did myself the honor by two Vessells to send your Lordships an Ace' of the stores as 
they were in the year 1737 whereby it will appear that we were then destitute of almost 
every thing, but great Guns and I fear that upon trial they will be found to be unfit for service 
being very old and much honeycombed, at present there is not one carriage or set of wheels 
that can be called good, nor has there been an ounce of Powder in the fort, since I have had 
the Gov' but what I have bought with my own money to fire on publick days this Province 
has never bought any powder, but has always been furnished with it from home, we have a 
great many Muskets, but almost all unserviceable which lye ready to be sent home upon the 
first order hoping they may be exchanged for new ones, but I will not give your Lordships any 
further trouble about particulars since our wants will fully appear by the Ace' mentioned and 
I humbly hope your LordsP' will be pleased to make such a representation thereof, as from 
thence we may be fully supplyed Capt" Farmer who carries this and Capt: Bryfint who is 
soon to follaw him, have received our guns carriages and stores and can give your Lordships 
an ace' of the wretched condition they are in from whence your Lordships will I hope represent 
likewise the necessity of our being supplyed very speedily. 

C. When I sent Your Lordships an ace' of the stores I likewise represented the necessity 
of presents for the six Nations of Indians, to which I beg leave to refer hoping by the first ship 
to receive them. 

D. I have likewise got this Session an Act for the better regulating the Militia who are all 
to arm and furnish themselves with ammunition and I am giving directions to have them more 
duly exercised than they have been. 

E. I have lately received from the Commissioners of Indian affairs the Governor of Canadas 
answer to the Mohawks whom I sent to the Crown point to forbid the French settling any 
Lands on this side of the Lake which your Lordships will see in the inclosed paper N° 2. if 
the French Kings claim be allowed, he will take in great part of the Six Nations and of other 
Nations of Indians, depending on the Crown of England and lying on the back of all our 
Colonies, for his claim is not confined to the Spring head of the Wood Creek, but extends 
itself to the Spring heads of all the Rivers that lead into any of the Lakes that disembogue 
themselves into the Iliver S'Lawrence 



152 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

I humbly recommend myself to Your Lordships protection and am with the greatest respect 

and honor 

My Lords 

Your Lordships most obedient Serv' 

Geo: Clarke. 



Commissioners of Indian Affairs to Lieutenant-Governor Clarice. 

[ New-Tork Tapers, Gg., No. 43. ] 

3 Nov: 1739. 
May it please Your Honor 

Sir 

"We have at last received an answer to the message we sent by four Mohawks Indians 
to the command? Office at the Crown Point the ll"" July last about the French settling 
on the South side of the Lake between the Crown Point and the carrying Place, which is as 
follows and was given them by the Governor of Canada 

That the King of France claims all the land South, North and East lying on all the Rivers 
& Creeks that empty themselves towards Canada even to the carrying place, and the Lake 
of S' Sacrament and that he will not suffer the English to make any settlements upon any of 
those lands but that if they should attempt to do it He (the Governor of Canada) would 
hinder it, upon which he gave a belt of Wampum as a token in presence of his Indians and 
ours, but notwithstanding he would give all his Right to the forementioned land from the 
Crown Point to the carrying Place, to our Mohawks and his own Indians as a deed of Gift to 
make use of it for a hunting place for them and their Posterity and at the same time assured 
them that no French should settle there. 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Lords of Trade. 

[New-Tork Papers, Qg. No. 44.] 

New York 7 Dec : 1739 
My Lords 

I now do myself the honor to answer that paragraph of your Lordships letter of the 9 
of August 173S which commands me to send you a list of the members of the Council and of 
those that are dead or absent, and in regard to the last, my remarks from whom and for how 
long time they have obtained a licence of leave The Councellors are these, M' Golden 
M'' Van Home, M' Kennedy, M' Livingston, M' De Lancey, M' Cortlandt, M' Lane, M' 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVI. 153 

Horsmanden, and M"' Geo: Clarke Jun : I do not mention M' Van Dam,' and M' Alexander 
your Lordships iiaveing about four 5'earR ago represented them as unfit to be continued, nor for 
that reason do [ summon them to Council, M' Coiden lives about GO Miles from this town, 
and M' Livingston at Albany 150 miles from hence so that they cannot regularly attend unless 
at the sitting of the Assembly and then they attend pretty punctually Nr Kennedy M'' 
De Lancey M'' Cortlandt M"^ Lane, and >r Horsmanden live in Town, and attend duly M' 
Clarke is in England, and allho M'' Van Home lives in Town, I caimot get him to attend 
either when the Assembly sitts or at other times, so tlrat if either of the five members whom 
1 have mentioned to attend duly should be ill, or called out of town on business there is not a 
sufTicient number to make a Council to do the ordinary business, tho upon extraordinary 
occasions I may act with three, M'' Van Homes pretence for not attending when he is summoned 
(which is constantly done) is, that he is ill tho its well known that he goes frequently abroad 
upon other occasions, and even at some times when he is summoned to Council I have hitherto 
in tenderness to him forbore to mention this to your Lordships but I dare not any longer delay 
to obey your Lordships commands if your Lordships Judge it necessary that he should be 
removed I beg leave to recommend to your Lordships M"" Richard Bradley the Attorney 
General to be appointed in his Room he lives in Town, and will give a punctual attendance, 

' Rip Van Dam belonged to a respectable Dutch family which had immigrated to New Netherland previous to its 
enrrender to the English ; for we find Jacob van Dam one of the principal burghers and inhabitants of New Amsterdam in 
1653, and Clacs Ripse van Dam a burgher and trader of Fort Orange in 1661, Albany RrcoTdn, IX., 7, 8; XXII., 185; and 
eubsequentlj- a member of the Anti-Leislerian Convention at Albanj- in 1689. N(w-\'vrk Dncnmnilary Hislori/, II. Mr. Rip 
van Dam was bred to the sea in early life, and made a voyage in 1686 to Jamaica, in cummand of the sloop C"thi rinc. Pass 
Book, IV., 30. In the year 1690 his name appears among those of the Merchants of New-York. Deed Bonk, VIII., 260. 
In 1693 he was elected one of the Assistant Aldermen of that city, and was reelected to the same ofBi'e during the 
two successive years. Valentiiu^s Manual. His early educatiou naturally engaged him in ship building, and having 
formed a partnership with James Mills, established a la mching yard on the North river in the rear of Trinitj- church yard 
Some of the vessels in which he was interested having been seized and condemned during Lieutenant Governor Nanfan'a 
administration, on a charge of violating the Trade and Navigation act', Mr. Van Dam threw^ himself into the arms of the 
Anti-Leislerian party; became a hot opponent of Nanfan, and signed the [letitions to the King against him, and against 
Collector Weaver who seized, and Chief Justice Attwood who condemned, the ships. This contest was terminated bj- the 
arrival of Lord Cornbur}-, of whose Council Mr. Van Dam was sworn a member on the 3d of May, 1702, by orders from 
England. Xew -York Council Minutes, IX., 17. He continued an active member of the Board during subsequent administra- 
tions, and, on the death of Gov. Montgomerie in 1731, being the senior councilor, assumed the government of the Province, 
as President of the Council. He was superseded as such in August, 1732, by the arrival of Gov. Cosby. As his difficulties 
with that gentleman are fully detailed in these volumes, it is unnecessary to enter into any particular account of them here. 
On Cosby's complaint, the Lords of Trade recommended, in August 1735, that he be dismissed the Council; he was suspended 
by Governor Cosby on the 24lh November following (Xew-Yurk Council Minutes, XVII.), though it does not appear that the 
recommendation of the Lords of Trade had ever been approved or confirmed. Mrs. Cosby is accused of having been an 
instrument in bringing about Mr. Van Dam's suspension ; the scheme, it is said, was to suspend Mr. Clarke and some others, 
as wrll as Van Dam, in order to prepare the way for Mr. Delincey to be at the head of the government; but Mr. Cosby 
died befori? it could be accomplisliod. Many others believed that Clarke and Mrs. Cosby were at the bottom of it. Morris' 
Papers. 67. For twenty years, much of Mr. Van Dam's attention had been directed to the settling of the wild lands of the 
province. He was interested in the Nine Partners' Patent in Duchess county ; in the Greiit Kayaderosseras Patent, and 
was proprietor of divers tracts in Ulster and Montgomery counties. In early life he married Sara Van der Spicule (2 AVie- 
York Historical Collections, L, 395), by whom he had two sons, Ivip and Isanc ; and three daughters, Elizabeth, the wife of Jacob 
Kiersted ; Mary, the wife of Nicholas Parcel, and Catalyntie, the wife of Walter Thong, whose daughter Mary married Robert 
Livingston, 3d proprietor of the Manor of Livingston. By this intermarriage many of those men who distinguished 
themselves in American history afterwards, are connected with the President of New-York. After living to a very ailvanced 
age, Mr. Van Dam died in the city of New-York on the 10th of June, 1749. His eldest son. Hip, died during the father's 
life time, leaving a large family. Isaac, who was also a merchant, survived his father onl\' a few months, having died on 
the lOlh of December, 1749. Rip Van Dara was the last native of New-York, of Dutch e.xtraction, that presided at it« 
Councils during the English rule. It was nearly a century before another occupied the chair of state. — Ed. 

Vol. VL 20 



154 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

which will be some ease and satisfaction to the other Gentlemen, who live likewise in Town, 
I humbly recommend myself to your Lordships protection and am with the highest respect 
and honor 

My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and 
• . most obedient Servant 

Geo: Clarke 

P. S. The Acts of Assembly are ingrossing, and I will do myself the Honor to send them 
to your Lordships as soon as they are ready. 

The R' Hon"' the Lords of Trade 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarhe to the Lords of Trade. 

[New-York Papers, Gg., No. 46.] 

New York Dec' 15. 1739 
My Lords, 

The Collector of his Majestys Customs having given me the enclosed paper, and having 
acquainted me that he apprehends a verdict will go against him upon the tryal of the cause 
by a Jury, whereby he will be under a necessity of appealing to the King and Council tho 
the evidence he tells me is very strong in his favour, I do upon his request give your 
Lordships the trouble of receiving this and at the same time venture to say that if some 
method be not fallen upon whereby illicit Trade may be better prevented, I doubt it will be 
to little purpose to bring any cause of that kind to tryall by a Jury and the officers of the 
Customs will from thence be discouraged from exerting themselves in the discharge of their 
duty; however the event of this suit will resolve my doubts. 

The Collector informs me that he has sent to the Commissioners of the Customs copies of 
all the papers referr'd to in the inclosed from whome I presume your Lordships may have tiiem 
if you think it necessary, I am with the greatest respect and honor 

Your Lordships 

most humble and 

most obedient Servant 

Geo: Clarke 
The R' Hon"" the Lords Commissioners for Trade & Plantations 



Archibald Kennedy Esq : qui tam k," 

against 
The Sloop Mary & Margaret Thomas 
Fowles Reclaiment / The Case 



In the Court of Admiralty New York 



The latter end of August 1739, some caskes of foreign Gunpowder and Molasses being 
found on board a Pilott boat the same with the Pilott boat were seized and information 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVI. 155 

being given that tlie same Gunpowder and Molasses were imported in tlie Sloop Mary and 
Margaret from S' Eustatia, and unladen from her between Sandy Hook and the Narrows 
and put on board the said Pilot boat the said Sloop Mary and Margaret was also seized (she 
being then come into the Harbour of New York) and a lybell filed against her in the Court ( f 
Admiralty for importing into the Colony of New York the said Gunpowder (being of the 
production and manufacture of Europe) from S' Eustatia the same not having been bona fide 
Lib«ii 5. Car: 2d '^^en lu Great Britain &■= and for unloading the said goods before Report or 
■^"P" '■ Entry &' As by the Lihell N" 1. To this Libell Thomas Fowles appeared and 

plea claimed tlie Sloop Mary and Margaret as Owner thereof, and put In a plea to the 

Instruction of the Court of Admiralty containing in substance that the whole Colony of 
New York is divided into twelve counties, and that there is no part of the said Colony but is 
contained in the said Counties or one of them and that the Court of Admiralty has no 
Jurisdiction of any matter done within any of the said Counties but ought to be determined 
by tiie Common Law And that the in\d Sloop was seized on shore within the City and County 
of New York, As by the said plea N" 3. which plea being overruled a plea in Barr was filed 
averring that the Gunpowder &" was not imported in the said Sloop nor unladen from the said 
Sloop at any place within the Colony of New York and put into the said Pilott Boat as by the 
said plea N" 4. To this plea the Advocate General Joined issue, and witnesses were examined 
who fully proved the matters charged in the Libell as by the depositions from N" S to N° 17 
appear, The Witnesses being examined and publication pas-t Fryday the 26 of Ocf was 
appointed for the hearing of the Cause. But before the day of hearing the said Thomas 
Fowles (finding the facts charged in the Libell fully proved) applyed to the Supream Court for 
a prohibition suggesting the statutes of the IS"" and 15"" of King Richard the second, and the 
2"' of Henry the 4"' the aforesaid Libell and plea to the Jurisdiction of the Court of Admiralty, 
and that the said Court of Admiralty refused to admit the said plea as by the said suggestions 
contained in the prohibition N" 19 appears, upon the argument of this matter it was insisted 
upon and shown by the Advocate General and the Council for the informant that the whole 
Province of New York was not contained within the 12 counties, for that the greatest part of 
Hudsons River and particularly the place where the Gunpowder, is said to be unladen from the 
said Sloop is not within either of the Counties tho within the province and shewed the Act 
of Assembly for dividing the province into Counties &' N° 20. Whereby it appears that the 
two next adjoining counties to the place where the said Gunpowder &"=: was unladen are 
bounded by the Water And that tho the said Sloop was seized on Shore within a County yet 
it was for matters done out of any County and within the Admiralty Jurisdiction. But 
notwithstanding these and many other Arguments used and Authorities shewn the Judges 
granted the prohibition N° 19. 

If the prohibition in this Cause was well issued no breach of the 15"" Car: 2'' Cap 7. can be 
tryed in the Admiralty (but must be tryed at Common Law by a Jury who perhaps are 
equally concerned in carrying on an illicit trade, and its hardly to be expected that they will 
find each other guilty) for if the importation into the province makes the breach of the Act, 
and no part of the province but is within one of the Counties And whatever is done within 
the County cannot be tryed in the Admiralty, but must be tryed by the common Law, 
consequently no breach of that Act can be tryed any way but by a Jury. 



156 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Lorth of Trade to the Lords of the Privy Council. 

I New-Tork Eotries. M., p. 30. ] 

To the R' Hon'''* the Lords of the Committee of His Majesty's most Hon'''' Privy Council. 

My Lords, 

Pursuant to Your Lordships order of the Q"" of Novi" last, " that we should examine the list 
" of goods tran|mitted by George Clarke Esq' Lieu' Governor of New York, to His Grace The 
" Duke of Newcastle, in his letter dated 30 Aug" last, which W Clarke apprehends are proper 
" to be brought here and in New York, to be made presents of to the Six Indian Nations, and 
" Report to Your LordP' what we think proper to be done therein, and also that we should lay 
" before Your Lordships an account of all such Goods as have been brought here and sent to 
" that Province for the said Six Nations of Indians, as well in time of peace as war, together 
"with the Expence thereof, and whether any or what allowances have at any time been made 
"to the respective Governors of that Province for the purchase of Goods there, on the like 
" account and what accounts we have received of the Presents which have been actually made 
" by the respective Gov" to the Six Nations of Indians;" We take leave to acquaint Your 
Lordships 

That we have searched the Books and Papers in our office relating to this Matter and find 
that upon a letter from the Earl of Bellomont Governor of New York to the Lords Commiss" 
for Trade and Plantations dated SS"" Feb'^ 1699 desiring presents for the said Indians they 
represented their opinion to His Majesty King William the S'-* on the SI"" of April 1700 in 
favour of the Lord Bellomont's request, and we find accordingly an Invoice of Goods shipt for 
that service on board His Majesty's Ship called the Advice, which with twelve pounds allowed 
to purchase in New York Rum and Tobacco for the said Indians amounted to three hundred 
pounds Sterling, which Goods were paid for by His Majesty's order out of the Exchequer; We 
also find that the ordnance office did at the same time furnish 400 Fusils 
30 Barrels of Powder 
10,000 Flints, and 
IJ Ton of Lead 
NewTorko foi. ITS estimated at Five hundred Pounds, in all Eight Hundred Pounds value, as appears 
204D.foi.i5 jjy ^i^g j^^.g Extracts, and the Invoice hereunto annexed, marked A. B & C, the 

species of Goods then sent being much the same as those now proposed. 

Bundle Aa. 52. It also appears by the Extract of Col° Hunter's conference with the said Indians 

at Albany in 1710 taken from a Journal transmitted with other publick papers from that 
Province to this office at that time, and hereunto likewise annexed, marked D, that her late 
Majesty Queen Anne did then send another present of the like Nature for the said Six Nations. 
Bundle Aa 1T2 A third prcscut of the same kind was made to the said Indians, and delivered 

by Col" Hunter Gov' of New York in 1714, as by the Extract of his Proceedings with them in 
September 1714 hereunto also annexed and marked E. more fully appears. 
Bundle Bb. 1S4. A fourth Present of much the same species and value as that sent in 1700 

appears to have been sent by his late Majesty to the said Indians in the year 1719, by the 
Invoice hereunto also annexed marked F. In this Invoice only ten pounds were remitted to 
the Gov"' for the purchase of Rum, Tobacco Sec" for that use at New York. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 157 

It further appears that Governor Burnett having applied to the Commiss" for Trade in the 
year 1720 that tlie usual presents might be made to the Indians ; Tliis Board inclosed an 
Extract thereof to M'' Craggs Secretary of State desiring him to lay the same before his 
Majesty with their humble opinion that iiis Majesty shou'd be graciously pleased to grant the 
said Presents and we are Informed that in the year 1722 the sum of ^907 12' 10"* was ordered 
for that purpose. 

In looking over the Journals transmitted to this office from New York of the usual meetings 
of the Gov" of that Province with the Indians there, we find several Presents were made by 
the Gov" to the said Indians at the expeiice of the Province, but it does not appear what the 
value of those Presents was. 

Upon the whole we shall observe to Your Lordships that these Six Nations or Hords of 
Indians are the most powerfull and warlike of the ancient Natives of that part of North America. 

Tiiat they have always been faithfuU allies to the British Settlements in those parts. 

That they are almost as near to the French Settlements as to the English. 

That the French (in time of war especially) always took great pains to reduce them from 
the British Interest and in the late war had once got a considerable number of families of them 
to Montreal. 

The Method used to keep them steady to the British Interest has always been by making 
presents to them which tho it be some Expence to the Crown not only secures them in our 
Interest in opposition to the French but is also a great Inducement to enure them to the war. 
and use of our Manufixctures rather than the French Manufactures, which has had a visible 
good effect, by letting us into a trade with many Nations of Indians far from our settlements : 
which in all probability we could never have had, if it had not been encouraged by those 
warlike Tribes lying in the way either to protect or interrupt them in their passage to our 
settlements, which Trade is grown very extensive in those Parts and greatly beneficial to the 
British Manufactures. To which we may add that these Six Nations are looked upon to be a 
great support of the British Empire in those Parts, for which Reasons we humbly offer it as 
our opinion that it will be for His Majesty's service that presents should be sent to them 
agreeable to what is proposed by M' Clarke and to former Precedents. We are. My Lords, 

Y'our Lordships most obedient 

and most humble Serv" 

MoNSON. 

Edw. Ashe 
Whitehall Ja. Brudenell. 

Dec*"' 20"" 1739. R- Plumeu. 



Lieitknant-Gvvernor Clarke to the Dule of Newcastle. 

[ Ncw-Vork Papers. (S. P. O.) No. 9, p 69. ] 

New York Jau'''' 2S"' 17^- 
My Lord. 

I do myself the honor to send your Grace a copy of my letter to the Lords of Trade, and 
to inform your Grace that the Attorney General has at last obtained Judgment in court of 



158' NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Admiralty against Burrows (who defrauded the Moors) a copy whereof I enclose; when 
Burrows was, on the private information of a merch' of this place sent for and examined by 
me, before I received your Graces Commands, the then Judge of the Admiralty obliged him 
to enter into recognizance with sufficient sureties in the sum of six hundred pounds to answer 
the damages, that being double the sum of the value of the goods as Burrows swore, that sum 
the sureties have paid, and out of it the Judge paid the charges of prosecution, the remainder 
he has in his hands; and I pray your Grace to give me your commands to direct the Judge to 
remit it to England, that it may be there ready to be paid to the sufferers, or to give me such 
other orders, as Your Grace may think, proper: The Judgem' against Burrows is for twelve 
hundred and fifty pounds sterling, the money paid by the sureties but six hundred pounds this 
money, the remainder of the twelve hundred and fifty pounds, I am told may be levyed on him 
wherever he be found in the King's dominions, hither it is not probable he will come again, if 
he should he will be apprehended — I humbly recommend myself to Your Graces protection 
and am with the most profound submission and honor 
My Lord. 

Your Graces 

most humble, most obedient and 

most dutiful servant 
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. (signed). G Clarke. 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarhe to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New- York Papers, Gg., No. 46. ] 

New York Jan : 28. 17H 
My Lords 

On the 10 of this Month T had the honor to receive your Lordships letter of the 7 of Sept: 
last; before this will reach England I hope your Lordships will have received mine of the 
30 of November which I sent by Captain Farmer and a duplicate by Capt: Bryant two of our 
constant Trading vessells to London, wherein your Lords^' will see what the necessity of the 
times and M'' Morris's precedent in New Jersey obliged me to do, I went every length but that 
of a dissolution, and even that they look'd for, and began to make interest for a new Election 
the Assembly expecting it did by a resolve declare that they would do all that lay in their 
power to give the paper money a currency, and did not doubt but that future Assembly's would 
the same, hereupon the Merchants combined to take it whereby it would be current do what 
I could the people were generally disposed to grow very clamorous they resolved to go all 
lengths, and to run all risques to obtain a particular application of the revenue as it is now in 
Jersey and determined to give it only from year to year: had I dissolved them upon it I should 
thereby have kindled a greater flame in the province than that which 1 found it in this I 
considered as well as the present Situation of affairs in Europe from whence I judged it 
necessary to unite the minds of the people especially as this is a frontier province against 
Canada, and 1 found nothing would effectually do it but my giving way to the Assemblys 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVI. 159 

demands, which tho I have done very unwillingly yet I assure your Lordships it lias had that 
effect, for I declare that I never knew the province in greater tranquillity than it is at present 
nor a more universal harmony than now subsists it never was and I suppose never will he 
without some discontented people in it, but I am confident there never were fewer than now, 
even the press is silent for we have not had one seditious or political paper since the lust 
election I humbly hope your Lordships will look upon what 1 have done in the most favorable 
light, the Acts I have Assented to will be in your Lordships power and receive their fate from 
your representation and if it be for His Majesty's disallowance 1 presume the New Jersey Act 
will likewise be disallowed that no cause of discontent may again arise from thence As to my 
own particular I did above a year ago sell a small tho favorite estate to enable me to support 
the dignity of the Government when it was without a Support resolving if need should he to 
sell more rather than give way to the Assembly, and this I would have done could the madness 
of the people been cured, but your Lorpships see how my purposes have been defeated. 

I have disposed the Six Nations to enter on a treaty of peace with all the Southern Indians 
under his Majesty's protection I write to Governour Gooch last Spring acquainting him with 
it and desiring that deputies may be sent from those Indians next June or July to Albany tiie 
usual place of treating if they meet I hope I shall be able to bring about a lasting peace, I 
impatiently wait for a letter from M' Gooch on that head that I may keep our Indians at home 
against the Time of the Treaty, who expecting it will I fear highly resent a disappointment 
which will make my future Negotiation less practicable 

I have writ to the Governour of the Massathusets Bay about appointing Commissioners to 
settle Preliminarys for before we proceed to the actual running of the lines, if any are to be 
run, their pretensions ought to he examined, I have named Albany for the place of meeting us 
being near equal distance from Boston and New York, and have proposed tlie middle of next 
June to be the time, this I did not only as the Commissioners whom I shall appoint will act on 
the behalf of His Majesty, theirs for the proprietors of the Soil of that Colony but likewise 
because there is no provision yet made by the Assembly of this province for the expence now 
at the time of meeting which I have proposed two of them I shall appoint being Judges of the 
Supream Court must be at Albany on their Circuit, and are willing to act in this affair without 
any reward, as yet I have not heard from M'' Belcher tho it is above five weeks since I writ 
to him 

I have not yet had the honor of his Grace the Duke of Newcastles commands upon my 
letter of the 15"" of June, I humbly ask your Lordships protection and am with the Greatest 
respect and honor 

My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and 

most obedient Servant 

R' Hon''" the Lords of Trade. Geo: Clarke. 



IQQ NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Lieiitenant- Governor Clarhe to (he Lords of Trade. 

[New-York Papers, Gg No. 47.] 

New York June 13. 1740 
My Lords 

A. This being the first ship bound for London since the Acts of Assembly past last Session 
have been ingrossed I do myself the honor to send them to your Lordships: I have already 
informed your Lordships of the reasons that obliged me to give into the application of the 
revenue, and to the continuance of the paper money much against my will, hoping that wiien 
your Lordships consider them, and reflect upon the then juncture of affairs, the unfortified 
condition of the province, and of the pernicious precedent that M"" Morris made in Jersey a 
short time before you will be pleased to make some favourable allowances for what I have 
done, especially as the bill N° 3 for continuing the excise and the currency of the paper money 
is in your power Had I not passed those bills I should undoubtedly have thrown the province 
into as great convulsions as ever but by passing them tho it was the most irksome thing I ever 
did, I have got the province fortified 1 have secured the Senecas Country from falling into the 
hands of the french, and 1 boldly affirm I have reduced the province to a state of greater quiet 
than it has known in forty years before; thus every one here is highly pleased, only I cainiot 
but think myself unfortunate that so many things conspired to defeat my purposes at a time 
when I had a prospect of succeeding. 

The Act to regulate the Militia needs no observation nor 
The Act for conipleating & building fortifications, nor 
The Act towards the further Supporting the Government 

The Act to raise in the Township of Schenectady a Sum not exceeding thirty two pounds 
&c is necessary to pay a debt contracted in making their old Church a fortification, they having 
built a new Church. 

The Act for regulating the Streets & Highways &"= in Schonectady 
That for the encouragement of Whaling 
That to prevent the destruction of sheep by dogs 
That for regulating fences for the several Citys & Counties 

That for the better clearing, regulating and laying out Highways in the County of Suffolk. 
That for clearing, regulating and further laying out publick highways in Kings County, 
Queens, Richmond and Orange Countys, 

That to prevent burning the old grass on Hempstead plains and that to prevent penning and 
folding of sheep on Hempstead plains being to revive or continue former Acts need 
no observation 

The Act for raising in the South part of Orange county a Sum not exceeding one hundred 
pounds for finishing and compleating the Court house and Goal in Orange Town is very 
Necessary this county having a Ridge of Mountains running through the middle of it made it 
very inconvenient for those who live on one side of the hills to travel constantly on the other 
side, the Courts being formerly held only in one place but now there is a Court House on each 
side, and the Courts are held alternately at them 

The Act to let to farme the Excise on strong liquors is made for one year only and let to 
particular persons on terms accepted of by the Assembly who beleive it will bring in more 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVI. 161 

money this way, than it formerly did under the management of persons employed in the 
County to let it by Auction, or to the respective retailers for what they could. 

The reason for passing the Act to enable the inhabitants of Brook haven to choose two 
Constables arises from the increase of people and the extension of their Settlements. 

The County of Suffolk being infected with wild catts, and those creatures increasin<^ the 
Inhabitants thought it high time to take some method to destroy them and beleivinc a reward 
would be most effectual they applyed for an Act of Assembly whereupon this was past 

Hawkers and Pedlars coming from other provinces into this and carrying a great deal of 
money out of it with them has been found very prejudicial to the trade of this place wherefore 
that the publick might receive some benefit by these strangers who otherwise neither add to our 
strength nor pay any thing towards the support of the Government the Assembly thought to 
pass this law, as they have formerly past several other temporary Acts to the same purpose. 

I likewise do myself the honor to send your Lordships the minutes of Council to the 
third day of April last. 

B. By the News papers it seem's that the Parliament have some thoughts of reducing the 
money in all the Plantations to one uniform standard and that to be Sterling it will without 
doubt be the only means to preserve the Merchants in England from being defrauded has they 
have hitherto greatly been and I cannot but think the people of the Plantations will in time 
find the benefit of it. 

C. I wish with all my heart that the duties on such goods as are given in some of the 
provinces for the support of Government where given in all, that they might all be upon an 
equal foot in that respect, for at present those provinces, where duties are paid bordering upon 
those which pay none, are under great disadvantages for the illicit traders, who are by much too 
many import the goods subject to a duty in the province where they live, into an adjoining 
province where no duty is given and from thence run them in small parcels whereby not only 
the fair trader but the whole province is injured for the revenue by that means falling short of 
what is given for the support of Govern' a debt is contracted which the province must make 
good and which they are often under great difliculty to do. 

D. I humbly hope your Lordships have been pleased to consider the defenceles condition 
of the province for want of Stores, the necessity of a speedy and sufficient supply of all sorts 
and of presents for the Indians I am with the greatest respect 

My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and 

most obedient Servant 
R' Hon'''"^ the Lords of Trade. Geo: Clarke 



Vol. VI. 21 



162 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS 

Lieutenaut-Governor Clarle to the Duke of Newcastle. 

L New-York Papers. ( S. P. O.) No. 9, p. 62.] 

New York June li"" 1740. 
My Lord. 

I do myself the honor by tliis first vessell tliat lias been bound for England to inform Your 
Grace that on the 12"" of April last I had the Honor to receive Your Graces letter of the 29"' 
of October with His Maj'>'* declaration of war against Spain, which I caused to be proclaimed 
the next day in the Fort and in the Town, and then in all the Counties and Towns and 
Garrisons in the province, and I beg leave to assure Your Grace that I will use my utmost 
diligence and care in preventing any ammunition or stores of any kind from being carried to 
the Ennemy. 

At the same time I had the honor to receive your Graces letter of the 5"' of Jan'^, wherein 
you are pleased to acquaint me that His Maj'>' has ordered a large body of Troops under My 
Lord Cathcart to go from England to a proper place in the west Indies there to be joined by 
such troops as may be raised in His Mnj'>'^ colonies and Islands in America to make an attempt 
upon some of the most considerable settlements of the Spaniards in the West Indies. 

I immediately called a Councill and communicated to them Your Graces letter; By the 
advice of the Council I have issued a proclamation signifying His Majesties pleasure and 
inviting all his loyal subjects to go voluntiers in this expedition. I likewise wrote to the 
commanding Officers of the militia to draw out their Regiments under arms, and cause the 
proclamation to be read to the men, and directing them to order each respective Capt° to draw 
out his men under arms the next day, and then again to read the proclamation to them, and to 
use their utmost endeavours to incourage as many as the could to list, all which was 
forthwith done. 

The people at first were very sanguine, and continued so for some time, but then hearing 
that Coll: Spotswood lay dangerously ill at Annapolis in Maryland, which put a stop to his 
Journey hither, and Coll : Blakeney staying longer than at first it was thought it would, they 
began to cool, and to imagine that the designe would be laid aside, I endeavoured to disposess 
them of those apprehensions, and I have great hopes that so soon as Coll: Blakeney arrives 
they will again grow warm, for Coll : Spotswoods sickness putting an end to his life on the 7"" 
of this month, I hope Coll. Blakeney will be here before it be possible for Coll; Gooch to reach 
this place; and I humbly beg leave to assure your Grace that I have endeavoured to animate 
the people to engage in it, by all the ways I could think of, and I have good hopes of success ; 
I encouraged several persons to raise companys assuring them they would have the Command 
of them, and this I did upon your Graces telling me that Coll. Blakeney would bring blank 
Commissions, this put many more upon making application to me for the like liberty, I 
Encouraged all and they have been very active in it, and I have good expectations that it will 
have a good effect. 

I have not brought any provision nor hired any transports, because it is very uncertain what 
number of men I shall raise in this province, but I have lately with the advice of the Council 
embargoed pork, beef and pease, nor do I hear that the Merchants complain of it, but on the 
contrary, think it reasonable; Bread we can always get, and Butter is plenty in the summer, 
so that they were not within the imbargo. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 163 

T humbly beg leave to assure Your Grace of my zeal for His Maj'-'' service, aud of my 
I'.nwearied endeavours to promote this expedition, and to suhscrihe myself with the most 
profound respect and honor 
My Lord 

Your Graces 

most humble, most obedient and 

most dutiful servant. 
His Grace the Duke of Nevrcastle. (signed). G.Clarke. 



Stcretary Clarice to Lord Delaioarr.' 

[New-York Papers. ( S. P. O.) No. 9, p. 63.] 

My Lord. 

My father since his being appointed His Maj'-'^ Lieut : Gov"' of New York, has in all his letters 
to M"' Walpole Auditor Gen' and his other friends here, represented that an unruly spirit of 
independency, and disaffection had at last got to such a hight in that province, that he found 
the weight and Autiiority of a Lieut' Gov"', though managed in the best manner, would not be 
able to subdue it: but that if His Majesty should be pleased to invest him with the Commission 
of Gov"' in chief, he had the greatest reason to be assured that as he had naturally the affections 
of the people, he should be able when tiiey should know what they had to trust to, to carry on 
His Maj'y^ affairs with much more success at this important and critical juncture — M"" Walpole 
seemed lately, so convinced of the truth of these representations, that he was pleased to say, 
he could wish. Your Lord'' would, to facilitate His Maj'>* affairs, move His Grace the Duke of 
Newcastle in my fathers favour. Encouraged by this and by Your LordP'* late favours, I most 
humbly presume to intreat your Lordship, that your Lord? would in consideration of what is 
above set forth be pleased to move His Grace the Duke of Newcastle on my Fathers behalf, 
tiiat he may succeed your LordP in that Govern'. This will greatly facilitate his Maj'^' affairs, 
and as it will be some advantage to my father, and Your Lord? has been put to great charge 
in passing Your Commissions ettc. I shall upon such appointment immediately pay Your 

'Joax West, 7th Lord Dclawarr, K. B., was born 4th April, 1693, and on his return fnun I1I3 travels in 1712, was made 
standard bearer to the band of gentlemen pensioners, and cl-^rk extraordinary of her Majesty's privy council. Soon after the 
accession of Geo. I., he resigned the post of standard bearer, and was made guidon to the first troop of life guards. On 26th 
May, 1723, he succeeded to the title, on the death of his father; and in 1725, was appointed lord of the bed chamber, and 
chosen Knight of the Bath ; in 1731, trensurer of the household and member of the privy council. He was sent, in 1736, to 
SaxeGolha, to conclude a treaty of marriage between Princess Augusta and Frederick, Prince of Wales, and attended her 
into England ; was appointed'CJovernor of New-York in 1737, but resigned the same in September following, on being made 
Colonel of the first troop of life guards; was appointed forester of the bailiwick of tVithan, Hauts, in 1742; Brigadier 
General in 1713, in which year he accompanied his Majesty in his campaign in Germany, and was present at the battle of 
Dettingen. On April 5, 1745, he was promoted to the rank of Major General; and on the 10th October, 1757, received the 
commission of Lieutenant General and Governor of Tilbury Fort In June, 1752. he was appointed Governor of the island of 
Guernsey; in 1761, created Viscount Cantalupe and Earl of Delawarr, and died 16th of March, 1766. Collhis' Peerage, V., 
40. OeiU. Mag. The last mentioned work, for 1747, p. 617, says he was, also. Governor of Virginia. Ilia Lordship married, 
first, Charlotte MacCarlliy, daughter of the Earl of Clancarty, who dying, in 1735, his Lordship married, in 1744, secondly, 
Anne, Dowager Lady Aborgaveny, who died in 1748. — Ed. 



164 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

LorJp one thousand Guineas to indemnify Your Lordi" from any loss, or expence occasioned 
thereby, which is all that the Govern' there under its present circumstances allows me to 

offer — I am 

My Lord. 

Your Lordships 

most obedient and most humble servant 
London June 20"' 1740. (signed.) George Clarke Jun' 

To the Right Hon^K 
John Lord Delawar. 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Duke of Newcastle. 

[ New-York Papers. ( S. P. 0.) No. 9, p. 67. ] 

New York July S"- 1740. 
My Lord 

On the si.Kth of May I received from Coll Spotswood a letter of which the inclosed is a 
copy, the contents whereof I made known that his intentions might take effect, supposing that 
he had sufficient authority to ascertain the pay of the voluntiers, and to advance the sums he 
mentions, hoping it would answer the end ; Coll : Blakoney thinks it proper that I should lay 
it before your Grace; Coll Gooch is now here who tells me that after he had taken another 
method, and declared it by proclamation, viz': that of giving a bounty instead of advance money, 
Col! : Spotswood insisted on iiis proposal to advance money, and that the pay of the men 
should be a pistole a calendar month, which is more than the pay of the King's other Troops: 
Tiie men who inlisted in this province on my proclam'" issued on His Maj'"'^ first orders expect 
to be in pay from the respective days of their inlisting, and Coll: Biakeney, the Council and I 
are of opinion that they ought to have it, and that it will obstruct the levies if it be not given 
them, and Coll: Gooch is likewise of opinion they ought to have it; as to a bounty I have 
recommended it to the Assembly as I have likewise on his Majesties commands told them 
what His Maj'y expects from them on this occasion, a short time will resolve me what they will 
do, and I hope they will do both ; several colonies having given a Bounty, T believe they 
will not refuse to do the like, and the demand of provisions and Transports is so reasonable 
that I hope they will raise money somehow or other for tiiat expence, as the pay which Coll : 
Biakeney informs me the men are to have will fall short of what Coll : Spotswood proposed, I 
wish witii all my heart, it may not have a bad effect, for tho' the expectation of growing rich 
by the Booty, and by gifts of lands and houses first and chieftiy inspired the people to engage 
in the expedition, yet having made to believe they should have the pay he ascertained, and the 
advance money, I fear they will expect it ; If Coll : Spotswood had no authority to ascertain 
the pay of the men, he made a wrong step, which may prove prejudicial to the service, and 
subject me to many difficulties, if he had no authority to ascertain the pay I humbly think 
they should have the pistole a month, and the advance money but this I suppose Co 11 : 
Biakeney and Coll: Gooch will consider, I for my part made no doubt of Coll: Spotswoods 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 165 

having such authority, and heing zealous for the service presently made his intentions known, 
hoping thereby to encourage the people readily to inlist — 

I have endevoured to procure for Coll: Blakeney the best information I could, of such places 
and things as he thought proper to enquire about, and have got one Hinman a master of a 
vessell to quit the Merch''^ service, on my promise to serve him all I can, he has given me his 
word to go with Coll : Blakeney, with which the Coll : is pleased, as he has given him the best 
information of any one, and it is agreed by all with whom we have talked, that Hinman knows 
more of the Havana, Castle Moro, and the other fortifications and Garrisons than any one that 
we can hear of, but of this I presume. Coll: Blakeney will give Your Grace a more particular 
account — I humbly recommend myself to Your Graces protection and am with the most 
profound submission — My Lord — Your Graces — most humble, most obedient and most dutiful 
servant (signed) G Clarke. 

His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. 



<' « » i» 



Major-General Spotswood to Lieutenant-Governor (Jlarhe. 

[ New-Tork Papers. ( S. P. 0.) No. 9. p. 63. ] 

Annapolis 26"' April 1740. 
Sir. 

I expected to have been by this time forwarder in my way to confer with the Northern 
Gov" about the grand e.xpedition now on foot, but the diiRculties and delays that I met with 
in the Govern' of Virginia has retarded my journey wherefore I send this express to inform 
you the sooner of the measures I have concerted with the Govern' of North Carolina, Virginia 
and Maryland and more especially of that one necessary step which requires to be first settled. 
I mean the pay of the troops which ought all to be upon one uniform footing, otherwise when 
the new levies of every province come to serve together, disatisfactions, and consequently 
mutinies might arise from some receiving higher pay than others ; There are scarce any two 
provinces on this continent that agree in the value of their currency and in every one of them 
the exchange between their currency and sterling is continually varying, so that to avoid all 
confusion in accounts and clearly to satisfie the common soldiers that they are all serving upon 
the same pay, I have taken upon me to advise that the pay promised them should be one pistole 
for every Kalendar month : and to encourage several sorts of Men to enlist, I have advised a 
publication, narrating that whereas many men might be desirious of leaving some subsistance 
money with their families, several Debtors might be able to clear off or compound with their 
creditors, and many servants, might obtain their masters leave to inlist, if three or four months 
pay were promised to be advanced and paid to their respective assigns after their embarkation: 
I have had the experience of these kind of proposals having had very good effects, when in 
the year 1716. 1 being Gover"' of Virginia raised immediately men, and sent them away to the 
succour of S. Carolina, and 'twill be carrying on the Kings service with greater frugality than 
by giving every man bounty money. 



166 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

So soon as the Adjutant General arrives with the King's full instructions you may expect to 
hear from me more at large on this subject: In the mean while I desire you'll take all 
opportunities to let me know what success you are likely to have in raising men for the intended 
expedition, tliat I may by the first occasion transmit such accounts to the Secretary of State (as I 
am commanded) to be forthwith laid before His Maj'*' for his information and satisfaction. — 
I am 

Sir 

ettc. 

A. Spotswood. 

The afore written is a true copy of Coll : Spotswood's letter to me which I received the 6"' 
May 1740. 

(signed). Geo Ckarke. 



Lieutenant -Govei'nor Clarice to the Diike of Newcastle. 

[New-Tork Papers. (S. P.O.) No. 9. p. 69.] 

New York July 25. 1740. 
My Lord. 

I do myself the honor to send your Grace a duplicate of my letter t)f the S"" inst: and to 
acquaint your Grace that I have got the Assembly to give five and twenty hundred pounds 
sterling for transports and provisions for the Troops raised, and to be raised in this province to 
serve in the expedition against the Spaniards in the West Indies (a Bounty the would not 
give) this is the most I could bring them to, I perceived that the difficulty of raising money 
would be strongly insisted on, some of them seemed unwilling to break in upon the appropriated 
funds, and others were as averse to any new taxes, the council were apprehensive that the 
difficulty of finding ways and means to raise the money would occasion warm debates, and 
perhaps defeat ray intentions, they foresaw that they would not be brought presently to give 
any new Taxes, or if they should that the money could not be raised in time, wherefore to 
remove those stumbling blocks, I told the Council that I had nigh two years salary and 
contingences, in the Treasurers hands, and that to promote the service I would lend the Country 
that money without interest for any reasonable time, with which I desired them to take 
opportunities to acquaint the members of the Assembly, and I believe it had a good effect, as 
all pretences of not knowing how to raise money, and the scruple of borrowing from 
appropriated funds (my money being due to me on an appropriated fund) were removed. 

I have now four Companies full, and in a few days expect another which will be short of 
the number that might have been raised if I had had commissions with the first orders for 
raising men when their spirits were warm, and their expectations high, but they have cooled 
by degrees, some through an apprehension that the expedition would not proceed, others that a 
peace will be concluded before they have struck the stroke, and others that what they take will 
be restored to the Enemy. I have done all I could to encourage them and to remove their 
doubts, and considering the low number of people in this province to what there are in others, 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 167 

and that this is a frontier province against the French witii wliom tiie people are very 
apprehensive of a rupture, and that tiie wages of tradesmen and hibourers is liigher tiian in 
most of the Colonies, I hope I shall acquit myself to your Graces satisfaction 

Tiiat there are in the Colonies on the Continent a considerable number of men that may be 
spared for any present service, is certain, but wages being very high, it is the expectation of 
growing rich by the success of the expedition that has chiefly prevailed on them to enter into 
this service. The assurance of having commissions when they join my Lord Cathcart will I 
hope makeup more than the Thirty companies for which only Commissions were sent by Coll : 
Blakeney, I encourage it all I can : They who have raised Companies in this province have 
done it at a considerable expence to themselves, in prospect of having a provision for life, and 
without that expence it would have been difficult to raise companies of an hundred men, tho' 
not companies of sixty men, and I do not think any other method than that of promising 
commissions to those who should raise companies would have been effectual, for by the 
accounts I have from the Colonels of the Militia Regiments, there are very few men in the 
whole province who offered to go upon the general encouragement and invitation given them by 
my proclamation, but almost all who declared their willingness to go, did it personally if such 
and such were to command them, for they were unwilling to inlist with any one whom they did 
not know; how it has been in other provices, I do not certainly know, but this is the temper 
of the men in this. Wherefore I found it necessary to promise Commiss"^ to those who should 
first produce companies, by which method I am in a pretty good forwardness: From this first 
essay of raising troops in these Colonies to be employed abroad, I presume it will be evident 
that a good body of men may at any time be got together on other occasions upon proper 
encouragement — I beg leave to assure Your Grace that I have used my utmost application in 
this business, and humbly hope for the honor of your Graces protection — I am with the most 
profound respect and honor 

My Lord 

Your Grace's 

most humble, most obedient and 

most dutiful servant 

His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. (signed) Geo. Clarke. 



Lords of Trade to Lieutenant-Governor Clarice. 

[New- York Entries, M., p. 07.] 

To George Clarke Esq"" Lieutenant Governor of New York. 

His Majesty's Attorney and SoUicitor General haveing received Directions to prepare and lay 
before the Lords Justices a Commission to be passed under the great Seal of this Kingdom 
(the charges of which and the execution thereof the Agents for the Massachusetts Bay and 
Rhode Island have agreed are reasonable equally to be borne by both Provinces) appointing 
Cadwallader Colden, Abraham Vanhorn, Philip Livingston, Archibald Kennedy and James 



1G8 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

De Lancey Esq"^' of the Province of New York; John Hamilton, John Wells, John Reading, 
Cornelius Vanhorn, and William Provost Esq" of the Province of New Jersey and William 
Skeene, William Shirreft, Henry Cope, Erasmus James Philips, and Otho Haymilton Esq" of 
the Province of Nova Scotia Commissioners for marking out and settleing the Boundaries 
between the Province of the Massachussetts Bay and the Colony of Rhode Island Eastward 
care being taken that private property should not be affected thereby. 

We are to acquaint you that you are required to inform tiie Commissioners resident in Your 
Province of the time and place intended to be appointed by the said Commission for the first 
Meeting of the said Commissioners and to recommend it strongly, to such of the said 
Commissioners as are able to go and attend this Duty. 

For Your further Information in this Affair we send you a Copy of an Order in Council 
dated 10"" of July last and expect that you do take particular care without delay to carry every 
particular thereof, so far as the same may be in Your power, into Execution. So we bid you 
heartily farewell, and are. Your very loving Friends 

and humble Servants 

MONSON 

Whitehall ^ M. Bladen 

Aug' 1" 1740 Ja. Brudenell. 



Lieutenant -Govei'nor Clarice to the Lords of Trade. 

[New-York Papere, Gg., No. 51.] 

New York Aug : 4. 1740 
My Lords 

Four days ago I had the honor to receive your Lordships letters of the 20 and 21 of May, 
in obedience whereto I do myself the honor to send to your Lordships a compleat collection 
of the laws made in this Province among them are many temporary Acts which are expired 
but being printed with the others I cannot seperate them, your Lordships will likewise perceive 
the titles of Acts which being expired before the publishing of this edition are not printed : 
these books I got from the Secretaries office, the printer having none left 

I do myself the honor also to send your Lordships a duplicate of the account sent last Winter 
of the paper money issued in this Province, as to the sinking it there are funds for it, as your 
Lordships will see by the account and by the Acts of Assembly, but if it should be necessary 
to sink them in a shorter time I humbly conceive the method that will least affect the Merchant, 
either here or in England will be by a Tax on Estates Real and personal which has been often 
laid on the people here in immitation of a land tax as your Lordships may see page 213 of the 
first book herewith sent; but it will be in vain to expect it from an Assembly which is chiefly 
composed of farmers, Trade as the province is situated will not bear it, for it lies between 
provinces which lay no dutys on Merchandize, In truth my Lords it will be very difficult to 
bring the Assembly into any measures for shortning the time of sinking their paper money 
I heartily wish there was none subsisting and that the money in all the Plantations was reduced 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 169 

to sterling the trade of the Merchants of England as well as the Colonies would be upon 
a surer foot. 

Exchange which was last year at 70 p'' Cent is now at 65, and silver which was tiien at 9|3 
per ounce is now at S 10 or 9|. at the most I am with the greatest respect and honor 
My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and 

most obedient Servant 
The R' Hon'''' the Lords of Trade. Geo : Clarke 



Lords of Trade to Lieutenant-Governor Clarice. 

[ \ew-Tork Entries, M., p. 100. ] 

To George Clarke Esq'' Lieutenant Governor of New York. 

S' 

Since our last letter to You of September the 7"" 1739 (a Duplicate whereof has been sent 
you ) We have received Yours of the following Dates, viz' August SO"" November SO'"" December 
3d 7th 15th 1739 and January 28"" y^\% together with several papers mentioned therein. 

As to what you mention in Your letter of August the 30"" 1739 and that of November 30 
following in regard to the presents for the Indian Nations in the Neighbourhood of New York, 
we must acquaint you that soon after the receipt of Yours that affair was referred to us by the 
Lords of the Committee of Council, to which Reference we made Our report and gave it as 
our opinion that it would be for his Majesty's service that Presents should be sent the said 
Indians agreable to your proposal. 

la your Letter of November 30"" before mentioned you sent us amongst other Papers the 
copy of one to you from the Commissioners of Indian Affairs with the Governor of Canada's 
answer to the Mohawks, relating to the French settling at Crown Point, a Copy whereof with 
an Extract of Vour letter so far as related to that affair we transmitted to His Grace the Duke 
of Newcastle, who we doubt not will receive His Majesty's pleasure thereupon. 

We congratulate you upon the tranquility and universal harmony which in Your letter of 
the 25"' of January last you inform us is at present subsisting in the Province. We heartily 
wish it may be lasting, and are Your very loving friends, 

and humble Servants. 

Ja. Brudenell 

Whitehall Monson 

August S'" 1740 M. Bladen. 



Vol. VL g2 



170 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle. 

[ Ncw-Tork Papers, (S. P. O.,) No. 9, p. 73.] 

New York SepU 22. 1740. 
My Lord. 

I do myself the honor to acquaint Your Grace that I have raised and embarked five compleat 
companies for the expedition one of them sailed hence the 19"" inst : on board His Maj"'' ships 
Squirrel and Astraa for Jamaica, the latter was sent by Admiral Vernon to New England for 
Masts, and came hither to be reinforced by the Squirrel but both being by desertions weakly 
manned, it was thought proper by Coll: Blakeney and Lieut: Coll : Cope that they should be 
strengthened by puling one of tliese companies on board them, as the Astraa is a ship whose 
safe arrival at Jamaica is of vast consequence. The other four companies are on board 
Transports ready to sail with Coll: Blakeney' for the capes of Virginia (there to join Coll: 
Gooch ) which they will do in a very few days, waiting now only for the Connecticut troops, 
whom we hourly expect here. 

I was in hopes I should have raised another company here, but find it can not be compleated ; 
1 beg leave to assure Your Grace, I have done to the utmost, to promote the service having had 
it very much at heart, and I hope it will receive Your Grace's approbation, to whose protectioa 
1 humbly beg leave to recommend myself, being with the most profound submission 
My Lord 

Your Graces 

most humble most obedient and 
most dutiful servant 
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. (signed) Geo. Clarke. 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Duke of Newcastle. 

[New-York Papers. (8. P. O.) No. 9. p. 74.] 

New York Ocf the 31" 1740. 
My Lord. 

On the third of this month Coll : Blakeney went from this place on board the Ludlow Castle 
to Sandy Hook (there to stay for one of the Connecticut Transports that run on a rock coming 
hither, and for that part of the New Jersey troops that were to embark at Amboy)- All our 

' Wn-LIAM Blakenet was born nt Mount Blakeney, in the county of Limerick, Ireland, A. D. 1672. He entered the army 
in the beginning of Queen Anne's war, and was made an Ensign by Lord Cutts, at the seige of Venloo, 1702. He was long 
overlooked and neglected, till he found a friend in the Duke of Richmond, by whose interest he was promoted to the Colonelcy 
of the 27th Regiment of Foot, 27th June, 1737. lie served as Adjutant-General in the expedition against Cartliagena, and 
recommended himself to his Majesty by his courage and conduct in the defence of Sterling Castle, and the rebels in 1745. He 
was subsequently appointed Governor of Minorca, which island was reduced by the French after a gallant defence and 
honorable capitulation in 1756, when General Blakeney's conduct was not only approved, but he was raised to the Peerage, 
by the title of Lord Blakeney of Mount Blakeney, in the Kingdom of Ireland, and received many other particular marks of 
Royal regard and favor. ErUick. He died in 1761, when the title became estinct Debrett. — Ed. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVI. 171 

transports, those of Rhode Islands and one of Connecticut sailing from hence with the Lndlow 
Castle: On the 7"' the Connecticut transport having had her leak stopt joined him; while he 
lay at the Hook, four Boston Companies came to him ; on the lO"" those New Jersey troops 
likewise joined him, and on the 12"" they all sailed for Virginia there to join Coll {Jooch with 
the Troops of V^irginia, N. Carolina Pensilvania, ftfaryland and those of West Jersey, who 
were to go down Delaware River, and on the 14"' another Boston company came to the 
Hook, and the next day sailed for Virginia — The five Comp"'" that I raised went compleat, 
but not all with Coll: Blakeney, one of them being put on board His Nlaj'^' ships Squirrel and 
Astraa, as I did myself the honor to inform Your Grace in my letter of the 22"'' of the last 
month, and are I hope ere this time at Jamaica; Even the scanty provision that this Assembly 
have made for victualling and transporting the five comp: I raised, I ohtained with no small 
difficulty; I could not get them to give a bounty as some other Colonies have done, tho' 
that was the first thing I recommended them, and which I then thought they would give into 
but perhaps they imagined that a bounty might enable me to raise more men than they would 
victual and transport and when they gave five and twenty hundred pounds for that service, 
they did not suppose that I could raise near five hundred or they ought to have given more, 
but tho' contrary to expectation I raised that number, yet I could not prevail on the Assembly 
to give one Farthing more; but I hope it will carry them to the place of rendezvous; I tryed 
and had once some hopes of raising another company to go on a certificate but it could not be 
done, and I may boldly say that Pensilvania, Connecticut, and Massachusetts Bay which are 
all very populous, might each with more ease have raised above double the number, and if 
five hundred had been raised in New Jersey, 'twould have not been out of proportion to five 
hundred for this province. The expectation of booty has without doubt gone a great way to 
induce the men to enlist, and if Commissions had come with the first orders, and they had 
been to embark forthwith, without depending on the Assembly for provisions and transports, 
I am perswaded I could have raised a much greater number than five hundred; from what is 
now done Your Grace may see that the Colonies have men to spare upon occasion, and if His 
Maj'^' Arms have success as I heartily pray they may, and the men no cause given them to 
complain as without doubt they will not, a greater number may hereafter be raised upon 
proper encouragement and a fair prospect of enriching themselves by booty or posessions — 
For these are the main incitements — I humbly recommend myself to YourGra' protection and 
am with the most profound submission My Lord — Your Graces — most humble, most obed' 
and most dutiful servant (signed). G Clarke 
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New- York Papers, Gg., No. £.2. ] 

New York Nov: the 10. 1740. 
My Lords, 

I do myself the honor to send your Lordships a Duplicate of my letter of the 4 of August 
which went by Capt : Gill, I have the honor to receive your Lordships letter of the 8 of August 



172 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

and humbly thnnk your Lordships for your Report in favour of Indian presents, which I hope 
will be ordered to be sent. 

I have had an interview at albany this Summer with the six Nations of Indians and have 
prevailed on them to take into the Covenant Chain as it is called, all the Nations of Indians 
under the Kings protection lying to the Westward and Southward of us as far as the River 
Messasipi, this I think the most likely way to establish an universall Peace among all the 
Indians and to make it lasting, Coll : Gooch before I met them told me that it was not our but 
the Southern Indians among whom only one or two Mohocks were who murdered the 
people in Virginia of which he complained to your Lordships wherefore I past that by in 
silence I do myself the honor to send to your Lordships a Copy of what was transacted hoping 
that in what I have done I have obeyed your Lordships Commands to your satisfaction, if this 
union proves ineffectual I know not what will tie them I could wish that the Colonies to the 
Westward would give some small yearly sum as this doth to be applied in presents to the 
Indians and that the Governors would prevail on the principal Nations to the Westward to 
send Deputies to Albany to be present at the next interview; It would greatly corroborate 
what I have done, and by conversing freely together there they may lay a foundation for such 
an intimate and friendly Correspondence as may cement them for ever, I have writ to Coll : 
Gooch about it, but I fear my letter did not reach him before he embarked for Jamaica 

The Assembly being Just now up, the Acts passed by them could not be got ready to be 
sent by those ships but so soon as they are ingrossed I will do myself the honor to send them 
to your Lordships, I am with the highest respect and honor 
My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and 

most obedient Servant 
The R' Hon"^ the Lords of Trade. Geo: Clarke 



Conference between Lieutenant-Governor Clarice and the Six Nations. 

Present — The Hon"'*' Geo: Clarke Esq: Lieut': Governor &"= 
Philip Livingston \ 

If 



Philip Cortlandt ^Esq" of the Council 

Daniel Ilorsmanden ) 

The Commissioners for managing Indian Affiiirs. 



Copy. 



Proposition made by the Hon'''' George Clarke Esq"''' Lieut' Govern'' and 
Commander in chief of the Province of New York &' To the six Nations 
of Indians Viz' the Mohawks Oneydes, Onondages, Cayouges, Sinnekes and 
Tuskarores, at Albany the IG day of August 1740. 

Bretheren 

I intended to have met you last year, but the small pox a distemper that has ever proved 
fatal to you being then very rife in New York I was fearful that the infection might be conveyed 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVI. 173 

to )'ou by some one or other curiosity generally leading many people from thence hither at 
the time of our meeting : in tentlerness therefore to you I put of our interview to this time, 
And it is with much pleasure I now see you that we may brighten and strengthen the Covenant 
Chain that has so long tyed us in mutual friendship and brotherly affection, which I hope will 
continue inviolable to the end of the world, notwithstanding the Arts and intriges of our old 
enemies who leave no means unessayed to divide us, and take all occasions to weaken and at 
length to roote out your name and Nations this the wisest among you know full well but the 
ungovernable passions of your Youth, often render your cooler and better Counsells fruitless ; 
Of this the frequent and almost constant practice of their joining the frenchjparties who go out 
to destroy the distant nations of Indians with whom you have no pretence of enmity is a 
flagrant instance, Nor have the french any just cause to quarrel with them, for it is chiefly to 
enlarge their Dominions to bring honest and inocent Nations under their power and tyranny 
and to make them subservient to their unjust views that they make war against them; A 
conduct very ditterent from ours who treat all those Nations of Indians who are under the 
protection of the Great King your Father with benevolence kindness and humanity studying 
to protect them in their freedom, and wishing you all to increase in number as the stars in 
heaven. Nor do we seek occasions to extirpate Nations with whom we have made no alliance, 
No on the contrary we unite them with us, we receive them with open arms and use them with 
kindness and humanity suffering them to enjoy that inestimable blessing' without disturbance 
In this difference of our conduct and that of the french may be seen the difference between 
freedom and Slavery between Englishmen and frenchmen and you are too discerning to see 
which of them is the most eligible and whose friendship is most preferable. 

You are when you are united like a strong Rope made up of many small threads, which 
when twisted together resists the greatest force but by seperating the threads it is easily 
broken the method your enemies make use of to break you is this they know its in vain to 
assail you when twisted together they therefore endeavour to divide you and then break some 
of the threads by leading your youth on expeditions that they know will prove fatal to them, 
whereby the rope will be so weakened by degrees that it will at length yield to a small force 
tis high time therefore to apply yourselves heartily to make your Youth sensible of the snake in 
the grass that they may av6id their secret enemy and to inspire them with true notions of 
liberty, virtue and honor; are they lovers of liberty let them not endeavour to deprive others 
of theirs but teach them this golden Rule of doing to others only what they would that 
others should do to them ; Is virtue amiable in your Eyes teach them how detestable the 
vices are of butchering their fellow creatures and laying waste whole Countries who have 
given them no provacation. Is cowardice a vice they hold in contempt, Or a coward a wretch 
they despise tell them it is base and cowardly to kill helpless defenceless women and 
Children and that the scalps which they bring home of such, instead of being trophies of their 
valour will be monuments of their barbarity and cowardice. Do they delight in the use of 
Arms? the savage beasts will find them employ try their courage and inure them to dangers 
Have they filial piety and brotherly affection? let them reserve themselves to defend their 
kindred and every thing that is dear to them from the attempts of their enemies if at any time 
they should be invaded that will be a war wherein you may reasonably hope for success in 
your arms for my part it is my kind concern for you that makes me speak thus to you I have 
your peace and happiness very much at heart, and very zealously wish your prosperity I would 

' their Liberty. Kiw-Yurk Council Minutes, XIX, 4S. — Ed. 



174 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

have nil the severall nations of Indians under tiie Kings protection how near or iiow di^tanl' 
they live to or from us, united in one common covenant chain of friendship and alliance such 
an union would secure you all from the open attempts or secret snares of your enemies he 
they who they will And if there be any other nations who have not yet put themselves under 
his Majesties Protection that you are willing to cultivate a good understanding with, and who 
may be worthy your alliance invite them to it, make them your fast friends by that and all 
other Acts of friendship and humanity that your united body may still be stronger and your 
enemies have more cause to dread you if they should unjustly attempt any thing against you, of 
whose secret practices too you ought always to be watchfull You have been long acquainted 
with their Acts, what is the end think you they propose to themselves in attempting to seduce 
you, is it trade"? No they have a more beneficial one with other Nations nor have they goods 
always to supply you or them with I will- you what it is, You lie too near them you are able 
to annoy them when they give you just provocation or to restrain them from their wonted 
cruelty to Nations lying beyond you or in alliance with you ; And now knowing their views 
you ought carefully to guard against their Acts and intrigues and trusting to your own virtue 
an extensive alliance, and the great King you fathers protection, you may live in peace and 
enjoy the fruits of your labour with the utmost satisfaction and security If you neglect my 
advice, you will sooner or later have cause to repent it, think seriously of it and let your 
memory witness for me that I gave you timely warning of your fate; but 1 hope better things 
from you, and in that hope, I now renew brighten and strengthen the Covenant chain, assuring 
you that we will all on our part be carefull to keep it from rust and preserve it inviolable to the 
end of the world, and I expect the same from you. 

Gave a Belt of Wampum. 

Brethren 

I am informed that some of the Onondage Sachims went to Canada to speak with the 
Governor of that place, after you had all been acquainted with my resolution to meet you 
here this Summer and not long before the interpreter went to summon you hither which I 
cannot but resent but after what I have already said I hope none of you will be any more 
misled by a people whom you have to mucli cause to suspect of secret designs ag' you. 

Gave a string of Wampum. 

Brethren, 

I am very glad that the design which some of you had to stop the road to Oswego is hiid 
aside and the wiser Resolution taken of keeping it open Your own interest is highly concerned 
in having a place of trade in the middle of your Nations, and I am perswaded that you feel 
the good effects of it more and more Suffer not therefore any more interruption to be given to 
the Traders but encourage them to frequent that market by all the good oflSces and assistance 
you can give them You are sensible that I take all possible care, that you should be well used 
in your dealings, nor is that all the benefit you receive by having a Smith reside in the 
remotest of your Nations enables you to make your hunting turn to a better account than 
otherwise it would, for your Guns are now kept in good repair, without the loss of time in 
travelling far from home to have them mended when they want it 

Gave a String of Wampum 

' soever, iiij, 44. 'tell. Ibid, 45. — Ed. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVI. 17*; 

Brethren 

I highly commend your Wisdom in not suftering the french to get footing at Tierondeqiiat 
you are too well acquainted with tliem not to know that if hy your permission tiiey had huilt 
hut a small fishing hut there they would soon without your leave have huilt a (ort. And then 
what had hecome of Your liberty? Vou must have held that and your Country too at their 
pleasure have been compelled to sell your bever and take their goods at whatever price they 
would set upon them whereby you would in a short time be reduced to a most deplorable 
condition and if you do not speedily fall upon some measures to prevent it, they may by 
treachery gain their ends, and fix themselves there before you are aware of it. 

Gave a Belt. 

Brethren. 

Upon complaint made to the Great King your Father by tlie Governor of Virginia that some 
of Your Young men had murdered some of his Majesty's subjects in that province I received 
his Mnjestys conmiands to conclude a general peace between you and all the Nations of Indians 
under his Majestys protection of which 1 directed the Commissioners of Indian Afl^airs to 
acquaint you, which they did and you expressed your inclination to come into it, and that you 
might be the better prepared to do it now, I sent you notice that, that was partly the business 
of this interview, All the Nations under the Kings protection, who live to the Westward and 
Southward of you, even as far as the Spaniards, would have sent their Deputies hither at this 
time, were it not that we are now actually engaged in a war with Spain, however they iiave 
desired me to negotiate the peace on their parts, assuring me they will ratify it fully and 
absolutely, and I do solemnly engage ior their performance of it. 

The Great King your father looks upon you and every Nation of Indians under his protection 
as his Children, and it is his desire that you should live in the strictest friendship and brotherly 
affection with each other; and that you may be inseperably united, It is his pleasure that all 
the Nations lying to the westward and southward of you, even as far as the River Mississippi 
be admitted into the Covenant Chain, so that from henceforth all annimosities and all causes of 
dislike complaint and enmity may cease and be buried in eternal oblivion. And being as one 
family you will be carefull of each others Safety not countenancing nor concealing any attempts 
that you shall know to be formed against any of you by any of your or our enemies but that 
you give immediate notice thereof to the nation against whom such a design is formed, this I 
faithfully promise, on the part of all the nations of Indians to the Southward and Westward 
of you, shall be performed by them to you and I expect you make the like solenm promise to 
me on your part. 

Gave a Belt of Wampum 

The peace about which I now treat with is not entered upon by me. Or the Nations I have 
mentioned of our own heads It is what the Great King your father has commanded and 
recommended to you all and surely his Commands, that carry with them as this doth, a general 
and paternal care, and concern for the peace and happiness of all his Ciiildren and subjects 
cannot but be obeyed with chearfuUness and observed with constancy, his Maj'-'^ therefore 
expects it and I do admit all the Nations of Indians under his Majesty's protection lying to tiie 
Southward and Westward of us even as far as the great River Mississippi into the covenant 
chain with us, as fully and absolutely to all intent and purposes as if they had been originally 
and [constantly comprehended in it, so that hencefoward they are to be considered as our 



176 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Brethren in all respects as amply as if they had been born and bred in your own Castles and 
houses and descended from your Ancestors. To confirm what I have said I give this Belt of 
Wampum which I desire may be kept by you for ever. 

A true copy examined and compared F'' 

Ph: Livingston 

Sec" to the Indian Affairs. 



Present — The Hon''''' George Clarke Esq: &c. 
Piiiliip Livingston ] 

Phillip Cortlandt I Esq" of the Council 

Dan' Horsmanden ) 
The Commissioners for managing the Indian affairs. 

Answer made by the Six Nations of Indians to his Honor George Clarke Esquire 
Lieut' Governour &■= In Albany this 12 day of Aug: 1740. 

Brother Corlaer 

You spoke to us the other day and we have very well understood the purport of what you 
said we do not intend to repeat it word for word but only answer the principal heads. 

You told us the reason you did not come up before was that the small Pox were at New York, 
that you was fearful that distemper would spread, that therefore it was out of tenderness to us 
that you did not come. 

You said also that you was very glad to see us here, we are also glad of the opportunity to 
see you our Brother here. 

Brother Corlaer, 

You also said that the reason of your coming was to renew that antient Silver Covenant 
Chain which has so long united our fore Fatiiers, and to brighten and strengthen the same, and 
that the Covenant Chain was so strong and bright that no Enemy can ever breake the same 
while the world endures 

Brother Corlaer 

We the Six Nations do also as well as you renew that antient covenant Chain which has 
so long subsisted between our fore Fathers, and make the same bright clear and strong, and 
promise on our part that it shall endure to the end of the World. No one that has entered into 
Covenant with us has ever had reason to complain of us that we have been Covenant breakers. 

Gave a Belt of Wampum 

Brother Corlaer, 

You also said that you had acquainted the Com" and they us, that you intended shortly to 
meet us here and that we should stay at home and not go to Canada We confes it was told 
us. You said likewise that you very much resented that some of the Onondage Sachims are 
gone to Canada, but we hope you will excuse them they are not gone there to do us hurt, but 
for the advantage of us all. 

Gave a String of Wampum 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. I77 

Brother Corlaer 

You also thanked us for our wise management in keeping open and clearing up the Road to 
Oswego, and told us that the trading house tiiere stands in the midst of our Nations, that it is 
a vast advantage to tiietfix Mations, because we can get there what we want or desire But we 
think Brother, that your people who trade there have the most advantage by it, and that it is 
as good for them as a Silver mine. 

Brother 

You said that if at any time we should see any of your people going to Oswego, that we 
should assist them We thank you for your request, we like it very well at the carrying place 
they are generally in want of assistance, and we promise that we will help them there in 
carrying their smaller goods, but the large casks and Bales they may have rid over 

Brother 

We desire that powder and lead may be cheaper at Oswego than it is at present which will 
be a means to draw the far Nations thither And we hope that none of the Traders at Oswego 
may give any reason or be the occasion of any Quarrel or disturbance between us. 

We desire also that B-Corlaer will take care that we may be better paid for building houses 
at Oswego. 

Gave a String of Wampum 

His Hon' answered them 

Brethren. It seems you do not rightly apprehend what I mean or intend, when I recommend 
to you to assist your Brethren the traders when they are going to Oswego to trade It is not 
that you should carry any of their smaller things on the carrying place unless they do desire 
it from you, for that would be a means to discourage that trade, wherefore you ought to leave 
them at their liberty and not stop the rode nor interrupt that trade, which is certainly a great 
advantage to you as well as the far Nations 

As to what you desire to have powder and lead sold cheaper at Oswego than it is at present 
the Market varies according as goods are in demand in Europe. You have found by experience 
that the more skins are brought to Oswego and here the cheaper you have goods every man in 
trade makes the best bargain for himself he can, So that I can give no directions how the 
traders shall sell their goods but only to recommend to them to use you well to encourage the 
trade in general and to give no occasion of any quarrel or disturbance between you. 

Then the Indians proceeded 
Brother. You also said that we had Acted wisely in not suffering the french to settle at 
Tierondequat, and that if they had only liberty to build a fishing hut there, they would soon 
build a strong fort. We perceive that both you and the french intend to settle that place, but 
we are fully resolved that neither you nor they shall settle there there is a Jealousy between 
you and the Governor of Canada about that place, if either the one or the other should settle 
there we think it would breed mischief such near neighbours seldom can agree, we think the 
trading house at Oswego and that at Niagara are near enough to each other, for trading houses 
to near generally quarrel about the trade. Gave a Belt 
Vol. VI. 23 



178 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Brother, 

You also told us, that you compared us to a rope which being twisted together is difficult to 
be broken, but when untwisted and divided into threads then it is easily broken. We think 
not that we divide this rope of which you spenk but on the contrary strengthen the same, by 
making friendship and alliance with many Nations which has always been commanded us 
by all the Governours of New York, All the Indians which were formerly our enemies are now 
entered into the Covenant with us, almost as far as the river Mississipi 

Brother. You also said that you spoke in the name of the King of Great Britain our father, 
that it is his Will that all the iVations of Indians under his protection should be as one body. 
As our father the Great King has commanded us that we sho'd be as one flesh and blood with 
the Indians to the Southward and Westward as far as Mississipi so we accept of them as 
Brethren that we may be united as one body, one heart and one flesh according to the Kings 
commandment But then we desire that some of the Sachims of those Southern Indians do 
come here which will much Strengthen and confirm this treaty, we will give them two Years 
time to come and in the mean time keep at home all our fighting men. 

In former times we were but five Nations but now so many are entered into the Co' Chain 
with us, both to the Westward and Northward that they are almost innumerable whom we 
must all acq' with this treaty to keep them at home from going to fight ag' the Southern Indians, 
who are the only Nations which are not entered into Covenant with us. 

Brother. The last belt you gave us to link us and the Southern Nations together we accept 
of, and it shall be kept at Onondage we promise that when those Southern Indians come here 
we will give them a Belt to answer this. 

His Honor answered them 

Brethren. If you are in earnest ab' the Peace of which we now treat you would not insist 
upon those Nations sending a number of their Sachims here, no more than you did those to 
the Westward and Northward and those treaties were made without the special command 
of the King your father, but in this case the King himself interposes and it is his will as a 
common father that you should live as Brethren together It is impossible that all the Nations 
to the Southward should meet you here or any where But they have made choice of me and 
I stand in their stead and as I told you before I do engage myself that they shall perform 
what I have promised in their behalf 

Before I deliver you the presents which I told some of you I had from the Governor of 
Virginia for you in case you firmly and solemnly accepted all the Nations of Indians living to 
the Southward and Westw"* as far as the River Mississipi who are under his Majestys obedience 
and subjection into the Covenant Chain I expect that you will receive them and conclude a 
peace with me in their behalf and return me a token to send the Gov' of Virginia as an 
everlasting testimony that you have concluded such a peace with them 

The answer of the Six Nations to what his Honor said now 
Brother. You just now told us that you was fully empowered by the Indians to the Southward 
and Westward as far as Mississipi and that you can transact this affiiir as fully as if they were 
present and that you engage for their performance of this treaty On which consideration we 
do agree to the terms required by you and receive all the Indians aforesaid into the Cov' Chain 
with us and shall ever look upon them as our Brethren and as our own flesh as if they had 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVI. 179 

actually been born and bred amongst us and as we have never yet been guilt)' of violating 
treaties so you may depend that we will keep this inviolable to the end of the world. In 
testimony whereof we give you this Belt to be sent to the Governor of Virginia as aa everlasting 
token of this Peace. 

A true Copy examined & compared P' 

Phi : Livingston 

Sec'-^' to the Indian Affairs. 



Z/ieutenant-Governor Clarke to the Dnke of Newcastle. 

[ New-Tork Papers. (3. P. O.) No. 9. p. 77. ] 

New-York Febr^ the 2S"> 174-J-. 
My Lord. 

I do myself the honor to inform your Grace that in obedience to their Excellencies the Lords 
Justices instruction to me of the fifth of August last, commanding me to take care that the act 
of Parliament of the G"" of Queen Anne, for ascertaining the rates of foreign coins in the 
plantations, be for the future observed and put in execution and likewise commanding me to 
publish the instruction, I did on the second of December last issue the inclosed proclamation, 
as the best method I could think of to discharge my duty, but 1 fear nothing but another 
act of Parliament will do the business effectually ; payments now and for many years past 
being made in paper money and silver sent to England to purchase goods; besides it is 
understood that by that act no man is obliged to take silver in payment: If it should be 
thought proper to put the money in all the Planta'^""' upon one uniform foot, I presume to think 
that if it were at once made sterling it would be most for tiie advantage of the Merchants in 
England, nor do I see that it would be at all injurious to the Merchants in America, and this 
is the opinion of those with whom I have talked, be it put upon what foot it will they must 
reduce the Ballance of their accounts to it, and it may as easily be reduced to sterling as to 
any other standard. 

At the same time that I received that Instruction I likewise received their Excell"''' 
commands, concerning one Lush, Commander of a privateer ; I made what enquiry I could and 
from thence am apt to believe he has in a great measure been guilty of what M' Wimbleton 
charges him with, tho' he endeavours to shift it off on M"' Wimbleton himself; I directed the 
Attorney General likewise to enquire into it, who was upon inquiry perswaded of the truth of 
some of the facts, and believed he should get evidence to prove them, whereupon he caused 
Lush to be arrested on an Admiralty warrant, and then filed a libel in the Court against him, 
insisting on his giving two thousands pounds bail, but he tells me that the Judge admitted 
him to bail on giving only forty pounds security, a very inconsiderable sum to answer for the 
irregularities complained of, and I fear an ill precedent for others to tread in his steps. — 

I iiave since the receit of their Excellen' commands had the honor to receive Your Grace's 
of the IS"' of April 1740. with the Act of Parliament, pa.ssed last session, for the more eflectual 
securing and encouraging the Trade of His Maj'>' British subjects to America, and for the 



180 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

encouragement of Seamen to enter into his Majv" service, with his Majiy'' procl'° relating 
thereto, which I have caused to be published in all the Cities, Towns and Counties of the 
Province, hoping the encouragement given by the Act will be a great inducement to His 
Majesties subjects to fit out privateers, which I will promote to the utmost of my power. — 

I do myself the honor likewise to inform Your Grace, that I have very lately received His 
Majiy'^ order in Council on the 27 of Dec' 1739 for Stores, and humbly presume to hope that 
Your Grace will extend your goodness to the Province, that they may be soon sent hither. 

I beg leave to acquaint Your Grace, that on the lO"" of the last month, I received from 
Admiral Vernon a letter, whereof the enclosed is a copy; I thought no time vpas to be lost in 
doing what I could to distress the Enemy, wherefore I summoned the Council immediately 
and made the enclosed order, which has not been only obeyed, but thought necessary by the 
Merchants. I am told that M"' Vernon likewise wrote to the same effect to the other Govern" 
on the continent ; I considered how the Merchants, if they were so disposed, might elude the 
force of that order (and I doubt there are some here and in other provinces who would not 
scruple to do it if they might with safety and without a forfeiture of their Bond). And 1 soon 
perceived it might be done by sending their Vessells to Barbadoes or some of the Leeward 
Islands, unloading them there, getting a certificate from the Collector, and then loading them 
again with the same provisions and sending them from thence to Curacoa, Statia or S' Thomas, 
and this method I feared they would take upon a presumption that Admiral Vernon might not 
write to the Governors of those Islands, both, because they are seldom supply'd with more 
provisions than the inhabitants want for their own use and because vessells seldom go thitiier 
from Jamaica, wherefore, I wrote to the Governors of those Islands, sending them a copy of 
Admiral Vernon's letter, acquainting them with the order, I had made thereon, and with my 
apprehensions that the Enemy might be supplyed in the manner I have done myself the honor 
to mention ; nor did any thoughts rest there, I considered further, that we have little more 
wheat in the Province than the last years crop, that the great number of Soldiers and sailors 
which were daily e.xpected to arrive in Jamaica from England, and the land forces raised in 
these provinces, would require a vast deal of bread and flour, and that tho' wheat be not 
wanted in England, yet the high price it bears there, would make the victuallers look to these 
provinces for their supply, and that it would be too late to provide for that when the wheat is 
ship't off; I therefore thought it highly necessary to forbid the transportation of wheat out of 
the Province, especially apprehending that the merchants would soon ship off great quantites 
to Lisbon and other parts of Europe, (it being understood that wheat was not included in the 
order of the lO"* of January) and accordingly on the fourth of this month, I laid an Embargo on 
wheat not then actually shipt on board any Vessell, and now I find ray apprehensions were 
not without foundation, great quantities being intended to be transported and several Vessells 
being arrived from Lisbon and others, looked for to be loaden with wheat — I hope I have not 
gone further than I ought, if I have, I beseech Your Grace to impute it to the warmth of my 
zeal for His Mnj'^' service, I humbly beg the continuance of Your Graces protection, and 
leave to subscribe myself 

My Lord 

Your Graces 

most humble most obedient and 

most dutiful servant 
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. — (signed) Geo Clarke. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVI. 181 

Admiral Vernon to Lieutenant-Governor Clarice. 

[Ncw-Tork Papers. ( S. P. 0.) No. 9, p. SO.] 

Port Royal, Jamaica IS"" NoV 1740. 
Sir! 

All opportunity offering by one of our Contractors IVr Tickeli's vesselis bound to your port, 
I could not slip the opportunity of informing Your Excell'^'', of the arrival in these seas, not 
only of the large squadron of twelve Spanish men of war from SO to 60 guns, but likewise of 
two as large squadrons of French Ships from Brest and Toulon. I have also advice of a large 
reinforcement being under orders for coming to join me, so that, in all human probability, the 
fate of this war is drawing to a crisis and decision in these seas; And as any misfortune 
befalling us, might be fatal to our possessions in these seas, and as I think these squadrons 
will rely on being suppiyed with provisions from your parts, either immediately from the 
French Ports before we may come to a rupture with them, or from Statia and Curascoa 
afterwards, I can't omit recommending to you, as most material for His Miij'" service, to have 
no one permitted at tiiis critical iuncture, to clear out from Your Govern' without giving sufficient 
Bond, not to land his provisions at any French or Dutch setlem" or any other but His Maj''' 
colonies, where, all they can raise will probably be wanted for the Subsistance of His 
Maj'" troops — 

As the public service sufficiently bespeaks your regard in this particular, I can in no sort, 
doubt of your exerting your utmost zeal in it for His Maj'^' service 
1 am 

Sir 

Your most obedient humble servant 

To The Hono''''= George Clarke Esq : E. Vernon 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Diilce of Newcastle. 

[New-Tork Papers. (S. P. 0.) No. 9, p. 83.] 

New York March 13"' 174?. 
My Lord. 

The inclosed being sent from Canada, and supposed to be dispatciies from the GoV of that 
place for France, I presume to" send it to Your Grace, not knowing in what situation affairs 
may be when it arrives in England ; If I have done amiss 1 humbly ask Your Graces pardon. — 

Yesterday a sloop arrived here from Jamaica in twenty eight days, the master whereof 
informs me, that about a fortnigiit before he left the Island Admiral Vernon sailed with the 
Fleet and Transports for Carthagene as it was thought, they being met (by some ships from 
Ireland) turning up on the south side of Hispaniola; that a considerable number of His 
Maj'>'' troops were left at Jamaica in the hospitals, the master says seven or eight hundred, 



182 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

some private letters say two thousand ; that Gen' Wentwortli' and the Officers were in good 
health ; That four French men of War fell in, in the evening, with four of S"' Chaloners Ogles 
squadron off of Hispaniola as they were going down to Jamaica, that the)^ engaged most part 
of the night, but that in the morning the French made some excuse for what they had done 
and made for port Louis where the rest of their fleet then lay ; that Adm' Vernon sent two 
Frgots to see where they were a little before he left Jamaica, but they were all gone from Port 
Louis and could not be found by those Frigots, wherefore it was conjectured they were 
gone to Carthagene. I thought it my duty to give your Grace this Intelligence that I had from 
the Master of the sloop, which is in General supposed by private letters — I beg leave humbly 
to recommend myself to Your Graces protection, and to subscribe myself 
My Lord 

Your Grace's 

most humble, most obedient and 

most dutiful servant 
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle (signed). G. Clarke 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarlie to the Dulce of Newcastle. 

[New-Tork Papers, (S. P. O.) No. 9, p. M.) 

New York April 22. 1741. 
My Lord. 

As a rupture with France seems to us, at this distance, to be unavoidable, I humbly beg 
leave to lay before Your Grace my present thoughts how we may dispossess the French of the 
footing they have got on the back of all the English Colonies on the continent (in a great 
measure since the peace of Utrecht) for tho' they pretend a right to the River Missasippi 
by discovery in or about the year 16S0. (to which we have a prior pretence by the like rigiit 
of discovery) yet till after the peace of Utrecht they made hardly any settlements on that 
River, nor had any communication from thence with Canada, but now they have a line efforts 
tho at considerable distances, between that river and Quebeck, by means whereof if the men 
and Merchandize which they send to one, should be intercepted at sea, yet if those sent to the 
other arrives safe the whole may be supplied by means of the Lakes and Rivers, and the 
Indians with whom they have a vast trade, will not for want of goods be driven to the necessity 
of coming over to us, and while the French hold those possessions, they will have sucli an 
influence over the Indians that lye to the northward and westward of the Lakes that they will 
eitlier by threats or rewards make them instruments to annoy ail the English Colonies, wliich, 
except this, are without any Forts or garrisons on their frontiers — 

' TnoMis Wentwoeth became Colonel of the 24th regiment of foot, on -27th June, 1737 ; Brigadier-General, July 2, 1739 ; 
Major-General, August 11, 17-tl. He arrived at Plymouth from the West Indies, on the 7th January, 17-13, and was elected 
member for Whitchurch, immediately after. He was sent to Holland in 1744, to solicit 6,000 men from the Dutch, to aid in 
repelling the French inrasion, then threatened, and in June, 1745, was appointed Lieutenant-General. He was afterwards 
sent in a public capacity to the Court of Turin, where he died in November, 1747. Gent Mag. Bancroft ( History of the 
United States, IIL, 441,) calls him " the inexperienced, irresolute Wentworth," but on what authority does not appear. — Ed. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 183 

The French have now on the Lake Ontario or Cadaraqiii two Brigantines of about fifty tons 
each, they had three, but one is lately stranded and broke to pieces; these vessells serve them 
to transport their Merchandize, and men and provisions and ammunitions to their Forts, two 
ofwliich they have on that lake viz : one called Froutenac at the Nortli-East and where it 
empties itself into tiie River of S' Lawrence, the other at Niagara on the South-West end, 
they are square stone Forts, and each of them garrisoned by a company of regular forces, 
consisting of about thirty or thirty five men, which may presently be reinforced by the Indians, 
both these Forts are built on the Lands belonging to our six nations or Iroquois. What I would 
humbly propose is: that two vessells of superior bigness and force to those of the French be 
built on that lake, wJ^ere there are good harbours and sufficient depth of water which being well 
manned and provided with gunns and ammunition we may easily take or destroy those of the 
French and being masters by water, we may transport the troops that may bejnecessary to take 
their two Forts, and hinder the Enemy from building any more on those shores and no sooner 
will our conquests be known as it will immediately by the Indians now in the interest or under 
the influence of the power of the French, but they will shake of they yoke and submit themselves 
to His Mnj'" protection, whereby we shall of course be posest of all the Indian trade from 
Canada to Messasippi, which is now in the hands of the French, and cut off the communication 
between those places, so long as those vessells are employed on the Lake, which they ought 
constantly to be, at least till we have taken Canada, or the scheme will be ineffectual, for if 
they should be laid by, as useless and suffered to rot before Canada be taken, the French will 
soon again build others, retake the Forts, open tjieir communication with Missasippi, recover 
their trade, distress our Colonies, confine them to very narrow limitts, and consequently in the 
end make them of little use to England, and this they will be able to do by the assistance of 
those numerous nations of Indians that lye to the northward and westward of the Lakes, for 
when the French are again masters of those waters and Forts, the intercourse between those 
nations and us will be broken and they must be absolutely at the disposal of our Enemy. I 
presume, one regiment of foot will be sufHcient for the purposes mentioned, which may be 
raised in this and the next provinces. 

To the Northward of the Lake viz: in Canada and at the Island of Breton the French are 
much stronger both in men and Fortifications, so that a much greater force will be required to 
subdue them ; the harbour of Louisbourg at Breton is strongly fortifyed and the entrance 
defended by a Battery of fifty guns there is depth of water sufficient for the bigest ships, and 
the harbour is capable of containing a very large fleet ; its situation gives them all the 
advantages, they can wish for, it secures their own navigation to Quebec, and gives them but 
too great opportunities to annoy and interrupt our Fishery; in the Winter they have few men 
upon the Island except their garrisons, but are secured by the cold, the snow and Ice — In 
summer they are strengthened by the great numbers of men employed in their fishery ; the 
only time therefore to attempt with most advantage the taking of the place will be at the 
breaking up of the winter, and before their ships come from France, and this may be done ; for 
if His Majesty's ships to be appointed for that service winter at Boston, they may block up the 
harbour of Louisbourg before any ships from France can arrive there, and His Majty's troops 
may land when the least opposition can be given them, and for this expedition I am perswaded 
that four or five thousand men may be raised in New England, if the Officers, as they were for 
the expedition against the Spaniards, be appointed in these provinces, but then I presume it 
will be necessary they be disciplined before they embark, so that if the orders and commissions 



184 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

be sent over the summer before, and a sufficient number of subalterns to teach them their 
exercise, they may before the ensuing spring be tit for service, but I presume some veterans 
from Enghind will be absolutely necessary to join the Americans, under the command of an 
experienced General. If we take Cape Breton and iiave constantly liiere and at Flacentia in 
those months wherein those seas are navigable, a sufficient number of ships of war to guard 
our Fishery, they may intercept the French Ships bound to or from Canada, and thereby 
reduce that Country to great necessity, and their communication with Messasippi being cut off 
by the means proposed that country will become an easier conquest. The Regiment proposed 
to be raised for the service on the lake with an Engineer and a proper train of Artillery will 
be able to take their Fort which they lately built at the crown point, about one hundred and 
sixty miles from Albany, which will open our way from thence by water to Chamblie, Quebeck, 
and their other forts viz: Montreale and Trois Rivers, whenever that expedition be set on foot 

At present what this province has to do is to preserve Oswego, which lies at the North end 
of Cadaraqui Lake, from falling into the hands of the French, I have recommended it to the 
Assembly, as Your Grace may be pleased to see in my speech. 

I humbly ask Your Graces pardon for trespassing so much on your Graces time the subject is 
I think of very great consequence, and I hope my zeal for His Maj'" honor and service, will in some 
measure attone for my presumption, and if upon this general view of it, it should appear to 
deserve Your Graces thoughts, I shall think myself very happy in having laid it before Your Grace. 

I do myself the honor to send your Grace my speech to the Assembly, and a copy of my 
letter to the Lords of trade, whereby your Grace will see that the house, Chappel and all the 
buildings in the Fort are consumed by fire, it falls exceeding heavy on me in my private 
losses, which 1 am very unable to bear. I humbly recommend myself to Your Graces protection 
and beg leave to subscribe myself with the most profound submission 
My Lord 

Your Graces 

most humble, most obedient and 

most dutiful servant 

His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. (signed) G. Clakre 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarhe to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New- York Papers, Gg., No. 54. ] 

New York 22 of April 1741. 
My Lords 

A. I do myself the honor to send to your Lordships; the minutes of Council and the Acts 
past last Session Viz' 

An Act for and towards supporting the Governm' &'^ This Act being conformable to 
former temporary Acts needs no observation. 

An Act to apply the monies granted for the Support of Government &"^ is much the same as 
the Act past the year before for the like purposes 

An Act to support the Garrisons at Oswego &" this Act is in effect no other than to continue 
a former Act past for that service. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 185 

An Act for letting to farm the excise on. strong liquors retailed &"' This excise being one 
fund for sinking the paper money, is let to farm yearly. 

An Act to encourage the destroying of Wolves and Panthers in Dutches County, and 
Wolves in Orange County These Counties being much infested by those creatures made 
this Act necessary 

An Act to repeal that part of an Act intituled an Act to lay a duty on the goods and a tax on 
the Slaves therein mentioned &" The duties on beef, Pork and Syder, having fallen very 
short of the Assemblies expectations, and having been an injury to the trade of this place, by 
driving our Neighbours to other markets, it was necessary to repeal that part of the Act, and 
that the paper money for the sinking whereof that fund was given, might preserve its credit and be 
sunk within the time limited ; a duty on goods sold by Auction is given by this Act, which 
it is thought will amount to more than the duty on Beef &"" 

An Act to enable the Justices of the Peace living in that part of Orange County lying to the 
Northward of the Mountains, to raise a Sum not exceeding one hundred pounds, for finishing 
and compleating the Court House and Goal in Goshen. 

An Act to enable the Mayor, Recorder and Aldermen of the City of Albany, and Justices of 
the Peace of the said City and County, to build a new Court House and Goal for the said City 
and County 

The reasons for passing these Acts are in the preamble 

An Act to continue an Act entituled an Act to regulate the Militia, with an addition thereto, 
The Act which this Act continues your Lordships have, the addition is thought very necessary 
in time of war. 

An Act for the better relief of the poor in Dutchess County. In other Counties the 
Supervizors have raised money for the purposes mentioned in the Act, but in this they have 
made some scruple, to remove those Scruples for the future this Act is past 

An Act to prevent abuses in repacking of Beef and Pork. The reason for passing this Act 
appears in the preamble and it is known in the Sugar Colonies that the Pork of this and the 
Northern Colonies, is much better than that of Virginia, Carolina, and Maryland. 

An Act to cancell the Bills of Credit of this Colony. The reason for passing this Act, 
appears in the preamble 

Besides these I do myself the honor to send your Lordships, the Act past last Summer 
for victualling and transporting the five companies I raised for the expedition against the 
Spaniards, which I had the good fortune to effect, contrary to the expectation of many, and 
even of the Assembly, and if the numbers of the people of this province be compared with 
those of our Neighbours, it will appear that we have gone much beyond them in these levies, 
this is the first essay from whence some Judgement may be made of what may be done 
hereafter, tho that will in a great measure be governed by the encouragement that these find, 
the Captains have been at great expence in getting men, being greatly encouraged thereto by 
the hopes of being put on the same establishment with the new raised Regiments in England 
and if they are disappointed, I fear it will be very difficult hereafter to raise a body of men, for 
it is chiefly the knowledge and opinion they have of the Captains who are to command them, 
that induce them to inlist. 

B. The Assembly is now sitting, to whom I had many things to recommend, as your 
Lordships may be pleased to see in my speech, wherein I have mention'd the unhappy fire, 
which on tlie 18 of the last month burnt the fort, most of the records are saved, aud I hope 
Vol. VI. 24 



186 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

very few lost for I took all the possible care of them, and had all removed before the office took 
fire, but before an engine could be brought, the house was past saving, for it being covered 
with Cedar Shingles, and all the floors and wainscots old, they took in an instant and burned 
with that fury, that no human power could extinguish it. The expence of rebuilding will be 
considerable, but I know the present circumstances of the Province to be much better than 
ever, and so very good, that that expence will not be felt A Gentleman of one of the best 
Estates told me, he supposed that his proportion upon an equal tax would not come to forty 
shillings. But my private loss is very great and more than I am able to bear without bending 
under it. 

Since that fire we have had many in the town sometimes four in a day and some of them 
apparently kindled by design, which begat a general consternation I have done all I could to 
discover the villaines both by issuing a proclamation with a reward and otherwise but hitherto 
without effect, many Negroes are imprisoned on suspicion, but as yet no proof appears against 
them I now keep a night guard of the Militia who constantly patroll, the people obeying very 
chearfuliy, and I have recommended to the Assembly to pass a Bill to oblige them to it under 
proper penalties. 

C. Your Lordships know perfectly well the consequence of retaining the Six Nations in their 
dependence on his Maj'^' and are sensible of the arts the french use to entice them from us, and 
that now we hold them by nothing but by presents, I humbly think that if there be a rupture 
with France, it will be absolutely necessary to take from them their two forts on Cadaraqui 
Lake Vizt Frontenac at the North East End, and Niagara at the Southwest End and to destroy 
the two Brigantines that they have now on that Lake which are imployed in carrying their 
merchandize from one end to the other, and men, ammunition and provisions to those forts; if 
we do that we cut off the communication between Canada and Mesasippi, and gain the trade 
and friendship of those numerous Nations of Indians, that lie to the Northward and Westward 
of the Lakes, and if when this be done, as I see no great difficulty in it, we take the Island 
Breton, that will open a way to the entire conquest of Canada, and preserve our fishery 
at Newfoundland, which will otherwise I fear from Louisbourg be much annoyed, if not 
quite lost : If we do not drive the french from that Lake and thereby stop all intercourse 
between Canada and Mesasipi, the French will in time, by means of the Indians, drive all the 
planters in the English Colonies from their settlements, and make them of little use to England, 
or put it to a vast charge to protect them I have in my Zeal for his Majesties Service, presumed 
to write to his Grace the Duke of Newcastle on this Subject. 

D. With the Publick Acts goes a private one in favour of M' Malcom, which carries with it 
the reason for passing it. The Acts are much dirted and tumbled in removing them in the 
time of the fire, which I hope your Lordships will excuse 

E. I have obeyed the orders of their Excellency's the Lords Justices, by prohibiting 
the exportation of Provisions to any other place than his Majesty's Dominions, I am with the 
greatest Respect and Honor 

My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and 

most obedient Servant 
The R' Hon''''^ the Lords of Trade. Geo: Clarke 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVI. 187 

Duke of Newcastle to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-Tork Papers, Gg., No. S3. ] 

Wliitehall April 80. 1741. 
My Lords 

His Majesty having been pleased to appoint the Hon: George Clinton Esq: to he Governor 
of NevF York in America, in the room of the Lord Delav^arr, am to signify to your Lordships 
His Majesty's pleasure, that you prepare draughts of a Commission, and Instructions for liim, 
in order to be laid before His Majesty for liis approbation 
I am 

My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most obedient 

liumhle Servant 
Lords Commissioners for Trade. Holles Newcastle 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Duke of Newcastle. 

[ New-Tork Papers. ( 8. P. O. ) No. 9, p. 94. ] 

New York May 15"> 1741. 
My Lord. 

On the seventh of this month I had the honor to receive your Grace's letter of the 4"» of 
December relating to the forces already raised to serve under the command of Lord Cathcart, 
and others to be raised if Lord Cathcars should send to me for any number of men, for recruits 
or for any other service. As to the first I must beg leave to refer to the muster rolls, which 
the commissary sent home, for an account of the men already sent, having lost many of my 
papers, and among them those of the number of those Troops, in the unhappy fire that laid 
the Fort in Ashes; but tliis I confidently assure your Grace that the fire companies I raised 
were compleat, having in them full ^\\& hundred effective men, Serjeants, corporals and Drums 
included, and if I am not mistaken there went four or five men more than the five hundred, 
who were not in the Rolls. 

As to Recruits or new Levies I beseech your Grace to be assured, I will use my utmost 
application to raise them, whenever General VVentworth who succeeds Lord Cathcart', writes 
to me for them ; but I forsee my zeal will not have the effect I could otherwise hope for, for 
the frequent attempts to fire the Town, since the Fort was burnt, having wonderfully distracted 
the mind of the people thoughout the province, who are in continual apprehensions of having 
their houses set on fire, in consequence of an horrid conspiracy of the negroes ( which we now 

' Charles. 8th Lord Cathcart. son of Lord Allan, and Hon. Miss Dalrymple, was first groom aiid nftcrwnrJn gentleman of the 
bed-chamber to King George II., Colonel of a regiment of horse in Ireland, and governor of Dunennnon, in H.^S. Having 
been appointed to the command of the forces on theCurthngcna expedition, he died at St, Christopher, 1710. lie mnrried, first, 
Mary Margaret Schaw, and second, the widow of Joseph Sabine. Oebrett. — Ed. 



188 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

begin to have some hopes of discovering, and even that the fort itself was wilfully set on fire 
by them notwithstanding that the circumstance of time and place led me to think it was 
accidently done by a plumber) with the apprehension of a French warr as this is a frontier 
province, will I believe induce all or most of the people who have anything at stake to stay at 
home for their own safety and defence, and to diswade others, who are not under those 
circumstances, from leaving the Country ; but in other provinces which are not so unhappily 
circumstanced, I make no doubt but men may be raised for the service, especially as the 
first Levies have met with such glorious success at Cathagene under the Command of 
Gen' Weutworth. 

His Majv^ gracious approbation of my diligence and zeal for His Maj'>' service in raising the 
five companies, emboldens me to say, that if the number of white people in this province be 
compared with those in other provinces, it will I presume appear that the largest portion of 
troops has been raised here, from whence it will be evident that many more might then and 
many yet be raised in the other Provinces. 

As Ills Maj'>' pleasure is not signified in Your Graces letter how the Recruits or new Levies 
are to be victualled and transported, I will first try the Assembly, and if they will not do it, 
I presume I must then act therein upon His Maj's" secret instructions to me of the S""" of April 
1740. and find transports and provisions for them, and draw upon the Commissioners of the 
Navy for the payment thereof, which I will do if I have the good fortune to raise any men, 
wherein I will leave no mean unessayed. 1 humbly beg leave to implore your Graces protection 
and to subscribe myself with the most profound submission — 

My Lord — Your Graces — most humble most obedient and most dutiful servant 

(signed) G. Clarke 

His Grace the Duke of Newcastle 



Lords of Trade to the Duke of Newcastle. 

[ New-York Enlries, M., p. 109. ] 

To His Grace The Duke of Newcastle. 

My Lord. 

Having in obedience to His Majesty's Commands signified to us by Your Grace's letter of 
the 30"" of April last, prepared the Draught of a Commission for George Clinton Esq"' to be 
Governor of New York in America. We take leave to inclose the said Draught to Your Grace 
with Our Representation thereupon, which you will please to lay before their E.\cellencies the 
Lords Justices. We are, 

My Lord, 

Your Grace's most obedient 

and most humble Servants 

MoN'SON 

M. Bladen 
Whitehall B. Keene 

May 2P' 1741 Tho: Pelham. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVI. 189 

Representation to the Lords Justices 

To their Excellencies The Lords Justices. 

May it please Your Excellencies. 

In obedience to his Majesty's Commands, Signified to us hy a letter from His Grace The 
Duke of Newcastle dated the 30"" of April last, We have prepared the Draught of a Commission 
for George Clinton Esq"" to be Governor of New York in America wliich being in the usual 
form, we herewith humbly lay the same before Your Excellencies and siiall prepare the 
necessary Instructions for him with all possible dispatch. 

Which is most humbly Submitted 

MONSON 

M. Bladen 
Whitehall B. Keene 

May 2P' 1741. Tho : Pelham. 



Commission of George Clinton, Esq., to he Governor' of Neto - Yorh. 

George the Second by the Grace of God of Great Britain, France and Ireland King 
Defender of the Faith &c* To our Trusty and Welbeloved the Honourable George Clinton 
Es q Greeting. 

Whereas we did by our Letters Patents under our Great Seal of Great Britain bearing 
date at Westminster the [fifteenth] day of [August] in the [Eleventh] year of Our Reign 
constitute and appoint John Lord Delaware Captain General and Governor in Chief in and 
over our Province of New York, and the Territories depending thereon in America for and during 
our will and pleasure as by the said recited letters patents, relation being thereunto had may 
more fully and att large appear. Now know You that we have revoked and determined and 
by these presents do revoke and determine the said recited Letters Patents and every Clause, 
Article and thing therein contained.' 

And further know you that we reposing especial Trust and Confidence in the prudence, 
courage and loyalty of you the said George Clinton of our especial Grace, certain knowledge 
and meer motion have thought fit to constitute and appoint and by these presents do constitute 
and appoint you the said George Clinton to be Our Captain General and Governor in chief 
in and over'our Province of New York and the Territories depending thereon in America. 

And we do hereby require and command you to do and execute all things in due manner 
that shall belong unto Your said command and the Trust we h'ave reposed in you, according to 
the several powers and Directions granted or appointed you by this present Commission, 
and the Instructions and Authorities herewith given you or by such further powers Instructions 
'and Authorities as shall at any time hereafter be granted or appointed you, under our signet or 
sign Manual or by our order in our Privy Council and according to such reasonable Laws and 
Statutes as now are iu force or hereafter shall be made and agreed upon by you with the advice 

' therein mentioned. Book of Commissions, IV., lOfi. — Ed, 



190 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS, 

and consent of our Council, and the Assembly of our said Province under Your Government 
in such manner and form as is hereafter expressed. 

And Our Will and pleasure is that you the said George Clinton after the publication of these 
our letters Patents do in the first place take the Oaths mentioned to be taken by an Act passed 
in the 1*' year of our late Royal Father's Reign Entituled "An Act for the further security of 
•' His Majesty's Person and Government and the Succession of the Crown in the Heirs of the 
•' late Princess Sophia, being Protestants, and for extinguishing the Hopes of the pretended 
" Prince of Wales and his open and Secret Abettors." As also that you make and subscribe 
the Declaration mentioned in an Act of Parliament made in the 25"" year of the Reign of King 
Charles the Second entituled "An Act for preventing Dangers which may happen from Popish 
Recusants" and likewise that you take the usual oath for the due execution of the office and 
Trust of our Captain General and Governor in Chief in and over our said Province of New York 
and Territories depending thereon for the due and impartial administration of justice, and 
further that you take the oath required to be taken by Governors of Plantatiofts to do their 
utmost that the several Laws relating to Trade and the Plantations be observed which said 
Oaths and Declaration our Council in our said Province or any three of the Members thereof 
have hereby full power and Authority and are requested' to tender and Administer unto you 
and in Your absence to our Lieutenant Governor if there be any upon the Place [all which 
being duly performed You shall administer to each of the Members of our said Council as also 
to our Lieutenant Governor if there be any upon the Place,] the oaths mentioned in the said Act 
entituled "An Act for the further Security of His Majesty's person and Government and the 
" Succession of the Crown in the heirs of the late Princess Sophia, being Protestants, and for 
" extinguishing the hopes of the pretended Prince of Wales, and his open and secret abettors," 
as also to cause them to make and subscribe the fore-mentioned Declaration, and to administer 
to them the oath for the due Execution of their places and Trusts. 

And we do hereby give and grant unto you full power and Authority to suspend any of the 
Members of our said Council from sitting, voteing and assisting therein, if you shall find joint 
cause for so doing and if there shall be any Lieutenant Governor him likewise to suspend from 
the execution of his command and to appoint another in his stead untill Our pleasure be known. 

And if it shall at any time happen that by the death, departure out of our said Province, or 
Suspension of any of our said Councillors or otherwise there shall be a vacancy in our said 
Council (any three whereof we do hereby appoint to be a Quorum) Our Will and Pleasure is 
that You signify the same unto us by the first opportunity that we may under our signet and 
sign Manual constitute and appoint others in their stead. But that our affairs may not suffer 
at that Distance for want of a due number of Councillors if ever it shall happen that there be 
less than seven of them residing in our said Province, We do hereby Give and Grant unto you, 
the said George Clinton, full power and authority to chuse as many persons out of the principal 
Freeholders, Inhabitants thereof, as will make up the full Number of our said Councill to be 
seven and no more which Persons so chosen and appointed by you shall be to all Intents and 
purposes Councillors in Our said Province, untill either they shall be confirmed by us, or that 
by the Nomination of others by us, under our sign Manual and Signet, our said Council shall 
have seven or more persons in it. 

And we do hereby give and grant unto you full Power and Authority with the advice and 
consent of our said Council, from time to time as need shall Require to summon and call 

' required. Book of Commisiions, IV. 06. — Ed. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 191 

general assemblies of the said Freeholders and Planters within Your Government according to 
the usage of our Province of New York. 

And our Will and pleasure is that the persons thereupon duly Elected by the Major Part of 
the Freeholders of the respective Counties and Places, and so returned, shall before their sitting 
take the Oaths mentioned in the said Act entituled " An act for the further security of His 
" Majesty's Person and Government and the succession of the Crown in the Heirs of the late 
"Princess iSophia, being Protestants, and for extinguishing the hopes of the pretended Prince 
" of Wales and his open and Secret Abettors," as also to make and subscribe the forementioned 
Declaration, which Oaths and Declaration You shall Commissionate Fit Persons under Our 
Seal of New York to tender and administer unto them, and untill the same shall be so taken 
and subscribed no person shall be capable of sitting though Elected ; And we do hereby declare 
that the persons so elected and qualified shall be called and deemed the General Assembly of 
that our Province and the Territories depending thereon. 

And you the said George Clinton with the consent of our said Council and Assembly or the 
Major part of them respectively shall have full power and Authority to make, constitute and 
ordain Laws Statutes and Ordinances for the publick peace, welfare and good government of 
our said Province and of the people and Inhabitants thereof and such others as shall resort 
thereto, and for the benefit of us, our heirs and successors ; which said Laws, Statutes 
and Ordinances are not to be repugnant but as near as may be agreable unto the Laws and 
Statutes of this Our Kingdom of Great Britain, Provided that all such Laws, Statutes 
and ordinances of what nature or duration soever be within three Months or sooner after the 
making thereof, transmitted unto us under Our Seal of New York for our approbation or 
Disallowance of the same. As also Duplicates thereof by the next conveyance. 

And in case any or all of the said Laws, Statutes and Ordinances (being not before confirmed 
by us, shall at any time be disallowed and not approved and so signified by us, our heirs and 
Successors under our or their Sign Manual or Signet, or by order of our or their Privy Council 
unto you the said George Clinton or to the Commander in Cliief of our said Province for the 
time being then such and so many of the said laws, statutes and ordinances as shall be so 
disallowed and not approved shall from thenceforth cease, determine and become utterly void 
and of none Eflfect, anything to the contrary thereof notwithstanding. 

And to the end that nothing may be passed or done by our said Council or Assembly to the 
Prejudice of us, our heirs, and successors. We will and ordain that you the said George Clinton 
shall have and enjoy a negative V^oice in the making and passing of all Laws, Statutes and 
ordinances as Aforesaid. 

And you shall and may likewise from time to time as you shall judge it necessary, adjourn 
Prorogue and Dissolve all General Assemblys as Aforesaid. 

And our further Will and pleasure is that you shall and may use and keep the Public Seal 
of our Province of New York for Sealing all things whatsoever that pass the Great Seal of our 
said Province under Your Government. 

And we do further give and grant unto you the said George Clinton, full power and authority 
from time to time and at any lime hereafter by Yourself, or by any other to be authorized by 
you in that behalf, to administer and Give the aforementioned oaths to all and every such 
person and persons as you shall think fit who shall at any time or times pass into our said 
Province or shall be resident or abiding there. 



192 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

And we do further by these Presents Give and Grant unto you full power and authority with 
the advice and consent of our said Council to erect, constitute and establish such and so many 
Courts of Judicature and public Justice within our said Province under Your Government as 
you and they shall think, fit and necessary for the hearing and determining of all causes as well 
criminal as civil according to law and equity, and for awarding of execution thereupon, with 
all reasonable and necessary Powers and Authorities, Fees and Privileges belonging thereto, as 
also to appoint and commissionate fit persons in the several parts of Your Government to 
administer the oaths mentioned in the aforesaid Act, Entituled " An Act for the further Security 
"of His Majesty's Person and Government, and the Succession of the Crown in the heirs of 
" the late Princess Sophia, being Protestants and for extinguishing the hopes of the pretended 
" Prince of Wales and his open and Secret Abettors." As also to tender and administer the 
aforesaid Declarations unto such persons belonging to the said Courts as shall be obliged to 
take the same. 

And we do hereby authorize and empower you to constitute and appoint Judges, and (in 
cases requisite) Commissioners of Oyer and Terminer, Justices of the peace and other neces- 
sary Officers and Ministers in our said Province for the better Administration of Justice and 
putting the laws in execution and to administer or cause to be administered unto them such 
oath or oaths as are usually given for the due Execution and performance of Offices and Places 
and for the clearing of truth in judicial cases. 

And we do hereby give and grant unto you full power and authority where you shall see 
cause or shall judge any Offender or Offenders in Criminal Matters, or for any Fines or 
Forfeitures due unto us, fit objects of our Mercy to pardon all such offenders, and to remit all 
such offences, Fines and Forfeitures, Treason and Wilfull Murder only excepted, in which 
Cases you shall likewise have power upon Extraordinary Occasions to Grant Reprieves to the 
Offenders untill and to the Intent Our Royall pleasure may be known therein. 

And we do by these Presents Authorize and impoweryou to collate any person or persons to 
any churches, chappels, or other Ecclesiastical Benefices within Our said Province and 
Territories aforesaid as often as any of them shall happen to be void. 

And we do hereby give and Grant unto you the said George Clinton by Your self or by Your 
Captains or Commanders by you to be authorized full power and authority to levy, arm, 
muster, command and employ all Persons whatsoever residing within our said Province of 
New York and other the Territories under Your Government and as occasion shall serve to 
march from one place to another, or to embark them for the resisting and withstanding of all 
enemies, pirates and Rebels both at sea and land and to transport such forces to any of our 
plantations in America (if Necessity shall require) for the Defence of the same against the 
Invasion or attempts of any of our enemies and such enemies, pirates and Rebels if there shall 
be occasion to pursue or prosecute in or out of the limits of our said Province and Plantations 
or any of them, and, if it shall so please God, them to vanquish, appreiiend and take, and 
being taken either according to Law to put to death or keep and preserve alive at Your 
Discretion and to execute Martial Law in time of invasion or other times when by law it may 
be executed and to do and execute all and every other thing and things which to our Captain 
General and Governor in Chief doth or ought of right to belong. 

And we do hereby give and grant unto you full power and authority by and with the advice 
and consent of our said Council to erect, raise and build in our said Province of New 
York, and Territories depending thereon such and so many Forts and Platforms, Castles, 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 193 

Cities, Boroughs, Towns, and Fortifications as )'ou by the advice aforesaid shall judge 
necessary, and the same or any of them to fortify and furnish with Ordnance, Ammunition and 
all sorts of Arms fit and necessary for the security and Defence of our said Province, and by 
the advice aforesaid the same again or any of them to demolish or dismantle as may be 
most convenient. 

And forasmuch as divers Mutinies and Disorders may happen by persons shipped and 
employed at sea during the time of War and to the End that such as shall be shipped 
and employed at sea during the time of War may be better Governed and Ordered, We do 
hereby give and grant unto you the said George Clinton full Power and Authority to constitute 
and appoint Captains, Lieutenants, Masters of Ships and other Commanders and Officers, and 
to grant unto such Captains, Lieutn'% Masters of Sliips, and other Commanders and Officers, 
Commissions to execute the law Martial according to the Directions of an Act passed in the 
13"" year of the Reign of King Charles the Second Entituled "An Act for the Establishing 
Articles and Orders for the Regulation and better Government of His Majesties Navies, Ships 
of War, and Forces by Sea," during the time of War, and to use such Proceedings, Authorities 
Punishments, Corrections and executions upon any Offender or Offenders who shall be Mutinous, 
Seditious, Disorderly or any way unruly either at sea or during the time of their abode or 
residence in any of the Ports, Harbours, or Bays of our said Province and Territories, as the 
cause shall be found to require, according to the Martial Law and the said Directions during 
the time of War as aforesaid. 

Provided that nothing herein contained shall be construed to the enableing you or any by 
Your Authority to hold Plea or have any Jurisdiction of any offence cause. Matter or thing 
committed or done upon the High Sea, or within any of the Havens, Rivers or Creeks of our 
said Province or Territories under Your Government by any Captain, Commander, Lieutenant, 
Master, Officer, Seaman, Soldier, or other Person whatsoever, who shall be in actual service 
and Pay in or on board any of our Ships of War or other Vessels acting by immediate 
Commission or Warrant from our Commissioners for Executing the Office of our High Admiral 
or from our High Admiral of Great Britain for the time being under the Seal of our 
Admiralty; But that such Captain, Commander, Lieu' Master, Officer, Seaman Souldier or 
other person so offending shall be left to be proceeded against and tryed as their offences 
shall require either by Commission under Our Great Seal of Great Britain as the Statute 
of the SS"" of Henry the S"" Directs or by Commission from our said Commissioners for 
Executing the Office of Our High Admiral or from Our High Admiral of Great Britain for the 
time being according to the aforementioned Act for the establishing Articles and Orders for 
the Regulateing and better Government of His Majesty's Navies, Ships of War and Forces by 
Sea and not otherwise. 

Provided Nevertheless that all Disorders and Misdemeanours committed on Shore by any 
Captain Commander, Lieutenant, Master, Officer, Seaman, Souldier or otiier person whatsoever 
belonging to any of our Ships of War or other vessels acting by immediate Commission or 
Warrant from our said Commissioners for executing the Office of Our High Admiral or from 
Our High Admiral of Great Britain for the time being under the Seal of our Admiralty may be 
tryed and punished according to the laws of the Place where any such Disorders, Offences and 
Misdemeanours shall be committed on shore notwithstanding such offender be in our actual 
service and born in Our Pay on Board any such our ships of war or otiier Vessels acting by 
immediate Commission or Warrant from our said Comuiissioaers for executing tiie Office of 
Vol. VL 26 



194 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

our High Admiral or from Our High Admiral of Great Britain for the time being as aforesaid 
so as he shall not receive any protection for the avoiding of Justice for such offences committed 
on shore from any pretence of His being employed in our service at sea. 

And our further Will and pleasure is that all publick Mony raised or which shall be raised 
by any Act to be hereafter made within our said I'rovince and other the Territories depending 
thereon be issued out by Warrant from you by and with the Advice and consent of our 
Council and disposed of by you for the support of the Government and not otherwise. 

And we do hereby likewise give and grant unto you full power and Authority by and with 
the advice and consent of our said Council to settle and agree with the Inhabitants of our 
Province and Territories aforesaid for such Lands, Tenements and Heredita" as now are or 
hereafter shall be in our power to dispose of and them to grant to any person or persons upon 
such Terms and under such moderate Quit Rents, Services and Acknowledgements to be 
thereupon reserved unto us, as you by and with the advice Aforesaid shall think fit ; which said 
Grants are to pass and be sealed by our seal of New York and being entered upon Record by 
such Officer or Officers as you shall appoint shall be good and effectual in Law against us, Our 
Heirs and Successors. 

And we do hereby give you the said George Clinton full power and Authority to order and 
appoint Fairs, Marts and Markets, as also such and so many ports, harbours, bays, havens 
and other places for the convenience and Security of Shipping and for the better loading and 
unloading of Goods and Merchandizes as by you with the Advice and consent of our said 
Council shall be thought fit and necessary. 

And we do hereby require and command all officers and Ministers, Civil and Military and 
all other Inhabitants of our said Province and Territories depending thereon, to be obedient 
aiding and assisting unto you the said George Clinton in the Execution of this our Commission 
and of the powers and Authoritys herein contained and in Case of Your Death or absence out 
of our said Province and Territories depending thereon to be obedient, aiding and assisting 
unto such person as shall be appointed by us to be our Lieutenant Governor or Commander in 
Chief of our said Province to whom we do therefore by these presents give and grant all and 
singular the Powers and Authorities herein granted to be by him executed and enjoyed during 
our pleasure or untill Your Arrival within our said Province and Territories. 

And if upon Your Death or absence out of our said Province and Territories depending 
thereon there be no person upon the place commissionated or appointed by us to be Our 
Lieutenant Governor or Commander in Chief of our said Province Our Will and pleasure is that 
the eldest Councillor whose name is first placed in Our said Instructions to you and who shall be 
at the time of Your Death or absence residing within Our said Province of New York shall 
take upon him the Administration of the Government and Execute our said Commission and 
Instructions and the several powers and Authorities therein contained in the same manner and to 
all intents and purposes as other our Governor or Commander in Chief of our said Province 
should^ or ought to do in case of Your absence untill Your return or in all cases untill our 
further pleasure be known therein. 

And we do hereby declare ordain and appoint that you the said George Clinton shall and 
may hold, execute and enjoy the Office and Place of our Captain General and Governor in 
Chief in and over our province of New York and the Territories depending thereon, together 

'shall. Book of Commissions, IV., 106. — Ed. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 195 

with all and singular the powers and Authorities herehy granted unto you for and during our 
Will and pleasure. 

And whereas there are divers Colonies adjoining to Our Province of New York for the 
defence and security whereof it is requisite that due care be taken in time of war, We have 
therefore thought it necessary for our service and for the better protection and security of our 
subjects inhabiting those parts to constitute and appoint and We do by these Presents constitute 
and appoint Vou the said George Clinton to be our Captain General and Commander in Chief 
of the Militia and of all the Forces by Sea and Land within our Colony of Connecticut and of 
all our Forts and Places of strength within the same. 

And for the better ordering, Governing and Ruling our said Militia and all our Forces, Forts, 
and Places of Strength within our said Colony of Connecticut, We do hereby Give and Grant 
unto You the said George Clinton and in Your absence to our Commander in Chief of our 
Province of New York all and every the like powers as in these presents are before granted 
and recited for the ruling. Governing and Ordering our Militia and all our Forces, Forts and 
Places of Strength within Our Province of New York to be exercised by You the said George 
Clinton and in Your absence from our Territory and Dominion of New York, by our Commander 
in Chief of our Province of New York witiiin our said Colony of Connecticut for and during 
our pleasure. In Witness Whereof We have caused these Our Letters to be made Patents. 
Witness, [John Archbishop of Canterbury and other Guardians and Justices of the Kingdom 
At Westminster the third day of July in the fifteenth Year of Our Reign 

By Writ of Privy Seal 

BiSSE. ] 

Note. The words withiu brackets in the preceding Commissioa are added from the Record in Book of Commissions, 
in the Office of the Secretary of State, Albany, N. Y., IV. 105. — Ed. 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarhe to the Duke of JVeiocastle. 

[ New-Tork Papers, (8. P. 0. ) Ko. 9, p. 95 ] 

New York June the 20'" 174L 
My Lord. 

I do myself the honor to acquaint your Grace, that I recommended to the Assembly to make 
provision while they were sitting for transporting and victualling, what recruits or new Levies 
I may raise, lest if I should wait till their next meeting and during their recess Gen' Wentworth 
should write to me for them his Maj'" service might suffer by delay, whereupon they resolved 
that they will at their next meeting take into their consideration, what may be proper to be 
done thereon, if Gen' Wentworth should in the mean while apply for such recruits. By this 
resolve they hope to save their credit and"their money too ; their credit by a seeming disposition 
to do something, their money by having the business done if men can be raised befoie they 
meet, for if Gen' Wentworth wants recruits tiiey suppose he will soon write for them that 
they must be sent with all dispatch and that I must draw for the expence as the Governor of 
Pensilvania did for all the troops he raised, this they did not know, till they saw it in the 



196 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Philaderphia newspaper of the 14"' of the last month, wherein it is said that the Governors 
bills drawn -on the Commissioners of the navy for victualling and transporting the companies 
he raised were duely honor'd, or I believe (if the Assembly had known it last year) I should 
have found it much more difficult than I did to have brought them to provide for that expence, 
of this opinion are some of the house whom I have talked with, as also that they will, when 
it comes to the push refuse to give any thing for victualling or transporting Recruits or new 
Levies — however, I beg leave to assure Your Grace that I will do all I can. 

The fatal fire that consumed all the buildings in the Fort, which from the circumstances of 
the time and place of the plumbers working I thought was accidental, now appears evidently 
to be done by design in consequence of an horrid conspiracy to burn it and the whole Town, 
as your Grace may be pleased to see in the inclosed paper, wherein the confessions and 
discoveries are written down in their own words just as they were spoken. — 

The Plott was contrived by one Huson a white man to enrich himself by plunder, the 
negroes were by him brought into it, in hopes of shareing with him and of gaining their 
liberty; they were mostly sworn by him to secrecy and many of them died without disclosing 
it, and even denying it, for some time after the fort was burned I had no other thoughts of it, 
than that it was accident, but when three or four and once I think five houses were set on fire 
in a day and some of them apparently by design, 1 soon changed my thoughts and set myself 
heartily to work to find out the villany; these frequent fires threv? the people into the utmost 
consternation and confusion ; to appease their fears and to secure them from danger, I caused 
a guard of the militia to mount at the Town hall every night and to go the rounds duely, the 
Kings Troops doing duty regular as usual; this had a good effect by bringing the people again 
to think of their private business which for sometime was intermitted, 1 went constantly to 
every fire to give directions and to animate the people, and by my care and their activity, only 
one house, and that a warehouse of little value, was burnt, had the suspicion obtained, when 
those fires begun that the negroes were at the bottom of it, the whole town might have been 
laid in ashes, for men in that case would have been more intent upon guarding themselves and 
their families, than upon extinguishing the fires; The town was to have been burnt the night 
after the Fort, but was thus fortunately saved ; In the evening the fire that was in the ruins of 
the Fort seeming to be extinguished, the people went to their homes, but about nine o'clock 
at night a strong North-West wind springing up kindled it again in several places, and the 
sparks begun to fly so that I apprehended they might set fire to some of the adjacent houses, 
and by that means endanger the whole Town, wherefore I thought it necessary to alarm the 
people who coming to the ruins of the Fort again and seeing the danger, thought it the safest 
way to watch that night and a company of the militia being by my orders in arms and going 
the rounds prevented the mischief designed. 

The loss I have sustained by the fire is greater than at first it appeared to be, and to heavy 
for me to bear without being supported by Your Graces protection which I most humbly beg 
leave to ask, and to subscribe myself with the most profound submission My Lord — Your 
Graces — most humble, most obedient and most dutiful seivant — (signed). G. Clarke 

His Grace the Duke of Newcastle — 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 197 

Lieutenant-Governor Clarlie to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-Tork Papers, Gg., No. 63. ] 

New York June the 20. 1741. 
My Lords 

Before the Assembly rose I had the honor to receive a letter from his Grace the Duke of 
Newcastle signifying his Majesty's Commands to me to raise what recruits or new levies the 
General of the forces on the Expedition should write for, I recommended it to the Assembly 
to make provision before they rose for victualling and transporting them, lest If I raise them 
during their recess the service should be delayed, they on the contrary resolved to take it into 
consideration at their ne.xt meeting expecting that in the mean while I shall raise them and 
send them, drawing as M'' Thomas the Gov"' of Pensilvania did on the Commissioners of the 
Navy for the troops he raised last year, the truth is that seeing in the Philadelphia News Paper 
of the 14 of last month that M"' Thomas had drawn for the whole expence and that his bills are 
paid they believe that I might have done the same and saved them ^2500 and are, I fear 
determined to be at no more expence tho they wont say so, however I will do all I can both to 
raise men and to bring to pay the charge of victualling and transporting them; I expect 
likewise to meet with great difficulties in raising men at the time, for the confusion which the 
conspiracy some white people and the Negroes entred into burn this town and to destroy 
the inhabitants has begat a general opinion that no man ought to leave his habitation to go out 
of the Province and the apprehension of a French warr as this his a frontier Province will 
make every one, who has any thing at stake industrious to discourage men from inlisting 
themselves for this expedition lest a rupture with France should soon happen, these are my 
apprehensions, however I will use my utmost application to raise recruits when the General 
writes for them, for as I did last year raise a greater proportion of Troops than any of our 
Neighbouring Colonies, as will I believe evidently appear by examining the lists of white 
people in the Colonies, I shall be very sorry to fall short now. 

Harvest drawing nigh the Country members were impatient to go home so that I was 
obliged to adjourn the Assembly till the middle of September, after they had passed two Bills, 
One to build the Secretaries Office, Barracks in the Fort, a Battery in this Town and to fortify 
Oswego; The other to obliged the people of this Town to a military night Guard. 

(The fatal fire that consumed the buildings in the fort and great part of my substance, for 
my loss is not less than two thousand pounds, did not happen by accident as I at first 
apprehended, but was kindled by design in the execution of a horrid Conspiracy to burn it and 
the whole town and to Massacre the people, as appears evidently not only by the Confession of 
the Negro who set fire to it in some part of the same gutter where the i^lumber was to work 
but also by the testimony of several witnesses, how many Conspirators there we do not yet 
know every day produces new discoveries an I apprehend that in the town, if the truth were 
known, there are not many innocent Negromen, and it is thought that some Negroes of the 
Country are accomplices and were to act their part there, and to this belief I am led by the villany 
committed in New Jersey sometime after the fort was burnt, for at a Village called New wark 
seven Barnes were burnt in one night, for which two Negroes were tried and executed ; In 
this Town there have been already executed for this Conspiracy seventeen viz' Three Whites 
(Huson the contriver and main spring of the whole design, his wife and another white woman 



198 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

who lived in Huson's iiouse, and had a bastard by one of the Negro Conspirators) and fourteen 
Negroes Huson is liung in chains, for tlie rest that or may be executed, I desired tiie 
Judges to single out only a few of the most notorious for execution, and that I would pardon 
the rest, on condition that the pardon be void if they be found in the Province after a certain 
day, whereby their masters will transport them out ot hand, I do myself the honor to send your 
Lordships the minutes taken at the tryal of Quack who burned the fort, and of another Negro, 
who was tryed with him, and their confession at the stake, with some other examinations, 
whereby your Lordships will see tlieir designs, it was ridiculous to suppose that they could 
keep possession of the Town, if they had destroyed the White people, yet the mischief they 
would have done in pursuit of their intention would never the less have been great. 

My loss sits very heavy upon me. His INIajesties bounty and goodness, I am sensible are vastly 
great, but yet I know not how to hope for relief, unless thro the protection of his Grace the 
Duke of Newcastle, upon your Lordships favourable recommendation which I beg leave to ask.) 

Whether or how far the hand of popery has been in this hellish conspiracy I cannot yet 
discover, but there is room to suspect it, by what two of the Negroes have confest. Viz' that 
soon after they were spoke to, and had consented to be parties to it, they had some checks of 
conscience which they said, would not suffer them to burn houses and kill the White people ; 
whereupon those who drew them into the conspiracy told them, there was no sin or wickedness 
in it, and that if they would go to Huson's house, they should find a man who would satisfy 
them but they say they would not nor did go; Margaret Keny was supposed to be a papist, 
and it is suspected that Huson and his wife were brought over to it: there was in Town some 
time ago a man who is said to be a Romish Priest, who used to be at Huson's, but has 
disappeared ever since the discovery of the conspiracy and is not now to be found, upon this 
occasion I do myself the honor to send your Lordships a paragraph of General Oglethorps 
letter to me. 

I do myself the honor to send your Lordships the naval officers accounts for the last year, 
and I have the pleasure to say that if your Lordships will be pleased to compare tliose of the 
last three years with those of three years before I had the Government, you will see that 
the trade and navigation of the Province is greatly increased. I am with the highest respect 
and honor 

My Lords 

"Your Lordships 

most humble and 

most obedient Servant 

R' Hon"^ the Lords of Trade. ■ Geo: Clarke 



Paragraph of General Oglethorp's letter to M'" Clarke Lieut' Gov' of New York. 

Frederica in Georgia 16 May 1741 
Sir 

A Party of our Indians returned S"" instant, from war against the Spaniards, they had an 
engagement with a party of Spanish horse just by Augustine, and brought one of them 
prisoners to me, he gives me an account of three Spanish Sloops and a Snow Privateers, who are 
sailed from Augustine to tlie Northward of Cape Fear, to cruise from thence to the Eastward and 
Northward for the provision vessells bound from the Northward to the West Indies; hoping 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 199 

thereby to supply themselves with flour, of which they are in want; besides this account which 
he gave to me he mentioned many particulars in his examination before our Magistrates; 
Some intelligence I had of a villanous design of a very extraordinary nature, and if true very 
important, Viz' that the Spaniards had Emmissary to burn all the magazines and considerable 
Towns in the English North America, and thereby to prevent the subsisting of the great 
expedition and fleet in the West Indies; and for this purpose many priests were employ'd who 
pretended to be Physicians, Dancing masters and other such kinds of occupations, and under 
that pretence to gett admittance and confidence in families as I could not give much Credit to 
these advices, since the thing was too horrid for any Prince to order ; 1 asked him concerning 
them but he would not o\\n he knew any thing of them. 



Lords of Trade to Lieutenant-Governor Clarice. 

[New- York Entries, M., p. 136.] 

To George Clarke Esq' 

S' 

Since our last to you of the S"' of August 1740 we have received Your Letters of the 13"" of 
June, 4"" of August and lO"" of November 1740 and of the 2^"' of April and 20"' of June 1741 
together with the Papers transmitted therewith. 

We have also received a compleat collection of the Acts of Assembly passed in Your 
Province from the year 1691 to tiie year 1740 transmitted with Your letter of the 4"" of 
August last. 

We congratulate you upon the agreement you have made with the Six Nations (mentioned 
in Your letter of the lO"" of November last) and hope as you have induced them to enter into 
the Covenant Chain with the rest of the Indians under His ALijesty's Protection it will be a 
means of establishing a lasting peace amongst them. 

We did in ours of the S"" of August last acquaint You that we had recommended to his 
Majesty the sending Presents to the Indians agreable to Your proposal, and we presume Your 
Agent has informed You what has been done in that affair. 

We are extremely sorry to hear of the Fire that you sent us an Account of in yours of the 
22"* of April but are pleased to find by the same that the Expence of Repairs tho very 
considerable will not be a load too great for the Province to bear. 

We find by Your next letter of the 20"" of June that you have discovered the Contrivers and 
Authors of the Villainy and have brought some of them to punishment and are in pursuit of 
the Rest. We hope that an effectual stop has been put to this pernicious conspiracy. 

As for your own particular Loss we are very much concerned for it and have in compliance 
with Your Desire recommended to His Grace The Duke of Newcastle that part of Your Letter 
wh'ch relates to it to be laid before His Majesty. 

We have only further to acquaint you that we desire that once in Six Months You would 
send us over a list of such of the Members of the Council in Your Government as are either dead 



200 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

or absent, and that with regard to the last you specify from whom and for how long a time 
they have their licence and that you take care to make an annual Return to the General Queries 
formerly sent, that we may be apprized from time to time of any alterations that may happen 
in the Circumstances of Your Government. So we bid You heartily farewell, and are 

Your very loving friends 

and humble Servants 

B. Keene 
M. Bladen 
Whitehall Ja. Brudenell 

Aug' 20"' 1741. • E" Plumer. 



Lords of Trade to the Diike of Newcastle. 

[New-Tork Enlries, M., p. 189.] 

To His Grace The Duke of Newcastle. 

My Lord, 

Having prepared a Draught of General Instructions as likewise of those which relate to the 
Articles of Trade and Navigation for the Hon'''"' George Clinton Esq'' whom His Majesty has 
been pleased to appoint his Governor of New York, We take leave to inclose the said Draughts 
to Your Grace together with Our Representation thereupon and to desire Your Grace will be 
pleased to lay the same before their Excellencies The Lords Justices. We are. My Lord, 

Your Grace's most obedient 

& most humble Servants 
M. Bladen 
R. Plumer 
Whitehall B. Keene 

Aug' y" 20"' 1741 Ja. Brudenell. 

To their Excellencies The Lords Justices. 

May it please Your Excellencies 

E.preseniotinn to In obedieucc to His Majesty's commands signifyed to us by His Grace The Duke 

up™ the drafis of of Ncwcastle ons of His Majesties Principal Secretaries of State in his letter of 

the Instructions for i i t>. 

Gov: Clinton. the SO"" of April last We have prepared the inclosed Draughts of General 

Instructions and of those which relate to the Articles of Trade & Navigation for the Hon"*' 
George Clinton Esq'' whom His Majesty has been pleased to appoint Governor of the Province 
of New York in which we have made no alterations, additions or omissions from such General 
Instructions as His Majesty has already approved for His other Governors in America except 
in the following articles. 

We have inserted in the 1" Article the names only of ten Councillors instead of twelve not 
being at present well informed of the characters of any Persons inhabiting that Province proper 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 201 

to supply the Vacancies of the two Councillors: But so soon as we shall receive a List from 
His Majesty's Governor of such persons as are qualified to serve in that Station We shall 
recommend them to His Majesty to supply the said Vacancys. 

The 20"" Instruction empowering the Governor to receive an additional Salary is in pursuance 
of His INLijesty's particular Directions for that purpose and we have inserted in it the following 
words " as also for providing a house for you His Majesty's Governor or for the Governor 
"for the time being" instead of the words formerly used Viz' "as also for keeping up and 
repairing the house alloted for you Our Governor or for the Governor for the time being " the 
Governors house having been destroyed by the late ffire in New York. 

]n tiie 31" Instruction relating to the Appointments of the Lieutenant Governor during 
the Absence of the Governor We have omitted the words New Jersey which is now a 
distinct Government. 

The VS"" Instruction contains the substance of 75. 76 & 77"" Articles in the Instructions given 
to the late Governor and is agreable to what His Majesty has approved of to his other 
Governor save only that at the end of it We liave inserted the following Words " To wear the 
" same Ensign as Merchant Sliips & a red Jack with the Union Jack in a Canton at the upper 
"corner next the Staff." pursuant to the Opinion of His Majesty's Commissioners for executing 
the Office of High Admiral of Great Britain and agreable to our Representation to their 
Excellencies the Lords Justices dated the 7"' of August 1740 instead of the Words formerly 
used in the Instructions given by His Majesty to His Governors in America. 

The 77th Instruction relating to the powder Duty is inserted pursuant to an order of Council 
dated the 9"" of April last directing us to prepare the same. 

All which is most humbly submitted. 

M. Bladen 
R. Plumer 

W'hitehall B. Keene 

August SO"" 1741 Ja. Brudenell 



Lieutenant -Govcr7ior Clarice to the Lords of Trade. 

[Now-Tork Papers, Gg., No. 66.] 

New York August iiie '^i. 1741. 
My Lords, 

A. In my letter of the 20 of June I did myself the honor to inform your Lordships of the 
Plot to destroy this Town and people, but whatever I then said or could say falls short of 
what has since appeared ; We then thought it was projected only by Huson and the Negroes 
but it is now apparent that the hand of Popery is in it, for a Romish Priest having been tryed 
was upon full and clear evidence convicted of having a deep share in it we have besides 
several other white men in prison and most of them (it is thought) I wish Papists, one of 
whom is a dancing master, some of them Soldiers in the two companies posted in this town, 
and the father and three brothers of that Huson who was hanged, Where by whom or in what 
Vol. VL 26 



202 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

shape this plot was first projected is yet undiscovered that which at present seems most 
probable is that Huson an indigent fellow of a vile character casting in his thoughts how to 
mend his circumstances inticed some Negroes to rob their masters and to bring the stolen to 
him on promise of reward when they were sold but seeing that by this pilfering trade riches 
did not flow into him fast enough and finding the Negroes fit instruments for any villany he 
then fell upon the schemes of burning the fort and town and murdering the people as the 
speediest way to enrich himself and them, and to gain the freedom, for that was the Negroes 
main inducement, how long this Plot has been on foot is uncertain one of the Negroes who 
laid hold on my proclamation owned he was sworn by Huson last Christmas was three years, 
others two years ago others more lately but when or by what means the Priest and Huson 
became acquainted is but conjecture most likely it was by the means of Margaret Kerry who 
lived in Husons house and was executed with him for she being a profest Papist might disclose 
it to the Priest, be that as it will after he was acquainted with them the design seemed to 
proceed with more vigour The conspirators had hopes given them that the Spaniards would 
come hither and join with them early in the Spring but if they failed of coming then the 
business was to be done by the Conspirators without them many of them were christen'd by 
the Priest absolved from all their past sins and whatever they should do in the Plott many of 
them sworn by him (others by Huson to burn and destroy and to be secret, wherein tliey were 
but too punctual how weak soever the scheme may appear it was plausible and strong enough 
to engage and hold the Negroes and that was all that the Priest and Huson wanted for had the 
fort taken fire in the night as it was intended the town was then to have been fired in several 
places at once, in which confusion much rich Plunder might have been got and concealed and 
if they had it in view too, to serve the enemy they could not have done it more effectually for 
this town being laid in Ashes his Majesties forces in the West Indies might have suffered much 
for want of provisions and periiaps been unable to proceed upon any expedition or peice of 
service, from whence they might promise themselves great rewards, I doubt the business is 
pretty nigh at an end for since the Priest has been apprehended and some more white men 
named, great industry has been used through out the town to discredit the witnesses and 
prejudice the people against them and I am told it has had in a great measure its intended 
effect I am sorry for it for I do not think we are yet got near the bottom of it, when I doubt 
the principal conspirators lie concealed. 

B. I have the honor to inform your Lordships that by the means of some people whom I 
sent last year to reside in the Senecas country (as usual) I obtained a deed for the lands at 
Tierrondequat from the Sachimes and I have sent orders to those people to go round the lands 
in Company with some of the Sachims and to mark the trees, that it may be known at all 
times hereafter how much they have given up to us. 

C. General Oglethorp by his letter of the 12 of the last month acquaints me that the Creeks 
and Cherokees being by him informed of the treaty made last year at Albany by me with the 
Six Nations are much pleased with it and propose to send deputies thither but as his Majesty 
has been pleased to appoint Commodore Clinton to be Governor of this Province who hopes 
to be here the later end of this or the beginning of the next month it must be left to him to do 
therein as he thinks proper I am very glad that he will find the Province in great tranquility 
and in a flourishing condition able to support the Government in an honorable and ample 
manner and 1 hope he will bring them to do it, wherein nothing shall be wanting on my part 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 203 

D. My great losses in the fire at tlie fort, after a very expensive year in promoting the 
expedition &■= sit very heavy upon me; and I again beg leave to intreat your Lordships to 
recommend me to the Protection of his Grace the Duke of Newcastle hoping that thereby his 
noble and generous nature may be wrought upon to keep me by some means or other from 
sinking under the weight of my misfortunes, I am infinitely bound to his Grace for his protection 
hitherto which I shall acknowledge as long as I live with the highest thankfulness and to your 
liordships I beg leave to return my most humble thanks for all your favours and goodness to 
me, beseeching you to assist me in this my time of need, to which I am reduced by this 
execrable Piott. 

E. I do myself the honor to send your Lordships the two Acts past the last sitting of the 
Assembly Viz' An Act for the morequal keeping military Watches in the City of New York 
and for other the purposes therein mentioned. 

The reason for passing this Act appears in the preamble. 

An Act for the better fortifying of this Colony and other the purposes therein mentioned. In 
this Act your Lordships may be pleased to see that I have got the Assembly to put this Town 
in a better posture of defence, to build the Secretaries office and a Barrack all of them necessary 
vporkes I likewise prevailed with them to fortify Oswego, and to give an hundred pounds to 
be applyed in buying provisions for the relief of the Indians who were in great want, from the 
length and severity of the last winter, and I am perswaded that this Act of Humanity will be 
remembered by them at all times with gratitude 

F. I have the honor to receive your Lordships letter of the 17* of April with the two Acts 
of Parliament. 

G. I beg leave before I conclude to acquaint your Lordships that of the conspirators there 
have been executed Three Whites and twenty nine Negroes, pardoned one white Woman, viz' 
Husons daughter and pardoned and transported eighty Negroes besides eight Negroes not 
indicted but being accused and strongly suspected to be guilty their masters consented to 
transport them. 

Ury whose tryal I sent your Lordships is sentenced to be hanged. 

I repreived him for a few days upon his Petition for a short time to prepare himself but that 
being expired he is by rule of Court made since to be executed next Saturday. I humbly 
recommend myself to your Lordships protection and am with the highest respect and honor 
My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and 

most obedient Servant 

Geo: Clarke. 

P. S. 

I do myself the honor to send your Lordships an account of the Persons who have been 
naturalized by Act of Parliament 

The R' Hon'''= the Lords of Trade. 



204 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Deed to His Majesty of the Land around Irondequoit. 

[ From Eecord ia Secretatr's office, Albany. ] 

To allPeople To Whom these presents Shall or m<iy come We Tenehokaiwee Tewassajes 
And Staghreche Principall Sachims of the Sinnekes Country Native Indians of the Province 
of New York Send Greeting Know yee that for Sundry good Causes and considerations us 
Moveing but More Especially for and in Consideration of the value of one hundred Pounds 
Currant money of the said Province, unto us in hand paid and delivered at and before the 
Ensealing and delivery hereof by. 

the Receipt whereof we do hereby acknowledge and therewith to be fully paid and 
Contented and thereof and therefrom and of and from every part and parcell thereof do fully 
Clearly and absolutely request Exonerate and discharge them the Said 

their Executors Administrators and Assigns and every of them for ever by these presents 
have therefore given granted Released and forever quiet Claimed and by these presents for us 
and our defendants do give grant Release and forever quiet Claime unto our most gracious 
Sovereign Lord George the Second by the grace of God of Great Britain France and Ireland 
King Defender of the faith &" his heirs and Successors all our Right title and Interest Claime 
property Profession and Demand of in and to all that Tract of Land Scituate lying and being 
in the County of Albany Beginning on the bank of the Osweego Lake six miles easterd of 
Tierondequat & runs from thence along the Lake westward twenty miles & from the Lake 
South eastward thirty miles keeping that distance from the Lake all the way from the beginning 
to the end with all and Singular of woods underwoods trees mines mineralls Quarrys 
hereditaments and appurtenances whatsoever and the Reversion and Reversions Remainder 
and Remainders Rents Issues and profitts thereof To have and to hold all and singular the 
above bargained premisses with the appurtenances unto our said most gracious Sovereign Lord 
his heirs Successors and Assigns to the Sole and only proper use benefitt and behoof of our 
Said Sovereign Lord his heirs Successors and Assigns for ever In Testimony whereof we have 
hereunto Sett our marks and Seals this tenth day of January in the fourteenth year of 
his Majesties Reign annoq: Dom : 174f. 

Signed Sealed and Delivered 

In the presence of dekoschten \^>^ Sergrmex 

hendryck Wempel alias tenehokaiwee 

Jacobus Van Eps 
Philip Ryder 

'A 

Sergrmen 




Staichresch \ Jl Sergrmen 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 205 

Albany S** October 1741 appeared before Philip Livingston Esq"- one of His Majesties 
Councill for the Province of N York Hendrik Wemp Jacobus Van Eps & Philip Royiie who 
declared on the holy Evangelists of Almighty God that they saw the within named 
Tenehokaiwe Tewassajes and Staghreche Sachims Sign Scale & deliver y'= witiun deed as 
their voluntary act & deed for the use therein mentioned 

P: Livingston 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Diike of Neiocastle. 

[ New-Tork Papers. ( S. P. 0. ) No. 9, p. 124. ] 

New York, October the 19"" 1741. 
My Lord. 

General Wentworth having wrote to me for recruits, I am now giving the recruiting Officer 
he sent, all the assistance in my power, no one having the service more at heart ; how I shall 
succeed, I cannot yet make any tolerable guess, I fear the late execrable plott will discourage 
the men who migh otherwise inlist. I do myself the honor to send your Grace my speech 
to the Assembly and their address ; I endevoured all I could to smooth the way for Capt° 
Clinton, and have taken no small pains in conversation to convince the Members, that they 
ought to give to His Maj'^ on Capt° Clintons arrival, a revenue for such term of years, and 
without particular applications as former Assemblys have constantly done upon the arrival of 
every Governor in chief, but all in vain, they seem to be very positive and very obstinate, 
however, I hope he may bring them to reason — I beg leave to assure Your Grace, that if I 
can assist him therein, or in any thing else, I will most readily do it — 

I humbly beg leave to crave Your Graces protection, that, by it, I may be raised from my 
deplorable circumstances, occasioned by the horrid conspiracy to burn the Fort and this town 
and people, into a condition to support my numerous family. Every day swells the account of 
my losses by the fire, for it was not possible, soon to know the whole, and I fear 1 do not know 
all yet, tho' what I do know amounts to between two and three thousand pounds. I humbly 
beg pardon for this presumption, and leave to subscribe myself with the most profound 
submission — 

My Lord 

Your Graces. 

most humble, most obedient and 

most dutiful servant 

His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. ( signed ). G. Clakke 



206 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Lieutenant -Gavei'nw OlarTce to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-Tork Papers, Gg., No. 69. ] 

New York October the 19. 1741 
My Lords 

I do myself the honor to send your Lordships my speech to the Assembly and their address, 
I was willing even to the last to try my utmost effoits to bring them to a sense of their duty 
and tho I could not in my time obtain such a settlement of the revenue as 1 have always 
aimed at, yet I should have been very glad to have obtained it against Cap : Clintons arrival 
that he might have had no difliculty to encounter, for that is the only one, every thing else 
being in a happy situation, I know not how paper disputes between Governors and Assemblies 
came to be introduced and am surprized that they have not been long ago dropt since I never 
yet found they produced any good effects, for my part I looked for no address at this time it 
being usual with them to address on their meeting upon adjournments nor did I give any other 
than a general and verbal answer in few words (which they have taken no notice of), tho they 
have laid themselves open to severe reflections but the truth is I believe they expect a 
dissolution on Capt : Clintons arrival or soon after and calculated this address for a new election 
I am determined to give him all the assistance I can, and I hope by his prudence the present 
quiet and happiness of the province will be perpetuated. 

On Friday last the Assembly passed the inclosed extraordinary resolve whereupon I the 
next day prorogued them to this, hoping that they may think better of it, here is a flagrant 
instance of the ill consequences of an Assemblys being permitted to appropriate the Revenue, 
and of giving it from year to year they have unmasked at last and in effect declared that if a 
Governor will not blindly pay all their bills how unreasonable or unjust or how contradictory 
soever to his duty and the Kings instructions he may think then they will starve him I 
presume to think that some method will be necessary to be taken at home to put a stop to this 
evil ; I recommend myself to your LordsP' protection and am with the highest honor and regard 
My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and 

most obedient Servant 

The R' Honb'« the Lords of Trade. Geo: Clarkk. 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-Tork Paperi, Gg., No. 70 ] 

New York 15 DeC 1741. 
My Lords 

Expecting next spring to deliver up the Gov' to Captain Clinton I beg leave to do myself 
the honor as I think it my duty to lay before your Lordships the State of the Province 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 207 

When I first entered on the administration of the Gov' your Lordships know perfectly well 
that I found the Province in the utmost destraction occasioned by excess of party rage that had 
too long prevailed, in consequence whereof ship building was almost wholly laid aside nigh an 
hundred houses in the town stood empty for want of Tenants and the rents of those that were 
tenanted were fallen very considerably many people having left the Town and Province to 
seek their quiet in another place hoping likewise to follow their several occupations to more 
advantage they having then no prospect of seeing trade revive here which had for some time 
languished and was reduced to a low ebb ; finding things in the situation I set myself to work 
to quiet the passions of the people and to put an end to party heats conceiving it to he the 
most probable means to give new life to trade and to people the town and Province this, 
notwithstanding all my application, took me up a considerable time to bring it to perfection, 
for in spite of my example and endeavours the spirit of party would now and then show it self; 
however at length 1 had the good fortune to bring the province to a state of as much quiet as 
the oldest man living has known it to enjoy the houses that stood empty are now all tenanted 
and now as many more since built as then were empty and even the houses that are now 
building are bespoke before they are finished and rents not only raised to what they were 
before they fell but above it, how shipbuilding and Trade in General have gradually increased 
under my administration the Naval officer and Collectors accounts will clearly shew. 

The most principal obstruction to the peopling the Northern and frontier parts of this 
Province is the massacres that in King Williams wrarr was committed by the French Indians 
on the poor people that were themselves there, and the terror they were under continued a long 
time so that till after the peace of Utrecht our Settlements made very small progress, tho in 
Queen Annes war the French Indians did not molest us, at least till after our unfortunate 
Expedition against Canada was set on foot, which tranquil State was owing to an agreement 
between the six nations and the Cocknewago's not to desturbe one another, from whence we 
have learned that unless the Indians assist them the French will not venture to molest us; 
when I speak of the out settlements I mean the farmers and would not be understood of 
Oswego, that it is such an eye sore as will tempt the French on the first rupture to attack it 
and in its present defenceless condition they will I fear easily take it, wherein they will not 
want the assistance of Indians especially as they have two vessells on the Lake and we have 
none Were we superior in fdrce on the water, we should not only preserve that place and 
drive the French from the forts which they have on that Lake but cut ofF the communication 
between Canada and Messasippi or make it to difficult for them to continue it, and vastly 
encrease our fur Trade, but of this I did myself the honor to write to his Grace the Duke of 
Newcastle and your Lordships ; to return therefore, Soon after the peace of Utrecht the farmers 
began to setle in the Mohawks Country whose crops of wheat being known to be very good 
others soon followed and the progress has been so great that now there are several hundred 
families setled there to which I flatter myself I have not a little contributed and if the farmers 
who are now setled there can have a reasonable prospect of living unmolested without doubt 
that part of the country will greatly increase in people, the fertility of the lands being now 
generally known to be very good and farr exceeding any other in the Province, but if any of 
them should be attacked by the enemy I fear[they would all desert their habitations, I therofore 
thought it a businesof the highest concernment to quiet that peoples apprehensions, and could 
think of nothing so effectual as to engage the six nations and the Cocknewago's in a treaty of 
neutrality which I have effected the Cocknewago's are a Nation of Indians setled near Montreal 



208 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

in Canada being descended from the Mohocks from whom they formerly separated by the 
intrigues of the French Priests the French caress them very much and are at all times unwilling 
to disoblige them lest they should return to their own Nation and Kindred, this chiefly respects 
the Mohocks Country and all our settlements to the westward of Albany and all the Province 
from hence to Georgia : Our Plantations to th« Northward and Eastward of Albany and 
Provinces of Massachusets, New Hampshire and Connecticut lie exposed to the French and 
the Indians living near Quebeck who have often ravaged those countries killed many people 
taken others prisioners and drove the rest to seek tiieir safety in Towns and places further 
removed from danger, this also I considered and knowing that the Indians whom the French 
let loose upon us, and whom they would on the first rupture instigate to annoy us are the 
Aguautecokes &"= a people living nigh Quebeck and descended from our Schachtecoke or river 
Indians I set myself to work to bring them into a treaty of Neutrality which I have likewise 
effected, and now I think we are are in a pretty good situation and (if our Indians are rightly 
attended to and frequently and properly treated with) there is a fair prospect of its continuance 
until either we execute some design against Canada, or the French attack Oswego, of the first 
1 have some time ago given your Lordship my thoughts, of the latter I have strong apprehensions 
the French have always threatened it and I doubt they will upon the first Notice of a rupture 
put their threats in execution, if they should and succeed as there is to much cause to fear 
they will, I am very suspicious it will shake the fidelity of the six Nations and perhaps they 
will gain them entirely from us an event that may prove fatall to all the English Colonies, I 
have endeavoured to awaken the Assembly to a sence of the danger and to perswad them to 
make suitable provision to oppose it both by fortifying Oswego and by making provisions for 
victualling a larger Garrison they gave money for the first in May but it being put into the 
hands of particular persons named by themselves in the Act, nothing is yet done in it but for 
the latter they have not at all provided ; the six Nations are at present well disposed to us, 1 have 
got from them maugre all the opposition the French gave me a deed for Tierondequat Viz' twenty 
miles along the Lake and thirty miles back into the Seneca Country I am looking out for 
people to settle there promising them Grants Gratis, and that I will endeavour to get them a 
remission of the Quit Rent for a term of years till they are in a condition to pay it. 

The peace which I made last year for all the Southern Indians with the six Nations gives 
great satisfaction to the first the most considerable of whom Viz' the Cherokees and Cattawbas 
have given some tokens of it to the Gov' of South Carolina who has sent them to me to be 
deliver'd to the six Nations I proposed nevertheless that they should send deputies to Albany 
at my next interview with the six Nations that they may in person corroborate the peace, as 
the most sure way to make it perpetual But that and every thing else must be left to the 
better management of Cap: Clinton unless those deputies come time enough for me to meet 
the six Nations in the Spring before he arrives. 

I cannot but think that all the other Colonies especially in time of war sho'd contribute for 
presents to be given yearly to the six Nations as they are their only Barrier the French do it to 
entice them from us, and in my humble opinion we must do it or loose thom, this Province 
gives money for presents that are delivered to them every two years which may do well enough 
in time of peace, but in time of war they ought to be given yearly, but the Assemblys is too 
small for that nor will they give more. 

There is another Battery of twenty Guns erected this year in this Town and I hope next 
year the works about the House at Oswego will be made, but still in my humble opinion that 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 209 

will not do while the French are Masters upon the Lake Oswego lying at too great a distance 
from us to succour them in an Exigency 

The Assembly seem more than ever determined to give the Revenue from year to year and 
to apply it, whereby they will have too great an influence even in tliose places where Justice 
ought to be unbiassed, nor will a Covernour be at liberty to appoint such men for officers as 
he thinks are best qualified without running the risque of disobliging some of the Assembly 
who will not fail to remember it to his disadvatage. 

Their Spirit will appear in a true light in an address which the Council and they have drawn 
and signed, and send home to be presented to his Majesty praying his Majesty to give them 
money to build a liouse Chappell &." in the Fort; they applyed to me to join with them in it, 
I declined knowing the motive they went on Viz' their poverty to be false in fact, and they 
and every man in the Province knows it was never in so flourishing a condition as it is now, 
but what wont a selfish nigardly people say to save their money, they say they could not build 
the Barracks and Secretaries Office but by borrowing from the Fonds this likewise is untrue, 
they would not, but they could and erect all the other buildings by a Provincial Tax which 
would hardly be felt, they iiave no general Tax subsisting nor have had for several years, and 
I may venture to say there is not in America a Province less buthend than this, they were 
not ashamd in their address in april last to tell me that tlie Trade and Produce of the country 
have been long at a low ebb and yet in another part of it, that their Navigation has increased 
considerably, but I forbear to say more and ask your Lordships pardon for troubling you with 
this It will be impracticable to send your Lordships the Acts passed last sessions till next spring. 

1 have the iionour to receive your Lordships letter of the 20 of August and beg leave to give 
your Lordships my most humble thanks for your goodness in recommending me to his Grace 
the Duke of Newcastle upon the score of my loses 

The Councillors now living and residing in the Province are these 

M'' Colden who lives about Sixty Miles from the Town 

M" Livingston who lives at Albany 

M"^ Kennedy 

M'' Delancey 

M'' Courtlandt ^ who all live in Town 

M"' Lane 

M' Horsmanden 

M' Vanhorn dyed this year 

My Son in England negotiating some private Affairs that absolutely require his presence 

The queries I will do myself the honor to answer as your Lordships Command me. I 
humbly recommend myself to your Lordships protection and am with tiie highest respect 
and honor 

My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and 

most obedient Servant 
The R' Hon*'' the Lords of Trade Geo: Clarke 

Vol. VL 27 



210 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Lieutenant-Governor Bull to Lieutenant-Governor Clarice. 

[New-Tork Papers, Gg., No. 71.] 

Charlestown South Carolina June 1741. 
Sir 

I herewith send for your perusall a copy of what passed in a conference which 1 had with 
the Cherokee and Catawba Indians in rehition to the peace whicii you had been pleased to 
make with the six Nations on behalf of the Southern Indians in amity with his Majesty's 
subjects, those being the people who have chiefly felt the ill effects of a war with the six 
Nations. The news was therefore very agreable to them and they express'd a good deal of 
satisfaction when they deliver'd the tokens to me to be transmitted to the Senecas with their 
answer which I also herewith send you with their desire that the same may be conveyed to 
the six Nations whenever there is a suitable oportunity 

Our dependance on the Cherokee Indians as a Barrier against the designs and encroachments 
of the French is very great they have several enemies to withstand besides the six Nations But 
as they were the most powerfuil and are now willing to be at peace it will be a great advantage 
to the Cherokees as well as to his Majesty's service in these parts of his Dominions If the 
Peace which was procured by your care and endeavours can be continued 

I am 

Sir 

Y' most obed' Servant 

W" BullI 
The Hon"'*- Geo: Clarke Esq: 
Lieut' Gov' of New York. 



Conference with the Cherokee and Catawba Indians 23 May 1741. 

Lieut' Gov' 

I am glad to see you As I thought the Peace which was concluded by the Gov of New 
York between the six Nations and the Southern Indians to be for your advantage therefore I 
acquainted you with it that you might consider of it and give an answer with some token to 
be sent back to the six Nations I am now ready to hear your Answer. 

Cherokee. Then one of the beloved Cherokee stood up and say'd The Virginia Warrior 
brought a message from the Governour of Virginia to the Cherokee Nation relating to a peace 
with the six Nations with a Belt of Wampum but we did not take notice of it till we heard the 
same talk from the beloved man sent up to us by the Governour of Carolina. And as we are 
desirous to be at Peace with the Six Nations We are come down to acquaint you herewith 
We have brought with us some beads and also a Pipe and a White flag which we took from 
the French in a fight last Winter with an Eagles tail, which I now deliver to you and desire 
that they may be sent to the Six Nations as a Token of the Cherokees acceptance and 
confirmation of the Peace. 

' In the year 1738, Samuel Horsley was appointed GoTernor of South Carolina, but he dying before he left England, the 
charge of the province devolved on William Bull, [senior member of the Council,] a man of good natural abilities, and well 
acquainted with tlie state of the colony. GitrrolCs History of South Carolina, 347. He was succeeded by Lieut enant- 
Governor James Glen. — Ed. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVI. 211 

Catawba. After which one of the Catawba beloved men spoke tliiis to tlie GoV The 
Catawba liave received your Talis relating to Peace with the Six Nations We heard the same 
thing from Virginia and saw the Belt of Wampum sent to the Cherokees but could not depend 
upon it as we had not then heard it from Carolina We are very desirous to be at Peace with 
the si.\ Nations and notwithstanding what we iiave heard relating to the same We iiave liad 
the misfortune about a month agoe to have two of our men killed and four women and three 
children carried away Prisoners by some of the Northern Indians but as they are desirous to 
have an end put to the war the Catawba's are ready to accept and confirm the peace and have 
accordingly brought a Belt of Wampum with a Pipe of Peace and some Tobacco which we 
desire may be sent to the Governour of New York to be delivered to the six Nations. The 
Catawba's desire further more that when you send those tokens to the six Nations that you 
would write to the GoV of New York and North Carolina as it is now peace that in case 
there are any Catawba's Prisoners among the six Nations they might have liberty to return 
home and be sent to Carolina by sea from New York and the Catawba's will give the same 
liberty to any of the six Nations that are among them. 

Lieut' Governour. The talk which was sent from the Governor of Virginia relating to the 
peace was the same with the Governour of New York sent to me which you now find to be a 
true talk And as the Govern'' of New York had prevailed with the Seneca's to forbear any 
hostilities for the space of two years against the Southern Indians so he had promised the 
Seneca's that the Southern Indians should not commit any hostilities against them therefore 
you must from this time forbear to make any attempts upon any of the six Nations but to keep 
and perform the promise which that Gov'' has made on your behalf 

Both the Cherokee and Catawba Indians promised to observe this and further desired and 
expected that when their tokens should be delivered to the six Nations they would by some 
means signify there acceptance of the Tokens sent by the Cherokee and Catawba Indians. 

The Governour then addressing himself to the Cherokees say'd what do you want to do with 
the Belt of Wampum which was sent from the Six Nations through Virginia to your Nation 
which M'' Maxwell the beloved man delivered to me when he came from the Nation. 

One of the beloved Cherokees answer'd at first we did not depend upon the Message 
concerning peace and the Belt of Wampum But now the Talk is confirmed by you we desire 
the Belt of Wampum may be lodged in the Town called Choety in our Nation which Belt of 
Wampum was thereupon delivered to the Cherokees. 



^ ■■ ♦ •■ » 



Governor Oglethorpe to Lieutenant-Governor Clarice. 

Frederica 12 July 1741 
Sir. 

The Chiefs of the Creek Indians having been here I acquainted them with your intention of 
a General Meeting of all the British Indians to settle a General Peace amongst them, they 
much approved the greatness and generosity of your design, They have already made peace 
by my Interpossession with the Cherokees and both of these Nations being by nmch the most 



212 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

powerfull of all the Southern Indians are desirous to send up deputys to the conferrences as you 
have appointed and desire to know in what manner they can go with safety to that meeting 
I cannot omit in Joyning witli them in commending this measure of yours for the uniting 
all the British Indians which is one of the noblest attempts that has been made in America 
and is surely the best measure that can be taken to guard against the French in case of 
a war I hope you will let me hear what I can do further towards bringing this Treaty to a 
happy conclusion. 

Our Indians still block up Augustine by Land and are continually bringing in Prisoners 
from thence 

I am 

Sir 

Your most obedient 

humble Servant 

James Oglethorpe. 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the DuJce of Newcastle. 

[New-Tork Papers. (S. P. O.) No. 9, p. 1S2.] 

New York December IG"" 1741. 
My Lord. 

I do myself the honour to send your Grace a copy of my letter to the Lords of Trade to 
which I beg leave to referr, assuring your Grace that as through the whole course of my 
administration of the Govern* I have made it my utmost aim to restore quiet to the Province, to 
promote trade, to people the Country, to fortify it, to fi.x the affections and dependance of the 
six Indian nations, and to unite tliem with all the other Indians under His Maj''' protection, 
■wherein I have happily succeeded ; so I have endeavoured to bring the Assembly to the former 
practice of giving a revenue for a Term of years without applications, tho' I must own in vain, 
and I beg leave to assure your Grace that when Govern' Clinton arrives I will serve and assist 
him to the utmost of my ability, especially as M"' Waipole has acquainted me that it is 
your Graces pleasure I should, and 1 shall think myself extreamly happy if in obeying your 
commands I can in any wise contribute to his service; the greatest difficulty, and it will be no 
small one, will be to bring the Assembly to reason. 

I have got the Assembly to give money for the victualling and transporting of an hundred 
recruits for Coll: Gooch's Regiment. I have raised and sent ninety two effective men, which 
exceeds my expectations, for tho' I pressed the Assembly to provide for two hundred, yet the 
late execrable conspiracy and the apprehensions of a French warr, as this is a frontier province, 
made the People in General unwilling to leave the province, and the men of substance active to 
discourage the poorer sort, and me very doubtful of raising any — I do myself the honor to send 
Your Grace a muster Roll of the recruits whom I have raised and sent to Generall Wentworth, 
on whose letter and instructions, I have advanced the money for Recruiting and have drawn 
for it as the General directed on the R' Hon"' M"' Pelham. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVI. 213 

I humbly implore Your Grace's protection, and beg leave to subscribe myself with the most 
profound respect and honour 

My Lord — Your Grace's — most bumble 

most obedient and most dutiful servant 
His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. (signed.) G. Clakke 



Lords of Trade to Lieutenant-Governor Clarl-e. 

[New-Tort Entries, M., p. 241.] 

To George Clarke Esq"' Lieu* Gov"" of New York. 

Sir. 

Since our letter to you of the 20"" of Aug"' 1741 We have received Yours of the 24"' of 
August 19"" of October & 15"" of Dec'"', 1741 with the Papers therein refered to. 

We heartily congratulate you on the Providential Discovery of the late conspiracy and 
Intended Massacre: The severity you have shewn to the Chief of those concerned in it & yours 
gentleness with regard to others whom you judged proper Objects of Mercy will, we hope, 
have their due effect towards securing the Province from any such attempts for the future. 

We likewise congratulate you upon the Success you have met with in the Treaty lately 
made with the Indians for the Lands at Tierondequat, & hope you will take care to have 
them so well settled as to produce the advantage proposed by it of securing Your Frontiers 
towards the French Settlements, We hope likewise the other Treaty you have made with the 
Six Nations of Indians will be of service in uniting them and other Indian Nations in His 
Majesty's Interest. 

We are pleased to hear you have prevailed with the Assembly to rebuild the Barracks & 
Offices & hope they will proceed to rebuild the Governor's house as well as the rest that were 
destroyed by the Fire, as to your particular loss sustained on that occasion we have already in 
our last acquainted You that we recommended the consideration of it to His Grace The Duke 
of Newcastle to be laid before His Majesty. 

The provision the Assembly has made towards fortifying Oswego & relieving the Indians 
will certainly be money well emploped. 

We could wish the Reasons you have for the complaint you make concerning the Stubborness 
of the Assembly would be removed under Your Administration if not we must wait till we 
see what the New Governor will be able to do. 

The Accounts you have given us in Your letter of the 15"" of Dec'"' of Your Government & 
its Frontiers, as likewise of what is wanted therein is very ample and Satisfactory, & We doubt 
not but that on M"' Clinton's arrival you will give him the necessary lights in regard to 
everything you may judge to be conducive to the good of the Province. 

We nni.st observe to you that you have not sent us Yearly, or oftener, as required by Your 
Instructions, Accounts of Receipts and Payments of all the Revenues in Your Governm', none 
of this sort having ever come to our hands, since the last sent us by Col" Cosby ending at 



214 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Micliaelmas 1734, Neither liave we received the Naval Officers' Accounts from Lady Day 1739, 
nor any Minutes or Journals of the Council or Assemhly since those ending the 14"" of April 1739. 
These we shall expect from you by the first opportunity. So we bid you heartily farewell, 

Your very loving Friends &c'' 
B. Keene 

Ja. BllUDENELL 

MoNSON 

M. Bladen 
Whitehall Aug' S"* 1742 R. Plumer, 

P. S. 

Since the writing this we have received Your letter dated the 27"' of May last together with 
the Minutes of Council & Acts of Assembly therein mentioned. 

MoNSON. 



Lieutenant -Governor Clarice to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-York Papers, Gg., No. 74. ] 

New York Aug: the 24. 1742 
My Lords, 

In June I had an interview with the six Nations, who then confirmed the union I made, two 
years ago, of them and all the Indian Nations to the Westward under his Majesties Protection; 
an event which I am perswaded will prove very propitious to the British Dominions on the 
Continent, and in consequence to the Kingdom to which they belong ; The Governours of 
Virginia, Carolina and General Oglethorpe, have an liigh opinion of it, the first of whom, in 
behalf of that Colony, gave an hundred pounds Sterling, in addition to the presents given by 
this on the Treaty of 1740, and General Oglethorpe sent me a Bill of Exchange for the like 
sum and service this year ; and if all the Colonies to the Westward were to contribute yearly 
to it, it would not only make this Union inviolable, but also fix the dependance of the Six 
Nations more absolutely on us; the French use every Art to entice them, of which the most 
prevailing is that of Presents, the Indians know their interest, and are Governed by it, tho in 
sufferintT their Young men to engage in their Quarrels, they are blind to the designs of the 
French, Who, notwithstanding their outward Professions of Friendship, have nothing more at 
heart than their ruin, which cannot be more effectually accomplished than by having their 
fighting men consumed in their wars with those Nations who have it most in their pov^'er to 
interrupt the communication between Canada, and Messasippi; If the rest of the Colonies 
were to give but three hnnnred and fifty pounds Sterling yearly, as I presume they would upon 
a particular instruction to each Governour directing the proportion. The Governour of this 
Province might then be enabled, by the usual sum given by this Assembly to meet the six 
Nations every year, whereby we might in a short time bring them to a more entire devotion to 
us, if the loss of Oswego ( which I much fear will fall into the hands of the French on the first 
rupture) does not stagger the best resolutions of the six Nations, who at present fear more 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 215 

than tliey love the French ; that Fortress, or rather trading House, for it is no better, is in a 
very defenceless condition, the Garrison consists but of a Lieutenant, Serjeant, Corporal, and 
twenty men it is and has been vpithout Ammunition, the Assembly refusing to be at the 
expence, as well as to make provision for victualling a larger Garrison ; it is true they have 
given money to build a wall round the House, but the Director of the works, instead of laying 
the stones in lime and sand, as by the Act he was to do, is laying them in clay; it is, as it is 
managed a jobb calculated rather to put money in tiie Pockets of those who have the 
management of tiie business, than for any real Service to the publick, tho it is a thing of the 
utmost importance, as the loss of it will certainly be followed by the loss of the furr trade, and 
very probably may by a defection of the Six Nations, the consequence thereof your Lordships 
know perfectly well, wherefore I forbear to say more on that liead, doing myself the honor to 
send your Lordships a copy of what f said to the six N.itions, and their answer 

I likewise do myself the honour to send your Lordships the two Acts past the last Session 
of Assembly. 

One is an Act regulating the payment of his Majes ties Quit Rents, and for the partition of 
Lands in order thereto without the latter, the first would be defective and leave the Recovery 
and Collection of the Quit Rents in as bad a condition as ever, and in a worse they could 
not be; but now the long Arrears for Lands granted to several persons in joint tenancy, 
or in common, and which have by many Sales been subdivided, and for want of a Partition 
could not be collected, will be paid, and the growing rents regularly collected ; It is an Act 
which the Government has been long labouring to obtain, both for the purposes aforementioned 
and for the quieting the minds of the people, who were often threatned with prosecutions for 
the whole Quit Rent, amounting to a large sum, when each mans proportion was but small ; 
which has been a great discouragement to the peopling of this frontier Province, and which I 
presume to think cannot be to much countenanced in that respect, as the safety of all the 
Colonies to the westward (in case of a french warr) depends upon the strength of this; besides 
a Court of Exchequer is in effect by this Act established, whereas the uncertainty arrising 
from the different opinions of the Lawyers on the legality of such a Court without an Act to 
countenance it, was one principal Cause of the unhappy animosities that a few years ago 
miserably divided the people, and had almost ruined the Place: The Receiver General will 
by this Act have more trouble in accounting with his Deputies than he had before, but he 
thinks it so much for his Majesties service, that he was very zealous to have it pass, and being 
one of the Council promoted it strenuously. 

The other is an Act to apply the sum of six hundred and seventeen pounds thirteen shillings 
and four pence half penny for repairing Fort George, for transporting Voluntiers to the West 
Indies, and for other the purposes therein mentioned 

This Act needs no other observation than that the Assembly are too sparing of their money, 
for the works to be done about the P'ort are not half of what is necessary to put it in a 
defencible condition. 

I beg leave to recommend myself to your Lordships protection being with the highest Regard 
and Honor 

My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most humble and 

most obedient Servant 

The R» Hon""" the Lords of Trade. Geo: CLAaKE. 



21(3 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Conference between Lieutenant-Governor Clarke and the Six Nations. 

[ New-Tork Papers, Gg., No. 75. ] 

Present — The Hon'"'^ George Clarke Esq: 
Phillip Livingston ^ 

James De Lancey >-Esq" of the Council 
Daniel Horsmanden ) 
The Com" of Indian Affliirs 

Speech made by the Hon: George Clarke Esq: Lieutenant Governoiir and 
Commander in Chief of the Province of Nevp York to the six Nations of 
Indians Viz' Sennekes Mohawks Cayouges Onondages Oneydes and 
Tuskaroroes at Albany the 15 June 1742. 

Brethren 

At our last interview I proposed an Union of you and all the Nations of Indians under his 
Majesties Protection so far as the River Mississippi you considered of my Proposal approved 
of it and united all those Nations of Indians with you in the Covenant Chain, telling me at the 
same time that I might depend upon your sincerity for that you never broake your word given in 
so Solemn a manner I did and do depend upon it being perswaded that you are too just to 
depart from your Engagements on any consideration ; this Union I made known to all those 
Nations So soon as I found an opportunity they accepted of it with hearts full of joy knowing 
it to be best human means to preserve them from the unjust Hostilities of the French and 
you from being wasted and consumed in their Quarrells as a testimony of their acceding to that 
treaty of Union they have sent you to be delivered by me. These tokens desiring that the 
Covenant Chain into which you have taken them may be preserved inviolable and that Mutual 
love and friendship may continue between you and them so long as the Sun and Moon endure 

Gave the Tokens 

It is most certainly your interest thus to be United and made one body and it is equally your 
interest to be jealous of those people who may attempt to divide you they have [your] 
Destruction in view And tho they have used force against some and Cajoled others to assist 
them yet both those measures have been directed to the same end : You know but too well 
what an implacable hatred the French have long had to Some of tiiose Nations of Indians now 
linked with you in the Covenant Chain nor are you Ignorant that many of your people have 
often assisted them in their unjust and Cruel attempts to destroy them Let the part you acted 
be buried in oblivion but let that of the common Enemy be ever Remembered that your Posterity 
may know who they are that have so eagerly sought the destruction of an innocent people and 
learn from thence that their security is only to be expected from a constant and firm adherence 
to this Union for ever let no time or circumstance disjoin you but live as people of one family 
descended from one common parent be watchful of each others Interest and give early 
intelligence of the enemies motions and use all possible endeavours to defeat their enterprises 
thus and only thus will you deserve your liberty and your Country and become formidable to 
a desit^ning and rapacious enemy who you may be sure will use every Art to disunite you and 
then their utmost force to extirpate you 

Gave a Belt of Wampum 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 217 

We now meet to renew the Cevenant Chain which by the Union of all the Southern Nations 
is greatly enlarged and made much stronger Let it be our common care to preserve it inviolable 
and free from rust remembering that one drop of innocent blood unjustly spilt will carrode 
it and if not timely and carefully wiped off will eat it through and disolve this Union whereon 
only your Common Safety and happiness depends 

Gave a Belt 

It is with much concern I hear that most of the six Nations have of late years lived dispersed 
forgetting their Ancient Custom of dwelling together in Castles I cannot let slip this 
opportunity of exhorting you to return to your Primitive way of liveing together as your 
Ancestors did the Sennekes have promised to remove from Their present habitation and to 
build their Castles nearer to Cayouges and the Cayouges have promised to build a Castle and 
settle in a body and I expect their speedy and eflectuall performance of those promises as it 
will greatly add to their strength and enlarge their reputation whereas a scattered people will 
soon become contemptible in the eyes of the world and the common interest and safety of the 
Commuuity will give place to private Views 

Gave a Belt 

We have all along considered Oswego chiefly as it is commodious for your trade where at 
your own doors without the expence and fatigue of travelling, you are supplied at easier rates 
than in any other place with all such goods as you have occasion for nor have we added 
any thing to the strength of it trusting to you to protect it in case of need it being highly your 
interest so to do however least you should imagine that we are too careless of the preservation 
of an house of that importance to you I have ordered a wall to be built round it that if an 
enemy should at any time attempt to take it you may the better defend it as I expect you will, 
for if once you suffer them to become masters of it. They will sett what price they please 
both upon your goods and theirs and will by that means reduce you to the lowest condition of 
poverty and strip you of your liberty at which they have long aimed and wherein you have 
already unwillingly assisted them not only by engaging in their expeditions but likewise by 
permitting their emissaries to reside too often and too long in your Country this is and has 
been but too apparent to the most discerning among you and it is high time for all to think 
seriously of it and to put an end to that which will otherwise put an end to all that you hold 
dear, Pluck up a resolution therefor no longer to suffer your pretended friends but secret enemies 
to reside among you 

Gave a Belt 

The great King your father is now engaged in a war against the Spaniards provoked thereto 
by many Acts of injustice committed on his subjects not doubting but that the Lord of Hosts 
will own the Equity of his cause and enable him to punish his enemies and to obtain Reparation 
for the injuries done to his subjects 

Gave a String of Wampum. 



Vol. VL 28 



218 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

[ New-Tork Tapers, Gg., No. 75. ] 

Present — The Hon"^ George Clarke Esq: Lieutenant Governor & Commander in 
Chief &-= 
Philip Livingston "J 
James De Lancey >-Esq' of the Council 
Daniel Horsmanden J 
The Com" of Indian affairs. 

Answer made by the six Nations of Indians to the Hon"^ George Clarke Esq' 
Lieut' Governour and Commander in Chief of the Province of NevF York at 
Albany the 16 June 1742. 

Brother. 

We have now mett you in this place which is the place in which our fore fathers were wont 
to transact all affiiirs of peace and friendship We the six Nations have maturely considered of 
what you have said: You told us that two years ago you made a peace with us in behalf of 
the Southern Indians and that as soon as you came home you acquainted those Indians with 
what had passed betveeen us and when those Indians heard it that tiiey were rejoyced thereat 
and accepted of the peace you had made with us in their behalf and sent us these tokens in 
confirmation of the said Treaty and also to strengthen the Covenant Chain between us and them 
in confirmation of which treaty on our side we Give 

A String of Wampum 

There has lately been an Indian from the Southward of the Cherikee Nation In the Sennekes 
Country to speak with us in a friendly manner As all those will do who desire to live in peace 
and friendship with us That Indian who we now Call our Brother has cleared the way 
between us and them that there shall be no hinderance for the future from going and coming 
that way to transact publick affairs he told us that he would return in the Spring and that then 
we should treat more largely upon the affairs between us we call him our Brother and have 
made him a Sachim of the Six Nations 

Brother 

We desire of you that we may see the faces of a few of all the Nations you have named to us 
with whom we are now in alliance You spoke to us about the Silver Covenant Chain made 
between our forefathers that it is now much enlarged by this Union with the Southern Indians and 
that you on your part will always keep it free from rust and have now recovered it and made 
it as bright as the Sun for which we heartily thank our Brother We always remember the 
Covenant Chain entered into by our forefathers and will never forget it It is wrote down in 
our heads we think that nothing shall be wanting on our side but will always keep it from rust 
and do now renew the same and make it inviolable 

Gave a Belt of Wampum. 

You told us you thought it necessary to remind us how our forefathers used to live in Castles 
and that the Sennekes had promised to remove their Castle nearer Cayouge at which we are 
very glad and the Sennekes do now promise that they will certainly do it and the Cayouges 
also promise to perform their engagements. In confirmation of which the Six Nations give 

This Belt of Wampum 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 219 

Brother 

You also spoke to us about the house at Oswego and told us that you had not yet strengthend 
it but that you had now thought fit to build a wall round it you also told us that some of our 
men had been with the French to war against Nations now in alliance with us and that we 
suffered the French to reside to long among us 

Brother 

We promise you that we will not suffer our warriours to go with the French for the future 
against any in alliance with us nor will we suffer the French to reside among us but we will 
do as you have desired us 

Gave a Belt 

You also told us that the Great King our Father is engaged in a war with Spain which we 
know and hope the God who is above will enable him to conquer his Enemies 

Gave a String of Wampum. 

A true copy Examined and compared 

P"^ Ph : Livingston 

Sec : to the Indian Affairs. 

N. B. 

The Indian Nations particularly named by the Governour to the Six Nations are these The 
Cattawbas, Cherokees Creeks Chickesaws and Chacktaws. 



Lords of Trade to Liexitenant-Governor Clarhe. 

[New-York Entries, M.,p. 249.] 

To George Clarke Esq"" 

Sir. 

Since our letter to you of the 3"^ of Aug' last we Iiave received one from you of the 24"' of 
the same Month in which you acquaint us with the success of the Interview you had with the 
6 Nations of Indians in June last in confirming the Union you made some time since betwixt 
them and the Indians to the Westward. 

We take this first Opportunity of congratulating you upon this Event by which you have as 
far as lyes in Your power promoted the security of the Britisli Dominions on the Continent of 
America against the Encroachments of the French. 

The Colonies of Virginia & Georgia are to be commended for the zeal they have shown in 
forwarding this good work by the s«ms they so readily contributed upon this occasion & we 
heartily wish the other Govern""" to the Westward would follow their Example, We for our 
Parts are so sensible of the service hereby done to the British Interest by these Colonies that 
we shall recommend to the others to promote the common cause in the same manner. 

We cannot help mentioning our surp»ize at the Negligence shewn by the People of New 
York in suffering such mismanagement of the Mony raised for building a Wall round the trading 



220 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

house at Oswego the preservation whereof is of the utmost consequence to the Colony. We 
hope therefore you will use your best Endeavours to remedy this evil before it is too late. 

We have received the two Acts referred to in Your letter & shall in due time consider 
them both ; But that for collecting of the Quit Rents & partitioning of lands being of very 
great consequence, We must examine the Papers in our office to see what Proceedings have 
formerly been had upon tiiat Subject before we can come to any Determination concerning it. 
So we bid you heartily Farewell &c'' 

B. Keene 
Ed. Ashe 
Whitehall Ja. Brudenell 

Nov-' 3'^ 174S M. Bladen. 



Lieuteymnt-Governor Clarice to the Lords of Trade. 

[New-York Bundle, Gg., p. 80.] 

New York Nov 29. 1742 
My Lords, 

I have the honour to receive your Lordships letter of the 3'' of last August, and find myself 
under very great obligations to your Lordships for your favourable sentiments of the Account I 
did myself the honour to give you of my Government, and the Frontiers, the only part whereof 
for which I am under any apprehensions from a sudden attack of the Enemy in case of a French 
Warr is Oswego (and a place of vast Importance to the British Trade and Interest it is), for 
tho the money given for the fortifying of it has been laid out on it, yet I am informed the work 
is very injudiciously projected, and ill executed ; for here is no Engineer, unless we call the 
Assembly men Engineers, and then we have too many for both purposes; for they both 
designed the works ; and appointed the persons that did them ; nor, now they are done, could I 
get them to provide for the victualling of an additional Garrison ; however if the Assembly 
sits again before Ar Clinton comes I will make another attempt both for that and powder. 

I did myself the honour to give your Lordships my most humble thanks for your recommending 
the consideration of my Losses by the fire to His Grace the Duke of New Castle to be laid 
before His Majesty, and I still hope that my long services and great sufferings may find a 
moment's notice when his Grace has leisure for it. 

The present I fear is not the time to settle Tierondequat, the people's apprehensions of a 
French war deterring them from the thoughts of it. 

I am perswaded that the union I have made of all the Nations of Indians under his Majesties 
protection if it be duely attended by all the Governours, and the six Nations be kept steady in 
our interest, (which can only be by presents, especially as the French have for some time 
endeavoured to entice them from us by that means) is the only thing that can be done at 
present to secure our settlements, but I presume to think that the trade and interest of the 
Nation may be infinitely more advanced by our making ourselves masters of the Lake of 
Cadaraqui, or Oswego, wherein the French have now two sloops whereby they carry on a 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 221 

prodigious furr trade with the nations of Indians living on all the other lakes that disembogue 
themselves into this, through which they have and can only have a communication with 
Messasippi ; 1 am bold to say that I think the fate of the Britisii Empire on this Continent 
depends upon it. 

The Treasurer has not since I have had the Government given any account of the Revenue 
to me or the Council, he gives to the Assembly accounts of his receipts and issues which are 
mentioned in their journals; he is a creature of theirs, and I fear I shall want some positive 
order on him to enable me to get them from him, however I will send to him acquainting him 
with your Lordsiiips commands to me to send them to you : I am pretty certain I have regularly 
sent your Lordships the minutes of Council, and beg you will be pleased to give Directions to 
look for them among the Acts of Assembly, and other papers that constantly went with them; 
as to the Journals of the Assembly I am not so positive, and the neglect whenever it has 
happened has been owing to the Printer, but I have ordered them to be collected that I may 
now send them to your Lordships as likewise the Naval Officers Accounts, which for the future 
he shall give me more duely, this paragraph of your Lordships letter gives me much concern, 
and wherein I am faulty I humbly ask pardon, I am very glad to find by the postscript to your 
Lordships letter that you have received the Acts of Assembly and Minutes of Council that I 
sent the 2T^ of last May. 

The Acts of Assembly past this session are these which I do myself the honour to send 
your Lordships 

1 An Act to continue an Act entitled an Act for and towards supporting the Government of 
this Colony by granting to His Majesty the duties therein mentioned &c. 

2 An Act further to continue as well an Act entitled an Act to regulate the Militia of this 
Colony as the other Acts therein mentioned by which the same hath been continued : these 
Acts referring to others past before need no observation. 

3 An Act to let to farm the Excise on strong Liquors retailed in this Colony for one year &c. 
An Act of this nature is annually past. 

4 An Act for the more effectual fortifying the City of Albany: — This is a very necessary 
Act especially at this time. 

5. An Act for paying out of the moneys appropriated for the support of this Government, 
the salaries services & contingencies therein mentioned until the first of September ] 743. Acts 
of this nature have been for some time, past yearly, and I doubt will continue to be so done, 
at least till our neighbours do otherwise. 

6. An Act for supporting the Garrison at Oswego and to regulate the furr trade in the 
County of Albany. This Act needs no observation. 

7. An Act for the better clearing regulating and further laying out publick High Roads in 
the City and County of Albany. This is a very necessary Act, the reason why the city of 
Albany is mentioned in it is because the limits of the city are large, extending several miles. 

8. An Act to encourage the destroying of Wolves and Panthers in the Counties of Ulster 
Dutches and Orange: the Inhabitants of these counties finding the former Acts insufficient, 
this Act is past hoping it will prove more effectual. 

9. An Act to revive an Act intituled an Act to prevent the penning and folding of Sheep and 
Neat Cattle feeding on Hempstead Plains; The Act which this revives having by experience 
been found beneficial, is by this continued for a longer time. 



222 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

I likewise do myself tlie honor to send your Lordships the Journals of the Assembly, for the 
time your Lordships acquaint me they are missing, With the Minutes of Councill from 
the last that I sent, and which your Lordships in the Postcript of your letter acknowledge the 
receipt of, to the thirtyeth of last month, as well as the Naturalization Roll to the End of last 
October Term, And the Naval Officer's Accompts. 

If the Minutes of Council cannot be found by the Clercks, I will order them to be writt over 
again, there has not been Time to transcribe so as to send them now. I am very sure I sent 
them all, and they are so marked in the books at the respective Times they were sent, and I 
hope they will be found. 

I humbly recommend myself to your Lordship's Protection and am with the highest respect 
and honor, 

My Lords 

Your Lordships most humble 

and most obedient servant 

Geo : Clarke. 



Lieutenant-Governor ClarJce to the Duke of Newcastle. 

[New-Tork Papers. (S. P. 0.) No. 9. p. 153.] 

New York December 30"^ 1742. 
My Lord. 

On the first intelligence of the Spaniards having invaded Georgia, Capt" Ellis Commander of 
His Maj'y' ship Gosport applyed to me to assist him in manning the ship that he might go to 
the assistance of that province, her complement being greatly decreased by desertion while she 
was repairing and cleaning. I gave him all the assistance I could, but that proving ineffectual, 
I put on board a detachm' of fifty men from the two companies in Garrison here. Upon his 
return from Virginia where he was obliged to put in before he reached Georgia, having sprung 
his mast, he found orders from Capt" Warren Commander of His Maj'*'= ship Launceston to 
follow him to the West-Indies immediately, but not having men enough to proceed, he desired 
me to let him have the detachment for that Cruise, urging the necessity of his going, and the 
prejudice it miglit be to the King's service if he should not go. As I have nothing so 
much at heart as His Maj'^' service, and knowing the winter to be a sufficient guard against the 
approach of an enemy, and he being to return early in the spring, I granted his request, but 
he informing me that the number of the detachment was lessened by sickness, the sick being 
sent on shore, I ordered Capt° Riggs to sent other men from those comp' in their room ; Capt° 
Marshall Capt"* of one of those companys, declared positively and publicly as Capt" Lieut* 
NicoUs informed me, that none of his men should go, unless a Commission Officer of one of 
those companies went to Command them ; this declaration I presume to think borders very 
closely on mutiny and if I had been in Town, I should have put him in arrest, but being then 
in the Country, where I have spent some part of this year for my health, he at length thought 
fit to put his men on board, in wiiich circumstance I forbore to confine him, choosing rather to 
represent the Matter to your Grace. I could not well spare an Officer, there being on the spot 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVI. 223 

only two Lieut" that do duty as such, one of them Capt" Rigg's and Capt° Riggs being then going 
to England onHisMaj'" pleasure signified to mebyS"' William Yonge.and the other the Adjutant, 
but there being a Lieut' of Marines on Board the Gosport I thought he might very properly 
command the detachment, for I humbly suppose that if a detachment be made from several 
Corps, an officer, tho' of none of those corps may command them ; after this I wrote to the 
adjutant to send me a list of the men put on board from each of those companys, and to 
acquaint me with what he knew of Capt" Marshall's declaring that none of his men should go 
on board, whose answer thereto, I do myself the honour to inclose, whereby Your Grace may 
be pleased to see he again at first refused to obey my order, and then complyed, wherein the 
temper of the Gentleman will pretty plainly appear. I could give other instances of his 
behaviour as bad as these, and I fear he talks so much of his being a CapL° of an independant 
company, that he has talked himself into a belief of his being altogether independant. Besides 
that I thought it highly for His Maj"^' service to put the detachments on board for this Cruise, 
especially as there are very few marines on board, it is not unprecedented, it was done in the 
last French warr, and has been done more than once — If I have transgressed 1 humbly hope 
by your Grace's protection to obtain His Maj'^' pardon, but 1 presume my transgression cannot 
excuse Capl° Marshall unless he has a right to make what terms and conditions he pleases the 
measure of his obedience, I do myself the honor to write to S'' Will"' Yonge on this subject. — 

I have laboured with all my skill and application not only to fix and retain the fidelity of the 
six nations, but to make an union of them and all the nations of Indians under his Maj'-^' 
protection as a matter of the highest importance to all His Maj'" dominions on this continent, 
wherein I have succeeded ; but it will require some art and some expence to preserve it; the 
only prevailing means is that of feeding them with presents, which the French never fail to give 
them yearly, to intice them from us; and I fear they will at length prevail unless the other 
Colonies, whose interest it is, will contribute a sum sufficient for yearly presents. This 
province gives about a thousand pound every two years for that service, and if all the other 
Colonies to the Westward would give as much, they might be treated with and presented 
yearly, the only effectual way to retain their fidelity. I very much apprehend the fate of that 
important place Oswego on the first rupture with France, the loss whereof will very much 
shake the fidelity of the six nations, who seeing us unable to defend our possessions, will be 
I fear to apt to join with the Enemy — His Majesties regular troops in this province being four 
independant companyes are in the whole but about three hundred and sixty private men; two 
companyes are in this town, and two at the frontiers, where there are several garrisons viz : 
one at Schenectady of twenty men, one in the Mohawks country of twenty men, that at 
Oswego of twenty men (but of these last twenty there are ten from this garrison) the rest of 
those two companyes being posted at Albany from whence on the first rupture another fort 
about 40 miles from Albany must be garrisoned, so that when the invalids are taken from the 
number of men at Albany, there will be but few to march from thence to the assistance of any 
place that may be attacked, the invalids are numerous, none being taken into Chelsea hospital. 
Our Forts for want of an Engineer are ill design'd and ill built ; on the contrary the French 
fortifications are regularly and strongly built, and as I am informed the regular forces much 
superior in number to ours. I thought it my duty to lay this before your Grace, humbly 
beseeching Your Grace to keep me in your protection, — I am with the most profound submission 
— My Lord — Your Grace's — most humble, most obedient and most dutiful servant. 

(signed) G Clarke. 

His Grace the Duke of Newcastle — 



224 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Lords of Trade to the Lords of the Treasury. 

[ New- York Entries M., p. 251.] 

To the Right Hon"' the Lords Comraiss" of His Majesty's Treasury. 

My Lords, 

We have had under our consideration the Mem' of Geo : Clinton Esq'' His Majesty's Gov'' of 
New York referred to us the IS"" Ins' by your Lordships setting forth " that the Method used 
as most effectual to keep the Six Nations of Indians bordering upon New York steady to the 
British Interest has always been by making presents to them & that it has been usual for the 
Crown on the appointing a Governor of New York to make presents to these Six Nations 
consisting of Goods brought for that purpose amounting in value to ^8 or 900." Whereupon 
We take leave to acquaint Your Lordships. 

That in the Year 1739 the Right Hon''''= The Lords of the Committee of his Majesty's most 
Honourable Privy Council having referred to our consideration and Application from Geo. 
Clarke Esq"' Lieu' Gov'' of New York to his Grace the Duke of Newcastle relating to presents 
to be made to the six Indian Nations We did report to their Lordships a state of this Matter 
together with our opinion what might be proper to be done thereupon for His Majesty's Service, 
a copy of which report we take leave to annex hereunto for Your Lordships Information. 

We take leave further to acquaint Your Lordships that upon Enquiry made at the proper 
offices We do not find that any thing Was then done in this matter on which account it seems to 
us to be the more adviseable that M'' Clinton's Request should be complyed with at present. 
We are, My Lords, 

Your Lordships most obedient 

and most humble Servants 

MONSON 

M. Bladen 
Whitehall R. Plumer 

April 28"' 174-3 B. Kee.ne. 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Lords of Trade. 

i New-York Bundle, Gg., p. 83. ] 

New York June the ig'" 1743 
My Lords, 

I had on the SO"" of April the honour to receive your Lordships letter of the 3'' of November 
last which came by the way of Boston. 

The wall inclosing the trading house at Oswego was too far built when I did my self the 
honour to write to your Lordsiiips about it, the Director of the work was told early enough, 
by the Officer commanding there, that he was going wrong and against the Directions of the 
Act of Assembly but to no purpose ; he pretended that there was not lime stone to be gotten, 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 225 

and without giving himself much trouble to search went on his own way. Money comes too 
grudgingly from the Assembly and at unseasonable times to have a good effect, they never 
think of fortifying till they apprehend the danger to be nigh, if they would before hand consider 
wiiat may be necessary in time of need, and lodge a sum of money in the Treasury sufficient 
for those purposes, they might hope, upon a proper address, that his Majesty would send an 
Engineer to project and direct the works, but I suppose they think either that, that would be 
attended with more Expence, or that their Eriends whom they now employ would lose the 
opportunity of getting money, thus, either a mistaken parsimony or private views, have too 
great an influence on their Counsels, and those Members who judge better of the Importance of 
the Six Nations, are out numbered by the Country Members, who are altogether ignorant of it. 

I have endeavoured all I could to get people to settle at Tierondequat, but in vain. The 
apprehension of a rupture with France deters them, and makes it absolutely necessary to secure 
that important place before the rupture happens, and till something more effectual be done to 
preserve all our Provinces from becoming a prey to the French. At present the Five Nations 
will be glad to see a garrison there, and ready to assist in opposing all attempts of the Enemy, 
but [if the French possess themselves of it, as they may, and doubtless will, if we do not 
prevent them, all those Nations (except the Mohocks who are the fewest in number) must, and 
will submit to the French, an event of too great moment not to be guarded against; I propose 
therefore that a detachment of eighty men from the four Independant Companies in this 
province with a Captain and two Lieutenants be posted at Tierondequat, that a proper Fort be 
built there, and some small Field Pieces with Ammunition &c^ sent thither both for their own 
defence and for that of the harbour this will not only fix the Dependance of those Nations on 
us, but may be a means to preserve Oswego from falling into the Enemys hands, and this is 
the place proposed in the inclosed paper for building our Vessells, The French, I own, may 
notwithstanding by the Mastery which they have on the Lake, annoy the Southern Provinces, 
but they will not be able to entice the Youth of the Five Nations to join them in any of their 
Expeditions, as they now do, against the inclination of the Sachims, for this will be a Bridle 
in their Mouths. The Fort must be built and Artillery and Ammunition sent thither and the 
Garrison be victualled at the King's Expence (for it is in vain to think it will be done by the 
Province) until such time as provisions can be raised in the Senecas Country, which, as 
Farmers will instantly settle under the protection of the Garrison may, and I verily believe will 
be done in two or three years at most, the Land being exceeding good, f^xcept only the article of 
Beef which will take a year or two more, in the mean time cattle may with as much ease be 
drove thither as they are now to Oswego. 

I humbly beseech your Lordships to consider it, and if it receives your Lordships approbation 
that you will be pleased to recommend it to his Grace the Duke of Newcastle, If a more 
extensive scheme should at any time be resolved on, this that I now propose will greatly 
facilitate it ; I do myself the honour to lay before his Grace the Duke of New Castle (a Copy 
whereof I here inclose) my thoughts on our present situation with respect to the French who 
surrounds us, how we may dispossess them of their Mastery on the Lake, cut off their 
communication between Canada and Messasippi, and preserve this and the Southern Provinces, 
and the Indian Nations depending on them from the Intrigues and Annoyance of our natural 
and artful Enemy. 

Whether prompted by the French or how otherwise incited, some young Fellows, and those 
its said the most profligate of the Five Nations marched last winter into the borders of Virginia, 
Vol. VI. 29 



226 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

and committed some acts of hostility, for the particulars and a more clear Information whereof, 
I do my self the honour to send your Lordships copies of the letters and papers relating to it. 
I am endeavouring to make up this breach, which the French will not fail to widen all they 
can, it not being improbable that they projected it, hoping thereby to dissolve the union I made 
of all the Indian Nations, as they do by no means like it. 

The following Acts being past the last Session 1 do myself the honour to send them to 
your Lordships. 

1" An Act to enable the Mayor, Recorder & Aldermen of the City of Albany, and the Justices 
of the peace of the said city and county to raise a further sum of four hundred pounds to 
finish & compleat the Court House and Goal for the said City and County ; This is a necessary 
Act for without it the work begun would remain unfinished and no criminals or debtors could 
be secured. 

S"" An Act to apply the Sum of Four Hundred pounds for providing and furnishing the 
garrison in New York with fire wood and candles from the IS"" of June next to the 13"" of June 
one thousand seven hundred and forty four, this was unprovided for in the support bill passed 
last Fall, and with no other view that I can imagine than to give the Assembly an opportunity 
of getting a little money by their sitting in the Spring for there was no other necessity for 
their sitting then 

S^ An Act for explaining and rendring more effectual an Act of the Governor Council & 
General Assembly intitled an Act to oblige the Inhabitants of each particular ward within 
the City of New York to make good their respective Quotas of all publick Taxes. The reason 
for this Act appears in the preamble. 

I likewise do myself the honour to send your Lordships a printed copy of those Acts, and 
the Votes of Assembly of last Session, And the Minutes of Council from the 17* of May 1739, 
to the 10"" of April 1742, being those which your Lordships acqu.iinted me you could not find ; 
As also the Treasurer's Accounts to the first of September 1740, being all I can get from him. 

General Oglethorpe having wrote to me of the Si"" of April, for some guns and shot, I have 
with the advice of the Council lent him fourteen twelve pounders, shot I had none to spare. 
1 am with the highest respect and honor, 
My Lords 

Your Lordships most humble 

and most obedient Servant 

The Right Hono'""^ The Lords of Trade Geo Clarke 



LietUenant-Governor Clarice to the DuTce of Newcastle. 

[New-Tork Bundle, Gg., p. 84.] 

State of the British Provinces with respect to the French who surround them 

Tho' it has been my duty to consult in a more particular manner the welfare of the Province ; 
which I have had the Honour to govern some years, yet I never took myself to be thereby 
discharged from carrying my thoughts to things of a more extensive nature, especially to such 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVII. 227 

whereon the peace and happiness of the Plantations, and the Trade of England, if not the 
very being of his Majesties Dominion on this Continent depend, I have often reflected on 
the progress that our natural Enemies the French have made in their settlements on the back 
of us, Chiefly since the peace of Utrecht, the vast increase of their Indian Trade, the 
interruption of ours by the power which their communication between Canada and Messasippi, 
(by means of the Lake Cadaraqui or Ontario) gives them over all the Indian Nations, living 
on that, and ail the other Lakes, which disembogue into Cadaraqui, and from thence into the 
Riverof St. Lawrence, and by what means that communication may be cut off, and those Indian 
Nations brought to an absolute dependance on His Majesties Provinces, who will tiiereby be 
possesst of a very great additional Trade, and (which is principally to be considered) be for 
ever secured from the annoyance of the French, and may without danger or interruption, 
extend their settlements as (ar back as they please. 

The French had lately three, and have now two sailing vessells, each of about 50 or 60 
Tons, on the Lake Cadaraqui ; On the North East end whereof, near the entrance into the 
River St. Lawrence, they have a small stone Fort called Frontenac, with a Garrison of about 
thirty or thirty five men, and on the Southwest end, near the fall of Niagra, another with the 
like garrison, a trjiding house under the cover of it, and are now building there one or two 
more trading houses. In those Vessells they carry the Soldiers Artillery, Ammunition and 
Provision to the Forts, and transport to and fro the goods they sell to and buy from the 
Indians; It is through this Lake they pass from Canada to Messasippi, and from thence back 
again to Canada: By means only of their Mastery on that Lake, it is that they have acquired, 
and still hold their power over all the Indian Nations, from Canada to Messasippi, except only 
the Indians who are next adjoining to our Provinces, and have all along been dependant on 
them, (of which the Five Nations or Cantons are the most considerable) and in all those they 
have of late gotten too great an influence, especially among the five Nations whose youth, 
being of a martial spirit, they intice (contrary to the Publick Engagements of those Nations) 
to join them in their Expeditions against the Indian Nations, subject to His Majesty, and 
depending on the Governments of Virginia, the two Carolina's and Georgia, who have it in 
their power (by their situation, if their strength were equal, as it would be, were they united 
and resolved) to interrupt the march of the French from Niagra to Messasippi; this the French 
know full well, and fearing that they may sometime or other confederate against them for that 
purpose, they seldom fail once a year, to attack one of those Nations while they are disjoined, 
thereby to extirpate, or bring them over to their Interest, and they have gone but too great a 
length towards it, none of those Nations daring now to give them any Interruption and thinking 
themselves happy when they are not annoyed by the French. We have a trading House and 
a Garrison of :iO men in it at Oswego, almost opposite to Fort Frontenac, which in our present 
situation will inevitably fall into the hands of the French, on the first opening of a War, and 
with it the Five Nations, the only Barrier against the French to all the Provinces from this to 
Georgia, for tho they now intice some of their youth to join them in their hostile marches, yet 
the Body of those Nations oppose it all they can, and live in a good intelligence with us 
professing to observe inviolably their original Allyance, (or Covenant Chain as they phrase it) 
which has subsisted ever since we first settled this Country, yet if Oswego be taken (as 
nothing can hinder it while the P'rench are Masters of the Lake) the Five Nations will, and 
must of course, submit to our Enemy, who will oblige them to assist in all their Expeditions; 
In which Event every one of our Provinces may be so attacked, that the Planters will be 



228 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

obliged for the security of their Persons to quit tlieir settlements, retire into the Towns, 
wherever they are, or under the cover of Forts, of which we have very few on the whole 
Continent, or, what is worse, leave the Country to seek a living elsewhere, the consequences 
whereof to England are but too obvious, and this the Enemy will more easily do, as they have 
a line of Forts from Canada to Messasippi. 

As a remedy for these Evils, which are almost as great as can befall the Nation, I propose 

that a Regiment of eight hundred men be sent from England (or if half the number of private 

men be sent, the other half I believe may be raised here) with an Engineer, Artillery, and 

Ammunition, and posted in the Sineca's Country on the Lake Cadaraqui, at a proper Harbour 

for building of Vessells, there being more than one of sufficient Depth of Water, That the 

Harbour be fortifyed and barracks erected for the men, Tliat there be then built two or three 

Vessells of superior Force to those of the French, on board whereof a few sailors, and a sufficient 

number of soldiers being put with the proper officers, we may take, sink or otherwise destroy 

the French Vessells, and then easily take their Forts on the Lake, and for ever hinder them 

from building more on those shores, or any vessells on the Lake nor (if they should build any 

in the River of St. Lawrence) can they carry them against that rapid stream into the Lake. 

The Consequences whereof will be of the greatest moment. All our Colonies from this to 

Georgia will be secure from the incursions of the French in the time of War, The Indians 

depending on the Governments of Virginia, Carolina and Georgia, who are now almost every 

year attacked by the French, and their Indians will live unmolested: All the Indian Nations 

living on or near the Lakes, and all those over whom the French at present have a very great 

power, will no sooner hear of our Conquests, than they will submit to, and trade altogether 

with us. The Five Nations will no longer be divided by French Intrigues, but will be 

absolutely at our Devotion, and the Trade and Influence of our Enemy will be confined to the 

Cold Country of Canada, which will scarce be worth keeping, and to the Banks of the River 

Messasippi, Nay, no sooner will the Five Nations see us Masters on the Lake, than they will 

assist us to take the two Forts of Frontenac, and Niagara, for they are now complaisant to the 

French only through Fear, knowing them to be a treacherous and enterprising people. It was 

I presnme to think, a very great Oversight, to suffer the French to build those two Forts and I 

am perswaded if it had been strongly and rightly represented by the Governors of this and the 

other Provinces a stop would have been put to it. Those Forts being built on the Lands of the 

Five Nations ( whose native and conquered countries encompass the Lake on the shore whereon 

they are built) who by the IS"" Article of the Treaty of Utrecht are explicitely acknowledged 

to be subject to the dominion of Great Britain, I am sensible that by the same Article it is 

stipulated That both the English and French shall have a free Intercourse for Trade with all 

the Indians and the Indians with them, let them enjoy it (when we are Masters of the Lake) 

in the like manner that ours is now carried on, viz* By Canoes and small rowing Boats, but I 

am prety sure that when the French yoke is taken off their necks, the Indians will no longer 

trade with them, for the English Manufactures are much better, and they prefer them to French 

goods,but supposing that they should still trade with them, it will be in a much smaller proportion 

than they now do, and besides they cannot then march in any numbers to disturb our Provinces, 

or the Indians, now and of old depending on them. An Event of the highest importance, nor can 

Canada supply Messasippi, or Messasippi, Canada, with forces or merchandize in time of need: 

Before the French begun to build the Fort at Niagara, which is about twenty years ago, they 

cajoled some few of the young fellows of the Five Nations, to give them permission to build a 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 229 

trading House there, but so soon as it reached the ears of the Sachims or Rulers of those 
Nations, they resented it, acquainted the Governor of this Province, that the French had begun 
to build, and offered to join any force he should send to demolish the works, and to drive the 
French from thence, but this was unhappily neglected ; incouraged by their success there, they 
did, about twelve years ago, erect another fort, and much stronger (on the Lands likewise of 
the Five Nations) at a place called the Crown Point, about 160 miles from Albany, between 
that and Canada. In that part of the Country where the Senecas chiefly dwell, and where I 
propose our vessells should be built, and the Regiment quartered, the Climate is temperate, 
and the Lands exceeding fertile, so tiiat in three years time from their going thither, provisions 
of all kinds (sufficient for the Regiment and Vessells) may be raised. Except only Beef, which 
will require a year or two more, in the mean time Cattle may be drove thither from the County 
of Albany, with as much ease as they now are to the Garrison at Oswego, and no sooner will 
the Regiment march towards it, than Farmers will go thither under their cover to settle 
in that Country, being sure both of protection, and of a market for what they raise. The Five 
Nations being acknowledged by the Treaty of Utrecht to be subject to the Dominion of Great 
Britain, and the Lake lying in their Country, it being surrounded by their Lands, I humbly 
submit it, whether we have not a Right, even before a Rupture to assume the Dominion 
thereof, and to destroy the Forts the French have built in the country of those Cantons, 
especially if we have their concurrence, of which and of their assistance too, I make no doubt, 
when they see the Regiment among them. 

When we have thus vindicated our right and established our dominion on the Lake, the 
Regiment may then be employed in the reduction of the Fort at the Crown point, wherein, if 
there be need, we may I believe have assistance from the Provinces of Massachusets Bay, and 
New Hampshire, who have settlements not far from thence, and who claim the lands adjoining 
to it, and one of them even that whereon the fort is built. 

If this or something else (of which I own I can think of nothing so effectual) be not soon 
done to put a stop to the French Encroachments farewell to the English Colonies and to that 
most valuable Trade of the Nation. 

If ever it be thought adviseable to attempt again to take Canada, the dispossessing the French 
of their Mastery on the Lake and of the Fort at the Crown point, will greatly facilitate the 
Enterprize, but before we begin that work, I presume to think we ought to take Cape Breton, 
a Place well fortifyed, and from whence the French can annoy our Fishery at Newfoundland, 
and guard their own navigation to and from Canada, That place is such a Thorn in the sides 
of the New England people, that its very probable a large body of men may be raised there to 
assist in any such design. And if proper Officers are sent from England in the Summer to 
exercise them, they may by the ensuing spring be well disciplined, as all their Youth are expert 
in the use of fire arms, from the unrestrained liberty of Fowling, which obtains in all the 
Provinces, and I conceive the Spring is the most proper season to attack the place, before the 
Men of Warr and Fishing Vessells come from France, for in the Winter they have few men 
except the Garrisons, and Boston being a proper Port for our Fleet to harbour in the Winter, 
we may block up the Harbour of Breton before the ships from France can come upon the coast. 

New York 1743 

(Endorsed) ReC* with M"' Clarke's LetU of the lO"" June 1743. 



230 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 



N" 1. 



Governor Gooch to Lieutenant-Governor Clarice. 

[\ew-Tork Bundle. Gg., p,S5. No. 1.] 



Dear Sir 

You will find by the inclosed Copy of a letter I received the last week, from our Frontiers, 
how barbarously our Inhabitants in a Settlement beyond tiie Mountains have been insulted and 
attackt by a Party of the Northern Indians. As the Murder committed in this cruel skirmish 
happened at the time, when, in the same disposition with the Government of Maryland, 
We intended to send Commissioners to treat with the six Nations in order to settle and to 
satisfie in an amicable maimer, their demands, we are the most alarmed, especially, as you will 
see in the letter, there were white men among them, supposed to be French, who must be 
incited by other motives, than an equivalent for land. In such desperate circumstances, our 
People being daily exposed to the like cruel usage, it will appear a laudable Impatience in 
our Councils, not to wait for your annual meeting of the Sachims, and accordingly it has been 
agreed to desire the favour of your Interposition and good offices to discover for us, to what 
Nation that party belongs, that dared to treat His Majesties subjects in so insolent and 
oulragious a manner. Not that we expect any other satisfaction from Savages bred up to 
delight in nothing so much as shedding of blood, than the giving of them speedy Information 
of our Resentment. 

I am also desired to beg the favour of you to enquire of the Chiefs what part of this 
Government it is they dispute, and where the lands lay they pretend to claim, with the sum 
of money, they expect in exchange, and to procure their explicit answer. For we are very 
willing upon reasonable terms to purchase our safety and free ourselves for the future from the 
desperate attempts of men void of humanity. 

What expence you are at for Messengers &c^ on this occasion will be thankfully repaid, and 
the sooner you send me an answer to these premisses, the greater obligation it will be to all the 
Gentlemen of the Council, but to no one more than 

Dear Sir 

Your most obed' & very 
humble serv' 

Jan 3'' 174# Will. Gooch 



Colonel Patton to Governor Gooch. 

Augusta County IS Dec. 1742. 
Hon'' Sir 

A parcel of Indians appeared in a hostile manner among us killing and carrying off horses 
&c* Capt. John Buchanan and Capt. John McDowell came up with them this day and sent a 
man with a signal of peace to them, which man they killed on the spot and fired on our men 
which was returned with bravery, in about forty five Minutes the Indians fled leaving eight or 
ten of their men dead on the spot, and eleven of our men are dead amongst which is Captain 
McDowell, we have sundry wounded. Last night I had account of the Indians behaviour, and 
imediatly traveled towards them with a party of men and came up within two or three hours 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 231 

after the battle was over. I have summoned all the men in our County together in order to 
prevent them from doing any further damage, and (but by God's assistance) to repell them 
force by force, We hear of many Indians on our P'rontiers. I beg your Honours Directions 
and Assistance both as to ammunition and men. The particulars of the battle and motions of 
the enemy, I have not now time to write you, 

I am 

Y'' Honours m' obed' serv' 

James Patton 

P. S. 

There are some white men supposed to be French amongst the Indians. Our people are 
uneasy, but full of spirits and hope tiieir behaviour will show it for the future, not being any 
way daunted by what has happened. 

To the Hono"''' Will"' Gooch Esq-- fcc 



lAeutenant- Governor Clarice to the Commissioners of Indian Affairs. 

[ New-York Bundles, Gg., p. 85. No. 2.] 

N»2. 

Flushing April the S"- 1743. 
Gentlemen, 

This minute I received a letter from the Governor of Virginia of the 3''of January, with one 
to him from Coll" Patton of the IS"* of December, on the unhappy skirmish between the 
Indians and some of the people of Virginia, copies whereof I send you, whereby you will 
perceive that the Indians were the aggressors, and that the Government of Virginia resent it 
warmly; By the Governor's letter I find there is something of a demand from the Indians 
(I suppose part of the si.\ nations) for lands, which the Goverments of Virginia and Maryland 
intended to send Commissioners to treat with them about, in order to satisfy them. If that be 
the Indians pretence, they ought to have waited for an Answer from those Governments, if 
they made any demand, as I find they did on the Government of Maryland by their treaty 
with the Governour of Pensilvania last year, but the Government of Virginia is not mentioned 
by them in that Treaty, and yet the hostility committed by them is on the people of Virginia, 
how they will excuse it I cannot see, however I desire you will give the Interpreter Orders 
to go forthwith to them giving him instructions to expostulate with them on this their 
unwarrantable conduct, to know who those white men are who were with that party of Indians, 
and to know, from them, what part of Virginia it is they dispute, and where the Land lies that 
they pretend to, and what sum of money or goods they expect in Exchange, and to give me a 
full and plain and direct answer, which I will acquaint the Governour of Virginia with. You 
will direct the Interpreter to let them know that I am amazed at their barbarous and treacherous 
proceeding. That if they had any such demands on those Governments, or any grievance to 
complain of, they ought to have acquainted me with it, and I would have negotiated the matter, 
and have endeavoured to have made it up in an amicable manner. That I expect they will 
keep their people at home, and if they send me their demands for the Lands, that they wait 



232 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

patiently for an answer, which considering the distance of their country to this place and from 
hence to Virginia will take up a considerable time to adjust the matter. 

I am informed they took from Oswego the two Indians you sent to reside there, in order to 
bring you Intelligence of any extraordinary occurrences, this is a piece of conduct I am 
surprized at, and expect they will give me an account of. 

You will be full and particular in your Instructions to the Interpreter, that their answer may 
be so too, I need not tell you of how much consequence it is that these things should be 
adjusted to mutual satisfaction, you will readily conceive it. 

I am 

Gentlemen &c* 

Commiss"'" for Indian Affairs. Geo Clarke 



Commissioners of Indian Affairs to Lieutenant- Governoi' Clarice. 

[ New-Tork Bundle, Gg., p. 85. No. 3. ] 
N" 3. 

Albany 20«'' March 174§ 
May it please your Honour 

Since our last to your Honour of the 21^* of February, We have not been honoured with 
any of your Favours, and have now only to inform your Honour that we have thought proper 
as you will perceive, by the inclosed minutes, to send the Interpreter to Onondage being 
informed by the Mohawks that a General Meeting of the Six Nations was to be held at 
Onondage, at the desire of some people from Philadelphia, We inclose your Honour the Orders 
we gave to the Interpreter & the ansvper he brings us back, to which we beg leave to refer, it 
seems the Indians are in General very uneasy about the affair at the back of Virginia, The 
people from the Senecas Country write us that one of their principal Sachims is sent to 
Ottowawe to desire those Indians not go a hunting, but to stay at home to take care of their 
Castles, Your Honour will perceive best by the Run of this whole affair, in what humour the 
Six Nations are at present. We have nothing in particular to add at present but remain 
Your most humble servants 

Myndert Schuyler Rutger Bleecker 

Z%o. De Peyster Hend'' Ten Eyck 

JoHANNis Lansing Jun' Dirck Ten Brock 
Stevanus Groesbeeck Ryer Gerritse 

Nicholas Bleecker Ed. Collins 

Cornelius Cuyler 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 233 

At a Meeting of the Commissioners of Indian Affairs at Albany 7 March 174J 

Present — Capt. Rutherford Peter Winne 

Cornelius Cuyler Rutger Bleeker 

Myndert Schuyler Nicholas Bleeker 

Hend'' Ten Eyck John De Peyster 

A Mohawk Indian came with seven hands of wampum to acquaint tliis Board that the 
Interpreter and two other men from Philadelphia were come to Onondage to speak with the 
six Nations. That the Mohawks therefore desire our Interpreter may be sent up with them to 
hear what shall pass at that meeting. 

This Board resolved that the Interpreter go to Onondage, and that he observe the 
following Orders. 

M"" Jacobus Bleeker 

You are to go to Onondage, where we hear that some people from Philadelphia are arrived 
to treat with the Six Nations, and when you come there you are to inform yourself what those 
people shall propose to the Sachims of the Six Nations and what answer will be given them. 

You are to tell the Sachims of the Six Nations at Onondage, that we are sorry that such a 
sorrowfull Accident has happened at the back of Virginia, between some English & a party of 
their people, that we have not yet got a certain account of that matter, & know nothing of it 
but by common report, that as soon as we shall know the certainty thereof we will acquaint 
them therewith, and that We hope it will not be the occasion of a breach in the Treaties 
between them, & any of his Majesties English Subjects, But that upon the whole, we desire 
that they will not be uneasy about it, nor take any resolution without the Advice and Consent 
[of] us their Brethren, Whereupon you are to give them this belt of Wampum. 

At a Meeting of the Commissioners of Indian Affairs at Albany 20 March 174'| 

Present — Nicholas Bleeker Hend'' Ten Eyck 

Cornelius Cuyler, John Lansingh 

Myndert Schuyler Rutger Bleeker 

Dirk Ten Brock John De Peyster 

The Interpreter being returned from Onondage brings the following Account. 

That according to his Instructions he went up to Onondage, but that the people from 
Philadelphia had not been there, but had sent a message to Onondage to speak with the Six 
Nations, upon which account this meeting had been called, which was broak up before he came 
there, that as soon as came he called all the Sachims together, & according to his orders 
enquired from them what had been proposed to them by the Government of Pensilvania, & 
what answer they had made thereto, To which they Answer'd. 

That the Pensilvania people had desired that the Traders of their Province might go & 
come & trade as usual unmolested of the six Nations! And 

That tiie six Nations should come to Philadelphia to receive payment of some land, which 
the Proprietor has from them for whicii they are not yet paid. 
Vol. VI. 30 



234 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

That they desire that tlie affair with the Virginia people should not be any occasion of any 
breach in their Covenant Chain, for that they had no hand in it, And did not know from 
whence it proceeded, but that as soon as knew it, they would inform the six Nations. 

And that they had given them the following answer. That they will treat their people 
kindly wherever they meet them, And that they will not in any wise molest them. And that 
they could not this year go to Philadelphia by reason of the misfortune to the Southward, but 
that the next year they would go. And that they will not be the occasion of a breach in the 
Covenant Chain but that they will do their part to preserve the same entire. 

That then he the Interpreter communicated to the Sachims the Remainder of what he was 
ordered. To which they answered. 

That they thanked their Brethren for what had been said, & do not doubt but their Brethren 
would use their endeavour to make up the breach, between them and the Virginia people, which 
they had concluded in their General Meeting to do, if the Virginia people are so inclined, that 
it shall not be wanting of their side. And that they will not make themselves uneasy about it, 
till farther news from Virginia, We expect our Brethren will inform us what the Governour 
of Virginia intends to do, as soon as they shall know it. And as to the Covenant Chain, they 
promise to keep it inviolable, & that no Intriegues of the Devil himself shall induce them to 
break it. Nor will they suffer any of their people to go a fighting nor even to go from home, 
on any account, but to stay at home to take care of their Castles and Families. 

The Interpreter informs this Board that as the Indians tell the story of the Fight to 
the Southward, the English fired first upon them & that four Indians were killed, & that 
the other twenty six are all returned home, their party having consisted of 30, that eight 
English were killed. And two much wounded, they computed the English to have been 
about forty in all. 



Commissioners of Indian Affairs to Lieutenant-Governor Clarice. 

[ New-York Bundle, Gg., p. 86. No. 4. ] 

N°4. 

Albany IS"" Aprill 1743. 
May it please your Honour. 

We received your Honour's letter of the 5"" Instant with copies of Coll. Gooch's & Coll. 
Patton's letters, concerning the Skirmish and Murder at the Back of Virginia. The demand 
your Honor mentions of some of the Nations to some lands in Virginia, is we conceive only 
imaginary, having never heard any such-thing from them, And had any such thing been, they 
would doubtless have mentioned it since this affair happened, but nothing of that sort has ever 
been in the least hinted at by them. And should we now send the Interpreter to know from 
them what lands they claim in Virginia, according to Coll. Gooch's desire. We humbly conceive 
it would be furnishing them with a pretence & excuse they have never yet thought of. 
What Coll. Gooch mentions of white men that are supposed to have been with the Indians, we 
take that to be a mistake which has no doubt proceeded from some mongrel Indians that were 
in the party. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 235 

We wrote j'our Honour the 20"' March and sent inclosed our Minutes containing the answer 
the Interpreter brought from Onondage. wliich we suppose your Honour had not received when 
your last to us was wrote, Your Honour will thereby perceive that the six Nations are inclined 
to reconcile the matter with the people of Virginia, We have therefore deferred sending the 
Interpreter to the Indians till we shall receive your Honour's farther orders, thinking that he 
would not get any other answer from them than we have already had, We conceive it would 
the best and cheapest way. That Coll. Gooch desire your Honour to reconcile the matter, 
and then your Honour, if you shall think proper, can order us to make it up in such a manner 
as your Honour shall think fit, Which will likewise be the less troublesome to your Honour. 
If this receives your Honors approbation, we humbly conceive it would be the most proper that 
we, as soon as we receive notice thereof, should send the Interpreter to the six Nations, to 
desire that one or two of their Sachims come down here about the time your Honour can have 
an answer from Coll. Gooch concerning this matter. Which we hope will be as soon as 
possible for if a French warr should in the mean time break out it would be more difficult to 
adjust this or any other difference We doubt not but Coll. Gooch will repay us the charges we 
must necessarily be at herein. We have several Accounts that the six Nations have sent to 
the farr Indians in covenant with them, to desire them to be at home and ready to assist them 
in case of need. The French also are continually using all arts and means to foment and 
widen differences of this sort, so that, should this matter not be made up in an amicable 
manner. But Hostilities renewed or continued, the consequences might be very terrible, 
however, we submit all with the greatest respect to your Honour. We have sent the Interpreter 
to the Mohawks, to send from thence an Indian to the Six Nations to desire the Sachims to 
stay at home, and to renew to them the repeated promises they have made to keep home their 
fighting men, and to inform tliem that the Interpreter will be at Onondage in about 20 days, in 
the mean time we hope to have your Honours further Orders which shall punctually be 
observed, We have nothing more at present, But that we are 
May it please your Honour 

Your very humble servants 

Ph. Livingston 
John Rutherford 
Myndert Schuyler 
Abraham Cuyler 

NiCOLAES BlEEKER 

Hono''''' George Clarke Esq' Johannis Lansing Jun"" 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Commissioners of Indiaii Affairs. 

[Now- York Bumllc, Gg., p. 86. No. 5.] 

No. 5. 

New York, April the 27"' 1743. 
Gentlemen, 

Yesterday I received your letter of the IS"' Instant, and altho you are of opinion that the 

six Nations lay no claim to any lands in Virginia, and that the mentioning such a thing to them 



236 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

may furnish them with a pretence, yet if you had sent the luerpreter and instructed him to 
have demanded the cause of the march and hostilities committed by their young men, he would 
have collected from their answer whether they make any such claim or no, if they do not, he 
might then have expostulated with them on their killing the cattle and horses and afterwards 
killing the man whom Capt" Buchannon and Capf INPDowell sent to the Indians with a signal 
of peace and afterwards firing on the party and killing many of them, from whence it is evident 
that the Indians were the Aggressors. That this is a notorious breach of the Covenant Chain 
which includes all his Majesties Subjects of whatsoever Province they are, That if they 
pretend their men went to make warr or to molest any Indians to the Southward that that is 
an infraction of the Union made in 1740 and confirmed by the six Nations last year for which 
they ought to punish those Indians, that the Governments to the Southward, and their Indians 
depended on the faith of that union, resolving on their part to observe it inviolably and are 
much surprized that the six Nations should attempt in that treacherous manner to dissolve it, 
That, however, if the six Nations disclaim their knowledge and express their abhorrence of 
that action the Government of Virginia I hope will come to such a temper as may heal the 
breach, especially if the six Nations will for the future restrain their youth from such 
unwarrantable actions and excursions, upon this foot I would (and should have hopes of success) 
interpose my good offices to appease the just resentment of the Government of Virginia, and 
till this be done I know not what to write to Governour Gooch, it is therefore still necessary 
that you send the Interpreter so instructed to the six Nations that I may know what so say. 

You will perceive that Coll. Gooch does but just hint at the Indians pretending to claim some 
lands in that country, but this is certain that the Indians did last year at Philadelphia complain 
that some people to the Westward of that Province did settle on some of their lands without 
making any purchase of them, Governour Thomas understood they meant the people of 
Maryland by his telling them he would write to the Governour of that Province about it, 
wherefore till that matter be cleared up the seeds of discontent will remain, and if I knew 
certainly where these lands lie J could then write to the Governors about them, you may 
perceive that the Government of Virginia is disposed if the Indians have any just claims to 
those lands to adjust that matter, but as for the Hostility they seem determined to do themselves 
justice, however I would Mn make up all matters between them, to which end it is absolutely 
necessary that the Interpreter be sent that I may know more fully the Indians pretences, their 
sentiments of this insult and their future intentions, such treacherous hostilities are not to be 
suffered, and if this business be not made up, and the Indians do not for the future desist from 
the like, the consequences will be very bad, And you will instruct the Interpreter to represent 
things to the six nations in such a manner as may make them sensible that that hostility 
committed by them at a time when all the Governments and the Indian nations depending on 
them looked upon themselves and the six Nations as inviolably united in the Covenant Chain, 
was an Act of the highest treachery & breach of faith, I could not, nor can I hardly yet bring 
myself to believe that the Sachims were consenting or privy to that Excursion, if they were 
not, they ought openly & explicitly to disclaim it, to punish the offenders and by all means to 
prevent the like for the future, which in my opinion can only be done by forbidding the French 
to come into their country. 

Upon the whole you will perceive that the Government of Virginia has a sharp resentment 
of tlie injury, and if the Indians do not (as undoubtedly they were the Aggressors) make 
attonement for it in a suitable manner, it may I fear produce very ill consequences, wherein 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 237 

this and all tlie Provinces may be involved, Wherefore T would have you use your utmost 
Endeavours to effect it, and that speedily, the Governour of Virginia desiring an answer as 
soon as may be. 

If the Interpreter finds they claim any lands in Virginia and Maryland he is to know what 
they are, where they lie and what they demand for them as in Governor Gooch's letter, he 
should likewise inform himself whether there were any white men in that party & who 
they are. 

If the Indians upon conference with the Interpreter upon the matters mentioned, will depute 
some of their Sachims to treat with you about them at Albany I shall like it very well. 

I am 

Commissioners for Indian Affairs. Gentlemen &c. 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarhe to Governor Gooch. 

[New-Tork Bundle. Gg.,p. 87. No. 6. ] 

; ,f No. 6. 

f _ New York, May the 2^ 1743. 

Dear Sir, 

On the 5"" of the last month I had the honour to receive your letter of the S"" of January, 
which I would have acknowledged sooner, had I foreseen that it will take more time to get an 
Answer from the Sachims of the six Nations than I then apprehended; I have ordered the 
Interpreter to go to them with Instructions what to do in this unhappy business, and so soon 
as he returns I will acquaint you with the Negotiation, hoping that matters maybe so managed 
as to heal the breach that is made in the Covenant Chain as its called, for it may be very fatal 
if an open rupture should ensue, and they be thereby driven to the necessity of throwino- 
themselves into the arms and power of our natural Enemy the French, who only want the 
advantage of such an event to open an uninterrupted way to annoy all the Colonies and render 
the Settlements therein very precarious, if not to drive the Planters from thence into the 
shelter of towns or under the cover of forts, for its very evident that the six Nations are the 
present and only restraint they have. This Consideration I am perswaded will induce you 
rather to listen to overtures of Reconciliation than to the sanguine impulses of revenge, how 
just soever your resentment be, you may be assured I will do all that lies in my power to 
make the Sachims sensible of this treacherous hostility intreating you to wait a little longer 
for the Result, and to be assured that I am very sincerely 

Dear Sir &c. 

The Honourable Governor Gooch Geo. Clarke 



238 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Minute of the Proceedings of the Commissioners of Indian Affairs. 

[ New-York Bundle, Gg., p. S7. No. 7.] 

At a Meeting of tlie Commissioners of Indian Affairs the 2"* of May 1743 at the City 
of Albany. 

Present — Myndert Schyler Reyer Gerritse 

Rutger Bleeker Abraham Cuyler 

John De Peyster John Rutherford 

Cornelis Cuyler John Lansingh. 
Dircii Ten Brooli. 

Tliis Board sent the Interpreter to Onondage with the following Message to the Sachims of 
the six Nations of Indians 

Brethren 

According to the promise the Commiss" of Indian Affairs made to the Sachims of the 
Mohawks who came to Albany in February last, in the name of the six Nations, with a Belt of 
Wampum, to speak with them concerning the unhappy affairs between some of His Majesties 
English Subjects and a party of your people at the back of Virginia, I am now sent to inform 
you that your Brother our Governour has received a letter from the Governor of Virginia 
with another from a Colonel who was but a few miles from the place where that affair happened 
and who doubtless was well informed thereof. He says that a party of Indians of ihe Six 
Nations appeared upon their frontiers in a hostile manner and killed and carried away horses 
&c" upon which tlie Inhabitants of tiiat neiglibourhood went with their arms for their own 
security to know from those Indians what migiit be the meaning or reason of their thus treating 
the English, with whom you had so lately entered into a more strict alliance than ever by the 
Treaty made at Albany with our Governour in 1740, And accordingly when they came up 
with them, on the 18"" of December they sent a man with a signal of peace to them, who they 
killed upon the spott and then fired upon the other English without any manner of provocation, 
whereupon the people of Virginia, out of a principle of self preservation were obliged to return 
the fire. Now we have performed our promise in giving you a true and exact account of 
this affair. 

Gave a Belt of Wampum 

Brethren 

The Commissioners of Indian affairs have further ordered me to tell you That they think 
you can't but be ashamed and confused when you hear that among those people who so lately 
and so solemnly took into the Covenant Chain all His Majesties subjects to the Southward, and 
unite yourselves with them so as to become one flesh and blood, there should yet be such false, 
treacherous base wretches as those are who have committed this horrid barbarous murder, And 
that they are confident this affair will be resented by you the Sachims, Who we doubt not but 
were ignorant of this matter. But that now you must certainly believe that all what those 
Indians have said about the English attacking them first is notoriously false, for that they killed 
the man who was sent to speak with them with a token of peace in his hand, And people who 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 239 

will be guilty of such cruel actions, can not certainly be believed a word they sny, for as cruel 
as they are, there is yet so much shame left as would make them blush to own it. 

Tiie Goveriiour of Virginia has desired our Governor that he would demand of you the 
reasons of this Transaction and that he would let him know as soon as possible what your 
answer is, for that he is amazed at such treatment and does not know what to think of it, 
That he can't think of any reason that has been given you to use his people in such a 
manner especially since all the Governments to the Southward had so lately entered into a 
a more strict alliance with you than ever, by the Treaty of Union in 1740, Which they all have 
and always would have observed inviolable. 

If you had any reason to be disgusted at the people of Virginia, you should have acquainted 
us therewith that we might in a peaceable manner have obtained satisfaction for you, and if 
you have any thing as yet to say against them, We desire you will let us know what it is. 

It is your indispensable duty to express your abhorrence of this affair, and to keep your men 
for the future at home, which we also expect you will do. You know very well that your 
people broke the Covenant Chain in going to fight to the Southward whether they intended it 
against English or Indians, So that you ought to desire our Governour to intercede for you and 
to make up this breach with the Governor of Virginia, which we doubt not but he will do upon 
the intercession of our Governor. 

M'' Bleecker 

If you can hear from the Sachims that they claim any lands to the Southward, you are to 
enquire where they lie and what they demand for them in satisfaction. And also enquire 
whether any white people were among the party. 

The Interpreter being returned from Onondage Reports to this Board that he had said to the 
- Sachims there as he was ordered. And that they answered him as follows. 

Brethren 

We the Sachims of the Six Nations have now according to our Desire of you heard what has 
come to your Ears of the sorrowfull accident between some of our Brethren of Virginia and some 
of our people, You tell us that you are informed that our people were the aggressors. That 
our men came in a hostile manner and killed their Cattle and that our Men killed the man sent 
by our brethren with a Token of Peace in his hand, and that then the Virginia people were 
obliged to defend themselves. If these things are so, then we are certainly greatly to blame. 
But on the contrary our men say That they have been very hardly used by our Brethren of 
Virginia, who took some days time to get themselves ready to destroy us, which the event 
proves they would have done had it been in their power, and that only for killing a few 
cattle, which we do not deny to have done for our subsistance, And that all we did kill one 
Hog, one Calf and one Horse and we took away one Cask Syder, this is all the damage of 
which the Virginia people so much complain to have been done before the Engagement. 
When we passed thro' Pensylvania we were treated very kindly by the Inhabitants, but as 
soon as we entered into Virginia Government we observed a different behaviour from the first 
house to the last, And when we had passed them we were overtaken by this party who first 
fired upon us, so that most certainly we can't be the Occasion of this mischief. 

The Governour of \"irginia demands from us the reason of using his people thus ill, he having 
never given us any reason for such usage, We say that we have no reason to be disgusted at 



240 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

him or his people or for using them ill, and if we had any pretensions upon him any way, we 
would have made it known to our Brother the Governor of New York, We have now told you 
all the mischief we have done, and how we have been used for killing a few cattle. 

We the Sachims do acknowledge that our men ought not to have gone there, and do declare 
that we have used all our skill and authority that none should go a fighting and that those 
that went did go without our knowledge or consent which is all that we can say or do. 

We are inclined to make up this breach in the Covenant Chain and are willing to come 
to Albany for that purpose whenever we shall have notice of the time that shall be most 
convenient. But we would be very glad that the Governor of Virginia was himself present, 
when we should have opportunity face to face to talk more fully of this matter & to reconcile 
more effectually. 

Gave a Belt. 

The Indians told the Interpreter that there were not any white people in the party, but that 
a young fellow who is half Indian & half Christian was with them who had blue eyes which 
was the occasion of the mistake. 



Commissioner's of Indian Affairs to Lieute7iant-Governor Clarice. 

[ New-York Bundle, Gg., p. 88. No. S. ] 

No. 8. 

Albany 30, May 1743. 
May it please your Honor 

We have rec'd. your Honoures letter of the 27"* of last month and have according to your 
Honor's orders sent the Interpreter up to Onondage with instructions conformable to your 
Honor's directions, which are here inclosed, and also the Answer which the Sachims of the 
Six Nations made thereto, your Honor will perceive thereby that the six Nations do not make 
any pretence on any lands in the Government of Virginia, But on the contrary declare that 
they had not any reason to abuse the people there, or to be any ways displeased with them. 
And that after using their utmost endeavours, it was not in their power to stop their people 
from going to fight to the Southward. But yet it seems by their Answer that they think the 
Virginia people used their men very ill in following them in a hostile manner only for killing 
a few cattle and in firing upon them thrice, as they say, before they returned it, they say 
farther that the OflScer which is left alive knows what they say to be truth, and that he 
could not deny it in their presence. But upon the whole the Sachims are inclined to make 
up the breach and to come to Albany for that purpose at any time that shall be fixed upon. 
But desire earnestly that the Governor of Virginia may be present. 

It is certainly of the greatest consequence to all the Northern colonies that this affair should 
some way or other be reconciled, and that in a very short time, which way to bring it about 
we do not know. But think it would be best that Collo. Gooch should either come himself or 
send a deputy here (which your Honour knows is the only place where our Indians will treat 
of publick affairs) in order to a reconciliation and at the same time we imagine that if a few of 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 241 

those Southern Indians were brought along agninst whom our Indians have so long warred, 
that it would induce our Indians to have a stricter regard to the treaty of peace made with 
your Honour in their behalf in 1740, If this affair be not settled in a short time we are very 
apprehensive some barbarous and faithless Indians living scattering from tiieir castles will again 
go and murder upon the frontiers of Virginia, which is not in our power to prevent, we 
have already had certain information that a party of seven such rascals living near Schaweno have 
lately been upon tiie march, but were stopped by a Castle of Cayouges, who lived that way, 
we have sent a message by two Indians who were here upon their own Business, to desire 
the Sachims about Shaweno to stop any party of Indians who may be so wicked as to go that 
way, which we believe they will very readily do. 

What we have said we submit to your Honors wiser judgment and can say no more but 
express our earnest desire that this unhappy affair may be brought to speedy Issue by some 
means or ther, which if it be not done will prove the greatest evil to this land that it ever felt. 

We are your Honors most humble 

and most obed' servants 

Myndert Schuyler 
John De Peyster 
JoHANNis Lansing jun' 
Nicholas Bleeker 
RuTGER Bleeker 
Hon'''^ George Clarke Esq' Stephanus Groesbeeck. 



No. 9. 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarhe to Governor Gooch. 

[ New-York Bundle, Gg., p. 88. No. 9. ] 

New York June the 16. 1743. 



Sir 

I have at length, for it has taken up a good deal of time, gotten an answer from the Six 
Nations, vphich I now send to you I will forbear to make many reflections on it, only this 
much will I venture to say. That as it is a matter of very great importance, I am persuaded 
you will not be hasty to take any steps that may lead to widen a breach that may involve all 
the Colonies in a warr, which in its consequences may plunge them into inexlricahle miseries, and 
procure to our natural enemy the French, what they are incessantly labouring to accomplish. 

The Sachims you see (and I am well assured of it) endeavour all they can to restrain their 
youth from these Excursions, but it is next to impossible, the Nations are resolved on their 
part to preserve the union I made and will be sorry to see it violated by a sharp resentment of 
the injuries committed by a few of their licentious youth (and they forced to it by hunger) 
over whom by the nature of their government they have no coercive power: reason and 
persuasion being their only authority. Your people and they differ widely in an essential point, 
viz' Who fired first, be that as it will, I hope some amicable end will be made of the business, 
& next to your treating with them in person, 1 realy think your sending some prudent person 

Vol. VI. 31 



242 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

■with one or two of each Indian Nation depending on Virginia, Carolina & Geogia to Albany, 
there to treat with the Six Nations, will have a very happy effect not only in healing this 
breach, but for preventing the like for the future. We are not I presume to insist on punctilio's 
with such people we are to consider them as they are or may be usefull or prejudicial to us, and 
if you look upon them in that light, they will appear to be the best barrier, against Canada, to 
all the Provinces, Wherefore I think we ought to preserve their friendship by all the means we 
can. If we lose them and the French gain them what will become of all the Povinces is but too 
obvious to every one, especially to your penetraction, Wherefore I forbear to say [any] more 
and will conclude with assuring you that I am 

Dear Sir &c. 
Governor Gooch 



Governor Oglei/wrpe to Lieutenant-Governor Clarice. 

[ Now -York Bundle, Gg., p. 89.] 

Frederica in Georgia Aprill the 22* 1743 

Sir ' _ _ 

I am to return you thanks for your Advices relating to the French and Indians intending to 

attack ours, to whom your notice got timely up. The Creeks (for the design was against 
them) are extremely thankful for the Intelligence, & have taken all measures for their defence, 
and, I believe, their march being discovered, will for some time stop their attempting any 
thing. The Creeks have defeated one of their small parties which were Choctaws, and some 
Howakeeas, They have also taken one pryber who has been some time attempting to set up a 
town of fugitives, they intercepted him going to the Spaniards and French, and took a great 
part of his papers upon him, and brought him and them to me. Our Enemies are labouring 
to stir up the Indians against us, maintaining correspondences, and Employing Emissaries on 
all hands, amongst the Ruffians, run away slaves &c* — You have shewed great vigilance and 
activity in preventing their plotts, I wish others had followed your Example, but with grief I 
fear the want of that diligence in some people. All looks very black round us, and Our King 
and Country's Cause requires every Man's Heart and Hand. 

The Spaniards had enlarged their Quarters to St. John's River, It was reported that they 
intended to attack us, I went down to meet them, God was pleased to prosper us so farr that 
the usual terror took them and they retired within the Walls of Augustine. I followed them 
up to that place and our Indians who were advanced before us, killed about 40 of the Enemy 
under the Cannon of the Town. One of the Spanish Soldiers just now taken confirms the 
advices, that they are making a great Armament at the Havannah, and as it is reported 
designed against this place. We have received no Cannon yet from England, and are in great 
want both of guns and shot. As the storm will first fall upon this Province and Carolina, it is 
the Interest of all America to assist as far as they can. 1 can not take Guns from Charles Town, 
since they may probably want them much about the same time with us. If you could spare 
any iron shot, or any eighteen pound Cannon, if you would be so kind as to send such number 
as you could spare, it would in my opinion be greatly for His Majesty's service and perhaps be 
the saving of this Colony and the Troops here. I have ordered M' Houstun to wait upon you 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 243 

with this, and if you send us the Shot and Guns I have ordered him to defray all the charges 
for getting them hither. All here are resolved to defend the province to the utmost, and the 
Creek. Indians are highly Zealous, notwithstanding the Artifice of the French. We shall have 
a formidable body of them as also assistance from the Chickesaws, Contaubas & some of the 
Cherokees, though the FVench have lately got an interest in several of them by their artifices. 
I fear I am too tedious, but by the next opportunity shall write other particulars. Permit 
me to recommend myself to the continuance of your friendship and believe me to be, 

Sir, 

Your most obedient 

humble Servant 
The Hono"'' George Clarke Esq' James Oglethorpe 

Affidavit of John Grigg 

Province of 1 

New York ss j This day personaly appeared before me George Clarke Esq' His Majesties 
Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief of the Province of New York John Griggs of 
the City of New York Marriner, And made oath on the Holy Evangelists of Almighty God, 
and deposed as followeth, that is to say — 

That he the Deponent on or about the twenty ninth Day of January 174J together with four 
other persons belonging to Captain Charles Davison of the S' Andrew Privateer, being on 
shore at Florida Keys, were taken by the Florida Indians, and some time in the next month 
(February) were carried to the Havannah, where this deponent remained a prisoner till the 
Sixth of March last, when he was thence relieved by a Flag of Truce sent from Providence, 
together with upwards of seventy other prisoners, who with him sailed from the Havannah on 
or about the sixth day of March. That during the Deponents stay at the Havannah the 
Spaniards were then building two Seventy Gun Ships, one of which was near finished when 
the Deponent came away, And that there were then at that post eleven sail of Spanish men 
of War and Sixty or Seventy Guns or thereabouts, Sir Mark Forrester, an Irishman by birth, 
being Commodore under the Spanish Admiral, that most of the ships were very old and leaky 
and unfit to go to sea, and all of them unrigged, and very weakly manned. That the Deponent 
had the liberty of walking about the Town for about four or five months before he came away 
from the Havannah, and was often in the ship yards and helped to work there, and on board 
their vessells, and had opportunity of seeing all the vessells there, that there were no Galleys 
building at the Havannah while he was there, and that the Spaniards then had but one 
belonging to the fort which was out on a cruise, and that there were no forty gun ships there, 
nor any men of war of less than sixty guns, except the Snow called the King's Snow. 

And the Deponent further deposeth and say'd that during the time the Deponent was at the 
Havanah seven sail of Spanish Privateers sailed from thence to cruise on the English, That is 
to say a Snow of Eighteen Carriage and Eighteen Swivel Guns bound for Guinea, Two French 
Sloops which came from Martinico, there, for Commissions, both Bermuda built and large sloops, 
the one carrying twelve carriage guns and one hundred men, the other fourteen carriage guns 
and one hundred and ten men besides swivils. The aforesaid Snow called the Kings Snow 
(the same which some time since took Captain Phoenix of this place) carrying sixteen carriage 
guns and one hundred and twenty men, and a Scooner having Topsails and cross Jack Yards 



244 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

aloft and carrying twelve carriage guns and one hundred men, And that these two last sailed in 
Company together. Two Sloops, the one a large New Sloop, Havannah built, having a white 
woman's head for her head, and top sail guards aloft, carrying twelve six pounders and one 
hundred men, tho more were intended to be taken on board but could not be got. The other 
a Bermuda built sloop lately belonging to Capf Whitney carrying fourteen carriage guns 
besides swivels and one hundred and twenty men, commanded by one Paunche or some such 
name, and is the same who was some time since taken by Captain Norton, and carried into 
Rhode Island, whence he got to the Havannah, And who is a person sayd to be well acquainted 
with these coasts. And that these two last sailed about a month before the Deponent. 

And the Deponent further deposed and sayd that he was informed at the Havannah that the 
six last named vessels were intended to cruise on these coasts. The two French sloops being 
first to go to St. Augustine and thence of the Bar of South Carolina, and that the said Deponent 
in particular was informed thereof by one Michael Beesby, a Bristol man, of small stature and 
Brown complexion & pock fretten. And by one Spencer late of Connecticut, a tall spare man, a 
Taylor by trade, who were both on board the King's Snow, the first as a Voluntier and the 
last by compulsion. 

And the said Deponent further deposed & say'd, That a ship lately called the James and Joseph, 
London built, with a sloop lately commanded by Captain Perdue of Philadelphia, were fitting 
out at the Havannah for a cruise. And that the former was to carry eighteen carriage guns 
between Decks and one hundred and forty men ; And the said Deponent verily believes and 
was credibly informed that the above account of the number of the guns and men each vessel 
carryed as aforesaid, is a just & true account, and that while he was a prisoner at the 
Havannah the Spaniards by way of Bravado gave out that they would lay of this port or 
Colony, and would even come on shore here. 

And this Deponent further deposed and sayed. That no man of war sailed for Europe from 
the Havannah while he was there. And that during that time he never heard any talk of their 
having any Design to attack Georgia, But that they were much afraid that the English would 
attack St. Augustine, And that he the Deponent had heard they were to send three or four 
luindred men for the defence of that place, if wanted. And that the Spaniards owned to him 
that they had lost five hundred men at Georgia, which place they sayed they should have taken* 
but that the Governor of St. Augustine was a coward, and did not know how to give orders. 

And the said Deponent further deposed and sayed that he left about two hundred and forty 
English prisoners at the Havannah. A great part of whom sayed and declared that if they 
were not quickly relieved, they would take on, in the Spanish service, And that the Spaniards 
declared that if the Spanish prisioners were sent to Providence, they would exchange 
Englishmen for them, and desired that notice might be given thereof. 

And lastly that the King's Snow & Scooner sailed about six or seven months before the 
Deponent left that place, and had sent in a brigantine belonging to Boston commanded by one 
McTagget, but that they had not been heard of since. And that the common Cruising Grounds 
of the Spaniards is in the West Indies in the Winter, & the northern parts in the summer.'' 

John Grigg 

Sworn this 24 May 1743. 

Geo. Clarke 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 245 

Lieutenant-Governoi' Clarice to the Diike of Newcastle. 

[New-York Papers, (8. P. O.) No. 9, p. 161. ] 

New York June 19"> 1743. 
My Lord. 

I do myself tlie honor to lay before your Grace the present State of His Maj'" provinces with 
respect to the French who surround them, wherein I have presumed to hint at a method to 
preserve them from becoming a pray to our natural Enemy — In the mean time I propose in 
my letter to the Lords of Trade, the copy whereof I do myself the honor to send to your Grace, 
that an important place called Tierondequat on the lake Cadaraqui, be garrisoned by a 
detachment of twenty men a comp^ from the four independant companyes posted in this 
province, desiring their Lord?' if they approve of it to recommend it to your Grace. The 
French have for some years been attempting to get leave from the Five nations to build there 
a Trading house or a Hutt, or any thing (that might give them a pretence to keep us from 
thence), but I have had the good fortune to defeat them in that design, and to obtain a gift of 
that place for the Crown, where there is an excellent harbour for building the vessells, proposed 
in the inclosed paper — 

General Oglethorpe expecting another attack from the Spaniards and being destitute of 
Artillery and shot, wrote to me for some, I have with the advice of the Councill lent him 14. — 
12 p"^' with carriages, but the carriages being old and no wheels to tiiem, the Commissary 
whom the General sent would take only the guns ; shot we have not enough for our own guns, 
so that I could spare none. 

That I may not trespass longer on your Graces patience I beg leave to referr to the inclosed 
papers and letter to the Lords of Trade and most humbly to crave Your Graces protection, 
being with the most profound submission 

My Lord i 

Your Graces 

most humble, most obedient and 

most dutiful servant 

His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. (signed). G.Clarke 



Lords of Trade to Lieutenant-Governor ClarTce. 

[New- York Entries, M., p. 257.] 

To George Clarke Esq' 

Sir. 

Since our letter to you of the 3'' of November 1742 a Duplicate whereof has likewise been 
sent We have read one from You of the 29"" November 1742 together with the papers therein 
referred to. Governor Clinton who is upon the point of setting out for his Governm* will brmg 



246 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

with him his Majesty's presents to the Indians : We contributed thereto as far as was in our 
power, by representing in favour of them. 

We are sorry to hear the Trading House at Oswego is in so bad a condition as to its 
Fortifications and Garrison ; But we hope the New Gov' with whom we have had some 
Discourse upon this Subject will do his best towards inducing the Assembly to provide for its 
security and prevent its falling into the hands of the French in case of a Rupture betwixt 
us and them. 

We doubt not but you will take the same good care of the Government as you have hitherto 
done, 'till the arrival of M"' Clinton. 

We have transmitted to his Grace the Duke of Newcastle for his Majesty's Information an 
Extract of Your letter as far as relates to Oswego and the Furr Trade carried on by the French 
by the lake of Cadaraqui. 

So we bid You heartily farewell, and are 

Your very loving friends 

& humble Servants 

MONSON 

M. Bladen 
Whitehall R- Plumer 

July 27'" 1743 B. Keene. 

P. S. We have not reced the Minutes of Council in New York between y^ 14"" of April 1739 
& the 29'*' of Sept'"' 1740, and the Naval Officers Accounts from Lady Day 1739 to Lady Day 
1740 are wanting. We desire therefore you will send us both by the first opportunity. 

MoNSON. 



Points in support of Governor ClintorUs Application for certain Allowances. 

[New-York Papers. (S. P. O.) No. 9, p. 178.] 

Short heads to show the reasonableness of Governor Clinton's application for an 
allowance by way of equipage money. 1743. 

1" Upon the apointment of Governors the Crown have frequently made an allowance by- 
way of equipage money in order to assist 'em towards defraying the very considerable expence, 
the equipping and fitting them out for their own Govern" must necessarily occasion and this 
without any other reason; 

Whereas in Governor Clinton's case there are many strong reason's, to be offered 
in support of this application, For: 

2ii<i The Govern' of New York will not be near so valuable to Gov"- Clinton as it has been to 
his predecessors — The Province of New Jersey having always till now been united with New 
York, and under the same Government, and the salary paid by New Jersey has always been 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 247 

i£1000 besides other considerable advantages, so that the making New Jersey a separate and 
distinct Govern' makes New York at least .£1000 a year less in value to Gov"" Clinton than it 
was to his predecessors. 

3'''' Former Governors iiad the advantage of one of the four companyes, besides the paying 
all the four Company's, which were together at least ^£2000 per annum, but which from the 
present method of paying those Company's Governor Clinton will be totally deprived of. 

4rth Pormer Governours have always had a mojety of their salary's from the date of their 
Commission to the time of their arrival in New York, but which from the diflijrent method the 
Assembly's of New York have lately fallen into in raising and paying this salary. Governor 
Clinton will have no advantage of, but from the time he shall actually arrive at New Y'ork, and 
get an act passed for that purpose. 

5"" Former Governors have likewise had considerable advantages from granting lands — But 
Governor Clinton can expect no benefit of this kind, there being now no vacant lands 
remaining to grant. 

This Therefore hoped it will be thought reasonable to make Governor Clinton an allowance, 
by way of equipage money, towards assisting him, in defraying the expences of fitting himself 
out for his Government. — 



Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade. 

[New-Tork Bundle. Gg., p. 93.] 

My Lords, 

I have the honour to acquaint your Lordships that I arrived here safe the 20"" September 
and have gone through the several formalities requisite for a Governour upon the occasion. 

I have dissolved the Assembly by advice of my Council, which I find gives a general 
satisfaction to the people, and I take the liberty to inclose the Speech I made to the Assembly 
for that purpose, which I hope will meet with your Lordships approbation 

As I have but just an opportunity of writing by a Ship ready to sail for England, I cannot 
now take it upon me to give your Lordships any farther account relative to my Government, 
and I am with very great respect 

My Lords 

Your Lordships most humble 

New York & most obedient Servant 

2^ October 1743 G. Clinton 

The R' Hon'-''^ the Lords of Trade & Plantations. 



248 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Governor Clinton to the DiiTce of Newcastle. 

[ New-Tork Papers. ( 8. P. 0.) No. 9, p. 1S2. ] 

My Lord. 

I desire Your Grace will permit me to acquaint you of my arrival here, and I have the honor 
to assure Your Grace I was well received at my landing and with great marks of favour. I 
have given a generall satisfaction to the whole province in dissolving the Assembly and calling 
a new one. T have likewise declared my intention of continuing every person in his place 
without exceptions, which was received very well by all partyes. 

I keep exceeding well with M"' Clark and show him all the favours I can, and consult him 
in affairs, but must be very cautious not to listen to fain to him, affraid he should lead me, into 
the same snares he did my predecessor, especially as he is to succeed me in my Government 
and I am determined to act with all the caution I can to prevent any complaints coming home 
to your Grace against me, at the same time I beg and hope to have your Grace's protection and 
support, in all that is right and just as Governour of this Province. 

1 ask pardon for taking up so much of Your Graces time — I am with the greatest respect 
My Lord 

Your Grace's most obleiged 

and most obedient humble servant 

New York 2""^ Octobre 1 743. (signed). G Clinton. 

His Grace Duke of Newcastle. 



Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-Tork Bundle, Gg., p. 94.] 

My Lords 

I had the honour to write to your Lordships 2'' of Ocf last and therein inclosed the Speech 
I made to the Assembly to dissolve them by advice of my Council, and I take the liberty to 
send to your Lordships a Duplicate thereof, as also the Speech I made to a New Assembly 
upon their meeting, and I hope the several matters recommended therein will have your 
Lordships Approbation. 

When I was appointed Governour of this Province your Lordships were pleased to deferr the 
naming to His Majesty some vacancies in the Council until I arrived at my Government, that 
I might nominate such as I thought proper for His Majesty's service. 

There are four vacancies in the Council by the death of M"" Vanhorn named in my Instructions 
and L' Gov'' Clarke refusing to take the Oaths, upon which I take the liberty to name to your 
Lordships the four following Gentlemen to be Members thereof viz* Peter Warren, Joseph 
Murry, .John Moor, and Jeremiah Renselaer' Esq" all of great loyalty & probity and of 

' See note, post IX, 1039. —Ed. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 249 

considerable fortunes in this Province where they reside, and I hope therefrom that His 
Majesty will please to appoint them. 

Having receiv'd a Dispatch from Andrew Stone Esq'' Secretary to the Lords Justices, 
commanding me to employ the most effectual means for putting this Colony in the best posture 
of defence against any sudden attempt that might be made upon them in case of a rupture 
with France, I herewith inclose to your Lordships my letter thereupon (drawn up in Council) 
to the Commissioners appointed for Indian Affairs, and their Answer thereto together with my 
letter to the Col. of Militia at Albany, which is all I coud do upon the occasion for the present. 
I am with very great respect 

My Lords 

Your Lordships most humble 
New York and obedient servant 

18 Nov 1743 G. Clinton. 

The R' Hon"'^ the Lords of Trade & Plantations. 



Governor Clinton to the Commissioners of Indian Affairs. 

[New-Tork Bundle, Gg., p. 94.] 

New York 19"^ Ocf 1743. 
Gentlemen, 

Having received a dispatch from Andrew Stone Esq' Secr^ to the Lords Justices signifying 
to me that their Excell" having taken into consideracon y* p'sent uncertain state of Publick 
Affairs & y^ danger that His Majesty's Dominions in America may be exposed to from any 
suddain attempt that might be made upon them in case a rupture with France should ensue 
unless timely care be taken to put the same into a proper posture of defence; Their Excellys 
have therefore commanded me to Imploy the most effectual means for putting this Colony in 
the best posture of Defence that shall be possible and be constantly on the guard against any 
surprize from any Quarter. And I having in pursuance of their Lordspps Comands taken into 
consideration y"' great probability of a speedy rupture with France and having advised with His 
Majesty's Councill concerning the necessary steps to be taken to put our frontiers in your 
County in the best posture of defence the present season of the year will admitt of, and it being 
thought highly necessary for His Majesty's service and the security of this Province, that the 
Garrison at Oswego be reinforced with a Corporal and nine private men and a sufficient quantity 
of powder and ball with the utmost expedition, I have therefore sent orders to the commanding 
Officer at Albany to detach and send them forthwith to that Garrison if it be practicable. But 
as it is necessary that a supply of provisions should be sent with them I must desire you 
Gent" to use your utmost endeavours to get some person or persons to contract for the carrying 
up the said men and Ammunition to Oswego. And to supply tho.se men with a sufficient 
quantity of provisions for their subsistence in going up and untill the next Spring; And you 
are desired to take care that proper Battoes be provided for carrying them up and a good 
steersman for each battoe; And it being also thought highly necessary that at the least four 
Vol. VI. o2 



250 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Indians be imployed as Scouts at Oswego to discover the Motions of the French, You are 
likewise to send up what strouds, blani^etts & cottons you shall think necessary to be given 
y° from time to time as a Reward for their services, And some man who well understands the 
Indian language is also to be sent by you to Oswego if there be none already there, who is to 
reside there untill the next Spring as Interpreter whom you are to direct and instruct to procure 
those Indians & to take care that they be active men and such as may be relied on, And with 
the detachment afsd you are to take care that a sufficient quantity of provisions especially bread 
be likewise sent up for the subsistance of the Indians and Interpreter. 

And His INIajestyes Service requiring that you as well as the Commanding Officer of the 
Militia at the furthermost settlement of the Mowhawks Countrey should have timely notice of 
the motions of the French, you are also to imploy some able and proper Indians as Scouts to 
observe them and to give you and him immediate notice of what they shall observe to be doing 
among the French or by them or their emissarys, that the said Commanding Officer may be the 
better able to execute such orders as he shall receive from me. And you enabled to give me 
notice of what shall be transacted. And the expences that may arise by virtue of the several 
things aforesaid as they are evidently for His Mat'^^ service & y= immediate security of y^ 
Province, I make no doubt but y'^ Assembly will fully provide for the paym'of. And you may 
be perfectly assured I shall recommend it strongly to them at their first sitting. 

Thus you see that I have done all in my power at present for the defence and secuiity of the 
Frontiers and particularly of that important place Oswego. It is your part now to see that 
these my directions have their intended effect, And that you use your utmost Endeavours to 
preserve the Five Nations steady to His Majesty, And I shall meet them as early as possible 
next year, of which you shall have timely notice 

G. Clinton 

Commissioners for Indian Affairs. 



Co?nmissioners of Indian, Affairs to Governor Clinton. 

[New-Tork Bundle, Gg., p. 94.] 

Albany 29*'' October 1743. 
May it please your Excy 

Since our last of 24 inst we receiv'd your Excy's favour of 19"" inst whereby your Excy is 
pleased to inform that you reed a Dispatch from the Lords Justices commanding your Excy to 
put this Colony in the best posture of Defence that shall be possible, and that in order thereto 
your Excy had thought proper to reinforce the Garrison at Oswego with a Corporal and nine 
men and a sufficient quantity of powder and ball if it shou'd be practicable. And also that four 
Indians shou'd be sent up w"" an Interpreter to reside there till the Spring all which we 
likewise judge to be necessary. 

Your Excy desires us to contract with some person or persons to advance w' shall be 
necessary for provisions, batto's, steersmen fcc'' upon credit of the Colony, which we have 
endeavour'd to do, but no person here will undertake to advance that sum, which wou'd 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 251 

amount to near ^300 at this season of the year without knowing when to gett it repaid, severall 
persons having done the like before and were oblig'd to stay above two years for their mony. 
The Assembly refusing to pay it out of any other fund but the Oswego Dutys, which are not 
able to pay more than a single garrison as we are informed. 

We cou'd not gett Steersmen for tlie batto's under £1. — ; each, and then they woud not go 
unless two were in a batto, and at least four batto's wou'd have been wanted. And as the season 
of the year is so far advanced, that it is very uncertain whether they coud have gott to Oswego 
by reason of the Ice, we are humbly of opinion that it is better they shou'd stay than go, and 
run the hazard of loosing all the provisions and then turning back. We have according to 
your Excy's orders hired an Interpreter one M'' Abi'" Wendell as Interpreter, who we think to 
be a fit person to go up to Oswego in a batto witii two IMoliawk Indians, and have ordered 
him to procure six or eight men more of the other five Nations to serve as Scouts, We have 
also contracted for provisions for them which M'' Wendell is to carry up in his batto, he goes 
in, Cap' Helling will send by him a Barrel of Powder & some flints. 

We hope your Excy will approve of our conduct, having done every thing for the best, and 
the Commanding Officer likewise judging it impracticable for the men to go up with provisions 
at this season of the year. 

Your Excy may depend, we will do our utmost endeavours to preserve the Six Nations 
steady to His Majesty's Interest, But as we cannot do what we think necessar)' in ord"" 
thereto, not having allowance sufficient from the Governm' to make the Indians the presents 
necessary to keep them firm & hearty in our Interest, in expectations of your Excys further 
Commands, We are, 

Your Excy's 

most obed' Humble Servants 

MvNDERE Schuyler 
Cornelius Cuyler 
Dirk Yon Brouk 
Jn" De Peyster 
R. Gerritsi 
Nicolaes Bleecker 
JoHANNis Lansing Jun'' 
W" Helling. 



Lieutenant-Governor Clarice to the Lords of Trade. 

[New- York Bundle, Gg., p. 96.] 

New York December the 12"' 1743. 
My Lords, 

I have the honour to receive your Lordships letter of the 7"" of July last, when I delivered 
over the Government to Governour Clinton, he found the Province in at least as much tranquility, 
and in a more nourishing condition than ever it knew, and I make no doubt but he will add to 
their Felicity; He informed me that my name stands in the Instructions in the List of 



252 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Councillors, and asked me to be sworn as such, I beg'd him to excuse me on the score of my 
Infirmities, lie complimented me by saying he should be glad of my advice, I assured him I 
would never fail to give it him to the best of my ability, whenever he would do me the honour 
to talk to me of business, I presume as the vacanciies in the Council are not filled up my name 
was left in of course with the others, or that His Excellency might know my inclinations before 
he recommended new Councillors, for I did not suppose it was imagined that I could act in 
that capacity after ] had had the honor for so many years to govern the Province in an higher 
character; besides, my private affairs require my presence in England. 

I have discoursed the Governour at large on the importance it is to this and all the other 
Provinces to preserve Oswego, and the fidelity of the Five Nations ; the French understand it, 
and use every art to weaken and seduce them, wherein they apparently succeed but too well. 
In the year 1740, I made an union of these nations, and all the other Indian Nations in 
allyance with the other Provinces, which was corroborated at my last Interview with the 
former in 1742, I perceive by the Governor's Speech, he proposes to unite all the Indians in 
allyance with the other Governments ; in truth its wanted for they are often in warr with each 
other, but how he will effect it I am at a loss to understand, unless it be with the participation 
of the Governors of the other Provinces, but perhaps that was concerted before he 
left England. 

I humbly thank your Lordships for the favourable opinion you have been pleased to entertain 
of my conduct during the course of my administration, it was the main support of my spirits 
in the time of the difficulties I had to strugle with, and I shall ever remember it with the 
utmost gratitude. 

The Minutes of Council which your Lordships told me were wanting, I sent by Capt" Bryant 
the 19"" of last June, by whom likewise I now do myself the honour to send to your 
Lordships the Naval Officers Accompts (mentioned in the Postscript to your Letter) from the 
25"' of March 1739 to the 25"> of March 1740. As also the Minutes of Council from the 27"' 
of April 1743, to the 21" of June following, from which time to Governor Clinton's arrival 
there was no Council held, some of the Council being in Connecticut executing the Commission 
for hearing and determining the controversy between that Colony and the Mohegan Indians, 
there were not a number in town to do business. The proceedings of the Council the last 
Session of Assembly, viz' from the 19"" to the SO"" of April last, with the adjournments from 
thence to the 27"' of September, And the roll of persons naturalized from Decem"' 1742 to 
Decem" 1743. I beg leave to recommend myself to your Lordships protection, and am with 
the highest Respect and Honour, 

My Lords 

Your Lordships most humble 

and most obedient servant 
The Right Hono"'"^ the Lords of Trade Geo Clarke. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 253 

Governor Clinton to the Dulie of Newcastle. 

[ New-York Papers. ( S. P. 0.) No. 9, p. 194. ] 

My Lord. 

I take the liberty to acquaint your Grace that Lieut' Govern"' Clark has told me he proposes 
going from hence in the spring with his family, and has strongly pressed me to trouble Your 
Grace in behalf of his son Hyde Clark who is a Lieut' in my company here that you would 
be pleased to give consent to his being removed from hence into General Oglethorps Regim' 
to which the Lieut' Govern"' has wrott to the General, whereby he hopes with the interest of 
his Friends he may rise in the service, 1 shall be highly obliged to your Grace for your 
concurrance and interest therein, for this reason, that if Lieut' Clark is removed there will be 
a vacancy, and as all my predecessors upon the occasion has claimed the nomination of a 
successor, as an emolument of this Govern', so I hope it will be considered by Your Grace to 
speak to S"" Will° Young that I should be indulged with the like privilidge, since so great a 
part of my income is curtailed by an appointment of a Governor of the Jersey, and several 
large perquisites take off, which before was always an appendhx to this Govern' and without 
Your Grace will stand my friend for me to name the vacancy's here, I shall loose these little 
douceurs, which even the Lieut' Gov"' has found the advantage off. — 

I have too great a sence of the many Civilities received from Your Grace to desist from 
expressing it and am always, ready to repeat my thanks for your favours to me and to assure 
Your Grace that in all places and stations I continue with the highest respect 

My Lord 

Your Grace's most obliged and 

most obedient humble servant 

New York ae"" Jan-^ 174f (signed). G. Clinton. 

His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. 



Lords of Trade to Governw Clinton. 

[ New-Tork Entries, M. p. 213. ] 

To George Clinton Esq"' 

Sir. 

We have received Your letters of the 2*^ October IS"" November and 9"" of December 1743 
together with the several papers therein contained. 

In the first of these You acquaint us that you are safely arrived at New York and have taken 
upon you the Administration, of the Governm' after having gone thro the several Forma 
requisite for that purpose. 

We take this first opportunity of congratulating you upon both these occasions, not doubting 
but Your conduct will be such as will fully answer the confidence his Majesty has been 



254 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS, 

graciously pleased to repose in You, & the just Expectations of those over whom he has 
appointed you Governor. 

We have perused Your Letter to the Comm" of Indian affairs (a copy of which you send us 
in yours of the IS^ of Nov'"') & think you have done well in recommending so earnestly to 
them to provide for the defence & security of the Frontiers & particularly of Oswego & 
to cultivate the Friendship of the five Nations so necessary for His Majesty's Interest. 

We have recommended to His Majesty three of the four gentlemen mentioned in the same 
letter as persons every way qualified to supply the Vacancies in the Council viz' Peter Warren, 
Joseph Murry & John Moor Esq'* but have thought it more advisable to suspend our 
Recommendation of the fourth, 'till we see whether the Lieu' Gov'' continues in his resolution 
of not acting. So we bid you heartily farewell, and are, 

Your very loving friends 

& humble Servants 

MONSON 

M. Bladen 
R. Plumer 
Whitehall Ja. Brudenell 

Janry 27"" 174S B. Keene. 



Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade. 

• [ New-Tork Bundle, Gg., p. 99. ] 

My Lords, 

I did myself the honour to write to your Lordships the Id"" May last, acknowledging your 
favour to me of 27"' January a duplicate of which I have inclosed, and therein gave you my 
reasons for recommending M'' Rensalaer to be one of the Council in the room of M'' Clarke 
which I hope are weighty enough to have him appointed. 

I have inclosed to your Lordships my speech to the Assembly upon their meeting, with the 
Council & their Address, as also the Grand Jurys, and you may observe, I have not failed of 
recommending to their deliberations, the immediate necessity there was to provide amply 
for the safety of this Province, at so critical a conjuncture. 

Your Lordships may also observe by the inclosed messages I have sent to them, that upon 
the intimations I have receiv'd of war being in all appearance declared by France against His 
Majesty, I thought they had not fully answer'd my expectations in raising sufficient supplys 
to repair our Fortifications, and pointed out to them in my first message, such things as I 
thought were highly necessary upon the occasion, which your Lordships will see they have 
only considered in part, upon which I immediately dispatched a double Garrison of His 
Majesty's Troops to Oswego, and afterwards sent them another message to which they return'd 
me no answer as appears by the inclosed Extract of their Minutes. 

I have taken every other precaution in my power to guard against any surprize by sending 
circular orders to the respective Colonels of Militia, and to the Captains of His Majesty's 
Companys posted in this Province to inspect the Arms and Accoutrements of their men, and 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 255 

see that they are in good order and fit for immediate service, and tliat as often as conveniently 
may be they do exercise the men in arms keeping strict discipline, whereby they may be able 
not only to repel the French Forces, if this Province shou'd be attack'd by them, but to be also 
in a condition, if necessary, to attack them, pursuant to M'' Stone's letter to me of 3'' Sep"' last, 
by order of their Excellency's the Lords Justices, for which end I have issued the inclosed 
Proclamations to forbid the Exportation of Gun powder, or the supplying the French with any 
kind of provisions, warlike stores, or merchandizes. 

I have also sent Circular letters to the neighbouring Governours desiring they wou'd give 
the necessary orders to the people under their Government, especially those bordering on this 
Province, to be ready to march to our assistance on the first notice of the approach of an enemy, 
at the same time assuring them I shall make the like disposition in their behalf. 

I have inclosed to your Lordships the Minutes of Council since my arrival to 27 March last, 
together with the Acts of the Assembly ingrossed, which I am to desire you will please to lay 
before His Majesty in Council, for His Royal assent. 

I shall sett out to morrow for Albany, to meet the P'ive Nations of Indians, in order to 
renew their engagements of Peace with me, on behalf of His Majesty, and upon my arrival 
shall detach another party of His Majesty's Troops to the Fort at Saratoga for the defence 
of that place. 

This is all I have at present to trouble your Lordships with, and I hope you will believe I 
have done every thing within the compass of my abilities for the welfare and security of this 
Province, consistent with the honour and dignity of my trust, and nothing can contribute more 
to my satisfaction, if my conduct does answer that end, I am 

My Lords 

Your Lordships most obedient 

New York & most humble servant 

S"" June 1744 G. Clinton 

The R' Hon'"^ the Lords of Trade & Plantations. 



Governor Clinton to the Diike of Newcastle. 

[New-York Papers. ( S. P. C) No. 9, p. 195.] 

My Lord. 

I have the honour to acknowledge to your Grace the receipt of M' Stones letter of the S'"* 
Sepf last by order of their Excellencys the Lords Justices, signifying their directions to put 
this Province into an immediate posture of defence, and to be in such a condition, as to be able 
not only to repel the French forces, if they should attack the said province, but likewise to be 
in a condition if necessary to attack them. 

In compliance therewith I have notify'd their Excellencys orders to the Assembly upon their 
meeting, and have recommended to their deliberations the necessity there was to provide 
amply and immediately for the safety of this province at so critical a conjuncture, as Your 



256 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Grace may please to observe by my speech to them, which I have inclosed as also the Council 
and their address together with the grand Jurys. 

Your Grace may please also to observe by the inclosed messages I have sent to them, that 
upon the intimations I have received of war being in all appearance declared by France against 
His Majesty, I thought they had not fully answered my expectations in raising sufficient 
supplys to repair our fortifications and pointed out to them in my first message such things as I 
thought were highly necessary upon the occasion, which Your Grace will see, they have only 
considered in part, upon which I immediately detach'd a double garrison to Oswego, and 
afterwards sent them another message to which they returned me no answer, as appears by the 
inclosed extract of their minutes — 

I have taken every other precaution in power, to guard against any surprise by sending circular 
orders to the respective Coll' of Militia and to the Capt°' of His Maj''* comp^' posted in this 
province to inspect the arms and accoutrements of their men, and to see that they are in good 
order and fit for immediate service and that as often as conveniently may be, they do exercise 
the men in arms, keeping strict discipline, and the better to enable them to withstand an attack 
or to attack their enemy ; I have issued the inclosed Proclamations to forbid the exportation of 
Gun-powder, or the supplying the French with any kind of provisions, warlike stores or 
Merchandizes. 

I have also sent circular letters to the neighbouring Governors, desiring they would give the 
necessary orders to the people under their Govern' especially those bordering on this province, 
to be ready to march to our assistance on the first notice of the approach of an Enemy, at the 
same time assuring them, I shall make the like disposition in their behalf. — 

I shall set out to morrow for Albany to meet the five nations of Indians in order to renew 
their engagements of peace with me on behalf of His Majesty, and upon my arrival I shall 
detach another party of His Majestys troops to Saratoga for the defence of that place. — 

This is all I have at present to trouble Your Grace with, and I hope you will believe I have 
done every thing within the compass of my abilities for the welfare and security of this province 
consistent with the honour and dignity of my trust, and nothing can contribute more to my 
satisfaction if my conduct does answer that end — I am with the highest respect — My Lord — 
Your Grace's most obedient and most humble servant — (Signed) G. Clinton 

New York 5"" June 1744. 

His Grace the Duke of Newcastle ettc ettc ettc. 



Judge Hor-smanden to the Lords of Trade. 

[New-Tork Bundle, Gg., p. 106.] 

New York 4"' October 1744 
My Lord 

In obedience to His Majesty's Royal Commission for reviewing and determining the cause 
which has been long subsisting between theGovernour& Company of the Colony of Connecticut, 
& the Tribe of Moheagan Indians, it was my lot to be one of the Commiss" that attended the 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVII. 257 

execution of it the last year; I could almost have wislit, it had not fallen to my share, as a 
foretaste had been given me upon the last Commission of the great Trouble & Difficultys 
which would be the necessary attendants upon the occasion; And after Seven Weeks hard 
labour at the place adjourned to from the opening of the Commission, We have in my opinion 
at length effected this service only, Tbe bringing the Partys to make a defence, whereby 
materials are furnished for more competent Judges, to deliberate & determine upon. 

I must acknowledge, my Lords, I had not such quick penetration as to form any more than 
a general opinion upon the merits, merely from the pleadings, & arguments of the Council at 
the Bar; the proceedings being long and tedious, consisting of a great variety of facts & 
transactions, disguised (as your Lordships will perceive) with great artifice, & incumbered with 
much superfluous matter, so as to swell up a volume to a considerable bulk ; it could not but 
be a work of time to seperate the wheat from the chaff, & extricate the merits from that maze 
of obscurity, in which it has been so industriously involv'd, 

As I tiiought it my duty to deliver my sentiments, however mean, upon the merits, when I 
should have had sufficient time, maturely to weigh & consider the case, & satisfy my own 
conscience in the matter, therefore I reserved the opportunity of so doing, at the time the 
three Commissioners, (who were the majority) delivered their opinion in Court, upon which 
the Judgment was founded, at the same time declaring a dissent to it, as to some fundamental 
points in the case, upon which I conceiv'd the merits must necessarily hinge ; And having 
accordingly prepared myself, (as my leisure, & the multiplicity of the matter would admit of) 
to deliver my opinion on the Facts down to the year 1692 inclusive, I offered it in Court at 
the last sitting of the Commiss"; but it happening to contain some things displeasing to the 
Colony Agents, they opposed it's being entered in the Minutes of proceedings, according to 
the Liberty reserved, & a Majority of the Commissioners themselves overruled me; which 
conduct, however extraordinary, turn'd out as an indulgence, as it left me at large, not only to 
revise & reduce to a narrower compass, what I had then delivered, but also of going inlirely 
through the case. And, my Lords, I must own my concern to see such cogent reasons, for 
differing intirely in opinion from the three Commissioners who gave the Judgment. 

As to M'' Morris & my joining in signing the Judgment with the three Commiss" upon 
whose opinion the Jndgm' went, nothing more was, or ( as I conceive) can be judg'd to have 
been meant by us than to signify 'twas the Judgment of the Court, That is, of a Majority of 
the Commissioners, which is always esteemed the Judgment of the Court, Our Dissents to 
some principal points contained in their opinion, having been previously declared in Court, & 
entered in the Minutes accordingly ; though perhaps had that matter been more maturely 
considered, at a time of less hurry, we should not have sign'd it. However, my Lords, I 
thought 'twas proper this matter should be explain'd, in case much ado sho'' be made about 
that, which it does plainly appear by the minutes of proceedings we meant so litle by. For 
the Judgments in either Bench are tested by the Chief Judge, as the Judgments of the Court 
though the cases be ruled against their opinions. 

As to the Deed 40, on which great stress has been laid, (in my opinion upon the slenderest 
foundation) the Agents for the Governm' after hearing my remarks about it, declared they 
would send it home, & lay it before your Lordships to speak for itself, & have since brought it 
down to this place, & under that shew have got it certifyed as an Exhibit by two other 
Commiss" with myself, which I have too sufficient reason to esteem no more than a Feint as 
Vol. VL 33 



258 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

I express'd myself to one of the Agents at the time of my certifying it; For I would it were 
before your Lordships, its own Language upon the view of it I should have esteem'd significant 
enough to have superceded the necessity of my observations to justify my opinion of it, & I 
should gladly have spared your Lordsiiips the trouble of them. 

As to the two Indian marks for Uncas & Poxon, to the Copy of what is called the Original 
Deed 40 in your Lordships Book of the proceedings pa. 234, & to that of Secretary Kimberly's 
certifyed Copy page 243, they were made by myself, from the best Copy I could make from 
the Originals, after several Essays, they are similar to them, but not near so good as the 
Originals, I chose to make them myself, because I found the Clarkes in copying the proceedings 
had not followed the rule prescribed, as to them, nor the other Indian marks, especially as to 
Uncas's, to make them as similar as they could. For some are done at random without 
any imitation. 

I have told M"' Smith one of the Council for the Gov'' & Company, that he may have copys 
of my opinion, for his Clyents, paying for the Clarkship of them, that they may be left without 
excuse for delay at home. And I have told the same person I should acquaint your 
Lordships of the Offer I've made them, and likewise of the Declarations of their intentions of 
sending home the original Deed 40, And if they do not lay it before your Lordships, then my 
suspicions of their sincerity in that particular will prove to be well founded. 

When M"' Lane, M' Cortlandt & myself had finished the Examination of three copys of the 
Book of the Proceedings, the begining of March last, we sent one of them by way of Boston 
a few days afterwards to be transmitted to your Lordships by the first Vessell bound thence for 
London, & one of the Agents for the Gov' and Company had one delivered him, & M'' Samuel 
Mason another a few days afterwards ; But this is the first opportunity I have had of conveying 
my sentiments upon the case, since I had finished my opinion upon the whole. 

My Intention in my first Draught, was to set the matter in the clearest view it should appear 
to me in ; and to that purpose, to abstract the most material parts of several of the Instruments 
making notes of reference to the pages of the Book of proceedings where copys of the 
Instruments are to be found, which naturally drew me out to so great a length, as upon 
reflection I thought wo'' be too tedious for your Lordships perusal ; And lor that purpose I 
resolv'd to set about reducing it to as narrow a compass as possible considering the multiplicity 
of matter to be observed upon; And after all this did not answer my design, but upon further 
consideration, I tho' proper to trouble your Lordships with both, as some new observations 
occurred to me on drawing out the 2'^ and it may be both may be of some use to the Council 
concerned in the cause. 

My Lords, the Task has been very ungrateful as well as laborious, but if my endeavours can 
be thought to have contributed any thing towards setting the case in its genuine and proper 
Light, so as Justice may be done in it, I shall esteem my Trouble therein sufficiently recompensed. 
I am 

My Lords 

Your Lordships 

most obedient & most hble Serv' 

Dan. Hobsmanden. 

To The R' Hon"'''^ The Lords Commiss" for Trade &c. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 259 

Governor CUiiion to tlie DuJce of JVeivca-Hle. 

[New-Tork Papers. (S. P. O.) No. 9, p. 202.] 

My Lord 

I have the honour of your Graces letter of the 31" March, with his Maj'>'« Declaration of 
war against the Frencli King, as also his declaration for the encouragement of His ships of war 
and privateers, togetlier with a copy of the French Kings declaration, which overtook me at 
Soapus in my way to Albany, where I proclaimed His Maj'>'' declarations at the liead of a 
militia Regiment I was then reviewing, and upon my arrival at Albany, I made the lilie 
proclamation, as also in the Fort and Town Hall of this City, and caused the same to be done 
in the respective Towns and Countys of this province. 

I beg leave to acquaint your Grace that I have had an interview with the Five nations of 
Indians, and have renew'd a treaty of peace and alliance with them. In my speech I 
remonstrated to them the base conduct of the French Court, and how necessary it was on their 
parts to guard against the false insinuations and designs of that Crown, and strongly incouraged 
them to be faithful and steady in our cause, with assurances to pr.otect them against tiie assaults 
of their Enemys, and shall refer Your Grace more particularly thereto, as also to their answer 
which I have inclosed. 

There met me upon this occasion Commiss"^ from the Govern'^ of the Massachusets Bay and 
Conecticut to treat with those Indians, by my permission, in behalf of their Governments, to 
which I consented. The Gentlemen from Massachusets Bay had also a Commission to treat 
with me in conjunction with the Province of New Hampshire, and colonies of Connecticut and 
Rhode Island upon measures for sending a proper number of forces into Canada to distress 
the French in their Settlements, and to act jointly in concert with them for His Maj'^* service, 
in all respects against the common Enemy. To this I could give no other answer, but that I 
would recommend it to the Assembly, when they niett, and for my own part, I should be ready 
to contribute every thing in my power for that end, which commissions and proposals I have 
inclosed for Your Grace's perusal. — 

Soon after my return from Albany, I called together the Assembly, and in my speech (which 
I have inclosed). Your Grace may please to observe, that I have recommended to them in a 
particular manner, to provide for the safety of this province, and among other things that they 
would make provision for my appointing Commiss"'* to treat with the neighbouring Govern'^ for 
the necessary purposes before mentioned. 

I have also inclosed several messages I sent to them, and their addresses to me, during their 
sitting, whereby Your Grace will see, how backward they are in their deliberations, and that 
it is with the utmost difficulty to bring them to any tolerable resolution for the service of 
the publick, notwithstanding their safety and fortunes are concerned, being under strong 
apprehensions daily that our Frontiers will be attacked by the French, who are equally busy 
in their designs against us by sea, iiaving accounts lately of the arrival of four of their large 
ships of war at Cape Bretagne, and if they should not attempt any thing this winter, it may 
be reasonably thought, they will in the spring, as we have no Men of war to guard our coasts. 

The Council on this occasion has not been wanting to shew their zeal for His Maj'^' service, 
and have readily concurred with me in every step to induce the Assembly to tlie like conduct, 
who from the nature of their proceedings, seem averse to Govern' and have endeavoured to 
incroach upon His Maj'>' prerogative by the nomination of officers inserted in their mony 



2G0 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Bills for support of Govern", wiiich the Council have not power to alter, and it was with a good 
deal of difficulty before they were prevailed upon to give up that point. — 

Whatever may flow from the Assembly's want of attention to the business of consequence 
at this conjuncture, must be justly imputed to them, being satisfied, that I have taken every 
method to incourage this province in their Loyalty to His Majesty, and not only to provide for 
the safety of His Dominions in these parts, but also to distress and anoy the French in their 
settlements, Trade and commerce pursuant to your Grace's directions — 

The Officers of the Customs belonging to this port, have made application to the Judge of 
the Admiralty for his assistance in the recovering of duty's, claimed upon prizes that have or 
should be brouglit in here by His Maj'J'* ships of war or privateers, to which he answer'd, that 
he conceived none were due, and upon a hearing by Council, Judgment was given in favour of 
the subject. 

Commodore Warren was the first who brought in a French prize, since the commencement 
of the war, he refused to pay any duty for the same, and says the like was not demanded in 
the West Indies where he has sent many prizes. 

The Merchants of this City has been extreamly active in fitting out privateers, at a very 
great expence, and have brought in several prizes consisting chiefly of sugars, which from the 
nature of the duty claimed, would anticipate most of their gains. — I must therefore beg leave 
to move Your Grace, that you'll be pleased to interpose (in behalf of this city) with the 
Commiss''^ of the Customs to drop their pretentions to said dutys which will greatly incourage 
His Maj'J^" subjects, to annoy the Enemy — I am with the highest esteem My Lord — Your 
Grace's most obedient and most humble servant — 

New York (signed) G. Clinton. 

9"' October 1744. 

His Grace the Duke of Newcastle ettc ettc ettc 



Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade. 

[New-Tork Bnndle, Gg., p. 108.] 

My Lords 

I have had the honour of His Grace the Duke of Newcastles letter of 31 March, with His 
Majesty's Declaration of War against the French King, as also His Declaration for the 
encouragement of His !\Iajesty's ships of War & Privateers, together with a Copy of the French 
King's Declaration, which overtook me at Soapus in my way to Albany, where I proclaimed 
His Majesty's Declarations at tiie head of a Militia Regiment I was then reviewing and upon 
my arrival at Albany, 1 made the like Proclamation, as also in the Fort & Town Hall of this 
Cit)', and caused the same to be done in the respective Towns & Countys of this Province. 

I am now to acquaint your Lordships, that I have had an Interview with the five Nations 
of Indians, and have renewed a Treaty of Peace and Alliance with them; and in my speech I 
remonstrated to them the base conduct of the French Court, and how necessary it was on 
their parts to guard against the false insinuations and designs of that Crown ; and strongly 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 261 

encouraged them to be faitlifull and steady in our cause, with assurances to protect them 
against the assaults of their Enemys, and shall refer your Lordsps more particularly thereto, 
as also to their answer which 1 have inclosed. 

There mett me, upon this occasion, Commissioners from the Governments of the Massachusets 
Bay & Connecticut to treat with those Indians, by my permission, in behalf of their 
Governments, to which I consented. The Gentlemen from Massachusets Bay had also a 
commission to treat witii me in conjunction with the Province of New Hampshire & Colonys 
of Connecticut & Rhode Island, upon measures of sending a proper number of Forces into 
Canada, to distress the French in their settlements; and to act jointly in concert with them 
for His Majesty's service in all respects against the Common Enemy. To this I cou'd give no 
other answer; but that I wou'd recommend it to the Assembly, when they mett; and for my 
own part I shou'd be ready to contribute every thing in my power for that end ; which 
Commissions and Proposals I have inclosed for your Lordships perusal. 

Soon after my return from Albany, 1 called together the Assembly, and in my Speech (which 
1 have inclosed) your Lordships may observe that I have recommended to them, in a particular 
manner to provide for the safety of this Province, and among other things, that they wou'd 
make provision for my appointing Commissioners to treat with the neighbouring Governments 
for the necessary purposes before mentioned. 

I have also inclosed the Votes & Proceedings during their sitting, whereby your Lordships 
will see how backward they are in their deliberations, and that it is with the utmost difficulty 
to bring them to any tolerable resolution for the service of the Public, notwitlistandfhg their 
safety & fortunes are concerned, being daily under strong apprehensions, that our Frontiers 
will be attacked by the French, who are equally busy in their designs ag' us by sea; having 
accounts lately of the arrival of four of their large ships of War at Cape Britain ; and if they 
shou'd not attempt any thing this winter, it may be reasonably thought, they will in the Spring, 
as we have no Men of War to guard our coasts. 

The Council on this occasion has not been wanting to shew their zeal for His Majesty's 
service, and have readily concurred with nie in every step to induce the Assembly to the like 
conduct, who from the nature of their proceedings, seem averse to Government, and have 
endeavour'd to encroach upon his Majesty's Prerogative by the nomination of Officers inserted in 
their mony bill for support of Government, which the Council have not power to alter; and it 
was with a good deal of difficulty before they were prevailed upon to give up that point. 

Whatever may flow from the Assembly's want of attention to the business of Consequence 
at this conjuncture, must be justly imputed to them, being satisfied that I have taken every 
method to encourage this Province, in their loyalty to His Majesty ; and not only to provide 
for the safety of His Dominions in these parts; but also to distress the French in their 
settlements, trade and commerce, pursuant to His Grace the Duke of Newcastle's Directions. 

I am also to acquaint your Lordships that since I had the honour of writing to you, there 
has happened a vacancy in the Council by the death of M"' Lane ; and as I believe (for the 
reasons I have given of M'' Clarke's refusing to be a Member) M'' Rensalaer is appointed in his 
room, I must desire tiiat M' Stephen Bayard (a Gentleman of like probity and fortune with 
those I have recommended to your Lordships) may be appointed in the room of AP Lane. It 
is a matter new to me, why my Recommendation shou'd be postponed in favour of M' 
Rensalaer, and that M"' Clarke shou'd be considered by you, as if I had not represented his 



2G2 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

conduct in a just light. 1 am conscious I liave siiewed him all tiie respect due to him, ami it 
is no addition to his character not to continue in Council upon my coming hither. 

The Officers of the Customs, belonging to this Port have made application to the Judge of 
the Admiralty for his assistance in the recovering of Dutys claimed upon prizes, that have or 
sho'd be bro* in here by His Majesty's ships of War or Privateers, to which he answered, that 
he conceived none were due, and upon a hearing by Council, Judgement was given in favour 
of the Subject. 

Commodore Warren was the first who brought in a French Prize since the commencement 
of the War, he refused to pay any Dutys for tlie same, and says the like was not demanded 
in the West Indies, where he has sent many prizes. 

The Merchants of this City has been extreamiy alert in fitting out Privateers, at a very great 
expence, and have brought in several prizes, consisting chiefly of sugars, which, from the nature 
of the Duty claimed, wou'd anticipate most of their gains. 

I must therefore beg leave to move your Lordships to interpose (in behalf of this City) with 
the Commissioners of the Customs to drop their pretensions to said Dutys, which will greatly 
encourage His Majesty's subjects to annoy the Enemy. I am with great respect 

My Lords 

Your Lordships most Obedient 

New York and most humble servant 

9"' October 1744 G. Clinton 

P. S. 

Not having time now to send your Lordships the Acts & Minutes of Council I shall inclose 
them by another ship that sails in a fortnight. 

The R' Hon""^ the Lords of Trade & Plantations 



Conference leticeen Governor Clinton and the Indians. 

[ New- York Bundle, Gg., p. 109, 110. ] 

[ Propositions made to the Six Nations of Indians. Viz' the Mohawks, Oneydes, 
Onondagas Tuskaroroes Cayeuges and Sennekes By His Excellency the 
Hon^'" George Clinton, Capt" General and Governour in chief of the 
Province of New York at the City Hall in Albany the IS"" June 1744. 

Present — Phillip Livingston \ 

James De Lancey { „ p, ■ ,, • • ^ ., 

T^ . I TT J ) ii.snrs 01 his Maiesties Council. 

Daniel Horsmanden 1 ' •' 

Joseph Murray / 

Tile Commissioners of Indian Afl!airs &ca.] 
Brethren, 

This Interview gives me the greatest pleasure as I am persuaded we meet with equal 
sincerity, in order to renew, strengthen and brighten the Covenant Chain, that has so long 
tyed you and the subjects of His Majesty the Great King of Great Britain, your Father and my 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 263 

Master in mutual Tyes of Friendship and benevolence, which I hope will be inviolably 
preserved and continu'd as long as the Sun and Moon enduretii. 

I have express orders from the Great King Your Father to do my utmost endeavour that it 
shou'd be kept bright & strong even unto the world's end ; and I do now assure you on my 
part, and in behalf of all His Majesty's subjects upon this Continent of North America, that we 
will on our parts for ever keep it sacred and free from rust, and I expect the same from you. 

[A Belt.] 

The Great King of Great Britain my Master and your Father, in pursuance of his 
engagements by Treatys having the last year sent an Army into Germany in maintenance of 
his Allies, for the preservation of the libertys of Europe, His Majesty's Forces were 
treacherously and contrary to the faith of Treatys attack'd by the French, who by the 
courage & vigour of our Great King & his Army, were beaten, and obliged to retire cross a 
River, in which many of the Enemy were drown'd, and those who escaped destruction iled 
into their own country. 

That afterwards the French joined their Fleet with that of His Majesty's Enemys, the 
Spaniards, in order to attack part of his [Maties] Fleet, and our ships beat them in conjunction ; 
but not content with this, to shew his malice. The French King declared war against our King, 
and his Majesty has declared war ag' the French, which was published at Albany the IS"" 
instant. I wou'd have sent a Messenger to your several Castles to acquaint you of this, had 
you not been on your journey so near to this place. 

I do earnestly recommend to you to be on your guard against the French, who you know by 
wofull experience to be a false & treacherous People ; and that you stay at home, to watch 
their motions, there, to receive my directions concerning the war, and to transmit such 
Intelligence as you shall gett concerning the Enemy, from time to time, to the Commissioners 
of Indian affairs. 

I promise in the name of the Great King our Father to defend you ag' any assaults or attacks 
from the French, to the utmost of my power, and there are Commissioners now here from two 
of the neighbouring Governm'*, the Province of the Massachusets Bay, and the Colony of 
Connecticut, who are come to renew and strengthen the Covenant Chain, on their parts, and 
have given me assurances that they will unite with me, and you in promoting their and our 
mutual safety and defence, and the annoyance of the Common Enemy : As you are a wise 
People you must be convinced the French have always been aiming at nothing less than to 
enslave you, and the King of Great Britain has nothing more at heart than to make all his 
subjects and children, a happy & flourishing people, (as you have great reason to be sensible 
of) to free you from the first, and to promote the latter ; I expect you will to the utmost of 
your power assist His Majesty's subjects in the vigorous prosecution of this just war ag' the 
French King, and his subjects and all such as do or shall adhere to him, and join with us in 
the same, both offencively & defencively whenever you shall be called upon to it, as well 
becomes the faithful! and dutifull children of our great King: To this I expect you will give 
me a plain and satisfactory answer. 

[A Belt.] 

While we have a place of defence at Oswego, which you cannot but be sensible of, from 
long experience, is a great benefit & advantage to you, by having all necessarys brought to 
your country, and sold to you at your own doors at moderate & reasonable rates ; Whereas the 



264 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

French considering tlieir own private interest only, enliance tlie price of their commodities, 
and sell them dear, which you have likewise long experienced; and they wou'd be still dearer 
if you shou'd loose the benefit of that place. I acquaint you that I have sent six pieces of 
Canon up to the defence of Oswego, and a reinforcement of soldiers, with a supply of arms, 
powder & ball, and I expect as the Place is of such importance to you, as well, as to His 
Majesty's Subjects, in your protection, & preservation that you will readily and willingly at all 
times with the utmost cheerfullness and vigour, defend the same from all efforts & attacks 
which may be made by the French, for by the neglect of that Place of security, you may 
enslave yourselves, and put on shakles, which neither you nor your posterity may be ever able 
to shake off"; whereas you are now a free & happy people enjoying the inestimable benefit of 
liberty under the protection of the best of Kings & Fathers, who has the welfare of his 
subjects & children most warmly at heart; His Majesty is a strenuous asserter of the material 
rights and freedom of Mankind in General ; and in maintenance of the Common Cause and 
the defence of the Liberfys of Europe, hazarded his invaluable life in the attack, and defeat 
of the French Army the last summer. 

[A Belt.] 

The Sennecas & Cayougas promised at their last [general] meeting at this place to remove 
their Castles, and reside together as formerly your Ancestors did; which (if you have not 
already done) I hope you will comply with as soon as possible, for it is the more necessary at 
this time of War: Settling together in a body will greatly add to your strength, and heighten 
your reputation ; by rendring you more formidable, whereas a scattered and divided people 
abate of their strength, and the easier become a prey to their Enemys. 

[A Belt.] 

You likewise promised at the last Interview not to suffer the French to reside amongst you 
and I hope & am fully persuaded, you will strictly observe these, and all other your 
engagements, by Treatys, so frequently and solemnly renewed, ratify'd & confirm'd as we are 
now in actual war with the French and that you will not suffer them to settle on any part of 
your lands which may give them such a footing in your Country, as in time may endanger 
the whole. 

You well know their aims, in their attempts to draw you off from the obedience & fidelity 
you owe to your Father, & Defender the Great King of Great Britain, is your destruction ; 
wherefore as you tender your own preservation and security, I trust that if any of them shou'd 
come amongst you for the future, You will immediately banish them, or deliver them to my 
officer at Oswego. 

[A Belt.] 

Answer made by the Sachims of the Six Nations, viz' The Mohawks, Oneydes, 
Onondages, Tuskawres, Cayouges & Sennekes to His Excellency the Hon"^ 
George Clinton Gov'' & Commander in Chief of the Province of New York 
ficC at the City of Albany 20"' day of June 1744. 

[Present — His Excell'^y the Hon''"'' Geo Clinton 
Philip Livingston ] 

Daniel Horsmanden vEsqrs of his Maties Council 
Joseph Murray ) 

The Commissoners of Indian affairs Mayor & Alderm" &c.] 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVII. 265 

Brother Corlaer & Queder 

You spoake to us lately, and we promised to give you an answer which we now come to do. 

We have well understood what you have said, but cannot repeat it all as you spoake it to us, 
but we will however answer every Article. 

You told us that you was very glad to see us here to renew and strengthen the Ancient 
Covenant Chain made between our Forefathers, and that you had express orders from our 
Father your Master the Great King to renew & strengthen the same, which you have 
accordingl}'^ done on your part. We the Six Nations do now also on our parts renew stengthen 
and brigiiten the same Covenant Chain, which we will keep so, as long as tiie Sun endures we 
will preserve it so strong, & so bright, that it shall not be in the power of the Devil himself, 
with any of his wiles and arts to break or dirty the same. 

Gave a Belt of Wampum. 

Brother 

You told us that the Great King our Father had sent an Army into Germany, which was 
treacherously attacked by the French, But that our Great King defeated the French Army, 
kill'd some, some were drowned in a River, and the remainder fled, and that afterwards the 
French joined their ships with those of the Spaniards to attack the ships of the Great King 
our Father, but were again defeated, and that the French were then not yet contented but 
proclaimed war against our Father the Great King which our King did then also against them, 
and that it has also been declared in this place a few days ago. 

We the six Nations have well understood what you have said concerning the war. We cannot 
answer to every particular, but do promise that we will keep all our people at home, and there 
expect orders from our Brother, and we will be upon our Guard to watch the Enemy, and we 
answer our brother in General that we will do in all things relating to this War, as you have 
desired us, whereupon we give 

this Belt 

Brethren' 

We just now told you, That we wou'd do as you desired us; We do yet well remember 
that we went with you to assist you against the French in the Expedition against Canada. 

We look upon ourselves to be a warlike people and never entered into a war with any 
Nation, but in the End we have gott the better of them, but yet we are inclined to Peace, 'till 
the Enemy attack some of His Majesty's subjects, and then we will join together to defend 
ourselves against them. 

gave a Belt. 

Brother 

Concerning the House at Oswego, you told us that you expected we wou'd assist in defending 
it against the Enemy. You also told us that you thought that house very beneficial to us, as it 
supplys us with goods, We have thought proper at this time to say something concerning the 
Trade, the first year or two after that house was built goods were cheap ; and it was a pleasure 
to trade there, but now goods are sold so dear at that place, that we cannot say we think it 
advantageous to us upon the Account of trade. We wou'd now desire of your Brother that 
goods may be again at the same rate as the first two years. 

' Sie. Brotber. A^etcYork Couwil Minulef, XIX., 259. — Ed. 

Vol. VI. 34 



266 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

The Commanding Otiicer who is now at Oswego, we desire of our Brother that he may stay 
there, We hke him better than any other. 

We are thankfull that you have sent Cannon to Oswego to defend that place ag' the Enemy. 

Brother 

It has always been customary to recommend to us to keep up a Correspondence with the 
far Nations, wliich has at this time not been done, however we will do all we can to keep 
friendship with those Nations, who are united with us, and then we can overcome any 
Enemy whatever. 

Gave a Belt 

Brother 

You remind us of the promise the Cayouges and the Sennekes made two years ago, to 
remove their Castles & to settle in a body, and you told us how necessary this is, especially at 
this time of War, of which we are convinced. We do now acquaint you that we are busy to 
do as was promis'd, and the Oneydes also promise to gather together their people and to settle 
in a Body. 

Gave half a Belt. 

Brother 

You also desired that we shou'd not suffer any French to reside amongst us, and that if any 
came into our Country, we shou'd either banish them or deliver them to the Officer at Oswego, 
We have just now told you that we are inclin'd to Peace, & will expect the attacks of the 
Enemy, and shou'd we now take hold of any French that come among us, We shou'd be the 
Aggressors ; Wherefore we leave it to you to do with the French that may come into our 
Country as you shall think proper 

Gave half a Belt. 



His Excys Reply to the foregoing Answer 

Brethren 

As to the Trade of Oswego, you may be assured, I will do the utmost in my power that 
Goods shall be sold you, at the cheapest & most reasonable rates at all times. 

I well approve of your keeping up a good Understanding & Correspondence with the far 
Nations, and am pleased at the manner of your mentioning it, they being linkt with you, will 
become an accession of considerable strength, which will make you still more formidable. 

As you intend to speak, or correspond with those far Nations, I shall order you a Belt of 
Wampum to deliver in my name, in order to renew, & confirm the alliance between us, 
& them 

20'" June 1744. 

Note. — Tho words nnd passages -within brackets in the preceding document are added from the Record in Kevii-York 
Council Minutes, XIX., 253-261. — Ed. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 267 

Proposals of the Commissioners of Massachusetts. 

[ New-York Bundle, Gg., p. 118. ] 

Albany 20'" June 1744 
To His Excellency the Hon. George Clinton Gov"' of New York, To the Hon''''= Roger Wallcott 
& Nath' Stanley Esq" Commissioners for the Colony of Connecticut conven'd here to confer 
with the several Tribes of Indians, and in Concert with us the Commissioners of the 
Province of the Massachusets Bay, to consult & agree on proper measures for the mutual 
defence of His Majesty's subjects of the Provinces & Colony we represent, in the present 
War against the French, and such as are or may be their Abettors and Adherents, and for 
annoying the Common Enemy in such manner as may be thought most proper. 

Whereas the Conference with the said Indian Tribes which has hitherto taken up our time, 
is now in a manner over. We the said Commissioners for the Province of tlie Massachusets 
Bay, in the name of our Government do further propose to your Excy and Honours that it be 
now agreed 

First. That in case an Invasion shou'd be made by sea or land on either of the said 
Governments, by the French or Indians in present War, the other two shall hold themselves 
obliged to send succour to their relief, in such number & manner as may be reasonable & 
necessary, and as we shall now agree on. 

2'"> That a proportion of Men ( to be armed, subsisted and paid by the Governments that 
send them respectively) be agreed on, to scout and Scour the Woods in case of an Indian War. 

Z'^y To agree on a suitable number & proportion of good cruising vessells well arm'd & mand 
by the Governments respectively to guard our Sea Coasts. 

4thiy fo agree upon the most proper methods for our mutual information & notice of any 
approaching danger by Sea or Land. 

5ihiy -Jq consult about & agree to the most effectual measures of annoying the Indian Enemy 
in case they make War upon us. 

5thiy fo stipulate that no Peace be made with the said Indians or any Tribe of them, waring 
with these or either of these Governments without the privity & consent of the whole. 

^thiy fo consider the necessity or expediency of carrying the French War into their own 
settlements, and to agree on the proportion of Men each Governm' shall find in case of such 
an attempt. 

gthiy -j'q agree on what Incouragement shall be given the Indian or English Soldiers, we may 
send out against the Enemy. 

gthiy 'Yq consider whether it may not be proper in some suitable manner to desire the Gov'' 
of Canada to forbear their former practice of sending Scouts of French or Indians in small 
partys, on our frontiers to knock our Women & children in the head, and propose that he carry 
on the war in a manner more suitable to the usage of civilized nations, and to let him know 
that unless he conforms hereto, he will necessitate us to take the same methods with his people. 

John Stoddard 
Jacob Wendell 

Tho' Berry ^Commissioners. 

John Choate 
Tho' Hutchinson 



268 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Governor Clinton to the Dule of Newcastle. 

[ New- York Papers. (S. P. O. ) No. 9, p. 217. ] 

My Lord. 

W Clark the Lieut' Governour lately showed me two printed scheimes which he said were 
sent him from England ; the one is: 

Proposals for establishing by act of Parliament dutys upon stamp papers and parchment in 
all the British and American Colonys. 

The other — Some remarks on the most rational and effectual means that can be used in the 
present conjunction for the future security and preservation of the Trade of Great Britain by 
protecting and advancing her settlements on the North continent of America. 

As I presume those scheemes are handed about in order to be passed into a Law by the 
Legislature, I make no doubt but that Your Grace has seen them. — 

I must beg leave to make a short observation upon them. The People in North America 
are quite strangers to any duty, but such as they raise themselves, and was such a scheim to 
take place without their knowledge it might prove a dangerous consequence to His 
Majesty's in'erest — 

The other is calculated to appoint a General Officer to preside over the respective 
Governments upon the Continent, who is to have entirely the disposition of the Troops that 
might be raised by those dutys, which consequently must anticipate any power given to Capt° 
Gen" or Command"' in chief by virtue of his Commission under the broad seal and by that 
every Governour expects to command in chief; but by words of this scheem he can be no more 
than a Sypher in his Gov"' if the command of the Troops is given up to another, and with 
submission to Your Grace no Capl" General can ever dispense with such a superiority. 

As I am apt to think M'' Clark is concerned in these scheems in order to obtain the 
appointment of the Commissioner for Stamps in America as well as the inferior Officers under 
him (which no Govern'' will willingly come into) and as he is now out of power, he may be 
(if he obtains his own ends) regardless what factions such scheims may occasion; but as it. is 
incumbant on me to preserve the peace and tranquility as well as the faithfuU allegiance of 
His Maj'^ subjects within my Govern', I must beg leave to move your Grace that those Scheims 
be first referred to the respective Governours and their Councill to be duly considered and 
reported before they take place. 

I can justly say that no Governour before me has taken more pains then myself to work up a 
stubborn set of people who are of the Assembly, to a spirit of loyalty and a hearty zeale for 
His Maj'>" service abstracted from any interested views of my own, and had I not taken singular 
pains to move them to send a reinforcement of the Militia to Oswego which I had before 
doubled Garrison with His Maj'^* Troops; that important fortress must have been before now 
in the possession of the French — These reinforcements gave a fresh spirit to the Indians, and 
upon the Gover"^ of Canada sending to them he designed taking that place this fall, they boldly 
told him they would take up the Hatchett in defence of it upon which he has drop't any 
thoughts of attacking it this winter. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 269 

I shall in a more fuller manner acquaint Your Grace by the next opportunity with some 
observations of the nature of the Country for Your Grace's considerations and am with the 
greatest respect 

My Lord — Your Graces most humble and most obedient servant (signed). G. Clinton 

New York 13'^ December 1744. 

His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. 



Governor Clinton to the Diike of Newcaslle. 

[ Now- York Papers. ( S. P. O. ) No. 9, p. 21S.] 

13. Decemb-- 1744. 
My Lord. 

The 20"" of last month I had the honour of your Graces favour of 31" March with duplicates 
of His Maj'" declaration of war against the French King, and also one of 26"> April desiring 
that publick notice be given in all partes under my jurisdiction to the Agents for the Captors 
of Spanish prizes taken between the 10"' July 1739 and 19* October following to transmit 
their accounts and ballance to the Commissioner appointed for the distribution thereof, which 
I have accordingly done. 

I had also by the same packit His Maj'J'' orders signifyed by your Grace impowering me to 
enjoyn all Capl°' of ships to whom I may grant letters of marque or Commissions for private 
men of War against the King of Spain and the French King not to make prize of Dutch Ships 
upon pretence of their having on board Spanish or French effects, though contraband, 
contrary to the intention of the Marein Treaty, which orders I shall strictly observe and enjoyn 
all Captains to obey, that may have Commissions from me hereafter — 
I am with the greatest regard 
My Lord. 

Your Graces most obedient and 

most humble servant 
His Grace Duke of Newcastle. — (signed). G Clinton. 



Count Zlnzendorff to the Lords of Trade. 

[ Plantations General Papers, Vol. XIII., N. 76. ] 

To the Right Honourable The Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations. 

My Lords, 

Some years since (by an almost evident instigation of the Calvinist Clergy & a mean sort of 
people who thro' their ignoble disposition easily take occasion thereto) there has in the American 



270 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Colonies arisen an evil Custom of disturbing and burdening honest Men of all Sorts, who have 
settled themselves in those Colonies hoping to enjoy an unrestrained Freedom of Religion & 
in civil matters such an honourable liberty as is no way prejudicial to the honor of the Crown. 
I do not think it needfull to mention here the great multitude of Instances of injurious treatment 
w'*" are personally known to me, since my present Intention is not to accuse anybody but only 
to lay before Your Excellencies the Lords at the head of the British World in the West Indies 
the intrinsick State of Matters, as Your Lordships are able with one stroke of the pen to 
prevent so many thousand future Inconveniences, that an honest and benevolent Man on that 
account willingly forgets the smart of a multitude of Injuries already endured. 

I petition for two Declarations or Orders; 

The one to keep honest people as well strangers in, as inhabitants of, America from being 
chicaned with and plagued without the least reason & as it were only de gayete de Coeur. 

The Second that in the aforesaid Colonies no body but least of all the Indians shall be 
hindered from joyning with any Protestant Church whatsoever w"^*" in his ideas is the most 
solid, according to the measures taken for encouraging Foreigners to settle in the British 
Colonies in America. 

Your Lordships have so much wisdom that I think it not proper previously to trouble you 
with Arguments: But if for other people's sake (whose understanding & inclination is not in 
so good a Disposition as your Lordships') you sh"* desire that tiiose points about w'"" I have 
petitioned sh** be confirmed by some Proofs, I wait Your Lordships' order & am. My Lords, 

Your Lordships' most humble 

Maienborr & obedient Servant 

31 Dec. 44 Zinzendorff. 



Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade. 

[New-Tork Bundle, Gg., p. 137.] 

My Lords 

Since 1 have had the honour to reside in this Government, I have been favoured only with 
one letter from your Lordships of the 27"" of January last, acknowledging the Receipt of mine 
of 2 Ocf 18 Nov-- & 9 Dec' 1743. 

Since which, I have wrote to your Lordships the 14"' May last, acknowledging the receipt of 
that letter, and express'd my thanks for your recommending three of the Council, I had named 
to your Lordsps and therewith inclosed the Minute of Council of M' Clarkes refusing to be a 
Member thereof, in order to remove your suspension of recommending M'' Renselaer to 
succeed him. 

I also wrote to your Lordships 5 June following, & therein inclosed a duplicate of my last, 
as also my Speech to the Assembly of 17 April, together with the Council & their Addresses, 
and sundry Messages I sent to them, to make an ample & immediate provision for the safety of 
the Province & a speedy Reparation of their Fortifications, upon the Intimations I receiv'd 
of War being declared by France. By the same opportunity were sent the Votes of their 
Proceedings, the Minutes of Council ( wherein M' Clarke resigned his place of Councillor in 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 271 

Form, Also the Ingross'd Acts of Assembly for His Majesty's Royal Assent, and I acquainted 
your Lordships with my setting out for Albany the day after, to have an Interview with the 
Five Nations of Indians. 

To these two last letters I have received no answer, nor has it been signify'd to me by your 
Lordships, that your Recommendation of the Councillors has been approved, nor any intimation 
from the Board that the measures taken in my Government are agreeable, & thought consistent 
with His Majesty's service. 

I likewise wrote to your Lordships the Q"" October last & inclosed my Speech to the 
Assembly of IS"" July last, and therein I acquainted you with my meeting the Five Nations of 
Indians, and what was transacted upon that occasion, and 1 herewith send your Lordships a 
Duplicate of that letter, with what referrs thereto. 

It wou'd give me great satisfaction to know if my letters came safe to your hands, as 
opportunitys offer, and as the ships which convey'd them are returned, without any answers 
thereto, it gives me room to fear they are miscarried, or that I have not fully answer'd your 
Lordships expectations in my Proceedings, which I assure you are my intentions. 

I was not a little surprized to find Cap' Rutherford (upon his arrival here) appointed one of 
the Council, which has anticipated my recommendation to you of a very worthy Gentleman of 
this Province. M' Rutherford is but a stranger in this Country, and his appointment has greatly 
alarm'd the People, particularly those of the better sort, who expect to be promoted to that 
Preferment, as Vacancies happen, and I wish His Majesty's interest may not suffer upon this 
occasion, being apprehensive it will create a confusion in my Government, which I hitherto 
preserv'd in good harmony & free from faction ; and it is no easy matter to alay a tumultuous 
People, when once they begin, of which there has been strong instances in this Province. 

As Captain Rutherford resided at Albany, where M' Renselaer lives, whom I recommended 
to succeed M"' Clarke, it will cause a very great sedition among the People there, if he is not 
immediately appointed a Councillor, M' Clarke still refusing to be concerned for the reasons 
given you, and I hope he will be no longer indulged in that respect, and that M' Renselaer will be 
forthwith appointed, and his Warrant dated equal with those he was recommended, otherwise 
he won't accept of it. This Gentleman is of the most considerable fortune & influence in the 
County of Albany, and a very loyal subject, and able at all times to promote His Majesty's 
Service. 

From what I have said, I imagine your Lordships will think it requisite to suspend the 
nomination of any of the Council hereafter, until they are notifyed by me, being satisfy'd, that 
as I am upon the spott, I can best judge of their Inclinations and Power, and shall name none ; 
but such as are of the best Fortunes and Estates in the Country, zealous for His Majesty's 
service, and the welfare of the Province. I am with very great respect 
My Lords 

Your Lordships most obedient 

New York and most humble Servant 

2" Jan'T']744 G. Clinton. 

The R' Hon^" the Lords Com" of Trade & Plantations. 



272 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Governor Clinton to the Duke of Newcastle. 

[New-Tork Papers. (S. P. 0-) No. 9, p. 219 ] 

My Lord. 

Since my arrival into this Govern' I have had the honour to write to Your Grace the 2°* 
October, IS Nov"' 9 & 26. Dec' 1743. the 5"" June and 9"' Ocf last, acquainting your Grace with 
the nature of my proceedings to all which I have not been honoured with any answer, which 
I impute to your Graces engagements in matters of higher importance. 

In my letter of the IS"" Nov' I informed Your Grace that the Lords Commissioners of Trade 
had deferred the recommending to His Majesty, the filling up some vacancies in the Council, 
until I arrived here, and then I took the liberty to name to Your Grace four Gentlemen to be 
members thereof viz' Peter Warren, Joseph Murray, John Moor, and Jeremiah Renselaer, the 
first three whereof their Lordships have told me, they had recommended to His Maj'^ but 
suspended their "recommendation in favour of M' Renselaer to succeed Lieu' GoV Clarke, who 
refused to be sworn in upon my arrival, notwithstanding I frequently importuned him thereto, 
and still persists in the same opinion, upon account of His infirmities, which were given as a 
reason in the minutes of Counciil transmitted to their Lordi" io order to remove their 
suspension of recommending M' Renselaer in his room, and I must b«g Your Graces approbation 
in favour of this Gentleman, he being highly worthy of the Office. — 

In my letter of 5 June I inclosed my speech to the Assembly of 17. April preceeding. together 
with the Council and their addresses and sundry messages 1 sent to them to make an ample 
and immediate provision for the safety and defence of the province, and a speedy reparation of 
their Fortifications, pursuant to their Excell'^^' the Lords Justices directions, signified to me by 
M' Stone the 15. Aug; 1743. and then I acquainted Your Grace with my setting out the day 
after for Albany, to meet the Five nations of Indians. 

In my letter of 9"" October I acknowledged the receipt of His Maj'" declaration of War and 
inclosed my speech to the Assembly of IS"" July 1744. and therein acquainted Your Grace with 
my meeting the Five nations of Indians, and what was transacted upon that occasion, and I 
herewith send Your Grace a duplicate of that letter, with what refers thereto. 

It would give me a particular satisfaction to know if my letters came safe to Your 
Graces hands, signifying Your Graces approbation of my conduct, which shall always be my 
study to merit. 

Upon the arrival of Capt" Rutherford, I have the honour to be informed by your Grace with 
his appointment of a Councillor, which has anticipated ray recommendation of a very worthy 
Gentleman of this Province. M' Rutherford is but a stranger in the Country, and his 
appointment has greatly alarmed the people, particularly those of the better sort, who expect 
to be advanced to that preferment, as vacancies happen, and I wish His Maj''" interest may not 
suffer upon this occasion, being apprehensive, it will create a confusion in my Govern' which 
1 have hitherto preserved in good harmony and free from faction. 

As Capt" Rutherford resides at Albany where M' Renselaer lives, whom I have recommended 
to succeed M' Clarke, it will cause a very great sedition among the people there, if he is not 
immediately appointed a Councillor in M' Clarke's room, and I hope Your Grace will please 
to move his Maj''' to appoint M' Ranselaer forthwith, and iiis warrant made of an equal date 
with those he was at first recommended, otherwise he won't accept. I am the more earnest 



LONDON POCUMENTS: XXVII. 273 

to have tliis Gentleman of the Councill, as he is of the most considerahle fortune and influence 
in the County of Albany, a loyal subject, and at all times able to promote His Maj'>' service. 
With submission to Your Grace I believe it will be requisite to suspend the nomination of any 
of the Council iiereafter, until they are nolifyed by me, being satisfied that as I am upon the 
spot, I can best judge of their inclinations and power, and Your Grace may be assured, I shall 
name none, but such as are of the best fortunes and estates in the Country, zealous for His 
Maj'''' interest and the welfare of the Province. 

I have frequently represented to the Board of Admiralty that our coasts are quite unguarded 
and exposed to the insults of the Enemy, having no ship of War to protect us, and unless Their 
LordP^ will please to send out such ships to this port, as I have represented to be absolutely 
necessary for the safety of our Trade, we may expect many fatal consequences from a neglect 
thereof, and I think it my duty to acquaint Your Grace therewith, and hope you will please to 
lay the same before the Admiralty. I am with the highest respect — My Lord — 

Your Grace's most humble, and most obedient servant. 

New York, a""* January 174^. (signed). G. Clinton. 

His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. 



Mr. Walpole to tlie Lords Commissioners of the Treasury. 

[ New- York Bundle, Gg., p. li:. ] 

To the Right Honourable the Lord Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury. 

My Lords 

I beg leave to lay before your Lordships an Extract of a letter dated the 8"" October 1744 
from M' Moore my Deputy as Auditor of His Majesty's Revenues in New York, to M'' Pennant 
my Deputy here; with the Copy of a Memorial of M' Archibald Kennedy the Receiver of His 
Majesty's Quitt Rents in that Province, and of observations made by my said Deputy botli 
relating to an Act passed there (of which the Inclosed is a printed Exemplair) entituled an Act 
for Rrgulating the Payment nf His Miijcslifs Quitt Rents and for partition of Lands in order thereto. 
this Act passed in May 1742 and as it was found to be injurious to His ]\Lijesty's Rights with 
Respect to the Quitt Rents, and defective with respect to the partition of Lands, a new bill 
was this year sent up by the Assembly of New York to the Council there, entituled An Act for 
amending an Act for Regulating the Paijments of the Quitt Rents and for y" Partition of Lands in 
Order thereto. But the Officers of the Crown finding that the said bill related only to that part 
of the Act for the Partition of Lands. The Receiver presented the aforesaid inclosed Memorial 
to the Council, and my Deputy made the abovementioned observations upon it, from whence 
the great Injustice done to the Crown, both with regard to the Collection of His Majesty's 
Quitt Rents, as well as for the Recovery of them, appears at one view so flagrant, and notorious, 
that it is unnecessary forme to add any thing to what the Oflicers have stated in so full a light, 
or to shew, that if the said act, should continue to subsist His Majesty must be deprived of His 
Vol. VL 35 



274 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Quitt Rents which as justly belong to him, as the Lands do to the Proprietors from whence 
they arise, who indeed have no title to that property, but on condition of paying the Rents 
reserved in their Grants. I need not acquaint your Lordships that the reservation of small 
Quitt Rents to the Crown, upon the Grant of Lands, is an institution of great advantage to 
the Colonys, because if the Lands granted are (as they ought to be) cultivated, the fruit and 
benefit to the grantee is so considerable as to make the payment of the Reserved Rent, a trifle, 
but if means can be found out to defeat the payment of it. Great tract of Lands maybe taken up 
(which I am afraid is the case now of some Colonys) and being kept uncultivated, obstruct the 
settlement of that Colony, to the particular advantage of the owner of those Lands, but to 
the great Detriment of the Publick by checking the Encrease of Strength and Riches in 
that Province. 

What might give occasion to the passing this Act, I can't tell, but it seems a very extraordinary 
proceeding, that an Assembly should take upon itself, without any application from the Crown 
to pass a Bill for regulating the Payment of His Majesty's Quitt Rents, when the Course of 
Law for that purpose is open and known, and under colour of such a Regulation, deprive the 
King of the Antient and legal method for ascertaining and recovering his rights, upon which 
the property of that very Assembly is founded, I thought it my Duty to lay this matter before 
your Lordships, and am with respect 
My Lords 

Your Lordships 

Most obedient and 
Cock pit Whitehall Most humble Servant 

Jan'y 24. 1744 J Walpole Auditor 



Governor Clinton to the Duke of Newcastle. 

[New-Tork Papers. (S. P. O.) No. 9. p. 222.] 

(duplicate). 
My Lord. 

The Govern* of the Massachusets Bay having received information, that the Garrison of 
Louisbourg was in a very weak condition, and that pursuant to a petition preferred by a 
considerable number of inhabitants of that Province, to the General Court there, representing 
the importance of the reduction of that place, to the obedience of His Maj''': It was reported 
to be the opinion of the Committee of both houses, as incumbent upon that Govern' to attempt 
the reduction thereof. 

Upon this head Govern"' Shirley wrote to me the 29"" January last and urged very pressingly, 
that this Province should furnish its respective quota, as we were equally concerned in duty 
and interest, to join them in so laudable a design. 

Whereupon, conceiving this enterprise was calculated in all respects for His Majesty's service 
and the interest of the northern Colonys, I called together the Assembly of this Province; but 
they not meeting according to time I prorogued them for a week, and then made to them the 
iaclosed speech, in full confidence, they would immediately provide for that service, in such 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 275 

manner, as became every subject, who had His Maj'" interest at heart. They have been 
deliberating above twelve days thereon, and as yet, come to no final resolution with respect to 
their quota, which I am the more surpised at, as this province will have a greater advantage, 
by this conquest, than any upon the continent, which in all probability might facilitate the 
reduction of Canada, from which quarter, we are under daily fears of being attack'd by the 
French, who have lately by their Emissarys, caused a very great commotion amongst our 
Indians, in making them believe we designed to cut them off; with this notion they were so 
greatly alarm'd, that the Mohawks and Seneckes (the principal nations), were formed into a 
body to destroy our settlements; and had not the Commissioners of Indian affairs at Albany, 
been very alert and diligent to quell this report and remove their fears, in all likelyhood, we 
should have lost our Indians. 

The French have considerably increased their settlements on our backs, and almost inhanced 
the Indian trade to themselves, by means of the lake Cadaraqui, whereon they have two or 
three vessells of 50 or 60. Tons with 6 or 8 swivle guns to each, and manned with 12 or 15. 
men, with which they carry on their Trade. They have also built Forts, and trading houses 
ranging along the lake (contrary to the Faith of Treatys). whereby they hold their power 
over all the Indian nations, except those dependant on our provinces, and even among those 
they have, and do daily gain too great an influence. 

To remedy those evils for the present I have recommended the building of a Fort, in the 
Senneckes Country, to be well manned with the militia of the Province, and maintained at 
the publick charge, in order to keep the French from coming among them (His Maj'" four 
companys being scarce sufficient to garrison the Forts already built) But as I am affraid the 
Assembly will not come into this expence nor enter into joint measures with our neighbours 
in support of the common cause, on account of the great charge they are at in guarding the 
Frontiers, and making large annual presents to the Indians, in time of peace as well as war, to .- 
preserve them in their fidelity, which no other Govern' upon the continent in any shape 
contributes to, tho' they all receive advantages from it: It is thought advisable and I know of 
no other lasting expedient for preserving of our frontiers than forming the four companys into 
a Regim' of 1000 men, to be forthwith raised and sent from England, with an Engeneer, 
Artillery and Amunition, and posted in the Sinnekes Country on the Lake Cadaraqui, at a 
proper harbour for building of Vessells with barracks to be erected for the men, who are to be 
supply'd with provisions for a time only: That there be then built two or three vessells of 
superior strength to those of the French, on board whereof a few sailors, and a sufficient 
number of Souldiers being put, with proper officers, it is imagined we may easily take or 
destroy the French vessells, and then attack their Forts on the Lake, and for ever disable them 
from annoying us. By this means our Five nations will live unmolested, and even those 
Indians over whom the French have a very great power, upon hearing of our conquest, will 
submitt and trade with us, and our own Indians assist in demolishing the French Forts. When 
once we are masters of the Lake, they will no longer trade with the Enemy, which must 
greatly incourage our woolen manufactory. 

The climate in these parts, is temperate and the lands fertile, and in two or three years time 
from going hither, provisions of all kinds may be raised, and no sooner are the Troops setled 
than Farmers will go under their cover, to dwell in that Country and cultivate it — 

If something is not soon done to put a stop to the French encroachments and intrigues 
among our Indians, this province must certainly become a prey to the Enemy, tho' nothing 



276 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

has or shall be wanting in me to protect it, or to animate the people to vigour and courage 
against all events. 

I have further to add that the French at Canada in November last were making a great 
number of snow shoes, and that soon after a party of them and their Indians (to the number 
of nine hundred) were to march to the eastward (as it was imagined) to attack some English 
settlement, of which I immediately acquainted the respective Govern" that way, and by a 
letter which I received this day from the Commanding Officer at Oswego, I am informed that 
he had intelligence by one of our out scouts, just then returned from Cadaraqui, that 1500 
French and 100 Indians went from Canada in December last in order to surprise some English 
settlement near the mouth of the River S' Lawrence. The outscouts further say that only in 
the spring much Warlike stores were to be brought to Cadaraqui, which may be intended 
against Oswego ; and that the openess of the weather had hindred their paying that place a 
visit this winter. 

I have also received a letter of 12 Febr"^ from the Commanding Officer of General Oglethorps 
Regiment at Georgia in answer to the information I gave him of this intended expedition, a 
copy of which I have inclosed, together with the Councils address to my speech. 

I find the present numbers and Force in Canada consist of Militia, Indians and regular 
troops ; The fortifications I can have no good account of, nobody knowing any thing of that 
kind, that have been there from hence or Albany. The number of Militia upon the river S' 
Lawrence, some reckon ten, others thirteen thousand able to bear arms. The regular troops, 
are thirty two companys of 30 men each, but not half full, so that they do not reckon the 
number of effective men can exceed 500. but the great number of Officers in them are of 
great service towards disciplining their militia. Their Indians fit to carry arms, are, the 
Cacknawages about 230. Conessetagoes 60, Attenkins 30. Neperinks 30. Missiquecks 40. 
Abenaquis at S' Francoi 90. Obinacks at Becancourt 50. Hurons at Lorette 40. in all about 
570, besides allies at great distances, but those here mentioned are upon or near the River. 

I have often represented to the Board of Admiralty that our coasts are greatly exposed 
for want of the usual station ships, but hitherto without effiect, and should the Enemy 
attack us by sea we have no ship of force to repel them, our Privateers (tho many) being all 
out a cruising. — 

I thought it my duty to acquaint Your Grace with what has occurred to me for His Maj'>' 
service, and the safety of his province, and what I have mentioned for that end is intirely 
submitted to Your Grace. 

I am with the greatest regard 
My Lord 

Your Graces most humble and 

most obedient servant 
New York 27 March 1745 (signed). G. Clinton. 

His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 277 

Lords of Trade to Governor Clinton. 

I New-York Entries, M., p. 275.] 

To George Clinton Esq'' Gov'' of New York. 

Since our letter to you of the S?"" Jan''^' 174^ we have received Yours of the 14"" of May S"" 
of June and 9"' Ocf 1744 and of the 2'' of Jan'^ 1744-5 together with the several Papers 
transmitted therewith. 

In the last of these you complain of not having received more than one letter from us since 
you have resided in Your Government. In answer to this We must inform you that this Board 
never fails to make an Immediate Return to all Letters from Governors, where the subject 
appears to require Dispatch. 

With respect to the supplying of Vacancies in Council the Governors of His Majesty's Colonys 
are directed from time to time to send over to this Board Lists of persons qualified for that 
office & the Board have always a proper Regard to such Recommendations, but they do not 
apprehend themselves to be confined by the Governor's Recommendations if any other person 
shall appear to them properly qualified to discharge this Trust. 

We are surprized to hear that the Appointment of M"" Rutherford has (as Your expression is) 
greatly alarmed the people, but unless there be any objections to his character or Conduct, of 
which you have not given us the least account We see no Reason why the people should not 
dutifully acquiesce in His Majesty's Appointment. 

We have in complyance with Your request recommended M'' Renselaer to succeed M'" Clark 
and should have done it sooner had we not, out of a proper regard to the long services of the 
Gentleman being willing to see whether he might not be induced to depart from the Resolution 
he had perhaps too hastily taken, of quitting his seat in Council. But as to what you mention 
concerning M'' Renselaer's expectations that his warrants should bear equal date of the 
Gentlemen some time since appointed, We must acquaint you we know no precedent for any 
such Proceeding. 

We approve the Care you have taken in recommending to the Assembly to provide for the 
security of the province and wish they had seconded Your Good Intentions better than they 
seem to have done by Your letters of the 5"" of June and of the 9"" of October 1744. 

In this last mentioned letter you inform us that you have renewed the peace with the 
Indians and persuaded them to act against the French ; We congratulate you upon this event 
and should have been glad to have known what sense they shewed of his ISIajesty's goodness 
on occasion of the Presents he was pleased to send them. 

We have transmitted that part of Your letter which relates to the Dutys demanded by the 
Custom House Officers upon Prize Goods (mention'd in the same Letter) to the Comm"'' of 



278 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

the Customs that they might send proper Directions to their Officers upon that head. So we 
bid you heartily farewell, and are 

Your very loving Friends 

and humble Servants 

MONSON 

M. Bladen 
Whitehall R. Plumer 

Aprill S"- 1745 J. Pitt. 

P. S. July 17"" Since the signing tiiis letter we have just reced Yours of the 13"' May last 
and have at Your Desire recommended IVP Bayard to be of the Council. 

MoxsoN. 

p. S. Whereas doubts have arisen in some of his Majesty's Plantations in America whether 
any of his Majesty's natural born subjects taken on board any of the Enemy's Ships committing 
hostilities against his Majesty's Subjects and thereby guilty of high treason may be tried as 
Pirates by the Courts of Admiralty in the several plantations, we send you enclos'd an Act 
entituled "An Act to amend an Act made in the seventh year of the reign of King William 
" the third entituled an Act for the more eifectual Suppression of Piracy" for Your 
conduct therein. 

MONSON. 



Governor Clinton to tJie Lords of Trade. 

[New- York Bundle, Gg., p. 144 ] 

My Lords 

Since 1 had the honour of writing to your Lordships, I have been obliged for many reasons 
(by advice of His Majesty's Council) to dissolve the General Assembly of this Province ; and 
as I propose very soon to send a narrative of their whole Proceedings, in justification of my 
conduct upon this occasion, 1 shall only trouble your Lordships now with the Speech I made to 
them at the Dissolution, which I should rather chose to have avoided at this Critical Conjuncture, 
had there been the least hopes left of their promoting His Majesty's service or the safety of the 
Province, I have the honour to Govern. 

Lieu' Governour Clarke setts out on Fryday next for Boston in his way for England, 
pursuant to my leave, therefore I hope my recommendation in favour of M' Stephen Bayard to 
succeed him in Council, will take place as M"^ Renselaer is dead, of which I acquaint your 
Lordships the 13"' May last. I am with very great Respect 
My Lords 

Your Lordships most 

New York obedient humble serv' 

10"' June 174-5 G. Clinton. 

The R' Hon'''* the Lords of Trade & Plantations. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 279 

Lords of Trade to Governor Clinton. 

[ New-Tork Entries, M. p. 295] 

June 28"" 1745, 
To George Clinton Esq'' Gov'" of New York. 

Since our letter to you dated the S"" of April last (a Duplicate whereof is herewith enclosed ) 
We have received a letter from Mon'' de Gersdortf in behalf of himself and the Moravian 
Brethren in the Province of New York, complaining of an Act passed there in September last, 
entituled " An Act for securing his Majesty's Government of New York" by which as he says 
these Bretheren there will be very much oppressed, We have likewise had some discourse with 
him and two of tlieir Ministers that have attended us on that subject, and having at their 
request promised to write to you for further Information in the said affair, We do accordingly 
desire you would inform us in Your next what the behaviour of these Moravians has been in y 
province and whether any ill practices on their part gave occasion to there being inserted by 
name in the said Act. 

We must here observe to you that we have rec'd the above Act with 24 others transmitted 
to us by the Secretary of the Province without any letter from him or any observations upon 
the said Acts from you W"" by y' Instructions you are directed to send us with them. So we 
bid you heartily farewell & are 

Your very loving Friends 

and humble Servants 

MoNSON 

M. Bladen 
R. Plume R 
J. Pitt 

B. Leveson Gower 
Ja. Brudenell. 
P. S. 

Whereas doubts have arisen in some of his Majesty's Plantations in America whether any of 
His Majesty's Natural born subjects taken on board any of the Enemy's Ships committing 
hostilities against His Majesty's Subjects and thereby guilty of high treason may be try'd as 
Pirates by the Courts of Admirality in the several plantations. We send you enclosed An Act 
entituled " An Act to amend an Act made in the seventh year of the lleign of King William 
the third entituled an Act for the more effectual suppression of Piracy" for Your conduct therein. 

MoNSON. 



Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade, 

[New- York Bundle, Og., p. 146.] 

My Lords 

I have the honour of your Lordships Favour of the 28"' August last, with a Copy of His 
Majesty's Proclamation to the Governonr of .Tamaica, promising encouragement to sue!) persons 



280 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

being Protestants, as shall be willing to settle in the Island of Ratan, and pursuant to your 
Lordships Directions, I have caused the said encouragements to be published in the respective 
Towns & Countys of this Province. 

The Government of the Massachusets Bay having received information, that the Garrison 
of Louisburg was in a very weak condition, and that pursuant to a Petition preferred by a 
considerable number of the Inhabitants of that Province to the General Court there, 
Representing the Importance of the Reduction of that Place to the Obedience of His Majesty, 
It was reported to be the opinion of the Committee of both Houses, as incumbent upon that 
Government to attempt the reduction thereof. 

Upon this Head, Governour Shirley wrote to me the Sg"" January last, and urged very 
pressingly, that this Province should furnish its respective Quota towards carrying on this 
expedition, as we were equally concerned in Duty and Interest to join them in so laudable 
a design. 

Wiiereupon conceiving this Enterprize was calculated in all respects for His Majesty's service, 
and the Interest of the Northern Colonys, I called together the Assembly of this Province, But 
they not meeting according to time, I prorogued them for a week, and then made the inclosed 
Speech, in full confidence they would immediately provide for that service, in such manner, as 
became every subject, who had His Majesty's Interest at heart. They have been now above 
twelve days deliberating thereon, and as yet come to no final Resolution with respect to their 
Quota, which I am the more surprized at, as this Province may have a greater advantage by 
this Conquest, than any upon the Continent and as it would in all probability facilitate the 
Reduction of Canada, from which Quarter we are under daily fears of being attacked by the 
French, who have lately (by their Emissarys) caused a very great commotion amongst our 
Indians, in making them believe we designed to cut them off, with this notion they were so 
greatly alarmed, that the Mohawks & Seneckes (the Principal Nations) were formed into a 
Body to destroy our Settlements, and had not the Commissioners of Indian Affairs at Albany, 
been very alert & diligent to quell this Report, and remove their Fears, in all likelyhood, we 
should have lost our Indians. 

The French have considerably increased their settlements on our backs, and almost Inhanced 
the Indian Trade, by means of the Lake Cadaraqui, whereon they have two or three Vessells 
of 50 or 60 Tons with six or eight swivle guns to each, and manned with 12 or 15 men, by 
which they carry on their Trade. They have also built Forts and Trading Houses ranging 
along the Lake in the Seneckes Country (contrary to the Faith of Treatys) whereby they 
hold their power over all the Indian Nations, except those dependant on our Provinces, and 
even among these they have, and do daily gain too great an Influence. 

To prevent these encroachments, it is absolutely necessary to establish a Harbour well 
fortifyed on this Lake, and build a few Vessells of superior strength to theirs, and settle regular 
Troops in the Country, to be raised & maintained from home, in barracks to be built for them, 
with a skillfull Engineer & Gunners, nothing being more wanted, for repairing and modelling, 
as well as defending our fortifications, or erecting such others, as may be thought needfull : For 
the Province will never come into such an expence, at so great a distance from their settlements, 
tho danger stares them in the face. 

Under these circumstauces, I am persuaded it will plainly appear to your Lordships, how 
highly incumbent it is upon the Assembly to make immediate Provision for the services I have 
recommended ; but should tliey fail therein, I have great reason to fear this Province will 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 281 

become a Prey to the Enemy, unless the Legislature at home does take into their consideration 
our weak condition, and provide for its safety accordingly, in the mean time notiiing has or 
shall be wanting in me to animate the People here to vigour & courage ag' all events. 

I have farther to add that the French at Canada, in November last were making a great number 
of Snow Shoes, and that soon after, a Party of P'rench & Indians to the number of 900 were to 
march to the Eastward, in order, (as it was imagined) to attack some English Settlement, of 
which I immediately acquainted the respective Governments that way ; and by a letter which 
I receiv'd this day from the Commanding Officer at Oswego dated the 7"" inst, he informs me, 
that by one of our Scouts just then returned from Cadaraqui, that 1500 French & 100 Indians 
went from Canada in December last in order to surprize some English settlements near the 
Mouth of the River St. Lawrence, the Scout says further that early in the Spring much warlike 
stores are to be brought to Quadraqui, which he says may be intended against Oswego, and 
that the openess of the weather have hindred them from paying that place a visit this winter. 

I find the present number & force in Canada consist of Militia, Indians and regular Troops, 
The Fortifications I can have no good account of, no body knowing any thing of that kind, that 
have been there from hence or Albany. The numbers of Militia upon the River St. Lawrence 
some reckon ten, others thirteen thousand able to bear Arms. The Regular Troops are thirty 
two Companies of thirty men each, but not half full, so that they do not reckon the number of 
effective men can exceed 500, but the great number of Officers in them, are of great service 
towards disciplining their Militia. Their Indians fit to carry Arms are the Cacknawages about 
230, ConessetagoesGO, Altenkins 30, Nepesinks 40, Missequeks 30 Abenaquis at St. Francoi 90, 
Olinacks at Becuncourt 50, Hurons at Lorette 40, In all about 570, besides Allies at great 
distances; but those here mentioned are upon or near the River. 

I have just receiv'd a letter of the 12"^ February from the Commanding Officer of General 
Oglethorp's Reg' at Georgia, in answer to the Information I gave him of the intended Motions 
of the French a Copy of which I have inclosed, together with the Councils Address to 
my Speech 

I am with very great regards 
My Lords 

Your LordsP' most humble 

New York and obedient servant 

25 July 1745 G. Clinton 

The R' Hou"'^ the Lords Com" of Trade & Plantations. 



Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-York Bundle, Gg., p. 147. ] 

My Lords 

I take the Liberty to inclose Duplicates of my last letter of 19"' Jan"^ & IS"' March, since 
which I have been obliged (by advice of His Majesty's Council) to dissolve the Assembly, 
Vol. VI. 30 



282 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

from whom I have borne many provocations, with great calmness, considering how critical it 
was at this time to be without one, during the intermediate space for calling another. But I 
found it was absolutely needful! to try all ways to bring them to a just sense of their Duty to 
His Majesty, to whose service they in general show'd the greatest disregard, by not putting 
the Province into a proper posture of defence, and securing the Frontiers by Sea &Land ag' tiie 
Enemy, notwithstanding I laid before them His Majesty's repeated orders on that iiead. 

The New Assembly seems to be of a better Disposition to do Business, and immediately 
voted ^5000 towards the Expedition ag' Cape Breton, to which the former only voted ^3000. 
Yet they have neglected a very material Point at their late meeting, in not making Provision 
for my having an annual interview with the Six Nations of Indians during the War, in order 
to make them Presents to keep them in their fidelity; and the consequence of that neglect is 
such, that most of the Indians are gone to Canada, notwithstanding all my efforts to stop them, 
and are now become so divided in their opinion with respect to their attachment to the British 
Interest, that I am apprehensive an Indian War will soon be commenced at the instigation of 
the French, and am sorry to tell your Lordships, that I have certain Intelligence of the 17"» 
instant from the Commissioners of Indian affairs at Albany, as well as from the Governour of 
Connecticut, that the French Indians have began to scalp our white people upon the Borders 
of New England, and have murthered two men in a most barbarous manner, by plucking out 
their Eyes, taking out their Hearts, & the Crowns off their Heads ; and I expect by the next 
News to hear these Savages have committed the like cruelty in this Province, which might 
have been prevented had the Assembly made provision for my having an Interview with the 
Indians this summer, and which I so earnestly recommended to them, as your Lordships may 
observe by the Speeches I have inclosed, (with the proceedings of the Assembly) well knowing 
the Danger We must be exposed to, if they desert us, and indeed I have but poor hopes of 
retaining them, since they are disappointed of meeting me according to their expectations, 
which I could not do without Presents. 

It has been repeated to me again by the Council & General Assembly to apply to your 
Lordships, that you would be pleased to move His Majesty to order an Engineer to be sent & 
reside in this Province, where nothing is more wanting, than a skillfull man, to repair & put 
our Fortifications in a proper state of defence, especially in the Frontiers, as well as to build 
such others regular, that may be thought necessary, for great sums have been exhausted to 
little purpose on those services, for want of a person thqroughly versed in that Art, 
I am with very great respect 
My Lords 

Your Lordships most humble 

New York and obedient Servant 

25 July 1745 G. Clinton. 

The R' Hon'''» the Lords of Trade & Plantations. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 283 

Governor Clinton to the Duke of Newcastle. 

[New-Tork Papers. (S. P. 0.) No. 9, p. 227.] 

My Lord. 

I take the liberty to inclose duplicates of my last letters of tiie 19"' June and IS"" March 
since wiiicli I iiave been obliged (by advice of His Maj'>' Council) to dissolve the Assembly, 
from whom I had borne many provocations with great calmness, considering how critical it 
was at tliis time to be without one, during the intermediate space for calling another; but I 
found it was absolutely needfuil to try all ways to bring them to a just sence of their duty to 
His Maj'y, to whose service, they, in general showed the greatest disregard, by not putting the 
province into a proper posture of defence, and securing the frontiers by sea and land against 
the Enemy, notwithstanding I laid before them His Maj'-^' repeated orders on that liead. 

The new Assembly seem to be of a better disposition to do business, and immediately voted 
^5000. towards the e.xpedition against Cape Breton, to wiiich the former only voted ^3000; yet 
tiiey have neglected a very material point at their last meeting, in not making provision for my 
having an annual interview witii tlie Si.\ nations of Indians, during the war, in order to make 
them presents, to keep them in their fidelity, and the consequence of that neglect, is such, that 
most of the Indians are gone to Canada notwithstanding all my efforts to stop them, and are 
now become so divided in their opinion with respect to their attachments to tiie British interest, 
that I am apprehensive an Indian war will soon be commenced, at the instigation of the 
French, and am sorry to tell Your Grace, that I have certain intelligence of the 17"" inst: from 
the Commissioners of Indian affairs at Albany, as well as from the Governour of Connecticut, 
that the French Indians have began to scalp our white people on the boarders of New England, 
and have murthered two men in a most barbarous manner, by plucking out their eyes, taking 
out their hearts and the crowns off their heads, and I expect by the next news to hear those 
savages have committed the like cruelty in this province, which might have been prevented, 
had the Assembly made provision for my having an interview with the Indians this summer; 
and which I so earnestly recommended to them, as Your Grace may observe by the speeciies I 
have inclosed, well knowing the danger we must be exposed to, if they desert us, and indeed 
I have but poor hopes of retaining them, since they are disappointed of meeting me according 
to the expectations, which I could not do without presents. 

Since I had the honour of writing to Your Grace, I have received His Maj''' orders and 
instrustions, signified by Your Grace, touching the marine Treaty with the Dutch ; as also with 
respect to the service Commodore Warren is upon, to all which I have, and shall constantly pay 
the greatest regard in my power. 

It has been repeated to me again by the Council and General Assembly, to apply to Your 
Grace, that you would be pleased to move His Maj'^ to order an Engeneer to be sent and reside 
in this province, where nothing is more wanting, than a skillfull man to repair, and put our 
fortifications, in a proper state of defence, especially on the Frontiers, as well as build such 



284 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

others regular, that may be thought necessary, for great sums have been exhausted to little 
purpose on those services, for want of a person thorouglily versed in that art. 
I am vpith the greatest respect 
My Lord. 

Your Grace's most humble and 

New York SS"" July most obedient servant 

1745. (signed). G. Clinton. 

His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. 



Governor Clinton to the Dulce of Newcastle. 

[New-York Papers, (S. P. O.) No. 8, p. 254.] 

My Lord. 

Upon the first information I received of the late intended expedition against Cape Bretone 
(which was hinted to me by Govern'' Shirley) I presently shewed a cheerful spiritt to promote 
that service and urged, the concurrance of tiiis province to the General Assembly with all the 
zeal and prevailing arguments in my power, conceiving it to be an enterprize (if carried) of the 
utmost consequence to tiie Northern Colonys, and in particular to this: When I found I could 
not obtain any assistance in men, and but a trifle in money from the Assembly in aid thereof, 
I was obliged for that and many other reasons set forth in my speech to dissolve them, in 
hopes 1 should avail thereby, with another set of men, more ready to promote His Maj'^ 
service. During that interval, I sent ten pieces of Ordinance of 18 pounders with carriages ettc 
to Boston without which they could not have undertaken the affair, and I have the pleasure to 
tell Your Grace, those very cannon greatly contributed to the reduction of Louisbourg for 
which I received the thanks of the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay in a publick 
manner (tho' I could hardly get my own to pay for the transportation of them) as well as M'' 
Shirley's acknowledgements in his speech to them, for this instance of my care in taking such 
an intimate part in tliat enterprize. 

Upon M"' Shirley's representation afterwards that the Troops were greatly in want of 
provisions and not having it in my power to procure any at the publick charge, I set on foot a 
subscription and raised .£2000. for that end (to which I largely contributed myself:) and 
immediately embarked all sorts of provisions to that value for Louisbourg, for which I also 
had a vote of thanks from the Govern' of the Massachusetts. 

Afterwards ISr Shirley applied to me for a supply of gunpowder for the service of the garrison 
when reduced, which I accordingly purchased at my own charge to the value of .£900, and 
transported it thither and since have bought upon my own credit £:2,000 worth of cloathing to 
paliate the discontents of the Troops retained there till relieved from home, and now by M' 
Shirley's desire I am buying up all sorts of bedding in which they are in the greatest want of, 
at my own charge again, without any manner of advantage to myself, but rather otherwise by 
non payment of my bills drawn upon the treasurer here, which I cannot receive. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS: XXVII. 285 

I must own, these are but poor instances of my affections to His Majesty when I consider 
how incumbent it is upon me, as well as upon his subjects in this province to promote his 
service for the many favours conferred upon them, but all that I could possibly obtain from 
another Assembly when convened was ^5000. — this currency towards the expence of the 
Boston expedition, without any other aid whatever, notwithstanding I have laid before them 
his Maj'^'^ instructions from time to time signifying, that I should give all necessary assistance 
to M"' Warren, in the service he was upon, and the maintenance of the common cause. 

This backwardness of the people's loyalty proceeds chiefly from the restraint they lay a 
Governour under, by giving him a salary; and although I can not subsist without one, I have 
never paid that regard therto, as to neglect my duty to His Maj"' should I go without it; but 
it can not be thought, I can with that spirit oblige them to promote his service, as if independent 
of that favour, of which they are become too sensible. They are jealous of the power of the 
Crown, and constantly encroaching upon its prerogative by nominating Officers and appointing 
Commissioners in their publick concerns, without my knowledge and tacking such clauses, as 
cannot be passed by His Majesty's Council, to their support Bill, as a means of my consenting 
thereto, or having no salary, which are such absurdities that I can never accede to; and 
unless the Legislature at home does take cognizance of their conduct, and enjoin them to 
a more submissive behaviour, or make a Governour independent, it can never be otherwise, 
since neither dissolutions, nor fair means, can produce such effects, as are wanted for His 
IMnjestys interest — 

I have the ambition to say, no Governour before me has gained more upon the affections of 
the people than myself, who confess I ask for nothing but for the wellfare of the Country and 
its safety intirely abstracted from all gains to myself, and altho' their members are sensible 
thereof, yet for the most part, they are of such narrow spirits, as not to comply with any 
reasonable demand for the publick good. 

I have constantly transmitted to your Grace all my proceedings since I had the honour to 
command here, which I have the pleasure to hear has been approved ; and as I have been 
assured Gov^ Shirley has represented not only to your Grace, but to the Ministry my readiness 
and unwearied vigilance, upon all occasions for His Maj'>''' service and particularly for the 
reduction of Louisbourg; I was in hopes I should have been honoured with His Royall 
approbation therein, signifyed by Your Grace, it being an unspeakeable satisfaction to know, 
that I have done my duty, tho not with the success I could have wished. 

I have lately been to make a voyage to Albany to meet the Six nations of Indians, who 
were likely to revolt from their engagements to His Maj''': At the publick conference there 
attended Commissioners from the Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut and Pensilvania with intent 
to renew and confirm with me their respective Treatys with the Six nations, and during my 
stay there the Commissioners of the Massachusetts demanded of me the Assistance of those 
nations to war against the French Indians in their Govern' whereby the Frontiers of this 
province would have been exposed to the insults of the P^rench and probably all our settlers 
destroyed, as we have no regular Forts built to repell them, whereupon 1 consulted with such 
of His Maj'y' Council then with me, who were of opinion it was more advisable to retain 
the Indians in their own Castles till I had acquainted the Assembly therewith, and have since 
represented to them the necessity of raising siipplyes (or the preservation of the frontiers, and 
beg leave to refer Your Grace to my transactions at large with the Indians at this conference 
which I have sent to Your Grace by this opportunity. — 



28G NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

I am now endeavouring to set on foot a scheme for the reduction of a garrison at Crown 
point posessed by the French in the ludian Country, which is a very great annoyance to our 
frontiers; but as the Assembly is so extremely backward in promoting any publick good, T am 
aflraid they will not contribute to the charge of carrying it on, and indeed while so many dutch 
prevail in this province, I can have but little hopes of succeeding in any enterprise, tho' ever 
so well concerted, unless they are obliged to do their duty more chearfully by a superior 
power — Crown point is a fort about 160 miles from Albany, about 160 miles from another 
strong Fort the French has called Monreal which is half way to Quebeck from Crown point, I 
have sent six pieces of Cannon of IS pounders, with carriages and every thing else necessary 
to Albany excepting powder, which I have desired the Assembly to supply me with as if those 
guns and Powder was only for the security of Albany if it should be attacked, and despairing 
of success, I sent to the speaker this morning, and told him I was very much surprised, the 
house paid no greater regard to His Maj'>' instructions, I had laid before them, as not to give 
an answer in any shape ; that I had great reason to believe as I had often represented to them 
the French and Indians had some design on our frontiers, and if we did not something on our 
part to prevent it by attacking them first, that I had reason to believe Albany would be 
surprised this winter, and 1 desired a quantity of powder should be immediately sent up, which at 
last they agreed to ; I don't know how to intrude any longer on your Graces patience, but have 
only one thing more to add, which is, they are all Dutch at Albany as most of the province is, 
and was in hopes as Dutchmen to have continued a neutrality with the French Indians, as they 
did last war and even supplyed the French Indians with ammunition for their skins, who went 
directly from Albany to murther in a most cruel and barbarous manner the People of New 
England who was at war with them — The Commissioners from Massachusets Bay in our 
debates actually taxed Councillor Livingston with it, but he was too deeply concerned to 
acknowledge the remembrence, but only said it was a long time ago, and I had now great 
reason to believe, both, he and his son was now concerned in taking the lands away from the 
Indians, which they complained off. It is a vile family — I inclose this to Lord Lincoln 
desiring he would take an opportunity of delivering this my private letter when Your Grace 
shall be at leasure, and hope for forgiveness taking up so much time — I am with the greatest 

of respect — My Lord 

Your Graces most obedient and 

New York IS. Nov' most humble servant — 

1745. (signed). G. Clinton 

His Grace the Duke of Newcastle. 



Governor Clinton to the Lords of Trade. 

[ New-Tork Papers, Bundle Gg., No. 153. ] 

My Lords, 

I had the honour of writing to Your Lordw the 25. July last, with a duplicate of one of the 
27. of March inclosed by the Antelope from hence, which I hear is arrived, and to which I 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 287 

refer, and ou the 26"' of September following (1745) I transmitted the minutes of Council to 
the 10"' July, by the opportunity of some Man-of War from Cape Breton, which 1 hope will 
also arrive safe. — 

Since which, I have been honoured with Your Lordi'i" of the 25"' April last, after mv return 
from Albany, where I was obliged to make a voyage to attend an interview with the Six 
Nations of Indians (tho' late in the season) in order to establish them more warmly in the 
British Interest, from which, they were likely to revolt, through the influence and artifice of 
the French. 

At the publick conference there attended Comiss'"^ from the Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut 
and Pennsylvania, with intent to renew and confirm with me (in behalf of his Majesty) their 
respective Treatys with the Six Nations, and during my stay there, the Commiss" from the 
Massachusets Bay demanded of me the assistance of those Nations to War against the French 
Indians in their Govern', whereby the Frontiers of this Province would have been left naked 
and exposed to the insults of the Enemy, and all the out settlers stript of succour as we have 
not a regular strength to repel an Enemy, nor a sufficient number of Garrisons to protect the 
Inhabitants should they be attacked. Whereupon I advised with such of His Maj'-^'* Council 
then with me who were of opinion, that it was of very dangerous consequence to suffer 
the Indians to depart this Province, till I had informed the Assembly with the nature of the 
Demand, however willing I might be to assist his Majesties Subjects in New England, and 
shall refer Your Lord?''^ to my transactions at large with the Indians at this conference, and what 
passed between the Commissioners from the Massachusets Bay and me upon the occasion, 
which I have inclosed, and hope for your Lordships approbation therein. — 

Since my return from Albany I have again recommended to the Assembly (now sitting) the 
necessity of their raising supplys for building of Forts to cover the Frontiers of this Province, 
and more particularly now, as the Indians by this Treaty have engaged themselves to make 
War upon the French Indians in two months after, unless they can obtain satisfaction in that 
time for a Breach of a Treaty of Neutrality entred into between them, and now become void, 
by their committing hostilities upon HisMaj'>'' subjects in New England, to which the Assembly 
have not paid the least attention. 

I am extreamly concerned to see the dispatch of publick business so greatly neglected by the 
Assembly of this Province, notwithstanding my frequent importunityes and recommendations 
on that head, and I am persuaded while they are at the charge of maintaining a Governour, it 
never will be otherwise, tho' I have it to say none ever gained more esteem than myself, thro' 
a candid behaviour to them. They are selfish, and jealous of the power of the Crown, and 
of such levelling principles, that they are constantly attacking its prerogative, so that nothing 
but Gov''* independence can bring them to a just sence of their duty to His M.ajesty and his 
service. I have taken unwearied pains with them to that end, tho hitherto to little purpose, 
and I find that neither dissolutions or fair means can produce from them such Effects as will 
tend to a publick good or their own preservation. They will neither act for themselves or 
assist their neighbours, allthough I have constantly laid before them His Maj'^'^ Royal orders 
and Instructions, transmitted to me from time to time since the Commencement of the War, as 
also the frequent applications made to me by Gov' Shirley and M"" Warren for assistance of 
men, provisions and money in maintenance of the late expedition ag" Cape Breton, and for the 
protection of Louisbourg since reduced to the obedience of His Majesty. To all which, they 
have shewn no greater regard, than voting 6000 pounds to that service (which is not likely to 



288 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

be paid) without any otlier assistance, and even tiiat was more, than I well could expect, as 
few but hirelings iiave a seat in the Assembly who protract time for the sake of their wages, 
at a great expence to the Province, without contributing any tiling material for its welfare, 
credit or safety. 

It is now become clear to me, that unless the Legislature at home does take cognizance of their 
disobedience and indolence, and enjoin ihem to a more ready complyance to His Maj'^'' Royal 
orders and Instructions, I have but poor hopes of succeeding in any affair, tho' ever so well 
concerted for His Majesty's service and the security of the Province. 

I am obliged to Your Lordw' for the Regard you have paid to my recommendations of the 
Councillors, and as ftp Renselaer is dead since I recommended him, I hope M"' Bayard will be 
appointed to succeed according to my application to Your LordPP the 13 May last. 

I have been endeavouring to set on foot a scheme and to engage the Province therein for the 
reduction of a Fort at Crown point, possessd by the French in the Indian Country, which is 
a very great annoyance to our Frontiers, and had in pursuance thereof sent up to Albany six 
pieces of Cannon of IS pounders with carriages, and a proportion of powder, Ball, Match and 
other Implements. It is well they are gone, for to my great concern (and what I have 
represented to the Assembly would be our Fate) I received an Account the IQ"" inst : by 
express from Albany, that a party of French and their Indians had cut oft' a settlement in this 
province called Saragtoge, about fifty miles from Albany, and that about twenty houses with a 
Fort (which the publick would not repair) were burned to ashes, thirty persons killed and 
scalped, and about sixty taken prisoners. 

Upon receipt of this news I sent the Assembly another Message who have paid but little 
regard thereto except their voting an inconsiderable sum towards building a small Fort in the 
Frontiers to be garrisoned with some Militia, and have pleaded an adjournment for a fortnight 
upon account of the small Pox prevailing in this City, and that they may return home to settle 
their affairs, and such of them as are Colonelis of Militia to make proper regulations in their 
Regiments for the defence of the respective Countys, as we hear the Enemy is still in the 
Country; to which I was advised by my Council to consent. 

In the mean time I have done every thing in my power for His Majesty's service, and have 
detached two of His Maj'^'* company's of Fuzileers to Albany, and given orders to march 
detachments of the Militia as a further security to that City; I have also given orders to the 
Six Nations of Indians to take up the hatchet against the Enemy immediately, and as they 
have expressed themselves thankful for His Maj'^''^ presents, I hope they will Act for his interest, 
but unless the Assembly will come into ways and means to join our neighbours to attack the 
Enemy in their settlements, I cannot answer for the safety of this Province under its present 
circumstances. I have discharged my duty, and refer Your LordPf" to the proceedings of the 
Assembly for what they have done, which I have inclosed. I am with very great respect 

My Lords, 

Your LordP'" most obedient 

New York humble servant. 

30 Nov' 1745. G. Clinton. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 289 

Conference between Commissioners of the Colonies and the Indians. 

153 
[ New- York Papers, Bundle Gg., No. Q . 1 
154 

Minutes of the Council at Albany, at a public interview and conference with the 
Six Nations ettc. 

At his Excellency's residence at Albany the 5"" day of October 1745. 

Present — His ExcelK*' the Honor'"'^ George Clinton Esq" Captain General and Gov"" 
in Chief in and over the Province of New York and territories thereon 
depending in America, Vice Admiral of the same and vice Admiral 
of the Red squadron of His Majesty's Fleet. 

Phillip Livingston \ 

Daniel Horsmanden / 

Joseph Murray ^^^^^ °^ ^'>« Council. 

John Rutherford j 

Yesterday being the day appointed by His Excell"^y for a publick Interview and conference 
with the Six Nations of Indians at this Place, viz' The Maquas, Oneydes, Onondages, Sinnekes, 
Cayouges and Tuscarores, many Indians of these Nations (excepting the Sinnekes) arrived in 
Town late in the evening. His Excell'^" was acquainted by Jacobus Bleeker the publick 
Interpreter, with the arrival of four hundred sixty four of the said Indians, and that the Sachims 
of the said Tribes desired to know what time his Excell"^ would please to appoint for their 
waiting upon him, to welcome him to Albany, His Excell"^^ appointed this evening at six o'clock, 
and several Sachims of the respective Tribes coming accordingly to the number of between 
forty and fifty : They acquainted his Excell''*' with the reason of the Sennekes absence ; that 
this Nation had been visited with an epidemical sickness, which had swept away great numbers 
of them, and that the rest were by means of that Calamity prevented travelling. 

After the usual salutes, His Excell'^y presented them with some black Strouds (according to 
the ceremony used in such cases) to condole the deaths of several of the Sachims of the Six 
Nations, since the last interview, then they were served [ round ] with a glass of Rum to 
drink his Maj'^'* health and his Excell'^J''' and Gentlemen present, prosperity to the Province 
ettc. His Excellen''^ told them that he would speak to them in publick in a few days, that he 
expected Commiss" from some of the neighbouring Govern" who were not yet arrived and who 
were likewise to treat with them at this time ; in the interim, his Excell'^J' would take care to 
provide for their refreshment and comfortable subsistance — and then the Indians withdrew. 

At a Council held at his Excell"='^' residence in the City of Albany the sixth day of Ocf 1745. 

Present — His Excellency the Hon"" George Clinton Esq""^ 

JM' Livingston, M''Horsmanden, M' Murray and Capt" Rutherford. 

The Coramiss" from the respective Govern" of the Massachusets Bay, Connecticut and 
Pennsylvania having attended his ExcelK and produced to him their credentials from their 
Vol. VI. 37 



290 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

respective Govern" viz' John Stoddard, Jacob Wendell [Samuel] Wells, and [Thomas] 
Hutchinson Esq" for the Province of the Massachusets Bay; Roger Woolcot Esq"^"" Deputy Gov'' 
of the Colony of Connecticut and Coll: Stanly Commiss" for the said Colony; and Thomas 
Lavvrance, John Kinsey and Isaac Norris Esq" for the Province of Pennsilvania; which 
Credentials were severally laid before the Council. His Excell"^^ thought it expedient to appoint 
two Gentlemen of the Council to confer with the said Commissioners touching such matters as 
should be thought proper for his Excell''^ to offer in his speech to the Six Nations of Indians at 
the publick interview, and the manner in which the same should be conducted and was pleased 
to nominate M' Horsmanden and M' Murray a Committee for that purpose. 

Ordered: that it be an instruction to the said Council* to inquire privately into the causes 
of the uneasiness amongst the Maquas this last Winter, and touching all complaints they may 
have to make his Excell'^'' & report the same. 

Read some heads drawn up by the Commiss" of Indian affliirs pursuant to His Excell"^^' 
directions touching what to be proposed to the Indians at the Conference. 

At a Conference, between the Committee of the Council and the Commiss" from the 
neighbouring Govern'^ had at Albany the seventh day of October 1745. 

Present — Daniel Horsmanden ] Esq" members of the 

Joseph Murray J Council of New York 

John Stoddard \ 

Jacob Wendell I Esq" Commissioners from the 

[Samuel] Wells / Province of the Massachusets Bay. 
[Thomas] Hutchinson ) 

Roger Woolcot | Esq" Commiss" from the Colony 

Stanly j of Connecticut. 

Thomas Lawrence ) 

John Kinsey l- Esq" Commiss" from Pennsilvania 

Isaac Norris j 

The heads of matter proposed to be offered in his Excell'^^* speech to the Six Nations at the 
publick conference prepared by the Commiss" of Indian affairs at Albany Read. 

It was moved by the Council of New York whether it were not most adviseable for His 
Excellency to speak to the Indians in General, on behalf of the several Commiss" for the other 
Govern" now convened here, as well as for this province, for that this method would tend 
to show the Indians the happy agreement and union of these several Govern", and their 
resolutions for their carrying on the war in conjunction, and unitedly to support and prosecute 
the interest and common cause of all which might have a very good effect with them, they 
-.well knowing the strength & abilities of the several Colonies, whose united force they must 
esteem, is sufficient to strike a Terror into the Enemy ; and if the Indians should be wavering 
in their inclinations with regard to what part they should take in the war at this time between 
the English and French, they may from the apprehension of such an Union, be determined 
to join with us as the strongest side. With these sentiments the Commiss" for the Massachusets 

'Committee. New -York Council Minutes, XXI., 46. — Ed. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 291 

& Connecticut intirely concurred and in general the Commiss" for Pennsiivania; but a 
majority of the latter intimated, that as they were aware that considering the present 
circumstance of affairs with respect to the war, something would probably be said by his 
Excell"^ to the Indians upon that occasion whicii would not altogether be aggreable to their 
N, •.' ""■' Religious sentiments (two of these Commiss" were Quakers) They therefore should cluise to 
' speak separately and tho' they should do so they would be careful to pursue the main intention 

of this interview, by avoiding to say any thing wh"^'' might clash or interfere with what his 
Excell'^^ should say to them, but the rather to enforce and give aid to it by observing to them 
the union of these several Colonys and their strength as subjects of the same prince who 
would resent any injury done to any one of them as done to the whole. Moreover, that what 
they should say concerning the General Interest they would previously lay before his Excell'^''. 
And further, that they had at this time some matters at private concern relative only to the 
province of Pennsiivania which they had to discuss with the Six Nations which made it 
necessary for those Commissioners to speak with them separately. 

As to that part of the heads for his Excell'^y'* speech prepared by the Commissioners of Indian 
affairs which proposed, after informing the Six Nations of the infraction of the Treaty of 
neutrality concluded between them and the French Indians with regard to the present war, by 
hostilitys lately committed by the last mentioned Indians, by murdering several of his 
\ ' Majestys subjects on the Borders of New England ; That the hatchet should be offered to the 
Six Nations to strike against the French and their Indians, upon his Excelh'* commands 
signifyed to them for that purpose, in case that the Six Nations could not obtain satisfaction 
from those French Indians concerned in the said hostilitys and reasonable assurances of 
their observing inviolably the neutrality for the future. It was thereupon observed by the 
Massachusets Commiss" that the Six Nations had in effect accepted of the Hatchet by the last 
treaty upon condition to strike with it against the French and their Indians in case of any 
infraction made by them of the neutrality, and since hostilitys had been committed by them. 
The Six Nations were bound by that treaty to join immediately in the war with us against the 
French and their Indians. And therefore if the Six Nations were inclined rather in the first 
place to interpose their endeavours to obtain satisfaction for their breach & assurances from 
those Indians offending in this instance of their preserving inviolably a strickt neutrality for the 
future, this was matter which (as the case stood) would come more properly from the Six 
Nations themselves; which reasoning being allowed to be just it was agreed 'twould be more 
proper that his Excell"^^ should propose to the Six Nations to take up the Hatchet absolutely 
and let the condition be offered to the Indians' in their answer. — And agreable thereto his 
Excell*^^' speech was framed. 

This day, Andries van Patten of the Township of Schenectady, being charged by the Indians 
with having told them that the people of this Province had a design to destroy them the last 
Winter (which was as pretended the occasion of a great deal of uneasiness amongst them) was 
brought before his Excell'^'' and examined upon oath, M"" Horsmanden M' Murray and Coll : 
Stoddard being present. The Man absolutely denyed that he ever reported any such thing, 
and from the favourable circumstances of the Man's behaviour under his examination, and the 
good character he bore. His Excell'''' and every one present believed him innocent of the cliarge 
against him and he was discharged. 

' bi/ the iDjiiiiiB. A'tio -luri Coimcil Minuter, XXL, 48. — Eu. 



292 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Albany the S day of October 1745. 

This morning the principal Sachims of the Tribes now met at this place sent the Interpreter 
to inform his Excell'^y that they would wait upon him in the evening in order to lay their 
grievances before him and desired that nobody might be present with his Excell'^'' but Coll : 
Stoddard and themselves. 

His Excell'^y returned for answer, that he should then readily hear what they had to offer and 
would do them justice, but that he had brought two of the Gentlemen of the Council with 
him from New York, who he desired should be present at this private conference. — 

P. M. At a private Conference with the Indians. — 

Present — His Excellency. 
M'' Horsmanden 
M' Murray 
Coll: Stoddard, 
and thirty three of the Sachims of the Indians, pursuant to their Message in the morning. 

Arent Stevens & Coenradt Weiser, Indian Interpreters. 

As his Excel^y had taken all the proper steps he could think of whilst at New York, at so 
great a distance from the Indians, in order to discover the true grounds of their uneasiness, and 
it being rumored that they were still dissatisfyed, notwithstanding the Commiss" of Indian 
Affairs had been up at the Mohawk's Castle to inquire into this matter and had reported that 
they left the Indians entirely composed and that they desired all that was passed might be 
hurried in oblivion and no further enquiry to be made about the Report spread amongst them 
the last winter, that the people of this province had a design to destroy them, for that they 
were convinced it arose without any just Grounds and they gave no credit to it ; and his 
ExcelK^ having been informed several times afterwards that the Indians were still uneasy at 
that Report, and some of the River Indians in May last having delivered his Excel^^ a string 
of Wampum from the Six Nations with a message requesting to be informed whether there 
were any such design as before mentioned, to which his Excell''^ sent them an answer by the 
River Indians; nevertheless his Excel^^ not resting herewith, but hearing that Coenradt Weiser 
the Pensilvania Interpreter was going up amongst the Six Nations about that time to negotiate 
some affairs in behalf of that Govern', his ExcelK'' was pleased to write to Gov'' Thomas to 
give instruction to said Weiser to inquire privately amongst those Indians, and endeavour to 
find out the reasons of their late commotions ; and Weiser returning from the Indian Countrys 
by way of New York in July last, reported to his Excellency the effect of his enquiry and 
brought a Message from the Mohawks with a string of Wampum addressed to his Excell*^' 
as followeth : 
Brother the Gov' of New York. 

We are now reconciled with our Brethren in Albany and it was agreed that no further 
enquiry should be made or any resentment shewn for and to the person that sent us warning, 
but our Brethren in Albany still continue to make enquiry and threaten the person if they 
could find him out. we therefore desire you will order the Commiss" our Brethren to make 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 293 

no further enquiry, for that person that gave us warning ; to signify our request we lay before 
you this string of Wampum. 

Aaron Asaragehty Speaker. 

Notwithstanding tliis message delivered to Weiser by the Mohawk Sachims in full Council, 
Weiser reported further to his Excell'^^ tliat a few days after Aaron and another of the said 
people (meaning the Mohawk Sachims) informed him that the matter with Albany people was 
not made up but only by words of mouth, their Brethren never spoke from their heart to them, 
and therefore they (the Indians) could do no otherwise but speake with their mouth only in 
the last Council, the Friends of Albany people carried the day but the old cause that we have 
been cheated out of our Lands still remains unsettled. 

As no certainty could be drawn from these jarring accounts His Excel^^ was determined to 
make the best use of this opportunity, and therefore told the Indians that he was now resolved 
to make strict inquiry into the causes of their late uneasiness, as it was his resolution to do 
them justice; and notwithstanding they had sent him a string of Wampum by M' Weiser with 
a request that all that was past might be hurried in oblivion, yet as their late commotions and 
uneasiness had made so great a noise in the world, and reflections had been cast upon many 
persons of some figure in the province as if they had been the authors or instruments of it. 
His ExcelK therefore thought it incumbent on him as well in justice to their persons' as the 
Indians themselves to insist upon their laying their grievances now before him, and in that 
expectation he returned them the string of Wampum which Weiser had brought from them, 
and gave them a Belt. 

Cannassatego an Onondage Sachim repeated to the Indians what his Excell'^^ had said with 
relation to the string of Wampum and the reasons of his returning it, and asked his Brethren 
whether they understood it so. The[y] answered they did. 

Then Heudrick a Mohawk Sachim after a considerable pause said. 

That Jean Ceur (a French Indian who generally resides amongst the Sinnekes one of our 
Six Nations and does us mucii Mischief amongst them ) told them last fall tliat the English had 
sent to the Gov' of Canada to join with them to destroy the Six Nations that they (the Indians) 
had told Wemp the Smith of this to inform the Commiss''^ of Indian affairs of it, and they the 
Indians had no answer from tlie Commiss" and the said Hendrick run on for above an iiour in 
an harangue which the Interpreter could make little or notiiing of, and at which the rest of the 
Indians seemed to His Excell'^^ and the Gentlemen present to bfe ashamed, of which opinion 
were both the Interpreters who were better acquainted with the behaviour and the manners of 
the Indians ; and as neither head nor tail could be made of Hendrick's oration, after a long 
pause and consultation of which every one present was tired. 

Cannasatego said, 'twas a matter required sober consideration and they must take further 
time to consider of it. 

' those persons. New-York Council Minutes, XXI., 60. — Ed. 



294 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

At His Excellency's residence in Albany 9"" Oof 1745 in tiie Evening. 

Present — His Excellency 
M"' Horsmanden 
M' Murray. 
Coll : Stoddard. 
Arent Stevens and Coenradt Weiser, Indian Interpreters. And forty five Indian Sachims. 

Hendrick the Mohawk Sachim begun with reminding the Indians of what passed the last 
night, the string of Wampum returned by his Excellency and the Belt given, and what errand 
they came now upon. Then he proceeded and said : 

That they were now resolved to open their Hearts so that no filth should remain within 
them and came to give an answer to what his Excell'^^ said to them concerning their grievances, 
that they intended now to declare the whole. 

Tho' they had resolved never to discover the Man from whom the alarm first came, yet since 
their Brother was resolved to have it, Andries van Patten was the Man. 

That hearing such news and putting that together about their lands that they were resolved 
to take away their Lands that there were persons that had Deeds in their pockets for five or 
six lots of land and now he has not a dust of ground to set his foot on. 

That M"' Collins surveyed their Lands in the dark. 

Complained, Coll : Stoddard was not suffered by the Commiss" of Indian Affairs to come 
into their Country last spring but they must come to Albany to him. 

They were become the property of Albany people, they were their dogs. 

Perhaps our Brother the Governour imagined we were thoughtless. 

I know ( says he) and understand well now, what passed of old ; two Towns of Indians were 
cut off near New York. 

We the Mohawks are apprehensive we shall be served at last as our Brethren the River 
Indians, they get all their lands and we shall soon become as poor as they. 

You in the Broad way (addressing himself to Coll: Stoddard) have got our lands and driven 
us away from Westfield were my Father lived formerly, one instance. — From all these things 
looking about what has been done at New York, New England, Maryland ettc. puting all 
these things together I concluded the news was true. 

And they speak this that they may not be brought into the same condition as others have 
been before them ; and truly we foresee that is forthcoming, we see that we shall be brought 
to the same pass. 

This has remained in our hearts for some years and now the Governour would have them 
open their hearts, they have done it, and hope it will have a good effect. 

Brother, continued he, when this alarm arose we were glad and rejoiced to find we had 
some friends to warn us. 

And we now say as we told Coll: Stoddard before, that van Patten was the man, who they 
desired not to be hurt. 

They heard, five white persons had been named [as] authors of the Report, The Minister, 
Interpreter, Cuyler, Livingston Jun', Nicholas Bleeker, these were accused by White people, 
the Indians never named them or heard any thing of them among themselves. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 295 

Johannes an Indian that lodged at van Patten's near Sclioneclitady last winter, being present 
(wlio Hendrick said iiad his information that the Indians were to be destroyed from van Patten) 
being interrogated sayd that van Patten spoke in Dutch, and lie understood Dutch living 
amongst them, tho he can not speak it, but nevertheless his Negro wench, interpreted it into 
Indian language. 

The question was asked wiiat van Patten did tell him. 

The Man did not answer, seemed to be stupid, but others Clubbed their heads together and 
seemed to prompt him, and then he went on with a Blind sort of Story that van Patten told 
him that the people of Albany had a design to destroy the Mohawks ettc. 

Aaron another Mohawk Sachim said (which it seems he had never pretended to before) that 
he was by once, when he heard van Patten tell Johannes so. That van Patten sent for him 
(Johannes) from the Mohawks Country, van Patten told him he must stay there, he must not 
go a hunting, and kept him several days ; that van Patten asked Johannes if the people 
(meaning the Mohawk Indians) were at home whether one or two or three days off. — That 
van Patten said there was terrible news, death prepared for them, and when they came home 
they were to be cut off by their Brethren the Dutch; that he had been at Schenechtady and 
there heard several people say it. 

Johannes said he went three several times from van Patten to the Mohawks went to Aaron 
and he went down with Johannis to van Patten and heard the same of him from his own 
mouth ( Arent understood Dutch) and sometimes the negro wench put in a few words in Indian 

The question was put whether the Gov"' should send for van Patten and Negro Wench, at 
which Hendrick seemed much alarmed and in a great fluster, and the Indians in general desired 
that matter should not be pressed any further. 

From which conduct of these Indians upon this occasion, and considering that* van Patten 
had declared upon oath of his innocence with respect to the charge against him and the 
favourable circumstances appearing in his behaviour upon his examination with all the air of 
truth and innocence, his Excell''^ and Gentlemen present with him concluded that the Report 
spread among the Indians at which they pretended to be so much alarmed and uneasy was a 
device of their own contrivance in order to induce this as well as the neighbouring Govern" to 
give them presents this year as they did the last. — 

Then they were told they had made only a general complaint about these Colonies taking 
their lands and driving them back when they sell their lands and are paid for them. But let 
them name particular instances tho' herein^ they have been imposed upon ; name the six persons 
who have deeds in their pockets as they now talk of and if any injustice has been done them 
his Excell'y would do them right. They answered : 

M' Collins measured land for Phillip Livingston (meaning the Councillor) which he has not 
paid for. — Abraham another Mohawk said there was a great piece of Woodland, near a carrying 
place laid out at the head of Susquehanna Lake which was not bought of them. His Excell'^-'' 
again told them if they would at any time before he left this place mention all the particular 
persons by name who had imposed upon them about their lands and the places where, and if 
it did in any thing appear that they had been injured his Excell'^^ would see they had justice 
done to them. 

Then the Indians withdrew. 

' wliat. Kew-York Council Minutes, XXL, 52. ' particular instances wherein, Ac. Ibid. — Ed. 



296 NEW-YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

And his Excellency heard nothing further from them concerning their complaints about 
their Lands. — 



Propositions made by his Excel^^ the Honb''= George Clinton Esq"''^ Capt" General 
and Gov"' in Chief of the province of New Yorlc ettc. to Five of the Six 
united nations of Indians viz*: The Maquas, Oneydes, Onondages, Cayouges 
and Tuscarores. At Albany the 10"" day of October 1745. 

Phesent — His Excellency. 

Phillip Livingston \ 

Daniel Ilorsmanden ( ,^ , r .i n -i 
T , T.r / Esq" ot the Oouncu 

Joseph Murray 1 ^ 

John Rutherford / 

The Commiss" from the Govern'* of the Massachusets Bay and Connecticut, 

The Commissioners for Lidian affairs. 

The Mayor and Corporation of Albany, and several Gentlemen attending 

his Excell""^" and the several Commiss" upon this occasion. 

His Excel^'' addressed himself to the Indians as followeth : 

Brethren. 

Here are present upon the occasion of this interview Commiss" from the Govern'^ of the 
Massachusets Bay and Connecticut convened with me on the same righteous intention of 
renewing, brightning and strengthning the Covenant chain, which has tied you and His Britanick 
Majesty's several Colonies on this continent in the firmest engagements to each other, for 
supporting and maintaining our common cause. Wee are glad to see so many of our Brethren, 
and we bid you welcome here, at the same time that we heartily condole the absence of our 
Brethren the Sinnekes and their calamity's which have occasioned it, may the Almighty comfort 
them under their griveous afflictions and soon wipe off all tears from their eyes. We do with 
you our Brethren and with you as their representatives, ratifye confirm and establish all former 
engagements entered into by us, and our Brethren of the Six United nations, and assure you, 
that we shall ever hold them inviolable, and we doubt not of the same from you — A belt. 

Brethren. 

The rumour which tiie last winter gave an alarm to our Brethren the Maquas, and was from 
thence spread to the other Nations, now appears to have been without foundation ; and I can 
not help observing on this occasion, that you ought not for the future to suffer any such idle 
tales to be raised and propagated among you, as they not only tend to separate you[r] and our 
affections each from the other, but also to make us jealous of our own people without sufficient 
grouud for it. A string of Wampum. 

Brethren. 

It must be further observed to you, that we hear several of the Chiefs and others of our 
Brethren of the Six Nations have contrary to our inclinations, and against our express advice, 
had an interview with the Gov'' of Canada this summer at Montreal; and that your pretence 
for holding this correspondence with our declared Enemys was for the public good, and the 
preservation of the house at Oswego. To tell the Gov' of Canada, that they must not make 



tONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 297 

any attack or attempt upon that place, for that our Brethren are resolved to defend it and that it 
should remain a place of peace and Trade. You declared that your intent was good, and [that] 
the Gov'" of Canada should never prevail upon you in any thing hurtful to your Brethren the 
English, who, you said, you knew did not like your going thither; that yet upon your return 
from thence, your Brother the Gov"" of JVew York should know all that passed between you 
and the Gov'^ of Canada. We will tell our Brethren what we hear was done, whilst they were 
with the Gov"" of Canada, and we expect the whole truth from them according to their promise, 
and whether what we hear is true or not. We hear that whilst our Brethren were with the 
Gov"' of Canada, The FVench Indians took up the Hatchet against the English, which we 
believe to be true for reasons you shall hear by and by, and thereby the Treaty of neutrality 
concluded between you and them is become vain. We hear likewise that our Brethren of the 
Six United Nations there present, were so far prevailed upon by our Enemies the French, as 
to accept of the Hatchet upon condition to carry it home to their Castles to deliberate upon 
and then to return the GoV of Canada their answer, which we cannot believe to be true till 
we have it from our Brethrens own mouth. We expect a full and plain answer from our 
Brethren concerning these matters that the way may be cleared for wiping of all stains from 
the Covenant Chain, and that we may preserve it bright, firm and inviolable as long as the 
sun shall shine. A Belt. 

Brethren. 

We must now acquaint you of something relating to the War, the success of His Maj'''' arms 
against the P'rench in this part of the world, and the rise and occasion of our attacks upon the 
Enemy in this Quarter. When you were here last summer you were told that war was declared 
between the Crowns of Great Brittain and France; the events that have since happened are to 
numerous to relate particularly. His Majesty's Subjects in this Country, lay still the last 
summer, without attempting any thing against the French settlements, but the French first 
attacked and destroyed a small place belonging to us called Canso about 26 leagues from Cape 
Breton. Afterwards they laid Siege to Annapolis Royal, but therein they proved unsuccessful. 
They then agreed to make another Tryal for that place the next spring and in the mean time 
they sent to France hopeing to obtain some of the King's Ships to facilitate the reduction of 
it. They haveing proceeded thus far M"" Shirley Gov"" of Massachusets Bay thought it high 
time to do something to curb the insolence of that haughty people and did therefore raise a 
small Army, which was joined by a number of Men from the Govern" of Connecticut and 
New Hampshire, and sent them early last Spring against Louisbourg. They were likewise 
joined by a number of his MajV* ships of war, and after about seven weeks siege that important 
and strong fortifyed place was, thro' the goodness of divine providence delivered up to our 
forces. Whereupon the rest of the inhabitants of the Island of Cape Breton, together with 
those that were settled in parts adjacent, surrendered themselves prisoners to the English. 
And during the Siege, and since many French Ships were taken and divers of them of great 
value ; and the design of the French against Annapolis Royal was frustrated. We have in 
this part of the Country lain still both the last summer and this, hoping that our neighbours 
in Canada would either be quiet or carry on the War in a manly and Christian like manner. 
And to induce them thereto, a message was sent from this place to the Gov"' of Canada the last 
Summer, by which he was assured, that if he should revive their former vile practices of 
treating his Maj'^' subjects inhumanly, the several Governours together with the Six Nations 

Vol. VI. 3S 



298 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

would join and make reprisals on them. And at the same time you publickly declared, that 
if any of his Maj''''' subjects in any of his Govern" should be killed by any Indians you would 
immediately join in the war against them and the French. You likewise sent your Delegates 
last summer to the Eastern Indians to warn them not to engage in the War against the English, 
threatning them in case they should do so. Notwithstanding these things, divers hostilities 
have been committed. Some montiis ago the Eastern Indians who had formerly acknowledged 
their subjection to the Crown of Ureat Brittain, entered into solemn engagements with the 
Kings subjects, and had been since treated by them with great kindness; but at the instigation 
of the French they have lately killed one Englishman, and also great number of Horses and 
Cattle, burnt a Saw Mill & many dwelling houses and attacked an English Garrison. 
Notwithstanding such outrageous insults the Gov' of Massachusets Bay was so tender to them 
that he resented it no further then to send a Message to them demanding the delivery of the 
Murderers as they would avoid the consequences of their neglect. This proposal was rejected 
by them, and since that time they have killed two or three others, whereupon the GoV of the 
Massachusets declared war against them; and we are informed the English have lately killed 
two of them and taken another prisoner. About three months since some of the Canada 
Indians killed two Englishmen near Connecticut River, the body of one of them was treated 
in a most barbarous manner, by which they left a hatchet of war, thereby daring us to take it 
up, and return it. There has likewise been several other partys that have attempted to distroy 
His Maj'J'* sui)jects of New England, but have been hitherto prevented. These facts plainly 
shew, that the French are still acted by the same spirit, that they were formerly governed 
by, and they seem never pleased but when they are at War, either with the English or some 
of the Tribes of Indians, and if they had it in their power, they would doubtless distroy all 
about tliem. It is likewise evident, that the most solemn and sacred engagements are broken 
thro' by those Indians that have committed the late Murders. That Bells of Wampum will 
not bind them to the performance of their promises. That we are slighted and you condemned,* 
as though they thought you not worthy to be regarded. The Six Nations were formerly 
esteemed powerful and your neighbouring Tribes stood in fear of you; but now the French 
and their Indians by the little regard they have to your threatnings, or to the covenants they 
have made with you, do declare that they think you do not intend to perform what you have 
threatened, or that they do not fear your displeasure, both which do reflect equal dishonour 
upon you. It is high time for us and you to exert ourselves and vindicate our honour, and 
although it is well known, that we delight not in the distruction of our fellow Creatures, but 
have chosen rather to suffer ourselves to be abused, yet we can not think ourselves obliged any 
longer to bear their insult and evil treatment. Therefore since neither our peaceable disposition 
nor examples, nor any methods we have been able to use, have been sufficient to prevail upon 
them to forbear their Barbarous treatment of us, but they will force our resentments. In the 
name of God we are resolved not only to defend ourselves, but by all proper ways and methods 
to endeavour to put it out of their power to misuse and evil entreat us, as they have heretofore 
done, and we doubt not of your ready and chearful concurrence with us (agreable to your 
solemn promise made in this place last Summer) in joining with us against our Enemies the 
French and such Indians, as are or shall be instigated by them, for we esteem them Enemies 
to God as well as to all their fellow Creatures, who dwell round about them. — 

A large Belt with the figure of a Hatchet hung to it. 

' contemned. Neto-York Council Minutes, XXL, 65. — Ed. 



^ LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 299 

Brethren, 

The publick affairs of my Govern' have prevented my meeting you sooner. I was apprehensive 
I should not have been able to meet you this fall, and it was determined upon a sudden so 
that there could not be timely notice sent to the rest of His Maj'^^ Govern'^ or I doubt not 
they would likewise have sent Commissioners to be present at this interview. We are all 
subjects to the same prince, united in the same bonds of duty and allegiance to the Great King 
our Common F'ather, and in friendship and affection to each other, and in this union consists 
that strength, that makes us formidable to our Enemies, and them fearful of our resentments. 
We are all united with you in the same covenant chain, which as long as we preserve it free 
from rust must remain impregnable ; and you on your parts have declared that you will 
preserve it so strong and brigiit that it shall not be in the power of the Devil himself with all 
his Viles' or arts to break or dirty it. You are also united with all the Far Nations of Indians 
in league with our great King, with whom we recommend to you to preserve strict friendship 
and hold frequent correspondence ; that you yourselves (who many of you live scattered and 
dispersed) should dwell in bodys closer together as you have heretofore promised to do. And 
we advise you to keep your young Men at home and within call, excepting such as may be 
sent from time to time a hunting, or, against our Enemies, and you may depend upon the most 
ready and effectual assistance from us in all times of danger. A Belt. 

Answer of the six Nations (except the Sinnekes who are absent) to His Excell'"'' 
George Clinton Esq'''' Gov'' in Chief of the province of New York ettc. and 
the Commiss" of the Colonies of the Massachusetts Bay and Connecticut. 
At Albany the 12"' day of October 1745. 

Brother Corlaer and Brethren of the Massachusets Bay, Pennsylvania & Connecticut. 

Two days ago our Brother Corlaer and our Brethren of the Massachusets Bay & Connecticut 
speake to us and now we are come to give our answer. You must [not] expect, that we can 
answer exactly to the several heads you mentioned to us but only to the principal Articles. 
You have renewed the old Covenant Chain and we do now renew the same on our parts; it is 
impossible that it can ever Rust for we daily wipe off" the dirt and keep it clean which we will 
ever continue to do. A Belt of Wampum. 

Brethren. 

You thought fit to mention to us that there had been an uproar among us last Winter, and 
told us that we ought not to entertain any such notions of you our Brethren, especially as we 
had no grounds for any such belief. It is true Brethren such a Rumor was among us, but it 
was immediately hurried and forgot, and we did not expect that our Bretliren would have 
mentioned any thing concerning that affliir to us at this Interview, and we desire you to think 
no more of it; we are also mindful of the Covenants between us and our Brethren and here 
ia a certificate (a) to prove that we are in covenant with our Brethren of Boston. — 

A String of Wampum. 

' Wiles. New - York Council Minutex, XXI., 57. — Ed. 

(o) (A Certificate dated Ist August 1744. delivered by Hendrick with the string of Wampum upon this Article 
under the hand of Govr. Shirley and the seal of the Province of the Massachusets Bay, signifying that Hejidrick 
Sachim of the Maquas and Kayenwarygoa Saohim of the Onnoudages delegates from the Eight Nations accompanied by the 



300 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

Brother Corlaer and Brethren of the Massachusets Bay and Connecticut. 

You speak to us concerning our going to Canada this summer, and told us that the 
Commissioners of Indian Affairs, had last Winter enjoined us not to go there, but some of us 
went ; as to what you tell us that we had taken a Belt from the Gov'' of Canada whereby 
he desired us to take up the Hatchet against you our Brethren and that we promised him to 
consider of it at home, it is not so. All that passed there the Mohawks and Tuscarores have 
given the Commissioners of Indian Affairs an account of at their return and we are convinced 
that that account is true. A Belt of Wampum. 

Brethren. 

You have thought fit to relate to us several particulars, concerning the war between you and 
the French, and what reasons you had for taking up the Hatchet against the French and their 
Indians. We thank you for given' us a particular account of the provocations and inducements 
you had for declaring war against them, you also mentioned to us that we are one Body and 
one Flesh, and that if one of us is touched or hurt then the other is so likewise, and you have 
informed us that you are molested and attacked by the Enemy and had therefore taken up the 
Hatched against them and desired as we are one Flesh with you, that we would also take up 
the hatchet against the French and those Indians under their influence ; in conjunction with 
you we the Six Nations accept of the Hatchet and will keep it in our bosom. We are in 
alliance with a great Number of Far Indians and if we should so suddenly lift up the Hatchet 
without acquainting our allies with it, they would perhaps take offence at it. We will therefore 
before we make use of the Hatchet against the French or their Indians, send four of our people 
(who are now ready to go) to Canada to demand satisfaction for the wrongs they have done 
our Brethren and if they refuse to make satisfaction, then we shall be ready to use the Hatchet 
against them, whenever our Brother the Gov"' of New York orders us to do it. 

A Belt of Wampum 

His Excell'^J' asked them, what time they thought necessary to try whether the French 
Indians would make satisfaction. 

The Indians answered, two months. 

His Excell'^y asked them that if in case the Enemy should commit any further hostilities in 
the mean time, whether they would then upon his Excell'^^'* commands immediately make use of 
the Hatchet. 

They answered : yes. 

Here the Indians requested his Excell'^y that as they had giveing the war shout upon 
delivering the hatchet to them that these* Brethren would now signify their approbation of this 
article in their usual method. Whereupon His Excell"^^ and most of the company joined in 
shouts with three huzzas. — [excepting the Massachusets Commissioners] 

Commissioners appointed by that Governt to treat with the eight Nations arrived at Boston 25th June 1744. had at several 
conferences wilh Govr. Council and Assembly confirmed the Treaties made with that Government and particularly the last 
Summer at Albany and had proceeded on a voyage and had an interview with the Kastern Indians and faithfully acquitted 
themselves in enjoy[n]ing them to maintain peace with the English and warning them of the consequences of their violating 
the same). — 

'giving. New -York Council Minutes, XXL, 57. ■ 'their. Ibid, 68. — Ed. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 301 

Brethren. 

You desired us that we should gatlier together our people who are scattered and settle in a 
Body, especially as it is very uncertain how soon we may have occasion for them; your request 
is very reasonable and we will use our endeavours to that end. 

A Belt of Wampum. 
Brethren. 

We have now finished our answer and have nothing further to say but only one request to 
make to you all, which is that you our Brethren should be all united in your Councils, and let 
this Belt of Wampum serve to bind you alltogether. And if any of you have any thing of 
importance to communicate to us this is the place where it should be done. 

A Belt of Wampum. 

Here a note of approbation was given by the Interpreter by his Excell'^^ directions for 
New York Connecticut and Pennsylvania. 

Brethren. 

Trade was the first occasion of our entring into alliance together, and from time to time 
goods have been sold dearer to us, and we have several times desired that the price of goods 
should be lower and more moderate, but could never get a satisfactory answer, and now we 
take this opportunity to desire our Brother Corlaer himself and the Commiss" of the several 
Provinces to take it into their consideration that goods may be sold cheaper to us, for how 
shall we do now we have taken up the Hatchet, we have no powder, ball nor cloalhes, people 
that go to war ought to be [well] provided with aniunition, this is the last time that we shall 
speak upon this head, if we do not succeed now. A Belt. 

His Excell'^y answered them, that he would do his utmost, that goods should be sold them 
as cheap as they could be afforded, but tliat the price of goods depends upon the scarcity or 
plenty of them, and as it is now war, goods are scarce and consequently dear and that they shall 
be furnished with powder and aniunition upon occasion. 

His Excell'^s''" further Speech to the Indians. 
Brethren. 

I have some presents which shall be ready to deliver you at this place an hour hence. 

Since there are none of our Brethren the Sinnekes here I doubt not but you will be so just 
to them in the distribution as to set apart and reserve their share for them and take care it be 
delivered to them. 

It gives me much pleasure to see so many of our Brethren at this Meeting and I have taken 
care hitherto for your Refreshment and hospitable entertainment, I hope you have wanted for 
nothing, and I doubt not but the Commissioners of the other Govern'" will now do their parts 
towards you, till your return home. I shall provide all necessaries for your journey from 
hence to Schenectady. 

I have been detained here several days longer than I should have been, had not 
Commissioners from several other Govern" attended at this interview which of course will 
make the presents fall so much shorter. 

I recommend to you that you take care there is no mischief done in your way home. 



302 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

I recommend it to your' Bretliren the Maquas to enquire into certain complaints of some 
injuries done to Farmers living at Canajolierie and to see that Justice be done and no mischief 
committed for the future. — 

Memorandum. 

That the Commissioners for the Massachusets Bay, upon the Indians delivering the fourth 
Article in their answer to the Article of His Excell'^J'"' speech, proposing to them their 
engageing in the wars, rose up and publickly declared their dissatisfaction at the Indians 
answer, and insinuated, as if some endeavours had been privately used by some people of this 
Province to prevail on the Indians to give that answer for that ( as they said ) they knew the 
Indians were well inclined to have entered into the war immediately, and cast some reflections 
upon the people of Albany, as if this answer was given by their perswasion, who, the Commiss" 
of the Massachusets, said, they well knew were not inclinable that the Indians should enter 
into the war at all. And as to their obtaining satisfaction of the French Indians for the 
hostility by them committed, what satisfaction could they expect from them, perhaps a bundle 
of deer skins, or some such trifling consideration, so that at this rate they were likely to carry 
on the war by themselves, which they believed was contrary to His Maj'^'" intentions, and their 
Govern' would take care to represent this matter home. 

His Excell''^ in answer thereto observed that the conduct of the Massachusets Commissioners 
was what he was much surprised at in the face of the Indians, at a season, when he thought it 
behoved us, (and 'twas the intention of this meeting as he understood) to shew that these 
Colonies were all united, and were determined to join their forces, and utmost strength in the 
prosecution of the War and maintenance of the common cause; and if a neutrality could be 
strictly observed by the Indians, he understood hitherto that this was what would answer the 
wishes of every Colony, and that of this opinion was M"' Shirly, after the hostility's committed 
upon the borders of his Govern' — upon which occasion he wrote to his Exceli"^ requesting 
him to send his orders to the Commissioners and instruct them to send a message to the Six 
Nations forthwith, and to acquaint them of the infraction of the neutrality by the French 
Indians, and that it should be demanded of the Six Nations, to dispatch Deputys to Canada 
in order to obtain a satisfaction, that so the treaty of neutrality might inviolably be observed 
for the future ; and that his Excell'''' had immediately pursuant thereto, sent his orders to the 
Commiss" of Indian Affairs at Albany, though it happened at that time to be notorious, that 
many of the heads of the Six Nations were then gone to Canada upon an interview with the 
French Govern', and several of them were engaged (according to promise) to return thence by 
way of Albany to give the Commiss" an Ace' of their negotiations with the French part of 
their errand, being (as the Indians assured the Officer at Oswego) to tell the Gov' of Canada, 
he must make no attempts upon that place, for that the Six Nations were resolved to defend 
it, and the Commissioners at Albany at the time of such his Excel^>' orders as aforesaid, were 
in daily expectation of the return of the Indians from Canada by way of Albany, and as the 
Commiss" wrote to his Excell"' in answer, they thought, that considering the importance of 
the Message to be delivered to the Indians, it would be the best opportunity of delivering it to 
them personally, and they should at the same time be better able to judge of their present 
disposition after their interview with the French Gov'; but before 'twas possible for the Six 
Nations to have sent to Canada and have obtained the fruits of such an endeavour, the Govern' 

'our. New -York Council Minutes, XXI., 68. — Ed. 



V 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 303 

of the Massachusets had declared War against the French Indians, which was matter of surprise 
to his Exceil''^ considering Gov' Shirley's request as aforesaid. 

At a Council held at his Excellency's residence in Albany the li"" October 1745. 

PitESENT — His Excell'^y the Hon"^ George Clinton. 

M'' Livingston, M'' Horsmanden, M"" Murray, Capl" Rutherford. 

The Commissioners of the Massachusets Bay communicated to his Excel^y late last night 
some intelligence they then had received by express, that an Attack had been made upon one 
of the block houses upon the Frontiers of New England by an Army of French and Indians as 
appeared by a letter from Zacharia Field directed to Capt° Wells and inclosed to John Stoddard 
Esq'^ at Albany (one of the Commissioners) by Ephraim Williams, which letters were read 
and are as folioweth : 

Read a letter from Zachariah Field to Captain Wells dated Nortlifield 12. October 
1745 informing him that the French had attacked a settlement on the Borders at 
New England. 

A letter from Ephraim Williams Jun"' to the Hon*"'" John Stoddard Esq" of the same 
date mentioning the above letter. 

Whereupon the Commissioners from the Massachusets Bay and Pennsylvania Govern" (the 
Com miss" from Connecticut being returned home) were sent for to confer with his Excell*^^ 
and Council [this] morning upon the subject matter of the above letters. 

The Commiss" from the Massachusets Bay attending accordingly proposed to His Excell'"'' 
and Council, that as the French at Canada and their Indians have now attacked the King's 
Forts, and in regard the Six Nations of Indians by their answer to the fourth article in his 
Excell'^'' speech now made to them have agreed to take up the Hatchet against the French at 
Canada and their Indians, upon condition they should have two months time allow[ed] them to 
use their endevours for obtaining satisfaction touching the infraction of the Treaty of neutrality 
which had (at that time) been made by French Indians by committing hostilitys upon the 
Frontiers of New England, or if in the mean time any further hostilitys should be offered 
against His Mnj'>" Settlements, that then they would immediately after upon his Excell"^* orders 
strike with the hatchet against the French & their Indians, and as further hostilitys had now 
been committed as appeared by the aforesaid letters, the said Commissioners requested his 
Excell"'^ that he would please agreable to this treaty to give his orders to the Six Nations 
immediately to fall upon the Enemy, and the Massachusets Government would provide them 
with Amunition and other warlike stores at their own expence, provided this Province would 
not furnish them therewith and they would take the Indians along with them. 

And then the said Commiss" withdrew to wait his Excell"^* answer. 

And his Excell'^^ advising with the Council thereupon they were of opinion: That, as there' 
was a matter of the highest concern to all the Colonies it could not be determined upon so 
suddenly, as the Massachusets Commiss" desired, for there were but four Members of the 
Council present and it was proper it should be discussed by a full Board at his Excell'^^'' return 
to New York ; besides, it was necessary this matter should be laid before the Assembly that 

' this. Kew-York Council Minutes, XXL, 60. — Ed. 



304 NEW- YORK COLONIAL MANUSCRIPTS. 

they may make provision for such an event ; that proper Fortifications may be immediately 
erected upon our Northern Frontiers to which at present the Six Nations are our only barrier, 
and should our Indians be withdrawn, are' out settlements would be naked and utterly exposed 
to incursions and insults of the Enemy; and his Excellency would not consistently with the 
security of this Province (as matters were now circumstanced) engage the Indians in the war, 
at this critical time, till proper measures can be taken to put this province in a better condition 
of Safety.— 

That this Province was at all times at an anual expence to secure these Nations in the British 
interest as well in peace as war, well knowing that if they are our friends they are our 
securest Barrier. 

That the other Provinces never took notice of them but in time of war, excepting upon 
some extraordinary emergency respecting the particular instance of their respective Colonys. 

Moreover, it did not appear by the express whether this was a formidable Army or of what 
number it consisted, for it was probable it was no more than a small flying party who would 
soon retire after doing some little Mischief. 

Considering the time this fresh hostility was committed it did not come within the words 
or meaning of this Treaty, for 'twas before the Indians had given in their answer to his 
Excell"^''" speech. 

'Twas observed that the Six Nations had now said in answer to His Excell'^''''. proposition to 
them concerning their engaging in the war that they were in alliance with a great number of 
Far Nations of Indians, and if they should so suddenly lift up the Hatchet without acquainting 
their allies with it they would perhaps take offence at it, that 'twas probable many Indians of 
the Six Nations were at this time in the Enemies Country and might remain there some time 
if they have not notice of such an event, and 'twas most reasonable there should be time 
allowed for calling them home, and thereby preventing their falling a sacrifice to the Enemy. 

But though it must be allowed the Six Nations are more immediately under the influence of 
the Govern' of New York as being constantly in their pay at a very great expence as well in 
peace as war, yet the Council conceived 'twas most just & reasonable and a duty incumbent 
on every Colony to assist each other not only in case of attack made by the Enemy upon any 
of us, but likewise to join in any well concerted scheme for the annoyance of the common 
Enemy, as the same is also most agreable to the Royal orders concerning the present War, 
nevertheless they could not advise his Excell'^^ to take such measures at this instant as the 
setting on the Indians to war immediately as things are thus circumstanced, but rather thought 
it adviseable as the Assembly were now soon to be sitting that there should be the concurrence 
of the whole Legislature upon a matter of so great moment. 

Which was agreed to by the Board, then the Commissioners were called in and acquainted 
with the above opinion and resolution. 

His Excell'"'' however told the Commissioners though he could not immediately give orders 
to the Indians to engage in the war, nevertheless he would give them assistance by immediately 
detaching a party of the Militia at the expence of this Province. 

The Commissioners took an hour's time to consider of this proposal and said at their return 
that they could not accept of the Militia for they believed 'twas only a small party that by that 
time was gone off; so that nothing but his Excellency's orders to the Indians to join in the 
•war, and to go with the Massachusets Commissioners immediately and thereby be withdrawn 

' our. JS'ew-Tork Conncil MintUes, XXI., 61. — Ed. 



LONDON DOCUMENTS : XXVII. 305 

from our Frontiers would content them, for they seemed to depart with some sort of threatnings 
that tiieir Govern' would represent this matter iiome. 

Note. — The worda within brackets in the preceding Document are aJded from tlie Eecord in X'ew - Vurk Council Minnies, 
XXI. — Ed. 



Governor Clinton to the Duke of Newcastle. 

[New-Tork Papers. (8. P. 0.) IS., 257. ] 

My Lord. 

Since I had the honour to write to Your Grace of 25"' July last, I have been obliged to 
make a voyage to Albany, to attend an interview with the Si.\ nations of Indians, in order 
to establish them more warmly in the British interest, from which they were likely to revolt, 
thro' the influence and artifice of the French. 

At the publick conference, there attended Commissioners from the Massachusets Bay, 
Connecticut and Pen«ilvania, with intent to renew and confirm with me, in behalf of His 
Majesty, their respective treatys with the Six nations, and during my stay there, The 
Commissioners from the Massachus